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Sample records for cell communication

  1. Diagram of Cell to Cell Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Diagram depicts the importance of cell-cell communication as central to the understanding of cancer growth and progression, the focus of the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05) investigation. Microgravity studies will allow us to unravel the signaling and communication between these cells with the host and potential development of therapies for the treatment of cancer metastasis. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  2. The Molecular Basis of Communication between Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Solomon H.

    1985-01-01

    Chemical messengers mediate long-range hormonal communication and short-range neural communication between cells. Background information on peptides, steroids, neuropeptides, and specialized enzymes is given. Investigations reveal that the two systems have many common intercellular messenger molecules. (DH)

  3. Hardwiring Stem Cell Communication through Tissue Structure.

    PubMed

    Xin, Tianchi; Greco, Valentina; Myung, Peggy

    2016-03-10

    Adult stem cells across diverse organs self-renew and differentiate to maintain tissue homeostasis. How stem cells receive input to preserve tissue structure and function largely relies on their communication with surrounding cellular and non-cellular elements. As such, how tissues are organized and patterned not only reflects organ function, but also inherently hardwires networks of communication between stem cells and their environment to direct tissue homeostasis and injury repair. This review highlights how different methods of stem cell communication reflect the unique organization and function of diverse tissues. PMID:26967287

  4. Hardwiring Stem Cell Communication through Tissue Structure.

    PubMed

    Xin, Tianchi; Greco, Valentina; Myung, Peggy

    2016-03-10

    Adult stem cells across diverse organs self-renew and differentiate to maintain tissue homeostasis. How stem cells receive input to preserve tissue structure and function largely relies on their communication with surrounding cellular and non-cellular elements. As such, how tissues are organized and patterned not only reflects organ function, but also inherently hardwires networks of communication between stem cells and their environment to direct tissue homeostasis and injury repair. This review highlights how different methods of stem cell communication reflect the unique organization and function of diverse tissues.

  5. Mechanical communication in cardiac cell synchronized beating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitsan, Ido; Drori, Stavit; Lewis, Yair E.; Cohen, Shlomi; Tzlil, Shelly

    2016-05-01

    Cell-cell communication, which enables cells to coordinate their activity and is essential for growth, development and function, is usually ascribed a chemical or electrical origin. However, cells can exert forces and respond to environment elasticity and to mechanical deformations created by their neighbours. The extent to which this mechanosensing ability facilitates intercellular communication remains unclear. Here we demonstrate mechanical communication between cells directly for the first time, providing evidence for a long-range interaction that induces long-lasting alterations in interacting cells. We show that an isolated cardiac cell can be trained to beat at a given frequency by mechanically stimulating the underlying substrate. Deformations are induced using an oscillatory mechanical probe that mimics the deformations generated by a beating neighbouring cardiac cell. Unlike electrical field stimulation, the probe-induced beating rate is maintained by the cell for an hour after the stimulation stops, implying that long-term modifications occur within the cell. These long-term alterations provide a mechanism for cells that communicate mechanically to be less variable in their electromechanical delay. Mechanical coupling between cells therefore ensures that the final outcome of action potential pacing is synchronized beating. We further show that the contractile machinery is essential for mechanical communication.

  6. Precision of multicellular gradient sensing with cell-cell communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugler, Andrew; Levchenko, Andre; Nemenman, Ilya

    Gradient sensing underlies diverse biological processes. In principle, bigger ``detectors'' (cells or groups of cells) make better sensors, since then concentrations measured at the front and back of a detector are more different, and the gradient can be determined with higher precision. Indeed, experiments have shown that populations of cells detect gradients more precisely than single cells. However, this argument neglects the fact that information must be communicated between different parts of the detector, and the communication process introduces its own noise. Here we derive the fundamental limits to the precision of gradient sensing with cell-cell communication and temporal integration. We find that communication imposes its own sensory length scale, beyond which the precision cannot increase no matter how large the cell population grows. We also find that temporal integration couples the internal communication with the external signal diffusion, imposing an additional limit on the precision. We discuss how these limits can be improved by a strategy with two communicated molecular species, which we term ``regional excitation--global inhibition''. We compare our findings to experiments with communicating epithelial cells, and infer a sensor length scale of about 4 cells.

  7. Cell communication compartments in molluscan embryos.

    PubMed

    Serras, F; Kühtreiber, W M; Krul, M R; van den Biggelaar, J A

    1985-08-01

    Early embryos of Patella vulgata have been injected with Lucifer Yellow. No restriction of dye spread was found. We show that later in the development, the larval trochophore stage present evidence of compartments of cell communication. These dye compartments coincide with different presumptive regions. PMID:4028198

  8. Small Talk: Cell-to-Cell Communication in Bacteria

    ScienceCinema

    Bassler, Bonnie [Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States

    2016-07-12

    Cell-cell communication in bacteria involves the production, release, and subsequent detection of chemical signaling molecules called autoinducers. This process, called quorum sensing, allows bacteria to regulate gene expression on a population-wide scale. Processes controlled by quorum sensing are usually ones that are unproductive when undertaken by an individual bacterium but become effective when undertaken by the group. For example, quorum sensing controls bioluminescence, secretion of virulence factors, biofilm formation, sporulation, and the exchange of DNA. Thus, quorum sensing is a mechanism that allows bacteria to function as multi-cellular organisms. Bacteria make, detect, and integrate information from multiple autoinducers, some of which are used exclusively for intra-species communication while others enable communication between species. Research is now focused on the development of therapies that interfere with quorum sensing to control bacterial virulence.

  9. Small Talk: Cell-to-Cell Communication in Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Bassler, Bonnie

    2008-05-14

    Cell-cell communication in bacteria involves the production, release, and subsequent detection of chemical signaling molecules called autoinducers. This process, called quorum sensing, allows bacteria to regulate gene expression on a population-wide scale. Processes controlled by quorum sensing are usually ones that are unproductive when undertaken by an individual bacterium but become effective when undertaken by the group. For example, quorum sensing controls bioluminescence, secretion of virulence factors, biofilm formation, sporulation, and the exchange of DNA. Thus, quorum sensing is a mechanism that allows bacteria to function as multi-cellular organisms. Bacteria make, detect, and integrate information from multiple autoinducers, some of which are used exclusively for intra-species communication while others enable communication between species. Research is now focused on the development of therapies that interfere with quorum sensing to control bacterial virulence.

  10. Small Talk: Cell-to-Cell Communication in Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Bassler, Bonnie

    2008-12-03

    Cell-cell communication in bacteria involves the production, release, and subsequent detection of chemical signaling molecules called autoinducers. This process, called quorum sensing, allows bacteria to regulate gene expression on a population-wide scale. Processes controlled by quorum sensing are usually ones that are unproductive when undertaken by an individual bacterium but become effective when undertaken by the group. For example, quorum sensing controls bioluminescence, secretion of virulence factors, biofilm formation, sporulation, and the exchange of DNA. Thus, quorum sensing is a mechanism that allows bacteria to function as multi-cellular organisms. Bacteria make, detect, and integrate information from multiple autoinducers, some of which are used exclusively for intra-species communication while others enable communication between species. Research is now focused on the development of therapies that interfere with quorum sensing to control bacterial virulence.

  11. [Coupling and communication between bone cells].

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Tomoki

    2014-06-01

    Bone is constantly renewed by the balanced action of osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption both of which mainly occur at the bone surface. This restructuring process called "bone remodeling" is important not only for normal bone mass and strength, but also for mineral homeostasis. Coupling has been understood as a balanced induction of osteoblastic bone formation in response to osteoclastic bone resorption. An imbalance of this coupling is often linked to various bone diseases. TGF-β and IGF released from bone matrix during osteoclastic bone resorption are the favored candidates as classical coupling factor. Recently, several reports suggest that osteoclast-derived molecules/cytokines (clastokine) mediate directional signaling between osteoblasts and osteoclasts into the bone microenvironment. Thus, the elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms involved in bone cell communication and coupling is critical for a deeper understanding of the skeletal system in health and disease.

  12. Exosomes and nanotubes: Control of immune cell communication.

    PubMed

    McCoy-Simandle, Kessler; Hanna, Samer J; Cox, Dianne

    2016-02-01

    Cell-cell communication is critical to coordinate the activity and behavior of a multicellular organism. The cells of the immune system not only must communicate with similar cells, but also with many other cell types in the body. Therefore, the cells of the immune system have evolved multiple ways to communicate. Exosomes and tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are two means of communication used by immune cells that contribute to immune functions. Exosomes are small membrane vesicles secreted by most cell types that can mediate intercellular communication and in the immune system they are proposed to play a role in antigen presentation and modulation of gene expression. TNTs are membranous structures that mediate direct cell-cell contact over several cell diameters in length (and possibly longer) and facilitate the interaction and/or the transfer of signals, material and other cellular organelles between connected cells. Recent studies have revealed additional, but sometimes conflicting, structural and functional features of both exosomes and TNTs. Despite the new and exciting information in exosome and TNT composition, origin and in vitro function, biologically significant functions are still being investigated and determined. In this review, we discuss the current field regarding exosomes and TNTs in immune cells providing evaluation and perspectives of the current literature.

  13. Junctional communication is induced in migrating capillary endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Using an in vitro model in which a confluent monolayer of capillary endothelial cells is mechanically wounded, gap junction-mediated intercellular communication has been studied by loading the cells with the fluorescent dye, Lucifer Yellow. Approximately 40-50% of the cells in a nonwounded confluent monolayer were coupled in groups of four to five cells (basal level). Basal levels of communication were also observed in sparse and preconfluent cultures, but were reduced in postconfluent monolayers. 30 min after wounding, coupling was markedly reduced between cells lining the wound. Communication at the wound was partially reestablished by 2 h, exceeded basal levels after 6 h and reached a maximum after 24 h, at which stage approximately 90% of the cells were coupled in groups of six to seven cells. When the wound had closed (after 8 d), the increase in communication was no longer observed. Induction of wound-associated communication was unaffected by exposure of the cells to the DNA synthesis inhibitor mitomycin C, but was prevented by the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide. The induction of wound-associated communication was also inhibited when migration was prevented by placing the cells immediately after wounding at 22 degrees C or after exposure to cytochalasin D, suggesting that the increase in communication is dependent on cells migrating into the wound area. In contrast, migration was not prevented when coupling was blocked by exposure of the cells to retinoic acid, although this agent did disrupt the characteristic sheet-like pattern of migration typically seen during endothelial repair. These results suggest that junctional communication may play an important role in wound repair, possibly by coordinating capillary endothelial cell migration. PMID:2592412

  14. Cx25 contributes to leukemia cell communication and chemosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Sinyuk, Maksim; Alvarado, Alvaro G.; Nesmiyanov, Pavel; Shaw, Jeremy; Mulkearns-Hubert, Erin E.; Eurich, Jennifer T.; Hale, James S.; Bogdanova, Anna; Hitomi, Masahiro; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw; Huang, Alex Y.; Saunthararajah, Yogen; Lathia, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    Leukemia encompasses several hematological malignancies with shared phenotypes that include rapid proliferation, abnormal leukocyte self-renewal, and subsequent disruption of normal hematopoiesis. While communication between leukemia cells and the surrounding stroma supports tumor survival and expansion, the mechanisms underlying direct leukemia cell-cell communication and its contribution to tumor growth are undefined. Gap junctions are specialized intercellular connections composed of connexin proteins that allow free diffusion of small molecules and ions directly between the cytoplasm of adjacent cells. To characterize homotypic leukemia cell communication, we employed in vitro models for both acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and measured gap junction function through dye transfer assays. Additionally, clinically relevant gap junction inhibitors, carbenoxolone (CBX) and 1-octanol, were utilized to uncouple the communicative capability of leukemia cells. Furthermore, a qRT-PCR screen revealed several connexins with higher expression in leukemia cells compared with normal hematopoietic stem cells. Cx25 was identified as a promising adjuvant therapeutic target, and Cx25 but not Cx43 reduction via RNA interference reduced intercellular communication and sensitized cells to chemotherapy. Taken together, our data demonstrate the presence of homotypic communication in leukemia through a Cx25-dependent gap junction mechanism that can be exploited for the development of anti-leukemia therapies. PMID:26375552

  15. [The cell theory. Progress in studies on cell-cell communications].

    PubMed

    Brodskiĭ, V Ia

    2009-01-01

    Current data confirm the fundamental statement of the cell theory concerning the cell reproduction in a series of generations (omnis cellula e cellula). Cell communities or ensembles integrated by the signaling systems established in prokaryotes and protists and functioning in multicellular organisms including mammals are considered as the structural and functional unit of a multicellular organism. The cell is an elementary unit of life and basis of organism development and functioning. At the same time, the adult organism is not just a totality of cells. Multinucleated cells in some tissues, syncytial structure, and structural-functional units of organs are adaptations for optimal functioning of the multicellular organism and manifestations of cell-cell communications in development and definitive functioning. The cell theory was supplemented and developed by studies on cell-cell communications; however, these studies do not question the main generalizations of the theory.

  16. Collective Calcium Dynamics in Networks of Communicating Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrd, Tommy; Potter, Garrett; Sun, Bo; Mugler, Andrew

    Cells can sense and encode information about their environment with remarkable precision. These properties have been studied extensively for single cells, but intercellular communication is known to be important for both single- and multicellular organisms. Here, we examine calcium dynamics of fibroblast cells exposed to external ATP stimuli, and the effects of communication and stimulus strength on cells' response. Experimental results show that increasing communication strength induces a greater fraction of cells to exhibit oscillatory calcium dynamics, but the frequencies of oscillation do not systematically shift with ATP strength. We developed a model of calcium signaling by adding noise, communication, and cell-to-cell variability to the model of Tang and Othmer. This model reproduces cells' increased tendency to oscillate as a function of communication strength, and frequency encoding is nearly removed at the global level. Our model therefore suggests that the propensity of cells to oscillate, rather than frequency encoding, determines the response to external ATP. These results suggest that the system lies near a critical boundary separating non-oscillatory and oscillatory calcium dynamics.

  17. DNA and cell resonance: magnetic waves enable cell communication.

    PubMed

    Meyl, Konstantin

    2012-04-01

    DNA generates a longitudinal wave that propagates in the direction of the magnetic field vector. Computed frequencies from the structure of DNA agree with those of the predicted biophoton radiation. The optimization of efficiency by minimizing the conduction losses leads to the double-helix structure of DNA. The vortex model of the magnetic scalar wave not only covers many observed structures within the nucleus perfectly, but also explains the hyperboloid channels in the matrix when two cells communicate with each other. Potential vortexes are an essential component of a scalar waves, as discovered in 1990. The basic approach for an extended field theory was confirmed in 2009 with the discovery of magnetic monopoles. For the first time, this provides the opportunity to explain the physical basis of life not only from the biological discipline. Nature covers the whole spectrum of known scientific fields of research, and interdisciplinary understanding is required to explain its complex relationships. The characteristics of the potential vortex are significant. With its concentration effect, it provides for miniaturization down to a few nanometers, which allows enormously high information density in the nucleus. With this first introduction of the magnetic scalar wave, it becomes clear that such a wave is suitable to use genetic code chemically stored in the base pairs of the genes and electrically modulate them, so as to "piggyback" information from the cell nucleus to another cell. At the receiving end, the reverse process takes place and the transported information is converted back into a chemical structure. The necessary energy required to power the chemical process is provided by the magnetic scalar wave itself. PMID:22011216

  18. DNA and cell resonance: magnetic waves enable cell communication.

    PubMed

    Meyl, Konstantin

    2012-04-01

    DNA generates a longitudinal wave that propagates in the direction of the magnetic field vector. Computed frequencies from the structure of DNA agree with those of the predicted biophoton radiation. The optimization of efficiency by minimizing the conduction losses leads to the double-helix structure of DNA. The vortex model of the magnetic scalar wave not only covers many observed structures within the nucleus perfectly, but also explains the hyperboloid channels in the matrix when two cells communicate with each other. Potential vortexes are an essential component of a scalar waves, as discovered in 1990. The basic approach for an extended field theory was confirmed in 2009 with the discovery of magnetic monopoles. For the first time, this provides the opportunity to explain the physical basis of life not only from the biological discipline. Nature covers the whole spectrum of known scientific fields of research, and interdisciplinary understanding is required to explain its complex relationships. The characteristics of the potential vortex are significant. With its concentration effect, it provides for miniaturization down to a few nanometers, which allows enormously high information density in the nucleus. With this first introduction of the magnetic scalar wave, it becomes clear that such a wave is suitable to use genetic code chemically stored in the base pairs of the genes and electrically modulate them, so as to "piggyback" information from the cell nucleus to another cell. At the receiving end, the reverse process takes place and the transported information is converted back into a chemical structure. The necessary energy required to power the chemical process is provided by the magnetic scalar wave itself.

  19. Myogenic skeletal muscle satellite cells communicate by tunnelling nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Tavi, Pasi; Korhonen, Topi; Hänninen, Sandra L; Bruton, Joseph D; Lööf, Sara; Simon, Andras; Westerblad, Håkan

    2010-05-01

    Quiescent satellite cells sit on the surface of the muscle fibres under the basal lamina and are activated by a variety of stimuli to disengage, divide and differentiate into myoblasts that can regenerate or repair muscle fibres. Satellite cells adopt their parent's fibre type and must have some means of communication with the parent fibre. The mechanisms behind this communication are not known. We show here that satellite cells form dynamic connections with muscle fibres and other satellite cells by F-actin based tunnelling nanotubes (TNTs). Our results show that TNTs readily develop between satellite cells and muscle fibres. Once developed, TNTs permit transport of intracellular material, and even cellular organelles such as mitochondria between the muscle fibre and satellite cells. The onset of satellite cell differentiation markers Pax-7 and MyoD expression was slower in satellite cells cultured in the absence than in the presence of muscle cells. Furthermore physical contact between myofibre and satellite cell progeny is required to maintain subtype identity. Our data establish that TNTs constitute an integral part of myogenic cell communication and that physical cellular interaction control myogenic cell fate determination.

  20. Intracellular Renin Disrupts Chemical Communication between Heart Cells. Pathophysiological Implications

    PubMed Central

    De Mello, Walmor C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights Intracellular renin disrupts chemical communication in the heartAngiotensinogen enhances the effect of reninIntracellular enalaprilat reduces significantly the effect of reninIntracellular renin increases the inward calcium currentHarmful versus beneficial effect during myocardial infarction The influence of intracellular renin on the process of chemical communication between cardiac cells was investigated in cell pairs isolated from the left ventricle of adult Wistar Kyoto rats. The enzyme together with Lucifer yellow CH was dialyzed into one cell of the pair using the whole cell clamp technique. The diffusion of the dye in the dialyzed and in non-dialyzed cell was followed by measuring the intensity of fluorescence in both cells as a function of time. The results indicated that; (1) under normal conditions, Lucifer Yellow flows from cell to cell through gap junctions; (2) the intracellular dialysis of renin (100 nM) disrupts chemical communication – an effect enhanced by simultaneous administration of angiotensinogen (100 nM); (3) enalaprilat (10−9 M) administered to the cytosol together with renin reduced drastically the uncoupling action of the enzyme; (4) aliskiren (10−8 M) inhibited the effect of renin on chemical communication; (5) the possible role of intracellular renin independently of angiotensin II (Ang II) was evaluated including the increase of the inward calcium current elicited by the enzyme and the possible role of oxidative stress on the disruption of cell communication; (6) the possible harmful versus the beneficial effect of intracellular renin during myocardial infarction was discussed; (7) the present results indicate that intracellular renin due to internalization or in situ synthesis causes a severe impairment of chemical communication in the heart resulting in derangement of metabolic cooperation with serious consequences for heart function. PMID:25657639

  1. Cell-to-cell communication in plants, animals, and fungi: a comparative review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloemendal, Sandra; Kück, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Cell-to-cell communication is a prerequisite for differentiation and development in multicellular organisms. This communication has to be tightly regulated to ensure that cellular components such as organelles, macromolecules, hormones, or viruses leave the cell in a precisely organized way. During evolution, plants, animals, and fungi have developed similar ways of responding to this biological challenge. For example, in higher plants, plasmodesmata connect adjacent cells and allow communication to regulate differentiation and development. In animals, two main general structures that enable short- and long-range intercellular communication are known, namely gap junctions and tunneling nanotubes, respectively. Finally, filamentous fungi have also developed specialized structures called septal pores that allow intercellular communication via cytoplasmic flow. This review summarizes the underlying mechanisms for intercellular communication in these three eukaryotic groups and discusses its consequences for the regulation of differentiation and developmental processes.

  2. Cell-to-cell communication in plants, animals, and fungi: a comparative review.

    PubMed

    Bloemendal, Sandra; Kück, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Cell-to-cell communication is a prerequisite for differentiation and development in multicellular organisms. This communication has to be tightly regulated to ensure that cellular components such as organelles, macromolecules, hormones, or viruses leave the cell in a precisely organized way. During evolution, plants, animals, and fungi have developed similar ways of responding to this biological challenge. For example, in higher plants, plasmodesmata connect adjacent cells and allow communication to regulate differentiation and development. In animals, two main general structures that enable short- and long-range intercellular communication are known, namely gap junctions and tunneling nanotubes, respectively. Finally, filamentous fungi have also developed specialized structures called septal pores that allow intercellular communication via cytoplasmic flow. This review summarizes the underlying mechanisms for intercellular communication in these three eukaryotic groups and discusses its consequences for the regulation of differentiation and developmental processes.

  3. Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Andre

    The following essays on communication are presented: communication as a condition of survival, communication for special purposes, the means of transmission of communication, communication within social and economic structures, the teaching of communication through the press, the teaching of modern languages, communication as a point of departure,…

  4. Innate cell communication kick-starts pathogen-specific immunity

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Amariliz; Siracusa, Mark C.; Yap, George S.; Gause, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Innate cells are responsible for the rapid recognition of infection and mediate essential mechanisms of pathogen elimination, and also facilitate adaptive immune responses. We review here the numerous intricate interactions among innate cells that initiate protective immunity. The efficient eradication of pathogens depends on the coordinated actions of multiple cells, including innate cells and epithelial cells. Rather than acting as isolated effector cells, innate cells are in constant communication with other responding cells of the immune system, locally and distally. These interactions are critically important for the efficient control of primary infections as well for the development of ‘trained’ innate cells that facilitate the rapid elimination of homologous or heterologous infections. PMID:27002843

  5. Working Together for the Common Good: Cell-Cell Communication in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Martin; Rumbaugh, Kendra P.

    2012-01-01

    The 4th ASM Conference on Cell-Cell Communication in Bacteria was held in Miami, FL, from 6 to 9 November 2011. This review highlights three key themes that emerged from the many exciting talks and poster presentations in the area of quorum sensing: sociomicrobiology, signal transduction mechanisms, and interspecies communication. PMID:22389476

  6. Role of Exosome Shuttle RNA in Cell-to-Cell Communication.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Peng, Peng; Shen, Keng

    2016-08-01

    There are several ways that transpire in cell-to-cell communication,with or without cell contact. Exosomes play an important role in cell-to-cell communication,which do not need cell contact,as that can result in a relatively long-distance influence. Exosome contains RNA components including mRNA and micro-RNA,which are protected by exosomes rigid membranes. This allows those components be passed long distance through the circulatory system. The mRNA components are far different from their donor cells,and the micro-RNA components may reflect the cell they originated. In this article we review the role of exosomes in cell-to-cell communication,with particular focus on their potentials in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:27594165

  7. Radiation effects on the cell-cell communication of mammalian cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depriest, Kendall Russell

    Recent observations of bystander effects in unirradiated cell populations have focused attention on cell-cell communication, particularly gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC), as a means through which the bystander effect may be transmitted. The bystander expression of CDKN1A in unirradiated AG1522 human fibroblast cells observed in another laboratory was verified. The dose response of the bystander effect in the AG1522 cells showed that the effect had reached its maximum at the lowest alpha-particle fluence tested, 0.013 alpha/nuclei. To test potential mechanisms for communication to bystander cells, the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique was used. Only the rat liver epithelial cell line (Clone 9) exhibited GJIC based upon a fluorescence recovery after photobleaching assay, and there was no change in the rate constant for GJIC following exposure to low LET or high LET radiation. The fibroblast cell lines (AG1521, AG1522, and GM5758) showed no evidence of GJIC in three separate assays including immunohistochemistry. Lindane, an inhibitor of GJIC, eliminated the bystander expression of CDKN1A in AG1522 cells while octanol, another inhibitor of GJIC, did not change the bystander expression of the protein. The two chemicals act in different ways to disrupt GJIC and each one may alter other functions as well, so the elimination of the bystander effect by lindane apparently indicates that lindane is interfering with a bystander signaling mechanism that is not mediated by gap junctions. The lack of connexin localization in the cell membrane of the fibroblast cell lines and the elimination of the bystander expression by lindane, but not octanol, indicates that the bystander effect must be mediated by a non-GJIC mechanism. The experimental evidence suggests that the mediator of the bystander expression of CDKN1A in human diploid fibroblasts is most likely an extracellular signal, such as a cytokine, that acts in a calcium-dependent signal

  8. The Evolution of Cell Communication: The Road not Taken

    PubMed Central

    Torday, J.S.; Rehan, V.K.

    2015-01-01

    In the post-genomic era the complex problem of evolutionary biology can be tackled from the top-down, the bottom-up, or from the middle-out. Given the emergent and contingent nature of this process, we have chosen to take the latter approach, both as a mechanistic link to developmental biology and as a rational means of identifying signaling mechanisms based on their functional genomic significance. Using this approach, we have been able to configure a working model for lung evolution by reverse-engineering lung surfactant from the mammalian lung to the swim bladder of fish. Based on this archetypal cell-molecular model, we have reduced evolutionary biology to cell communication, starting with unicellular organisms communicating with the environment, followed by cell-cell communication to generate metazoa, culminating in the communication of genetic information between generations, i.e. reproduction. This model predicts the evolution of physiologic systems-including development, homeostasis, disease, regeneration/repair, and aging- as a logical consequence of biology reducing entropy. This approach provides a novel and robust way of formulating refutable, testable hypotheses to determine the ultimate origins and first principles of physiology, providing candidate genes for phenotypes hypothesized to have mediated evolutionary changes in structure and/or function. Ultimately, it will form the basis for predictive medicine and molecular bioethics, rather than merely showing associations between genes and pathology, which is an unequivocal Just So Story. In this new age of genomics, our reach must exceed our grasp. PMID:25892907

  9. Teaching the Fundamentals of Cell Phones and Wireless Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davids, Mark; Forrest, Rick; Pata, Don

    2010-01-01

    Wireless communications are ubiquitous. Students and teachers use iPhones[R], BlackBerrys[R], and other smart phones at home and at work. More than 275 million Americans had cell phones in June of 2009 and expanded access to broadband is predicted this year. Despite the plethora of users, most students and teachers do not understand "how they…

  10. Homotypic NK cell-to-cell communication controls cytokine responsiveness of innate immune NK cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Jin; Kim, Miju; Kim, Hye Mi; Lim, Seon Ah; Kim, Eun-Ok; Kim, Kwanghee; Song, Kwang Hoon; Kim, Jiyoung; Kumar, Vinay; Yee, Cassian; Doh, Junsang; Lee, Kyung-Mi

    2014-01-01

    While stationary organ cells are in continuous contact with neighboring cells, immune cells circulate throughout the body without an apparent requirement for cell-cell contact to persist in vivo. This study challenges current convention by demonstrating, both in vitro and in vivo, that innate immune NK cells can engage in homotypic NK-to-NK cell interactions for optimal survival, activation, and proliferation. Using a specialized cell-laden microwell approach, we discover that NK cells experiencing constant NK-to-NK contact exhibit a synergistic increase in activation status, cell proliferation, and anti-tumor function in response to IL-2 or IL-15. This effect is dependent on 2B4/CD48 ligation and an active cytoskeleton, resulting in amplification of IL-2 receptor signaling, enhanced CD122/CD132 colocalization, CD25 upregulation, and Stat3 activation. Conversely, ‘orphan' NK cells demonstrate no such synergy and fail to persist. Therefore, our data uncover the existence of homotypic cell-to-cell communication among mobile innate lymphocytes, which promotes functional synergy within the cytokine-rich microenvironment. PMID:25475707

  11. New insights in endothelial and smooth muscle cell communication.

    PubMed

    Conejo, Víctor Arana; De Haro, Roberto; Sosa-Melgarejo, Jorge; Méndez, José D

    2007-01-01

    Based on immunohistochemical techniques against connexins and the intercellular flux of staining molecules, it has previously been shown that electrotonic communication occurs among endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, this due to the presence of myoendothelial gap junctions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the density of myoendothelial contacts in the left coronary and internal mammary arteries as well as in the left saphenous vein by means of electron microscopy, the distance between both cells participating in an myoendothelial contact with a semi-automatic image analysis system and the presence of homocellular and heterocellular gap junctions between endothelial and smooth muscle cells by using the immunohistochemical technique and confocal microscopy in thoracic aorta were also analyzed. The results are that all blood vessels studied present myoendothelial contacts, while density studies show that they are more abundant in the saphenous vein. The myoendothelial contact distance is constant and in no case the cytoplasmic processes reach the plasma membrane of the partner cell toward which they are advanced. Homocellular gap junctions were found between smooth muscle cells and between endothelial cells. Heterocellular gap junctions were absent, evidencing the possibility that signaling molecules between endothelial and smooth muscle cells may be transferred through plasma membranes as was once thought and not necessarily by electrotonic communication. PMID:17383847

  12. Exploring family communication about sickle cell disease in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Graff, J Carolyn; Hankins, Jane; Graves, Rebecca J; Robitaille, Kimberly Y; Roberts, Ruth; Cejda, Katherine; Hardy, Belinda T; Johnson, Margery; Porter, Jerlym S

    2012-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a lifelong disorder that involves progressive organ damage and requires ongoing medical attention to prevent and treat episodic acute complications. Children with SCD need ongoing monitoring and extra attention that may be stressful to family members. Communication within families can help resolve family stress and may be associated with medical follow-up and management of SCD. Focus groups were conducted with 12 African American families to explore the communication that occurred within and outside of the family from the perspectives of adolescents with SCD, siblings, and parents. Factors that influence family communication were explored. The extended family was an important social network and resource to adolescents, siblings, and parents. Family member knowledge of SCD was an important factor that influenced communication about SCD; adolescents and parents communicated more easily than siblings and also reported having more knowledge of SCD than siblings. Future research focusing on the knowledge of immediate and extended family members and their recognition of their contribution to the child with SCD is recommended.

  13. Use of advanced solar cells for commercial communication satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1995-03-01

    The current generation of communications satellites are located primarily in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Over the next decade, however, a new generation of communications satellites will be built and launched, designed to provide a world-wide interconnection of portable telephones. For this mission, the satellites must be positioned in lower polar and near-polar orbits. To provide complete coverage, large numbers of satellites will be required. Because the required number of satellites decreases as the orbital altitude is increased, fewer satellites would be required if the orbit chosen were raised from low to intermediate orbit. However, in intermediate orbits, satellites encounter significant radiation due to trapped electrons and protons. Radiation tolerant solar cells may be necessary to make such satellites feasible. We analyze the amount of radiation encountered in low and intermediate polar orbits at altitudes of interest to next-generation communication satellites, calculate the expected degradation for silicon, GaAs, and InP solar cells, and show that the lifetimes can be significantly increased by use of advanced solar cells.

  14. Use of advanced solar cells for commerical communication satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.

    1995-01-01

    The current generation of communications satellites are located primarily in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Over the next decade, however, a new generation of communications satellites will be built and launched, designed to provide a world-wide interconnection of portable telephones. For this mission, the satellites must be positioned in lower polar- and near-polar orbits. To provide complete coverage, large numbers of satellites will be required. Because of the required number of satellites decreases as the orbital altitude is increased, fewer satellites would be required if the orbit chosen were raised from Low to intermediate orbit. However, in intermediate orbits, satellites encounter significant radiation due to trapped electrons and protons. Radiation tolerant solar cells may be necessary to make such satellites feasible. We analyze the amount of radiation encountered in low and intermediate polar orbits at altitudes of interest to next-generation communication satellites, calculate the expected degradation for silicon, GaAs, and InP solar cells, and show that the lifetimes can be significantly increased by use of advanced solar cells.

  15. Computing the threshold of the influence of intercellular nanotubes on cell-to-cell communication integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailović, Dragutin T.; Kostić, Vladimir R.; Balaž, Igor; Kapor, Darko

    2016-10-01

    We examine the threshold of the influence of the tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) on the cell-to-cell communication integrity. A deterministic model is introduced with the Michaelis-Menten dynamics and the intercellular exchange of substance. The influence of TNTs are considered as a functional perturbation of the main communication and treated as the matrix nearness problems. We analyze communication integrity in terms of the \\emph{pseudospectra} of the exchange, to find the \\emph{distance to instability}. The threshold of TNTs influence is computed for Newman-Gastner and Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'enyi gap junction (GJ) networks.

  16. A Social Medium: ASM's 5th Cell-Cell Communication in Bacteria Meeting in Review

    PubMed Central

    Federle, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The 5th American Society for Microbiology Conference on Cell-Cell Communication in Bacteria (CCCB-5), which convened from 18 to 21 October 2014 in San Antonio, TX, highlighted recent advances in our understanding of microbial intercellular signaling. While the CCCB meetings arose from interests in pheromone signaling and quorum sensing, it was evident at CCCB-5 that the cell-cell communication field is continuing to mature, expanding into new areas and integrating cutting-edge technologies. In this minireview, we recap some of the research discussed at CCCB-5 and the questions that have arisen from it. PMID:25917904

  17. Cell biology (Communication arising): Tubulin acetylation and cell motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzo, Alexander; Ackerman, Brian; Gundersen, Gregg G.

    2003-01-01

    Although the protein tubulin is known to undergo several post-translational modifications that accumulate in stable but not dynamic microtubules inside cells, the function of these modifications is unknown. Hubbert et al. have shown that the enzyme HDAC6 (for histone deacetylase 6) reverses the post-translational acetylation of tubulin, and provide evidence that reducing tubulin acetylation enhances cell motility. They also suggest that decreasing tubulin acetylation reduces microtubule stability. However, we find that microtubule stabilization is not promoted by tubulin acetylation. We conclude that the alteration in cell motility observed by Hubbert et al. in cells overexpressing HDAC6 results not from changes in the formation of stable microtubules, but from alterations in the degree of tubulin acetylation.

  18. Cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment alter the somatostatin status of delta cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Catriona; Flatt, Peter R.; McClenaghan, Neville H.

    2010-08-20

    Research highlights: {yields} TGP52 cells display enhanced functionality in pseudoislet form. {yields} Somatostatin content was reduced, but secretion increased in high glucose conditions. {yields} Cellular interactions and environment alter the somatostatin status of TGP52 cells. -- Abstract: Introduction: Somatostatin, released from pancreatic delta cells, is a potent paracrine inhibitor of insulin and glucagon secretion. Islet cellular interactions and glucose homeostasis are essential to maintain normal patterns of insulin secretion. However, the importance of cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment in the regulation of somatostatin release remains unclear. Methods: This study employed the somatostatin-secreting TGP52 cell line maintained in DMEM:F12 (17.5 mM glucose) or DMEM (25 mM glucose) culture media. The effect of pseudoislet formation and culture medium on somatostatin content and release in response to a variety of stimuli was measured by somatostatin EIA. In addition, the effect of pseudoislet formation on cellular viability (MTT and LDH assays) and proliferation (BrdU ELISA) was determined. Results: TGP52 cells readily formed pseudoislets and showed enhanced functionality in three-dimensional form with increased E-cadherin expression irrespective of the culture environment used. However, culture in DMEM decreased cellular somatostatin content (P < 0.01) and increased somatostatin secretion in response to a variety of stimuli including arginine, calcium and PMA (P < 0.001) when compared with cells grown in DMEM:F12. Configuration of TGP52 cells as pseudoislets reduced the proliferative rate and increased cellular cytotoxicity irrespective of culture medium used. Conclusions: Somatostatin secretion is greatly facilitated by cell-to-cell interactions and E-cadherin expression. Cellular environment and extracellular glucose also significantly influence the function of delta cells.

  19. Inward rectifying potassium channels facilitate cell-to-cell communication in hamster retractor muscle feed arteries.

    PubMed

    Jantzi, Micaela C; Brett, Suzanne E; Jackson, William F; Corteling, Randolph; Vigmond, Edward J; Welsh, Donald G

    2006-09-01

    This study examined whether inward rectifying K+ (KIR) channels facilitate cell-to-cell communication along skeletal muscle resistance arteries. With the use of feed arteries from the hamster retractor muscle, experiments examined whether KIR channels were functionally expressed and whether channel blockade attenuated the conduction of acetylcholine-induced vasodilation, an index of cell-to-cell communication. Consistent with KIR channel expression, this study observed the following: 1) a sustained Ba2+-sensitive, K+-induced dilation in preconstricted arteries; 2) a Ba2+-sensitive inwardly rectifying K+ current in arterial smooth muscle cells; and 3) KIR2.1 and KIR2.2 expression in the smooth muscle layer of these arteries. It was subsequently shown that the discrete application of acetylcholine elicits a vasodilation that conducts with limited decay along the feed artery wall. In the presence of 100 microM Ba2+, the local and conducted response to acetylcholine was attenuated, a finding consistent with a role for KIR in facilitating cell-to-cell communication. A computational model of vascular communication accurately predicted these observations. Control experiments revealed that in contrast to Ba2+, ATP-sensitive- and large-conductance Ca2+ activated-K+ channel inhibitors had no effect on the local or conducted vasodilatory response to acetylcholine. We conclude that smooth muscle KIR channels play a key role in facilitating cell-to-cell communication along skeletal muscle resistance arteries. We attribute this facilitation to the intrinsic property of negative slope conductance, a biophysical feature common to KIR2.1- and 2.2-containing channels, which enables them to increase their activity as a cell hyperpolarizes. PMID:16617135

  20. Microbial linguistics: perspectives and applications of microbial cell-to-cell communication.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Robert J; Lee, Sung Kuk; Kim, Taesung; Ghim, Cheol-Min

    2011-01-01

    Inter-cellular communication via diffusible small molecules is a defining character not only of multicellular forms of life but also of single-celled organisms. A large number of bacterial genes are regulated by the change of chemical milieu mediated by the local population density of its own species or others. The cell density-dependent "autoinducer" molecules regulate the expression of those genes involved in genetic competence, biofilm formation and persistence, virulence, sporulation, bioluminescence, antibiotic production, and many others. Recent innovations in recombinant DNA technology and micro-/nano-fluidics systems render the genetic circuitry responsible for cell-to-cell communication feasible to and malleable via synthetic biological approaches. Here we review the current understanding of the molecular biology of bacterial intercellular communication and the novel experimental protocols and platforms used to investigate this phenomenon. A particular emphasis is given to the genetic regulatory circuits that provide the standard building blocks which constitute the syntax of the biochemical communication network. Thus, this review gives focus to the engineering principles necessary for rewiring bacterial chemo-communication for various applications, ranging from population-level gene expression control to the study of host-pathogen interactions.

  1. Host parasite communications-Messages from helminths for the immune system: Parasite communication and cell-cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Coakley, Gillian; Buck, Amy H; Maizels, Rick M

    2016-07-01

    Helminths are metazoan organisms many of which have evolved parasitic life styles dependent on sophisticated manipulation of the host environment. Most notably, they down-regulate host immune responses to ensure their own survival, by exporting a range of immuno-modulatory mediators that interact with host cells and tissues. While a number of secreted immunoregulatory parasite proteins have been defined, new work also points to the release of extracellular vesicles, or exosomes, that interact with and manipulate host gene expression. These recent results are discussed in the overall context of how helminths communicate effectively with the host organism.

  2. Host parasite communications-Messages from helminths for the immune system: Parasite communication and cell-cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Coakley, Gillian; Buck, Amy H; Maizels, Rick M

    2016-07-01

    Helminths are metazoan organisms many of which have evolved parasitic life styles dependent on sophisticated manipulation of the host environment. Most notably, they down-regulate host immune responses to ensure their own survival, by exporting a range of immuno-modulatory mediators that interact with host cells and tissues. While a number of secreted immunoregulatory parasite proteins have been defined, new work also points to the release of extracellular vesicles, or exosomes, that interact with and manipulate host gene expression. These recent results are discussed in the overall context of how helminths communicate effectively with the host organism. PMID:27297184

  3. Communicating the molecular basis of cancer cell-by-cell: an interview with Tatsushi Igaki.

    PubMed

    Igaki, Tatsushi

    2015-12-01

    Tatsushi Igaki is currently based at the Kyoto University Graduate School of Biostudies, where he leads a research group dedicated to using Drosophila genetics to build a picture of the cell-cell communications underlying the establishment and maintenance of multicellular systems. His work has provided insight into the molecular bases of cell competition in the context of development and tumorigenesis, including the landmark discovery that oncogenic cells communicate with normal cells in the tumor microenvironment to induce tumor progression in a non-autonomous fashion. In this interview, he describes his career path, highlighting the shift in his research focus from the basic principles of apoptosis to clonal evolution in cancer, and also explains why Drosophila provides a powerful model system for studying cancer biology. PMID:26637532

  4. Cell–cell communication enhances the capacity of cell ensembles to sense shallow gradients during morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, David; Mugler, Andrew; Brennan, Matthew D.; Lee, Sung Hoon; Huebner, Robert J.; Shamir, Eliah R.; Woo, Laura A.; Kim, Joseph; Amar, Patrick; Nemenman, Ilya; Ewald, Andrew J.; Levchenko, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Collective cell responses to exogenous cues depend on cell–cell interactions. In principle, these can result in enhanced sensitivity to weak and noisy stimuli. However, this has not yet been shown experimentally, and little is known about how multicellular signal processing modulates single-cell sensitivity to extracellular signaling inputs, including those guiding complex changes in the tissue form and function. Here we explored whether cell–cell communication can enhance the ability of cell ensembles to sense and respond to weak gradients of chemotactic cues. Using a combination of experiments with mammary epithelial cells and mathematical modeling, we find that multicellular sensing enables detection of and response to shallow epidermal growth factor (EGF) gradients that are undetectable by single cells. However, the advantage of this type of gradient sensing is limited by the noisiness of the signaling relay, necessary to integrate spatially distributed ligand concentration information. We calculate the fundamental sensory limits imposed by this communication noise and combine them with the experimental data to estimate the effective size of multicellular sensory groups involved in gradient sensing. Functional experiments strongly implicated intercellular communication through gap junctions and calcium release from intracellular stores as mediators of collective gradient sensing. The resulting integrative analysis provides a framework for understanding the advantages and limitations of sensory information processing by relays of chemically coupled cells. PMID:26792522

  5. Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, James

    2010-01-01

    NASA s communication work for the UAS Command and Control area will build upon work currently being conducted under NASA Recovery Act funds. Communication portions of UAS NextGen ConOps, Stateof- the-Art assessment, and Gap Analysis. Preliminary simulations for UAS CNPC link scalability assessment. Surrogate UAS aircraft upgrades. This work will also leverage FY10 in-guide funding for communication link model development. UAS are currently managed through exceptions and are operating using DoD frequencies for line-of-sight (LOS) and satellite-based communications links, low-power LOS links in amateur bands, or unlicensed Instrument/Scientific/Medical (ISM) frequencies. None of these frequency bands are designated for Safety and Regularity of Flight. No radio-frequency (RF) spectrum has been allocated by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) specifically for UAS command and control links, for either LOS or Beyond LOS (BLOS) communication.

  6. Cell-to-cell communication in the anterior pituitary: evidence for gap junction-mediated exchanges between endocrine cells and folliculostellate cells.

    PubMed

    Morand, I; Fonlupt, P; Guerrier, A; Trouillas, J; Calle, A; Remy, C; Rousset, B; Munari-Silem, Y

    1996-08-01

    The ability of rat anterior pituitary cells to communicate through gap junctions (GJ) was studied using a fluorescent molecule, Lucifer Yellow (LY), which freely passes through GJ channels. The probe was introduced into the cell cytoplasm by using either the cut-end loading method on intact tissue, or cell microinjection on cultured cells. The identification of communicating cells was performed by immunofluorescence labeling of specific hormones in endocrine cells and of S100 protein in folliculostellate (FS) cells. Rat anterior pituitary cells in their physiological organization, i.e. in the intact tissue, exhibited a high level of coupling through GJ. LY-labeled cells were found up to 300-microns apart from its site of introduction. The communicating cells were primarily PRL cells, GH cells, and FS cells. Only a few LH, TSH, and ACTH cells were labeled with LY. Anterior pituitary cells, isolated from the rat tissue by mild protease treatment and cultured for 3 days, reestablished functional GJ as demonstrated by microinjection of LY into individual cells. By immunolabeling of specific hormones and/or S100 protein, we found a GJ coupling between FS cells, and between FS cells and endocrine cells, including PRL cells. The communication between FS cells was by far the most frequent. In conclusion, we demonstrate the presence of functional GJ between anterior pituitary cells of the same type and between anterior pituitary cells having distinct differentiated functions. PMID:8754762

  7. Teaching the Fundamentals of Cell Phones and Wireless Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davids, Mark; Forrest, Rick; Pata, Don

    2010-04-01

    Wireless communications are ubiquitous. Students and teachers use iPhones®, BlackBerrys®, and other smart phones at home and at work. More than 275 million Americans had cell phones in June of 2009 and expanded access to broadband is predicted this year.2 Despite the plethora of users, most students and teachers do not understand "how they work." Over the past several years, three high school teachers have collaborated with engineers at Cingular, Motorola, and the University of Michigan to explore the underlying science and design a three-week, student-centered unit with a constructivist pedagogy consistent with the "Modeling in Physics" philosophy.3 This unique pilot program reinforces traditional physics topics including vibrations and waves, sound, light, electricity and magnetism, and also introduces key concepts in communications and information theory. This article will describe the motivation for our work, outline a few key concepts with the corresponding student activities, and provide a summary of the program that has been developed to engage and inspire the next generation of scientists, engineers, and citizens.

  8. Long distance cell communication using spherical tether balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchanda, R. K.; Rajagopalan, Vasudevan; Vasudevan, Rajagopalan; Mehrotra, R. K.; Sreenivasan, S.; Pawaskar, M.; Subba Rao Jonnalagadda, Venkata; Buduru, Suneelkumar; Kulkarni, P. M.

    A proof-of-concept experiment was conducted for long-range cell communication for rural tele-phony and internet. We designed and fabricated a spherical tether balloon to carry the con-ventional micro base transceiver station (BTS) along with three slotted antenna to cover 2-pi radius. AC power and optical fiber were anchored along with the tether line. A special fre-quency license was obtained from Wireless Planning Commission (WPC) wing of Department of Telecommunication (DoT), India for the period of experiment so as not to affect the opera-tional networks. The experiments were carried out for different BTS heights up to 500 meter. Signal measurement both in data mode and voice quality were done in different quadrant using mobile vans. This paper describes the methodology (under patenting) and utility of technique for operational application.

  9. Communication between mast cells and rat submucosal neurons.

    PubMed

    Bell, Anna; Althaus, Mike; Diener, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Histamine is a mast cell mediator released e.g. during food allergy. The aim of the project was to identify the effect of histamine on rat submucosal neurons and the mechanisms involved. Cultured submucosal neurons from rat colon express H1, H2 and H3 receptors as shown by immunocytochemical staining confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with messenger RNA (mRNA) isolated from submucosal homogenates as starting material. Histamine evoked a biphasic rise of the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in cultured submucosal neurons, consisting in a release of intracellularly stored Ca(2+) followed by an influx from the extracellular space. Although agonists of all three receptor subtypes evoked an increase in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, experiments with antagonists revealed that mainly H1 (and to a lesser degree H2) receptors mediate the response to histamine. In coculture experiments with RBL-2H3 cells, a mast cell equivalent, compound 48/80, evoked an increase in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration of neighbouring neurons. Like the response to native histamine, the neuronal response to the mast cell degranulator was strongly inhibited by the H1 receptor antagonist pyrilamine and reduced by the H2 receptor antagonist cimetidine. In rats sensitized against ovalbumin, exposure to the antigen induced a rise in short-circuit current (I sc) across colonic mucosa-submucosa preparations without a significant increase in paracellular fluorescein fluxes. Pyrilamine strongly inhibited the increase in I sc, a weaker inhibition was observed after blockade of protease receptors or 5-lipoxygenase. Consequently, H1 receptors on submucosal neurons seem to play a pivotal role in the communication between mast cells and the enteric nervous system. PMID:25224285

  10. Microfluidic application-specific integrated device for monitoring direct cell-cell communication via gap junctions between individual cell pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Philip J.; Hung, Paul J.; Shaw, Robin; Jan, Lily; Lee, Luke P.

    2005-05-01

    Direct cell-cell communication between adjacent cells is vital for the development and regulation of functional tissues. However, current biological techniques are difficult to scale up for high-throughput screening of cell-cell communication in an array format. In order to provide an effective biophysical tool for the analysis of molecular mechanisms of gap junctions that underlie intercellular communication, we have developed a microfluidic device for selective trapping of cell-pairs and simultaneous optical characterizations. Two different cell populations can be brought into membrane contact using an array of trapping channels with a 2μm by 2μm cross section. Device operation was verified by observation of dye transfer between mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) placed in membrane contact. Integration with lab-on-a-chip technologies offers promising applications for cell-based analytical tools such as drug screening, clinical diagnostics, and soft-state biophysical devices for the study of gap junction protein channels in cellular communications. Understanding electrical transport mechanisms via gap junctions in soft membranes will impact quantitative biomedical sciences as well as clinical applications.

  11. [Direct cell-cell communications and social behavior of cells in mammals, protists, and bacteria. Possible causes of multicellularity].

    PubMed

    Brodskiĭ, V Ia

    2009-01-01

    Comparison of current data on direct cell-cell communications in mammals, protists, and bacteria suggests that the emergence of the signaling systems of self-organization underlay the emergence of multicellular organisms. Biogenic amines, regulators of coordinated behavior and aggregation in bacteria, have been found in protists and multicellular organisms. In metazoans, biogenic amines have become specific neurotransmitters. At the same time, the studies on synchronization of protein synthesis rhythm in mammalian cell cultures demonstrated that noradrenaline and serotonin have conserved their ancient function of cell-cell cooperation in mammals, which is manifested as coordinated social behavior of cells in population in the case of bacteria and multicellular organisms.

  12. Synthetic Quorum Sensing and Cell-Cell Communication in Gram-Positive Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Nicholas; Collins, Cynthia H

    2016-07-15

    The components of natural quorum-sensing (QS) systems can be used to engineer synthetic communication systems that regulate gene expression in response to chemical signals. We have used the machinery from the peptide-based agr QS system from Staphylococcus aureus to engineer a synthetic QS system in Bacillus megaterium to enable autoinduction of a target gene at high cell densities. Growth and gene expression from these synthetic QS cells were characterized in both complex and minimal media. We also split the signal production and sensing components between two strains of B. megaterium to produce sender and receiver cells and characterized the resulting communication in liquid media and on semisolid agar. The system described in this work represents the first synthetic QS and cell-cell communication system that has been engineered to function in a Gram-positive host, and it has the potential to enable the generation of dynamic gene regulatory networks in B. megaterium and other Gram-positive organisms. PMID:26203497

  13. Operating principles of Notch-Delta-Jagged module of cell-cell communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, Mohit Kumar; Boareto, Marcelo; Lu, Mingyang; Onuchic, Jose' N.; Clementi, Cecilia; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2015-05-01

    Notch pathway is an evolutionarily conserved cell-cell communication mechanism governing cell-fate during development and tumor progression. It is activated when Notch receptor of one cell binds to either of its ligand—Delta or Jagged—of another cell. Notch-Delta (ND) signaling forms a two-way switch, and two cells interacting via ND signaling adopt different fates—Sender (high ligand, low receptor) and Receiver (low ligand, high receptor). Notch-Delta-Jagged signaling (NDJ) behaves as a three-way switch and enables an additional fate—hybrid Sender/Receiver (S/R) (medium ligand, medium receptor). Here, by extending our framework of NDJ signaling for a two-cell system, we show that higher production rate of Jagged, but not that of Delta, expands the range of parameters for which both cells attain the hybrid S/R state. Conversely, glycosyltransferase Fringe and cis-inhibition reduces this range of conditions, and reduces the relative stability of the hybrid S/R state, thereby promoting cell-fate divergence and consequently lateral inhibition-based patterns. Lastly, soluble Jagged drives the cells to attain the hybrid S/R state, and soluble Delta drives them to be Receivers. We also discuss the critical role of hybrid S/R state in promoting cancer metastasis by enabling collective cell migration and expanding cancer stem cell (CSC) population.

  14. ORIENTATION REQUIREMENT TO DETECT MAGNETIC FIELD-INDUCTED ALTERATION OF GAP JUNCTION COMMUNICATION IN EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ORIENTATION REQUIREMENT TO DETECT MAGNETIC FIELD-INDUCED ALTERATION OF GAP JUNCTION COMMUNICATION IN EPITHELIAL CELLS.
    OBJECTIVE: We have shown that functional gap junction communication as measured by Lucifer yellow dye transfer (DT) in Clone-9 rat liver epithelial cells, c...

  15. CHLORAL HYDRATE DECREASES GAP JUNCTION COMMUNICATION IN RAT LIVER EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chloral hydrate decreases gap junction communication in rat liver epithelial cells

    Gap junction communication (GJC) is involved in controlling cell proliferation and differentiation. Connexins (Cx) that make up these junctions are composed of a closely related group of m...

  16. Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailenson, Jeremy; Buzzanell, Patrice; Deetz, Stanley; Tewksbury, David; Thompson, Robert J.; Turow, Joseph; Bichelmeyer, Barbara; Bishop, M. J.; Gayeski, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of communications were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Jeremy Bailenson, Patrice Buzzanell, Stanley Deetz, David Tewksbury, Robert J. Thompson, and…

  17. Communication between neuronal somata and satellite glial cells in sensory ganglia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Yen M; Gu, Yanping; Chen, Yong

    2013-10-01

    Studies of the structural organization and functions of the cell body of a neuron (soma) and its surrounding satellite glial cells (SGCs) in sensory ganglia have led to the realization that SGCs actively participate in the information processing of sensory signals from afferent terminals to the spinal cord. SGCs use a variety ways to communicate with each other and with their enwrapped soma. Changes in this communication under injurious conditions often lead to abnormal pain conditions. "What are the mechanisms underlying the neuronal soma and SGC communication in sensory ganglia?" and "how do tissue or nerve injuries affect the communication?" are the main questions addressed in this review.

  18. A fluorescence photobleaching assay of gap junction-mediated communication between human cells.

    PubMed

    Wade, M H; Trosko, J E; Schindler, M

    1986-04-25

    Gap junction-mediated communication between contiguous cells has been implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. This report describes a new technique to measure cell-cell communication, gap fluorescence redistribution after photobleaching, which is based on the diffusion-dependent return of 6-carboxyfluorescein-mediated fluorescence in a photobleached cell that is in contact with other fluorescently labeled cells. Fluorescence recovery rates are interpreted as dye transport across gap junctions. Results of experiments on normal human fibroblasts and human teratocarcinoma cells show that this technique can measure rapid dye transfer and detect inhibition of communication (between teratocarcinoma cells) by the tumor promoters 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate and the pesticide dieldrin. PMID:3961495

  19. Cell to cell communication by autoinducing peptides in gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sturme, Mark H J; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Nakayama, Jiro; Akkermans, Antoon D L; Vaugha, Elaine E; de Vos, Willem M

    2002-08-01

    While intercellular communication systems in Gram-negative bacteria are often based on homoserine lactones as signalling molecules, it has been shown that autoinducing peptides are involved in intercellular communication in Gram-positive bacteria. Many of these peptides are exported by dedicated systems, posttranslationally modified in various ways, and finally sensed by other cells via membrane-located receptors that are part of two-component regulatory systems. In this way the expression of a variety of functions including virulence, genetic competence and the production of antimicrobial compounds can be modulated in a co-ordinated and cell density- and growth phase-dependent manner. Occasionally the autoinducing peptide has a dual function, such as in the case of nisin that is both a signalling pheromone involved in quorum sensing and an antimicrobial peptide. Moreover, biochemical, genetic and genomic studies have shown that bacteria may contain multiple quorum sensing systems, underlining the importance of intercellular communication. Finally, in some cases different peptides may be recognised by the same receptor, while also hybrid receptors have been constructed that respond to new peptides or show novel responses. This paper provides an overview of the characteristics of autoinducing peptide-based quorum sensing systems, their application in various gram-positive bacteria, and the discovery of new systems in natural and engineered ecosystems. PMID:12448722

  20. Inter-cell interference mitigation in multi-cellular visible light communications.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sun-Young; Kwon, Do-Hoon; Yang, Se-Hoon; Han, Sang-Kook

    2016-04-18

    Inter-cell interference hinders multi-cellular optical wireless communication to support various applications. We proposed and experimentally demonstrated a multicarrier-based cell partitioning scheme, combined with frequency reuse, which could be effective in optical communications although it is inefficient in RF wireless communications. For multicarrier-based cell partitioning, Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based multiple access (OFDMA) was employed to accommodate multi-cellular optical wireless communications without a large guard band between adjacent cells and without additional RF components. Moreover, we employed filter bank-based multicarrier (FBMC) to mitigate inter-cell interference generated in OFDMA-based cell partitioning due to asynchronous signals originated from RF path difference. By using FBMC-based cell partitioning, inter-cell interference could be effectively mitigated as well as capacity and spectral efficiency were improved about 1.5 times compared to those of OFDMA. Because no cyclic prefix (CP) is required in FBMC, the improvement factor could be increased if there is a large RF path difference between lighting cells. Moreover, it could be a stronger solution when many neighboring cells exist causing large interference. The proposed multicarrier-based cell partitioning combined with FBMC will effectively support visible light communication (VLC)-based localization-based services (LBS) and indoor positioning system by transparently providing trilateration-based positioning method. PMID:27137289

  1. Inter-cell interference mitigation in multi-cellular visible light communications.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sun-Young; Kwon, Do-Hoon; Yang, Se-Hoon; Han, Sang-Kook

    2016-04-18

    Inter-cell interference hinders multi-cellular optical wireless communication to support various applications. We proposed and experimentally demonstrated a multicarrier-based cell partitioning scheme, combined with frequency reuse, which could be effective in optical communications although it is inefficient in RF wireless communications. For multicarrier-based cell partitioning, Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based multiple access (OFDMA) was employed to accommodate multi-cellular optical wireless communications without a large guard band between adjacent cells and without additional RF components. Moreover, we employed filter bank-based multicarrier (FBMC) to mitigate inter-cell interference generated in OFDMA-based cell partitioning due to asynchronous signals originated from RF path difference. By using FBMC-based cell partitioning, inter-cell interference could be effectively mitigated as well as capacity and spectral efficiency were improved about 1.5 times compared to those of OFDMA. Because no cyclic prefix (CP) is required in FBMC, the improvement factor could be increased if there is a large RF path difference between lighting cells. Moreover, it could be a stronger solution when many neighboring cells exist causing large interference. The proposed multicarrier-based cell partitioning combined with FBMC will effectively support visible light communication (VLC)-based localization-based services (LBS) and indoor positioning system by transparently providing trilateration-based positioning method.

  2. Small RNA Control of Cell-to-Cell Communication in Vibrio Harveyi and Vibrio Cholerae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svenningsen, Sine Lo

    Quorum sensing is a process of cell-to-cell communication, by which bacteria coordinate gene expression and behavior on a population-wide scale. Quorum sensing is accomplished through production, secretion, and subsequent detection of chemical signaling molecules termed autoinducers. The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae and the marine bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio harveyi incorporate information from multiple autoinducers, and also environmental signals and metabolic cues into their quorum-sensing pathways. At the core of these pathways lie several homologous small regulatory RNA molecules, the Quorum Regulatory RNAs. Small noncoding RNAs have emerged throughout the bacterial and eukaryotic kingdoms as key regulators of behavioral and developmental processes. Here, I review our present understanding of the role of the Qrr small RNAs in integrating quorum-sensing signals and in regulating the individual cells response to this information.

  3. Communication is key: Reducing DEK1 activity reveals a link between cell-cell contacts and epidermal cell differentiation status.

    PubMed

    Galletti, Roberta; Ingram, Gwyneth C

    2015-01-01

    Plant epidermis development requires not only the initial acquisition of tissue identity, but also the ability to differentiate specific cell types over time and to maintain these differentiated states throughout the plant life. To set-up and maintain differentiation, plants activate specific transcriptional programs. Interfering with these programs can prevent differentiation and/or force differentiated cells to lose their identity and re-enter a proliferative state. We have recently shown that the Arabidopsis Defective Kernel 1 (DEK1) protein is required both for the differentiation of epidermal cells and for the maintenance of their fully differentiated state. Defects in DEK1 activity lead to a deregulation of the expression of epidermis-specific differentiation-promoting HD-ZIP IV transcription factors. Here we propose a working model in which DEK1, by maintaining cell-cell contacts, and thus communication between neighboring cells, influences HD-ZIP IV gene expression and epidermis differentiation. PMID:27064205

  4. Exploring the human mesenchymal stem cell tubule communication network through electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Valente, Sabrina; Rossi, Roberta; Resta, Leonardo; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea

    2015-04-01

    Cells use several mechanisms to transfer information to other cells. In this study, we describe micro/nanotubular connections and exosome-like tubule fragments in multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human arteries. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy allowed characterization of sinusoidal microtubular projections (700 nm average size, 200 µm average length, with bulging mitochondria and actin microfilaments); short, uniform, variously shaped nanotubular projections (100 nm, bidirectional communication); and tubule fragments (50 nm). This is the first study demonstrating that MSCs from human arteries constitutively interact through an articulate and dynamic tubule network allowing long-range cell to cell communication.

  5. Chloral hydrate decreases gap junction communications in rat liver epithelial cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gap junction communication (GJC) is involved in controlling cell proliferation and differentiation. Alterations in GJC are associated with carcinogenesis, but the mechanisms involvedareunknown.Chloralhydrate(CH), a by-productofchlorinedisinfection ofwater,is carcinogenic in mice,...

  6. Between the sheets: inter-cell-layer communication in plant development.

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Gwyneth C

    2004-01-01

    The cells of plant meristems and embryos are arranged in an organized, and sometimes extremely beautiful, layered pattern. This pattern is maintained by the controlled orientation of cell divisions within layers. However, despite this layered structure, cell behaviour during plant development is not lineage dependent, and does not occur in a mosaic fashion. Many studies, both classical and recent, have shown that plant cell identity can be re-specified according to position, allowing plants to show remarkable developmental plasticity. However, the layered structure of meristems and the implications of this during plant development, remain subjects of some speculation. Of particular interest is the question of how cell layers communicate, and how communication between cell layers could allow coordinated developmental processes to take place. Recent research has uncovered several examples both of the molecular mechanisms by which cell layers can communicate, and of how this communication can infringe on developmental processes. A range of examples is used to illustrate the diversity of mechanisms potentially implicated in cell-layer communication during plant development. PMID:15306405

  7. Simulated microgravity allows to demonstrate cell-to-cell communication in bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastroleo, Felice; van Houdt, Rob; Mergeay, Max; Hendrickx, Larissa; Wattiez, Ruddy; Leys, Natalie

    Through the MELiSSA project, the European Space Agency aims to develop a closed life support system for oxygen, water and food production to support human life in space in forth-coming long term space exploration missions. This production is based on the recycling of the missions organic waste, including CO2 and minerals. The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospir-illum rubrum S1H is used in MELiSSA to degrade organics with light energy and is the first MELiSSA organism that has been studied in space related environmental conditions (Mastroleo et al., 2009). It was tested in actual space flight to the International Space Station (ISS) as well as in ground simulations of ISS-like ionizing radiation and microgravity. In the present study, R. rubrum S1H was cultured in liquid medium in 2 devices simulating microgravity conditions, i.e. the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) and the Random Positioning Machine (RPM). The re-sponse of the bacterium was evaluated at both the transcriptomic and proteomic levels using respectively a dedicated whole-genome microarray and high-throughput gel-free quantitative proteomics. Both at transcriptomic and proteomic level, the bacterium showed a significant response to cultivation in simulated microgravity. The response to low fluid shear modeled microgravity in RWV was different than to randomized microgravity in RPM. Nevertheless, both tests pointed out a change in and a likely interrelation between cell-to-cell communica-tion (i.e. quorum sensing) and cell pigmentation (i.e. photosynthesis) for R. rubrum S1H in microgravity conditions. A new type of cell-to-cell communication molecule in R. rubrum S1H was discovered and characterized. It is hypothised that the lack of convection currents and the fluid quiescence in (simulated) microgravity limits communications molecules to be spread throughout the medium. Cultivation in this new artificial environment of simulated micro-gravity has showed new properties of this well know bacterium

  8. The Evolution of Aggregative Multicellularity and Cell-Cell Communication in the Dictyostelia.

    PubMed

    Du, Qingyou; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Schilde, Christina; Chen, Zhi-Hui; Schaap, Pauline

    2015-11-20

    Aggregative multicellularity, resulting in formation of a spore-bearing fruiting body, evolved at least six times independently amongst both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Amongst eukaryotes, this form of multicellularity is mainly studied in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. In this review, we summarise trends in the evolution of cell-type specialisation and behavioural complexity in the four major groups of Dictyostelia. We describe the cell-cell communication systems that control the developmental programme of D. discoideum, highlighting the central role of cAMP in the regulation of cell movement and cell differentiation. Comparative genomic studies showed that the proteins involved in cAMP signalling are deeply conserved across Dictyostelia and their unicellular amoebozoan ancestors. Comparative functional analysis revealed that cAMP signalling in D. discoideum originated from a second messenger role in amoebozoan encystation. We highlight some molecular changes in cAMP signalling genes that were responsible for the novel roles of cAMP in multicellular development. PMID:26284972

  9. Synergistic Communication between CD4+ T Cells and Monocytes Impacts the Cytokine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Schrier, Sarah B.; Hill, Abby S.; Plana, Deborah; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    Physiological cytokine environments arise from factors produced by diverse cell types in coordinated concert. Understanding the contributions of each cell type in the context of cell-cell communication is important for effectively designing disease modifying interventions. Here, we present multi-plexed measurement of 48 cytokines from a coculture system of primary human CD4+ T cells and monocytes across a spectrum of stimuli and for a range of relative T cell/monocyte compositions, coupled with corresponding measurements from PBMCs and plasma from the same donors. Computational analysis of the resulting data-sets elucidated communication-independent and communication-dependent contributions, including both positive and negative synergies. We find that cytokines in cell supernatants were uncorrelated to those found in plasma. Additionally, as an example of positive synergy, production levels of CXCR3 cytokines IP-10 and MIG, depend non-linearly on both IFNγ and TNFα levels in cross-talk between T cells and monocytes. Overall, this work demonstrates that communication between cell types can significantly impact the consequent cytokine environment, emphasizing the value of mixed cell population studies. PMID:27721433

  10. Neuronal somatic ATP release triggers neuron-satellite glial cell communication in dorsal root ganglia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Chen, Y; Wang, C; Huang, L-Y M

    2007-06-01

    It has been generally assumed that the cell body (soma) of a neuron, which contains the nucleus, is mainly responsible for synthesis of macromolecules and has a limited role in cell-to-cell communication. Using sniffer patch recordings, we show here that electrical stimulation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons elicits robust vesicular ATP release from their somata. The rate of release events increases with the frequency of nerve stimulation; external Ca(2+) entry is required for the release. FM1-43 photoconversion analysis further reveals that small clear vesicles participate in exocytosis. In addition, the released ATP activates P2X7 receptors in satellite cells that enwrap each DRG neuron and triggers the communication between neuronal somata and glial cells. Blocking L-type Ca(2+) channels completely eliminates the neuron-glia communication. We further show that activation of P2X7 receptors can lead to the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) from satellite cells. TNFalpha in turn potentiates the P2X3 receptor-mediated responses and increases the excitability of DRG neurons. This study provides strong evidence that somata of DRG neurons actively release transmitters and play a crucial role in bidirectional communication between neurons and surrounding satellite glial cells. These results also suggest that, contrary to the conventional view, neuronal somata have a significant role in cell-cell signaling.

  11. Engineering a biospecific communication pathway between cells and electrodes.

    PubMed

    Collier, Joel H; Mrksich, Milan

    2006-02-14

    Methods for transducing the cellular activities of mammalian cells into measurable electronic signals are important in many biotechnical applications, including biosensors, cell arrays, and other cell-based devices. This manuscript describes an approach for functionally integrating cellular activities and electrical processes in an underlying substrate. The cells are engineered with a cell-surface chimeric receptor that presents the nonmammalian enzyme cutinase. Action of this cell-surface cutinase on enzyme substrate self-assembled monolayers switches a nonelectroactive hydroxyphenyl ester to an electroactive hydroquinone, providing an electrical activity that can be identified with cyclic voltammetry. In this way, cell-surface enzymatic activity is transduced into electronic signals. The development of strategies to directly interface the activities of cells with materials will be important to enabling a broad class of hybrid microsystems that combine living and nonliving components. PMID:16461913

  12. Engineering a biospecific communication pathway between cells and electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Joel H.; Mrksich, Milan

    2006-02-01

    Methods for transducing the cellular activities of mammalian cells into measurable electronic signals are important in many biotechnical applications, including biosensors, cell arrays, and other cell-based devices. This manuscript describes an approach for functionally integrating cellular activities and electrical processes in an underlying substrate. The cells are engineered with a cell-surface chimeric receptor that presents the nonmammalian enzyme cutinase. Action of this cell-surface cutinase on enzyme substrate self-assembled monolayers switches a nonelectroactive hydroxyphenyl ester to an electroactive hydroquinone, providing an electrical activity that can be identified with cyclic voltammetry. In this way, cell-surface enzymatic activity is transduced into electronic signals. The development of strategies to directly interface the activities of cells with materials will be important to enabling a broad class of hybrid microsystems that combine living and nonliving components. biomaterial | extracellular matrix | signal transduction

  13. Cell-to-cell communication in intact taste buds through ATP signalling from pannexin 1 gap junction hemichannels.

    PubMed

    Dando, Robin; Roper, Stephen D

    2009-12-15

    Isolated taste cells, taste buds and strips of lingual tissue from taste papillae secrete ATP upon taste stimulation. Taste bud receptor (Type II) cells have been identified as the source of ATP secretion. Based on studies on isolated taste buds and single taste cells, we have postulated that ATP secreted from receptor cells via pannexin 1 hemichannels acts within the taste bud to excite neighbouring presynaptic (Type III) cells. This hypothesis, however, remains to be tested in intact tissues. In this report we used confocal Ca(2+) imaging and lingual slices containing intact taste buds to test the hypothesis of purinergic signalling between taste cells in a more integral preparation. Incubating lingual slices with apyrase reversibly blocked cell-to-cell communication between receptor cells and presynaptic cells, consistent with ATP being the transmitter. Inhibiting pannexin 1 gap junction hemichannels with CO(2)-saturated buffer or probenecid significantly reduced cell-cell signalling between receptor cells and presynaptic cells. In contrast, anandamide, a blocker of connexin gap junction channels, had no effect of cell-to-cell communication in taste buds. These findings are consistent with the model for peripheral signal processing via ATP and pannexin 1 hemichannels in mammalian taste buds.

  14. Inferring alterations in cell-to-cell communication in HER2+ breast cancer using secretome profiling of three cell models

    PubMed Central

    Klinke, David J.; Kulkarni, Yogesh M.; Wu, Yueting; Byrne-Hoffman, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Challenges in demonstrating durable clinical responses to molecular-targeted therapies has sparked a re-emergence in viewing cancer as an evolutionary process. In somatic evolution, cellular variants are introduced through a random process of somatic mutation and are selected for improved fitness through a competition for survival. In contrast to Darwinian evolution, cellular variants that are retained may directly alter the fitness competition. If cell-to-cell communication is important for selection, the biochemical cues secreted by malignant cells that emerge should be altered to bias this fitness competition. To test this hypothesis, we compared the proteins secreted in vitro by two human HER2+ breast cancer cell lines (BT474 and SKBR3) relative to a normal human mammary epithelial cell line (184A1) using a proteomics workflow that leveraged two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Supported by the 2DE secretome maps and identified proteins, the two breast cancer cell lines exhibited secretome profiles that were similar to each other and, yet, were distinct from the 184A1 secretome. Using protein-protein interaction and pathway inference tools for functional annotation, the results suggest that all three cell lines secrete exosomes, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Interestingly, the HER2+ breast cancer cell line exosomes are enriched in proteins involved in antigen processing and presentation and glycolytic metabolism. These pathways are associated with two of the emerging hallmarks of cancer: evasion of tumor immunosurveillance and deregulating cellular energetics. PMID:24752654

  15. Nerve communication model by bio-cells and optical dipole coupling effects.

    PubMed

    Zainol, Farrah Dilla; Thammawongsa, Nopparat; Mitatha, Somsak; Ali, Jalil; Yupapin, Preecha

    2013-12-01

    A novel design of nerve communications and networks using the coupling effects between bio-cells and optical dipoles is proposed. The electrical signals are coupled to the dipoles and cells which propagate within the optical networks for long distance without any electromagnetic interference. Results have shown that the use of optical spins in the spin networks, referred as Spinnet, can be formed. This technique can be used to improve the nerve communication performance. It is fabricated as a nano-biotic circuit system, and has great potential for future disability applications and diagnosis of the links of nerves across the dead cells.

  16. Cell-to-cell communication in intact taste buds through ATP signalling from pannexin 1 gap junction hemichannels

    PubMed Central

    Dando, Robin; Roper, Stephen D

    2009-01-01

    Isolated taste cells, taste buds and strips of lingual tissue from taste papillae secrete ATP upon taste stimulation. Taste bud receptor (Type II) cells have been identified as the source of ATP secretion. Based on studies on isolated taste buds and single taste cells, we have postulated that ATP secreted from receptor cells via pannexin 1 hemichannels acts within the taste bud to excite neighbouring presynaptic (Type III) cells. This hypothesis, however, remains to be tested in intact tissues. In this report we used confocal Ca2+ imaging and lingual slices containing intact taste buds to test the hypothesis of purinergic signalling between taste cells in a more integral preparation. Incubating lingual slices with apyrase reversibly blocked cell-to-cell communication between receptor cells and presynaptic cells, consistent with ATP being the transmitter. Inhibiting pannexin 1 gap junction hemichannels with CO2-saturated buffer or probenecid significantly reduced cell–cell signalling between receptor cells and presynaptic cells. In contrast, anandamide, a blocker of connexin gap junction channels, had no effect of cell-to-cell communication in taste buds. These findings are consistent with the model for peripheral signal processing via ATP and pannexin 1 hemichannels in mammalian taste buds. PMID:19884319

  17. Nano-guided cell networks as conveyors of molecular communication

    PubMed Central

    Terrell, Jessica L.; Wu, Hsuan-Chen; Tsao, Chen-Yu; Barber, Nathan B.; Servinsky, Matthew D.; Payne, Gregory F.; Bentley, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in nanotechnology have provided unprecedented physical means to sample molecular space. Living cells provide additional capability in that they identify molecules within complex environments and actuate function. We have merged cells with nanotechnology for an integrated molecular processing network. Here we show that an engineered cell consortium autonomously generates feedback to chemical cues. Moreover, abiotic components are readily assembled onto cells, enabling amplified and ‘binned' responses. Specifically, engineered cell populations are triggered by a quorum sensing (QS) signal molecule, autoinducer-2, to express surface-displayed fusions consisting of a fluorescent marker and an affinity peptide. The latter provides means for attaching magnetic nanoparticles to fluorescently activated subpopulations for coalescence into colour-indexed output. The resultant nano-guided cell network assesses QS activity and conveys molecular information as a ‘bio-litmus' in a manner read by simple optical means. PMID:26455828

  18. Nano-guided cell networks as conveyors of molecular communication.

    PubMed

    Terrell, Jessica L; Wu, Hsuan-Chen; Tsao, Chen-Yu; Barber, Nathan B; Servinsky, Matthew D; Payne, Gregory F; Bentley, William E

    2015-01-01

    Advances in nanotechnology have provided unprecedented physical means to sample molecular space. Living cells provide additional capability in that they identify molecules within complex environments and actuate function. We have merged cells with nanotechnology for an integrated molecular processing network. Here we show that an engineered cell consortium autonomously generates feedback to chemical cues. Moreover, abiotic components are readily assembled onto cells, enabling amplified and 'binned' responses. Specifically, engineered cell populations are triggered by a quorum sensing (QS) signal molecule, autoinducer-2, to express surface-displayed fusions consisting of a fluorescent marker and an affinity peptide. The latter provides means for attaching magnetic nanoparticles to fluorescently activated subpopulations for coalescence into colour-indexed output. The resultant nano-guided cell network assesses QS activity and conveys molecular information as a 'bio-litmus' in a manner read by simple optical means.

  19. Communication between neuronal somata and satellite glial cells in sensory ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li-Yen M.; Gu, Yanping; Chen, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the structural organization and functions of the cell body of a neuron (soma) and its surrounding satellite glial cells (SGCs) in sensory ganglia have led to the realization that SGCs actively participate in the information processing of sensory signals from afferent terminals to the spinal cord. SGCs use a variety ways to communicate with each other and with their enwrapped soma. Changes in this communication under injurious conditions often lead to abnormal pain conditions. “What are the mechanisms underlying the neuronal soma and SGC communication in sensory ganglia” and “how do tissue or nerve injuries affect the communication?” are the main questions addressed in this review. PMID:23918214

  20. The Molecular Basis of Communication within the Cell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berridge, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Only a few substances serve as signals within cells; this indicates that internal signal pathways are remarkably universal. The variety of physiological and biochemical processes regulated by known messengers is discussed along with chemical structures, pathways, inositol-lipid cycles, and cell growth regulation. (DH)

  1. Intercellular communication in Arabidopsis thaliana pollen discovered via AHG3 transcript movement from the vegetative cell to sperm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Arabidopsis pollen grain (male gametophyte) consists of three cells: the vegetative cell, which forms the pollen tube, and two sperm cells enclosed within the vegetative cell. It is still unclear if there is intercellular communication between the vegetative cell and the sperm cells. Here we show...

  2. An Unequal Burden: Poor Patient-Provider Communication and Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Haywood, Carlton; Bediako, Shawn; Lanzkron, Sophie; Diener-West, Marie; Strouse, John; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer; Onojobi, Gladys; Beach, Mary Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess disparities in the quality of healthcare provider communication experienced by African-American adults with and without sickle cell disease (SCD) in the U.S. Methods Poor provider communication was assessed by the Provider Communication subscale of the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Plans and Systems survey. The SCD sample was obtained from participants in a multicenter observational study of healthcare experiences. The national African-American sample data was obtained from published national estimates. Results The SCD sample was more likely than the national sample to report poor communication in 3 out of 4 communication domains: Listening (22.3% vs. 11.5%, p < 0.0001); Showing Respect (26.1% vs. 9.5%, p < 0.0001); and Spending Enough Time (38.3% vs. 16.2%, p < 0.0001). Differences were consistent in young, but not old, patients and showed some variation by self-reported health status and education. Conclusions The communication difficulties experienced by persons with SCD do not appear reducible to their predominantly African-American race, but may result from more disease-specific factors. Practice Implications Healthcare providers should take particular care in recognizing and demonstrating recommended communication skills with SCD patients as these patients may be particularly vulnerable to, and cognizant of, poor quality interactions. PMID:24935607

  3. Effect of dapagliflozin on colon cancer cell [Rapid Communication].

    PubMed

    Saito, Tsugumichi; Okada, Shuichi; Yamada, Eijiro; Shimoda, Yoko; Osaki, Aya; Tagaya, Yuko; Shibusawa, Ryo; Okada, Junichi; Yamada, Masanobu

    2015-01-01

    Dapagliflozin is a SGLT2 (Sodium/Glucose cotransporter 2) inhibitor that reduces circulating glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients by blocking the SGLT2-dependent reabsorption of glucose in the kidney. Dapagliflozin is metabolized by UGT1A9 (UDP Glucuronosyltransferase 1 family, Polypeptidase A9), suppressing its SGLT2 inhibitor activity. However little information is available on whether dapagliflozin acts in the absence of dapagliflozin metabolism. Treatment with 0.5μM dapagliflozin significantly reduced the number of HCT116 cells, which express SGLT2 but not UGT1A9. This was independent of SGLT2 inhibition, as the SGLT2 inhibitor phlorizin had no effect. Dapagliflozin also enhanced Erk phosphorylation but without changing levels of uncleaved and cleaved PPAR and uncleaved caspase-3, suggesting that the cause of the decrease in HCT116 cell number was apoptosis independent cell death. Taken together, these data indicate a new potential role for dapagliflozin as an anticancer reagent in tumor cell populations that do not express UGT1A9. PMID:26522271

  4. Modeling Intercellular Communication as a Survival Strategy of Cancer Cells: An In Silico Approach on a Flexible Bioinformatics Framework.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-García, Maura; González-Pérez, Pedro P; Montagna, Sara; Cortés, Oscar Sánchez; Caballero, Elena Hernández

    2016-01-01

    Intercellular communication is very important for cell development and allows a group of cells to survive as a population. Cancer cells have a similar behavior, presenting the same mechanisms and characteristics of tissue formation. In this article, we model and simulate the formation of different communication channels that allow an interaction between two cells. This is a first step in order to simulate in the future processes that occur in healthy tissue when normal cells surround a cancer cell and to interrupt the communication, thus preventing the spread of malignancy into these cells. The purpose of this study is to propose key molecules, which can be targeted to allow us to break the communication between cancer cells and surrounding normal cells. The simulation is carried out using a flexible bioinformatics platform that we developed, which is itself based on the metaphor chemistry-based model. PMID:26997867

  5. Modeling Intercellular Communication as a Survival Strategy of Cancer Cells: An In Silico Approach on a Flexible Bioinformatics Framework

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas-García, Maura; González-Pérez, Pedro P.; Montagna, Sara; Cortés, Oscar Sánchez; Caballero, Elena Hernández

    2016-01-01

    Intercellular communication is very important for cell development and allows a group of cells to survive as a population. Cancer cells have a similar behavior, presenting the same mechanisms and characteristics of tissue formation. In this article, we model and simulate the formation of different communication channels that allow an interaction between two cells. This is a first step in order to simulate in the future processes that occur in healthy tissue when normal cells surround a cancer cell and to interrupt the communication, thus preventing the spread of malignancy into these cells. The purpose of this study is to propose key molecules, which can be targeted to allow us to break the communication between cancer cells and surrounding normal cells. The simulation is carried out using a flexible bioinformatics platform that we developed, which is itself based on the metaphor chemistry-based model. PMID:26997867

  6. Physical nanoscale conduit-mediated communication between tumour cells and the endothelium modulates endothelial phenotype.

    PubMed

    Connor, Yamicia; Tekleab, Sarah; Nandakumar, Shyama; Walls, Cherelle; Tekleab, Yonatan; Husain, Amjad; Gadish, Or; Sabbisetti, Venkata; Kaushik, Shelly; Sehrawat, Seema; Kulkarni, Ashish; Dvorak, Harold; Zetter, Bruce; R Edelman, Elazer; Sengupta, Shiladitya

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is a major cause of mortality and remains a hurdle in the search for a cure for cancer. Not much is known about metastatic cancer cells and endothelial cross-talk, which occurs at multiple stages during metastasis. Here we report a dynamic regulation of the endothelium by cancer cells through the formation of nanoscale intercellular membrane bridges, which act as physical conduits for transfer of microRNAs. The communication between the tumour cell and the endothelium upregulates markers associated with pathological endothelium, which is reversed by pharmacological inhibition of these nanoscale conduits. These results lead us to define the notion of 'metastatic hijack': cancer cell-induced transformation of healthy endothelium into pathological endothelium via horizontal communication through the nanoscale conduits. Pharmacological perturbation of these nanoscale membrane bridges decreases metastatic foci in vivo. Targeting these nanoscale membrane bridges may potentially emerge as a new therapeutic opportunity in the management of metastatic cancer. PMID:26669454

  7. Physical nanoscale conduit-mediated communication between tumour cells and the endothelium modulates endothelial phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Yamicia; Tekleab, Sarah; Nandakumar, Shyama; Walls, Cherelle; Tekleab, Yonatan; Husain, Amjad; Gadish, Or; Sabbisetti, Venkata; Kaushik, Shelly; Sehrawat, Seema; Kulkarni, Ashish; Dvorak, Harold; Zetter, Bruce; R. Edelman, Elazer; Sengupta, Shiladitya

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is a major cause of mortality and remains a hurdle in the search for a cure for cancer. Not much is known about metastatic cancer cells and endothelial cross-talk, which occurs at multiple stages during metastasis. Here we report a dynamic regulation of the endothelium by cancer cells through the formation of nanoscale intercellular membrane bridges, which act as physical conduits for transfer of microRNAs. The communication between the tumour cell and the endothelium upregulates markers associated with pathological endothelium, which is reversed by pharmacological inhibition of these nanoscale conduits. These results lead us to define the notion of ‘metastatic hijack': cancer cell-induced transformation of healthy endothelium into pathological endothelium via horizontal communication through the nanoscale conduits. Pharmacological perturbation of these nanoscale membrane bridges decreases metastatic foci in vivo. Targeting these nanoscale membrane bridges may potentially emerge as a new therapeutic opportunity in the management of metastatic cancer. PMID:26669454

  8. Microvesicles provide a mechanism for intercellular communication by embryonic stem cells during embryo implantation.

    PubMed

    Desrochers, Laura M; Bordeleau, François; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A; Cerione, Richard A; Antonyak, Marc A

    2016-01-01

    Communication between the inner cell mass (ICM) and the trophoblast layer of the blastocyst is known to occur, but its functional consequences on early developmental events is unclear. Here we demonstrate that embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from the ICM generate and shed microvesicles (MVs), a major class of extracellular vesicles (EVs), which influence trophoblast behaviour during the implantation process. The MV cargo proteins laminin and fibronectin interact with integrins along the surfaces of the trophoblasts, triggering the activation of two signalling kinases, JNK and FAK, and stimulating trophoblast migration. We further show that injecting MVs isolated from ES cells into blastocysts results in an increase in their implantation efficiency. Thus, these findings highlight a unique mechanism by which ES cells communicate with trophoblasts within the blastocyst to increase their ability to migrate into the uterus, thereby promoting one of the earliest and most important steps during pregnancy. PMID:27302045

  9. INTEGRIN-MEDIATED CELL ATTACHMENT SHOWS TIME-DEPENDENT UPREGULATION OF GAP JUNCTION COMMUNICATION.

    EPA Science Inventory


    Integrin-mediated Cell Attachment Shows Time-Dependent Upregulation of Gap Junction
    Communication

    Rachel Grindstaff and Carl Blackman, National Health & Environmental Effects Research
    Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US EPA, Research Triang...

  10. INFLUENCE OF SODIUM ARSENITE ON GAP JUNCTION COMMUNICATION IN RAT LIVER EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Influence of sodium arsenite on gap junction communication in rat-Iiver epitheiial cells.

    Arsenic is known to cause certain types of cancers, hepatitis, cirrhosis and neurological disorders as well as cardiovascular and reproductive effects and skin lesions. The mechanism...

  11. Does transmembrane communication through gap junctions enable stem cells to overcome stromal inhibition?

    PubMed

    Rosendaal, M; Mayen, A; de Koning, A; Dunina-Barkovskaya, T; Krenács, T; Ploemacher, R

    1997-08-01

    When long-term bone marrow cultures are treated with Amphotericin B (AB) their haemopoietic stem cells (HSC) cease growing. This is not a toxic effect of the drug because once that is removed, HSC resume clonal growth and, given sufficient time, form as many cells as HSC in untreated cultures. Amphotericin B-evoked inhibition of blood formation is probably mediated by transmembrane communication between HSC and stroma for the following reasons: (1) AB does not stop HSC forming colony-forming units in culture (CFU-c) when HSC are separated from stroma by culturing them on Transwell inserts above the stroma. (2) Conditioned media (CM) from AB-containing or normal long-term cultures (LTC) does not inhibit normal marrow cells forming colonies in semi-solid cultures without stromal underlays. (3) AB itself does not stop bone marrow cells forming colonies in semi-solid cultures nor does it stop stromal cells growing or prejudice their long-term maintenance. (4) Furthermore, growing stromal cells with AB does not alter the number of transcripts they form for cytokines and chemokines to any large extent, including TGF-beta1. We have extensive, though circumstantial, evidence that gap junctions are involved in this communication. AB only stopped the growth of HSC when we blocked intercellular communication via gap junctions (GJIC) (tested by micro-injection of lucifer yellow). Lipophilic compounds that do not affect GJIC had no effect on the growth of HSC. Looking at a series of stromal cell lines from foetal liver and neonatal bone marrow we found that extensive GJIC correlated with stromal support of the late-appearing clones formed by primitive HSC (week 3-5 cobblestone-area forming cells, CAFC). We propose that the proliferation of HSC is regulated via transmembrane communication between stromal and HSC. Our findings support the proposal that gap junctions play a part in this stromal-dependent regulation. PMID:9264382

  12. Contact-mediated and humoral communication between vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, P.F.

    1986-03-01

    Vascular endothelial cells (EC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC) co-exist in close apposition to each other in all blood vessels except capillaries. Investigations of the metabolic interactions that may occur between these cells are essential to an understanding of vascular homeostasis and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The authors have developed two in vitro models of co-temporal vascular cell communication. The first facilitates reversible microcarrier-mediated gap junctional communication between EC and SMC monolayers. When either EC or SMC were prelabelled with /sup 3/H-uridine, intracellular nucleotide rapidly transferred across the region of heterocellular attachment to the complementary cell population. Cytoplasmic continuity between EC and SMC allowed metabolic cooperation via ions and small molecules (<1.5 KD). Thus, vascular reactivity, particularly in the microcirculation where myoendothelial gap junctions have been observed, may involve cytoplasmic second messengers transported from EC to SMC. In the second model, humoral communication was established between separated cultures of EC and SMC which shared the same culture medium. Endothelial-specific stimulation of SMC growth and lipoprotein metabolism via soluble factors was demonstrated. Two mechanisms of stimulation of SMC lipoprotein metabolism were identified; one endothelial derived mitogen-dependent, the other mitogen-independent which was mediated via low molecular weight endothelial cell products.

  13. Gap junctions and other mechanisms of cell-cell communication regulate basal insulin secretion in the pancreatic islet.

    PubMed

    Benninger, R K P; Head, W Steven; Zhang, Min; Satin, Leslie S; Piston, David W

    2011-11-15

    Cell-cell communication in the islet of Langerhans is important for the regulation of insulin secretion. Gap-junctions coordinate oscillations in intracellular free-calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) and insulin secretion in the islet following elevated glucose. Gap-junctions can also ensure that oscillatory [Ca(2+)](i) ceases when glucose is at a basal levels. We determine the roles of gap-junctions and other cell-cell communication pathways in the suppression of insulin secretion under basal conditions. Metabolic, electrical and insulin secretion levels were measured from islets lacking gap-junction coupling following deletion of connexion36 (Cx36(-/-)), and these results were compared to those obtained using fully isolated β-cells. K(ATP) loss-of-function islets provide a further experimental model to specifically study gap-junction mediated suppression of electrical activity. In isolated β-cells or Cx36(-/-) islets, elevations in [Ca(2+)](i) persisted in a subset of cells even at basal glucose. Isolated β-cells showed elevated insulin secretion at basal glucose; however, insulin secretion from Cx36(-/-) islets was minimally altered. [Ca(2+)](i) was further elevated under basal conditions, but insulin release still suppressed in K(ATP) loss-of-function islets. Forced elevation of cAMP led to PKA-mediated increases in insulin secretion from islets lacking gap-junctions, but not from islets expressing Cx36 gap junctions. We conclude there is a redundancy in how cell-cell communication in the islet suppresses insulin release. Gap junctions suppress cellular heterogeneity and spontaneous [Ca(2+)](i) signals, while other juxtacrine mechanisms, regulated by PKA and glucose, suppress more distal steps in exocytosis. Each mechanism is sufficiently robust to compensate for a loss of the other and still suppress basal insulin secretion.

  14. Design and Implementation of A CMOS Light Pulse Receiver Cell Array for Spatial Optical Communications

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Md. Shakowat Zaman; Itoh, Shinya; Hamai, Moeta; Takai, Isamu; Andoh, Michinori; Yasutomi, Keita; Kawahito, Shoji

    2011-01-01

    A CMOS light pulse receiver (LPR) cell for spatial optical communications is designed and evaluated by device simulations and a prototype chip implementation. The LPR cell consists of a pinned photodiode and four transistors. It works under sub-threshold region of a MOS transistor and the source terminal voltage which responds to the logarithm of the photo current are read out with a source follower circuit. For finding the position of the light spot on the focal plane, an image pixel array is embedded on the same plane of the LPR cell array. A prototype chip with 640 × 240 image pixels and 640 × 240 LPR cells is implemented with 0.18 μm CMOS technology. A proposed model of the transient response of the LPR cell agrees with the result of the device simulations and measurements. Both imaging at 60 fps and optical communication at the carrier frequency of 1 MHz are successfully performed. The measured signal amplitude and the calculation results of photocurrents show that the spatial optical communication up to 100 m is feasible using a 10 × 10 LED array. PMID:22319398

  15. Design and implementation of a CMOS light pulse receiver cell array for spatial optical communications.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Md Shakowat Zaman; Itoh, Shinya; Hamai, Moeta; Takai, Isamu; Andoh, Michinori; Yasutomi, Keita; Kawahito, Shoji

    2011-01-01

    A CMOS light pulse receiver (LPR) cell for spatial optical communications is designed and evaluated by device simulations and a prototype chip implementation. The LPR cell consists of a pinned photodiode and four transistors. It works under sub-threshold region of a MOS transistor and the source terminal voltage which responds to the logarithm of the photo current are read out with a source follower circuit. For finding the position of the light spot on the focal plane, an image pixel array is embedded on the same plane of the LPR cell array. A prototype chip with 640 × 240 image pixels and 640 × 240 LPR cells is implemented with 0.18 μm CMOS technology. A proposed model of the transient response of the LPR cell agrees with the result of the device simulations and measurements. Both imaging at 60 fps and optical communication at the carrier frequency of 1 MHz are successfully performed. The measured signal amplitude and the calculation results of photocurrents show that the spatial optical communication up to 100 m is feasible using a 10 × 10 LED array.

  16. EXPLORING PARENT-SIBLING COMMUNICATION IN FAMILIES OF CHILDREN WITH SICKLE CELL DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Graff, J. Carolyn; Hankins, Jane S.; Hardy, Belinda T.; Hall, Heather R.; Roberts, Ruth J.; Neely-Barnes, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Focus group interviews were conducted with parents of children with sickle cell disease to explore parent-sibling communication about sickle cell disease. Communication was influenced by attributes and behaviors of the parent, the child with sickle cell disease, and the sibling; extended family, neighbors, friends, and church members or social networks; and available, accessible resources related to the child’s health, child’s school, and parent employment. Outcomes that influenced and were influenced by factors within and outside the parent-sibling dyad and nuclear family included parent satisfaction, parent roles, family intactness, and status attainment. These findings support previous research with African American families and expand our views of the importance of educating parents, family members, and others about sickle cell disease. The findings suggest a need to explore sibling perception of this communication, parent and sibling perception of the impact of frequent hospitalizations and clinic visits on the sibling and family, and variations within families of children with sickle cell disease. PMID:20384476

  17. Cell walls as a stage for intercellular communication regulating shoot meristem development.

    PubMed

    Tameshige, Toshiaki; Hirakawa, Yuki; Torii, Keiko U; Uchida, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Aboveground organs of plants are ultimately derived/generated from the shoot apical meristem (SAM), which is a proliferative tissue located at the apex of the stem. The SAM contains a population of stem cells that provide new cells for organ/tissue formation. The SAM is composed of distinct cell layers and zones with different properties. Primordia of lateral organs develop at the periphery of the SAM. The shoot apex is a dynamic and complex tissue, and as such intercellular communications among cells, layers and zones play significant roles in the coordination of cell proliferation, growth and differentiation to achieve elaborate morphogenesis. Recent findings have highlighted the importance of a number of signaling molecules acting in the cell wall space for the intercellular communication, including classic phytohormones and secretory peptides. Moreover, accumulating evidence has revealed that cell wall properties and their modifying enzymes modulate hormone actions. In this review, we outline how behaviors of signaling molecules and changes of cell wall properties are integrated for the shoot meristem regulation. PMID:26029226

  18. Chlorpromazine reduces the intercellular communication via gap junctions in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Orellana, Juan A.; Palacios-Prado, Nicolas; Saez, Juan C. . E-mail: jsaez@bio.puc.cl

    2006-06-15

    In the work presented herein, we evaluated the effect of chlorpromazine (CPZ) on gap junctions expressed by two mammalian cell types; Gn-11 cells (cell line derived from mouse LHRH neurons) and rat cortical astrocytes maintained in culture. We also attempted to elucidate possible mechanisms of action of CPZ effects on gap junctions. CPZ, in concentrations comparable with doses used to treat human diseases, was found to reduce the intercellular communication via gap junctions as evaluated with measurements of dye coupling (Lucifer yellow). In both cell types, maximal inhibition of functional gap junctions was reached within about 1 h of treatment with CPZ, an recovery was almost complete at about 5 h after CPZ wash out. In both cell types, CPZ treatment increased the phosphorylation state of connexin43 (Cx43), a gap junction protein subunit. Moreover, CPZ reduced the reactivity of Cx43 (immunofluorescence) at cell interfaces and concomitantly increased its reactivity in intracellular vesicles, suggesting an increased retrieval from and/or reduced insertion into the plasma membrane. CPZ also caused cellular retraction reducing cell-cell contacts in a reversible manner. The reduction in contact area might destabilize existing gap junctions and abrogate formation of new ones. Moreover, the CPZ-induced reduction in gap junctional communication may depend on the connexins (Cxs) forming the junctions. If Cx43 were the only connexin expressed, MAPK-dependent phosphorylation of this connexin would induce closure of gap junction channels.

  19. Cell walls as a stage for intercellular communication regulating shoot meristem development

    PubMed Central

    Tameshige, Toshiaki; Hirakawa, Yuki; Uchida, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Aboveground organs of plants are ultimately derived/generated from the shoot apical meristem (SAM), which is a proliferative tissue located at the apex of the stem. The SAM contains a population of stem cells that provide new cells for organ/tissue formation. The SAM is composed of distinct cell layers and zones with different properties. Primordia of lateral organs develop at the periphery of the SAM. The shoot apex is a dynamic and complex tissue, and as such intercellular communications among cells, layers and zones play significant roles in the coordination of cell proliferation, growth and differentiation to achieve elaborate morphogenesis. Recent findings have highlighted the importance of a number of signaling molecules acting in the cell wall space for the intercellular communication, including classic phytohormones and secretory peptides. Moreover, accumulating evidence has revealed that cell wall properties and their modifying enzymes modulate hormone actions. In this review, we outline how behaviors of signaling molecules and changes of cell wall properties are integrated for the shoot meristem regulation. PMID:26029226

  20. The selective role of ECM components on cell adhesion, morphology, proliferation and communication in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Schlie-Wolter, Sabrina; Ngezahayo, Anaclet; Chichkov, Boris N.

    2013-06-10

    Cell binding to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for cell and tissue functions. In this context, each tissue consists of a unique ECM composition, which may be responsible for tissue-specific cell responses. Due to the complexity of ECM-cell interactions—which depend on the interplay of inside-out and outside-in signaling cascades, cell and tissue specificity of ECM-guidance is poorly understood. In this paper, we investigate the role of different ECM components like laminin, fibronectin, and collagen type I with respect to the essential cell behaviour patterns: attachment dynamics such as adhesion kinetic and force, formation of focal adhesion complexes, morphology, proliferation, and intercellular communication. A detailed in vitro comparison of fibroblasts, endothelial cells, osteoblasts, smooth muscle cells, and chondrocytes reveals significant differences in their cell responses to the ECM: cell behaviour follows a cell specific ligand priority ranking, which was independent of the cell type origin. Fibroblasts responded best to fibronectin, chondrocytes best to collagen I, the other cell types best to laminin. This knowledge is essential for optimization of tissue-biomaterial interfaces in all tissue engineering applications and gives insight into tissue-specific cell guidance. -- Highlights: • We analyse the impact of ECM components on cell behaviour in vitro. • We compare five different cell types, using the same culture conditions. • The ECM significantly guides all cell responses. • Cell behaviour follows a cell specific ligand-priority ranking. • This gives insight in tissue formation and is essential for biomedical applications.

  1. A ghost cell expansion method for reducing communications in solving PDE problems

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Chris H.Q.; He, Yun

    2001-05-01

    In solving Partial Differential Equations, such as the Barotropic equations in ocean models, on Distributed Memory Computers, finite difference methods are commonly used. Most often, processor subdomain boundaries must be updated at each time step. This boundary update process involves many messages of small sizes, therefore large communication overhead. Here we propose a new approach which expands the ghost cell layers and thus updates boundaries much less frequently ---reducing total message volume and grouping small messages into bigger ones. Together with a technique for eliminating diagonal communications, the method speedup communication substantially, up to 170%. We explain the method and implementation in details, provide systematic timing results and performance analysis on Cray T3E and IBM SP.

  2. Integrated Antenna/Solar Array Cell (IA/SAC) System for Flexible Access Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ricard Q.; Clark, Eric B.; Pal, Anna Maria T.; Wilt, David M.; Mueller, Carl H.

    2004-01-01

    Present satellite communications systems normally use separate solar cells and antennas. Since solar cells generally account for the largest surface area of the spacecraft, co-locating the antenna and solar cells on the same substrate opens the possibility for a number of data-rate-enhancing communications link architecture that would have minimal impact on spacecraft weight and size. The idea of integrating printed planar antenna and solar array cells on the same surface has been reported in the literature. The early work merely attempted to demonstrate the feasibility by placing commercial solar cells besides a patch antenna. Recently, Integrating multiple antenna elements and solar cell arrays on the same surface was reported for both space and terrestrial applications. The application of photovoltaic solar cell in a planar antenna structure where the radiating patch antenna is replaced by a Si solar cell has been demonstrated in wireless communication systems (C. Bendel, J. Kirchhof and N. Henze, 3rd Would Photovotaic Congress, Osaka, Japan, May 2003). Based on a hybrid approach, a 6x1 slot array with circularly polarized crossdipole elements co-located on the same surface of the solar cells array has been demonstrated (S. Vaccaro, J. R. Mosig and P. de Maagt, IEEE Trans. Ant. and Propag., Vol. 5 1, No. 8, Aug. 2003). Amorphous silicon solar cells with about 5-10% efficiency were used in these demonstrations. This paper describes recent effort to integrate advanced solar cells with printed planar antennas. Compared to prior art, the proposed WSAC concept is unique in the following ways: 1) Active antenna element will be used to achieve dynamic beam steering; 2) High efficiency (30%) GaAs multi-junction solar cells will be used instead of Si, which has an efficiency of about 15%; 3) Antenna and solar cells are integrated on a common GaAs substrate; and 4) Higher data rate capability. The IA/SAC is designed to operate at X-band (8-12 GH) and higher frequencies

  3. Intercellular communication through contacts between continuous pseudopodial extensions in a macrophage-like cell line.

    PubMed

    Arrevillaga-Boni, Gerardo; Hernández-Ruiz, Marcela; Castillo, Elena Cristina; Ortiz-Navarrete, Vianney

    2014-08-01

    Cell-to-cell information exchange mediated by membrane protrusions in tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) has been widely described in distinct cell lines. Here, we describe a new form of direct intercellular communication in a murine macrophage-like cell line that is mediated by pseudopodial fusions that form over scraped plastic tissue culture surfaces along scratch lines. These structures are capable of forming intercellular, tunnel-like channels (inter-pseudopodial axis connections) that can be differentiated from TNTs based on length, thickness, tandem arrangement along an axis, pseudopodial origin and permanency. These channels were able to exchange membrane lipids and contain particles 0.5 μm or lesser in diameter between cells and might represent an additional biological function of pseudopodia.

  4. Less is more: minimal expression of myoendothelial gap junctions optimizes cell-cell communication in virtual arterioles.

    PubMed

    Hald, Bjørn Olav; Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings; Sandow, Shaun L; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Welsh, Donald G

    2014-08-01

    Dysfunctional electrical signalling within the arteriolar wall is a major cause of cardiovascular disease. The endothelial cell layer constitutes the primary electrical pathway, co-ordinating contraction of the overlying smooth muscle cell (SMC) layer. As myoendothelial gap junctions (MEGJs) provide direct contact between the cell layers, proper vasomotor responses are thought to depend on a high, uniform MEGJ density. However, MEGJs are observed to be expressed heterogeneously within and among vascular beds. This discrepancy is addressed in the present study. As no direct measures of MEGJ conductance exist, we employed a computational modelling approach to vary the number, conductance and distribution of MEGJs. Our simulations demonstrate that a minimal number of randomly distributed MEGJs augment arteriolar cell-cell communication by increasing conduction efficiency and ensuring appropriate membrane potential responses in SMCs. We show that electrical coupling between SMCs must be tailored to the particular MEGJ distribution. Finally, observation of non-decaying mechanical conduction in arterioles without regeneration has been a long-standing controversy in the microvascular field. As heterogeneous MEGJ distributions provide for different conduction profiles along the cell layers, we demonstrate that a non-decaying conduction profile is possible in the SMC layer of a vessel with passive electrical properties. These intriguing findings redefine the concept of efficient electrical communication in the microcirculation, illustrating how heterogeneous properties, ubiquitous in biological systems, may have a profound impact on system behaviour and how acute local and global flow control is explained from the biophysical foundations. PMID:24907303

  5. Modulatory Effects of Connexin-43 Expression on Gap Junction Intercellular Communications with Mast Cells and Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Pistorio, Ashey L.; Ehrlich, H. Paul

    2011-01-01

    The influence of mast cells upon aberrant wound repair and excessive fibrosis has supportive evidence, but the mechanism for these mast cell activities is unclear. It is proposed that heterocellular gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) between fibroblasts and mast cells directs some fibroblast activities. An in vitro model was used employing a rodent derived peritoneal mast cell line (RMC-1) and human dermal derived fibroblasts. The influence of the expression of the gap junction channel structural protein, connexin 43 (Cx-43) on heterocellular GJIC, the expression of microtubule β-tubulin and microfilament α smooth muscle actin (SMA) were investigated. The knockdown of Cx-43 by siRNA in RMC-1 cells completely blocked GJIC between RMC-1 cells. SiRNA knockdown of Cx-43 within fibroblasts only dampened GJIC between fibroblasts. It appears Cx-43 is the only expressed connexin in RMC-1 cells. Fibroblasts express other connexins that participate in GJIC between fibroblasts in the absence of Cx-43 expression. Heterocellular GJIC between RMC-1 cells and fibroblasts transformed fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, expressing α SMA within cytoplasmic stress fibers. The knockdown of Cx-43 in RMC-1 cells increased β-tubulin expression, but its knockdown in fibroblasts reduced β-tubulin expression. Knocking down the expression of Cx-43 in fibroblasts limited α SMA expression. Cx-43 participation is critical for heterocellular GJIC between mast cells and fibroblasts, which may herald a novel direction for controlling fibrosis. PMID:21328609

  6. Dependence of structure stability and integrity of aerobic granules on ATP and cell communication.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Liu, Yu

    2013-06-01

    Aerobic granules are dense and compact microbial aggregates with various bacterial species. Recently, aerobic granulation technology has been extensively explored for treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters. However, little information is currently available with regard to their structure stability and integrity at levels of energy metabolism and cell communication. In the present study, a typical chemical uncoupler, 3,3',4',5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide with the power to dissipate proton motive force and subsequently inhibit adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation, was used to investigate possible roles of ATP and cell communication in maintaining the structure stability and integrity of aerobic granules. It was found that inhibited ATP synthesis resulted in the reduced production of autoinducer-2 and N-acylhomoserine lactones essential for cell communication, while lowered extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production was also observed. As a consequence, aerobic granules appeared to break up. This study showed that ATP-dependent quorum sensing and EPS were essential for sustaining the structure stability and integrity of aerobic granules. PMID:23011346

  7. Changes in neural stem cells in the subventricular zone in a rat model of communicating hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wu, Dongxue; Wu, Chunming; Qu, Zhenyun; Zhao, Yongshun; Li, Weihua; Wang, Jian; Li, Zhongmin

    2014-08-22

    Communicating hydrocephalus is a common type of hydrocephalus. At present, the prevalent treatment is to perform a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt, which, for reasons that are not clear, is sometimes ineffective. The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles has been established as the primary site of adult neurogenesis. Following cerebral ischemia or brain injury, neural stem cells (NSCs) increase in the SVZ and can both differentiate into neurons and glial cells and respond to the injury. Neural stem cells, enabled by a complex repertoire of factors that precisely regulate the activation, proliferation, differentiation and integration of newborn cells, continuously generate new neurons. However, only a few systematic studies of the role of NSCs in hydrocephalus have been reported. In a rat model of communicating hydrocephalus, we recently showed that hydrocephalus caused the ventricular system to expand over time. We found that the number of NSCs in the SVZ peaked rapidly after hydrocephalus was established and decreased gradually over time until the cells disappeared. NSCs may be involved in the pathophysiology changes and repair process of hydrocephalus.

  8. No crossed wires: cell phone communication in parent-adolescent relationships.

    PubMed

    Weisskirch, Robert S

    2011-01-01

    Parents' ability to parent their adolescents may be extended by using a cell phone. At the same time, using the cell phone, adolescents can seek out parental interaction. The outcomes of parent-adolescent interactions via cell phone are not well understood. In this study, 196 parent-adolescent dyads (13 percent father-son, 11 percent father-daughter, 30 percent mother-son, and 46 percent mother-daughter) completed questionnaires about their cell phone calls to one another, parenting processes, self-esteem, and self-efficacy. Parents reported greater communication and closeness when adolescents initiated calls seeking social support. Adolescents reported greater conflict when parents called for monitoring activity, for tracking schoolwork, and when upset. Calls to ask and confer by adolescents and to track school work positively related, but parental calls when upset negatively related to parental self-esteem. Adolescent self-esteem is predicted by calls seeking support and negatively associated with parents calling when upset.

  9. Intercellular communication patterns are involved in cell determination in early molluscan development.

    PubMed

    de Laat, S W; Tertoolen, L G; Dorresteijn, A W; van den Biggelaar, J A

    1980-10-01

    The formation of specialized intercellular junctions, allowing the passage of low-molecular weight regulatory molecules, has been considered as a possible mechanism for regulating embryonic development. No direct evidence for this concept has been found in early development. In the mollusc Pattella vulgata it was demonstrated that cell positioning and specific cellular interactions are key factors in the control of early development. We have now investigated the pattern of intercellular communication during early development of this embryo by intracellular iontophoresis of the fluorescent dye Lucifer Yellow CH. We demonstrate that the formation of regional- and temporal-specific cell-to-cell coupling is correlated with the determination of the mesentoblast--the stem cell of the mesoderm--and the establishment of dorso-ventral polarity. PMID:7422006

  10. Deciphering Cell-to-Cell Communication in Acquisition of Cancer Traits: Extracellular Membrane Vesicles Are Regulators of Tissue Biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Pokharel, Deep; Wijesinghe, Philip; Oenarto, Vici; Lu, Jamie F; Sampson, David D; Kennedy, Brendan F; Wallace, Vincent P; Bebawy, Mary

    2016-08-01

    Deciphering the role of cell-to-cell communication in acquisition of cancer traits such as metastasis is one of the key challenges of integrative biology and clinical oncology. In this context, extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important vectors in cell-to-cell communication and serve as conduits in the transfer of cellular constituents required for cell function and for the establishment of cellular phenotypes. In the case of malignancy, they have been shown to support the acquisition of common traits defined as constituting the hallmarks of cancer. Cellular biophysics has contributed to our understanding of some of these central traits with changes in tissue biomechanics reflective of cell state. Indeed, much is known about stiffness of the tissue scaffold in the context of cell invasion and migration. This article advances this knowledge frontier by showing for the first time that EVs are mediators of tissue biomechanical properties and, importantly, demonstrates a link between the acquisition of cancer multidrug resistance and increased tissue stiffness of the malignant mass. The methodology used in the study employed optical coherence elastography and atomic force microscopy on breast cancer cell monolayers and tumor spheroids. Specifically, we show here that the acquired changes in tissue stiffness can be attributed to the intracellular transfer of a protein complex comprising ezrin, radixin, moesin, CD44, and P-glycoprotein. This has important implications in facilitating mechano-transduced signaling cascades that regulate the acquisition of cancer traits, such as invasion and metastasis. Finally, this study also introduces novel targets and strategies for diagnostic and therapeutic innovation in oncology, with a view to prevention of metastatic spread and personalized medicine in cancer treatment. PMID:27501296

  11. Changes in junctional communication associated with cell cycle arrest and differentiation of trochoblasts in embryos of Patella vulgata.

    PubMed

    Serras, F; Dictus, W J; Van den Biggelaar, J A

    1990-01-01

    In early embryos of molluscs, different clones of successively determined trochoblasts differentiate into prototroch cells and together contribute to the formation of a ciliated ring of cells known as the prototroch. Trochoblasts differentiate after cell cycle arrest, which occurs two cell cycles after the commitment of their stem cell. To study the changes of junctional communication in embryos of Patella vulgata in relation to commitment, cell cycle arrest, and differentiation of the trochoblasts, we have monitored electrical coupling as well as transfer of fluorescent dyes. The appearance of dye coupling in embryos of Patella occurs after the fifth cleavage (at the 32-cell stage), when the cell cycles of all embryonic cells become asynchronous and longer. At the 32- and 64-cell stages all cells are well coupled. However, after the 72-cell stage dye transfer to or from any cell of the four interradial clones of four primary trochoblasts becomes abruptly reduced, whereas electrical coupling between these cells and the rest of the embryo can still be detected. From scanning electron microscopical analysis of the cell pattern we conclude that this change in gap junctional communication coincides with cell cycle arrest and with the development of cilia in all four clones of primary trochoblasts. Similarly, after the 88-cell stage the four radial clones of accessory trochoblasts stop dividing, reduce cell coupling, and become ciliated. By the formation of the prototroch, the embryo becomes subdivided into an anterior (pretrochal) and a posterior (posttrochal) domain which will develop different structures of the adult. At the 88-cell stage, the cells within each of these two domains remain well coupled and form two different communication compartments that are separated from each other by the interposed ring of uncoupled trochoblasts. The relations among control of cell cycle, changes in junctional communication, and differentiation are discussed. PMID:2295366

  12. Cell to cell communication and pH in the frog lens.

    PubMed

    Mathias, R T; Riquelme, G; Rae, J L

    1991-12-01

    Fiber cells of the lens are electrically and diffusionally interconnected through extensive gap junctions. These junctions allow fluxes of small solutes to move between inner cells and peripheral cells, where the majority of transmembrane transport takes place. We describe here a method utilizing two intracellular microelectrodes to measure the cell to cell resistance between fiber cells at any given distance into the intact lens. We also use ion-sensitive microelectrodes to record intracellular pH at various depths in the intact lens. We find that gap junctions connecting inner fiber cells differ in pH sensitivity as well as normal coupling resistance from those connecting peripheral cells. The transition occurs in a zone between 500 and 650 microns into the lens. Fiber cells peripheral to this zone have a specific coupling resistance of 1.1 omega cm2, whereas those inside have a specific coupling resistance of 2.7 omega cm2. However, when the cytoplasm of fiber cells is acidified by bubbling with CO2, peripheral cells uncouple and the cell to cell resistance goes up more than 40-fold, whereas junctions inside this zone are essentially unaffected by changes in intracellular pH. In a normal frog lens, the intracellular pH in fiber cells near the lens surface is 7.02, a value significantly alkaline to electrochemical equilibrium. Our data suggest that Na/H exchange and perhaps other Na gradient-dependent mechanisms in the peripheral cells maintain this transmembrane gradient. Deep in the lens, the fiber cell cytoplasm is significantly more acidic (pHi 6.81) due to influx of hydrogen across the inner fiber cell membranes and production of H+ by the inner fiber cells. Because of the normally acid cytoplasm of interior fiber cells, their loss of gap junctional sensitivity to pH may be essential to lens survival.

  13. Modulation of human cell responses to space radiation by gap-junction communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autsavapromporn, Narongchai; de Toledo, Sonia M.; Buonanno, Manuela; Yang, Zhi; Harris, Andrew; Jay-Gerin, Jean-Paul; Azzam, Edouard

    Understanding the biological effects of space radiation and their underlying mechanism is critical to estimating the health risk associated with human exploration of space. A coordinated interaction of multiple cellular processes is likely involved in the sensing and processing of stressful effects induced by different types of space radiation. Here, we focused on the role of gap-junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in responses of human cells exposed to 1 GeV/n protons or 56 Fe-ions. We compared the results with data obtained in human cells exposed, in parallel, to γ-rays or α-particles. As expected, a higher level of cell killing and DNA damage, per unit dose, was induced in confluent, density-inhibited cells (98% in G0 /G1 ) exposed to α-particles or energetic 56 Fe-ions than γ-rays or protons. Strikingly, greatly attenuated effects occurred when sub-confluent cultures, synchronized in G0 /G1 ,were exposed to 56 Fe-ions. These data suggest that direct intercellular communication is involved in the effects of high linear energy transfer (LET) 56 Fe-ions. To examine the role of gap-junctions in propagating stressful effect, confluent cultures were exposed to 56 Fe-ions or α-particles and incubated for various time periods at 37° C in the presence or absence of the gap-junction inhibitor α-glycyrrhetinic acid (AGA). No repair of potentially lethal radiation damage occurred in cells incubated in the absence of AGA. In contrast, inhibition of functional GJIC significantly enhanced clonogenic survival of irradiated cells. To test the role of junctional channel permeability in the observed effects, we used human adenocarcinoma (HeLa) cells in which specific connexins (Cx) can be expressed in the absence of endogenous connexins. Whereas HeLa cells with selective inducible expression of Cx26 gap-junctions promoted radiation toxic effects, expression of Cx32 junctional channels in HeLa cells promoted pro-survival effects. Experiments are in progress to

  14. Bacterial Cell–Cell Communication in the Host via RRNPP Peptide-Binding Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Pascual, David; Monnet, Véronique; Gardan, Rozenn

    2016-01-01

    Human microbiomes are composed of complex and dense bacterial consortia. In these environments, bacteria are able to react quickly to change by coordinating their gene expression at the population level via small signaling molecules. In Gram-positive bacteria, cell–cell communication is mostly mediated by peptides that are released into the extracellular environment. Cell–cell communication based on these peptides is especially widespread in the group Firmicutes, in which they regulate a wide array of biological processes, including functions related to host–microbe interactions. Among the different agents of communication, the RRNPP family of cytoplasmic transcriptional regulators, together with their cognate re-internalized signaling peptides, represents a group of emerging importance. RRNPP members that have been studied so far are found mainly in species of bacilli, streptococci, and enterococci. These bacteria are characterized as both human commensal and pathogenic, and share different niches in the human body with other microorganisms. The goal of this mini-review is to present the current state of research on the biological relevance of RRNPP mechanisms in the context of the host, highlighting their specific roles in commensalism or virulence. PMID:27242728

  15. Exosomes: emerging roles in communication between blood cells and vascular tissues during atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Heinrich J.; Holvoet, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Microvesicles, in general, and exosomes together with their delivered content in particular, are now being widely recognized as key players in atherosclerosis. We have previously reviewed the role of microvesicles in atherosclerosis pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy. Here, we focus on the roles of exosomes and discuss their emergent role in mediating activation and response to inflammation, vessel infiltration and induction of coagulation. We will finally give an outlook to discuss novel detection techniques and systems biology based data analyses to investigate exosome-mediated cell-to-cell communication. Recent findings Recent research points to a role of exosomes in delivering apoptotic and inflammatory content between blood cells and vascular cells, with a potential contribution of exosomes secreted by adipose tissue. An atheroprotective role of exosomes in response to coagulation that may contrast with the procoagulatory role of platelet-derived larger microvesicles is envisaged. New detection and separation methods and systems biology techniques are emerging. Conclusion We project that the development of novel detection, separation and analysis mechanism and systems-based analysis methods will further unravel the paracrine and endocrine ‘communication protocol’ between cellular players in atherosclerosis, mediating inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. PMID:26309202

  16. Ammonia impairs glutamatergic communication in astroglial cells: protective role of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Bobermin, Larissa Daniele; Hansel, Gisele; Scherer, Emilene B S; Wyse, Angela T S; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia is a key toxin in the precipitation of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a neuropsychiatric disorder associated with liver failure. In response to ammonia, various toxic events are triggered in astroglial cells, and alterations in brain glutamate communication are common. Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound that has been extensively studied in pathological events because it presents several beneficial effects, including some in the central nervous system (CNS). We previously described that resveratrol is able to significantly modulate glial functioning and has a protective effect during ammonia challenge in vitro. In this study, we addressed the mechanisms by which resveratrol can protect C6 astroglial cells from glutamatergic alterations induced by ammonia. Resveratrol was able to prevent all the effects triggered by ammonia: (i) decrease in glutamate uptake activity and expression of the EAAC1 glutamate transporter, the main glutamate transporter present in C6 cells; (ii) increase of glutamate release, which was also dependent on the activation of the Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter NKCC1; (iii) reduction in GS activity and intracellular GSH content; and (iv) impairment of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity. Interestingly, resveratrol, per se, also positively modulated the astroglial functions evaluated. Moreover, we demonstrated that heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), an enzyme that is part of the cellular defense system, mediated some of the effects of resveratrol. In conclusion, the mechanisms of the putative protective role of resveratrol against ammonia toxicity involve the modulation of pathways and molecules related to glutamate communication in astroglial cells.

  17. Intricate Macrophage-Colorectal Cancer Cell Communication in Response to Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Ana T.; Pinto, Marta L.; Velho, Sérgia; Pinto, Marta T.; Cardoso, Ana P.; Figueira, Rita; Monteiro, Armanda; Marques, Margarida; Seruca, Raquel; Barbosa, Mário A.; Mareel, Marc; Oliveira, Maria J.; Rocha, Sónia

    2016-01-01

    Both cancer and tumour-associated host cells are exposed to ionizing radiation when a tumour is subjected to radiotherapy. Macrophages frequently constitute the most abundant tumour-associated immune population, playing a role in tumour progression and response to therapy. The present work aimed to evaluate the importance of macrophage-cancer cell communication in the cellular response to radiation. To address this question, we established monocultures and indirect co-cultures of human monocyte-derived macrophages with RKO or SW1463 colorectal cancer cells, which exhibit higher and lower radiation sensitivity, respectively. Mono- and co-cultures were then irradiated with 5 cumulative doses, in a similar fractionated scheme to that used during cancer patients’ treatment (2 Gy/fraction/day). Our results demonstrated that macrophages sensitize RKO to radiation-induced apoptosis, while protecting SW1463 cells. Additionally, the co-culture with macrophages increased the mRNA expression of metabolism- and survival-related genes more in SW1463 than in RKO. The presence of macrophages also upregulated glucose transporter 1 expression in irradiated SW1463, but not in RKO cells. In addition, the influence of cancer cells on the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory macrophage markers, upon radiation exposure, was also evaluated. In the presence of RKO or SW1463, irradiated macrophages exhibit higher levels of pro-inflammatory TNF, IL6, CCL2 and CCR7, and of anti-inflammatory CCL18. However, RKO cells induce an increase of macrophage pro-inflammatory IL1B, while SW1463 cells promote higher pro-inflammatory CXCL8 and CD80, and also anti-inflammatory VCAN and IL10 levels. Thus, our data demonstrated that macrophages and cancer cells mutually influence their response to radiation. Notably, conditioned medium from irradiated co-cultures increased non-irradiated RKO cell migration and invasion and did not impact on angiogenesis in a chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane

  18. Intricate Macrophage-Colorectal Cancer Cell Communication in Response to Radiation.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Ana T; Pinto, Marta L; Velho, Sérgia; Pinto, Marta T; Cardoso, Ana P; Figueira, Rita; Monteiro, Armanda; Marques, Margarida; Seruca, Raquel; Barbosa, Mário A; Mareel, Marc; Oliveira, Maria J; Rocha, Sónia

    2016-01-01

    Both cancer and tumour-associated host cells are exposed to ionizing radiation when a tumour is subjected to radiotherapy. Macrophages frequently constitute the most abundant tumour-associated immune population, playing a role in tumour progression and response to therapy. The present work aimed to evaluate the importance of macrophage-cancer cell communication in the cellular response to radiation. To address this question, we established monocultures and indirect co-cultures of human monocyte-derived macrophages with RKO or SW1463 colorectal cancer cells, which exhibit higher and lower radiation sensitivity, respectively. Mono- and co-cultures were then irradiated with 5 cumulative doses, in a similar fractionated scheme to that used during cancer patients' treatment (2 Gy/fraction/day). Our results demonstrated that macrophages sensitize RKO to radiation-induced apoptosis, while protecting SW1463 cells. Additionally, the co-culture with macrophages increased the mRNA expression of metabolism- and survival-related genes more in SW1463 than in RKO. The presence of macrophages also upregulated glucose transporter 1 expression in irradiated SW1463, but not in RKO cells. In addition, the influence of cancer cells on the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory macrophage markers, upon radiation exposure, was also evaluated. In the presence of RKO or SW1463, irradiated macrophages exhibit higher levels of pro-inflammatory TNF, IL6, CCL2 and CCR7, and of anti-inflammatory CCL18. However, RKO cells induce an increase of macrophage pro-inflammatory IL1B, while SW1463 cells promote higher pro-inflammatory CXCL8 and CD80, and also anti-inflammatory VCAN and IL10 levels. Thus, our data demonstrated that macrophages and cancer cells mutually influence their response to radiation. Notably, conditioned medium from irradiated co-cultures increased non-irradiated RKO cell migration and invasion and did not impact on angiogenesis in a chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay

  19. Electrochemical communication between microbial cells and electrodes via osmium redox systems.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Kamrul; Patil, Sunil A; Leech, Dónal; Hägerhäll, Cecilia; Gorton, Lo

    2012-12-01

    Electrochemical communication between micro-organisms and electrodes is the integral and fundamental part of BESs (bioelectrochemical systems). The immobilization of bacterial cells on the electrode and ensuring efficient electron transfer to the electrode via a mediator are decisive features of mediated electrochemical biosensors. Notably, mediator-based systems are essential to extract electrons from the non-exoelectrogens, a major group of microbes in Nature. The advantage of using polymeric mediators over diffusible mediators led to the design of osmium redox polymers. Their successful use in enzyme-based biosensors and BFCs (biofuel cells) paved the way for exploring their use in microbial BESs. The present mini-review focuses on osmium-bound redox systems used to date in microbial BESs and their role in shuttling electrons from viable microbial cells to electrodes.

  20. Communication Between the Cell Membrane and the Nucleus: Role of Protein Compartmentalization

    SciTech Connect

    Lelievre, Sophie A; Bissell, Mina J

    1998-10-21

    Understanding how the information is conveyed from outside to inside the cell is a critical challenge for all biologists involved in signal transduction. The flow of information initiated by cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix contacts is mediated by the formation of adhesion complexes involving multiple proteins. Inside adhesion complexes, connective membrane skeleton (CMS) proteins are signal transducers that bind to adhesion molecules, organize the cytoskeleton, and initiate biochemical cascades. Adhesion complex-mediated signal transduction ultimately directs the formation of supramolecular structures in the cell nucleus, as illustrated by the establishment of multi complexes of DNA-bound transcription factors, and the redistribution of nuclear structural proteins to form nuclear subdomains. Recently, several CMS proteins have been observed to travel to the cell nucleus, suggesting a distinctive role for these proteins in signal transduction. This review focuses on the nuclear translocation of structural signal transducers of the membrane skeleton and also extends our analysis to possible translocation of resident nuclear proteins to the membrane skeleton. This leads us to envision the communication between spatially distant cellular compartments (i.e., membrane skeleton and cell nucleus) as a bidirectional flow of information (a dynamic reciprocity) based on subtle multilevel structural and biochemical equilibria. At one level, it is mediated by the interaction between structural signal transducers and their binding partners, at another level it may be mediated by the balance and integration of signal transducers in different cellular compartments.

  1. Simvastatin protects Sertoli cells against cisplatin cytotoxicity through enhanced gap junction intercellular communication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingzhi; Peng, Jianxin; Huang, Huansen; Wang, Qin; Yu, Meiling; Tao, Liang

    2015-10-01

    Cisplatin, an important chemotherapeutic agent against testicular germ cell cancer, induces testicular toxicity on Leydig and Sertoli cells, leading to serious side-effects such as azoospermia and infertility. In a previous study, it was found that simvastatin enhanced the sensitivity of Leydig tumor cells to chemotherapeutic toxicity through the enhancement of gap junction functions. In the present study, the effect of simvastatin on the sensitivity of normal Sertoli cells to cisplatin and the role of gap junctions in such effects was investigated. The results showed that, simvastatin attenuated cisplatin toxicity only when cells exhibited high-density culture where gap junctional formation was possible. When gap junction function was decreased by the gap junction inhibitor or by siRNA targeting connexin 43, the protective effect of simvastatin to cisplatin toxicity was substantially attenuated. Simvastatin also enhanced gap junction functions between Sertoli cells. This effect was mediated by the reduction of PKC-mediated connexin phosphorylation, thereby increasing connexin 43 membrane localization. Thus, simvastatin-induced enhancement of gap junction‑mediated intercellular communication attenuated cisplatin toxicity on Sertoli cells. This result indicated that enhancement of gap junction function by simvastatin may have bilateral beneficial effects on cisplatin‑based chemotherapy, enhancing cisplatin killing on cancer while ameliorating the reproduction toxicity.

  2. B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia and stromal cells communicate through Galectin-3

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Fei; Joo, Eun Ji; Tarighat, Somayeh S.; Schiffer, Isabelle; Paz, Helicia; Fabbri, Muller; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Groffen, John; Heisterkamp, Nora

    2015-01-01

    The molecular interactions between B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B ALL) cells and stromal cells in the bone marrow that provide microenvironmentally-mediated protection against therapeutic drugs are not well-defined. Galectin-3 (Lgals3) is a multifunctional galactose-binding lectin with reported location in the nucleus, cytoplasm and extracellular space in different cell types. We previously reported that ALL cells co-cultured with stroma contain high levels of Galectin-3. We here establish that, in contrast to more mature B-lineage cancers, Galectin-3 detected in and on the ALL cells originates from stromal cells, which express it on their surface, secrete it as soluble protein and also in exosomes. Soluble and stromal-bound Galectin-3 is internalized by ALL cells, transported to the nucleus and stimulates transcription of endogenous LGALS3 mRNA. When human and mouse ALL cells develop tolerance to different drugs while in contact with protective stromal cells, Galectin-3 protein levels are consistently increased. This correlates with induction of Galectin-3 transcription in the ALL cells. Thus Galectin-3 sourced from stroma becomes supplemented by endogenous Galectin-3 production in the pre-B ALL cells that are under continuous stress from drug treatment. Our data suggest that stromal Galectin-3 may protect ALL cells through auto-induction of Galectin-3 mRNA and tonic NFκB pathway activation. Since endogenously synthesized Galectin-3 protects pre-B ALL cells against drug treatment, we identify Galectin-3 as one possible target to counteract the protective effects of stroma. PMID:25869099

  3. Endogenous voltage gradients as mediators of cell-cell communication: strategies for investigating bioelectrical signals during pattern formation

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Dany S.; Levin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Alongside the well-known chemical modes of cell-cell communication, we find an important and powerful system of bioelectrical signaling: changes in the resting voltage potential (Vmem) of the plasma membrane driven by ion channels, pumps and gap junctions. Slow Vmem changes in all cells serve as a highly conserved, information-bearing pathway that regulates cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. In embryonic and regenerative pattern formation and in the disorganization of neoplasia, bioelectrical cues serve as mediators of large-scale anatomical polarity, organ identity and positional information. Recent developments have resulted in tools that enable a high-resolution analysis of these biophysical signals and their linkage with upstream and downstream canonical genetic pathways. Here, we provide an overview for the study of bioelectric signaling, focusing on state-of-the-art approaches that use molecular physiology and developmental genetics to probe the roles of bioelectric events functionally. We highlight the logic, strategies and well-developed technologies that any group of researchers can employ to identify and dissect ionic signaling components in their own work and thus to help crack the bioelectric code. The dissection of bioelectric events as instructive signals enabling the orchestration of cell behaviors into large-scale coherent patterning programs will enrich on-going work in diverse areas of biology, as biophysical factors become incorporated into our systems-level understanding of cell interactions. PMID:22350846

  4. Communication between Human Dendritic Cell Subsets in Tuberculosis: Requirements for Naive CD4+ T Cell Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Lozza, Laura; Farinacci, Maura; Bechtle, Marina; Stäber, Manuela; Zedler, Ulrike; Baiocchini, Andrea; del Nonno, Franca; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.

    2014-01-01

    Human primary dendritic cells (DCs) are heterogeneous by phenotype, function, and tissue localization and distinct from inflammatory monocyte-derived DCs. Current information regarding the susceptibility and functional role of primary human DC subsets to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection is limited. Here, we dissect the response of different primary DC subsets to Mtb infection. Myeloid CD11c+ cells and pDCs (C-type lectin 4C+ cells) were located in human lymph nodes (LNs) of tuberculosis (TB) patients by histochemistry. Rare CD141hi DCs (C-type lectin 9A+ cells) were also identified. Infection with live Mtb revealed a higher responsiveness of myeloid CD1c+ DCs compared to CD141hi DCs and pDCs. CD1c+ DCs produced interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor α, and IL-1β but not IL-12p70, a cytokine important for Th1 activation and host defenses against Mtb. Yet, CD1c+ DCs were able to activate autologous naïve CD4+ T cells. By combining cell purification with fluorescence-activated cell sorting and gene expression profiling on rare cell populations, we detected in responding CD4+ T cells, genes related to effector-cytolytic functions and transcription factors associated with Th1, Th17, and Treg polarization, suggesting multifunctional properties in our experimental conditions. Finally, immunohistologic analyses revealed contact between CD11c+ cells and pDCs in LNs of TB patients and in vitro data suggest that cooperation between Mtb-infected CD1c+ DCs and pDCs favors stimulation of CD4+ T cells. PMID:25071784

  5. Interference of bacterial cell-to-cell communication: a new concept of antimicrobial chemotherapy breaks antibiotic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hirakawa, Hidetada; Tomita, Haruyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria use a cell-to-cell communication activity termed “quorum sensing” to coordinate group behaviors in a cell density dependent manner. Quorum sensing influences the expression profile of diverse genes, including antibiotic tolerance and virulence determinants, via specific chemical compounds called “autoinducers”. During quorum sensing, Gram-negative bacteria typically use an acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) called autoinducer 1. Since the first discovery of quorum sensing in a marine bacterium, it has been recognized that more than 100 species possess this mechanism of cell-to-cell communication. In addition to being of interest from a biological standpoint, quorum sensing is a potential target for antimicrobial chemotherapy. This unique concept of antimicrobial control relies on reducing the burden of virulence rather than killing the bacteria. It is believed that this approach will not only suppress the development of antibiotic resistance, but will also improve the treatment of refractory infections triggered by multi-drug resistant pathogens. In this paper, we review and track recent progress in studies on AHL inhibitors/modulators from a biological standpoint. It has been discovered that both natural and synthetic compounds can disrupt quorum sensing by a variety of means, such as jamming signal transduction, inhibition of signal production and break-down and trapping of signal compounds. We also focus on the regulatory elements that attenuate quorum sensing activities and discuss their unique properties. Understanding the biological roles of regulatory elements might be useful in developing inhibitor applications and understanding how quorum sensing is controlled. PMID:23720655

  6. Power frequency magnetic field exposure and gap junctional communication in Clone 9 cells.

    PubMed

    Griffin, G D; Khalaf, W; Hayden, K E; Miller, E J; Dowray, V R; Creekmore, A L; Carruthers, C W; Williams, M W; Gailey, P C

    2000-06-01

    Exposure to a power-frequency magnetic field has been reported to produce a statistically significant inhibition of gap junctional communication (GJC) in Clone 9 cells that have been pre-stressed by treatment with low concentrations of chloral hydrate (CH) [C.F. Blackman, J.P. Blanchard, S.G. Benane, D.E. House, J.A. Elder, Double blind test of magnetic field effects on neurite outgrowth, Bioelectromagnetics, 19 (1998) 204-209]. This observation might provide mechanistic insight into the possible role of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the carcinogenic process, since cancer cells frequently show decreased or absent GJC, and tumor promoting chemicals have been observed to inhibit GJC. Magnetic field exposure conditions were 45 Hz, 23.8 microT rms + parallel DC 36.6 microT, for 30 min of exposure. The responses of Clone 9 cells to the GJC-inhibiting effects of the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate and the chemical CH were evaluated and compared to reported results [S.G. Benane, C.F. Blackman, D.E. House, Effects of perchloroethylene and its metabolites on intercellular communication in Clone 9 rat liver cells, J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, 48 (1996) 427-437]. Before magnetic field exposure, cells were exposed for 24 h to either 3 (nine experiments) or 5 mM (11 experiments) CH to produce GJC of 67% or 50%, respectively, relative to unexposed controls. GJC was assessed microscopically using the scrape-loading technique and a blinded protocol. No statistically significant effect was observed due to magnetic field exposure with either CH concentration.

  7. Flagellar membrane fusion and protein exchange in trypanosomes; a new form of cell-cell communication?

    PubMed Central

    Imhof, Simon; Fragoso, Cristina; Hemphill, Andrew; von Schubert, Conrad; Li, Dong; Legant, Wesley; Betzig, Eric; Roditi, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Diverse structures facilitate direct exchange of proteins between cells, including plasmadesmata in plants and tunnelling nanotubes in bacteria and higher eukaryotes.  Here we describe a new mechanism of protein transfer, flagellar membrane fusion, in the unicellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei. When fluorescently tagged trypanosomes were co-cultured, a small proportion of double-positive cells were observed. The formation of double-positive cells was dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium and was enhanced by placing cells in medium supplemented with fresh bovine serum. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that double-positive cells arose by bidirectional protein exchange in the absence of nuclear transfer.  Furthermore, super-resolution microscopy showed that this process occurred in ≤1 minute, the limit of temporal resolution in these experiments. Both cytoplasmic and membrane proteins could be transferred provided they gained access to the flagellum. Intriguingly, a component of the RNAi machinery (Argonaute) was able to move between cells, raising the possibility that small interfering RNAs are transported as cargo. Transmission electron microscopy showed that shared flagella contained two axonemes and two paraflagellar rods bounded by a single membrane. In some cases flagellar fusion was partial and interactions between cells were transient. In other cases fusion occurred along the entire length of the flagellum, was stable for several hours and might be irreversible. Fusion did not appear to be deleterious for cell function: paired cells were motile and could give rise to progeny while fused. The motile flagella of unicellular organisms are related to the sensory cilia of higher eukaryotes, raising the possibility that protein transfer between cells via cilia or flagella occurs more widely in nature. PMID:27239276

  8. Flagellar membrane fusion and protein exchange in trypanosomes; a new form of cell-cell communication?

    PubMed

    Imhof, Simon; Fragoso, Cristina; Hemphill, Andrew; von Schubert, Conrad; Li, Dong; Legant, Wesley; Betzig, Eric; Roditi, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Diverse structures facilitate direct exchange of proteins between cells, including plasmadesmata in plants and tunnelling nanotubes in bacteria and higher eukaryotes.  Here we describe a new mechanism of protein transfer, flagellar membrane fusion, in the unicellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei. When fluorescently tagged trypanosomes were co-cultured, a small proportion of double-positive cells were observed. The formation of double-positive cells was dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium and was enhanced by placing cells in medium supplemented with fresh bovine serum. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that double-positive cells arose by bidirectional protein exchange in the absence of nuclear transfer.  Furthermore, super-resolution microscopy showed that this process occurred in ≤1 minute, the limit of temporal resolution in these experiments. Both cytoplasmic and membrane proteins could be transferred provided they gained access to the flagellum. Intriguingly, a component of the RNAi machinery (Argonaute) was able to move between cells, raising the possibility that small interfering RNAs are transported as cargo. Transmission electron microscopy showed that shared flagella contained two axonemes and two paraflagellar rods bounded by a single membrane. In some cases flagellar fusion was partial and interactions between cells were transient. In other cases fusion occurred along the entire length of the flagellum, was stable for several hours and might be irreversible. Fusion did not appear to be deleterious for cell function: paired cells were motile and could give rise to progeny while fused. The motile flagella of unicellular organisms are related to the sensory cilia of higher eukaryotes, raising the possibility that protein transfer between cells via cilia or flagella occurs more widely in nature.

  9. Quinolone signaling in the cell-to-cell communication system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Pesci, E C; Milbank, J B; Pearson, J P; McKnight, S; Kende, A S; Greenberg, E P; Iglewski, B H

    1999-09-28

    Numerous species of bacteria use an elegant regulatory mechanism known as quorum sensing to control the expression of specific genes in a cell-density dependent manner. In Gram-negative bacteria, quorum sensing systems function through a cell-to-cell signal molecule (autoinducer) that consists of a homoserine lactone with a fatty acid side chain. Such is the case in the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which contains two quorum sensing systems (las and rhl) that operate via the autoinducers, N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone and N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone. The study of these signal molecules has shown that they bind to and activate transcriptional activator proteins that specifically induce numerous P. aeruginosa virulence genes. We report here that P. aeruginosa produces another signal molecule, 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone, which has been designated as the Pseudomonas quinolone signal. It was found that this unique cell-to-cell signal controlled the expression of lasB, which encodes for the major virulence factor, LasB elastase. We also show that the synthesis and bioactivity of Pseudomonas quinolone signal were mediated by the P. aeruginosa las and rhl quorum sensing systems, respectively. The demonstration that 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone can function as an intercellular signal sheds light on the role of secondary metabolites and shows that P. aeruginosa cell-to-cell signaling is not restricted to acyl-homoserine lactones.

  10. Collective dynamics of genetic oscillators with cell-to-cell communication: a study case of signal integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Q. Z.; Zhang, J. J.; Yuan, Z. J.; Zhou, T. S.

    2010-06-01

    This paper investigates the effect of integration of intracellular and extracellular signals on collective dynamics based on a multicellular system with cell-to-cell communication. Using a mathematical model of genetic repressilators coupled to quorum sensing, we show that the changes in parameters of a certain kind of cis-regulatory input function that quantifies the signal integration can lead to the change of coupling type from phase-attractive to phase-repulsive coupling or vice versa. Consequently, the multicellular system can exhibit, in both coupling cases, different collective behaviors in terms of synchronization and clustering. We give a general method of determining coupling type, elucidate the mechanism of generating these phenomena and present a criterion for stability of cluster states, mainly by analyzing phase interaction functions.

  11. The tight junction protein CAR regulates cardiac conduction and cell-cell communication.

    PubMed

    Lisewski, Ulrike; Shi, Yu; Wrackmeyer, Uta; Fischer, Robert; Chen, Chen; Schirdewan, Alexander; Jüttner, Rene; Rathjen, Fritz; Poller, Wolfgang; Radke, Michael H; Gotthardt, Michael

    2008-09-29

    The Coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR) is known for its role in virus uptake and as a protein of the tight junction. It is predominantly expressed in the developing brain and heart and reinduced upon cardiac remodeling in heart disease. So far, the physiological functions of CAR in the adult heart are largely unknown. We have generated a heart-specific inducible CAR knockout (KO) and found impaired electrical conduction between atrium and ventricle that increased with progressive loss of CAR. The underlying mechanism relates to the cross talk of tight and gap junctions with altered expression and localization of connexins that affect communication between CAR KO cardiomyocytes. Our results indicate that CAR is not only relevant for virus uptake and cardiac remodeling but also has a previously unknown function in the propagation of excitation from the atrium to the ventricle that could explain the association of arrhythmia and Coxsackievirus infection of the heart.

  12. Focus on Extracellular Vesicles: New Frontiers of Cell-to-Cell Communication in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ciardiello, Chiara; Cavallini, Lorenzo; Spinelli, Cristiana; Yang, Julie; Reis-Sobreiro, Mariana; de Candia, Paola; Minciacchi, Valentina Renè; Di Vizio, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) have received considerable attention in recent years, both as mediators of intercellular communication pathways that lead to tumor progression, and as potential sources for discovery of novel cancer biomarkers. For many years, research on EVs has mainly investigated either the mechanism of biogenesis and cargo selection and incorporation, or the methods of EV isolation from available body fluids for biomarker discovery. Recent studies have highlighted the existence of different populations of cancer-derived EVs, with distinct molecular cargo, thus pointing to the possibility that the various EV populations might play diverse roles in cancer and that this does not happen randomly. However, data attributing cancer specific intercellular functions to given populations of EVs are still limited. A deeper functional, biochemical and molecular characterization of the various EV classes might identify more selective clinical markers, and significantly advance our knowledge of the pathogenesis and disease progression of many cancer types. PMID:26861306

  13. Involvement of Immune Cell Network in Aortic Valve Stenosis: Communication between Valvular Interstitial Cells and Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Aortic valve stenosis is a heart disease prevalent in the elderly characterized by valvular calcification, fibrosis, and inflammation, but its exact pathogenesis remains unclear. Previously, aortic valve stenosis was thought to be caused by chronic passive and degenerative changes associated with aging. However, recent studies have demonstrated that atherosclerotic processes and inflammation can induce valvular calcification and bone deposition, leading to valvular stenosis. In particular, the most abundant cell type in cardiac valves, valvular interstitial cells, can differentiate into myofibroblasts and osteoblast-like cells, leading to valvular calcification and stenosis. Differentiation of valvular interstitial cells can be trigged by inflammatory stimuli from several immune cell types, including macrophages, dendritic cells, T cells, B cells, and mast cells. This review indicates that crosstalk between immune cells and valvular interstitial cells plays an important role in the development of aortic valve stenosis. PMID:26937229

  14. Glucocorticoid impairs cell-cell communication by autophagy-mediated degradation of connexin 43 in osteocytes

    PubMed Central

    Qin, An; Pavlos, Nathan J.; Wang, Tao; Song, Kai; Wang, Yan; Chen, Lianzhi; Zhou, Lin; Jiang, Qing; Takayanagi, Hiroshi; Yan, Sheng; Zheng, Minghao

    2016-01-01

    Osteocytes comprising over 90% of the bone cell population are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of glucocorticoids (GC) administration. Here we observed that Dexamethasone (Dex) induces a robust cytoskeleton rearrangement and decreases Cx43 protein expression in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells. Using a Dmp1Cre-mT/mG osteocyte ex vivo culture system, we found significant shortening of dendritic processes in primary osteocytes following Dex administration. Loss of dendritic processes is a consequence of reduced Cx43 connectivity upon Dex induced autophagy in both RFP-GFP-LC3B transfected MLO-Y4 cells and primary calvarial osteocytes from LC3GFP transgenic mice. Upon the induction of autophagy by Dex, Cx43 was internalized into autophagosome/autolysosomes and degraded by autophagy. The degradation was attenuated following lysosomal inhibition using chloroquine (CLQ) and suppression of autophagy by Atg5 silencing. Inhibition Akt-mTORC1 signaling by Dex induces autophagy subsequently resulting in Cx43 degradation. Activation of Akt phosphorylation by IGF-1 attenuated Dex induced autophagy and degradation of Cx43. Together, we demonstrated that GC impair osteocyte cell-cell connectivity via autophagy mediated degradation of Cx43 through inhibition of the Akt-mTORC1 signaling. This may account for the deleterious effect of GC-induced bone loss. PMID:27127181

  15. Glucocorticoid impairs cell-cell communication by autophagy-mediated degradation of connexin 43 in osteocytes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Junjie; Cheng, Tak Sum; Qin, An; Pavlos, Nathan J; Wang, Tao; Song, Kai; Wang, Yan; Chen, Lianzhi; Zhou, Lin; Jiang, Qing; Takayanagi, Hiroshi; Yan, Sheng; Zheng, Minghao

    2016-05-10

    Osteocytes comprising over 90% of the bone cell population are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of glucocorticoids (GC) administration. Here we observed that Dexamethasone (Dex) induces a robust cytoskeleton rearrangement and decreases Cx43 protein expression in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells. Using a Dmp1Cre-mT/mG osteocyte ex vivo culture system, we found significant shortening of dendritic processes in primary osteocytes following Dex administration. Loss of dendritic processes is a consequence of reduced Cx43 connectivity upon Dex induced autophagy in both RFP-GFP-LC3B transfected MLO-Y4 cells and primary calvarial osteocytes from LC3GFP transgenic mice. Upon the induction of autophagy by Dex, Cx43 was internalized into autophagosome/autolysosomes and degraded by autophagy. The degradation was attenuated following lysosomal inhibition using chloroquine (CLQ) and suppression of autophagy by Atg5 silencing. Inhibition Akt-mTORC1 signaling by Dex induces autophagy subsequently resulting in Cx43 degradation.Activation of Akt phosphorylation by IGF-1 attenuated Dex induced autophagy and degradation of Cx43. Together, we demonstrated that GC impair osteocyte cell-cell connectivity via autophagy mediated degradation of Cx43 through inhibition of the Akt-mTORC1 signaling. This may account for the deleterious effect of GC-induced bone loss.

  16. Extract from the Zooxanthellate Jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata Modulates Gap Junction Intercellular Communication in Human Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Antonella; Lecci, Raffaella Marina; Durante, Miriana; Piraino, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    On a global scale, jellyfish populations in coastal marine ecosystems exhibit increasing trends of abundance. High-density outbreaks may directly or indirectly affect human economical and recreational activities, as well as public health. As the interest in biology of marine jellyfish grows, a number of jellyfish metabolites with healthy potential, such as anticancer or antioxidant activities, is increasingly reported. In this study, the Mediterranean “fried egg jellyfish” Cotylorhiza tuberculata (Macri, 1778) has been targeted in the search forputative valuable bioactive compounds. A medusa extract was obtained, fractionated, characterized by HPLC, GC-MS and SDS-PAGE and assayed for its biological activity on breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKa). The composition of the jellyfish extract included photosynthetic pigments, valuable ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, and polypeptides derived either from jellyfish tissues and their algal symbionts. Extract fractions showed antioxidant activity and the ability to affect cell viability and intercellular communication mediated by gap junctions (GJIC) differentially in MCF-7and HEKa cells. A significantly higher cytotoxicity and GJIC enhancement in MCF-7 compared to HEKa cells was recorded. A putative action mechanism for the anticancer bioactivity through the modulation of GJIC has been hypothesized and its nutraceutical and pharmaceutical potential was discussed. PMID:23697954

  17. Model for biological communication in a nanofabricated cell-mimic driven by stochastic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Karig, David K; Siuti, Piro; Dar, Roy D.; Retterer, Scott T; Doktycz, Mitchel John; Simpson, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    Cells offer natural examples of highly efficient networks of nanomachines. Accordingly, both intracellular and intercellular communication mechanisms in nature are looked to as a source of inspiration and instruction for engineered nanocommunication. Harnessing biological functionality in this manner requires an interdisciplinary approach that integrates systems biology, synthetic biology, and nanofabrication. Recent years have seen the amassing of a tremendous wealth of data from the sequencing of new organisms and from high throughput expression experiments. At the same time, a deeper fundamental understanding of individual cell function has been developed, as exemplified by the growth of fields such as noise biology, which seeks to characterize the role of noise in gene expression. The availability of well characterized biological components coupled with a deeper understanding of cell function has led to efforts to engineer both living cells and to create bio-like functionality in non-living substrates in the field of synthetic biology. Here, we present a model system that exemplifies the synergism between these realms of research. We propose a synthetic gene network for operation in a nanofabricated cell mimic array that propagates a biomolecular signal over long distances using the phenomenon of stochastic resonance. Our system consists of a bacterial quorum sensing signal molecule, a bistable genetic switch triggered by this signal, and an array of nanofabricated cell mimic wells that contain the genetic system. An optimal level of noise in the system helps to propagate a time-varying AHL signal over long distances through the array of mimics. This noise level is determined both by the system volume and by the parameters of the genetic network. Our proposed genetically driven stochastic resonance system serves as a testbed for exploring the potential harnessing of gene expression noise to aid in the transmission of a time-varying molecular signal.

  18. The role of radiation hard solar cells in minimizing the costs of global satellite communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Geoffrey P.; Walters, Robert J.; Messenger, Scott R.; Burke, Edward A.

    1995-01-01

    An analysis embodied in a PC computer program is presented which quantitatively demonstrates how the availability of radiation hard solar cells can minimize the cost of a global satellite communication system. The chief distinction between the currently proposed systems, such as Iridium Odyssey and Ellipsat, is the number of satellites employed and their operating altitudes. Analysis of the major costs associated with implementing these systems shows that operation within the earth's radiation belts can reduce the total system cost by as much as a factor of two, so long as radiation hard components including solar cells, can be used. A detailed evaluation of several types of planar solar cells is given, including commercially available Si and GaAs/Ge cells, and InP/Si cells which are under development. The computer program calculates the end of life (EOL) power density of solar arrays taking into account the cell geometry, coverglass thickness, support frame, electrical interconnects, etc. The EOL power density can be determined for any altitude from low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous (GEO) and for equatorial to polar planes of inclination. The mission duration can be varied over the entire range planned for the proposed satellite systems. An algorithm is included in the program for determining the degradation of cell efficiency for different cell technologies due to proton and electron irradiation. The program can be used to determine the optimum configuration for any cell technology for a particular orbit and for a specified mission life. Several examples of applying the program are presented, in which it is shown that the EOL power density of different technologies can vary by an order of magnitude for certain missions. Therefore, although a relatively radiation soft technology can be made to provide the required EOL power by simply increasing the size of the array, the impact on the total system budget could be unacceptable, due to increased launch and

  19. Cardiovascular extracellular microRNAs: emerging diagnostic markers and mechanisms of cell-to-cell RNA communication.

    PubMed

    Kinet, Virginie; Halkein, Julie; Dirkx, Ellen; Windt, Leon J De

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western societies. It is now well established that microRNAs (miRNAs) are determinant regulators in various medical conditions including cardiovascular diseases. The recent discovery that miRNAs, while associated with different carriers, can be exported out of the cell, has triggered a renewed interest to analyze the potential to use extracellular miRNAs as tools for diagnostic and therapeutic studies. Circulating miRNAs in biological fluids present a technological advantage compared to current diagnostic tools by virtue of their remarkable stability and relative ease of detection rendering them ideal tools for non-invasive and rapid diagnosis. Extracellular miRNAs also represent a novel form of inter-cellular communication by transferring genetic information from a donor cell to a recipient cell. This review briefly summarizes recent insights in the origin, function and diagnostic potential of extracellular miRNAs by focusing on a select number of cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Smooth muscle–endothelial cell communication activates Reelin signaling and regulates lymphatic vessel formation

    PubMed Central

    Lutter, Sophie; Xie, Sherry; Tatin, Florence

    2012-01-01

    Active lymph transport relies on smooth muscle cell (SMC) contractions around collecting lymphatic vessels, yet regulation of lymphatic vessel wall assembly and lymphatic pumping are poorly understood. Here, we identify Reelin, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein previously implicated in central nervous system development, as an important regulator of lymphatic vascular development. Reelin-deficient mice showed abnormal collecting lymphatic vessels, characterized by a reduced number of SMCs, abnormal expression of lymphatic capillary marker lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1), and impaired function. Furthermore, we show that SMC recruitment to lymphatic vessels stimulated release and proteolytic processing of endothelium-derived Reelin. Lymphatic endothelial cells in turn responded to Reelin by up-regulating monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1) expression, which suggests an autocrine mechanism for Reelin-mediated control of endothelial factor expression upstream of SMC recruitment. These results uncover a mechanism by which Reelin signaling is activated by communication between the two cell types of the collecting lymphatic vessels—smooth muscle and endothelial cells—and highlight a hitherto unrecognized and important function for SMCs in lymphatic vessel morphogenesis and function. PMID:22665518

  1. Multiplex immunoassays for quantification of cytokines, growth factors, and other proteins in stem cell communication.

    PubMed

    Valekova, Ivona; Skalnikova, Helena Kupcova; Jarkovska, Karla; Motlik, Jan; Kovarova, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Immunoassays represent valuable and broadly used techniques for detection and quantification of proteins. Thanks to their high sensitivity, such techniques are powerful for analyzing growth factors, trophic factors, angiogenic factors, hormones, cytokines, chemokines, soluble receptors, and other proteins which play key roles in intercellular communication and operate as potent regulators of stem cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, or cell death. Multiplex immunological assays, in contrast to ELISA, offer simultaneous quantification of tens of proteins across multiple samples, and have been developed to save time, costs, and sample volumes. Among them, planar antibody microarrays and xMAP(®) bead-based assays have become particularly popular for characterization of proteins secreted by stem cells, as they are relatively easy, highly accurate, multiplex to a high degree and a broad spectrum of analytes can be measured. Here, we describe protocols for multiplex quantification of secreted proteins using Quantibody(®) microarrays (RayBiotech) and xMAP(®) assays (Luminex and its partners). PMID:25063502

  2. [Towards new targets for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension : Importance of cell-cell communications].

    PubMed

    Tu, Ly; Ghigna, Maria-Rosa; Phan, Carole; Bordenave, Jennifer; Le Hiress, Morane; Thuillet, Raphaël; Ricard, Nicolas; Huertas, Alice; Humbert, Marc; Guignabert, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a disorder in which mechanical obstruction of the pulmonary vascular bed is largely responsible for the rise in mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), resulting in a progressive functional decline despite current available therapeutic options. There are multiple mechanisms predisposing to and/or promoting the aberrant pulmonary vascular remodeling in PAH, and these involve not only altered crosstalk between cells within the vascular wall but also sustained inflammation and dysimmunity, cell accumulation in the vascular wall and excessive activation of some growth factor-stimulated signaling pathways, in addition to the interaction of systemic hormones, local growth factors, cytokines, and transcription factors. Heterozygous germline mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type-2 (BMPR2) gene, a gene encoding a receptor for the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily, can predispose to the disease. Although the spectrum of therapeutic options for PAH has expanded in the last 20 years, available therapies remain essentially palliative. Over the past decade, however, a better understanding of key regulators of this irreversible remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature has been obtained. New and more effective approaches are likely to emerge. The present article profiles the innovative research into novel pathways and therapeutic targets that may lead to the development of targeted agents in PAH. PMID:27687598

  3. Micropatterned superhydrophobic structures for the simultaneous culture of multiple cell types and the study of cell-cell communication.

    PubMed

    Efremov, Alexander N; Stanganello, Eliana; Welle, Alexander; Scholpp, Steffen; Levkin, Pavel A

    2013-02-01

    The ability to control spatial arrangement and geometry of different cell types while keeping them separated and in close proximity for a long time is crucial to mimic and study variety of biological processes in vitro. Although the existing cell patterning technologies allow co-culturing of different cell types, they are usually limited to relatively simple geometry. The methods used for obtaining complex geometries are usually applicable for patterning only one or two cell types. Here we introduce a convenient method for creating patterns of multiple (up to twenty) different cell types on one substrate. The method virtually allows any complexity of cell pattern geometry. Cell positioning on the substrate is realized by a parallel formation of multiple cell-containing microreservoirs confined to the geometry of highly hydrophilic regions surrounded by superhydrophobic borders built-in a fine nanoporous polymer film. As a case study we showed the cross-talk between two cell populations via Wnt signaling molecules propagation during co-culture in a mutual culture medium. PMID:23228425

  4. The role of radiation hard solar cells in minimizing the costs of global satellite communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, Geoffrey P.; Walters, Robert J.; Messenger, Scott R.; Burke, Edward A.

    1996-01-01

    An analysis embodied in a PC computer program is presented, which quantitatively demonstrates how the availability of radiation hard solar cells can help minimize the cost of a global satellite communications system. An important distinction between the currently proposed systems, such as Iridium, Odyssey and Ellipsat, is the number of satellites employed and their operating altitudes. Analysis of the major costs associated with implementing these systems shows that operation at orbital altitudes within the earth's radiation belts (10(exp 3) to 10(exp 4)km) can reduce the total cost of a system by several hundred percent, so long as radiation hard components including solar cells can be used. A detailed evaluation of the predicted performance of photovoltaic arrays using several different planar solar cell technologies is given, including commercially available Si and GaAs/Ge, and InP/Si which is currently under development. Several examples of applying the program are given, which show that the end of life (EOL) power density of different technologies can vary by a factor of ten for certain missions. Therefore, although a relatively radiation-soft technology can usually provide the required EOL power by simply increasing the size of the array, the impact upon the total system budget could be unacceptable, due to increased launch and hardware costs. In aggregate, these factors can account for more than a 10% increase in the total system cost. Since the estimated total costs of proposed global-coverage systems range from $1B to $9B, the availability of radiation-hard solar cells could make a decisive difference in the selection of a particular constellation architecture.

  5. Trash or Treasure: extracellular microRNAs and cell-to-cell communication.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Nobuyoshi; Yoshioka, Yusuke; Hagiwara, Keitaro; Tominaga, Naoomi; Katsuda, Takeshi; Ochiya, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    Circulating RNAs in human body fluids are promising candidates for diagnostic purposes. However, the biological significance of circulating RNAs remains elusive. Recently, small non-coding RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs), were isolated from multiple human body fluids, and these "circulating miRNAs" have been implicated as novel disease biomarkers. Concurrently, miRNAs were also identified in the extracellular space associated with extracellular vesicles (EVs), which are small membrane vesicles secreted from various types of cells. The function of these secreted miRNAs has been revealed in several papers. Circulating miRNAs have been experimentally found to be associated with EVs; however, other types of extracellular miRNAs were also described. This review discusses studies related to extracellular miRNAs, including circulating miRNAs and secreted miRNAs, to highlight the importance of studying not only secreted miRNAs, but also circulating miRNAs to determine the contribution of extracellular miRNAs especially in cancer development.

  6. [Metabolic changes in cells under electromagnetic radiation of mobile communication systems].

    PubMed

    Iakimenko, I L; Sidorik, E P; Tsybulin, A S

    2011-01-01

    Review is devoted to the analysis of biological effects of microwaves. The results of last years' researches indicated the potential risks of long-term low-level microwaves exposure for human health. The analysis of metabolic changes in living cells under the exposure of microwaves from mobile communication systems indicates that this factor is stressful for cells. Among the reproducible effects of low-level microwave radiation are overexpression of heat shock proteins, an increase of reactive oxygen species level, an increase of intracellular Ca2+, damage of DNA, inhibition of DNA reparation, and induction of apoptosis. Extracellular-signal-regulated kinases ERK and stress-related kinases p38MAPK are involved in metabolic changes. Analysis of current data suggests that the concept of exceptionally thermal mechanism of biological effects of microwaves is not correct. In turn, this raises the question of the need to revaluation of modern electromagnetic standards based on thermal effects of non-ionizing radiation on biological systems.

  7. Investigations To Characterize Multi-Junction Solar Cells In The Stratosphere Using Low-Cost Balloon And Communication Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowe, Glenroy A.; Wang, Qianghua; Woodyard, James R.; Johnston, Richard R.; Brown, William J.

    2005-01-01

    The use of current balloon, control and communication technologies to test multi-junction solar sell in the stratosphere to achieve near AMO conditions have been investigated. The design criteria for the technologies are that they be reliable, low cost and readily available. Progress is reported on a program to design, launch, fly and retrieve payloads dedicated to testing multi-junction solar cells.

  8. A Functional Assay to Assess Connexin 43-Mediated Cell-to-Cell Communication of Second Messengers in Cultured Bone Cells.

    PubMed

    Stains, Joseph P; Civitelli, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Cell-to-cell transfer of small molecules is a fundamental way by which multicellular organisms coordinate function. Recent work has highlighted the complexity of biologic responses downstream of gap junctions. As the connexin-regulated effectors are coming into focus, there is a need to develop functional assays that allow specific testing of biologically relevant second messengers. Here, we describe a modification of the classic gap junction parachute assay to assess biologically relevant molecules passed through gap junctions. PMID:27207296

  9. Electrolytic/fuel cell bundles and systems including a current collector in communication with an electrode thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes, Grant L.; Herring, James S.; Stoots, Carl M.; O'Brien, James E.

    2013-03-05

    Electrolytic/fuel cell bundles and systems including such bundles include an electrically conductive current collector in communication with an anode or a cathode of each of a plurality of cells. A cross-sectional area of the current collector may vary in a direction generally parallel to a general direction of current flow through the current collector. The current collector may include a porous monolithic structure. At least one cell of the plurality of cells may include a current collector that surrounds an outer electrode of the cell and has at least six substantially planar exterior surfaces. The planar surfaces may extend along a length of the cell, and may abut against a substantially planar surface of a current collector of an adjacent cell. Methods for generating electricity and for performing electrolysis include flowing current through a conductive current collector having a varying cross-sectional area.

  10. Estrogenic compounds inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication in mouse Leydig TM3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Iwase, Yumiko . E-mail: Iwase.Yumiko@mg.m-pharma.co.jp; Fukata, Hideki . E-mail: fukata@faculty.chiba-u.jp; Mori, Chisato . E-mail: cmori@faculty.chiba-u.jp

    2006-05-01

    Some estrogenic compounds are reported to cause testicular disorders in humans and/or experimental animals by direct action on Leydig cells. In carcinogenesis and normal development, gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) plays an essential role in maintaining homeostasis. In this study, we examine the effects of diethylstilbestrol (DES, a synthetic estrogen), 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}, a natural estrogen), and genistein (GEN, a phytoestrogen) on GJIC between mouse Leydig TM3 cells using Lucifer yellow microinjection. The three compounds tested produced GJIC inhibition in the TM3 cells after 24 h. Gradually, 10 {mu}M DES began to inhibit GJIC for 24 h and this effect was observed until 72 h. On the other hand, both 20 {mu}M E{sub 2} and 25 {mu}M GEN rapidly inhibited GJIC in 6 h and 2 h, respectively. The effects continued until 24 h, but weakened by 72 h. Furthermore, a combined effect at {mu}M level between DES and E{sub 2} on GJIC inhibition was observed, but not between GEN and E{sub 2}. DES and E{sub 2} showed GJIC inhibition at low dose levels (nearly physiological estrogen levels) after 72 h, but GEN did not. DES-induced GJIC inhibition at 10 pM and 10 {mu}M was completely counteracted by ICI 182,780 (ICl), an estrogen receptor antagonist. On the other hand, the inhibitory effects on GJIC with E{sub 2} (10 pM and 20 {mu}M) and GEN (25 {mu}M) were partially blocked by ICI or calphostin C, a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, and were completely blocked by the combination of ICI and calphostin C. These results demonstrate that DES inhibits GJIC between Leydig cells via the estrogen receptor (ER), and that E{sub 2} and GEN inhibit GJIC via ER and PKC. These estrogenic compounds may have different individual nongenotoxic mechanism including PKC pathway on testicular carcinogenesis or development.

  11. Action of 50 Hz magnetic fields on cyclic AMP and intercellular communication in monolayers and spheroids of mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmelpfeng, J.; Stein, J.C.; Dertinger, H.

    1995-12-31

    To investigate the influence of physiological parameters such as cell density and three-dimensional cell contact on the biological action of a 2mT/50 Hz magnetic field, mouse fibroblasts were exposed as monolayers and as multicellular spheroids. Changes in cyclic AMP content of cells and alterations in gap junction-mediated intercellular communication were measured immediately after 5 min of exposure to the field. In monolayers of intermediate cell density (1 {times} 10{sup 5} cells/cm{sup 2}), the field treatment caused an increase in cAMP to 121% of the control level, whereas, at 3 {times} 10{sup 5} cells/cm{sup 2} (near confluence), a decrease to 88% of the unexposed cells was observed. Furthermore, field exposure stimulated gap-junction communication to 160% of the control level as determined by Lucifer yellow dye exchange. In spheroids, alterations in the radial profile of cellular cAMP were observed that were due both to field-induced local cAMP changes and to increased gap-junction permeability for this second messenger, the latter causing radial cAMP gradients to be flattened. The results indicate a strong dependence of field action on physiological parameters of the system exposed.

  12. Heterotypic contact reveals a COX-2-mediated suppression of osteoblast differentiation by endothelial cells: A negative modulatory role for prostanoids in VEGF-mediated cell: cell communication?

    SciTech Connect

    Clarkin, Claire E. Garonna, Elena; Pitsillides, Andrew A.; Wheeler-Jones, Caroline P.D.

    2008-10-15

    In bone, angiogenesis must be initiated appropriately, but limited once remodelling or repair is complete. Our recent findings have supported a role for prostaglandins (PG), known modulators of osteoblast (OB) and endothelial cell (EC) behaviour, in facilitating VEGF-mediated paracrine communication from OBs to 'remotely located' ECs, but the mechanism(s) regulating OB:EC crosstalk when these cells are closely opposed are undefined. In this study we have examined: (i) the effects of exogenous PGE{sub 2} on VEGF-driven events in ECs, and (ii) the role of endogenous COX-2-derived prostanoids in mediating communication between intimately opposed OBs and ECs in direct contact. Exposure of ECs to PGE{sub 2} increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation, COX-2 induction, 6-keto-PGF{sub 1{alpha}} release and EC proliferation. In contrast, PGE{sub 2} attenuated VEGF{sub 165}-induced VEGFR2/Flk1 phosphorylation, ERK1/2 activation and proliferation of ECs, suggesting that exogenous PGE{sub 2} restricts the actions of VEGF. However, the COX-2-selective inhibitor, NS398, also attenuated VEGF-induced proliferation, implying a distinct role for endogenous COX-2 activity in regulating EC behaviour. To examine the effect of OB:EC proximity and the role of COX-2 products further, we used a confrontational co-culture model. These studies showed that COX-2 blockade with NS398 enhanced EC-dependent increases in OB differentiation, that this effect was reversed by exogenous PGH{sub 2} (immediate COX-2 product), and that exogenous VEGF did not influence EC-dependent OB differentiation under these conditions. Our findings indicate that locally produced prostanoids may serve distinct roles depending on OB:EC proximity and negatively modulate VEGF-mediated changes in EC behaviour when these cells are closely opposed to control angiogenesis during bone (re)modelling.

  13. Less is more: minimal expression of myoendothelial gap junctions optimizes cell–cell communication in virtual arterioles

    PubMed Central

    Hald, Bjørn Olav; Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings; Sandow, Shaun L; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Welsh, Donald G

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunctional electrical signalling within the arteriolar wall is a major cause of cardiovascular disease. The endothelial cell layer constitutes the primary electrical pathway, co-ordinating contraction of the overlying smooth muscle cell (SMC) layer. As myoendothelial gap junctions (MEGJs) provide direct contact between the cell layers, proper vasomotor responses are thought to depend on a high, uniform MEGJ density. However, MEGJs are observed to be expressed heterogeneously within and among vascular beds. This discrepancy is addressed in the present study. As no direct measures of MEGJ conductance exist, we employed a computational modelling approach to vary the number, conductance and distribution of MEGJs. Our simulations demonstrate that a minimal number of randomly distributed MEGJs augment arteriolar cell–cell communication by increasing conduction efficiency and ensuring appropriate membrane potential responses in SMCs. We show that electrical coupling between SMCs must be tailored to the particular MEGJ distribution. Finally, observation of non-decaying mechanical conduction in arterioles without regeneration has been a long-standing controversy in the microvascular field. As heterogeneous MEGJ distributions provide for different conduction profiles along the cell layers, we demonstrate that a non-decaying conduction profile is possible in the SMC layer of a vessel with passive electrical properties. These intriguing findings redefine the concept of efficient electrical communication in the microcirculation, illustrating how heterogeneous properties, ubiquitous in biological systems, may have a profound impact on system behaviour and how acute local and global flow control is explained from the biophysical foundations. PMID:24907303

  14. Requirement of Fra proteins for communication channels between cells in the filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Omairi-Nasser, Amin; Mariscal, Vicente; Austin, Jotham R; Haselkorn, Robert

    2015-08-11

    The filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 differentiates specialized cells, heterocysts, that fix atmospheric nitrogen and transfer the fixed nitrogen to adjacent vegetative cells. Reciprocally, vegetative cells transfer fixed carbon to heterocysts. Several routes have been described for metabolite exchange within the filament, one of which involves communicating channels that penetrate the septum between adjacent cells. Several fra gene mutants were isolated 25 y ago on the basis of their phenotypes: inability to fix nitrogen and fragmentation of filaments upon transfer from N+ to N- media. Cryopreservation combined with electron tomography were used to investigate the role of three fra gene products in channel formation. FraC and FraG are clearly involved in channel formation, whereas FraD has a minor part. Additionally, FraG was located close to the cytoplasmic membrane and in the heterocyst neck, using immunogold labeling with antibody raised to the N-terminal domain of the FraG protein.

  15. A Mimic of the Tumor Microenvironment: A Simple Method for Generating Enriched Cell Populations and Investigating Intercellular Communication.

    PubMed

    Domogauer, Jason D; de Toledo, Sonia M; Azzam, Edouard I

    2016-09-20

    Understanding the early heterotypic interactions between cancer cells and the surrounding non-cancerous stroma is important in elucidating the events leading to stromal activation and establishment of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Several in vitro and in vivo models of the TME have been developed; however, in general these models do not readily permit isolation of individual cell populations, under non-perturbing conditions, for further study. To circumvent this difficulty, we have employed an in vitro TME model using a cell growth substrate consisting of a permeable microporous membrane insert that permits simple generation of highly enriched cell populations grown intimately, yet separately, on either side of the insert's membrane for extended co-culture times. Through use of this model, we are capable of generating greatly enriched cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) populations from normal diploid human fibroblasts following co-culture (120 hr) with highly metastatic human breast carcinoma cells, without the use of fluorescent tagging and/or cell sorting. Additionally, by modulating the pore-size of the insert, we can control for the mode of intercellular communication (e.g., gap-junction communication, secreted factors) between the two heterotypic cell populations, which permits investigation of the mechanisms underlying the development of the TME, including the role of gap-junction permeability. This model serves as a valuable tool in enhancing our understanding of the initial events leading to cancer-stroma initiation, the early evolution of the TME, and the modulating effect of the stroma on the responses of cancer cells to therapeutic agents.

  16. A Mimic of the Tumor Microenvironment: A Simple Method for Generating Enriched Cell Populations and Investigating Intercellular Communication.

    PubMed

    Domogauer, Jason D; de Toledo, Sonia M; Azzam, Edouard I

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the early heterotypic interactions between cancer cells and the surrounding non-cancerous stroma is important in elucidating the events leading to stromal activation and establishment of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Several in vitro and in vivo models of the TME have been developed; however, in general these models do not readily permit isolation of individual cell populations, under non-perturbing conditions, for further study. To circumvent this difficulty, we have employed an in vitro TME model using a cell growth substrate consisting of a permeable microporous membrane insert that permits simple generation of highly enriched cell populations grown intimately, yet separately, on either side of the insert's membrane for extended co-culture times. Through use of this model, we are capable of generating greatly enriched cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) populations from normal diploid human fibroblasts following co-culture (120 hr) with highly metastatic human breast carcinoma cells, without the use of fluorescent tagging and/or cell sorting. Additionally, by modulating the pore-size of the insert, we can control for the mode of intercellular communication (e.g., gap-junction communication, secreted factors) between the two heterotypic cell populations, which permits investigation of the mechanisms underlying the development of the TME, including the role of gap-junction permeability. This model serves as a valuable tool in enhancing our understanding of the initial events leading to cancer-stroma initiation, the early evolution of the TME, and the modulating effect of the stroma on the responses of cancer cells to therapeutic agents. PMID:27684198

  17. Subsets of ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) inhibitors increase gap junctional intercellular communication in metastatic cancer cell lines independent of SUR expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is a process whereby cells share molecules and nutrients with each other by physical contact through cell membrane pores. In tumor cells, GJIC is often altered, suggesting that this process may be important in the context of cancer. Certain ion chan...

  18. INHIBITION OF GAP JUNCTIONAL INTERCELLULAR COMMUNICATION BY PERFLUORINATED COMPOUNDS IN RAT LIVER AND DOLPHIN KIDNEY EPITHELIAL CELL LINES IN VITRO AND SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS IN VIVO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication (GJIC) is the major pathway of intercellular signal transduction, and is, thus, important for normal cell growth and function. Recent studies have revealed a global distribution of some perfluorinated organic compounds e...

  19. HDAC inhibition amplifies gap junction communication in neural progenitors: Potential for cell-mediated enzyme prodrug therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Zahidul . E-mail: Zahidul.Khan@ki.se; Akhtar, Monira; Asklund, Thomas; Juliusson, Bengt . E-mail: Tomas.Ekstrom@ki.se

    2007-08-01

    Enzyme prodrug therapy using neural progenitor cells (NPCs) as delivery vehicles has been applied in animal models of gliomas and relies on gap junction communication (GJC) between delivery and target cells. This study investigated the effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors on GJC for the purpose of facilitating transfer of therapeutic molecules from recombinant NPCs. We studied a novel immortalized midbrain cell line, NGC-407 of embryonic human origin having neural precursor characteristics, as a potential delivery vehicle. The expression of gap junction protein connexin 43 (C x 43) was analyzed by western blot and immunocytochemistry. While C x 43 levels were decreased in untreated differentiating NGC-407 cells, the HDAC inhibitor 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PB) increased C x 43 expression along with increased membranous deposition in both proliferating and differentiating cells. Simultaneously, Ser 279/282-phosphorylated form of C x 43 was declined in both culture conditions by 4-PB. The 4-PB effect in NGC-407 cells was verified by using HNSC.100 human neural progenitors and Trichostatin A. Improved functional GJC is of imperative importance for therapeutic strategies involving intercellular transport of low molecular-weight compounds. We show here an enhancement by 4-PB, of the functional GJC among NGC-407 cells, as well as between NGC-407 and human glioma cells, as indicated by increased fluorescent dye transfer.

  20. Tousled-like kinase regulates cytokine-mediated communication between cooperating cell types during collective border cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Wenjuan; Zhang, Dabing; Montell, Denise J.

    2016-01-01

    Collective cell migration is emerging as a major contributor to normal development and disease. Collective movement of border cells in the Drosophila ovary requires cooperation between two distinct cell types: four to six migratory cells surrounding two immotile cells called polar cells. Polar cells secrete a cytokine, Unpaired (Upd), which activates JAK/STAT signaling in neighboring cells, stimulating their motility. Without Upd, migration fails, causing sterility. Ectopic Upd expression is sufficient to stimulate motility in otherwise immobile cells. Thus regulation of Upd is key. Here we report a limited RNAi screen for nuclear proteins required for border cell migration, which revealed that the gene encoding Tousled-like kinase (Tlk) is required in polar cells for Upd expression without affecting polar cell fate. In the absence of Tlk, fewer border cells are recruited and motility is impaired, similar to inhibition of JAK/STAT signaling. We further show that Tlk in polar cells is required for JAK/STAT activation in border cells. Genetic interactions further confirmed Tlk as a new regulator of Upd/JAK/STAT signaling. These findings shed light on the molecular mechanisms regulating the cooperation of motile and nonmotile cells during collective invasion, a phenomenon that may also drive metastatic cancer. PMID:26510500

  1. High Glucose Alters Cx43 Expression and Gap Junction Intercellular Communication in Retinal Müller Cells: Promotes Müller Cell and Pericyte Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Muto, Tetsuya; Tien, Thomas; Kim, Dongjoon; Sarthy, Vijay P.; Roy, Sayon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate whether high glucose (HG) alters connexin 43 (Cx43) expression and gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) activity in retinal Müller cells, and promotes Müller cell and pericyte loss. Methods. Retinal Müller cells (rMC-1) and cocultures of rMC-1 and retinal pericytes were grown in normal (N) or HG (30 mM glucose) medium. Additionally, rMC-1 transfected with Cx43 small interfering RNA (siRNA) were grown as cocultures with pericytes, and rMC-1 transfected with Cx43 plasmid were grown in HG. Expression of Cx43 was determined by Western blotting and immunostaining and GJIC was assessed by scrape-loading dye transfer (SLDT) technique. Apoptosis was analyzed by TUNEL or differential staining assay, and Akt activation by assessing Akt phosphorylation. Results. In monocultures of rMC-1 and cocultures of rMC-1 and pericytes, Cx43 protein level, number of Cx43 plaques, GJIC, and Akt phosphorylation were significantly reduced in HG medium. Number of TUNEL-positive cells was also significantly increased in rMC-1 monocultures and in rMC-1 and pericyte cocultures grown in HG medium. Importantly, when rMC-1 transfected with Cx43 siRNA were grown as cocultures with pericytes, a significant decrease in GJIC, and increase in TUNEL-positive cells was observed, concomitant with decreased Akt phosphorylation. Upregulation of Cx43 rescued rMC-1 from HG-induced apoptosis. Conclusions. Gap junction communication between Müller cells and pericytes is essential for their survival. Downregulation of Cx43 that is HG induced and impairment of GJIC activity in Müller cells contributes to loss of glial and vascular cells associated with the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:24938518

  2. CXCL12/CXCR4: a symbiotic bridge linking cancer cells and their stromal neighbors in oncogenic communication networks.

    PubMed

    Guo, F; Wang, Y; Liu, J; Mok, S C; Xue, F; Zhang, W

    2016-02-18

    Increasing evidence indicates that the tumor microenvironment has critical roles in all aspects of cancer biology, including growth, angiogenesis, metastasis and progression. Although chemokines and their receptors were originally identified as mediators of inflammatory diseases, it is being increasingly recognized that they serve as critical communication bridges between tumor cells and stromal cells to create a permissive microenvironment for tumor growth and metastasis. Thus, an important therapeutic strategy for cancer is to break this communication channel and isolate tumor cells for long-term elimination. Cytokine CXCL12 (also known as stromal-derived factor 1α) and its receptor CXCR4 represent the most promising actionable targets for this strategy. Both are overexpressed in various cancer types, and this aberrant expression strongly promotes proliferation, migration and invasion through multiple signal pathways. Several molecules that target CXCL12 or CXCR4 have been developed to interfere with tumor growth and metastasis. In this article, we review our current understanding of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis in cancer tumorigenesis and progression and discuss its therapeutic implications.

  3. Communicating risks and benefits about ethically controversial topics: the case of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells.

    PubMed

    Longstaff, Holly; McDonald, Michael; Bailey, Jennifer

    2013-08-01

    Many are supportive of approaches that incorporate lay citizens into policy making and risk management decisions. However, a great deal of learning must first take place about how citizen engagement for controversial topics is best accomplished. Online risk communication efforts are increasing in popularity but there is little empirical evidence accrued to demonstrate the effectiveness of such methods. The intention of our overall study is to create a powerful method for in-depth two-way communication with the public and expert communities about complex and sensitive issues at the heart of stem cell (SC) research. The fundamental objective is to raise awareness of SC science with lay citizens by fostering more holistic or "all things considered" ethical judgments. Our risk communication study demonstrates that lay citizens are both interested in, and capable of learning about, complex scientific issues provided the right tools are used to convey information and assess understanding. Our results show that it is worth the time and effort for SC researchers to continue posting podcasts and FAQ's about their work for non-expert communities to view. In addition, despite having increased our participants' risk perceptions about induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell research, almost all were very supportive of this type of research in Canada by the end of the survey. In other words, participants understood that this research did in fact pose some risks and learned a great deal about both the risks and benefits of iPS cell research, and still thought this research was worthwhile to pursue.

  4. Imaging of Cell-Cell Communication in a Vertical Orientation Reveals High-Resolution Structure of Immunological Synapse and Novel PD-1 Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Joon Hee; Huang, Yu; Zheng, Peilin; Jo, Myeong Chan; Bertolet, Grant; Qin, Lidong; Liu, Dongfang

    2015-01-01

    The immunological synapse (IS) is one of the most pivotal communication strategies in immune cells. Understanding the molecular basis of the IS provides critical information regarding how immune cells mount an effective immune response. Fluorescence microscopy provides a fundamental tool to study the IS. However, current imaging techniques for studying the IS cannot sufficiently achieve high resolution in real cell-cell conjugates. Here we present a new device that allows for high-resolution imaging of the IS with conventional confocal microscopy in a high-throughput manner. Combining micropits and single cell trap arrays, we have developed a new microfluidic platform that allows visualization of the IS in vertically “stacked” cells. Using this vertical cell pairing (VCP) system, we investigated the dynamics of the inhibitory synapse mediated by an inhibitory receptor, programed death protein-1 (PD-1) and the cytotoxic synapse at the single cell level. In addition to the technique innovation, we demonstrated novel biological findings by this VCP device, including novel distribution of F-actin and cytolytic granules at the IS, PD-1 microclusters in the NK IS, and kinetics of cytotoxicity. We propose that this high-throughput, cost-effective, easy-to-use VCP system, along with conventional imaging techniques, can be used to address a number of significant biological questions in a variety of disciplines. PMID:26123352

  5. Imaging of Cell-Cell Communication in a Vertical Orientation Reveals High-Resolution Structure of Immunological Synapse and Novel PD-1 Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Jang, Joon Hee; Huang, Yu; Zheng, Peilin; Jo, Myeong Chan; Bertolet, Grant; Zhu, Michael Xi; Qin, Lidong; Liu, Dongfang

    2015-08-01

    The immunological synapse (IS) is one of the most pivotal communication strategies in immune cells. Understanding the molecular basis of the IS provides critical information regarding how immune cells mount an effective immune response. Fluorescence microscopy provides a fundamental tool to study the IS. However, current imaging techniques for studying the IS cannot sufficiently achieve high resolution in real cell-cell conjugates. In this study, we present a new device that allows for high-resolution imaging of the IS with conventional confocal microscopy in a high-throughput manner. Combining micropits and single-cell trap arrays, we have developed a new microfluidic platform that allows visualization of the IS in vertically "stacked" cells. Using this vertical cell pairing (VCP) system, we investigated the dynamics of the inhibitory synapse mediated by an inhibitory receptor, programed death protein-1, and the cytotoxic synapse at the single-cell level. In addition to the technique innovation, we have demonstrated novel biological findings by this VCP device, including novel distribution of F-actin and cytolytic granules at the IS, programed death protein-1 microclusters at the NK IS, and kinetics of cytotoxicity. We propose that this high-throughput, cost-effective, easy-to-use VCP system, along with conventional imaging techniques, can be used to address a number of significant biological questions in a variety of disciplines.

  6. A Plasmodesmata-Localized Protein Mediates Crosstalk between Cell-to-Cell Communication and Innate Immunity in Arabidopsis[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Youn; Wang, Xu; Cui, Weier; Sager, Ross; Modla, Shannon; Czymmek, Kirk; Zybaliov, Boris; van Wijk, Klaas; Zhang, Chong; Lu, Hua; Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) are thought to play a fundamental role in almost every aspect of plant life, including normal growth, physiology, and developmental responses. However, how specific signaling pathways integrate PD-mediated cell-to-cell communication is not well understood. Here, we present experimental evidence showing that the Arabidopsis thaliana plasmodesmata-located protein 5 (PDLP5; also known as HOPW1-1-INDUCED GENE1) mediates crosstalk between PD regulation and salicylic acid–dependent defense responses. PDLP5 was found to localize at the central region of PD channels and associate with PD pit fields, acting as an inhibitor to PD trafficking, potentially through its capacity to modulate PD callose deposition. As a regulator of PD, PDLP5 was also essential for conferring enhanced innate immunity against bacterial pathogens in a salicylic acid–dependent manner. Based on these findings, a model is proposed illustrating that the regulation of PD closure mediated by PDLP5 constitutes a crucial part of coordinated control of cell-to-cell communication and defense signaling. PMID:21934146

  7. Regulation of gap-junctional communication between cumulus cells during in vitro maturation in swine, a gap-FRAP study.

    PubMed

    Santiquet, Nicolas W; Develle, Yann; Laroche, Anthony; Robert, Claude; Richard, François J

    2012-08-01

    Intercellular gap-junctional communication (GJC) plays an important role in ovarian cell physiology. Closure of GJC has been proposed to be involved in oocyte maturation, particularly in the resumption of meiosis, both in vivo and in vitro, by controlling the flow of meiosis inhibitors, such as cAMP and cGMP. Understanding how GJC dynamics are regulated during in vitro maturation (IVM) could provide a powerful tool for controlling meiotic resumption and oocyte maturation in vitro. Since little is known about the GJC dynamic regulation between cumulus cells, we have developed an assay based on recovery of calcein fluorescence in photobleached cumulus cells, a gap-FRAP assay. The GJC profile has been characterized during the first hours of porcine IVM. We showed that equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) down-regulated GJC effectiveness between cumulus cells. However, human chorionic gonadotropin was not down-regulating GJC effectiveness. We also showed that the GJC network expanded during this period and that this effect was not regulated by gonadotropins. Porcine follicular fluid present in the maturation medium also had an impact on GJC regulation, increasing GJC network establishment and the effectiveness of calcein transfer rate between cumulus cells. These results show that both eCG and EGF are regulating the decrease in GJC effectiveness after 4.5 h of IVM, while the network extension is gonadotropin independent. Regulation of GJC between cumulus cells would then be specifically regulated during in vitro IVM.

  8. Novel concepts for improved communication between nerve cells and silicon electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huys, Roeland; Braeken, Dries; Van Meerbergen, Bart; Winters, Kurt; Eberle, Wolfgang; Loo, Josine; Tsvetanova, Diana; Chen, Chang; Severi, Simone; Yitzchaik, S.; Spira, M.; Shappir, J.; Callewaert, Geert; Borghs, Gustaaf; Bartic, Carmen

    2008-04-01

    Hybrid integration of living cells and electronic circuits on a chip requires a high-density matrix of sensors and actuators. This matrix must be processable on top of CMOS devices and must be bio-compatible in order to support living cells. Recent studies have shown that the use of nail structures combined with a phagocytosis-like event of the cell can be exploited to improve the electrical coupling between a cell and a sensor. In this paper, two CMOS-compatible fabrication methods for sub-micron nails will be presented. The biocompatibility and proof-of-concept is demonstrated by the culturing of PC12 neuroblastoma cells. Electrical functionality is shown by simultaneous stimulation and recording of pig cardiomyocyte cells. Biocompatibility aspects for more demanding cortical cell cultures have been addressed in a preliminary assessment.

  9. The antiarrhythmic peptide rotigaptide (ZP123) increases gap junction intercellular communication in cardiac myocytes and HeLa cells expressing connexin 43

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Thomas C; Thomas, Dafydd; Petersen, Jørgen S; Evans, W Howard; Martin, Patricia E M

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of rotigaptide (ZP123), a stable hexapeptide with antiarrhythmic properties, on gap junction mediated intercellular communication in contracting rat neonatal cardiac myocytes, HL-1 cells derived from cardiac atrium and in HeLa cells transfected with cDNA encoding Cx43-GFP, Cx32-GFP, Cx26-GFP, wild-type Cx43 or wild-type Cx26. Intercellular communication was monitored before and after treatment with rotigaptide following microinjection of small fluorescent dyes (MW<1 kDa). The communication-modifying effect of rotigaptide was confined to cells expressing Cx43 since the peptide had no effect on dye transfer in HeLa cells expressing Cx32-GFP, Cx26-GFP or wild-type Cx26. In contrast, HeLa cells expressing Cx43-GFP exposed to 50 nM rotigaptide for 5 h showed a 40% increase in gap junction mediated communication. Rotigaptide (50 nM) increased intercellular dye transfer in myocytes and atrial HL-1 cells, where Cx43 is the dominant connexin. However, it caused no change in cell beating rates of cardiac myocytes. Western blot analysis showed that rotigaptide did not modify the overall level of Cx43 expression and changes in the phosphorylation status of the protein were not observed. We conclude that the effects of rotigaptide were confined to cells expressing Cx43. PMID:16415913

  10. US DOE-EM On-Site Disposal Cell Working Group - Fostering Communication On Performance Assessment Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Roger R.; Suttora, Linda C.; Phifer, Mark

    2014-03-01

    On-site disposal cells are in use and being considered at several U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites as the final disposition for large amounts of waste associated with cleanup of contaminated areas and facilities. These facilities are typically developed with regulatory oversight from States and/or the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in addition to USDOE. The facilities are developed to meet design standards for disposal of hazardous waste as well as the USDOE performance based standards for disposal of radioactive waste. The involvement of multiple and different regulators for facilities across separate sites has resulted in some differences in expectations for performance assessments and risk assessments (PA/RA) that are developed for the disposal facilities. The USDOE-EM Office of Site Restoration formed a working group to foster improved communication and sharing of information for personnel associated with these Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) disposal cells and work towards more consistent assumptions, as appropriate, for technical and policy considerations related to performance and risk assessments in support of a Record of Decision and Disposal Authorization Statement. The working group holds teleconferences, as needed, focusing on specific topics of interest. The topics addressed to date include an assessment of the assumptions used for performance assessments and risk assessments (PA/RAs) for on-site disposal cells, requirements and assumptions related to assessment of inadvertent intrusion, DOE Manual 435.1-1 requirements, and approaches for consideration of the long-term performance of liners and covers in the context of PAs. The working group has improved communication among the staff and oversight personnel responsible for onsite disposal cells and has provided a forum to identify and resolve common concerns.

  11. Short communication: Antiproliferative effect of 8 different Lactobacillus strains on K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Yanfeng; Jiang, Shujuan; Qian, Fang; Mu, Guangqing; Liu, Peng; Guo, Yuanji; Ma, Changlu

    2015-01-01

    Some strains of Lactobacillus genus have antiproliferative activities against cancer cells. However, until now, the exact effector molecules of Lactobacillus strains with anticancer activity have not been identified. The aim of the present study was to explore which fraction of the Lactobacillus cells exerts the highest antiproliferative effect. For this purpose, the heat-killed bacterial cells, bacterial cell wall extract, and genomic DNA of 8 Lactobacillus strains were prepared to assess their antiproliferative activities against human myeloid leukemia cell lines K562. The heat-killed bacterial cells of the 8 lactobacilli strains exerted antiproliferative effect on K562 cells, and the inhibition rates exerted by the heat-killed bacterial cells of the strains G15AL, M5AL, SB31AL, SB5AL, and T3AL were significantly higher than those exerted by the cell walls and genomic DNA of the strains. The bacterial DNA of G15AL exerted higher antiproliferative effect on K562 cells. The exact effector molecules and the effect mechanism of the strains should be further explored for the application of these strains as probiotic strains or bioactive probiotic molecules.

  12. The tight junction protein ZO-2 and Janus kinase 1 mediate intercellular communications in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tkachuk, Natalia; Tkachuk, Sergey; Patecki, Margret; Kusch, Angelika; Korenbaum, Elena; Haller, Hermann; Dumler, Inna

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} The tight junction protein ZO-2 associates with Jak1 in vascular smooth muscle cells via ZO-2 N-terminal fragment. {yields} Jak1 mediates ZO-2 tyrosine phosphorylation and ZO-2 localization to the sites of homotypic intercellular contacts. {yields} The urokinase receptor uPAR regulates ZO-2/Jak1 functional association. {yields} The ZO-2/Jak1/uPAR signaling complex is required for vascular smooth muscle cells functional network formation. -- Abstract: Recent evidence points to a multifunctional role of ZO-2, the tight junction protein of the MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase-like) family. Though ZO-2 has been found in cell types lacking tight junction structures, such as vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), little is known about ZO-2 function in these cells. We provide evidence that ZO-2 mediates specific homotypic cell-to-cell contacts between VSMC. Using mass spectrometry we found that ZO-2 is associated with the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Jak1. By generating specific ZO-2 constructs we further found that the N-terminal fragment of ZO-2 molecule is responsible for this interaction. Adenovirus-based expression of Jak1 inactive mutant demonstrated that Jak1 mediates ZO-2 tyrosine phosphorylation. By means of RNA silencing, expression of Jak1 mutant form and fluorescently labeled ZO-2 fusion protein we further specified that active Jak1, but not Jak1 inactive mutant, mediates ZO-2 localization to the sites of intercellular contacts. We identified the urokinase receptor uPAR as a pre-requisite for these cellular events. Functional requirement of the revealed signaling complex for VSMC network formation was confirmed in experiments using Matrigel and in contraction assay. Our findings imply involvement of the ZO-2 tight junction independent signaling complex containing Jak1 and uPAR in VSMC intercellular communications. This mechanism may contribute to vascular remodeling in occlusive cardiovascular diseases and in arteriogenesis.

  13. Requirement of Fra proteins for communication channels between cells in the filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Omairi-Nasser, Amin; Mariscal, Vicente; Austin, Jotham R.; Haselkorn, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 differentiates specialized cells, heterocysts, that fix atmospheric nitrogen and transfer the fixed nitrogen to adjacent vegetative cells. Reciprocally, vegetative cells transfer fixed carbon to heterocysts. Several routes have been described for metabolite exchange within the filament, one of which involves communicating channels that penetrate the septum between adjacent cells. Several fra gene mutants were isolated 25 y ago on the basis of their phenotypes: inability to fix nitrogen and fragmentation of filaments upon transfer from N+ to N− media. Cryopreservation combined with electron tomography were used to investigate the role of three fra gene products in channel formation. FraC and FraG are clearly involved in channel formation, whereas FraD has a minor part. Additionally, FraG was located close to the cytoplasmic membrane and in the heterocyst neck, using immunogold labeling with antibody raised to the N-terminal domain of the FraG protein. PMID:26216997

  14. Requirement of Fra proteins for communication channels between cells in the filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Omairi-Nasser, Amin; Mariscal, Vicente; Austin, Jotham R; Haselkorn, Robert

    2015-08-11

    The filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 differentiates specialized cells, heterocysts, that fix atmospheric nitrogen and transfer the fixed nitrogen to adjacent vegetative cells. Reciprocally, vegetative cells transfer fixed carbon to heterocysts. Several routes have been described for metabolite exchange within the filament, one of which involves communicating channels that penetrate the septum between adjacent cells. Several fra gene mutants were isolated 25 y ago on the basis of their phenotypes: inability to fix nitrogen and fragmentation of filaments upon transfer from N+ to N- media. Cryopreservation combined with electron tomography were used to investigate the role of three fra gene products in channel formation. FraC and FraG are clearly involved in channel formation, whereas FraD has a minor part. Additionally, FraG was located close to the cytoplasmic membrane and in the heterocyst neck, using immunogold labeling with antibody raised to the N-terminal domain of the FraG protein. PMID:26216997

  15. Autophagy and gap junctional intercellular communication inhibition are involved in cadmium-induced apoptosis in rat liver cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Hui; Zhuo, Liling; Han, Tao; Hu, Di; Yang, Xiaokang; Wang, Yi; Yuan, Yan; Gu, Jianhong; Bian, Jianchun; Liu, Xuezhong; Liu, Zongping

    2015-04-17

    Cadmium (Cd) is known to induce hepatotoxicity, yet the underlying mechanism of how this occurs is not fully understood. In this study, Cd-induced apoptosis was demonstrated in rat liver cells (BRL 3A) with apoptotic nuclear morphological changes and a decrease in cell index (CI) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The role of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and autophagy in Cd-induced apoptosis was investigated. Cd significantly induced GJIC inhibition as well as downregulation of connexin 43 (Cx43). The prototypical gap junction blocker carbenoxolone disodium (CBX) exacerbated the Cd-induced decrease in CI. Cd treatment was also found to cause autophagy, with an increase in mRNA expression of autophagy-related genes Atg-5, Atg-7, Beclin-1, and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) conversion from cytosolic LC3-I to membrane-bound LC3-II. The autophagic inducer rapamycin (RAP) prevented the Cd-induced CI decrease, while the autophagic inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) caused a further reduction in CI. In addition, CBX promoted Cd-induced autophagy, as well as changes in expression of Atg-5, Atg-7, Beclin-1 and LC3. CQ was found to block the Cd-induced decrease in Cx43 and GJIC inhibition, whereas RAP had opposite effect. These results demonstrate that autophagy plays a protective role during Cd-induced apoptosis in BRL 3A cells during 6 h of experiment, while autophagy exacerbates Cd-induced GJIC inhibition which has a negative effect on cellular fate. - Highlights: • GJIC and autophagy is crucial for biological processes. • Cd exposure causes GJIC inhibition and autophagy increase in BRL 3A cells. • Autophagy protects Cd induced BRL 3A cells apoptosis at an early stage. • Autophagy exacerbates Cd-induced GJIC inhibition. • GJIC plays an important role in autophagy induced cell death or survival.

  16. Gingko biloba extracts protect auditory hair cells from cisplatin-induced ototoxicity by inhibiting perturbation of gap junctional intercellular communication.

    PubMed

    Choi, S J; Kim, S W; Lee, J B; Lim, H J; Kim, Y J; Tian, C; So, H S; Park, R; Choung, Y-H

    2013-08-01

    Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) may play an important role in the hearing process. Cisplatin is an anticancer drug that causes hearing loss and Gingko biloba extracts (EGb 761) have been used as an antioxidant and enhancer for GJIC. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficiency of EGb 761 in protecting against cisplatin-induced apoptosis and disturbance of GJIC. House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti 1 auditory cells were cultured and treated with cisplatin (50 μM) and EGb (300 μg/ml) for 24h, and then analyzed by immunocytochemistry (Annexin V/propidium iodide) and Western blots. GJIC was evaluated by scrape-loading dye transfer (SLDT). Basal turn organ of Corti (oC) explants from neonatal (p3) rats were exposed to cisplatin (1-10 μM) and EGb (50-400 μg/ml). The number of intact hair cells was counted by co-labeling with phalloidin and MyoVIIa. EGb prevented cisplatin-induced apoptosis in immunostaining and decreased caspase 3 and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase bands, which were increased in cisplatin-treated cells in Western blots. EGb prevented abnormal intracellular locations of connexin (Cx) 26, 30, 31, and 43 in cells treated with cisplatin and increased quantities of Cx bands. EGb also prevented cisplatin-induced disturbance of GJIC in SLDT. In oC explants, EGb significantly prevented hair cell damage induced by cisplatin. In animal studies, EGb significantly prevented cisplatin-induced hearing loss across 16 and 32 kHz. These results show that cisplatin induces ototoxicity including hearing loss as well as down-regulation of GJIC and inhibition of Cxs in auditory cells. EGb prevents hearing loss in cisplatin-treated rats by inhibiting down-regulation of Cx expression and GJIC. The disturbance of GJIC or Cx expression may be one of the important mechanisms of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. PMID:23583760

  17. Targeting the extracellular matrix: matricellular proteins regulate cell-extracellular matrix communication within distinct niches of the intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    Bedore, Jake; Leask, Andrew; Séguin, Cheryle A

    2014-07-01

    The so-called "matricellular" proteins have recently emerged as important regulators of cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. These proteins modulate a variety of cell functions through a range of interactions with cell-surface receptors, hormones, proteases and structural components of the ECM. As such, matricellular proteins are crucial regulators of cell phenotype, and consequently tissue function. The distinct cell types and microenvironments that together form the IVD provide an excellent paradigm to study how matricellular proteins mediate communication within and between adjacent tissue types. In recent years, the role of several matricellular proteins in the intervertebral disc has been explored in vivo using mutant mouse models in which the expression of target matricellular proteins was deleted from either one or all compartments of the intervertebral disc. The current review outlines what is presently known about the roles of the matricellular proteins belonging to the CCN family, SPARC (Secreted Protein, Acidic, and Rich in Cysteine), and thrombospondin (TSP) 2 in regulating intervertebral disc cell-ECM interactions, ECM synthesis and disc tissue homeostasis using genetically modified mouse models. Furthermore, we provide a brief overview of recent preliminary studies of other matricellular proteins including, periostin (POSTN) and tenascin (TN). Each specific tissue type of the IVD contains a different matricellular protein signature, which varies based on the specific stage of development, maturity or disease. A growing body of direct genetic evidence links IVD development, maintenance and repair to the coordinate interaction of matricellular proteins within their respective niches and suggests that several of these signaling modulators hold promise in the development of diagnostics and/or therapeutics targeting intervertebral disc aging and/or degeneration.

  18. Morphological transformation and effect on gap junction intercellular communication in Syrian hamster embryo cells as screening tests for carcinogens devoid of mutagenic activity.

    PubMed

    Rivedal, E; Mikalsen, S O; Sanner, T

    2000-04-01

    A large fraction of chemicals observed to cause cancer in experimental animals is devoid of mutagenic activity. It is therefore of importance to develop methods that can be used to detect and study environmental carcinogenic agents that do not interact directly with DNA. Previous studies have indicated that induction of in vitro cell transformation and inhibition of gap junction intercellular communication are endpoints that could be useful for the detection of non-genotoxic carcinogens. In the present work, 13 compounds [chlordane, Arochlor 1260, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, 1,1,1-trichloro-2, 2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane, limonene, sodium fluoride, ethionine, o-anisidine, benzoyl peroxide, o-vanadate, phenobarbital, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate and clofibrate] have been tested for their ability to induce morphological transformation and affect intercellular communication in Syrian hamster embryo cells. The substances were selected on the basis of being proven or suspected non-genotoxic carcinogens, and thus difficult to detect in short-term tests. The data show that nine of the 13 compounds induced morphological transformation, and seven of the 13 inhibited intercellular communication in hamster embryo cells. Taken together, 12 of the 13 substances either induced transformation or caused inhibition of communication. The data suggest that the combined use of morphological transformation and gap junction intercellular communication in Syrian hamster embryo cells may be beneficial when screening for non-genotoxic carcinogens. PMID:10793297

  19. Short communication: Initial evidence supporting existence of potential rumen epidermal stem and progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Yohe, T T; Tucker, H L M; Parsons, C L M; Geiger, A J; Akers, R M; Daniels, K M

    2016-09-01

    The bovine rumen epidermis is a keratinized multilayered tissue that experiences persistent cell turnover. Because of this constant cell turnover, epidermal stem cells and their slightly more differentiated daughter cells, epidermal progenitor cells, must exist in the stratum basale of rumen epidermis. To date, these 2 epidermal cell populations and any unique cellular markers they may possess remain completely uncharacterized in the bovine rumen. An important first step in this new research area is the demonstration of the relative abundance and existence of markers for these cells in rumen tissue. A related second step is to document rumen epidermal proliferative responses to an extrinsic signal such as nutrient concentration within the rumen. The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the extrinsic effect of diet on (1) gene expression of 6 potential rumen epidermal stem or progenitor cell markers and (2) rumen epidermal cell proliferation within the stratum basale. Twelve preweaned Holstein heifers were fed either a restricted diet (R) or an enhanced diet (EH). Animals on R received a milk replacer (MR) diet fed at 0.44kg of powder dry matter (DM)/d (20.9% crude protein, 29.8% fat, DM basis) and EH received MR at 1.08kg of powder dry matter/d (28.9% crude protein, 26.2% fat, DM basis). All calves had access to a 20% crude protein starter and were weaned during wk 7 of the experiment. Lifetime DM intake was 0.73kg of DM/calf per day for R (5.88 Mcal of net energy/calf per day) and 1.26kg of DM/calf per day for EH (10.68 Mcal of net energy/calf per day). Twenty-four hours before slaughter heifers received an intravenous dose of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine to label proliferating cells. Heifers were slaughtered at 8 wk of age, and rumen samples from the ventral sac region were obtained and stored in RNA preservative and processed for routine histology. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR was used to analyze relative abundance of genes. Candidate

  20. Neglect in Human Communication: Quantifying the Cost of Cell-Phone Interruptions in Face to Face Dialogs

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Rosenfeld, Matías; Calero, Cecilia I.; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Garbulsky, Gerry; Bergman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker) narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone). The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . .) and about the virtues of the people around them. PMID:26039326

  1. Neglect in human communication: quantifying the cost of cell-phone interruptions in face to face dialogs.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Rosenfeld, Matías; Calero, Cecilia I; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Garbulsky, Gerry; Bergman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker) narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone). The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . .) and about the virtues of the people around them.

  2. Neglect in human communication: quantifying the cost of cell-phone interruptions in face to face dialogs.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Rosenfeld, Matías; Calero, Cecilia I; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Garbulsky, Gerry; Bergman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker) narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone). The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . .) and about the virtues of the people around them. PMID:26039326

  3. Glioma cells escaped from cytotoxicity of temozolomide and vincristine by communicating with human astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiliang; Wang, Donghai; Du, Xinwen; He, Ying; Chen, Songyu; Shao, Qianqian; Ma, Chao; Huang, Bin; Chen, Anjing; Zhao, Peng; Qu, Xun; Li, Xingang

    2015-03-01

    Resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs remains a great obstacle to successful treatment of gliomas. Understanding the mechanism of glioma chemoresistance is conducive to develop effective strategies to overcome resistance. Astrocytes are the major stromal cells in the brain and have been demonstrated to play a key role in the malignant phenotype of gliomas. However, little is known regarding its role in glioma chemoresistance. In our study, we established a co-culture system of human astrocytes and glioma in vitro to simulate tumor microenvironment. Our results showed that astrocytes significantly reduced glioma cell apoptosis induced by the chemotherapeutic drugs temozolomide and vincristine. This protective effect was dependent on direct contact between astrocytes and glioma cells through Cx43-GJC. Moreover, in human glioma specimens, we found astrocytes infiltrating around the tumor, with a reactive appearance, suggesting that these astrocytes would play the same chemoprotective effect on gliomas in vivo. Our results expand the understanding of the interaction between astrocytes and glioma cells and provide a possible explanation for unsatisfactory clinical outcomes of chemotherapeutic drugs. Cx43-GJC between astrocytes and glioma cells may be a potential target for overcoming chemoresistance in gliomas clinically. PMID:25631631

  4. Synaptic communication and signal processing among sensory cells in taste buds.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2014-08-15

    Taste buds (sensory structures embedded in oral epithelium) show a remarkable diversity of transmitters synthesized and secreted locally. The known transmitters accumulate in a cell type selective manner, with 5-HT and noradrenaline being limited to presynaptic cells, GABA being synthesized in both presynaptic and glial-like cells, and acetylcholine and ATP used for signalling by receptor cells. Each of these transmitters participates in local negative or positive feedback circuits that target particular cell types. Overall, the role of ATP is the best elucidated. ATP serves as a principal afferent transmitter, and also is the key trigger for autocrine positive feedback and paracrine circuits that result in potentiation (via adenosine) or inhibition (via GABA or 5-HT). While many of the cellular receptors and mechanisms for these circuits are known, their impact on sensory detection and perception remains to be elaborated in most instances. This brief review examines what is known, and some of the open questions and controversies surrounding the transmitters and circuits of the taste periphery.

  5. Omental leiomyosarcoma with unusual giant cells in a Beagle dog - Short communication.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Jun; Toyoshima, Megumi; Okamura, Yasuhiko; Goryo, Masanobu

    2016-06-01

    A 10-year-old castrated male Beagle dog was presented with a 2-month history of intermittent vomiting and abdominal pain. The dog was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Iwate University for further evaluation, and a splenic tumour was suspected on the basis of ultrasonography and computed tomography. Surgery identified a large, solid, light-pink mass on the greater omentum with blood-coloured ascites in the abdominal cavity, and resection was performed. Microscopically, the mass comprised spindle-shaped tumour cells and scattered osteoclast-like giant cells. Most spindle-shaped cells were positive for vimentin, desmin, and smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), whereas osteoclast-like giant cells were positive only for vimentin. On the basis of histopathological and immunohistochemical findings, a diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma was made. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first report of leiomyosarcoma associated with osteoclast-like giant cells developing from the greater omentum in a dog. PMID:27342093

  6. Synaptic communication and signal processing among sensory cells in taste buds

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2014-01-01

    Taste buds (sensory structures embedded in oral epithelium) show a remarkable diversity of transmitters synthesized and secreted locally. The known transmitters accumulate in a cell type selective manner, with 5-HT and noradrenaline being limited to presynaptic cells, GABA being synthesized in both presynaptic and glial-like cells, and acetylcholine and ATP used for signalling by receptor cells. Each of these transmitters participates in local negative or positive feedback circuits that target particular cell types. Overall, the role of ATP is the best elucidated. ATP serves as a principal afferent transmitter, and also is the key trigger for autocrine positive feedback and paracrine circuits that result in potentiation (via adenosine) or inhibition (via GABA or 5-HT). While many of the cellular receptors and mechanisms for these circuits are known, their impact on sensory detection and perception remains to be elaborated in most instances. This brief review examines what is known, and some of the open questions and controversies surrounding the transmitters and circuits of the taste periphery. PMID:24665098

  7. Spectral and spatial characterization of perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fibers for the distribution of optical wireless communication cells.

    PubMed

    Hajjar, Hani Al; Montero, David S; Lallana, Pedro C; Vázquez, Carmen; Fracasso, Bruno

    2015-02-10

    In this paper, the characterization of a perfluorinated graded-index polymer optical fiber (PF-GIPOF) for a high-bitrate indoor optical wireless system is reported. PF-GIPOF is used here to interconnect different optical wireless access points that distribute optical free-space high-bitrate wireless communication cells. The PF-GIPOF channel is first studied in terms of transmission attenuation and frequency response and, in a second step, the spatial power profile distribution at the fiber output is analyzed. Both characterizations are performed under varying restricted mode launch conditions, enabling us to assess the transmission channel performance subject to potential connectorization errors within an environment where the end users may intervene by themselves on the home network infrastructure.

  8. Modulation of GJA1 turnover and intercellular communication by proinflammatory cytokines in the anterior pituitary folliculostellate cell line TtT/GF.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Marie-Eve; Pelletier, R-Marc; Meilleur, Mélissa-Anne; Vitale, Maria Leiza

    2006-01-01

    Our previous studies have advanced the idea that the folliculostellate cell GJA1 (gap junction membrane channel protein alpha1; previously known as connexin 43)-mediated gap junctions contribute to the establishment of an intercellular network that regulates the paracrine messages and the endocrine response within the anterior pituitary. The folliculostellate cells are targets for growth factors and cytokines that modulate hormone secretion. Proinflammatory cytokines modulate the cell-to-cell communication in many tissues of the body. The present study measured the effect of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 on the GJA1-mediated intercellular communication, specifically the expression, localization, degradation, and phosphorylation status of GJA1 in the folliculostellate cell line TtT/GF. The GJA1 localized to the plasma membrane and to minute cytoplasmic vesicles in the perinuclear area. Using different antibodies that recognize distinctly the nonphosphorylated from the phosphorylated forms of GJA1, we showed that nonphosphorylated GJA1 in Ser-368 (NP-GJA1) localized chiefly in the cytoplasm, whereas GJA1 phosphorylated in Ser-368 (P-GJA1) localized to the plasma membrane in controls. The cytokine treatment transiently increased 1) GJA1, NP-GJA1, and P-GJA1 levels; 2) NP-GJA1 and P-GJA1 degradation by both the lysosomal and proteasomal pathways; and 3) cell-to-cell communication in TtT/GF cells. The results suggest that the cytokine-evoked, transient enhancement of folliculostellate cell-mediated intercellular communication contributes to the coordination of the response among folliculostellate cells.

  9. Communication: phase transitions, criticality, and three-phase coexistence in constrained cell models.

    PubMed

    Nayhouse, Michael; Kwon, Joseph Sang-Il; Orkoulas, G

    2012-05-28

    In simulation studies of fluid-solid transitions, the solid phase is usually modeled as a constrained system in which each particle is confined to move in a single Wigner-Seitz cell. The constrained cell model has been used in the determination of fluid-solid coexistence via thermodynamic integration and other techniques. In the present work, the phase diagram of such a constrained system of Lennard-Jones particles is determined from constant-pressure simulations. The pressure-density isotherms exhibit inflection points which are interpreted as the mechanical stability limit of the solid phase. The phase diagram of the constrained system contains a critical and a triple point. The temperature and pressure at the critical and the triple point are both higher than those of the unconstrained system due to the reduction in the entropy caused by the single occupancy constraint.

  10. Integrated Phase Array Antenna/Solar Cell System for Flexible Access Communication (IA/SAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, E. B.; Lee, R. Q.; Pal, A. T.; Wilt, D. M.; McElroy, B. D.; Mueller, C. H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes recent efforts to integrate advanced solar cells with printed planar antennas. Several previous attempts have been reported in the literature, but this effort is unique in several ways. It uses Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) multi-junction solar cell technology. The solar cells and antennas will be integrated onto a common GaAs substrate. When fully implemented, IA/SAC will be capable of dynamic beam steering. In addition, this program targets the X-band (8 - 12 GHz) and higher frequencies, as compared to the 2.2 - 2.9 GHz arrays targeted by other organizations. These higher operating frequencies enable a greater bandwidth and thus higher data transfer rates. The first phase of the effort involves the development of 2 x 2 cm GaAs Monolithically Integrated Modules (MIM) with integrated patch antennas on the opposite side of the substrate. Subsequent work will involve the design and development of devices having the GaAs MIMs and the antennas on the same side of the substrate. Results from the phase one efforts will be presented.

  11. Local communication among mucosal immune cells in patients with celiac disease.

    PubMed

    van Bergen, Jeroen; Mulder, Chris J; Mearin, M Luisa; Koning, Frits

    2015-05-01

    In patients with celiac disease, gluten consumption causes inflammation of the duodenum, and, to a lesser extent, the proximal jejunum. Immune-dominant gluten peptides are modified by the enzyme TG2, leading to their high-affinity binding to HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 molecules, present in people with a predisposition to celiac disease. Gluten peptide-loaded HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 molecules are recognized by highly conserved receptors on CD4(+) T cells in the lamina propria. B cells specific for TG2 and modified gluten peptides are also abundant in the lamina propria of patients with celiac disease. In the epithelium, interleukin-15 activates intraepithelial lymphocytes that promote destruction of epithelial cells. However, it is not clear how the immune responses in the lamina propria and the epithelium, separated by a basement membrane, are linked. We review the immune processes that occur in the lamina propria and their potential effects on epithelial pathology in celiac disease.

  12. A cell-phone-based brain-computer interface for communication in daily life.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Te; Wang, Yijun; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2011-04-01

    Moving a brain-computer interface (BCI) system from a laboratory demonstration to real-life applications still poses severe challenges to the BCI community. This study aims to integrate a mobile and wireless electroencephalogram (EEG) system and a signal-processing platform based on a cell phone into a truly wearable and wireless online BCI. Its practicality and implications in a routine BCI are demonstrated through the realization and testing of a steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCI. This study implemented and tested online signal processing methods in both time and frequency domains for detecting SSVEPs. The results of this study showed that the performance of the proposed cell-phone-based platform was comparable, in terms of the information transfer rate, with other BCI systems using bulky commercial EEG systems and personal computers. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate a truly portable, cost-effective and miniature cell-phone-based platform for online BCIs. PMID:21436517

  13. A cell-phone-based brain-computer interface for communication in daily life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Te; Wang, Yijun; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2011-04-01

    Moving a brain-computer interface (BCI) system from a laboratory demonstration to real-life applications still poses severe challenges to the BCI community. This study aims to integrate a mobile and wireless electroencephalogram (EEG) system and a signal-processing platform based on a cell phone into a truly wearable and wireless online BCI. Its practicality and implications in a routine BCI are demonstrated through the realization and testing of a steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCI. This study implemented and tested online signal processing methods in both time and frequency domains for detecting SSVEPs. The results of this study showed that the performance of the proposed cell-phone-based platform was comparable, in terms of the information transfer rate, with other BCI systems using bulky commercial EEG systems and personal computers. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate a truly portable, cost-effective and miniature cell-phone-based platform for online BCIs.

  14. "Optical communication with brain cells by means of an implanted duplex micro-device with optogenetics and Ca(2+) fluoroimaging".

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takuma; Haruta, Makito; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Matsumata, Miho; Eizumi, Kawori; Kitsumoto, Chikara; Motoyama, Mayumi; Maezawa, Yasuyo; Ohta, Yasumi; Noda, Toshihiko; Tokuda, Takashi; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Ohta, Jun

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the brain function based on neural activity, a minimally invasive analysis technology in a freely moving animal is necessary. Such technology would provide new knowledge in neuroscience and contribute to regenerative medical techniques and prosthetics care. An application that combines optogenetics for voluntarily stimulating nerves, imaging to visualize neural activity, and a wearable micro-instrument for implantation into the brain could meet the abovementioned demand. To this end, a micro-device that can be applied to the brain less invasively and a system for controlling the device has been newly developed in this study. Since the novel implantable device has dual LEDs and a CMOS image sensor, photostimulation and fluorescence imaging can be performed simultaneously. The device enables bidirectional communication with the brain by means of light. In the present study, the device was evaluated in an in vitro experiment using a new on-chip 3D neuroculture with an extracellular matrix gel and an in vivo experiment involving regenerative medical transplantation and gene delivery to the brain by using both photosensitive channel and fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator. The device succeeded in activating cells locally by selective photostimulation, and the physiological Ca(2+) dynamics of neural cells were visualized simultaneously by fluorescence imaging.

  15. Facilitating Pediatric Patient-Provider Communications Using Wireless Technology in Children and Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Eufemia; Pavlish, Carol; Duran, Joana; Stinson, Jennifer; Lewis, Mary Ann; Zeltzer, Lonnie

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Using wireless devices may potentially transform delivery of primary care services in sickle cell disease (SCD). The study examined text message communications between patients and an advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) and the different primary care activities that emerged using wireless technology. Methods Patients (n=37; mean age 13.9 ± 1.8 years; 45.9% males; 54.1% females) engaged in intermittent text conversations with the advanced practice registered nurse as part of the Wireless Pain Intervention Program. Content Analyses were used to analyze the content of text message exchanges between patients and the APRN. Results The primary care needs that emerged were related to pain and symptom management and sickle cell crisis prevention. Two primary care categories (collaborating and coaching), four primary care subcategories (screening, referring, informing, supporting), and 16 primary care activities were evident in text conversations. Discussion The use of wireless technology may facilitate screening, prompt management of pain and symptoms, prevention or reduction of SCD related complications, more efficient referral for treatments, timely patient education, and psychosocial support in children and adolescents with SCD. PMID:22446036

  16. Short communication: Glutamine increases autophagy of liver cells in weaned calves.

    PubMed

    Hu, Z Y; Li, S L; Cao, Z J

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of an increased jugular supply of l-Gln on the autophagy of weaned calves. At 35 d of age, 24 Holstein calves (initial body weight of 50±0.5 kg; 35±2 d of age) were randomly allocated to 4 treatments, with each treatment including 5 male calves and 1 female calf. Holstein calves were assigned to treatments of (1) intravenous infusion of 2d of 0.85% NaCl (control group) (2) intravenous infusion of 8 g/d of L-Gln mixed with 2d of 0.85% NaCl solution, (3) intravenous infusion of 16 g/d of L-Gln mixed with 2d of 0.85% NaCl solution, and (4) intravenous infusion of 32 g/d of L-Gln mixed with 2d of 0.85% NaCl. The infusion was administered 2h/d for 7 consecutive days starting on d 1 after weaning. Feed and water were freely available to all calves. All calves were killed on d 7 postweaning to measure the autophagy of liver cells. The level of autophagy in liver cells was improved when the Gln infusion dose increased.

  17. Observation of "wired" cell communication over 10-μm and 20-μm poly(dimethylsiloxane) barriers in tetracycline inducible expression systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ching-Te; Chi, Cheng-Yu; Wu, Pei-Yi; Chuang, Fang-Tzu; Lin, Yueh-Chien; Liu, Hao-Kai; Huang, Guan-Syuan; Tsai, Tzu-Ching; Wo, Andrew M.; Lee, Hsinyu; Lee, Si-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Communication between cells and extracellular environments is of interest because of its critical roles in cell development and differentiation. Particularly, this signal transduction is commonly believed to rely on the contact and binding of the participating molecules/proteins, suggesting that the binding distance needed is less than a few nanometers. However, it is difficult to precisely match the rapidly binding interaction which depends on the probability of molecular collision in living systems, raising a hypothesis that another mechanism exists, could promote this signal communication, and remains unknown. Here we report that a long-range signal delivery over 10-μm and 20-μm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) barriers can be observed in microfluidically tetracycline (Tet) inducible expression systems. Results show that a significant increment of the long-range induced green fluorescent protein in human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK 293T) cells by the stimulation of Tet is demonstrated, and that such a signal induction is not dominated by Tet diffusion and displays a specific bindingless property. In addition, our experimental results, combined with theoretical modeling, suggest that this communication exhibits a bump-shaped characteristic depending on barrier thickness, materially structural property, surface roughness, and agonist concentration. It strongly relies on the PDMS barrier to delivery signal; therefore, we call such a mechanism as "wired" cell communication instead of wireless. These results could ignite interests in the novel and "wired" cell communication, which we call it X-signal, and in the use of such systems for the study of cellular biology and development of new drug.

  18. Communication between oocytes and somatic cells regulates volatile pheromone production in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Leighton, Daniel H. W.; Choe, Andrea; Wu, Shannon Y; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Males of the androdioecious species Caenorhabditis elegans are more likely to attempt to mate with and successfully inseminate C. elegans hermaphrodites that do not concurrently harbor sperm. Although a small number of genes have been implicated in this effect, the mechanism by which it arises remains unknown. In the context of the battle of the sexes, it is also unknown whether this effect is to the benefit of the male, the hermaphrodite, or both. We report that successful contact between mature sperm and oocyte in the C. elegans gonad at the start of fertilization causes the oocyte to release a signal that is transmitted to somatic cells in its mother, with the ultimate effect of reducing her attractiveness to males. Changes in hermaphrodite attractiveness are tied to the production of a volatile pheromone, the first such pheromone described in C. elegans. PMID:25453110

  19. Short communication: Bulk milk somatic cell penalties in herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement programs.

    PubMed

    Hand, K J; Godkin, M A; Kelton, D F

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of somatic cell count (SCC) monitoring at the cow level through Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) programs on the risk of bulk tank SCC (BTSCC) penalties. For the year 2009, BTSCC for all producers in Ontario were examined, for a total of 2,898 DHI herds, 1,186 non-DHI herds, and 48,250 BTSCC records. Two penalty levels were examined, where BTSCC exceeded 499,000 (P500) and 399,000 (P400) cells/mL. Data were modeled first to determine the odds of a BTSCC exceeding a set penalty threshold and second to determine the odds of incurring a penalty under the Ontario Milk Act. All data were modeled as a generalized mixed model with a binary link function. Random effects included herd, fixed effects included season of BTSCC (summer, May to September, and winter, October to April), total milk shipped per month (L), fat paid per month (kg), protein paid per month (kg), and participation or not in the DHI program. The likelihood of a BTSCC exceeding a penalty threshold in a non-DHI herd compared with a DHI herd was significantly greater than 1 at both penalty levels, where the odds ratios were estimated to be 1.42 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19 to 1.69] and 1.38 (95% CI: 1.25 to 1.54) for P500 and P400, respectively. The likelihood of incurring a BTSCC penalty (where 3 out of 4 consecutive BTSCC exceeded penalty thresholds) was not significantly different at P500; however, it was significantly different for P400, where the odds ratio was estimated to be 1.42 (95% CI: 1.12 to 1.81).

  20. Satellite Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a discussion of communication satellites: explains the principles of satellite communication, describes examples of how governments and industries are currently applying communication satellites, analyzes issues confronting satellite communication, links mathematics and science to the study of satellite communication, and applies…

  1. Tc-99m-labeled red blood cells for the measurement of red cell mass in newborn infants: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Linderkamp, O.; Betke, K.; Fendel, H.; Klemm, J.; Lorenzen, K.; Riegel, K.P.

    1980-07-01

    In vitro and in vivo investigations were performed to examine the binding of Tc-99m to neonatal red blood cells (RBC). Labeling efficiency was about 90%, and unbound Tc-99m less than 3% after one washing, in premature and full-term newborns and in children. Thus presence of high percentages of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) did not influence the labeling of RBCs with Tc-99m. RBCs of 11 newborns were hemolysed and the distribution of Tc-99m on RBC components was analyzed. Although Hb F percentage averaged (60.0 +- 8.10)% (s.d.), only (11.9 +- 3.7)% of Tc-99m was bound by Hb F, whereas (45.0 +- 6.1)% was associated with Hb A. RBC membranes bound (13.7 +- 4.3)% and (29.3 +- 4.0)% were found unbound in hemolysates. These results indicate that Tc-99m preferentially binds to beta chains. In vivo equilibration of Tc-99m RBCs and of albumin labeled with Evans blue was investigated in five newborn infants. Tc-99m RBCs were stable in each case during the first hour after injection. Elution of Tc-99m from RBCs was (3.4 +- 1.5)% per h. Body-to-venous hematocrit ratio averaged 0.86 +- 0.03.

  2. Studies of Intercellular Communication and Intracellular Metabolic Responses by Bone Cells to Simulated Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Stephen B.

    1997-01-01

    Spaceflight affects the weight bearing skeletal tissues by reducing the rate of new bone formation. This effect on the long bones of flown rats has been quantitated but the effect at the cellular level and the mechanism(s) involved are not understood. We are applying electron microscopy, coupled with histochemistry and immunocytochemistry to determine the cellular functions most affected by spaceflight. The emphasis for study of these samples from SLS-1, a 9-day mission, is on the histochemical and structural changes of the endosteal and perivascular osteoblasts found in diaphyseal bone of femur and tibia. Work is still in progress but some findings are described: (1) An expected decrease in alkaline phosphatase activity in osteoblasts from flight animals, but an increase in enzyme activity in the stromal stem cells adjacent to the osteoblast. (2) An increase in osteoclastic TRAP activity in the trabecular bone region in response to spaceflight. (3) A large increase in procollagen containing secretory granules in osteoblasts in the recovery group, and a significant decrease in granule numbers in the flight group.

  3. Intercellular communication within the rat anterior pituitary gland: X. Immunohistocytochemistry of S-100 and connexin 43 of folliculo-stellate cells in the rat anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Shirasawa, Nobuyuki; Mabuchi, Yoshio; Sakuma, Eisuke; Horiuchi, Osamu; Yashiro, Takashi; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Hashimoto, Yasuo; Tsuruo, Yoshihiro; Herbert, Damon C; Soji, Tsuyoshi

    2004-05-01

    Since Rinehart and Farquhar reported the presence of agranulated cells in the anterior pituitary gland in 1953, the functions of the folliculo-stellate cell remain to be clarified. Intercellular junctions have been described in the monkey, rat, and teleost anterior pituitary glands, indicating the existence of cell-to-cell communication within the organ. We pointed to their possible role in the rapid dissemination of information through a complex interconnecting system of follicles involving gap junctions. The gap junctional/folliculo-stellate cellular network was essential in the maturation and regulation of the pituitary gland system such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. It has been was shown that a network participated in the conduction of electrophysiological information over a long distance using the ion Ca(++), which propagates to other folliculo-stellate cells by signaling through gap junctions. Sixty-day-old male rats were used in this study for light microscopic immunohistochemistry of S-100 protein, type I collagen, and connexin 43, and for electron microscopy to observe the morphological relationships between the cellular networks of folliculo-stellate cells and granulated pituitary cells. Clusters of anti-S-100 protein-positive cells were clearly observed in a region of the hypophysis tentatively named the transition zone. Anti-S-100 protein-positive cells and their cytoplasmic processes were also present in the anterior lobe and assembled together to form follicular lumina. Type I collagen was clearly shown outlining the incomplete lobular or ductule-like structure making cell cords in the anterior pituitary gland. Numerous microvilli were present within the follicular lumen while around the lumina, junctional specializations including gap junctions were positive for the connexin 43 protein. A nonuniform distribution of the connexin 43-positive sites were observed. Small or dot-shaped positive sites were noted where two clusters of cells

  4. Bystander effects of PC12 cells treated with Pb²⁺ depend on ROS-mitochondria-dependent apoptotic signaling via gap-junctional intercellular communication.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shu; Zhou, Jin; Chen, Xuemei; Yu, Yunjiang; Ren, Mingzhong; Hu, Guocheng; Liu, Yun; Zou, Fei

    2014-08-17

    The demonstration of bystander effect, which means injured cells propagate damage to neighboring cells, in whole organisms has clear implication of the potential relevance of the non-targeted response to human health. Here we show that 10 μM lead acetate, the optimum concentration for inducing apoptosis confirmed by the expression levels of Bax and Bcl-2, can also induce rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells to exert bystander effects to neighboring cells. In a novel co-culture system, GFP-PC12 (Pb(2+)) cells, which were stable transfected with EF1A-eGFP and pre-exposed with lead acetate, were co-cultured with unexposed PC12 cells at a 1:5 ratio. Parachute assays demonstrated the functional gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) formed between Pb(2+)-exposed and unexposed cells. The Pb(2+)-exposed cells induced very similar effects on neighboring unexposed cells to apoptosis coincide with intracellular ROS generation and the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm). Furthermore, carbenoxolone (CBX), a blocker of GJIC, inhibited the bystander effects. The results indicate that the Pb(2+)-induced insults propagate through GJIC between PC12 cells, while inducing the bystander cells to apoptosis via ROS-mitochondria-dependent apoptotic signaling. PMID:24960054

  5. Theme Issue on Health Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anapol, Malthon M., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    The five articles in this publication address the following topics: the need for effective communication in the dental office, communication skills among preschool children with sickle cell disease, the use of qualifiers in medical headlines, population communication in India, and the effectiveness of a home care program in facilitating therapy…

  6. Communication skills.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Deborah

    2015-03-01

    The front-line nurse is responsible for providing direct patient care, patient satisfaction, care coordination, policy, safety, and communication during a 12-hour shift. Every nurse has the opportunity to make a positive impact on patient outcomes through day-to-day advocacy for patients, nurses, and the nursing profession. Communication is a means of advocacy that provides the avenue to which a positive impact can be made. There are multiple barriers to effective communication in the day-to-day communication of the front-line nurse. Interprofessional communication and shared governance models offer ways to improve communication within nursing and within a systems approach. PMID:25680486

  7. Communication skills.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Deborah

    2015-03-01

    The front-line nurse is responsible for providing direct patient care, patient satisfaction, care coordination, policy, safety, and communication during a 12-hour shift. Every nurse has the opportunity to make a positive impact on patient outcomes through day-to-day advocacy for patients, nurses, and the nursing profession. Communication is a means of advocacy that provides the avenue to which a positive impact can be made. There are multiple barriers to effective communication in the day-to-day communication of the front-line nurse. Interprofessional communication and shared governance models offer ways to improve communication within nursing and within a systems approach.

  8. Commentary on ''Toxicity testing in the 21st century: a vision and a strategy'': stem cells and cell-cell communication as fundamental targets in assessing the potential toxicity of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Trosko, James E

    2010-01-01

    Faced with the reality of our current methods of drug discovery and toxicity assessment of all chemicals is less than perfect, the Report, ''Toxicity Testing in the 21( st) Century: A Vision and a Strategy'', posed a reality check on all scientific efforts to find new conceptual and technical approaches for being better predictors of potential human health effects. This Commentary is a challenge to both the current paradigms and techniques to test chemicals for their potential toxicities. While, clearly, our scientific understanding of the mechanisms of chemical-induced toxicity and of the pathogeneses of all human diseases are not complete, the state of scientific understanding seems not only sufficient to know what we are now doing is not sufficient, but that it is adequate enough to make a new paradigm and technological change. Basically, the challenge includes the opinion that human exposure to chemicals, that are associated with one or more health endpoints (birth defects, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, reproductive and neurological dysfunctions), is the result of epigenetic , not mutagenic or genotoxic, mechanisms. In addition, it is postulated that the adult human stem cell should be considered the ''target'' cell for the important chemical-induced health effects. To test this hypothesis that altering the quantity and quality of adult stem cells by chemical exposures during in utero, neonatal, adolescent, adult and geriatric phases of life can lead to health consequences, it is recommended that 3-D in vitro cultures be used on male and female human adult stem cells from a few major organs (e.g., heart, brain, liver, lung, kidney, breast, prostate ). Altered stem cell biology (e.g., increase or decrease in the stem cell numbers in specific organs; altered apoptotic and differentiation frequencies), as well as measured cell-cell communication, should be seriously considered as toxicity endpoints.

  9. Commentary on ''Toxicity testing in the 21st century: a vision and a strategy'': stem cells and cell-cell communication as fundamental targets in assessing the potential toxicity of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Trosko, James E

    2010-01-01

    Faced with the reality of our current methods of drug discovery and toxicity assessment of all chemicals is less than perfect, the Report, ''Toxicity Testing in the 21( st) Century: A Vision and a Strategy'', posed a reality check on all scientific efforts to find new conceptual and technical approaches for being better predictors of potential human health effects. This Commentary is a challenge to both the current paradigms and techniques to test chemicals for their potential toxicities. While, clearly, our scientific understanding of the mechanisms of chemical-induced toxicity and of the pathogeneses of all human diseases are not complete, the state of scientific understanding seems not only sufficient to know what we are now doing is not sufficient, but that it is adequate enough to make a new paradigm and technological change. Basically, the challenge includes the opinion that human exposure to chemicals, that are associated with one or more health endpoints (birth defects, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, reproductive and neurological dysfunctions), is the result of epigenetic , not mutagenic or genotoxic, mechanisms. In addition, it is postulated that the adult human stem cell should be considered the ''target'' cell for the important chemical-induced health effects. To test this hypothesis that altering the quantity and quality of adult stem cells by chemical exposures during in utero, neonatal, adolescent, adult and geriatric phases of life can lead to health consequences, it is recommended that 3-D in vitro cultures be used on male and female human adult stem cells from a few major organs (e.g., heart, brain, liver, lung, kidney, breast, prostate ). Altered stem cell biology (e.g., increase or decrease in the stem cell numbers in specific organs; altered apoptotic and differentiation frequencies), as well as measured cell-cell communication, should be seriously considered as toxicity endpoints. PMID:20061464

  10. Communicating science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farris, Gaye S.

    2005-01-01

    For science to have an impact, it must be communicated and easily accessible. The USGS National Wetlands Research Center communicates its research findings through several ways: publishing, the Web, the library, and education and outreach.

  11. Lightwave Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rheam, Harry

    1993-01-01

    Describes simple and inexpensive labs for introducing students to fiber optic communications. Students investigate light as a carrier wave; look into the difficulties associated with "light" communication; and learn about modulation, optical fibers, and critical angles. (PR)

  12. Communication, Communication, Communication! Growth through Laboratory Instructing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jamie J.; DeAngelo, Samantha; Mack, Nancy; Thompson, Claudia; Cooper, Jennifer; Sesma, Arturo, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined gains undergraduate students made in their communication and collaboration skills when they served as peer teachers, i.e., laboratory instructors (LIs), for a General Psychology laboratory. Self-ratings of communication and collaboration skills were completed before and after teaching the laboratory. When compared to before the…

  13. Communication (action with communicative content).

    PubMed

    Russo, M T

    2010-01-01

    The term Communication generally designate the transmission of a message of concepts, feelings or needs from a speaker to a receiver by means of verbal or no verbal language. The pragmatic approach to human communication has put in evidence a further implication of this concept: every behaviour therefore has a value even when it is not intentional. Recently, a more dynamic concept of communication has been elaborated where communication means communicative action. This interpretation is the starting point for the theory of the "communicative acting" and subsequently of the so called discourse ethic elaborated by J. Habermas.

  14. Existential Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self, Charles C.

    Focusing on the seminal work "Being and Nothingness," this paper explores the implications of the ideas of Jean-Paul Sartre for the study of communication in society. The paper redefines communication from an existential point of view, explores some implications of this redefinition for the study of communication within the social setting, and…

  15. Cultural Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armas, Jose

    It is too often taken for granted that the communication process with culturally different children takes place as readily as it might with children from Anglo cultures. Most teachers receive training in verbal and formal communication skills; children come to school with nonverbal and informal communication skills. This initially can create…

  16. Stereotypes Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Shuli; Deng, Dongyuan

    2009-01-01

    We live in a world, which is becoming a Global Village in which information and communication attract people's attention more than ever before. Our desire to communicate with strangers and our relationships with them depend on the degree to which we are effective in communicating with them. There are so many factors restricting or improving…

  17. Communication Speaks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinman, Robin Lynn

    2010-01-01

    When the author recently turned her attention to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) "Principles and Standards," she was startled to see communication as key. She adjusted her teaching to meet the NCTM Communication Standard and promote communication in her classroom by providing a safe environment, developing discourse and…

  18. Interracial Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Andrea L.

    Designed to introduce communicators to the factors influencing them interracial and interethnic interaction, this study attempts to explain the dynamics of interracial communication by offering descriptions of various interracial interaction situations and possible reasons for the existence of problems in interracial communication. The first…

  19. Communicating Effectively

    Cancer.gov

    The seventh module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores communication issues pertinent to African Americans with cancer and their health care providers, discusses strategies for culturally sensitive communication, and presents the SPIKES protocol, a practical framework for effective communication.

  20. Communicating Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Joyce

    1993-01-01

    Communicating the environmental risk involved in projects like public incinerators is part of the education of the community. Presents an outline for communicating with the community that includes communication within the project office; solicitation of public input; development of small group informational activities; shared responsibilities;…

  1. Antiproliferative Action of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Human MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells Mediated by Enhancement of Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication through Inactivation of NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Rakib, Md. Abdur; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Gon Sup; Han, Jae Hee; Kim, Jeong Ok

    2013-01-01

    The major conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers, c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA, have anticancer effects; however, the exact mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. Evidence suggests that reversal of reduced gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in cancer cells inhibits cell growth and induces cell death. Hence, we determined that CLA isomers enhance GJIC in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. The CLA isomers significantly enhanced GJIC of MCF-7 cells at 40 μM concentration, whereas CLA inhibited cell growth and induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. CLA increased connexin43 (Cx43) expression both at the transcriptional and translational levels. CLA inhibited nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity and enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. No significant difference was observed in the efficacy of c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA. These results suggest that the anticancer effect of CLA is associated with upregulation of GJIC mediated by enhanced Cx43 expression through inactivation of NF-κB and generation of ROS in MCF-7 cells. PMID:24371460

  2. Wilderness communications.

    PubMed

    Worley, Gordon H

    2011-09-01

    When an emergency situation arises in a remote location, the ability to communicate with outside sources of assistance can prove very valuable. This article reviews the different types of communications technologies available to individuals in remote locations, including satellite telephones, personal locator beacons, satellite messengers, cellular telephones, and the different licensed and non-licensed 2-way radio services available for personal use. It also discusses basic radio communications techniques, emergency communication, requesting ground or air casualty evacuation, and selecting communications devices for different applications.

  3. Complementary effects of HDAC inhibitor 4-PB on gap junction communication and cellular export mechanisms support restoration of chemosensitivity of PDAC cells

    PubMed Central

    Ammerpohl, O; Trauzold, A; Schniewind, B; Griep, U; Pilarsky, C; Grutzmann, R; Saeger, H-D; Janssen, O; Sipos, B; Kloppel, G; Kalthoff, H

    2006-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a fatal disease and one of the cancer entities with the lowest life expectancy. Beside surgical therapy, no effective therapeutic options are available yet. Here, we show that 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PB), a known and well-tolerable inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDAC), induces up to 70% apoptosis in all cell lines tested (Panc 1, T4M-4, COLO 357, BxPc3). In contrast, it leads to cell cycle arrest in only half of the cell lines tested. This drug increases gap junction communication between adjacent T3M-4 cells in a concentration-dependent manner and efficiently inhibits cellular export mechanisms in Panc 1, T4M-4, COLO 357 and BxPc3 cells. Consequently, in combination with gemcitabine 4-PB shows an overadditive effect on induction of apoptosis in BxPc3 and T3M-4 cells (up to 4.5-fold compared to single drug treatment) with accompanied activation of Caspase 8, BH3 interacting domain death agonist (Bid) and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase family, member 1 (PARP) cleavage. Although the inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase-pathway has no influence on fulminant induction of apoptosis, the inhibition of the JNK-pathway by SP600125 completely abolishes the overadditive effect induced by the combined application of both drugs, firstly reported by this study. PMID:17164759

  4. Connexin 32 and its derived homotypic gap junctional intercellular communication inhibit the migration and invasion of transfected HeLa cells via enhancement of intercellular adhesion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Liu, Bing; Wang, Qin; Yuan, Dongdong; Hong, Xiaoting; Yang, Yan; Tao, Liang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of connexin (Cx) and its derived homotypic gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) between tumor cells on the invasion of metastatic cancers and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the influence of Cx32 and the homotypic GJIC mediated by this Cx on the migration, invasion and intercellular adhesion of transfected HeLa cells. The expression of Cx32 significantly increased cell adhesion and inhibited migration and invasion. The inhibition of GJIC by oleamide, a widely used GJIC inhibitor, reduced the enhanced adhesion and partly reversed the decreased migration and invasion that had been induced by Cx32 expression. Blockage of the p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2 MAPKs) pathways using their specific inhibitors attenuated the effects of Cx32, but not those of GJIC, on cell adhesion, migration and invasion. These results indicate that the homotypic GJIC mediated by Cx32, as well as the Cx itself, inhibit cell migration and invasion, most likely through the elevation of intercellular adhesion. The suppressive effect of Cx32 on the migration and invasion of cancer cells, but not that of its derived homotypic GJIC, partly depends on the activation of the p38 and the ERK1/2 MAPKs pathways.

  5. A model to explain specific cellular communications and cellular harmony:- a hypothesis of coupled cells and interactive coupling molecules

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The various cell types and their relative numbers in multicellular organisms are controlled by growth factors and related extracellular molecules which affect genetic expression pathways. However, these substances may have both/either inhibitory and/or stimulatory effects on cell division and cell differentiation depending on the cellular environment. It is not known how cells respond to these substances in such an ambiguous way. Many cellular effects have been investigated and reported using cell culture from cancer cell lines in an effort to define normal cellular behaviour using these abnormal cells. A model is offered to explain the harmony of cellular life in multicellular organisms involving interacting extracellular substances. Methods A basic model was proposed based on asymmetric cell division and evidence to support the hypothetical model was accumulated from the literature. In particular, relevant evidence was selected for the Insulin-Like Growth Factor system from the published data, especially from certain cell lines, to support the model. The evidence has been selective in an attempt to provide a picture of normal cellular responses, derived from the cell lines. Results The formation of a pair of coupled cells by asymmetric cell division is an integral part of the model as is the interaction of couplet molecules derived from these cells. Each couplet cell will have a receptor to measure the amount of the couplet molecule produced by the other cell; each cell will be receptor-positive or receptor-negative for the respective receptors. The couplet molecules will form a binary complex whose level is also measured by the cell. The hypothesis is heavily supported by selective collection of circumstantial evidence and by some direct evidence. The basic model can be expanded to other cellular interactions. Conclusions These couplet cells and interacting couplet molecules can be viewed as a mechanism that provides a controlled and balanced division

  6. Band-like arrangement of taste-like sensory cells at the gastric groove: evidence for paracrine communication.

    PubMed

    Eberle, Julia Anna-Maria; Richter, Patric; Widmayer, Patricia; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Breer, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of taste-related elements within the gastrointestinal tract has led to a growing interest in the mechanisms and physiological significance of chemosensory monitoring of chymus composition. Previous work suggests that brush cells located in the "gastric groove," which parallels the "limiting ridge," a structure in rodents that divides the fundus from the corpus, are candidate sensory cells. A novel sectioning technique revealed that these cells are arranged in a palisade-like manner forming a band which borders the whole length of the corpus epithelium. Using transgenic PLCβ2 promoter-GFP mice and specific antibodies, we have demonstrated that most of these cells express gustducin, PLCβ2, and TRPM5; typical signaling proteins of gustatory sensory "type II" cells. These molecular features strongly suggest that the cells may be capable of sensing nutrient or non-nutrient constituents of the ingested food. Since there is no evidence that brush cells are endocrine cells, attempts were made to explore how such putative chemosensory cells might transmit the information to "effector" cells. It was found that most of the cells express the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) suggesting some paracrine interaction with adjacent cells. Moreover, they also express choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) as well as the vesicular protein SNAP25, indicating the potential for cholinergic transmission, possibly with subjacent enteric nerve fibers.

  7. Hematopoiesis: Gap Junction Intercellular Communication is Likely to be Involved in Regulation of Stroma-dependent Proliferation of Hemopoietic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Ploemacher, ROB E.; Mayen, ANGELIQUE E. M.; De Koning, ALEXANDRA E.; Krenacs, TIBOR; Rosendaal, MARTIN

    2000-01-01

    The 80-100 fold increased immunohistological expression of the Gap Junction (GJ) protein Connexin-43 in murine bone marrow during the neonatal period and directly following cytoreductive treatment of adult mice suggests that the regulation of stem cell proliferation may involve GJ Intercellular Communication (GJIC). Using a series of stromal cell lines from foetal liver and neonatal bone marrow we observed that the percentage of cells with GJIC, as indicated by dye-coupling using microinjection of lucifer yellow, correlated with the stromal support for late appearing clones formed by primitive stem cells (CAFC week 3-5). In order to functionally block all GJIC between mutual stromal cells and stromal cells and hemopoietic cells, in long-term stroma-supported flask (LTC) and CAFC cultures, the lipophilic compounds amphotericin-B (AB), nystatin, alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid, tetraphenylboron, dipicrylamine and arachidonic acid were tested for their effect on GJIC and CAFC support. Only AB and nystatin, which induced complete and prolonged GJIC blockade, were able to dramatically inhibit cobblestone area (CA) formation and CFU-C generation in LTC. This inhibition could be fully abrogated by withdrawing AB within the first 2 weeks of culture. Low AB concentrations stimulated CA formation. The AB-mediated inhibition of hemopoiesis probably involved direct stromal contact with stem cells because a) AB did not inhibit CFU-C generation when stem cells were cultured in trans-well inserts above the stroma; b) conditioned media from AB-containing or normal LTC did not inhibit colony formation by normal cells in semi-solid, non-stromal cultures, and c) AB did not inhibit colony formation by bone marrow cells in semi-solid culture nor did it inhibit growth or maintenance of stromal cells. In addition, The inhibition of hemopoiesis by AB could also not be explained by changes in the amount of cytokine and chemokine transcripts, including TGF-b1, in AB-blocked stromal cells. Our

  8. Troposphere communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iakovlev, L. I.; Dediukin, G. V.; Kagramanov, E. S.; Redin, A. P.; Stuton, P. I.; Tsybulkin, L. D.

    The physical processes and features of troposphere radiowave propagation are reviewed, and fundamental principles for the construction of troposphere lines of communication are discussed. The technical characteristics of troposphere stations in the USA, England, France, FRG, and Japan are studied and compared. Attention is given to mobile and stationary military stations, and to stationary troposphere communication systems in the Americas, Greenland, the Caribbean islands, Asia, Africa, and Australia. Developments in troposphere communications, including the AN/TRC-170 station, are discussed.

  9. Internal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Patricia

    1975-01-01

    A school system must be concerned with both the formal and informal communication systems. (Available from Buckeye Association of School Administrators, 750 Brooksedge Blvd., Westerville, Ohio 43081) (Author)

  10. Alive communication.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Alan; Garvey, Andrea

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical model, based on a dynamic systems perspective and the metaphor of aliveness in communication. Traditional concepts and methods for the study of communication are relatively static and based on the metaphor of signal and response. These traditional methods lend themselves to relatively simplified measures of frequencies and durations, sequences and co-occurrences: a model of objectified communication. The concept of alive communication focuses on the dynamically changing aspects of communication using three related components: coregulation, ordinary variability, and innovation. Like living organisms, alive communication develops over time as it forms dynamically stable patterns. Aliveness can be applied to communication at any age, in any species, between species, in any form including time-delayed practices using written symbols, and with non-living objects. The model provides a tool for evaluating the "life-likeness" of communication with animate and inanimate objects and robotic devices, and for assessing and treating communicative difficulties--in which aliveness is missing--within and between dyads/families.

  11. An NF-κB--EphrinA5-Dependent Communication between NG2(+) Interstitial Cells and Myoblasts Promotes Muscle Growth in Neonates.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jin-Mo; Wang, David J; Peterson, Jennifer M; Shintaku, Jonathan; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Coppola, Vincenzo; Frakes, Ashley E; Kaspar, Brian K; Cornelison, Dawn D; Guttridge, Denis C

    2016-01-25

    Skeletal muscle growth immediately following birth is critical for proper body posture and locomotion. However, compared with embryogenesis and adulthood, the processes regulating the maturation of neonatal muscles is considerably less clear. Studies in the 1960s predicted that neonatal muscle growth results from nuclear accretion of myoblasts preferentially at the tips of myofibers. Remarkably, little information has been added since then to resolve how myoblasts migrate to the ends of fibers. Here, we provide insight into this process by revealing a unique NF-κB-dependent communication between NG2(+) interstitial cells and myoblasts. NF-κB in NG2(+) cells promotes myoblast migration to the tips of myofibers through cell-cell contact. This occurs through expression of ephrinA5 from NG2(+) cells, which we further deduce is an NF-κB target gene. Together, these results suggest that NF-κB plays an important role in the development of newborn muscles to ensure proper myoblast migration for fiber growth.

  12. Intercultural Communicating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    An introduction is provided to the basics of intercultural communication, designed to go beyond cultural contrasts. Factors involved in communicative exchanges with people from other cultures who may think, feel, or act differently are explored. The importance in different cultures of gestures, valuing individuality versus the group, and culture…

  13. Communicator, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bortolussi, Vicki, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The CAG "Communicator" focuses on serving gifted students in California. This document consists of the four issues of "Communicator" issued during 1998. Featured articles include: (1) "Underachievement for Some--Dropping Out with Dignity for Others" (Sally Reis); (2) "When Gifted High School Students Fail" (Patty Bort); (3) "Choosing a College"…

  14. Communicating up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    Chief communicators at many U.S. institutions are interested in forging closer ties with governing boards. Proponents say such relationships can increase board trust and confidence in communicators before a crisis occurs, making it easier to manage the institution's reputation and limit negative publicity when one does. At some institutions, such…

  15. Communicator, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bortolussi, Vicki, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    The CAG "Communicator" focus is on serving gifted students in California. This document consists of the four issues of "communicator" issued during 1997. Featured articles include: (1) "The Gifted Student At Risk. It Can't Be True" (Judy Roseberry); (2) "Tech Net-Technology and At-Risk Students" (Judy Lieb); (3) "Reviving Ophelia: Saving the…

  16. Focus on Communication: NIH Research to Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication NIH Research to Results Past Issues / Fall 2008 ... grew new hair cells. Read More "Focus on Communication" Articles Living with Hearing Loss / Anatomy of the ...

  17. Oocyte-derived BMP15 but not GDF9 down-regulates connexin43 expression and decreases gap junction intercellular communication activity in immortalized human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsun-Ming; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Taylor, Elizabeth; Leung, Peter C K

    2014-05-01

    In the ovary, connexin-coupled gap junctions in granulosa cells play crucial roles in follicular and oocyte development as well as in corpus luteum formation. Our previous work has shown that theca cell-derived bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)4 and BMP7 decrease gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) activity via the down-regulation of connexin43 (Cx43) expression in immortalized human granulosa cells. However, the effects of oocyte-derived growth factors on Cx43 expression remain to be elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of oocyte-derived growth differentiation factor (GDF)9 and BMP15 on the expression of Cx43 in a human granulosa cell line, SVOG. We also examined the effect relative to GJIC activity and investigated the potential mechanisms of action. In SVOG cells, treatment with BMP15 but not GDF9 significantly decreased Cx43 mRNA and protein levels and GJIC activity. These suppressive effects, along with the induction of Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation, were attenuated by co-treatment with a BMP type I receptor inhibitor, dorsomorphin. Furthermore, knockdown of the central component of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily signaling pathway, Smad4, using small interfering RNA reversed the suppressive effects of BMP15 on Cx43 expression and GJIC activity. The suppressive effects of BMP15 on Cx43 expression were further confirmed in primary human granulosa-lutein cells obtained from infertile patients undergoing an in vitro fertilization procedure. These findings suggest that oocyte-derived BMP15 decreases GJIC activity between human granulosa cells by down-regulating Cx43 expression, most likely via a Smad-dependent signaling pathway.

  18. Communicating health.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, A

    1995-01-01

    Routine production of communication materials without paying attention to utilization, field test, and impact analysis is ineffective. The concept of information, education, and communication (IEC) should encompass voluntary activity of health education in a tradition of innovation. One seminal factor may be the communication technologies developed by the National Technology Missions. The missions were participatory by seeking solutions among communities and analyzing health issues from the perspective of those directly involved, rather than from the top down. The prime focus of the national drinking water mission was convenience, hence messages concentrating on health advantages were ignored. At this juncture, influencing health behavior required decentralization reflecting local cultures. Thus community-based partners became the foundation of a strategy of communicating safe water. As national strategies emerged in each of the technology missions, communication addressed advocacy of the need for political will, dissemination of technical information, and influencing patterns of behavior. Despite learning a new understanding, the danger exists that IEC remains just another label of mass communication with posters, advertisements, brochures, radio, and television. Decisions on contraceptive choice and use requires more than just accurate information; it requires the power to make such a decision. A new approach demands a priority for communication skills taking into account people's aspirations. The HIV-AIDS crisis underlines the urgency with which communication has to respond to health challenges. A series of experiments facilitated by the World Conservation Union helped build communication capabilities among environmental groups working in Latin America, Africa, and India. The International Reference Center on Water and Sanitation initiated pilot communication projects in West Africa for community health.

  19. Sunlight and Solar Cells: Teaching Digital Design and Communication through the Development of a Simple Monitoring Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Nathan; Parisi, Alfio

    2010-01-01

    A method is described for building a cost effective digital circuit capable of monitoring the solar radiation incident upon a remote solar cell. The circuit is built in two sections, the first, digitises the analogue voltage produced by the solar cell at a remote location and transmits the received signal to the second receiver circuit which…

  20. Gap junctional intercellular communication as a biological "Rosetta stone" in understanding, in a systems biological manner, stem cell behavior, mechanisms of epigenetic toxicology, chemoprevention and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Trosko, James E

    2007-08-01

    In spite of the early speculation by Loewenstein that one of the critical distinguishing phenotypes of cancers from normal cells was the dysfunction of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), this hypothesis has not captured the attention of most birth defects and cancer researchers. Moreover, even with later demonstrations that factors that influence normal development and carcinogenesis by modulating GJIC, such as chemical teratogens and tumor-promoting chemicals, inflammatory factors, hormones and growth factors, antisense connexin genes, knockout mouse models, human inherited mutated connexin genes, si-connexin RNA, chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic chemicals, it is rare that one sees any reference to these studies by the mainstream investigators in these fields. Based on the assumption that the evolutionarily conserved connexin genes found in metazoans are needed for normal development and the maintenance of health and T. Dobzhansky's statement "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution," a short review of the roles of endogenous and exogenous modulators of GJIC will be made in the context of the multistage, multimechanism process of carcinogenesis, the stem cell theory of carcinogenesis, the discovery and characterization of normal adult stem "cancer stem" cells and the observation that two distinct classes of GJIC-deficient cancer cells are known. The implications of these observations to a "systems biological" view of the role of gap junctions and the nutritional prevention and treatment of several chronic diseases and cancer will be discussed.

  1. Short communication: retinoic acid plus prolactin to synergistically increase specific casein gene expression in MAC-T cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, H Y; Heo, Y T; Lee, S E; Hwang, K C; Lee, H G; Choi, S H; Kim, N H

    2013-06-01

    Mammary alveolar (MAC-T) cells, an established bovine mammary epithelial cell line, are frequently used to investigate differentiation. A lactogenic phenotype in these cells is induced by treatment with a combination of hydrocortisone, insulin, and prolactin (PRL). The effect of the vitamin A derivative retinoic acid (RA), which induces differentiation in many cells, has not been studied in MAC-T cells. The objective of this study was to evaluate the differentiation potential of RA (1 μM) in MAC-T cells and to examine the effect of combined treatment with RA (1 μM) and PRL (5 μg/mL). Although RA treatment alone inhibited MAC-T cell proliferation, co-treatment of RA with PRL increased cell growth compared with the control group (treated with 1 μg/mL hydrocortisone and 5 μg/mL insulin). The ratio of Bcl to Bax mRNA was decreased in the RA treatment compared with RA+PRL or control. Retinoic acid-induced differentiation of MAC-T cells was associated with an increase in the mRNA expression of αS1-casein (3.9-fold), αS2-casein (4.5-fold), and β-casein (4.4-fold) compared with the control group. Expression of αS1-casein, αS2-casein, and β-casein was increased 12.9-fold, 11.9-fold, and 19.3-fold, respectively, following treatment with RA and PRL combined compared with the control group. These results demonstrate that RA induces differentiation of MAC-T cells and acts synergistically with PRL to increase specific casein gene expression.

  2. The role of alveolar epithelial cells in initiating and shaping pulmonary immune responses: communication between innate and adaptive immune systems.

    PubMed

    Chuquimia, Olga D; Petursdottir, Dagbjort H; Rahman, Muhammad J; Hartl, Katharina; Singh, Mahavir; Fernández, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages and dendritic cells have been recognized as key players in the defense against mycobacterial infection. However, more recently, other cells in the lungs such as alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) have been found to play important roles in the defense and pathogenesis of infection. In the present study we first compared AEC with pulmonary macrophages (PuM) isolated from mice in their ability to internalize and control Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) growth and their capacity as APCs. AEC were able to internalize and control bacterial growth as well as present antigen to primed T cells. Secondly, we compared both cell types in their capacity to secrete cytokines and chemokines upon stimulation with various molecules including mycobacterial products. Activated PuM and AEC displayed different patterns of secretion. Finally, we analyzed the profile of response of AEC to diverse stimuli. AEC responded to both microbial and internal stimuli exemplified by TLR ligands and IFNs, respectively. The response included synthesis by AEC of several factors, known to have various effects in other cells. Interestingly, TNF could stimulate the production of CCL2/MCP-1. Since MCP-1 plays a role in the recruitment of monocytes and macrophages to sites of infection and macrophages are the main producers of TNF, we speculate that both cell types can stimulate each other. Also, another cell-cell interaction was suggested when IFNs (produced mainly by lymphocytes) were able to induce expression of chemokines (IP-10 and RANTES) by AEC involved in the recruitment of circulating lymphocytes to areas of injury, inflammation, or viral infection. In the current paper we confirm previous data on the capacity of AEC regarding internalization of mycobacteria and their role as APC, and extend the knowledge of AEC as a multifunctional cell type by assessing the secretion of a broad array of factors in response to several different types of stimuli.

  3. Science communication as political communication

    PubMed Central

    Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2014-01-01

    Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science. PMID:25225389

  4. Science communication as political communication.

    PubMed

    Scheufele, Dietram A

    2014-09-16

    Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science.

  5. Wireless Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A technology utilization project led to the commercial adaptation of a Space Shuttle Orbiter wireless infrared voice communications system. The technology was adapted to a LAN system by Wilton Industries, one of the participants. Because the system is cable-free, installation charges are saved, and it can be used where cable is impractical. Resultant products include the IRplex 6000. Transceivers can be located anywhere and can include mobile receivers. The system provides wireless LAN coverage up to 44,000 square feet. applications include stock exchange communications, trade shows, emergency communications, etc.

  6. Bi-directional communication with the cumulus cells is involved in the deficiency of XY oocytes in the components essential for proper second meiotic spindle assembly.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baozeng; Noohi, Saeid; Shin, Jonghyun S; Tan, Seang Lin; Taketo, Teruko

    2014-01-15

    The oocyte becomes competent for embryonic development by involving mutual communication with cumulus cells (CCs) during folliculogenesis. How this communication takes place under physiological conditions is not fully understood. Current study examined oocyte-CCs communication in the XY sex-revered female mouse. We have previously found that the XY oocyte is defective in its cytoplasm, causing abnormal MII-spindle assembly and a failure in embryonic development. Our present study showed that transcript levels of Pfkp, Pkm2 and Ldh1 involved in glycolysis were lower in the CCs surrounding XY oocytes than in those surrounding XX oocytes. ATP contents in XY oocytes were also lower than those in XX oocytes, suggesting that lower glycolytic gene expression in CCs resulted in lower ATP contents in the enclosed oocyte. Co-culture of oocytectomized CC-oocyte complexes (COCs) with denuded oocytes showed that XY oocytes were less efficient than XX oocytes in promoting glycolytic gene expression in CCs. Furthermore, both glycolytic gene expression levels in CCs and ATP contents in oocytes of XY COCs increased to similar levels to those of XX COCs after culture for 20h in the presence of milrinone (=preincubation), which prevented spontaneous oocyte maturation. By increasing ATP levels in XY oocytes by either COC preincubation or ATP microinjection into oocytes prior to in vitro maturation, an improvement in MII-spindle assembly was observed. We conclude that the XY oocyte produces lesser amounts of paracrine factors that affect its companion CCs, which in turn make the ooplasm deficient in its components, including ATP, essential for MII-spindle assembly. PMID:24247007

  7. In the Know and in the News: How Science and the Media Communicate About Stem Cells, Autism and Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Kimberly; Di Pietro, Nina; Illes, Judy

    2016-02-01

    Stem cell research has generated considerable attention for its potential to remediate many disorders of the central nervous system including neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and cerebral palsy (CP) that place a high burden on individual children, families and society. Here we characterized messaging about the use of stem cells for ASD and CP in news media articles and concurrent dissemination of discoveries through conventional science discourse. We searched LexisNexis and Canadian Newsstand for news articles from the US, UK, Canada and Australia in the period between 2000 and 2014, and PubMed for peer reviewed articles for the same 10 years. Using in-depth content analysis methods, we found less cautionary messaging about stem cells for ASD and CP in the resulting sample of 73 media articles than in the sample of 87 science papers, and a privileging of benefits over risk. News media also present stem cells as ready for clinical application to treat these neurodevelopmental disorders, even while the science literature calls for further research. Investigative news reports that explicitly quote researchers, however, provide the most accurate information to actual science news. The hope, hype, and promise of stem cell interventions for neurodevelopmental disorders, combined with the extreme vulnerability of these children and their families, creates a perfect storm in which journalists and stem cell scientists must commit to a continued, if not even more robust, partnership to promote balanced and accurate messaging.

  8. Effect of low level laser therapy and high intensity laser therapy on endothelial cell proliferation in vitro: preliminary communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukowicz, Malgorzata; Szymanska, Justyna; Goralczyk, Krzysztof; Zajac, Andrzej; Rość, Danuta

    2013-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of power intensity and wavelength of Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) and HILT (High Intensity Laser Therapy) on endothelial cell proliferation. Material and methods: The tests were done on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Cultures were exposed to laser irradiation of 660 nm and 670 nm at different dosages, power output was 10 - 40 mW as well as 820 nm with power 100 mW and 808 nm with power 1500 mW. Energy density was from 0.28 to 11,43 J/cm2. Cell proliferation of a control and tested culture was evaluated with a colorimetric device to detect live cells. The tests were repeated 8 times. Results: We observed good effects of LLLT on live isolated ECs and no effects in experiments on previous deep-frozen cultures. Also HILT stimulated the proliferation of HUVEC. Conclusion: Endothelial cells play a key role in vascular homeostasis in humans. We observed the stimulatory effect of LLLT and HILT on proliferation of HUVEC. Many factors influence the proliferation of EC, so is it necessary to continue the experiment with different doses, intensity and cell concentration.

  9. Optical Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Matt

    1973-01-01

    Describes the characteristics and operational problems of optical waveguides, and concludes that the wide use of optical communications can be expected if difficulties in commercial production of components can be eliminated. (CC)

  10. Scientific Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelson, Philip H.

    1980-01-01

    The value of communication in the preservation of scientific knowledge is described as it relates to the specialized scientific journals. The discipline of peer review is described as the major factor in keeping the scientific enterprise relatively honest. (SA)

  11. Communicating biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Charles L

    2011-01-01

    Shifting from risk-calculation orientations focusing on populations to preparedness perspectives that model uncertainty through scenario-based projections, biosecurity debates redefined notions of "health" and "security." Nevertheless, a key focus of biosecurity discussions--the domain labeled "communication"--has not been fundamentally rethought, even as it has expanded and professionalized. Bracketing preconceived ideas about the term's content, the article traces debates about biosecurity "communication" from the 1990s to the present, drawing on ethnography and textual analysis. Using a notion of biocommunicability, the cultural modeling of how discourse is produced, circulates, and is received, the article analyzes assumptions regarding subjects, subject-positions, objects, spatializing and temporalizing practices, scales, economies of affect, and regimes of ethics that are built into discourse about "communication." Ironically, the conviction that "communication" is of marginal importance as a focus of critical inquiry, seemingly shared by most medical anthropologists, enables these assumptions to fundamentally shape discussions of biosecurity and emergency management.

  12. Communication fail?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    In response to Matin Durrani's editorial “Conference thoughts” (April p15), which bemoaned poor communication and limited social media use by physicists at the March meeting of the American Physical Society (APS).

  13. Quantum Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinfurter, Harald; Zeilinger, Anton

    Quantum entanglement lies at the heart of the new field of quantum communication and computation. For a long time, entanglement was seen just as one of those fancy features which make quantum mechanics so counterintuitive. But recently, quantum information theory has shown the tremendous importance of quantum correlations for the formulation of new methods of information transfer and for algorithms exploiting the capabilities of quantum computers.This chapter describes the first experimental realizations of quantum communication schemes using entangled photon pairs. We show how to make communication secure against eavesdropping using entanglement-based quantum cryptography, how to increase the information capacity of a quantum channel by quantum dense coding and, finally, how to communicate quantum information itself in the process of quantum teleportation.

  14. Police Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Oklahoma City Police Department developed a computerized communications system, based on Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) 1960-mission control knowledge. JSC furnished information on lighting and other fatigue reducing measures, and provided specifications for equipment and design layouts. JSC also advised OCPD how to avoid communications bottlenecks associated with simultaneous handling of telephone, radio and inner-office transmissions. Oklahoma City saved money in reduced design and engineering costs by utilizing the already developed NASA technology.

  15. Briefcase Communicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the photo at bottom right, a U.S. Park Police officer is demonstrating a battery-powered communications system, sufficiently compact to be packed in a briefcase-size container, which can send and receive signals over great distances by means of satellite relay. Key to the system's efficacy is the high-powered transmitting and receiving equipment aboard such NASA satellites as the Applications Technology Satellite6 (ATS-6) and the joint U.S.-Canadian Communications Technology Satellite (CTS); this enables the briefcase communicator to pick up satellite-relayed signals by means of the small hook-on antenna shown instead of the more elaborate-ground equipment customarily needed. Developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, the communicator is intended for use in emergency situations. It has utility, for example, in disasters, such as floods and hurricanes, where power failure disrupts conventional communications; for on-the-spot transmissions from major accident sites; or in remote areas where no other means of communication exists

  16. Communicating Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, P.; Barrosa, Mariana

    2007-08-01

    Science Communication plays a crucial role in education and in the public understanding of science. It shortens the distance between scientific research, the school and the general public. Astronomy has a privileged position in the process of science communication since it embraces different areas of knowledge such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, geology and biology. It is capable of attracting a vast audience and is a powerful tool for science popularization. Nowadays, science must compete with many other subjects for a place in the media and in the public's attention. This paradigm has raised the standards and demands for science communication and pushed it into professionalism. The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) is one of the biggest challenges for astronomy communication. There are two key elements in the communication strategy that are often forgotten: detailed description of objectives and goals and evaluation of the results. They are in opposite poles of the communication strategy, but must both be taken into account from the beginning of any activity. In this paper we will present some guidelines that can be helpful in the initial planning of outreach activities, as well as the evaluation of its results.

  17. Use of communications. [satellite communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Progress in the field of satellite communications is reviewed, and useful services which may be provided by future satellite communications systems are considered. Recommendations are made with regard to mobile communications for use on land and at sea, position determination, mineral and energy exploration, the possibility of using electronic means to assist in main delivery, education and health-care experiments, and the use of satellite telecommunications to enhance the quality of life in rural areas by making available a full range of educational and entertainment programs. The needs of the amateur radio community are also considered.

  18. Intravital Computer Morphometry on Protozoa: A Method for Monitoring of the Morphofunctional Disorders in Cells Exposed in the Cell Phone Communication Electromagnetic Field.

    PubMed

    Uskalova, D V; Igolkina, Yu V; Sarapultseva, E I

    2016-08-01

    Morphofunctional disorders in unicellular aquatic protozoa - Spirostomum ambiguum infusorians after 30-, 60-, and 360-min exposure in electromagnetic field at a radiation frequency of 1 GHz and energy flow density of 50 μW/cm(2) were analyzed by intravital computer morphometry. Significant disorders in morphometric values correlated with low mobility of the protozoa. The results suggested the use of intravital computer morphometry on the protozoa for early diagnosis of radiation-induced effects of the mobile communication electromagnetic field, for example, low mobility of spermatozoa.

  19. Intravital Computer Morphometry on Protozoa: A Method for Monitoring of the Morphofunctional Disorders in Cells Exposed in the Cell Phone Communication Electromagnetic Field.

    PubMed

    Uskalova, D V; Igolkina, Yu V; Sarapultseva, E I

    2016-08-01

    Morphofunctional disorders in unicellular aquatic protozoa - Spirostomum ambiguum infusorians after 30-, 60-, and 360-min exposure in electromagnetic field at a radiation frequency of 1 GHz and energy flow density of 50 μW/cm(2) were analyzed by intravital computer morphometry. Significant disorders in morphometric values correlated with low mobility of the protozoa. The results suggested the use of intravital computer morphometry on the protozoa for early diagnosis of radiation-induced effects of the mobile communication electromagnetic field, for example, low mobility of spermatozoa. PMID:27591872

  20. Acquired Tumor Cell Radiation Resistance at the Treatment Site Is Mediated Through Radiation-Orchestrated Intercellular Communication

    SciTech Connect

    Aravindan, Natarajan; Aravindan, Sheeja; Pandian, Vijayabaskar; Khan, Faizan H.; Ramraj, Satish Kumar; Natt, Praveen; Natarajan, Mohan

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Radiation resistance induced in cancer cells that survive after radiation therapy (RT) could be associated with increased radiation protection, limiting the therapeutic benefit of radiation. Herein we investigated the sequential mechanistic molecular orchestration involved in radiation-induced radiation protection in tumor cells. Results: Radiation, both in the low-dose irradiation (LDIR) range (10, 50, or 100 cGy) or at a higher, challenge dose IR (CDIR), 4 Gy, induced dose-dependent and sustained NFκB-DNA binding activity. However, a robust and consistent increase was seen in CDIR-induced NFκB activity, decreased DNA fragmentation, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity and attenuation of CDIR-inhibited clonal expansion when the cells were primed with LDIR prior to challenge dose. Furthermore, NFκB manipulation studies with small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing or p50/p65 overexpression unveiled the influence of LDIR-activated NFκB in regulating CDIR-induced DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. LDIR significantly increased the transactivation/translation of the radiation-responsive factors tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1α (IL-1α), cMYC, and SOD2. Coculture experiments exhibit LDIR-influenced radiation protection and increases in cellular expression, secretion, and activation of radiation-responsive molecules in bystander cells. Individual gene-silencing approach with siRNAs coupled with coculture studies showed the influence of LDIR-modulated TNF-α, IL-1α, cMYC, and SOD2 in induced radiation protection in bystander cells. NFκB inhibition/overexpression studies coupled with coculture experiments demonstrated that TNF-α, IL-1α, cMYC, and SOD2 are selectively regulated by LDIR-induced NFκB. Conclusions: Together, these data strongly suggest that scattered LDIR-induced NFκB-dependent TNF-α, IL-1α, cMYC, and SOD2 mediate radiation protection to the subsequent challenge dose in tumor cells.

  1. Short communication: opposing effects of lactoferrin on the proliferation of fibroblasts and epithelial cells from bovine mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, K; Itoh, F; Nakamura, M; Kawamura, A; Yamazaki, T; Kozakai, T; Takusari, N; Ishisaki, A

    2015-02-01

    Lactoferrin is present in several physiologic fluids, including milk and colostrum. Recently, evidence has accumulated that lactoferrin acts as a regulator of cell proliferation. Lactoferrin mRNA and protein levels in bovine mammary glands are known to markedly increase after cessation of milking. To clarify the role of bovine lactoferrin (bLF) in mammary involution and remodeling during dry periods, we investigated whether bLF affects the proliferation of cultured cells derived from bovine mammary gland and examined the mechanism underlying the proliferative response to bLF. Addition of bLF to the culture medium increased the proliferation of bovine mammary stromal fibroblasts (bMSF), but decreased that of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC). Proliferation was significantly increased in the bMSF treated with bLF (100μg/mL or greater) as compared with unstimulated cells. The maximal proliferative effect of bLF on bMSF occurred at 1,000μg/mL, such that the proliferation of the bLF-stimulated bMSF was approximately 2.5 times that of unstimulated cells. The bLF increased the production of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and rapid phosphorylation of the p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase in bMSF, but not in bMEC. The bLF-induced proliferation and production of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in bMSF was suppressed by U0126, a specific inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase. Furthermore, treatment with bLF for 24h decreased the mRNA levels of the 3 isoforms of transforming growth factor β in bMSF (16-66%) but upregulated those in bMEC (122-157%). These opposite effects of bLF on the proliferation of epithelial and fibroblast cells and their expression of transforming growth factor β may play a crucial role in bovine mammary involution and remodeling. PMID:25497822

  2. "Sickle Cell Anemia: Tracking down a Mutation": An Interactive Learning Laboratory That Communicates Basic Principles of Genetics and Cellular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Kevin; Williams, Mary; Horn, Spencer; Radford, David; Wyss, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    "Sickle cell anemia: tracking down a mutation" is a full-day, inquiry-based, biology experience for high school students enrolled in genetics or advanced biology courses. In the experience, students use restriction endonuclease digestion, cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis, and microscopy to discover which of three putative patients…

  3. Communicating Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, G. J.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Kiehl, J. T.; Schmidt, C.

    2010-12-01

    We are in an era of rapidly changing communication media, which is driving a major evolution in the modes of communicating science. In the past, a mainstay of scientific communication in popular media was through science “translators”; science journalists and presenters. These have now nearly disappeared and are being replaced by widespread dissemination through, e.g., the internet, blogs, YouTube and journalists who often have little scientific background and sharp deadlines. Thus, scientists are required to assume increasing responsibility for translating their scientific findings and calibrating their communications to non-technical audiences, a task for which they are often ill prepared, especially when it comes to controversial societal issues such as tobacco, evolution, and most recently climate change (Oreskes and Conway 2010). Such issues have been politicized and hi-jacked by ideological belief systems to such an extent that constructive dialogue is often impossible. Many scientists are excellent communicators, to their peers. But this requires careful attention to detail and logical explanation, open acknowledgement of uncertainties, and dispassionate delivery. These qualities become liabilities when communicating to a non-scientific audience where entertainment, attention grabbing, 15 second sound bites, and self assuredness reign (e.g. Olson 2009). Here we report on a program initiated by NCAR and UCAR to develop new approaches to science communication and to equip present and future scientists with the requisite skills. If we start from a sound scientific finding with general scientific consensus, such as the warming of the planet by greenhouse gases, then the primary emphasis moves from the “science” to the “art” of communication. The art cannot have free reign, however, as there remains a strong requirement for objectivity, honesty, consistency, and above all a resistance to advocating particular policy positions. Targeting audience

  4. Why Communicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingworth, Samuel

    2015-04-01

    "Half the world is composed of people who have something to say and can't, and the other half who have nothing to say and keep on saying it." - Robert Frost In this age of digital soap boxes and half-truths, the importance of geoscientists as communicators cannot be underestimated, nor has there been a more important time for researchers to stand up and demand to be heard. So why is there still such an overwhelming public perception that scientists are poor communicators, and what can we do to change this? In this work I will present an overview of a number of successful initiatives that have been developed at Manchester Metropolitan University, and beyond, to ensure that science is communicated to a large variety of people, from policy makers to members of the local community. I will also present an overview of the emerging field of Science Communication, how it has changed in the past few decades from a one-way diatribe to a two-way discussion, and how this represents a possible new direction and career path for geoscientists. Anne Roe, the noted American psychologist, told us, "nothing in science has any value to society if it is not communicated." As geoscientists, we have a professional and moral obligation to ensure that we not only research the facts, but that we also present them in an informative and engaging manner, so that the rest of humanity can benefit from the fruits of our labour.

  5. A contactin-receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase beta complex mediates adhesive communication between astroglial cells and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone neurones.

    PubMed

    Parent, A-S; Mungenast, A E; Lomniczi, A; Sandau, U S; Peles, E; Bosch, M A; Rønnekleiv, O K; Ojeda, S R

    2007-11-01

    Although it is well established that gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones and astrocytes maintain an intimate contact throughout development and adult life, the cell-surface molecules that may contribute to this adhesiveness remain largely unknown. In the peripheral nervous system, the glycosylphosphatidyl inositol (GPI)-anchored protein contactin is a cell-surface neuronal protein required for axonal-glial adhesiveness. A glial transmembrane protein recognised by neuronal contactin is receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase beta (RPTP beta), a phosphatase with structural similarities to cell adhesion molecules. In the present study, we show that contactin, and its preferred in cis partner Caspr1, are expressed in GnRH neurones. We also show that the RPTP beta mRNA predominantly expressed in hypothalamic astrocytes encodes an RPTP beta isoform (short RPTP beta) that uses its carbonic anhydrase (CAH) extracellular subdomain to interact with neuronal contactin. Immunoreactive contactin is most abundant in GnRH nerve terminals projecting to both the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and median eminence, implying GnRH axons as an important site of contactin-dependent cell adhesiveness. GT1-7 immortalised GnRH neurones adhere to the CAH domain of RPTPbeta, and this adhesiveness is blocked when contactin GPI anchoring is disrupted or contactin binding capacity is immunoneutralised, suggesting that astrocytic RPTP beta interacts with neuronal contactin to mediate glial-GnRH neurone adhesiveness. Because the abundance of short RPTP beta mRNA increases in the female mouse hypothalamus (but not in the cerebral cortex) before puberty, it appears that an increased interaction between GnRH axons and astrocytes mediated by RPTP beta-contactin is a dynamic mechanism of neurone-glia communication during female sexual development. PMID:17927663

  6. Splenic scintigraphy using Tc-99m-labeled heat-denatured red blood cells in pediatric patients: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, C.P.; Papanicolaou, N.; Treves, S.; Hurwitz, R.A.; Richards, P.

    1982-03-01

    Ten children underwent splenic imaging with heat-denatured red blood cells labeled with technetium-99m (Tc-99m DRBC). The presenting problems included the heterotaxia syndrome, recurrent idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura following splenectomy, mass in the left posterior hemithorax, and blunt abdominal trauma. In nine patients, the presence or absence of splenic tissue was established. A splenic hematoma was identified in the tenth patient. All patients were initially scanned with Tc-99m sulfur colloid (Tc-99m SC), and were selected for Tc-99m DRBC scintigraphy only after the results of the SC scans failed to establish the clinical problem beyond doubt. The availability of kits containing stannous ions, essential for efficient and stable labeling of red blood cells with Tc-99m and requiring only a small volume of blood, make splenic scintigraphy in children a relatively simple and definitive diagnostic procedure, when identification of splenic tissue is of clinical importance.

  7. "Sickle cell anemia: tracking down a mutation": an interactive learning laboratory that communicates basic principles of genetics and cellular biology.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Kevin; Williams, Mary; Horn, Spencer; Radford, David; Wyss, J Michael

    2016-03-01

    "Sickle cell anemia: tracking down a mutation" is a full-day, inquiry-based, biology experience for high school students enrolled in genetics or advanced biology courses. In the experience, students use restriction endonuclease digestion, cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis, and microscopy to discover which of three putative patients have the sickle cell genotype/phenotype using DNA and blood samples from wild-type and transgenic mice that carry a sickle cell mutation. The inquiry-based, problem-solving approach facilitates the students' understanding of the basic concepts of genetics and cellular and molecular biology and provides experience with contemporary tools of biotechnology. It also leads to students' appreciation of the causes and consequences of this genetic disease, which is relatively common in individuals of African descent, and increases their understanding of the first principles of genetics. This protocol provides optimal learning when led by well-trained facilitators (including the classroom teacher) and carried out in small groups (6:1 student-to-teacher ratio). This high-quality experience can be offered to a large number of students at a relatively low cost, and it is especially effective in collaboration with a local science museum and/or university. Over the past 15 yr, >12,000 students have completed this inquiry-based learning experience and demonstrated a consistent, substantial increase in their understanding of the disease and genetics in general.

  8. Communicating Transactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Edsko; Koutavas, Vasileios; Hennessy, Matthew

    We propose a novel language construct called communicating transactions, obtained by dropping the isolation requirement from classical transactions, which can be used to model automatic error recovery in distributed systems. We extend CCS with this construct and give a simple semantics for the extended calculus, called TransCCS. We develop a behavioural theory which is sound and complete with respect to the may-testing preorder, and use it to prove interesting laws and reason compositionally about example systems. Finally, we prove that communicating transactions do not increase the observational power of processes; thus CCS equivalences are preserved in the extended language.

  9. Communications Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Multi-Compatible Network Interface Unit (MCNIU) is intended to connect the space station's communications and tracking, guidance and navigation, life support, electric power, payload data, hand controls, display consoles and other systems, and also communicate with diverse processors. Honeywell is now marketing MCNIU commercially. It has applicability in certain military operations or civil control centers. It has nongovernment utility among large companies, universities and research organizations that transfer large amounts of data among workstations and computers. *This product is no longer commercially available.

  10. Communication among Oral Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kolenbrander, Paul E.; Andersen, Roxanna N.; Blehert, David S.; Egland, Paul G.; Foster, Jamie S.; Palmer, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Human oral bacteria interact with their environment by attaching to surfaces and establishing mixed-species communities. As each bacterial cell attaches, it forms a new surface to which other cells can adhere. Adherence and community development are spatiotemporal; such order requires communication. The discovery of soluble signals, such as autoinducer-2, that may be exchanged within multispecies communities to convey information between organisms has emerged as a new research direction. Direct-contact signals, such as adhesins and receptors, that elicit changes in gene expression after cell-cell contact and biofilm growth are also an active research area. Considering that the majority of oral bacteria are organized in dense three-dimensional biofilms on teeth, confocal microscopy and fluorescently labeled probes provide valuable approaches for investigating the architecture of these organized communities in situ. Oral biofilms are readily accessible to microbiologists and are excellent model systems for studies of microbial communication. One attractive model system is a saliva-coated flowcell with oral bacterial biofilms growing on saliva as the sole nutrient source; an intergeneric mutualism is discussed. Several oral bacterial species are amenable to genetic manipulation for molecular characterization of communication both among bacteria and between bacteria and the host. A successful search for genes critical for mixed-species community organization will be accomplished only when it is conducted with mixed-species communities. PMID:12209001

  11. “Optical communication with brain cells by means of an implanted duplex micro-device with optogenetics and Ca2+ fluoroimaging”

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Takuma; Haruta, Makito; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Matsumata, Miho; Eizumi, Kawori; Kitsumoto, Chikara; Motoyama, Mayumi; Maezawa, Yasuyo; Ohta, Yasumi; Noda, Toshihiko; Tokuda, Takashi; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Ohta, Jun

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the brain function based on neural activity, a minimally invasive analysis technology in a freely moving animal is necessary. Such technology would provide new knowledge in neuroscience and contribute to regenerative medical techniques and prosthetics care. An application that combines optogenetics for voluntarily stimulating nerves, imaging to visualize neural activity, and a wearable micro-instrument for implantation into the brain could meet the abovementioned demand. To this end, a micro-device that can be applied to the brain less invasively and a system for controlling the device has been newly developed in this study. Since the novel implantable device has dual LEDs and a CMOS image sensor, photostimulation and fluorescence imaging can be performed simultaneously. The device enables bidirectional communication with the brain by means of light. In the present study, the device was evaluated in an in vitro experiment using a new on-chip 3D neuroculture with an extracellular matrix gel and an in vivo experiment involving regenerative medical transplantation and gene delivery to the brain by using both photosensitive channel and fluorescent Ca2+ indicator. The device succeeded in activating cells locally by selective photostimulation, and the physiological Ca2+ dynamics of neural cells were visualized simultaneously by fluorescence imaging. PMID:26878910

  12. Soyasaponins prevent H₂O₂-induced inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication by scavenging reactive oxygen species in rat liver cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiading; Sun, Suxia; Zha, Dingsheng; Wu, Jiguo; Mao, Limei; Deng, Hong; Chu, Xinwei; Luo, Haiji; Zha, Longying

    2014-01-01

    It appears to be more practical and effective to prevent carcinogenesis by targeting the tumor promotion stage. Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is strongly involved in carcinogenesis, especially the tumor promotion stage. Considerable interest has been focused on the chemoprevention activities of soyasaponin (SS), which are major phytochemicals found in soybeans and soy products. However, less is known about the preventive effects of SS (especially SS with different chemical structures) against tumor promoter-induced inhibition of GJIC. We investigated the protective effects of SS-A1, SS-A2, and SS-I against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced GJIC inhibition and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in Buffalo rat liver (BRL) cells. The present results clearly show for the first time that SS-A1, SS-A2, and SS-I prevent the H2O2-induced GJIC inhibition by scavenging ROS in BRL cells in a dose-dependent manner at the concentration range of from 25 to 100 μg/mL. Soyasaponins attenuated the H2O2-induced ROS through potentiating the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. This may be an important mechanism by which SS protects against tumor promotion. In addition, various chemical structures of SS appear to exhibit different protective abilities against GJIC inhibition. This may partly attribute to their differences in ROS-scavenging activities. PMID:25268883

  13. “Optical communication with brain cells by means of an implanted duplex micro-device with optogenetics and Ca2+ fluoroimaging”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Takuma; Haruta, Makito; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Matsumata, Miho; Eizumi, Kawori; Kitsumoto, Chikara; Motoyama, Mayumi; Maezawa, Yasuyo; Ohta, Yasumi; Noda, Toshihiko; Tokuda, Takashi; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Ohta, Jun

    2016-02-01

    To better understand the brain function based on neural activity, a minimally invasive analysis technology in a freely moving animal is necessary. Such technology would provide new knowledge in neuroscience and contribute to regenerative medical techniques and prosthetics care. An application that combines optogenetics for voluntarily stimulating nerves, imaging to visualize neural activity, and a wearable micro-instrument for implantation into the brain could meet the abovementioned demand. To this end, a micro-device that can be applied to the brain less invasively and a system for controlling the device has been newly developed in this study. Since the novel implantable device has dual LEDs and a CMOS image sensor, photostimulation and fluorescence imaging can be performed simultaneously. The device enables bidirectional communication with the brain by means of light. In the present study, the device was evaluated in an in vitro experiment using a new on-chip 3D neuroculture with an extracellular matrix gel and an in vivo experiment involving regenerative medical transplantation and gene delivery to the brain by using both photosensitive channel and fluorescent Ca2+ indicator. The device succeeded in activating cells locally by selective photostimulation, and the physiological Ca2+ dynamics of neural cells were visualized simultaneously by fluorescence imaging.

  14. Graft-union development: a delicate process that involves cell–cell communication between scion and stock for local auxin accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hao; Yan, Bo; Sun, Jing; Jia, Pengfei; Zhang, Zijuan; Yan, Xiaosa; Chai, Juan; Ren, Zhizhong; Zheng, Guochang; Liu, Heng

    2012-01-01

    Grafting is an ancient cloning method that has been used widely for thousands of years in agricultural practices. Graft-union development is also an intricate process that involves substantial changes such as organ regeneration and genetic material exchange. However, the molecular mechanisms for graft-union development are still largely unknown. Here, a micrografting method that has been used widely in Arabidopsis was improved to adapt it a smooth procedure to facilitate sample analysis and to allow it to easily be applied to various dicotyledonous plants. The developmental stage of the graft union was characterized based on this method. Histological analysis suggested that the transport activities of vasculature were recovered at 3 days after grafting (dag) and that auxin modulated the vascular reconnection at 2 dag. Microarray data revealed a signal-exchange process between cells of the scion and stock at 1 dag, which re-established the communication network in the graft union. This process was concomitant with the clearing of cell debris, and both processes were initiated by a wound-induced programme. The results demonstrate the feasibility and potential power of investigating various plant developmental processes by this method, and represent a primary and significant step in interpretation of the molecular mechanisms underlying graft-union development. PMID:22511803

  15. Crisis Communication: The Business Communicator's Strategies for Communicating under Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vielhaber, Mary E.

    1990-01-01

    Uses the 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear plant accident to illustrate the communication problems embedded in a crisis. Describes the reactions created by the stress related to crisis. Suggests business communication strategies for improving communication to the public. (SR)

  16. Magnetostatic communication

    DOEpatents

    Daily, William D.

    2008-02-26

    A system for providing communication of information by modulating a magnetostatic field with a magnetostatic transmitter that modulates said magnetostatic field to contain the information and detecting the information in the modulated field at a distance with a magnetostatic detector that detects the modulated magnetic field containing the information.

  17. Communications Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorderstrasse, Ron; Siebert, Leo

    This module is the third in a series of electronics publications and serves as a supplement to "General Electronics Technician." It is designed to provide students with an overview of the broad field of communications. Included are those tasks above the basic skills level that allow students to progress to a higher level of competency in the…

  18. Core Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Greg; Ross, J. D.; Mulder, David

    2011-01-01

    The website--it is where people go to find out anything and everything about a school, college, or university. In the relatively short life of the Internet, institutional websites have moved from the periphery to center stage and become strategically integral communications and marketing tools. As the flow of information accelerates and new…

  19. Communication Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penland, Patrick R.

    Three papers are presented which delineate the foundation of theory and principles which underlie the research and instructional approach to communications at the Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Pittsburgh. Cybernetic principles provide the integration, and validation is based in part on a situation-producing…

  20. Communicator, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Marta Perez, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    "Communicator" is the newsletter of the Council of Graduate Schools (CGS). Each issue contains an article on a featured topic and information about the activities and programs of the CGS. Each issue also contains profiles and notes about CGS personnel and academic appointments at member institutions. Meetings and conferences are announced and…

  1. Vendor Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Do vendor reps provide librarians with the information they need in the way they need it? Do vendors feel they are communicating effectively with their librarian clients? A recent survey of North American and European academic librarians commissioned by Jim McGinty, vice chair of Cambridge Information Group, and carried out by consultants David…

  2. Communications technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokoloski, Martin M.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the Communications Technology Program is to enable data transmission to and from low Earth orbit, geostationary orbit, and solar and deep space missions. This can be achieved by maintaining an effective, balances effort in basic, applied, and demonstration prototype communications technology through work in theory, experimentation, and components. The program consists of three major research and development discipline areas which are: microwave and millimeter wave tube components; solid state monolithic integrated circuit; and free space laser communications components and devices. The research ranges from basic research in surface physics (to study the mechanisms of surface degradation from under high temperature and voltage operating conditions which impacts cathode tube reliability and lifetime) to generic research on the dynamics of electron beams and circuits (for exploitation in various micro- and millimeter wave tube devices). Work is also performed on advanced III-V semiconductor materials and devices for use in monolithic integrated analog circuits (used in adaptive, programmable phased arrays for microwave antenna feeds and receivers) - on the use of electromagnetic theory in antennas and on technology necessary for eventual employment of lasers for free space communications for future low earth, geostationary, and deep space missions requiring high data rates with corresponding directivity and reliability.

  3. Communications protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Xiaoming (Inventor); Baras, John S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved communications protocol which increases the efficiency of transmission in return channels on a multi-channel slotted Alohas system by incorporating advanced error correction algorithms, selective retransmission protocols and the use of reserved channels to satisfy the retransmission requests.

  4. Transmembrane communication and disease.

    PubMed

    Pasternak, C A

    1990-12-01

    Many disease affect cell behaviour by an effect at the cell surface, often leading to altered communication across the plasma membrane. Two examples of this from our own work are presented. The first concerns the induction of pores, leading to a breach of insulating properties of the cell membrane, by agents as diverse as certain viruses, bacterial and animal toxins, or immune molecules. In each case, membrane damage can be prevented by divalent cations such as Ca2+ or Zn2+. The second example concerns the effect of stress stimuli on the ability of cells to take up glucose. Different stresses, such as hyperthermia, toxic chemicals or infection by certain viruses, cause cells to increase glucose uptake. As with insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, the mechanism is by translocation of the glucose transporter protein from an intracellular (inactive) site to the plasma membrane.

  5. Astronomy Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, A.; Madsen, C.

    2003-07-01

    Astronomers communicate all the time, with colleagues of course, but also with managers and administrators, with decision makers and takers, with social representatives, with the news media, and with the society at large. Education is naturally part of the process. Astronomy communication must take into account several specificities: the astronomy community is rather compact and well organized world-wide; astronomy has penetrated the general public remarkably well with an extensive network of associations and organizations of aficionados all over the world. Also, as a result of the huge amount of data accumulated and by necessity for their extensive international collaborations, astronomers have pioneered the development of distributed resources, electronic communications and networks coupled to advanced methodologies and technologies, often much before they become of common world-wide usage. This book is filling up a gap in the astronomy-related literature by providing a set of chapters not only of direct interest to astronomy communication, but also well beyond it. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy nor in communication techniques while providing specific detailed information, as well as plenty of pointers and bibliographic elements. This book will be very useful for researchers, teachers, editors, publishers, librarians, computer scientists, sociologists of science, research planners and strategists, project managers, public-relations officers, plus those in charge of astronomy-related organizations, as well as for students aiming at a career in astronomy or related space science. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1345-0

  6. Communicating Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Nicholas

    2009-10-01

    Introduction: what this book is about and why you might want to read it; Prologue: three orphans share a common paternity: professional science communication, popular journalism, and literary fiction are not as separate as they seem; Part I. Professional Science Communication: 1. Spreading the word: the endless struggle to publish professional science; 2. Walk like an Egyptian: the alien feeling of professional science writing; 3. The future's bright? Professional science communication in the age of the internet; 4. Counting the horse's teeth: professional standards in science's barter economy; 5. Separating the wheat from the chaff: peer review on trial; Part II. Science for the Public: What Science Do People Need and How Might They Get It?: 6. The Public Understanding of Science (PUS) movement and its problems; 7. Public engagement with science and technology (PEST): fine principle, difficult practice; 8. Citizen scientists? Democratic input into science policy; 9. Teaching and learning science in schools: implications for popular science communication; Part III. Popular Science Communication: The Press and Broadcasting: 10. What every scientist should know about mass media; 11. What every scientist should know about journalists; 12. The influence of new media; 13. How the media represents science; 14. How should science journalists behave?; Part IV. The Origins of Science in Cultural Context: Five Historic Dramas: 15. A terrible storm in Wittenberg: natural knowledge through sorcery and evil; 16. A terrible storm in the Mediterranean: controlling nature with white magic and religion; 17. Thieving magpies: the subtle art of false projecting; 18. Foolish virtuosi: natural philosophy emerges as a distinct discipline but many cannot take it seriously; 19. Is scientific knowledge 'true' or should it just be 'truthfully' deployed?; Part V. Science in Literature: 20. Science and the Gothic: the three big nineteenth-century monster stories; 21. Science fiction: serious

  7. Short communication: Cytokine profiles from blood mononuclear cells of dairy cows classified with divergent immune response phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Martin, C E; Paibomesai, M A; Emam, S M; Gallienne, J; Hine, B C; Thompson-Crispi, K A; Mallard, B A

    2016-03-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced immune response has been shown to decrease disease occurrence in dairy cattle. Cows can be classified as high (H), average, or low responders based on antibody-mediated immune response (AMIR), predominated by type-2 cytokine production, and cell-mediated immune response (CMIR) through estimated breeding values for these traits. The purpose of this study was to identify in vitro tests that correlate with in vivo immune response phenotyping in dairy cattle. Blood mononuclear cells (BMC) isolated from cows classified as H-AMIR and H-CMIR through estimated breeding values for immune response traits were stimulated with concanavalin A (ConA; Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and gene expression, cytokine production, and cell proliferation was determined at multiple time points. A repeated measures model, which included the effects of immune response group, parity, and stage of lactation, was used to compare differences between immune response phenotype groups. The H-AMIR cows produced more IL-4 protein than H-CMIR cows at 48 h; however, no difference in gene expression of type-2 transcription factor GATA3 or IL4 was noted. The BMC from H-CMIR cows had increased production of IFN-γ protein at 48, 72, and 96 h compared with H-AMIR animals. Further, H-CMIR cows had increased expression of the IFNG gene at 16, 24, and 48 h post-treatment with ConA, although expression of the type-1 transcription factor gene TBX21 did not differ between immune response groups. Although proliferation of BMC increased from 24 to 72 h after ConA stimulation, no differences were found between the immune response groups. Overall, stimulation of H-AMIR and H-CMIR bovine BMC with ConA resulted in distinct cytokine production profiles according to genetically defined groups. These distinct cytokine profiles could be used to define disease resistance phenotypes in dairy cows according to stimulation in vitro; however, other immune response phenotypes should be assessed.

  8. Chronic Hyperglycemia Induces Trans-Differentiation of Human Pancreatic Stellate Cells and Enhances the Malignant Molecular Communication with Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Katalin; Baghy, Kornélia; Spisák, Sándor; Szanyi, Szilárd; Tulassay, Zsolt; Zalatnai, Attila; Löhr, J.-Matthias; Jesenofsky, Ralf; Kovalszky, Ilona; Firneisz, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is linked to pancreatic cancer. We hypothesized a role for pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) in the hyperglycemia induced deterioration of pancreatic cancer and therefore studied two human cell lines (RLT-PSC, T3M4) in hyperglycemic environment. Methodology/Principal Findings The effect of chronic hyperglycemia (CHG) on PSCs was studied using mRNA expression array with real-time PCR validation and bioinformatic pathway analysis, and confirmatory protein studies. The stress fiber formation (IC: αSMA) indicated that PSCs tend to transdifferentiate to a myofibroblast-like state after exposure to CHG. The phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 was increased with a consecutive upregulation of CDC25, SP1, cFOS and p21, and with downregulation of PPARγ after PSCs were exposed to chronic hyperglycemia. CXCL12 levels increased significantly in PSC supernatant after CHG exposure independently from TGF-β1 treatment (3.09-fold with a 2.73-fold without TGF-β1, p<0.05). The upregualtion of the SP1 transcription factor in PSCs after CHG exposure may be implicated in the increased CXCL12 and IGFBP2 production. In cancer cells, hyperglycemia induced an increased expression of CXCR4, a CXCL12 receptor that was also induced by PSC’s conditioned medium. The receptor-ligand interaction increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 resulting in activation of MAP kinase pathway, one of the most powerful stimuli for cell proliferation. Certainly, conditioned medium of PSC increased pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and this effect could be partially inhibited by a CXCR4 inhibitor. As the PSC conditioned medium (normal glucose concentration) increased the ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation, we concluded that PSCs produce other factor(s) that influence(s) pancreatic cancer behaviour. Conclusions Hyperglycemia induces increased CXCL12 production by the PSCs, and its receptor, CXCR4 on cancer cells. The ligand-receptor interaction activates MAP kinase signaling

  9. PI3K/AKT signaling is essential for communication between tissue infiltrating mast cells, macrophages, and epithelial cells in colitis-induced cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad W.; Keshavarzian, Ali; Gounaris, Elias; Melson, Joshua E.; Cheon, Eric; Blatner, Nichole R.; Chen, Zongmin E.; Tsai, Fu-Nien; Lee, Goo; Ryu, Hyunji; Barrett, Terrence A.; Bentrem, David; Beckhove, Philipp; Khazaie, Khashayarsha

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To understand signaling pathways that shape inflamed tissue and predispose to cancer is critical for effective prevention and therapy of chronic inflammatory diseases. We have explored PI3K activity in human inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and mouse colitis models. Experimental Design We performed immunostaining of phosphorylated AKT (pAKT) and unbiased high throughput image acquisition and quantitative analysis of samples of non-inflamed normal colon, colitis, dysplasia, and colorectal cancer (CRC). Mechanistic insights were gained from ex vivo studies of cell interactions, the Piroxicam / IL-10−/− mouse model of progressive colitis, and use of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Results Progressive increase in densities of pAKT-positive tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and increase in densities of mast cells (MCs) in the colonic submucosa were noted with colitis and progression to dysplasia and cancer. MCs recruited macrophages in ex vivo migration assays, and both MCs and TAMs promoted invasion of cancer cells. Pre-treatment of MCs with LY294002 blocked recruitment of TAMs. LY294002 inhibited MC and TAM-mediated tumor invasion, and in mice, blocked stromal PI3K, colitis, and cancer. Conclusion The PI3K / AKT pathway is active in cells infiltrating inflamed human colon tissue. This pathway sustains the recruitment of inflammatory cells through a positive feed back loop. The PI3K / AKT pathway is essential for tumor invasion and the malignant features of the Piroxicam / IL-10−/− mouse model. LY294002 targets the PI3K pathway and hinders progressive colitis. These findings indicate that colitis and progression to cancer are dependent on stromal PI3K and sensitive to treatment with LY294002. PMID:23487439

  10. Short communication: Altered expression of specificity protein 1 impairs milk fat synthesis in goat mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J J; Luo, J; Xu, H F; Wang, H; Loor, J J

    2016-06-01

    Specificity protein 1 (encoded by SP1) is a novel transcription factor important for the regulation of lipid metabolism and the normal function of various hormones in model organisms. Its potential role, if any, on ruminant milk fat is unknown. Despite the lower expression of the lipolysis-related gene ATGL (by 44 and 37% respectively), both the adenoviral overexpression and the silencing of SP1 [via short interfering (si)RNA] markedly reduced cellular triacylglycerol (TAG) content (by 28 and 25%, respectively), at least in part by decreasing the expression of DGAT1 (-36% in adenovirus treatment) and DGAT2 (-81 and -87%, respectively) that are involved in TAG synthesis. Consistent with the markedly lower expression of genes related to lipid droplet formation and secretion (TIP47 by 19 and 32%, and ADFP by 25 and 25%, respectively), cellular lipid droplet content was also decreased sharply, by 9 and 8.5%, respectively, after adenoviral overexpression of SP1 or its silencing via siRNA. Overall, the results underscored a potentially important role of SP1 in maintaining milk-fat droplet synthesis in goat mammary epithelial cells. PMID:26995134

  11. Short communication: bulk tank total bacterial count in dairy sheep: factors of variation and relationship with somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo, C; Carriedo, J A; Beneitez, E; Juárez, M T; De La Fuente, L F; San Primitivo, F

    2006-02-01

    A total of 9,353 records for bulk tank total bacterial count (TBC) were obtained over 1 yr from 315 dairy ewe flocks belonging to the Sheep Improvement Consortium (CPO) in Castilla-León (Spain). Analysis of variance showed significant effects of flock, breed, month within flock, dry therapy, milking type and installation, and logSCC on logTBC. Flock and month within flock were important variation factors as they accounted for 22.0 and 22.1% of the variance, respectively. Considerable repeatability values were obtained for both random factors. Hand milking and bucket-milking machines elicited highest logTBC (5.31), whereas parlor systems with looped milkline (5.01) elicited the lowest logTBC. The implementation of dry therapy practice (5.12) showed significantly lower logTBC than when not used (5.25). Variability in logTBC among breeds ranged from 5.24 (Awassi) to 5.07 (Churra). However, clinical outbreaks of contagious agalactia did not increase TBC significantly. A statistically significant relationship was found between logTBC and logSCC, the correlation coefficient between the variables being r = 0.23. Programs for improving milk hygiene should be implemented for both total bacterial count and somatic cell count variables at the same time.

  12. Short communication: Altered expression of specificity protein 1 impairs milk fat synthesis in goat mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J J; Luo, J; Xu, H F; Wang, H; Loor, J J

    2016-06-01

    Specificity protein 1 (encoded by SP1) is a novel transcription factor important for the regulation of lipid metabolism and the normal function of various hormones in model organisms. Its potential role, if any, on ruminant milk fat is unknown. Despite the lower expression of the lipolysis-related gene ATGL (by 44 and 37% respectively), both the adenoviral overexpression and the silencing of SP1 [via short interfering (si)RNA] markedly reduced cellular triacylglycerol (TAG) content (by 28 and 25%, respectively), at least in part by decreasing the expression of DGAT1 (-36% in adenovirus treatment) and DGAT2 (-81 and -87%, respectively) that are involved in TAG synthesis. Consistent with the markedly lower expression of genes related to lipid droplet formation and secretion (TIP47 by 19 and 32%, and ADFP by 25 and 25%, respectively), cellular lipid droplet content was also decreased sharply, by 9 and 8.5%, respectively, after adenoviral overexpression of SP1 or its silencing via siRNA. Overall, the results underscored a potentially important role of SP1 in maintaining milk-fat droplet synthesis in goat mammary epithelial cells.

  13. Communications technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuccia, C. Louis; Sivo, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    The technologies for optimized, i.e., state of the art, operation of satellite-based communications systems are surveyed. Features of spaceborne active repeater systems, low-noise signal amplifiers, power amplifiers, and high frequency switches are described. Design features and capabilities of various satellite antenna systems are discussed, including multiple beam, shaped reflector shaped beam, offset reflector multiple beam, and mm-wave and laser antenna systems. Attitude control systems used with the antenna systems are explored, along with multiplexers, filters, and power generation, conditioning and amplification systems. The operational significance and techniques for exploiting channel bandwidth, baseband and modulation technologies are described. Finally, interconnectivity among communications satellites by means of RF and laser links is examined, as are the roles to be played by the Space Station and future large space antenna systems.

  14. Report on Project to Characterize Multi-Junction Solar Cells in the Stratosphere using Low-Cost Balloon and Communication Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirza, Ali; Sant, David; Woodyard, James R.; Johnston, Richard R.; Brown, William J.

    2002-10-01

    Balloon, control and communication technologies are under development in our laboratory for testing multi-junction solar cells in the stratosphere to achieve near AM0 conditions. One flight, Suntracker I, has been carried out reported earlier. We report on our efforts in preparation for a second flight, Suntracker II, that was aborted due to hardware problems. The package for Suntracker I system has been modified to include separate electronics and battery packs for the 70 centimeter and 2 meter systems. The collimator control system and motor gearboxes have been redesigned to address problems with the virtual stops and backlash. Surface mount technology on a printed circuit board was used in place of the through-hole prototype circuit in efforts to reduce weight and size, and improve reliability. A mobile base station has been constructed that includes a 35' tower with a two axis rotator and multi-element yagi antennas. Modifications in Suntracker I and the factors that lead to aborting Suntracker II are discussed.

  15. Report on Project to Characterize Multi-Junction Solar Cells in the Stratosphere using Low-Cost Balloon and Communication Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirza, Ali; Sant, David; Woodyard, James R.; Johnston, Richard R.; Brown, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Balloon, control and communication technologies are under development in our laboratory for testing multi-junction solar cells in the stratosphere to achieve near AM0 conditions. One flight, Suntracker I, has been carried out reported earlier. We report on our efforts in preparation for a second flight, Suntracker II, that was aborted due to hardware problems. The package for Suntracker I system has been modified to include separate electronics and battery packs for the 70 centimeter and 2 meter systems. The collimator control system and motor gearboxes have been redesigned to address problems with the virtual stops and backlash. Surface mount technology on a printed circuit board was used in place of the through-hole prototype circuit in efforts to reduce weight and size, and improve reliability. A mobile base station has been constructed that includes a 35' tower with a two axis rotator and multi-element yagi antennas. Modifications in Suntracker I and the factors that lead to aborting Suntracker II are discussed.

  16. Short Communication: Low Expression of Activation and Inhibitory Molecules on NK Cells and CD4(+) T Cells Is Associated with Viral Control.

    PubMed

    Taborda, Natalia A; Hernández, Juan C; Lajoie, Julie; Juno, Jennifer A; Kimani, Joshua; Rugeles, María T; Fowke, Keith R

    2015-06-01

    Chronic HIV-1 infection induces severe immune alterations, including hyperactivation, exhaustion, and apoptosis. In fact, viral control has been associated with low frequencies of these processes. Here, we evaluated the expression of activation and inhibitory molecules on natural killer (NK) and CD4(+) T cells and plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines in individuals exhibiting viral control: a cohort of HIV-1-exposed-seronegative individuals (HESN) and a cohort of HIV controllers. There was lower expression of CD69, LAG-3, PD-1, and TIM-3 in both cohorts when compared to a low-risk population or HIV progressors. In addition, HIV controllers exhibited lower plasma levels of proinflamatory molecules TNF-α and IP-10. These findings suggest that individuals exhibiting viral control have lower basal expression of markers associated with cellular activation and particularly immune exhaustion.

  17. Risk communications & emergency planning

    SciTech Connect

    Baranski, S.C.

    1995-12-31

    This talk outlines the interface between good risk communication and emergency planning. The major topics include the following: What is risk communication and how is it applied to emergency planning; crisis communication and the need to know and how to integrate crisis communication and risk communication; the face of the emergency: spokespersons, public information; The Media`s role in emergency Public information and risk communication; Developing the risk communication message; How to respond to continuing need for 24 hours communications; the EAS and Risk communication and Crisis communication; and finally where is risk communication heading and how it can help.

  18. ANIMAL COMMUNICATION.

    PubMed

    SEBEOK, T A

    1965-02-26

    Semiotics and ethology have converged in a new behavioral science, zoosemiotics. Those who are interested in the theoretical analysis of the complex problems of non-verbal behavior that arise where these two disciplines interact aim to treat comprehensively animal communication systems by the aid of representations that have proved illuminating in the study of sentences of human language. Students of zoosemiotics are concerned with codes and messages much as linguists are concerned with competence, or language, and performance, or speech. They thus face the twin tasks of constructing a model for the addresser to specify how a message is encoded and transformed into a signal carried by a variety of channels to the addressee; and of constructing a model for the addressee to specify the ways in which animals utilize their knowledge of their code to recognize the messages they receive. Finally, they assess the context of the communicative event in the hope of dissecting that which is relevant to the selection process from the rest of the background, a program for which there is as yet neither a procedural eliciting technique nor a satisfactory theoretical solution in sight.

  19. Terabit Wireless Communication Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation briefly discusses a research effort on Terabit Wireless communication systems for possible space applications. Recently, terahertz (THz) technology (300-3000 GHz frequency) has attracted a great deal of interest from academia and industry. This is due to a number of interesting features of THz waves, including the nearly unlimited bandwidths available, and the non-ionizing radiation nature which does not damage human tissues and DNA with minimum health threat. Also, as millimeter-wave communication systems mature, the focus of research is, naturally, moving to the THz range. Many scientists regard THz as the last great frontier of the electromagnetic spectrum, but finding new applications outside the traditional niches of radio astronomy, Earth and planetary remote sensing, and molecular spectroscopy particularly in biomedical imaging and wireless communications has been relatively slow. Radiologists find this area of study so attractive because t-rays are non-ionizing, which suggests no harm is done to tissue or DNA. They also offer the possibility of performing spectroscopic measurements over a very wide frequency range, and can even capture signatures from liquids and solids. According to Shannon theory, the broad bandwidth of the THz frequency bands can be used for terabit-per-second (Tb/s) wireless communication systems. This enables several new applications, such as cell phones with 360 degrees autostereoscopic displays, optic-fiber replacement, and wireless Tb/s file transferring. Although THz technology could satisfy the demand for an extremely high data rate, a number of technical challenges need to be overcome before its development. This presentation provides an overview the state-of-the- art in THz wireless communication and the technical challenges for an emerging application in Terabit wireless systems. The main issue for THz wave propagation is the high atmospheric attenuation, which is dominated by water vapor absorption in the THz

  20. [Communication and iatrogenesis through communication].

    PubMed

    Morăraşu, C; Brînză, M; Bortă, C; Morăraşu, G; Boza, C; Rogojină, O

    2001-01-01

    Human intercommunication means transfer of information through many channels, with codes that have biological and socio-cultural determinism. The biological determinism is identifiable through the development of the phonetics and ergomotricity functions, through the possibility of perception of the sensorial organs. The channels of human intercommunication can be verbal, linguistic (the most specialised channel), and nonverbal, extra linguistic channels (mimics, written model, drawing, walking), that are effectively implicated in defining a direct dialogue between the doctor and the patient, completing and emphasising the communication. PMID:12092222

  1. Creativity in clinical communication: from communication skills to skilled communication.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Peter; Young, Bridget

    2011-03-01

    Medical Education 2011: 45: 217-226 Objectives  The view that training in communication skills produces skilled communication is sometimes criticised by those who argue that communication is individual and intuitive. We therefore examine the validity of the concept of communication as a skill and identify alternative principles to underpin future development of this field. Methods  We critically examine research evidence about the nature of clinical communication, and draw from theory and evidence concerning education and evaluation, particularly in creative disciplines. Results  Skilled communication cannot be fully described using the concept of communication skills. Attempts to do so risk constraining and distorting pedagogical development in communication. Current education practice often masks the difficulties with the concept by introducing subjectivity into the definition and assessment of skills. As all clinical situations differ to some extent, clinical communication is inherently creative. Because it is rarely possible to attribute specific effects to specific elements of communication, communication needs to be taught and evaluated holistically. Conclusions  For communication teaching to be pedagogically and clinically valid in supporting the inherent creativity of clinical communication, it will need to draw from education theory and practice that have been developed in explicitly creative disciplines.

  2. Individualized Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    IntelliWeb and IntelliPrint, products from MicroMass Communications, utilize C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), a development and delivery expert systems tool developed at Johnson Space Center. IntelliWeb delivers personalized messages by dynamically creating single web pages or entire web sites based on information provided by each website visitor. IntelliPrint is a product designed to create tailored, individualized messages via printed media. The software uses proprietary technology to generate printed messages that are personally relevant and tailored to meet each individual's needs. Intelliprint is in use in many operations including Brystol-Myers Squibb's personalized newsletter, "Living at Your Best," geared to each recipient based on a health and lifestyle survey taken earlier; and SmithKline Beecham's "Nicorette Committed Quitters Program," in which customized motivational materials support participants in their attempt to quit smoking.

  3. Communication spaces

    PubMed Central

    Coiera, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective Annotations to physical workspaces such as signs and notes are ubiquitous. When densely annotated, work areas become communication spaces. This study aims to characterize the types and purpose of such annotations. Methods A qualitative observational study was undertaken in two wards and the radiology department of a 440-bed metropolitan teaching hospital. Images were purposefully sampled; 39 were analyzed after excluding inferior images. Results Annotation functions included signaling identity, location, capability, status, availability, and operation. They encoded data, rules or procedural descriptions. Most aggregated into groups that either created a workflow by referencing each other, supported a common workflow without reference to each other, or were heterogeneous, referring to many workflows. Higher-level assemblies of such groupings were also observed. Discussion Annotations make visible the gap between work done and the capability of a space to support work. Annotations are repairs of an environment, improving fitness for purpose, fixing inadequacy in design, or meeting emergent needs. Annotations thus record the missing information needed to undertake tasks, typically added post-implemented. Measuring annotation levels post-implementation could help assess the fit of technology to task. Physical and digital spaces could meet broader user needs by formally supporting user customization, ‘programming through annotation’. Augmented reality systems could also directly support annotation, addressing existing information gaps, and enhancing work with context sensitive annotation. Conclusions Communication spaces offer a model of how work unfolds. Annotations make visible local adaptation that makes technology fit for purpose post-implementation and suggest an important role for annotatable information systems and digital augmentation of the physical environment. PMID:24005797

  4. Communication shapes sensory response in multicellular networks.

    PubMed

    Potter, Garrett D; Byrd, Tommy A; Mugler, Andrew; Sun, Bo

    2016-09-13

    Collective sensing by interacting cells is observed in a variety of biological systems, and yet, a quantitative understanding of how sensory information is collectively encoded is lacking. Here, we investigate the ATP-induced calcium dynamics of monolayers of fibroblast cells that communicate via gap junctions. Combining experiments and stochastic modeling, we find that increasing the ATP stimulus increases the propensity for calcium oscillations, despite large cell-to-cell variability. The model further predicts that the oscillation propensity increases with not only the stimulus, but also the cell density due to increased communication. Experiments confirm this prediction, showing that cell density modulates the collective sensory response. We further implicate cell-cell communication by coculturing the fibroblasts with cancer cells, which we show act as "defects" in the communication network, thereby reducing the oscillation propensity. These results suggest that multicellular networks sit at a point in parameter space where cell-cell communication has a significant effect on the sensory response, allowing cells to simultaneously respond to a sensory input and the presence of neighbors.

  5. Communication theory and multicellular biology.

    PubMed

    Mian, I S; Rose, C

    2011-04-01

    In this Perspective, we propose that communication theory--a field of mathematics concerned with the problems of signal transmission, reception and processing--provides a new quantitative lens for investigating multicellular biology, ancient and modern. What underpins the cohesive organisation and collective behaviour of multicellular ecosystems such as microbial colonies and communities (microbiomes) and multicellular organisms such as plants and animals, whether built of simple tissue layers (sponges) or of complex differentiated cells arranged in tissues and organs (members of the 35 or so phyla of the subkingdom Metazoa)? How do mammalian tissues and organs develop, maintain their architecture, become subverted in disease, and decline with age? How did single-celled organisms coalesce to produce many-celled forms that evolved and diversified into the varied multicellular organisms in existence today? Some answers can be found in the blueprints or recipes encoded in (epi)genomes, yet others lie in the generic physical properties of biological matter such as the ability of cell aggregates to attain a certain complexity in size, shape, and pattern. We suggest that Lasswell's maxim "Who says what to whom in what channel with what effect" provides a foundation for understanding not only the emergence and evolution of multicellularity, but also the assembly and sculpting of multicellular ecosystems and many-celled structures, whether of natural or human-engineered origin. We explore how the abstraction of communication theory as an organising principle for multicellular biology could be realised. We highlight the inherent ability of communication theory to be blind to molecular and/or genetic mechanisms. We describe selected applications that analyse the physics of communication and use energy efficiency as a central tenet. Whilst communication theory has and could contribute to understanding a myriad of problems in biology, investigations of multicellular biology

  6. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    DOEpatents

    Deaton, Juan D.; Schmitt, Michael J.; Jones, Warren F.

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  7. Lunar Module Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Apollo lunar module communications. It describes several changes in terminology from the Apollo era to more recent terms. It reviews: (1) Lunar Module Antennas and Functions (2). Earth Line of Sight Communications Links (3) No Earth Line of Sight Communications Links (4) Lunar Surface Communications Links (5) Signal-Processing Assembly (6) Instrumentation System (7) Some Communications Problems Encountered

  8. Evaluating Internal Communication: The ICA Communication Audit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Gerald M.

    1978-01-01

    The ICA Communication Audit is described in detail as an effective measurement procedure that can help an academic institution to evaluate its internal communication system. Tools, computer programs, analysis, and feedback procedures are described and illustrated. (JMF)

  9. Communication Technology and Postdivorce Coparenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn; Feistman, Richard; Jamison, Tyler; Markham, Melinda Stafford

    2012-01-01

    Divorced individuals who share parenting responsibilities have to figure out ways to work together to raise their children. The purpose of this qualitative study of 49 divorced coparents was to examine how they used technology (e.g., cell phones, computers) to communicate. For parents in effective coparenting relationships, communication…

  10. In-Depth Analysis of Patient-Clinician Cell Phone Communication during the WelTel Kenya1 Antiretroviral Adherence Trial

    PubMed Central

    van der Kop, Mia L.; Karanja, Sarah; Thabane, Lehana; Marra, Carlo; Chung, Michael H.; Gelmon, Lawrence; Kimani, Joshua; Lester, Richard T.

    2012-01-01

    Background The WelTel Kenya1 trial demonstrated that text message support improved adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and suppression of HIV-1 RNA load. The intervention involved sending weekly messages to patients inquiring how they were doing; participants were required to respond either that they were well or that there was a problem. Objectives 1) Describe problems participants identified through mobile phone support and reasons why participants did not respond to the messages; 2) investigate factors associated with indicating a problem and not responding; and 3) examine participant perceptions of the intervention. Design Secondary analysis of WelTel Kenya1 trial data. Methods Reasons participants indicated a problem or did not respond were extracted from the study log. Negative binomial regression was used to determine participant characteristics associated with indicating a problem and non-response. Data from follow-up questionnaires were used to describe participant perceptions of the intervention. Results Between 2007 and 2009, 271 participants generated 11,873 responses; 377 of which indicated a problem. Health issues were the primary reason for problem responses (72%). Rural residence (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.96; 95%CI 1.19–3.25; p = 0.009 and age were associated with indicating a problem (adjusted IRR 0.63 per increase in age group category; 95%CI 0.50–0.80; p<0.001). Higher educational level was associated with a decreased rate of non-response (adjusted IRR 0.81; 95%CI 0.69–0.94; p = 0.005). Of participants interviewed, 62% (n = 129) stated there were no barriers to the intervention; cell phone issues were the most common barrier. Benefits included reminding patients to take medication and promoting a feeling that “someone cares”. Conclusions The WelTel intervention enabled frequent communication between clinicians and patients during the WelTel Kenya1 trial. Many patients valued the service for the support it

  11. Virtually Endless Possibilities for Business Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Susan Evans

    2010-01-01

    Business communication educators need to realize that as technology changes and evolves, they must also change and evolve their teaching methods and content. Cell phones, email, blogs, wikis, and text messaging are just a few examples of business communication technologies that not so long ago were viewed as entertainment for teens or techies, but…

  12. Guidelines for Acceptable Electronic Communication with Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todoric, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Rarely does a day go by when one doesn't hear or read something relating to digital communication and school. Whether it's referencing cell phones, email, Facebook, texting, blogs, or Twitter, this constant barrage of messages in the media makes it clear that electronic communications are in the forefront of students' lives. They are also an…

  13. Communicative processes: a model of communication

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, T.D.; Gillett, W.D.

    1982-01-01

    The authors introduce a conceptual model of communicative organization as a part of the formal semantic study of distributed computation. The model includes, as communication primitives, three independent modes of communication: mailing, posting and broadcasting. Mailing models thin-wire communication, and posting models shared memory communication. While broadcasting is not prominent in today's parallel programming languages, it has an important role to play in distributed computation. Other fundamental notions in the model are process, symbol, site, process class, symbol class and site class. 8 references.

  14. Intra- and Intercellular Communication Systems in Ciliates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görtz, H.-D.; Kuhlmann, H.-W.; Möllenbeck, M.; Tiedtke, A.; Kusch, J.; Schmidt, H. J.; Miyake, A.

    Intracellular signaling and cell-cell interactions are basic features of living organisms. Ciliated protozoa show complex mechanisms of intracellular signaling, as is demonstrated for the phagosomal pathway. Although unicellular, ciliates also communicate with other cells, for example, with invading or symbiotic micro-organisms, some of which are dwelling in the nuclei. In predator-prey interactions chemical signals (kairomones) released by certain predators induce defensive morphological or behavioral changes in the prey ciliates. In intercellular communication sensu strictu ciliate cells communicate with each other, for example, in sexual propagation. A variety of sexual signals have been found to function in preconjugant interaction. Many phenomena of cellular communication in ciliates appear to be similar to those found in multicellular organisms.

  15. Theories in Intercultural Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young Yun, Ed.; Gudykunst, William B., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Updating an earlier issue of the "International and Intercultural Communication Annual" (Volume VII, 1983), this collection of 13 essays represents the major approaches to the study of intercultural communication, as well as of communication in general. Papers in the collection are: "On Theorizing Intercultural Communication" (Young Yun Kim); "A…

  16. Language and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jack C., Ed.; Schmidt, Richard W., Ed.

    A collection of essays addresses the connection between the study of communication and its sociocultural contexts and the approach to second language teaching based on the concept of communicative competence. Essays include: "From Communicative Competence to Communicative Language Pedagogy" (Michael Canale); "The Domain of Pragmatics" (Bruce…

  17. Internet-Based Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2014-01-01

    Google the question, "How is the Internet changing the way we communicate?," and you will find no shortage of opinions, or fears, about the Internet altering the way we communicate. Although the Internet is not necessarily making communication briefer (neither is the Internet making communication less formal), the Internet is manifesting…

  18. Communications technology satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A description of the Communications Technology Satellite (CTS), its planned orbit, its experiments, and associated ground facilities was given. The communication experiments, to be carried out by a variety of groups in both the United States and Canada, include tele-education, tele-medicine, community interaction, data communications and broadcasting. A historical summary of communications satellite development was also included.

  19. Communication During Grief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Charles U.

    The physical and psychological difficulties which accompany grief resulting from another's death are described, and the intrapersonal and interpersonal communication behaviors exhibited by bereaved individuals are outlined. The role of intrapersonal communication--the mourner communicating with himself--and interpersonal communication--the mourner…

  20. Overview of communications programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Depaula, Ramon P.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the communications program is to advance critical areas of enabling and enhancing communication technologies that support commercial needs, science, and exploration missions for the 1990's and beyond. The technology program consists of research and technology development in the following areas: RF technology; digital technology; optical communications; mobile communications; and systems integration, test, and evaluation.

  1. Implementation of Communicative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabeen, Shazi Shah

    2014-01-01

    In the contemporary age of high professional requirements such as excellent communicative skills, the need for successful learning of communicative skills of English language suggests communicative ability to be the goal of language teaching. In other words, to teach English language using communicative approach becomes essential. Studies to…

  2. Development Communication Report, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Andrea, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    The three 1993 issues of the newsletter "Development Communication Report" focus on the use of communication technologies in developing countries to educate the people about various social issues as well as the field of development communication itself. Agricultural communication is the theme of the first issue which contains the following…

  3. [Focus: Family Communication].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Richard E., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the "Journal of the Wisconsin Communication Association" focuses on family communication and contains the following articles: "Marital Typologies: An Alternative Approach to the Study of Communication in Enduring Relations" by Mary Anne Fitzpatrick, "Intimate Communication and the Family" by Marilyn D. LaCourt, and "A Study in…

  4. Communications device identification methods, communications methods, wireless communications readers, wireless communications systems, and articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Steele, Kerry D [Kennewick, WA; Anderson, Gordon A [Benton City, WA; Gilbert, Ronald W [Morgan Hill, CA

    2011-02-01

    Communications device identification methods, communications methods, wireless communications readers, wireless communications systems, and articles of manufacture are described. In one aspect, a communications device identification method includes providing identification information regarding a group of wireless identification devices within a wireless communications range of a reader, using the provided identification information, selecting one of a plurality of different search procedures for identifying unidentified ones of the wireless identification devices within the wireless communications range, and identifying at least some of the unidentified ones of the wireless identification devices using the selected one of the search procedures.

  5. Improving Employee Communications

    SciTech Connect

    A. R. Pomplun; B. J. Kelley; B. L. Schrader; R. C. Christma; R. H. Tucker

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings and recommendation of the Sandia/California Site Communications Team based on activities during FY98. The important conclusions are that effective communications are everyone's business; careful planning and execution are required for effective communications; and communication planning can be described in steps easily understood by everyone. Included in this report is a quick reference (toolkit) for communication planning and implementation.

  6. Online communication and adolescent relationships.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Greenfield, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, technology has become increasingly important in the lives of adolescents. As a group, adolescents are heavy users of newer electronic communication forms such as instant messaging, e-mail, and text messaging, as well as communication-oriented Internet sites such as blogs, social networking, and sites for sharing photos and videos. Kaveri Subrahmanyam and Patricia Greenfield examine adolescents' relationships with friends, romantic partners, strangers, and their families in the context of their online communication activities. The authors show that adolescents are using these communication tools primarily to reinforce existing relationships, both with friends and romantic partners. More and more they are integrating these tools into their "offline" worlds, using, for example, social networking sites to get more information about new entrants into their offline world. Subrahmanyam and Greenfield note that adolescents' online interactions with strangers, while not as common now as during the early years of the Internet, may have benefits, such as relieving social anxiety, as well as costs, such as sexual predation. Likewise, the authors demonstrate that online content itself can be both positive and negative. Although teens find valuable support and information on websites, they can also encounter racism and hate messages. Electronic communication may also be reinforcing peer communication at the expense of communication with parents, who may not be knowledgeable enough about their children's online activities on sites such as the enormously popular MySpace. Although the Internet was once hailed as the savior of education, the authors say that schools today are trying to control the harmful and distracting uses of electronic media while children are at school. The challenge for schools is to eliminate the negative uses of the Internet and cell phones in educational settings while preserving their significant contributions to education and social

  7. Online communication and adolescent relationships.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Greenfield, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, technology has become increasingly important in the lives of adolescents. As a group, adolescents are heavy users of newer electronic communication forms such as instant messaging, e-mail, and text messaging, as well as communication-oriented Internet sites such as blogs, social networking, and sites for sharing photos and videos. Kaveri Subrahmanyam and Patricia Greenfield examine adolescents' relationships with friends, romantic partners, strangers, and their families in the context of their online communication activities. The authors show that adolescents are using these communication tools primarily to reinforce existing relationships, both with friends and romantic partners. More and more they are integrating these tools into their "offline" worlds, using, for example, social networking sites to get more information about new entrants into their offline world. Subrahmanyam and Greenfield note that adolescents' online interactions with strangers, while not as common now as during the early years of the Internet, may have benefits, such as relieving social anxiety, as well as costs, such as sexual predation. Likewise, the authors demonstrate that online content itself can be both positive and negative. Although teens find valuable support and information on websites, they can also encounter racism and hate messages. Electronic communication may also be reinforcing peer communication at the expense of communication with parents, who may not be knowledgeable enough about their children's online activities on sites such as the enormously popular MySpace. Although the Internet was once hailed as the savior of education, the authors say that schools today are trying to control the harmful and distracting uses of electronic media while children are at school. The challenge for schools is to eliminate the negative uses of the Internet and cell phones in educational settings while preserving their significant contributions to education and social

  8. Odyssey personal communications satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    The spectacular growth of cellular telephone networks has proved the demand for personal communications. Large regions of the world are too sparsely populated to be economically served by terrestrial cellular communications. Since satellites are well suited to this application, TRW filed with the FCC on May 31, 1993 for the Odyssey construction permit. Odyssey will provide high quality wireless communication services worldwide from satellites. These services will include: voice, data, paging, and messaging. Odyssey will be an economical approach to providing communications. A constellation of 12 satellites will be orbited in three, 55 deg. inclined planes at an altitude of 10,354 km to provide continuous coverage of designated regions. Two satellites will be visible anywhere in the world at all times. This dual visibility leads to high line-of-sight elevation angles, minimizing obstructions by terrain, trees and buildings. Each satellite generates a multibeam antenna pattern that divides its coverage area into a set of contiguous cells. The communications system employs spread spectrum CDMA on both the uplinks and downlinks. This signaling method permits band sharing with other systems and applications. Signal processing is accomplished on the ground at the satellite's 'Gateway' stations. The 'bent pipe' transponders accommodates different regional standards, as well as signaling changes over time. The low power Odyssey handset will be cellular compatible. Multipath fade protection is provided in the handset.

  9. Microvesicles and exosomes for intracardiac communication.

    PubMed

    Sluijter, Joost P G; Verhage, Vera; Deddens, Janine C; van den Akker, Frederieke; Doevendans, Pieter A

    2014-05-01

    The heart is an organ with a complex mixture of well-organized interactions of different cell types that facilitate proper myocardial contractility, sufficient perfusion, balanced myocardial extracellular stiffness, and controlled functioning of the immune system. Several cell types, including cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, immune cells, and cardiac-derived stem cells, need a well-controlled communication system to use the complex orchestra of signalling molecules. The intercellular communication includes direct cell-cell contact, cell-matrix interaction, long-range signals, and electrical and extracellular chemical molecules. In addition to the extracellular molecules that cells can use to influence their environment, more and more attention is focused on the release of extracellular membrane vesicles by cells. These vesicles were always thought to be cell debris derivatives, but it appeared that these vesicles are used for horizontal transfer of information between cells, containing proteins, peptides, several classes of RNA molecules, and sometimes DNA. The main populations of released vesicles are classified on their (intra)cellular origin and include apoptotic bodies, microvesicles, and exosomes. Here, we provide an overview on the role of vesicles in cardiac communication and their use as potential therapeutics and biomarkers.

  10. Communicating about Restructuring: A Communications Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    Guidelines for developing a communications strategy for educators involved in school restructuring are offered in this handbook, which stresses the necessity of building support among different audiences. Chapter 1 discusses getting started and explains how to develop a state/district and school communications plan. Chapter 2 offers ways to build…

  11. Advanced Communications Technology: Mobile Communications Requirements Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-05-01

    The Coast Guard's mobile communications requirements will outstrip existing system capabilities, available capacity, and affordability by the late 1990s. This will require changes in the mix of mobile communications equipment and services used by operational units. New commercial mobile satellite services are available now, with many others arriving on the market between 1998 and 2003. These new services present unique opportunities to satisfy mission requirements, reduce investment in communications infrastructure, and realize more costeffective communications services. The Coast Guard Research and Development Center (R&DC) has undertaken an effort to identify and evaluate current and emerging satellite services that may be used to satisfy Coast Guard mobile communications requirements. As part of this effort, Anteon Corporation has been tasked by R&DC to collect the mobile communications functional requirements that have been identified by program managers. Anteon analysts have reviewed the Government Furnished Information (GFI) and researched other related documentation to identify and collect the requirements that may be used to describe the needed operating environment. Anteon analysts assessed the functional requirements to develop system requirements that describe the features that a communications system must provide to support the functional requirements. This report presents the current and projected Coast Guard mobile communications system requirements.

  12. Communication: Beyond the Basics: Other Communication Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, J. E.; Gratz, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    In addition to the basic communication skills of reading, writing, listening, and speaking, the authors suggest five other levels of communication to help teachers expand students' horizons: kinetic and symbolic; mental; extraterrestrial, biological, and technological; imagery; and perceptual. Each level is briefly discussed. (MF)

  13. The languages of parasite communication.

    PubMed

    Roditi, Isabel

    2016-07-01

    Although it is regarded as self-evident that parasites interact with their hosts, with the primary aim of enhancing their own survival and transmission, the extent to which unicellular parasites communicate with each has been severely underestimated. Recent publications show that information is commonly exchanged between parasites of the same species and that this can govern their decisions to divide, to differentiate or to migrate as a group. Communication can take the form of soluble secreted factors, extracellular vesicles or contact between cells. Extracellular parasites can do this directly, while intracellular parasites use the infected host cell - or components derived from it - as an intermediary. By emitting signals that can be dispersed within the host, parasites can also have long-distance effects on the course of an infection and its pathology. This article presents an overview of recent developments in this field and draws attention to some older work that merits re-examination. PMID:27211242

  14. Short Communication: HIV Type 1 Accumulates in Influenza-Specific T Cells in Subjects Receiving Seasonal Vaccination in the Context of Effective Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, Colin; Chun, Tae-Wook; Ostrowski, Mario A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Whether or not HIV-1 continues to infect cells in individuals treated with effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains controversial. Here, we determined whether the redistribution of the HIV-1 proviral burden with respect to antigen specificity of CD4+ cells would provide evidence for ongoing infection cycles in vivo. HIV-1 preferentially infects antigen-stimulated CD4+ T cells. In the setting of prolonged effective ART, we postulated that if infection cycles were occurring, influenza-specific CD4+ T cells, activated by influenza vaccination, would preferentially accumulate proviral burden. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from HIV-1-infected subjects who had been treated with effective ART for >5 years, before and after influenza vaccination. CD4+ T cells were sorted by antigen specificity and HIV-1 proviral burdens were determined. Levels of HIV-1 production upon in vitro antigenic stimulation were also measured. At baseline, influenza-specific CD4+ T cells carried higher HIV-1 proviral loads than HIV-1-p55-specific CD4+ T cells. Upon influenza vaccination we observed trends toward elevated levels of HIV-1 proviral DNA in influenza and HIV-1-p55-specific, but not tetanus toxoid or cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific CD4+ T cells. Higher levels of HIV-1 virions were produced upon influenza stimulation in postvaccination as compared to baseline samples. While the trends toward increased proviral burdens in influenza-specific cells failed to reach statistical significance, our observation of disproportionately high levels of provirus in influenza-specific cells at baseline indicates that this may represent a real increase that is cumulative over multiple annual vaccinations. This has implications for the eradication of HIV-1 by adding to the evidence that the resting CD4+ T cell viral reservoir is continually replenished in ART-treated subjects. PMID:22734882

  15. Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability: A Role for Secreted Soluble Factors in Communicating the Radiation Response to Non-Irradiated Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Resat, Marianne S.; Morgan, William F.

    2004-06-14

    Radiation induced genomic instability can be described as the increased rate of genomic alterations occurring in the progeny of an irradiated cell. Its manifestations are the dynamic ongoing production of chrososomal rearrangements, mutations, gene amplifications, transformation, microsatellite instability and/or cell killing. In this prospectus, we present the hypothesis that cellular exposure to ionizing radiation can result in the secretion of soluble factors by irradiated cells and/or their progeny, and that these factors can elicit responses in other cells thereby initiating and perpetuating ongoing genomic instability.

  16. Paperbacks in Mass Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardt, Hanno

    1978-01-01

    Lists paperback books on mass communication, divided into six categories: history and biography; appraisals of the press, law, and ethics; cultural, psychological, and social aspects; radio, television, film, photography; international communication; and journalism techniques, miscellaneous. (GW)

  17. Conflict Resolution Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Melinda G.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that, due to escalating violence in contemporary society, community colleges should offer certificate or degree programs in conflict resolution. Describes a conflict resolution communication program, which teaches communication skills, mediation processes, and coping strategies to prospective mediators. (NB)

  18. An Interpersonal Communication Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bienvenu, Millard J., Sr.

    1971-01-01

    Patterns, characteristics and styles of interpersonal communication in 316 men and women were investigated using the Inventory; item analysis yielded 50 items which discriminated between good and poor communication. (Author)

  19. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Communications

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, Mike C.

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Comms is the communication server that transmits information between one or more robots using the RIK and one or more user interfaces. It supports event handling and multiple hardware communication protocols.

  20. Communication and Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Daily Life Daily Plan Activities Communication Food & Eating Music & Art Personal Care Incontinence Bathing Dressing & Grooming Dental ... Daily Life Daily Plan Activities Communication Food & Eating Music & Art Find your local Chapter Zip code: Search ...

  1. Communication System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A communication system for communicating over high-latency, low bandwidth networks includes a communications processor configured to receive a collection of data from a local system, and a transceiver in communication with the communications processor. The transceiver is configured to transmit and receive data over a network according to a plurality of communication parameters. The communications processor is configured to divide the collection of data into a plurality of data streams; assign a priority level to each of the respective data streams, where the priority level reflects the criticality of the respective data stream; and modify a communication parameter of at least one of the plurality of data streams according to the priority of the at least one data stream.

  2. Reading About Science Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, P.

    2010-06-01

    Lately the science communication book market has become quite lively. Several books have been published over the past few years. Covering topics from more formal science communication to practical writing, these books are important resources for everyone.

  3. Communicating with Professionals

    MedlinePlus

    ... rushed than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – over ... at the hospital or during office visits. Good communication skills help you get better results from the time ...

  4. Trends In Satellite Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poley, William A.; Stevens, Grady H.; Stevenson, Steven M.; Lekan, Jack; Arth, Clifford H.; Hollansworth, James E.; Miller, Edward F.

    1988-01-01

    Report assesses trends in satellite communication from present to year 2010. Examines restrictions imposed by limited spectrum resource and technology needs created by trends. Personal communications, orbiting switchboards, and videophones foreseen.

  5. Aging and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyer, Herbert J., Ed.; Oyer, E. Jane, Ed.

    This volume presents comprehensive discussions dealing with the importance to older people of communication. Chapters, written by professionals and educators representing numerous viewpoints and disciplines, cover such topics as basic considerations in communicating with older people, the retiree's perspective on communication, generation gaps,…

  6. Communication, Law, and Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anapol, Malthon M.

    The author takes the position that communication is an essential, but often overlooked component of law and justice; furthermore, some of the current problems in the area of law and justice are basically communication problems. The author traces the early development of communication and law as closely related disciplines, with emphasis on the…

  7. Development Communication Report, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Communication Report, 1992

    1992-01-01

    The four issues of the quarterly newsletter contained in this document focus on the use of communication technologies in developing countries to educate the people about various social issues as well as the field of development communication itself. Environment and communication is the theme of the first issue, which includes articles on…

  8. Developing Oral Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    Intended for use by both elementary and secondary school teachers, the two papers in this report stress the importance of developing students' oral and written communication skills. The first paper, "Relationship of Oral Communication to Reading," by Phil Backlund and John Johnson, argues that ability in oral communication is a prerequisite to the…

  9. Communication Games: Participant's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krupar, Karen R.

    Using a series of communicational games, the author leads the participant through self-awareness, verbal and nonverbal communication, decision-making, problem-solving, and skills in perception, listening, and small group, organizational, and cultural communications. The thesis behind the book is that model-making, role-playing, or other forms of…

  10. ORGANIZATIONAL RISK COMMUNICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ris communication tools in organizations differs in several ways from many of tools and techniques developed for public meetings. The traditional view of risk communication seeks to manage the public outrage ssociated with site-based issues. Organizational risk communication seek...

  11. Diagnosing Communication Pathologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Carol J.

    This paper addresses the concept of the communication audit, i.e., a fact-finding analysis, interpretation, and reporting process that studies the communication philosophy, structure, flow, and practice of the organization. Reasons for doing a communication audit are identified: (1) to uncover information blockages and organizational hindrances;…

  12. Improving Internal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonus, Thaddeus, Ed.

    Guidelines for developing the internal communications of colleges and universities, researching internal communication needs, and increasing information flow through traditional and nontraditional media are provided in 11 articles. Titles and authors include the following: "Work for an Open Internal Communication Policy" (Thaddeus Bonus); "Five…

  13. Secure video communications system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    A secure video communications system having at least one command network formed by a combination of subsystems. The combination of subsystems to include a video subsystem, an audio subsystem, a communications subsystem, and a control subsystem. The video communications system to be window driven and mouse operated, and having the ability to allow for secure point-to-point real-time teleconferencing.

  14. Domestic Communications Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Network Project Notebook, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The June, 1972 Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) decision allowed an "open skies" policy in regard to domestic communication satellites and raised Liberal opposition to a situation where exclusive and unchecked communications power is now in the hands of private entrepreneurs, primarily the big Defense Department oriented aerospace…

  15. Women in Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fins, Alice

    This book provides role models and information specifically geared to women seeking communications positions. It presents the personal stories of 17 women in all areas of communications so that readers will be able to get a better feeling for the communications field, the types of people in it, and the problems they might expect to encounter. The…

  16. Handbook of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Ithiel de Sola, Ed.; And Others

    Each of the 31 chapters which comprise this volume reviews the state of the art in a specific area of communications research. The chapters are grouped into three sections, the first of which focuses upon the basic communication process. An introduction to the concept of a communication system and to the phenomena of language and nonverbal…

  17. Navy satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clair, William C.

    1992-03-01

    The history, current status, and future plans of Navy satellite communications are reviewed. Particular attention is given to Fleet Satellites; the Defense Satellite Communications System; the International Maritime Satellite; Core Command and Control (Core C2), General Purpose Communications, and Navy EHF SATCOM program; and the Copernicus architecture.

  18. Studies in Canadian Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Gertrude Joch, Ed.; Theall, Donald F., Ed.

    Canada provides a unique example of the way in which practical communication problems have produced an awareness of communication theory, policy, and practice. This book brings together a collection of essays which aim to philosophically, analytically, and historically explore the lessons to be gained from Canadian communications activity and…

  19. Early Communicative Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKay, Gilbert F.; Dunn, William R.

    Intended for parents and teachers, the manual offers guidelines for developing communication skills in severely and profoundly mentally handicapped children. An introduction helps the reader determine a suitable starting point and provides a description of early communication skills; Part II describes the five stages in communication development.…

  20. Development Communication Report, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Communication Report, 1991

    1991-01-01

    The four 1991 issues of the newsletter "Development Communication Report" are primarily concerned with the use of communication technologies in developing countries to educate the people. Evaluation is the theme of the first issue, which contains the following articles: "Evaluating Communication Programs: Means and Ends,""Making a Splash: How…

  1. Communication Games in Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderman, Ellen

    1990-01-01

    This article presents a rationale and ways to use communication games in written form to entice deaf children to try new forms of language. It emphasizes the importance of using communicative teaching methods and considering students' communicative adequacy rather than form. Games include picture/object matching games and bingo/lotto games. (JDD)

  2. Modes of Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewatripont, Mathias; Tirole, Jean

    2005-01-01

    The paper develops a theory of costly communication in which the sender's and receiver's motivations and abilities endogenously determine the communication mode and the transfer of knowledge. Communication is modeled as a problem of moral hazard in teams, in which the sender and receiver select persuasion and message elaboration efforts. The model…

  3. Communication and Your Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Communication and Your Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Communication and Your Newborn Print A A A Text ... first smile — a welcome addition to your baby's communication skills! continue What Should I Do? As soon ...

  4. Teamwork and communication.

    PubMed

    Pfrimmer, Dale

    2009-07-01

    Effective teamwork and communication is critical to the delivery of safe and reliable patient care. Communication breakdowns account for the overwhelming majority of sentinel events. Effective teamwork and communication can help prevent mistakes and decrease patient risk. The implementation of simple tools and behaviors can greatly enhance patient safety and improve perceptions of teamwork.

  5. Classroom Communication: Verbal Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, John C.

    The teacher, a participant observer in the total communication environment of the classroom, can, through systematic observation of that communication, attempt a change in behaviors which will result in an improved teaching-learning environment. One systematic way of looking at classroom communication involves the distinction between the nature of…

  6. Dimensions of Communicative Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Arnulfo G.

    Communicative competence is often characterized as an integrated control of language reflected in the speaker's ability to understand and use language appropriately for communication in various situations. The theoretical basis for the communicative competence construct is the anthropological, sociolinguistc, and pragmatic view of language.…

  7. Cell boundary fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2009-05-05

    A method determines a nodal fault along the boundary, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell boundaries communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  8. Communication in Nursing Practice

    PubMed Central

    Kourkouta, Lambrini; Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.

    2014-01-01

    Good communication between nurses and patients is essential for the successful outcome of individualized nursing care of each patient. To achieve this, however, nurses must understand and help their patients, demonstrating courtesy, kindness and sincerity. Also they should devote time to the patient to communicate with the necessary confidentiality, and must not forget that this communication includes persons who surround the sick person, which is why the language of communication should be understood by all those involved in it. Good communication also is not only based on the physical abilities of nurses, but also on education and experience. PMID:24757408

  9. Internet-Based Communication

    PubMed Central

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2015-01-01

    Google the question, “How is the Internet changing the way we communicate?,” and you will find no shortage of opinions, or fears, about the Internet altering the way we communicate. Although the Internet is not necessarily making communication briefer (neither is the Internet making communication less formal), the Internet is manifesting our preference for writing over speaking. I propose that our preference for communicating through Internet-based text derives from a fundamental feature of writing: In contrast to speech, which is most often synchronous, text is most often asynchronous. PMID:26330702

  10. Communication and aging.

    PubMed

    Yorkston, Kathryn M; Bourgeois, Michelle S; Baylor, Carolyn R

    2010-05-01

    People with communication disorders form a diverse group with some experiencing long-standing disorders and others the onset of new disorders in old age. Regardless of age at onset, the burden of communication disorders is cumulative and has important implications for health care providers. Communication serves many roles for older people, not only establishing and maintaining social affiliations but also providing access to health care services. Health care providers should be aware of potential communication disorders and make provision for quiet environments, reading materials at appropriate literacy levels, and longer appointments for people with communication difficulties. PMID:20494279

  11. Personal communications services: Improving theater deployable communications for the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cournoyer, Ronald C., Jr.

    1994-06-01

    Personal Communications Services (PCS) may be the key ingredient for vastly improved military communications capabilities at the turn of the century. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) defines PCS as a family of mobile or portable radio communications services which could provide services to individuals and businesses and be integrated with a variety of competing networks ... the primary focus of PCS will be to meet communications requirements of people on the move. Today's generation of Theater Deployable Communications, which provides joint tactical communications to deployed forces, is the Tri-Service Tactical Communications (TRI-TAC) system. A description of TRITAC's family of equipment, network topology, typical employment, and critical limitations is presented in this thesis. Five commercial Mobile Satellite Services (MSS) are described as viable candidates for augmenting existing communications systems. Cellular design principles such as frequency reuse, cell splitting, channel access methods, and propagation factors are also addressed. Finally, a framework for comparison of the candidate MSS systems is proposed as a baseline for further studies into the most beneficial implementation of PCS into theater deployable communications systems for the future.

  12. Communication, the centrosome and the immunological synapse

    PubMed Central

    Stinchcombe, Jane C.; Griffiths, Gillian M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings on the behaviour of the centrosome at the immunological synapse suggest a critical role for centrosome polarization in controlling the communication between immune cells required to generate an effective immune response. The features observed at the immunological synapse show parallels to centrosome (basal body) polarization seen in cilia and flagella, and the cellular communication that is now known to occur at all of these sites. PMID:25047617

  13. Communications interface for wireless communications headset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seibert, Marc A. (Inventor); Culotta, Jr., Anthony Joseph (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A universal interface adapter circuit interfaces, for example, a wireless communications headset with any type of communications system, including those that require push-to-talk (PTT) signaling. The interface adapter is comprised of several main components, including an RF signaling receiver, a microcontroller and associated circuitry for decoding and processing the received signals, and programmable impedance matching and line interfacing circuitry for interfacing a wireless communications headset system base to a communications system. A signaling transmitter, which is preferably portable (e.g., handheld), is employed by the wireless headset user to send signals to the signaling receiver. In an embodiment of the invention directed specifically to push-to-talk (PTT) signaling, the wireless headset user presses a button on the signaling transmitter when they wish to speak. This sends a signal to the microcontroller which decodes the signal and recognizes the signal as being a PTT request. In response, the microcontroller generates a control signal that closes a switch to complete a voice connection between the headset system base and the communications system so that the user can communicate with the communications system. With this arrangement, the wireless headset can be interfaced to any communications system that requires PTT signaling, without modification of the headset device. In addition, the interface adapter can also be configured to respond to or deliver any other types of signals, such as dual-tone-multiple-frequency (DTMF) tones, and on/off hook signals. The present invention is also scalable, and permits multiple wireless users to operate independently in the same environment through use of a plurality of the interface adapters.

  14. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    PubMed

    van der Velde, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved.

  15. Approaches to Teaching Organizational Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applebaum, Ronald L.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses fundamental problems in selecting an approach to organizational communications; the purpose of an organizational communication course; the structure and content of organizational communication coursework; and teaching strategies used in the basic course in organizational communication. (RS)

  16. Sinusoidal communication in liver fibrosis and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Marrone, Giusi; Shah, Vijay H; Gracia-Sancho, Jordi

    2016-09-01

    Cellular crosstalk is a process through which a message is transmitted within an individual cell (intracellular crosstalk) or between different cells (intercellular crosstalk). Intercellular crosstalk within the liver microenvironment is critical for the maintenance of normal hepatic functions and for cells survival. Hepatic cells are closely connected to each other, work in synergy, and produce molecules that modulate their differentiation and activity. This review summarises the current knowledge regarding paracrine communication networks in parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells in liver fibrosis due to chronic injury, and regeneration after partial hepatectomy. PMID:27151183

  17. Communications and media services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcculla, James W.; Kukowski, James F.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's internal and external communication methods are reviewed. NASA information services for the media, for the public, and for employees are discussed. Consideration is given to electron information distribution, the NASA TV-audio system, the NASA broadcast news service, astronaut appearances, technology and information exhibits, speaker services, and NASA news reports for internal communications. Also, the NASA worldwide electronic mail network is described and trends for future NASA communications and media services are outlined.

  18. SCSI Communication Test Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Chanh V.; D'Ambrose, John J.; Jaworski, Richard C.; Halula, Elaine M.; Thornton, David N.; Heligman, Robert L.; Turner, Michael R.

    1990-01-01

    Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) communication test bus provides high-data-rate, standard interconnection enabling communication among International Business Machines (IBM) Personal System/2 Micro Channel, other devices connected to Micro Channel, test equipment, and host computer. Serves primarily as nonintrusive input/output attachment to PS/2 Micro Channel bus, providing rapid communication for debugger. Opens up possibility of using debugger in real-time applications.

  19. Secure video communications systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.L.

    1991-10-08

    This patent describes a secure video communications system having at least one command network formed by a combination of subsystems. The combination of subsystems to include a video subsystem, an audio subsystem, a communications subsystem, and a control subsystem. The video communications system to be window driven and mouse operated, and having the ability to allow for secure point-to-point real-time teleconferencing.

  20. The European Communications Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, T. A.

    1985-09-01

    Two European Communication Satellites (ECSs) are now in operation for Eutelsat, forming the orbital portion of a communications system that will operate until 1993, carrying telephony and TV for the European Broadcasting Union. A total of five ECSs are to be constructed in order to ensure continuity of service over the systems lifetime. ECSs will also serve as the bases for the European Regional Communication System, which furnishes small receiver dish specialized services and preemptive TV distribution channels within Europe.

  1. Quantum Spread Spectrum Communication

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S

    2011-01-01

    We show that communication of single-photon quantum states in a multi-user environment is improved by using spread spectrum communication techniques. We describe a framework for spreading, transmitting, despreading, and detecting single-photon spectral states that mimics conventional spread spectrum techniques. We show in the cases of inadvertent detection, unintentional interference, and multi-user management, that quantum spread spectrum communications may minimize receiver errors by managing quantum channel access.

  2. Is a mosaic embryo also a mosaic of communication compartments?

    PubMed

    Serras, F; van den Biggelaar, J A

    1987-03-01

    We have studied the pathways of cell communication in embryos of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis in which the developmental fate of a cell or a group of cells is known from cell lineage studies. We iontophoretically injected Lucifer Yellow CH and followed the spread of fluorescence between cells interconnected via gap junctions. In early stages all blastomeres appear to be dye-coupled, but later on communication is restricted within compartments. The pattern of cell communication corresponds with the development of compartments with specific cell fates. Dye-spread is limited by communication boundaries which completely or mostly prevent the passage of dye to adjacent compartments with different developmental fates. These boundaries appear progressively during development. Our results suggest that, during the development of Lymnaea, the progressive changes in the pattern of dye spread correspond with the progressive restrictions of the developmental fates of individual cells or groups of cells. We conclude that changes in the pattern of cell communication and in the appearance of communication compartments are not exclusive features of regulative embryos. PMID:3817285

  3. Nanotube-Enabled Vesicle-Vesicle Communication: A Computational Model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liuyang; Wang, Xianqiao

    2015-07-01

    Cell-to-cell communications via the tunneling nanotubes or gap junction channels are vital for the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Instead of these intrinsic communication pathways, how to design artificial communication channels between cells remains a challenging but interesting problem. Here, we perform dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations to analyze the interaction between rotational nanotubes (RNTs) and vesicles so as to provide a novel design mechanism for cell-to-cell communication. Simulation results have demonstrated that the RNTs are capable of generating local disturbance and promote vesicle translocation toward the RNTs. Through ligand pattern designing on the RNTs, we can find a suitable nanotube candidate with a specific ligand coating pattern for forming the RNT-vesicle network. The results also show that a RNT can act as a bridged channel between vesicles, which facilitates substance transfer. Our findings provide useful guidelines for the molecular design of patterned RNTs for creating a synthetic channel between cells. PMID:26266730

  4. Nanotube-Enabled Vesicle-Vesicle Communication: A Computational Model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liuyang; Wang, Xianqiao

    2015-07-01

    Cell-to-cell communications via the tunneling nanotubes or gap junction channels are vital for the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Instead of these intrinsic communication pathways, how to design artificial communication channels between cells remains a challenging but interesting problem. Here, we perform dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations to analyze the interaction between rotational nanotubes (RNTs) and vesicles so as to provide a novel design mechanism for cell-to-cell communication. Simulation results have demonstrated that the RNTs are capable of generating local disturbance and promote vesicle translocation toward the RNTs. Through ligand pattern designing on the RNTs, we can find a suitable nanotube candidate with a specific ligand coating pattern for forming the RNT-vesicle network. The results also show that a RNT can act as a bridged channel between vesicles, which facilitates substance transfer. Our findings provide useful guidelines for the molecular design of patterned RNTs for creating a synthetic channel between cells.

  5. TDRS: Communicating Critical Data

    NASA Video Gallery

    As a vital information pipeline for space-based research and exploration ambitions, the TDRS constellation fulfills NASA's broadest communication demands. Now into it's fourth operational decade, t...

  6. Nonverbal Communication in Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Howard A.

    1979-01-01

    School-related research is reviewed under seven categories of nonverbal communication: environmental factors, proxemics, kinesics, touching behavior, physical characteristics, paralanguage, and artifacts. (Author/MH)

  7. Communications systems checkout study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginter, W. G.

    1972-01-01

    The results and conclusions of an engineering study of Space Station communications subsystem checkout are reported. The primary purpose of the study is to recommend specific guidelines and constraints for the design and utilization of the communications subsystem leading to a practical and effective means of onboard checkout implementation. Major study objectives are as follows: (1) identify candidate communications subsystem checkout concepts, (2) determine implementation impacts of feasible concepts, (3) evaluate practicality and effectiveness of alternative concepts, (4) propose baseline modifications to accommodate preferred concepts, and (5) recommend areas for additional investigation. In addition, study results are interpreted, where appropriate, in terms of their applicability to checkout of Shuttle-Orbiter communications subsystem.

  8. Space station communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuccia, C. L.

    1983-10-01

    A concise history of the various types of communications that have been used in low-earth-orbit vehicles and form the basis of the various types of communications and communication requirements that can be realized in space-station developments over the next decade is presented. The Space Shuttle can be assumed to be a prototype space station in the tradition of Apollo and Spacelab. Shuttle operations require earth-to-ground support communications, EVA communications, internal communications, and communications to and from other spacecraft (TDRS) and free-flying vehicles for experiments (SPAS-01). These basic communication requirements will expand to the point where the man-computer alliance in the space station will transform the station into a space communications and computer center capable of providing data processing and storage in association with ground-based distributed processing along the growing terrestrial ISDN global digital highway. The space station will also provide unique means to obtain data and information from one part of the earth or space and transport them to another point on earth.

  9. Focus on Communicating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Ways of teaching students to communicate effectively using descriptive words and comparative statements are described. Two task cards involving descriptions of experiments investigating air pressure are included. (MT)

  10. Deep space laser communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Kovalik, Joseph M.; Srinivasan, Meera; Shaw, Matthew; Piazzolla, Sabino; Wright, Malcolm W.; Farr, William H.

    2016-03-01

    A number of laser communication link demonstrations from near Earth distances extending out to lunar ranges have been remarkably successful, demonstrating the augmented channel capacity that is accessible with the use of lasers for communications. The next hurdle on the path to extending laser communication and its benefits throughout the solar system and beyond is to demonstrate deep-space laser communication links. In this paper, concepts and technology development being advanced at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in order to enable deep-space link demonstrations to ranges of approximately 3 AU in the next decade, will be discussed.

  11. Lycopene oxidation product enhances gap junctional communication.

    PubMed

    Aust, O; Ale-Agha, N; Zhang, L; Wollersen, H; Sies, H; Stahl, W

    2003-10-01

    Carotenoids as well as their metabolites and oxidation products stimulate gap junctional communication (GJC) between cells, which is thought to be one of the protective mechanisms related to cancer-preventive activities of these compounds. Increased intake of lycopene by consumption of tomatoes or tomato products has been epidemiologically associated with a diminished risk of prostate cancer. Here, we report a stimulatory effect of a lycopene oxidation product on GJC in rat liver epithelial WB-F344 cells. The active compound was obtained by complete in vitro oxidation of lycopene with hydrogen peroxide/osmium tetroxide. For structural analysis high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, ultraviolet/visible-, and infrared spectrophotometry were applied. The biologically active oxidation product was identified as 2,7,11-trimethyl-tetradecahexaene-1,14-dial. The present data indicate a potential role of lycopene degradation products in cell signaling enhancing cell-to-cell communication via gap junctions. PMID:12909274

  12. Short communication: Colony-forming hematopoietic progenitor cells are not preferentially infected by HIV type 1 subtypes A and D in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mullis, Caroline E; Oliver, Amy E; Eller, Leigh Anne; Guwatudde, David; Mueller, Amy C; Eller, Michael A; Kibuuka, Hannah; Robb, Merlin; Quinn, Thomas C; Redd, Andrew D

    2012-09-01

    HIV subtype C has previously been shown to infect hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) at a significantly higher rate than subtype B. To better understand the subtype-specific nature of HPC infection, we examined the prevalence of HPC infection in vivo by HIV-1 subtypes A and D. HIV-1 infection of HPC was examined in 40 individuals, 19 infected with subtype A and 21 with subtype D, using a single colony assay format. DNA from 1177 extracted colonies was tested for integrated viral DNA of the p24 gene. Four colonies were found to be stably infected, three of 462 colonies (0.65%) from HIV-1A-infected individuals (1/19 individuals) and one of 715 colonies (0.14%) from HIV-1D-infected individuals (1/22 individuals). These rates of colony infection were comparable to the rates observed in PBMCs from the same subjects. Additionally, no correlation was observed between cell colony density and circulating viral load or proviral load. Our findings suggest that HIV-1 subtypes A and D do not preferentially infect colony-forming HPCs over mature HIV target cells in vivo.

  13. Engineering nanoparticles to silence bacterial communication

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kristen P.; Wang, Lei; Chen, Yung-Pin; Pellechia, Perry J.; Benicewicz, Brian C.; Decho, Alan W.

    2015-01-01

    The alarming spread of bacterial resistance to traditional antibiotics has warranted the study of alternative antimicrobial agents. Quorum sensing (QS) is a chemical cell-to-cell communication mechanism utilized by bacteria to coordinate group behaviors and establish infections. QS is integral to bacterial survival, and therefore provides a unique target for antimicrobial therapy. In this study, silicon dioxide nanoparticles (Si-NP) were engineered to target the signaling molecules [i.e., acylhomoserine lactones (HSLs)] used for QS in order to halt bacterial communication. Specifically, when Si-NP were surface functionalized with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), then added to cultures of bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), whose luminous output depends upon HSL-mediated QS, the cell-to-cell communication was dramatically reduced. Reductions in luminescence were further verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses of luminescence genes. Binding of HSLs to Si-NPs was examined using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The results indicated that by delivering high concentrations of engineered NPs with associated quenching compounds, the chemical signals were removed from the immediate bacterial environment. In actively-metabolizing cultures, this treatment blocked the ability of bacteria to communicate and regulate QS, effectively silencing and isolating the cells. Si-NPs provide a scaffold and critical stepping-stone for more pointed developments in antimicrobial therapy, especially with regard to QS—a target that will reduce resistance pressures imposed by traditional antibiotics. PMID:25806030

  14. Will Professional Communication Be the Death of Business Communication?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locker, Kitty O.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the growth of business and technical communication courses as college courses in universities. Documents the move to "professional" communication in English departments. Explains why technical communication dominates "professional" communication. Argues that faculty who teach business communication in business schools should care about…

  15. Mitonuclear communication in homeostasis and stress.

    PubMed

    Quirós, Pedro M; Mottis, Adrienne; Auwerx, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondria participate in crucial cellular processes such as energy harvesting and intermediate metabolism. Although mitochondria possess their own genome--a vestige of their bacterial origins and endosymbiotic evolution--most mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nucleus. The expression of the mitochondrial proteome hence requires tight coordination between the two genomes to adapt mitochondrial function to the ever-changing cellular milieu. In this Review, we focus on the pathways that coordinate the communication between mitochondria and the nucleus during homeostasis and mitochondrial stress. These pathways include nucleus-to-mitochondria (anterograde) and mitochondria-to-nucleus (retrograde) communication, mitonuclear feedback signalling and proteostasis regulation, the integrated stress response and non-cell-autonomous communication. We discuss how mitonuclear communication safeguards cellular and organismal fitness and regulates lifespan. PMID:26956194

  16. Tricholoma vaccinum host communication during ectomycorrhiza formation.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Katharina; Linde, Jörg; Krause, Katrin; Gube, Matthias; Koestler, Tina; Sammer, Dominik; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Kothe, Erika

    2015-11-01

    The genome sequence of Tricholoma vaccinum was obtained to predict its secretome in order to elucidate communication of T. vaccinum with its host tree spruce (Picea abies) in interkingdom signaling. The most prominent protein domains within the 206 predicted secreted proteins belong to energy and nutrition (52%), cell wall degradation (19%) and mycorrhiza establishment (9%). Additionally, we found small secreted proteins that show typical features of effectors potentially involved in host communication. From the secretome, 22 proteins could be identified, two of which showed higher protein abundances after spruce root exudate exposure, while five were downregulated in this treatment. The changes in T. vaccinum protein excretion with first recognition of the partner were used to identify small secreted proteins with the potential to act as effectors in the mutually beneficial symbiosis. Our observations support the hypothesis of a complex communication network including a cocktail of communication molecules induced long before physical contact of the partners. PMID:26449385

  17. A novel immune-to-CNS communication pathway: cells of the meninges surrounding the spinal cord CSF space produce proinflammatory cytokines in response to an inflammatory stimulus.

    PubMed

    Wieseler-Frank, Julie; Jekich, Brian M; Mahoney, John H; Bland, Sondra T; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R

    2007-07-01

    Pain is enhanced in response to elevations of proinflammatory cytokines in spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), following either intrathecal injection of these cytokines or intrathecal immune challenge with HIV-1 gp120 that induces cytokine release. Spinal cord glia have been assumed to be the source of endogenous proinflammatory cytokines that enhance pain. However, assuming that spinal cord glia are the sole source of CSF cytokines may be an underestimate, as the cellular composition of the meninges surrounding the spinal cord CSF space includes several cell types known to produce proinflammatory cytokines. The present experiments provide the first investigation of the immunocompetent nature of the spinal cord meninges. Here, we explore whether rat meninges are responsive to intrathecal gp120. These studies demonstrate that: (a) intrathecal gp120 upregulates meningeal gene expression of proinflammatory signals, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and (b) intrathecal gp120 induces meningeal release of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6. In addition, stimulation of isolated meninges in vitro with gp120 induced the release of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta, indicating that the resident cells of the meninges are able to respond without immune cell recruitment. Taken together, these data document that the meninges are responsive to immunogenic stimuli in the CSF and that the meninges may be a source of immune products detected in CSF. The ability of the meninges to release to proinflammatory signals suggests a potential role in the modulation of pain.

  18. Nonprofit Communications from a Corporate Communications Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Ava

    2006-01-01

    Nonprofit organizations, such as social service agencies, charities, and hospitals, plan and prepare communications that are vital to their missions. Although not corporations, these organizations produce news releases, newsletters, and annual reports that are similar to those created in the corporate sector. In this research project for a course…

  19. Milford Visual Communications Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milford Exempted Village Schools, OH.

    This study discusses a visual communications project designed to develop activities to promote visual literacy at the elementary and secondary school levels. The project has four phases: (1) perception of basic forms in the environment, what these forms represent, and how they inter-relate; (2) discovery and communication of more complex…

  20. Futures of Human Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, L. S.

    There are several research areas basic to the long-range future of human communications. Telecommunication and transportation offer the possiblity of two worldwide communications networks whose interrelationships need to be explored in terms of the needs of the individual, the community, and the world at large. Expanding possibilities of…

  1. Communications Software for Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruman, Janet L.

    Focusing on the use of microcomputers as "smart terminals" for accessing time-sharing systems for libraries, this document discusses the communications software needed to allow the microcomputer to appear as a terminal to the remote host. The functions which communications software programs are designed to perform are defined and explained,…

  2. Oral Communication in Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binnion, John E.; Thomas, Edward G.

    Helping young executives develop oral communication skills is an important task of business schools. A course that requires informal, timed, extemporaneous talks as well as extended formal presentations allows students the opportunity to be evaluated by their peers and by faculty members as they grow in their ability to communicate. Formal…

  3. Promoting Intercultural Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Rukiya

    2005-01-01

    Misunderstandings and breakdowns in communication often occur when we interact with people from different cultures. Therefore, it is essential for us to be sensitive to other cultures. This article analyses the prevailing problems in intercultural communication and gives suggestions to higher education institutions in the hope of improving…

  4. Communicating with Stakeholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldridge, Jonathan; Mason, Tisa

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the institutional context of financial issues and related communication enhances the effectiveness of student affairs administrators within their areas of responsibility and as leaders of change on campus. This chapter focuses on key aspects of developing a comprehensive communication strategy.

  5. Marxism and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Patrick J.; Soloski, John

    Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels had little to say specifically about communication and language, but their works hint at the direction their critique of communication might have taken. Language and consciousness are conditioned by specific means of production and sociopolitical circumstances and are therefore ideological. The domain of ideology…

  6. Communication for Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Colin

    1984-01-01

    These reflections emerging from the Food and Agriculture Organization's long involvement in communication for development focus on lack of physical communication infrastructures accommodating development work; human dimension; more systematic media use; use of educational radio and portable video recorders; political considerations; and need for…

  7. Communication and Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillars, Malcolm O.

    Communication experts and researchers have done little to help prepare themselves or others to cope with values in the communication revolution that is taking place. The problem goes beyond the influence the media has in the United States; it has implications of international issues of survival. What is needed is an emphasis on research and…

  8. Communication and Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Martha J.

    Instructional materials are provided for a workplace communication class that is designed to cover 3 aspects of communication in 9 class hours. The first module on personalities is devoted to the following material found in Smalley and Trent's book, "The Two Sides of Love": introduction to personality categorizing; personality survey; discussions…

  9. Communicating with the Public.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Judy

    This collection of guidelines and worksheets provides information on the development of good communication skills, aspects of interpersonal communications, and elements of administrator effectiveness in the field of education. Specifically mentioned are a public relations project; coping with rumors and grapevine information; social networking;…

  10. Subliminal communication technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Various types of subliminal communication devices presently in use, the psychological basis for subliminal technology, and the effectiveness of subliminal communication for therapy are examined as well as potentials for abuse. Social, legal, and ethical aspects are considered with respect to the privacy and autonomy of captive audiences. Implications for the regulation of subliminal techniques are reviewed with application to the various media.

  11. Communication, Conceptualization and Articulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsayed, Adel; Hartley, Roger

    2005-01-01

    Learning can be viewed as a communication process that puts the learner in contact with concepts created by others. A result of communication is that an act of interpretation starts, which invokes a process of conceptualization. According to Mayes, successful conceptualization will need the support of learning activities. Hence, machine mediated…

  12. Dimensions of Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overmier, Mary; And Others

    After a brief description of the dimensions of nonverbal communication, this booklet presents 21 activities that deal with nonverbal communication. Activities in the booklet involve body movements (kinesics), facial expressions, eye movements, perception and use of space (proxemics), haptics (touch), paralinguistics (vocal elements that accompany…

  13. Communicating with patients.

    PubMed

    Kaplowitz, G J

    1999-01-01

    Dental care providers need to be able to communicate effectively with their patients in order to build rapport and trust. Highly developed communication skills also enable the dental care provider to extract more accurate diagnostic information and to more effectively present treatment options to the patient. Neurolinguistic programming techniques can be employed to accomplish these as well as other objectives.

  14. Communication Interface for SAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koffman, M.; Hartley, F.

    1995-01-01

    An interface is described that supplies communications between the flight instruments and the analog input of an existing conventional recording unit for the Shuttle Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS), a data acquisition unit. The architecture and current implementation of an STD bus/LonTalk communication interface are described.

  15. Communication Signals in Lizards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Charles C.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses mechanisms and functional intent of visual communication signals in iguanid/agamid lizards. Demonstrated that lizards communicate with each other by using pushups and head nods and that each species does this in its own way, conveying different types of information. (JN)

  16. Communicating with patients.

    PubMed

    Kaplowitz, G J

    1999-01-01

    Dental care providers need to be able to communicate effectively with their patients in order to build rapport and trust. Highly developed communication skills also enable the dental care provider to extract more accurate diagnostic information and to more effectively present treatment options to the patient. Neurolinguistic programming techniques can be employed to accomplish these as well as other objectives. PMID:10687469

  17. Data Communications and OSI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denenberg, Ray

    1990-01-01

    Describes the layered model of Open Systems Interconnection (OSI); summarizes the three upper and lower layers; and discusses data communications standards associated with specific layers. Architectural concepts are explored, including hierarchy and abstraction, levels of dialogue, internetworking, and end-to-end communication. OSI is compared…

  18. Why Interpersonal Communication?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilardo, Joseph A.

    1972-01-01

    After distinguishing between interpersonal communication and public speaking, the author argues that interpersonal communication has emerged because we are living in an age of changing values, myths and symbols. These changes create anxiety, which in turn creates a need for therapy. (Editor)

  19. Communication Skills Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham Elementary School, Pompano Beach, FL.

    The communications program developed by Markham Elementary School personnel of Pompano Beach, Florida, is planned so as to utilize fully the diagnostic and team approach to learning. Instruction in communications skills (reading, listening, speaking, writing, handwriting, and spelling) is structured by sequential achievement phases which allow the…

  20. Art Education Communicating Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Sue-Anne

    1997-01-01

    Transcribes the Leon Jackman Memorial Address to the Australasian Art Educators Conference in 1996. Discusses distinctions between the formal world of pedagogy and the informal world of experiential learning in art education. Focuses on art educators as communicators, on how they talk about the arts, and on communication as sharing knowledge. (DSK)

  1. Communicating Humanism Nonverbally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillison, John

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the importance of nonverbal communication by counselors in expressing humanistic feeling. Notes that facial expression (i.e., smiling) provides immediate feedback to the observer; use of space (i.e., close proximity) communicates warmth and humaneness; and tone of voice can complement spoken words and give them more meaning. (WAS)

  2. Employee Communication: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balachandran, Sarojini

    This partially annotated bibliography of several hundred items includes material published since 1965. Entries are listed alphabetically by author. The following subject headings were used in the literature search for this bibliography: communication in management, communication in personnel management, reports to employees, attitude surveys,…

  3. Business Communication in BELF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kankaanranta, Anne; Louhiala-Salminen, Leena

    2007-01-01

    The authors' business communication perspective is not in fact that of ESL but rather English as a foreign language (EFL) or, even more so, English as a lingua franca (ELF). To be more specific, they would like to add one more acronym to the list: They teach BELF, by which they refer to ELF for business communication purposes. The authors work as…

  4. Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

  5. Communication. Earth 2020 Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedemeyer, Dan J.; Bossert, Philip

    This course guide on communication contains a preselected package of resources (i.e., films, books, models, charts, strategies, etc.) in an attempt to provide the framework for integrating communication with other disciplines. Five chapters include: (1) Moving Information vs. Moving Matter; (2) Transportation: Moving People to Experience; (3)…

  6. Communicating with Congress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochs, Mike

    2005-01-01

    At a seminar, two Congressional staff members offered good tips on how it is best to communicate with legislators. Although offered in the context of communicating with Congress, these insights are also valuable when working with state and local legislators. This article discusses the key points that were provided in the seminar. In addition to…

  7. Elementary Communication Arts Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster City School District, PA.

    This guide provides a sequence for studying the communication arts in grades one through six. Prepared by the Lancaster (Pennsylvania) school district, the guide organizes communication skills within and across grade levels. The skills are listed in two ways so that teachers may use whichever list best accommodates their individual teaching…

  8. Interpreting Contradictory Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Cynthia

    Preschool children, elementary school students, and adults participated in a study that examined various processes used to interpret contradictory communications. A screening test determined that all subjects were capable of discriminating between contradictory and congruent communications. Subjects were presented with contradictory verbal-facial…

  9. Careers in Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speech Communication Association, New York, NY.

    Brief discussions in this pamphlet suggest educational and career opportunities in the following fields of speech communication: rhetoric, public address, and communication; theatre, drama, and oral interpretation; radio, television, and film; speech pathology and audiology; speech science, phonetics, and linguistics; and speech education.…

  10. Integrated Communication Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Ward

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Internet-based information system that has provided effective communications and reporting for the upgrade to K-12 schools in Scottsdale, Arizona. The Website and software applications created valuable communications in the construction process and improved reporting on progress. (SLD)

  11. Communicating with mammography patients.

    PubMed

    Kamm, B L

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the barriers that prevent many women from undergoing mammography and strategies that can help them overcome those barriers. It also describes techniques for effective, individualized patient communication and education. Mammographers will learn how to ask the right questions, listen effectively for stated and unstated messages and determine which methods to use when communicating with different patients.

  12. Communication Policies in Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szecsko, Tamas; Fodor, Gabor

    This book is one of a series of studies--undertaken as part of the program adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO--related to the analysis of communication policies as they exist at the public, institutional, and professional levels in selected countries. Discussed in this book about Hungary's communication policies are such topics as mass…

  13. Ways Animals Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Kristen; Sumrall, William J.; Moore, Jerilou; Daniels, Anniece

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe a set of upper-elementary activities that focuses on how animals communicate. The activities describe procedures that students working in groups can use to investigate the topic of animal communication. An initial information sheet, resource list, and grading rubric are provided. The lesson plan was field-tested in an…

  14. Ethics of Intercultural Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, William S.

    Ethical concepts, when taught, should be operational and placed in context. Applying the operational criterion is tough enough in a single culture; however, in a course in intercultural communication, difficulties are multiplied. The teacher of an intercultural communication classroom should embrace the position that many ethical principles are…

  15. Nonverbal Communication Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leathers, Dale G.

    This book was designed to meet five specific criteria which allow development of a course parallel to the treatment of the book's subject matter, active student involvement in testing and developing their own nonverbal communication capacities, delineation and analysis of the functional capacity of different nonverbal communication systems, an…

  16. Communication and the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bending, C. W.

    A review of the models of communication suggests that the most complex model, in which a hearer is constantly bombarded by stimuli and must form his own interpretation of them, is most adequate. In the schools communication is often impeded because a teacher does not fully explain his meaning to the students. Such is the case even in so elementary…

  17. Measuring Speech Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Edwin C.

    Improving the quality of undergraduate speech communication education depends to a large extent on effectively measuring student achievement in college level communication skills. While formal tests are not as well developed for speaking skills as for other areas of the curriculum, they are available. The two used most frequently are the…

  18. Communication Runs through It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landrum, Tom S.

    2012-01-01

    Effective writing is every bit as important in alumni and development communications as it is in the public affairs shop. A poorly written donor proposal, awkward or grammatically incorrect thank-you letter, and ambiguous, jargon-filled copy have no place in a professional advancement operation. Good communication is especially important for…

  19. Communication Analysis of Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, M. F.; Thwaites, H. M.

    This textbook was developed for use in a Concordia University (Quebec) course entitled "Communication Analysis of Environment." Designed as a practical application of information theory and cybernetics in the field of communication studies, the course is intended to be a self-instructional process, whereby each student chooses one information…

  20. Communication in Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Melvin D.

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that a communications plan in an integral prelude to and part of any major curricular or pedagogical change. Offers suggestions for such communications: remember that they are two-way, gather all relevant data, consider the people involved, pay special attention to faculty, devise a plan, and test the plan three ways. (EV)

  1. Reinventing Corporate Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toth, Elizabeth L.; Trujillo, Nick

    1987-01-01

    Urges a "re-inventing" of corporate communications in today's organizations, and provides information about how corporations can change in new and positive ways during the current "information age." Discusses specific public relations and organizational communication concepts essential for a comprehensive understanding of corporate communications…

  2. Short communication: Associations between teat dimensions and milking-induced changes in teat dimensions and quarter milk somatic cell counts in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zwertvaegher, I; De Vliegher, S; Verbist, B; Van Nuffel, A; Baert, J; Van Weyenberg, S

    2013-02-01

    Although many studies have examined the relation between a wide range of factors and quarter milk somatic cell count (qSCC), including physical characteristics of the teat and changes in teat tissue due to milking, the effect of short-term, milking-induced changes in teat dimensions on somatic cell count has not yet been investigated. To identify teat dimensions and milking-induced changes in teat dimensions associated with qSCC, we conducted a longitudinal study (n(herds)=6, n(cows)=72, n(measurements)=12). Parity, stage of lactation, teat barrel diameter, and changes in teat barrel diameter during milking were identified as factors associated with qSCC. Teats with wider barrels had higher qSCC. Negative changes in the diameter of the teat barrel during milking (i.e., thinner teats postmilking compared with premilking) were associated with lower qSCC, whereas positive changes (i.e., thicker teats postmilking compared with premilking) were associated with higher qSCC. Selection toward more optimal teat characteristics may therefore result in improved milk quality and udder health. However, a threshold might exist for the maximum reduction in teat barrel diameter below which udder health is negatively influenced. If so, changes in teat barrel diameter might serve as an indicator for suboptimal milking and incorrect choice of teatcup liner or milking machine settings and thus help improve management of the herd. PMID:23219124

  3. Pancreatic Acinar Cells Employ miRNAs as Mediators of Intercellular Communication to Participate in the Regulation of Pancreatitis-Associated Macrophage Activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yong; Wang, Hao; Qiao, Xin; Sun, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage activation plays an important role in the inflammatory response in acute pancreatitis. In the present study, the activation of AR42J pancreatic acinar cells was induced by taurolithocholate treatment. The results showed that the culture medium from the activated AR42J cells significantly enhanced NFκB activation in the macrophages compared to that without taurolithocholate treatment. Additionally, the precipitates obtained from ultracentrifugation of the culture media that were rich in exosomes were markedly more potent in activating macrophages compared with the supernatant fraction lacking exosomes. The results indicated that the mediators carried by the exosomes played important roles in macrophage activation. Exosomal miRNAs were extracted and examined using microarrays. A total of 115 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified, and 30 showed upregulated expression, while 85 displayed downregulated expression. Target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted using TargetScan, MiRanda, and PicTar software programs. The putative target genes were subjected to KEGG functional analysis. The functions of the target genes were primarily enriched in MAPK pathways. Specifically, the target genes regulated macrophage activation through the TRAF6-TAB2-TAK1-NIK/IKK-NFκB pathway. As the mediators of signal transduction, miRNAs and their predicted target mRNAs regulate every step in the MAPK pathway. PMID:27546996

  4. Pancreatic Acinar Cells Employ miRNAs as Mediators of Intercellular Communication to Participate in the Regulation of Pancreatitis-Associated Macrophage Activation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong; Wang, Hao; Lu, Ming; Qiao, Xin; Sun, Bei; Zhang, Weihui; Xue, Dongbo

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage activation plays an important role in the inflammatory response in acute pancreatitis. In the present study, the activation of AR42J pancreatic acinar cells was induced by taurolithocholate treatment. The results showed that the culture medium from the activated AR42J cells significantly enhanced NFκB activation in the macrophages compared to that without taurolithocholate treatment. Additionally, the precipitates obtained from ultracentrifugation of the culture media that were rich in exosomes were markedly more potent in activating macrophages compared with the supernatant fraction lacking exosomes. The results indicated that the mediators carried by the exosomes played important roles in macrophage activation. Exosomal miRNAs were extracted and examined using microarrays. A total of 115 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified, and 30 showed upregulated expression, while 85 displayed downregulated expression. Target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted using TargetScan, MiRanda, and PicTar software programs. The putative target genes were subjected to KEGG functional analysis. The functions of the target genes were primarily enriched in MAPK pathways. Specifically, the target genes regulated macrophage activation through the TRAF6-TAB2-TAK1-NIK/IKK-NFκB pathway. As the mediators of signal transduction, miRNAs and their predicted target mRNAs regulate every step in the MAPK pathway. PMID:27546996

  5. Improving Communications Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle has many communications systems which are used throughout a typical mission. Given that the radio spectrum has become increasingly congested, the ability to hear extremely weak signals requires greater receiver sensitivity. Dryden Flight Research Center approached Angle Linear, a manufacturer of linear radio frequency products and peripherals for communications, to solve the problem. The solution was a receiving preamplifier specially crafted for NASA. Communications with the Space Shuttle are now more reliable,with Dryden being able to also support local missions without purchasing additional equipment. The work has carried over into the Mir Space Station communication support effort and is under evaluation by other NASA centers. The company's preamplifier line was greatly expanded to cover a broader range of frequencies, providing the same sensational improvement to other areas of communication including business, government, trucking, land mobile, cellular and broadcast.

  6. Communication Repair and Response Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadan, Hedda; Halle, James W.

    2004-01-01

    A communicative repair has been defined as the ability to persist in communication and to modify, repeat, or revise a signal when the initial communication attempt failed. From an operant perspective, initial communicative acts and communicative repairs can be considered members of a response class in which each response produces the same outcome.…

  7. Short communication: comparison of the effects of heat stress on milk and component yields and somatic cell score in Holstein and Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    Smith, D L; Smith, T; Rude, B J; Ward, S H

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this retrospective study were to (1) investigate the effects of heat stress (HS) climatic conditions and breed on milk and component yield for Holstein and Jersey cows on the same farm and (2) determine the effects of breed on udder health as measured by somatic cell score during HS climatic conditions. Data were collected from Dairy Herd Improvement Association records of 142 Jersey and 586 Holstein cows from the Bearden Dairy Research Center at Mississippi State University (Mississippi State). Heat stress climatic conditions were determined using a temperature-humidity index (THI) to combine dry bulb temperature and relative humidity into one measure. Two analyses were conducted to determine the effects of HS. Heat stress was defined as THI ≥ 72, and reported as HS+ for the first analysis and HS for the second analysis. The first analysis compared breeds during HS+ and non-heat-stress (HS-) conditions. Holstein milk yield decreased during HS+, whereas Jersey milk yield increased. Milk fat percentage for Holstein and Jersey cows declined during HS+. Holstein fat-corrected milk yield decreased during HS+, whereas Jersey fat-corrected milk yield during HS+ did not differ from that during HS-. During HS+, somatic cell score increased in milk from Holstein and Jersey cows compared with HS-. In the second analysis, HS was categorized as mild, moderate, or severe. The corresponding THI values were THI ≥ 72 but <79, THI ≥ 79 but <90, and THI ≥ 90. Holstein milk yield declined during moderate and severe HS, whereas Jersey milk yield declined during severe HS. Holstein milk fat percentage was less during moderate and severe HS compared with milk fat percentage during mild HS. Jersey milk fat percentage did not differ with regard to HS category. Jersey cows appeared to be more heat tolerant than Holstein cows; however, Holstein cows still produced larger volumes of milk.

  8. Advanced communication infrastructure for pre-hospital EMS care.

    PubMed

    Orthner, Helmuth; Mazza, Giovanni; Mazza, Giovanni Giorgio; Shenvi, Rohit; Battles, Marcie

    2008-11-06

    The traditional communication infrastructure of the pre-hospital Emergency Medical System (EMS) is limited to voice communication using radio or cell phone technologies. With the emergence of 3rd Generation wireless networks (3G) and enhanced mobile devices capable of data communication (e.g., mobile tablets, PDAs with cell phones, or cell phones with PDA capabilities), the voice communication can be enhanced with interactive data messaging and perhaps even with interactive video communication. However, video requires substantially more bandwidth which 4th Generation (4G) systems are promising. However, their availability is limited. We present an infrastructure that allows dynamic selection of the best data transport mode in the pre-hospital EMS environment.

  9. Multimodal Communication in Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    TAGLIALATELA, JARED P.; RUSSELL, JAMIE L.; POPE, SARAH M.; MORTON, TAMARA; BOGART, STEPHANIE; REAMER, LISA A.; SCHAPIRO, STEVEN J.; HOPKINS, WILLIAM D.

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental characteristic of human language is multimodality. In other words, humans use multiple signaling channels concurrently when communicating with one another. For example, people frequently produce manual gestures while speaking, and the words a person perceives are impacted by visual information. For this study, we hypothesized that similar to the way that humans regularly couple their spoken utterances with gestures and facial expressions, chimpanzees regularly produce vocalizations in conjunction with other communicative signals. To test this hypothesis, data were collected from 101 captive chimpanzees living in mixed-sex social groupings of seven to twelve individuals. A total of 2,869 vocal events were collected. The data indicate that approximately 50% of the vocal events were produced in conjunction with another communicative modality. In addition, approximately 68% were directed to a specific individual, and these directed vocalizations were more likely to include a signal from another communicative modality than were vocalizations that were not directed to a specific individual. These results suggest that, like humans, chimpanzees often pair their vocalizations with signals from other communicative modalities. In addition, chimpanzees appear to use their communicative signals strategically to meet specific socio-communicative ends, providing support for the growing literature that indicates that at least some chimpanzee vocal signaling is intentional. PMID:26212686

  10. Communication Systems in Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Coiera, Enrico

    2006-01-01

    The care of patients now almost inevitably seems to involve many different individuals, all needing to share patient information and discuss their management. As a consequence there is increasing interest in, and use of, information and communication technologies to support health services. Yet, while there is significant discussion of, and investment in, information technologies, communication systems receive much less attention and the clinical adoption of even simpler services like voice-mail or electronic mail is still not commonplace in many health services. There remain enormous gaps in our broad understanding of the role of communication services in health care delivery. Laboratory medicine is perhaps even more poorly studied than many other areas, such as the interface between primary care and hospital services. Given this lack of specific information about laboratory communication services, this paper will step back and generally review the components of a communication system, including the basic concepts of a communication channel, service, device and interaction mode. The review will then try and summarise some of what is known about specific communication problems that arise across health services in the main, including the community and hospital service delivery. PMID:17077879

  11. NASA science communications strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In 1994, the Clinton Administration issued a report, 'Science in the National Interest', which identified new national science goals. Two of the five goals are related to science communications: produce the finest scientists and engineers for the 21st century, and raise scientific and technological literacy of all Americans. In addition to the guidance and goals set forth by the Administration, NASA has been mandated by Congress under the 1958 Space Act to 'provide for the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination concerning its activities and the results thereof'. In addition to addressing eight Goals and Plans which resulted from a January 1994 meeting between NASA and members of the broader scientific, education, and communications community on the Public Communication of NASA's Science, the Science Communications Working Group (SCWG) took a comprehensive look at the way the Agency communicates its science to ensure that any changes the Agency made were long-term improvements. The SCWG developed a Science Communications Strategy for NASA and a plan to implement the Strategy. This report outlines a strategy from which effective science communications programs can be developed and implemented across the agency. Guiding principles and strategic themes for the strategy are provided, with numerous recommendations for improvement discussed within the respective themes of leadership, coordination, integration, participation, leveraging, and evaluation.

  12. Acoustic communication by ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickling, Robert

    2002-05-01

    Many ant species communicate acoustically by stridulating, i.e., running a scraper over a washboard-like set of ridges. Ants appear to be insensitive to airborne sound. Consequently, myrmecologists have concluded that the stridulatory signals are transmitted through the substrate. This has tended to diminish the importance of acoustic communication, and it is currently believed that ant communication is based almost exclusively on pheromones, with acoustic communication assigned an almost nonexistent role. However, it can be shown that acoustic communication between ants is effective only if the medium is air and not the substrate. How, then, is it possible for ants to appear deaf to airborne sound and yet communicate through the air? An explanation is provided in a paper [R. Hickling and R. L. Brown, ``Analysis of acoustic communication by ants,'' J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 1920-1929 (2000)]. Ants are small relative to the wavelengths they generate. Hence, they create a near field, which is characterized by a major increase in sound velocity (particle velocity of sound) in the vicinity of the source. Hair sensilla on the ants' antennae respond to sound velocity. Thus, ants are able to detect near-field sound from other ants and to exclude extraneous airborne sound.

  13. Improving Interpersonal Communication through Community Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, August John; Wallach, Julie; Sanchez, Eduardo; Afkhami, Hasti

    2009-01-01

    The current study sought to determine if community based gardening projects would reduce perceptions of the need to use communication devices--cell phones or text messaging--and increase the likelihood of participating in future volunteer projects. Results strongly support the predictions in that the experimental group post-test mean score of the…

  14. Communication Technologies Preferred by School Based Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weir, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the communication technologies preferred by school based administrators. This study surveyed and interviewed 96 school based administrators in a mid-sized suburban school system. The data show that individual emails, email lists, and cell phone technologies had the highest percentage effectiveness ratings…

  15. Satellite communication antenna technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittra, R. (Editor); Imbriale, W. A. (Editor); Maanders, E. J. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    A general overview of current technology in the field of communication satellite antennas is presented. Among the topics discussed are: the design of multiple beam systems; frequency reuse; and polarization control of antenna measurements. Consideration is also given to: contour beam synthesis; dual shaped reflector synthesis; beam shaping; and offset reflector design. The applications of the above technologies to present and future generations of communications satellites is considered, with emphasis given to such systems as: the Intelsats; the Defense Satellite Communications System, (DSCS-III); Satellite Business System (SBS), and Comstar.

  16. Coherent soliton communication lines

    SciTech Connect

    Yushko, O. V. Redyuk, A. A.; Fedoruk, M. P.; Turitsyn, S. K.

    2014-11-15

    The data transmission in coherent fiber-optical communication lines using solitons with a variable phase is studied. It is shown that nonlinear coherent structures (solitons) can be applied for effective signal transmission over a long distance using amplitude and optical-phase keying of information. The optimum ratio of the pulse width to the bit slot at which the spectral efficiency (transmitted bits per second and hertz) is maximal is determined. It is shown that soliton fiber-optical communication lines can ensure data transmission at a higher spectral efficiency as compared to traditional communication lines and at a high signal-to-noise ratio.

  17. Implementing handoff communication.

    PubMed

    Ardoin, Katherine B; Broussard, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Healthcare systems are seeking assistance from other well-known industries for a solution to issues related to handoff communication, the system for relaying patient information from one caregiver to another. Although the handoff should provide accurate information about a patient's care, treatment, services, and condition, inconsistencies in communication among practitioners exist. This lack of consistent messages prompted staff development nurses in a community hospital to introduce the SBAR process (situation, background, assessment, and recommendation) as the standard for handoff communication to reduce errors and improve patient safety. PMID:21602630

  18. Serial interprocessor communications system

    SciTech Connect

    Labiak, W.; Siemens, P.; Bailey, C.

    1980-04-03

    A serial communications system based on the EIA RS232-C standard with modem control lines has been developed. The DLV11-E interface is used for this purpose. All handshaking is done with the modem control lines. This allows totally independent full duplex communication. The message format consists of eight bit data with odd parity and a sixteen bit checksum on the whole message. All communications are fully interrupt driven. A program was written to load a program into a remote LSI-11 using the serial line without bootstrap ROM.

  19. Ultra-wideband Communications

    SciTech Connect

    Waltjen, K; Romero, C; Azevedo, S; Dowla, F; Spiridon, A; Benzel, D; Haugen, P

    2004-02-06

    Many applications in wireless communications often require short-range systems capable of rapidly collecting data and transmitting it reliably. Commercial communication systems operate in fixed frequency bands and are easily detectable and are prone to jamming by the enemy, among other shortcomings. The new ultra-wideband (UWB) communications system in the 3.1 to 10 GHz band is of significant interest to a number of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs including the Nonproliferation, Arms Control, and International Security (NAI) Directorate. Ultra-Wideband (UWB) technology has received a significant degree of attention from communications industry since the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rulings in February 2002. According to FCC, UWB signals have fractional bandwidth (B{sub f}) of 20% or larger at -10 dB cut-off frequencies, with minimum bandwidth of 500 MHz. Unlike traditional communication systems, UWB systems modulate carrier-less, short-duration (picosec to nanosec) pulses to transmit and receive information. A number of programmatic problems at LLNL, particularly in the NAI and other national security Directorates, require collecting information from multiple sensors distributed over a local area. The information must be collected covertly and by wireless means. The sensors produce data using low power devices and the communication link must operate in severe multipath environments over tens of meters; often the links must be channelized to handle multiple sensors. The communications links between these sensors is a critical issue in the development of LLNL programs to demonstrate distributed sensor network performance in real-time. In summary, such systems must be robust; have a low probability of detection and intercept; employ low-power, small-size hardware; and interface easily with other systems for analysis or to establish long-distance links. The purpose of this work was to develop a new UWB radio-frequency (RF

  20. Nonlinear methods for communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-08-01

    An innovative communication system has been developed. This system has the potential for improved secure communication for covert operations. By modulating data on the chaotic signal used to synchronize two nonlinear systems, they have created a Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) communications system. The researchers derived the equations which govern the system, made models of the system, and performed numerical simulations to test these models. The theoretical and numerical studies of this system have been validated by experiment. A recent design improvement has led to a system that synchronizes at 0 db Signal-to-Noise. This development holds the promise of a Low Probability of Detection (LPD) system.

  1. Shuttle communications design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cartier, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    The design and development of a space shuttle communication system are discussed. The subjects considered include the following: (1) Ku-band satellite relay to shuttle, (2) phased arrays, (3) PN acquisition, (4) quadriplexing of direct link ranging and telemetry, (5) communications blackout on launch and reentry, (6) acquisition after blackout on reentry, (7) wideband communications interface with the Ku-Band rendezvous radar, (8) aeroflight capabilities of the space shuttle, (9) a triple multiplexing scheme equivalent to interplex, and (10) a study of staggered quadriphase for use on the space shuttle.

  2. Satellite communications system 'Tyulpan'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchuyan, R. K.; Tarasov, E. V.; Belousov, A. P.; Balyk, V. M.; Kovtunenko, V. M.; Morozov, V. A.; Andreev, V. A.; v'yunenko, K. A.

    1993-10-01

    A concept of the satellite communication system called 'Tyulpan' (because or its tulip-resembling shape) is considered. This conception envisages the use of six satellites-retranslators installed on high-latitude elliptic orbits. Such a system can provide the communication for mean- and high-latitude region of Europe, Asia, and America. For the communication, super small ground stations of 0.4 m in diameter can be used. In the development of system conception, the already existing technical solutions and possibility of conversion or existing installations of military destination were taken into account. Therefore, the system considered can be realized at the earliest possible date.

  3. Science Communication at NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stofan, Ellen R.

    2015-11-01

    Scientists usually excel in a particular discipline, but generally have a difficult time informing and engaging the public about what we do. From climate science to natural hazards risks, our science does affect people's lives. Within NASA, we have started science communications training, focusing on how to tell a clear story about not just what we do, but why we do it. This not only will help us better communicate to our stakeholders and the public, but also hopefully make for better communications within our diverse teams.

  4. Future communications satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagwell, James W.

    1992-01-01

    The point of view of the research is made through the use of viewgraphs. It is suggested that future communications satellite applications will be made through switched point to point narrowband communications. Some characteristics of which are as follows: small/low cost terminals; single hop communications; voice compatible; full mesh networking; ISDN compatible; and possible limited use of full motion video. Some target applications are as follows: voice/data networks between plants and offices in a corporation; data base networking for commercial and science users; and cellular radio internodal voice/data networking.

  5. Digital communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, L. G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A digital communication system is reported for parallel operation of 16 or more transceiver units with the use of only four interconnecting wires. A remote synchronization circuit produces unit address control words sequentially in data frames of 16 words. Means are provided in each transceiver unit to decode calling signals and to transmit calling and data signals. The transceivers communicate with each other over one data line. The synchronization unit communicates the address control information to the transceiver units over an address line and further provides the timing information over a clock line. A reference voltage level or ground line completes the interconnecting four wire hookup.

  6. Customer Communication Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    This procedure communicates to the Customers of the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division (AR&SD) Dynamics Systems Test Branch (DSTB) how to obtain services of the Six-Degrees-Of-Freedom Dynamic Test System (SDTS). The scope includes the major communication documents between the SDTS and its Customer. It established the initial communication and contact points as well as provides the initial documentation in electronic media for the customer. Contact the SDTS Manager (SM) for the names of numbers of the current contact points.

  7. Short communication: Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count.

    PubMed

    Koop, G; Dik, N; Nielen, M; Lipman, L J A

    2010-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC (Fossomatic 5000, Foss, Hillerød, Denmark) and TBC (BactoScan FC 150, Foss) were measured. Staphylococcal count was correlated to SCC (r=0.40), TBC (r=0.51), and SPC (r=0.53). Coliform count was correlated to TBC (r=0.33), but not to any of the other variables. Staphylococcus aureus did not correlate to SCC. The contribution of the staphylococcal count to the SPC was 31%, whereas the coliform count comprised only 1% of the SPC. The agreement of the repeated measurements was low. This study indicates that staphylococci in goat bulk milk are related to SCC and make a significant contribution to SPC. Because of the high variation in bacterial counts, repeated sampling is necessary to draw valid conclusions from bulk milk culturing.

  8. Patient-doctor communication.

    PubMed

    Teutsch, Carol

    2003-09-01

    Communication is an important component of patient care. Traditionally, communication in medical school curricula was incorporated informally as part of rounds and faculty feedback, but without a specific or intense focus on skills of communicating per se. The reliability and consistency of this teaching method left gaps, which are currently getting increased attention from medical schools and accreditation organizations. There is also increased interest in researching patient-doctor communication and recognizing the need to teach and measure this specific clinical skill. In 1999, the Accreditation of Council for Graduate Medical Education implemented a requirement for accreditation for residency programs that focuses on "interpersonal and communications skills that result in effective information exchange and teaming with patients, their families, and other health professionals." The National Board of Medical Examiners, Federation of State Medical Boards. and the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates have proposed an examination between the. third and fourth year of medical school that "requires students to demonstrate they can gather information from patients, perform a physical examination, and communicate their findings to patients and colleagues" using standardized patients. One's efficiency and effectiveness in communication can be improved through training, but it is unlikely that any future advances will negate the need and value of compassionate and empathetic two-way communication between clinician and patient. The published literature also expresses belief in the essential role of communication. "It has long been recognized that difficulties in the effective delivery of health care can arise from problems in communication between patient and provider rather than from any failing in the technical aspects of medical care. Improvements in provider-patient communication can have beneficial effects on health outcomes". A systematic review of

  9. The Effects of Electronic Communication on American Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Erin; Kozak, L. Viola; Santiago, Roberto; Stephen, Anika

    2012-01-01

    Technological and language innovation often flow in concert with one another. Casual observation by researchers has shown that electronic communication memes, in the form of abbreviations, have found their way into spoken English. This study focuses on the current use of electronic modes of communication, such as cell smartphones, and e-mail, and…

  10. Intercellular communication lessons in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Bang, Claudia; Antoniades, Charalambos; Antonopoulos, Alexios S; Eriksson, Ulf; Franssen, Constantijn; Hamdani, Nazha; Lehmann, Lorenz; Moessinger, Christine; Mongillo, Marco; Muhl, Lars; Speer, Thimoteus; Thum, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Cell-cell or inter-organ communication allows the exchange of information and messages, which is essential for the coordination of cell/organ functions and the maintenance of homeostasis. It has become evident that dynamic interactions of different cell types play a major role in the heart, in particular during the progression of heart failure, a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Heart failure is associated with compensatory structural and functional changes mostly in cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts, which finally lead to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis. Intercellular communication within the heart is mediated mostly via direct cell-cell interaction or the release of paracrine signalling mediators such as cytokines and chemokines. However, recent studies have focused on the exchange of genetic information via the packaging into vesicles as well as the crosstalk of lipids and other paracrine molecules within the heart and distant organs, such as kidney and adipose tissue, which might all contribute to the pathogenesis of heart failure. In this review, we discuss emerging communication networks and respective underlying mechanisms which could be involved in cardiovascular disease conditions and further emphasize promising therapeutic targets for drug development.

  11. Synaptic view of eukaryotic cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    Synapses are stable adhesive domains between two neighbouring cells of the multicellular organisms which serve for cell-cell communication as well as for information processing and storing. The synaptic concept was developed over more than 100 years specifically for neuronal cell-cell communication. In the last ten years, this concept was adapted to embrace other cell-cell communication phenomena. Here, we focus on the recently emerged phagocytic synapse and propose new endosymbiotic synapses and "intracellular organellar synapses". All these synapses of eukaryotic cells are in a good position to explain the high capacity of eukaryotic cells for integration of diverse signalling inputs into coherent cellular behaviour.

  12. Business Use of Satellite Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelson, Burton I.; Cooper, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews business communications development and discusses business applications of satellite communications, system technology, and prospects for future developments in digital transmission systems. (JN)

  13. Paperbacks in Mass Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardt, Hanno

    1977-01-01

    Provides a list of resources concerning history and biography; appraisals of the press, law, and ethics; cultural, psychological, and social aspects; radio, television, film, and photography; and international communication. (KS)

  14. Domestic Communication Satellites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Andrew

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the Federal Communications Commission's new policy on domestic satellites in light of our 1) military and economic history; 2) corporate interests; 3) citizen surveillance; and 4) media control. (HB)

  15. Approaches to Human Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Richard W., Ed.; Ruben, Brent D., Ed.

    This anthology of essays approaches human communication from the points of view of: anthropology, art biology, economics, encounter groups, semantics, general system theory, history, information theory, international behavior, journalism, linguistics, mass media, neurophysiology, nonverbal behavior, organizational behavior, philosophy, political…

  16. Communication system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, L. D.; Walsh, J. R., Jr.; Wetherington, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    This report presents the results of work on communications systems modeling and covers three different areas of modeling. The first of these deals with the modeling of signals in communication systems in the frequency domain and the calculation of spectra for various modulations. These techniques are applied in determining the frequency spectra produced by a unified carrier system, the down-link portion of the Command and Communications System (CCS). The second modeling area covers the modeling of portions of a communication system on a block basis. A detailed analysis and modeling effort based on control theory is presented along with its application to modeling of the automatic frequency control system of an FM transmitter. A third topic discussed is a method for approximate modeling of stiff systems using state variable techniques.

  17. Improving Family Communications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Improving Family Communications Page Content Article Body How can I ...

  18. Situational Communication Skills Seminars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaupre, Walter J.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a series of seminars held by the University of Rhode Island which attempted to improve communication between local professional persons, deaf adults, and graduate students in speech pathology and audiology. (RW)

  19. Avian psychology and communication.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Candy; Skelhorn, John

    2004-07-22

    The evolution of animal communication is a complex issue and one that attracts much research and debate. 'Receiver psychology' has been highlighted as a potential selective force, and we review how avian psychological processes and biases can influence the evolution and design of signals as well as the progress that has been made in testing these ideas in behavioural studies. Interestingly, although birds are a focal group for experimental psychologists and behavioural ecologists alike, the integration of theoretical ideas from psychology into studies of communication has been relatively slow. However, recent operant experiments are starting to address how birds perceive and respond to complex natural signals in an attempt to answer evolutionary problems in communication. This review outlines how a psychological approach to understanding communication is useful, and we hope that it stimulates further research addressing the role of psychological mechanisms in signal evolution.

  20. AMPA experimental communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckerman, D.; Fass, S.; Keon, T.; Sielman, P.

    1982-01-01

    The program was conducted to demonstrate the satellite communication advantages of Adaptive Phased Array Technology. A laboratory based experiment was designed and implemented to demonstrate a low earth orbit satellite communications system. Using a 32 element, L-band phased array augmented with 4 sets of weights (2 for reception and 2 for transmission) a high speed digital processing system and operating against multiple user terminals and interferers, the AMPA system demonstrated: communications with austere user terminals, frequency reuse, communications in the face of interference, and geolocation. The program and experiment objectives are described, the system hardware and software/firmware are defined, and the test performed and the resultant test data are presented.

  1. Communications, Computers and Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dertouzos, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    The infrastructure created by fusing computing and communications technologies is described. The effect of this infrastructure on the economy and society of the United States is discussed. The importance of knowing the value and role of information is emphasized. (KR)

  2. Nonverbal Communication for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Edward T.; Hall, Mildred Reed

    1977-01-01

    Nonverbal communication involves not only body language, but also environment, physical space, time systems, discipline, and competition systems--in short, the totality of communicaton excepting the printed word. (MJB)

  3. Disorders of Nonverbal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkweather, C. Woodruff

    1977-01-01

    The author explores the idea that nonverbal communication can be disordered, describes several types of nonverbal disorders (such as impaired eye movement, inappropriate body movements, idiosyncratic mannerisms, and voice disorders), explains sources of nonverbal disorders, and suggests therapeutic procedures. (IM)

  4. Introduction: Communicating Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, Nick; Jones, Peter Murray; Kassell, Lauren; Secord, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Communication should be central to histories of reproduction, because it has structured how people do and do not reproduce. Yet communication has been so pervasive, and so various, that it is often taken for granted and the historical specificities overlooked. Making communication a frame for histories of reproduction can draw a fragmented field together, including by putting the promotion of esoteric ideas on a par with other practical activities. Paying communication close attention can revitalize the history of reproduction over the long term by highlighting continuities as well as the complex connections between new technologies and new approaches. Themes such as the power of storytelling, the claiming and challenging of expertise, and relations between knowledge and ignorance, secrecy and propriety also invite further study. PMID:26521666

  5. Speech and Communication Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... or understand speech. Causes include Hearing disorders and deafness Voice problems, such as dysphonia or those caused ... language therapy can help. NIH: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

  6. Introduction: Communicating Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, Nick; Jones, Peter Murray; Kassell, Lauren; Secord, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Communication should be central to histories of reproduction, because it has structured how people do and do not reproduce. Yet communication has been so pervasive, and so various, that it is often taken for granted and the historical specificities overlooked. Making communication a frame for histories of reproduction can draw a fragmented field together, including by putting the promotion of esoteric ideas on a par with other practical activities. Paying communication close attention can revitalize the history of reproduction over the long term by highlighting continuities as well as the complex connections between new technologies and new approaches. Themes such as the power of storytelling, the claiming and challenging of expertise, and relations between knowledge and ignorance, secrecy and propriety also invite further study.

  7. Quantum Spread Spectrum Communication

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that spectral teleportation can coherently dilate the spectral probability amplitude of a single photon. In preserving the encoded quantum information, this variant of teleportation subsequently enables a form of quantum spread spectrum communication.

  8. Avian psychology and communication.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Candy; Skelhorn, John

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of animal communication is a complex issue and one that attracts much research and debate. 'Receiver psychology' has been highlighted as a potential selective force, and we review how avian psychological processes and biases can influence the evolution and design of signals as well as the progress that has been made in testing these ideas in behavioural studies. Interestingly, although birds are a focal group for experimental psychologists and behavioural ecologists alike, the integration of theoretical ideas from psychology into studies of communication has been relatively slow. However, recent operant experiments are starting to address how birds perceive and respond to complex natural signals in an attempt to answer evolutionary problems in communication. This review outlines how a psychological approach to understanding communication is useful, and we hope that it stimulates further research addressing the role of psychological mechanisms in signal evolution. PMID:15306314

  9. Attention, communication, and schizophrenia.

    PubMed Central

    Rund, B. R.

    1985-01-01

    The paper starts by drawing the historical lines for and giving an account of the main methods and results from an empirical investigation of cognitive disorders in schizophrenics and communication deviances in their parents. The focus of the report is on the significant correlations that were found between some aspects of parents' style of communication and offsprings' cognitive functioning. On the basis of the empirical study, the relationship between attention and communication is discussed, and the issue of whether attentional processes "change identity" by being embedded in a social context is considered. Furthermore, the influence of deviant communication in parents on attentional processes in offspring is discussed in relation to a main postulate in Vygotsky's theory; namely, that higher mental functions are internalized social relations. PMID:4049909

  10. Molecular Communication: Simulation of Microtubule Topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Michael J.; Enomoto, Akihiro; Nakano, Tadashi; Kayasuga, Atsushi; Kojima, Hiroaki; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Suda, Tatsuya

    Molecular communication is one method for communication among biological nanomachines. Nanomachines are artificial or biological nano-scale devices that perform simple computation, sensing, or actuation. Future applications using nanomachines may require various communication mechanisms. For example, broadcast is one primitive communication for transmission from one sender to many receivers. In this paper, we discuss preliminary work on designing a molecular communication system that is adapted from the molecular motor transport mechanism existing in biological cells. In the proposed molecular motor mechanism, a sender releases information molecules, and molecular motors transport the information molecules along microtubule filaments to receiver nanomachines up to hundreds of micrometers away. This paper describes some possible arrangements for microtubule filaments and simulations to evaluate sending of one information molecule to many receivers. The simulation results indicate that the proposed molecular motor system transports simulated information molecules (100nm radius spheres) more quickly than a diffusion-only communication and that placement of receivers at the plus-end of microtubules results in lower propagation delay.

  11. DENSO Technical Communication Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isogai, Emiko; Suzuki, Takamasa

    We developed technical communication education from beginning to managerial levels to enhance communication skills necessary for engineers. The courses in this program progressed from theory to hands-on training and discussion, providing an opportunity for fact-finding and problem-solving. After the courses were completed, the engineers applied what they had learned on the job. The courses proved to be useful, satisfying participating engineers.

  12. Multichannel Human Body Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przystup, Piotr; Bujnowski, Adam; Wtorek, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Human Body Communication is an attractive alternative for traditional wireless communication (Bluetooth, ZigBee) in case of Body Sensor Networks. Low power, high data rates and data security makes it ideal solution for medical applications. In this paper, signal attenuation for different frequencies, using FR4 electrodes, has been investigated. Performance of single and multichannel transmission with frequency modulation of analog signal has been tested. Experiment results show that HBC is a feasible solution for transmitting data between BSN nodes.

  13. Free Space Laser Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesh, James

    2000-01-01

    This presentation concerns the use of Laser communication for deep space applications. The presentation reviews the problems with electromagnetic beams and then the advantages and disadvantages of the use of optical communication. The presentation then reviews some of the spacecraft technology with pictures of some of the devices. The ground reception systems and the simplified link calculation are also reviewed. Recent and planned demonstration projects are also reviewed.

  14. Analyzing Optical Communications Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, William K.; Burk, Brian D.

    1990-01-01

    Optical Communication Link Analysis Program, OPTI, analyzes optical and near-infrared communication links using pulse-position modulation (PPM) and direct detention. Link margins and design-control tables generated from input parameters supplied by user. Enables user to save sets of input parameters that define given link and read them back into program later. Alters automatically any of input parameters to achieve desired link margin. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  15. Communicating with Congress.

    PubMed

    Schraufnagel, Dean E

    2013-08-01

    Influencing policy to improve health can be considered an extension of health care workers' duty to help people. Communicating with elected representatives is a basic mechanism to effect lasting change. Communications that influence public officials should be clear, concise, courteous, and logical. They are strengthened by citing evidence and example. They must recommend a course of action, which should be principled and related to the representative's constituents. PMID:23952863

  16. Portable Instrumented Communication Library

    1993-06-10

    PICL is a subroutine library that can be used to develop parallel programs that are portable across several distributed-memory multiprocessors. PICL provides a portable syntax for key communication primitives and related system calls. It also provides portable routines to perform certain widely-used, high-level communication operations, such as global broadcast and global summation. PICL provides execution tracing that can be used to monitor performance or to aid in debugging.

  17. LANL application communication patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Pakiin, Scott

    2011-01-10

    This brief presentation describes the communication patterns used by a set of unclassified applications developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory: XNobel/XRAGE/RAGE/SAGE, Krak, Sweep3D, and Partisn. It mentions which processes communicate with which other processes, whether the application is typically run in a strong-scaling mode or a weak-scaling mode, what message sizes are commonly used, and how the application's performance changes at scale.

  18. The art of cellular communication: tunneling nanotubes bridge the divide

    PubMed Central

    Gurke, Steffen; Barroso, João F. V.

    2008-01-01

    The ability of cells to receive, process, and respond to information is essential for a variety of biological processes. This is true for the simplest single cell entity as it is for the highly specialized cells of multicellular organisms. In the latter, most cells do not exist as independent units, but are organized into specialized tissues. Within these functional assemblies, cells communicate with each other in different ways to coordinate physiological processes. Recently, a new type of cell-to-cell communication was discovered, based on de novo formation of membranous nanotubes between cells. These F-actin-rich structures, referred to as tunneling nanotubes (TNT), were shown to mediate membrane continuity between connected cells and facilitate the intercellular transport of various cellular components. The subsequent identification of TNT-like structures in numerous cell types revealed some structural diversity. At the same time it emerged that the direct transfer of cargo between cells is a common functional property, suggesting a general role of TNT-like structures in selective, long-range cell-to-cell communication. Due to the growing number of documented thin and long cell protrusions in tissue implicated in cell-to-cell signaling, it is intriguing to speculate that TNT-like structures also exist in vivo and participate in important physiological processes. PMID:18386044

  19. [Communication among hospital leaders].

    PubMed

    Haberey-Knuessi, Véronique; Heeb, Jean-Luc; De Morgan, Paula Emilie

    2013-12-01

    New management styles imposed on hospital institutions in recent years, have fundamentally changed the organization of the latter. Many texts discuss the consequences, specifically on the field of communication. The aim of this study was to understand the real impact of new management methods on communication by managers in hospital, but also on care teams in termes of satisfaction and/or stress. This two-year study was conducted among 900 executives in hospitals in Western Switzerland using a mixed methodology. A first phase of questionnaires highlighted the problematic areas, while a second phase in the form of organized group interviews in each hospital, had the objective of achieving a better understanding of the relationship between management and communication. The latter proved to be particularly significant in terms of results, and this is the one we focused on in this article.These results indeed show that a crucial role is given to communication by carers, and, at the same time a lessening of the time devoted to relationships, both among peers and with patients. Frustration then arises, which is not without consequences both for the management of patients and the institutions themselves. It is by means of these results that awareness is raised of the omnipresence of communication at all levels and the major advantages that positive dynamic supports. And, on the contrary, of the serious problems which may arise from management practice that do not give due importance to the dimension of communication, present in all sectors of the hospital. PMID:24490450

  20. MFC Communications Infrastructure Study

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Cannon; Terry Barney; Gary Cook; George Danklefsen, Jr.; Paul Fairbourn; Susan Gihring; Lisa Stearns

    2012-01-01

    Unprecedented growth of required telecommunications services and telecommunications applications change the way the INL does business today. High speed connectivity compiled with a high demand for telephony and network services requires a robust communications infrastructure.   The current state of the MFC communication infrastructure limits growth opportunities of current and future communication infrastructure services. This limitation is largely due to equipment capacity issues, aging cabling infrastructure (external/internal fiber and copper cable) and inadequate space for telecommunication equipment. While some communication infrastructure improvements have been implemented over time projects, it has been completed without a clear overall plan and technology standard.   This document identifies critical deficiencies with the current state of the communication infrastructure in operation at the MFC facilities and provides an analysis to identify needs and deficiencies to be addressed in order to achieve target architectural standards as defined in STD-170. The intent of STD-170 is to provide a robust, flexible, long-term solution to make communications capabilities align with the INL mission and fit the various programmatic growth and expansion needs.