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Sample records for cell culture bioreactor

  1. Oscillating Cell Culture Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Lisa E.; Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo G.

    2010-01-01

    To better exploit the principles of gas transport and mass transport during the processes of cell seeding of 3D scaffolds and in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered constructs, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor provides a flow of cell suspensions and culture media directly through a porous 3D scaffold (during cell seeding) and a 3D construct (during subsequent cultivation) within a highly gas-permeable closed-loop tube. This design is simple, modular, and flexible, and its component parts are easy to assemble and operate, and are inexpensive. Chamber volume can be very low, but can be easily scaled up. This innovation is well suited to work with different biological specimens, particularly with cells having high oxygen requirements and/or shear sensitivity, and different scaffold structures and dimensions. The closed-loop changer is highly gas permeable to allow efficient gas exchange during the cell seeding/culturing process. A porous scaffold, which may be seeded with cells, is fixed by means of a scaffold holder to the chamber wall with scaffold/construct orientation with respect to the chamber determined by the geometry of the scaffold holder. A fluid, with/without biological specimens, is added to the chamber such that all, or most, of the air is displaced (i.e., with or without an enclosed air bubble). Motion is applied to the chamber within a controlled environment (e.g., oscillatory motion within a humidified 37 C incubator). Movement of the chamber induces relative motion of the scaffold/construct with respect to the fluid. In case the fluid is a cell suspension, cells will come into contact with the scaffold and eventually adhere to it. Alternatively, cells can be seeded on scaffolds by gel entrapment prior to bioreactor cultivation. Subsequently, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor will provide efficient gas exchange (i.e., of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as required for viability of metabolically active cells) and controlled levels of fluid

  2. Human cell culture in a space bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    1988-01-01

    Microgravity offers new ways of handling fluids, gases, and growing mammalian cells in efficient suspension cultures. In 1976 bioreactor engineers designed a system using a cylindrical reactor vessel in which the cells and medium are slowly mixed. The reaction chamber is interchangeable and can be used for several types of cell cultures. NASA has methodically developed unique suspension type cell and recovery apparatus culture systems for bioprocess technology experiments and production of biological products in microgravity. The first Space Bioreactor was designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small Bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle Middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption and control of low shear stress on cells.

  3. Plant cell cultures: bioreactors for industrial production.

    PubMed

    Ruffoni, Barbara; Pistelli, Laura; Bertoli, Alessandra; Pistelli, Luisa

    2010-01-01

    The recent biotechnology boom has triggered increased interest in plant cell cultures, since a number of firms and academic institutions investigated intensively to rise the production of very promising bioactive compounds. In alternative to wild collection or plant cultivation, the production of useful and valuable secondary metabolites in large bioreactors is an attractive proposal; it should contribute significantly to future attempts to preserve global biodiversity and alleviate associated ecological problems. The advantages of such processes include the controlled production according to demand and a reduced man work requirement. Plant cells have been grown in different shape bioreactors, however, there are a variety of problems to be solved before this technology can be adopted on a wide scale for the production of useful plant secondary metabolites. There are different factors affecting the culture growth and secondary metabolite production in bioreactors: the gaseous atmosphere, oxygen supply and CO2 exchange, pH, minerals, carbohydrates, growth regulators, the liquid medium rheology and cell density. Moreover agitation systems and sterilization conditions may negatively influence the whole process. Many types ofbioreactors have been successfully used for cultivating transformed root cultures, depending on both different aeration system and nutrient supply. Several examples of medicinal and aromatic plant cultures were here summarized for the scale up cultivation in bioreactors.

  4. Rotating bio-reactor cell culture apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, Ray P. (Inventor); Wolf, David A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A bioreactor system is described in which a tubular housing contains an internal circularly disposed set of blade members and a central tubular filter all mounted for rotation about a common horizontal axis and each having independent rotational support and rotational drive mechanisms. The housing, blade members and filter preferably are driven at a constant slow speed for placing a fluid culture medium with discrete microbeads and cell cultures in a discrete spatial suspension in the housing. Replacement fluid medium is symmetrically input and fluid medium is symmetrically output from the housing where the input and the output are part of a loop providing a constant or intermittent flow of fluid medium in a closed loop.

  5. Two new disposable bioreactors for plant cell culture: The wave and undertow bioreactor and the slug bubble bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Terrier, Bénédicte; Courtois, Didier; Hénault, Nicolas; Cuvier, Arnaud; Bastin, Maryse; Aknin, Aziz; Dubreuil, Julien; Pétiard, Vincent

    2007-04-01

    The present article describes two novel flexible plastic-based disposable bioreactors. The first one, the WU bioreactor, is based on the principle of a wave and undertow mechanism that provides agitation while offering convenient mixing and aeration to the plant cell culture contained within the bioreactor. The second one is a high aspect ratio bubble column bioreactor, where agitation and aeration are achieved through the intermittent generation of large diameter bubbles, "Taylor-like" or "slug bubbles" (SB bioreactor). It allows an easy volume increase from a few liters to larger volumes up to several hundred liters with the use of multiple units. The cultivation of tobacco and soya cells producing isoflavones is described up to 70 and 100 L working volume for the SB bioreactor and WU bioreactor, respectively. The bioreactors being disposable and pre-sterilized before use, cleaning, sterilization, and maintenance operations are strongly reduced or eliminated. Both bioreactors represent efficient and low cost cell culture systems, applicable to various cell cultures at small and medium scale, complementary to traditional stainless-steel bioreactors.

  6. Cell culture experiments planned for the space bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.; Cross, John H.

    1987-01-01

    Culturing of cells in a pilot-scale bioreactor remains to be done in microgravity. An approach is presented based on several studies of cell culture systems. Previous and current cell culture research in microgravity which is specifically directed towards development of a space bioprocess is described. Cell culture experiments planned for a microgravity sciences mission are described in abstract form.

  7. Hydrofocusing Bioreactor for Three-Dimensional Cell Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Spaulding, Glenn F.; Tsao, Yow-Min D.; Flechsig, Scott; Jones, Leslie; Soehnge, Holly

    2003-01-01

    The hydrodynamic focusing bioreactor (HFB) is a bioreactor system designed for three-dimensional cell culture and tissue-engineering investigations on orbiting spacecraft and in laboratories on Earth. The HFB offers a unique hydrofocusing capability that enables the creation of a low-shear culture environment simultaneously with the "herding" of suspended cells, tissue assemblies, and air bubbles. Under development for use in the Biotechnology Facility on the International Space Station, the HFB has successfully grown large three-dimensional, tissuelike assemblies from anchorage-dependent cells and grown suspension hybridoma cells to high densities. The HFB, based on the principle of hydrodynamic focusing, provides the capability to control the movement of air bubbles and removes them from the bioreactor without degrading the low-shear culture environment or the suspended three-dimensional tissue assemblies. The HFB also provides unparalleled control over the locations of cells and tissues within its bioreactor vessel during operation and sampling.

  8. Disposable bioreactors for plant micropropagation and mass plant cell culture.

    PubMed

    Ducos, Jean-Paul; Terrier, Bénédicte; Courtois, Didier

    2009-01-01

    Different types of bioreactors are used at Nestlé R&D Centre - Tours for mass propagation of selected plant varieties by somatic embryogenesis and for large scale culture of plants cells to produce metabolites or recombinant proteins. Recent studies have been directed to cut down the production costs of these two processes by developing disposable cell culture systems. Vegetative propagation of elite plant varieties is achieved through somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium. A pilot scale process has recently been set up for the industrial propagation of Coffea canephora (Robusta coffee). The current production capacity is 3.0 million embryos per year. The pre-germination of the embryos was previously conducted by temporary immersion in liquid medium in 10-L glass bioreactors. An improved process has been developed using a 10-L disposable bioreactor consisting of a bag containing a rigid plastic box ('Box-in-Bag' bioreactor), insuring, amongst other advantages, a higher light transmittance to the biomass due to its horizontal design. For large scale cell culture, two novel flexible plastic-based disposable bioreactors have been developed from 10 to 100 L working volumes, validated with several plant species ('Wave and Undertow' and 'Slug Bubble' bioreactors). The advantages and the limits of these new types of bioreactor are discussed, based mainly on our own experience on coffee somatic embryogenesis and mass cell culture of soya and tobacco.

  9. Disposable Bioreactors for Plant Micropropagation and Mass Plant Cell Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducos, Jean-Paul; Terrier, Bénédicte; Courtois, Didier

    Different types of bioreactors are used at Nestlé R&D Centre - Tours for mass propagation of selected plant varieties by somatic embryogenesis and for large scale culture of plants cells to produce metabolites or recombinant proteins. Recent studies have been directed to cut down the production costs of these two processes by developing disposable cell culture systems. Vegetative propagation of elite plant varieties is achieved through somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium. A pilot scale process has recently been set up for the industrial propagation of Coffea canephora (Robusta coffee). The current production capacity is 3.0 million embryos per year. The pre-germination of the embryos was previously conducted by temporary immersion in liquid medium in 10-L glass bioreactors. An improved process has been developed using a 10-L disposable bioreactor consisting of a bag containing a rigid plastic box ('Box-in-Bag' bioreactor), insuring, amongst other advantages, a higher light transmittance to the biomass due to its horizontal design. For large scale cell culture, two novel flexible plastic-based disposable bioreactors have been developed from 10 to 100 L working volumes, validated with several plant species ('Wave and Undertow' and 'Slug Bubble' bioreactors). The advantages and the limits of these new types of bioreactor are discussed, based mainly on our own experience on coffee somatic embryogenesis and mass cell culture of soya and tobacco.

  10. Cell Cycle Progression of Human Cells Cultured in Rotating Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, Kelsey

    2009-01-01

    Space flight has been shown to alter the astronauts immune systems. Because immune performance is complex and reflects the influence of multiple organ systems within the host, scientists sought to understand the potential impact of microgravity alone on the cellular mechanisms critical to immunity. Lymphocytes and their differentiated immature form, lymphoblasts, play an important and integral role in the body's defense system. T cells, one of the three major types of lymphocytes, play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They can be distinguished from other lymphocyte types, such as B cells and natural killer cells by the presence of a special receptor on their cell surface called T cell receptors. Reported studies have shown that spaceflight can affect the expression of cell surface markers. Cell surface markers play an important role in the ability of cells to interact and to pass signals between different cells of the same phenotype and cells of different phenotypes. Recent evidence suggests that cell-cycle regulators are essential for T-cell function. To trigger an effective immune response, lymphocytes must proliferate. The objective of this project is to investigate the changes in growth of human cells cultured in rotating bioreactors and to measure the growth rate and the cell cycle distribution for different human cell types. Human lymphocytes and lymphoblasts will be cultured in a bioreactor to simulate aspects of microgravity. The bioreactor is a cylindrical culture vessel that incorporates the aspects of clinostatic rotation of a solid fluid body around a horizontal axis at a constant speed, and compensates gravity by rotation and places cells within the fluid body into a sustained free-fall. Cell cycle progression and cell proliferation of the lymphocytes will be measured for a number of days. In addition, RNA from the cells will be isolated for expression of genes related in cell cycle regulations.

  11. Cell Cycle Progression of Human Cells Cultured in Rotating Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, Kelsey

    2009-01-01

    Space flight has been shown to alter the astronauts immune systems. Because immune performance is complex and reflects the influence of multiple organ systems within the host, scientists sought to understand the potential impact of microgravity alone on the cellular mechanisms critical to immunity. Lymphocytes and their differentiated immature form, lymphoblasts, play an important and integral role in the body's defense system. T cells, one of the three major types of lymphocytes, play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They can be distinguished from other lymphocyte types, such as B cells and natural killer cells by the presence of a special receptor on their cell surface called T cell receptors. Reported studies have shown that spaceflight can affect the expression of cell surface markers. Cell surface markers play an important role in the ability of cells to interact and to pass signals between different cells of the same phenotype and cells of different phenotypes. Recent evidence suggests that cell-cycle regulators are essential for T-cell function. To trigger an effective immune response, lymphocytes must proliferate. The objective of this project is to investigate the changes in growth of human cells cultured in rotating bioreactors and to measure the growth rate and the cell cycle distribution for different human cell types. Human lymphocytes and lymphoblasts will be cultured in a bioreactor to simulate aspects of microgravity. The bioreactor is a cylindrical culture vessel that incorporates the aspects of clinostatic rotation of a solid fluid body around a horizontal axis at a constant speed, and compensates gravity by rotation and places cells within the fluid body into a sustained free-fall. Cell cycle progression and cell proliferation of the lymphocytes will be measured for a number of days. In addition, RNA from the cells will be isolated for expression of genes related in cell cycle regulations.

  12. Miniature Bioreactor System for Long-Term Cell Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Kleis, Stanley J.; Geffert, Sandara K.

    2010-01-01

    A prototype miniature bioreactor system is designed to serve as a laboratory benchtop cell-culturing system that minimizes the need for relatively expensive equipment and reagents and can be operated under computer control, thereby reducing the time and effort required of human investigators and reducing uncertainty in results. The system includes a bioreactor, a fluid-handling subsystem, a chamber wherein the bioreactor is maintained in a controlled atmosphere at a controlled temperature, and associated control subsystems. The system can be used to culture both anchorage-dependent and suspension cells, which can be either prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Cells can be cultured for extended periods of time in this system, and samples of cells can be extracted and analyzed at specified intervals. By integrating this system with one or more microanalytical instrument(s), one can construct a complete automated analytical system that can be tailored to perform one or more of a large variety of assays.

  13. Over-pressurized bioreactors: application to microbial cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Marlene; Belo, Isabel; Mota, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    In industrial biotechnology, microbial cultures are exposed to different local pressures inside bioreactors. Depending on the microbial species and strains, the increased pressure may have detrimental or beneficial effects on cellular growth and product formation. In this review, the effects of increased air pressure on various microbial cultures growing in bioreactors under moderate total pressure conditions (maximum, 15 bar) will be discussed. Recent data illustrating the diversity of increased air pressure effects at different levels in microbial cells cultivation will be presented, with particular attention to the effects of oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures on cellular growth and product formation, and the concomitant effect of oxygen pressure on antioxidant cellular defense mechanisms.

  14. A Versatile Bioreactor for Dynamic Suspension Cell Culture. Application to the Culture of Cancer Cell Spheroids.

    PubMed

    Massai, Diana; Isu, Giuseppe; Madeddu, Denise; Cerino, Giulia; Falco, Angela; Frati, Caterina; Gallo, Diego; Deriu, Marco A; Falvo D'Urso Labate, Giuseppe; Quaini, Federico; Audenino, Alberto; Morbiducci, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    A versatile bioreactor suitable for dynamic suspension cell culture under tunable shear stress conditions has been developed and preliminarily tested culturing cancer cell spheroids. By adopting simple technological solutions and avoiding rotating components, the bioreactor exploits the laminar hydrodynamics establishing within the culture chamber enabling dynamic cell suspension in an environment favourable to mass transport, under a wide range of tunable shear stress conditions. The design phase of the device has been supported by multiphysics modelling and has provided a comprehensive analysis of the operating principles of the bioreactor. Moreover, an explanatory example is herein presented with multiphysics simulations used to set the proper bioreactor operating conditions for preliminary in vitro biological tests on a human lung carcinoma cell line. The biological results demonstrate that the ultralow shear dynamic suspension provided by the device is beneficial for culturing cancer cell spheroids. In comparison to the static suspension control, dynamic cell suspension preserves morphological features, promotes intercellular connection, increases spheroid size (2.4-fold increase) and number of cycling cells (1.58-fold increase), and reduces double strand DNA damage (1.5-fold reduction). It is envisioned that the versatility of this bioreactor could allow investigation and expansion of different cell types in the future.

  15. A Versatile Bioreactor for Dynamic Suspension Cell Culture. Application to the Culture of Cancer Cell Spheroids

    PubMed Central

    Madeddu, Denise; Cerino, Giulia; Falco, Angela; Frati, Caterina; Gallo, Diego; Deriu, Marco A.; Falvo D’Urso Labate, Giuseppe; Quaini, Federico; Audenino, Alberto; Morbiducci, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    A versatile bioreactor suitable for dynamic suspension cell culture under tunable shear stress conditions has been developed and preliminarily tested culturing cancer cell spheroids. By adopting simple technological solutions and avoiding rotating components, the bioreactor exploits the laminar hydrodynamics establishing within the culture chamber enabling dynamic cell suspension in an environment favourable to mass transport, under a wide range of tunable shear stress conditions. The design phase of the device has been supported by multiphysics modelling and has provided a comprehensive analysis of the operating principles of the bioreactor. Moreover, an explanatory example is herein presented with multiphysics simulations used to set the proper bioreactor operating conditions for preliminary in vitro biological tests on a human lung carcinoma cell line. The biological results demonstrate that the ultralow shear dynamic suspension provided by the device is beneficial for culturing cancer cell spheroids. In comparison to the static suspension control, dynamic cell suspension preserves morphological features, promotes intercellular connection, increases spheroid size (2.4-fold increase) and number of cycling cells (1.58-fold increase), and reduces double strand DNA damage (1.5-fold reduction). It is envisioned that the versatility of this bioreactor could allow investigation and expansion of different cell types in the future. PMID:27144306

  16. Method for culturing mammalian cells in a horizontally rotated bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, Ray P. (Inventor); Wolf, David A. (Inventor); Trinh, Tinh T. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A bio-reactor system where cell growth microcarrier beads are suspended in a zero head space fluid medium by rotation about a horizontal axis and where the fluid is continuously oxygenated from a tubular membrane which rotates on a shaft together with rotation of the culture vessel. The oxygen is continuously throughput through the membrane and disbursed into the fluid medium along the length of the membrane.

  17. The bioreactor: a powerful tool for large-scale culture of animal cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dianliang; Liu, Wanshun; Han, Baoqin; Xu, Ruian

    2005-10-01

    Bioreactors play a key role in the field of biologics, where they are used for the production of recombinant therapeutic proteins by large-scale cultivation of animal cells. There are several types of bioreactors, including stirred-tank, airlift, hollow-fiber, and Rotary Cell Culture System (RCCS) designs. The stirred-tank bioreactor is one of the most commonly used types, and is used both for industrial applications and laboratory research. The RCCS, invented by NASA, is increasingly used in the area of tissue engineering for medical purposes. Important improvements have been made in the design of traditional bioreactors, and new types of bioreactor are also being developed such as Couette-Taylor bioreactor, multifunctional-membrane bioreactor, and shaking bioreactor. Work is also progressing on techniques to improve the performance of bioreactors, including perfusion culture, the use of microcarriers, and methods of suppressing apoptosis and of monitoring cell growth in real time. Given the demand for the production by animal cells for use in the growing number of clinical applications, further advances in bioreactor technology can be expected during the next few years. Two main goals will be pursued: firstly, to increase output by high density cultivation of animal cells to produce high value protein pharmaceutics or viral vectors for clinical gene therapy; and secondly, to create a three-dimension space similar to that of an in vivo environment to regenerate tissue or organ and to reproduce valuable cells that are hard to culture in the traditional culture system.

  18. A Bioreactor to Apply Multimodal Physical Stimuli to Cultured Cells.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, Jan-Christoph; Jones, Lizzie; Peyronnet, Remi; Lu, Liang; Kohl, Peter; Ravens, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Cells residing in the cardiac niche are constantly experiencing physical stimuli, including electrical pulses and cyclic mechanical stretch. These physical signals are known to influence a variety of cell functions, including the secretion of growth factors and extracellular matrix proteins by cardiac fibroblasts, calcium handling and contractility in cardiomyocytes, or stretch-activated ion channels in muscle and non-muscle cells of the cardiovascular system. Recent progress in cardiac tissue engineering suggests that controlled physical stimulation can lead to functional improvements in multicellular cardiac tissue constructs. To study these effects, aspects of the physical environment of the myocardium have to be mimicked in vitro. Applying continuous live imaging, this protocol demonstrates how a specifically designed bioreactor system allows controlled exposure of cultured cells to cyclic stretch, rhythmic electrical stimulation, and controlled fluid perfusion, at user-defined temperatures.

  19. Method for culturing mammalian cells in a perfused bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, Ray P. (Inventor); Wolf, David A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A bio-reactor system wherein a tubular housing contains an internal circularly disposed set of blade members and a central tubular filter all mounted for rotation about a common horizontal axis and each having independent rotational support and rotational drive mechanisms. The housing, blade members and filter preferably are driven at a constant slow speed for placing a fluid culture medium with discrete microbeads and cell cultures in a discrete spatial suspension in the housing. Replacement fluid medium is symmetrically input and fluid medium is symmetrically output from the housing where the input and the output are part of a loop providing a constant or intermittent flow of fluid medium in a closed loop.

  20. A simple eccentric stirred tank mini-bioreactor: mixing characterization and mammalian cell culture experiments.

    PubMed

    Bulnes-Abundis, David; Carrillo-Cocom, Leydi M; Aráiz-Hernández, Diana; García-Ulloa, Alfonso; Granados-Pastor, Marisa; Sánchez-Arreola, Pamela B; Murugappan, Gayathree; Alvarez, Mario M

    2013-04-01

    In industrial practice, stirred tank bioreactors are the most common mammalian cell culture platform. However, research and screening protocols at the laboratory scale (i.e., 5-100 mL) rely primarily on Petri dishes, culture bottles, or Erlenmeyer flasks. There is a clear need for simple-easy to assemble, easy to use, easy to clean-cell culture mini-bioreactors for lab-scale and/or screening applications. Here, we study the mixing performance and culture adequacy of a 30 mL eccentric stirred tank mini-bioreactor. A detailed mixing characterization of the proposed bioreactor is presented. Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computations are used to identify the operational conditions required for adequate mixing. Mammalian cell culture experiments were conducted with two different cell models. The specific growth rate and the maximum cell density of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell cultures grown in the mini-bioreactor were comparable to those observed for 6-well culture plates, Erlenmeyer flasks, and 1 L fully instrumented bioreactors. Human hematopoietic stem cells were successfully expanded tenfold in suspension conditions using the eccentric mini-bioreactor system. Our results demonstrate good mixing performance and suggest the practicality and adequacy of the proposed mini-bioreactor. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Design and Performance of an Automated Bioreactor for Cell Culture Experiments in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youn-Kyu; Park, Seul-Hyun; Lee, Joo-Hee; Choi, Gi-Hyuk

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of a bioreactor for a cell-culture experiment on the International Space Station (ISS). The bioreactor is an experimental device for culturing mouse muscle cells in a microgravity environment. The purpose of the experiment was to assess the impact of microgravity on the muscles to address the possibility of longterm human residence in space. After investigation of previously developed bioreactors, and analysis of the requirements for microgravity cell culture experiments, a bioreactor design is herein proposed that is able to automatically culture 32 samples simultaneously. This reactor design is capable of automatic control of temperature, humidity, and culture-medium injection rate; and satisfies the interface requirements of the ISS. Since bioreactors are vulnerable to cell contamination, the medium-circulation modules were designed to be a completely replaceable, in order to reuse the bioreactor after each experiment. The bioreactor control system is designed to circulate culture media to 32 culture chambers at a maximum speed of 1 ml/min, to maintain the temperature of the reactor at 36°C, and to keep the relative humidity of the reactor above 70%. Because bubbles in the culture media negatively affect cell culture, a de-bubbler unit was provided to eliminate such bubbles. A working model of the reactor was built according to the new design, to verify its performance, and was used to perform a cell culture experiment that confirmed the feasibility of this device.

  2. High-throughput miniaturized bioreactors for cell culture process development: reproducibility, scalability, and control.

    PubMed

    Rameez, Shahid; Mostafa, Sigma S; Miller, Christopher; Shukla, Abhinav A

    2014-01-01

    Decreasing the timeframe for cell culture process development has been a key goal toward accelerating biopharmaceutical development. Advanced Microscale Bioreactors (ambr™) is an automated micro-bioreactor system with miniature single-use bioreactors with a 10-15 mL working volume controlled by an automated workstation. This system was compared to conventional bioreactor systems in terms of its performance for the production of a monoclonal antibody in a recombinant Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line. The miniaturized bioreactor system was found to produce cell culture profiles that matched across scales to 3 L, 15 L, and 200 L stirred tank bioreactors. The processes used in this article involve complex feed formulations, perturbations, and strict process control within the design space, which are in-line with processes used for commercial scale manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals. Changes to important process parameters in ambr™ resulted in predictable cell growth, viability and titer changes, which were in good agreement to data from the conventional larger scale bioreactors. ambr™ was found to successfully reproduce variations in temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), and pH conditions similar to the larger bioreactor systems. Additionally, the miniature bioreactors were found to react well to perturbations in pH and DO through adjustments to the Proportional and Integral control loop. The data presented here demonstrates the utility of the ambr™ system as a high throughput system for cell culture process development. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  3. Method and Apparatus for a Miniature Bioreactor System for Long-Term Cell Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleis, Stanley J. (Inventor); Geffert, Sandra K. (Inventor); Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A bioreactor and method that permits continuous and simultaneous short, moderate, or long term cell culturing of one or more cell types or tissue in a laminar flow configuration is disclosed, where the bioreactor supports at least two laminar flow zones, which are isolated by laminar flow without the need for physical barriers between the zones. The bioreactors of this invention are ideally suited for studying short, moderate and long term studies of cell cultures and the response of cell cultures to one or more stressors such as pharmaceuticals, hypoxia, pathogens, or any other stressor. The bioreactors of this invention are also ideally suited for short, moderate or long term cell culturing with periodic cell harvesting and/or medium processing for secreted cellular components.

  4. A comparison of bioreactors for culture of fetal mesenchymal stem cells for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Teoh, Swee Hin; Teo, Erin Yiling; Khoon Chong, Mark Seow; Shin, Chong Woon; Tien, Foo Toon; Choolani, Mahesh A; Chan, Jerry K Y

    2010-11-01

    Bioreactors provide a dynamic culture system for efficient exchange of nutrients and mechanical stimulus necessary for the generation of effective tissue engineered bone grafts (TEBG). We have shown that biaxial rotating (BXR) bioreactor-matured human fetal mesenchymal stem cell (hfMSC) mediated-TEBG can heal a rat critical sized femoral defect. However, it is not known whether optimal bioreactors exist for bone TE (BTE) applications. We systematically compared this BXR bioreactor with three most commonly used systems: Spinner Flask (SF), Perfusion and Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) bioreactors, for their application in BTE. The BXR bioreactor achieved higher levels of cellularity and confluence (1.4-2.5x, p < 0.05) in large 785 mm(3) macroporous scaffolds not achieved in the other bioreactors operating in optimal settings. BXR bioreactor-treated scaffolds experienced earlier and more robust osteogenic differentiation on von Kossa staining, ALP induction (1.2-1.6×, p < 0.01) and calcium deposition (1.3-2.3×, p < 0.01). We developed a Micro CT quantification method which demonstrated homogenous distribution of hfMSC in BXR bioreactor-treated grafts, but not with the other three. BXR bioreactor enabled superior cellular proliferation, spatial distribution and osteogenic induction of hfMSC over other commonly used bioreactors. In addition, we developed and validated a non-invasive quantitative micro CT-based technique for analyzing neo-tissue formation and its spatial distribution within scaffolds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Research on ursolic acid production of Eriobotrya japonica cell suspension culture in WAVE bioreactor].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-hua; Yao, De-heng; Xu, Jian; Wang, Wei; Chang, Qiang; Su, Ming-hua

    2015-05-01

    Through scale-up cultivation of Eriobotrya japonica suspension cells using WAVE bioreactor, the cell growth and ursolic acid (UA) accumulation were studied. The comparison test was carried out in the flask and the reactor with cell dry weight (DW) and UA content as evaluation indexes. The culture medium, DW and UA content were compared in 1 L and 5 L working volumes of bioreactor. The orthogonal test with main actors of inoculation amount, speed and angle of rotation was developed to find the optimal combination, in 1 L working volume of bioreactor. DW of the cell growth and the UA content in bioreactor were higher than those of the shaker by 105.5% and 27.65% respectively. In bioreactor, the dynamic changes of elements in the fluid culture, the dry weight of the cell growth and the UA content in 1 L and 5 L working volumes were similar. Inoculation of 80 g, rotational speed of 26 r · min(-1), and angle of 6 ° was the optimal combination, and the cell biomass of 19.01 g · L(-1) and the UA content of 27.750 mg · g(-1) were achieved after 100 h cultivation in 1 L working volume of bioreactor. WAVE Bioreactor is more suitable than flasks for the E. japonica cell suspension culture, and culture parameters can be achieved from 1 L to 5 L amplification.

  6. The culture of human embryonic stem cells in microchannel perfusion bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korin, Natanel; Bransky, Avishay; Dinnar, Uri; Levenberg, Shulamit

    2007-12-01

    The culture of human Embryonic Stem (ES) cells in microchannel bioreactors can be highly beneficial for ES cell biology studies and ES tissue engineering applications. In the present study we examine the use of Human Foreskin Fibroblasts (HFF) cells as feeder cells for human ES culture in a microchannel perfusion bioreactor. PDMS microchannels (depth:130 micron) were fabricated using conventional soft-lithography techniques. The channels were sterilized, coated with a human fibronectin solution and seeded with cells. Following a period of static incubation, culture medium was perfused through the channels at various flow rates and cell growth was monitored throughout the culture process. Mass transport and fluid mechanics models were used to evaluate the culture conditions (shear stress, oxygen levels within the micro-bioreactor as a function of the medium flow rate. The conditions for successful long-term culture (>7 days) of HFF under flow were established. Experiments with human embryonic stem cells cultured in microchannels show that the conditions essential to co-culture human ES cell on HFF cells under perfusion differ from the conditions necessary for HFF cell culture. Human ES cells were found to be highly sensitive to flow and culture conditions and did not grow under flow rates which were suitable for HFF long-term culture. Successful culture of undifferentiated human ES cell colonies in a perfusion micro-bioreactor is a basic step towards utilizing microfluidic techniques to explore stem cell biology.

  7. NASA Bioreactor tissue culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  8. NASA Bioreactor tissue culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  9. Bioreactors and cell culturing. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of bioreactors and cell cultures to produce monoclonal antibodies, stock cultures, antibiotics, vaccines, proteins, and other chemicals for the pharmaceutical, biomedical, food, and chemical industries. Topics include the application of bioengineering technologies in the design, construction, and control of various types of bioreactors. The use of biochemical mediators in conjunction with these reactors is also reviewed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Neural stem cell differentiation in a cell-collagen-bioreactor culture system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsingchi J; O'Shaughnessy, Thomas J; Kelly, Jeremy; Ma, Wu

    2004-11-25

    Neural stem cells and neural progenitors (NSCs/NPs) are capable of self-renewal and can give rise to both neurons and glia. Such cells have been isolated from the embryonic brain and immobilized in three dimensional collagen gels. The collagen-entrapped NSCs/NPs recapitulate CNS stem cell development and form functional synapses and neuronal circuits. However, the cell-collagen constructs from static conditions contain hypoxic, necrotic cores and the cells are short-lived. In the present study, NSCs/NPs isolated from embryonic day 13 rat cortical neuroepithelium are immobilized in type I collagen gels and cultured in NASA-designed rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactors for up to 9 weeks. Initially, during the first 2 weeks of culture, a lag phase of cellular growth and differentiation is observed in the RWV bioreactors. Accelerated growth and differentiation, with the cells beginning to form large aggregates (approximately 1 mm in diameter) without death cores, begins during the third week. The collagen-entrapped NSCs/NPs cultured in RWV show active neuronal generation followed by astrocyte production. After 6 weeks in rotary culture, the cell-collagen constructs contain over 10 fold greater nestin+ and GFAP+ cells and two-fold more TuJ1 gene expression than those found in static cultures. In addition, TuJ1+ neurons in RWV culture give rise to extensive neurite outgrowth and considerably more synapsin I+ pre-synaptic puncta surrounding MAP2+ cell bodies and dendrites. These results strongly suggest that the cell-collagen-bioreactor culture system supports long-term NSC/NP growth and differentiation, and RWV bioreactors can be useful in generating neural tissue like constructs, which may have the potential for cell replacement therapy.

  11. Microliter-bioreactor array with buoyancy-driven stirring for human hematopoietic stem cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Luni, Camilla; Feldman, Hope C.; Pozzobon, Michela; De Coppi, Paolo; Meinhart, Carl D.; Elvassore, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the development of an array of bioreactors where finely controlled stirring is provided at the microliter scale (100–300 μl). The microliter-bioreactor array is useful for performing protocol optimization in up to 96 parallel experiments of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) cultures. Exploring a wide range of experimental conditions at the microliter scale minimizes cost and labor. Once the cell culture protocol is optimized, it can be applied to large-scale bioreactors for stem cell production at the clinical level. The controlled stirring inside the wells of a standard 96-well plate is provided by buoyancy-driven thermoconvection. The temperature and velocity fields within the culture volume are determined with numerical simulations. The numerical results are verified with experimental velocity measurements using microparticle image velocimetry (μPIV) and are used to define feasible experimental conditions for stem cell cultures. To test the bioreactor array’s functionality, human umbilical cord blood-derived CD34+ cells were cultured for 7 days at five different stirring conditions (0.24–0.58 μm∕s) in six repeated experiments. Cells were characterized in terms of proliferation, and flow cytometry measurements of viability and CD34 expression. The microliter-bioreactor array demonstrates its ability to support HSC cultures under stirred conditions without adversely affecting the cell behavior. Because of the highly controlled operative conditions, it can be used to explore culture conditions where the mass transport of endogenous and exogenous growth factors is selectively enhanced, and cell suspension provided. While the bioreactor array was developed for culturing HSCs, its application can be extended to other cell types. PMID:20824067

  12. Impact of stirred suspension bioreactor culture on the differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells into cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can proliferate endlessly and are able to differentiate into all cell lineages that make up the adult organism. Under particular in vitro culture conditions, ESCs can be expanded and induced to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in stirred suspension bioreactors (SSBs). However, in using these systems we must be cognizant of the mechanical forces acting upon the cells. The effect of mechanical forces and shear stress on ESC pluripotency and differentiation has yet to be clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the suspension culture environment on ESC pluripotency during cardiomyocyte differentiation. Results Murine D3-MHC-neor ESCs formed embyroid bodies (EBs) and differentiated into cardiomyocytes over 25 days in static culture and suspension bioreactors. G418 (Geneticin) was used in both systems from day 10 to enrich for cardiomyocytes by eliminating non-resistant, undifferentiated cells. Treatment of EBs with 1 mM ascorbic acid and 0.5% dimethyl sulfoxide from day 3 markedly increased the number of beating EBs, which displayed spontaneous and cadenced contractile beating on day 11 in the bioreactor. Our results showed that the bioreactor differentiated cells displayed the characteristics of fully functional cardiomyocytes. Remarkably, however, our results demonstrated that the bioreactor differentiated ESCs retained their ability to express pluripotency markers, to form ESC-like colonies, and to generate teratomas upon transplantation, whereas the cells differentiated in adherent culture lost these characteristics. Conclusions This study demonstrates that although cardiomyocyte differentiation can be achieved in stirred suspension bioreactors, the addition of medium enhancers is not adequate to force complete differentiation as fluid shear forces appear to maintain a subpopulation of cells in a transient pluripotent state. The development of successful ESC differentiation protocols within

  13. Development and Characterization of a Parallelizable Perfusion Bioreactor for 3D Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Dominik; Fischer, Monica; Clementi, Andreas; Ribitsch, Volker; Hansmann, Jan; Kasper, Cornelia

    2017-01-01

    The three dimensional (3D) cultivation of stem cells in dynamic bioreactor systems is essential in the context of regenerative medicine. Still, there is a lack of bioreactor systems that allow the cultivation of multiple independent samples under different conditions while ensuring comprehensive control over the mechanical environment. Therefore, we developed a miniaturized, parallelizable perfusion bioreactor system with two different bioreactor chambers. Pressure sensors were also implemented to determine the permeability of biomaterials which allows us to approximate the shear stress conditions. To characterize the flow velocity and shear stress profile of a porous scaffold in both bioreactor chambers, a computational fluid dynamics analysis was performed. Furthermore, the mixing behavior was characterized by acquisition of the residence time distributions. Finally, the effects of the different flow and shear stress profiles of the bioreactor chambers on osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells were evaluated in a proof of concept study. In conclusion, the data from computational fluid dynamics and shear stress calculations were found to be predictable for relative comparison of the bioreactor geometries, but not for final determination of the optimal flow rate. However, we suggest that the system is beneficial for parallel dynamic cultivation of multiple samples for 3D cell culture processes.

  14. Visualizing medium and biodistribution in complex cell culture bioreactors using in vivo imaging.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, E; Thomas, R J; Stacey, A J

    2014-01-01

    There is a dearth of technology and methods to aid process characterization, control and scale-up of complex culture platforms that provide niche micro-environments for some stem cell-based products. We have demonstrated a novel use of 3d in vivo imaging systems to visualize medium flow and cell distribution within a complex culture platform (hollow fiber bioreactor) to aid characterization of potential spatial heterogeneity and identify potential routes of bioreactor failure or sources of variability. This can then aid process characterization and control of such systems with a view to scale-up. Two potential sources of variation were observed with multiple bioreactors repeatedly imaged using two different imaging systems: shortcutting of medium between adjacent inlet and outlet ports with the potential to create medium gradients within the bioreactor, and localization of bioluminescent murine 4T1-luc2 cells upon inoculation with the potential to create variable seeding densities at different points within the cell growth chamber. The ability of the imaging technique to identify these key operational bioreactor characteristics demonstrates an emerging technique in troubleshooting and engineering optimization of bioreactor performance. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  15. Bioreactor concepts for cell culture-based viral vaccine production.

    PubMed

    Gallo-Ramírez, Lilí Esmeralda; Nikolay, Alexander; Genzel, Yvonne; Reichl, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Vaccine manufacturing processes are designed to meet present and upcoming challenges associated with a growing vaccine market and to include multi-use facilities offering a broad portfolio and faster reaction times in case of pandemics and emerging diseases. The final products, from whole viruses to recombinant viral proteins, are very diverse, making standard process strategies hardly universally applicable. Numerous factors such as cell substrate, virus strain or expression system, medium, cultivation system, cultivation method, and scale need consideration. Reviewing options for efficient and economical production of human vaccines, this paper discusses basic factors relevant for viral antigen production in mammalian cells, avian cells and insect cells. In addition, bioreactor concepts, including static systems, single-use systems, stirred tanks and packed-beds are addressed. On this basis, methods towards process intensification, in particular operational strategies, the use of perfusion systems for high product yields, and steps to establish continuous processes are introduced.

  16. Three-dimensional perfusion bioreactor culture supports differentiation of human fetal liver cells.

    PubMed

    Schmelzer, Eva; Triolo, Fabio; Turner, Morris E; Thompson, Robert L; Zeilinger, Katrin; Reid, Lola M; Gridelli, Bruno; Gerlach, Jörg C

    2010-06-01

    The ability of human fetal liver cells to survive, expand, and form functional tissue in vitro is of high interest for the development of bioartificial extracorporeal liver support systems, liver cell transplantation therapies, and pharmacologic models. Conventional static two-dimensional culture models seem to be inadequate tools. We focus on dynamic three-dimensional perfusion technologies and developed a scaled-down bioreactor, providing decentralized mass exchange with integral oxygenation. Human fetal liver cells were embedded in a hyaluronan hydrogel within the capillary system to mimic an in vivo matrix and perfusion environment. Metabolic performance was monitored daily, including glucose consumption, lactate dehydrogenase activity, and secretion of alpha-fetoprotein and albumin. At culture termination cells were analyzed for proliferation and liver-specific lineage-dependent cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4/3A7) gene expression. Occurrence of hepatic differentiation in bioreactor cultures was demonstrated by a strong increase in CYP3A4/3A7 gene expression ratio, lower alpha-fetoprotein, and higher albumin secretion than in conventional Petri dish controls. Cells in bioreactors formed three-dimensional structures. Viability of cells was higher in bioreactors than in control cultures. In conclusion, the culture model implementing three-dimensionality, constant perfusion, and integral oxygenation in combination with a hyaluronan hydrogel provides superior conditions for liver cell survival and differentiation compared to conventional culture.

  17. Suspension cell culture in microgravity and development of a space bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    1987-01-01

    NASA has methodically developed unique suspension type cell and recovery apparatus culture systems for bioprocess technology experiments and production of biological products in microgravity. The first space bioreactor has been designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small (500 ml) bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption, and control of low shear stress on cells.

  18. A multifunctional bioreactor for three-dimensional cell (co)-culture.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberg, Artur; Dumlu, Goekhan; Walles, Thorsten; Maringka, Michael; Ringes-Lichtenberg, Stefanie; Ruhparwar, Arjang; Mertsching, Heike; Haverich, Axel

    2005-02-01

    Investigation of cell abilities to growth, proliferation and (de)-differentiation in a three-dimensional distribution is an important issue in biotechnological research. Here, we report the development of a new bioreactor for three-dimensional cell culture, which allows for co-cultivation of various cell types with different culture conditions in spatial separation. Preliminary results of neonatal rat cardiomyocyte cultivation are shown. Isolated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were cultured in spatial separated bioreactor compartments in recirculating medium on a biodegradable fibrin matrix for 2 weeks. Glucose, lactate, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), pO2, pCO2, and pH levels were monitored in the recirculated medium, daily. Morphological characterization of matrix and cells was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining, and MF-20 co-immunostaining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Cell viability was determined by LIVE/DEAD staining before cultivation and on day 3, 7, and 14. The optimized seeding density in the matrix was 2.0 x 10(7) cells retaining cellular proportions over the cell culture period. The bioreactor allows the maintenance of physiologic culture conditions with aerobic cell metabolism (low release of lactate, LDH), a high oxygen tension (pO2-183.7 +/- 18.4 mmHg) and physiological pH values (7.4 +/- 0.02) and a constant level of pCO2 (43.1 +/- 2.9) throughout the experimental course. The cell viability was sufficient after 2 weeks with 82 +/- 6.7% living cells. No significant differences were found between spatial separated bioreactor compartments. Our novel multifunctional bioreactor allows for a three-dimensional culture of cells with spatial separation of the co-cultured cell groups. In preliminary experiments, it provided favorable conditions for the three-dimensional cultivation of cardiomyocytes.

  19. Use of microgravity bioreactors for development of an in vitro rat salivary gland cell culture model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. L.; Moriarity, D. M.; Campbell, P. S.

    1993-01-01

    During development, salivary gland (SG) cells both secrete factors which modulate cellular behavior and express specific hormone receptors. Whether SG cell growth is modulated by an autocrine epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-mediated signal transduction pathway is not clearly understood. SG tissue is the synthesis site for functionally distinct products including growth factors, digestive enzymes, and homeostasis maintaining factors. Historically, SG cells have proven difficult to grow and may be only maintained as limited three-dimensional ductal-type structures in collagen gels or on reconstituted basement membrane gels. A novel approach to establishing primary rat SG cultures is use of microgravity bioreactors originally designed by NASA as low-shear culture systems for predicting cell growth and differentiation in the microgravity environment of space. These completely fluid-filled bioreactors, which are oriented horizontally and rotate, have proven advantageous for Earth-based culture of three-dimensional cell assemblies, tissue-like aggregates, and glandular structures. Use of microgravity bioreactors for establishing in vitro models to investigate steroid-mediated secretion of EGF by normal SG cells may also prove useful for the investigation of cancer and other salivary gland disorders. These microgravity bioreactors promise challenging opportunities for future applications in basic and applied cell research.

  20. Use of microgravity bioreactors for development of an in vitro rat salivary gland cell culture model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. L.; Moriarity, D. M.; Campbell, P. S.

    1993-01-01

    During development, salivary gland (SG) cells both secrete factors which modulate cellular behavior and express specific hormone receptors. Whether SG cell growth is modulated by an autocrine epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-mediated signal transduction pathway is not clearly understood. SG tissue is the synthesis site for functionally distinct products including growth factors, digestive enzymes, and homeostasis maintaining factors. Historically, SG cells have proven difficult to grow and may be only maintained as limited three-dimensional ductal-type structures in collagen gels or on reconstituted basement membrane gels. A novel approach to establishing primary rat SG cultures is use of microgravity bioreactors originally designed by NASA as low-shear culture systems for predicting cell growth and differentiation in the microgravity environment of space. These completely fluid-filled bioreactors, which are oriented horizontally and rotate, have proven advantageous for Earth-based culture of three-dimensional cell assemblies, tissue-like aggregates, and glandular structures. Use of microgravity bioreactors for establishing in vitro models to investigate steroid-mediated secretion of EGF by normal SG cells may also prove useful for the investigation of cancer and other salivary gland disorders. These microgravity bioreactors promise challenging opportunities for future applications in basic and applied cell research.

  1. Culturing and applications of rotating wall vessel bioreactor derived 3D epithelial cell models.

    PubMed

    Radtke, Andrea L; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M

    2012-04-03

    Cells and tissues in the body experience environmental conditions that influence their architecture, intercellular communications, and overall functions. For in vitro cell culture models to accurately mimic the tissue of interest, the growth environment of the culture is a critical aspect to consider. Commonly used conventional cell culture systems propagate epithelial cells on flat two-dimensional (2-D) impermeable surfaces. Although much has been learned from conventional cell culture systems, many findings are not reproducible in human clinical trials or tissue explants, potentially as a result of the lack of a physiologically relevant microenvironment. Here, we describe a culture system that overcomes many of the culture condition boundaries of 2-D cell cultures, by using the innovative rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor technology. We and others have shown that organotypic RWV-derived models can recapitulate structure, function, and authentic human responses to external stimuli similarly to human explant tissues (1-6). The RWV bioreactor is a suspension culture system that allows for the growth of epithelial cells under low physiological fluid shear conditions. The bioreactors come in two different formats, a high-aspect rotating vessel (HARV) or a slow-turning lateral vessel (STLV), in which they differ by their aeration source. Epithelial cells are added to the bioreactor of choice in combination with porous, collagen-coated microcarrier beads (Figure 1A). The cells utilize the beads as a growth scaffold during the constant free fall in the bioreactor (Figure 1B). The microenvironment provided by the bioreactor allows the cells to form three-dimensional (3-D) aggregates displaying in vivo-like characteristics often not observed under standard 2-D culture conditions (Figure 1D). These characteristics include tight junctions, mucus production, apical/basal orientation, in vivo protein localization, and additional epithelial cell-type specific properties

  2. Comparison of spectroscopy technologies for improved monitoring of cell culture processes in miniature bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Frans; Racher, Andrew J.; Martin, Elaine B.; Jaques, Colin

    2017-01-01

    Cell culture process development requires the screening of large numbers of cell lines and process conditions. The development of miniature bioreactor systems has increased the throughput of such studies; however, there are limitations with their use. One important constraint is the limited number of offline samples that can be taken compared to those taken for monitoring cultures in large‐scale bioreactors. The small volume of miniature bioreactor cultures (15 mL) is incompatible with the large sample volume (600 µL) required for bioanalysers routinely used. Spectroscopy technologies may be used to resolve this limitation. The purpose of this study was to compare the use of NIR, Raman, and 2D‐fluorescence to measure multiple analytes simultaneously in volumes suitable for daily monitoring of a miniature bioreactor system. A novel design‐of‐experiment approach is described that utilizes previously analyzed cell culture supernatant to assess metabolite concentrations under various conditions while providing optimal coverage of the desired design space. Multivariate data analysis techniques were used to develop predictive models. Model performance was compared to determine which technology is more suitable for this application. 2D‐fluorescence could more accurately measure ammonium concentration (RMSECV 0.031 g L−1) than Raman and NIR. Raman spectroscopy, however, was more robust at measuring lactate and glucose concentrations (RMSECV 1.11 and 0.92 g L−1, respectively) than the other two techniques. The findings suggest that Raman spectroscopy is more suited for this application than NIR and 2D‐fluorescence. The implementation of Raman spectroscopy increases at‐line measuring capabilities, enabling daily monitoring of key cell culture components within miniature bioreactor cultures. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:337–346, 2017 PMID:28271638

  3. Comparison of spectroscopy technologies for improved monitoring of cell culture processes in miniature bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Rowland-Jones, Ruth C; van den Berg, Frans; Racher, Andrew J; Martin, Elaine B; Jaques, Colin

    2017-03-01

    Cell culture process development requires the screening of large numbers of cell lines and process conditions. The development of miniature bioreactor systems has increased the throughput of such studies; however, there are limitations with their use. One important constraint is the limited number of offline samples that can be taken compared to those taken for monitoring cultures in large-scale bioreactors. The small volume of miniature bioreactor cultures (15 mL) is incompatible with the large sample volume (600 µL) required for bioanalysers routinely used. Spectroscopy technologies may be used to resolve this limitation. The purpose of this study was to compare the use of NIR, Raman, and 2D-fluorescence to measure multiple analytes simultaneously in volumes suitable for daily monitoring of a miniature bioreactor system. A novel design-of-experiment approach is described that utilizes previously analyzed cell culture supernatant to assess metabolite concentrations under various conditions while providing optimal coverage of the desired design space. Multivariate data analysis techniques were used to develop predictive models. Model performance was compared to determine which technology is more suitable for this application. 2D-fluorescence could more accurately measure ammonium concentration (RMSECV 0.031 g L(-1) ) than Raman and NIR. Raman spectroscopy, however, was more robust at measuring lactate and glucose concentrations (RMSECV 1.11 and 0.92 g L(-1) , respectively) than the other two techniques. The findings suggest that Raman spectroscopy is more suited for this application than NIR and 2D-fluorescence. The implementation of Raman spectroscopy increases at-line measuring capabilities, enabling daily monitoring of key cell culture components within miniature bioreactor cultures. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:337-346, 2017. © 2017 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on

  4. Semicontinuous Bioreactor Production of Recombinant Butyrylcholinesterase in Transgenic Rice Cell Suspension Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, Jasmine M.; Hashimoto, Bryce I.; Karuppanan, Kalimuthu; Kyser, Zachary R.; Wu, Liying; Roberts, Brian A.; Noe, Amy R.; Rodriguez, Raymond L.; McDonald, Karen A.; Nandi, Somen

    2016-01-01

    An active and tetrameric form of recombinant butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), a large and complex human enzyme, was produced via semicontinuous operation in a transgenic rice cell suspension culture. After transformation of rice callus and screening of transformants, the cultures were scaled up from culture flask to a lab scale bioreactor. The bioreactor was operated through two phases each of growth and expression. The cells were able to produce BChE during both expression phases, with a maximum yield of 1.6 mg BChE/L of culture during the second expression phase. Cells successfully regrew during a 5-day growth phase. A combination of activity assays and Western blot analysis indicated production of an active and fully assembled tetramer of BChE. PMID:27066048

  5. Automated and online characterization of adherent cell culture growth in a microfabricated bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Jaccard, Nicolas; Macown, Rhys J; Super, Alexandre; Griffin, Lewis D; Veraitch, Farlan S; Szita, Nicolas

    2014-10-01

    Adherent cell lines are widely used across all fields of biology, including drug discovery, toxicity studies, and regenerative medicine. However, adherent cell processes are often limited by a lack of advances in cell culture systems. While suspension culture processes benefit from decades of development of instrumented bioreactors, adherent cultures are typically performed in static, noninstrumented flasks and well-plates. We previously described a microfabricated bioreactor that enables a high degree of control on the microenvironment of the cells while remaining compatible with standard cell culture protocols. In this report, we describe its integration with automated image-processing capabilities, allowing the continuous monitoring of key cell culture characteristics. A machine learning-based algorithm enabled the specific detection of one cell type within a co-culture setting, such as human embryonic stem cells against the background of fibroblast cells. In addition, the algorithm did not confuse image artifacts resulting from microfabrication, such as scratches on surfaces, or dust particles, with cellular features. We demonstrate how the automation of flow control, environmental control, and image acquisition can be employed to image the whole culture area and obtain time-course data of mouse embryonic stem cell cultures, for example, for confluency.

  6. Automated and Online Characterization of Adherent Cell Culture Growth in a Microfabricated Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Jaccard, Nicolas; Macown, Rhys J.; Super, Alexandre; Griffin, Lewis D.; Veraitch, Farlan S.

    2014-01-01

    Adherent cell lines are widely used across all fields of biology, including drug discovery, toxicity studies, and regenerative medicine. However, adherent cell processes are often limited by a lack of advances in cell culture systems. While suspension culture processes benefit from decades of development of instrumented bioreactors, adherent cultures are typically performed in static, noninstrumented flasks and well-plates. We previously described a microfabricated bioreactor that enables a high degree of control on the microenvironment of the cells while remaining compatible with standard cell culture protocols. In this report, we describe its integration with automated image-processing capabilities, allowing the continuous monitoring of key cell culture characteristics. A machine learning–based algorithm enabled the specific detection of one cell type within a co-culture setting, such as human embryonic stem cells against the background of fibroblast cells. In addition, the algorithm did not confuse image artifacts resulting from microfabrication, such as scratches on surfaces, or dust particles, with cellular features. We demonstrate how the automation of flow control, environmental control, and image acquisition can be employed to image the whole culture area and obtain time-course data of mouse embryonic stem cell cultures, for example, for confluency. PMID:24692228

  7. Bioreactor for application of subatmospheric pressure to three-dimensional cell culture.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, Robert P; McNulty, Amy K; Feeley, Teri D; Schmidt, Marisa A; Kieswetter, Kris

    2007-12-01

    Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is a highly successful and widely used treatment modality for wound healing, although no apparatus exists to monitor the effects of subatmospheric pressure application in vitro. Such an apparatus is desirable to better understand the biological effects of this therapy and potentially improve upon them. This article describes the development and validation of a novel bioreactor that permits such study. Tissue analogues consisting of 3-dimensional fibroblast-containing fibrin clots were cultured in off-the-shelf disposable cell culture inserts and multi-well plates that were integrated into the bioreactor module. Negative pressure dressings, commercialized for wound therapy, were placed on top of the culture, and subatmospheric pressure was applied to the dressing. Cultures were perfused with media at controlled physiologic wound exudate flow rates. The design of this bioreactor permits observation of the culture using an inverted microscope in brightfield and fluorescence modes and sustained incubation of the system in a 5% carbon dioxide atmosphere. This closed-system mimics the wound micro-environment under VAC NPWT. Matrix compression occurs as the subatmospheric pressure draws the dressing material down. At the contact zone, surface undulations were clearly evident on the fibroblast-containing tissue analogues at 24 h and appeared to correspond to the dressing microstructure. The bioreactor design, consisting of sterilizable machined plastics and disposable labware, can be easily scaled to multiple units. Validation experiments show that cell survival in this system is comparable with that seen in cells grown in static tissue culture. After application of VAC NPWT, cell morphology changed, with cells appearing thicker and with an organized actin cytoskeleton. The development and validation of this new culture system establishes a stable platform for in vitro investigations of subatmospheric

  8. Production of LDMNPV in the Wave® cell culture bioreactor

    Treesearch

    James M. Slavicek; J. Matt Gabler

    2007-01-01

    The development of bioreactor production methods for Gypchek would provide a means of production that can be scaled to a large capacity (production of 20,000 acre equivalents + per year), that is potentially at a lower cost than the current larval based production method, and would generate a product completely free of bacteria, fungi, and other viruses.

  9. Long-term three-dimensional perfusion culture of human adult bone marrow mononuclear cells in bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Schmelzer, Eva; Finoli, Anthony; Nettleship, Ian; Gerlach, Jörg C

    2015-04-01

    The construction and long-term maintenance of three-dimensional in vitro bone marrow models is of great interest but still quite challenging. Here we describe the use of a multi-compartment hollow-fiber membrane based three-dimensional perfusion bioreactor for long-term culture of whole human bone marrow mononuclear cells. We also investigated bioreactors with incorporated open-porous foamed hydroxyapatite scaffolds, mimicking the in vivo bone matrix. Cells in bioreactors with and without scaffolds were cultured to 6 weeks and compared to Petri dish controls. Cells were analyzed for gene expression, surface markers by flow cytometry, metabolic activity, hematopoietic potential, viability, and attachment by immunocytochemistry. Cells in bioreactors were metabolic active during long-term culture. The percentages of hematopoietic stem cell and mature endothelial cell fractions were maintained in bioreactors. The expression of most of the analyzed genes stabilized and increased after long-term culture of 6 weeks. Compared to Petri dish culture controls, bioreactor perfusion culture improved in both the short and long-term, the colony formation unit capacity of hematopoietic progenitors. Cells attached to the ample surface area provided by hydroxyapatite scaffolds. The implementation of a hydroxyapatite scaffold did not influence colony formation capacity, percentages of cell type specific fractions, gene expression, cell viability or metabolic turnover when compared to control cells cultured in bioreactors without scaffolds. In conclusion, three-dimensional perfusion bioreactor culture enables long-term maintenance of primary human bone marrow cells, with hydroxyapatite scaffolds providing an in vivo-like scaffold for three-dimensional culture. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A carbon dioxide stripping model for mammalian cell culture in manufacturing scale bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Xing, Zizhuo; Lewis, Amanda M; Borys, Michael C; Li, Zheng Jian

    2017-06-01

    Control of carbon dioxide within the optimum range is important in mammalian bioprocesses at the manufacturing scale in order to ensure robust cell growth, high protein yields, and consistent quality attributes. The majority of bioprocess development work is done in laboratory bioreactors, in which carbon dioxide levels are more easily controlled. Some challenges in carbon dioxide control can present themselves when cell culture processes are scaled up, because carbon dioxide accumulation is a common feature due to longer gas-residence time of mammalian cell culture in large scale bioreactors. A carbon dioxide stripping model can be used to better understand and optimize parameters that are critical to cell culture processes at the manufacturing scale. The prevailing carbon dioxide stripping models in literature depend on mass transfer coefficients and were applicable to cell culture processes with low cell density or at stationary/cell death phase. However, it was reported that gas bubbles are saturated with carbon dioxide before leaving the culture, which makes carbon dioxide stripping no longer depend on a mass transfer coefficient in the new generation cell culture processes characterized by longer exponential growth phase, higher peak viable cell densities, and higher specific production rate. Here, we present a new carbon dioxide stripping model for manufacturing scale bioreactors, which is independent of carbon dioxide mass transfer coefficient, but takes into account the gas-residence time and gas CO2 saturation time. The model was verified by CHO cell culture processes with different peak viable cell densities (7 to 12 × 10(6)  cells mL(-1) ) for two products in 5,000-L and 25,000-L bioreactors. The model was also applied to a next generation cell culture process to optimize cell culture conditions and reduce carbon dioxide levels at manufacturing scale. The model provides a useful tool to understand and better control cell culture carbon dioxide

  11. [Studies on the cell suspension culture of Saussarea medusa in a stirred tank bioreactor].

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Zhao, D X; Lu, D P; Yan, F; Li, Z H; Chen, H Z; Zhao, Q

    2001-09-01

    The cell suspension culture of Saussarea medusa in a 2L aerated and agitated bioreactor with a four-pitch-blade impeller was investigated. The effects of agitation speed, aeration and inoculum size on cell growth and flavonoids production were studied and it was found that cells had optimum growth and flavonoids production when cultivated at 75 r/min, 700-1000 L/min and an inoculum of 4.0-5.0 g/L. A high cell biomass of 13.8 g/L and flavonoids production of 416 mg/L were achieved after 12 days of cultivation. Time course study revealed that flavonoids biosynthesis was growth-associated. The studies on aggregates size distribution in the bioreactor showed that the aggregates break-up caused by hydrodynamic stress might adversely affect cell growth and lead to significant reduction of cell biomass and flavonoids production.

  12. Optical examination of cell culture in bioreactors creating simulated in vivo conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolfe, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    Cell culture using bioreactors is a vital part of Cellular and Tissue Engineering. Bioreactor design continues to advance, in order to allow control over physical and chemical parameters as well as continuous assessment of cell behaviour, gene expression, and tissue formation and growth. Measurement or monitoring of many such parameters or features can be achieved with optical techniques. The current aim of cell culture is to re-create in vivo conditions and in order to achieve this control of the chemical environment is required and some cell types must be subjected to shear stress and/or axial loads. For creating tissue engineered cartilage chondrocytes are cultured within a biodegradable scaffold. Influences of cyclic loading and of oxygen supply on phenotype are studied. Vascular endothelial cells are subjected to fluid shear stress and the influence on prostacyclin production is measured. Optical interrogation of culture fluid, attached cells, cells in suspension and tissue constructs is carried out using a combination of spectrophotometry, analysis of scattering, and chemical sensing. Insertion of sensing probes within the culture vessel presents problems of protein adsorption to sensing surfaces. Approaches based on cell membrane mimicry are being evaluated for their potential to overcome this problem. Sensors based on immobilised fluorophores and chromaphores within either wall-mounted membranes or within optical fibres are assessed. Culture fluid turbidity is evaluated with scattering determinations and circulating glucose concentration is measured spectrophotometrically. Formed tissue is interrogated with NIR radiation and in the future will include the use of OCT.

  13. Expansion of undifferentiated murine embryonic stem cells as aggregates in suspension culture bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Jaymi T; zur Nieden, Nicole I; Rancourt, Derrick E; Kallos, Michael S

    2006-11-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have recently been considered as a primary material for regenerating tissues lost to injuries and degenerative diseases. For clinical implementation of this technology, a quality controlled, reproducible culture system is necessary for the expansion and differentiation of the cells. Used in many bioprocess applications, suspension bioreactors have gained considerable attention for the regulated large-scale expansion of cells. The current study presents a bioreactor process for the large-scale expansion of undifferentiated murine ESCs as aggregates. In this system, the level of ESC aggregation and differentiation was effectively controlled by adjusting shear forces and inoculation density, achieving a 31-fold expansion in 5 days. Pluripotency markers Oct-4, Nanog, SSEA-1, ALP, and rex-1 were assessed using flow cytometry analysis and gene expression profiles and showed that the undifferentiated nature of the cells within the ESC aggregates was maintained. Colony-forming efficiencies and embryoid body formation tests of the expanded cultures demonstrated that characteristic functional attributes of undifferentiated cells were not lost. Overcoming a major impediment in the area of ESC expansion, this study describes a successful process for the controlled and reproducible largescale expansion of ESCs using suspension culture bioreactors.

  14. Scalable Stirred-Suspension Bioreactor Culture of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kehoe, Daniel E.; Jing, Donghui; Lock, Lye T.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in stem cell biology have afforded promising results for the generation of various cell types for therapies against devastating diseases. However, a prerequisite for realizing the therapeutic potential of stem cells is the development of bioprocesses for the production of stem cell progeny in quantities that satisfy clinical demands. Recent reports on the expansion and directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in scalable stirred-suspension bioreactors (SSBs) demonstrated that large-scale production of therapeutically useful hESC progeny is feasible with current state-of-the-art culture technologies. Stem cells have been cultured in SSBs as aggregates, in microcarrier suspension and after encapsulation. The various modes in which SSBs can be employed for the cultivation of hESCs and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are described. To that end, this is the first account of hiPSC cultivation in a microcarrier stirred-suspension system. Given that cultured stem cells and their differentiated progeny are the actual products used in tissue engineering and cell therapies, the impact of bioreactor's operating conditions on stem cell self-renewal and commitment should be considered. The effects of variables specific to SSB operation on stem cell physiology are discussed. Finally, major challenges are presented which remain to be addressed before the mainstream use of SSBs for the large-scale culture of hESCs and hiPSCs. PMID:19739936

  15. Continuous plant cell perfusion culture: bioreactor characterization and secreted enzyme production.

    PubMed

    Su, Wei Wen; Arias, Renee

    2003-01-01

    Culture perfusion is widely practiced in mammalian cell processes to enhance secreted antibody production. Here, we report the development of an efficient continuous perfusion process for the cultivation of plant cell suspensions. The key to this process is a perfusion bioreactor that incorporates an annular settling zone into a stirred-tank bioreactor to achieve continuous cell/medium separation via gravitational sedimentation. From washout experiments, we found that under typical operating conditions (e.g., 200 rpm and 0.3 vvm) the liquid phase in the entire perfusion bioreactor was homogeneous despite the presence of the cylindrical baffle. Using secreted acid phosphatase (APase) produced in Anchusa officinalis cell culture as a model we have studied the perfusion cultures under complete or partial cell retention. The perfusion culture was operated under phosphate limitation to stimulate APase production. Successful operation of the perfusion process over four weeks has been achieved in this work. When A. officinalis cells were grown in the perfusion reactor and perfused at up to 0.4 vvd with complete cell retention, a cell dry weight exceeding 20 g/l could be achieved while secreted APase productivity leveled off at approximately 300 units/l/d. The culture became extremely dense with the maximum packed cell volume (PCV) surpassing 70%. In comparison, the maximum cell dry weight and overall secreted APase productivity in a typical batch culture were 10-12 g/l and 100-150 units/l/d, respectively. Operation of the perfusion culture under extremely high PCV for a prolonged period, however, led to declined oxygen uptake and reduced viability. Subsequently, cell removal via a bleed stream at up to 0.11 vvd was tested and shown to stabilize the culture at a PCV below 60%. With culture bleeding, both specific oxygen uptake rate and viability were shown to increase. This also led to a higher cell dry weight exceeding 25 g/l, and further improvement of secreted APase

  16. Teratoma formation of human embryonic stem cells in three-dimensional perfusion culture bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Stachelscheid, H; Wulf-Goldenberg, A; Eckert, K; Jensen, J; Edsbagge, J; Björquist, P; Rivero, M; Strehl, R; Jozefczuk, J; Prigione, A; Adjaye, J; Urbaniak, T; Bussmann, P; Zeilinger, K; Gerlach, J C

    2013-09-01

    Teratoma formation in mice is today the most stringent test for pluripotency that is available for human pluripotent cells, as chimera formation and tetraploid complementation cannot be performed with human cells. The teratoma assay could also be applied for assessing the safety of human pluripotent cell-derived cell populations intended for therapeutic applications. In our study we examined the spontaneous differentiation behaviour of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in a perfused 3D multi-compartment bioreactor system and compared it with differentiation of hESCs and human induced pluripotent cells (hiPSCs) cultured in vitro as embryoid bodies and in vivo in an experimental mouse model of teratoma formation. Results from biochemical, histological/immunohistological and ultrastuctural analyses revealed that hESCs cultured in bioreactors formed tissue-like structures containing derivatives of all three germ layers. Comparison with embryoid bodies and the teratomas revealed a high degree of similarity of the tissues formed in the bioreactor to these in the teratomas at the histological as well as transcriptional level, as detected by comparative whole-genome RNA expression profiling. The 3D culture system represents a novel in vitro model that permits stable long-term cultivation, spontaneous multi-lineage differentiation and tissue formation of pluripotent cells that is comparable to in vivo differentiation. Such a model is of interest, e.g. for the development of novel cell differentiation strategies. In addition, the 3D in vitro model could be used for teratoma studies and pluripotency assays in a fully defined, controlled environment, alternatively to in vivo mouse models. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Oxygen transport and stem cell aggregation in stirred-suspension bioreactor cultures.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jincheng; Rostami, Mahboubeh Rahmati; Cadavid Olaya, Diana P; Tzanakakis, Emmanuel S

    2014-01-01

    Stirred-suspension bioreactors are a promising modality for large-scale culture of 3D aggregates of pluripotent stem cells and their progeny. Yet, cells within these clusters experience limitations in the transfer of factors and particularly O2 which is characterized by low solubility in aqueous media. Cultured stem cells under different O2 levels may exhibit significantly different proliferation, viability and differentiation potential. Here, a transient diffusion-reaction model was built encompassing the size distribution and ultrastructural characteristics of embryonic stem cell (ESC) aggregates. The model was coupled to experimental data from bioreactor and static cultures for extracting the effective diffusivity and kinetics of consumption of O2 within mouse (mESC) and human ESC (hESC) clusters. Under agitation, mESC aggregates exhibited a higher maximum consumption rate than hESC aggregates. Moreover, the reaction-diffusion model was integrated with a population balance equation (PBE) for the temporal distribution of ESC clusters changing due to aggregation and cell proliferation. Hypoxia was found to be negligible for ESCs with a smaller radius than 100 µm but became appreciable for aggregates larger than 300 µm. The integrated model not only captured the O2 profile both in the bioreactor bulk and inside ESC aggregates but also led to the calculation of the duration that fractions of cells experience a certain range of O2 concentrations. The approach described in this study can be employed for gaining a deeper understanding of the effects of O2 on the physiology of stem cells organized in 3D structures. Such frameworks can be extended to encompass the spatial and temporal availability of nutrients and differentiation factors and facilitate the design and control of relevant bioprocesses for the production of stem cell therapeutics.

  18. Oxygen Transport and Stem Cell Aggregation in Stirred-Suspension Bioreactor Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jincheng; Rostami, Mahboubeh Rahmati; Cadavid Olaya, Diana P.; Tzanakakis, Emmanuel S.

    2014-01-01

    Stirred-suspension bioreactors are a promising modality for large-scale culture of 3D aggregates of pluripotent stem cells and their progeny. Yet, cells within these clusters experience limitations in the transfer of factors and particularly O2 which is characterized by low solubility in aqueous media. Cultured stem cells under different O2 levels may exhibit significantly different proliferation, viability and differentiation potential. Here, a transient diffusion-reaction model was built encompassing the size distribution and ultrastructural characteristics of embryonic stem cell (ESC) aggregates. The model was coupled to experimental data from bioreactor and static cultures for extracting the effective diffusivity and kinetics of consumption of O2 within mouse (mESC) and human ESC (hESC) clusters. Under agitation, mESC aggregates exhibited a higher maximum consumption rate than hESC aggregates. Moreover, the reaction-diffusion model was integrated with a population balance equation (PBE) for the temporal distribution of ESC clusters changing due to aggregation and cell proliferation. Hypoxia was found to be negligible for ESCs with a smaller radius than 100 µm but became appreciable for aggregates larger than 300 µm. The integrated model not only captured the O2 profile both in the bioreactor bulk and inside ESC aggregates but also led to the calculation of the duration that fractions of cells experience a certain range of O2 concentrations. The approach described in this study can be employed for gaining a deeper understanding of the effects of O2 on the physiology of stem cells organized in 3D structures. Such frameworks can be extended to encompass the spatial and temporal availability of nutrients and differentiation factors and facilitate the design and control of relevant bioprocesses for the production of stem cell therapeutics. PMID:25032842

  19. Bioreactor productivity and media cost comparison for different intensified cell culture processes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sen; Gavin, John; Jiang, Rubin; Chen, Hao

    2017-07-01

    Process intensification in biomanufacturing has attracted a great deal of interest in recent years. Manufacturing platform improvements leading to higher cell density and bioreactor productivity have been pursued. Here we evaluated a variety of intensified mammalian cell culture processes for producing monoclonal antibodies. Cell culture operational modes including fed-batch (normal seeding density or high seeding density with N-1 perfusion), perfusion, and concentrated fed-batch (CFB) were assessed using the same media set with the same Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell line. Limited media modification was done to quickly fit the media set to different operational modes. Perfusion and CFB processes were developed using an alternating tangential flow filtration device. Independent of the operational modes, comparable cell specific productivity (fed-batch: 29.4 pg/cell/day; fed-batch with N-1 perfusion: 32.0 pg/cell/day; perfusion: 31.0 pg/cell/day; CFB: 20.1 - 45.1 pg/cell/day) was reached with similar media conditions. Continuous media exchange enabled much higher bioreactor productivity in the perfusion (up to 2.29 g/L/day) and CFB processes (up to 2.04 g/L/day), compared with that in the fed-batch processes (ranging from 0.39 to 0.49 g/L/day), largely due to the higher cell density maintained. Furthermore, media cost per gram of antibody produced from perfusion was found to be highly comparable with that from fed-batch; and the media cost for CFB was the highest due to the short batch duration. Our experimental data supports the argument that media cost for perfusion process could be even lower than that in a fed-batch process, as long as sufficient bioreactor productivity is achieved. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:867-878, 2017. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  20. Chip-based Three-dimensional Cell Culture in Perfused Micro-bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Gottwald, Eric; Lahni, Brigitte; Thiele, David; Giselbrecht, Stefan; Welle, Alexander; Weibezahn, Karl-Friedrich

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a chip-based cell culture system for the three-dimensional cultivation of cells. The chip is typically manufactured from non-biodegradable polymers, e.g., polycarbonate or polymethyl methacrylate by micro injection molding, micro hot embossing or micro thermoforming. But, it can also be manufactured from bio-degradable polymers. Its overall dimensions are 0.7 1 x 20 x 20 x 0.7 1 mm (h x w x l). The main features of the chips used are either a grid of up to 1156 cubic micro-containers (cf-chip) each the size of 120-300 x 300 x 300 μ (h x w x l) or round recesses with diameters of 300 μ and a depth of 300 μ (r-chip). The scaffold can house 10 Mio. cells in a three-dimensional configuration. For an optimal nutrient and gas supply, the chip is inserted in a bioreactor housing. The bioreactor is part of a closed steril circulation loop that, in the simplest configuration, is additionaly comprised of a roller pump and a medium reservoir with a gas supply. The bioreactor can be run in perfusion, superfusion, or even a mixed operation mode. We have successfully cultivated cell lines as well as primary cells over periods of several weeks. For rat primary liver cells we could show a preservation of organotypic functions for more than 2 weeks. For hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines we could show the induction of liver specific genes not or only slightly expressed in standard monolayer culture. The system might also be useful as a stem cell cultivation system since first differentiation experiments with stem cell lines were promising. PMID:19066592

  1. Chip-based three-dimensional cell culture in perfused micro-bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Gottwald, Eric; Lahni, Brigitte; Thiele, David; Giselbrecht, Stefan; Welle, Alexander; Weibezahn, Karl-Friedrich

    2008-05-21

    We have developed a chip-based cell culture system for the three-dimensional cultivation of cells. The chip is typically manufactured from non-biodegradable polymers, e.g., polycarbonate or polymethyl methacrylate by micro injection molding, micro hot embossing or micro thermo-forming. But, it can also be manufactured from bio-degradable polymers. Its overall dimensions are 0.7 1 x 20 x 20 x 0.7 1 mm (h x w x l). The main features of the chips used are either a grid of up to 1156 cubic micro-containers (cf-chip) each the size of 120-300 x 300 x 300 micron (h x w x l) or round recesses with diameters of 300 micron and a depth of 300 micron (r-chip). The scaffold can house 10 Mio. cells in a three-dimensional configuration. For an optimal nutrient and gas supply, the chip is inserted in a bioreactor housing. The bioreactor is part of a closed sterile circulation loop that, in the simplest configuration, is additionally comprised of a roller pump and a medium reservoir with a gas supply. The bioreactor can be run in perfusion, superfusion, or even a mixed operation mode. We have successfully cultivated cell lines as well as primary cells over periods of several weeks. For rat primary liver cells we could show a preservation of organotypic functions for more than 2 weeks. For hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines we could show the induction of liver specific genes not or only slightly expressed in standard monolayer culture. The system might also be useful as a stem cell cultivation system since first differentiation experiments with stem cell lines were promising.

  2. Fluid Flow through a High Cell Density Fluidized-Bed during Centrifugal Bioreactor Culture

    PubMed Central

    Detzel, Christopher J.; Van Wie, Bernard J.; Ivory, Cornelius F.

    2010-01-01

    An increasing demand for products such as tissues, proteins, and antibodies from mammalian cell suspension cultures is driving interest in increasing production through high-cell density bioreactors. The centrifugal bioreactor (CCBR) retains cells by balancing settling forces with surface drag forces due to medium throughput and is capable of maintaining cell densities above 108 cells/mL. This article builds on a previous study where the fluid mechanics of an empty CCBR were investigated showing fluid flow is nonuniform and dominated by Coriolis forces, raising concerns about nutrient and cell distribution. In this article, we demonstrate that the previously reported Coriolis forces are still present in the CCBR, but masked by the presence of cells. Experimental dye injection observations during culture of 15 μm hybridoma cells show a continual uniform darkening of the cell bed, indicating the region of the reactor containing cells is well mixed. Simulation results also indicate the cell bed is well mixed during culture of mammalian cells ranging in size from 10 to 20 μm. However, simulations also allow for a slight concentration gradient to be identified and attributed to Coriolis forces. Experimental results show cell density increases from 0.16 to 0.26 when centrifugal force is doubled by increasing RPM from 650 to 920 at a constant inlet velocity of 6.5 cm/s; an effect also observed in the simulation. Results presented in this article indicate cells maintained in the CCBR behave as a high-density fluidized bed of cells providing a homogeneous environment to ensure optimal growth conditions. PMID:20205172

  3. Fluid flow through a high cell density fluidized-bed during centrifugal bioreactor culture.

    PubMed

    Detzel, Christopher J; Van Wie, Bernard J; Ivory, Cornelius F

    2010-01-01

    An increasing demand for products such as tissues, proteins, and antibodies from mammalian cell suspension cultures is driving interest in increasing production through high-cell density bioreactors. The centrifugal bioreactor (CCBR) retains cells by balancing settling forces with surface drag forces due to medium throughput and is capable of maintaining cell densities above 10(8) cells/mL. This article builds on a previous study where the fluid mechanics of an empty CCBR were investigated showing fluid flow is nonuniform and dominated by Coriolis forces, raising concerns about nutrient and cell distribution. In this article, we demonstrate that the previously reported Coriolis forces are still present in the CCBR, but masked by the presence of cells. Experimental dye injection observations during culture of 15 microm hybridoma cells show a continual uniform darkening of the cell bed, indicating the region of the reactor containing cells is well mixed. Simulation results also indicate the cell bed is well mixed during culture of mammalian cells ranging in size from 10 to 20 microm. However, simulations also allow for a slight concentration gradient to be identified and attributed to Coriolis forces. Experimental results show cell density increases from 0.16 to 0.26 when centrifugal force is doubled by increasing RPM from 650 to 920 at a constant inlet velocity of 6.5 cm/s; an effect also observed in the simulation. Results presented in this article indicate cells maintained in the CCBR behave as a high-density fluidized bed of cells providing a homogeneous environment to ensure optimal growth conditions.

  4. Modulation of mesenchymal stromal cell characteristics by microcarrier culture in bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Hupfeld, Julia; Gorr, Ingo H; Schwald, Christian; Beaucamp, Nicola; Wiechmann, Kornelius; Kuentzer, Karin; Huss, Ralf; Rieger, Bernhard; Neubauer, Markus; Wegmeyer, Heike

    2014-11-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for cell therapy. Their therapeutic use requires extensive expansion to obtain a sufficiently high number of cells for clinical applications. State-of-the-art expansion systems, that is, primarily culture flask-based systems, are limited regarding scale-up, automation, and reproducibility. To overcome this bottleneck, microcarrier (MC)-based expansion processes have been developed. For the first time, MSCs from the perinatal sources umbilical cord (UC) and amniotic membrane (AM) were expanded on MCs. This study focuses on the comparison of flask- and Cytodex 1 MC-expanded MSCs by evaluating the influence of the expansion process on biological MSC characteristics. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis to obtain more homogeneous MSC preparations by expanding cells on MCs in controlled large-scale bioreactors. MSCs were extensively characterized determining morphology, cell growth, surface marker expression, and functional properties such as differentiation capacity, secretion of paracrine factors, and gene expression. Based on their gene expression profile MSCs from different donors and sources clearly clustered in distinct groups solely depending on the expansion process-MC or flask culture. MC- and flask-expanded MSCs significantly differed from each other regarding surface markers and both paracrine factors and gene expression profiles. Furthermore, based on gene expression analysis, MC cultivation of MSCs in controlled bioreactor systems resulted in less heterogeneity between cells from different donors. In conclusion, MC-based MSC expansion in controlled bioreactors has the potential to reliably produce MSCs with altered characteristics and functions as compared to flask-expanded MSCs. These findings may be useful for the generation of MSCs with tailored properties for clinical applications.

  5. Enhanced neurotrophin synthesis and molecular differentiation in non-transformed human retinal progenitor cells cultured in a rotating bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ravindra; Dutt, Kamla

    2006-01-01

    One approach to the treatment of retinal diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa, is to replace diseased or degenerating cells with healthy cells. Even if all of the problems associated with tissue transplant were to be resolved, the availability of tissue would remain an ongoing problem. We have previously shown that transformed human retinal cells can be grown in a NASA-developed horizontally rotating culture vessel (bioreactor) to form three-dimensional-like structures with the expression of several retinal specific proteins. In this study, we have investigated growth of non-transformed human retinal progenitors (retinal stem cells) in a rotating bioreactor. This rotating culture vessel promotes cell-cell interaction between similar and dissimilar cells. We cultured retinal progenitors (Ret 1-4) alone or as a co-culture with human retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE, D407) in this system to determine if 3D structures can be generated from non-transformed progenitors. Our second goal was to determine if the formation of 3D structures correlates with the upregulation of neurotrophins, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), and brain-delivered neurotrophic factor (BDNF). These factors have been implicated in progenitor cell proliferation, commitment, differentiation, and survival. We also investigated the expression of the following retinal specific proteins in this system: neuron specific enolase (NSE); tyrosine hydroxylase (TH); D(2)D(3), D(4) receptors; protein kinase-C alpha (PKCalpha), and calbindin. The 3D structures generated were characterized by phase and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Retinal progenitors, cultured alone or as a co-culture in the rotating bioreactor, formed 3D structures with some degree of differentiation, accompanied by the upregulation of bFGF, CNTF, and TGFalpha. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which is expressed in vivo in RPE (D407), was

  6. Cells growing in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. Shown here, clusters of cells slowly spin inside a bioreactor. On Earth, the cells continually fall through the buffer medium and never hit bottom. In space, they are naturally suspended. Rotation ensures gentle stirring so waste is removed and fresh nutrient and oxygen are supplied. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  7. Cells growing in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. Shown here, clusters of cells slowly spin inside a bioreactor. On Earth, the cells continually fall through the buffer medium and never hit bottom. In space, they are naturally suspended. Rotation ensures gentle stirring so waste is removed and fresh nutrient and oxygen are supplied. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  8. Inter-microcarrier transfer and phenotypic stability of stem cell-derived Schwann cells in stirred suspension bioreactor culture.

    PubMed

    Shakhbazau, Antos; Mirfeizi, Leila; Walsh, Tylor; Wobma, Holly M; Kumar, Ranjan; Singh, Bhagat; Kallos, Michael S; Midha, Rajiv

    2016-02-01

    Emerging bioreactor technologies offer an effective way for scaled-up production of large numbers of cells for cell therapy applications. One of the clinical paradigms where cell therapy can be an asset is restorative neurosciences. Nerve repair can benefit from the injections of stem cells and/or Schwann cells, acting as a source for axon myelination, myelin debris clearance, and trophic support. We have adapted microcarrier-based suspension bioreactor culture for Schwann cells (SCs) differentiated from a new stem cell source - skin-derived precursors (SKPs). SKP-derived SCs attach and grow on different types of microcarriers in both static and stirred culture, with Cytodex 3 and CultiSpher-S found most effective. Inter-microcarrier migration of SKP-SCs represents a key mechanism for rapid expansion and colonization in stirred suspension culture. We have shown that microcarrier-expanded SKP-SCs cells express Schwann cell markers p75-NTR, GFAP and S100 and retain their key ability to myelinate axons both in vitro and in vivo. Scaled-up microcarrier-based production of SKP-SCs in suspension bioreactors appears feasible for timely generation of sufficient cell numbers for nerve repair strategies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Development of an elastic cell culture substrate for a novel uniaxial tensile strain bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Moles, Matthew D; Scotchford, Colin A; Ritchie, Alastair Campbell

    2014-01-01

    Bioreactors can be used for mechanical conditioning and to investigate the mechanobiology of cells in vitro. In this study a polyurethane (PU), Chronoflex AL, was evaluated for use as a flexible cell culture substrate in a novel bioreactor capable of imparting cyclic uniaxial tensile strain to cells. PU membranes were plasma etched, across a range of operating parameters, in oxygen. Contact angle analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed increases in wettability and surface oxygen were related to both etching power and duration. Atomic force microscopy demonstrated that surface roughness decreased after etching at 20 W but was increased at higher powers. The etching parameters, 20 W 40 s, produced membranes with high surface oxygen content (21%), a contact angle of 66° ± 7° and reduced topographical features. Etching and protein conditioning membranes facilitated attachment, and growth to confluence within 3 days, of MG-63 osteoblasts. After 2 days with uniaxial strain (1%, 30 cycles/min, 1500 cycles/day), cellular alignment was observed perpendicular to the principal strain axis, and found to increase after 24 h. The results indicate that the membrane supports culture and strain transmission to adhered cells. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 102A: 2356–2364, 2014. PMID:23946144

  10. A Novel Flow-Perfusion Bioreactor Supports 3D Dynamic Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Sailon, Alexander M.; Allori, Alexander C.; Davidson, Edward H.; Reformat, Derek D.; Allen, Robert J.; Warren, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Bone engineering requires thicker three-dimensional constructs than the maximum thickness supported by standard cell-culture techniques (2 mm). A flow-perfusion bioreactor was developed to provide chemotransportation to thick (6 mm) scaffolds. Methods. Polyurethane scaffolds, seeded with murine preosteoblasts, were loaded into a novel bioreactor. Control scaffolds remained in static culture. Samples were harvested at days 2, 4, 6, and 8 and analyzed for cellular distribution, viability, metabolic activity, and density at the periphery and core. Results. By day 8, static scaffolds had a periphery cell density of 67% ± 5.0%, while in the core it was 0.3% ± 0.3%. Flow-perfused scaffolds demonstrated peripheral cell density of 94% ± 8.3% and core density of 76% ± 3.1% at day 8. Conclusions. Flow perfusion provides chemotransportation to thick scaffolds. This system may permit high throughput study of 3D tissues in vitro and enable prefabrication of biological constructs large enough to solve clinical problems. PMID:20037739

  11. Bioreactor engineering using disposable technology for enhanced production of hCTLA4Ig in transgenic rice cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jun-Young; Yang, Yong-Suk; Cheon, Su-Hwan; Nam, Hyung-Jin; Jin, Gi-Hong; Kim, Dong-Il

    2013-09-01

    Two kinds of disposable bioreactors, air-lift disposable bioreactors (ADB) and wave disposable bioreactors (WDB) were compared with stirred-tank reactors (5-L STR). These bioreactors were successfully applied to transgenic rice cell cultures for the production of recombinant human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4-immunoglobulin (hCTLA4Ig). In both systems, a fed-batch culture method was used to produce hCTLA4Ig efficiently by feeding concentrated amino acids and production levels were enhanced when dissolved oxygen (DO) level was regulated at 30% using pure oxygen sparging. Agitation and aeration rate during cultivation in ADB and WDB were determined by the same mixing time. The results in both disposable bioreactors showed similar values in maximum cell density (11.9 gDCW/L and 12.6 gDCW/L), doubling time (4.8- and 5.0-day), and maximum hCTLA4Ig concentration (43.7 and 43.3 mg/L). Relatively higher cell viability was sustained in the ADB whereas hCTLA4Ig productivity was 1.2-fold higher than that in WDB. The productivity was improved by increasing aeration rate (0.2 vvm). Overall, our experiments demonstrate pneumatically driven disposable bioreactors are applicable for the production of recombinant proteins in plant cell cultures. These results will be useful for development and scale-up studies of disposable bioreactor systems for transgenic plant cell cultures. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Hemoglobin Regulates the Metabolic, Synthetic, Detoxification, and Biotransformation Functions of Hepatoma Cells Cultured in a Hollow Fiber Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guo

    2010-01-01

    Hepatic hollow fiber (HF) bioreactors constitute one type of extracorporeal bioartificial liver assist device (BLAD). Ideally, cultured hepatocytes in a BLAD should closely mimic the in vivo oxygenation environment of the liver sinusoid to yield a device with optimal performance. However, most BLADs, including hepatic HF bioreactors, suffer from O2 limited transport toward cultured hepatocytes, which reduces their performance. We hypothesize that supplementation of hemoglobin-based O2 carriers into the circulating cell culture medium of hepatic HF bioreactors is a feasible and effective strategy to improve bioreactor oxygenation and performance. We examined the effect of bovine hemoglobin (BvHb) supplementation (15 g/L) in the circulating cell culture medium of hepatic HF bioreactors on hepatocyte proliferation, metabolism, and varied liver functions, including biosynthesis, detoxification, and biotransformation. It was observed that BvHb supplementation supported the maintenance of a higher cell mass in the extracapillary space, improved hepatocyte metabolic efficiency (i.e., hepatocytes consumed much less glucose), improved hepatocyte capacity for drug metabolism, and conserved both albumin synthesis and ammonia detoxification functions compared to controls (no BvHb supplementation) under the same experimental conditions. PMID:20528678

  13. Generic Raman-based calibration models enabling real-time monitoring of cell culture bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh, Hamidreza; Lauri, David; Karry, Krizia M; Moshgbar, Mojgan; Procopio-Melino, Renee; Drapeau, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Raman-based multivariate calibration models have been developed for real-time in situ monitoring of multiple process parameters within cell culture bioreactors. Developed models are generic, in the sense that they are applicable to various products, media, and cell lines based on Chinese Hamster Ovarian (CHO) host cells, and are scalable to large pilot and manufacturing scales. Several batches using different CHO-based cell lines and corresponding proprietary media and process conditions have been used to generate calibration datasets, and models have been validated using independent datasets from separate batch runs. All models have been validated to be generic and capable of predicting process parameters with acceptable accuracy. The developed models allow monitoring multiple key bioprocess metabolic variables, and hence can be utilized as an important enabling tool for Quality by Design approaches which are strongly supported by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  14. Evaluation of a Multi-Parameter Sensor for Automated, Continuous Cell Culture Monitoring in Bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappas, D.; Jeevarajan, A.; Anderson, M. M.

    2004-01-01

    Compact and automated sensors are desired for assessing the health of cell cultures in biotechnology experiments in microgravity. Measurement of cell culture medium allows for the optirn.jzation of culture conditions on orbit to maximize cell growth and minimize unnecessary exchange of medium. While several discrete sensors exist to measure culture health, a multi-parameter sensor would simplify the experimental apparatus. One such sensor, the Paratrend 7, consists of three optical fibers for measuring pH, dissolved oxygen (p02), dissolved carbon dioxide (pC02) , and a thermocouple to measure temperature. The sensor bundle was designed for intra-arterial placement in clinical patients, and potentially can be used in NASA's Space Shuttle and International Space Station biotechnology program bioreactors. Methods: A Paratrend 7 sensor was placed at the outlet of a rotating-wall perfused vessel bioreactor system inoculated with BHK-21 (baby hamster kidney) cells. Cell culture medium (GTSF-2, composed of 40% minimum essential medium, 60% L-15 Leibovitz medium) was manually measured using a bench top blood gas analyzer (BGA, Ciba-Corning). Results: A Paratrend 7 sensor was used over a long-term (>120 day) cell culture experiment. The sensor was able to track changes in cell medium pH, p02, and pC02 due to the consumption of nutrients by the BHK-21. When compared to manually obtained BGA measurements, the sensor had good agreement for pH, p02, and pC02 with bias [and precision] of 0.02 [0.15], 1 mm Hg [18 mm Hg], and -4.0 mm Hg [8.0 mm Hg] respectively. The Paratrend oxygen sensor was recalibrated (offset) periodically due to drift. The bias for the raw (no offset or recalibration) oxygen measurements was 42 mm Hg [38 mm Hg]. The measured response (rise) time of the sensor was 20 +/- 4s for pH, 81 +/- 53s for pC02, 51 +/- 20s for p02. For long-term cell culture measurements, these response times are more than adequate. Based on these findings , the Paratrend sensor could

  15. Suspension Culture of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells in Controlled, Stirred Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Olmer, Ruth; Lange, Andreas; Selzer, Sebastian; Kasper, Cornelia; Haverich, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic and industrial applications of pluripotent stem cells and their derivatives require large cell quantities generated in defined conditions. To this end, we have translated single cell-inoculated suspension cultures of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs; including human induced pluripotent stem cells [hiPS] and human embryonic stem cells [hESC]) to stirred tank bioreactors. These systems that are widely used in biopharmaceutical industry allow straightforward scale up and detailed online monitoring of key process parameters. To ensure minimum medium consumption, but in parallel functional integration of all probes mandatory for process monitoring, that is, for pO2 and pH, experiments were performed in 100 mL culture volume in a “mini reactor platform” consisting of four independently controlled vessels. By establishing defined parameters for tightly controlled cell inoculation and aggregate formation up to 2×108 hiPSCs/100 mL were generated in a single process run in 7 days. Expression of pluripotency markers and ability of cells to differentiate into derivates of all three germ layers in vitro was maintained, underlining practical utility of this new process. The presented data provide key steps toward scalable mass expansion of human iPS and ES cells thereby enabling translation of stem cell research to (pre)clinical application in relevant large animal models and valuable in vitro assays for drug development and validation as well. PMID:22519745

  16. Mechanical fatigue performance of PCL-chondroprogenitor constructs after cell culture under bioreactor mechanical stimulus.

    PubMed

    Panadero, Juan Alberto; Sencadas, Vitor; Silva, Sonia C M; Ribeiro, Clarisse; Correia, Vitor; Gama, Francisco M; Gomez Ribelles, José Luis; Lanceros-Mendez, Senentxu

    2016-02-01

    In tissue engineering of cartilage, polymeric scaffolds are implanted in the damaged tissue and subjected to repeated compression loading cycles. The possibility of failure due to mechanical fatigue has not been properly addressed in these scaffolds. Nevertheless, the macroporous scaffold is susceptible to failure after repeated loading-unloading cycles. This is related to inherent discontinuities in the material due to the micropore structure of the macro-pore walls that act as stress concentration points. In this work, chondrogenic precursor cells have been seeded in poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) scaffolds with fibrin and some were submitted to free swelling culture and others to cyclic loading in a bioreactor. After cell culture, all the samples were analyzed for fatigue behavior under repeated loading-unloading cycles. Moreover, some components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) were identified. No differences were observed between samples undergoing free swelling or bioreactor loading conditions, neither respect to matrix components nor to mechanical performance to fatigue. The ECM did not achieve the desired preponderance of collagen type II over collagen type I which is considered the main characteristic of hyaline cartilage ECM. However, prediction in PCL with ECM constructs was possible up to 600 cycles, an enhanced performance when compared to previous works. PCL after cell culture presents an improved fatigue resistance, despite the fact that the measured elastic modulus at the first cycle was similar to PCL with poly(vinyl alcohol) samples. This finding suggests that fatigue analysis in tissue engineering constructs can provide additional information missed with traditional mechanical measurements.

  17. Fabrication of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Layered Cardiac Cell Sheets Using a Bioreactor Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Wada, Masanori; Konishi, Kanako; Sato, Michi; Iwamoto, Ushio; Sato, Yuko; Tachibana, Aki; Kikuchi, Tetsutaro; Iwamiya, Takahiro; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Yamashita, Jun K.; Yamato, Masayuki; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa; Okano, Teruo

    2012-01-01

    Bioengineered functional cardiac tissue is expected to contribute to the repair of injured heart tissue. We previously developed cardiac cell sheets using mouse embryonic stem (mES) cell-derived cardiomyocytes, a system to generate an appropriate number of cardiomyocytes derived from ES cells and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In the present study, we established a cultivation system with suitable conditions for expansion and cardiac differentiation of mES cells by embryoid body formation using a three-dimensional bioreactor. Daily conventional medium exchanges failed to prevent lactate accumulation and pH decreases in the medium, which led to insufficient cell expansion and cardiac differentiation. Conversely, a continuous perfusion system maintained the lactate concentration and pH stability as well as increased the cell number by up to 300-fold of the seeding cell number and promoted cardiac differentiation after 10 days of differentiation. After a further 8 days of cultivation together with a purification step, around 1×108 cardiomyocytes were collected in a 1-L bioreactor culture, and additional treatment with noggin and granulocyte colony stimulating factor increased the number of cardiomyocytes to around 5.5×108. Co-culture of mES cell-derived cardiomyocytes with an appropriate number of primary cultured fibroblasts on temperature-responsive culture dishes enabled the formation of cardiac cell sheets and created layered-dense cardiac tissue. These findings suggest that this bioreactor system with appropriate medium might be capable of preparing cardiomyocytes for cell sheet-based cardiac tissue. PMID:23284924

  18. Fabrication of mouse embryonic stem cell-derived layered cardiac cell sheets using a bioreactor culture system.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Wada, Masanori; Konishi, Kanako; Sato, Michi; Iwamoto, Ushio; Sato, Yuko; Tachibana, Aki; Kikuchi, Tetsutaro; Iwamiya, Takahiro; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Yamashita, Jun K; Yamato, Masayuki; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa; Okano, Teruo

    2012-01-01

    Bioengineered functional cardiac tissue is expected to contribute to the repair of injured heart tissue. We previously developed cardiac cell sheets using mouse embryonic stem (mES) cell-derived cardiomyocytes, a system to generate an appropriate number of cardiomyocytes derived from ES cells and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In the present study, we established a cultivation system with suitable conditions for expansion and cardiac differentiation of mES cells by embryoid body formation using a three-dimensional bioreactor. Daily conventional medium exchanges failed to prevent lactate accumulation and pH decreases in the medium, which led to insufficient cell expansion and cardiac differentiation. Conversely, a continuous perfusion system maintained the lactate concentration and pH stability as well as increased the cell number by up to 300-fold of the seeding cell number and promoted cardiac differentiation after 10 days of differentiation. After a further 8 days of cultivation together with a purification step, around 1 × 10(8) cardiomyocytes were collected in a 1-L bioreactor culture, and additional treatment with noggin and granulocyte colony stimulating factor increased the number of cardiomyocytes to around 5.5 × 10(8). Co-culture of mES cell-derived cardiomyocytes with an appropriate number of primary cultured fibroblasts on temperature-responsive culture dishes enabled the formation of cardiac cell sheets and created layered-dense cardiac tissue. These findings suggest that this bioreactor system with appropriate medium might be capable of preparing cardiomyocytes for cell sheet-based cardiac tissue.

  19. Monoterpenoid oxindole alkaloid production by Uncaria tomentosa (Willd) D.C. cell suspension cultures in a stirred tank bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Trejo-Tapia, Gabriela; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; Rodríguez-Monroy, Mario; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana C

    2005-01-01

    Cell growth, monoterpenoid oxindole alkaloid (MOA) production, and morphological properties of Uncaria tomentosa cell suspension cultures in a 2-L stirred tank bioreactor were investigated. U. tomentosa (cell line green Uth-3) was able to grow in a stirred tank at an impeller tip speed of 95 cm/s (agitation speed of 400 rpm), showing a maximum biomass yield of 11.9 +/- 0.6 g DW/L and a specific growth rate of 0.102 d(-1). U. tomentosa cells growing in a stirred tank achieved maximum volumetric and specific MOA concentration (467.7 +/- 40.0 microg/L, 44.6 +/- 5.2 microg/g DW) at 16 days of culture. MOA chemical profile of cell suspension cultures growing in a stirred tank resembled that of the plant. Depending on culture time, from the total MOA produced, 37-100% was found in the medium in the bioreactor culture. MOA concentration achieved in a stirred tank was up to 10-fold higher than that obtained in Erlenmeyer flasks (agitated at 110 rpm). In a stirred tank, average area of the single cells of U. tomentosa increased up to 4-fold, and elliptical form factor increased from 1.40 to 2.55, indicating enlargement of U. tomentosa single cells. This work presents the first report of U. tomentosa green cell suspension cultures that grow and produce MOA in a stirred tank bioreactor.

  20. Application of bioreactor design principles and multivariate analysis for development of cell culture scale down models.

    PubMed

    Tescione, Lia; Lambropoulos, James; Paranandi, Madhava Ram; Makagiansar, Helena; Ryll, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A bench scale cell culture model representative of manufacturing scale (2,000 L) was developed based on oxygen mass transfer principles, for a CHO-based process producing a recombinant human protein. Cell culture performance differences across scales are characterized most often by sub-optimal performance in manufacturing scale bioreactors. By contrast in this study, reduced growth rates were observed at bench scale during the initial model development. Bioreactor models based on power per unit volume (P/V), volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kL a), and oxygen transfer rate (OTR) were evaluated to address this scale performance difference. Lower viable cell densities observed for the P/V model were attributed to higher sparge rates and reduced oxygen mass transfer efficiency (kL a) of the small scale hole spargers. Increasing the sparger kL a by decreasing the pore size resulted in a further decrease in growth at bench scale. Due to sensitivity of the cell line to gas sparge rate and bubble size that was revealed by the P/V and kL a models, an OTR model based on oxygen enrichment and increased P/V was selected that generated endpoint sparge rates representative of 2,000 L scale. This final bench scale model generated similar growth rates as manufacturing. In order to take into account other routinely monitored process parameters besides growth, a multivariate statistical approach was applied to demonstrate validity of the small scale model. After the model was selected based on univariate and multivariate analysis, product quality was generated and verified to fall within the 95% confidence limit of the multivariate model. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Three-dimensional culture and bioreactors for cellular therapies.

    PubMed

    Naing, M W; Williams, D J

    2011-04-01

    A bioreactor is defined as a specifically designed vessel to facilitate the growth of organisms and cells through application of physical and/or electrical stimulus. When cells with therapeutic potential were first discovered, they were initially cultured and expanded in two-dimensional (2-D) culture vessels such as plates or T-flasks. However, it was soon discovered that bioreactors could be used to expand and maintain cultures more easily and efficiently. Since then, bioreactors have come to be accepted as an indispensable tool to advance cell and tissue culture further. A wide array of bioreactors has been developed to date, and in recent years businesses have started supplying bioreactors commercially. Bioreactors in the research arena range from stirred tank bioreactors for suspension culture to those with various mechanical actuators that can apply different fluidic and mechanical stresses to tissues and three-dimensional (3-D) scaffolds. As regenerative medicine gains more traction in the clinic, bioreactors for use with cellular therapies are being developed and marketed. While many of the simpler bioreactors are fit for purpose, others fail to satisfy the complex requirements of tissues in culture. We have examined the use of different types of bioreactors in regenerative medicine and evaluated the application of bioreactors in the realization of emerging cellular therapies.

  2. Scale-up of human embryonic stem cell culture using a hollow fibre bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Iwan; Baila, Stefano; Rice, R Brent; Janssens, Michiel Etienne; Nguyen, Kim; Moens, Nathalie; Ruban, Ludmila; Hernandez, Diana; Coffey, Pete; Mason, Chris

    2012-12-01

    The commercialisation of human embryonic stem cell derived cell therapies for large patient populations is reliant on both minimising expensive and variable manual-handling methods whilst realising economies of scale. The Quantum Cell Expansion System, a hollow fibre bioreactor (Terumo BCT), was used in a pilot study to expand 60 million human embryonic stem cells to 708 million cells. Further improvements can be expected with optimisation of media flow rates throughout the run to better control the cellular microenvironment. High levels of pluripotency marker expression were maintained on the bioreactor, with 97.7 % of cells expressing SSEA-4 when harvested.

  3. Scale-up of Agrobacterium-mediated transient protein expression in bioreactor-grown Nicotiana glutinosa plant cell suspension culture.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Kristin M; Larsen, Jeffrey S; Curtis, Wayne R

    2008-01-01

    The reporter gene beta-glucuronidase was transiently expressed in a 51-L bioreactor-grown plant cell suspension culture of Nicotiana glutinosa at a yield of approximately 1.1 mg through co-culture with an auxotrophic strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The three order of magnitude scale-up involved the investigation of factors contributing to transient expression including the timing of Agrobacterium inoculation relative to the plant cell growth phase, plant tissue culture hormonal triggers and plant cell cycle synchronization. The co-culture process was simplified to facilitate implementation in a pilot-scale bioreactor. At the shake flask scale it was determined that elevated concentrations of oxygen in the headspace were detrimental to transient expression levels and the addition of acetosyringone to the co-culture had a negligible effect. The bacterial preparation process was also streamlined, permitting the direct transfer of the Agrobacterium culture from a bench-scale fermentor to the pilot-scale plant cell culture bioreactor. Increasing expression levels and overcoming batch-to-batch variability despite extensive procedure systemization remain the major technical hurdles.

  4. Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators

  5. Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators

  6. Model of the mass transport to the surface of animal cells cultured in a rotating bioreactor operated in micro gravity.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Solorio, Ivan; Kleis, Stanley J

    2006-06-20

    A mathematical model is used to investigate the transport of dissolved oxygen from the bulk fluid to the surface of aggregates of animal cells cultured in a rotating bioreactor. These aggregates move through different regions of the bioreactor with a local flow field and concentration distribution that vary with time. The time variation of the Sherwood number and the surface concentration for a range of parameters typical of a cell science experiment executed in the Rotating Wall Perfused Vessel (RWPV) bioreactor in space are investigated. The Reynolds numbers experienced by the aggregate are generally low (Re < 1) and the Peclet numbers range from O(1) to O(100). Comparison of the results from the numerical solution of the mathematical model with those from a quasi-steady model, using a steady-state correlation for mass transport on a sphere, indicate that the quasi-steady assumption is not a good model to compute the instantaneous Sherwood number. This indicates a significant history effect in the Sherwood number response to the variations of acceleration of the aggregates in the bioreactor. A high resistance to the mass transport from the bulk fluid to the surface of the aggregate exists for the bioreactor operated in micro gravity. The difference between the surface concentration and the free stream concentration was as high as 30% for aggregates larger than 3 mm. Diffusion reduces the variations of the free stream concentration resulting in a nearly constant value for the concentration at the surface of the aggregates. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Transport of gases and liquids through dense microbial cell aggregates cultured within hollow fiber membrane bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Libicki, S.B.

    1985-01-01

    The transport properties of liquids and dissolved gases in microbial cell aggregates were examined. An annular hollow fiber membrane bioreactor designed for this purpose, allowed a cell aggregate of well-defined geometry to be cultured between two retaining fibers. The transport of an inert substance through a lamellar annular hollow fiber reactor has been modeled. Calculations showed that Starling flow, a weak toroidal flow in the reactor, may account for a large fraction of the solute transport. The theoretical predictions were verified experimentally. The effective diffusive permeability of a dissolved tracer (nitrous oxide) was measured in dense microbial cell aggregates (Escherichia coli) ranging from 15% to 95% cell volume fraction. The results showed that the diffusive permeability is a monotonically decreasing function of cell volume fraction and can be described by the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds on transport in a two phase material. Using these bounds, the effective diffusive permeability of nitrous oxide in E. coli cells at 37/sup 0/C was estimated to be 8.6 x 10/sup -9/ mol/m s or 0.24 +/- 0.03 that of the diffusive permeability of the surrounding interstitial fluid. Similar measurements of the diffusive permeability of nitrous oxide in artificial aggregates (compacted cells) and disrupted microbial cells yielded virtually identical results, showing that cell structure and viability have only a small effect. The Darcy permeability of the same microbial aggregates, measured under very low flow conditions, was found to be only weakly dependent on cell volume fraction. Electron micrographs indicate that this was due to clustering of the cells which increased the effective particle size within the cell aggregate.

  8. High-density mammalian cell cultures in stirred-tank bioreactor without external pH control.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sen; Chen, Hao

    2016-08-10

    Maintaining desired pH is a necessity for optimal cell growth and protein production. It is typically achieved through a two-sided pH control loop on the bioreactor controller. Here we investigated cell culture processes with minimum or no pH control and demonstrated that high-density mammalian cell cultures could be maintained for long-term protein production without pH control. The intrinsic interactions between pCO2, lactate, and pH were leveraged to maintain culture pH. Fed-batch cultures at the same lower pH limit of 6.75 but different upper pH limits (7.05, 7.30, 7.45, 7.65) were evaluated in the 3L bioreactors and comparable results were obtained. Neither CO2 sparging nor base addition was required to control pH in the pH range of 6.75-7.65. The impact of sparger configurations (drilled hole sparger vs. frit sparger) and scales (3L vs. 200L) on CO2 accumulation and culture pH was also demonstrated. The same principle was applied in two perfusion cultures with steady state cell densities at 42.5±3.3 or 68.3±6.0×10(6)cells/mL with low cell specific perfusion rates (15±2 to 23±3pL/cell/day), achieving up to 1.9±0.1g/L/day bioreactor productivity. Culture pH level in the 3L perfusion bioreactors was steadily maintained by controlling the residual lactate and pCO2 levels without the requirement of external pH control for up to 40days with consistent productivity and product quality. Furthermore, culture pH could be potentially modulated via adjusting residual glucose levels and CO2 stripping capability in perfusion cultures. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a systematic study was performed to evaluate the long-term cell cultivation and protein production in stirred-tank bioreactors without external pH control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Process characterization of hCTLA4Ig production in transgenic rice cell cultures using a 3-L bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jun-Young; Cheon, Su-Hwan; Nam, Hyung-Jin; Choi, Hong-Yeol; Kim, Dong-Il

    2013-11-01

    Most of the technical know-how and experience of bioreactor engineering is applicable to plant cell cultures. In this study, transgenic rice cell cultures using RAmy3D promoter were used for the production of human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4-immunoglobulin (hCTLA4Ig). In process aspect, the rice cells during production phase are strongly influenced by hydrodynamic stresses, such as shear stress and bubble burst. Therefore, the effects of agitation and aeration rates on cell growth and hCTLA4Ig production were investigated in a 3-L multi-bioreactor. By increasing over 240 rpm, the detrimental effects on cell growth and hCTLA4Ig production were observed. At an aeration rate of 0.3 vvm, relative cell viability sharply decreased 2 days earlier than those of lower aeration rates. In addition, it was confirmed that the specific yields and the specific productivity at 0.3 vvm were superior to those values at 0.05 vvm. Overall, higher aeration rate showed the improved hCTLA4Ig production in combination experiment. High aeration rates in general, however, have an undesired effect as excessive aeration was found to negatively affect the quality of hCTLA4Ig. Consequently, the hydrodynamic conditions must be tightly regulated during bioreactor operation in order to enhance hCTLA4Ig productivity and quality in transgenic rice cell cultures.

  10. Recombinant Escherichia coli strains with inducible Campylobacter jejuni single domain hemoglobin CHb expression exhibited improved cell growth in bioreactor culture.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Xiong, Wei; Yang, Jiang-Ke; Li, Jia; Tao, Xing-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining an appropriate concentration of dissolved oxygen in aqueous solution is critical for efficient operation of a bioreactor, requiring sophisticated engineering design and a system of regulation to maximize oxygen transfer from the injected air bubbles to the cells. Bacterial hemoglobins are oxygen-binding proteins that transfer oxygen from the environment to metabolic processes and allow bacteria to grow even under microaerophilic conditions. To improve the oxygen utilization efficiency of cells and overcome the oxygen shortage in bioreactors, the gene coding for the Campylobacter jejuni single domain hemoglobin (CHb) gene was artificially synthesized and functionally expressed under the control of inducible expression promoters PT7 and Pvgh in Escherichia coli. The effects of the recombinants PT7-CHb and Pvgh-CHb on cell growth were evaluated in aerobic shake flasks, anaerobic capped bottles and a 5-L bioreactor, and a pronounced improvement in cell biomass was observed for CHb-expressing cells. To determine the growth curves, CHb gene expression, and CHb oxygen-binding capacity of specific recombinants with different promoters, we determined the time course of CHb gene expression in the two recombinants by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and CO differential spectrum assays. Based on the growth patterns of the two recombinants in the bioreactor, we proposed different recombinant types with optimal performance under specific culture conditions.

  11. Rotary bioreactor culture can discern specific behavior phenotypes in Trk-null and Trk-expressing neuroblastoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Redden, Robert A; Iyer, Radhika; Brodeur, Garrett M; Doolin, Edward J

    2014-03-01

    Neuroblastoma is characterized by biological and genetic heterogeneity that leads to diverse, often unpredictable, clinical behavior. Differential expression of the Trk family of neurotrophin receptors strongly correlates with clinical behavior; TrkA expression is associated with favorable outcome, whereas TrkB with unfavorable outcome. Neuroblastoma cells cultured in a microgravity rotary bioreactor spontaneously aggregate into tumor-like structures, called organoids. We wanted to determine if the clinical heterogeneity of TrkA- or TrkB-expressing neuroblastomas was reflected in aggregation kinetics and organoid morphology. Trk-null SY5Y cells were stably transfected to express either TrkA or TrkB. Short-term aggregation kinetics were determined by counting the number of single (non-aggregated) viable cells in the supernatant over time. Organoids were harvested after 8 d of bioreactor culture, stained, and analyzed morphometrically. SY5Y-TrkA cells aggregated significantly slower than SY5Y and SY5Y-TrkB cells, as quantified by several measures of aggregation. SY5Y and TrkB cell lines formed irregularly shaped organoids, featuring stellate projections. In contrast, TrkA cells formed smooth (non-stellate) organoids. SY5Y organoids were slightly smaller on average, but had significantly larger average perimeter than TrkA or TrkB organoids. TrkA expression alone is sufficient to dramatically alter the behavior of neuroblastoma cells in three-dimensional, in vitro rotary bioreactor culture. This pattern is consistent with both clinical behavior and in vivo tumorigenicity, in that SY5Y-TrkA represents a more differentiated, less aggressive phenotype. The microgravity bioreactor is a useful in vitro tool to rapidly investigate the biological characteristics of neuroblastoma and potentially to assess the effect of cytotoxic as well as biologically targeted drugs.

  12. Production of oncolytic adenovirus and human mesenchymal stem cells in a single-use, Vertical-Wheel bioreactor system: Impact of bioreactor design on performance of microcarrier-based cell culture processes.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Marcos F Q; Silva, Marta M; Giroux, Daniel; Hashimura, Yas; Wesselschmidt, Robin; Lee, Brian; Roldão, António; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Alves, Paula M; Serra, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Anchorage-dependent cell cultures are used for the production of viruses, viral vectors, and vaccines, as well as for various cell therapies and tissue engineering applications. Most of these applications currently rely on planar technologies for the generation of biological products. However, as new cell therapy product candidates move from clinical trials towards potential commercialization, planar platforms have proven to be inadequate to meet large-scale manufacturing demand. Therefore, a new scalable platform for culturing anchorage-dependent cells at high cell volumetric concentrations is urgently needed. One promising solution is to grow cells on microcarriers suspended in single-use bioreactors. Toward this goal, a novel bioreactor system utilizing an innovative Vertical-Wheel™ technology was evaluated for its potential to support scalable cell culture process development. Two anchorage-dependent human cell types were used: human lung carcinoma cells (A549 cell line) and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). Key hydrodynamic parameters such as power input, mixing time, Kolmogorov length scale, and shear stress were estimated. The performance of Vertical-Wheel bioreactors (PBS-VW) was then evaluated for A549 cell growth and oncolytic adenovirus type 5 production as well as for hMSC expansion. Regarding the first cell model, higher cell growth and number of infectious viruses per cell were achieved when compared with stirred tank (ST) bioreactors. For the hMSC model, although higher percentages of proliferative cells could be reached in the PBS-VW compared with ST bioreactors, no significant differences in the cell volumetric concentration and expansion factor were observed. Noteworthy, the hMSC population generated in the PBS-VW showed a significantly lower percentage of apoptotic cells as well as reduced levels of HLA-DR positive cells. Overall, these results showed that process transfer from ST bioreactor to PBS-VW, and scale-up was

  13. Enhanced Biosynthesis of Withanolides by Elicitation and Precursor Feeding in Cell Suspension Culture of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal in Shake-Flask Culture and Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Selvaraj, Natesan; Ganapathi, Andy; Manickavasagam, Markandan

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the biosynthesis of major and minor withanolides of Withania somnifera in cell suspension culture using shake-flask culture and bioreactor by exploiting elicitation and precursor feeding strategies. Elicitors like cadmium chloride, aluminium chloride and chitosan, precursors such as cholesterol, mevalonic acid and squalene were examined. Maximum total withanolides detected [withanolide A (7606.75 mg), withanolide B (4826.05 mg), withaferin A (3732.81 mg), withanone (6538.65 mg), 12 deoxy withanstramonolide (3176.63 mg), withanoside IV (2623.21 mg) and withanoside V (2861.18 mg)] were achieved in the combined treatment of chitosan (100 mg/l) and squalene (6 mM) along with 1 mg/l picloram, 0.5 mg/l KN, 200 mg/l L-glutamine and 5% sucrose in culture at 4 h and 48 h exposure times respectively on 28th day of culture in bioreactor. We obtained higher concentrations of total withanolides in shake-flask culture (2.13-fold) as well as bioreactor (1.66-fold) when compared to control treatments. This optimized protocol can be utilized for commercial level production of withanolides from suspension culture using industrial bioreactors in a short culture period. PMID:25089711

  14. Hepatic Differentiation and Maturation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Cultured in a Perfused Three-Dimensional Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Synnergren, Jane; Jensen, Janne; Björquist, Petter; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury is a serious and frequently occurring adverse drug reaction in the clinics and is hard to predict during preclinical studies. Today, primary hepatocytes are the most frequently used cell model for drug discovery and prediction of toxicity. However, their use is marred by high donor variability regarding drug metabolism and toxicity, and instable expression levels of liver-specific genes such as cytochromes P450. An in vitro model system based on human embryonic stem cells (hESC), with their unique properties of pluripotency and self-renewal, has potential to provide a stable and unlimited supply of human hepatocytes. Much effort has been made to direct hESC toward the hepatic lineage, mostly using 2-dimensional (2D) cultures. Although the results are encouraging, these cells lack important functionality. Here, we investigate if hepatic differentiation of hESC can be improved by using a 3-dimensional (3D) bioreactor system. Human ESCs were differentiated toward the hepatic lineage using the same cells in either the 3D or 2D system. A global transcriptional analysis identified important differences between the 2 differentiation regimes, and we identified 10 pathways, highly related to liver functions, which were significantly upregulated in cells differentiated in the bioreactor compared to 2D control cultures. The enhanced hepatic differentiation observed in the bioreactor system was also supported by immunocytochemistry. Taken together, our results suggest that hepatic differentiation of hESC is improved when using this 3D bioreactor technology as compared to 2D culture systems. PMID:22970843

  15. Process simulation in a mechatronic bioreactor device with speed-regulated motors for growing of three-dimensional cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Mihailova, Mina; Trenev, Vassil; Genova, Penka; Konstantinov, Spiro

    2006-12-01

    Tissue engineering is a new scientific research field that allows the establishment of tissue equivalents rising from isolated cells in combination with biocompatible materials and cultivation in more or less sophisticated bioreactor systems. Such systems gave the unique opportunity to perform in vitro investigations of transcription and translation, cell growth, biochemistry and mechanics of healthy normal organs as well as those affected by malignant tumors, infections, and immune deficiency under controlled conditions. In rotating vessel bioreactors under microgravity and defined medium content, cells proliferate, stay abundant to each other, and form three-dimensional structures, assigned as spheroids. Such spheroids might be grown on microcarriers. A wide spectrum of different cell culture experiments involving normal and transformed human cells indicates that: in the rotating bioreactor system miniPERM no complete lack of gravity could be reached; a great part of the seeded cell material does not proliferate at the beginning; and the appearance of bigger spheroids is rather random. We describe the acquisition of spheroids from HD-MY-Z and Neuro-2A tumor cells. Spheroids of 100 and more cells were obtained from HD-MY-Z and Neuro-2A cells. Interestingly, chronic myeloid leukemia LAMA-84 cells did not form any cell clumps and they kept a completely undifferentiated phenotype despite their semiadherent manner of growth under conventional conditions. A detailed theoretical and virtual simulation study of the influence of every component of gravitation, inertia, and hydrodynamic force fields was performed. Therefore, a new concept for mechatronic bioreactor device with active electronic control was developed and virtually tested.

  16. Simplified Bioreactor For Growing Mammalian Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F.

    1995-01-01

    Improved bioreactor for growing mammalian cell cultures developed. Designed to support growth of dense volumes of mammalian cells by providing ample, well-distributed flows of nutrient solution with minimal turbulence. Cells relatively delicate and, unlike bacteria, cannot withstand shear forces present in turbulent flows. Bioreactor vessel readily made in larger sizes to accommodate greater cell production quantities. Molding equipment presently used makes cylinders up to 30 centimeters long. Alternative sintered plastic techniques used to vary pore size and quantity, as necessary.

  17. Bioreactors and cell culturing. October 1979-January 1990 (A Bibliography from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for October 1979-January 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the use of bioreactors and cell cultures for the production of monoclonal antibodies, stock cultures, antibiotics, vaccines, proteins, and other chemicals in the pharmaceutical, biomedical, food, and chemical industries. Topics include the application of bioengineering technologies in the design, construction, and control of various types of bioreactors. The use of various biochemical mediators in conjunction with these reactors is also reviewed. (Contains 170 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  18. Use of orbital shaken disposable bioreactors for mammalian cell cultures from the milliliter-scale to the 1,000-liter scale.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Stettler, Matthieu; De Sanctis, Dario; Perrone, Marco; Parolini, Nicola; Discacciati, Marco; De Jesus, Maria; Hacker, David; Quarteroni, Alfio; Wurm, Florian

    2009-01-01

    Driven by the commercial success of recombinant biopharmaceuticals, there is an increasing demand for novel mammalian cell culture bioreactor systems for the rapid production of biologicals that require mammalian protein processing. Recently, orbitally shaken bioreactors at scales from 50 mL to 1,000 L have been explored for the cultivation of mammalian cells and are considered to be attractive alternatives to conventional stirred-tank bioreactors because of increased flexibility and reduced costs. Adequate oxygen transfer capacity was maintained during the scale-up, and strategies to increase further oxygen transfer rates (OTR) were explored, while maintaining favorable mixing parameters and low-stress conditions for sensitive lipid membrane-enclosed cells. Investigations from process development to the engineering properties of shaken bioreactors are underway, but the feasibility of establishing a robust, standardized, and transferable technical platform for mammalian cell culture based on orbital shaking and disposable materials has been established with further optimizations and studies ongoing.

  19. Use of Orbital Shaken Disposable Bioreactors for Mammalian Cell Cultures from the Milliliter-Scale to the 1,000-Liter Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Stettler, Matthieu; de Sanctis, Dario; Perrone, Marco; Parolini, Nicola; Discacciati, Marco; de Jesus, Maria; Hacker, David; Quarteroni, Alfio; Wurm, Florian

    Driven by the commercial success of recombinant biopharmaceuticals, there is an increasing demand for novel mammalian cell culture bioreactor systems for the rapid production of biologicals that require mammalian protein processing. Recently, orbitally shaken bioreactors at scales from 50 mL to 1,000 L have been explored for the cultivation of mammalian cells and are considered to be attractive alternatives to conventional stirred-tank bioreactors because of increased flexibility and reduced costs. Adequate oxygen transfer capacity was maintained during the scale-up, and strategies to increase further oxygen transfer rates (OTR) were explored, while maintaining favorable mixing parameters and low-stress conditions for sensitive lipid membrane-enclosed cells. Investigations from process development to the engineering properties of shaken bioreactors are underway, but the feasibility of establishing a robust, standardized, and transferable technical platform for mammalian cell culture based on orbital shaking and disposable materials has been established with further optimizations and studies ongoing.

  20. Bioreactor and methods for producing synchronous cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmstetter, Charles E. (Inventor); Thornton, Maureen (Inventor); Gonda, Steve (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Apparatus and methods are directed to a perfusion culture system in which a rotating bioreactor is used to grow cells in a liquid culture medium, while these cells are attached to an adhesive-treated porous surface. As a result of this arrangement and its rotation, the attached cells divide, with one cell remaining attached to the substrate, while the other cell, a newborn cell is released. These newborn cells are of approximately the same age, that are collected upon leaving the bioreactor. The populations of newborn cells collected are of synchronous and are minimally, if at all, disturbed metabolically.

  1. Development and validation of a methodology for intracellular pH measurements of hybridoma cells under bioreactor culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Cherlet, M; Franck, P; Nabet, P; Marc, A

    1999-01-01

    The intracellular pH (pH(i)) is an important factor in the regulation of different cellular processes. It might therefore be used as a marker of the physiological state of cells cultivated in a bioreactor environment. We developed and validated therefore a methodology that permits a reproducible and reliable pH(i) measurement under such bioreactor culture conditions, contrary to earlier reported measurements, carried out on cells resuspended in buffers under nongrowth conditions. The hybridoma cells were sampled from the culture, stained with the pH-sensitive dye BCECF-AM (BCECF = 2',7'-bis-carboxyethyl-5,6-carboxyfluorescein), and analyzed by flow cytometry. Such a measurement is perfectible to changes of the cells between the moment of sampling and of final analysis on the flow cytometer. All intermittent steps were for this reason studied in detail, either to determine the optimal conditions to be used or to characterize their influence on the final pH(i) value measured. Additional experiments were carried out, showing the representativeness of the measured pH(i) value for the pH(i) the cells possess really in the culture at the moment of sampling.

  2. Novel micro-bioreactor high throughput technology for cell culture process development: Reproducibility and scalability assessment of fed-batch CHO cultures.

    PubMed

    Amanullah, Ashraf; Otero, Jose Manuel; Mikola, Mark; Hsu, Amy; Zhang, Jinyou; Aunins, John; Schreyer, H Brett; Hope, James A; Russo, A Peter

    2010-05-01

    With increasing timeline pressures to get therapeutic and vaccine candidates into the clinic, resource intensive approaches such as the use of shake flasks and bench-top bioreactors may limit the design space for experimentation to yield highly productive processes. The need to conduct large numbers of experiments has resulted in the use of miniaturized high-throughput (HT) technology for process development. One such high-throughput system is the SimCell platform, a robotically driven, cell culture bioreactor system developed by BioProcessors Corp. This study describes the use of the SimCell micro-bioreactor technology for fed-batch cultivation of a GS-CHO transfectant expressing a model IgG4 monoclonal antibody. Cultivations were conducted in gas-permeable chambers based on a micro-fluidic design, with six micro-bioreactors (MBs) per micro-bioreactor array (MBA). Online, non-invasive measurement of total cell density, pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) was performed. One hundred fourteen parallel MBs (19 MBAs) were employed to examine process reproducibility and scalability at shake flask, 3- and 100-L bioreactor scales. The results of the study demonstrate that the SimCell platform operated under fed-batch conditions could support viable cell concentrations up to least 12 x 10(6) cells/mL. In addition, both intra-MB (MB to MB) as well as intra-MBA (MBA to MBA) culture performance was found to be highly reproducible. The intra-MB and -MBA variability was calculated for each measurement as the coefficient of variation defined as CV (%) = (standard deviation/mean) x 100. The % CV values for most intra-MB and intra-MBA measurements were generally under 10% and the intra-MBA values were slightly lower than those for intra-MB. Cell growth, process parameters, metabolic and protein titer profiles were also compared to those from shake flask, bench-top, and pilot scale bioreactor cultivations and found to be within +/-20% of the historical averages.

  3. Analysis of Tubespins as a suitable scale-down model of bioreactors for high cell density CHO cell culture.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Natalia; Ambhaikar, Malhar; Zhang, Li; Huang, Chung-Jr; Barkhordarian, Hedieh; Lull, Jonathan; Gutierrez, Chris

    2017-03-01

    High cell density (HCD) culture increases recombinant protein productivity via higher biomass. Compared to traditional fed-batch cultures, HCD is achieved by increased nutrient availability and removal of undesired metabolic components via regular medium replenishment. HCD process development is usually performed in instrumented lab-scale bioreactors (BR) that require time and labor for setup and operation. To potentially minimize resources and cost during HCD experiments, we evaluated a 2-week 50-mL Tubespin (TS) simulated HCD process where daily medium exchanges mimic the medium replacement rate in BR. To best assess performance differences, we cultured 13 different CHO cell lines in simulated HCD as satellites from simultaneous BR, and compared growth, metabolism, productivity and product quality. Overall, viability, cell-specific productivity and metabolism in TS were comparable to BR, but TS cell growth and final titer were lower by 25 and 15% in average, respectively. Peak viable cell densities were lower in TS than BR as a potential consequence of lower pH, different medium exchange strategy and dissolved oxygen limitations. Product quality attributes highly dependent on intrinsic molecule or cell line characteristics (e.g., galactosylation, afucosylation, aggregation) were comparable in both scales. However, product quality attributes that can change extracellularly as a function of incubation time (e.g., deamidation, C-terminal lysine, fragmentation) were in general lower in TS because of shorter residence time than HCD BR. Our characterization results and two case studies show that TS-simulated HCD cultures can be effectively used as a simple scale-down model for relative comparisons among cell lines for growth or productivity (e.g., clone screening), and for investigating effects on protein galactosylation. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:490-499, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  4. Colon tumor cells grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These photos compare the results of colon carcinoma cells grown in a NASA Bioreactor flown on the STS-70 Space Shuttle in 1995 flight and ground control experiments. The cells grown in microgravity (left) have aggregated to form masses that are larger and more similar to tissue found in the body than the cells cultured on the ground (right). The principal investigator is Milburn Jessup of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

  5. Colon tumor cells grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These photos compare the results of colon carcinoma cells grown in a NASA Bioreactor flown on the STS-70 Space Shuttle in 1995 flight and ground control experiments. The cells grown in microgravity (left) have aggregated to form masses that are larger and more similar to tissue found in the body than the cells cultured on the ground (right). The principal investigator is Milburn Jessup of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

  6. The nitric oxide donor S-nitrosoglutathione reduces apoptotic primary liver cell loss in a three-dimensional perfusion bioreactor culture model developed for liver support.

    PubMed

    Prince, Jose M; Vodovotz, Yoram; Baun, Matthew J; Monga, Satdarshan Pal; Billiar, Timothy R; Gerlach, Jörg C

    2010-03-01

    Artificial extracorporeal support for hepatic failure has met with limited clinical success. In hepatocytes, nitric oxide (NO) functions as an antiapoptotic modulator in response to a variety of stresses. We hypothesized that NO administration would yield improved viability and hepatocellular restructuring in a four-compartment, hollow fiber-based bioreactor with integral oxygenation for dynamic three-dimensional perfusion of hepatic cells in bioartificial liver support systems. Isolated adult rat liver cells were placed in culture medium alone (control) or medium supplemented with various concentrations of an NO donor (S-nitrosoglutathione [GSNO]) in the bioreactors. Media samples were obtained from the cell perfusion circuit to monitor cellular response. After 24 and 72 h, histology biopsies were taken to investigate spontaneous restructuring of the cells. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was performed to quantify apoptotic nuclei. Control bioreactors exhibited 47.9 +/- 2.9% (mean +/- standard error of the mean) apoptotic nuclei. In contrast, NO-treated bioreactors exhibited a biphasic response. Fewer apoptotic nuclei were seen in the 200 and 500 microM GSNO groups (14.4 +/- 0.4%). No effect was observed in the 10 microM GSNO group (47.3%), and increased TUNEL staining was observed in the 1000 microM GSNO group (82.6%). Media lactate dehydrogenase levels were lower in bioreactor groups treated with 200 or 500 microM GSNO (310 +/- 38 IU/L) compared with the control group (919 +/- 188 IU/L; p < 0.05). Protein synthesis was not affected, as measured by albumin levels in the media (115 +/- 19 microg/day/cell inoculum in GSNO-treated bioreactors at 24 h vs. 110 +/- 13 in controls; p = 0.851). Histologically, all of the bioreactor groups exhibited liver cell aggregates with some attached to the bioreactor capillaries. Increased numbers of cells in the aggregates and superior spontaneous restructuring of the cells were seen at

  7. Periodic "flow-stop" perfusion microchannel bioreactors for mammalian and human embryonic stem cell long-term culture.

    PubMed

    Korin, Natanel; Bransky, Avishay; Dinnar, Uri; Levenberg, Shulamit

    2009-02-01

    The present study examines the use of automated periodic "flow-stop" perfusion systems for long-term culture of mammalian cells in a microchannel bioreactor. The method is used to culture Human Foreskin Fibroblasts (HFF) and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) for long periods of time (>7 d) in a microchannel (height 100 mum). Design parameters, mass transport and shear stress issues are theoretically examined via numerical simulations. Cell growth and morphology are experimentally monitored and an enhanced growth rate was measured compared to constant perfusion micro-reactors and to traditional culture in Petri dishes. Moreover, we demonstrate the use of the method to co-culture undifferentiated colonies of human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESC) on HFF feeder cells in microchannels. The successful hESC-HFF co-culture in the microbioreactor is achieved due to two vital characteristics of the developed method-short temporal exposure to flow followed by long static incubation periods. The short pulsed exposure to shear enables shear sensitive cells (e.g., hESC) to withstand the medium renewal flow. The long static incubation period may enable secreted factors (e.g., feeder cells secreted factors) to accumulate locally. Thus the developed method may be suitable for long-term culture of sensitive multi-cellular complexes in microsystems.

  8. Cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism in HepaRG cells cultured in a dynamic three-dimensional bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Darnell, Malin; Schreiter, Thomas; Zeilinger, Katrin; Urbaniak, Thomas; Söderdahl, Therese; Rossberg, Ingrid; Dillnér, Birgitta; Berg, Anna-Lena; Gerlach, Jörg C; Andersson, Tommy B

    2011-07-01

    Reliable and stable in vitro cellular systems maintaining specific liver functions important for drug metabolism and disposition are urgently needed in preclinical drug discovery and development research. The cell line HepaRG exhibits promising properties such as expression and function of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporter proteins, which resemble those found in freshly isolated human hepatocytes. In this study, HepaRG cells were cultured up to 68 days in a three-dimensional multicompartment capillary membrane bioreactor, which enables high-density cell culture under dynamic conditions. The activity of drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes was investigated by a cocktail of substrates for CYP1A1/2 (phenacetin), CYP2C9 (diclofenac), CYP2B6 (bupropion), and CYP3A4 (midazolam). The model P450 substrates, which were introduced to the bioreactor system mimicking in vivo bolus doses, showed stable metabolism over the entire experimental period of several weeks with the exception of bupropion hydroxylase, which increased over time. Ketoconazole treatment decreased the CYP3A4 activity by 69%, and rifampicin induced the CYP3A4- and CYP2B6-dependent activity 6-fold, which predicts well the magnitude of changes observed in vivo. Moreover, polarity of transporter expression and formation of tissue-like structures including bile canaliculi were demonstrated by immune histochemistry. The long-lasting bioreactor system using HepaRG cells thus provides a promising and stable liver-like in vitro model for continuous investigations of the hepatic kinetics of drugs and of drug-drug interactions, which well predict the situation in vivo in humans.

  9. Effect of ambient light on monoclonal antibody product quality during small-scale mammalian cell culture process in clear glass bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Mallaney, Mary; Wang, Szu-Han; Sreedhara, Alavattam

    2014-01-01

    During a small-scale cell culture process producing a monoclonal antibody, a larger than expected difference was observed in the charge variants profile of the harvested cell culture fluid (HCCF) between the 2 L and larger scales (e.g., 400 L and 12 kL). Small-scale studies performed at the 2 L scale consistently showed an increase in acidic species when compared with the material made at larger scale. Since the 2 L bioreactors were made of clear transparent glass while the larger scale reactors are made of stainless steel, the effect of ambient laboratory light on cell culture process in 2 L bioreactors as well as handling the HCCF was carefully evaluated. Photoreactions in the 2 L glass bioreactors including light mediated increase in acidic variants in HCCF and formulation buffers were identified and carefully analyzed. While the acidic variants comprised of a mixture of sialylated, reduced disulfide, crosslinked (nonreducible), glycated, and deamidated forms, an increase in the nonreducible forms, deamidation and Met oxidation was predominantly observed under light stress. The monoclonal antibody produced in glass bioreactors that were protected from light behaved similar to the one produced in the larger scale. Our data clearly indicate that care should be taken when glass bioreactors are used in cell culture studies during monoclonal antibody production.

  10. Feasibility of using sodium chloride as a tracer for the characterization of the distribution of matter in complex multi-compartment 3D bioreactors for stem cell culture.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Jörg C; Witaschek, Tom; Strobel, Catrin; Brayfield, Candace A; Bornemann, Reinhard; Catapano, Gerardo; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2010-06-01

    The experimental characterization of the distribution of matter in complex multi-compartment three-dimensional membrane bioreactors for human cell culture is complicated by tracer interactions with the membranes and other bioreactor constituents. This is due to the fact that membranes with a high specific surface area often feature a hydrophobic chemical backbone that may adsorb tracers often used to this purpose, such as proteins and dyes. Membrane selectivity, and its worsening caused by protein adsorption, may also hinder tracer transfer across neighboring compartments, thus preventing effective characterization of the distribution of matter in the whole bioreactor. Tracer experiments with sodium chloride (NaCl) may overcome some of these limitations and be effectively used to characterize the distribution of matter in complex 3D multi-compartments membrane bioreactors for stem cell culture. NaCl freely permeates most used membranes, it does not adsorb on uncharged membranes, and its concentration may be accurately measured in terms of solution conductivity. In this preliminary study, the feasibility of complex multi-compartment membrane bioreactors was investigated with a NaCl concentration pulse challenge to characterize how their distribution of matter changes when they are operated under different conditions. In particular, bioreactors consisting of three different membrane types stacked on top of one another to form a 3D network were characterized under different feed conditions.

  11. Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Cultured in Normal and Hyperglycemic Media in Simulated Microgravity Using NASA Bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, DeSales

    2003-01-01

    We sought answers to several questions this summer at NASA Johnson Space Center. Initial studies involved the in vitro culture of human peripheral blood mononuclear in cells in different conditioned culture media. Several human cancer clones were similarly studied to determine responses to aberrant glycosylation by the argon laser. The cells were grown at unit gravity in flasks and in simulated microgravity using NASA bioreactors. The cells in each instance were analyzed by flow cytometry. Cell cycle analysis was acquired by staining nuclear DNA with propidium iodide. Responses to the laser stimulation was measured by observing autofluorescence emitted in the green and red spectra after stimulation. Extent of glycosylation correlated with the intensity of the laser stimulated auto-fluorescence. Our particular study was to detect and monitor aberrant glycosylation and its role in etiopathogenesis. Comparisons were made between cells known to be neoplastic and normal cell controls using the same Laser Induced Autofluorescence technique. Studies were begun after extensive literature searches on using the antigen presenting potential of dendritic cells to induce proliferation of antigen specific cytotoxic T-cells. The Sendai virus served as the antigen. Our goal is to generate sufficient numbers of such cells in the simulated microgravity environment for use in autologous transplants of virally infected individuals including those positive for hepatitis and HIV.

  12. Stirred tank bioreactor culture combined with serum-/xenogeneic-free culture medium enables an efficient expansion of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Amanda; Fernandes-Platzgummer, Ana; Carmelo, Joana G; Swiech, Kamilla; Covas, Dimas T; Cabral, Joaquim M S; da Silva, Cláudia L

    2016-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are being widely explored as promising candidates for cell-based therapies. Among the different human MSC origins exploited, umbilical cord represents an attractive and readily available source of MSC that involves a non-invasive collection procedure. In order to achieve relevant cell numbers of human MSC for clinical applications, it is crucial to develop scalable culture systems that allow bioprocess control and monitoring, combined with the use of serum/xenogeneic (xeno)-free culture media. In the present study, we firstly established a spinner flask culture system combining gelatin-based Cultispher(®) S microcarriers and xeno-free culture medium for the expansion of umbilical cord matrix (UCM)-derived MSC. This system enabled the production of 2.4 (±1.1) x10(5) cells/mL (n = 4) after 5 days of culture, corresponding to a 5.3 (±1.6)-fold increase in cell number. The established protocol was then implemented in a stirred-tank bioreactor (800 mL working volume) (n = 3) yielding 115 million cells after 4 days. Upon expansion under stirred conditions, cells retained their differentiation ability and immunomodulatory potential. The development of a scalable microcarrier-based stirred culture system, using xeno-free culture medium that suits the intrinsic features of UCM-derived MSC represents an important step towards a GMP compliant large-scale production platform for these promising cell therapy candidates.

  13. Identification and quantitation of Vesivirus 2117 particles in bioreactor fluids from infected Chinese hamster ovary cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yongchang; Jones, Nathan; Busch, Michelle; Pan, Peng; Keegan, Jesse; Zhou, Weichang; Plavsic, Mark; Hayes, Michael; McPherson, John M; Edmunds, Tim; Zhang, Kate; Mattaliano, Robert J

    2013-05-01

    The prevention of adventitious agent contamination is a top priority throughout the entire biopharmaceutical production process. For example, although viral contamination of cell banks or cell cultures is rare, it can result in serious consequences (e.g., shutdown and decontamination of manufacturing facilities). To ensure virus free production, numerous in vivo and in vitro adventitious agent assays and biophysical characterizations such as electron microscopy are conducted on cell banks, raw materials, process materials, and drug substances throughout the manufacturing process. Molecular assays such as PCR and other nucleotide-based techniques are also routinely used for screening and identification of any viral agents. However, modern techniques in protein identification of complex protein mixtures have not yet been effectively integrated throughout the industry into current viral testing strategies. Here, we report the identification and quantitation of Vesivirus 2117 particles in bioreactor fluid from infected Chinese hamster ovary cell cultures by global protein sequencing using mass spectrometry in combination with multi-dimensional liquid-chromatography. Following mass spectrometric data acquisition and rigorous data analysis, six virus specific peptides were identified. These peptides were fragments of two structural proteins, capsid protein pre-cursor (four unique peptides) and small structural protein (two unique peptides), from the same species: Vesivirus 2117. Using stable heavy isotope-labeled peptides as internal standards, we also determined the absolute concentration of Vesivirus particles in the bioreactor fluid and the ratio of two capsid proteins (VP1:VP2) in the particles as approximately 9:1. The positive identification of Vesivirus 2117 was subsequently confirmed by RT-PCR. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. In vitro antifungal activity of extracts obtained from Hypericum perforatum adventitious roots cultured in a mist bioreactor against planktonic cells and biofilm of Malassezia furfur.

    PubMed

    Simonetti, Giovanna; Tocci, Noemi; Valletta, Alessio; Brasili, Elisa; D'Auria, Felicia Diodata; Idoux, Alicia; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Xanthone-rich extracts from Hypericum perforatum root cultures grown in a Mist Bioreactor as antifungal agents against Malassezia furfur. Extracts of Hypericum perforatum roots grown in a bioreactor showed activity against planktonic cells and biofilm of Malassezia furfur. Dried biomass, obtained from roots grown under controlled conditions in a ROOTec mist bioreactor, has been extracted with solvents of increasing polarity (i.e. chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol). The methanolic fraction was the richest in xanthones (2.86 ± 0.43 mg g(-1) DW) as revealed by HPLC. The minimal inhibitory concentration of the methanol extract against M. furfur planktonic cells was 16 μg mL(-1). The inhibition percentage of biofilm formation, at a concentration of 16 μg mL(-1), ranged from 14% to 39%. The results show that H. perforatum root extracts could be used as new antifungal agents in the treatment of Malassezia infections.

  15. A study of murine bone marrow cells cultured in bioreactors which create an environment which simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, Brother Desales

    1990-01-01

    Previous research indicated that mouse bone marrow cells could be grown in conditions of simulated microgravity. This environment was created in rotating bioreactor vessels. On three attempts mouse cells were grown successfully in the vessels. The cells reached a stage where the concentrations were doubling daily. Phenotypic analysis using a panel of monoclonal antibodies indicated that the cell were hematopoietic pluripotent stem cells. One unsuccessful attempt was made to reestablish the immune system in immunocompromised mice using these cells. Since last summer, several unsuccessful attempts were made to duplicate these results. It was determined by electron microscopy that the cells successfully grown in 1989 contained virus particles. It was suggested that these virally parasitized cells had been immortalized. The work of this summer is a continuation of efforts to grow mouse bone marrow in these vessels. A number of variations of the protocol were introduced. Certified pathogen free mice were used in the repeat experiments. In some attempts the medium of last summer was used; in others Dexture Culture Medium containing Iscove's Medium supplemented with 20 percent horse serum and 10-6 M hydrocortisone. Efforts this summer were directed solely to repeating the work of last summer. Plans were made for investigations if stem cells were isolated. Immortalization of the undifferentiated stem cell would be attempted by transfection with an oncogenic vector. Selective differentiation would be induced in the stem cell line by growing it with known growth factors and immune response modulators. Interest is in identifying any surface antigens unique to stem cells that would help in their characterization. Another goal was to search for markers on stem cells that would distinguish them from stem cells committed to a particular lineage. If the undifferentiated hematopoietic stem cell was obtained, the pathways that would terminally convert it to myeloid, lyphoid

  16. Cell Separations in Microgravity and Development of a Space Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    A bioreactor optimized for operations in space is now being developed. The current research is focused on determining the optimum cell-bead ratios, medium content and proper maintenance conditions required to keep living cell specimens alive and healthy for the entire flight. The bioreactor development project has recently added a microprocessor/computer to the JSC prototype for control and data analysis. Appropriate new technology is being combined with the current bioreactor designs and tested to determine what specific features must be included in the fabrication of a bioreactor designed to operate for STS demonstration tests. Considerations include: (1) circulation and resupply of culture media; (2) sensors required to monitor temperature, cell growth, mass transport, and oxygen consumption; and (3) inflight control of shear stress on cells, gas transfer in microgravity, diffusion, and intracellular transport. These data and results from the JSC prototype bioreactor test will be used for the design and construction of a small space bioreactor for the Orbiter middeck.

  17. The Nitric Oxide Donor S-Nitrosoglutathione Reduces Apoptotic Primary Liver Cell Loss in a Three-Dimensional Perfusion Bioreactor Culture Model Developed for Liver Support

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Jose M.; Vodovotz, Yoram; Baun, Matthew J.; Monga, Satdarshan Pal; Billiar, Timothy R.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Artificial extracorporeal support for hepatic failure has met with limited clinical success. In hepatocytes, nitric oxide (NO) functions as an antiapoptotic modulator in response to a variety of stresses. We hypothesized that NO administration would yield improved viability and hepatocellular restructuring in a four-compartment, hollow fiber-based bioreactor with integral oxygenation for dynamic three-dimensional perfusion of hepatic cells in bioartificial liver support systems. Methods Isolated adult rat liver cells were placed in culture medium alone (control) or medium supplemented with various concentrations of an NO donor (S-nitrosoglutathione [GSNO]) in the bioreactors. Media samples were obtained from the cell perfusion circuit to monitor cellular response. After 24 and 72 h, histology biopsies were taken to investigate spontaneous restructuring of the cells. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was performed to quantify apoptotic nuclei. Results Control bioreactors exhibited 47.9 ± 2.9% (mean ± standard error of the mean) apoptotic nuclei. In contrast, NO-treated bioreactors exhibited a biphasic response. Fewer apoptotic nuclei were seen in the 200 and 500 μM GSNO groups (14.4 ± 0.4%). No effect was observed in the 10 μM GSNO group (47.3%), and increased TUNEL staining was observed in the 1000 μM GSNO group (82.6%). Media lactate dehydrogenase levels were lower in bioreactor groups treated with 200 or 500 μM GSNO (310 ± 38 IU/L) compared with the control group (919 ± 188 IU/L; p < 0.05). Protein synthesis was not affected, as measured by albumin levels in the media (115 ± 19 μg/day/cell inoculum in GSNO-treated bioreactors at 24 h vs. 110 ± 13 in controls; p = 0.851). Histologically, all of the bioreactor groups exhibited liver cell aggregates with some attached to the bioreactor capillaries. Increased numbers of cells in the aggregates and

  18. A novel approach to recycle bacterial culture waste for fermentation reuse via a microbial fuel cell-membrane bioreactor system.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Zhu, Yuan; Zhuang, Liangpeng; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Masaya; Goodell, Barry; Sonoki, Tomonori; He, Zhen

    2015-09-01

    Biochemical production processes require water and nutrient resources for culture media preparation, but aqueous waste is generated after the target products are extracted. In this study, culture waste (including cells) produced from a lab-scale fermenter was fed into a microbial fuel cell-membrane bioreactor (MFC-MBR) system. Electrical energy was generated via the interaction between the microbial consortia and the solid electrode in the MFC. The treated wastewater was reclaimed in this process which was reused as a solvent and a nutrient source in subsequent fermentation. Polarization testing showed that the MFC produced a maximum current density of 37.53 A m(-3) with a maximum power density of 5.49 W m(-3). The MFC was able to generate 0.04 kWh of energy per cubic meter of culture waste treated. The lab-scale fermenters containing pure cultures of an engineered Pseudomonas spp. were used to generate 2-pyrone-4,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDC), a high value platform chemical. When the MFC-MBR-treated wastewater was used for the fermenter culture medium, a specific bacterial growth rate of 1.00 ± 0.05 h(-1) was obtained with a PDC production rate of 708.11 ± 64.70 mg PDC L(-1) h(-1). Comparable values for controls using pure water were 0.95 ± 0.06 h(-1) and 621.01 ± 22.09 mg PDC L(-1) h(-1) (P > 0.05), respectively. The results provide insight on a new approach for more sustainable bio-material production while at the same time generating energy, and suggest that the treated wastewater can be used as a solvent and a nutrient source for the fermentation production of high value platform chemicals.

  19. Production of high-titer human influenza A virus with adherent and suspension MDCK cells cultured in a single-use hollow fiber bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Felipe; Vogel, Thomas; Genzel, Yvonne; Behrendt, Ilona; Hirschel, Mark; Gangemi, J David; Reichl, Udo

    2014-02-12

    Hollow fiber bioreactors (HFBRs) have been widely described as capable of supporting the production of highly concentrated monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. Only recently HFBRs have been proposed as new single-use platforms for production of high-titer influenza A virus. These bioreactors contain multiple hollow fiber capillary tubes that separate the bioreactor in an intra- and an extra-capillary space. Cells are usually cultured in the extra-capillary space and can grow to a very high cell concentration. This work describes the evaluation of the single-use hollow fiber bioreactor PRIMER HF (Biovest International Inc., USA) for production of influenza A virus. The process was setup, characterized and optimized by running a total of 15 cultivations. The HFBRs were seeded with either adherent or suspension MDCK cells, and infected with influenza virus A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), and the pandemic strain A/Mexico/4108/2009 (H1N1). High HA titers and TCID₅₀ of up to 3.87 log₁₀(HA units/100 μL) and 1.8 × 10(10)virions/mL, respectively, were obtained for A/PR/8/34 influenza strain. Influenza virus was collected by performing multiple harvests of the extra-capillary space during a virus production time of up to 12 days. Cell-specific virus yields between 2,000 and 8,000 virions/cell were estimated for adherent MDCK cells, and between 11,000 and 19,000 virions/cell for suspension MDCK.SUS2 cells. These results do not only coincide with the cell-specific virus yields obtained with cultivations in stirred tank bioreactors and other high cell density systems, but also demonstrate that HFBRs are promising and competitive single-use platforms that can be considered for commercial production of influenza virus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hybridoma cell-culture and glycan profile dataset at various bioreactor conditions.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Hemlata; Read, Erik; Agarabi, Cyrus; Brorson, Kurt; Lute, Scott; Yoon, Seongkyu

    2016-12-01

    This is an "11 factor-2 level-12 run" Plackett-Burman experimental design dataset. The dataset includes 11 engineering bioreactor parameters as input variables. These 11 factors were varied at 2 levels and 23 response variables that are glycan profile attributes, were measured "A Design Space Exploration for Control of Critical Quality Attributes of mAb" (H. Bhatia, E.K. Read, C.D. Agarabi, K.A. Brorson, S.C. Lute, S. Yoon S, 2016) [2].

  1. A microcarrier cell culture process for propagating rabies virus in Vero cells grown in a stirred bioreactor under fully animal component free conditions.

    PubMed

    Rourou, Samia; van der Ark, Arno; van der Velden, Tiny; Kallel, Héla

    2007-05-10

    Rabies virus strain production in Vero cells grown on Cytodex 1 in a 2 L stirred tank bioreactor and in a medium free of components of human or animal origin (VP-SFM) is described. Cell banking procedure in VP-SFM supplemented with an animal components free mixture (10%DMSO+0.1%methylcellulose) was reported and cell growth after revitalization was assessed. Vero cells exhibited growth performances (specific growth rate and cell division number) similar to that obtained in serum containing medium. To design a scalable process that is totally free of animal-derived substances, two proteases: TrypLE Select and Accutase, were assessed as an alternative to trypsin which is routinely used for cell passage. Growth performance of Vero cells grown in VP-SFM and MEM+10% fetal calf serum (FCS) over four passages and subcultivated with either TrypLE Select or Accutase was evaluated. TrypLE Select showed the best performance in terms of specific growth rate and cell division number. Kinetics of cell growth and rabies virus production (LP2061/Vero strain) were investigated in spinner flask and in a 2 L bioreactor. In spinner flask, a maximal cell density level of 1.85x10(6) cells/mL was achieved when the cells were grown in VP-SFM on 2 g/L Cytodex 1. Cell infection experiments conducted at an MOI of 0.3 and without the medium exchange step, typically needed for serum containing rabies virus production, resulted in a maximal virus titer equal to 2x10(7) (Fluorescent Focus Unit) FFU/mL. In stirred tank bioreactor, Vero cell growth in VP-SFM on 3 g/L Cytodex 1 was shown to be sensitive to the aeration mode. Sparging the culture was detrimental for cell growth, whereas cell density level was greatly enhanced when only headspace aeration was used. A cell density level of 2.6x10(6) cells/mL was obtained when the cells were grown on 3g/L Cytodex 1 and in batch culture mode. Cell infection at an MOI of 0.1 without any medium exchange, yielded a maximal rabies virus titer of 2.4x10

  2. Production of Limonoids with Insect Antifeedant Activity in a Two-Stage Bioreactor Process with Cell Suspension Culture of Azadirachta indica.

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Rivera, Andrés; Chicaiza-Finley, Diego; Hoyos, Rodrigo A; Orozco-Sánchez, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    Neem tree (Azadirachta indica) cell suspension culture is an alternative for the production of limonoids for insect control that overcomes limitations related to the supply of neem seeds. To establish conditions for cell growth and azadiracthin-related limonoid production, the effect of different sucrose concentrations, nitrate and phosphate in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, and the addition of one precursor and three elicitors was evaluated in shake flasks. The process was scaled up to a 3-l stirred tank bioreactor in one- and two-stage batch cultivation. In shake flasks, more than fivefold increase in the production of limonoids with the modified MS medium was observed (increase from 0.77 to 4.52 mg limonoids/g dry cell weight, DCW), while an increase of more than fourfold was achieved by adding the elicitors chitosan, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid together (increase from 1.03 to 4.32 mg limonoids/g DCW). In the bioreactor, the volumetric production of limonoids was increased more than threefold with a two-stage culture in day 18 (13.82 mg limonoids/l in control single-stage process and 41.44 mg/l in two-stage process). The cultivation and operating mode of the bioreactor reported in this study may be adapted and used in optimization and process plant development for production of insect antifeedant limonoids with A. indica cell suspension cultures.

  3. The Super-Spinner: a low cost animal cell culture bioreactor for the CO2 incubator.

    PubMed

    Heidemann, R; Riese, U; Lütkemeyer, D; Büntemeyer, H; Lehmann, J

    1994-01-01

    The production of small quantities of monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins was carried out using a new low cost production system, the Super Spinner. Into a 1 1 standard Duran flask a membrane stirrer equipped with a polypropylene hollow fiber membrane was installed to improve the oxygen supply by bubble-free aeration. The aeration was facilitated by using the CO2 conditioned incubator gas, which was pumped through the membrane stirrer via a small membrane pump. The maximal oxygen transfer rate (OTRmax) of the Super Spinner was detected. For this purpose one spinner flask was equipped with an oxygen electrode. The OTRmax was measured by the dynamic method. The ratio of membrane length to culture volume was adapted corresponding to the oxygen uptake rate of the cells according to the desired cell density. A balanced nutrient supply resulted in an optimal formation and yield of products.

  4. Comparative study of withanolide production and the related transcriptional responses of biosynthetic genes in fungi elicited cell suspension culture of Withania somnifera in shake flask and bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ahlawat, Seema; Saxena, Parul; Ali, Athar; Khan, Shazia; Abdin, Malik Z

    2017-02-17

    Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is one of the most reputed medicinal plants in the traditional medicinal system. In this study, cell suspension culture of W. somnifera was elicited with cell homogenates of fungi (A. alternata, F. solani, V. dahliae and P. indica) in shake flask and the major withanolides like withanolide A, withaferin A and withanone were analysed. Simultaneously expression levels of key pathway genes from withanolides biosynthetic pathways were also checked via quantitative PCR in shake flask as well as in bioreactor. The results show that highest gene expression of 10.8, 5.8, 4.9, and 3.3 folds were observed with HMGR among all the expressed genes in cell suspension cultures with cell homogenates of 3% P. indica, 5% V. dahliae, 3% A. alternata and 3% F. solani, respectively, in comparison to the control in shake flask. Optimized concentration of cell homogenate of P. indica (3% v/v) was added to the growing culture in 5.0-l bioreactor under optimized up-scaling conditions and harvested after 22 days. The genes of MVA, MEP and withanolides biosynthetic pathways like HMGR, SS, SE, CAS, FPPS, DXR and DXS were up-regulated by 12.5, 4.9, 2.18, 4.65, 2.34, 1.89 and 1.4 folds, respectively in bioreactor. The enhancement of biomass (1.13 fold) and withanolides [withanolide A (1.7), withaferin A (1.5), and withanone (1.5) folds] in bioreactor in comparison to shake flask was also found to be in line with the up-regulation of genes of withanolide biosynthetic pathways.

  5. LTCC based bioreactors for cell cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, H.; Welker, T.; Welker, K.; Witte, H.; Müller, J.

    2016-01-01

    LTCC multilayers offer a wide range of structural options and flexibility of connections not available in standard thin film technology. Therefore they are considered as material base for cell culture reactors. The integration of microfluidic handling systems and features for optical and electrical capturing of indicators for cell culture growth offers the platform for an open system concept. The present paper assesses different approaches for the creation of microfluidic channels in LTCC multilayers. Basic functions required for the fluid management in bioreactors include temperature and flow control. Both features can be realized with integrated heaters and temperature sensors in LTCC multilayers. Technological conditions for the integration of such elements into bioreactors are analysed. The temperature regulation for the system makes use of NTC thermistor sensors which serve as real value input for the control of the heater. It allows the adjustment of the fluid temperature with an accuracy of 0.2 K. The tempered fluid flows through the cell culture chamber. Inside of this chamber a thick film electrode array monitors the impedance as an indicator for the growth process of 3-dimensional cell cultures. At the system output a flow sensor is arranged to monitor the continual flow. For this purpose a calorimetric sensor is implemented, and its crucial design parameters are discussed. Thus, the work presented gives an overview on the current status of LTCC based fluid management for cell culture reactors, which provides a promising base for the automation of cell culture processes.

  6. Hepatocyte function within a stacked double sandwich culture plate cylindrical bioreactor for bioartificial liver system.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lei; Arooz, Talha; Zhang, Shufang; Tuo, Xiaoye; Xiao, Guangfa; Susanto, Thomas Adi Kurnia; Sundararajan, Janani; Cheng, Tianming; Kang, Yuzhan; Poh, Hee Joo; Leo, Hwa Liang; Yu, Hanry

    2012-11-01

    Bioartificial liver (BAL) system is promising as an alternative treatment for liver failure. We have developed a bioreactor with stacked sandwich culture plates for the application of BAL. This bioreactor design addresses some of the persistent problems in flat-bed bioreactors through increasing cell packing capacity, eliminating dead flow, regulating shear stress, and facilitating the scalability of the bioreactor unit. The bioreactor contained a stack of twelve double-sandwich-culture plates, allowing 100 million hepatocytes to be housed in a single cylindrical bioreactor unit (7 cm of height and 5.5 cm of inner diameter). The serial flow perfusion through the bioreactor increased cell-fluid contact area for effective mass exchange. With the optimal perfusion flow rate, shear stress was minimized to achieve high and uniform cell viabilities across different plates in the bioreactor. Our results demonstrated that hepatocytes cultured in the bioreactor could re-establish cell polarity and maintain liver-specific functions (e.g. albumin and urea synthesis, phase I&II metabolism functions) for seven days. The single bioreactor unit can be readily scaled up to house adequate number of functional hepatocytes for BAL development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Processing highly porous calcium phosphate ceramics for use in bioreactor cores for culturing human liver cells in-vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finoli, Anthony

    Chronic liver disease is the 11th highest cause of death in the United States claiming over 30,000 lives in 2009. The current treatment for chronic liver failure is liver transplantation but the availability of tissue is far less than the number of patients in need. To develop human liver tissue in the lab a 3D culturing environment must be created to support the growth of a complex tissue. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) has been chosen as a scaffold material because of its biocompatibility in the body and the ability to create a bioresorbable scaffold. By using a ceramic material, it is possible to create a three dimensional, protective environment in which tissue can grow. The first part of this study is to examine the behavior of adult human liver cells grown on composites of HAp and different biocompatible hydrogels. Porous HAp has been created using an emulsion foaming technique and cells are injected into the structure after being suspended in a hydrogel and are kept in culture for up to 28 days. Functional assays, gene expression and fluorescent microscopy will be used to examine these cultures. The second part of this study will be to develop a processing technique to create a resorbable scaffold that incorporates a vascular system template. Previous experiments have shown the high temperature decomposition of HAp into resorbable calcium phosphates will be used to create a multiphase material. By controlling the amount of transformation product formed, it is proposed that the resorption of the scaffold can be tailored. To introduce a pore network to guide the growth of a vascular system, a positive-negative casting technique has also been developed. A positive polymer copy can be made of a natural vascular system and ceramic is foamed around the copy. During sintering, the polymer is pyrolyzed leaving a multiscale pore network in the ceramic. By combining these techniques, it is proposed that a calcium phosphate bioreactor core can be processed that is suitable for

  8. Bioreactor Engineering of Stem Cell Environments

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Nina; Marolt, Darja; Cimetta, Elisa; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells hold promise to revolutionize modern medicine by development of new therapies, disease models and drug screening systems. Standard cell culture systems have limited biological relevance because they do not recapitulate the complex 3-dimensional interactions and biophysical cues that characterize the in vivo environment. In this review, we discuss the current advances in engineering stem cell environments using novel biomaterials and bioreactor technologies. We also reflect on the challenges the field is currently facing with regard to translation of stem cell based therapies into the clinic. PMID:23531529

  9. Short versus continuous gemcitabine treatment of non-small cell lung cancer in an in vitro cell culture bioreactor system.

    PubMed

    Kirstein, Mark N; Wieman, Katie M; Williams, Brent W; Fisher, James E; Marker, Paul H; Le, Chap T; Yee, Douglas; Kratzke, Robert A

    2007-11-01

    Five-year survival for non-small cell lung cancer is 15%. Gemcitabine is a nucleoside analogue that inhibits ribonucleotide reductase and interferes with DNA replication. In this study, we sought to compare short versus continuous infusion gemcitabine in an in vitro bioreactor system using pharmacokinetic-guided dosing. Gemcitabine was infused over either 0.5 or 2.5h to produce concentration-time profiles that mimic those measured in biological samples (i.e., patient plasma). The effects of gemcitabine on the growth and survival of H2009 cells were examined using trypan blue staining, cell cycle analysis, TUNEL assay, and clonogenic assay. Data were analyzed with two ways analysis of variance. Maximum gemcitabine (Cmax) concentrations during the short infusion were 51.2+/-10.4 microM and for the continuous, 14.8+/-2.93 microM. Steady-state concentrations during the continuous infusions were 14.9+/-2.90 microM. Gemcitabine treatment resulted in a decrease for G1 fraction relative to controls. G2/M, subG1 and TUNEL were higher following gemcitabine relative to controls. Survival was approximately 20-fold higher following the short infusion compared with the continuous infusion (p = 0.0085). In conclusion, gemcitabine infused by this novel method induced apoptosis after both the short and continuous infusions, and long-term survival was significantly diminished following continuous compared with the short infusion.

  10. Spaceflight bioreactor studies of cells and tissues.

    PubMed

    Freed, Lisa E; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2002-01-01

    Studies of the fundamental role of gravity in the development and function of biological organisms are a central component of the human exploration of space. Microgravity affects numerous physical phenomena relevant to biological research, including the hydrostatic pressure in fluid filled vesicles, sedimentation of organelles, and buoyancy-driven convection of flow and heat. These physical phenomena can in turn directly and indirectly affect cellular morphology, metabolism, locomotion, secretion of extracellular matrix and soluble signals, and assembly into functional tissues. Studies aimed at distinguishing specific effects of gravity on biological systems require the ability to: (i) control and systematically vary gravity, e.g. by utilizing the microgravity environment of space in conjunction with an in-flight centrifuge; and (ii) maintain constant all other factors in the immediate environment, including in particular concentrations and exchange rates of biochemical species and hydrodynamic shear. The latter criteria imply the need for gravity-independent mechanisms to provide for mass transport between the cells and their environment. Available flight hardware has largely determined the experimental design and scientific objectives of spaceflight cell and tissue culture studies carried out to date. Simple culture vessels have yielded important quantitative data, and helped establish in vitro models of cell locomotion, growth and differentiation in various mammalian cell types including embryonic lung cells [6], lymphocytes [2,8], and renal cells [7,31]. Studies done using bacterial cells established the first correlations between gravity-dependent factors such as cell settling velocity and diffusional distance and the respective cell responses [12]. The development of advanced bioreactors for microgravity cell and tissue culture and for tissue engineering has benefited both research areas and provided relevant in vitro model systems for studies of astronaut

  11. Factorial experimental design for the culture of human embryonic stem cells as aggregates in stirred suspension bioreactors reveals the potential for interaction effects between bioprocess parameters.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Megan M; Meng, Guoliang; Rancourt, Derrick E; Gates, Ian D; Kallos, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Traditional optimization of culture parameters for the large-scale culture of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as aggregates is carried out in a stepwise manner whereby the effect of varying each culture parameter is investigated individually. However, as evidenced by the wide range of published protocols and culture performance indicators (growth rates, pluripotency marker expression, etc.), there is a lack of systematic investigation into the true effect of varying culture parameters especially with respect to potential interactions between culture variables. Here we describe the design and execution of a two-parameter, three-level (3(2)) factorial experiment resulting in nine conditions that were run in duplicate 125-mL stirred suspension bioreactors. The two parameters investigated here were inoculation density and agitation rate, which are easily controlled, but currently, poorly characterized. Cell readouts analyzed included fold expansion, maximum density, and exponential growth rate. Our results reveal that the choice of best case culture parameters was dependent on which cell property was chosen as the primary output variable. Subsequent statistical analyses via two-way analysis of variance indicated significant interaction effects between inoculation density and agitation rate specifically in the case of exponential growth rates. Results indicate that stepwise optimization has the potential to miss out on the true optimal case. In addition, choosing an optimum condition for a culture output of interest from the factorial design yielded similar results when repeated with the same cell line indicating reproducibility. We finally validated that human ESCs remain pluripotent in suspension culture as aggregates under our optimal conditions and maintain their differentiation capabilities as well as a stable karyotype and strong expression levels of specific human ESC markers over several passages in suspension bioreactors.

  12. Shaken helical track bioreactors: Providing oxygen to high-density cultures of mammalian cells at volumes up to 1000 L by surface aeration with air.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Stettler, Matthieu; Reif, Oscar; Kocourek, Andreas; Dejesus, Maria; Hacker, David L; Wurm, Florian M

    2008-06-01

    A new scalable reactor was developed by applying a novel mixing principle that allows the large-scale cultivation of mammalian cells simply with surface aeration using air owing to increased liquid-gas transfer compared to standard stirred-tank bioreactors. In the cylindrical vessels (50 mL-1500 L) with a helical track attached to the inside wall, the liquid moved upward onto the track as the result of orbital shaking to increase the liquid-gas interface area significantly. This typically resulted in a 5-10-fold improvement in the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a). In a 1500-L helical track vessel with a working volume of 1000 L, a k(L)a of 10h(-1) was obtained at a shaking speed of 39 rpm. Cultivations of CHO cells in a shaken 55-L helical track bioreactor resulted in improved cell growth profiles compared to control cultures in standard systems. These results demonstrated the possibility of using these new bioreactors at scales of 1000 L or more.

  13. An implantable electrical bioreactor for enhancement of cell viability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Lee, Tae Hyung; Song, Yun Mi; Kim, In Sook; Cho, Tae Hyung; Hwang, Sune Jung; Kim, Sung June

    2011-01-01

    Low survival of injected cells which are prepared by ex-vivo culture is main obstacle in cell-based tissue regeneration. To elevate cell adaptation, we designed an implantable electrical bioreactor where human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) can be cultured and stimulated electrically. Bioreactor was composed of biocompatible cylindrical Teflon body containing a flexible polyimide electrode and implantable stimulator. The Teflon body has about 300 holes with a diameter of 300 um for effective nutrients supply inside the bioreactor and has a length of 17 mm and a diameter of 8mm for implantation. After hMSCs seeded on the collagen sponge that serves as scaffold to form a bone tissue graft, they are cultured in the bioreactor with biphasic electric current (BEC) stimulation. BEC stimulation with amplitude of 20/40 uA, duration of 100 us and a frequency of 100 Hz was applied for one week in the early stage of cultivation. Subsequently, after hMSCS were cultured for another week without electrical stimulation, cell response such as cell proliferation, cell attachment and gene expression are evaluated. In vitro and In vivo culture of hMSCs showed 19% and 22% increase in cell proliferation at stimulated groups, compared to unstimulated control. The expression of type I collagen increased significantly at stimulated group. These results suggest that the usage of implantable electrical bioreactor can be a good strategy to enhance the efficiency of stem cell-based tissue engineering.

  14. Optimization of HEK-293S cell cultures for the production of adenoviral vectors in bioreactors using on-line OUR measurements.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, J; Lecina, M; Solà, C; Cairó, J J; Gòdia, F

    2012-01-01

    The culture of HEK-293S cells in a stirred tank bioreactor for adenoviral vectors production for gene therapy is studied. Process monitoring using oxygen uptake rate (OUR) was performed. The OUR was determined on-line by the dynamic method, providing good information of the process evolution. OUR enabled cell activity monitoring, facilitating as well the determination of the feeding rate in perfusion cultures and when to infect the culture. Batch cultures were used to validate the monitoring methodology. A cell density of 10×10(5)cell/mL was infected, producing 1.3×10(9) infectious viral particles/mL (IVP/mL). To increase cell density values maintaining cell specific productivity, perfusion cultures, based on tangential flow filtration, were studied. In this case, OUR measurements were used to optimize the dynamic culture medium feeding strategy, addressed to avoid any potential nutrient limitation. Furthermore, the infection protocol was defined in order to optimize the use of the viral inoculum, minimizing the uncontrolled release of particles through the filter unit mesh. All these developments enabled an infection at 78×10(5)cell/mL with the consequent production of 44×10(9)IVP/mL, representing a cell specific productivity 4.3 times higher than for the batch culture. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioreactors for high cell density and continuous multi-stage cultivations: options for process intensification in cell culture-based viral vaccine production.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Felipe; Vázquez-Ramírez, Daniel; Genzel, Yvonne; Reichl, Udo

    2016-03-01

    With an increasing demand for efficacious, safe, and affordable vaccines for human and animal use, process intensification in cell culture-based viral vaccine production demands advanced process strategies to overcome the limitations of conventional batch cultivations. However, the use of fed-batch, perfusion, or continuous modes to drive processes at high cell density (HCD) and overextended operating times has so far been little explored in large-scale viral vaccine manufacturing. Also, possible reductions in cell-specific virus yields for HCD cultivations have been reported frequently. Taking into account that vaccine production is one of the most heavily regulated industries in the pharmaceutical sector with tough margins to meet, it is understandable that process intensification is being considered by both academia and industry as a next step toward more efficient viral vaccine production processes only recently. Compared to conventional batch processes, fed-batch and perfusion strategies could result in ten to a hundred times higher product yields. Both cultivation strategies can be implemented to achieve cell concentrations exceeding 10(7) cells/mL or even 10(8) cells/mL, while keeping low levels of metabolites that potentially inhibit cell growth and virus replication. The trend towards HCD processes is supported by development of GMP-compliant cultivation platforms, i.e., acoustic settlers, hollow fiber bioreactors, and hollow fiber-based perfusion systems including tangential flow filtration (TFF) or alternating tangential flow (ATF) technologies. In this review, these process modes are discussed in detail and compared with conventional batch processes based on productivity indicators such as space-time yield, cell concentration, and product titers. In addition, options for the production of viral vaccines in continuous multi-stage bioreactors such as two- and three-stage systems are addressed. While such systems have shown similar virus titers compared to

  16. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator (BTR) holds fixed tissue culture bags at 4 degrees C to preserve them for return to Earth and postflight analysis. The cultures are used in research with the NASA Bioreactor cell science program. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  17. Reconstitution of hepatic tissue architectures from fetal liver cells obtained from a three-dimensional culture with a rotating wall vessel bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Momotaro; Sekine, Keisuke; Okamura, Ai; Zheng, Yun-wen; Ueno, Yasuharu; Koike, Naoto; Tanaka, Junzo; Taniguchi, Hideki

    2011-06-01

    Reconstitution of tissue architecture in vitro is important because it enables researchers to investigate the interactions and mutual relationships between cells and cellular signals involved in the three-dimensional (3D) construction of tissues. To date, in vitro methods for producing tissues with highly ordered structure and high levels of function have met with limited success although a variety of 3D culture systems have been investigated. In this study, we reconstituted functional hepatic tissue including mature hepatocyte and blood vessel-like structures accompanied with bile duct-like structures from E15.5 fetal liver cells, which contained more hepatic stem/progenitor cells comparing with neonatal liver cells. The culture was performed in a simulated microgravity environment produced by a rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor. The hepatocytes in the reconstituted 3D tissue were found to be capable of producing albumin and storing glycogen. Additionally, bile canaliculi between hepatocytes, characteristics of adult hepatocyte in vivo were also formed. Apart from this, bile duct structure secreting mucin was shown to form complicated tubular branches. Furthermore, gene expression analysis by semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed the elevated levels of mature hepatocyte markers as well as genes with the hepatic function. With RWV culture system, we could produce functionally reconstituted liver tissue and this might be useful in pharmaceutical industry including drug screening and testing and other applications such as an alternative approach to experimental animals.

  18. Integrating human stem cell expansion and neuronal differentiation in bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Margarida; Brito, Catarina; Costa, Eunice M; Sousa, Marcos FQ; Alves, Paula M

    2009-01-01

    Background Human stem cells are cellular resources with outstanding potential for cell therapy. However, for the fulfillment of this application, major challenges remain to be met. Of paramount importance is the development of robust systems for in vitro stem cell expansion and differentiation. In this work, we successfully developed an efficient scalable bioprocess for the fast production of human neurons. Results The expansion of undifferentiated human embryonal carcinoma stem cells (NTera2/cl.D1 cell line) as 3D-aggregates was firstly optimized in spinner vessel. The media exchange operation mode with an inoculum concentration of 4 × 105 cell/mL was the most efficient strategy tested, with a 4.6-fold increase in cell concentration achieved in 5 days. These results were validated in a bioreactor where similar profile and metabolic performance were obtained. Furthermore, characterization of the expanded population by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry showed that NT2 cells maintained their stem cell characteristics along the bioreactor culture time. Finally, the neuronal differentiation step was integrated in the bioreactor process, by addition of retinoic acid when cells were in the middle of the exponential phase. Neurosphere composition was monitored and neuronal differentiation efficiency evaluated along the culture time. The results show that, for bioreactor cultures, we were able to increase significantly the neuronal differentiation efficiency by 10-fold while reducing drastically, by 30%, the time required for the differentiation process. Conclusion The culture systems developed herein are robust and represent one-step-forward towards the development of integrated bioprocesses, bridging stem cell expansion and differentiation in fully controlled bioreactors. PMID:19772662

  19. Quorum-sensing systems LuxS/autoinducer 2 and Com regulate Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilms in a bioreactor with living cultures of human respiratory cells.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Jorge E; Howery, Kristen E; Ludewick, Herbert P; Nava, Porfirio; Klugman, Keith P

    2013-04-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae forms organized biofilms in the human upper respiratory tract that may play an essential role in both persistence and acute respiratory infection. However, the production and regulation of biofilms on human cells is not yet fully understood. In this work, we developed a bioreactor with living cultures of human respiratory epithelial cells (HREC) and a continuous flow of nutrients, mimicking the microenvironment of the human respiratory epithelium, to study the production and regulation of S. pneumoniae biofilms (SPB). SPB were also produced under static conditions on immobilized HREC. Our experiments demonstrated that the biomass of SPB increased significantly when grown on HREC compared to the amount on abiotic surfaces. Additionally, pneumococcal strains produced more early biofilms on lung cells than on pharyngeal cells. Utilizing the bioreactor or immobilized human cells, the production of early SPB was found to be regulated by two quorum-sensing systems, Com and LuxS/AI-2, since a mutation in either comC or luxS rendered the pneumococcus unable to produce early biofilms on HREC. Interestingly, while LuxS/autoinducer 2 (AI-2) regulated biofilms on both HREC and abiotic surfaces, Com control was specific for those structures produced on HREC. The biofilm phenotypes of strain D39-derivative ΔcomC and ΔluxS QS mutants were reversed by genetic complementation. Of note, SPB formed on immobilized HREC and incubated under static conditions were completely lysed 24 h postinoculation. Biofilm lysis was also regulated by the Com and LuxS/AI-2 quorum-sensing systems.

  20. Quorum-Sensing Systems LuxS/Autoinducer 2 and Com Regulate Streptococcus pneumoniae Biofilms in a Bioreactor with Living Cultures of Human Respiratory Cells

    PubMed Central

    Howery, Kristen E.; Ludewick, Herbert P.; Nava, Porfirio; Klugman, Keith P.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae forms organized biofilms in the human upper respiratory tract that may play an essential role in both persistence and acute respiratory infection. However, the production and regulation of biofilms on human cells is not yet fully understood. In this work, we developed a bioreactor with living cultures of human respiratory epithelial cells (HREC) and a continuous flow of nutrients, mimicking the microenvironment of the human respiratory epithelium, to study the production and regulation of S. pneumoniae biofilms (SPB). SPB were also produced under static conditions on immobilized HREC. Our experiments demonstrated that the biomass of SPB increased significantly when grown on HREC compared to the amount on abiotic surfaces. Additionally, pneumococcal strains produced more early biofilms on lung cells than on pharyngeal cells. Utilizing the bioreactor or immobilized human cells, the production of early SPB was found to be regulated by two quorum-sensing systems, Com and LuxS/AI-2, since a mutation in either comC or luxS rendered the pneumococcus unable to produce early biofilms on HREC. Interestingly, while LuxS/autoinducer 2 (AI-2) regulated biofilms on both HREC and abiotic surfaces, Com control was specific for those structures produced on HREC. The biofilm phenotypes of strain D39-derivative ΔcomC and ΔluxS QS mutants were reversed by genetic complementation. Of note, SPB formed on immobilized HREC and incubated under static conditions were completely lysed 24 h postinoculation. Biofilm lysis was also regulated by the Com and LuxS/AI-2 quorum-sensing systems. PMID:23403556

  1. Clinical scale rapid expansion of lymphocytes for adoptive cell transfer therapy in the WAVE® bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To simplify clinical scale lymphocyte expansions, we investigated the use of the WAVE®, a closed system bioreactor that utilizes active perfusion to generate high cell numbers in minimal volumes. Methods We have developed an optimized rapid expansion protocol for the WAVE bioreactor that produces clinically relevant numbers of cells for our adoptive cell transfer clinical protocols. Results TIL and genetically modified PBL were rapidly expanded to clinically relevant scales in both static bags and the WAVE bioreactor. Both bioreactors produced comparable numbers of cells; however the cultures generated in the WAVE bioreactor had a higher percentage of CD4+ cells and had a less activated phenotype. Conclusions The WAVE bioreactor simplifies the process of rapidly expanding tumor reactive lymphocytes under GMP conditions, and provides an alternate approach to cell generation for ACT protocols. PMID:22475724

  2. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  3. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  4. Novel Bioreactors to Study Forces on Bronchial Epithelial Cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Jerome; Millard, Mike; Cozon, Matthew; Superfine, Richard

    2008-10-01

    Studying cells in a physiologically relevant environment is an important tool in understanding cell signaling and gene expression. Human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) are responsible for mucociliary clearance, which removes pathogens from the air we breathe. Recreating the in vivo conditions of HBECs is difficult; they are polarized and undergo a variety of forces. Polarization is required for organ-specific systems such as cilia motility and mucus regulation. We achieve polarization by growing cells on an electrospun nanoporous scaffold which we attach to a silastic annulus. Using this geometry we apply vacuum to the annulus and stretch the cells. This bioreactor allows us to study polarized HBECs as they experience cyclic strain similar to breathing. We've grown polarized cultures on the scaffold and are evaluating the scaffold's mechanical properties. In a second bioreactor, we place the scaffold into a microfluidics channel to study the affect of shear stress on polarized cells. We also reproduce the branching structure found in the lungs to investigate the regulation of mucus as it ascends the airway tree.

  5. Development of thin-film photo-bioreactor and its application to outdoor culture of microalgae.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae Jun; Choi, Seung Phill; Kim, Jaoon Y H; Chang, Won Seok; Sim, Sang Jun

    2013-06-01

    Photosynthetic microalgae have received much attention as a microbial source of diverse useful biomaterials through CO(2) fixation and various types of photo-bioreactors have been developed for efficient microalgal cultivation. Herein, we developed a novel thin-film photo-bioreactor, which was made of cast polypropylene film, considering outdoor mass cultivation. To develop optimal design of photo-bioreactor, we tested performance of three shapes of thin-film photo-bioreactors (flat, horizontal and vertical tubular shapes) and various parts in the bioreactor. Collectively, vertical tubular bioreactor with H/D ratio 6:1 and cylindrical stainless steel spargers showed the most outstanding performance. Furthermore, the photo-bioreactor was successfully applied to the cultivation of other microalgae such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella vulgaris. The scalability of photo-bioreactor was confirmed by gradually increasing culture volume from 4 to 25 L and the biomass productivity of each reactor was quite consistent (0.05-0.07 g/L/day) during the cultivation of H. pluvialis under indoor and outdoor conditions. Especially, we also achieved dry cell weight of 4.64 g/L and astaxanthin yield of 218.16 mg/L through long-term cultivation (100 days) under outdoor condition in 15 L photo-bioreactor using Haematococcus pluvialis, which means that the astaxanthin yield from outdoor cultivation is equal or superior to that obtained from controlled indoor condition. Therefore, these results indicate that we can apply this approach to development of optimal photo-bioreactor for the large-scale culture of microalgae and production of useful biomaterials under outdoor condition.

  6. Morphological studies on the culture of kidney epithelial cells in a fiber-in-fiber bioreactor design with hollow fiber membranes.

    PubMed

    Fey-Lamprecht, F; Albrecht, W; Groth, T; Weigel, T; Gross, U

    2003-05-01

    A hollow fiber-in-fiber-based bioreactor system was tested for the applicability to host kidney epithelial cells as a model system for a bioartificial kidney. Hollow fibers were prepared from polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polysulfone-polyvinylpyrollidinone (PVP) blend (PSU) and poly(acrylonitrile-N-vinylpyrollidinone) copolymer P(AN-NVP). Hollow fibers with smaller and larger diameters were prepared so that the smaller fitted into the larger, with a distance of 50-100 microm in between. The following material combinations as outer and inner fiber were applied: PAN-PAN; PSU-PSU, PSU-P(AN-NVP). Madin-Darby kidney epithelial cells (MDCK) were seeded in the interfiber space and cultured for a period up to 14 days. Light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy were used to follow the adhesion and growth of cells, and to characterize their morphology. As a result, we found that MDCK cells were able to grow in the interfiber space in mono- and multilayers without signs of systemic degeneration. Comparison of the different materials showed that PAN and P(AN-NVP) provided the best growth conditions, indicated by a tight attachment of cells on hollow fiber membrane, and subsequent proliferation and development of structural elements of normal epithelia, such as tight junctions and microvilli. In conclusion, the fiber-in-fiber design seems to be an interesting system for the construction of a bioartificial kidney. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. An innovative stand-alone bioreactor for the highly reproducible transfer of cyclic mechanical stretch to stem cells cultured in a 3D scaffold.

    PubMed

    Govoni, Marco; Lotti, Fabrizio; Biagiotti, Luigi; Lannocca, Maurizio; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Valente, Sabrina; Muscari, Claudio; Bonafè, Francesca; Caldarera, Claudio M; Guarnieri, Carlo; Cavalcanti, Silvio; Giordano, Emanuele

    2014-10-01

    Much evidence in the literature demonstrates the effect of cyclic mechanical stretch in maintaining, or addressing, a muscle phenotype. Such results were obtained using several technical approaches, useful for the experimental collection of proofs of principle but probably unsuitable for application in clinical regenerative medicine. Here we aimed to design a reliable innovative bioreactor, acting as a stand-alone cell culture incubator, easy to operate and effective in addressing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seeded onto a 3D bioreabsorbable scaffold, towards a muscle phenotype via the transfer of a controlled and highly-reproducible cyclic deformation. Electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and biochemical analysis of the obtained pseudotissue constructs showed that cells 'trained' over 1 week: (a) displayed multilayer organization and invaded the 3D mesh of the scaffold; and (b) expressed typical markers of muscle cells. This effect was due only to physical stimulation of the cells, without the need of any other chemical or genetic manipulation. This device is thus proposed as a prototypal instrument to obtain pseudotissue constructs to test in cardiovascular regenerative medicine, using good manufacturing procedures.

  8. Tissue engineering bioreactor systems for applying physical and electrical stimulations to cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, GyuHyun; Yang, Gi-Hoon; Kim, GeunHyung

    2015-05-01

    Bioreactor systems in tissue engineering applications provide various types of stimulation to mimic the tissues in vitro and in vivo. Various bioreactors have been designed to induce high cellular activities, including initial cell attachment, cell growth, and differentiation. Although cell-stimulation processes exert mostly positive effects on cellular responses, in some cases such stimulation can also have a negative effect on cultured cells. In this review, we discuss various types of bioreactor and the positive and negative effects of stimulation (physical, chemical, and electrical) on various cultured cell types. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Cultivation of mammalian cells using a single-use pneumatic bioreactor system.

    PubMed

    Obom, Kristina M; Cummings, Patrick J; Ciafardoni, Janelle A; Hashimura, Yasunori; Giroux, Daniel

    2014-10-10

    Recent advances in mammalian, insect, and stem cell cultivation and scale-up have created tremendous opportunities for new therapeutics and personalized medicine innovations. However, translating these advances into therapeutic applications will require in vitro systems that allow for robust, flexible, and cost effective bioreactor systems. There are several bioreactor systems currently utilized in research and commercial settings; however, many of these systems are not optimal for establishing, expanding, and monitoring the growth of different cell types. The culture parameters most challenging to control in these systems include, minimizing hydrodynamic shear, preventing nutrient gradient formation, establishing uniform culture medium aeration, preventing microbial contamination, and monitoring and adjusting culture conditions in real-time. Using a pneumatic single-use bioreactor system, we demonstrate the assembly and operation of this novel bioreactor for mammalian cells grown on micro-carriers. This bioreactor system eliminates many of the challenges associated with currently available systems by minimizing hydrodynamic shear and nutrient gradient formation, and allowing for uniform culture medium aeration. Moreover, the bioreactor's software allows for remote real-time monitoring and adjusting of the bioreactor run parameters. This bioreactor system also has tremendous potential for scale-up of adherent and suspension mammalian cells for production of a variety therapeutic proteins, monoclonal antibodies, stem cells, biosimilars, and vaccines.

  10. Differentiation of cartilaginous anlage in entire embryonic mouse limbs cultured in a rotating bioreactor.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, P.; Oakley, C.; Montufar-Solis, D.

    The embryonic mammalian limb is sensitive both in vivo and in vitro to changes in gravitational force. Hypergravity of centrifugation and microgravity of space decreased size of elements due to precocious or delayed chondrogenesis respectively. In recapitulating spaceflight experiments, premetatarsals were cultured in suspension in a low stress, low sheer rotating bioreactor, and found to be shorter than those cultured in standard culture dishes, and cartilage development was delayed. This study only measured length of the metatarsals, and did not account for possible changes in width and/or in form of the skeletal elements. Shorter cartilage elements in limbbuds cultured in the bioreactor may be due to the ability of the system to reproduce a more in vivo 3D shape than traditional organ cultures. Tissues subjected to traditional organ cultures become flattened by their own weight, attachment to the filter, and restrictions imposed by nutrient diffusion. The purpose of the current experiment was to determine if entire limb buds could be successfully cultured in the bioreactor, and to compare the effects on 3D shape with that of culturing in a culture dish system. Fore and hind limbs from E11-E13 ICR mouse embryos were placed either in the bioreactor, in Trowell culture, or fixed as controls. Limbbuds were cultured for six days, fixed, and processed either as whole mounts or embedded for histology. Qualitative analysis revealed that the Trowell culture specimens were flattened, while bioreactor culture specimens had a more in vivo-like 3D limb shape. Sections of limbbuds from both types of cultures had excellent cartilage differentiation, with apparently more cell maturation, and hypertrophy in the specimens cultured in the bioreactor. Morphometric quantitation of the cartilaginous elements for comparisons of the two culture systems was complicated due to some limb buds fusing together during culture. This problem was especially noticeable in the younger limbs, and

  11. Differentiation of cartilaginous anlagen in entire embryonic mouse limbs cultured in a rotating bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montufar-Solis, D.; Oakley, C. R.; Jefferson, Y.; Duke, P. J.

    2003-10-01

    Mechanisms involved in development of the embryonic limb have remained the same throughout eons of genetic and environmental evolution under Earth gravity (lg). During the spaceflight era it has been of interest to explore the ancient theory that form of the skeleton develops in response to gravity, and that changes in gravitational forces can change the developmental pattern of the limb. This has been shown in vivo and in vitro, allowing the hypergravity of centrifugation and microgravity of space to be used as tools to increase our knowledge of limb development. In recapitulations of spaceflight experiments, premetatarsals were cultured in suspension in a bioreactor, and found to be shorter and less differentiated than those cultured in standard culture dishes. This study only measured length of the metatarsals, and did not account for possible changes due to the skeletal elements having a more in vivo 3D shape while in suspension vs. flattened tissues compressed by their own weight. A culture system with an outcome closer to in vivo and that supports growth of younger limb buds than traditional systems will allow studies of early Hox gene expression, and contribute to the understanding of very early stages of development. The purpose of the current experiment was to determine if entire limb buds could be cultured in the bioreactor, and to compare the growth and differentiation with that of culturing in a culture dish system. Fore and hind limbs from E11-E13 ICR mouse embryos were cultured for six days, either in the bioreactor or in center-well organ culture dishes, fixed, and embedded for histology. E13 specimens grown in culture dishes were flat, while bioreactor culture specimens had a more in vivo-like 3D limb shape. Sections showed excellent cartilage differentiation in both culture systems, with more cell maturation, and hypertrophy in the specimens cultured in the bioreactor. Younger limb buds fused together during culture, so an additional set of El 1

  12. Unique differentiation profile of mouse embryonic stem cells in rotary and stirred tank bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Fridley, Krista M; Fernandez, Irina; Li, Mon-Tzu Alice; Kettlewell, Robert B; Roy, Krishnendu

    2010-11-01

    Embryonic stem (ES)-cell-derived lineage-specific stem cells, for example, hematopoietic stem cells, could provide a potentially unlimited source for transplantable cells, especially for cell-based therapies. However, reproducible methods must be developed to maximize and scale-up ES cell differentiation to produce clinically relevant numbers of therapeutic cells. Bioreactor-based dynamic culture conditions are amenable to large-scale cell production, but few studies have evaluated how various bioreactor types and culture parameters influence ES cell differentiation, especially hematopoiesis. Our results indicate that cell seeding density and bioreactor speed significantly affect embryoid body formation and subsequent generation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in both stirred tank (spinner flask) and rotary microgravity (Synthecon™) type bioreactors. In general, high percentages of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells were generated in both bioreactors, especially at high cell densities. In addition, Synthecon bioreactors produced more sca-1(+) progenitors and spinner flasks generated more c-Kit(+) progenitors, demonstrating their unique differentiation profiles. cDNA microarray analysis of genes involved in pluripotency, germ layer formation, and hematopoietic differentiation showed that on day 7 of differentiation, embryoid bodies from both bioreactors consisted of all three germ layers of embryonic development. However, unique gene expression profiles were observed in the two bioreactors; for example, expression of specific hematopoietic genes were significantly more upregulated in the Synthecon cultures than in spinner flasks. We conclude that bioreactor type and culture parameters can be used to control ES cell differentiation, enhance unique progenitor cell populations, and provide means for large-scale production of transplantable therapeutic cells.

  13. Unique Differentiation Profile of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells in Rotary and Stirred Tank Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Fridley, Krista M.; Fernandez, Irina; Li, Mon-Tzu Alice; Kettlewell, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES)-cell-derived lineage-specific stem cells, for example, hematopoietic stem cells, could provide a potentially unlimited source for transplantable cells, especially for cell-based therapies. However, reproducible methods must be developed to maximize and scale-up ES cell differentiation to produce clinically relevant numbers of therapeutic cells. Bioreactor-based dynamic culture conditions are amenable to large-scale cell production, but few studies have evaluated how various bioreactor types and culture parameters influence ES cell differentiation, especially hematopoiesis. Our results indicate that cell seeding density and bioreactor speed significantly affect embryoid body formation and subsequent generation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in both stirred tank (spinner flask) and rotary microgravity (Synthecon™) type bioreactors. In general, high percentages of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells were generated in both bioreactors, especially at high cell densities. In addition, Synthecon bioreactors produced more sca-1+ progenitors and spinner flasks generated more c-Kit+ progenitors, demonstrating their unique differentiation profiles. cDNA microarray analysis of genes involved in pluripotency, germ layer formation, and hematopoietic differentiation showed that on day 7 of differentiation, embryoid bodies from both bioreactors consisted of all three germ layers of embryonic development. However, unique gene expression profiles were observed in the two bioreactors; for example, expression of specific hematopoietic genes were significantly more upregulated in the Synthecon cultures than in spinner flasks. We conclude that bioreactor type and culture parameters can be used to control ES cell differentiation, enhance unique progenitor cell populations, and provide means for large-scale production of transplantable therapeutic cells. PMID:20528675

  14. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Laptop computer sits atop the Experiment Control Computer for a NASA Bioreactor. The flight crew can change operating conditions in the Bioreactor by using the graphical interface on the laptop. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  15. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Laptop computer sits atop the Experiment Control Computer for a NASA Bioreactor. The flight crew can change operating conditions in the Bioreactor by using the graphical interface on the laptop. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  16. Effect of bottom clearance on performance of airlift bioreactor in high-density culture of Panax notoginseng cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, W; Zhong, J

    2001-01-01

    A fed-batch cultivation of Panax notoginseng cells in a concentric-tube airlift reactor was performed to study the effects of bottom clearance on cell growth and the production of ginseng saponin and polysaccharide. At a bottom clearance of 4.0 cm, the highest cell density of 29.1+/-1.6 g/l by dry weight was obtained, and the accumulation of saponin and polysaccharide also reached a maximum, i.e., 2.39+/-0.43 and 2.73+/-0.40 g/l, respectively. Cell growth and metabolite production were limited at a small (2.5 cm) or large (5.0 cm) bottom clearance. By analyzing the time constants of mixing, mass transfer and oxygen consumption, bulk gas-liquid oxygen transfer was found to be responsible for the growth limitation at a small bottom clearance (2.5 cm). The decrease in cell density at a large bottom clearance (5.0 cm) was related to cell sedimentation at the reactor bottom. This work is beneficial for the scale-up and efficient operation of the airlift reactor in cell cultures.

  17. Periodic operation of immobilized live cell bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, N.

    1988-01-01

    A complete system for computer-assisted fermentation research was set up. The system consisted of a 16 liter laboratory fermentor connected to a mass spectrometer for off-gas analysis, a flow injection analyzer for on-line enzymatic and colorimetric analysis, and an on-line HPLC. This system was interfaced to a Micro VAX II computer. The kinetics of growth and candicidin production by S. griseus in complex and in synthetic media were investigated. On-line glucose analysis of the fermentation was used to identify nutrient limitation by multiple substrates during the fermentation. The growth kinetics of S. griseus under limitation by two nutrients were studied. The Monod type of model was used to analyze cell growth under multiple substrate limitation. Regions of phosphate limitation were identified by analysis of the environmental state space. Based on this analysis the nutrient medium for the forced periodic operation of the immobilized bioreactor was developed. A lumped model for cell growth and candicidin production in an immobilized live cell bioreactor was developed. The model was used to perform a simulation study of the periodic operation of an immobilized bioreactor. Finally, an immobilzed bioreactor with forced periodic operation was used to study the effect of cycling frequency on reactor performance. The results of the studies on the periodic operation suggest that periodically operated immobilized live cell bioreactors can provide a potent alternative for the production of non-growth associated biochemicals, as compared to free cell fermentations, pulsed fermentations with process cycle regeneration, and non-regenerated bioreactors. This work has demonstrated that by frequent pulsing of growth limiting nutrient, stable extended production can be obtained at high specific cellular productivities.

  18. Effects of methocel A15LV, polyethylene glycol, and polyvinyl alcohol on CD13 and CD33 receptor surface content and metabolism of HL60 cells cultured in stirred tank bioreactors.

    PubMed

    McDowell, C L; Carver, R T; Papoutsakis, E T

    1998-10-20

    Flow cytometry was used to examine the effect of hydrodynamic forces in a stirred tank bioreactor on the CD13 and CD33 receptor surface content of HL60 (human promyelocytic leukemia) cells. A step increase in agitation rate from 80 to 400 rpm reduced the HL60 cell apparent growth rate and increased the CD13 receptor surface content per cell, on average, by 95%. In contrast, this step increase in agitation rate to 400 rpm decreased the CD33 receptor surface content per cell, on average, by 10%. The protective effects of 0.1% Methocel A15LV, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) on CD13 and CD33 receptor surface content were examined under agitation at 300 rpm in parallel 2 L bioreactor runs. The average CD33 receptor surface content was unaffected by the presence of Methocel A15LV or PEG, while PVA had a slight protective effect. In contrast, in terms of CD13 receptor content, HL60 cells agitated at 300 rpm with Methocel A15LV, PEG, or PVA behaved like cells agitated at 80 rpm with no media additives (McDowell and Papoutsakis, 1998). That is, Methocel A15LV, PEG, and PVA prevented the transduction of mechanical forces which affect CD13 cell content. HL60 cells cultured with 0.1% A15LV, PEG or PVA under conditions of mild agitation (60 rpm) in spinner flasks exhibited glucose consumption and lactate production rates that were approximately 20% lower than values of cultures containing no additive. Under conditions of agitation at 300 rpm in the 2 L bioreactor, the presence of A15LV, PEG, and PVA reduced the HL60 glucose consumption and lactate production rates by approximately 50%. Thus, media additives can dramatically reduce lactate accumulation in agitated bioreactors due to cell growth, in addition to providing protection from cellular injury.

  19. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior of a Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  20. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  1. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell and with thermal blankets partially removed. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  2. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior of a Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  3. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  4. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell and with thermal blankets partially removed. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  5. Three dimensional cultures of rat liver cells using a natural self-assembling nanoscaffold in a clinically relevant bioreactor for bioartificial liver construction.

    PubMed

    Giri, Shibashish; Acikgöz, Ali; Pathak, Priya; Gutschker, Sylvia; Kürsten, Anne; Nieber, Karen; Bader, Augustinus

    2012-01-01

    Till date, no bioartificial liver (BAL) procedure has obtained FDA approval or widespread clinical acceptance, mainly because of multifactorial limitations such as the use of microscale or undefined biomaterials, indirect and lower oxygenation levels in liver cells, short-term undesirable functions, and a lack of 3D interaction of growth factor/cytokine signaling in liver cells. To overcome preclinical limitations, primary rat liver cells were cultured on a naturally self-assembling peptide nanoscaffold (SAPN) in a clinically relevant bioreactor for up to 35 days, under 3D interaction with suitable growth factors and cytokine signaling agents, alone or combination (e.g., Group I: EPO, Group II: Activin A, Group III: IL-6, Group IV: BMP-4, Group V: BMP4 + EPO, Group VI: EPO + IL-6, Group VII: BMP4 + IL-6, Group VIII: Activin A + EPO, Group IX: IL-6 + Activin A, Group X: Activin A + BMP4, Group XI: EPO + Activin A + BMP-4 + IL-6 + HGF, and Group XII: Control). Major liver specific functions such as albumin secretion, urea metabolism, ammonia detoxification, phase contrast microscopy, immunofluorescence of liver specific markers (Albumin and CYP3A1), mitochondrial status, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) activity, glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activity, and cell membrane stability by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) test were also examined and compared with the control over time. In addition, we examined the drug biotransformation potential of a diazepam drug in a two-compartment model (cell matrix phase and supernatant), which is clinically important. This present study demonstrates an optimized 3D signaling/scaffolding in a preclinical BAL model, as well as preclinical drug screening for better drug development.

  6. Bioreactor principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Cells cultured on Earth (left) typically settle quickly on the bottom of culture vessels due to gravity. In microgravity (right), cells remain suspended and aggregate to form three-dimensional tissue. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  7. Bioreactor principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Cells cultured on Earth (left) typically settle quickly on the bottom of culture vessels due to gravity. In microgravity (right), cells remain suspended and aggregate to form three-dimensional tissue. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  8. Numerical simulation on mass transport in a microchannel bioreactor for co-culture applications.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan; Lee, Thong-See; Yu, Peng; Low, Hong-Tong

    2007-06-01

    Microchannel bioreactors have applications for manipulating and investigating the fluid microenvironment on cell growth and functions in either single culture or co-culture. This study considers two different types of cells distributed randomly as a co-culture at the base of a microchannel bioreactor: absorption cells, which only consume species based on the Michaelis-Menten process, and release cells, which secrete species, assuming zeroth order reaction, to support the absorption cells. The species concentrations at the co-culture cell base are computed from a three-dimensional numerical flow-model incorporating mass transport. Combined dimensionless parameters are proposed for the co-culture system, developed from a simplified analysis under the condition of decreasing axial-concentration. The numerical results of species concentration at the co-culture cell-base are approximately correlated by the combined parameters under the condition of positive flux-parameter. Based on the correlated results, the critical value of the inlet concentration is determined, which depends on the effective microchannel length. For the flow to develop to the critical inlet concentration, an upstream length consisting only of release cells is needed; this upstream length is determined from an analytical solution. The generalized results may find applications in analyzing the mass transport requirements in a co-culture microchannel bioreactor.

  9. Regulation of mesenchymal stem cell 3D microenvironment: From macro to microfluidic bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Sart, Sébastien; Agathos, Spiros N; Li, Yan; Ma, Teng

    2016-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have emerged as an important cell type in cell therapy and tissue engineering. In these applications, maintaining the therapeutic properties of hMSCs requires tight control of the culture environments and the structural cell organizations. Bioreactor systems are essential tools to achieve these goals in the clinical-scale expansion and tissue engineering applications. This review summarizes how different bioreactors provide cues to regulate the structure and the chemico-mechanical microenvironment of hMSCs with a focus on 3D organization. In addition to conventional bioreactors, recent advances in microfluidic bioreactors as a novel approach to better control the hMSC microenvironment are also discussed. These advancements highlight the key role of bioreactor systems in preserving hMSC's functional properties by providing dynamic and temporal regulation of in vitro cellular microenvironment.

  10. Fed-batch bioreactor process scale-up from 3-L to 2,500-L scale for monoclonal antibody production from cell culture.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jeng-Dar; Lu, Canghai; Stasny, Brad; Henley, Joseph; Guinto, Woodrow; Gonzalez, Carlos; Gleason, Joseph; Fung, Monica; Collopy, Brett; Benjamino, Michael; Gangi, Jennifer; Hanson, Melissa; Ille, Elisabeth

    2007-09-01

    This case study focuses on the scale-up of a Sp2/0 mouse myeloma cell line based fed-batch bioreactor process, from the initial 3-L bench scale to the 2,500-L scale. A stepwise scale-up strategy that involved several intermediate steps in increasing the bioreactor volume was adopted to minimize the risks associated with scale-up processes. Careful selection of several available mixing models from literature, and appropriately applying the calculated results to our settings, resulted in successful scale-up of agitation speed for the large bioreactors. Consideration was also given to scale-up of the nutrient feeding, inoculation, and the set-points of operational parameters such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, dissolved carbon dioxide, and aeration in an integrated manner. It has been demonstrated through the qualitative and the quantitative side-by-side comparison of bioreactor performance as well as through a panel of biochemical characterization tests that the comparability of the process and the product was well controlled and maintained during the process scale-up. The 2,500-L process is currently in use for the routine clinical production of Epratuzumab in support of two global Phase III clinical trials in patients with lupus. Today, the 2,500 L, fed-batch production process for Epratuzumab has met all scheduled batch releases, and the quality of the antibody is consistent and reproducible, meeting all specifications, thus confirming the robustness of the process.

  11. Rotating Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  12. A Good Neighborhood for Cells: Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS-05)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Leland W. K.; Goodwin, Thomas J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Good neighborhoods help you grow. As with a city, the lives of a cell are governed by its neighborhood connections Connections that do not work are implicated in a range of diseases. One of those connections - between prostate cancer and bone cells - will be studied on STS-107 using the Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS-05). To improve the prospects for finding novel therapies, and to identify biomarkers that predict disease progression, scientists need tissue models that behave the same as metastatic or spreading cancer. This is one of several NASA-sponsored lines of cell science research that use the microgravity environment of orbit in an attempt to grow lifelike tissue models for health research. As cells replicate, they "self associate" to form a complex matrix of collagens, proteins, fibers, and other structures. This highly evolved microenvironment tells each cell who is next door, how it should grow arid into what shapes, and how to respond to bacteria, wounds, and other stimuli. Studying these mechanisms outside the body is difficult because cells do not easily self-associate outside a natural environment. Most cell cultures produce thin, flat specimens that offer limited insight into how cells work together. Ironically, growing cell cultures in the microgravity of space produces cell assemblies that more closely resemble what is found in bodies on Earth. NASA's Bioreactor comprises a miniature life support system and a rotating vessel containing cell specimens in a nutrient medium. Orbital BDS experiments that cultured colon and prostate cancers have been highly promising.

  13. A Good Neighborhood for Cells: Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS-05)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Leland W. K.; Goodwin, Thomas J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Good neighborhoods help you grow. As with a city, the lives of a cell are governed by its neighborhood connections Connections that do not work are implicated in a range of diseases. One of those connections - between prostate cancer and bone cells - will be studied on STS-107 using the Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS-05). To improve the prospects for finding novel therapies, and to identify biomarkers that predict disease progression, scientists need tissue models that behave the same as metastatic or spreading cancer. This is one of several NASA-sponsored lines of cell science research that use the microgravity environment of orbit in an attempt to grow lifelike tissue models for health research. As cells replicate, they "self associate" to form a complex matrix of collagens, proteins, fibers, and other structures. This highly evolved microenvironment tells each cell who is next door, how it should grow arid into what shapes, and how to respond to bacteria, wounds, and other stimuli. Studying these mechanisms outside the body is difficult because cells do not easily self-associate outside a natural environment. Most cell cultures produce thin, flat specimens that offer limited insight into how cells work together. Ironically, growing cell cultures in the microgravity of space produces cell assemblies that more closely resemble what is found in bodies on Earth. NASA's Bioreactor comprises a miniature life support system and a rotating vessel containing cell specimens in a nutrient medium. Orbital BDS experiments that cultured colon and prostate cancers have been highly promising.

  14. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Exterior view of the NASA Bioreactor Engineering Development Unit flown on Mir. The rotating wall vessel is behind the window on the face of the large module. Control electronics are in the module at left; gas supply and cooling fans are in the module at back. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  15. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at center) to control fluid flow. A fresh nutrient bag is installed at top; a flattened waste bag behind it will fill as the nutrients are consumed during the course of operation. The drive chain and gears for the rotating wall vessel are visible at bottom center center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  16. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at right center) to control fluid flow. The rotating wall vessel is at top center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  17. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Electronics control module for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  18. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at center) to control fluid flow. A fresh nutrient bag is installed at top; a flattened waste bag behind it will fill as the nutrients are consumed during the course of operation. The drive chain and gears for the rotating wall vessel are visible at bottom center center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  19. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior view of the gas supply for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  20. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Exterior view of the NASA Bioreactor Engineering Development Unit flown on Mir. The rotating wall vessel is behind the window on the face of the large module. Control electronics are in the module at left; gas supply and cooling fans are in the module at back. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  1. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at right center) to control fluid flow. The rotating wall vessel is at top center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  2. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Electronics control module for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  3. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior view of the gas supply for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  4. Impact of increased oxygen delivery via bovine red blood cell supplementation of culturing media on select metabolic and synthetic functions of C3A hepatocytes maintained within a hollow fiber bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Jason; Palmer, Andre F

    2005-01-01

    Hepatocytes are highly dependent upon appropriate oxygen provision for activity and viability. However, oxygen delivery to hepatocytes cultured within a hollow fiber bioreactor is believed to be problematic because of large diffusion distances, a high hepatocyte oxygen consumption rate and low aqueous media oxygen solubility. Supplementation of bioreactor media with bovine red blood cells (bRBCs) is one means of improving oxygen delivery to hepatocytes as hemoglobin contained within bRBCs binds oxygen. The impact of supplementing hepatocyte culturing media with bRBCs (approximately 5 x 10(8) bRBCs/ml) on hepatocyte activity (albumin and lactate production and glucose consumption) was studied. Decreased hepatocyte lactate production to glucose consumption ratios were found for the case when bRBCs were added to circulating culturing media, which indicated the presence of a more aerobic environment in comparison to the control (no bRBC supplementation). Additionally, albumin synthesis was found to be improved when the circulating media was supplemented with bRBCs. Our results thus support the use of bRBCs to improve oxygen delivery to hepatocytes maintained within a hollow fiber bioreactor.

  5. Bioreactors for tissue mass culture: design, characterization, and recent advances.

    PubMed

    Martin, Yves; Vermette, Patrick

    2005-12-01

    This paper reviews reports on three-dimensional mammalian tissue growth in bioreactors and the corresponding mammalian tissue growth requirements. The needs for nutrient and waste removal of several mammalian tissues are reviewed and compared with the environment of many reactors currently in use such as the continuous stirred tank, the hollow fiber, the Couette-Taylor, the airlift, and the rotating-wall reactors developed by NASA. Many studies conclude that oxygen supply appears to be one of the most important factors limiting tissue growth. Various correlations to describe oxygen mass transfer are presented and discussed with the aim to provide some guidance to design, construct, and test reactors for tissue mass culture. To obtain tissue thickness clinically valuable, dimensionless and other types of analysis tend to point out that diffusive transport will have to be matched with an important convection to bring sufficient oxygen molecular flux to the growing cells located within a tissue mass. As learned from solid-state fermentation and hairy root culture, during the growth of large biomass, heterogeneity (i.e., channeling, temperature gradients, non-uniform cell growth, transfer gradients, etc.) can cause some important problems and these should be addressed in tissue engineering as well. Reactors (along with the scaffolds) should be designed to minimize these issues. The role of the uterus, the reactor built by Nature, is examined, and the environment provided to a growing embryo is reported, yielding possible paths for further reactor developments. Finally, the importance of cell seeding methods is also addressed.

  6. Long-term immunologically competent human peripheral lymphoid tissue cultures in a 3D bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Kuzin, Igor; Sun, Hongliang; Moshkani, Safiekhatoon; Feng, Changyong; Mantalaris, Athanasios; Wu, JH David; Bottaro, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral lymphoid organs (PLOs), the primary sites of development of adaptive immune responses, display a complex structural organization reflecting separation of cellular subsets (e.g. T and B lymphocytes) and functional compartments which is critical for immune function. The generation of in vitro culture systems capable of recapitulating salient features of PLOs for experimental, biotechnological and clinical applications would be highly desirable, but has been hampered so far by the complexity of these systems. We have previously developed a three-dimensional bioreactor system for long-term, functional culture of human bone marrow cells on macroporous microspheres in a packed-bed bioreactor with frequent medium change. Here we adapt the same system for culture of human primary cells from PLOs (tonsil) in the absence of specific exogenous growth factors or activators. Cells in this system displayed higher viability over several weeks, and maintain population diversity and cell surface markers largely comparable to primary cells. Light microscopy showed cells organizing in large diverse clusters within the scaffold pores and presence of B cell-enriched areas. Strikingly, these cultures generated a significant number of antibody-producing B cells when challenged with a panel of diverse antigens, as expected from a lymphoid tissue. Thus the three-dimensional tonsil bioreactor culture system may serve as a useful model of PLOs by recapitulating their structural organization and function ex vivo. PMID:21309085

  7. Observation of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells retained inside the non-woven fiber matrix of the CellTank bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Chotteau, Véronique

    2015-12-01

    This data article shows how the recombinant Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells are located in the interstices of the matrix fibers of a CellTank bioreactor after completion of a perfusion culture, supporting the article entitled "Very high cell density perfusion of CHO cells anchored in a non-woven matrix-based bioreactor" by Zhang et al. [1]. It provides a visualization of the cell distribution in the non-woven fiber matrix in a deeper view.

  8. Oxygen Control For Bioreactors And In-vitro Cell Assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nock, V.; Blaikie, R. J.; David, T.

    2009-07-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is an important parameter in biomedical and cell-culture applications. Several studies have found cell survival and function to be intimately linked to oxygen concentration. Laminar flow, as observed in microfluidic devices, provides an ideal environment to manipulate and control concentration gradients. In this paper we demonstrate the first characterization of integrated fluorescence-based oxygen sensors for DO measurement within a cell-culture bioreactor device. Solid-state PtOEPK/PS sensor patterns were integrated into the PDMS-based bioreactor and calibrated for detection of DO concentration with a superimposed layer of collagen and Ishikawa human endometrial cancer cells. The sensor signal of the layer subjacent to the cells was found to follow a Stern-Volmer model and the intensity ratio was measured to I0/I100 = 3.9 after 3 days in culture. The device provides a novel tool for the control and spatially-resolved measurement of oxygen levels in cellular assays and cell-culture applications.

  9. Long term organ culture of human prostate tissue in a NASA-designed rotating wall bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolis, L.; Hatfill, S.; Chuaqui, R.; Vocke, C.; Emmert-Buck, M.; Linehan, W. M.; Duray, P. H.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To maintain ex vivo integral prostatic tissue including intact stromal and ductal elements using the NASA-designed Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) which maintains colocalized cells in an environment that promotes both three-dimensional cellular interactions together with the uniform mass transfer of nutrients and metabolic wastes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples of normal prostate were obtained as a byproduct of transurethral prostatectomy or needle biopsy. Prostatic tissue dissected into small 1 x 1 mm. blocks was cultured in the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) Bioreactor for various time periods and analyzed using histological, immunochemical, and total cell RNA assays. RESULTS: We report the long term maintenance of benign explanted human prostate tissue grown in simple culture medium, under the simulated microgravity conditions afforded by the RWV bioreactor. Mesenchymal stromal elements including blood vessels and architecturally preserved tubuloglandular acini were maintained for a minimum of 28 days. Cytokeratins, vimentin and TGF-beta2 receptor and ligand were preserved through the entire culture period as revealed by immunocytochemistry. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) was continuously expressed during the culture period, although somewhat decreased. Prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and its transcript were down regulated over time of culture. Prostatic carcinoma cells from the TSU cell line were able to invade RWV-cultured benign prostate tissue explants. CONCLUSIONS: The RWV bioreactor represents an additional new technology for culturing prostate tissue for further investigations concerning the basic physiology and pathobiology of this clinically important tissue.

  10. Long term organ culture of human prostate tissue in a NASA-designed rotating wall bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Margolis, L; Hatfill, S; Chuaqui, R; Vocke, C; Emmert-Buck, M; Linehan, W M; Duray, P H

    1999-01-01

    To maintain ex vivo integral prostatic tissue including intact stromal and ductal elements using the NASA-designed Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) which maintains colocalized cells in an environment that promotes both three-dimensional cellular interactions together with the uniform mass transfer of nutrients and metabolic wastes. Samples of normal prostate were obtained as a byproduct of transurethral prostatectomy or needle biopsy. Prostatic tissue dissected into small 1 x 1 mm. blocks was cultured in the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) Bioreactor for various time periods and analyzed using histological, immunochemical, and total cell RNA assays. We report the long term maintenance of benign explanted human prostate tissue grown in simple culture medium, under the simulated microgravity conditions afforded by the RWV bioreactor. Mesenchymal stromal elements including blood vessels and architecturally preserved tubuloglandular acini were maintained for a minimum of 28 days. Cytokeratins, vimentin and TGF-beta2 receptor and ligand were preserved through the entire culture period as revealed by immunocytochemistry. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) was continuously expressed during the culture period, although somewhat decreased. Prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and its transcript were down regulated over time of culture. Prostatic carcinoma cells from the TSU cell line were able to invade RWV-cultured benign prostate tissue explants. The RWV bioreactor represents an additional new technology for culturing prostate tissue for further investigations concerning the basic physiology and pathobiology of this clinically important tissue.

  11. Long term organ culture of human prostate tissue in a NASA-designed rotating wall bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolis, L.; Hatfill, S.; Chuaqui, R.; Vocke, C.; Emmert-Buck, M.; Linehan, W. M.; Duray, P. H.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To maintain ex vivo integral prostatic tissue including intact stromal and ductal elements using the NASA-designed Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) which maintains colocalized cells in an environment that promotes both three-dimensional cellular interactions together with the uniform mass transfer of nutrients and metabolic wastes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples of normal prostate were obtained as a byproduct of transurethral prostatectomy or needle biopsy. Prostatic tissue dissected into small 1 x 1 mm. blocks was cultured in the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) Bioreactor for various time periods and analyzed using histological, immunochemical, and total cell RNA assays. RESULTS: We report the long term maintenance of benign explanted human prostate tissue grown in simple culture medium, under the simulated microgravity conditions afforded by the RWV bioreactor. Mesenchymal stromal elements including blood vessels and architecturally preserved tubuloglandular acini were maintained for a minimum of 28 days. Cytokeratins, vimentin and TGF-beta2 receptor and ligand were preserved through the entire culture period as revealed by immunocytochemistry. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) was continuously expressed during the culture period, although somewhat decreased. Prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and its transcript were down regulated over time of culture. Prostatic carcinoma cells from the TSU cell line were able to invade RWV-cultured benign prostate tissue explants. CONCLUSIONS: The RWV bioreactor represents an additional new technology for culturing prostate tissue for further investigations concerning the basic physiology and pathobiology of this clinically important tissue.

  12. In Vivo Bone Regeneration Using Tubular Perfusion System Bioreactor Cultured Nanofibrous Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Yeatts, Andrew B.; Both, Sanne K.; Yang, Wanxun; Alghamdi, Hamdan S.; Yang, Fang; Jansen, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of bioreactors for the in vitro culture of constructs for bone tissue engineering has become prevalent as these systems may improve the growth and differentiation of a cultured cell population. Here we utilize a tubular perfusion system (TPS) bioreactor for the in vitro culture of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and implant the cultured constructs into rat femoral condyle defects. Using nanofibrous electrospun poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/poly(ɛ-caprolactone) scaffolds, hMSCs were cultured for 10 days in vitro in the TPS bioreactor with cellular and acellular scaffolds cultured statically for 10 days as a control. After 3 and 6 weeks of in vivo culture, explants were removed and subjected to histomorphometric analysis. Results indicated more rapid bone regeneration in defects implanted with bioreactor cultured scaffolds with a new bone area of 1.23±0.35 mm2 at 21 days compared to 0.99±0.43 mm2 and 0.50±0.29 mm2 in defects implanted with statically cultured scaffolds and acellular scaffolds, respectively. At the 21 day timepoint, statistical differences (p<0.05) were only observed between defects implanted with cell containing scaffolds and the acellular control. After 42 days, however, defects implanted with TPS cultured scaffolds had the greatest new bone area with 1.72±0.40 mm2. Defects implanted with statically cultured and acellular scaffolds had a new bone area of 1.26±0.43 mm2 and 1.19±0.33 mm2, respectively. The increase in bone growth observed in defects implanted with TPS cultured scaffolds was statistically significant (p<0.05) when compared to both the static and acellular groups at this timepoint. This study demonstrates the efficacy of the TPS bioreactor to improve bone tissue regeneration and highlights the benefits of utilizing perfusion bioreactor systems to culture MSCs for bone tissue engineering. PMID:23865551

  13. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The heart of the bioreactor is the rotating wall vessel, shown without its support equipment. Volume is about 125 mL. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  14. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Astronaut John Blaha replaces an exhausted media bag and filled waste bag with fresh bags to continue a bioreactor experiment aboard space station Mir in 1996. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. This image is from a video downlink. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  15. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Astronaut John Blaha replaces an exhausted media bag and filled waste bag with fresh bags to continue a bioreactor experiment aboard space station Mir in 1996. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. This image is from a video downlink. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  16. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The heart of the bioreactor is the rotating wall vessel, shown without its support equipment. Volume is about 125 mL. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  17. Hollow Fiber Bioreactors for In Vivo-like Mammalian Tissue Culture

    PubMed Central

    Storm, Michael P.; Sorrell, Ian; Shipley, Rebecca; Regan, Sophie; Luetchford, Kim A.; Sathish, Jean; Webb, Steven; Ellis, Marianne J.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue culture has been used for over 100 years to study cells and responses ex vivo. The convention of this technique is the growth of anchorage dependent cells on the 2-dimensional surface of tissue culture plastic. More recently, there is a growing body of data demonstrating more in vivo-like behaviors of cells grown in 3-dimensional culture systems. This manuscript describes in detail the set-up and operation of a hollow fiber bioreactor system for the in vivo-like culture of mammalian cells. The hollow fiber bioreactor system delivers media to the cells in a manner akin to the delivery of blood through the capillary networks in vivo. The system is designed to fit onto the shelf of a standard CO2 incubator and is simple enough to be set-up by any competent cell biologist with a good understanding of aseptic technique. The systems utility is demonstrated by culturing the hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2/C3A for 7 days. Further to this and in line with other published reports on the functionality of cells grown in 3-dimensional culture systems the cells are shown to possess increased albumin production (an important hepatic function) when compared to standard 2-dimensional tissue culture. PMID:27285826

  18. Optimal design of scalable photo-bioreactor for phototropic culturing of Haematococcus pluvialis.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae Jun; Choi, Seung Phill; Kim, Byung Woo; Sim, Sang Jun

    2012-01-01

    The unicellular green microalgae, Haematococcus pluvialis, has been examined as a microbial source for the production of astaxanthin, which has been suggested as a food supplement for humans and is also prescribed as an ingredient in eye drops because of its powerful anti-oxidant properties. In this study, we estimated the effects of the slope of a V-shaped bottom design, the volumetric flow rate of air, height/diameter (H/D) ratio, and diameter of an air sparger on the performance of a photo-bioreactor. These parameters were selected because they are recognized as important factors effecting the mixing that produces increased cell density in the reactor. The mixing effect can be measured by changes in optical density in the bioreactor over a period of time. A 6 L indoor photo-bioreactor was prepared in a short time period of 24 h for the performance study. A bioreactor designed with a V-shaped bottom with a slope of 60° showed an optical density change of 0.052 at 680 nm, which was sixfold less than the change in a photo-bioreactor designed with a flat bottom. Studies exploring the effects of bioreactor configuration and a porous metal sparger with a 10 μm pore size showed the best performance at an H/D ratio of 6:1 and a sparger diameter of 1.3 cm, respectively. The optimal rate of air flow was 0.2 vvm. The indoor culture of microalgae in the photo-bioreactor was subsequently carried for an application study using the optimal values established for the important factors. The indoor culture system was composed of a light source controlled according to cell phase, a carbon dioxide feeder, a bag-type reactor with an H/D ratio of 6:1, and a temperature controller. Results demonstrated the efficient production of microalgal cells and astaxanthin in the amounts of 2.62 g/L and 78.37 mg/L, respectively, when using adequate hydrodynamic mixing. Furthermore, the optimal design of a photo-bioreactor can be applied for the phototropic culturing of other microalgae for

  19. Protein Expression in Insect and Mammalian Cells Using Baculoviruses in Wave Bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Kadwell, Sue H; Overton, Laurie K

    2016-01-01

    Many types of disposable bioreactors for protein expression in insect and mammalian cells are now available. They differ in design, capacity, and sensor options, with many selections available for either rocking platform, orbitally shaken, pneumatically mixed, or stirred-tank bioreactors lined with an integral disposable bag (Shukla and Gottschalk, Trends Biotechnol 31(3):147-154, 2013). WAVE Bioreactors™ were among the first disposable systems to be developed (Singh, Cytotechnology 30:149-158, 1999). Since their commercialization in 1999, Wave Bioreactors have become routinely used in many laboratories due to their ease of operation, limited utility requirements, and protein expression levels comparability to traditional stirred-tank bioreactors. Wave Bioreactors are designed to use a presterilized Cellbag™, which is attached to a rocking platform and inflated with filtered air provided by the bioreactor unit. The Cellbag can be filled with medium and cells and maintained at a set temperature. The rocking motion, which is adjusted through angle and rock speed settings, provides mixing of oxygen (and CO2, which is used to control pH in mammalian cell cultures) from the headspace created in the inflated Cellbag with the cell culture medium and cells. This rocking motion can be adjusted to prevent cell shear damage. Dissolved oxygen and pH can be monitored during scale-up, and samples can be easily removed to monitor other parameters. Insect and mammalian cells grow very well in Wave Bioreactors (Shukla and Gottschalk, Trends Biotechnol 31(3):147-154, 2013). Combining Wave Bioreactor cell growth capabilities with recombinant baculoviruses engineered for insect or mammalian cell expression has proven to be a powerful tool for rapid production of a wide range of proteins.

  20. Production of biopesticides in an in situ cell retention bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Gunjan; Srivastava, Ashok K

    2008-12-01

    The seeds of Azadirachta indica contain azadirachtin and other limonoids, which can be used as a biopesticide for crop protection. Significant variability and availability of seed only in arid zones has triggered biotechnological production of biopesticides to cope up with its huge requirement. Batch cultivation of A. indica suspension culture was carried out in statistically optimized media (25.0 g/l glucose, 5.7 g/l nitrate, 0.094 g/l phosphate and 5 g/l inoculum) in 3 l stirred tank bioreactor. This resulted in 15.5 g/l biomass and 0.05 g/l azadirachtin production in 10 days leading to productivity of 5 mg l(-1) day(-1). Possible inhibition by the limiting substrates (C, N, P) were also studied and maximum inhibitory concentrations identified. The batch kinetic/inhibitory data were then used to develop and identify an unstructured mathematical model. The batch model was extrapolated to simulate continuous cultivation with and without cell retention in the bioreactor. Several offline computer simulations were done to identify right nutrient feeding strategies (with respect to key limiting substrates; carbon, nitrate and phosphate) to maintain non-limiting and non-inhibitory substrate concentrations in bioreactor. One such continuous culture (with cell retention) simulation was experimentally implemented. In this cultivation, the cells were propagated batch-wise for 8 days. It was then converted to continuous cultivation by feeding MS salts with glucose (75 g/l), nitrate (10 g/l), and phosphate (0.5 g/l) at a feed rate of 500 ml/day and withdrawing the spent medium at the same rate. The above continuous cultivation (with cell retention) demonstrated an improvement in cell growth to 95.8 g/l and intracellular accumulation of 0.38 g/l azadirachtin in 40 days leading to an overall productivity of 9.5 mg l(-1) day(-1).

  1. The effectiveness of a novel cartridge-based bioreactor design in supporting liver cells.

    PubMed

    Niu, Mei; Hammond, Paul; Coger, Robin N

    2009-10-01

    There are a number of applications--ranging from temporary strategies for organ failure to pharmaceutical testing--that rely on effective bioreactor designs. The significance of these devices is that they provide an environment for maintaining cells in a way that allows them to perform key cellular and tissue functions. In the current study, a novel cartridge-based bioreactor was developed and evaluated. Its unique features include its capacity for cell support and the adaptable design of its cellular space. Specifically, it is able to accommodate functional and reasonably sized tissue (>2.0 x 10(8) cells), and can be easily modified to support a range of anchorage-dependent cells. To evaluate its efficacy, it was applied to liver support in the current study. This involved evaluating the performance of rat primary hepatocytes within the unique cartridges in culture--sans bioreactor--and after being loaded within the novel bioreactor. Compared to collagen sandwich culture functional controls, hepatocytes within the unique cartridge design demonstrated significantly higher albumin production and urea secretion rates when cultured under dynamic flow conditions--reaching peak values of 170 +/- 22 microg/10(6) cells/day and 195 +/- 18 microg/10(6) cells/day, respectively. The bioreactor's effectiveness in supporting live and functioning primary hepatocytes is also presented. Cell viability at the end of 15 days of culture in the new bioreactor was 84 +/- 18%, suggesting that the new design is effective in maintaining primary hepatocytes for at least 2 weeks in culture. Liver-specific functions of urea secretion, albumin synthesis, and cytochrome P450 activity were also assessed. The results indicate that hepatocytes are able to achieve good functional performance when cultured within the novel bioreactor. This is especially true in the case of cytochrome P450 activity, where by day 15 of culture, hepatocytes within the bioreactor reached values that were 56.6% higher

  2. Optimal 3-D culture of primary articular chondrocytes for use in the Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Mellor, Liliana F.; Baker, Travis L.; Brown, Raquel J.; Catlin, Lindsey W.; Oxford, Julia Thom

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Reliable culturing methods for primary articular chondrocytes are essential to study the effects of loading and unloading on joint tissue at the cellular level. Due to the limited proliferation capacity of primary chondrocytes and their tendency to dedifferentiate in conventional culture conditions, long-term culturing conditions of primary chondrocytes can be challenging. The goal of this study was to develop a suspension culturing technique that not only would retain the cellular morphology but also maintain gene expression characteristics of primary articular chondrocytes. METHODS Three-dimensional culturing methods were compared and optimized for primary articular chondrocytes in the rotating wall vessel bioreactor, which changes the mechanical culture conditions to provide a form of suspension culture optimized for low shear and turbulence. We performed gene expression analysis and morphological characterization of cells cultured in alginate beads, Cytopore-2 microcarriers, primary monolayer culture, and passaged monolayer cultures using reverse transcription-PCR and laser scanning confocal microscopy. RESULTS Primary chondrocytes grown on Cytopore-2 microcarriers maintained the phenotypical morphology and gene expression pattern observed in primary bovine articular chondrocytes, and retained these characteristics for up to 9 days. DISCUSSION Our results provide a novel and alternative culturing technique for primary chondrocytes suitable for studies that require suspension such as those using the rotating wall vessel bioreactor. In addition, we provide an alternative culturing technique for primary chondrocytes that can impact future mechanistic studies of osteoarthritis progression, treatments for cartilage damage and repair, and cartilage tissue engineering. PMID:25199120

  3. A Rotating Bioreactor for Scalable Culture and Differentiation of Respiratory Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Raredon, Micha Sam Brickman; Ghaedi, Mahboobe; Calle, Elizabeth A; Niklason, Laura E

    2015-10-01

    Respiratory epithelium is difficult to grow in vitro, as it requires a well-maintained polarizing air-liquid interface (ALI) to maintain differentiation. Traditional methods rely on permeable membrane culture inserts, which are difficult to work with and are ill-suited for the production of large numbers of cells, such as the quantities required for cell-based clinical therapies. Herein, we investigate an alternative form of culture in which the cells are placed on a porous substrate that is continuously rolled, such that the monolayer of cells is alternately submerged in media or apically exposed to air. Our prototype bioreactor is reliable for up to 21 days of continuous culture and is designed for scale-up for large-scale cell culture with continuous medium and gas exchange. Normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells were cultured on an absorbent substrate in the reactor for periods of 7, 14, and 21 days and were compared to static controls that were submerged in media. Quantification by immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR of markers specific to differentiated respiratory epithelium indicated increased cilia, mucous production, and tight junction formation in the rolled cultures, compared to static. Together with scanning electron microscopy and paraffin histology, the data indicate that the intermittent ALI provided by the rolling bioreactor promotes a polarized epithelial phenotype over a period of 21 days.

  4. A Rotating Bioreactor for Scalable Culture and Differentiation of Respiratory Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Raredon, Micha Sam Brickman; Ghaedi, Mahboobe; Calle, Elizabeth A.; Niklason, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory epithelium is difficult to grow in vitro, as it requires a well-maintained polarizing air–liquid interface (ALI) to maintain differentiation. Traditional methods rely on permeable membrane culture inserts, which are difficult to work with and are ill-suited for the production of large numbers of cells, such as the quantities required for cell-based clinical therapies. Herein, we investigate an alternative form of culture in which the cells are placed on a porous substrate that is continuously rolled, such that the monolayer of cells is alternately submerged in media or apically exposed to air. Our prototype bioreactor is reliable for up to 21 days of continuous culture and is designed for scale-up for large-scale cell culture with continuous medium and gas exchange. Normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells were cultured on an absorbent substrate in the reactor for periods of 7, 14, and 21 days and were compared to static controls that were submerged in media. Quantification by immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR of markers specific to differentiated respiratory epithelium indicated increased cilia, mucous production, and tight junction formation in the rolled cultures, compared to static. Together with scanning electron microscopy and paraffin histology, the data indicate that the intermittent ALI provided by the rolling bioreactor promotes a polarized epithelial phenotype over a period of 21 days. PMID:26858899

  5. Multicompartmental Hollow-Fiber-Based Bioreactors for Dynamic Three-Dimensional Perfusion Culture.

    PubMed

    Schmelzer, Eva; Gerlach, Jörg C

    2016-01-01

    The creation of larger-scale three-dimensional tissue constructs depends on proper medium mass and gas exchange, as well as removal of metabolites, which cannot be achieved in conventional static two-dimensional petri dish culture. In cultures of tissue-density this problem can be addressed by decentral perfusion through artificial micro-capillaries. While the static medium exchange in petri dishes leads to metabolite peaks, perfusion culture provides a dynamic medium supply, thereby preventing non-physiological peaks. To overcome the limitations of conventional static two-dimensional culture, a three-dimensional perfusion bioreactor technology has been developed, providing decentral and high-performance mass exchange as well as integral oxygenation. Similar to organ systems in vivo, the perfusion with medium provides nutrition and removes waste metabolites, and the perfusion with gas delivers oxygen and carbon dioxide for pH regulation. Such bioreactors are available at various dimensions ranging from 0.2 to 800 mL cell compartment volumes (manufactured by StemCell Systems, Berlin, Germany). Here, we describe in detail the setup and maintenance of a small-scale 4-chamber bioreactor with its tubing circuit and perfusion system.

  6. Collection of in vivo-like liver cell secretome with alternative sample enrichment method using a hollow fiber bioreactor culture system combined with tangential flow filtration for secretomics analysis.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yao-Tseng; Chang, Yu-Chen; Lin, Lung-Cheng; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2011-01-17

    A hollow fiber bioreactor (HFB) culture system coupled with a tangential flow filtration (TFF) device was used for HepG2 cell secretome analysis. In order to reduce the loss of low-molecular-weight proteins, two new features, the hollow fiber with 0.1 μm pore size and a TFF device with a membrane of 1kDa molecular weight cutoff, were added to the system described previously. The HFB culture system and the conventional dish culture method for secretome collection were compared side by side. It was observed that only a small fraction of cells (<0.01%) were lysed in the HFB culture system, in contrast to the 2.73% in the conventional dish culture. A total of 111 proteins were identified in the collected conditioned medium (CM) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with this improved collection procedure. Many of these proteins reported to be biomarkers for liver-related diseases. About 16% of the identified proteins were smaller than 20kDa, demonstrating that the modified collection system had the ability to reduce the loss of low-molecular-weight proteins, in contrast to our previous collection system. The percentage increase of proteins classified as extracellular space or plasma membrane between the conventional dish culture and the HFB culture system was 40-60%. We believed that in vivo-like culture environments could support liver cells to improve protein secretion than conventional dish cultures. We suggest that the combination of the HFB culture system, TFF device, and LC-MS/MS analysis, would be an efficient procedure for the collection and characterization of in vivo-like cell secretome. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of ATP to characterize biomass viability in freely suspended and immobilized cell bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Gikas, P.; Livingston, A.G. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-12-01

    This work describes investigations into the viability of cells growing on 3,4-dichloroaniline (34DCA). Two bio-reactors are employed for microbial growth, a continuous stirred tank (CST) bioreactor with a 2-L working volume, and a three-phase air lift (TPAL) bioreactor with a 3-L working volume. Experiments have been performed at several dilution rates between 0.027 and 0.115 h[sup [minus]1] in the CST bioreactor and between 0.111 and 0.500h[sup [minus]1] in the TPAL bioreactor. The specific ATP concentration was calculated at each dilution rate in the suspended biomass in both bioreactors as well as in the immobilized biomass in the TPAL bioreactor. The cultures were inspected under an electron microscope to monitor compositional changes. Results from the CST bioreactor showed that the biomass-specific ATP concentration increases from 0.44 to 1.86 mg ATP g[sup [minus]1] dry weight (dw) as dilution rate increases from 0.027 to 0.115 h[sup [minus]1]. At this upper dilution rate the cells were washed out. The specific ATP concentration reached a limiting average value of 1.73 mg ATP g[sup [minus]1] dw, which is assumed to be the quantity of ATP in 100% viable biomass, In the TPAL bioreactor, the ATP level increased with dilution rat in both the immobilized and suspended biomass. The specific ATP concentration in the immobilized biomass increased from approximately 0.051 mg ATP g[sup [minus]1] dw at dilution rates between 0.111 and 0.200 h[sup [minus]1] to approximately 0.119 mg ATP g[sup [minus]1] dw at dilution rates between 0.300 and 0.500 h[sup [minus]1].

  8. Use of Stirred Suspension Bioreactors for Male Germ Cell Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Sakib, Sadman; Dores, Camila; Rancourt, Derrick

    2016-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is a stem cell based system. Both therapeutic and biomedical research applications of spermatogonial stem cells require a large number of cells. However, there are only few germ line stem cells in the testis, contained in the fraction of undifferentiated spermatogonia. The lack of specific markers makes it difficult to isolate these cells. The long term maintenance and proliferation of nonrodent germ cells in culture has so far been met with limited success, partially due to the lack of highly enriched starting populations. Differential plating, which depends on the differential adhesion properties of testicular somatic and germ cells to tissue culture dishes, has been the method of choice for germ cell enrichment, especially for nonrodent germ cells. However, for large animals, this process becomes labor intensive and increases variability due to the need for extensive handling. Here, we describe the use of stirred suspension bioreactors, as a novel system for enriching undifferentiated germ cells from 1-week-old pigs. This method capitalizes on the adherent properties of somatic cells within a controlled environment, thus promoting the enrichment of progenitor cells with minimal handling and variability. PMID:27066790

  9. Bioreactor cultivation enhances NTEB formation and differentiation of NTES cells into cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Lü, Shuanghong; Liu, Sheng; He, Wenjun; Duan, Cuimi; Li, Yanmin; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Ye; Hao, Tong; Wang, Yanmeng; Li, Dexue; Wang, Changyong; Gao, Shaorong

    2008-09-01

    Autogenic embryonic stem cells established from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos have been proposed as unlimited cell sources for cell transplantation-based treatment of many genetic and degenerative diseases, which can eliminate the immune rejection that occurs after transplantation. In the present study, pluripotent nuclear transfer ES (NTES) cell lines were successfully established from different strains of mice. One NTES cell line, NT1, with capacity of germline transmission, was used to investigate in vitro differentiation into cardiomyocytes. To optimize differentiation conditions for mass production of embryoid bodies (NTEBs) from NTES cells, a slow-turning lateral vessel (STLV) rotating bioreactor was used for culturing the NTES cells to produce NTEBs compared with a conventional static cultivation method. Our results demonstrated that the NTEBs formed in STLV bioreactor were more uniform in size, and no large necrotic centers with most of the cells in NTEBs were viable. Differentiation of the NTEBs formed in both the STLV bioreactor and static culture into cardiomyocytes was induced by ascorbic acid, and the results demonstrated that STLV-produced NTEBs differentiated into cardiomyocytes more efficiently. Taken together, our results suggested that STLV bioreactor provided a more ideal culture condition, which can facilitate the formation of better quality NTEBs and differentiation into cardiomyocytes more efficiently in vitro.

  10. Hydrodynamic effects on cell growth in agitated microcarrier bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherry, Robert S.; Papoutsakis, E. Terry

    1988-01-01

    The net growth rate of bovine embryonic kidney cells in microcarrier bioreactor is the result of a variable death rate imposed on a cell culture trying to grow at a constant intrinsic growth rate. The death rate is a function of the agitation conditions in the system, and increases at higher agitation because of increasingly energetic interactions of the cell covered microcarriers with turbulent eddies in the fluid. At very low agitation rates bead-bead bridging becomes important; the large clumps formed by bridging can interact with larger eddies than single beads, leading to a higher death rate at low agitation. The growth and death rate were correlated with a dimensionless eddy number which compares eddy forces to the buoyant force on the bead.

  11. Stirred bioreactors for the expansion of adult pancreatic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Serra, Margarida; Brito, Catarina; Leite, Sofia B; Gorjup, Erwin; von Briesen, Hagen; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Alves, Paula M

    2009-01-01

    Adult pluripotent stem cells are a cellular resource representing unprecedented potential for cell therapy and tissue engineering. Complementary to this promise, there is a need for efficient bioprocesses for their large scale expansion and/or differentiation. With this goal in mind, our work focused on the development of three-dimensional (3-D) culture systems for controlled expansion of adult pancreatic stem cells (PSCs). For this purpose, two different culturing strategies were evaluated, using spinner vessels: cell aggregated cultures versus microcarrier technology. The use of microcarrier supports (Cytodex 1 and Cytodex 3) rendered expanded cell populations which retained their self-renewal ability, cell marker, and the potential to differentiate into adipocytes. This strategy surmounted the drawbacks of aggregates in culture which were demonstrably unfeasible as cells clumped together did not proliferate and lost PSC marker expression. Furthermore, the results obtained showed that although both microcarriers tested here were suitable for sustaining cell expansion, Cytodex 3 provided a better substrate for the promotion of cell adherence and growth. For the latter approach, the potential of bioreactor technology was combined with the efficient Cytodex 3 strategy under controlled environmental conditions (pH-7.2, pO2-30% and temperature-37 degrees C); cell growth was more efficient, as shown by faster doubling time, higher growth rate and higher fold increase in cell concentration, when compared to spinner cultures. This study describes a robust bioprocess for the controlled expansion of adult PSC, representing an efficient starting point for the development of novel technologies for cell therapy.

  12. A thin-walled polydimethylsiloxane bioreactor for high-density hepatocyte sandwich culture.

    PubMed

    Tan, Guo-Dong Sean; Toh, Guoyang William; Birgersson, Erik; Robens, Jeffrey; van Noort, Danny; Leo, Hwa Liang

    2013-06-01

    In vitro drug testing requires long-term maintenance of hepatocyte liver specific functions. Hepatocytes cultured at a higher seeding density in a sandwich configuration exhibit an increased level of liver specific functions when compared to low density cultures due to the better cell to cell contacts that promote long term maintenance of polarity and liver specific functions. However, culturing hepatocytes at high seeding densities in a standard 24-well plate poses problems in terms of the mass transport of nutrients and oxygen to the cells. In view of this drawback, we have developed a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) bioreactor that was able to maintain the long-term liver specific functions of a hepatocyte sandwich culture at a high seeding density. The bioreactor was fabricated with PDMS, an oxygen permeable material, which allowed direct oxygenation and perfusion to take place simultaneously. The mass transport of oxygen and the level of shear stress acting on the cells were analyzed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The combination of both direct oxygenation and perfusion has a synergistic effect on the liver specific function of a high density hepatocyte sandwich culture over a period of 9 days.

  13. Expansion of activated lymphocytes obtained from renal cell carcinoma in an automated hollow fiber bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Hillman, G G; Wolf, M L; Montecillo, E; Younes, E; Ali, E; Pontes, J E; Haas, G P

    1994-01-01

    Immunotherapy using IL-2 alone or combined with activated lymphocytes has been promising for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Cytotoxic lymphocytes can be isolated from tumors, expanded in vitro with IL-2, and adoptively transferred back into the tumor-bearing host. These cells can also be transduced with the genes coding for cytokines for local delivery to tumor sites. A major drawback in adoptive immunotherapy is the cumbersome and expensive culture technology associated with the growth of large numbers of cells required for their therapeutic effect. To reduce the cost, resources, and manpower, we have developed the methodology for lymphocyte activation and expansion in the automated hollow fiber bioreactor IMMUNO*STAR Cell Expander (ACT BIOMEDICAL, INC). Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TIL) isolated from human renal cell carcinoma tumor specimens were inoculated at a number of 10(8) cells in a small bioreactor of 30 ml extracapillary space volume. We have determined the medium flow rates and culture conditions to obtain a significant and repeated expansion of TIL at weekly intervals. The lymphocytes cultured in the bioreactor demonstrated the same phenotype and cytotoxic activity as those expanded in parallel in tissue culture plates. Lymphocyte expansion in the hollow fiber bioreactor required lower volumes of medium, human serum, IL-2 and minimal labor. This technology may facilitate the use of adoptive immunotherapy for the treatment of refractory malignancies.

  14. The expression of the 14D9 catalytic antibody in suspended cells of Nicotiana tabacum cultures increased by the addition of protein stabilizers and by transference from Erlenmeyer flasks to a 2-L bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Marconi, Patricia L; Alvarez, María Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The effect of two protein stabilizers (polyvinylpyrrolidone [PVP] and gelatine) on growth and 14D9 yield of Nicotiana tabacum cell suspension cultures (Ab-KDEL and sec-Ab) was analyzed. The addition of PVP at a concentration of 1.0 g L(-1) produced the highest total 14D9 yield (biomass + culture medium) in the Ab-KDEL line (4.82% total soluble protein [TSP]). With the addition of gelatine, the highest total 14D9 yield (2.48% TSP) was attained in the Ab-KDEL line at 5.0 g L(-1) gelatine. When the Ab-KDEL suspended cells were cultured in a 2-L bioreactor, the highest 14D9 yield was 8.1% TSP at a 5% w/v inoculum size, which was the best 14D9 yield so far obtained in the platforms tested (E. coli, N. tabacum leaves and seeds, N. tabacum hairy roots, and cell suspension cultures). © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  15. Monitoring leachables from single-use bioreactor bags for mammalian cell culture by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dorival-García, N; Bones, J

    2017-08-25

    A method for the identification of leachables in chemically defined media for CHO cell culture using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and UHPLC-MS is described. A Box-Behnken design of experiments (DoE) approach was applied to obtain the optimum extraction conditions of the target analytes. Performance of DLLME as extraction technique was studied by comparison of two commercial chemically defined media for CHO cell culture. General extraction conditions for any group of leachables, regardless of their specific chemical functionalities can be applied and similar optimum conditions were obtained with the two media. Extraction efficiency and matrix effects were determined. The method was validated using matrix-matched standard calibration followed by recovery assays with spiked samples. Finally, cell culture media was incubated in 7 single use bioreactors (SUBs) from different vendors and analysed. TBPP was not detected in any of the samples, whereas DtBP and TBPP-ox were found in all samples, with bDtBPP detected in six SUBs. This method can be used for early identification of non-satisfactory SUB films for cultivation of CHO cell lines for biopharmaceutical production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Airlift-driven fibrous-bed bioreactor for continuous production of glucoamylase using immobilized recombinant yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Kilonzo, Peter; Margaritis, Argyrios; Bergougnou, Maurice

    2009-08-10

    Continuous production of a fungal glucoamylase by immobilized recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain C468 containing plasmid pGAC9. Yeast cells were immobilized on hydrophilic cotton cloth in an inverse internal loop airlift-driven bioreactor. Free-cell culture in the airlift and stirred tank bioreactors confirmed the plasmid instability of the recombinant yeast. Enhanced glucoamylase productivity and plasmid stability were observed both in the free and immobilized cell cultures in the airlift bioreactor system. The glucoamylase level of the free-cell culture in the airlift bioreactor was approximately 20% higher than that in the in stirred tank bioreactor due to high cell density (cell dry weight/volume of bioreactor) and fraction of the plasmid-carrying cells. A potentially high glucoamylase activity of 161U/L and a corresponding volumetric productivity of 3.5U/Lh were achieved when a cell density of approximately 85g/L (or 12.3g/g fiber) was attained in the fibrous-bed immobilized cell bioreactor system. The stable glucoamylase production was achieved after five generations, at which time a fraction of approximately 62% of the plasmid-carrying cells was realized in the immobilized cell system. Plasmid stability was increased for the immobilized cells during continuous culture at the operating dilution rate. The volumetric and specific productivities and fraction of plasmid-carrying cells in the immobilized cell system were higher than in the free-cell counterpart, however. This was in part due to the high viability (approximately 80%) in the immobilized cell system and the selective immobilization of the plasmid-carrying cells in the fibrous bed, and perhaps increased plasmid copy number.

  17. Principles and design of a novel magnetic force mechanical conditioning bioreactor for tissue engineering, stem cell conditioning, and dynamic in vitro screening.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Jon; Cartmell, Sarah H; Keramane, Ahmed; El Haj, Alicia J

    2006-09-01

    Mechanical conditioning of cells and tissue constructs in bioreactors is an important factor in determining the properties of tissue being produced. Mechanical conditioning within a bioreactor environment, however, has proven difficult. This paper presents the theoretical basis, design, and initial results of a mechanical conditioning system for cell and tissue culture which is based on biocompatible magnetic micro- and nanoparticles acting as a remote stress mechanism without invasion of the sterile bioreactor environment.

  18. Geosmin and Related Volatiles in Bioreactor-Cultured Streptomyces citreus CBS 109.60

    PubMed Central

    Pollak, F. C.; Berger, R. G.

    1996-01-01

    Streptomyces citreus CBS 109.60 produced geosmin and a complex pattern of other volatile compounds during cultivation in a 2.5-liter laboratory bioreactor. Volatiles were isolated from disrupted cells, from the culture medium, and from the waste air of the bioreactor by adsorption on Lewatit OC 1064MD. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were carried out using capillary gas chromatography and coupled gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. S. citreus produced 56 volatile compounds, which were mainly terpenoids but also included aliphatic ketones, alcohols, esters, pyrazines, furan(on)es, and aromatic types during the growth phase. The major components were geosmin and a germacradienol. A biosynthetic pathway for geosmin including eudesmanolides is proposed. PMID:16535293

  19. Computational fluid dynamics for improved bioreactor design and 3D culture.

    PubMed

    Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Singh, Harmeet

    2008-04-01

    The complex relationship between the hydrodynamic environment and surrounding tissues directly impacts on the design and production of clinically useful grafts and implants. Tissue engineers have generally seen bioreactors as 'black boxes' within which tissue engineering constructs (TECs) are cultured. It is accepted that a more detailed description of fluid mechanics and nutrient transport within process equipment can be achieved by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology. This review discusses applications of CFD for tissue engineering-related bioreactors -- fluid flow processes have direct implications on cellular responses such as attachment, migration and proliferation. We conclude that CFD should be seen as an invaluable tool for analyzing and visualizing the impact of fluidic forces and stresses on cells and TECs.

  20. Multi-membrane chitosan hydrogels as chondrocytic cell bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Ladet, S G; Tahiri, K; Montembault, A S; Domard, A J; Corvol, M-T M

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the bioactivity of new chitosan-based multi-membrane hydrogel (MMH) architectures towards chondrocyte-like cells. The microstructure of the hydrogels constituting the membranes precludes any living cell penetration, whereas their lower scale architecture allows the protein diffusion. The biological behavior of chondrocytes implanted within the MMH inter-membrane spaces was studied for 45 days in culture. Chondrocytes formed cell aggregates and proliferated without loosing their chondrogenic phenotype as illustrated by collagen II and aggrecan expressions at the mRNA and protein levels. Cells produced neo-formed alcyan blue matrix proteins filling MMH interspaces. The HiF-2α/SOX9 pattern of expression suggested that the elevated chondrocytic phenotype in MMH could be related to a better hypoxic local environment than in classical culture conditions. Pro-inflammatory markers were not expressed during the period of culture. The low level of nitric oxide accumulation within the inter-membrane spaces and in the incubation medium implied that chitosan consumed nitrites produced by entrapped chondrocytes, in relation with the decrease of its molecular weight of 50%. Our data suggest that MMH structures may be considered as complex chondrocytic cell bioreactors; "active decoys of biological media", potentially promising for various biomedical applications like the inter-vertebral disk replacement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Non-disruptive measurement system of cell viability in bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudek, F.; Nelsen, B. L.; Baselt, T.; Berger, T.; Wiele, M.; Prade, I.; Hartmann, P.

    2016-04-01

    Nutrient and oxygen transport, as well as the removal of metabolic waste are essential processes to support and maintain viable tissue. Current bioreactor technology used to grow tissue cultures in vitro has a fundamental limit to the thickness of tissues. Based on the low diffusion limit of oxygen a maximum tissue thickness of 200 μm is possible. The efficiency of those systems is currently under investigation. During the cultivation process of the artificial tissue in bioreactors, which lasts 28 days or longer, there are no possibilities to investigate the viability of cells. This work is designed to determine the influence of a non-disruptive cell viability measuring system on cellular activity. The measuring system uses a natural cellular marker produced during normal metabolic activity. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) is a coenzyme naturally consumed and produced during cellular metabolic processes and has thoroughly been studied to determine the metabolic state of a cell. Measuring the fluorescence of NADH within the cell represents a non-disruptive marker for cell viability. Since the measurement process is optical in nature, NADH fluorescence also provides a pathway for sampling at different measurement depths within a given tissue sample. The measurement system we are using utilizes a special UV light source, to excite the NADH fluorescence state. However, the high energy potentially alters or harms the cells. To investigate the influence of the excitation signal, the cells were irradiated with a laser operating at a wavelength of 355 nm and examined for cytotoxic effects. The aim of this study was to develop a non-cytotoxic system that is applicable for large-scale operations during drug-tissue interaction testing.

  2. Large scale expansion of human umbilical cord cells in a rotating bed system bioreactor for cardiovascular tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Reichardt, Anne; Polchow, Bianca; Shakibaei, Mehdi; Henrich, Wolfgang; Hetzer, Roland; Lueders, Cora

    2013-01-01

    Widespread use of human umbilical cord cells for cardiovascular tissue engineering requires production of large numbers of well-characterized cells under controlled conditions. In current research projects, the expansion of cells to be used to create a tissue construct is usually performed in static cell culture systems which are, however, often not satisfactory due to limitations in nutrient and oxygen supply. To overcome these limitations dynamic cell expansion in bioreactor systems under controllable conditions could be an important tool providing continuous perfusion for the generation of large numbers of viable pre-conditioned cells in a short time period. For this purpose cells derived from human umbilical cord arteries were expanded in a rotating bed system bioreactor for up to 9 days. For a comparative study, cells were cultivated under static conditions in standard culture devices. Our results demonstrated that the microenvironment in the perfusion bioreactor was more favorable than that of the standard cell culture flasks. Data suggested that cells in the bioreactor expanded 39 fold (38.7 ± 6.1 fold) in comparison to statically cultured cells (31.8 ± 3.0 fold). Large-scale production of cells in the bioreactor resulted in more than 3 x 10(8) cells from a single umbilical cord fragment within 9 days. Furthermore cell doubling time was lower in the bioreactor system and production of extracellular matrix components was higher. With this study, we present an appropriate method to expand human umbilical cord artery derived cells with high cellular proliferation rates in a well-defined bioreactor system under GMP conditions.

  3. A comparison of orbitally-shaken and stirred-tank bioreactors: pH modulation and bioreactor type affect CHO cell growth and protein glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Monteil, Dominique T; Juvet, Valentin; Paz, Jonathan; Moniatte, Marc; Baldi, Lucia; Hacker, David L; Wurm, Florian M

    2016-09-01

    Orbitally shaken bioreactors (OSRs) support the suspension cultivation of animal cells at volumetric scales up to 200 L and are a potential alternative to stirred-tank bioreactors (STRs) due to their rapid and homogeneous mixing and high oxygen transfer rate. In this study, a Chinese hamster ovary cell line producing a recombinant antibody was cultivated in a 5 L OSR and a 3 L STR, both operated with or without pH control. Effects of bioreactor type and pH control on cell growth and metabolism and on recombinant protein production and glycosylation were determined. In pH-controlled bioreactors, the glucose consumption and lactate production rates were higher relative to cultures grown in bioreactors without pH control. The cell density and viability were higher in the OSRs than in the STRs, either with or without pH control. Volumetric recombinant antibody yields were not affected by the process conditions, and a glycan analysis of the antibody by mass spectrometry did not reveal major process-dependent differences in the galactosylation index. The results demonstrated that OSRs are suitable for recombinant protein production from suspension-adapted animal cells. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1174-1180, 2016.

  4. Mathematical modelling of cell layer growth in a hollow fibre bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Lloyd A C; Whiteley, Jonathan P; Byrne, Helen M; Waters, Sarah L; Shipley, Rebecca J

    2017-04-07

    Generating autologous tissue grafts of a clinically useful volume requires efficient and controlled expansion of cell populations harvested from patients. Hollow fibre bioreactors show promise as cell expansion devices, owing to their potential for scale-up. However, further research is required to establish how to specify appropriate hollow fibre bioreactor operating conditions for expanding different cell types. In this study we develop a simple model for the growth of a cell layer seeded on the outer surface of a single fibre in a perfused hollow fibre bioreactor. Nutrient-rich culture medium is pumped through the fibre lumen and leaves the bioreactor via the lumen outlet or passes through the porous fibre walls and cell layer, and out via ports on the outer wall of the extra-capillary space. Stokes and Darcy equations for fluid flow in the fibre lumen, fibre wall, cell layer and extra-capillary space are coupled to reaction-advection-diffusion equations for oxygen and lactate transport through the bioreactor, and to a simple growth law for the evolution of the free boundary of the cell layer. Cells at the free boundary are assumed to proliferate at a rate that increases with the local oxygen concentration, and to die and detach from the layer if the local fluid shear stress or lactate concentration exceed critical thresholds. We use the model to predict operating conditions that maximise the cell layer growth for different cell types. In particular, we predict the optimal flow rate of culture medium into the fibre lumen and fluid pressure imposed at the lumen outlet for cell types with different oxygen demands and fluid shear stress tolerances, and compare the growth of the cell layer when the exit ports on the outside of the bioreactor are open with that when they are closed. Model simulations reveal that increasing the inlet flow rate and outlet fluid pressure increases oxygen delivery to the cell layer and, therefore, the growth rate of cells that are

  5. Periodic harvesting of embryonic stem cells from a hollow-fiber membrane based four-compartment bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Knöspel, Fanny; Freyer, Nora; Stecklum, Maria; Gerlach, Jörg C; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Different types of stem cells have been investigated for applications in drug screening and toxicity testing. In order to provide sufficient numbers of cells for such in vitro applications a scale-up of stem cell culture is necessary. Bioreactors for dynamic three-dimensional (3D) culture of growing cells offer the option for culturing large amounts of stem cells at high densities in a closed system. We describe a method for periodic harvesting of pluripotent stem cells (PSC) during expansion in a perfused 3D hollow-fiber membrane bioreactor, using mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) as a model cell line. A number of 100 × 10(6) mESC were seeded in bioreactors in the presence of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) as feeder cells. Over a cultivation interval of nine days cells were harvested by trypsin perfusion and mechanical agitation every second to third culture day. A mean of 380 × 10(6) mESC could be removed with every harvest. Subsequent to harvesting, cells continued growing in the bioreactor, as determined by increasing glucose consumption and lactate production. Immunocytochemical staining and mRNA expression analysis of markers for pluripotency and the three germ layers showed a similar expression of most markers in the harvested cells and in mESC control cultures. In conclusion, successful expansion and harvesting of viable mESC from bioreactor cultures with preservation of sterility was shown. The present study is the first one showing the feasibility of periodic harvesting of adherent cells from a continuously perfused four-compartment bioreactor including further cultivation of remaining cells. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  6. A miniature bioreactor for sensing toxicity using recombinant bioluminescent Escherichia coli cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, M B; Dhurjati, P S; Van Dyk, T K; LaRossa, R A

    1996-01-01

    A miniature bioreactor was fabricated as a contactor between biosensing cells and toxic materials. This miniature bioreactor (58 mL working volume) showed performance similar to that of a conventional bioreactor, as well as the advantages of easy installation, facile operation, and small medium requirements during long-term continuous operation. A performance evaluation measured the response to ethanol in continuous operation by using a recombinant bioluminescent Escherichia coli strain. Continuous cultures were repeatedly induced by the ethanol challenge. Steady-state cell concentrations (OD) were found to be decreased, the induced specific bioluminescence (SBL) peak value was found to be increased, and the peak response time, which is the time constant of this continuous monitoring system, was found to be decreased with increasing dilution rate. Finally on- and off-line bioluminescence monitoring was shown to be reliable, suggesting that this system is suitable for applications such as monitoring the influent and effluent streams of waste water biotreatment plants.

  7. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 degreesC (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  8. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 deg. C (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  9. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 degreesC (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  10. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 deg. C (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  11. Foaming and media surfactant effects on the cultivation of animal cells in stirred and sparged bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Handa-Corrigan, A; Spier, R E

    1992-09-01

    Foam formation and the subsequent cell damage/losses in the foam layer were found to be the major problems affecting cell growth and monoclonal antibody (MAb) production in stirred and sparged bioreactors for both serum-supplemented and serum-free media. Surfactants in the culture media had a profound effect on cell growth by changing both the properties of bubbles and the qualities of foam formed. Comparable cell growth and MAb production in sparged bioreactors and in stirred and surface-aerated control cultures were observed only in Pluronic F-68 containing culture media. In media devoid of Pluronic F-68, cells became more sensitive to direct bubble aeration in the presence of antifoam agent which was used to suppress foam formation. Compared with serum-supplemented medium, more severe cell damage effects were observed in serum-free medium. In addition, serum-free medium devoid of cells was partially degraded under continuous air sparging. The mechanism of this damage effect was not clear. Pluronic F-68 provided protective effect to cells but not to the medium. A theoretical model based on the surface active properties of Pluronic F-68 was proposed to account for its protective effect on cell growth. Optimum media surfactant composition in terms of maximum cell growth and minimum foam formation was proposed for stirred and sparged animal cell bioreactor.

  12. NASA-approved rotary bioreactor enhances proliferation of human epidermal stem cells and supports formation of 3D epidermis-like structure.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiao-hua; Ning, Li-na; Cao, Yu-jing; Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Shou-bing; Qiu, Zhi-fang; Hu, Hui-min; Zhang, Hui-shan; Liu, Shu; Duan, En-kui

    2011-01-01

    The skin is susceptible to different injuries and diseases. One major obstacle in skin tissue engineering is how to develop functional three-dimensional (3D) substitute for damaged skin. Previous studies have proved a 3D dynamic simulated microgravity (SMG) culture system as a "stimulatory" environment for the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. Here, we employed the NASA-approved rotary bioreactor to investigate the proliferation and differentiation of human epidermal stem cells (hEpSCs). hEpSCs were isolated from children foreskins and enriched by collecting epidermal stem cell colonies. Cytodex-3 micro-carriers and hEpSCs were co-cultured in the rotary bioreactor and 6-well dish for 15 days. The result showed that hEpSCs cultured in rotary bioreactor exhibited enhanced proliferation and viability surpassing those cultured in static conditions. Additionally, immunostaining analysis confirmed higher percentage of ki67 positive cells in rotary bioreactor compared with the static culture. In contrast, comparing with static culture, cells in the rotary bioreactor displayed a low expression of involucrin at day 10. Histological analysis revealed that cells cultured in rotary bioreactor aggregated on the micro-carriers and formed multilayer 3D epidermis structures. In conclusion, our research suggests that NASA-approved rotary bioreactor can support the proliferation of hEpSCs and provide a strategy to form multilayer epidermis structure.

  13. Simulation of temperature effect on microalgae culture in a tubular photo bioreactor for local solar irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahriar, M.; Deb, Ujjwal Kumar; Rahman, Kazi Afzalur

    2017-06-01

    Microalgae based biofuel is now an emerging source of renewable energy alternative to the fossil fuel. This paper aims to present computational model of microalgae culture taking effect of solar irradiance and corresponding temperature in a photo bioreactor (PBR). As microalgae is a photosynthetic microorganism, so irradiance of sunlight is one of the important limiting factors for the proper growth of microalgae cells as temperature is associated with it. We consider the transient behaviour of temperature inside the photo bioreactor for a microalgae culture. The optimum range of temperature for outdoor cultivation of microalgae is about 16-35°c and out of this range the cell growth inhibits. Many correlations have already been established to investigate the heat transfer phenomena inside a tubular PBR. However, none of them are validated yet numerically by using a user defined function in a simulated model. A horizontal tubular PBR length 20.5m with radius 0.05m has taken account to investigate the temperature effect for the growth of microalgae cell. As the solar irradiance varies at any geographic latitude for a year so an empirical relation is established between local solar irradiance and temperature to simulate the effect. From our simulation, we observed that the growth of microalgae has a significant effect of temperature and the solar irradiance of our locality is suitable for the culture of microalgae.

  14. Design and validation of a biomechanical bioreactor for cartilage tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Correia, V; Panadero, J A; Ribeiro, C; Sencadas, V; Rocha, J G; Gomez Ribelles, J L; Lanceros-Méndez, S

    2016-04-01

    Specific tissues, such as cartilage, undergo mechanical solicitation under their normal performance in human body. In this sense, it seems necessary that proper tissue engineering strategies of these tissues should incorporate mechanical solicitations during cell culture, in order to properly evaluate the influence of the mechanical stimulus. This work reports on a user-friendly bioreactor suitable for applying controlled mechanical stimulation--amplitude and frequency--to three-dimensional scaffolds. Its design and main components are described, as well as its operation characteristics. The modular design allows easy cleaning and operating under laminar hood. Different protocols for the sterilization of the hermetic enclosure are tested and ensure lack of observable contaminations, complying with the requirements to be used for cell culture. The cell viability study was performed with KUM5 cells.

  15. Transient maintenance in bioreactor improves health of neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Di Loreto, Silvia; Sebastiani, Pierluigi; Benedetti, Elisabetta; Zimmitti, Vincenzo; Caracciolo, Valentina; Amicarelli, Fernanda; Cimini, Annamaria; Adorno, Domenico

    2006-01-01

    To examine whether a neuronal cell suspension can be held in vitro for a relatively short period without compromising survival rates and functionality, we have set up an experimental protocol planning 24 h of suspension culture in a rotary wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor before plating in a conventional adherent system. Apoptosis measurement and activated caspase-8, -9, and -3 detection have demonstrated that survey of the cells was not affected. The activity of major antioxidant enzymes (AOE), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT), was significantly decreased in RWV-maintained cells. A significant decrease of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) is coupled with a level of activated nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) protein significantly lower in RVW cells than in the control. On the contrary, the level of IL-6 expression did not change between the test and the control. A significant up-regulation of growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-beta/delta (PPARbeta/delta), and acyl-CoA synthetase 2 (ACS2) in RWV cells has been detected. We provide the evidence that primary neuronal cells, at an early stage of development, can be maintained in a suspension condition before adherent plating. This experimental environment does not induce detrimental effects but may have an activator role, leading cells to development and maturation in a tridimensional state.

  16. Galvanotactic migration of EA.Hy926 endothelial cells in a novel designed electric field bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Long, Haiyan; Yang, Gang; Wang, Zhengrong

    2011-12-01

    Endogenous direct current electric fields (dcEFs) play a significant role in major biological processes such as embryogenesis, wound healing, and tissue regeneration. In this study, the galvanotaxis of human umbilical vein endothelial cell line EA.Hy926 was investigated by using a novel designed bioreactor. The physical features of the bioreactor were discussed and analyzed by both numerical simulation method and equivalent circuit model method. EA.Hy926 cells were cultured in the bioreactor for 10-24 h under 50-250 mV/mm dcEFs. Cell migration direction, distance, and velocity were recorded under an online time-lapse microscope. The effects of serum and growth factor on cell galvanotatic migration were investigated. To further explore the role of dcEFs in regulating endothelial cells, we analyzed the endothelial cell proliferation and secretion of nitric oxide (NO), endothelin-1 (ET-1) in response to dcEFs of physiological strength. Our results showed that EA.Hy926 cells had an obvious directional migration to the cathode, and the EF-directed migration was voltage dependent. The results also showed dcEFs did not affect cell proliferation, but affected the productions of NO and ET-1. Our study also showed the novel bioreactor, with a compact and planar style, makes it more convenient and more reasonable for EF stimulation experiments than earlier chamber designs.

  17. Production of asiaticoside from centella (Centella asiatica L. Urban) cells in bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Loc, Nguyen Hoang; Nhat, Nguyen Thi Duy

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the effects of some culture conditions on production of asiaticoside from centella (Centella asiatica L. Urban) cells cultured in 5-L bioreactor. The centell cell suspension culture was conducted in 5-L bioreactor to investigate the growth and asiaticoside accumulation under various conditions. Asiaticoside content was determined by HPLC analysis. The results showed that the cell growth and asiaticoside accumulation peaked after 24 d of culture at an agitation speed of 150 r/min and aeration rate of 2.5 L/min. The cell biomass reached a maximum value of 302.45 g fresh weight (31.45 g dry weight) and growth index of 3.03 with inoculum size of 100 g. However, asiaticoside content was the highest (60.08 mg/g dry weight) when culture was initiated with an inoculum size of 50 g. The present study found the suitable conditions for growth of centella cells and their asiaticoside production in bioreactor. Copyright © 2013 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Production of asiaticoside from centella (Centella asiatica L. Urban) cells in bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Loc, Nguyen Hoang; Nhat, Nguyen Thi Duy

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of some culture conditions on production of asiaticoside from centella (Centella asiatica L. Urban) cells cultured in 5-L bioreactor. Methods The centell cell suspension culture was conducted in 5-L bioreactor to investigate the growth and asiaticoside accumulation under various conditions. Asiaticoside content was determined by HPLC analysis. Results The results showed that the cell growth and asiaticoside accumulation peaked after 24 d of culture at an agitation speed of 150 r/min and aeration rate of 2.5 L/min. The cell biomass reached a maximum value of 302.45 g fresh weight (31.45 g dry weight) and growth index of 3.03 with inoculum size of 100 g. However, asiaticoside content was the highest (60.08 mg/g dry weight) when culture was initiated with an inoculum size of 50 g. Conclusions The present study found the suitable conditions for growth of centella cells and their asiaticoside production in bioreactor. PMID:24075346

  19. Insect cells respiratory activity in bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Soraia Athie Calil; Santos, Mariza Gerdulo; Yokomizo, Adriana Yurie; Pereira, Carlos Augusto; Tonso, Aldo

    2008-01-01

    Specific respiration rate ( \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document}$$ Q_{{{\\text{O}}_{2} }} $$\\end{document}) is a key parameter to understand cell metabolism and physiological state, providing useful information for process supervision and control. In this work, we cultivated different insect cells in a very controlled environment, being able to measure \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document}$$ Q_{{{\\text{O}}_{2} }} $$\\end{document}. Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells have been used through virus infection as host for foreign protein expression and bioinsecticide production. Transfected Drosophila melanogaster (S2) cells can be used to produce different proteins. The objective of this work is to investigate respiratory activity and oxygen transfer during the growth of different insect cells lines as Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9), Drosophila melanogaster (S2) wild and transfected for the expression of GPV and EGFP. All experiments were performed in a well-controlled 1-L bioreactor, with SF900II serum free medium. Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells reached 10.7 × 106 cells/mL and maximum specific respiration rate (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document}$$ Q_{{{\\text{O}}_{2} \\max }} $$\\end{document}) of 7.3 × 10−17 molO2/cell s. Drosophila melanogaster (S2) cells achieved 51.2 × 106 cells/mL and \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage

  20. Bioreactor Strategy in Bone Tissue Engineering: Pre-Culture and Osteogenic Differentiation Under Two Flow Configurations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junho

    2012-01-01

    Since robust osteogenic differentiation and mineralization are integral to the engineering of bone constructs, understanding the impact of the cellular microenvironments on human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSCs) osteogenic differentiation is crucial to optimize bioreactor strategy. Two perfusion flow conditions were utilized in order to understand the impact of the flow configuration on hMSC construct development during both pre-culture (PC) in growth media and its subsequent osteogenic induction (OI). The media in the in-house perfusion bioreactor was controlled to perfuse either around (termed parallel flow [PF]) the construct surfaces or penetrate through the construct (termed transverse flow [TF]) for 7 days of the PC followed by 7 days of the OI. The flow configuration during the PC not only changed growth kinetics but also influenced cell distribution and potency of osteogenic differentiation and mineralization during the subsequent OI. While shear stress resulted from the TF stimulated cell proliferation during PC, the convective removal of de novo extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and growth factors (GFs) reduced cell proliferation on OI. In contrast, the effective retention of de novo ECM proteins and GFs in the PC constructs under the PF maintained cell proliferation under the OI but resulted in localized cell aggregations, which influenced their osteogenic differentiation. The results revealed the contrasting roles of the convective flow as a mechanical stimulus, the redistribution of the cells and macromolecules in 3D constructs, and their divergent impacts on cellular events, leading to bone construct formation. The results suggest that the modulation of the flow configuration in the perfusion bioreactor is an effective strategy that regulates the construct properties and maximizes the functional outcome. PMID:22690750

  1. Fate of amoxicillin in mixed-culture bioreactors and its effects on microbial growth and resistance to silver ions.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, James H; Lin, Lian-Shin

    2010-03-01

    This research focused on studying the fate of amoxicillin (AMX) in mixed-culture bioreactors and its effects on bacterial growth and bacterial resistance to silver-ion disinfection. The bioreactors were dosed with a range of AMX (10-70 mg L(-1) d(-1)) mimicking a biological treatment unit of a proposed water recovery system for long-term space missions. Aqueous-phase AMX concentrations in the bioreactors were monitored to characterize the kinetics of selected AMX fate processes. Specific growth rates and silver minimum effective concentrations (MECs) of the bacterial cultures were determined by assessing cell viability using flow cytometry. Hydrolysis, sorption, and biodegradation of AMX followed first-order kinetics with rate constants of 0.078, 0.083, and 0.13 d(-1), respectively. Specific growth rates of the AMX-dosed cultures were suppressed from 7% to 35% in order of increasing AMX dose as compared to the AMX-free control cultures. The AMX-treated cultures had higher silver MECs than the AMX-free control cultures, indicating an enhanced bacterial resistance to silver ions as a result of the AMX exposure. Biosorption experiments revealed that the AMX-treated cultures exhibited exclusion of silver ions from the cells as a potential mechanism for the enhanced resistance. This paper reports for the first time that low levels of AMX (<100 mg L(-1)) could induce bacterial cross-resistance to silver ion in an aqueous system mimicking an active biological system for wastewater treatment.

  2. Observation of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells retained inside the non-woven fiber matrix of the CellTank bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ye; Chotteau, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    This data article shows how the recombinant Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells are located in the interstices of the matrix fibers of a CellTank bioreactor after completion of a perfusion culture, supporting the article entitled “Very high cell density perfusion of CHO cells anchored in a non-woven matrix-based bioreactor” by Zhang et al. [1]. It provides a visualization of the cell distribution in the non-woven fiber matrix in a deeper view. PMID:26958613

  3. Strategies for selecting recombinant CHO cell lines for cGMP manufacturing: realizing the potential in bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Porter, Alison J; Dickson, Alan J; Racher, Andrew J

    2010-01-01

    Manufacture of recombinant proteins from mammalian cell lines requires the use of bioreactor systems at scales of up to 20,000 L. The cost and complexity of such systems can prohibit their extensive use during the process to construct and select the manufacturing cell line. It is therefore common practice to develop a model of the production process in a small scale vessel, such as a shake-flask, where lower costs, ease of handling, and higher throughput are possible. This model can then be used to select a small number of cell lines for further evaluation in bioreactor culture. Here, we extend our previous work investigating cell line construction strategies to assess how well the behavior of cell lines in such a shake-flask assessment predicts behavior in the associated bioreactor production process. A panel of 29 GS-CHO cell lines, all producing the same antibody, were selected to include a mixture of high and low producers from a pool of 175 transfectants. Assessment of this panel in 10 L bioreactor culture revealed wide variation in parameters including growth, productivity, and metabolite utilization. In general, those cell lines which were high producing in the bioreactor cultures had also been higher producing in an earlier shake-flask assessment. However, some changes in rank position of the evaluated cell lines were seen between the two systems. A potential explanation of these observations is discussed and approaches to improve the predictability of assessments used for cell line selection are considered.

  4. Adipogenesis of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Within Three-Dimensional Hollow Fiber-Based Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Gerlach, Jörg C.; Lin, Yen-Chih; Brayfield, Candace A.; Minteer, Danielle M.; Li, Han; Rubin, J. Peter

    2012-01-01

    To further differentiate adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) into mature adipocytes and create three-dimensional (3D) adipose tissue in vitro, we applied multicompartment hollow fiber-based bioreactor technology with decentral mass exchange for more physiological substrate gradients and integral oxygenation. We hypothesize that a dynamic 3D perfusion in such a bioreactor will result in longer-term culture of human adipocytes in vitro, thus providing metabolically active tissue serving as a diagnostic model for screening drugs to treat diabetes. ASCs were isolated from discarded human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and then inoculated into dynamic 3D culture bioreactors to undergo adipogenic differentiation. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake from the medium was assessed with and without TNF-alpha. 3D adipose tissue was generated in the 3D-bioreactors. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that 3D-bioreactor culture displayed multiple mature adipocyte markers with more unilocular morphologies as compared with two-dimensional (2D) cultures. Results of real-time polymerase chain reaction showed 3D-bioreactor treatment had more efficient differentiation in fatty acid-binding protein 4 expression. Repeated insulin stimulation resulted in increased glucose uptake, with a return to baseline between testing. Importantly, TNF-alpha inhibited glucose uptake, an indication of the metabolic activity of the tissue. 3D bioreactors allow more mature adipocyte differentiation of ASCs compared with traditional 2D culture and generate adipose tissue in vitro for up to 2 months. Reproducible metabolic activity of the adipose tissue in the bioreactor was demonstrated, which is potentially useful for drug discovery. We present here, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, the development of a coherent 3D high density fat-like tissue consisting of unilocular structure from primary adipose stem cells in vitro. PMID:21902468

  5. Adipogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells within three-dimensional hollow fiber-based bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Jörg C; Lin, Yen-Chih; Brayfield, Candace A; Minteer, Danielle M; Li, Han; Rubin, J Peter; Marra, Kacey G

    2012-01-01

    To further differentiate adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) into mature adipocytes and create three-dimensional (3D) adipose tissue in vitro, we applied multicompartment hollow fiber-based bioreactor technology with decentral mass exchange for more physiological substrate gradients and integral oxygenation. We hypothesize that a dynamic 3D perfusion in such a bioreactor will result in longer-term culture of human adipocytes in vitro, thus providing metabolically active tissue serving as a diagnostic model for screening drugs to treat diabetes. ASCs were isolated from discarded human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and then inoculated into dynamic 3D culture bioreactors to undergo adipogenic differentiation. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake from the medium was assessed with and without TNF-alpha. 3D adipose tissue was generated in the 3D-bioreactors. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that 3D-bioreactor culture displayed multiple mature adipocyte markers with more unilocular morphologies as compared with two-dimensional (2D) cultures. Results of real-time polymerase chain reaction showed 3D-bioreactor treatment had more efficient differentiation in fatty acid-binding protein 4 expression. Repeated insulin stimulation resulted in increased glucose uptake, with a return to baseline between testing. Importantly, TNF-alpha inhibited glucose uptake, an indication of the metabolic activity of the tissue. 3D bioreactors allow more mature adipocyte differentiation of ASCs compared with traditional 2D culture and generate adipose tissue in vitro for up to 2 months. Reproducible metabolic activity of the adipose tissue in the bioreactor was demonstrated, which is potentially useful for drug discovery. We present here, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, the development of a coherent 3D high density fat-like tissue consisting of unilocular structure from primary adipose stem cells in vitro.

  6. Studies of Cell-Mediated Immunity Against Immune Disorders Using Synthetic Peptides and Rotating Bioreactor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastry, Jagannadha K.

    1998-01-01

    We conducted a series of experiments using mouse immune-precursor cells, and observed that bioreactor culturing results in the loss of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) function. The reason for the abrogation of CTL function is microgravity conditions in the bioreactor, but not the antigen per se or its MHC restriction. Similarly, we observed that allostimulation of human PBMC in the bioreactor, but not in the T flask, resulted in the blunting of both allo-CTL function and the NK activity, indicating that the microgravity-associated functional defects are not unique to the mouse system. These results provide further confirmation to the microgravity-associated immune dysfunction, and constitute ground-based confirmatory data for those related to space-travel.

  7. Human lymphocytes cultured in 3-D bioreactors: influence of configuration on metabolite transport and reactions.

    PubMed

    Curcio, Efrem; Piscioneri, Antonella; Salerno, Simona; Tasselli, Franco; Morelli, Sabrina; Drioli, Enrico; Bartolo, Loredana De

    2012-11-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocytes isolated from healthy human donors' buffy coat were cultured in membrane bio-reactors (MBR) designed in two different configurations: a conventional hollow-fiber (HF) bundle of modified polyetheretherketone (PEEK-WC) arranged in parallel, and a cross-assembled PEEK-WC and polyethersulfone (PES) HF membranes having different structural properties. Both bioreactors were experimentally compared in terms of metabolic activity of cultured cells, monitored over 8 days with respect to glucose uptake rate (GUR) and lactate production rate (LPR), and mathematically modelled by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method in order to investigate the impact of geometrical configuration and transport properties of biomaterials. The almost uniform trend of GUR from day 2 to day 7 (average of 0.0497 ± 0.0076 ng/h cell) and the low LPR (that decreased from an initial value of 2.92 ± 0.0055 pg/h cell to practically zero at day 8) provided evidence for superior performance of crossed-HFMBR in reproducing an optimal in vitro physiological environment with quite uniform concentration distribution of species in the extracellular space of the bioreactor and able to maintain lymphocyte viability and functions. The crossed HFMBR also resulted in an enhanced production of interleukin IL-2 over 8 days (average of 0.995 ± 0.25 pg/h/Mcell) and IL-10 in the first 3 days (average of 6.46 ± 0.28 pg/h/Mcell) which were up to one order of magnitude higher with respect to values measured in the parallel configuration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. NASA Bioreactor Demonstration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Leland W. K. Chung (left), Director, Molecular Urology Therapeutics Program at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University, is principal investigator for the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05). With him is Dr. Jun Shu, an assistant professor of Orthopedics Surgery from Kuming Medical University China. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  9. NASA Bioreactor Demonstration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Leland W. K. Chung (left), Director, Molecular Urology Therapeutics Program at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University, is principal investigator for the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05). With him is Dr. Jun Shu, an assistant professor of Orthopedics Surgery from Kuming Medical University China. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  10. Disposable orbitally shaken TubeSpin bioreactor 600 for Sf9 cell cultivation in suspension.

    PubMed

    Monteil, Dominique T; Shen, Xiao; Tontodonati, Giulia; Baldi, Lucia; Hacker, David L; Wurm, Florian M

    2016-07-15

    Disposable orbitally shaken TubeSpin bioreactor 600 tubes (TS600s) were recently developed for the bench-scale cultivation of animal cells in suspension. Here we compared batch cultures of Sf9 insect cells in TS600s, spinner flasks, and shake flasks. Superior cell growth was observed in TS600s and shake flasks as compared with spinner flasks, and more favorable oxygen-enriched cell culture conditions were observed in TS600s as compared with either spinner or shake flasks. The results demonstrated the suitability of TS600s as a disposable vessel for the cultivation of Sf9 cells in suspension.

  11. Development of a Bioreactor to Culture Tissue Engineered Ureters Based on the Application of Tubular OPTIMAIX 3D Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Seifarth, Volker; Gossmann, Matthias; Janke, Heinz Peter; Grosse, Joachim O; Becker, Christoph; Heschel, Ingo; Artmann, Gerhard M; Temiz Artmann, Aysegül

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative medicine, tissue engineering and biomedical research give hope to many patients who need bio-implants. Tissue engineering applications have already been developed based on bioreactors. Physiological ureter implants, however, do not still function sufficiently, as they represent tubular hollow structures with very specific cellular structures and alignments consisting of several cell types. The aim of this study was to a develop a new bioreactor system based on seamless, collagenous, tubular OPTIMAIX 3D prototype sponge as scaffold material for ex-vivo culturing of a tissue engineered ureter replacement for future urological applications. Particular emphasis was given to a great extent to mimic the physiological environment similar to the in vivo situation of a ureter. NIH-3T3 fibroblasts, C2C12, Urotsa and primary genitourinary tract cells were applied as co-cultures on the scaffold and the penetration of cells into the collagenous material was followed. By the end of this study, the bioreactor was functioning, physiological parameter as temperature and pH and the newly developed BIOREACTOR system is applicable to tubular scaffold materials with different lengths and diameters. The automatized incubation system worked reliably. The tubular OPTIMAIX 3D sponge was a suitable scaffold material for tissue engineering purposes and co-cultivation procedures.

  12. Space Bioreactor Science Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The first space bioreactor has been designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and a slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small (500 ml) bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption, and control of low shear stress on cells. Applications of microcarrier cultures, development of the first space bioreactor flight system, shear and mixing effects on cells, process control, and methods to monitor cell metabolism and nutrient requirements are among the topics covered.

  13. Hosting the plant cells in vitro: recent trends in bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Milen I; Eibl, Regine; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2013-05-01

    Biotechnological production of high-value metabolites and therapeutic proteins by plant in vitro systems has been considered as an attractive alternative of classical technologies. Numerous proof-of-concept studies have illustrated the feasibility of scaling up plant in vitro system-based processes while keeping their biosynthetic potential. Moreover, several commercial processes have been established so far. Though the progress on the field is still limited, in the recent years several bioreactor configurations has been developed (e.g., so-called single-use bioreactors) and successfully adapted for growing plant cells in vitro. This review highlights recent progress and limitations in the bioreactors for plant cells and outlines future perspectives for wider industrialization of plant in vitro systems as "green cell factories" for sustainable production of value-added molecules.

  14. Rabies veterinary virus vaccine produced in BHK-21 cells grown on microcarriers in a bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Gallegos Gallegos, R M; Espinosa Larios, E L; Ramos Ramírez, L; Kretschmer Schmid, R; Aguilar Setién, A

    1995-01-01

    BHK-21 cells were grown in microcarriers in the CELLIGEN CL 50 bioreactor to produce a stock of rabies veterinary virus vaccine PV (Pasteur virus) strain. Perfusion mode operation of this bioreactor produced between two- and fourfold larger yields (cells/ml) than traditional stationary cell culture systems (i.e., Blake, and Roller bottles or cell factory multitrays). The method employed harvested 281 of rabies virus in 200 h (infectivity titer 0.6 +/- 1.4 x 10(7) LD50 per ml) in a single operation. The risk of contamination is thus reduced when compared with traditional stationary methods which, in order to obtain the same amount of virus, would require the operation of 285 Blake bottles, or 143 Roller bottles, or 15 Cell Factory multitrays (10 trays). By perfusion mode operation of the bioreactor, 89% of the cell culture medium was recovered as vaccinal virus, which contrasts with the yield of only 50-59% using traditional cell culture systems. On the other hand, only 925 ml of fetal serum was required to obtain the 281 of rabies virus harvest as compared to the 3420 ml required by traditional methods.

  15. Mouse Fetal Liver Cells in Artificial Capillary Beds in Three-Dimensional Four-Compartment Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Monga, Satdarshan P.S.; Hout, Mariah S.; Baun, Matt J.; Micsenyi, Amanda; Muller, Peggy; Tummalapalli, Lekha; Ranade, Aarati R.; Luo, Jian-Hua; Strom, Stephen C.; Gerlach, Jörg C.

    2005-01-01

    Bioreactors containing porcine or adult human hepatocytes have been used to sustain acute liver failure patients until liver transplantation. However, prolonged function of adult hepatocytes has not been achieved due to compromised proliferation and viability of adult cells in vitro. We investigated the use of fetal hepatocytes as an alternative cell source in bioreactors. Mouse fetal liver cells from gestational day 17 possessed intermediate differentiation and function based on their molecular profile. When cultured in a three-dimensional four-compartment hollow fiber-based bioreactor for 3 to 5 weeks these cells formed neo-tissues that were characterized comprehensively. Albumin liberation, testosterone meta-bolism, and P450 induction were demonstrated. Histology showed predominant ribbon-like three-dimensional structures composed of hepatocytes between hollow fibers. High positivity for proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Ki-67 and low positivity for terminal dUTP nick-end labeling indicated robust cell proliferation and survival. Most cells within these ribbon arrangements were albumin-positive. In addition, cells in peripheral zones were simultaneously positive for α-fetoprotein, cytokeratin-19, and c-kit, indicating their progenitor phenotype. Mesenchymal components including endothelial, stellate, and smooth muscle cells were also observed. Thus, fetal liver cells can survive, proliferate, differentiate, and function in a three-dimensional perfusion culture system while maintaining a progenitor pool, reflecting an important advance in hepatic tissue engineering. PMID:16251412

  16. Embryonic stem cells remain highly pluripotent following long term expansion as aggregates in suspension bioreactors.

    PubMed

    zur Nieden, Nicole I; Cormier, Jaymi T; Rancourt, Derrick E; Kallos, Michael S

    2007-05-01

    Increasing attention has been drawn towards pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and their potential use as the primary material in various tissue engineering applications. Successful clinical implementation of this technology would require a quality controlled reproducible culture system for the expansion of the cells to be used in the generation of functional tissues. Recently, we showed that suspension bioreactors could be used in the regulated large-scale expansion of highly pluripotent murine ESCs. The current study illustrates that these bioreactor protocols can be adapted for long term culture and that murine ESC cultures remain highly undifferentiated, when serially passaged in suspension bioreactors for extended periods. Flow cytometry analysis and gene expression profiles of several pluripotency markers, in addition to colony and embryoid body (EB) formation tests were conducted at the start and end of the experiment and all showed that the ESC cultures remained highly undifferentiated over extended culture time in suspension. In vivo teratoma formation and in vitro differentiation into neural, cardiomyocyte, osteoblast and chondrocyte lineages, performed at the end of the long term culture, further supported the presence of functional and undifferentiated ESCs in the expanded population. Overall, this system enables the controlled expansion of highly pluripotent murine ESC populations.

  17. Packed Bed Bioreactor for the Isolation and Expansion of Placental-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Osiecki, Michael J; Michl, Thomas D; Kul Babur, Betul; Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Atkinson, Kerry; Lott, William B; Griesser, Hans J; Doran, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Large numbers of Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are required for clinical relevant doses to treat a number of diseases. To economically manufacture these MSCs, an automated bioreactor system will be required. Herein we describe the development of a scalable closed-system, packed bed bioreactor suitable for large-scale MSCs expansion. The packed bed was formed from fused polystyrene pellets that were air plasma treated to endow them with a surface chemistry similar to traditional tissue culture plastic. The packed bed was encased within a gas permeable shell to decouple the medium nutrient supply and gas exchange. This enabled a significant reduction in medium flow rates, thus reducing shear and even facilitating single pass medium exchange. The system was optimised in a small-scale bioreactor format (160 cm2) with murine-derived green fluorescent protein-expressing MSCs, and then scaled-up to a 2800 cm2 format. We demonstrated that placental derived MSCs could be isolated directly within the bioreactor and subsequently expanded. Our results demonstrate that the closed system large-scale packed bed bioreactor is an effective and scalable tool for large-scale isolation and expansion of MSCs.

  18. Packed Bed Bioreactor for the Isolation and Expansion of Placental-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Osiecki, Michael J.; Michl, Thomas D.; Kul Babur, Betul; Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Atkinson, Kerry; Lott, William B.; Griesser, Hans J.; Doran, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Large numbers of Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are required for clinical relevant doses to treat a number of diseases. To economically manufacture these MSCs, an automated bioreactor system will be required. Herein we describe the development of a scalable closed-system, packed bed bioreactor suitable for large-scale MSCs expansion. The packed bed was formed from fused polystyrene pellets that were air plasma treated to endow them with a surface chemistry similar to traditional tissue culture plastic. The packed bed was encased within a gas permeable shell to decouple the medium nutrient supply and gas exchange. This enabled a significant reduction in medium flow rates, thus reducing shear and even facilitating single pass medium exchange. The system was optimised in a small-scale bioreactor format (160 cm2) with murine-derived green fluorescent protein-expressing MSCs, and then scaled-up to a 2800 cm2 format. We demonstrated that placental derived MSCs could be isolated directly within the bioreactor and subsequently expanded. Our results demonstrate that the closed system large-scale packed bed bioreactor is an effective and scalable tool for large-scale isolation and expansion of MSCs. PMID:26660475

  19. Development of a miniature bioreactor for continuous culture in a space laboratory.

    PubMed

    Walther, I; van der Schoot, B H; Jeanneret, S; Arquint, P; de Rooij, N F; Gass, V; Bechler, B; Lorenzi, G; Cogoli, A

    1994-11-30

    A new type of miniature bioreactor for continuous culture of yeast cells in space laboratories has been developed. Silicon microtechnology has permitted the integration of numerous functions and systems in a volume of 87 x 63 x 63 mm3 and a weight of 610 g. The 100 ml of fresh medium can be delivered at variable flow rates to the cultivation chamber (volume 3 ml) by means of a micropump. The culture is agitated by a magnetic stirrer. Microsensors monitor pH, temperature and redox potential. The decrease of pH occurring during the cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is compensated electrochemically. A window allows the inspection of the culture status. Samples of up to 1 ml can be drawn through a silicone rubber septum. The data measured by the sensors are transmitted on-line to the ground station during operations in space. The bioreactor had to fulfil several requirements related to the safety regulation of the space agencies. In particular, new materials had to be selected and tested for their biocompatibility. The instrument has now passed all space and biological qualification tests and will be used in an experiment selected by ESA for the International Microgravity Laboratory-2 Mission in Spacelab in July 1994. This paper gives the results of the functional and biological tests and a detailed description of the instrument.

  20. Neuroendocrine Tissue Engineering in Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactors Under Simulated Microgravity Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    NEUROENDOCRINE TISSUE ENGINEERING IN ROTATING WALL VESSEL BIOREACTORS UNDER SIMULATED MICROGRAVITY CONDITIONS P.I. Lelkes1, 4, N. Akhtar2, E...Abstract-The low-shear, microgravity-simulating cell culture environment in Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) Bioreactors RWV Bioreactors is well...microscopy. The unique culture environment of RWV Bioreactors facilitates the generation of macroscopic, functional neuroendocrine tissue-like

  1. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101816 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  2. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101825 for a version with major elements labeled, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic. 0101816

  3. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101824 for a version with labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  4. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101823 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  5. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101824 for a version with labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  6. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101823 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  7. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101816 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  8. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101825 for a version with major elements labeled, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic. 0101816

  9. Kinetics of cell growth and cyclosporin A production by Tolypocladium inflatum when scaling up from shake flask to bioreactor.

    PubMed

    El Enshasy, H; Abdel Fattah, Y; Atta, A; Anwar, M; Omar, H; El Magd, S Abou; Zahra, R Abou

    2008-01-01

    The kinetics of cell growth and Cyclosporin A (Cyc A) production by Tolypocladium inflatum were studied in shake flasks and bioreactors under controlled and uncontrolled pH conditions. In the case of the shake flask, the production time was extended to 226 h and the maximal antibiotic concentration was 76 mg/l. When scaling up the cultivation process to a bioreactor level, the production time was reduced to only 70 h with a significant increase in both the cell growth and the antibiotic production. The maximal dry cell weights in the case of the controlled pH and uncontrolled pH cultures in the bioreactor were 22.4 g/l and 14.2 g/l, respectively. The corresponding maximal dry cell weight values did not exceed 7.25 g/l with the shake flask cultures. The maximal values for Cyc A production were 144.72 and 131.4 mg/l for the controlled and uncontrolled pH cultures, respectively. It is also worth noting that a significant reduction was observed in both the dry cell mass and the antibiotic concentration after the Cyc A production phase, whereas the highest rate of antibiotic degradation was observed in the stirred tank bioreactor with an uncontrolled pH. Morphological characterization of the micromorphological cell growth (mycelial/pellet forms) was also performed during cultivation in the bioreactor.

  10. Hepatic Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in a Perfused Three-Dimensional Multicompartment Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Freyer, Nora; Knöspel, Fanny; Strahl, Nadja; Amini, Leila; Schrade, Petra; Bachmann, Sebastian; Damm, Georg; Seehofer, Daniel; Jacobs, Frank; Monshouwer, Mario; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The hepatic differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) holds great potential for application in regenerative medicine, pharmacological drug screening, and toxicity testing. However, full maturation of hiPSC into functional hepatocytes has not yet been achieved. In this study, we investigated the potential of a dynamic three-dimensional (3D) hollow fiber membrane bioreactor technology to improve the hepatic differentiation of hiPSC in comparison to static two-dimensional (2D) cultures. A total of 100 × 106 hiPSC were seeded into each 3D bioreactor (n = 3). Differentiation into definitive endoderm (DE) was induced by adding activin A, Wnt3a, and sodium butyrate to the culture medium. For further maturation, hepatocyte growth factor and oncostatin M were added. The same differentiation protocol was applied to hiPSC maintained in 2D cultures. Secretion of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a marker for DE, was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in 2D cultures, while secretion of albumin, a typical characteristic for mature hepatocytes, was higher after hepatic differentiation of hiPSC in 3D bioreactors. Functional analysis of multiple cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes showed activity of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 in both groups, although at a lower level compared to primary human hepatocytes (PHH). CYP2B6 activities were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in 3D bioreactors compared with 2D cultures, which is in line with results from gene expression. Immunofluorescence staining showed that the majority of cells was positive for albumin, cytokeratin 18 (CK18), and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha (HNF4A) at the end of the differentiation process. In addition, cytokeratin 19 (CK19) staining revealed the formation of bile duct-like structures in 3D bioreactors similar to native liver tissue. The results indicate a better maturation of hiPSC in the 3D bioreactor system compared to 2D cultures and emphasize the potential of dynamic 3D culture

  11. Production of Newcastle Disease Virus by Vero Cells Grown on Cytodex 1 Microcarriers in a 2-Litre Stirred Tank Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Arifin, Mohd Azmir; Mel, Maizirwan; Abdul Karim, Mohamed Ismail; Ideris, Aini

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare a model for the production of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) lentogenic F strain using cell culture in bioreactor for live attenuated vaccine preparation. In this study, firstly we investigated the growth of Vero cells in several culture media. The maximum cell number was yielded by culture of Vero cells in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) which was 1.93 × 106 cells/ml. Secondly Vero cells were grown in two-litre stirred tank bioreactor by using several commercial microcarriers. We achieved the maximum cell concentration about 7.95 × 105 cells/ml when using Cytodex 1. Later we produced Newcastle Disease virus in stirred tank bioreactor based on the design developed using Taguchi L4 method. Results reveal that higher multiplicity of infection (MOI) and size of cell inoculums can yield higher virus titer. Finally, virus samples were purified using high-speed centrifugation based on 3∗∗(3-1) Fractional Factorial Design. Statistical analysis showed that the maximum virus titer can be achieved at virus sample concentration of 58.45% (v/v), centrifugation speed of 13729 rpm, and centrifugation time of 4 hours. As a conclusion, high yield of virus titer could be achieved through optimization of cell culture in bioreactor and separation by high-speed centrifugation. PMID:20625497

  12. Bioreactor culture of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and effects of nitrogen source, inoculum size, and conditioned medium on biomass production.

    PubMed

    Gorret, Nathalie; bin Rosli, Samsul Kamal; Oppenheim, Sheldon F; Willis, Laura B; Lessard, Philip A; Rha, ChoKyun; Sinskey, Anthony J

    2004-03-18

    We report the successful culture of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) suspension cells in a bioreactor. In vitro propagation of this perennial monocotyledonous tree is an important part of the oil palm industry's approach to clonal propagation of high-yielding accessions. During culture of oil palm cells in a batch bioreactor, nutrients and extracellular metabolites were monitored, and kinetic parameters and nutrient-to-biomass conversion yields were calculated. The biomass increased approximately 3.5-fold per month, consistent with values reported for shake flask cultures. Although the carbon source was completely depleted by the end of the run, nitrogen sources remained in large excess and the sugar-to-biomass conversion yield remained low. Linear growth indicated that the cells were limited. The results obtained from the bioreactor runs indicated that we should be able to improve biomass production by carrying out optimization studies. Therefore, we initiated multi-factorial analyses using response surface experimental designs to investigate the effects of different nitrogen sources, as well as inoculum size and conditioned medium, on biomass production in flask cultures. Whereas glutamine does not have a significant effect on biomass production, ammonia has a positive effect up to an optimum concentration. Both inoculum density and conditioned medium have positive, synergistic effects on biomass production.

  13. Bioreactor rotating wall vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells.

  14. Bioreactor rotating wall vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells.

  15. Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells in Hollow Fiber Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Matthew; Tilles, Arno W.; Milwid, Jack M.; Hammad, Mohamed; Lee, Jungwoo; Yarmush, Martin L.; Parekkadan, Biju

    2011-01-01

    The transplantation of human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) is a novel immunotherapeutic approach that is currently being explored in many clinical settings. Evidence suggests that the efficacy of cell transplantation is directly associated with soluble factors released by human BMSCs. In order to harness these secreted factors, we integrated BMSCs into large-scale hollow-fiber bioreactor devices in which the cells (separated by a semipermeable polyethersulfone (PES) membrane) can directly and continuously release therapeutic factors into the blood stream. BMSCs were found to be rapidly adherent and exhibited long-term viability on PES fibers. The cells also preserved their immunophenotype under physiologic fluid flow rates in the bioreactor, and exhibited no signs of differentiation during device operation, but still retained the capacity to differentiate into osteoblastic lineages. BMSC devices released growth factors and cytokines at comparable levels on a per cell basis to conventional cell culture platforms. Finally, we utilized a potency assay to demonstrate the therapeutic potential of the collected secreted factors from the BMSC devices. In summary, we have shown that culturing BMSCs in a large-scale hollow fiber bioreactor is feasible without deleterious effects on phenotype, thus providing a platform for collecting and delivering the paracrine secretions of these cells. PMID:21710576

  16. Engineering of rat articular cartilage on porous sponges: effects of tgf-beta 1 and microgravity bioreactor culture.

    PubMed

    Emin, Nuray; Koç, Aysel; Durkut, Serap; Elçin, A Eser; Elçin, Y Murat

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an engineered rat hyaline cartilage by culturing articular chondrocytes on three-dimensional (3D) macroporous poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) sponges under chondrogenic induction and microgravity bioreactor conditions. Experimental groups consisted of 3D static and dynamic cultures, while a single cell monolayer (2D) served as the control. The effect of seeding conditions (static vs. dynamic) on cellularization of the scaffolds was investigated. MTT assay was used to evaluate the number of viable cells in each group at different time points. Formation of a hyaline-like cartilage was evaluated for up to 4 weeks in vitro. While 2D culture resulted in cell sheets with very poor matrix production, 3D culture was in the favor of tissue formation. A higher yield of cell attachment and spatially uniform cell distribution was achieved when dynamic seeding technique was used. Dynamic culture promoted cell growth and infiltration throughout the sponge structure and showed the formation of cartilage tissue, while chondrogenesis appeared attenuated more towards the outer region of the constructs in the static culture group. Medium supplemented with TGF-beta 1 (5 ng/ml) had a positive impact on proteoglycan production as confirmed by histochemical analyses with Alcian blue and Safranin-O stainings. Formation of hyaline-like tissue was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry performed with antibodies against type II collagen and aggrecan. SEM confirmed higher level of cellularization and cartilage tissue formation in bioreactor cultures induced by TGF-beta 1. The data suggest that PLGA sponge inside rotating bioreactor with chondrogenic medium provides an environment that mediates isolated rat chondrocytes to redifferentiate and form hyaline-like rat cartilage, in vitro.

  17. NASA's Bioreactor: Growing Cells in a Microgravity Environment. Educational Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This brief discusses growing cells in a microgravity environment for grades 9-12. Students are provided with plans for building a classroom bioreactor that can then be used with the included activity on seed growth in a microgravity environment. Additional experimental ideas are also suggested along with a history and background on microgravity…

  18. Thick-tissue bioreactor as a platform for long-term organotypic culture and drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Markov, Dmitry A.; Lu, Jenny Q.; Samson, Philip C.; Wikswo, John P.; McCawley, Lisa J.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a novel, portable, gravity-fed, microfluidics-based platform suitable for optical interrogation of long-term organotypic cell culture. This system is designed to provide convenient control of cell maintenance, nutrients, and experimental reagent delivery to tissue-like cell densities housed in a transparent, low-volume microenvironment. To demonstrate the ability of our Thick-Tissue Bioreactor (TTB) to provide stable, long-term maintenance of high-density cellular arrays, we observed the morphogenic growth of human mammary epithelial cell lines, MCF-10A and their invasive variants, cultured under three-dimensional (3D) conditions inside our system. Over the course of 21 days, these cells typically develop into hollow “mammospheres” if cultured in standard 3D Matrigel. This complex morphogenic process requires alterations in a variety of cellular functions, including degradation of extracellular matrix that is regulated by cell-produced matrix proteinases. For our “drug” delivery testing and validation experiments we have introduced proteinase inhibitors into the fluid supply system, and we observed both reduced proteinase activity and inhibited cellular morphogenesis. The size inhibition results correlated well with the overall proteinase activities of the tested cells. PMID:22964798

  19. Stirred suspension bioreactors as a novel method to enrich germ cells from pre-pubertal pig testis

    PubMed Central

    Dores, Camila; Rancourt, Derrick; Dobrinski, Ina

    2015-01-01

    To study spermatogonial stem cells the heterogeneous testicular cell population first needs to be enriched for undifferentiated spermatogonia, which contain the stem cell population. When working with non-rodent models, this step requires working with large numbers of cells. Available cell separation methods rely on differential properties of testicular cell types such as expression of specific cell surface proteins, size, density or differential adhesion to substrates to separate germ cells from somatic cells. The objective of this study was to develop an approach that allowed germ cell enrichment while providing efficiency of handling large cell numbers. Here we report the use of stirred suspension bioreactors to exploit the adhesion properties of Sertoli cells to enrich cells obtained from pre-pubertal porcine testes for undifferentiated spermatogonia. We also compared the bioreactor approach with an established differential plating method and the combination of both: stirred suspension bioreactor followed by differential plating. After 66 hours of culture, germ cell enrichment in stirred suspension bioreactors provided 7.3±1.0 fold (n=9), differential plating 9.8±2.4 fold (n=6) and combination of both methods resulted in 9.1±0.3 fold enrichment of germ cells from the initial germ cell population (n=3). To document functionality of cells recovered from the bioreactor, we demonstrated that cells retained their functional ability to reassemble seminiferous tubules de novo after grafting to mouse hosts and to support spermatogenesis. These results demonstrate that the stirred suspension bioreactor allows enrichment of germ cells in a controlled and scalable environment providing an efficient method when handling large cell numbers while reducing variability due to handling. PMID:25877677

  20. Basic biotechnologies essential for the Japanese chemical industry in the 1990's and beyond. Bioreactors, large-scale mammalian cell culture, recombinant DNAs, functional protein systems, and bio-electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimura, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the program is to induce private company laboratories to do research considered essential for the development of new technologies. One group of projects initially funded under the program was in the field of biotechnology. More specifically, the biotechnology projects were aimed at developing technologies for the chemical industry for the decade of the 1990's. Various projects dealt with bioreactors, large-scale cell culture, and recombinant DNA. These initial biotechnology projects have now been completed. The report reviews their accomplishments and assesses their possible impact on the Japanese chemical industry. A new project on functional protein complexes was added in 1989. Progress on the nine-year project is also reviewed. Finally, an assessment is provided of the biotechnology components of an unrelated group of projects being administered by the Research and Development Association for Future Electron Devices. The relevant components in the program involve bio-electronic devices and functional protein complexes. The objectives are to mimic biological systems for use in microsensors, information transmission and processing, artificial tissues and organs, robotics, and artificial intelligence.

  1. Expansion and long-term maintenance of induced pluripotent stem cells in stirred suspension bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Shafa, Mehdi; Sjonnesen, Kirsten; Yamashita, Akihiro; Liu, Shiying; Michalak, Marek; Kallos, Michael S; Rancourt, Derrick E

    2012-06-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can provide an important source of cells for the next-generation of cell therapies in regenerative medicine, in part due to their similarity to embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Patient-specific iPSCs represent an opportunity for autologous cell therapies that are not restricted by immunological, ethical and technical obstacles. One of the technical hurdles that must be overcome before iPSCs can be clinically implemented is the scalable, reproducible production of iPSCs and their differentiated progeny. All of the iPSC lines established thus far have been generated and expanded with static tissue culture protocols, which are time-consuming and suffer from batch-to-batch variability. Alternatively, stirred suspension bioreactors propose several benefits and their homogeneous culture environment facilitates the large-scale expansion required for clinical studies at less cost. We have previously developed protocols for expanding murine and human ESCs as undifferentiated aggregates in stirred suspension bioreactors. The resulting cells were karyotypically normal, expressed pluripotency markers and could be differentiated into all three germ lineages, both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we demonstrate that stirred suspension bioreactors yield 58-fold expansion of undifferentiated pluripotent iPSCs over 4 days. In vitro differentiation into cartilage, bone and cardiomyocytes lineages, in addition to in vivo teratoma formation, further confirmed the existence of fully functional and undifferentiated pluripotent iPSC aggregates following long-term passaging. Stirred suspension bioreactor culture represents an efficient process for the large-scale expansion and maintenance of iPSCs, which is an important first step in their clinical application. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Hydrostatic pressure and shear stress affect endothelin-1 and nitric oxide release by endothelial cells in bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Vozzi, Federico; Bianchi, Francesca; Ahluwalia, Arti; Domenici, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Abundant experimental evidence demonstrates that endothelial cells are sensitive to flow; however, the effect of fluid pressure or pressure gradients that are used to drive viscous flow is not well understood. There are two principal physical forces exerted on the blood vessel wall by the passage of intra-luminal blood: pressure and shear. To analyze the effects of pressure and shear independently, these two stresses were applied to cultured cells in two different types of bioreactors: a pressure-controlled bioreactor and a laminar flow bioreactor, in which controlled levels of pressure or shear stress, respectively, can be generated. Using these bioreactor systems, endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) release from human umbilical vein endothelial cells were measured under various shear stress and pressure conditions. Compared to the controls, a decrease of ET-1 production by the cells cultured in both bioreactors was observed, whereas NO synthesis was up-regulated in cells under shear stress, but was not modulated by hydrostatic pressure. These results show that the two hemodynamic forces acting on blood vessels affect endothelial cell function in different ways, and that both should be considered when planning in vitro experiments in the presence of flow. Understanding the individual and synergic effects of the two forces could provide important insights into physiological and pathological processes involved in vascular remodeling and adaptation.

  3. Organ culture bioreactors--platforms to study human intervertebral disc degeneration and regenerative therapy.

    PubMed

    Gantenbein, Benjamin; Illien-Jünger, Svenja; Chan, Samantha C W; Walser, Jochen; Haglund, Lisbet; Ferguson, Stephen J; Iatridis, James C; Grad, Sibylle

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades the application of bioreactors has revolutionized the concept of culturing tissues and organs that require mechanical loading. In intervertebral disc (IVD) research, collaborative efforts of biomedical engineering, biology and mechatronics have led to the innovation of new loading devices that can maintain viable IVD organ explants from large animals and human cadavers in precisely defined nutritional and mechanical environments over extended culture periods. Particularly in spine and IVD research, these organ culture models offer appealing alternatives, as large bipedal animal models with naturally occurring IVD degeneration and a genetic background similar to the human condition do not exist. Latest research has demonstrated important concepts including the potential of homing of mesenchymal stem cells to nutritionally or mechanically stressed IVDs, and the regenerative potential of "smart" biomaterials for nucleus pulposus or annulus fibrosus repair. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about cell therapy, injection of cytokines and short peptides to rescue the degenerating IVD. We further stress that most bioreactor systems simplify the real in vivo conditions providing a useful proof of concept. Limitations are that certain aspects of the immune host response and pain assessments cannot be addressed with ex vivo systems. Coccygeal animal disc models are commonly used because of their availability and similarity to human IVDs. Although in vitro loading environments are not identical to the human in vivo situation, 3D ex vivo organ culture models of large animal coccygeal and human lumbar IVDs should be seen as valid alternatives for screening and feasibility testing to augment existing small animal, large animal, and human clinical trial experiments.

  4. Effective enrichment of cholangiocarcinoma secretomes using the hollow fiber bioreactor culture system.

    PubMed

    Weeraphan, Churat; Diskul-Na-Ayudthaya, Penchatr; Chiablaem, Khajeelak; Khongmanee, Amnart; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Subhasitanont, Pantipa; Svasti, Jisnuson; Srisomsap, Chantragan

    2012-09-15

    The Northeastern region of Thailand is well known to have high incidence of bile duct cancer known as cholangiocarcinoma. So there is a continued need to improve diagnosis and treatment, and discovery of biomarkers for early detection of bile duct cancer should greatly improve treatment outcome for these patients. The secretome, a collection of proteins secreted from cells, is a useful source for identifying circulating biomarkers in blood secreted from cancer cells. Here a Hollow Fiber Bioreactor culture system was used for enrichment of cholangiocarcinoma secretomes, since this culture system mimics the dense three-dimensional microenvironment of the tumor found in vivo. Two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis using a sensitive Fluor saturation dye staining, followed by LC/MS/MS, was used to compare protein expression in the secretomes of cells cultured in the Hollow Fiber system and cells cultured in the monolayer culture system. For the first time, the 2D-patterns of cholangiocarcinoma secretomes from the two culture systems could be compared. The Hollow Fiber system improved the quality and quantity of cholangiocarcinoma secreted proteins compared to conventional monolayer system, showing less interference by cytoplasmic proteins and yielding more secreted proteins. Overall, 75 spots were analyzed by LC/MS/MS and 106 secreted proteins were identified. Two novel secreted proteins (C19orf10 and cystatin B) were found only in the Hollow Fiber system and were absent from the traditional monolayer culture system. Among the highly expressed proteins, 22 secreted soluble proteins were enriched by 5 fold in Hollow Fiber system compared to monolayer culture system. The Hollow Fiber system is therefore useful for preparing a wide range of proteins from low-abundance cell secretomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultrastructure and Viral Metagenome of Bacteriophages from an Anaerobic Methane Oxidizing Methylomirabilis Bioreactor Enrichment Culture

    PubMed Central

    Gambelli, Lavinia; Cremers, Geert; Mesman, Rob; Guerrero, Simon; Dutilh, Bas E.; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.; van Niftrik, Laura

    2016-01-01

    With its capacity for anaerobic methane oxidation and denitrification, the bacterium Methylomirabilis oxyfera plays an important role in natural ecosystems. Its unique physiology can be exploited for more sustainable wastewater treatment technologies. However, operational stability of full-scale bioreactors can experience setbacks due to, for example, bacteriophage blooms. By shaping microbial communities through mortality, horizontal gene transfer, and metabolic reprogramming, bacteriophages are important players in most ecosystems. Here, we analyzed an infected Methylomirabilis sp. bioreactor enrichment culture using (advanced) electron microscopy, viral metagenomics and bioinformatics. Electron micrographs revealed four different viral morphotypes, one of which was observed to infect Methylomirabilis cells. The infected cells contained densely packed ~55 nm icosahedral bacteriophage particles with a putative internal membrane. Various stages of virion assembly were observed. Moreover, during the bacteriophage replication, the host cytoplasmic membrane appeared extremely patchy, which suggests that the bacteriophages may use host bacterial lipids to build their own putative internal membrane. The viral metagenome contained 1.87 million base pairs of assembled viral sequences, from which five putative complete viral genomes were assembled and manually annotated. Using bioinformatics analyses, we could not identify which viral genome belonged to the Methylomirabilis- infecting bacteriophage, in part because the obtained viral genome sequences were novel and unique to this reactor system. Taken together these results show that new bacteriophages can be detected in anaerobic cultivation systems and that the effect of bacteriophages on the microbial community in these systems is a topic for further study. PMID:27877158

  6. Generation of 3D retina-like structures from a human retinal cell line in a NASA bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Dutt, Kamla; Harris-Hooker, Sandra; Ellerson, Debra; Layne, Dione; Kumar, Ravindra; Hunt, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Replacement of damaged cells is a promising approach for treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP); however, availability of donor tissue for transplantation remains a major obstacle. Key factors for successful engineering of a tissue include the identification of a neural cell line that is: homogeneous but can be expanded to give rise to multiple cells types; is nontumorigenic, yet capable of secreting neurotrophic factors; and is able to form three-dimensional (3D), differentiated structures. The goal of this study was to test the feasibility of tissue engineering from a multipotential human retinal cell line using a NASA-developed bioreactor. A multipotential human retinal precursor cell line was used to generate 3D structures. In addition, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells were cocultured with neural cells to determine if 3D retinal structures could be generated in the bioreactor with cells grown on laminin-coated cytodex 3 beads. Cell growth, morphology, and differentiation were monitored by light and scanning electron microscopy, Western blot analysis, and analysis of glucose use and lactate production. The neuronal retinal precursor cell line cultured in a bioreactor gave rise to most retinal cell types seen in monolayer culture. They formed composite structures with cell-covered beads associated with one another in a tissue-like array. The beginning of layering and/or separation of cell types was observed. The neuronal cell types previously seen in monolayer cultures were also seen in the bioreactor. Some of the retinal cells differentiate into photoreceptors in the bioreactor with well-developed outer segment-like structures, a process that is critical for retinal function. Moreover, the neuronal cells that were generated resembled their in vivo phenotype more closely than those grown under other conditions. Outer segments were almost never seen in the monolayer cultures, even in the presence of photoreceptor

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of dense cell populations for metabolic studies and bioreactor engineering: a synergistic partnership.

    PubMed

    Dale, B E; Gillies, R J

    1991-01-01

    Commercial exploitation of the fruits of recombinant DNA and cell fusion technologies is significantly limited by the lack of fundamental metabolic information on the cell lines of interest, whether these are plant, animal, insect, or microbial cells. NMR can help to provide this information and thereby improve bioreactor design and operation. However, in the case of on-line NMR of dense cell culture devices for metabolic studies, these devices are inherently heterogeneous bioreactors. To ensure that the metabolic information generated is reliable, a number of precautions should be taken. These are the same precautions that should be taken to ensure that commercial bioreactors operate in a reaction-controlled regime. Therefore, reactor engineering methodologies, particularly diffusion and reaction analyses and reaction monitoring by whole-cell NMR must go hand in hand, each extending, complementing, and validating the other.

  8. Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc. has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc. is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

  9. Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc., has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc., is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

  10. Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc. has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc. is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

  11. Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc., has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc., is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

  12. A modular microfluidic bioreactor with improved throughput for evaluation of polarized renal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Brakeman, Paul; Miao, Simeng; Cheng, Jin; Roy, Shuvo; Fissell, William H.; Ferrell, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Most current microfluidic cell culture systems are integrated single use devices. This can limit throughput and experimental design options, particularly for epithelial cells, which require significant time in culture to obtain a fully differentiated phenotype. In addition, epithelial cells require a porous growth substrate in order to fully polarize their distinct apical and basolateral membranes. We have developed a modular microfluidic system using commercially available porous culture inserts to evaluate polarized epithelial cells under physiologically relevant fluid flow conditions. The cell-support for the bioreactor is a commercially available microporous membrane that is ready to use in a 6-well format, allowing for cells to be seeded in advance in replicates and evaluated for polarization and barrier function prior to experimentation. The reusable modular system can be easily assembled and disassembled using these mature cells, thus improving experimental throughput and minimizing fabrication requirements. The bioreactor consists of an apical microfluidic flow path and a static basolateral chamber that is easily accessible from the outside of the device. The basolateral chamber acts as a reservoir for transport across the cell layer. We evaluated the effect of initiation of apical shear flow on short-term intracellular signaling and mRNA expression using primary human renal epithelial cells (HRECs). Ten min and 5 h after initiation of apical fluid flow over a stable monolayer of HRECs, cells demonstrated increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase and increased expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6) mRNA, respectively. This bioreactor design provides a modular platform with rapid experimental turn-around time to study various epithelial cell functions under physiologically meaningful flow conditions. PMID:27917253

  13. Unique cell culture systems for ground based research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Marian L.

    1990-01-01

    The horizontally rotating fluid-filled, membrane oxygenated bioreactors developed at NASA Johnson for spacecraft applications provide a powerful tool for ground-based research. Three-dimensional aggregates formed by cells cultured on microcarrier beads are useful for study of cell-cell interactions and tissue development. By comparing electron micrographs of plant seedlings germinated during Shuttle flight 61-C and in an earth-based rotating bioreactor it is shown that some effects of microgravity are mimicked. Bioreactors used in the UAH Bioreactor Laboratory will make it possible to determine some of the effects of altered gravity at the cellular level. Bioreactors can be valuable for performing critical, preliminary-to-spaceflight experiments as well as medical investigations such as in vitro tumor cell growth and chemotherapeutic drug response; the enrichment of stem cells from bone marrow; and the effect of altered gravity on bone and muscle cell growth and function and immune response depression.

  14. Unique cell culture systems for ground based research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Marian L.

    1990-01-01

    The horizontally rotating fluid-filled, membrane oxygenated bioreactors developed at NASA Johnson for spacecraft applications provide a powerful tool for ground-based research. Three-dimensional aggregates formed by cells cultured on microcarrier beads are useful for study of cell-cell interactions and tissue development. By comparing electron micrographs of plant seedlings germinated during Shuttle flight 61-C and in an earth-based rotating bioreactor it is shown that some effects of microgravity are mimicked. Bioreactors used in the UAH Bioreactor Laboratory will make it possible to determine some of the effects of altered gravity at the cellular level. Bioreactors can be valuable for performing critical, preliminary-to-spaceflight experiments as well as medical investigations such as in vitro tumor cell growth and chemotherapeutic drug response; the enrichment of stem cells from bone marrow; and the effect of altered gravity on bone and muscle cell growth and function and immune response depression.

  15. Shear stress influences the pluripotency of murine embryonic stem cells in stirred suspension bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Gareau, Tia; Lara, Giovanna G; Shepherd, Robert D; Krawetz, Roman; Rancourt, Derrick E; Rinker, Kristina D; Kallos, Michael S

    2014-04-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have been used increasingly in research as primary material for various tissue-engineering applications. Pluripotency, or the ability to give rise to all cells of the body, is an important characteristic of ESCs. Traditional methods use leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) to maintain murine embryonic stem cell (mESC) pluripotency in static and bioreactor cultures. When LIF is removed from mESCs in static cultures, pluripotency genes are downregulated and the cultures will spontaneously differentiate. Recently we have shown the maintenance of pluripotency gene expression of mESCs in stirred suspension bioreactors during differentiation experiments in the absence of LIF. This is undesired in a differentiation experiment, where the goal is downregulation of pluripotency gene expression and upregulation of gene expression characteristic to the differentiation. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine how effectively different levels of shear stress [100 rpm (6 dyne/cm(2) ), 60 rpm (3 dyne/cm(2) )] maintained and influenced pluripotency in suspension bioreactors. The pluripotency markers Oct-4, Nanog, Sox-2 and Rex-1 were assessed using gene expression profiles and flow-cytometry analysis and showed that shear stress does maintain and influence the gene expression of certain pluripotency markers. Some significant differences between the two levels of shear stress were seen and the combination of shear stress and LIF was observed to synergistically increase the expression of certain pluripotency markers. Overall, this study provides a better understanding of the environmental conditions within suspension bioreactors and how these conditions affect the pluripotency of mESCs.

  16. Equipment for large-scale mammalian cell culture.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Sadettin S

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides information on commonly used equipment in industrial mammalian cell culture, with an emphasis on bioreactors. The actual equipment used in the cell culture process can vary from one company to another, but the main steps remain the same. The process involves expansion of cells in seed train and inoculation train processes followed by cultivation of cells in a production bioreactor. Process and equipment options for each stage of the cell culture process are introduced and examples are provided. Finally, the use of disposables during seed train and cell culture production is discussed.

  17. Serum-free culture of primary human hepatocytes in a miniaturized hollow-fibre membrane bioreactor for pharmacological in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Lübberstedt, Marc; Müller-Vieira, Ursula; Biemel, Klaus M; Darnell, Malin; Hoffmann, Stefan A; Knöspel, Fanny; Wönne, Eva C; Knobeloch, Daniel; Nüssler, Andreas K; Gerlach, Jörg C; Andersson, Tommy B; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2015-09-01

    Primary human hepatocytes represent an important cell source for in vitro investigation of hepatic drug metabolism and disposition. In this study, a multi-compartment capillary membrane-based bioreactor technology for three-dimensional (3D) perfusion culture was further developed and miniaturized to a volume of less than 0.5 ml to reduce demand for cells. The miniaturized bioreactor was composed of two capillary layers, each made of alternately arranged oxygen and medium capillaries serving as a 3D culture for the cells. Metabolic activity and stability of primary human hepatocytes was studied in this bioreactor in the presence of 2.5% fetal calf serum (FCS) under serum-free conditions over a culture period of 10 days. The miniaturized bioreactor showed functions comparable to previously reported data for larger variants. Glucose and lactate metabolism, urea production, albumin synthesis and release of intracellular enzymes (AST, ALT, GLDH) showed no significant differences between serum-free and serum-supplemented bioreactors. Activities of human-relevant cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes (CYP1A2, CYP3A4/5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2B6) analyzed by determination of product formation rates from selective probe substrates were also comparable in both groups. Gene expression analysis showed moderately higher expression in the majority of CYP enzymes, transport proteins and enzymes of Phase II metabolism in the serum-free bioreactors compared to those maintained with FCS. In conclusion, the miniaturized bioreactor maintained stable function over the investigated period and thus provides a suitable system for pharmacological studies on primary human hepatocytes under defined serum-free conditions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. High cell density cultivation of recombinant yeasts and bacteria under non-pressurized and pressurized conditions in stirred tank bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Arnd; Bartsch, Stefan; Husemann, Bernward; Engel, Philip; Schroer, Kirsten; Ribeiro, Betina; Stöckmann, Christoph; Seletzky, Juri; Büchs, Jochen

    2007-10-31

    This study demonstrates the applicability of pressurized stirred tank bioreactors for oxygen transfer enhancement in aerobic cultivation processes. The specific power input and the reactor pressure was employed as process variable. As model organism Escherichia coli, Arxula adeninivorans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Corynebacterium glutamicum were cultivated to high cell densities. By applying specific power inputs of approx. 48kWm(-3) the oxygen transfer rate of a E. coli culture in the non-pressurized stirred tank bioreactor was lifted up to values of 0.51moll(-1)h(-1). When a reactor pressure up to 10bar was applied, the oxygen transfer rate of a pressurized stirred tank bioreactor was lifted up to values of 0.89moll(-1)h(-1). The non-pressurized stirred tank bioreactor was able to support non-oxygen limited growth of cell densities of more than 40gl(-1) cell dry weight (CDW) of E. coli, whereas the pressurized stirred tank bioreactor was able to support non-oxygen limited growth of cell densities up to 225gl(-1) CDW of A. adeninivorans, 89gl(-1) CDW of S. cerevisiae, 226gl(-1) CDW of C. glutamicum and 110gl(-1) CDW of E. coli. Compared to literature data, some of these cell densities are the highest values ever achieved in high cell density cultivation of microorganisms in stirred tank bioreactors. By comparing the specific power inputs as well as the k(L)a values of both systems, it is demonstrated that only the pressure is a scaleable tool for oxygen transfer enhancement in industrial stirred tank bioreactors. Furthermore, it was shown that increased carbon dioxide partial pressures did not remarkably inhibit the growth of the investigated model organisms.

  19. Production of ethanol directly from potato starch by mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger using electrochemical bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Bo Young; Kim, Dae Hee; Na, Byung Kwan; Ahn, Dae Hee; Park, Doo Hyun

    2008-03-01

    When cultivated aerobically, Aspergillus niger hyphae produced extracellular glucoamylase, which catalyzes the saccharification of unliquified potato starch into glucose, but not when grown under anaerobic conditions. The Km and Vmax of the extracellular glucoamylase were 652.3 mg starch l-1 and 253.3 mg glucose l-1 min-1, respectively. In mixed culture of A. niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, oxygen had a negative influence on the alcohol fermentation of yeast, but activated fungal growth. Therefore, oxygen is a critical factor for ethanol production in the mixed culture, and its generation through electrolysis of water in an electrochemical bioreactor needs to be optimized for ethanol production from starch by coculture of fungal hyphae and yeast cells. By applying pulsed electric fields (PEF) into the electrochemical bioreactor, ethanol production from starch improved significantly: Ethanol produced from 50 g potato starch l-1 by a mixed culture of A. niger and S. cerevisiae was about 5 g l-1 in a conventional bioreactor, but was 9 g l-1 in 5 volts of PEF and about 19 g l-1 in 4 volts of PEF for 5 days.

  20. A novel multi-coaxial hollow fiber bioreactor for adherent cell types. Part 1: hydrodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Stephen P; Hsu, Edward; Reid, Lola M; Macdonald, Jeffrey M

    2002-01-05

    A novel multi-coaxial bioreactor for three-dimensional cultures of adherent cell types, such as liver, is described. It is composed of four tubes of increasing diameter placed one inside the other, creating four spatially isolated compartments. Liver acinar structure and physiological parameters are mimicked by sandwiching cells in the space between the two innermost semi-permeable tubes, or hollows fibers, and creating a radial flow of media from an outer compartment (ECC), through the cell mass compartment, and to an inner compartment (ICC). The outermost compartment is created by gas-permeable tubing, and the housing is used to oxygenate the perfusion media to periportal levels in the ECC. Experiments were performed using distilled water to correlate the radial flow rate (Q(r)) with (1) the pressure drop (DeltaP) between the media compartments that sandwich the cell compartment and (2) the pressure in the cell compartment (P(c)). These results were compared with the theoretical profile calculated based on the hydraulic permeability of the two innermost fibers. Phase-contrast velocity-encoded magnetic resonance imaging was used to visualize directly the axial velocities inside the bioreactor and confirm the assumptions of laminar flow and zero axial velocity at the boundaries of each compartment in the bioreactor. Axial flow rates were calculated from the magnetic resonance imaging results and were similar to the measured axial flow rates for the previously described experiments.

  1. Plant Cell-Based Recombinant Antibody Manufacturing with a 200 L Orbitally Shaken Disposable Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Raven, Nicole; Schillberg, Stefan; Rasche, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco BY-2 cells are an attractive platform for the manufacture of a variety of biopharmaceutical proteins, including antibodies. Here, we describe the scaled-up cultivation of human IgG-secreting BY-2 cells in a 200 L orbitally shaken disposable bioreactor, resulting in cell growth and recombinant protein yields that are proportionately comparable with those obtained from cultivations in 500 mL shake flasks. Furthermore, we present an efficient downstream process for antibody recovery from the viscous spent culture medium using expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography.

  2. Pilot-scale culture of somatic embryos of Eleutherococcus senticosus in airlift bioreactors for the production of eleutherosides.

    PubMed

    Shohael, Abdullah Mohammad; Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Paek, Kee Yoeup

    2014-08-01

    To establish pilot scale bioreactor cultures of somatic embryos of Siberian ginseng for the production of biomass and eleutherosides. Somatic embryos of Eleutherococcus senticosus were cultured in airlift bioreactors using Murashige and Skoog medium with 30 g sucrose l(-1) for the production of biomass and eleutherosides. Various parameters including the type of bioreactor, aeration volume, and inoculum density were optimized for 3 l capacity bioreactors. Balloon-type airlift bioreactors, utilizing a variable aeration volume of 0.1-0.3 vvm and an inoculum of 5 g l(-1), were suitable for biomass and eleutheroside production. In 500 l balloon-type airlift bioreactors, 11.3 g dry biomass l(-1), 220 µg eleutheroside B l(-1), 413 µg eleutheroside E l(-1), and 262 µg eleutheroside E1 l(-1) were produced.

  3. Cognitive optimization of microbial PHB production in an optimally dispersed bioreactor by single and mixed cultures.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Pratap R

    2009-06-01

    Cognitive (or intelligent) models are often superior to mechanistic models for nonideal bioreactors. Two kinds of cognitive models--cybernetic and neural--were applied recently to fed-batch fermentation by Ralstonia eutropha in a bioreactor with optimum finite dispersion. In the present work, these models have been applied in simulation studies of co-cultures of R. eutropha and Lactobacillus delbrueckii. The results for both cognitive and mechanistic models have been compared with single cultures. Neural models were the most effective for both types of cultures and mechanistic models the least effective. Simulations with co-culture fermentations predicted more PHB than single cultures with all three types of models. Significantly, the predicted enhancements in PHB concentration by cognitive methods for mixed cultures were four to five times larger than the corresponding increases in biomass concentration. Further improvements are possible through a hybrid combination of all three types of models.

  4. Biofilm productivity and concomitant cell autolysis in a membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Govender, S

    2011-02-01

    Phanerochaete chrysoporium morphology and manganese peroxidase (MnP) productivity was characterised in a scalable, modularised 1145 cm(3) membrane gradostat reactor in response to switching between an enhanced production medium and a nutrient limited feed (50% C and N reduction). Irrespective of the feed composition used nutrients permeating from the lumen of the ultrafiltration membrane matrix established nutrient gradients across the immobilised biofilm with distinct primary, stationary and decline growth phases observed. Severe nutrient C and N limitation did not change the cyclic nature of enzyme production (MnP(max) = 189.5 U l(-1)) but did reduce the overall bioreactor efficiency from 32 to 22 U l(-1) day(-1). Stress induced secondary metabolism resulted in concomitant cell autolysis causing biomass loss and increased operational flux after 20 days in the 33 day bioreactor operation cycle.

  5. NASA Classroom Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Exploration of space provides a compelling need for cell-based research into the basic mechanisms that underlie the profound changes that occur in terrestrial life that is transitioned to low gravity environments. Toward that end, NASA developed a rotating bioreactor in which cells are cultured while continuously suspended in a cylinder in which the culture medium rotates with the cylinder. The randomization of the gravity vector accomplished by the continuous rotation, in a low shear environment, provides an analog of microgravity. Because cultures grown in bioreactors develop structures and functions that are much closer to those exhibited by native tissue than can be achieved with traditional culture methods, bioreactors have contributed substantially to advancing research in the fields of cancer, diabetes, infectious disease modeling for vaccine production, drug efficacy, and tissue engineering. NASA has developed a Classroom Bioreactor (CB) that is built from parts that are easily obtained and assembled, user-friendly and versatile. It can be easily used in simple school settings to examine the effect cultures of seeds or cells. An educational brief provides assembly instructions and lesson plans that describes activities in science, math and technology that explore free fall, microgravity, orbits, bioreactors, structure-function relationships and the scientific method.

  6. NASA Classroom Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Exploration of space provides a compelling need for cell-based research into the basic mechanisms that underlie the profound changes that occur in terrestrial life that is transitioned to low gravity environments. Toward that end, NASA developed a rotating bioreactor in which cells are cultured while continuously suspended in a cylinder in which the culture medium rotates with the cylinder. The randomization of the gravity vector accomplished by the continuous rotation, in a low shear environment, provides an analog of microgravity. Because cultures grown in bioreactors develop structures and functions that are much closer to those exhibited by native tissue than can be achieved with traditional culture methods, bioreactors have contributed substantially to advancing research in the fields of cancer, diabetes, infectious disease modeling for vaccine production, drug efficacy, and tissue engineering. NASA has developed a Classroom Bioreactor (CB) that is built from parts that are easily obtained and assembled, user-friendly and versatile. It can be easily used in simple school settings to examine the effect cultures of seeds or cells. An educational brief provides assembly instructions and lesson plans that describes activities in science, math and technology that explore free fall, microgravity, orbits, bioreactors, structure-function relationships and the scientific method.

  7. Primary cilia expression in bone marrow in response to mechanical stimulation in explant bioreactor culture.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, T R; Schiavi, J; Alyssa Varsanik, M; Voisin, M; Birmingham, E; Haugh, M G; McNamara, L M; Niebur, G L

    2016-07-19

    Bone marrow contains a multitude of mechanically sensitive cells that may participate in mechanotransduction. Primary cilia are sensory organelles expressed on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), osteoblasts, osteocytes, and other cell types that sense fluid flow in monolayer culture. In marrow, cilia could similarly facilitate the sensation of relative motion between adjacent cells or interstitial fluid. The goal of this study was to determine the response of cilia to mechanical stimulation of the marrow. Bioreactors were used to supply trabecular bone explants with low magnitude mechanical stimulation (LMMS) of 0.3 ×g at 30 Hz for 1 h/d, 5 d/week, inducing shear stresses in the marrow. Four groups were studied: unstimulated (UNSTIM), stimulated (LMMS), and with and without chloral hydrate (UNSTIM+CH and LMMS+CH, respectively), which was used to disrupt cilia. After 19 days of culture, immunohistochemistry for acetylated α-tubulin revealed that more cells expressed cilia in culture compared to in vivo controls. Stimulation decreased the number of cells expressing cilia in untreated explants, but not in CH-treated explants. MSCs represented a greater fraction of marrow cells in the untreated explants than CH-treated explants. MSCs harvested from the stimulated groups were more proliferative than in the unstimulated explants, but this effect was absent from CH treated explants. In contrast to the marrow, neither LMMS nor CH treatment affected bone formation as measured by mineralising surface. Computational models indicated that LMMS does not induce bone strain, and the reported effects were thus attributed to shear stress in the marrow. From a clinical perspective, genetic or pharmaceutical alterations of cilia expression may affect marrow health and function.

  8. Lactic acid fermentation in cell-recycle membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, B; Swaminathan, T

    2006-02-01

    Traditional lactic acid fermentation suffers from low productivity and low product purity. Cell-recycle fermentation has become one of the methods to obtain high cell density, which results in higher productivity. Lactic acid fermentation was investigated in a cell-recycle membrane bioreactor at higher substrate concentrations of 100 and 120 g/dm3. A maximum cell density of 145 g/dm3 and a maximum productivity of 34 g/(dm3.h) were achieved in cell-recycle fermentation. In spite of complete consumption of substrate, there was a continuous increase in cell density in cell-recycle fermentation. Control of cell density in cell-recycle fermentation was attempted by cell bleeding and reduction in yeast extract concentration.

  9. Process for whole cell saccharification of lignocelluloses to sugars using a dual bioreactor system

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Jue [Okemos, MI; Okeke, Benedict [Montgomery, AL

    2012-03-27

    The present invention describes a process for saccharification of lignocelluloses to sugars using whole microbial cells, which are enriched from cultures inoculated with paper mill waste water, wood processing waste and soil. A three-member bacterial consortium is selected as a potent microbial inocula and immobilized on inedible plant fibers for biomass saccharification. The present invention further relates the design of a dual bioreactor system, with various biocarriers for enzyme immobilization and repeated use. Sugars are continuously removed eliminating end-product inhibition and consumption by cell.

  10. Binding and Conversion of Selenium in Candida utilis ATCC 9950 Yeasts in Bioreactor Culture.

    PubMed

    Kieliszek, Marek; Błażejak, Stanisław; Kurek, Eliza

    2017-02-25

    Selenium is considered an essential component of all living organisms. The use of yeasts as a selenium supplement in human nutrition has gained much interest over the last decade. The accumulation and biochemical transformation of selenium in yeast cells is particularly interesting to many researchers. In this article, we present the results of the determination of selenium and selenomethionine content in the biomass of feed yeast Candida utilis ATCC 9950 obtained from the culture grown in a bioreactor. The results indicated that C. utilis cells performed the biotransformation of inorganic selenium(IV) to organic derivatives (e.g., selenomethionine). Selenium introduced (20-30 mg Se(4+)∙L(-1)) to the experimental media in the form of sodium(IV) selenite (Na₂SeO₃) salt caused a significant increase in selenium content in the biomass of C. utilis,irrespective of the concentration. The highest amount of selenium (1841 μg∙gd.w.(-1)) was obtained after a 48-h culture in media containing 30 mg Se(4+)∙L(-1). The highest content of selenomethionine (238.8 μg∙gd.w.(-1)) was found after 48-h culture from the experimental medium that was supplemented with selenium at a concentration of 20 mg Se(4+)∙L(-1). Biomass cell in the cultures supplemented with selenium ranged from 1.5 to 14.1 g∙L(-1). The results of this study indicate that yeast cell biomass of C. utilis enriched mainly with the organic forms of selenium can be a valuable source of protein. It creates the possibility of obtaining selenium biocomplexes that can be used in the production of protein-selenium dietary supplements for animals and humans.

  11. Growing Three-Dimensional Cartilage-Cell Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F.; Prewett, Tacey L.; Goodwin, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    Process for growing three-dimensional cultures of mammalian cartilage from normal mammalian cells devised. Effected using horizontal rotating bioreactor described in companion article, "Simplified Bioreactor for Growing Mammalian Cells" (MSC-22060). Bioreactor provides quiescent environment with generous supplies of nutrient and oxygen. Initiated with noncartilage cells. Artificially grown tissue resembles that in mammalian cartilage. Potential use in developing therapies for damage to cartilage by joint and back injuries and by such inflammatory diseases as arthritis and temporal-mandibular joint disease. Also used to test nonsteroid anti-inflammation medicines.

  12. Growing Three-Dimensional Cartilage-Cell Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F.; Prewett, Tacey L.; Goodwin, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    Process for growing three-dimensional cultures of mammalian cartilage from normal mammalian cells devised. Effected using horizontal rotating bioreactor described in companion article, "Simplified Bioreactor for Growing Mammalian Cells" (MSC-22060). Bioreactor provides quiescent environment with generous supplies of nutrient and oxygen. Initiated with noncartilage cells. Artificially grown tissue resembles that in mammalian cartilage. Potential use in developing therapies for damage to cartilage by joint and back injuries and by such inflammatory diseases as arthritis and temporal-mandibular joint disease. Also used to test nonsteroid anti-inflammation medicines.

  13. Effect of human patient plasma ex vivo treatment on gene expression and progenitor cell activation of primary human liver cells in multi-compartment 3D perfusion bioreactors for extra-corporeal liver support.

    PubMed

    Schmelzer, Eva; Mutig, Kerim; Schrade, Petra; Bachmann, Sebastian; Gerlach, Jörg C; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2009-07-01

    Cultivation of primary human liver cells in innovative 3D perfusion multi-compartment capillary membrane bioreactors using decentralized mass exchange and integral oxygenation provides in vitro conditions close to the physiologic environment in vivo. While a few scale-up bioreactors were used clinically, inoculated liver progenitors in these bioreactors were not investigated. Therefore, we characterized regenerative processes and expression patterns of auto- and paracrine mediators involved in liver regeneration in bioreactors after patient treatment. Primary human liver cells containing parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells co-cultivated in bioreactors were used for clinical extra-corporeal liver support to bridge to liver transplantation. 3D tissue re-structuring in bioreactors was studied; expression of proteins and genes related to regenerative processes and hepatic progenitors was analyzed. Formation of multiple bile ductular networks and colonies of putative progenitors were observed within parenchymal cell aggregates. HGF was detected in scattered cells located close to vascular-like structures, expression of HGFA and c-Met was assigned to biliary cells and hepatocytes. Increased expression of genes associated to hepatic progenitors was detected following clinical application. The results confirm auto- and paracrine interactions between co-cultured cells in the bioreactor. The 3D bioreactor provides a valuable tool to study mechanisms of progenitor activation and hepatic regeneration ex vivo under patient plasma treatment. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Large-scale plantlet conversion and ex vitro transplantation efficiency of Siberian ginseng by bioreactor culture.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingli; Zhao, Shicheng; Yu, Changyeon; Li, Chenghao

    2013-01-01

    To achieve large-scale low-cost ex vitro acclimatization of Siberian ginseng plants, heart- and torpedo-shaped secondary somatic embryos (SEs) induced from germinated SEs on agar medium were collected and then inoculated to 10-l bubble column bioreactor, respectively. For plantlet conversion, inoculation of torpedo-shaped secondary SEs was more effective than heart-shaped SEs. TS2 (culture of torpedo-shaped SEs in a bioreactor with a 2-week subculture interval) plantlets had a higher root number and leaf number and larger leaf area than did HS3 (culture of heart-shaped SEs in a bioreactor with a 3-week subculture interval) and HS2 (culture of heart-shaped SEs in a bioreactor with a 2-week subculture interval) plantlets. Of these converted plants, TS2 plantlets had higher survival rate (83.7%) and growth characteristics after transplantation in a simple shed covered with a 50% sunshade net only for 6 months. TS2 plantlets also showed significantly lower H2O2 content and significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione transferase (GST) expression levels as compared to HS2 plants when exposure to ex vitro conditions.

  15. Mammalian cell and protein distributions in ultrafiltration hollow fiber bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Piret, J M; Cooney, C L

    1990-11-01

    The heterogeneous nature of hollow fiber reactors for cell cultivation requires special considerations for proper design and operation. Downstream concentration of high-molecular-weight proteins has been measured in the shell side of ultrafiltration hollow fiber bioreactors. This distribution resulted from shell-side convective fluxes which caused a concentration polarization of proteins retained by the ultrafiltration membranes (nominal 3 x 10(4) D cutoff). Measurements of the axial hybridoma cell distribution also revealed a downstream concentration of viable cells during the first month of perfusion operation. This is believed to result from the shell-side convective flow and its influence on the inoculum and high-molecular-weight growth factor distributions. The heterogeneous distribution of cells leads to reduced cell numbers and reactor productivities. The mechanisms responsible for these phenomena have been investigated and their implications in process design and operation are considered. The heterogeneous protein and cell distributions on the shell side of hollow fiber bioreactors have been reduced significantly by periodic alternation of the direction of recycle flow and the reactor antibody productivities have been doubled.

  16. Expansion of 3D human induced pluripotent stem cell aggregates in bioreactors: Bioprocess intensification and scaling-up approaches.

    PubMed

    Abecasis, Bernardo; Aguiar, Tiago; Arnault, Émilie; Costa, Rita; Gomes-Alves, Patricia; Aspegren, Anders; Serra, Margarida; Alves, Paula M

    2017-03-20

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) are attractive tools for drug screening and disease modeling and promising candidates for cell therapy applications. However, to achieve the high numbers of cells required for these purposes, scalable and clinical-grade technologies must be established. In this study, we use environmentally controlled stirred-tank bioreactors operating in perfusion as a powerful tool for bioprocess intensification of hiPSC production. We demonstrate the importance of controlling the dissolved oxygen concentration at low levels (4%) and perfusion at 1.3day(-1) dilution rate to improve hiPSC growth as aggregates in a xeno-free medium. This strategy allowed for increased cell specific growth rate, maximum volumetric concentrations (4.7×10(6)cell/mL) and expansion factors (approximately 19 in total cells), resulting in a 2.6-fold overall improvement in cell yields. Extensive cell characterization, including whole proteomic analysis, was performed to confirm that cells' pluripotent phenotype was maintained during culture. A scalable protocol for continuous expansion of hiPSC aggregates in bioreactors was implemented using mechanical dissociation for aggregate disruption and cell passaging. A total expansion factor of 1100 in viable cells was obtained in 11days of culture, while cells maintained their proliferation capacity, pluripotent phenotype and potential as well as genomic stability after 3 sequential passages in bioreactors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Differentiation of mammalian skeletal muscle cells cultured on microcarrier beads in a rotating cell culture system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgan, C. E.; Burge, S. S.; Collinsworth, A. M.; Truskey, G. A.; Kraus, W. E.

    2000-01-01

    The growth and repair of adult skeletal muscle are due in part to activation of muscle precursor cells, commonly known as satellite cells or myoblasts. These cells are responsive to a variety of environmental cues, including mechanical stimuli. The overall goal of the research is to examine the role of mechanical signalling mechanisms in muscle growth and plasticity through utilisation of cell culture systems where other potential signalling pathways (i.e. chemical and electrical stimuli) are controlled. To explore the effects of decreased mechanical loading on muscle differentiation, mammalian myoblasts are cultured in a bioreactor (rotating cell culture system), a model that has been utilised to simulate microgravity. C2C12 murine myoblasts are cultured on microcarrier beads in a bioreactor and followed throughout differentiation as they form a network of multinucleated myotubes. In comparison with three-dimensional control cultures that consist of myoblasts cultured on microcarrier beads in teflon bags, myoblasts cultured in the bioreactor exhibit an attenuation in differentiation. This is demonstrated by reduced immunohistochemical staining for myogenin and alpha-actinin. Western analysis shows a decrease, in bioreactor cultures compared with control cultures, in levels of the contractile proteins myosin (47% decrease, p < 0.01) and tropomyosin (63% decrease, p < 0.01). Hydrodynamic measurements indicate that the decrease in differentiation may be due, at least in part, to fluid stresses acting on the myotubes. In addition, constraints on aggregate size imposed by the action of fluid forces in the bioreactor affect differentiation. These results may have implications for muscle growth and repair during spaceflight.

  18. Differentiation of mammalian skeletal muscle cells cultured on microcarrier beads in a rotating cell culture system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgan, C. E.; Burge, S. S.; Collinsworth, A. M.; Truskey, G. A.; Kraus, W. E.

    2000-01-01

    The growth and repair of adult skeletal muscle are due in part to activation of muscle precursor cells, commonly known as satellite cells or myoblasts. These cells are responsive to a variety of environmental cues, including mechanical stimuli. The overall goal of the research is to examine the role of mechanical signalling mechanisms in muscle growth and plasticity through utilisation of cell culture systems where other potential signalling pathways (i.e. chemical and electrical stimuli) are controlled. To explore the effects of decreased mechanical loading on muscle differentiation, mammalian myoblasts are cultured in a bioreactor (rotating cell culture system), a model that has been utilised to simulate microgravity. C2C12 murine myoblasts are cultured on microcarrier beads in a bioreactor and followed throughout differentiation as they form a network of multinucleated myotubes. In comparison with three-dimensional control cultures that consist of myoblasts cultured on microcarrier beads in teflon bags, myoblasts cultured in the bioreactor exhibit an attenuation in differentiation. This is demonstrated by reduced immunohistochemical staining for myogenin and alpha-actinin. Western analysis shows a decrease, in bioreactor cultures compared with control cultures, in levels of the contractile proteins myosin (47% decrease, p < 0.01) and tropomyosin (63% decrease, p < 0.01). Hydrodynamic measurements indicate that the decrease in differentiation may be due, at least in part, to fluid stresses acting on the myotubes. In addition, constraints on aggregate size imposed by the action of fluid forces in the bioreactor affect differentiation. These results may have implications for muscle growth and repair during spaceflight.

  19. Novel disposable flexible bioreactor for Escherichia coli culture in orbital shaking incubator.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Huang, Yue; Han, Zhiqiang; Liu, Huitao; Zhang, Rui; Xu, Yuming

    2013-10-01

    Erlenmeyer flask or conical flask, usually made of glass, is widely used for laboratory scale suspension culture of microorganism, such as Escherichia Coli and yeast. Due to being non-disposable culture vessel, it has to be cleaned, packaged and sterilized prior to use, which are time, labor and energy consuming work, and has the potential risk of cross-contamination. Despite the rigid plastic conical flasks are possible for single use, they are not economically effective and produce more waste. To overcome these drawbacks, here we successfully developed a novel disposable flexible bioreactor with a plastic film through a thermo-fusion technique. With a triangular pyramid shape, the bioreactor enabled itself to keep a three-dimensional internal space without needing air inflation and well adapted to the commercial available orbital shaker. Unlike the conventional rigid conical flasks and other reported flexible flasks, which had to be fixed in the shaker, the flexible bioreactor could keep sitting on the silicone pad-carpeted platform of the orbital shaker steadily without any fixation needed at the shaking speeds below 250 rpm, thus making it simple to handle. Compared with the traditional conical glass flasks, the innovative flexible bioreactors achieved a significant higher efficiency in bacteria growth and oxygen transfer rates. In conclusion, the novel flexible bioreactor is an ideal disposable culture vessel for microorganism suspension culture at laboratory scale and holds a promising potential to replace the glass flask and rigid plastic flask in the future. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. In vivo construction of tissue-engineered cartilage using adipose-derived stem cells and bioreactor technology.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hongjun; Lu, Shibi; Peng, Jiang; Yang, Qiang; Liu, Shuyun; Zhang, Li; Huang, Jingxiang; Sui, Xiang; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Aiyuan; Xu, Wenjing; Guo, Quanyi; Song, Qing

    2015-03-01

    The present study aims to investigate the feasibility of tissue-engineered cartilage constructed in vivo and in vitro by dynamically culturing adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) with an articular cartilage acellular matrix in a bioreactor and subsequently implanting the cartilage in nude mice. ADSCs were proliferated, combined with three dimensional scaffolds (cell density: 5 × 10(7)/mL) and subsequently placed in a bioreactor and culture plate for 3 weeks. In the in vivo study, complexes cultured for 1 week under dynamic or static states were subcutaneously implanted into nude mice and collected after 3 weeks. Indicators such as gross morphology, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry were examined. In the in vitro study, histological observation showed that most scaffolds in the dynamic group were absorbed, and cell proliferation and matrix secretion were significant. Positive staining of safranin-O and alcian blue II collagen stain in the dynamic group was significantly stronger than that in the static culture group. In the in vivo study, cartilage-like tissues formed in the specimens of the two groups. Histological examination showed that cell distribution in the dynamic group was relatively more uniform than in the static group, and matrix secretion was relatively stronger. Bioreactor culturing can promote ADSC proliferation and cartilage differentiation and is thus a suitable method for constructing tissue-engineered cartilage in vivo.

  1. Effect of Rotation on Scaffold Motion and Cell Growth in Rotating Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Varley, Mark C.; Markaki, Athina E.

    2017-01-01

    Efficient use of different bioreactor designs to improve cell growth in three-dimensional scaffolds requires an understanding of their mechanism of action. To address this for rotating wall vessel bioreactors, fluid and scaffold motion were investigated experimentally at different rotation speeds and vessel fill volumes. Low cost bioreactors with single and dual axis rotation were developed to investigate the effect of these systems on human osteoblast proliferation in free floating and constrained collagen-glycosaminoglycan porous scaffolds. A range of scaffold motions (free fall, periodic oscillation, and orbital motion) were observed at the rotation speeds and vessel fluid/air ratios used, with 85% fluid fill and an outer vessel wall velocity of ∼14 mm s−1 producing a scaffold in a free fall state. The cell proliferation results showed that after 14 and 21 days of culture, this combination of fluid fill and speed of rotation produced significantly greater cell numbers in the scaffolds than when lower or higher rotation speeds (p < 0.002) or when the chamber was 60% or 100% full (p < 0.01). The fluid flow and scaffold motion experiments show that biaxial rotation would not improve the mass transfer of medium into the scaffold as the second axis of rotation can only transition the scaffold toward oscillatory or orbital motion and, hence, reduce mass transport to the scaffold. The cell culture results confirmed that there was no benefit to the second axis of rotation with no significant difference in cell proliferation either when the scaffolds were free floating or constrained (p > 0.05). PMID:28125920

  2. [Adaptation of coimmobilized Rhodococcus cells to oil hydrocarbons in a column bioreactor].

    PubMed

    Serebrennikova, M K; Kuiukina, M S; Krivoruchko, A V; Ivshina, I B

    2014-01-01

    The possible adaptation of the association of Rhodococcus ruber and Rhodococcus opacus strains immobilized on modified sawdust to oil hydrocarbons in a column bioreactor was investigated. In the bioreactor, the bacterial population showed higher hydrocarbon and antibiotic resistance accompanied by the changes in cell surface properties (hydrophobicity, electrokinetic potential) and in the content of cellular lipids and biosurfactants. The possibility of using adapted Rhodococcus strains for the purification of oil-polluted water in the bioreactor was demonstrated.

  3. Oxygen Limited Bioreactors System For Nitrogen Removal Using Immobilized Mix Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, B. K.; Sumino, T.; Saiki, Y.; Kazama, F.

    2005-12-01

    Recently nutrients concentrations especially nitrogen in natural water is alarming in the world wide. Most of the effort is being done on the removal of high concentration of nitrogen especially from the wastewater treatment plants. The removal efficiency is targeted in all considering the effluent discharge standard set by the national environment agency. In many cases, it does not meet the required standard and receiving water is being polluted. Eutrophication in natural water bodies has been reported even if the nitrogen concentration is low and self purification of natural systems itself is not sufficient to remove the nitrogen due to complex phenomenon. In order to recover the pristine water environment, it is very essential to explore bioreactor systems for natural water systems using immobilized mix culture. Microorganism were entrapped in Polyethylene glycol (PEG) prepolymer gel and cut into 3mm cubic immobilized pellets. Four laboratory scale micro bio-reactors having 0.1 L volumes were packed with immobilized pellets with 50% compact ratio. RUN1, RUN2, RUN3 and RUN4 were packed with immobilized pellets from reservoirs sediments, activated sludge (AS), mixed of AS, AG and biodegradable plastic and anaerobic granules (AG) respectively. Water from Shiokawa Reservoirs was feed to all reactors with supplemental ammonia and nitrite nitrogen as specified in the results and discussions. The reactors were operated dark incubated room in continuous flow mode with hydraulic retention time of 12 hours under oxygen limiting condition. Ammonium, nitrate nitrite nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations were measured as described in APWA and AWWA (1998). Laboratory scale four bioreactors containing different combination of immobilized cell were monitored for 218 days. Influent NH4+-N and NO2--N concentration were 2.27±0.43 and 2.05±0.41 mg/l respectively. Average dissolved oxygen concentration and pH in the reactors were 0.40-2.5 mg/l and pH 6

  4. In Vivo-Like Culture Conditions in a Bioreactor Facilitate Improved Tissue Quality in Corneal Storage.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Richard; Tarau, Ioana-Sandra; Rossi, Angela; Leonhardt, Stefan; Schwarz, Thomas; Schuerlein, Sebastian; Lotz, Christian; Hansmann, Jan

    2017-09-05

    The cornea is the most-transplanted tissue worldwide. However, the availability and quality of grafts are limited due to the current methods of corneal storage. In this study, a dynamic bioreactor system is employed to enable the control of intraocular pressure and the culture at the air-liquid interface. Thereby, in vivo-like storage conditions are achieved. Different media combinations for endothelium and epithelium are tested in standard and dynamic conditions to enhance the viability of the tissue. In contrast to culture conditions used in eye banks, the combination of the bioreactor and biochrom medium 1 allows to preserve the corneal endothelium and the epithelium. Assessment of transparency, swelling, and the trans-epithelial-electrical-resistance (TEER) strengthens the impact of the in vivo-like tissue culture. For example, compared to corneas stored under static conditions, significantly lower optical densities and significantly higher TEER values were measured (p-value <0.05). Furthermore, healing of epithelial defects is enabled in the bioreactor, characterized by re-epithelialization and initiated stromal regeneration. Based on the obtained results, an easy-to-use 3D-printed bioreactor composed of only two parts was derived to translate the technology from the laboratory to the eye banks. This optimized bioreactor facilitates noninvasive microscopic monitoring. The improved storage conditions ameliorate the quality of corneal grafts and the storage time in the eye banks to increase availability and reduce re-grafting. © 2017 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  5. Kinetic Simulation of a Centrifugal Bioreactor for High Population Density Hybridoma Culture

    PubMed Central

    Detzel, Christopher J.; Mason, Derek J.; Davis, William C.; Van Wie, Bernard J.

    2009-01-01

    Demand for increasingly complex post-translationally modified proteins, such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), necessitates the use of mammalian hosts for production. The focus of this paper is a continuous centrifugal bioreactor (CCBR) capable of increasing volumetric productivity for mAb production through high density hybridoma culture, exceeding 108 cells/mL. At these extreme densities environmental conditions such as substrate and inhibitor concentrations rapidly change, dramatically affecting growth rate. The development of a kinetic model predicting glucose, mAb, lactate, and ammonium concentrations based on dilution rate and cell density is shown in this paper. Additionally, it is found that pH affects both growth rate and viability, and a range of 6.9 to 7.4 is needed to maintain growth rate above 90% of the maximum. Modeling shows that operating an 11.4 mL CCBR inoculated with 2.0 × 107 cells/mL at a dilution rate of 1.3 h−1, results in a predicted growth rate 82% of the maximum value. At the same dilution rate increasing density to 6.0 × 107 cells/mL decreases the predicted growth rate to 60% of the maximum; however, by increasing dilution rate to 6.1 h−1 the growth rate can be increased to 86% of the maximum. Using the kinetic model developed in this research the concentration of glucose, mAb, lactate, and ammonium are all predicted within 13% of experimental results. This model and an understanding of how RPM impacts cell retention serve as valuable tools for maintaining high density CCBR cultures, ensuring maximum growth associated mAb production rates. PMID:19806634

  6. Ovarian Cancer, Stem Cells, and Bioreactors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    produced by the tumor cells and released in the blood stream. CEA serum level is a clinical screening test for colon cancer, but some types of ovarian...Development of a hybrid liver support system: a review. Int J Artif Organs 19, 645-654 (1996). 12. Kusumbe, A.P., Mali, A.M. & Bapat, S.A. CD133-Expressing

  7. Prostate tumor grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This prostate cancer construct was grown during NASA-sponsored bioreactor studies on Earth. Cells are attached to a biodegradable plastic lattice that gives them a head start in growth. Prostate tumor cells are to be grown in a NASA-sponsored Bioreactor experiment aboard the STS-107 Research-1 mission in 2002. Dr. Leland Chung of the University of Virginia is the principal investigator. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and the University of Virginia.

  8. Prostate tumor grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This prostate cancer construct was grown during NASA-sponsored bioreactor studies on Earth. Cells are attached to a biodegradable plastic lattice that gives them a head start in growth. Prostate tumor cells are to be grown in a NASA-sponsored Bioreactor experiment aboard the STS-107 Research-1 mission in 2002. Dr. Leland Chung of the University of Virginia is the principal investigator. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and the University of Virginia.

  9. Embryoid body formation from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells: Benefits of bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Rungarunlert, Sasitorn; Techakumphu, Mongkol; Pirity, Melinda K; Dinnyes, Andras

    2009-12-31

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells have the ability to differentiate into all germ layers, holding great promise not only for a model of early embryonic development but also for a robust cell source for cell-replacement therapies and for drug screening. Embryoid body (EB) formation from ES cells is a common method for producing different cell lineages for further applications. However, conventional techniques such as hanging drop or static suspension culture are either inherently incapable of large scale production or exhibit limited control over cell aggregation during EB formation and subsequent EB aggregation. For standardized mass EB production, a well defined scale-up platform is necessary. Recently, novel scenario methods of EB formation in hydrodynamic conditions created by bioreactor culture systems using stirred suspension systems (spinner flasks), rotating cell culture system and rotary orbital culture have allowed large-scale EB formation. Their use allows for continuous monitoring and control of the physical and chemical environment which is difficult to achieve by traditional methods. This review summarizes the current state of production of EBs derived from pluripotent cells in various culture systems. Furthermore, an overview of high quality EB formation strategies coupled with systems for in vitro differentiation into various cell types to be applied in cell replacement therapy is provided in this review. Recently, new insights in induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology showed that differentiation and lineage commitment are not irreversible processes and this has opened new avenues in stem cell research. These cells are equivalent to ES cells in terms of both self-renewal and differentiation capacity. Hence, culture systems for expansion and differentiation of iPS cells can also apply methodologies developed with ES cells, although direct evidence of their use for iPS cells is still limited.

  10. Modulation of the Mesenchymal Stem Cell Secretome Using Computer-Controlled Bioreactors: Impact on Neuronal Cell Proliferation, Survival and Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Fábio G; Panchalingam, Krishna M; Assunção-Silva, Rita; Serra, Sofia C; Mendes-Pinheiro, Bárbara; Patrício, Patrícia; Jung, Sunghoon; Anjo, Sandra I; Manadas, Bruno; Pinto, Luísa; Sousa, Nuno; Behie, Leo A; Salgado, António J

    2016-06-15

    In recent years it has been shown that the therapeutic benefits of human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) in the Central Nervous System (CNS) are mainly attributed to their secretome. The implementation of computer-controlled suspension bioreactors has shown to be a viable route for the expansion of these cells to large numbers. As hMSCs actively respond to their culture environment, there is the hypothesis that one can modulate its secretome through their use. Herein, we present data indicating that the use of computer-controlled suspension bioreactors enhanced the neuroregulatory profile of hMSCs secretome. Indeed, higher levels of in vitro neuronal differentiation and NOTCH1 expression in human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) were observed when these cells were incubated with the secretome of dynamically cultured hMSCs. A similar trend was also observed in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of rat brains where, upon injection, an enhanced neuronal and astrocytic survival and differentiation, was observed. Proteomic analysis also revealed that the dynamic culturing of hMSCs increased the secretion of several neuroregulatory molecules and miRNAs present in hMSCs secretome. In summary, the appropriate use of dynamic culture conditions can represent an important asset for the development of future neuro-regenerative strategies involving the use of hMSCs secretome.

  11. Modulation of the Mesenchymal Stem Cell Secretome Using Computer-Controlled Bioreactors: Impact on Neuronal Cell Proliferation, Survival and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Fábio G.; Panchalingam, Krishna M.; Assunção-Silva, Rita; Serra, Sofia C.; Mendes-Pinheiro, Bárbara; Patrício, Patrícia; Jung, Sunghoon; Anjo, Sandra I.; Manadas, Bruno; Pinto, Luísa; Sousa, Nuno; Behie, Leo A.; Salgado, António J.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years it has been shown that the therapeutic benefits of human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) in the Central Nervous System (CNS) are mainly attributed to their secretome. The implementation of computer-controlled suspension bioreactors has shown to be a viable route for the expansion of these cells to large numbers. As hMSCs actively respond to their culture environment, there is the hypothesis that one can modulate its secretome through their use. Herein, we present data indicating that the use of computer-controlled suspension bioreactors enhanced the neuroregulatory profile of hMSCs secretome. Indeed, higher levels of in vitro neuronal differentiation and NOTCH1 expression in human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) were observed when these cells were incubated with the secretome of dynamically cultured hMSCs. A similar trend was also observed in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of rat brains where, upon injection, an enhanced neuronal and astrocytic survival and differentiation, was observed. Proteomic analysis also revealed that the dynamic culturing of hMSCs increased the secretion of several neuroregulatory molecules and miRNAs present in hMSCs secretome. In summary, the appropriate use of dynamic culture conditions can represent an important asset for the development of future neuro-regenerative strategies involving the use of hMSCs secretome. PMID:27301770

  12. Design challenges for space bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, P. K.; Petersen, G. R.

    1989-01-01

    The design of bioreactors for operation under conditions of microgravity presents problems and challenges. Absence of a significant body force such as gravity can have profound consequences for interfacial phenomena. Marangoni convection can no longer be overlooked. Many speculations on the advantages and benefits of microgravity can be found in the literature. Initial bioreactor research considerations for space applications had little regard for the suitability of the designs for conditions of microgravity. Bioreactors can be classified in terms of their function and type of operation. The complex interaction of parameters leading to optimal design and operation of a bioreactor is illustrated by the JSC mammalian cell culture system. The design of a bioreactor is strongly dependent upon its intended use as a production unit for cell mass and/or biologicals or as a research reactor for the study of cell growth and function. Therefore a variety of bioreactor configurations are presented in rapid summary. Following this, a rationale is presented for not attempting to derive key design parameters such as the oxygen transfer coefficient from ground-based data. A set of themes/objectives for flight experiments to develop the expertise for design of space bioreactors is then proposed for discussion. These experiments, carried out systematically, will provide a database from which engineering tools for space bioreactor design will be derived.

  13. Bioprocess development for mass production of size-controlled human pluripotent stem cell aggregates in stirred suspension bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Abbasalizadeh, Saeed; Larijani, Mehran Rezaei; Samadian, Azam; Baharvand, Hossein

    2012-11-01

    Current protocols for the scalable suspension culture of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are limited by multiple biological and technical challenges that need to be addressed before their use in clinical trials. To overcome these challenges, we have developed a novel bioprocess platform for large-scale expansion of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell lines as three-dimensional size-controlled aggregates. This novel bioprocess utilizes the stepwise optimization of both static and dynamic suspension culture conditions. After screening eight xeno-free media in static suspension culture and optimizing single-cell passaging in dynamic conditions, the scale-up from a static to a dynamic suspension culture in the stirred bioreactor resulted in a two- to threefold improvement in expansion rates, as measured by cell counts and metabolic activity. We successfully produced size-specific aggregates through optimization of bioreactor hydrodynamic conditions by using combinations of different agitation rates and shear protectant concentrations. The expansion rates were further improved by controlling oxygen concentration at normoxic conditions, and reached a maximum eightfold increase for both types of hPSCs. Subsequently, we demonstrated a simple and rapid scale-up strategy that produced clinically relevant numbers of hPSCs (∼2×10(9) cells) over a 1-month period by the direct transfer of "suspension-adapted frozen cells" to a stirred suspension bioreactor. We omitted the required preadaptation passages in the static suspension culture. The cells underwent proliferation over multiple passages in the demonstrated xeno-free dynamic suspension culture while maintaining their self-renewal capabilities, as determined by marker expressions and in vitro spontaneous differentiation. In conclusion, suspension culture protocols of hPSCs could be used to mass produce homogenous and pluripotent undifferentiated cells by identification and optimization of key bioprocess

  14. Advanced microscale bioreactor system: a representative scale-down model for bench-top bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Ting; Aulakh, Rigzen P S; Traul, Donald L; Yuk, Inn H

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, several automated scale-down bioreactor systems have been developed to increase efficiency in cell culture process development. ambr™ is an automated workstation that provides individual monitoring and control of culture dissolved oxygen and pH in single-use, stirred-tank bioreactors at a working volume of 10-15 mL. To evaluate the ambr™ system, we compared the performance of four recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cell lines in a fed-batch process in parallel ambr™, 2-L bench-top bioreactors, and shake flasks. Cultures in ambr™ matched 2-L bioreactors in controlling the environment (temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH) and in culture performance (growth, viability, glucose, lactate, Na(+), osmolality, titer, and product quality). However, cultures in shake flasks did not show comparable performance to the ambr™ and 2-L bioreactors.

  15. Shoot culture of Bacopa monnieri: standardization of explant, vessels and bioreactor for growth and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Jain, Neelam; Sharma, Varsha; Ramawat, Kishan G

    2012-04-01

    Standardization of biomass production in different vessels and bioreactor using explants and media for growth, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of shoot culture of Bacopa monnieri is described. Maximum number of shoots per explant, higher explants response irrespective of the type of explants, and higher shoot length was obtained on MS medium containing BAP (2.5 mg l(-1)) and IAA (0.01 mg l(-1)) with 3 % sucrose. This medium was selected by varying BAP concentration and recorded optimal for shoot culture on gelled medium. The condition of 0.5 cm explant size and 20 explant/40 ml (1 explant/2 ml) was optimal for high explant response, number of shoots per explant regenerated and shoots length. Among the different vessels used, maximum growth index was achieved in Growtek bioreactor (10.0) followed by magenta box (9.16), industrial glass jar (7.7) and conical flask (7.2). The cultures grown in conical flask (100 ml) were used as control. The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of in vitro grown plants was higher to that recorded for in vivo material. Among in vitro regenerated plants, the activity was maximal in the tissues grown in 250 ml conical flask. The most critical function for vessels is to support the optimum profusion (growing area for maximum growth) of shoots and for B. monnieri, Growtek bioreactor supported 1980 shoots l(-1) medium as compared to control (938 shoots l(-1)). Growtek bioreactor was considered effective system to produce B. monnieri biomass in culture without loss of antioxidant properties.

  16. Production of tropane alkaloids by small-scale bubble column bioreactor cultures of Scopolia parviflora adventitious roots.

    PubMed

    Min, Ji Yun; Jung, Hee Young; Kang, Seung Mi; Kim, Yong Duck; Kang, Young Min; Park, Dong Jin; Prasad, Doddananjappa Theertha; Choi, Myung Suk

    2007-07-01

    The mass production of tropane alkaloids from adventitious root cultures of Scopolia parviflora, in small-scale bubble column bioreactor (BCB) was attempted. Adventitious roots of S. parviflora produced relatively enhanced levels of scopolamine and hyoscyamine in bioreactor compared to flask type cultures, and rapidly produced root clumps, with continuously increasing biomass throughout the culture period. The production of scopolamine and hyoscyamine in the top and bottom regions of root clumps were higher than in the core region. The adventitious root cultures of S. parviflora in the BCB required a relatively high level of aeration. The optimized conditions for the bioreactor culture growth and alkaloid production were found to be 3g of inoculum, on a fresh weight basis, a 15-day culture period and 0.4vvm of airflow. The elicitation by Staphylococus aureus increased the specific compound of scopolamine, while the production of hyoscyamine was slightly inhibited in BCB cultures.

  17. Combining hypoxia and bioreactor hydrodynamics boosts induced pluripotent stem cell differentiation towards cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Correia, Cláudia; Serra, Margarida; Espinha, Nuno; Sousa, Marcos; Brito, Catarina; Burkert, Karsten; Zheng, Yunjie; Hescheler, Jürgen; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Sarić, Tomo; Alves, Paula M

    2014-12-01

    Cardiomyocytes (CMs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise for patient-specific disease modeling, drug screening and cell therapy. However, existing protocols for CM differentiation of iPSCs besides being highly dependent on the application of expensive growth factors show low reproducibility and scalability. The aim of this work was to develop a robust and scalable strategy for mass production of iPSC-derived CMs by designing a bioreactor protocol that ensures a hypoxic and mechanical environment. Murine iPSCs were cultivated as aggregates in either stirred tank or WAVE bioreactors. The effect of dissolved oxygen and mechanical forces, promoted by different hydrodynamic environments, on CM differentiation was evaluated. Combining a hypoxia culture (4 % O2 tension) with an intermittent agitation profile in stirred tank bioreactors resulted in an improvement of about 1000-fold in CM yields when compared to normoxic (20 % O2 tension) and continuously agitated cultures. Additionally, we showed for the first time that wave-induced agitation enables the differentiation of iPSCs towards CMs at faster kinetics and with higher yields (60 CMs/input iPSC). In an 11-day differentiation protocol, clinically relevant numbers of CMs (2.3 × 10(9) CMs/1 L) were produced, and CMs exhibited typical cardiac sarcomeric structures, calcium transients, electrophysiological profiles and drug responsiveness. This work describes significant advances towards scalable cardiomyocyte differentiation of murine iPSC, paving the way for the implementation of this strategy for mass production of their human counterparts and their use for cardiac repair and cardiovascular research.

  18. Human Bone-Forming Chondrocytes Cultured in the Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor Retain Matrix Proteins: Similarities to Spaceflight Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, P. J.; Hecht, J.; Montufar-Solis, D.

    2006-01-01

    Fracture healing, crucial to a successful Mars mission, involves formation of a cartilaginous fracture callus which differentiates, mineralizes, ossifies and remodels via the endochondral process. Studies of spaceflown and tailsuspended rats found that, without loading, fracture callus formation and cartilage differentiation within the callus were minimal. We found delayed differentiation of chondrocytes within the rat growth plate on Cosmos 1887, 2044, and Spacelab 3. In the current study, differentiation of human bone-forming chondrocytes cultured in the hydrodynamic focusing bioreactor (HFB) was assessed. Human costochondral chondrocytes in suspension were aggregated overnight, then cultured in the HFB for 25 days. Collagen Type II, aggrecan and unsulfated chondroitin were found extracellularly and chondroitin sulfates 4 and 6 within the cell. Lack of secretion was also found in pancreatic cells of spaceflown rats, and in our SL3 studies. The HFB can be used to study cartilage differentiation in simulated microgravity.

  19. Human Bone-Forming Chondrocytes Cultured in the Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor Retain Matrix Proteins: Similarities to Spaceflight Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, P. J.; Hecht, J.; Montufar-Solis, D.

    2006-01-01

    Fracture healing, crucial to a successful Mars mission, involves formation of a cartilaginous fracture callus which differentiates, mineralizes, ossifies and remodels via the endochondral process. Studies of spaceflown and tailsuspended rats found that, without loading, fracture callus formation and cartilage differentiation within the callus were minimal. We found delayed differentiation of chondrocytes within the rat growth plate on Cosmos 1887, 2044, and Spacelab 3. In the current study, differentiation of human bone-forming chondrocytes cultured in the hydrodynamic focusing bioreactor (HFB) was assessed. Human costochondral chondrocytes in suspension were aggregated overnight, then cultured in the HFB for 25 days. Collagen Type II, aggrecan and unsulfated chondroitin were found extracellularly and chondroitin sulfates 4 and 6 within the cell. Lack of secretion was also found in pancreatic cells of spaceflown rats, and in our SL3 studies. The HFB can be used to study cartilage differentiation in simulated microgravity.

  20. Expansion of embryonic stem cells in suspension and fibrous bed bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Li, Yan; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2014-05-20

    Applications of embryonic stem (ES) cells in cellular transplantation and tissue engineering require scalable processes for mass production of these cells with controlled qualities. The main objective of this work was to evaluate two cell culture processes for long-term expansion of murine embryonic stem (mES) cells. With serial passaging, suspension cultures in spinner flasks were able to expand mES cells as aggregates for 12.5-fold in each passage of 4 days. However, extending the culturing time to 6 days in each passage caused significant loss in cell viability and induced differentiation as indicated by the reduced expression levels of SSEA-1 and Oct-4. Long-term expansion of mES cells in a fibrous bed bioreactor (FBB) was also studied for 30 days in 2 passages, 15 days in each passage. With periodically refreshing the culture medium, a high expansion fold of 60-77 was achieved in each passage. Flow cytometry and RT-PCR were used to analyze key pluripotency and differentiation markers. The results showed that the expanded cells in both suspension and FBB cultures remained in a highly pluripotent state, which was also confirmed with the embryoid body (EB) forming efficiency test. It is concluded that both the suspension and FBB cultures are suitable to support long-term expansion of undifferentiated mES cells. However, the FBB culture can sustain cell growth for a longer period without frequent passaging, requires less media and labor, and is thus more economical to use for mass production of ES cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Cells from kidneys lose some of their special features in conventional culture but form spheres replete with specialized cell microvilli (hair) and synthesize hormones that may be clinically useful. Ground-based research studies have demonstrated that both normal and neoplastic cells and tissues recreate many of the characteristics in the NASA bioreactor that they display in vivo. Proximal kidney tubule cells that normally have rich apically oriented microvilli with intercellular clefts in the kidney do not form any of these structures in conventional two-dimensional monolayer culture. However, when normal proximal renal tubule cells are cultured in three-dimensions in the bioreactor, both the microvilli and the intercellular clefts form. This is important because, when the morphology is recreated, the function is more likely also to be rejuvenated. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  2. Tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Cells from kidneys lose some of their special features in conventional culture but form spheres replete with specialized cell microvilli (hair) and synthesize hormones that may be clinically useful. Ground-based research studies have demonstrated that both normal and neoplastic cells and tissues recreate many of the characteristics in the NASA bioreactor that they display in vivo. Proximal kidney tubule cells that normally have rich apically oriented microvilli with intercellular clefts in the kidney do not form any of these structures in conventional two-dimensional monolayer culture. However, when normal proximal renal tubule cells are cultured in three-dimensions in the bioreactor, both the microvilli and the intercellular clefts form. This is important because, when the morphology is recreated, the function is more likely also to be rejuvenated. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  3. Scaled-up manufacturing of recombinant antibodies produced by plant cells in a 200-L orbitally-shaken disposable bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Raven, Nicole; Rasche, Stefan; Kuehn, Christoph; Anderlei, Tibor; Klöckner, Wolf; Schuster, Flora; Henquet, Maurice; Bosch, Dirk; Büchs, Jochen; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    Tobacco BY-2 cells have emerged as a promising platform for the manufacture of biopharmaceutical proteins, offering efficient protein secretion, favourable growth characteristics and cultivation in containment under a controlled environment. The cultivation of BY-2 cells in disposable bioreactors is a useful alternative to conventional stainless steel stirred-tank reactors, and orbitally-shaken bioreactors could provide further advantages such as simple bag geometry, scalability and predictable process settings. We carried out a scale-up study, using a 200-L orbitally-shaken bioreactor holding disposable bags, and BY-2 cells producing the human monoclonal antibody M12. We found that cell growth and recombinant protein accumulation were comparable to standard shake flask cultivation, despite a 200-fold difference in cultivation volume. Final cell fresh weights of 300-387 g/L and M12 yields of ∼20 mg/L were achieved with both cultivation methods. Furthermore, we established an efficient downstream process for the recovery of M12 from the culture broth. The viscous spent medium prevented clarification using filtration devices, but we used expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography with SP Sepharose as an alternative for the efficient capture of the M12 antibody. EBA was introduced as an initial purification step prior to protein A affinity chromatography, resulting in an overall M12 recovery of 75-85% and a purity of >95%. Our results demonstrate the suitability of orbitally-shaken bioreactors for the scaled-up cultivation of plant cell suspension cultures and provide a strategy for the efficient purification of antibodies from the BY-2 culture medium.

  4. Growth of recombinant Drosophila melanogaster Schneider 2 cells producing rabies virus glycoprotein in bioreactor employing serum-free medium

    PubMed Central

    Galesi, Adriana L. L.; Aguiar, Marcelo A.; Astray, Renato M.; Augusto, Elisabeth F. P.

    2008-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster Schneider 2 (S2) cells have been increasingly used as a suitable expression system for the production of different recombinant proteins, and the employment of bioreactors for large-scale culture is an important tool for this purpose. In this work, Drosophila S2 cells producing the rabies virus glycoprotein RVGP were cultivated in bioreactor, employing a serum-free medium, aiming an improvement in cell growth and in glycoprotein production. To overcome cell growth limitation commonly observed in stirred flasks, different experiments in bioreactor were performed, in which some system modifications were carried out to attain the desired goal. The study showed that this cell line is considerably sensitive to hydrodynamic forces, and a high cell density (about 16.0 × 106 cells mL−1) was only obtained when Pluronic F68® percentage was increased to 0.6% (w/v). Despite ammonium concentration affected RVGP production, and also cell growth, an elevated amount of the target protein was obtained, attaining 563 ng 10−7 cells. PMID:19003175

  5. Bioreactor-Based Online Recovery of Human Progenitor Cells with Uncompromised Regenerative Potential: A Bone Tissue Engineering Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sonnaert, Maarten; Luyten, Frank P.; Papantoniou, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    The use of a 3D perfusion culture environment for stem cell expansion has been shown to be beneficial for maintenance of the original cell functionality but due to several system inherent characteristics such as the presence of extracellular matrix, the continued development and implementation of 3D perfusion bioreactor technologies is hampered. Therefore, this study developed a methodology for harvesting a progenitor cell population from a 3D open porous culture surface after expansion in a perfusion bioreactor and performed a functional characterization of the expanded cells. An initial screening showed collagenase to be the most interesting reagent to release the cells from the 3D culture surface as it resulted in high yields without compromising cell viability. Subsequently a Design of Experiment approach was used to obtain optimized 3D harvest conditions by assessing the interplay of flow rate, collagenase concentration and incubation time on the harvest efficiency, viability and single cell fraction. Cells that were recovered with the optimized harvest protocol, by perfusing a 880 U/ml collagenase solution for 7 hours at a flow rate of 4 ml/min, were thereafter functionally analyzed for their characteristics as expanded progenitor cell population. As both the in vitro tri-lineage differentiation capacity and the in vivo bone forming potential were maintained after 3D perfusion bioreactor expansion we concluded that the developed seeding, culture and harvest processes did not significantly compromise the viability and potency of the cells and can contribute to the future development of integrated bioprocesses for stem cell expansion. PMID:26313143

  6. Advances in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Maramorosch, K. )

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers on advances in cell culture. Topics covered include: Genetic changes in the influenza viruses during growth in cultured cells; The biochemistry and genetics of mosquito cells in culture; and Tree tissue culture applications.

  7. Automated microfluidic platform of bead-based electrochemical immunosensor integrated with bioreactor for continual monitoring of cell secreted biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Riahi, Reza; Shaegh, Seyed Ali Mousavi; Ghaderi, Masoumeh; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Shin, Su Ryon; Aleman, Julio; Massa, Solange; Kim, Duckjin; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-04-21

    There is an increasing interest in developing microfluidic bioreactors and organs-on-a-chip platforms combined with sensing capabilities for continual monitoring of cell-secreted biomarkers. Conventional approaches such as ELISA and mass spectroscopy cannot satisfy the needs of continual monitoring as they are labor-intensive and not easily integrable with low-volume bioreactors. This paper reports on the development of an automated microfluidic bead-based electrochemical immunosensor for in-line measurement of cell-secreted biomarkers. For the operation of the multi-use immunosensor, disposable magnetic microbeads were used to immobilize biomarker-recognition molecules. Microvalves were further integrated in the microfluidic immunosensor chip to achieve programmable operations of the immunoassay including bead loading and unloading, binding, washing, and electrochemical sensing. The platform allowed convenient integration of the immunosensor with liver-on-chips to carry out continual quantification of biomarkers secreted from hepatocytes. Transferrin and albumin productions were monitored during a 5-day hepatotoxicity assessment in which human primary hepatocytes cultured in the bioreactor were treated with acetaminophen. Taken together, our unique microfluidic immunosensor provides a new platform for in-line detection of biomarkers in low volumes and long-term in vitro assessments of cellular functions in microfluidic bioreactors and organs-on-chips.

  8. Automated microfluidic platform of bead-based electrochemical immunosensor integrated with bioreactor for continual monitoring of cell secreted biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Riahi, Reza; Shaegh, Seyed Ali Mousavi; Ghaderi, Masoumeh; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Shin, Su Ryon; Aleman, Julio; Massa, Solange; Kim, Duckjin; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in developing microfluidic bioreactors and organs-on-a-chip platforms combined with sensing capabilities for continual monitoring of cell-secreted biomarkers. Conventional approaches such as ELISA and mass spectroscopy cannot satisfy the needs of continual monitoring as they are labor-intensive and not easily integrable with low-volume bioreactors. This paper reports on the development of an automated microfluidic bead-based electrochemical immunosensor for in-line measurement of cell-secreted biomarkers. For the operation of the multi-use immunosensor, disposable magnetic microbeads were used to immobilize biomarker-recognition molecules. Microvalves were further integrated in the microfluidic immunosensor chip to achieve programmable operations of the immunoassay including bead loading and unloading, binding, washing, and electrochemical sensing. The platform allowed convenient integration of the immunosensor with liver-on-chips to carry out continual quantification of biomarkers secreted from hepatocytes. Transferrin and albumin productions were monitored during a 5-day hepatotoxicity assessment in which human primary hepatocytes cultured in the bioreactor were treated with acetaminophen. Taken together, our unique microfluidic immunosensor provides a new platform for in-line detection of biomarkers in low volumes and long-term in vitro assessments of cellular functions in microfluidic bioreactors and organs-on-chips. PMID:27098564

  9. Automated microfluidic platform of bead-based electrochemical immunosensor integrated with bioreactor for continual monitoring of cell secreted biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riahi, Reza; Shaegh, Seyed Ali Mousavi; Ghaderi, Masoumeh; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Shin, Su Ryon; Aleman, Julio; Massa, Solange; Kim, Duckjin; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-04-01

    There is an increasing interest in developing microfluidic bioreactors and organs-on-a-chip platforms combined with sensing capabilities for continual monitoring of cell-secreted biomarkers. Conventional approaches such as ELISA and mass spectroscopy cannot satisfy the needs of continual monitoring as they are labor-intensive and not easily integrable with low-volume bioreactors. This paper reports on the development of an automated microfluidic bead-based electrochemical immunosensor for in-line measurement of cell-secreted biomarkers. For the operation of the multi-use immunosensor, disposable magnetic microbeads were used to immobilize biomarker-recognition molecules. Microvalves were further integrated in the microfluidic immunosensor chip to achieve programmable operations of the immunoassay including bead loading and unloading, binding, washing, and electrochemical sensing. The platform allowed convenient integration of the immunosensor with liver-on-chips to carry out continual quantification of biomarkers secreted from hepatocytes. Transferrin and albumin productions were monitored during a 5-day hepatotoxicity assessment in which human primary hepatocytes cultured in the bioreactor were treated with acetaminophen. Taken together, our unique microfluidic immunosensor provides a new platform for in-line detection of biomarkers in low volumes and long-term in vitro assessments of cellular functions in microfluidic bioreactors and organs-on-chips.

  10. Cultivation of human bone-like tissue from pluripotent stem cell-derived osteogenic progenitors in perfusion bioreactors.

    PubMed

    de Peppo, Giuseppe Maria; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Marolt, Darja

    2014-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells represent an unlimited source of skeletal tissue progenitors for studies of bone biology, pathogenesis, and the development of new approaches for bone reconstruction and therapies. In order to construct in vitro models of bone tissue development and to grow functional, clinical-size bone substitutes for transplantation, cell cultivation in three-dimensional environments composed of porous osteoconductive scaffolds and dynamic culture systems-bioreactors-has been studied. Here, we describe a stepwise procedure for the induction of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (collectively termed PSCs) into mesenchymal-like progenitors, and their subsequent cultivation on decellularized bovine bone scaffolds in perfusion bioreactors, to support the development of viable, stable bone-like tissue in defined geometries.

  11. Optimising Cell Aggregate Expansion in a Perfused Hollow Fibre Bioreactor via Mathematical Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Lloyd A. C.; Shipley, Rebecca J.; Whiteley, Jonathan P.; Ellis, Marianne J.; Byrne, Helen M.; Waters, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The need for efficient and controlled expansion of cell populations is paramount in tissue engineering. Hollow fibre bioreactors (HFBs) have the potential to meet this need, but only with improved understanding of how operating conditions and cell seeding strategy affect cell proliferation in the bioreactor. This study is designed to assess the effects of two key operating parameters (the flow rate of culture medium into the fibre lumen and the fluid pressure imposed at the lumen outlet), together with the cell seeding distribution, on cell population growth in a single-fibre HFB. This is achieved using mathematical modelling and numerical methods to simulate the growth of cell aggregates along the outer surface of the fibre in response to the local oxygen concentration and fluid shear stress. The oxygen delivery to the cell aggregates and the fluid shear stress increase as the flow rate and pressure imposed at the lumen outlet are increased. Although the increased oxygen delivery promotes growth, the higher fluid shear stress can lead to cell death. For a given cell type and initial aggregate distribution, the operating parameters that give the most rapid overall growth can be identified from simulations. For example, when aggregates of rat cardiomyocytes that can tolerate shear stresses of up to are evenly distributed along the fibre, the inlet flow rate and outlet pressure that maximise the overall growth rate are predicted to be in the ranges to (equivalent to to ) and to (or 15.6 psi to 15.7 psi) respectively. The combined effects of the seeding distribution and flow on the growth are also investigated and the optimal conditions for growth found to depend on the shear tolerance and oxygen demands of the cells. PMID:25157635

  12. Rotating microgravity-bioreactor cultivation enhances the hepatic differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells on biodegradable polymer scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingjie; Zhang, Yunping; Zhang, Shichang; Peng, Guangyong; Liu, Tao; Li, Yangxin; Xiang, Dedong; Wassler, Michael J; Shelat, Harnath S; Geng, Yongjian

    2012-11-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells that are capable of differentiating all the somatic cell lineages, including those in the liver tissue. We describe the generation of functional hepatic-like cells from mouse ES (mES) cells using a biodegradable polymer scaffold and a rotating bioreactor that allows simulated microgravity. Cells derived from ES cells cultured in the three-dimensional (3D) culture system with exogenous growth factors and hormones can differentiate into hepatic-like cells with morphologic characteristics of typical mature hepatocytes. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain-reaction testing, Western blot testing, immunostaining, and flow cytometric analysis show that these cells express hepatic-specific genes and proteins during differentiation. Differentiated cells on scaffolds further exhibit morphologic traits and biomarkers characteristic of liver cells, including albumin production, cytochrome P450 activity, and low-density lipoprotein uptake. When these stem cell-bearing scaffolds are transplanted into severe combined immunodeficient mice, the 3D constructs remained viable, undergoing further differentiation and maturation of hepatic-like cells in vivo. In conclusion, the growth and differentiation of ES cells in a biodegradable polymer scaffold and a rotating microgravity bioreactor can yield functional and organizational hepatocytes useful for research involving bioartificial liver and engineered liver tissue.

  13. Perfusion Bioreactor Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    1990-01-01

    Perfusion bioreactor module, self-contained, closed-loop cell-culture system that operates in microgravity or on Earth. Equipment supports growth or long-term maintenance of cultures of human or other fragile cells for experiments in basic cell biology or process technology. Designed to support proliferation (initially at exponential rates of growth) of cells in complex growth medium and to maintain confluent cells in defined medium under conditions optimized to permit or encourage selected functions of cells, including secretion of products of cells into medium.

  14. Some process control/design considerations in the development of a microgravity mammalian cell bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goochee, Charles F.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose is to review some of the physical/metabolic factors which must be considered in the development of an operating strategy for a mammalian cell bioreactor. Emphasis is placed on the dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide requirements of growing mammalian epithelial cells. Literature reviews concerning oxygen and carbon dioxide requirements are discussed. A preliminary, dynamic model which encompasses the current features of the NASA bioreactor is presented. The implications of the literature survey and modeling effort on the design and operation of the NASA bioreactor are discussed.

  15. Cultured Human Renal Cortical Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    During the STS-90 shuttle flight in April 1998, cultured renal cortical cells revealed new information about genes. Timothy Hammond, an investigator in NASA's microgravity biotechnology program was interested in culturing kidney tissue to study the expression of proteins useful in the treatment of kidney diseases. Protein expression is linked to the level of differentiation of the kidney cells, and Hammond had difficulty maintaining differentiated cells in vitro. Intrigued by the improvement in cell differentiation that he observed in rat renal cells cultured in NASA's rotating wall vessel (a bioreactor that simulates some aspects of microgravity) and during an experiment performed on the Russian Space Station Mir, Hammond decided to sleuth out which genes were responsible for controlling differentiation of kidney cells. To do this, he compared the gene activity of human renal cells in a variety of gravitational environments, including the microgravity of the space shuttle and the high-gravity environment of a centrifuge. Hammond found that 1,632 genes out of 10,000 analyzed changed their activity level in microgravity, more than in any of the other environments. These results have important implications for kidney research as well as for understanding the basic mechanism for controlling cell differentiation.

  16. Cultured Human Renal Cortical Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    During the STS-90 shuttle flight in April 1998, cultured renal cortical cells revealed new information about genes. Timothy Hammond, an investigator in NASA's microgravity biotechnology program was interested in culturing kidney tissue to study the expression of proteins useful in the treatment of kidney diseases. Protein expression is linked to the level of differentiation of the kidney cells, and Hammond had difficulty maintaining differentiated cells in vitro. Intrigued by the improvement in cell differentiation that he observed in rat renal cells cultured in NASA's rotating wall vessel (a bioreactor that simulates some aspects of microgravity) and during an experiment performed on the Russian Space Station Mir, Hammond decided to sleuth out which genes were responsible for controlling differentiation of kidney cells. To do this, he compared the gene activity of human renal cells in a variety of gravitational environments, including the microgravity of the space shuttle and the high-gravity environment of a centrifuge. Hammond found that 1,632 genes out of 10,000 analyzed changed their activity level in microgravity, more than in any of the other environments. These results have important implications for kidney research as well as for understanding the basic mechanism for controlling cell differentiation.

  17. High cell density cultivation and recombinant protein production with Escherichia coli in a rocking-motion-type bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Single-use rocking-motion-type bag bioreactors provide advantages compared to standard stirred tank bioreactors by decreased contamination risks, reduction of cleaning and sterilization time, lower investment costs, and simple and cheaper validation. Currently, they are widely used for cell cultures although their use for small and medium scale production of recombinant proteins with microbial hosts might be very attractive. However, the utilization of rocking- or wave-induced motion-type bioreactors for fast growing aerobic microbes is limited because of their lower oxygen mass transfer rate. A conventional approach to reduce the oxygen demand of a culture is the fed-batch technology. New developments, such as the BIOSTAT® CultiBag RM system pave the way for applying advanced fed-batch control strategies also in rocking-motion-type bioreactors. Alternatively, internal substrate delivery systems such as EnBase® Flo provide an opportunity for adopting simple to use fed-batch-type strategies to shaken cultures. Here, we investigate the possibilities which both strategies offer in view of high cell density cultivation of E. coli and recombinant protein production. Results Cultivation of E. coli in the BIOSTAT® CultiBag RM system in a conventional batch mode without control yielded an optical density (OD600) of 3 to 4 which is comparable to shake flasks. The culture runs into oxygen limitation. In a glucose limited fed-batch culture with an exponential feed and oxygen pulsing, the culture grew fully aerobically to an OD600 of 60 (20 g L-1 cell dry weight). By the use of an internal controlled glucose delivery system, EnBase® Flo, OD600 of 30 (10 g L-1 cell dry weight) is obtained without the demand of computer controlled external nutrient supply. EnBase® Flo also worked well in the CultiBag RM system with a recombinant E. coli RB791 strain expressing a heterologous alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) to very high levels, indicating that the enzyme based feed

  18. The membrane bioreactor: a novel tool to grow anammox bacteria as free cells.

    PubMed

    van der Star, Wouter R L; Miclea, Andreea I; van Dongen, Udo G J M; Muyzer, Gerard; Picioreanu, Cristian; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2008-10-01

    In a membrane bioreactor (MBR), fast growth of anammox bacteria was achieved with a sludge residence time (SRT) of 12 days. This relatively short SRT resulted in a--for anammox bacteria--unprecedented purity of the enrichment of 97.6%. The absence of a selective pressure for settling, and dedicated cultivation conditions led to growth in suspension as free cells and the complete absence of flocs or granules. Fast growth, low levels of calcium and magnesium, and possibly the presence of yeast extract and a low shear stress are critical for the obtainment of a completely suspended culture consisting of free anammox cells. During cultivation, a population shift was observed from Candidatus "Brocadia" to Candidatus "Kuenenia stuttgartiensis." It is hypothesized that the reason for this shift is the higher affinity for nitrite of "Kuenenia." The production of anammox bacteria in suspension with high purity and productivity makes the MBR a promising tool for the cultivation and study of anammox bacteria.

  19. MELiSSA third compartment: Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi axenic cultures in bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruvellier, Nelly; Lasseur, Christophe; Poughon, Laurent; Creuly, Catherine; Dussap, Gilles

    Nitrogen is a key element for the life and its balance on Earth is regulated by the nitrogen cycle. This loop includes several steps among which nitrification that permits the transformation of the ammonium into nitrate. The MELiSSA loop is an artificial ecosystem designed for life support systems (LSS). It is based on the carbon and nitrogen cycles and the recycling of the non-edible part of the higher plants and the waste produced by the crew. In this order, all the wastes are collected in the first compartment to degrade them into organic acids and CO2. These compounds are joining the second compartment which is a photoheterotrophic compartment where at the outlet an organic-free medium containing ammonium is produced. This solution will be the substrate of the third compartment where nitrification is done. This compartment has to oxidize the ammonium into nitrate, and this biological reaction needs two steps. In the MELiSSA loop, the nitrification is carried out by two bacteria: Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC® 19718™ which is oxidizing ammonia into nitrite and Nitrobacter winogradskyi ATCC® 25391™ which is producing nitrate from nitrite in the third compartment. These two bacteria are growing in axenic conditions on a fixed bed bioreactor filled with Biostyr® beads. The nitrogen compounds are controlled by Ionic Chromatography and colorimetric titration for each sample. The work presented here deals with the culture of both bacteria in pure cultures and mixed cultures in stirred and aerated bioreactors of different volumes. The first aim of our work is the characterization of the bacteria growth in bioreactors and in the nitrifying fixed-bed column. The experimental results confirm that the growth is slow; the maximal growth rate in suspended cultures is 0.054h-1 for Nitrosomonas europaea and 0.022h-1 for Nitrobacter winogradskyi. Mixed cultures are difficult to control and operate but one could be done for more than 500 hours. The characterization of the

  20. Perchlorate remediation using packed-bed bioreactors and electricity generation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Booki

    Two pilot-scale fixed bed bioreactors were operated in continuous mode in order to treat groundwater contaminated by perchlorate. The bioreactors were constructed and operated side-by-side at the Texas Street Well Facility in Redlands, California. Each reactor was packed with either sand or plastic media. A perchlorate-reducing bacterium, Dechlorosoma sp. KJ, was used to inoculate the bioreactors. Perchlorate was successfully removed down to a non-detectable level (<4mug/L) in both bioreactors with acetate as a carbon source and nutrients at loading rates less than 0.063 L/s (1 gpm; 0.34 L/m2s). The sand medium bioreactor could achieve complete-perchlorate removal up to flow rate of 0.126 L/s. A regular backwashing cycle (once a week) was an important factor for completely removing perchlorate in groundwater. Power generation directly from pure or mixed organic matter was examined using microbial fuel cells (MFCs), which were run either in batch or continuous mode. In batch experiments, both a pure culture (Geobactor metallireducens) and a mixed culture (wastewater inoculum) were used as the biocatalyst, and acetate was added as substrate in the anode chamber of the MFC. Power output in a membrane MFC with either inoculum was essentially the same, with 40 +/- 1 mW/m2 for G. metallireducens and 38 +/- 1 mW/m2 for mixed culture. A different type of the MFC containing a salt bridge instead of a membrane system was examined to generate power using the same substrate and pure culture as used in the membrane MFC. Power output in the salt bridge MFC was 2.2 mW/m 2. It was found that the lower power output was directly attributed to the higher internal resistance of the salt bridge system (19920 +/- 50 O) in comparison with that of the membrane system (1286 +/- 1 O). Continuous electricity generation was examined in a flat plate microbial fuel cell (FPMFC) using domestic wastewater and specific organic substrates. The FPMFC, containing a combined electrode/proton exchange

  1. NASA Bioreactor Schematic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The schematic depicts the major elements and flow patterns inside the NASA Bioreactor system. Waste and fresh medium are contained in plastic bags placed side-by-side so the waste bag fills as the fresh medium bag is depleted. The compliance vessel contains a bladder to accommodate pressure transients that might damage the system. A peristolic pump moves fluid by squeezing the plastic tubing, thus avoiding potential contamination. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  2. NASA Bioreactor Schematic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The schematic depicts the major elements and flow patterns inside the NASA Bioreactor system. Waste and fresh medium are contained in plastic bags placed side-by-side so the waste bag fills as the fresh medium bag is depleted. The compliance vessel contains a bladder to accommodate pressure transients that might damage the system. A peristolic pump moves fluid by squeezing the plastic tubing, thus avoiding potential contamination. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  3. MALDI-TOF characterization of hGH1 produced by hairy root cultures of Brassica oleracea var. italica grown in an airlift with mesh bioreactor.

    PubMed

    López, Edgar García; Ramírez, Emma Gloria Ramos; Gúzman, Octavio Gómez; Calva, Graciano Calva; Ariza-Castolo, Armando; Pérez-Vargas, Josefina; Rodríguez, Herminia Guadalupe Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Expression systems based on plant cells, tissue, and organ cultures have been investigated as an alternative for production of human therapeutic proteins in bioreactors. In this work, hairy root cultures of Brassica oleracea var. italica (broccoli) were established in an airlift with mesh bioreactor to produce isoform 1 of the human growth hormone (hGH1) as a model therapeutic protein. The hGH1 cDNA was cloned into the pCAMBIA1105.1 binary vector to induce hairy roots in hypocotyls of broccoli plantlets via Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Most of the infected plantlets (90%) developed hairy roots when inoculated before the appearance of true leaves, and keeping the emerging roots attached to hypocotyl explants during transfer to solid Schenk and Hildebrandt medium. The incorporation of the cDNA into the hairy root genome was confirmed by PCR amplification from genomic DNA. The expression and structure of the transgenic hGH1 was assessed by ELISA, western blot, and MALDITOF-MS analysis of the purified protein extracted from the biomass of hairy roots cultivated in bioreactor for 24 days. Production of hGH1 was 5.1 ± 0.42 µg/g dry weight (DW) for flask cultures, and 7.8 ± 0.3 µg/g DW for bioreactor, with productivity of 0.68 ± 0.05 and 1.5 ± 0.06 µg/g DW*days, respectively, indicating that the production of hGH1 was not affected by the growth rate, but might be affected by the culture system. These results demonstrate that hairy root cultures of broccoli have potential as an alternative expression system for production of hGH1, and might also be useful for production of other therapeutic proteins.

  4. Model-based analysis and optimization of bioreactor for hematopoietic stem cell cultivation.

    PubMed

    Kresnowati, M T A P; Forde, G M; Chen, X D

    2011-01-01

    One of the problems to be solved in attaining the full potentials of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) applications is the limited availability of the cells. Growing HSCs in a bioreactor offers an alternative solution to this problem. Besides, it also offers the advantages of eliminating labour intensive process as well as the possible contamination involved in the periodic nutrient replenishments in the traditional T-flask stem cell cultivation. In spite of this, the optimization of HSC cultivation in a bioreactor has been barely explored. This manuscript discusses the development of a mathematical model to describe the dynamics in nutrient distribution and cell concentration of an ex vivo HSC cultivation in a microchannel perfusion bioreactor. The model was further used to optimize the cultivation by proposing three alternative feeding strategies in order to prevent the occurrence of nutrient limitation in the bioreactor. The evaluation of these strategies, the periodic step change increase in the inlet oxygen concentration, the periodic step change increase in the media inflow, and the feedback control of media inflow, shows that these strategies can successfully improve the cell yield of the bioreactor. In general, the developed model is useful for the design and optimization of bioreactor operation.

  5. Modelling and simulation of the chondrocyte cell growth, glucose consumption and lactate production within a porous tissue scaffold inside a perfusion bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Md Shakhawath; Bergstrom, D J; Chen, X B

    2015-03-01

    Mathematical and numerical modelling of the tissue culture process in a perfusion bioreactor is able to provide insight into the fluid flow, nutrients and wastes transport, dynamics of the pH value, and the cell growth rate. Knowing the complicated interdependence of these processes is essential for optimizing the culture process for cell growth. This paper presents a resolved scale numerical simulation, which allows one not only to characterize the supply of glucose inside a porous tissue scaffold in a perfusion bioreactor, but also to assess the overall culture condition and predict the cell growth rate. The simulation uses a simplified scaffold that consists of a repeatable unit composed of multiple strands. The simulation results explore some problematic regions inside the simplified scaffold where the concentration of glucose becomes lower than the critical value for the chondrocyte cell viability and the cell growth rate becomes significantly reduced.

  6. Compartmental Hollow Fiber Capillary Membrane–Based Bioreactor Technology for In Vitro Studies on Red Blood Cell Lineage Direction of Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Housler, Greggory J.; Miki, Toshio; Schmelzer, Eva; Pekor, Christopher; Zhang, Xiaokui; Kang, Lin; Voskinarian-Berse, Vanessa; Abbot, Stewart; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Continuous production of red blood cells (RBCs) in an automated closed culture system using hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) progenitor cell populations is of interest for clinical application because of the high demand for blood transfusions. Previously, we introduced a four-compartment bioreactor that consisted of two bundles of hollow fiber microfiltration membranes for transport of culture medium (forming two medium compartments), interwoven with one bundle of hollow fiber membranes for transport of oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), and other gases (forming one gas compartment). Small-scale prototypes were developed of the three-dimensional (3D) perfusion cell culture systems, which enable convection-based mass transfer and integral oxygenation in the cell compartment. CD34+ HSC were isolated from human cord blood units using a magnetic separation procedure. Cells were inoculated into 2- or 8-mL scaled-down versions of the previously designed 800-mL cell compartment devices and perfused with erythrocyte proliferation and differentiation medium. First, using the small-scale 2-mL analytical scale bioreactor, with an initial seeding density of 800,000 cells/mL, we demonstrated approximately 100-fold cell expansion and differentiation after 7 days of culture. An 8-mL laboratory-scale bioreactor was then used to show pseudocontinuous production by intermediately harvesting cells. Subsequently, we were able to use a model to demonstrate semicontinuous production with up to 14,288-fold expansion using seeding densities of 800,000 cells/mL. The down-scaled culture technology allows for expansion of CD34+ cells and stimulating these progenitors towards RBC lineage, expressing approximately 40% CD235+ and enucleation. The 3D perfusion technology provides an innovative tool for studies on RBC production, which is scalable. PMID:21933020

  7. Compartmental hollow fiber capillary membrane-based bioreactor technology for in vitro studies on red blood cell lineage direction of hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Housler, Greggory J; Miki, Toshio; Schmelzer, Eva; Pekor, Christopher; Zhang, Xiaokui; Kang, Lin; Voskinarian-Berse, Vanessa; Abbot, Stewart; Zeilinger, Katrin; Gerlach, Jörg C

    2012-02-01

    Continuous production of red blood cells (RBCs) in an automated closed culture system using hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) progenitor cell populations is of interest for clinical application because of the high demand for blood transfusions. Previously, we introduced a four-compartment bioreactor that consisted of two bundles of hollow fiber microfiltration membranes for transport of culture medium (forming two medium compartments), interwoven with one bundle of hollow fiber membranes for transport of oxygen (O(2)), carbon dioxide (CO(2)), and other gases (forming one gas compartment). Small-scale prototypes were developed of the three-dimensional (3D) perfusion cell culture systems, which enable convection-based mass transfer and integral oxygenation in the cell compartment. CD34(+) HSC were isolated from human cord blood units using a magnetic separation procedure. Cells were inoculated into 2- or 8-mL scaled-down versions of the previously designed 800-mL cell compartment devices and perfused with erythrocyte proliferation and differentiation medium. First, using the small-scale 2-mL analytical scale bioreactor, with an initial seeding density of 800,000 cells/mL, we demonstrated approximately 100-fold cell expansion and differentiation after 7 days of culture. An 8-mL laboratory-scale bioreactor was then used to show pseudocontinuous production by intermediately harvesting cells. Subsequently, we were able to use a model to demonstrate semicontinuous production with up to 14,288-fold expansion using seeding densities of 800,000 cells/mL. The down-scaled culture technology allows for expansion of CD34(+) cells and stimulating these progenitors towards RBC lineage, expressing approximately 40% CD235(+) and enucleation. The 3D perfusion technology provides an innovative tool for studies on RBC production, which is scalable.

  8. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, such as the culture section shown here, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. The two white circles within the tumor are part of a plastic lattice that helped the cells associate. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  9. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, such as the culture section shown here, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. The two white circles within the tumor are part of a plastic lattice that helped the cells associate. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  10. Mycelium differentiation and development of Streptomyces coelicolor in lab-scale bioreactors: programmed cell death, differentiation, and lysis are closely linked to undecylprodigiosin and actinorhodin production.

    PubMed

    Rioseras, Beatriz; López-García, María Teresa; Yagüe, Paula; Sánchez, Jesús; Manteca, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Streptomycetes are mycelium-forming bacteria that produce two thirds of clinically relevant secondary metabolites. Secondary metabolite production is activated at specific developmental stages of Streptomyces life cycle. Despite this, Streptomyces differentiation in industrial bioreactors tends to be underestimated and the most important parameters managed are only indirectly related to differentiation: modifications to the culture media, optimization of productive strains by random or directed mutagenesis, analysis of biophysical parameters, etc. In this work the relationship between differentiation and antibiotic production in lab-scale bioreactors was defined. Streptomyces coelicolor was used as a model strain. Morphological differentiation was comparable to that occurring during pre-sporulation stages in solid cultures: an initial compartmentalized mycelium suffers a programmed cell death, and remaining viable segments then differentiate to a second multinucleated antibiotic-producing mycelium. Differentiation was demonstrated to be one of the keys to interpreting biophysical fermentation parameters and to rationalizing the optimization of secondary metabolite production in bioreactors.

  11. Mycelium differentiation and development of Streptomyces coelicolor in lab-scale bioreactors: Programmed cell death, differentiation, and lysis are closely linked to undecylprodigiosin and actinorhodin production

    PubMed Central

    Rioseras, Beatriz; López-García, María Teresa; Yagüe, Paula; Sánchez, Jesús; Manteca, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Streptomycetes are mycelium-forming bacteria that produce two thirds of clinically relevant secondary metabolites. Secondary metabolite production is activated at specific developmental stages of Streptomyces life cycle. Despite this, Streptomyces differentiation in industrial bioreactors tends to be underestimated and the most important parameters managed are only indirectly related to differentiation: modifications to the culture media, optimization of productive strains by random or directed mutagenesis, analysis of biophysical parameters, etc. In this work the relationship between differentiation and antibiotic production in lab-scale bioreactors was defined. Streptomyces coelicolor was used as a model strain. Morphological differentiation was comparable to that occurring during pre-sporulation stages in solid cultures: an initial compartmentalized mycelium suffers a programmed cell death, and remaining viable segments then differentiate to a second multinucleated antibiotic-producing mycelium. Differentiation was demonstrated to be one of the keys to interpreting biophysical fermentation parameters and to rationalizing the optimization of secondary metabolite production in bioreactors. PMID:24240146

  12. Membrane bioreactors: Engineering aspects.

    PubMed

    Chang, H N

    1987-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors have in-situ separation capability lacking in other types of immobilized cell reactors. This makes them very useful for certain systems. Enzyme reactions utilizing cofactors and hydrolysis of macromolecules are advantageous in membrane reactors. Anaerobic cell culture may be efficiently carried out in membrane cell recycle systems, while aerobic cultures work well in dual hollow fiber reactors. Animal and plant cells have much a better chance of success in membrane reactors because of the protective environment of the reactor and the small oxygen uptake rate of these cells.

  13. Modelling the damage potential of fluid flows for animal cells undergoing cultivation in bioreactors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanford Keen, Giles

    1996-11-01

    Mechanical disruption and injury sustained by animal cells undergoing cultivation in bioreactors is an important problem in biotechnology. Damage to cells is thought to be caused primarily by bubbles bursting at the free surface of the culture medium. Here we present computational studies applying a mathematical model for the cell damage rates experienced by cells in laminar flow. Two fluid dynamical systems are considered - namely a converging channel and a single bursting bubble. The flows are calculated using a fourth-order finite difference technique on a stretched grid, and a boundary integral method respectively. It is possible to obtain an estimate for the number of cells in a particular population which are likely to be disrupted by the forces they experience in the flow. This is done by calculating the maximum rate of strain experienced by fluid particles, and combining this with experimental data on the strength and size of cells, obtained by micromanipulation techniques. The resulting information is then used together with the cell damage model to produce a cell damage prediction. The computational results are compared with experimental measurements of cell death, to validate the model for cell damage.

  14. Chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose‑derived stem cells using microcarrier and bioreactor combination technique.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hongjun; Lu, Shibi; Peng, Jiang; Yang, Qiang; Liu, Shuyun; Zhang, Li; Huang, Jingxiang; Sui, Xiang; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Aiyuan; Xu, Wenjing; Guo, Quanyi; Song, Qing

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to explore the application of microcarrier technology in the rapid amplification and chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose‑derived stem cells (ADSCs) in a rotating bioreactor. Human ADSCs were cultivated with Cytodex 3 microcarriers in a rotary cell culture system (RCCS), and using inverted and scanning electron microscopes, the ADSCs were observed on the surface of the microcarriers. The harvested ADSCs were stained with safranin‑O or toluidine blue histochemical stains, and type II collagen immunohistochemical stain. ADSCs were adherent to the surface of Cytodex 3 microcarriers by 24 h. They became short and spindle‑shaped, and as time progressed, the adherence of the cells to the microcarriers gradually improved. By the end of the culture period, the cell densities were ~19 times that of the initial cell density. The harvested cells on microcarriers were safranin-O and toluidine blue staining and collagen Ⅱ‑positive staining, which were stronger than the control group. The application of microcarrier technology is able to rapidly amplify human ADSC proliferation and successfully implement chondrogenic differentiation in vitro.

  15. Very high cell density perfusion of CHO cells anchored in a non-woven matrix-based bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Stobbe, Per; Silvander, Christian Orrego; Chotteau, Véronique

    2015-11-10

    Recombinant Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells producing IgG monoclonal antibody were cultivated in a novel perfusion culture system CellTank, integrating the bioreactor and the cell retention function. In this system, the cells were harbored in a non-woven polyester matrix perfused by the culture medium and immersed in a reservoir. Although adapted to suspension, the CHO cells stayed entrapped in the matrix. The cell-free medium was efficiently circulated from the reservoir into- and through the matrix by a centrifugal pump placed at the bottom of the bioreactor resulting in highly homogenous concentrations of the nutrients and metabolites in the whole system as confirmed by measurements from different sampling locations. A real-time biomass sensor using the dielectric properties of living cells was used to measure the cell density. The performances of the CellTank were studied in three perfusion runs. A very high cell density measured as 200 pF/cm (where 1 pF/cm is equivalent to 1 × 10(6)viable cells/mL) was achieved at a perfusion rate of 10 reactor volumes per day (RV/day) in the first run. In the second run, the effect of cell growth arrest by hypothermia at temperatures lowered gradually from 37 °C to 29 °C was studied during 13 days at cell densities above 100 pF/cm. Finally a production run was performed at high cell densities, where a temperature shift to 31 °C was applied at cell density 100 pF/cm during a production period of 14 days in minimized feeding conditions. The IgG concentrations were comparable in the matrix and in the harvest line in all the runs, indicating no retention of the product of interest. The cell specific productivity was comparable or higher than in Erlenmeyer flask batch culture. During the production run, the final harvested IgG production was 35 times higher in the CellTank compared to a repeated batch culture in the same vessel volume during the same time period. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  16. Improving performance of mammalian cells in fed-batch processes through "bioreactor evolution".

    PubMed

    Prentice, Holly L; Ehrenfels, Barbara N; Sisk, William P

    2007-01-01

    The amount of recombinant product obtained from mammalian cells grown in a bioreactor is in part limited by achievable cell densities and the ability of cells to remain viable over extended periods of time. In an attempt to generate cell lines capable of better bioreactor performance, we subjected the DG44 Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) host cell line and a recombinant production cell line to an iterative process whereby cells capable of surviving the harsh conditions in the bioreactor were selected. This selective process was termed "bioreactor evolution". Following the selective process, the "evolved" host cells attained a 2-fold increase in peak cell density and a 72% increase in integral cell area. Transient transfection experiments demonstrate that the evolved cells have the same transfection efficiency and the same secretory potential as the initial cells. The "evolved" host was also found to contain a large subpopulation of cells that did not require insulin for growth. From this, a new population of growth-factor-independent cells was obtained. These improvements in host properties should prove beneficial in the expression of recombinant proteins in fed-batch processes. The selective process was also applied to a recombinant production cell line. The evolved cells from this selection exhibited a 38% increase in peak cell density, a 30% increase in integral cell area, and a 36% increase in product titer. These increases were obtained without any appreciable impact on product quality, demonstrating the usefulness of this simple approach to improve the performance of recombinant cell lines.

  17. New bioreactor for in situ simultaneous measurement of bioluminescence and cell density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picart, Pascal; Bendriaa, Loubna; Daniel, Philippe; Horry, Habib; Durand, Marie-José; Jouvanneau, Laurent; Thouand, Gérald

    2004-03-01

    This article presents a new device devoted to the simultaneous measurement of bioluminescence and optical density of a bioluminescent bacterial culture. It features an optoelectronic bioreactor with a fully autoclavable module, in which the bioluminescent bacteria are cultivated, a modulated laser diode dedicated to optical density measurement, and a detection head for the acquisition of both bioluminescence and optical density signals. Light is detected through a bifurcated fiber bundle. This setup allows the simultaneous estimation of the bioluminescence and the cell density of the culture medium without any sampling. The bioluminescence is measured through a highly sensitive photomultiplier unit which has been photometrically calibrated to allow light flux measurements. This was achieved by considering the bioluminescence spectrum and the full optical transmission of the device. The instrument makes it possible to measure a very weak light flux of only a few pW. The optical density is determined through the laser diode and a photodiode using numerical synchronous detection which is based on the power spectrum density of the recorded signal. The detection was calibrated to measure optical density up to 2.5. The device was validated using the Vibrio fischeri bacterium which was cultivated under continuous culture conditions. A very good correlation between manual and automatic measurements processed with this instrument has been demonstrated. Furthermore, the optoelectronic bioreactor enables determination of the luminance of the bioluminescent bacteria which is estimated to be 6×10-5 W sr-1 m-2 for optical density=0.3. Experimental results are presented and discussed.

  18. A novel bioreactor to simulate urinary bladder mechanical properties and compliance for bladder functional tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Li, Dao-bing; Xu, Feng; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Yu-chun; Li, Hong; Wang, Kun-jie

    2011-02-01

    Bioreactors are pivotal tools for generating mechanical stimulation in functional tissue engineering study. This study aimed to create a bioreactor that can simulate urinary bladder mechanical properties, and to investigate the effects of a mechanically stimulated culture on urothelial cells and bladder smooth muscle cells. We designed a bioreactor to simulate the mechanical properties of bladder. A pressure-record system was used to evaluate the mechanical properties of the bioreactor by measuring the pressure in culture chambers. To test the biocompatibility of the bioreactor, viabilities of urothelial cells and smooth muscle cells cultured in the bioreactor under static and mechanically changed conditions were measured after 7-day culture. To evaluate the effect of mechanical stimulations on the vital cells, urethral cells and smooth muscle cells were cultured in the simulated mechanical conditions. After that, the viability and the distribution pattern of the cells were observed and compared with cells cultured in non-mechanical stimulated condition. The bioreactor system successfully generated waveforms similar to the intended programmed model while maintaining a cell-seeded elastic membrane between the chambers. There were no differences between viabilities of urothelial cells ((91.90 ± 1.22)% vs. (93.14 ± 1.78)%, P > 0.05) and bladder smooth muscle cells ((93.41 ± 1.49)% vs. (92.61 ± 1.34)%, P > 0.05). The viability of cells and tissue structure observation after cultured in simulated condition showed that mechanical stimulation was the only factor affected cells in the bioreactor and improved the arrangement of cells on silastic membrane. This bioreactor can effectively simulate the physiological and mechanical properties of the bladder. Mechanical stimulation is the only factor that affected the viability of cells cultured in the bioreactor. The bioreactor can change the growth behavior of urothelial cells and bladder smooth muscle cells, resulting in

  19. Expression of a carrot invertase gene in tobacco suspension cells cultivated in batch and continuous culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Verdelhan des Molles, D; Gomord, V; Bastin, M; Faye, L; Courtois, D

    1999-01-01

    Plant cells (Nicotiana tabacum) were genetically modified to produce an heterologous protein, the acidic invertase from carrot, and invertase production from suspension tobacco cells was investigated. Suspension cultures were grown in shake flasks and stirred bioreactor. Total invertase activity was growth related. A 75 d continuous culture in 10 l bioreactor was performed. Our study demonstrates the high potential of plant cell cultures for long term production of heterologous protein.

  20. Heat shock protein 27 overexpression in CHO cells modulates apoptosis pathways and delays activation of caspases to improve recombinant monoclonal antibody titre in fed-batch bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Tan, Janice G L; Lee, Yih Yean; Wang, Tianhua; Yap, Miranda G S; Tan, Tin Wee; Ng, Say Kong

    2015-05-01

    CHO cells are major production hosts for recombinant biologics including the rapidly expanding recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) expression was observed to be down-regulated towards the late-exponential and stationary phase of CHO fed-batch bioreactor cultures, whereas HSP27 was found to be highly expressed in human pathological cells and reported to have anti-apoptotic functions. These phenotypes suggest that overexpression of HSP27 is a potential cell line engineering strategy for improving robustness of CHO cells. In this work, HSP27 was stably overexpressed in CHO cells producing recombinant mAb and the effects of HSP27 on cell growth, volumetric production titer and product quality were assessed. Concomitantly, HSP27 anti-apoptosis functions in CHO cells were investigated. Stably transfected clones cultured in fed-batch bioreactors displayed 2.2-fold higher peak viable cell density, delayed loss of culture viability by two days and 2.3-fold increase in mAb titer without affecting the N-glycosylation profile, as compared to clones stably transfected with the vector backbone. Co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed HSP27 interactions with Akt, pro-caspase 3 and Daxx and caspase activity profiling showed delayed increase in caspase 2, 3, 8 and 9 activities. These results suggest that HSP27 modulates apoptosis signaling pathways and delays caspase activities to improve performance of CHO fed-batch bioreactor cultures.

  1. A mathematical model and computational framework for three-dimensional chondrocyte cell growth in a porous tissue scaffold placed inside a bi-directional flow perfusion bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Shakhawath Hossain, Md; Bergstrom, D J; Chen, X B

    2015-12-01

    The in vitro chondrocyte cell culture for cartilage tissue regeneration in a perfusion bioreactor is a complex process. Mathematical modeling and computational simulation can provide important insights into the culture process, which would be helpful for selecting culture conditions to improve the quality of the developed tissue constructs. However, simulation of the cell culture process is a challenging task due to the complicated interaction between the cells and local fluid flow and nutrient transport inside the complex porous scaffolds. In this study, a mathematical model and computational framework has been developed to simulate the three-dimensional (3D) cell growth in a porous scaffold placed inside a bi-directional flow perfusion bioreactor. The model was developed by taking into account the two-way coupling between the cell growth and local flow field and associated glucose concentration, and then used to perform a resolved-scale simulation based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). The simulation predicts the local shear stress, glucose concentration, and 3D cell growth inside the porous scaffold for a period of 30 days of cell culture. The predicted cell growth rate was in good overall agreement with the experimental results available in the literature. This study demonstrates that the bi-directional flow perfusion culture system can enhance the homogeneity of the cell growth inside the scaffold. The model and computational framework developed is capable of providing significant insight into the culture process, thus providing a powerful tool for the design and optimization of the cell culture process.

  2. Staying alive! Sensors used for monitoring cell health in bioreactors.

    PubMed

    O'Mara, P; Farrell, A; Bones, J; Twomey, K

    2018-01-01

    Current and next generation sensors such as pH, dissolved oxygen (dO) and temperature sensors that will help drive the use of single-use bioreactors in industry are reviewed. The current trend in bioreactor use is shifting from the traditional fixed bioreactors to the use of single-use bioreactors (SUBs). However as the shift in paradigm occurs there is now a greater need for sensor technology to play 'catch up' with the innovation of bioreactor technology. Many of the sensors still in use today rely on technology created in the 1960's such as the Clark-type dissolved oxygen sensor or glass pH electrodes. This is due to the strict requirements of sensors to monitor bioprocesses resulting in the use of traditional well understood methods, making it difficult to incorporate new sensor technology into industry. A number of advances in sensor technology have been achieved in recent years, a few of these advances and future research will also be discussed in this review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sensing in tissue bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolfe, P.

    2006-03-01

    Specialized sensing and measurement instruments are under development to aid the controlled culture of cells in bioreactors for the fabrication of biological tissues. Precisely defined physical and chemical conditions are needed for the correct culture of the many cell-tissue types now being studied, including chondrocytes (cartilage), vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells (blood vessels), fibroblasts, hepatocytes (liver) and receptor neurones. Cell and tissue culture processes are dynamic and therefore, optimal control requires monitoring of the key process variables. Chemical and physical sensing is approached in this paper with the aim of enabling automatic optimal control, based on classical cell growth models, to be achieved. Non-invasive sensing is performed via the bioreactor wall, invasive sensing with probes placed inside the cell culture chamber and indirect monitoring using analysis within a shunt or a sampling chamber. Electroanalytical and photonics-based systems are described. Chemical sensing for gases, ions, metabolites, certain hormones and proteins, is under development. Spectroscopic analysis of the culture medium is used for measurement of glucose and for proteins that are markers of cell biosynthetic behaviour. Optical interrogation of cells and tissues is also investigated for structural analysis based on scatter.

  4. Pneumococcal whole-cell vaccine: optimization of cell growth of unencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae in bioreactor using animal-free medium.

    PubMed

    Liberman, C; Takagi, M; Cabrera-Crespo, J; Sbrogio-Almeida, M E; Dias, W O; Leite, L C C; Gonçalves, V M

    2008-11-01

    The high cost of the available pneumococcal conjugated vaccines has been an obstacle in implementing vaccination programs for children in developing countries. As an alternative, Malley et al. proposed a vaccine consisting of inactivated whole-cells of unencapsulated S. pneumoniae, which provides serotype-independent protection and involves lower production costs. Although the pneumococcus has been extensively studied, little research has focused on its large-scale culture, thus implying a lack of knowledge of process parameters, which in turn are essential for its successful industrial production. The strain Rx1Al- eryR was originally cultured in Todd-Hewitt medium (THY), which is normally used for pneumococcus isolation, but is unsuitable for human vaccine preparations. The purposes of this study were to compare the strains Rx1Al- eryR and kanR, develop a new medium, and generate new data parameters for scaling-up the process. In static flasks, cell densities were higher for eryR than kanR. In contrast, the optical density (OD) of the former decreased immediately after reaching the stationary phase, and the OD of the latter remained stable. The strain Rx1Al- kanR was cultivated in bioreactors with medium based on either acid-hydrolyzed casein (AHC) or enzymatically hydrolyzed soybean meal (EHS). Biomass production in EHS was 2.5 times higher than in AHC, and about ten times higher than in THY. The process developed for growing the strain Rx1Al- kanR in pH-controlled bioreactors was shown to be satisfactory to this fastidious bacterium. The new culture conditions using this animal-free medium may allow the production of the pneumococcal whole-cell vaccine.

  5. Engineered bone culture in a perfusion bioreactor: a 2D computational study of stationary mass and momentum transport.

    PubMed

    Pierre, J; Oddou, C

    2007-12-01

    Successful bone cell culture in large implants still is a challenge to biologists and requires a strict control of the physicochemical and mechanical environments. This study analyses from the transport phenomena viewpoint the limiting factors of a perfusion bioreactor for bone cell culture within fibrous and porous large implants (2.5 cm in length, a few cubic centimetres in volume, 250 microm in fibre diameter with approximately 60% porosity). A two-dimensional mathematical model, based upon stationary mass and momentum transport in these implants is proposed and numerically solved. Cell oxygen consumption, in accordance theoretically with the Michaelis-Menten law, generates non linearity in the boundary conditions of the convection diffusion equation. Numerical solutions are obtained with a commercial code (Femlab 3.1; Comsol AB, Stockholm, Sweden). Moreover, based on the simplification of transport equations, a simple formula is given for estimating the length of the oxygen penetration within the implant. Results show that within a few hours of culture process and for a perfusion velocity of the order of 10(-4) m s(-1), the local oxygen concentration is everywhere sufficiently high to ensure a suitable cell metabolism. But shear stresses induced by the fluid flow with such a perfusion velocity are found to be locally too large (higher than 10(-3) Pa). Suitable shear stresses are obtained by decreasing the velocity at the inlet to around 2 x 10(-5) m s(-1). But consequently hypoxic regions (low oxygen concentrations) appear at the downstream part of the implant. Thus, it is suggested here that in the determination of the perfusion flow rate within a large implant, a compromise between oxygen supply and shear stress effects must be found in order to obtain a successful cell culture.

  6. Applications of improved stoichiometric model in medium design and fed-batch cultivation of animal cells in bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Xie, L; Wang, D I

    1994-01-01

    In our previous work (Xie and Wang, 1994a), a simplified stoichiometric model on energy metabolism for animal cell cultivation was developed. Fed-batch experiments were performed in T-flasks using this model in supplemental medium design (Xie and Wang, 1994b). In this work, the major pathways of glucose and glutamine metabolism were incorporated into the stoichiometric model. Fed-batch culture was conducted in a 2-liter bioreactor with appropriate process control strategies. Nutrient concentrations, especially glucose and glutamine, were maintained at constant but low levels through the automated feeding of a supplemental medium formulated using the improved stoichiometric model. The formation of toxic byproducts, such as ammonia and lactate (Hassell et al., 1991), was greatly reduced. The specific lactate production rate was decreased by 62-fold compared with batch culture in bioreactor and by 8-fold compared to fed-batch culture in T-flask using the previous stoichiometric model. Ammonia formation was also decreased compared with both the batch and fed-batch cultures. Most importantly, the monoclonal antibody concentration reached 900 mg l-1, an increase of 17- and 1.6-fold compared with the batch and fed-batch cultures respectively.

  7. Reduced-Gravity Experiments Conducted to Help Bioreactor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niederhaus, Charles E.; Nahra, Henry K.; Kizito, John P.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center and the NASA Johnson Space Center are collaborating on fluid dynamic investigations for a future cell science bioreactor to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). Project Manager Steven Gonda from the Cellular Biotechnology Program at Johnson is leading the development of the Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor--Space (HFB-S) for use on the ISS to study tissue growth in microgravity. Glenn is providing microgravity fluid physics expertise to help with the design and evaluation of the HFB-S. These bioreactors are used for three-dimensional tissue culture, which cannot be done in ground-based labs in normal gravity. The bioreactors provide a continual supply of oxygen for cell growth, as well as periodic replacement of cell culture media with nutrients. The bioreactor must provide a uniform distribution of oxygen and nutrients while minimizing the shear stresses on the tissue culture.

  8. A two-compartment cell entrapment bioreactor with three different holding times for cells, high and low molecular weight compounds.

    PubMed

    Scholz, M; Hu, W S

    1990-09-01

    A new bioreactor for animal cell cultivation employs two compartments for cells and medium respectively. The two chambers are separated by an ultrafiltration membrane. Cells and solution of collagen or collagen/chitosan mixture were loaded to the cell chamber and were allowed to form gel inside. Contraction of the cell-laden gel occurred subsequently to create a new zone in the cell chamber. In such a bioreactor cells are retained in the reactor, the high molecular product(s) accumulate in the cell chamber, while the small molecular weight nutrients and metabolites are replenished and removed from the medium chamber. By adjusting the flow rates for cell and medium chambers, the resident time for cells, high and low molecular weight components of the system can be manipulated separately. The new bioreactor, in both flat-bed and hollow-fiber configurations, was used to cultivate recombinant human cell, 293, for Protein C production over 60 to 90 days.

  9. Strategies for Enhancing the Accumulation and Retention of Extracellular Matrix in Tissue-Engineered Cartilage Cultured in Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Shahin, Kifah; Doran, Pauline M.

    2011-01-01

    Production of tissue-engineered cartilage involves the synthesis and accumulation of key constituents such as glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen type II to form insoluble extracellular matrix (ECM). During cartilage culture, macromolecular components are released from nascent tissues into the medium, representing a significant waste of biosynthetic resources. This work was aimed at developing strategies for improving ECM retention in cartilage constructs and thus the quality of engineered tissues produced in bioreactors. Human chondrocytes seeded into polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds were cultured in perfusion bioreactors for up to 5 weeks. Analysis of the size and integrity of proteoglycans in the constructs and medium showed that full-sized aggrecan was being stripped from the tissues without proteolytic degradation. Application of low (0.075 mL min−1) and gradually increasing (0.075–0.2 mL min−1) medium flow rates in the bioreactor resulted in the generation of larger constructs, a 4.0–4.4-fold increase in the percentage of GAG retained in the ECM, and a 4.8–5.2-fold increase in GAG concentration in the tissues compared with operation at 0.2 mL min−1. GAG retention was also improved by pre-culturing seeded scaffolds in flasks for 5 days prior to bioreactor culture. In contrast, GAG retention in PGA scaffolds infused with alginate hydrogel did not vary significantly with medium flow rate or pre-culture treatment. This work demonstrates that substantial improvements in cartilage quality can be achieved using scaffold and bioreactor culture strategies that specifically target and improve ECM retention. PMID:21858004

  10. Enhanced Expansion and Sustained Inductive Function of Skin‐Derived Precursor Cells in Computer‐Controlled Stirred Suspension Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Agabalyan, Natacha A.; Borys, Breanna S.; Sparks, Holly D.; Boon, Kathryn; Raharjo, Eko W.; Abbasi, Sepideh; Kallos, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Endogenous dermal stem cells (DSCs) reside in the adult hair follicle mesenchyme and can be isolated and grown in vitro as self‐renewing colonies called skin‐derived precursors (SKPs). Following transplantation into skin, SKPs can generate new dermis and reconstitute the dermal papilla and connective tissue sheath, suggesting they could have important therapeutic value for the treatment of skin disease (alopecia) or injury. Controlled cell culture processes must be developed to efficiently and safely generate sufficient stem cell numbers for clinical use. Compared with static culture, stirred‐suspension bioreactors generated fivefold greater expansion of viable SKPs. SKPs from each condition were able to repopulate the dermal stem cell niche within established hair follicles. Both conditions were also capable of inducing de novo hair follicle formation and exhibited bipotency, reconstituting the dermal papilla and connective tissue sheath, although the efficiency was significantly reduced in bioreactor‐expanded SKPs compared with static conditions. We conclude that automated bioreactor processing could be used to efficiently generate large numbers of autologous DSCs while maintaining their inherent regenerative function. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:434–443 PMID:28191777

  11. Studies of Cell-Mediated Immunity Against Immune Disorders Using Synthetic Peptides and Rotating Bioreactor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastry, Jagannadha K.

    1997-01-01

    Our proposed experiments included: (1) immunzing mice with synthetic peptides; (2) preparing spleen and lymph node cells; (3) growing them under conventional conditions as well as in the rotatory vessel in appropriate medium reconstituting with synthetic peptides and/or cytokines as needed; and (4) comparing at regular time intervals the specific CTL activity as well as helper T-cell activity (in terms of both proliferative responses and cytokine production) using established procedures in my laboratory. We further proposed that once we demonstrated the merit of rotatory vessel technology to achieve desired results, these studies would be expanded to include immune cells from non-human primates (rhesus monkeys and chimpanzees) and also humans. We conducted a number of experiments to determine CTL induction by the synthetic peptides corresponding to antigenic proteins in HIV and HPV in different mouse strains that express MHC haplotypes H-2b or H-2d. We immunized mice with 100 ug of the synthetic peptide, suspended in sterile water, and emulsified in CFA (1:1). The immune lymph node cells obtained after 7 days were restimulated by culturing in T25 flask, HARV-10, or STLV-50, in the presence of the peptide at 20 ug/ml. The results from the 5'Cr-release assay consistently revealed complete abrogation of CTL activity of cells grown in the bioreactors (both HARV and STLV), while significant antigen-specific CTL activity was observed with cells cultured in tissue culture flasks. Thus, overall the data we generated in this study proved the usefulness of the NASA-developed developed technology for understanding the known immune deficiency during space travel. Additionally, this ex vivo microgravity technology since it mimics effectively the in vivo situation, it is also useful in understanding immune disorders in general. Thus, our proposed studies in TMC-NASA contract round II application benefit from data generated in this TMC-NASA contract round I study.

  12. Expression of SEAP (secreted alkaline phosphatase) by baculovirus mediated transduction of HEK 293 cells in a hollow fiber bioreactor system.

    PubMed

    Jardin, B A; Zhao, Y; Selvaraj, M; Montes, J; Tran, R; Prakash, S; Elias, C B

    2008-06-30

    A BacMam baculovirus was designed in our laboratory to express the reporter protein secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) driven by the immediate early promoter of human cytomegalovirus promoter (CMV). In vitro tests have been carried out using this recombinant baculovirus to study the secreted protein in two cell lines and under various culture conditions. The transductions were carried out on two commonly used mammalian cell lines namely the human embryonic kidney (HEK 293A) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1). Initial studies clearly demonstrated that the transient expression of SEAP was at least 10-fold higher in the HEK 293 cells than the CHO cells under equivalent experimental conditions. Factorial design experiments were done to study the effect of different parameters such as cell density, MOI, and the histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A concentration. The multiplicity of infection (MOI) and the cell density were found to have the most impact on the process. The enhancer trichostatin A also showed some positive effect. The production of secreted protein in a batch reactor was studied using the Wave disposable bioreactor system. A semi-continuous perfusion process was developed to extend the period of gene expression in mammalian cells using a hollow fiber bioreactor system (HFBR). The growth of cells and viability in both systems was monitored by offline analyses of metabolites. The expression of recombinant protein could be maintained over an extended period of time up to 30 days in the HFBR.

  13. A re-usable wave bioreactor for protein production in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Scholz, J; Suppmann, S

    2016-01-01

    Wave-mixed bioreactors have increasingly replaced stainless steel stirred tank reactors in seed inoculum productions and mammalian cell-based process developments. Pre-sterilized, single-use plastic bags are used for cultivation, eliminating the risk of cross-contamination and cleaning procedures. However, these advantages come with high consumable costs which is the main barrier to more uptakes of the technology by academic institutions. As an academic Core Facility that faces high demand in protein production from insect cells, we have therefore developed a cost-effective alternative to disposable wave bags. In our study we identified: •A re-usable wave shaken polycarbonate bioreactor for protein production in insect cells achieves protein yields comparable to disposable bags.•The advantages of this re-usable bioreactor are low costs, long life cycle, flexible configuration of accessories and convenient handling due to its rigid shape.

  14. Distribution and Viability of Fetal and Adult Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells in a Biaxial Rotating Vessel Bioreactor after Seeding on Polymeric 3D Additive Manufactured Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Leferink, Anne M.; Chng, Yhee-Cheng; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A.; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    One of the conventional approaches in tissue engineering is the use of scaffolds in combination with cells to obtain mechanically stable tissue constructs in vitro prior to implantation. Additive manufacturing by fused deposition modeling is a widely used technique to produce porous scaffolds with defined pore network, geometry, and therewith defined mechanical properties. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for tissue engineering-based cell therapies due to their multipotent character. One of the hurdles to overcome when combining additive manufactured scaffolds with MSCs is the resulting heterogeneous cell distribution and limited cell proliferation capacity. In this study, we show that the use of a biaxial rotating bioreactor, after static culture of human fetal MSCs (hfMSCs) seeded on synthetic polymeric scaffolds, improved the homogeneity of cell and extracellular matrix distribution and increased the total cell number. Furthermore, we show that the relative mRNA expression levels of indicators for stemness and differentiation are not significantly changed upon this bioreactor culture, whereas static culture shows variations of several indicators for stemness and differentiation. The biaxial rotating bioreactor presented here offers a homogeneous distribution of hfMSCs, enabling studies on MSCs fate in additive manufactured scaffolds without inducing undesired differentiation. PMID:26557644

  15. Distribution and Viability of Fetal and Adult Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells in a Biaxial Rotating Vessel Bioreactor after Seeding on Polymeric 3D Additive Manufactured Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Leferink, Anne M; Chng, Yhee-Cheng; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    One of the conventional approaches in tissue engineering is the use of scaffolds in combination with cells to obtain mechanically stable tissue constructs in vitro prior to implantation. Additive manufacturing by fused deposition modeling is a widely used technique to produce porous scaffolds with defined pore network, geometry, and therewith defined mechanical properties. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for tissue engineering-based cell therapies due to their multipotent character. One of the hurdles to overcome when combining additive manufactured scaffolds with MSCs is the resulting heterogeneous cell distribution and limited cell proliferation capacity. In this study, we show that the use of a biaxial rotating bioreactor, after static culture of human fetal MSCs (hfMSCs) seeded on synthetic polymeric scaffolds, improved the homogeneity of cell and extracellular matrix distribution and increased the total cell number. Furthermore, we show that the relative mRNA expression levels of indicators for stemness and differentiation are not significantly changed upon this bioreactor culture, whereas static culture shows variations of several indicators for stemness and differentiation. The biaxial rotating bioreactor presented here offers a homogeneous distribution of hfMSCs, enabling studies on MSCs fate in additive manufactured scaffolds without inducing undesired differentiation.

  16. Microfabricated polymeric vessel mimetics for 3-D cancer cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Ashley A.; Das, Chandan K.; Morgan, Nicole Y.; Pursley, Randall H.; McQueen, Philip G.; Hall, Matthew D.; Pohida, Thomas J.; Gottesman, Michael M.

    2013-01-01

    Modeling tumor growth in vitro is essential for cost-effective testing of hypotheses in preclinical cancer research. 3-D cell culture offers an improvement over monolayer culture for studying cellular processes in cancer biology because of the preservation of cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions. Oxygen transport poses a major barrier to mimicking in vivo environments and is not replicated in conventional cell culture systems. We hypothesized that we can better mimic the tumor microenvironment using a bioreactor system for controlling gas exchange in cancer cell cultures with silicone hydrogel synthetic vessels. Soft-lithography techniques were used to fabricate oxygen-permeable silicone hydrogel membranes containing arrays of micropillars. These membranes were inserted into a bioreactor and surrounded by basement membrane extract (BME) within which fluorescent ovarian cancer (OVCAR8) cells were cultured. Cell clusters oxygenated by synthetic vessels showed a ∼100um drop-off to anoxia, consistent with in vivo studies of tumor nodules fed by the microvasculature. We showed oxygen tension gradients inside the clusters oxygenated by synthetic vessels had a ∼100 µm drop-off to anoxia, which is consistent with in vivo studies. Oxygen transport in the bioreactor system was characterized by experimental testing with a dissolved oxygen probe and finite element modeling of convective flow. Our study demonstrates differing growth patterns associated with controlling gas distributions to better mimic in vivo conditions. PMID:23911071

  17. Methyl jasmonate influence on silymarin production and plant stress responses in Silybum marianum hairy root cultures in a bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Shadi; Hasanloo, Tahereh; Najafi, Farzaneh; Khavari-Nejad, Ramezan Ali

    2012-01-01

    In this article our aim was to evaluate mass cultivation of S. marianum hairy roots in a bioreactor to produce silymarin. The effects of methyl jasmonate (MJ) elicitation on the accumulation of silymarin and the extent of the MJ-induced oxidative damage were investigated in bioreactor hairy root cultures of S. marianum. The growth rate of the bioreactor hairy root cultures was higher than that of those in a shake flask after 3 weeks. Silymarin accumulation was increased from 0.13 mg g⁻¹ DW in non-treated hairy roots to 0.22 mg g⁻¹ DW in hairy roots 72 h after 100 µM MJ treatment. Guaiacol peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase were activated by MJ 72 h after treatment, being 3.2- and 1.3-fold higher, respectively, than that of the control. An increase in enzymatic activity suggests increased scavenging of reactive oxygen species, indicating the tolerance to MJ stress. These results suggest that MJ elicitation is beneficial for silymarin production using bioreactor hairy root cultures.

  18. Erythroid cell growth and differentiation in vitro in the simulated microgravity environment of the NASA rotating wall vessel bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sytkowski, A. J.; Davis, K. L.

    2001-01-01

    Prolonged exposure of humans and experimental animals to the altered gravitational conditions of space flight has adverse effects on the lymphoid and erythroid hematopoietic systems. Although some information is available regarding the cellular and molecular changes in lymphocytes exposed to microgravity, little is known about the erythroid cellular changes that may underlie the reduction in erythropoiesis and resultant anemia. We now report a reduction in erythroid growth and a profound inhibition of erythropoietin (Epo)-induced differentiation in a ground-based simulated microgravity model system. Rauscher murine erythroleukemia cells were grown either in tissue culture vessels at 1 x g or in the simulated microgravity environment of the NASA-designed rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor. Logarithmic growth was observed under both conditions; however, the doubling time in simulated microgravity was only one-half of that seen at 1 x g. No difference in apoptosis was detected. Induction with Epo at the initiation of the culture resulted in differentiation of approximately 25% of the cells at 1 x g, consistent with our previous observations. In contrast, induction with Epo at the initiation of simulated microgravity resulted in only one-half of this degree of differentiation. Significantly, the growth of cells in simulated microgravity for 24 h prior to Epo induction inhibited the differentiation almost completely. The results suggest that the NASA RWV bioreactor may serve as a suitable ground-based microgravity simulator to model the cellular and molecular changes in erythroid cells observed in true microgravity.

  19. Erythroid cell growth and differentiation in vitro in the simulated microgravity environment of the NASA rotating wall vessel bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sytkowski, A J; Davis, K L

    2001-02-01

    Prolonged exposure of humans and experimental animals to the altered gravitational conditions of space flight has adverse effects on the lymphoid and erythroid hematopoietic systems. Although some information is available regarding the cellular and molecular changes in lymphocytes exposed to microgravity, little is known about the erythroid cellular changes that may underlie the reduction in erythropoiesis and resultant anemia. We now report a reduction in erythroid growth and a profound inhibition of erythropoietin (Epo)-induced differentiation in a ground-based simulated microgravity model system. Rauscher murine erythroleukemia cells were grown either in tissue culture vessels at 1 x g or in the simulated microgravity environment of the NASA-designed rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor. Logarithmic growth was observed under both conditions; however, the doubling time in simulated microgravity was only one-half of that seen at 1 x g. No difference in apoptosis was detected. Induction with Epo at the initiation of the culture resulted in differentiation of approximately 25% of the cells at 1 x g, consistent with our previous observations. In contrast, induction with Epo at the initiation of simulated microgravity resulted in only one-half of this degree of differentiation. Significantly, the growth of cells in simulated microgravity for 24 h prior to Epo induction inhibited the differentiation almost completely. The results suggest that the NASA RWV bioreactor may serve as a suitable ground-based microgravity simulator to model the cellular and molecular changes in erythroid cells observed in true microgravity.

  20. Erythroid cell growth and differentiation in vitro in the simulated microgravity environment of the NASA rotating wall vessel bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sytkowski, A. J.; Davis, K. L.

    2001-01-01

    Prolonged exposure of humans and experimental animals to the altered gravitational conditions of space flight has adverse effects on the lymphoid and erythroid hematopoietic systems. Although some information is available regarding the cellular and molecular changes in lymphocytes exposed to microgravity, little is known about the erythroid cellular changes that may underlie the reduction in erythropoiesis and resultant anemia. We now report a reduction in erythroid growth and a profound inhibition of erythropoietin (Epo)-induced differentiation in a ground-based simulated microgravity model system. Rauscher murine erythroleukemia cells were grown either in tissue culture vessels at 1 x g or in the simulated microgravity environment of the NASA-designed rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor. Logarithmic growth was observed under both conditions; however, the doubling time in simulated microgravity was only one-half of that seen at 1 x g. No difference in apoptosis was detected. Induction with Epo at the initiation of the culture resulted in differentiation of approximately 25% of the cells at 1 x g, consistent with our previous observations. In contrast, induction with Epo at the initiation of simulated microgravity resulted in only one-half of this degree of differentiation. Significantly, the growth of cells in simulated microgravity for 24 h prior to Epo induction inhibited the differentiation almost completely. The results suggest that the NASA RWV bioreactor may serve as a suitable ground-based microgravity simulator to model the cellular and molecular changes in erythroid cells observed in true microgravity.

  1. Cell culture process development: advances in process engineering.

    PubMed

    Heath, Carole; Kiss, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Representatives from the cell culture process development community met on September 11 and 12, 2006 at the ACS National Meeting in San Francisco to discuss "Cell Culture Process Development: Advances in Process Engineering". This oral session was held as part of the Division of Biochemical Technology (BIOT) program. The presentations addressed the very small scale (less than 1 mL) to the very large scale (20,000 L). The topics covered included development of high throughput cell culture screening systems, modeling and characterization of bioreactor environments from mixing and shear perspectives at both small and large scales, systematic approaches for improving scale-up and scale-down activities, development of disposable bioreactor technologies, and novel perfusion culture approaches. All told, this well-attended session resulted in a valuable exchange of technical information and demonstrated a high level of interest within the process development community.

  2. Dynamic cell culture system (7-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogoli, Augusto

    1992-01-01

    This experiment is one of the Biorack experiments being flown on the International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (MIL-1) mission as part of an investigation studying cell proliferation and performance in space. One of the objectives of this investigation is to assess the potential benefits of bioprocessing in space with the ultimate goal of developing a bioreactor for continuous cell cultures in space. This experiment will test the operation of an automated culture chamber that was designed for use in a Bioreactor in space. The device to be tested is called the Dynamic Cell Culture System (DCCS). It is a simple device in which media are renewed or chemicals are injected automatically, by means of osmotic pumps. This experiment uses four Type I/O experiment containers. One DCCS unit, which contains a culture chamber with renewal of medium and a second chamber without a medium supply fits in each container. Two DCCS units are maintained under zero gravity conditions during the on-orbit period. The other two units are maintained under 1 gh conditions in a 1 g centrifuge. The schedule for incubator transfer is given.

  3. Dynamic cell culture system (7-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogoli, Augusto

    1992-01-01

    This experiment is one of the Biorack experiments being flown on the International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (MIL-1) mission as part of an investigation studying cell proliferation and performance in space. One of the objectives of this investigation is to assess the potential benefits of bioprocessing in space with the ultimate goal of developing a bioreactor for continuous cell cultures in space. This experiment will test the operation of an automated culture chamber that was designed for use in a Bioreactor in space. The device to be tested is called the Dynamic Cell Culture System (DCCS). It is a simple device in which media are renewed or chemicals are injected automatically, by means of osmotic pumps. This experiment uses four Type I/O experiment containers. One DCCS unit, which contains a culture chamber with renewal of medium and a second chamber without a medium supply fits in each container. Two DCCS units are maintained under zero gravity conditions during the on-orbit period. The other two units are maintained under 1 gh conditions in a 1 g centrifuge. The schedule for incubator transfer is given.

  4. Electrical Stimulation of NIH-3T3 Cells with Platinum-PEDOT-Electrodes Integrated in a Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Blume, Grit; Müller-Wichards, Wiebke; Goepfert, Christiane; Pörtner, Ralf; Müller, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work involves the development and integration of electrodes for the electrical stimulation of cells within a bioreactor. Electrodes need to fit properties such as biocompatibility, large reversible charge transfer and high flexibility in view of their future application as implants on the tympanic membrane. Flexible thin-film platinum-poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene)-electrodes on a poly(ethylene terephthalate)-foil manufactured using microsystems technology were integrated into a bioreactor based on the design of a 24 well plate. The murine fibroblast cell line NIH-3T3 was cultured on the foil electrodes and the cells were stimulated with direct voltage and unipolar pulsed voltage. The amplitude, the pulse length and the ratio of pulse to pause were varied. The stimulated cells were stained in order to determine the angle between the cell cleavage plane of the dividing cells and the vector of the electric field. These angles were subsequently used to calculate the polarization index, which is a measure of the orientation of the metaphase plane of dividing cells that occurs for example during wound healing or embryonic morphogenesis. PMID:24358059

  5. Impact of Feeding Strategies on the Scalable Expansion of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells in Single-Use Stirred Tank Bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Kropp, Christina; Kempf, Henning; Halloin, Caroline; Robles-Diaz, Diana; Franke, Annika; Scheper, Thomas; Kinast, Katharina; Knorpp, Thomas; Joos, Thomas O; Haverich, Axel; Martin, Ulrich; Zweigerdt, Robert; Olmer, Ruth

    2016-10-01

    : The routine application of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and their derivatives in biomedicine and drug discovery will require the constant supply of high-quality cells by defined processes. Culturing hPSCs as cell-only aggregates in (three-dimensional [3D]) suspension has the potential to overcome numerous limitations of conventional surface-adherent (two-dimensional [2D]) cultivation. Utilizing single-use instrumented stirred-tank bioreactors, we showed that perfusion resulted in a more homogeneous culture environment and enabled superior cell densities of 2.85 × 10(6) cells per milliliter and 47% higher cell yields compared with conventional repeated batch cultures. Flow cytometry, quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and global gene expression analysis revealed a high similarity across 3D suspension and 2D precultures, underscoring that matrix-free hPSC culture efficiently supports maintenance of pluripotency. Interestingly, physiological data and gene expression assessment indicated distinct changes of the cells' energy metabolism, suggesting a culture-induced switch from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation in the absence of hPSC differentiation. Our data highlight the plasticity of hPSCs' energy metabolism and provide clear physiological and molecular targets for process monitoring and further development. This study paves the way toward more efficient GMP-compliant cell production and underscores the enormous process development potential of hPSCs in suspension culture. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are a unique source for the, in principle, unlimited production of functional human cell types in vitro, which are of high value for therapeutic and industrial applications. This study applied single-use, clinically compliant bioreactor technology to develop advanced, matrix-free, and more efficient culture conditions for the mass production of hPSCs in scalable suspension culture. Using extensive analytical tools to

  6. The performance of primary human renal cells in hollow fiber bioreactors for bioartificial kidneys.

    PubMed

    Oo, Zay Yar; Deng, Rensheng; Hu, Min; Ni, Ming; Kandasamy, Karthikeyan; bin Ibrahim, Mohammed Shahrudin; Ying, Jackie Y; Zink, Daniele

    2011-12-01

    Bioartificial kidneys (BAKs) containing human primary renal proximal tubule cells (HPTCs) have been applied in clinical trials. The results were encouraging, but also showed that more research is required. Animal cells or cell lines are not suitable for clinical applications, but have been mainly used in studies on BAK development as large numbers of such cells could be easily obtained. It is difficult to predict HPTC performance based on data obtained with other cell types. To enable more extensive studies on HPTCs, we have developed a bioreactor containing single hollow fiber membranes that requires relatively small amounts of cells. Special hollow fiber membranes with the skin layer on the outer surface and consisting of polyethersulfone/polyvinylpyrrolidone were developed. The results suggested that such hollow fiber membranes were more suitable for the bioreactor unit of BAKs than membranes with an inner skin layer. An HPTC-compatible double coating was applied to the insides of the hollow fiber membranes, which sustained the formation of functional epithelia under bioreactor conditions. Nevertheless, the state of differentiation of the primary human cells remained a critical issue and should be further addressed. The bioreactor system described here will facilitate further studies on the relevant human cell type.

  7. Computational modeling of adherent cell growth in a hollow-fiber membrane bioreactor for large-scale 3-D bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mohebbi-Kalhori, Davod; Behzadmehr, Amin; Doillon, Charles J; Hadjizadeh, Afra

    2012-09-01

    The use of hollow-fiber membrane bioreactors (HFMBs) has been proposed for three-dimensional bone tissue growth at the clinical scale. However, to achieve an efficient HFMB design, the relationship between cell growth and environmental conditions must be determined. Therefore, in this work, a dynamic double-porous media model was developed to determine nutrient-dependent cell growth for bone tissue formation in a HFMB. The whole hollow-fiber scaffold within the bioreactor was treated as a porous domain in this model. The domain consisted of two interpenetrating porous regions, including a porous lumen region available for fluid flow and a porous extracapillary space filled with a collagen gel that contained adherent cells for promoting long-term growth into tissue-l