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Sample records for cell cycle-related regulatory

  1. Regulation of Sp1 by cell cycle related proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tapias, Alicia; Ciudad, Carlos J.; Roninson, Igor B.; Noé, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    Sp1 transcription factor regulates the expression of multiple genes, including the Sp1 gene itself. We analyzed the ability of different cell cycle regulatory proteins to interact with Sp1 and to affect Sp1 promoter activity. Using an antibody array, we observed that CDK4, SKP2, Rad51, BRCA2 and p21 could interact with Sp1 and we confirmed these interactions by co-immunoprecipitation. CDK4, SKP2, Rad51, BRCA2 and p21 also activated the Sp1 promoter. Among the known Sp1-interacting proteins, E2F-DP1, Cyclin D1, Stat3 and Rb activated the Sp1 promoter, whereas p53 and NFκB inhibited it. The proteins that regulated Sp1 gene expression were shown by positive chromatin immunoprecipitation to be bound to the Sp1 promoter. Moreover, SKP2, BRCA2, p21, E2F-DP1, Stat3, Rb, p53 and NFκB had similar effects on an artificial promoter containing only Sp1 binding sites. Transient transfections of CDK4, Rad51, E2F-DP1, p21 and Stat3 increased mRNA expression from the endogenous Sp1 gene in HeLa cells whereas overexpression of NFκB, and p53 decreased Sp1 mRNA levels. p21 expression from a stably integrated inducible promoter in HT1080 cells activated Sp1 expression at the promoter and mRNA levels, but at the same time it decreased Sp1 protein levels due to the activation of Sp1 degradation. The observed multiple effects of cell cycle regulators on Sp1 suggest that Sp1 may be a key mediator of cell cycle associated changes in gene expression. PMID:18769160

  2. Radiation-induced, cell cycle-related gene expression in aging hematopoietic stem cells: enigma of their recovery.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Yoko

    2014-03-01

    This paper reviews quantitative and qualitative studies conducted to identify changes in the characteristics of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs/HPCs) with or without radiation exposure. The numerical recovery of HSCs/HPCs after radiation exposure is lower than for other types of cells, an effect that may depend on hierarchical ordering of generation age during blood cell differentiation, from primitive HSCs to various differentiated HPCs. Studies are in progress to evaluate gene expression in bone marrow cells and cells in the lineage-negative, c-Kit(+), stem cell antigen(+) (LKS) fraction from 21-month-old mice, with or without radiation exposure. Preliminary data suggest that cell cycle-related genes, that is, cyclin D1 (Ccnd1), phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase regulatory subunit polypeptide 1 (PiK3r1), and Fyn, are upregulated solely in the LKS fraction from 21-month-old mice irradiated at 6 weeks of age, compared with the LKS fraction from age-matched nonirradiated control mice. Additional studies may provide evidence that the aging phenotype is exaggerated following exposure to ionizing radiation, specifically in the LKS fraction.

  3. Ghrelin regulates cell cycle-related gene expression in cultured hippocampal neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyunju; Park, Seungjoon

    2016-08-01

    We have previously demonstrated that ghrelin stimulates the cellular proliferation of cultured adult rat hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs). However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which ghrelin regulates cell cycle progression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential effects of ghrelin on cell cycle regulatory molecules in cultured hippocampal NSCs. Ghrelin treatment increased proliferation assessed by CCK-8 proliferation assay. The expression levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cell division control 2, well-known cell-proliferating markers, were also increased by ghrelin. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed that ghrelin promoted progression of cell cycle from G0/G1 to S phase, whereas this progression was attenuated by the pretreatment with specific inhibitors of MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin, and janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. Ghrelin-induced proliferative effect was associated with increased expression of E2F1 transcription factor in the nucleus, as determined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. We also found that ghrelin caused an increase in protein levels of positive regulators of cell cycle, such as cyclin A and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2. Moreover, p27(KIP1) and p57(KIP2) protein levels were reduced when cell were exposed to ghrelin, suggesting downregulation of CDK inhibitors may contribute to proliferative effect of ghrelin. Our data suggest that ghrelin targets both cell cycle positive and negative regulators to stimulate proliferation of cultured hippocampal NSCs. PMID:27325242

  4. Cell Cycle Related Differentiation of Bone Marrow Cells into Lung Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dooner, Mark; Aliotta, Jason M.; Pimental, Jeffrey; Dooner, Gerri J.; Abedi, Mehrdad; Colvin, Gerald; Liu, Qin; Weier, Heinz-Ulli; Dooner, Mark S.; Quesenberry, Peter J.

    2007-12-31

    Green-fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled marrow cells transplanted into lethally irradiated mice can be detected in the lungs of transplanted mice and have been shown to express lung specific proteins while lacking the expression of hematopoietic markers. We have studied marrow cells induced to transit cell cycle by exposure to IL-3, IL-6, IL-11 and steel factor at different times of culture corresponding to different phases of cell cycle. We have found that marrow cells at the G1/S interface have a 3-fold increase in cells which assume a lung phenotype and that this increase is no longer seen in late S/G2. These cells have been characterized as GFP{sup +} CD45{sup -} and GFP{sup +} cytokeratin{sup +}. Thus marrow cells with the capacity to convert into cells with a lung phenotype after transplantation show a reversible increase with cytokine induced cell cycle transit. Previous studies have shown the phenotype of bone marrow stem cells fluctuates reversibly as these cells traverse cell cycle, leading to a continuum model of stem cell regulation. The present studies indicate that marrow stem cell production of nonhematopoietic cells also fluctuates on a continuum.

  5. Downregulation of cell cycle-related proteins in ovarian cancer line and cell cycle arrest induced by microRNA

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jian-Mei; Shi, Xue-Jun; Sun, Ping; Liu, Jun-Xia; Wang, Wei; Li, Ming; Ling, Feng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The effect of miR-449 and miR-34 on the growth, cell cycle and target gene expressions of ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 and SKOV3-ipl was discussed. Method: Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR was employed to detect the expressions of miR-449a/b and miR-34b, c in SKOV3 and SKOV3-ipl cells. The two miRNAs were successfully expressed in SKOV3-ipl cells by transfection. The variations in cell growth rate and cell cycle were determined by MTS assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The expressions of cell cycle-related proteins were detected by Western Blot. Results: miR-449b and miR-34c induced the decline of the adhesiveness of SKOV3-ipl cells by 20%-30%. The number of cells arrested in G1-phase increased and the number of cells arrested in S-phase decreased significantly. The cell cycle-related proteins CDK6 and CDC254 were downregulated. miR-449b caused the expression of CDK6 and CDC25A to decrease. After the co-transfection with miR-449b and miR-34c, the relevant proteins were downregulated more significantly. The expressions of CDK6, CDC25A and cyclin A were decreased significantly. Conclusion: miR-449b and miR-34c can induce cell cycle arrest in SKOV3-ipl cells and the downregulation of CDK6, CDC25A and cyclin A. PMID:26770455

  6. Robust Prognostic Gene Expression Signatures in Bladder Cancer and Lung Adenocarcinoma Depend on Cell Cycle Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Dancik, Garrett M.; Theodorescu, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Few prognostic biomarkers are approved for clinical use primarily because their initial performance cannot be repeated in independent datasets. We posited that robust biomarkers could be obtained by identifying deregulated biological processes shared among tumor types having a common etiology. We performed a gene set enrichment analysis in 20 publicly available gene expression datasets comprising 1968 patients having one of the three most common tobacco-related cancers (lung, bladder, head and neck) and identified cell cycle related genes as the most consistently prognostic class of biomarkers in bladder (BL) and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). We also found the prognostic value of 13 of 14 published BL and LUAD signatures were dependent on cell cycle related genes, supporting the importance of cell cycle related biomarkers for prognosis. Interestingly, no prognostic gene classes were identified in squamous cell lung carcinoma or head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Next, a specific 31 gene cell cycle proliferation (CCP) signature, previously derived in prostate tumors was evaluated and found predictive of outcome in BL and LUAD cohorts in univariate and multivariate analyses. Specifically, CCP score significantly enhanced the predictive ability of multivariate models based on standard clinical variables for progression in BL patients and survival in LUAD patients in multiple cohorts. We then generated random CCP signatures of various sizes and found sets of 10–15 genes had robust performance in these BL and LUAD cohorts, a finding that was confirmed in an independent cohort. Our work characterizes the importance of cell cycle related genes in prognostic signatures for BL and LUAD patients and identifies a specific signature likely to survive additional validation. PMID:24465512

  7. Cell cycle-related genes p57kip2, Cdk5 and Spin in the pathogenesis of neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinjun; Yang, Zhong; Zeng, Yi; Xu, Hong; Li, Hongli; Han, Yangyun; Long, Xiaodong; You, Chao

    2013-07-15

    In the field of developmental neurobiology, accurate and ordered regulation of the cell cycle and apoptosis are crucial factors contributing to the normal formation of the neural tube. Preliminary studies identified several genes involved in the development of neural tube defects. In this study, we established a model of developmental neural tube defects by administration of retinoic acid to pregnant rats. Gene chip hybridization analysis showed that genes related to the cell cycle and apoptosis, signal transduction, transcription and translation regulation, energy and metabolism, heat shock, and matrix and cytoskeletal proteins were all involved in the formation of developmental neural tube defects. Among these, cell cycle-related genes were predominant. Retinoic acid ment caused differential expression of three cell cycle-related genes p57kip2, Cdk5 and Spin, the expression levels of which were downregulated by retinoic acid and upregulated during normal neural tube formation. The results of this study indicate that cell cycle-related genes play an important role in the formation of neural tube defects. P57kip2, Cdk5 and Spin may be critical genes in the pathogenesis of neural tube defects.

  8. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) immunohistochemical expression is correlated with cell cycle-related molecules in human colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Theocharis, Stamatios; Kouraklis, Gregorios; Margeli, Alexandra; Agapitos, Emmanuel; Ninos, Sotirios; Karatzas, Gabriel; Koutselinis, Antonios

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine glucocorticoid receptor (GR) immunohistochemical expression in colon cancer histopathological specimens and to correlate it with clinicopathological parameters, tumor proliferative capacity, cell cycle-related molecule expression, and patients' survival. Primary tumoral samples from 91 colon cancer patients were immunostained for the detection of GR, cyclins D1 and E, Rb protein (pRb), p16, p21, and Ki-67, using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase technique. GR expression was correlated with tumor histopathological characteristics and proliferative capacity, cell cycle-related molecule expression, and patients' survival. GR positivity was prominent in 44 of 91 (48%) colon cancer cases and was positively correlated with the expression of cell cycle-related molecules pRb (P = 0.008) and p16 (P = 0.002), while lack of correlation was noted with cyclins D1 and E and p21. GR expression was not correlated with tumor location, grade of differentiation, Dukes' stage, lymph node and liver metastasis, venous invasion, tumor proliferative capacity (evident by Ki-67-labeling status) and patient survival. Our findings support evidence for GR participation in the biological mechanisms underlying the carcinogenic evolution in the colon, implying the use of glucocorticoids as an adjuvant treatment for cell cycle modulation in colon cancer cells.

  9. Growth pattern switch of renal cells and expression of cell cycle related proteins at the early stage of diabetic nephropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yanling; Shi Yonghong; Liu Yaling; Dong Hui; Liu, Maodong; Li Ying; Duan Huijun

    2007-11-09

    Renal hypertrophy, partly due to cell proliferation and hypertrophy, has been found correlated to renal function deterioration in diabetes mellitus. We screened the up-regulated cell cycle related genes to investigate cell growth and the expression of cell cycle regulating proteins at the early stage of diabetic nephropathy using STZ-induced diabetic rats. Cyclin E, CDK{sub 2} and P{sup 27} were found significantly up-regulated in diabetic kidney. Increased cell proliferation in the kidney was seen at day 3, peaked at day 5, and returned to normal level at day 30. Cyclin E and CDK{sub 2} expression also peeked at day 5 and P{sup 27} activity peaked at day 14. These findings indicate that a hyperplastic growth period of renal cells is followed by a hypertrophic growth period at the early stage of diabetes. The growth pattern switch may be regulated by cell cycle regulating proteins, Cyclin E, CDK{sub 2}, and P{sup 27}.

  10. Spatio-temporal changes in cell division, endoreduplication and expression of cell cycle-related genes in pollinated and plant growth substances-treated ovaries of cucumber.

    PubMed

    Fu, F Q; Mao, W H; Shi, K; Zhou, Y H; Yu, J Q

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the temporal and spatial changes in cell division, endoreduplication and expression of cell cycle-related genes in developing cucumber fruits at 0-20 days after anthesis (DAA). Cell division was intense at 0-4 DAA and then decreased until to 8 DAA. Meanwhile, endoreduplication started at 4 DAA and increased gradually to 20 DAA, accompanied by an increase in fruit weight. Cell division was mainly observed in the exocarp, while endoreduplication occurred mostly in the endocarp and pulp. Among the six cell cycle-related genes examined, two mitotic cyclin genes (CycA and CycB) and CDKB had the highest transcript levels within 2 DAA, while transcripts of two CycD3 genes and CDKA peaked at 4 DAA and 20 DAA, respectively. Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'-phenylurea (CPPU) and 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) all induced parthenocarpic growth as well as active cell division, and enhanced transcripts of cell cycle-related genes. In comparison, gibberellic acid (GA(3)) had little effect on the induction of parthenocarpy and transcripts of cell cycle-related genes. These results provide evidence for the important roles of cell division and endoreduplication during cucumber fruit development, and suggest the essential roles of cell cycle-related genes and plant growth substances in fruit development. PMID:20653892

  11. Monitoring cell-cycle-related viscoelasticity by a quartz crystal microbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandrini, A.; Croce, M. A.; Tiozzo, R.; Facci, P.

    2006-02-01

    We have monitored viscoelasticity variation of a cell population during the cell cycle by a Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM). Balb 3T3 fibroblasts were synchronized in the G0/G1 phase and seeded in a QCM chamber placed in a cell incubator. After cell sedimentation, the frequency signal was characterized by an amplitude modulation attributed to the viscoelasticity variation of the cells proliferating in phase. A control experiment with nonsynchronized cells showed a similar signal trend, but without significant modulation. Interestingly, the system resulted also to perform as a device sensitive to the effect of drugs affecting the cell cycle, such as colchicine.

  12. PARP-2 regulates cell cycle-related genes through histone deacetylation and methylation independently of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Ya-Chen; Hsu, Chiao-Yu; Yao, Ya-Li; Yang, Wen-Ming

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: ► PARP-2 acts as a transcription co-repressor independently of PARylation activity. ► PARP-2 recruits HDAC5, 7, and G9a and generates repressive chromatin. ► PARP-2 is recruited to the c-MYC promoter by DNA-binding factor YY1. ► PARP-2 represses cell cycle-related genes and alters cell cycle progression. -- Abstract: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (PARP-2) catalyzes poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) and regulates numerous nuclear processes, including transcription. Depletion of PARP-2 alters the activity of transcription factors and global gene expression. However, the molecular action of how PARP-2 controls the transcription of target promoters remains unclear. Here we report that PARP-2 possesses transcriptional repression activity independently of its enzymatic activity. PARP-2 interacts and recruits histone deacetylases HDAC5 and HDAC7, and histone methyltransferase G9a to the promoters of cell cycle-related genes, generating repressive chromatin signatures. Our findings propose a novel mechanism of PARP-2 in transcriptional regulation involving specific protein–protein interactions and highlight the importance of PARP-2 in the regulation of cell cycle progression.

  13. Cell cycle-related transformation of the E2F4-p130 repressor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, Boris . E-mail: popov_478@hotmail.com; Chang, L.-S.; Serikov, Vladimir

    2005-10-28

    During G0 phase the p130, member of the pRb tumor suppressor protein family, forms a repressor complex with E2F4 which is inactivated in G1/S by hyperphosphorylation of the p130. The role of p130 after G1/S remains poorly investigated. We found that in nuclear extracts of T98G cells, the p130-E2F4-DNA (pp-E2F4) complex does not dissociate at G1/S transition, but instead reverts to the p130-E2F4-cyclin E/A-cdk2 (cyc/cdk-pp-E2F4) complex, which is detected in S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle. Hyperphosphorylation of the p130 at G1/S transition is associated with a decrease of its total amount; however, this protein is still detected during the rest of the cell cycle, and it is increasingly hyperphosphorylated in the cytosol, but continuously dephosphorylated in the nucleus. Both nuclear and cytosol cell fractions in T98G cells contain a hyperphosphorylated form of p130 in complex with E2F4 at S and G2/M cell cycle phases. In contrast to T98G cells, transformation of the p130 containing cyc/cdk-pp-E2F4 complex into the p130-pp-E2F4 repressor does not occur in HeLa cells under growth restriction conditions.

  14. Reversible regulation of cell cycle-related genes by epigallocatechin gallate for hibernation of neonatal human tarsal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jung Yoon; Kanamune, Jun; Han, Dong-Wook; Matsumura, Kazuaki; Hyon, Suong-Hyu

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the hibernation effect of epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) on neonatal human tarsal fibroblasts (nHTFs) by analyzing the expression of cell cycle-related genes. EGCG application to culture media moderately inhibited the growth of nHTFs, and the removal of EGCG from culture media led to complete recovery of cell growth. EGCG resulted in a slight decrease in the cell population of the S and G(2)/M phases of cell cycle with concomitant increase in that of the G(0)/G(1) phase, but this cell cycle profile was restored to the initial level after EGCG removal. The expression of cyclin D1 (CCND1), CCNE2, CCN-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6), and CDK2 was restored, whereas that of CCNA, CCNB1, and CDK1 was irreversibly attenuated. The expression of a substantial number of genes analyzed by cDNA microarray was affected by EGCG application, and these affected expression levels were restored to the normal levels after EGCG removal. We also found the incorporation of FITC-EGCG into the cytosol of nHTFs and its further nuclear translocation, which might lead to the regulation of the exogenous signals directed to genes for cellular responses including proliferation and cell cycle progression. These results suggest that EGCG temporarily affects not only genes related to the cell cycle but also various other cellular functions.

  15. c-Myc oncoprotein: cell cycle-related events and new therapeutic challenges in cancer and cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    de Nigris, Filomena; Sica, Vincenzo; Herrmann, Joerg; Condorelli, Gianluigi; Chade, Alejandro R; Tajana, Gianfranco; Lerman, Amir; Lerman, Lilach O; Napoli, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    Advanced stages of both cancer and atherosclerosis are characterized by a local increase in tissue mass that may be hard to control. This increase in tissue mass can be attributed to oxidation-sensitive modification of cell cycle-related events, including cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, which could be secondary to alteration in the activity of tumor suppressor gene and oncogene products. The oncogene c-Myc has classically been considered to be involved in carcinogenesis and has more recently been implicated in both endothelial dysfunction and atherogenesis as well. Consequently, inhibition of c-Myc-dependent signaling has become a novel therapeutic opportunity and challenge in atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. Antioxidant strategies, RNA synthesis inhibitors such as mithramycin, and gene therapeutic approaches with antisense oligonucleotides against c-Myc are some of the promising strategies. In general, the increased biologic understanding of the participation of cell cycle events and targeting these events may enable to attenuate or prevent some of the complications of vascular and neoplastic diseases. PMID:12851483

  16. T follicular regulatory cells.

    PubMed

    Sage, Peter T; Sharpe, Arlene H

    2016-05-01

    Pathogen exposure elicits production of high-affinity antibodies stimulated by T follicular helper (Tfh) cells in the germinal center reaction. Tfh cells provide both costimulation and stimulatory cytokines to B cells to facilitate affinity maturation, class switch recombination, and plasma cell differentiation within the germinal center. Under normal circumstances, the germinal center reaction results in antibodies that precisely target foreign pathogens while limiting autoimmunity and excessive inflammation. In order to have this degree of control, the immune system ensures Tfh-mediated B-cell help is regulated locally in the germinal center. The recently identified T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cell subset can migrate to the germinal center and inhibit Tfh-mediated B-cell activation and antibody production. Although many aspects of Tfr cell biology are still unclear, recent data have begun to delineate the specialized roles of Tfr cells in controlling the germinal center reaction. Here we discuss the current understanding of Tfr-cell differentiation and function and how this knowledge is providing new insights into the dynamic regulation of germinal centers, and suggesting more efficacious vaccine strategies and ways to treat antibody-mediated diseases.

  17. Cellular distribution of cell cycle-related molecules in the renal tubules of rats treated with renal carcinogens for 28 days: relationship between cell cycle aberration and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Taniai, Eriko; Hayashi, Hitomi; Yafune, Atsunori; Watanabe, Maiko; Akane, Hirotoshi; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

    2012-09-01

    Some renal carcinogens can induce karyomegaly, which reflects aberrant cell division in the renal tubules, from the early stages of exposure. To clarify the cell cycle-related changes during the early stages of renal carcinogenesis, we performed immunohistochemical analysis of tubular cells in male F344 rats treated with carcinogenic doses of representative renal carcinogens for 28 days. For this purpose, the karyomegaly-inducing carcinogens ochratoxin A (OTA), ferric nitrilotriacetic acid, and monuron, and the non-karyomegaly-inducing carcinogens tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate and potassium bromate were examined. For comparison, a karyomegaly-inducing non-carcinogen, p-nitrobenzoic acid, and a non-carcinogenic non-karyomegaly-inducing renal toxicant, acetaminophen, were also examined. The outer stripe of the outer medulla (OSOM) and the cortex + OSOM were subjected to morphometric analysis of immunoreactive proximal tubular cells. Renal carcinogens, irrespective of their karyomegaly-inducing potential, increased proximal tubular cell proliferation accompanied by an increase in topoisomerase IIα-immunoreactive cells, suggesting a reflection of cell proliferation. Karyomegaly-inducing carcinogens increased nuclear Cdc2-, γH2AX-, and phosphorylated Chk2-immunoreactive cells in both areas, the former two acting in response to DNA damage and the latter one suggestive of sustained G₂. OTA, an OSOM-targeting carcinogen, could easily be distinguished from untreated controls and non-carcinogens by evaluation of molecules responding to DNA damage and G₂/M transition in the OSOM. Thus, all renal carcinogens examined facilitated proximal tubular proliferation by repeated short-term treatment. Among these, karyomegaly-inducing carcinogens may cause DNA damage and G₂ arrest in the target tubular cells.

  18. Cell cycle-related genes as modifiers of age of onset of colorectal cancer in Lynch syndrome: a large-scale study in non-Hispanic white patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinyun; Pande, Mala; Huang, Yu-Jing; Wei, Chongjuan; Amos, Christopher I; Talseth-Palmer, Bente A; Meldrum, Cliff J; Chen, Wei V; Gorlov, Ivan P; Lynch, Patrick M; Scott, Rodney J; Frazier, Marsha L

    2013-02-01

    Heterogeneity in age of onset of colorectal cancer in individuals with mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes (Lynch syndrome) suggests the influence of other lifestyle and genetic modifiers. We hypothesized that genes regulating the cell cycle influence the observed heterogeneity as cell cycle-related genes respond to DNA damage by arresting the cell cycle to provide time for repair and induce transcription of genes that facilitate repair. We examined the association of 1456 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 128 cell cycle-related genes and 31 DNA repair-related genes in 485 non-Hispanic white participants with Lynch syndrome to determine whether there are SNPs associated with age of onset of colorectal cancer. Genotyping was performed on an Illumina GoldenGate platform, and data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, Cox regression analysis and classification and regression tree (CART) methods. Ten SNPs were independently significant in a multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model after correcting for multiple comparisons (P < 5 × 10(-4)). Furthermore, risk modeling using CART analysis defined combinations of genotypes for these SNPs with which subjects could be classified into low-risk, moderate-risk and high-risk groups that had median ages of colorectal cancer onset of 63, 50 and 42 years, respectively. The age-associated risk of colorectal cancer in the high-risk group was more than four times the risk in the low-risk group (hazard ratio = 4.67, 95% CI = 3.16-6.92). The additional genetic markers identified may help in refining risk groups for more tailored screening and follow-up of non-Hispanic white patients with Lynch syndrome. PMID:23125224

  19. Immunometabolism of regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Ryan; Priyadharshini, Bhavana; Turka, Laurence A

    2016-01-01

    The bidirectional interaction between the immune system and whole-body metabolism has been well recognized for many years. Via effects on adipocytes and hepatocytes, immune cells can modulate whole-body metabolism (in metabolic syndromes such as type 2 diabetes and obesity) and, reciprocally, host nutrition and commensal-microbiota-derived metabolites modulate immunological homeostasis. Studies demonstrating the metabolic similarities of proliferating immune cells and cancer cells have helped give birth to the new field of immunometabolism, which focuses on how the cell-intrinsic metabolic properties of lymphocytes and macrophages can themselves dictate the fate and function of the cells and eventually shape an immune response. We focus on this aspect here, particularly as it relates to regulatory T cells. PMID:27196520

  20. Long non-coding RNA LINC00628 functions as a gastric cancer suppressor via long-range modulating the expression of cell cycle related genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zi-Zhen; Zhao, Gang; Zhuang, Chun; Shen, Yan-Ying; Zhao, Wen-Yi; Xu, Jia; Wang, Ming; Wang, Chao-Jie; Tu, Lin; Cao, Hui; Zhang, Zhi-Gang

    2016-01-01

    To discover new biomarkers for gastric cancer (GC) diagnose and treatment, we screened the lncRNAs in GC tissues from 5 patients. We found 6 lncRNAs had altered expression, and in the same time, the levels of their neighboring genes (located near 300 kb upstream or downstream of lncRNA locus) were significantly changed. After confirming the results of microarray by qRT-PCR in 82 GC patients, the biological function of LINC00628 was examined through cell proliferation and apoptosis, cell migration and invasion, colony formation assay and cell cycle detection. We confirmed that LINC00628 functions as a GC suppressor through suppressing proliferation, migration and colony formation of cancer cells. Furthermore, LINC00628 can also suppress the tumor size in mouse xenograft models. Although LINC00628 can modulate LRRN2 expression, the GC suppressor function of LINC00628 is not LRRN2 dependent. The result of mRNA microarray indicated that LINC00628 perform GC inhibitor function through long-range modulating cell cycle related genes. Importantly, we confirmed that LINC00628 mainly located in the nucleus and interacted with EZH2, and modulated genes expression by regulating H3K27me3 level. This research shed light on the role of dysregulated LINC00628 during GC process and may serve as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27272474

  1. Regulatory cells and transplantation tolerance.

    PubMed

    Cobbold, Stephen P; Waldmann, Herman

    2013-06-01

    Transplantation tolerance is a continuing therapeutic goal, and it is now clear that a subpopulation of T cells with regulatory activity (Treg) that express the transcription factor foxp3 are crucial to this aspiration. Although reprogramming of the immune system to donor-specific transplantation tolerance can be readily achieved in adult mouse models, it has yet to be successfully translated in human clinical practice. This requires that we understand the fundamental mechanisms by which donor antigen-specific Treg are induced and function to maintain tolerance, so that we can target therapies to enhance rather than impede these regulatory processes. Our current understanding is that Treg act via numerous molecular mechanisms, and critical underlying components such as mTOR inhibition, are only now emerging. PMID:23732858

  2. [Regulatory B cells in human autoimmune diseases].

    PubMed

    Miyagaki, Tomomitsu

    2015-01-01

    B cells have been generally considered to be positive regulators of immune responses because of their ability to produce antigen-specific antibodies and to activate T cells through antigen presentation. Impairment of B cell development and function may cause autoimmune diseases. Recently, specific B cell subsets that can negatively regulate immune responses have been described in mouse models of a wide variety of autoimmune diseases. The concept of those B cells, termed regulatory B cells, is now recognized as important in the murine immune system. Among several regulatory B cell subsets, IL-10-producing regulatory B cells are the most widely investigated. On the basis of discoveries from studies of such mice, human regulatory B cells that produce IL-10 in most cases are becoming an active area of research. There have been emerging data suggesting the importance of human regulatory B cells in various diseases. Revealing the immune regulation mechanisms of human regulatory B cells in human autoimmune diseases could lead to the development of novel B cell targeted therapies. This review highlights the current knowledge on regulatory B cells, mainly IL-10-producing regulatory B cells, in clinical research using human samples. PMID:26725860

  3. Inhibiting CREPT reduces the proliferation and migration of non-small cell lung cancer cells by down-regulating cell cycle related protein

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Li, Wei-Miao; Wang, Wu-Ping; Sun, Ying; Ni, Yun-Feng; Xing, Hao; Xia, Jing-Hua; Wang, Xue-Jiao; Zhang, Zhi-Pei; Li, Xiao-Fei

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that CREPT acts as a highly expressed oncogene in a variety of tumors, affecting cyclin D1 signal pathways. However, the distribution and clinical significance of CREPT in NSCLC remains poorly understood. Our study focused on the role of CREPT on the regulation ofnon-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We found that CREPT mRNA and protein expression was significantly increased in NSCLC compared with adjacent lung tissues and was increased in various NSCLC cell lines compared with the normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cell line. siRNA-induced knockingdown of CREPT significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of NSCLC cell lines by arresting cell cycle in S phase. Moreover, CREPT knocking down affected the expression of cell cycle proteins including c-mycand CDC25A. Finally, we found there were obvious correlations between CREPT with c-myc expression in histological type, differentiation, and pTNM stages of NSCLC (P<0.05, rs>0.3). Immunohistofluorescence studies demonstrated a co-localization phenomenon when CREPT and c-myc were expressed. Thus, we propose that CREPT may promote NSCLC cell growth and migration through the c-myc and CDC25A signaling molecules. PMID:27347318

  4. REGULATORY T CELLS AND VASECTOMY

    PubMed Central

    Rival, Claudia; Wheeler, Karen; Jeffrey, Sarah; Qiao, Hui; Luu, Brian; Tewalt, Eric F; Engelhard, Victor H; Tardif, Stephen; Hardy, Daniel; del Rio, Roxana; Teuscher, Cory; Tung, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) strongly influence the early and late autoimmune responses to meiotic germ cell antigens (MGCA) and the gonadal immunopathology in vasectomized mice. This is supported by the published and recently acquired information presented here. Within 24 hours of unilateral vasectomy (uni-vx) the ipsilateral epididymis undergoes epithelial cell apoptosis followed by necrosis, severe inflammation, and granuloma formation. Unexpectedly, vasectomy alone induced MGCA-specific tolerance. In contrast, uni-vx plus simultaneous Treg depletion resulted in MGCA-specific autoimmune response and bilateral autoimmune orchitis. Both tolerance and autoimmunity were strictly linked to the early epididymal injury. We now discovered that testicular autoimmunity in uni-vx mice did not occur when Treg depletion was delayed by one week. Remarkably, this delayed Treg depletion also prevented tolerance induction. Therefore, tolerance depends on a rapid de novo Treg response to MGCA exposed after vasectomy. Moreover, tolerance was blunted in mice genetically deficient in PD-1 ligand, suggesting the involvement of induced Treg. We conclude that pre-existing natural Treg prevents post-vasectomy autoimmunity, whereas vasectomy-induced Treg maintains post-vasectomy tolerance. We further discovered that vasectomized mice were still resistant to autoimmune orchitis induction for at least 12–16 months; thus, tolerance is long-lasting. Although significant sperm autoantibodies of low titers became detectable in uni-vx mice at seven months, the antibody titers fluctuated over time, suggesting a dynamic “balance” between the autoimmune and tolerance states. Finally, we observed severe epididymal fibrosis and hypo-spermatogenesis at 12 months after uni-vx: findings of highly critical clinical significance. PMID:24080233

  5. The regulatory niche of intestinal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sailaja, Badi Sri; He, Xi C; Li, Linheng

    2016-09-01

    The niche constitutes a unique category of cells that support the microenvironment for the maintenance and self-renewal of stem cells. Intestinal stem cells reside at the base of the crypt, which contains adjacent epithelial cells, stromal cells and smooth muscle cells, and soluble and cell-associated growth and differentiation factors. We summarize here recent advances in our understanding of the crucial role of the niche in regulating stem cells. The stem cell niche maintains a balance among quiescence, proliferation and regeneration of intestinal stem cells after injury. Mesenchymal cells, Paneth cells, immune cells, endothelial cells and neural cells are important regulatory components that secrete niche ligands, growth factors and cytokines. Intestinal homeostasis is regulated by niche signalling pathways, specifically Wnt, bone morphogenetic protein, Notch and epidermal growth factor. These insights into the regulatory stem cell niche during homeostasis and post-injury regeneration offer the potential to accelerate development of therapies for intestine-related disorders.

  6. The regulatory niche of intestinal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sailaja, Badi Sri; He, Xi C; Li, Linheng

    2016-09-01

    The niche constitutes a unique category of cells that support the microenvironment for the maintenance and self-renewal of stem cells. Intestinal stem cells reside at the base of the crypt, which contains adjacent epithelial cells, stromal cells and smooth muscle cells, and soluble and cell-associated growth and differentiation factors. We summarize here recent advances in our understanding of the crucial role of the niche in regulating stem cells. The stem cell niche maintains a balance among quiescence, proliferation and regeneration of intestinal stem cells after injury. Mesenchymal cells, Paneth cells, immune cells, endothelial cells and neural cells are important regulatory components that secrete niche ligands, growth factors and cytokines. Intestinal homeostasis is regulated by niche signalling pathways, specifically Wnt, bone morphogenetic protein, Notch and epidermal growth factor. These insights into the regulatory stem cell niche during homeostasis and post-injury regeneration offer the potential to accelerate development of therapies for intestine-related disorders. PMID:27060879

  7. Cell cycle-related genotoxic effects of 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide in C3H 10T1/2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, K.L.S.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the cell cycle sensitivity of cell killing, mutation, and neoplastic transformation produced by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO), a potent mutagen and carcinogen. Studies were performed in populations of 10T1/3 cells synchronized by replacing them to low density after confluence-induced arrest of proliferation. Percent survival (RCFE), the mutation frequency (ouabain resistance), and the transformation frequency (types II and III foci) were independent of the phase of the cell cycle during which the cells were exposed to 4NQO. However, quantities of (/sup 3/H)4NQO bound to the DNA of treated cells were greatest during the G/sub 1/ phase and fell 50% as the cells entered the S phase. 4NQO induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in confluence-arrested cultures, and the cell removed 25% of bound (/sup 3/H)4NQO over a 12 hour post-treatment incubation period when treated either early in the G/sub 1/ phase or at the G/sub 1//S border. These date indicated that 4NQO induced DNA adducts were removed from the DNA Of 10T1/2 cells. DNA replication in 10T1/2 cells was markedly inhibited by 4NQO. Treatment during the G/sub 1/ phase produced delays in the onset of the S phase and a reduction in the rate of subsequent DNA synthesis. A similar decrease in rate was observed for cells exposed to 4NQO in the S phase. The reduced levels of DNA replication were largely due to the decreased number of cells synthesizing DNA. The cycle-independent responses of 10T1/2 cells to 4NQO-induced cytotoxicity, mutation, and neoplastic transformation resulted from the increase in 4NQO bound to DNA during the G/sub 1/ phase and its subsequent removal during the delay of the initiation of DNA replication.

  8. Regulatory T cells and tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chakraborty, Nitya G; Mukherji, Bijay

    2005-12-01

    Central deletion of "self-reactive" T cells has been the textbook paradigm for inducing "self-tolerance" in the periphery and the concept of a role of T cell-mediated suppression in this process has long been controversial. A decisive shift in the opinion on suppressor T cells has lately occurred with the observations of Sakaguchi's group that linked a class of CD4+CD25+ T cells to the prevention of autoimmunity from neonatal thymectomy in mice. These CD4+CD25+ T cells have been named T regulatory (Treg) cells. They are believed to be selected in the thymus as an anti-self repertoire. Hence they were referred to as natural T regulatory (nTreg) cells. Presently, in addition to their role in autoimmunity, they are believed to exert regulatory function in infection, in transplantation immunity as well as in tumor immunity. In contrast to these nTreg cells, another class of CD4+ Treg cells also exercises regulatory function in the periphery. These Treg cells are also CD4+ T cells and after activation they also become phenotypically CD4+CD25+. They are, however induced in the periphery as Treg cells. Hence, they are termed as induced Treg (iTreg) cells. There are major differences in the biology of these two types of Treg cells. They differ in their requirements for activation and in their mode of action. Nonetheless, evidence indicates that both nTreg cells and iTreg cells are involved in the control of tumor immunity. The question of how to circumvent their regulatory constraints, therefore, has become a major challenge for tumor immunologists. PMID:15868167

  9. Cancer-Associated Myeloid Regulatory Cells

    PubMed Central

    De Vlaeminck, Yannick; González-Rascón, Anna; Goyvaerts, Cleo; Breckpot, Karine

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid cells are critically involved in the pathophysiology of cancers. In the tumor microenvironment (TME), they comprise tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), neutrophils (TANs), dendritic cells, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, which are further subdivided into a monocytic subset and a granulocytic subset. Some of these myeloid cells, in particular TAMs and TANs, are divided into type 1 or type 2 cells, according to the paradigm of T helper type 1 or type 2 cells. Type 1-activated cells are generally characterized as cells that aid tumor rejection, while all other myeloid cells are shown to favor tumor progression. Moreover, these cells are often at the basis of resistance to various therapies. Much research has been devoted to study the biology of myeloid cells. This endeavor has proven to be challenging, as the markers used to categorize myeloid cells in the TME are not restricted to particular subsets. Also from a functional and metabolic point of view, myeloid cells share many features. Finally, myeloid cells are endowed with a certain level of plasticity, which further complicates studying them outside their environment. In this article, we challenge the exclusive use of cell markers to unambiguously identify myeloid cell subsets in the TME. We further propose to divide myeloid cells into myeloid regulatory or stimulatory cells according to their pro- or antitumor function, because we contend that for therapeutic purposes it is not targeting the cell subsets but rather targeting their protumor traits; hence, myeloid regulatory cells will push antitumor immunotherapy to the next level. PMID:27065074

  10. Regulatory issues for personalized pluripotent cells.

    PubMed

    Condic, Maureen L; Rao, Mahendra

    2008-11-01

    The development of personalized pluripotent stem cells for research and for possible therapies holds out great hope for patients. However, such cells will face significant technical and regulatory challenges before they can be used as therapeutic reagents. Here we consider two possible sources of personalized pluripotent stem cells: embryonic stem cells derived from nuclear transfer (NT-ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from direct reprogramming of adult somatic cells. Both sources of personalized pluripotent stem cells face unique regulatory hurdles that are in some ways significantly higher than those facing stem cells derived from embryos produced by fertilization (ESCs). However, the outstanding long-term potential of iPSCs and their relative freedom from the ethical concerns raised by both ESCs and NT-ESCs makes direct reprogramming an exceptionally promising approach to advancing research and providing therapies in the field of regenerative medicine.

  11. Regulatory T cells: balancing protection versus pathology.

    PubMed

    Rakebrandt, Nikolas; Littringer, Katharina; Joller, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) maintain immune tolerance, prevent autoimmunity and modulate immune responses during infection and cancer. Recent studies have revealed considerable heterogeneity and plasticity within the Treg compartment, depending on the immunological context, which may result in Tregs losing their suppressive function in inflammatory environments. We review how dysfunctional Tregs contribute to disease pathogenesis in inflammatory conditions and how inappropriate regulatory responses may hamper protective immunity in the context of infection and cancer. We also discuss how Tregs might be targeted therapeutically to re-establish a proper balance between regulatory and effector responses in autoimmunity, infections, and cancer. PMID:27497235

  12. Special regulatory T cell review: How I became a T suppressor/regulatory cell maven

    PubMed Central

    Shevach, Ethan M

    2008-01-01

    I have briefly reviewed the factors that motivated me to change my views about the existence and importance of suppressor/regulatory T cells and to devote the majority of my laboratory efforts to this newly revitalized area of immunologic research. I am optimistic that manipulation of regulatory T-cell function will shortly be applicable to the clinic. PMID:18154610

  13. T regulatory cells and allergy.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Alison; Verhagen, Johan; Akdis, Cezmi A; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2005-06-01

    Anergy, tolerance and active suppression may not be independent events, but rather involve similar mechanisms and cell types in immune regulation. Induction of allergen-specific T(Reg) cells seems essential for maintaining a healthy immune response towards allergens. By utilizing multiple secreted cytokines and surface molecules, antigen-specific T(Reg) cells may re-direct an inappropriate immune response against allergens or auto-antigens.

  14. Regulatory T-cell compartmentalization and trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shuang; Kryczek, Ilona; Zou, Weiping

    2006-01-01

    CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (CD4+ Treg cells) are thought to differentiate in the thymus and immigrate from the thymus to the periphery. Treg cells can regulate both acquired and innate immunity through multiple modes of suppression. The cross-talk between Treg cells and targeted cells, such as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T cells, is crucial for ensuring suppression by Treg cells in the appropriate microenvironment. Emerging evidence suggests that Treg compartmentalization and trafficking may be tissue or/and organ specific and that distinct chemokine receptor and integrin expression may contribute to selective retention and trafficking of Treg cells at sites where regulation is required. In this review, the cellular and molecular signals that control specialized migration and retention of Treg cells are discussed. PMID:16537800

  15. Regulatory T cells in allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Noval Rivas, Magali; Chatila, Talal A

    2016-09-01

    The pathogenesis of allergic diseases entails an ineffective tolerogenic immune response to allergens. Regulatory T (Treg) cells play a key role in sustaining immune tolerance to allergens, yet mechanisms by which Treg cells fail to maintain tolerance in patients with allergic diseases are not well understood. We review current concepts and established mechanisms regarding how Treg cells regulate different components of allergen-triggered immune responses to promote and maintain tolerance. We will also discuss more recent advances that emphasize the "dual" functionality of Treg cells in patients with allergic diseases: how Treg cells are essential in promoting tolerance to allergens but also how a proallergic inflammatory environment can skew Treg cells toward a pathogenic phenotype that aggravates and perpetuates disease. These advances highlight opportunities for novel therapeutic strategies that aim to re-establish tolerance in patients with chronic allergic diseases by promoting Treg cell stability and function. PMID:27596705

  16. Regulatory T cells and transplantation tolerance.

    PubMed

    Cobbold, S P

    2008-01-01

    Rodent models of transplantation have demonstrated that it is possible to induce specific immunological tolerance of donor antigens and indefinite graft survival in the absence of any continued immunosuppression. If this situation could be achieved clinically it would avoid many of the longer term complications of organ grafting, such as the increased risk of infection and cancer and the nephrotoxicity of many immunosuppressive agents. In this review we shall consider the interplay between regulatory T cells, dendritic cells and the graft itself and the resulting local protective mechanisms that are coordinated to maintain the tolerant state. We will discuss how both anti-inflammatory cytokines and negative costimulatory interactions can elicit a number of interrelated mechanisms to regulate both T cell and antigen-presenting cell activity. The induction and maintenance of tolerance via acquired local immune privilege has implications for the design of therapeutic regimens and the monitoring of the tolerant status of patients being weaned off immunosuppression. PMID:18651537

  17. Regulatory Circuits Controlling Vascular Cell Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Tamer; Cheng, Henry; Demer, Linda L.; Tintut, Yin

    2013-01-01

    Vascular calcification is a common feature of chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, and aging. Such abnormal calcium deposition occurs in medial and/or intimal layers of blood vessels as well as in cardiac valves. Once considered a passive and inconsequential finding, the presence of calcium deposits in the vasculature is widely accepted as a predictor of increased morbidity and mortality. Recognition of the importance of vascular calcification in health is driving research into mechanisms that govern its development, progression, and regression. Diverse, but highly interconnected factors, have been implicated, including disturbances in lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, and mineral and hormonal balances, which can lead to formation of osteoblast-like cells in the artery wall. A tight balance of procalcific and anticalcific regulators dictates the extent of disease. In this review, we focus on the main regulatory circuits modulating vascular cell calcification. PMID:23269436

  18. Radiation Enhances Regulatory T Cell Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Kachikwu, Evelyn L.; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; Liao, Yu-Pei; DeMarco, John J.; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Economou, James S.; McBride, William H.; Schaue, Doerthe

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Immunotherapy could be a useful adjunct to standard cytotoxic therapies such as radiation in patients with micrometastatic disease, although successful integration of immunotherapy into treatment protocols will require further understanding of how standard therapies affect the generation of antitumor immune responses. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of radiation therapy (RT) on immunosuppressive T regulatory (Treg) cells. Methods and Materials: Treg cells were identified as a CD4{sup +}CD25{sup hi}Foxp3{sup +} lymphocyte subset, and their fate was followed in a murine TRAMP C1 model of prostate cancer in mice with and without RT. Results: CD4{sup +}CD25{sup hi}Foxp3{sup +} Treg cells increased in immune organs after local leg or whole-body radiation. A large part, but not all, of this increase after leg-only irradiation could be ascribed to radiation scatter and Treg cells being intrinsically more radiation resistant than other lymphocyte subpopulations, resulting in their selection. Their functional activity on a per-cell basis was not affected by radiation exposure. Similar findings were made with mice receiving local RT to murine prostate tumors growing in the leg. The importance of the Treg cell population in the response to RT was shown by systemic elimination of Treg cells, which greatly enhanced radiation-induced tumor regression. Conclusions: We conclude that Treg cells are more resistant to radiation than other lymphocytes, resulting in their preferential increase. Treg cells may form an important homeostatic mechanism for tissues injured by radiation, and in a tumor context, they may assist in immune evasion during therapy. Targeting this population may allow enhancement of radiotherapeutic benefit through immune modulation.

  19. PDGF upregulates CLEC-2 to induce T regulatory cells

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Sudhanshu; Ganguly, Sreerupa; Hajian, Pega; Cao, Jia-Ning; Agrawal, Anshu

    2015-01-01

    The effect of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) on immune cells is not elucidated. Here, we demonstrate PDGF inhibited the maturation of human DCs and induced IL-10 secretion. Culture of PDGF-DCs with T cells induced the polarization of T cells towards FoxP3 expressing T regulatory cells that secreted IL-10. Gene expression studies revealed that PDGF induced the expression of C-type lectin like receptor member 2, (CLEC-2) receptor on DCs. Furthermore, DCs transfected with CLEC-2 induced T regulatory cells in DC-T cell co-culture. CLEC-2 is naturally expressed on platelets. Therefore, to confirm whether CLEC-2 is responsible for inducing the T regulatory cells, T cells were cultured with either CLEC-2 expressing platelets or soluble CLEC-2. Both conditions resulted in the induction of regulatory T cells. The generation of T regulatory cells was probably due to the binding of CLEC-2 with its ligand podoplanin on T cells, since crosslinking of podoplanin on the T cells also resulted in the induction of T regulatory cells. These data demonstrate that PDGF upregulates the expression of CLEC-2 on cells to induce T regulatory cells. PMID:26416420

  20. PDGF upregulates CLEC-2 to induce T regulatory cells.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Sudhanshu; Ganguly, Sreerupa; Hajian, Pega; Cao, Jia-Ning; Agrawal, Anshu

    2015-10-01

    The effect of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) on immune cells is not elucidated. Here, we demonstrate PDGF inhibited the maturation of human DCs and induced IL-10 secretion. Culture of PDGF-DCs with T cells induced the polarization of T cells towards FoxP3 expressing T regulatory cells that secreted IL-10. Gene expression studies revealed that PDGF induced the expression of C-type lectin like receptor member 2, (CLEC-2) receptor on DCs. Furthermore, DCs transfected with CLEC-2 induced T regulatory cells in DC-T cell co-culture. CLEC-2 is naturally expressed on platelets. Therefore, to confirm whether CLEC-2 is responsible for inducing the T regulatory cells, T cells were cultured with either CLEC-2 expressing platelets or soluble CLEC-2. Both conditions resulted in the induction of regulatory T cells. The generation of T regulatory cells was probably due to the binding of CLEC-2 with its ligand podoplanin on T cells, since crosslinking of podoplanin on the T cells also resulted in the induction of T regulatory cells. These data demonstrate that PDGF upregulates the expression of CLEC-2 on cells to induce T regulatory cells.

  1. Regulatory T Cells: Differentiation and Function.

    PubMed

    Plitas, George; Rudensky, Alexander Y

    2016-09-01

    The immune system of vertebrate animals has evolved to mount an effective defense against a diverse set of pathogens while minimizing transient or lasting impairment in tissue function that could result from the inflammation caused by immune responses to infectious agents. In addition, misguided immune responses to "self" and dietary antigens, as well as to commensal microorganisms, can lead to a variety of inflammatory disorders, including autoimmunity, metabolic syndrome, allergies, and cancer. Regulatory T cells expressing the X chromosome-linked transcription factor Foxp3 suppress inflammatory responses in diverse biological settings and serve as a vital mechanism of negative regulation of immune-mediated inflammation. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(9); 721-5. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27590281

  2. Radiation Enhances Regulatory T Cell Representation

    PubMed Central

    Kachikwu, Evelyn L.; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; Liao, Yu-Pei; DeMarco, John J.; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Economou, James S.; McBride, William H.; Schaue, Dörthe

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE Immunotherapy (IT) could be a useful adjunct to standard cytotoxic therapies such as radiation in patients with micrometastatic disease although successful integration of IT into treatment protocols will require further understanding of how standard therapies affect the generation of anti-tumor immune responses. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of radiation therapy on immunosuppressive T regulatory (Treg) cells. MATERIALS and METHODS Tregs were identified as a CD4+CD25hiFoxp3+ lymphocyte subset and their fate followed in a murine TRAMP-C1 model of prostate cancer in mice with and without radiation therapy. RESULTS CD4+CD25hiFoxp3+ Treg cells increased in immune organs following local leg or whole body radiation. A large part, but not all, of this increase following leg-only irradiation could be ascribed to radiation scatter and Tregs being intrinsically more radiation resistant than other lymphocyte subpopulations resulting in their selection. Their functional activity on a per cell basis was not affected by radiation exposure. Similar findings were made with mice receiving local RT to murine prostate tumors growing in the leg. The importance of the Treg population in the response to RT was shown by systemic elimination of Tregs, which greatly enhanced radiation-induced tumor regression. CONCLUSIONS We conclude that Tregs are more resistant to radiation than other lymphocytes resulting in their preferential increase. Treg cells may form an important homeostatic mechanism for tissues injured by radiation, and in a tumor context may assist in immune evasion during therapy. Targeting this population may allow enhancement of radiotherapeutic benefit through immune modulation. PMID:21093169

  3. Regulatory Dendritic Cells for Immunotherapy in Immunologic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, John R.; Ma, Yanna; Churchman, Laura; Gordon, Sara A.; Dawicki, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    We recognize well the abilities of dendritic cells to activate effector T cell (Teff cell) responses to an array of antigens and think of these cells in this context as pre-eminent antigen-presenting cells, but dendritic cells are also critical to the induction of immunologic tolerance. Herein, we review our knowledge on the different kinds of tolerogenic or regulatory dendritic cells that are present or can be induced in experimental settings and humans, how they operate, and the diseases in which they are effective, from allergic to autoimmune diseases and transplant tolerance. The primary conclusions that arise from these cumulative studies clearly indicate that the agent(s) used to induce the tolerogenic phenotype and the status of the dendritic cell at the time of induction influence not only the phenotype of the dendritic cell, but also that of the regulatory T cell responses that they in turn mobilize. For example, while many, if not most, types of induced regulatory dendritic cells lead CD4+ naïve or Teff cells to adopt a CD25+Foxp3+ Treg phenotype, exposure of Langerhans cells or dermal dendritic cells to vitamin D leads in one case to the downstream induction of CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cell responses, while in the other to Foxp3− type 1 regulatory T cells (Tr1) responses. Similarly, exposure of human immature versus semi-mature dendritic cells to IL-10 leads to distinct regulatory T cell outcomes. Thus, it should be possible to shape our dendritic cell immunotherapy approaches for selective induction of different types of T cell tolerance or to simultaneously induce multiple types of regulatory T cell responses. This may prove to be an important option as we target diseases in different anatomic compartments or with divergent pathologies in the clinic. Finally, we provide an overview of the use and potential use of these cells clinically, highlighting their potential as tools in an array of settings. PMID:24550907

  4. Human regulatory T cells control TCR signaling and susceptibility to suppression in CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Chellappa, Stalin; Lieske, Nora V; Hagness, Morten; Line, Pål D; Taskén, Kjetil; Aandahl, Einar M

    2016-07-01

    Human CD4(+)CD25(hi)FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells maintain immunologic tolerance and prevent autoimmune and inflammatory immune responses. Regulatory T cells undergo a similar activation cycle as conventional CD4(+) T cells upon antigen stimulation. Here, we demonstrate that T cell receptors and costimulation are required to activate the regulatory T cell suppressive function. Regulatory T cells suppressed the T cell receptor signaling in effector T cells in a time-dependent manner that corresponded with inhibition of cytokine production and proliferation. Modulation of the activation level and thereby the suppressive capacity of regulatory T cells imposed distinct T cell receptor signaling signatures and hyporesponsiveness in suppressed and proliferating effector T cells and established a threshold for effector T cell proliferation. The immune suppression of effector T cells was completely reversible upon removal of regulatory T cells. However, the strength of prior immune suppression by regulatory T cells and corresponding T cell receptor signaling in effector T cells determined the susceptibility to suppression upon later reexposure to regulatory T cells. These findings demonstrate how the strength of the regulatory T cell suppressive function determines intracellular signaling, immune responsiveness, and the later susceptibility of effector T cells to immune suppression and contribute to unveiling the complex interactions between regulatory T cells and effector T cells. PMID:26715685

  5. The architectural organization of human stem cell cycle regulatory machinery.

    PubMed

    Stein, Gary S; Stein, Janet L; van J Wijnen, Andre; Lian, Jane B; Montecino, Martin; Medina, Ricardo; Kapinas, Kristie; Ghule, Prachi; Grandy, Rodrigo; Zaidi, Sayyed K; Becker, Klaus A

    2012-01-01

    Two striking features of human embryonic stem cells that support biological activity are an abbreviated cell cycle and reduced complexity to nuclear organization. The potential implications for rapid proliferation of human embryonic stem cells within the context of sustaining pluripotency, suppressing phenotypic gene expression and linkage to simplicity in the architectural compartmentalization of regulatory machinery in nuclear microenvironments is explored. Characterization of the molecular and architectural commitment steps that license human embryonic stem cells to initiate histone gene expression is providing understanding of the principal regulatory mechanisms that control the G1/S phase transition in primitive pluripotent cells. From both fundamental regulatory and clinical perspectives, further understanding of the pluripotent cell cycle in relation to compartmentalization of regulatory machinery in nuclear microenvironments is relevant to applications of stem cells for regenerative medicine and new dimensions to therapy where traditional drug discovery strategies have been minimally effective.

  6. Regulatory T Cells and Their Role in Animal Disease.

    PubMed

    Veiga-Parga, T

    2016-07-01

    In humans and mouse models, Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells are known to control all aspects of immune responses. However, only limited information exists on these cells' role in diseases of other animals. In this review, we cover the most important features and different types of regulatory T cells, which include those that are thymus-derived and peripherally induced, the mechanisms by which they control immune responses by targeting effector T cells and antigen-presenting cells, and most important, their role in animal health and diseases including cancer, infections, and other conditions such as hypersensitivities and autoimmunity. Although the literature regarding regulatory T cells in domestic animal species is still limited, multiple articles have recently emerged and are discussed. Moreover, we also discuss the evidence suggesting that regulatory T cells might limit the magnitude of effector responses, which can have either a positive or negative result, depending on the context of animal and human disease. In addition, the issue of plasticity is discussed because plasticity in regulatory T cells can result in the loss of their protective function in some microenvironments during disease. Lastly, the manipulation of regulatory T cells is discussed in assessing the possibility of their use as a treatment in the future.

  7. Regulatory T Cells and Their Role in Animal Disease.

    PubMed

    Veiga-Parga, T

    2016-07-01

    In humans and mouse models, Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells are known to control all aspects of immune responses. However, only limited information exists on these cells' role in diseases of other animals. In this review, we cover the most important features and different types of regulatory T cells, which include those that are thymus-derived and peripherally induced, the mechanisms by which they control immune responses by targeting effector T cells and antigen-presenting cells, and most important, their role in animal health and diseases including cancer, infections, and other conditions such as hypersensitivities and autoimmunity. Although the literature regarding regulatory T cells in domestic animal species is still limited, multiple articles have recently emerged and are discussed. Moreover, we also discuss the evidence suggesting that regulatory T cells might limit the magnitude of effector responses, which can have either a positive or negative result, depending on the context of animal and human disease. In addition, the issue of plasticity is discussed because plasticity in regulatory T cells can result in the loss of their protective function in some microenvironments during disease. Lastly, the manipulation of regulatory T cells is discussed in assessing the possibility of their use as a treatment in the future. PMID:26945003

  8. Alterations in regulatory T cell subpopulations seen in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Luciano, Angel A; Arbona-Ramirez, Ileana M; Ruiz, Rene; Llorens-Bonilla, Braulio J; Martinez-Lopez, Denise G; Funderburg, Nicholas; Dorsey, Morna J

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory T cells are a population of CD4+ T cells that play a critical role in peripheral tolerance and control of immune responses to pathogens. The purpose of this study was to measure the percentages of two different regulatory T cells subpopulations, identified by the presence or absence of CD31 (Recent thymic emigrants and peripherally induced naïve regulatory T cells), in term and preterm infant cord blood. We report the association of prenatal factors, intrauterine exposure to lipopolysaccharide and inflammation and the percentages of these regulatory T cell subpopulations in term and preterm infants. Cord blood samples were collected from both term and preterm infants and mononuclear cells isolated over a Ficoll-Hypaque cushion. Cells were then stained with fluorochrome-labeled antibodies to characterize regulatory T cell populations and analyzed with multi-color flow cytometry. Cord blood plasma C-reactive protein, and lipopolysaccharide were also measured. Placental pathology was also examined. We report a gestational age-dependent difference in the percentage of total regulatory T cells, in which preterm infants of lower gestational ages have an increased percentage of regulatory T cells. We report the presence of two populations of regulatory T cells (CD31+ and CD31-) in cord blood of term and preterm infants and their association with different maternal and fetal characteristics. Factors associated with differences in the percentage of CD31- Tregs included the use of prenatal antibiotics, steroids and magnesium sulfate. In addition, the percentage of CD31- Tregs was significantly higher in cord blood of preterm pregnancies associated with inflammation and prenatal lipopolysaccharide exposure. The peripheral Treg pool of preterm infants could be altered by prenatal exposure to inflammation and chorioamnionitis; however, the clinical implications of this finding are not yet understood.

  9. Monoclonal regulatory T cells provide insights into T cell suppression

    PubMed Central

    Gubser, Céline; Schmaler, Mathias; Rossi, Simona W.; Palmer, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have a crucial role in maintaining lymphocyte homeostasis. However an understanding of how Tregs function at a cellular and molecular level has not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we make use of a T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic, Rag−/− mouse expressing a Forkhead-Box-Protein P3 (Foxp3) transgene. This mouse provides a source of monoclonal CD4+ Foxp3+ T cells with a defined specificity. Here we show that monoclonal B3K506 Tregs are functional in vitro and in vivo and clearly require cognate antigen to be suppressive. We further show that the strength of Treg stimulation determines the strength of Treg mediated suppression. Finally we analysed various suppressive mechanisms used by monoclonal Tregs and found that Treg-Tconv proximity is a parameter, which correlates with enhanced suppression. PMID:27210828

  10. Proceedings: international regulatory considerations on development pathways for cell therapies.

    PubMed

    Feigal, Ellen G; Tsokas, Katherine; Viswanathan, Sowmya; Zhang, Jiwen; Priest, Catherine; Pearce, Jonathan; Mount, Natalie

    2014-08-01

    Regenerative medicine is a rapidly evolving field that faces novel scientific and regulatory challenges. In September 2013, the International Workshop on Regulatory Pathways for Cell Therapies was convened to discuss the nature of these challenges and potential solutions and to highlight opportunities for potential convergence between different regulatory bodies that might assist the field's development. The workshop discussions generated potentially actionable steps in five main areas that could mitigate cell therapy development pathway risk and accelerate moving promising therapies to patients. These included the need for convergence of regulatory guidelines on donor eligibility and suitability of lines for use in clinical trials and subsequent commercialization for cell therapies to move forward on a global basis; the need to challenge and encourage investigators in the regenerative medicine field to share information and provide examples of comparability studies related to master cell banks; the need for convergence of guidelines across regulatory jurisdictions on requirements for tumorigenicity studies, based on particular cell types and on biodistribution studies; the need to increase transparency in sharing clinical trial information more broadly and disseminating results more rapidly; and the need to establish a forum for sharing the experiences of various approaches being developed to expedite regulatory approvals and access for patients to innovative cell and regenerative therapies in the different regulatory jurisdictions and to assess their potential strengths and weaknesses.

  11. Proceedings: International Regulatory Considerations on Development Pathways for Cell Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Tsokas, Katherine; Viswanathan, Sowmya; Zhang, Jiwen; Priest, Catherine; Pearce, Jonathan; Mount, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Regenerative medicine is a rapidly evolving field that faces novel scientific and regulatory challenges. In September 2013, the International Workshop on Regulatory Pathways for Cell Therapies was convened to discuss the nature of these challenges and potential solutions and to highlight opportunities for potential convergence between different regulatory bodies that might assist the field’s development. The workshop discussions generated potentially actionable steps in five main areas that could mitigate cell therapy development pathway risk and accelerate moving promising therapies to patients. These included the need for convergence of regulatory guidelines on donor eligibility and suitability of lines for use in clinical trials and subsequent commercialization for cell therapies to move forward on a global basis; the need to challenge and encourage investigators in the regenerative medicine field to share information and provide examples of comparability studies related to master cell banks; the need for convergence of guidelines across regulatory jurisdictions on requirements for tumorigenicity studies, based on particular cell types and on biodistribution studies; the need to increase transparency in sharing clinical trial information more broadly and disseminating results more rapidly; and the need to establish a forum for sharing the experiences of various approaches being developed to expedite regulatory approvals and access for patients to innovative cell and regenerative therapies in the different regulatory jurisdictions and to assess their potential strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25038248

  12. How tolerogenic dendritic cells induce regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Roberto A.; von Andrian, Ulrich H.

    2010-01-01

    Since their discovery by Steinman and Cohn in 1973, dendritic cells (DCs) have become increasingly recognized for their crucial role as regulators of innate and adaptive immunity. DCs are exquisitely adept at acquiring, processing and presenting antigens to T cells. They also adjust the context (and hence the outcome) of antigen presentation in response to a plethora of environmental inputs that signal the occurence of pathogens or tissue damage. Such signals generally boost DC maturation, which promotes their migration from peripheral tissues into and within secondary lymphoid organs and their capacity to induce and regulate effector T cell responses. Conversely, more recent observations indicate that DCs are also crucial to ensure immunological peace. Indeed, DCs constantly present innocuous self and non-self antigens in a fashion that promotes tolerance, at least in part, through the control of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Tregs are specialized T cells that exert their immuno-suppressive function through a variety of mechanisms affecting both DCs and effector cells. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the relationship between tolerogenic DCs and Tregs. PMID:21056730

  13. The regulatory sciences for stem cell-based medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bao-Zhu; Wang, Junzhi

    2014-06-01

    Over the past few years, several new achievements have been made from stem cell studies, many of which have moved up from preclinical stages to early, or from early to middle or late, stages thanks to relatively safe profile and preliminary evidence of effectiveness. Moreover, some stem cell-based products have been approved for marketing by different national regulatory authorities. However, many critical issues associated mainly with incomplete understanding of stem cell biology and the relevant risk factors, and lack of effective regulations still exist and need to be urgently addressed, especially in countries where establishment of appropriate regulatory system just commenced. More relevantly, the stem cell regulatory sciences need to be established or improved to more effectively evaluate quality, safety and efficacy of stem cell products, and for building up the appropriate regulatory framework. In this review, we summarize some new achievements in stem cell studies, especially the preclinical and clinical studies, the existing regulations, and the associated challenges, and we then propose some considerations for improving stem cell regulatory sciences with a goal of promoting the steadfast growth of the well-regulated stem cell therapies abreast of evolvement of stem cell sciences and technologies.

  14. Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells for Regulatory T Cell Induction in Man

    PubMed Central

    Raker, Verena K.; Domogalla, Matthias P.; Steinbrink, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are highly specialized professional antigen-presenting cells that regulate immune responses, maintaining the balance between tolerance and immunity. Mechanisms via which they can promote central and peripheral tolerance include clonal deletion, the inhibition of memory T cell responses, T cell anergy, and induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs). These properties have led to the analysis of human tolerogenic DCs as a therapeutic strategy for the induction or re-establishment of tolerance. In recent years, numerous protocols for the generation of human tolerogenic DCs have been developed and their tolerogenic mechanisms, including induction of Tregs, are relatively well understood. Phase I trials have been conducted in autoimmune disease, with results that emphasize the feasibility and safety of treatments with tolerogenic DCs. Therefore, the scientific rationale for the use of tolerogenic DCs therapy in the fields of transplantation medicine and allergic and autoimmune diseases is strong. This review will give an overview on efforts and protocols to generate human tolerogenic DCs with focus on IL-10-modulated DCs as inducers of Tregs and discuss their clinical applications and challenges faced in further developing this form of immunotherapy. PMID:26617604

  15. Cell cycle control by oscillating regulatory proteins in Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed

    Holtzendorff, Julia; Reinhardt, Jens; Viollier, Patrick H

    2006-04-01

    Significant strides have been made in recent years towards understanding the molecular basis of cell cycle progression in the model bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. At the heart of cell cycle regulation is a multicomponent transcriptional feedback loop, governing the production of successive regulatory waves or pulses of at least three master regulatory proteins. These oscillating master regulators direct the execution of phase-specific events and, importantly, through intrinsic genetic switches not only determine the length of a given phase, but also provide the driving force that catapults the cell into the next stage of the cell cycle. The genetic switches act as fail safe mechanisms that prevent the cell cycle from relapsing and thus govern the ordered production and the periodicity of these regulatory waves. Here, we detail how the master regulators CtrA, GcrA and DnaA coordinate cell cycle progression and polar development in Caulobacter. PMID:16547950

  16. Cell cycle control by oscillating regulatory proteins in Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed

    Holtzendorff, Julia; Reinhardt, Jens; Viollier, Patrick H

    2006-04-01

    Significant strides have been made in recent years towards understanding the molecular basis of cell cycle progression in the model bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. At the heart of cell cycle regulation is a multicomponent transcriptional feedback loop, governing the production of successive regulatory waves or pulses of at least three master regulatory proteins. These oscillating master regulators direct the execution of phase-specific events and, importantly, through intrinsic genetic switches not only determine the length of a given phase, but also provide the driving force that catapults the cell into the next stage of the cell cycle. The genetic switches act as fail safe mechanisms that prevent the cell cycle from relapsing and thus govern the ordered production and the periodicity of these regulatory waves. Here, we detail how the master regulators CtrA, GcrA and DnaA coordinate cell cycle progression and polar development in Caulobacter.

  17. Treatment with bisphenol A and methoxychlor results in the growth of human breast cancer cells and alteration of the expression of cell cycle-related genes, cyclin D1 and p21, via an estrogen receptor-dependent signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Rim; Hwang, Kyung-A; Park, Min-Ah; Yi, Bo-Rim; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2012-05-01

    Various endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous compounds found in the environment and have the potential to interfere with the endocrine system and hormonal regulation. Among EDCs, bisphenol A (BPA) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-methoxyphenol)-ethane [methoxychlor (MXC)] have estrogenic activity resulting in a variety of dysfunctions in the E2-mediated response by binding to estrogen receptors (ERs), causing human health problems such as abnormal reproduction and carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of BPA and MXC on cell proliferation facilitated by ER signaling in human breast cancer cells. MCF-7 cells are known to be ERα-positive and to be a highly E2-responsive cancer cell line; these cells are, therefore, a useful in vitro model for detecting estrogenic activity in response to EDCs. We evaluated cancer cell proliferation following BPA and MXC treatment using an MTT assay. We analyzed alterations in the expression of genes associated with the cell cycle in MCF-7 cells by semi-quantitative reverse-transcription PCR following treatment with BPA or MXC compared to EtOH. To determine whether BPA and MXC stimulate cancer cell growth though ER signaling, we co-treated the cells with agonists (propyl pyrazoletriol, PPT; and diarylpropionitrile, DPN) or an antagonist (ICI 182,780) of ER signaling and reduced ERα gene expression via siRNA in MCF-7 cells before treatment with EDCs. These studies confirmed the carcinogenicity of EDCs in vitro. As a result, BPA and MXC induced the cancer cell proliferation by the upregulation of genes that promote the cell cycle and the downregulation of anti-proliferative genes, especially ones affecting the G1/S transition via ERα signaling. These collective results confirm the carcinogenicity of these EDCs in vitro. Further studies are required to determine whether EDCs promote carcinogenesis in vivo.

  18. B cells with regulatory properties in transplantation tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Justine; Chiffoleau, Elise

    2015-01-01

    Induction of tolerance remains a major goal in transplantation. Indeed, despite potent immunosuppression, chronic rejection is still a real problem in transplantation. The humoral response is an important mediator of chronic rejection, and numerous strategies have been developed to target either B cells or plasma cells. However, the use of anti-CD20 therapy has highlighted the beneficial role of subpopulation of B cells, termed regulatory B cells. These cells have been characterized mainly in mice models of auto-immune diseases but emerging literature suggests their role in graft tolerance in transplantation. Regulatory B cells seem to be induced following inflammation to restrain excessive response. Different phenotypes of regulatory B cells have been described and are functional at various differentiation steps from immature to plasma cells. These cells act by multiple mechanisms such as secretion of immuno-suppressive cytokines interleukin-10 (IL-10) or IL-35, cytotoxicity, expression of inhibitory receptors or by secretion of non-inflammatory antibodies. Better characterization of the development, phenotype and mode of action of these cells seems urgent to develop novel approaches to manipulate the different B cell subsets and the response to the graft in a clinical setting. PMID:26722647

  19. Special regulatory T-cell review: FOXP3 biochemistry in regulatory T cells – how diverse signals regulate suppression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Greene, Mark I

    2008-01-01

    FOXP3 is an acetylated and phosphorylated protein active in human regulatory T cells and forms oligomers which then associate with an even larger molecular complex. FOXP3 actively regulates transcription by recruiting enzymatic co-repressors and/or co-activators. FOXP3 complex ensembles are dynamically regulated by physiological stimuli such as T-cell receptor, IL-2 and proinflammation cytokine signals. Understanding the post-translational modifications of FOXP3 regulated by diverse signals and the biochemistry and structural chemistry of enzymatic proteins in the FOXP3 complex is critical for therapeutically modulating regulatory T cell function. PMID:18154614

  20. Movement of regulatory RNA between animal cells.

    PubMed

    Jose, Antony M

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies suggest that RNA can move from one cell to another and regulate genes through specific base-pairing. Mechanisms that modify or select RNA for secretion from a cell are unclear. Secreted RNA can be stable enough to be detected in the extracellular environment and can enter the cytosol of distant cells to regulate genes. Mechanisms that import RNA into the cytosol of an animal cell can enable uptake of RNA from many sources including other organisms. This role of RNA is akin to that of steroid hormones, which cross cell membranes to regulate genes. The potential diagnostic use of RNA in human extracellular fluids has ignited interest in understanding mechanisms that enable the movement of RNA between animal cells. Genetic model systems will be essential to gain more confidence in proposed mechanisms of RNA transport and to connect an extracellular RNA with a specific biological function. Studies in the worm C. elegans and in other animals have begun to reveal parts of this novel mechanism of cell-to-cell communication. Here, I summarize the current state of this nascent field, highlight the many unknowns, and suggest future directions.

  1. Movement of regulatory RNA between animal cells

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Antony M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent studies suggest that RNA can move from one cell to another and regulate genes through specific base-pairing. Mechanisms that modify or select RNA for secretion from a cell are unclear. Secreted RNA can be stable enough to be detected in the extracellular environment and can enter the cytosol of distant cells to regulate genes. Mechanisms that import RNA into the cytosol of an animal cell can enable uptake of RNA from many sources including other organisms. This role of RNA is akin to that of steroid hormones, which cross cell membranes to regulate genes. The potential diagnostic use of RNA in human extracellular fluids has ignited interest in understanding mechanisms that enable the movement of RNA between animal cells. Genetic model systems will be essential to gain more confidence in proposed mechanisms of RNA transport and to connect an extracellular RNA with a specific biological function. Studies in the worm C. elegans and in other animals have begun to reveal parts of this novel mechanism of cell-to-cell communication. Here, I summarize the current state of this nascent field, highlight the many unknowns, and suggest future directions. PMID:26138457

  2. Regulatory insight into the European human pluripotent stem cell registry.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Andreas; Stacey, Glyn; Kidane, Luam; Seriola, Anna; Stachelscheid, Harald; Veiga, Anna

    2014-12-01

    The European pluripotent stem cell registry aims at listing qualified pluripotent stem cell (PSC) lines that are available globally together with relevant information for each cell line. Specific emphasis is being put on documenting ethical procurement of the cells and providing evidence of pluripotency. The report discusses the tasks and challenges for a global PSC registry as an instrument to develop collaboration, to access cells from diverse resources and banks, and to implement standards, and as a means to follow up usage of cells and support adherence to regulatory and scientific standards and transparency for stakeholders. PMID:25457963

  3. Regulatory insight into the European human pluripotent stem cell registry.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Andreas; Stacey, Glyn; Kidane, Luam; Seriola, Anna; Stachelscheid, Harald; Veiga, Anna

    2014-12-01

    The European pluripotent stem cell registry aims at listing qualified pluripotent stem cell (PSC) lines that are available globally together with relevant information for each cell line. Specific emphasis is being put on documenting ethical procurement of the cells and providing evidence of pluripotency. The report discusses the tasks and challenges for a global PSC registry as an instrument to develop collaboration, to access cells from diverse resources and banks, and to implement standards, and as a means to follow up usage of cells and support adherence to regulatory and scientific standards and transparency for stakeholders.

  4. Cell Cycle Regulatory Functions of the KSHV Oncoprotein LANA

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Fang; Gan, Jin; Wang, Chong; Zhu, Caixia; Cai, Qiliang

    2016-01-01

    Manipulation of cell cycle is a commonly employed strategy of viruses for achieving a favorable cellular environment during infection. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), the primary etiological agent of several human malignancies including Kaposi’s sarcoma, and primary effusion lymphoma, encodes several oncoproteins that deregulate normal physiology of cell cycle machinery to persist with endothelial cells and B cells and subsequently establish a latent infection. During latency, only a small subset of viral proteins is expressed. Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is one of the latent antigens shown to be essential for transformation of endothelial cells in vitro. It has been well demonstrated that LANA is critical for the maintenance of latency, episome DNA replication, segregation and gene transcription. In this review, we summarize recent studies and address how LANA functions as an oncoprotein to steer host cell cycle-related events including proliferation and apoptosis by interacting with various cellular and viral factors, and highlight the potential therapeutic strategy of disrupting LANA-dependent signaling as targets in KSHV-associated cancers. PMID:27065950

  5. The expanding universe of regulatory T cell subsets in cancer.

    PubMed

    Gajewski, Thomas F

    2007-08-01

    Evidence has indicated that failed antitumor immunity is dominated by immunosuppressive mechanisms within the tumor microenvironment. In this issue of Immunity, Peng et al. (2007) add to this list by describing tumor-infiltrating gammadelta T cells that have regulatory function.

  6. [Regulatory T cells in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Limón-Camacho, Leonardo; Solleiro-Villavicencio, Helena; Pupko-Sissa, Ilana; Lascurain, Ricardo; Vargas-Rojas, María Inés

    2013-01-01

    Exposition to tobacco smoke has been established as the main risk factor to develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), by inducing inflammation of the airways. Several cell populations participate in this inflammatory process. It has been accepted that a maladaptive modulation of inflammatory responses plays a critical role in the development of the disease. Regulatory T cells (Treg) are a subset of T CD4(+) lymphocytes that modulate the immune response through secretion of cytokines. The role of the Treg cells in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is not clearly known, that is why it is important to focus in understanding their participation in the pathogenesis of the disease. To elaborate a systematic review of original articles in which we could describe Treg cells (their ontogeny, mechanisms of action) and their role in COPD, we made a systematic literature search in some data bases (MEDLINE, AMED, PubMed and Scielo) looking through the next keywords: "COPD and Regulatory T cells/EPOC y células T reguladoras", «Inflammation and COPD/Inflamación y EPOC», «Regulatory T cells/Células T reguladoras». We included basic science articles, controlled and non-controlled clinical trials, meta-analysis and guides. From this search we conclude that Treg cells are a subpopulation of T CD4(+) lymphocytes and their major functions are the suppression of immune responses and the maintenance of tolerance to self-antigens. A disruption in the regulatory mechanisms of the Treg cells leads to the development and perpetuation of inflammation in COPD.

  7. Direct-to-Consumer Stem Cell Marketing and Regulatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Summary There is a large, poorly regulated international market of putative stem cell products, including transplants of processed autologous stem cells from various tissues, cell processing devices, cosmetics, and nutritional supplements. Despite the absence of rigorous scientific research in the form of randomized clinical trials to support the routine use of such products, the market appears to be growing and diversifying. Very few stem cell biologics have passed regulatory scrutiny, and authorities in many countries, including the United States, have begun to step up their enforcement activities to protect patients and the integrity of health care markets. PMID:23934911

  8. T Regulatory Cell Biology in Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Alroqi, Fayhan J; Chatila, Talal A

    2016-04-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells that express the transcription factor forkhead box protein P3 (FOXP3) play an essential role in enforcing immune tolerance to self tissues, regulating host-commensal flora interaction, and facilitating tissue repair. Their deficiency and/or dysfunction trigger unbridled autoimmunity and inflammation. A growing number of monogenic defects have been recognized that adversely impact Treg cell development, differentiation, and/or function, leading to heritable diseases of immune dysregulation and autoimmunity. In this article, we review recent insights into Treg cell biology and function, with particular attention to lessons learned from newly recognized clinical disorders of Treg cell deficiency. PMID:26922942

  9. T Regulatory Cell Biology in Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Alroqi, Fayhan J; Chatila, Talal A

    2016-04-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells that express the transcription factor forkhead box protein P3 (FOXP3) play an essential role in enforcing immune tolerance to self tissues, regulating host-commensal flora interaction, and facilitating tissue repair. Their deficiency and/or dysfunction trigger unbridled autoimmunity and inflammation. A growing number of monogenic defects have been recognized that adversely impact Treg cell development, differentiation, and/or function, leading to heritable diseases of immune dysregulation and autoimmunity. In this article, we review recent insights into Treg cell biology and function, with particular attention to lessons learned from newly recognized clinical disorders of Treg cell deficiency.

  10. Direct-to-consumer stem cell marketing and regulatory responses.

    PubMed

    Sipp, Douglas

    2013-09-01

    There is a large, poorly regulated international market of putative stem cell products, including transplants of processed autologous stem cells from various tissues, cell processing devices, cosmetics, and nutritional supplements. Despite the absence of rigorous scientific research in the form of randomized clinical trials to support the routine use of such products, the market appears to be growing and diversifying. Very few stem cell biologics have passed regulatory scrutiny, and authorities in many countries, including the United States, have begun to step up their enforcement activities to protect patients and the integrity of health care markets.

  11. Regulatory T Cells: Molecular Actions on Effector Cells in Immune Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Arce-Sillas, Asiel; Álvarez-Luquín, Diana Denisse; Tamaya-Domínguez, Beatriz; Gomez-Fuentes, Sandra; Trejo-García, Abel; Melo-Salas, Marlene; Cárdenas, Graciela; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Juan; Adalid-Peralta, Laura

    2016-01-01

    T regulatory cells play a key role in the control of the immune response, both in health and during illness. While the mechanisms through which T regulatory cells exert their function have been extensively described, their molecular effects on effector cells have received little attention. Thus, this revision is aimed at summarizing our current knowledge on those regulation mechanisms on the target cells from a molecular perspective. PMID:27298831

  12. A Regulatory Feedback between Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells and Regulatory B Cells Is Aberrant in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Madhvi; Blair, Paul A.; Isenberg, David A.; Mauri, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Summary Signals controlling the generation of regulatory B (Breg) cells remain ill-defined. Here we report an “auto”-regulatory feedback mechanism between plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and Breg cells. In healthy individuals, pDCs drive the differentiation of CD19+CD24hiCD38hi (immature) B cells into IL-10-producing CD24+CD38hi Breg cells and plasmablasts, via the release of IFN-α and CD40 engagement. CD24+CD38hi Breg cells conversely restrained IFN-α production by pDCs via IL-10 release. In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), this cross-talk was compromised; pDCs promoted plasmablast differentiation but failed to induce Breg cells. This defect was recapitulated in healthy B cells upon exposure to a high concentration of IFN-α. Defective pDC-mediated expansion of CD24+CD38hi Breg cell numbers in SLE was associated with altered STAT1 and STAT3 activation. Both altered pDC-CD24+CD38hi Breg cell interactions and STAT1-STAT3 activation were normalized in SLE patients responding to rituximab. We propose that alteration in pDC-CD24+CD38hi Breg cell interaction contributes to the pathogenesis of SLE. PMID:26968426

  13. 3D Chromosome Regulatory Landscape of Human Pluripotent Cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiong; Dadon, Daniel B; Powell, Benjamin E; Fan, Zi Peng; Borges-Rivera, Diego; Shachar, Sigal; Weintraub, Abraham S; Hnisz, Denes; Pegoraro, Gianluca; Lee, Tong Ihn; Misteli, Tom; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Young, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we describe the 3D chromosome regulatory landscape of human naive and primed embryonic stem cells. To devise this map, we identified transcriptional enhancers and insulators in these cells and placed them within the context of cohesin-associated CTCF-CTCF loops using cohesin ChIA-PET data. The CTCF-CTCF loops we identified form a chromosomal framework of insulated neighborhoods, which in turn form topologically associating domains (TADs) that are largely preserved during the transition between the naive and primed states. Regulatory changes in enhancer-promoter interactions occur within insulated neighborhoods during cell state transition. The CTCF anchor regions we identified are conserved across species, influence gene expression, and are a frequent site of mutations in cancer cells, underscoring their functional importance in cellular regulation. These 3D regulatory maps of human pluripotent cells therefore provide a foundation for future interrogation of the relationships between chromosome structure and gene control in development and disease. PMID:26686465

  14. Single-cell chromatin accessibility reveals principles of regulatory variation

    PubMed Central

    Buenrostro, Jason D.; Wu, Beijing; Litzenburger, Ulrike M.; Ruff, Dave; Gonzales, Michael L.; Snyder, Michael P.; Chang, Howard Y.; Greenleaf, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Cell-to-cell variation is a universal feature of life that impacts a wide range of biological phenomena, from developmental plasticity1,2 to tumor heterogeneity3. While recent advances have improved our ability to document cellular phenotypic variation4–8 the fundamental mechanisms that generate variability from identical DNA sequences remain elusive. Here we reveal the landscape and principles of cellular DNA regulatory variation by developing a robust method for mapping the accessible genome of individual cells via assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq). Single-cell ATAC-seq (scATAC-seq) maps from hundreds of single-cells in aggregate closely resemble accessibility profiles from tens of millions of cells and provides insights into cell-to-cell variation. Accessibility variance is systematically associated with specific trans-factors and cis-elements, and we discover combinations of trans-factors associated with either induction or suppression of cell-to-cell variability. We further identify sets of trans-factors associated with cell-type specific accessibility variance across 8 cell types. Targeted perturbations of cell cycle or transcription factor signaling evoke stimulus-specific changes in this observed variability. The pattern of accessibility variation in cis across the genome recapitulates chromosome topological domains9 de novo, linking single-cell accessibility variation to three-dimensional genome organization. All together, single-cell analysis of DNA accessibility provides new insight into cellular variation of the “regulome.” PMID:26083756

  15. Single-cell chromatin accessibility reveals principles of regulatory variation.

    PubMed

    Buenrostro, Jason D; Wu, Beijing; Litzenburger, Ulrike M; Ruff, Dave; Gonzales, Michael L; Snyder, Michael P; Chang, Howard Y; Greenleaf, William J

    2015-07-23

    Cell-to-cell variation is a universal feature of life that affects a wide range of biological phenomena, from developmental plasticity to tumour heterogeneity. Although recent advances have improved our ability to document cellular phenotypic variation, the fundamental mechanisms that generate variability from identical DNA sequences remain elusive. Here we reveal the landscape and principles of mammalian DNA regulatory variation by developing a robust method for mapping the accessible genome of individual cells by assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq) integrated into a programmable microfluidics platform. Single-cell ATAC-seq (scATAC-seq) maps from hundreds of single cells in aggregate closely resemble accessibility profiles from tens of millions of cells and provide insights into cell-to-cell variation. Accessibility variance is systematically associated with specific trans-factors and cis-elements, and we discover combinations of trans-factors associated with either induction or suppression of cell-to-cell variability. We further identify sets of trans-factors associated with cell-type-specific accessibility variance across eight cell types. Targeted perturbations of cell cycle or transcription factor signalling evoke stimulus-specific changes in this observed variability. The pattern of accessibility variation in cis across the genome recapitulates chromosome compartments de novo, linking single-cell accessibility variation to three-dimensional genome organization. Single-cell analysis of DNA accessibility provides new insight into cellular variation of the 'regulome'.

  16. An overview of stem cell research and regulatory issues.

    PubMed

    Cogle, Christopher R; Guthrie, Steven M; Sanders, Ronald C; Allen, William L; Scott, Edward W; Petersen, Bryon E

    2003-08-01

    Stem cells are noted for their ability to self-renew and differentiate into a variety of cell types. Some stem cells, described as totipotent cells, have tremendous capacity to self-renew and differentiate. Embryonic stem cells have pluripotent capacity, able to form tissues of all 3 germ layers but unable to form an entire live being. Research with embryonic stem cells has enabled investigators to make substantial gains in developmental biology, therapeutic tissue engineering, and reproductive cloning. However, with these remarkable opportunities many ethical challenges arise, which are largely based on concerns for safety, efficacy, resource allocation, and methods of harvesting stem cells. Discussing the moral and legal status of the human embryo is critical to the debate on stem cell ethics. Religious perspectives and political events leading to regulation of stem cell research are presented and discussed, with special attention directed toward the use of embryonic stem cells for therapeutic and reproductive cloning. Adult stem cells were previously thought to have a restricted capacity to differentiate; however, several reports have described their plasticity potential. Furthermore, there have been close ties between the behavior of stem cells and cancer cells. True eradication of cancer will require a deeper understanding of stem cell biology. This article was written to inform medical scientists and practicing clinicians across the spectrum of medical education about the research and regulatory issues affecting the future of stem cell therapy.

  17. Class IA PI3Kinase Regulatory Subunit, p85α, Mediates Mast Cell Development through Regulation of Growth and Survival Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Subha; Mali, Raghuveer Singh; Koehler, Karl R.; Vemula, Sasidhar; Chatterjee, Anindya; Ghosh, Joydeep; Ramdas, Baskar; Ma, Peilin; Hashino, Eri; Kapur, Reuben

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) mediated KIT receptor activation plays a pivotal role in mast cell growth, maturation and survival. However, the signaling events downstream from KIT are poorly understood. Mast cells express multiple regulatory subunits of class 1A PI3Kinase (PI3K) including p85α, p85β, p50α, and p55α. While it is known that PI3K plays an essential role in mast cells; the precise mechanism by which these regulatory subunits impact specific mast cell functions including growth, survival and cycling are not known. We show that loss of p85α impairs the growth, survival and cycling of mast cell progenitors (MCp). To delineate the molecular mechanism (s) by which p85α regulates mast cell growth, survival and cycling, we performed microarray analyses to compare the gene expression profile of MCps derived from WT and p85α-deficient mice in response to SCF stimulation. We identified 151 unique genes exhibiting altered expression in p85α-deficient cells in response to SCF stimulation compared to WT cells. Functional categorization based on DAVID bioinformatics tool and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software relates the altered genes due to lack of p85α to transcription, cell cycle, cell survival, cell adhesion, cell differentiation, and signal transduction. Our results suggest that p85α is involved in mast cell development through regulation of expression of growth, survival and cell cycle related genes. PMID:22238586

  18. Induction of Human Regulatory T Cells with Bacterial Superantigens.

    PubMed

    Caserta, Stefano; Taylor, Amanda L; Terrazzini, Nadia; Llewelyn, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) that suppress the activation of immune effector cells limit immunopathology and are fast emerging as therapeutic targets for autoimmune and cancer disease. Tools enabling Treg in vitro-induction, expansion, and characterization and manipulation will help future clinical developments. In this chapter, we describe in detail how to use bacterial superantigens to induce human Tregs efficiently from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. How to assess human Treg phenotype and suppressive capacity are also described. Technical details, variations, and alternative experimental conditions are provided.

  19. Regulatory non-coding RNAs in pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Alessandro; Brivanlou, Ali H

    2013-01-01

    The most part of our genome encodes for RNA transcripts are never translated into proteins. These include families of RNA molecules with a regulatory function, which can be arbitrarily subdivided in short (less than 200 nucleotides) and long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). MicroRNAs, which act post-transcriptionally to repress the function of target mRNAs, belong to the first group. Included in the second group are multi-exonic and polyadenylated long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), localized either in the nucleus, where they can associate with chromatin remodeling complexes to regulate transcription, or in the cytoplasm, acting as post-transcriptional regulators. Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), represent useful systems for modeling normal development and human diseases, as well as promising tools for regenerative medicine. To fully explore their potential, however, a deep understanding of the molecular basis of stemness is crucial. In recent years, increasing evidence of the importance of regulation by ncRNAs in pluripotent cells is accumulating. In this review, we will discuss recent findings pointing to multiple roles played by regulatory ncRNAs in ESC and iPSCs, where they act in concert with signaling pathways, transcriptional regulatory circuitries and epigenetic factors to modulate the balance between pluripotency and differentiation.

  20. Ptpn22 Modifies Regulatory T Cell Homeostasis via GITR Upregulation.

    PubMed

    Nowakowska, Dominika J; Kissler, Stephan

    2016-03-01

    PTPN22 gene variation associates with multiple autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis. Loss of function studies have demonstrated that PTPN22 impinges on the homeostatic behavior of regulatory T (Treg) cells, a lineage critical for immune tolerance. The frequency and absolute number of Treg cells is increased in Ptpn22-deficient mice, but the mechanism driving this increase is unknown. In this study, we show that Ptpn22 knockdown (KD) promoted the expansion of the Treg cell compartment by upregulating the glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family-related protein (GITR) and increasing GITR signaling. Ptpn22 KD did not accelerate cell division but instead prolonged Treg cell survival, as measured by a decrease in the frequency of apoptotic Treg cells. Loss of Ptpn22 caused a concomitant increase in the proportion of CD44(hi)CD62L(lo) effector Treg cells, at the expense of CD44(lo)CD62L(hi) central Treg cells. The increase in Treg cell numbers, but not their differentiation toward an effector phenotype, was dependent on GITR signaling, because blockade of GITR ligand prevented Treg cell expansion caused by Ptpn22 KD. These findings indicate that GITR plays a key role in regulating the overall size of the Treg cell pool. Our results suggest that the size and composition of the Treg cell compartment are independently controlled and have implications for the design of immunotherapies that seek to improve Treg cell function. PMID:26810223

  1. Specificity of regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells for self-T cell receptor determinants.

    PubMed

    Buenafe, Abigail C; Tsaknaridis, Laura; Spencer, Leslie; Hicks, Kevin S; McMahan, Rachel H; Watson, Lisa; Culbertson, Nicole E; Latocha, Dorian; Wegmann, Keith; Finn, Tom; Bartholomew, Richard; Burrows, Gregory G; Whitham, Ruth; Bourdette, Dennis N; Jones, Richard E; Offner, Halina; Chou, Yuan K; Vandenbark, Arthur A

    2004-04-01

    Although the phenotypic and regulatory properties of the CD4(+)CD25(+) T cell lineage (Treg cells) have been well described, the specificities remain largely unknown. We demonstrate here that the CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg population includes the recognition of a broad spectrum of human TCR CDR2 determinants found in the germline V gene repertoire as well as that of a clonotypic nongermline-encoded CDR3beta sequence present in a recombinant soluble T cell receptor (TCR) protein. Regulatory activity was demonstrated in T cell lines responsive to TCR but not in T cell lines responsive to control antigens. Inhibitory activity of TCR-reactive T cells required cell-cell contact and involved CTLA-4, GITR, IL-10, and IL-17. Thus, the T-T regulatory network includes Treg cells with specificity directed toward self-TCR determinants.

  2. Harnessing FOXP3+ regulatory T cells for transplantation tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Waldmann, Herman; Hilbrands, Robert; Howie, Duncan; Cobbold, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Early demonstrations that mice could be tolerized to transplanted tissues with short courses of immunosuppressive therapy and that with regard to tolerance to self, CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) appeared to play a critical role, have catalyzed strategies to harness FOXP3-dependent processes to control rejection in human transplantation. This review seeks to examine the scientific underpinning for this new approach to finesse immunosuppression. PMID:24691478

  3. T Cell Receptor Signaling in the Control of Regulatory T Cell Differentiation and Function

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming O.; Rudensky, Alexander Y.

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (TReg cells), a specialized T cell lineage, have a pivotal function in the control of self-tolerance and inflammatory responses. Recent studies have revealed a discrete mode of TCR signaling that regulates Treg cell differentiation, maintenance and function and that impacts on gene expression, metabolism, cell adhesion and migration of these cells. Here, we discuss the emerging understanding of TCR-guided differentiation of Treg cells in the context of their function in health and disease. PMID:27026074

  4. Epigenetic and transcriptional control of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Huehn, Jochen; Beyer, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) present a unique T-cell lineage that plays a key role for the initiation and maintenance of immunological tolerance. Treg cells are characterized by the expression of the forkhead box transcription factor Foxp3, which acts as a lineage-specifying factor and determines the unique properties of these immunosuppressive cells. Work over the past few years has shown that well-defined and precisely controlled events on transcriptional and epigenetic level are required to ensure stable expression of Foxp3 in Treg cells. More recent work suggested that in addition to stable Foxp3 expression, epigenetic modifications of Treg-cell specific genes contribute to the unique phenotype of Treg cells by imprinting their transcriptional program and stabilizing the expression of molecules being essential for the suppressive properties of Treg cells. In this review, we will highlight how Foxp3 expression itself is epigenetically and transcriptionally controlled, how the Treg-cell specific epigenetic signature is achieved, how Foxp3 as transcription factor influences the gene expression programs in Treg cells and how unique properties of Treg-cell subsets are defined by other transcription factors.

  5. Regulatory T Cell Dysfunction Acquiesces to BTLA+ Regulatory B Cells Subsequent to Oral Intervention in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Huarte, Eduardo; Jun, SangMu; Rynda-Apple, Agnieszka; Golden, Sara; Jackiw, Larissa; Hoffman, Carol; Maddaloni, Massimo; Pascual, David W

    2016-06-15

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) induced during autoimmunity often become quiescent and unable to resolve disease, suggesting inadequate activation. Resolution of established experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) can be achieved with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) fused to reovirus protein σ1 (MOG-pσ1), which activates Tregs, restoring protection, but requiring other regulatory cells to revitalize them. B cells have a dichotomous role in both the pathogenesis and recovery from EAE. Although inflammatory B cells contribute to EAE's pathogenesis, treatment of EAE mice with MOG-pσ1, but not OVA-pσ1, resulted in an influx of IL-10-producing B220(+)CD5(+) B regulatory cells (Bregs) enabling Tregs to recover their inhibitory activity, and in turn, leading to the rapid amelioration of EAE. These findings implicate direct interactions between Bregs and Tregs to facilitate this recovery. Adoptive transfer of B220(+)CD5(-) B cells from MOG-pσ1-treated EAE or Bregs from PBS-treated EAE mice did not resolve disease, whereas the adoptive transfer of MOG-pσ1-induced B220(+)CD5(+) Bregs greatly ameliorated EAE. MOG-pσ1-, but not OVA-pσ1-induced IL-10-producing Bregs, expressed elevated levels of B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) relative to CD5(-) B cells, as opposed to Tregs or effector T (Teff) cells, whose BTLA expression was not affected. These induced Bregs restored EAE Treg function in a BTLA-dependent manner. BTLA(-/-) mice showed more pronounced EAE with fewer Tregs, but upon adoptive transfer of MOG-pσ1-induced BTLA(+) Bregs, BTLA(-/-) mice were protected against EAE. Hence, this evidence shows the importance of BTLA in activating Tregs to facilitate recovery from EAE. PMID:27194787

  6. An Arabidopsis Gene Regulatory Network for Secondary Cell Wall Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Teeples, M; Lin, L; de Lucas, M; Turco, G; Toal, TW; Gaudinier, A; Young, NF; Trabucco, GM; Veling, MT; Lamothe, R; Handakumbura, PP; Xiong, G; Wang, C; Corwin, J; Tsoukalas, A; Zhang, L; Ware, D; Pauly, M; Kliebenstein, DJ; Dehesh, K; Tagkopoulos, I; Breton, G; Pruneda-Paz, JL; Ahnert, SE; Kay, SA; Hazen, SP; Brady, SM

    2014-01-01

    Summary The plant cell wall is an important factor for determining cell shape, function and response to the environment. Secondary cell walls, such as those found in xylem, are composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin and account for the bulk of plant biomass. The coordination between transcriptional regulation of synthesis for each polymer is complex and vital to cell function. A regulatory hierarchy of developmental switches has been proposed, although the full complement of regulators remains unknown. Here, we present a protein-DNA network between Arabidopsis transcription factors and secondary cell wall metabolic genes with gene expression regulated by a series of feed-forward loops. This model allowed us to develop and validate new hypotheses about secondary wall gene regulation under abiotic stress. Distinct stresses are able to perturb targeted genes to potentially promote functional adaptation. These interactions will serve as a foundation for understanding the regulation of a complex, integral plant component. PMID:25533953

  7. Mesenchymal stromal cells and immunomodulation: A gathering of regulatory immune cells.

    PubMed

    Najar, Mehdi; Raicevic, Gordana; Fayyad-Kazan, Hussein; Bron, Dominique; Toungouz, Michel; Lagneaux, Laurence

    2016-02-01

    Because of their well-recognized immunomodulatory properties, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) represent an attractive cell population for therapeutic purposes. In particular, there is growing interest in the use of MSCs as cellular immunotherapeutics for tolerance induction in allogeneic transplantations and the treatment of autoimmune diseases. However, multiple mechanisms have been identified to mediate the immunomodulatory effects of MSCs, sometimes with several ambiguities and inconsistencies. Although published studies have mainly reported the role of soluble factors, we believe that a sizeable cellular component plays a critical role in MSC immunomodulation. We refer to these cells as regulatory immune cells, which are generated from both the innate and adaptive responses after co-culture with MSCs. In this review, we discuss the nature and role of these immune regulatory cells as well as the role of different mediators, and, in particular, regulatory immune cell induction by MSCs through interleukin-10. Once induced, immune regulatory cells accumulate and converge their regulatory pathways to create a tolerogenic environment conducive for immunomodulation. Thus, a better understanding of these regulatory immune cells, in terms of how they can be optimally manipulated and induced, would be suitable for improving MSC-based immunomodulatory therapeutic strategies.

  8. Role of Metabolism in the Immunobiology of Regulatory T Cells.

    PubMed

    Galgani, Mario; De Rosa, Veronica; La Cava, Antonio; Matarese, Giuseppe

    2016-10-01

    Intracellular metabolism is central to cell activity and function. CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) that express the transcription factor FOXP3 play a pivotal role in the maintenance of immune tolerance to self. Recent studies showed that the metabolism and function of Tregs are influenced significantly by local environmental conditions and the availability of certain metabolites. It also was reported that defined metabolic programs associate with Treg differentiation, expression of FOXP3, and phenotype stabilization. This article reviews how metabolism modulates FOXP3 expression and Treg function, what environmental factors are involved, and how metabolic manipulation could alter Treg frequency and function in physiopathologic conditions. PMID:27638939

  9. Diverse Gene Expression in Human Regulatory T Cell Subsets Uncovers Connection between Regulatory T Cell Genes and Suppressive Function.

    PubMed

    Hua, Jing; Davis, Scott P; Hill, Jonathan A; Yamagata, Tetsuya

    2015-10-15

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells have a critical role in the control of immunity, and their diverse subpopulations may allow adaptation to different types of immune responses. In this study, we analyzed human Treg cell subpopulations in the peripheral blood by performing genome-wide expression profiling of 40 Treg cell subsets from healthy donors. We found that the human peripheral blood Treg cell population is comprised of five major genomic subgroups, represented by 16 tractable subsets with a particular cell surface phenotype. These subsets possess a range of suppressive function and cytokine secretion and can exert a genomic footprint on target effector T (Teff) cells. Correlation analysis of variability in gene expression in the subsets identified several cell surface molecules associated with Treg suppressive function, and pharmacological interrogation revealed a set of genes having causative effect. The five genomic subgroups of Treg cells imposed a preserved pattern of gene expression on Teff cells, with a varying degree of genes being suppressed or induced. Notably, there was a cluster of genes induced by Treg cells that bolstered an autoinhibitory effect in Teff cells, and this induction appears to be governed by a different set of genes than ones involved in counteracting Teff activation. Our work shows an example of exploiting the diversity within human Treg cell subpopulations to dissect Treg cell biology. PMID:26371251

  10. CNS accumulation of regulatory B cells is VLA-4-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann-Horn, Klaus; Sagan, Sharon A.; Winger, Ryan C.; Spencer, Collin M.; Bernard, Claude C.A.; Sobel, Raymond A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of very late antigen-4 (VLA-4) on regulatory B cells (Breg) in CNS autoimmune disease. Methods: Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in mice selectively deficient for VLA-4 on B cells (CD19cre/α4f/f) by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide (p)35–55 or recombinant human (rh) MOG protein. B-cell and T-cell populations were examined by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Breg were evaluated by intracellular IL-10 staining of B cells and, secondly, by coexpression of CD1d and CD5. Results: As previously reported, EAE was less severe in B-cell VLA-4-deficient vs control CD19cre mice when induced by rhMOG, a model that is B-cell-dependent and leads to efficient B-cell activation and antibody production. Paradoxically, B-cell VLA-4-deficient mice developed more severe clinical disease than control mice when EAE was induced with MOG p35-55, a B-cell-independent encephalitogen that does not efficiently activate B cells. Peripheral T-cell and humoral immune responses were not altered in B-cell VLA-4-deficient mice. In MOG p35-55-induced EAE, B-cell VLA-4 deficiency reduced CNS accumulation of B but not T cells. Breg were detected in the CNS of control mice with MOG p35-55-induced EAE. However, more severe EAE in B-cell VLA-4-deficient mice was associated with virtual absence of CNS Breg. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that CNS accumulation of Breg is VLA-4-dependent and suggest that Breg may contribute to regulation of CNS autoimmunity in situ. These observations underscore the need to choose the appropriate encephalitogen when studying how B cells contribute to pathogenesis or regulation of CNS autoimmunity. PMID:27027096

  11. Helios Controls a Limited Subset of Regulatory T Cell Functions.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Mathew; Lopez-Ocasio, Maria; Metidji, Amina; Rieder, Sadiye Amcaoglu; Shevach, Ethan M; Thornton, Angela M

    2016-01-01

    A subpopulation (60-70%) of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) in both mouse and man expresses the transcription factor Helios, but its role in Treg function is still unknown. We generated Treg-specific Helios-deficient mice to examine the function of Helios in Tregs. We show that the selective deletion of Helios in Tregs leads to slow, progressive systemic immune activation, hypergammaglobulinemia, and enhanced germinal center formation in the absence of organ-specific autoimmunity. Helios-deficient Treg suppressor function was normal in vitro, as well as in an in vivo inflammatory bowel disease model. However, Helios-deficient Tregs failed to control the expansion of pathogenic T cells derived from scurfy mice, failed to mediate T follicular regulatory cell function, and failed to control both T follicular helper cell and Th1 effector cell responses. In competitive settings, Helios-deficient Tregs, particularly effector Tregs, were at a disadvantage, indicating that Helios regulates effector Treg fitness. Thus, we demonstrate that Helios controls certain aspects of Treg-suppressive function, differentiation, and survival. PMID:26582951

  12. Regulatory T cells in atherosclerosis: critical immune regulatory function and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Spitz, Charlotte; Winkels, Holger; Bürger, Christina; Weber, Christian; Lutgens, Esther; Hansson, Göran K; Gerdes, Norbert

    2016-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is mediated by innate and adaptive immune responses. The disease is characterized by sub-endothelial accumulation and modification of lipids in the artery wall triggering an inflammatory reaction which promotes lesion progression and eventual plaque rupture, thrombus formation, and the respective clinical sequelae such as myocardial infarction or stroke. During the past decade, T-cell-mediated immune responses, especially control of pro-inflammatory signals by regulatory T cells (Tregs), have increasingly attracted the interest of experimental and clinical researchers. By suppression of T cell proliferation and secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β, Tregs exert their atheroprotective properties. Atherosclerosis-prone, hyperlipidemic mice harbor systemically less Tregs compared to wild-type mice, suggesting an imbalance of immune cells which affects local and systemic inflammatory and potentially metabolic processes leading to atherogenesis. Restoring or increasing Treg frequency and enhancing their suppressive capacity by various modulations may pose a promising approach for treating inflammatory conditions such as cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we briefly summarize the immunological basics of atherosclerosis and introduce the role and contribution of different subsets of T cells. We then discuss experimental data and current knowledge pertaining to Tregs in atherosclerosis and perspectives on manipulating the adaptive immune system to alleviate atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.

  13. Closing the regulatory regress: GMP accreditation in stem cell laboratories.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Neil; Lewis, Jamie; Atkinson, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Contemporary biomedical research is conducted amidst regimes of national and transnational regulation. Regulation, like rules generally, cannot specify all the practicalities of their application. Regulations for biomedical research impose considerable constraints on laboratories and others. In principle, there is a never-ending regress whereby scientists have to provide increasingly more guarantees that protocols have been followed, standards reached and maintained, and rules adhered to. In practice, regulatory regress is not the actual outcome, as actors find ways of establishing closure for all practical purposes. Based on ethnographic case studies of two sites of biomedical work--the UK Stem Cell Bank and an anonymous laboratory working with primary human foetal material--this article documents the possibility of regulatory regress and strategies aimed at its closure.

  14. Immunomodulation by mesenchymal stem cells: Interplay between mesenchymal stem cells and regulatory lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Oscar Ka-Fai; Chan, Koon Ho

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess immunomodulatory properties, which confer enormous potential for clinical application. Considerable evidence revealed their efficacy on various animal models of autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus and uveitis. MSCs elicit their immunomodulatory effects by inhibiting lymphocyte activation and proliferation, forbidding the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, limiting the function of antigen presenting cells, and inducing regulatory T (Treg) and B (Breg) cells. The induction of Treg and Breg cells is of particular interest since Treg and Breg cells have significant roles in maintaining immune tolerance. Several mechanisms have been proposed regarding to the MSCs-mediated induction of Treg and Breg cells. Accordingly, MSCs induce regulatory lymphocytes through secretion of multiple pleiotropic cytokines, cell-to-cell contact with target cells and modulation of antigen-presenting cells. Here, we summarized how MSCs induce Treg and Breg cells to provoke immunosuppression. PMID:27679683

  15. Immunomodulation by mesenchymal stem cells: Interplay between mesenchymal stem cells and regulatory lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Oscar Ka-Fai; Chan, Koon Ho

    2016-09-26

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess immunomodulatory properties, which confer enormous potential for clinical application. Considerable evidence revealed their efficacy on various animal models of autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus and uveitis. MSCs elicit their immunomodulatory effects by inhibiting lymphocyte activation and proliferation, forbidding the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, limiting the function of antigen presenting cells, and inducing regulatory T (Treg) and B (Breg) cells. The induction of Treg and Breg cells is of particular interest since Treg and Breg cells have significant roles in maintaining immune tolerance. Several mechanisms have been proposed regarding to the MSCs-mediated induction of Treg and Breg cells. Accordingly, MSCs induce regulatory lymphocytes through secretion of multiple pleiotropic cytokines, cell-to-cell contact with target cells and modulation of antigen-presenting cells. Here, we summarized how MSCs induce Treg and Breg cells to provoke immunosuppression. PMID:27679683

  16. Immunomodulation by mesenchymal stem cells: Interplay between mesenchymal stem cells and regulatory lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Oscar Ka-Fai; Chan, Koon Ho

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess immunomodulatory properties, which confer enormous potential for clinical application. Considerable evidence revealed their efficacy on various animal models of autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus and uveitis. MSCs elicit their immunomodulatory effects by inhibiting lymphocyte activation and proliferation, forbidding the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, limiting the function of antigen presenting cells, and inducing regulatory T (Treg) and B (Breg) cells. The induction of Treg and Breg cells is of particular interest since Treg and Breg cells have significant roles in maintaining immune tolerance. Several mechanisms have been proposed regarding to the MSCs-mediated induction of Treg and Breg cells. Accordingly, MSCs induce regulatory lymphocytes through secretion of multiple pleiotropic cytokines, cell-to-cell contact with target cells and modulation of antigen-presenting cells. Here, we summarized how MSCs induce Treg and Breg cells to provoke immunosuppression.

  17. Regulatory roles for NKT cell ligands in environmentally induced autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Vas, Jaya; Mattner, Jochen; Richardson, Stewart; Ndonye, Rachel; Gaughan, John P; Howell, Amy; Monestier, Marc

    2008-11-15

    The development of autoimmune diseases is frequently linked to exposure to environmental factors such as chemicals, drugs, or infections. In the experimental model of metal-induced autoimmunity, administration of subtoxic doses of mercury (a common environmental pollutant) to genetically susceptible mice induces an autoimmune syndrome with rapid anti-nucleolar Ab production and immune system activation. Regulatory components of the innate immune system such as NKT cells and TLRs can also modulate the autoimmune process. We examined the interplay among environmental chemicals and NKT cells in the regulation of autoimmunity. Additionally, we studied NKT and TLR ligands in a tolerance model in which preadministration of a low dose of mercury in the steady state renders animals tolerant to metal-induced autoimmunity. We also studied the effect of Sphingomonas capsulata, a bacterial strain that carries both NKT cell and TLR ligands, on metal-induced autoimmunity. Overall, NKT cell activation by synthetic ligands enhanced the manifestations of metal-induced autoimmunity. Exposure to S. capsulata exacerbated autoimmunity elicited by mercury. Although the synthetic NKT cell ligands that we used are reportedly similar in their ability to activate NKT cells, they displayed pronounced differences when coinjected with environmental agents or TLR ligands. Individual NKT ligands differed in their ability to prevent or break tolerance induced by low-dose mercury treatment. Likewise, different NKT ligands either dramatically potentiated or inhibited the ability of TLR9 agonistic oligonucleotides to disrupt tolerance to mercury. Our data suggest that these differences could be mediated by the modification of cytokine profiles and regulatory T cell numbers.

  18. SHARPIN controls the development of regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Redecke, Vanessa; Chaturvedi, Vandana; Kuriakose, Jeeba; Häcker, Hans

    2016-06-01

    SHARPIN is an essential component of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) complex that controls signalling pathways of various receptors, including the tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR), Toll-like receptor (TLR) and antigen receptor, in part by synthesis of linear, non-degrading ubiquitin chains. Consistent with SHARPIN's function in different receptor pathways, the phenotype of SHARPIN-deficient mice is complex, including the development of inflammatory systemic and skin diseases, the latter of which depend on TNFR signal transduction. Given the established function of SHARPIN in primary and malignant B cells, we hypothesized that SHARPIN might also regulate T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling and thereby control T-cell biology. Here, we focus primarily on the role of SHARPIN in T cells, specifically regulatory T (Treg) cells. We found that SHARPIN-deficient (Sharpin(cpdm/cpdm) ) mice have significantly reduced numbers of FOXP3(+) Treg cells in lymphoid organs and the peripheral blood. Competitive reconstitution of irradiated mice with mixed bone marrow from wild-type and SHARPIN-deficient mice revealed an overall reduced thymus population with SHARPIN-deficient cells with almost complete loss of thymic Treg development. Consistent with this cell-intrinsic function of SHARPIN in Treg development, TCR stimulation of SHARPIN-deficient thymocytes revealed reduced activation of nuclear factor-κB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, establishing a function of SHARPIN in TCR signalling, which may explain the defective Treg development. In turn, in vitro generation and suppressive activity of mature SHARPIN-deficient Treg cells were comparable to wild-type cells, suggesting that maturation, but not function, of SHARPIN-deficient Treg cells is impaired. Taken together, these findings show that SHARPIN controls TCR signalling and is required for efficient generation of Treg cells in vivo, whereas the inhibitory function of mature Treg cells appears to be

  19. Lymph node trafficking of regulatory T cells is prerequisite for immune suppression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Miao-Tzu; Lin, Been-Ren; Liu, Wei-Liang; Lu, Chun-Wei; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2016-04-01

    Regulatory T cells have a crucial role in health and disease because of their immune regulation function. However, the anatomic sites where regulatory T cells exert optimal immune regulation are open to debate. In our current study with the use of a shear-stress flow assay, we found that regulatory T cells exhibited significantly decreased adhesion to either activated endothelial monolayer or intercellular adhesion molecule 1 or E-selectin-coated surfaces compared with activated effector T cells. The less transmigration capacity of the regulatory T cells prompted our speculation of preferential lymph node localization for the regulatory T cells that endowed these cells with immune regulation function in the most efficient manner. To test this hypothesis, the role of lymph node localization in regulatory T cell-mediated immune suppression was evaluated with a footpad inflammation model. We found that adoptively transferred regulatory T cells inhibited the development of footpad inflammation. In addition, although blockage of CCR7 or CD62L had no effect on the immune suppressive function of the regulatory T cells per se, pretreatment of the regulatory T cells with either CCR7 or CD62L blocking antibodies prevented their recruitment into draining lymph nodes and concomitantly abrogated the immune suppressive effects of adoptively transferred regulatory T cells during footpad inflammation. Our data demonstrate the crucial role of lymph node localization in regulatory T cell-mediated immune suppression and suggest a probable hierarchy in the anatomic sites for optimal immune regulation. Elucidating the relationships between the transmigration characteristics of the regulatory T cells and their immune regulation function will provide insightful information for regulatory T cell-based cell therapy. PMID:26543091

  20. Lymph node trafficking of regulatory T cells is prerequisite for immune suppression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Miao-Tzu; Lin, Been-Ren; Liu, Wei-Liang; Lu, Chun-Wei; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2016-04-01

    Regulatory T cells have a crucial role in health and disease because of their immune regulation function. However, the anatomic sites where regulatory T cells exert optimal immune regulation are open to debate. In our current study with the use of a shear-stress flow assay, we found that regulatory T cells exhibited significantly decreased adhesion to either activated endothelial monolayer or intercellular adhesion molecule 1 or E-selectin-coated surfaces compared with activated effector T cells. The less transmigration capacity of the regulatory T cells prompted our speculation of preferential lymph node localization for the regulatory T cells that endowed these cells with immune regulation function in the most efficient manner. To test this hypothesis, the role of lymph node localization in regulatory T cell-mediated immune suppression was evaluated with a footpad inflammation model. We found that adoptively transferred regulatory T cells inhibited the development of footpad inflammation. In addition, although blockage of CCR7 or CD62L had no effect on the immune suppressive function of the regulatory T cells per se, pretreatment of the regulatory T cells with either CCR7 or CD62L blocking antibodies prevented their recruitment into draining lymph nodes and concomitantly abrogated the immune suppressive effects of adoptively transferred regulatory T cells during footpad inflammation. Our data demonstrate the crucial role of lymph node localization in regulatory T cell-mediated immune suppression and suggest a probable hierarchy in the anatomic sites for optimal immune regulation. Elucidating the relationships between the transmigration characteristics of the regulatory T cells and their immune regulation function will provide insightful information for regulatory T cell-based cell therapy.

  1. Shaping of the autoreactive regulatory T cell repertoire by thymic cortical positive selection

    PubMed Central

    Ribot, Julie; Enault, Geneviève; Pilipenko, Sylvie; Huchenq, Anne; Calise, Maryline; Hudrisier, Denis; Romagnoli, Paola; van Meerwijk, Joost PM

    2007-01-01

    The main function of regulatory T lymphocytes is to keep autoimmune responses at bay. Accordingly, it has been firmly established that the repertoire of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells is enriched in autospecific cells. Differences in thymic positive and/or negative selection may account for selection of the qualitatively distinct regulatory and conventional T cell repertoires. It has previously been shown that precursors for regulatory T cells are less sensitive to negative selection than conventional T cell-precursors. Studies with TCR/ligand doubly transgenic mice suggested that agonist ligand might induce positive selection of regulatory (but not conventional) T cells. However, massive deletion of conventional (but not regulatory) T cell precursors observed in these mice renders interpretation of such data problematic and a potential role for positive selection in generation of the autospecific regulatory T cell-repertoire has remained therefore incompletely understood. To study this important unresolved issue and circumvent use of TCR/ligand transgenic mice, we have developed transgenic mice expressing a single MHC class II/peptide ligand on positively selecting thymic cortical epithelial cells. We found that functional regulatory (but not conventional) T cells specific for the single ligand were preferentially selected from the naturally diverse repertoire of immature precursors. Our data therefore demonstrate that thymic cortical positive selection of regulatory and conventional T cell precursors is governed by distinct rules and that it plays an important role in shaping the autoreactive regulatory T cell repertoire. PMID:17982064

  2. Regulatory T cells inhibit CD34+ cell differentiation into NK cells by blocking their proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Pedroza-Pacheco, Isabela; Shah, Divya; Domogala, Anna; Luevano, Martha; Blundell, Michael; Jackson, Nicola; Thrasher, Adrian; Madrigal, Alejandro; Saudemont, Aurore

    2016-01-01

    Graft versus Host Disease (GvHD) remains one of the main complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Due to their ability to suppress effector cells, regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been proposed as a cellular therapy to prevent GvHD, however they also inhibit the functions of natural killer (NK) cells, key effectors of the Graft versus Leukemia effect. In this study, we have explored whether a Tregs therapy will also impact on NK cell differentiation. Using an in vitro model of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) differentiation into NK cells, we found that activated Tregs led to a 90% reduction in NK cell numbers when added at the time of commitment to the NK cell lineage. This effect was contact dependent and was reversible upon Tregs depletion. The few NK cells that developed in these cultures were mature and exhibited normal functions. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of activated Tregs in rag-/- γc-/- mice abrogated HSC differentiation into NK cells thus confirming our in vitro findings. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that activated Tregs can inhibit NK cell differentiation from HSC under specific conditions. PMID:26915707

  3. Disrupted regulatory T cell homeostasis in inflammatory bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pedros, Christophe; Duguet, Fanny; Saoudi, Abdelhadi; Chabod, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    In the gut, where billions of non-self-antigens from the food and the microbiota are present, the immune response must be tightly regulated to ensure both host protection against pathogenic microorganisms and the absence of immune-related pathologies. It has been well documented that regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a pivotal role in this context. Indeed, Tregs are able to prevent excessive inflammation, which can lead to the rupture of intestinal homeostasis observed in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Both the worldwide incidence and prevalence of such diseases have increased throughout the latter part of the 20th century. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how Tregs suppress the colitogenic immune cells to establish new treatments for patients suffering from IBDs. In this review, we will first summarize the results obtained in animal model studies that highlight the importance of Tregs in maintaining intestinal homeostasis and describe the specific suppressive mechanisms involved. Next, our current knowledge about Tregs contribution to human IBDs will be reviewed, as well as the current therapeutic perspective on using Tregs for clinical IBD treatment and the challenges that remain to be resolved to ensure both the safety and effectiveness of these therapies in targeting this critical immune-regulatory cell population. PMID:26811641

  4. Prospective Clinical Testing of Regulatory Dendritic Cells in Organ Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Angus W.; Zahorchak, Alan F.; Ezzelarab, Mohamed B.; Butterfield, Lisa H.; Lakkis, Fadi G.; Metes, Diana M.

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are rare, professional antigen-presenting cells with ability to induce or regulate alloimmune responses. Regulatory DC (DCreg) with potential to down-modulate acute and chronic inflammatory conditions that occur in organ transplantation can be generated in vitro under a variety of conditions. Here, we provide a rationale for evaluation of DCreg therapy in clinical organ transplantation with the goal of promoting sustained, donor-specific hyporesponsiveness, while lowering the incidence and severity of rejection and reducing patients’ dependence on anti-rejection drugs. Generation of donor- or recipient-derived DCreg that suppress T cell responses and prolong transplant survival in rodents or non-human primates has been well-described. Recently, good manufacturing practice (GMP)-grade DCreg have been produced at our Institution for prospective use in human organ transplantation. We briefly review experience of regulatory immune therapy in organ transplantation and describe our experience generating and characterizing human monocyte-derived DCreg. We propose a phase I/II safety study in which the influence of donor-derived DCreg combined with conventional immunosuppression on subclinical and clinical rejection and host alloimmune responses will be examined in detail. PMID:26858719

  5. Foxo transcription factors control regulatory T cell development and function

    PubMed Central

    Kerdiles, Yann M.; Stone, Erica L.; Beisner, Daniel L.; McGargill, Maureen A.; Ch'en, Irene L.; Stockmann, Christian; Katayama, Carol D.; Hedrick, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Foxo transcription factors integrate extrinsic signals to regulate cell division, differentiation and survival, and specific functions of lymphoid and myeloid cells. Here we showed the absence of Foxo1 severely curtailed the development of Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, and those that developed were nonfunctional in vivo. The loss of function included diminished CTLA-4 receptor expression as the Ctla4 gene was a direct target of Foxo1. T cell specific loss of Foxo1 resulted in exocrine pancreatitis, hind limb paralysis, multi-organ lymphocyte infiltration, anti-nuclear antibodies and expanded germinal centers. Foxo-mediated control over Treg cell specification was further revealed by the inability of TGF-β cytokine to suppress T-bet transcription factor in the absence of Foxo1, resulting in IFN-γ-secretion. In addition the absence of Foxo3 exacerbated the effects of the loss of Foxo1. Thus, Foxo transcription factors guide the contingencies of T cell differentiation and specific functions of effector cell populations. PMID:21167754

  6. Regulatory T cells and dendritic cells in transplantation tolerance: molecular markers and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cobbold, Stephen P; Nolan, Kathleen F; Graca, Luis; Castejon, Raquel; Le Moine, Alain; Frewin, Mark; Humm, Susan; Adams, Elizabeth; Thompson, Sara; Zelenika, Diana; Paterson, Alison; Yates, Stephen; Fairchild, Paul J; Waldmann, Herman

    2003-12-01

    Transplantation tolerance can be induced in adult rodents using monoclonal antibodies against coreceptor or costimulation molecules on the surface of T cells. There are currently two well-characterized populations of T cells, demonstrating regulatory capacity: the "natural" CD4+CD25+ T cells and the interleukin (IL)-10-producing Tr1 cells. Although both types of regulatory T cells can induce transplantation tolerance under appropriate conditions, it is not clear whether either one plays any role in drug-induced dominant tolerance, primarily due to a lack of clear-cut molecular or functional markers. Similarly, although dendritic cells (DCs) can be pharmacologically manipulated to promote tolerance, the phenotype of such populations remains poorly defined. We have used serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) with 29 different T-cell and antigen-presenting cell libraries to identify gene-expression signatures associated with immune regulation. We found that independently derived, regulatory Tr1-like clones were highly concordant in their patterns of gene expression but were quite distinct from CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells from the spleen. DCs that were treated with the tolerance-enhancing agents IL-10 or vitamin D3 expressed a gene signature reflecting a functional specification in common with the most immature DCs derived from embryonic stem cells. PMID:14617201

  7. Regulatory T cell-based therapies for autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Arellano, Benjamine; Graber, David J; Sentman, Charles L

    2016-08-01

    Autoimmune disorders are long-term diseases that adversely affect the quality of life for patients, and they are one of the top ten leading causes of death. While each autoimmune disorder is unique, they all are caused by a breakdown of tolerance against endogenous proteins. This leads to auto-inflammatory events that promote the destruction of organs in a humoral and cellular immune mediated manner. Treatment options for autoimmunity can involve the use of chemical and biologic agents that suppress inflammation. While these treatment options for patients have shown to be beneficial in autoimmunity, they can result in patients being vulnerable to opportunistic infections. Newer therapies aim to identify methods to specifically block auto-inflammatory immune cells while allowing for an intact immune response to other antigens. T regulatory (Treg) cells are a subtype of the adoptive immune cell that is capable of suppressing inflammatory events in an antigen-specific manner, but they are often poorly functioning within autoimmune patients. Treg cells have been well characterized for their immune modulating capabilities and preclinical and early clinical studies support their therapeutic potential for antigen-specific immune suppression. This review will examine the current understanding of Treg cell function and the therapeutic potential of enhancing Treg cells in patients with inflammatory disorders. PMID:27585233

  8. Regulatory T cells and the immune pathogenesis of prenatal infection.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Jared H; Ertelt, James M; Xin, Lijun; Way, Sing Sing

    2013-12-01

    Pregnancy in placental mammals offers exceptional comprehensive benefits of in utero protection, nutrition, and metabolic waste elimination for the developing fetus. However, these benefits also require durable strategies to mitigate maternal rejection of fetal tissues expressing foreign paternal antigens. Since the initial postulate of expanded maternal immune tolerance by Sir Peter Medawar 60 years ago, an amazingly elaborate assortment of molecular and cellular modifications acting both locally at the maternal-placental interface and systemically have been shown to silence potentially detrimental maternal immune responses. In turn, simultaneously maintaining host defense against the infinite array of potential pathogens during pregnancy is equally important. Fortunately, resistance against most infections is preserved seamlessly throughout gestation. On the other hand, recent studies on pathogens with unique predisposition for prenatal infections have uncovered distinctive holes in host defense associated with the reproductive process. Using these infections to probe the response during pregnancy, the immune suppressive regulatory subset of maternal CD4 T cells has been increasingly shown to dictate the inter-workings between prenatal infection susceptibility and pathogenesis of ensuing pregnancy complications. Herein, the recent literature suggesting a necessity for maternal regulatory T cells (Tregs) in pregnancy-induced immunological shifts that sustain fetal tolerance is reviewed. Additional discussion is focused on how expansion of maternal Treg suppression may become exploited by pathogens that cause prenatal infections and the perilous potential of infection-induced immune activation that may mitigate fetal tolerance and inadvertently inject hostility into the protective in utero environment.

  9. Localization of general and regulatory proteolysis in Bacillus subtilis cells.

    PubMed

    Kirstein, Janine; Strahl, Henrik; Molière, Noël; Hamoen, Leendert W; Turgay, Kürşad

    2008-11-01

    Protein degradation mediated by ATP-dependent proteases, such as Hsp100/Clp and related AAA+ proteins, plays an important role in cellular protein homeostasis, protein quality control and the regulation of, e.g. heat shock adaptation and other cellular differentiation processes. ClpCP with its adaptor proteins and other related proteases, such as ClpXP or ClpEP of Bacillus subtilis, are involved in general and regulatory proteolysis. To determine if proteolysis occurs at specific locations in B. subtilis cells, we analysed the subcellular distribution of the Clp system together with adaptor and general and regulatory substrate proteins, under different environmental conditions. We can demonstrate that the ATPase and the proteolytic subunit of the Clp proteases, as well as the adaptor or substrate proteins, form visible foci, representing active protease clusters localized to the polar and to the mid-cell region. These clusters could represent a compartmentalized place for protein degradation positioned at the pole close to where most of the cellular protein biosynthesis and also protein quality control are taking place, thereby spatially separating protein synthesis and degradation.

  10. T Follicular Helper Cells and Regulatory B Cells Dynamics in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yiwei; Xue, Yu; Xuan, Dandan; Zheng, Shucong; Zou, Hejian

    2014-01-01

    T follicular helper (Tfh) cells aid effector B cells, and augment autoimmunity, whereas the role of Tfh cells on regulatory B (Breg) cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is not known. The aim of this study is to investigate the percentage of Breg cells in SLE, and the role of Tfh cells on Breg cells. First, we demonstrated the presence of Breg cells in SLE peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in involved skins. Both the percentage of circulating Breg cells and the ability to produce interleukin-10 (IL-10) were elevated in SLE patients. The percentage of Breg cells increased during SLE flares and decreased following disease remission. Second, Tfh cell expansion was not only related to autoantibody production but also correlated with the increased percentage of Breg cells. Third, in vitro studies revealed that Tfh cell-derived IL-21 could promote IL-10 production and Breg cell differentiation. In conclusions, these data imply that SLE flares may be linked to the expansion of Tfh cells and that Breg cells are increased in a regulatory feedback manner. Thus, SLE development may be associated with the complex regulation of Tfh cells and diverse B cell subsets. PMID:24551101

  11. Special regulatory T cell review: The suppression problem!

    PubMed Central

    Waldmann, Herman

    2008-01-01

    The concept of T-cell mediated suppression evolved more than 30 years ago. At that time it spawned many claims that have not stood the test of time. The rediscovery of suppression phenomena and regulatory T cells over the past 15 years created schizophrenic responses amongst immunologists. Some claimed that the new proponents of suppression were, once again, bringing immunology into disrepute, whilst others have embraced the field with great enthusiasm and novel approaches to clarification. Without faithful repetition of the “old” experiments, it is difficult to establish what was right and what was wrong. Nevertheless, immunologists must now accept that a good number of the old claims were overstated, and reflected poor scientific discipline. “I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke, But here I am to speak what I do know” Shakespeare. Julius Caesar Act 3, Scene 2. PMID:18154612

  12. Regulatory T cells in vitiligo: Implications for pathogenesis and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Mitesh; Kemp, E Helen; Laddha, Naresh C; Mansuri, Mohmmad Shoab; Weetman, Anthony P; Begum, Rasheedunnisa

    2015-01-01

    Vitiligo is a hypomelanotic autoimmune skin disease arising from a breakdown in immunological self-tolerance, which leads to aberrant immune responses against melanocytes. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are crucial to the development of self-tolerance and so are major foci in the study of autoimmune pathogenesis of vitiligo. This review will summarise recent findings concerning the role of Tregs in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. In addition, as antigen-specific Tregs are a potential route for the reinstatement of immune tolerance, new strategies that expand or induce de novo generation of Tregs and which are currently being investigated as therapies for other autoimmune diseases, will be discussed. These approaches will highlight the opportunities for Treg cell-based therapeutics in vitiligo.

  13. Rapid regulatory control of plant cell expansion and wall relaxation

    SciTech Connect

    Cosgrove, D.J.

    1991-08-14

    The aim of this project is to elucidate the biophysical and cellular mechanisms that control plant cell expansion. At present we are attempting to characterize the kinetics of the system(s) responsible for regulatory and compensatory behavior of growing cells and tissues. This work is significantly because it indicates that biochemical loosening and biophysical stress relaxation of the wall are part of a feedback loop controlling growth. This report briefly summarizes the efforts and results of the past 12 months. In large part, we have been trying to analyze the nature of growth rate noise,'' i.e. spontaneous and often erratic variations in growth rate. We are obtaining evidence that such noise'' is not random, but rather reveals an underlying growth mechanism with complex dynamics.

  14. Regulatory T Cells Are Dispensable for Tolerance to RBC Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Amanda L.; Kapp, Linda M.; Wang, Xiaohong; Howie, Heather L.; Hudson, Krystalyn E.

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) occurs when pathogenic autoantibodies against red blood cell (RBC) antigens are generated. While the basic disease pathology of AIHA is well studied, the underlying mechanism(s) behind the failure in tolerance to RBC autoantigens are poorly understood. Thus, to investigate the tolerance mechanisms required for the establishment and maintenance of tolerance to RBC antigens, we developed a novel murine model. With this model, we evaluated the role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in tolerance to RBC-specific antigens. Herein, we show that neither sustained depletion of Tregs nor immunization with RBC-specific proteins in conjunction with Treg depletion led to RBC-specific autoantibody generation. Thus, these studies demonstrate that Tregs are not required to prevent autoantibodies to RBCs and suggest that other tolerance mechanisms are likely involved.

  15. Regulatory T Cells Are Dispensable for Tolerance to RBC Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Amanda L.; Kapp, Linda M.; Wang, Xiaohong; Howie, Heather L.; Hudson, Krystalyn E.

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) occurs when pathogenic autoantibodies against red blood cell (RBC) antigens are generated. While the basic disease pathology of AIHA is well studied, the underlying mechanism(s) behind the failure in tolerance to RBC autoantigens are poorly understood. Thus, to investigate the tolerance mechanisms required for the establishment and maintenance of tolerance to RBC antigens, we developed a novel murine model. With this model, we evaluated the role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in tolerance to RBC-specific antigens. Herein, we show that neither sustained depletion of Tregs nor immunization with RBC-specific proteins in conjunction with Treg depletion led to RBC-specific autoantibody generation. Thus, these studies demonstrate that Tregs are not required to prevent autoantibodies to RBCs and suggest that other tolerance mechanisms are likely involved. PMID:27698653

  16. Special regulatory T cell review: The suppression problem!

    PubMed

    Waldmann, Herman

    2008-01-01

    The concept of T-cell mediated suppression evolved more than 30 years ago. At that time it spawned many claims that have not stood the test of time. The rediscovery of suppression phenomena and regulatory T cells over the past 15 years created schizophrenic responses amongst immunologists. Some claimed that the new proponents of suppression were, once again, bringing immunology into disrepute, whilst others have embraced the field with great enthusiasm and novel approaches to clarification. Without faithful repetition of the "old" experiments, it is difficult to establish what was right and what was wrong. Nevertheless, immunologists must now accept that a good number of the old claims were overstated, and reflected poor scientific discipline. "I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke, But here I am to speak what I do know" Shakespeare. Julius Caesar Act 3, Scene 2. PMID:18154612

  17. Non-cell-autonomous effects of vector-expressed regulatory RNAs in mammalian heart cells.

    PubMed

    Kizana, E; Cingolani, E; Marbán, E

    2009-09-01

    In mammalian cells, small regulatory RNA molecules are able to modulate gene expression in a cell-autonomous manner. In contrast, this mechanism of gene regulation can occur systemically in plants and nematodes. The existence of similar cell-to-cell transmission in mammalian cells has been explored, but generalizibilty and mechanistic insights have remained elusive. Here, we show that small regulatory RNA molecules are capable of a non-cell-autonomous effect between primary cardiac myocytes through a gap-junction-dependent mechanism. Co-culture experiments showed that both Dicer-processed small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and Drosha-processed microRNAs (miRNAs) were capable of target gene knockdown and physiological effects in a non-cell-autonomous manner. Target gene siRNA molecules were detected in recipient cells, indicating transfer of the primary effector molecule. All of these effects were abrogated by dominant-negative molecular suppression of gap junction function. Our results show that both siRNAs and miRNAs are capable of a non-cell-autonomous effect between mammalian cells through gap junctions. The recognition of this biological process raises the novel therapeutic prospect of a bystander effect after gene transfer to tissues bearing gap junctions and for cell engineering with a view to creating regulatory RNA donor cells that exert their influence throughout a syncytium. PMID:19516277

  18. Purification and stability characterization of a cell regulatory sialoglycopeptide inhibitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moos, P. J.; Fattaey, H. K.; Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Previous attempts to physically separate the cell cycle inhibitory and protease activities in preparations of a purified cell regulatory sialoglycopeptide (CeReS) inhibitor were largely unsuccessful. Gradient elution of the inhibitor preparation from a DEAE HPLC column separated the cell growth inhibitor from the protease, and the two activities have been shown to be distinct and non-overlapping. The additional purification increased the specific biological activity of the CeReS preparation by approximately two-fold. The major inhibitory fraction that eluted from the DEAE column was further analyzed by tricine-SDS-PAGE and microbore reverse phase HPLC and shown to be homogeneous in nature. Two other fractions separated by DEAE HPLC, also devoid of protease activity, were shown to be inhibitory to cell proliferation and most likely represented modified relatives of the CeReS inhibitor. The highly purified CeReS was chemically characterized for amino acid and carbohydrate composition and the role of the carbohydrate in cell proliferation inhibition, stability, and protease resistance was assessed.

  19. Tregalizumab – A Monoclonal Antibody to Target Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    König, Martin; Rharbaoui, Faiza; Aigner, Silke; Dälken, Benjamin; Schüttrumpf, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) represent a subpopulation of CD4+ T cells, which are essential for the maintenance of immunological tolerance. The absence or dysfunction of Tregs can lead to autoimmunity and allergies. The restoration of functional Tregs and/or Treg cell numbers represents a novel and attractive approach for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, e.g., rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The CD4 cell surface receptor is a target for modulation of T cell function. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against CD4 have previously been tested for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, including RA. Furthermore, in model systems, anti-CD4 antibodies are able to induce tolerance and mediate immunomodulatory effects through a variety of mechanisms. Despite the availability of innovative and effective therapies for RA, many patients still have persistently active disease or experience adverse events that can limit use. A growing body of evidence suggests that Treg modulation could offer a new therapeutic strategy in RA and other autoimmune disorders. Here, we describe tregalizumab (BT-061), which is a novel, non-depleting IgG1 mAb that binds to a unique epitope of CD4. Tregalizumab represents the first humanized anti-CD4 mAb that selectively induces Treg activation. PMID:26834751

  20. Type 1 diabetes immunotherapy using polyclonal regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Bluestone, Jeffrey A; Buckner, Jane H; Fitch, Mark; Gitelman, Stephen E; Gupta, Shipra; Hellerstein, Marc K; Herold, Kevan C; Lares, Angela; Lee, Michael R; Li, Kelvin; Liu, Weihong; Long, S Alice; Masiello, Lisa M; Nguyen, Vinh; Putnam, Amy L; Rieck, Mary; Sayre, Peter H; Tang, Qizhi

    2015-11-25

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that occurs in genetically susceptible individuals. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been shown to be defective in the autoimmune disease setting. Thus, efforts to repair or replace Tregs in T1D may reverse autoimmunity and protect the remaining insulin-producing β cells. On the basis of this premise, a robust technique has been developed to isolate and expand Tregs from patients with T1D. The expanded Tregs retained their T cell receptor diversity and demonstrated enhanced functional activity. We report on a phase 1 trial to assess safety of Treg adoptive immunotherapy in T1D. Fourteen adult subjects with T1D, in four dosing cohorts, received ex vivo-expanded autologous CD4(+)CD127(lo/-)CD25(+) polyclonal Tregs (0.05 × 10(8) to 26 × 10(8) cells). A subset of the adoptively transferred Tregs was long-lived, with up to 25% of the peak level remaining in the circulation at 1 year after transfer. Immune studies showed transient increases in Tregs in recipients and retained a broad Treg FOXP3(+)CD4(+)CD25(hi)CD127(lo) phenotype long-term. There were no infusion reactions or cell therapy-related high-grade adverse events. C-peptide levels persisted out to 2+ years after transfer in several individuals. These results support the development of a phase 2 trial to test efficacy of the Treg therapy. PMID:26606968

  1. Adoptive Immunotherapy using Regulatory T cells and Virus-specific T cells Derived from Cord Blood

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Patrick J.; Bollard, Catherine M.; Brunstein, Claudio G

    2014-01-01

    Cord blood transplantation, an alternative to traditional stem cell transplants (bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation), is an attractive option for patients lacking suitable stem cell transplant donors. Cord blood units have also proven to be a valuable donor source for the development of cellular therapeutics. Virus-specific T cells and regulatory T cells are two cord blood derived products that have shown promise in early phase clinical trials to prevent and/or treat viral infections and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), respectively. Here we describe how current strategies utilizing cord blood-derived regulatory T cells and virus-specific T cells have been developed to improve outcomes for cord blood transplant recipients. PMID:25632003

  2. First Insight into the Kinome of Human Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    König, Sebastian; Probst-Kepper, Michael; Reinl, Tobias; Jeron, Andreas; Huehn, Jochen; Schraven, Burkhart; Jänsch, Lothar

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential for controlling peripheral tolerance by the active suppression of various immune cells including conventional T effector cells (Teffs). Downstream of the T cell receptor (TCR), more than 500 protein kinases encoded by the human genome have to be considered in signaling cascades regulating the activation of Tregs and Teffs, respectively. Following TCR engagement, Tregs posses a number of unique attributes, such as constitutive expression of Foxp3, hyporesponsiveness and poor cytokine production. Furthermore, recent studies showed that altered regulation of protein kinases is important for Treg function. These data indicate that signaling pathways in Tregs are distinctly organized and alterations at the level of protein kinases contribute to the unique Treg phenotype. However, kinase-based signaling networks in Tregs are poorly understood and necessitate further systematic characterization. In this study, we analyzed the differential expression of kinases in Tregs and Teffs by using a kinase-selective proteome strategy. In total, we revealed quantitative information on 185 kinases expressed in the human CD4+ T cell subsets. The majority of kinases was equally abundant in both T cell subsets, but 11 kinases were differentially expressed in Tregs. Most strikingly, Tregs showed an altered expression of cell cycle kinases including CDK6. Quantitative proteomics generates first comparative insight into the kinase complements of the CD4+ Teff and Treg subset. Treg-specific expression pattern of 11 protein kinases substantiate the current opinion that TCR-mediated signaling cascades are altered in Tregs and further suggests that Tregs exhibit significant specificities in cell-cycle control and progression. PMID:22815858

  3. Regulatory dendritic cells: there is more than just immune activation

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Susanne V.; Nino-Castro, Andrea C.; Schultze, Joachim L.

    2012-01-01

    The immune system exists in a delicate equilibrium between inflammatory responses and tolerance. This unique feature allows the immune system to recognize and respond to potential threats in a controlled but normally limited fashion thereby preventing a destructive overreaction against healthy tissues. While the adaptive immune system was the major research focus concerning activation vs. tolerance in the immune system more recent findings suggest that cells of the innate immune system are important players in the decision between effective immunity and induction of tolerance or immune inhibition. Among immune cells of the innate immune system dendritic cells (DCs) have a special function linking innate immune functions with the induction of adaptive immunity. DCs are the primary professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) initiating adaptive immune responses. They belong to the hematopoietic system and arise from CD34+ stem cells in the bone marrow. Particularly in the murine system two major subgroups of DCs, namely myeloid DCs (mDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) can be distinguished. DCs are important mediators of innate and adaptive immunity mostly due to their remarkable capacity to present processed antigens via major histocompatibility complexes (MHC) to T cells and B cells in secondary lymphoid organs. A large body of literature has been accumulated during the last two decades describing which role DCs play during activation of T cell responses but also during the establishment and maintenance of central tolerance (Steinman et al., 2003). While the concept of peripheral tolerance has been clearly established during the last years, the role of different sets of DCs and their particular molecular mechanisms of immune deviation has not yet fully been appreciated. In this review we summarize accumulating evidence about the role of regulatory DCs in situations where the balance between tolerance and immunogenicity has been altered leading to pathologic

  4. Regulatory issues in cell-based therapy for clinical purposes.

    PubMed

    Casaroli-Marano, Ricardo P; Tabera, Jaime; Vilarrodona, Anna; Trias, Esteve

    2014-01-01

    Rapid development in the fields of cellular and molecular biology, biotechnology, and bioengineering medicine has brought new, highly innovative treatments and medicinal products, some of which contain viable cells and tissues associated with scaffolds and devices. These new cell-based therapy approaches in regenerative medicine have great potential for use in the treatment of a number of diseases that at present cannot be managed effectively. Given the unique challenges associated with the development of human cell-based medicinal products, great care is required in the development of procedures, practices, and regulation. In cell therapy, appropriate methodologies in the areas of production, reproducibility, maintenance, and delivery are essential for accurate definition and reliable assurance of the suitability and quality of the final products. Recently, the official European Community agencies (EMA) and the relevant authority in the USA (FDA) have made significant efforts to establish regulatory guidance for use in the application of the cell-based therapies for human patients. The guidelines surrounding cell-based therapy take into account the current legislation, but focus less on the heterogeneity and requirements of individual human cell-based products, including specific combination products and applications. When considering guidelines and regulation, a risk assessment approach is an effective method of identifying priority areas for the development of human cell-based medicinal products. Additionally, effective design and thorough validation of the manufacturing process in line with existing Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) and quality control regimes and a program that ensures the traceability and biovigilance of the final products are also all essential elements to consider. PMID:24732772

  5. A rapid diagnostic test for human regulatory T-cell function to enable regulatory T-cell therapy

    PubMed Central

    Canavan, James B.; Afzali, Behdad; Scottà, Cristiano; Fazekasova, Henrieta; Edozie, Francis C.; Macdonald, Thomas T.; Hernandez-Fuentes, Maria P.; Lombardi, Giovanna; Lord, Graham M.

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25hiCD127lo-FOXP3+ T cells [Tregs]) are a population of lymphocytes involved in the maintenance of self-tolerance. Abnormalities in function or number of Tregs are a feature of autoimmune diseases in humans. The ability to expand functional Tregs ex vivo makes them ideal candidates for autologous cell therapy to treat human autoimmune diseases and to induce tolerance to transplants. Current tests of Treg function typically take up to 120 hours, a kinetic disadvantage as clinical trials of Tregs will be critically dependent on the availability of rapid diagnostic tests before infusion into humans. Here we evaluate a 7-hour flow cytometric assay for assessing Treg function, using suppression of the activation markers CD69 and CD154 on responder T cells (CD4+CD25− [Tresp]), compared with traditional assays involving inhibition of CFSE dilution and cytokine production. In both freshly isolated and ex vivo expanded Tregs, we describe excellent correlation with gold standard suppressor cell assays. We propose that the kinetic advantage of the new assay may place it as the preferred rapid diagnostic test for the evaluation of Treg function in forthcoming clinical trials of cell therapy, enabling the translation of the large body of preclinical data into potentially useful treatments for human diseases. PMID:22219224

  6. Increased Expression of Regulatory T Cells and Down-Regulatory Molecules in Lepromatous Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Maria L.; Pagliari, Carla; Trindade, Maria Angela B.; Yamashitafuji, Tania M.; Duarte, Alberto José S.; Cacere, Camila R.; Benard, Gil

    2012-01-01

    T regulatory cells (Tregs) play an important role in the mechanism of host's failure to control pathogen dissemination in severe forms of different chronic granulomatous diseases, but their role in leprosy has not yet been elucidated; 28 newly diagnosed patients (16 patients with lepromatous leprosy and 12 patients with tuberculoid leprosy) and 6 healthy Mycobacterium leprae-exposed individuals (contacts) were studied. Tregs were quantified by flow cytometry (CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated in vitro with a M. leprae antigenic preparation and phytohemagglutinin as well as in skin lesions by immunohistochemistry. The lymphoproliferative (LPR), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) responses of the in vitro-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the in situ expression of IL-10, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) were also determined. We show that M. leprae antigens induced significantly lower LPR but significantly higher Treg numbers in lepromatous than tuberculoid patients and contacts. Mitogen-induced LPR and Treg frequencies were not significantly different among the three groups. Tregs were also more frequent in situ in lepromatous patients, and this finding was paralleled by increased expression of the antiinflammatory molecules IL-10 and CTLA-4 but not TGF-β. In lepromatous patients, Tregs were intermingled with vacuolized hystiocyte infiltrates all over the lesion, whereas in tuberculoid patients, Tregs were rare. Our results suggest that Tregs are present in increased numbers, and they may have a pathogenic role in leprosy patients harboring uncontrolled bacillary multiplication but not in those individuals capable of limiting M. leprae growth. PMID:22556091

  7. Increased expression of regulatory T cells and down-regulatory molecules in lepromatous leprosy.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Maria L; Pagliari, Carla; Trindade, Maria Angela B; Yamashitafuji, Tania M; Duarte, Alberto José S; Cacere, Camila R; Benard, Gil

    2012-05-01

    T regulatory cells (Tregs) play an important role in the mechanism of host's failure to control pathogen dissemination in severe forms of different chronic granulomatous diseases, but their role in leprosy has not yet been elucidated; 28 newly diagnosed patients (16 patients with lepromatous leprosy and 12 patients with tuberculoid leprosy) and 6 healthy Mycobacterium leprae-exposed individuals (contacts) were studied. Tregs were quantified by flow cytometry (CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated in vitro with a M. leprae antigenic preparation and phytohemagglutinin as well as in skin lesions by immunohistochemistry. The lymphoproliferative (LPR), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) responses of the in vitro-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the in situ expression of IL-10, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) were also determined. We show that M. leprae antigens induced significantly lower LPR but significantly higher Treg numbers in lepromatous than tuberculoid patients and contacts. Mitogen-induced LPR and Treg frequencies were not significantly different among the three groups. Tregs were also more frequent in situ in lepromatous patients, and this finding was paralleled by increased expression of the antiinflammatory molecules IL-10 and CTLA-4 but not TGF-β. In lepromatous patients, Tregs were intermingled with vacuolized hystiocyte infiltrates all over the lesion, whereas in tuberculoid patients, Tregs were rare. Our results suggest that Tregs are present in increased numbers, and they may have a pathogenic role in leprosy patients harboring uncontrolled bacillary multiplication but not in those individuals capable of limiting M. leprae growth. PMID:22556091

  8. Regulatory immune cells in regulation of intestinal inflammatory response to microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Y; Liu, Z

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal lumen harbors nearly 100 trillion commensal bacteria that exert crucial function for health. An elaborate balance between immune responses and tolerance to intestinal microbiota is required to maintain intestinal homeostasis. This process depends on diverse regulatory mechanisms, including both innate and adaptive immunity. Dysregulation of the homeostasis between intestinal immune systems and microbiota has been shown to be associated with the development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in genetically susceptible populations. In this review, we discuss the recent progress reported in studies of distinct types of regulatory immune cells in the gut, including intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes, Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, regulatory B cells, alternatively activated macrophages, dendritic cells, and innate lymphoid cells, and how dysfunction of this immune regulatory system contributes to intestinal diseases such as IBD. Moreover, we discuss the manipulation of these regulatory immune cells as a potential therapeutic method for management of intestinal inflammatory disorders. PMID:26080708

  9. MicroRNAs targeting TGFβ signalling underlie the regulatory T cell defect in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Severin, Mary E; Lee, Priscilla W; Liu, Yue; Selhorst, Amanda J; Gormley, Matthew G; Pei, Wei; Yang, Yuhong; Guerau-de-Arellano, Mireia; Racke, Michael K; Lovett-Racke, Amy E

    2016-06-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signalling is critical for regulatory T cell development and function, and regulatory T cell dysregulation is a common observation in autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis. In a comprehensive miRNA profiling study of patients with multiple sclerosis naïve CD4 T cells, 19 differentially expressed miRNAs predicted to target the TGFβ signalling pathway were identified, leading to the hypothesis that miRNAs may be responsible for the regulatory T cell defect observed in patients with multiple sclerosis. Patients with multiple sclerosis had reduced levels of TGFβ signalling components in their naïve CD4 T cells. The differentially expressed miRNAs negatively regulated the TGFβ pathway, resulting in a reduced capacity of naïve CD4 T cells to differentiate into regulatory T cells. Interestingly, the limited number of regulatory T cells, that did develop when these TGFβ-targeting miRNAs were overexpressed, were capable of suppressing effector T cells. As it has previously been demonstrated that compromising TGFβ signalling results in a reduced regulatory T cell repertoire insufficient to control autoimmunity, and patients with multiple sclerosis have a reduced regulatory T cell repertoire, these data indicate that the elevated expression of multiple TGFβ-targeting miRNAs in naïve CD4 T cells of patients with multiple sclerosis impairs TGFβ signalling, and dampens regulatory T cell development, thereby enhancing susceptibility to developing multiple sclerosis.

  10. VIP contribution to the decidualization program: regulatory T cell recruitment.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Esteban; Paparini, Daniel; Agüero, Mariana; Mor, Gil; Pérez Leirós, Claudia; Ramhorst, Rosanna

    2014-04-01

    During early pregnancy, the human uterus undergoes profound tissue remodeling characterized by leukocyte invasion and production of proinflammatory cytokines, followed by tissue repair and tolerance maintenance induction. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is produced by trophoblast cells and modulates the maternal immune response toward a tolerogenic profile. Here, we evaluated the contribution of the VIP/VPAC to endometrial renewal, inducing decidualization and the recruitment of induced regulatory T cells (iTregs) that accompany the implantation period. For that purpose, we used an in vitro model of decidualization with a human endometrial stromal cell line (HESC) stimulated with progesterone (P4) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) simulating the inflammatory response during implantation and human iTregs (CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+)) differentiated from naïve T cells obtained from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of fertile women. We observed that VIP and its receptor VPAC1 are constitutively expressed in HESCs and that P4 increased VIP expression. Moreover, in HESC VIP induced expression of RANTES (CCL5), one of the main chemokines involved in T cell recruitment, and this effect is enhanced by the presence of P4 and LPS. Finally, assays of the migration of iTregs toward conditioned media from HESCs revealed that endogenous VIP production induced by P4 and LPS and RANTES production were involved, as anti-RANTES neutralizing Ab or VIP antagonist prevented their migration. We conclude that VIP may have an active role in the decidualization process, thus contributing to recruitment of iTregs toward endometrial stromal cells by increasing RANTES expression in a P4-dependent manner. PMID:24492467

  11. Immune privilege induced by regulatory T cells in transplantation tolerance.

    PubMed

    Cobbold, Stephen P; Adams, Elizabeth; Graca, Luis; Daley, Stephen; Yates, Stephen; Paterson, Alison; Robertson, Nathan J; Nolan, Kathleen F; Fairchild, Paul J; Waldmann, Herman

    2006-10-01

    Immune privilege was originally believed to be associated with particular organs, such as the testes, brain, the anterior chamber of the eye, and the placenta, which need to be protected from any excessive inflammatory activity. It is now becoming clear, however, that immune privilege can be acquired locally in many different tissues in response to inflammation, but particularly due to the action of regulatory T cells (Tregs) induced by the deliberate therapeutic manipulation of the immune system toward tolerance. In this review, we consider the interplay between Tregs, dendritic cells, and the graft itself and the resulting local protective mechanisms that are coordinated to maintain the tolerant state. We discuss how both anti-inflammatory cytokines and negative costimulatory interactions can elicit a number of interrelated mechanisms to regulate both T-cell and antigen-presenting cell activity, for example, by catabolism of the amino acids tryptophan and arginine and the induction of hemoxygenase and carbon monoxide. The induction of local immune privilege has implications for the design of therapeutic regimens and the monitoring of the tolerant status of patients being weaned off immunosuppression. PMID:16972908

  12. Phenotypical characterization of regulatory T cells in humans and rodents.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Perea, A L; Arcia, E D; Rueda, C M; Velilla, P A

    2016-09-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs ) constitute a fascinating subpopulation of CD4(+) T cells due to their ability to limit the immune response against self and non-self antigens. Murine models and antibodies directed against surface and intracellular molecules have allowed elucidation of the mechanisms that govern their development and function. However, these markers used to their classification lack of specificity, as they can be expressed by activated T cells. Similarly, there are slight differences between animal models, in steady state and pathological conditions, anatomical localization and strategy of analysis by flow cytometry. Here, we revised the most common markers utilized for Treg typification by flow cytometry such as CD25, forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3) and CD127, along with our data obtained in different body compartments of humans, mice and rats. Furthermore, we revised and determined the expression of other molecules important for the phenotypical characterization of Treg cells. We draw attention to the drawbacks of those markers used in chronic states of inflammation. However, until a specific marker for the identification of Tregs is discovered, the best combination of markers will depend upon the tissue or the degree of inflammation from which Tregs derive. PMID:27124481

  13. Clinical perspectives for regulatory T cells in transplantation tolerance.

    PubMed

    Hippen, Keli L; Riley, James L; June, Carl H; Blazar, Bruce R

    2011-12-01

    Three main types of CD4+ regulatory T cells can be distinguished based upon whether they express Foxp3 and differentiate naturally in the thymus (natural Tregs) or are induced in the periphery (inducible Tregs); or whether they are FoxP3 negative but secrete IL-10 in response to antigen (Tregulatory type 1, Tr1 cells). Adoptive transfer of each cell type has proven highly effective in mouse models at preventing graft vs. host disease (GVHD) and autoimmunity. Although clinical application was initially hampered by low Treg frequency and unfavorable ex vivo expansion properties, several phase I trials are now being conducted to assess their effect on GVHD following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and in type I diabetes. Human Treg trials for HSCT recipients have preceded other indications because GVHD onset is precisely known, the time period needed for prevention relatively short, initial efficacy is likely to provide life-long protection, and complications of GVHD can be lethal. This review will summarize the clinical trials conducted to date that have employed Tregs to prevent GVHD following HSCT and discuss recent advances in Treg cellular therapy. PMID:21820917

  14. Autoimmunity: regulatory B cells--IL-35 and IL-21 regulate the regulators.

    PubMed

    Tedder, Thomas F; Leonard, Warren J

    2014-08-01

    IL-21 regulates the activity and number of IL-10-producing regulatory B cells (B10 cells) that modulate immune responses and limit diverse autoimmune diseases. A new study demonstrates that IL-35 has a similar function. Identifying regulatory circuits that control B10-cell function in vivo might open the door to future treatments for autoimmune diseases.

  15. A limited role for regulatory T cells in post-ischemic neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Hellingman, A A; van der Vlugt, L E P M; Lijkwan, M A; Bastiaansen, A J N M; Sparwasser, T; Smits, H H; Hamming, J F; Quax, P H A

    2012-02-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated that arteriogenesis is enhanced in mice deficient in regulatory T cells (CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) T cell), which can suppress effector T cell responses. The present study investigates the effects of these regulatory T cells on arteriogenesis in more detail by either specific expanding or depleting regulatory T cells. Hind limb ischemia was induced by electro-coagulation of the femoral artery in mice. Regulatory T cells were either expanded by injecting mice with a complex of interleukin (IL)-2 with the IL-2 monoclonal antibody JES6-1, or depleted by anti-CD25 antibody or diphtheria toxin injections in DEREG mice (depletion of regulatory T cells). Blood flow restoration was monitored using laser Doppler perfusion imaging. Collateral arteries were visualized by immunohistochemistry. Regulatory T cell expansion led to a moderate though significant suppression of blood flow restoration after ischemia induction. Surprisingly, depletion of regulatory T cells resulted in minor increase on blood flow recovery. However, collateral and capillary densities in the post-ischemic skeletal muscle were significantly increased in DEREG mice depleted for regulatory T cells. The presence of regulatory T cells after ischemia induction when analysed in non-depleted DEREG mice could be demonstrated by green fluorescent protein staining only in lymph nodes in the ischemic area, and not in the ischemic muscle tissue. The current study demonstrates that, even under conditions of major changes in regulatory T cell content, the contribution of regulatory T cells to the regulation of the arteriogenic response is only moderate. PMID:21426486

  16. A limited role for regulatory T cells in post-ischemic neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Hellingman, AA; van der Vlugt, LEPM; Lijkwan, MA; Bastiaansen, AJNM; Sparwasser, T; Smits, HH; Hamming, JF; Quax, PHA

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Recently, it was demonstrated that arteriogenesis is enhanced in mice deficient in regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T cell), which can suppress effector T cell responses. The present study investigates the effects of these regulatory T cells on arteriogenesis in more detail by either specific expanding or depleting regulatory T cells. Hind limb ischemia was induced by electro-coagulation of the femoral artery in mice. Regulatory T cells were either expanded by injecting mice with a complex of interleukin (IL)-2 with the IL-2 monoclonal antibody JES6–1, or depleted by anti-CD25 antibody or diphtheria toxin injections in DEREG mice (depletion of regulatory T cells). Blood flow restoration was monitored using laser Doppler perfusion imaging. Collateral arteries were visualized by immunohistochemistry. Regulatory T cell expansion led to a moderate though significant suppression of blood flow restoration after ischemia induction. Surprisingly, depletion of regulatory T cells resulted in minor increase on blood flow recovery. However, collateral and capillary densities in the post-ischemic skeletal muscle were significantly increased in DEREG mice depleted for regulatory T cells. The presence of regulatory T cells after ischemia induction when analysed in non-depleted DEREG mice could be demonstrated by green fluorescent protein staining only in lymph nodes in the ischemic area, and not in the ischemic muscle tissue. The current study demonstrates that, even under conditions of major changes in regulatory T cell content, the contribution of regulatory T cells to the regulation of the arteriogenic response is only moderate. PMID:21426486

  17. A limited role for regulatory T cells in post-ischemic neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Hellingman, A A; van der Vlugt, L E P M; Lijkwan, M A; Bastiaansen, A J N M; Sparwasser, T; Smits, H H; Hamming, J F; Quax, P H A

    2012-02-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated that arteriogenesis is enhanced in mice deficient in regulatory T cells (CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) T cell), which can suppress effector T cell responses. The present study investigates the effects of these regulatory T cells on arteriogenesis in more detail by either specific expanding or depleting regulatory T cells. Hind limb ischemia was induced by electro-coagulation of the femoral artery in mice. Regulatory T cells were either expanded by injecting mice with a complex of interleukin (IL)-2 with the IL-2 monoclonal antibody JES6-1, or depleted by anti-CD25 antibody or diphtheria toxin injections in DEREG mice (depletion of regulatory T cells). Blood flow restoration was monitored using laser Doppler perfusion imaging. Collateral arteries were visualized by immunohistochemistry. Regulatory T cell expansion led to a moderate though significant suppression of blood flow restoration after ischemia induction. Surprisingly, depletion of regulatory T cells resulted in minor increase on blood flow recovery. However, collateral and capillary densities in the post-ischemic skeletal muscle were significantly increased in DEREG mice depleted for regulatory T cells. The presence of regulatory T cells after ischemia induction when analysed in non-depleted DEREG mice could be demonstrated by green fluorescent protein staining only in lymph nodes in the ischemic area, and not in the ischemic muscle tissue. The current study demonstrates that, even under conditions of major changes in regulatory T cell content, the contribution of regulatory T cells to the regulation of the arteriogenic response is only moderate.

  18. Control of Regulatory T Cell Migration, Function, and Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Daniel J

    2015-09-15

    Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential for preventing autoimmunity and uncontrolled inflammation, and they modulate immune responses during infection and the development of cancer. Accomplishing these tasks requires the widespread distribution of Tregs in both lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues, and the selective recruitment of Tregs to different tissue sites has emerged as a key checkpoint that controls tissue inflammation in autoimmunity, infection, and cancer development, as well as in the context of allograft acceptance or rejection. Additionally, Tregs are functionally diverse, and it has become clear that some of this diversity segregates with Treg localization to particular tissue sites. In this article, I review the progress in understanding the mechanisms of Treg trafficking and discuss factors controlling their homeostatic maintenance and function in distinct tissue sites.

  19. Foetal immune programming: hormones, cytokines, microbes and regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Peter; Nanan, Ralph

    2014-10-01

    In addition to genetic factors, environmental cues play important roles in shaping the immune system. The first environment that the developing foetal immune system encounters is the uterus. Although physically the mother and the foetus are separated by the placental membranes, various factors such as hormones and cytokines may provide "environmental cues" to the foetal immune system. Additionally, increasing evidence suggests that prenatal maternal environmental factors, particularly microbial exposure, might significantly influence the foetal immune system, affecting long-term outcomes, a concept termed foetal immune programming. Here we discuss the potential mediators of foetal immune programming, focusing on the role of pregnancy-related hormones, cytokines and regulatory T cells, which play a critical role in immune tolerance.

  20. [Regulatory T cell based transplant tolerance--freedom from immunosuppression].

    PubMed

    Koshiba, Takaaki; Ito, Atsushi; Li, Ying; Wu, Yanling; Takemura, Mami; Sakaguchi, Shimon

    2007-03-01

    Tolerance after clinical transplantation (Tx) is still extremely rare. However, Kyoto elective protocol enabled a substantial number of patients to weaned off immunosuppression after liver Tx. This is referred to as an immunoprivilege. Nevertheless, the operating mechanisms for liver Tx tolerance remain elusive. The authors demonstrated that regulatory T cells (Tregs) are likely to play an important role in liver Tx tolerance. In addition, we found that precursor like Tregs exist in the human peripheral blood. This can propagate upon stimulation with allo-antigen, in contrast to anergic property of Tregs. Thus, the exploitation of precursor like Tregs as a cellular source of ex vivo and in vivo expansion may lead to the widespread clinical use of Tregs for Tx.

  1. Regulatory T Cells in Type 1 Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Kazushige; Kusuda, Takeo; Koyabu, Masanori; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Fukata, Norimasa; Sumimoto, Kimi; Fukui, Yuri; Sakaguchi, Yutaku; Ikeura, Tsukasa; Shimatani, Masaaki; Fukui, Toshiro; Matsushita, Mitsunobu; Takaoka, Makoto; Nishio, Akiyoshi; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2012-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a newly recognized pancreatic disorder. Recently, International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria for AIP (ICDC) was published. In this ICDC, AIP was classified into Type 1 and Type 2. Patients with Type 1 AIP have several immunologic and histologic abnormalities specific to the disease, including increased levels of serum IgG4 and storiform fibrosis with infiltration of lymphocytes and IgG4-positive plasmacytes in the involved organs. Among the involved organs showing extrapancreatic lesions, the bile duct is the most common, exhibiting sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC). However, the role of IgG4 is unclear. Recently, it has been reported that regulatory T cells (Tregs) are involved in both the development of various autoimmune diseases and the shift of B cells toward IgG4, producing plasmacytes. Our study showed that Tregs were increased in the pancreas with Type 1 AIP and IgG4-SC compared with control. In the patients with Type 1 AIP and IgG4-SC, the numbers of infiltrated Tregs were significantly positively correlated with IgG4-positive plasma cells. In Type 1 AIP, inducible costimulatory molecule (ICOS)+ and IL-10+ Tregs significantly increased compared with control groups. Our data suggest that increased quantities of ICOS+ Tregs may influence IgG4 production via IL-10 in Type 1 AIP. PMID:22536257

  2. Unifying roles for regulatory T cells and inflammation in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Erdman, Susan E.; Rao, Varada P.; Olipitz, Werner; Taylor, Christie L.; Jackson, Erin A.; Levkovich, Tatiana; Lee, Chung-Wei; Horwitz, Bruce H.; Fox, James G.; Ge, Zhongming; Poutahidis, Theofilos

    2014-01-01

    Activities of CD4+ regulatory (TREG) cells restore immune homeostasis during chronic inflammatory disorders. Roles for TREG cells in inflammation-associated cancers, however, are paradoxical. It is widely believed that TREG function in cancer mainly to suppress protective anticancer responses. However, we demonstrate here that TREG cells also function to reduce cancer risk throughout the body by efficiently downregulating inflammation arising from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Building on a “hygiene hypothesis” model in which GI infections lead to changes in TREG that reduce immune-mediated diseases, here we show that gut bacteria-triggered TREG may function to inhibit cancer even in extraintestinal sites. Ability of bacteria-stimulated TREG to suppress cancer depends on interleukin (IL)-10, which serves to maintain immune homeostasis within bowel and support a protective antiinflammatory TREG phenotype. However, under proinflammatory conditions, TREG may fail to provide antiinflammatory protection and instead contribute to a T helper (Th)-17-driven procarcinogenic process; a cancer state that is reversible by downregulation of inflammation. Consequently, hygienic individuals with a weakened IL-10 and TREG-mediated inhibitory loop are highly susceptible to the carcinogenic consequences of elevated IL-6 and IL-17 and show more frequent inflammation-associated cancers. Taken together, these data unify seemingly divergent disease processes such as autoimmunity and cancer and help explain the paradox of TREG and inflammation in cancer. Enhancing protective TREG functions may promote healthful longevity and significantly reduce risk of cancer. PMID:19795459

  3. Ubiquitous Points of Control over Regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Fan; Barbi, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Posttranslational modification by ubiquitin tagging is crucial for regulating the stability, activity and cellular localization of many target proteins and processes including DNA repair, cell cycle progression, protein quality control and signal transduction. It has long been appreciated that ubiquitin-mediated events are important for certain signaling pathways leading to leukocyte activation and the stimulation of effector function. It is now clear that the activities of molecules and pathways central to immune regulation are also modified and regulated through ubiquitin. Among the mechanisms of immune control, regulatory T cells (or Tregs) are themselves particularly sensitive to such regulation. E3 ligases and deubiquitinases both influence Tregs through their effects on signaling pathways pertinent for these cells or through the direct, posttranslational regulation of Foxp3. In this review we will summarize and discuss several examples of ubiquitin-mediated control over multiple aspects of biology of Tregs including their generation, function and phenotypic fidelity. Fully explored and exploited, these potential opportunities for Treg modulation may lead to novel immunotherapies for both positive and negative fine-tuning of immune restraint. PMID:24777637

  4. [Significance of regulatory B cells in nosogenesis of immune thrombocytopenia].

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Wang, Fang; Ding, Kai Yang; Dai, Lan

    2014-04-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the role of regulatory B cells (Breg) in pathogenesis of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) and its clinical significance. A total of 35 ITP patients and 20 normal controls were enrolled in this study. The expression of CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cells was detected by flow cytometry and the expression of IL-10 mRNA and TGF-β1 mRNA was assayed by RT-PCR. The results indicated that the expression level of CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cells in peripheral blood of newly diagnosed ITP patients was obviously lower than that in normal controls (P < 0.05); the expression level of CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cells in ITP patients with increased platelet count after treatment was higher than that before treatment (P < 0.05); the expression level of IL-10 mRNA in newly diagnosed ITP patients was significantly lower than that the in normal controls (P < 0.05), the expression level of TGF-β1 mRNA in newly diagnosed ITP patients increases as compared with normal controls (P < 0.05), after treatment with DXM the expression of IL-10 mRNA was enhanced, the expression of TGF-β1 mRNA was reduced as compared with expression level before treatment (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the Breg cells may play an important role in the pathogenesis of ITP via humoral immunity and its regulation of T lymphocytes.

  5. Treating arthritis by immunomodulation: is there a role for regulatory T cells?

    PubMed Central

    van Wijk, Femke; Roord, Sarah T.; Albani, Salvatore; Prakken, Berent J.

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of regulatory T cells almost 15 years ago initiated a new and exciting research area. The growing evidence for a critical role of these cells in controlling autoimmune responses has raised expectations for therapeutic application of regulatory T cells in patients with autoimmune arthritis. Here, we review recent studies investigating the presence, phenotype and function of these cells in patients with RA and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and consider their therapeutic potential. Both direct and indirect methods to target these cells will be discussed. Arguably, a therapeutic approach that combines multiple regulatory T-cell-enhancing strategies could be most successful for clinical application. PMID:20463189

  6. The impact of regulatory T cells on T-cell immunity following hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Vu H.; Shashidhar, Sumana; Chang, Daisy S.; Ho, Lena; Kambham, Neeraja; Bachmann, Michael; Brown, Janice M.

    2008-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) prevent graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) by inhibiting the proliferation and function of conventional T cells (Tcons). However, the impact of Tregs on T-cell development and immunity following hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is unknown. Using a murine GvHD model induced by Tcons, we demonstrate that adoptive transfer of Tregs leads to (1) abrogration of GvHD, (2) preservation of thymic and peripheral lymph node architecture, and (3) an accelerated donor lymphoid reconstitution of a diverse TCR-Vβ repertoire. The resultant enhanced lymphoid reconstitution in Treg recipients protects them from lethal cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. By contrast, mice that receive Tcons alone have disrupted lymphoid organs from GvHD and remain lymphopenic with a restricted TCR-Vβ repertoire and rapid death on MCMV challenge. Lymphocytes from previously infected Treg recipients generate secondary response specific to MCMV, indicating long-term protective immunity with transferred Tregs. Thymectomy significantly reduces survival after MCMV challenge in Treg recipients compared with euthymic controls. Our results indicate that Tregs enhance immune reconstitution by preventing GvHD-induced damage of the thymic and secondary lymphoid microenvironment. These findings provide new insights into the role of Tregs in affording protection to lymphoid stromal elements important for T-cell immunity. PMID:17916743

  7. CD4+ T cell anergy prevents autoimmunity and generates regulatory T cell precursors

    PubMed Central

    Kalekar, Lokesh A.; Schmiel, Shirdi E.; Nandiwada, Sarada L.; Lam, Wing Y.; Barsness, Laura O.; Zhang, Na; Stritesky, Gretta L.; Malhotra, Deepali; Pauken, Kristen E.; Linehan, Jonathan L.; O’Sullivan, M. Gerard; Fife, Brian T.; Hogquist, Kristin A.; Jenkins, Marc K.; Mueller, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    The role that anergy, an acquired state of T cell functional unresponsiveness, plays in natural peripheral tolerance remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that anergy is selectively induced in fetal antigen-specific maternal CD4+ T cells during pregnancy. A naturally occurring subpopulation of anergic polyclonal CD4+ T cells, enriched in self antigen-specific T cell receptors, is also observed in healthy hosts. Neuropilin-1 expression in anergic conventional CD4+ T cells is associated with thymic regulatory T cell (Treg cell)-related gene hypomethylation, and this correlates with their capacity to differentiate into Foxp3+ Treg cells that suppress immunopathology. Thus, our data suggest that not only is anergy induction important in preventing autoimmunity, but it also generates the precursors for peripheral Treg cell differentiation. PMID:26829766

  8. Regulatory T cells enhance persistence of the zoonotic pathogen Seoul virus in its reservoir host.

    PubMed

    Easterbrook, Judith D; Zink, M Christine; Klein, Sabra L

    2007-09-25

    Hantaviruses are zoonotic pathogens that maintain a persistent infection in their reservoir hosts, yet the mechanisms mediating persistence remain unknown. Regulatory T cell responses cause persistent infection by suppressing proinflammatory and effector T cell activity; hantaviruses may exploit these responses to cause persistence. To test this hypothesis, male Norway rats were inoculated with Seoul virus and regulatory T cells were monitored during infection. Increased numbers of CD4(+)CD25(+)Forkhead box P3(+) T cells and expression of Forkhead box P3 and TGF-beta were observed in the lungs of male rats during persistent Seoul virus infection. To determine whether regulatory T cells modulate Seoul virus persistence, regulatory T cells were inactivated in male rats by using an anti-rat CD25 monoclonal antibody (NDS-63). Inactivation of regulatory T cells reduced the amount of Seoul virus RNA present in the lungs and the proportion of animals shedding viral RNA in saliva. Because regulatory T cells suppress proinflammatory-induced pathogenesis, pathologic observations in the lungs were evaluated during infection. Subclinical acute multifocal areas of hemorrhage and edema were noted in the lungs during infection; inactivation of regulatory T cells reduced the amount of pathologic foci. Expression of TNF was suppressed during the persistent phase of infection; inactivation of regulatory T cells eliminated the suppression of TNF. Taken together, these data suggest that regulatory T cells mediate Seoul virus persistence, possibly through elevated transcription and synthesis of TGF-beta and suppression of TNF. These data provide evidence of regulatory T cell involvement in the persistence of a zoonotic pathogen in its natural reservoir host.

  9. Interleukin-2 treatment of tumor patients can expand regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Marc

    2012-10-01

    Augmented numbers of regulatory T cells contribute to the overall immunosuppression in tumor patients. Interleukin-2 has been widely used in the clinics in anticancer therapy, yet evidence has accumulated that the major drawback, limiting clinical efficacy, is the expansion of regulatory T cells, which aggravates immunosuppression.

  10. The Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Immuno-Suppression by Human Type 1 Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gregori, Silvia; Goudy, Kevin S.; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia

    2011-01-01

    The immuno-regulatory mechanisms of IL-10-producing type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells have been widely studied over the years. However, several recent discoveries have shed new light on the cellular and molecular mechanisms that human Tr1 cells use to control immune responses and induce tolerance. In this review we outline the well known and newly discovered regulatory properties of human Tr1 cells and provide an in-depth comparison of the known suppressor mechanisms of Tr1 cells with FOXP3+ Treg. We also highlight the role that Tr1 cells play in promoting and maintaining tolerance in autoimmunity, allergy, and transplantation. PMID:22566914

  11. A role for intrathymic B cells in the generation of natural regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Walters, Stacey N; Webster, Kylie E; Daley, Stephen; Grey, Shane T

    2014-07-01

    B cells inhabit the normal human thymus, suggesting a role in T cell selection. In this study, we report that B cells can modulate thymic production of CD4+ Foxp3+ T cells (regulatory T cells [Tregs]). Mice with transgenic expression of BAFF (BAFF-Tg) harbor increased numbers of Helios+ Foxp3+ thymic Tregs and, similar to some human autoimmune conditions, also exhibit increased numbers of B cells colonizing the thymus. Distinct intrathymic B cell subpopulations were identified, namely B220+, IgM+, CD23(hi), CD21(int) cells; B220+, IgM+, CD23(lo), CD21(lo) cells; and a population of B220+, IgM+, CD23(lo), CD21(hi) cells. Anatomically, CD19+ B cells accumulated in the thymic medulla region juxtaposed to Foxp3+ T cells. These intrathymic B cells engender Tregs. Indeed, thymic Treg development was diminished in both B cell-deficient BAFF-Tg chimeras, but also B cell-deficient wild-type chimeras. B cell Ag capture and presentation are critical in vivo events for Treg development. In the absence of B cell surface MHC class II expression, thymic expansion of BAFF-Tg Tregs was lost. Further to this, expansion of Tregs did not occur in BAFF-Tg/Ig hen egg lysozyme BCR chimeras, demonstrating a requirement for Ag specificity. Thus, we present a mechanism whereby intrathymic B cells, through the provision of cognate help, contribute to the shaping of the Treg repertoire.

  12. Trypanosoma cruzi Induces Regulatory Dendritic Cells In Vitro▿

    PubMed Central

    Poncini, Carolina Verónica; Soto, Catalina Dirney Alba; Batalla, Estela; Solana, Maria Elisa; González Cappa, Stella Maris

    2008-01-01

    A main feature of acute infection with Trypanosoma cruzi is the presence of immunological disorders. A previous study demonstrated that acute infection with the virulent RA strain downregulates the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) on antigen-presenting cells and impairs the T-cell stimulatory capacity of splenic dendritic cells (DC). In the present work, we assessed the ability of trypomastigotes (Tp) to modulate the differentiation stage and functionality of bone marrow-derived DC in vitro. We observed that the Tp stage of T. cruzi failed to activate DC, which preserved their low expression of MHC-II and costimulatory molecules, as well as their endocytic activity. We also show that Tp induced transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) secretion by DC and enhanced the gap between interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-12p70 production, showing a higher IL-10/IL-12p70 ratio upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. In addition, we observed that Tp prevented DC full activation induced by LPS, thereby downregulating their MHC-II surface expression and inhibiting their capacity to stimulate lymphocyte proliferation. In vitro IL-10 neutralization during the differentiation process of DC with Tp+LPS showed a reversion of their inhibitory effect during mixed lymphocyte reaction. In contrast, only simultaneous neutralization of IL-10 and TGF-β, after DC differentiation, was involved in the partial restitution of lymphocyte proliferation. Since both TGF-β and IL-10 are immunosuppressive cytokines essential in the modulation of the immune response and important in the induction of tolerance, our results suggest for the first time that Tp are responsible for the generation of regulatory DC in vitro. PMID:18347042

  13. Regulatory T cells in many flavors control asthma.

    PubMed

    Ray, A; Khare, A; Krishnamoorthy, N; Qi, Z; Ray, P

    2010-05-01

    That regulatory T cells (Tregs) have a crucial role in controlling allergic diseases such as asthma is now undisputed. The cytokines most commonly implicated in Treg-mediated suppression of allergic asthma are transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and interleukin (IL)-10). In addition to naturally occurring Tregs, adaptive Tregs, induced in response to foreign antigens, have been shown in recent studies. The concept of inducible/adaptive Tregs (iTregs) has considerable significance in preventing asthma if generated early enough in life. This is because cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-6 inhibit Foxp3 induction in naive CD4+ T cells and therefore de novo generation of Tregs can be expected to be less efficient when it is concomitant with effector cell development in response to an allergen. However, if iTregs can be induced, the process of infectious tolerance would facilitate expansion of the iTreg pool as suggested in the recent literature. It is tempting to speculate that there is a window of opportunity in early life in the context of a relatively immature immune system that is permissive for the generation of iTregs specific to a spectrum of allergens that would regulate asthma for lifelong. The focus of this review is the relevance of nTregs and iTregs in controlling asthma from early life into adulthood, the mechanisms underlying Treg function, and the prospects for using our current concepts to harness the full potential of Tregs to limit disease development and progression.

  14. Roles for Inflammation and Regulatory T Cells in Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Erdman, Susan E.; Poutahidis, Theofilos

    2014-01-01

    Risk for developing cancer rises substantially as a result of poorly regulated inflammatory responses to pathogenic bacterial infections. Anti-inflammatory CD4+ regulatory cells (TREG) function to restore immune homeostasis during chronic inflammatory disorders. It seems logical that TREG cells would function to reduce risk of inflammation-associated cancer in the bowel by down-regulating inflammation. It is widely believed, however, that TREG function in cancer mainly to suppress protective anticancer inflammatory responses. Thus roles for inflammation, TREG cells, and gut bacteria in cancer are paradoxical and are the subject of controversy. Our accumulated data build upon the “hygiene hypothesis” model in which gastrointestinal (GI) infections lead to changes in TREG that reduce inflammation-associated diseases. Ability of TREG to inhibit or suppress cancer depends upon gut bacteria and IL-10, which serve to maintain immune balance and a protective anti-inflammatory TREG phenotype. However, under poorly regulated pro-inflammatory conditions, TREG fail to inhibit and may instead contribute to a T helper (Th)-17-driven procarcinogenic process, a cancer state that is reversible by down-regulation of inflammation and interleukin (IL)-6. Consequently, hygienic individuals with a weakened IL-10– and TREG–mediated inhibitory loop are highly susceptible to the carcinogenic consequences of elevated inflammation and show more frequent inflammation-associated cancers. Taken together, these data help explain the paradox of inflammation and TREG in cancer and indicate that targeted stimulation of TREG may promote health and significantly reduce risk of cancer. PMID:20019355

  15. Interleukin 10 and dendritic cells are the main suppression mediators of regulatory T cells in human neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Arce-Sillas, A; Álvarez-Luquín, D D; Cárdenas, G; Casanova-Hernández, D; Fragoso, G; Hernández, M; Proaño Narváez, J V; García-Vázquez, F; Fleury, A; Sciutto, E; Adalid-Peralta, L

    2016-02-01

    Neurocysticercosis is caused by the establishment of Taenia solium cysticerci in the central nervous system. It is considered that, during co-evolution, the parasite developed strategies to modulate the host's immune response. The action mechanisms of regulatory T cells in controlling the immune response in neurocysticercosis are studied in this work. Higher blood levels of regulatory T cells with CD4(+) CD45RO(+) forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)(high) and CD4(+) CD25(high) FoxP3(+) CD95(high) phenotype and of non-regulatory CD4(+) CD45RO(+) FoxP3(med) T cells were found in neurocysticercosis patients with respect to controls. Interestingly, regulatory T cells express higher levels of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG-3), programmed death 1 (PD-1) and glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor (GITR), suggesting a cell-to-cell contact mechanism with dendritic cells. Furthermore, higher IL-10 and regulatory T cell type 1 (Tr1) levels were found in neurocysticercosis patients' peripheral blood, suggesting that the action mechanism of regulatory T cells involves the release of immunomodulatory cytokines. No evidence was found of the regulatory T cell role in inhibiting the proliferative response. Suppressive regulatory T cells from neurocysticercosis patients correlated negatively with late activated lymphocytes (CD4(+) CD38(+) ). Our results suggest that, during neurocysticercosis, regulatory T cells could control the immune response, probably by a cell-to-cell contact with dendritic cells and interleukin (IL)-10 release by Tr1, to create an immunomodulatory environment that may favour the development of T. solium cysticerci and their permanence in the central nervous system.

  16. The importance of being a regulatory T cell in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Clark, David A

    2016-08-01

    Natural Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (nTregs) defined by expression of the Foxp3 marker generated in the thymus against self autoantigens prevent systemic autoimmune and inflammatory disease. A second population of Tregs induced by exogenous antigens in the periphery (iTregs) are currently thought to play a key role in preventing infertility, recurrent pregnancy loss (occult and clinically-evident), pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction, and premature birth in outbred matings where the father is histoincompatible with the mother. Curiously, when iTregs are ablated in mice, fertility is usually not impaired and resorption rates in matings with allogeneic males can range from 0% to 100% in individual females. Analysis of possible explanations suggest iTregs prevent abortions by countering effects of environmental stressors. Depletion of iTregs at mid-pregnancy in mice only causes abortions in an artificial transgenic model. Effects of iTreg depletion on pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction, and premature birth remain to be tested. Tregs induced during pregnancy may also affect the health of offspring in post natal life as well as the health of the mother.

  17. Concise Review: Breast Cancer Stem Cells: Regulatory Networks, Stem Cell Niches, and Disease Relevance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has shown that cancer stem cells (CSCs), the cancer cells that have long-term proliferative potential and the ability to regenerate tumors with phenotypically heterogeneous cell types, are important mediators of tumor metastasis and cancer relapse. In breast cancer, these cells often possess attributes of cells that have undergone an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Signaling networks mediated by microRNAs and EMT-inducing transcription factors connect the EMT program with the core stem cell regulatory machineries. These signaling networks are also regulated by extrinsic niche signals that induce and maintain CSCs, contributing to metastatic colonization and promoting the reactivation of dormant tumor cells. Targeting these CSC pathways is likely to improve the efficacy of conventional chemo- and radiotherapies. PMID:24904174

  18. Aire Enforces Immune Tolerance by Directing Autoreactive T Cells into the Regulatory T Cell Lineage.

    PubMed

    Malchow, Sven; Leventhal, Daniel S; Lee, Victoria; Nishi, Saki; Socci, Nicholas D; Savage, Peter A

    2016-05-17

    The promiscuous expression of tissue-restricted antigens in the thymus, driven in part by autoimmune regulator (Aire), is critical for the protection of peripheral tissues from autoimmune attack. Aire-dependent processes are thought to promote both clonal deletion and the development of Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells, suggesting that autoimmunity associated with Aire deficiency results from two failed tolerance mechanisms. Here, examination of autoimmune lesions in Aire(-/-) mice revealed an unexpected third possibility. We found that the predominant conventional T cell clonotypes infiltrating target lesions express antigen receptors that were preferentially expressed by Foxp3(+) Treg cells in Aire(+/+) mice. Thus, Aire enforces immune tolerance by ensuring that distinct autoreactive T cell specificities differentiate into the Treg cell lineage; dysregulation of this process results in the diversion of Treg cell-biased clonotypes into pathogenic conventional T cells.

  19. Prevention, Evaluation, and Rehabilitation of Cycling-Related Injury.

    PubMed

    Kotler, Dana H; Babu, Ashwin N; Robidoux, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The unique quality of the bicycle is its ability to accommodate a wide variety of injuries and disabilities. Cycling for recreation, transportation, and competition is growing nationwide, and has proven health and societal benefits. The demands of each type of cycling dictate the necessary equipment, as well as potential for injury. Prevention of cycling-related injury in both the athlete and the recreational cyclist involves understanding the common mechanisms for both traumatic and overuse injury, and early correction of strength and flexibility imbalances, technique errors, and bicycle fit. PMID:27172085

  20. Tumor-evoked regulatory B cells promote breast cancer metastasis by converting resting CD4⁺ T cells to T-regulatory cells.

    PubMed

    Olkhanud, Purevdorj B; Damdinsuren, Bazarragchaa; Bodogai, Monica; Gress, Ronald E; Sen, Ranjan; Wejksza, Katarzyna; Malchinkhuu, Enkhzol; Wersto, Robert P; Biragyn, Arya

    2011-05-15

    Pulmonary metastasis of breast cancer requires recruitment and expansion of T-regulatory cells (Treg) that promote escape from host protective immune cells. However, it remains unclear precisely how tumors recruit Tregs to support metastatic growth. Here we report the mechanistic involvement of a unique and previously undescribed subset of regulatory B cells. These cells, designated tumor-evoked Bregs (tBreg), phenotypically resemble activated but poorly proliferative mature B2 cells (CD19(+) CD25(High) CD69(High)) that express constitutively active Stat3 and B7-H1(High) CD81(High) CD86(High) CD62L(Low) IgM(Int). Our studies with the mouse 4T1 model of breast cancer indicate that the primary role of tBregs in lung metastases is to induce TGF-β-dependent conversion of FoxP3(+) Tregs from resting CD4(+) T cells. In the absence of tBregs, 4T1 tumors cannot metastasize into the lungs efficiently due to poor Treg conversion. Our findings have important clinical implications, as they suggest that tBregs must be controlled to interrupt the initiation of a key cancer-induced immunosuppressive event that is critical to support cancer metastasis. PMID:21444674

  1. Tr1-Like T Cells – An Enigmatic Regulatory T Cell Lineage

    PubMed Central

    White, Anna Malgorzata; Wraith, David C.

    2016-01-01

    The immune system evolved to respond to foreign invaders and prevent autoimmunity to self-antigens. Several types of regulatory T cells facilitate the latter process. These include a subset of Foxp3− CD4+ T cells able to secrete IL-10 in an antigen-specific manner, type 1 regulatory (Tr1) T cells. Although their suppressive function has been confirmed both in vitro and in vivo, their phenotype remains poorly defined. It has been suggested that the surface markers LAG-3 and CD49b are biomarkers for murine and human Tr1 cells. Here, we discuss these findings in the context of our data regarding the expression pattern of inhibitory receptors (IRs) CD49b, TIM-3, PD-1, TIGIT, LAG-3, and ICOS on Tr1-like human T cells generated in vitro from CD4+ memory T cells stimulated with αCD3 and αCD28 antibodies. We found that there were no differences in IR expression between IL-10+ and IL-10− T cells. However, CD4+IL-10+ T cells isolated ex vivo, following a short stimulation and cytokine secretion assay, contained significantly higher proportions of TIM-3+ and PD-1+ cells. They also expressed significantly higher TIGIT mRNA and showed a trend toward increased TIM-3 mRNA levels. These data led us to conclude that large pools of IRs may be stored intracellularly; hence, they may not represent ideal candidates as cell surface biomarkers for Tr1-like T cells. PMID:27683580

  2. Tr1-Like T Cells – An Enigmatic Regulatory T Cell Lineage

    PubMed Central

    White, Anna Malgorzata; Wraith, David C.

    2016-01-01

    The immune system evolved to respond to foreign invaders and prevent autoimmunity to self-antigens. Several types of regulatory T cells facilitate the latter process. These include a subset of Foxp3− CD4+ T cells able to secrete IL-10 in an antigen-specific manner, type 1 regulatory (Tr1) T cells. Although their suppressive function has been confirmed both in vitro and in vivo, their phenotype remains poorly defined. It has been suggested that the surface markers LAG-3 and CD49b are biomarkers for murine and human Tr1 cells. Here, we discuss these findings in the context of our data regarding the expression pattern of inhibitory receptors (IRs) CD49b, TIM-3, PD-1, TIGIT, LAG-3, and ICOS on Tr1-like human T cells generated in vitro from CD4+ memory T cells stimulated with αCD3 and αCD28 antibodies. We found that there were no differences in IR expression between IL-10+ and IL-10− T cells. However, CD4+IL-10+ T cells isolated ex vivo, following a short stimulation and cytokine secretion assay, contained significantly higher proportions of TIM-3+ and PD-1+ cells. They also expressed significantly higher TIGIT mRNA and showed a trend toward increased TIM-3 mRNA levels. These data led us to conclude that large pools of IRs may be stored intracellularly; hence, they may not represent ideal candidates as cell surface biomarkers for Tr1-like T cells.

  3. Tr1-Like T Cells - An Enigmatic Regulatory T Cell Lineage.

    PubMed

    White, Anna Malgorzata; Wraith, David C

    2016-01-01

    The immune system evolved to respond to foreign invaders and prevent autoimmunity to self-antigens. Several types of regulatory T cells facilitate the latter process. These include a subset of Foxp3(-) CD4(+) T cells able to secrete IL-10 in an antigen-specific manner, type 1 regulatory (Tr1) T cells. Although their suppressive function has been confirmed both in vitro and in vivo, their phenotype remains poorly defined. It has been suggested that the surface markers LAG-3 and CD49b are biomarkers for murine and human Tr1 cells. Here, we discuss these findings in the context of our data regarding the expression pattern of inhibitory receptors (IRs) CD49b, TIM-3, PD-1, TIGIT, LAG-3, and ICOS on Tr1-like human T cells generated in vitro from CD4(+) memory T cells stimulated with αCD3 and αCD28 antibodies. We found that there were no differences in IR expression between IL-10(+) and IL-10(-) T cells. However, CD4(+)IL-10(+) T cells isolated ex vivo, following a short stimulation and cytokine secretion assay, contained significantly higher proportions of TIM-3(+) and PD-1(+) cells. They also expressed significantly higher TIGIT mRNA and showed a trend toward increased TIM-3 mRNA levels. These data led us to conclude that large pools of IRs may be stored intracellularly; hence, they may not represent ideal candidates as cell surface biomarkers for Tr1-like T cells. PMID:27683580

  4. Induction of CD4+ Regulatory and Polarized Effector/helper T Cells by Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are considered to play major roles during the induction of T cell immune responses as well as the maintenance of T cell tolerance. Naive CD4+ T cells have been shown to respond with high plasticity to signals inducing their polarization into effector/helper or regulatory T cells. Data obtained from in vitro generated bone-marrow (BM)-derived DCs as well as genetic mouse models revealed an important but not exclusive role of DCs in shaping CD4+ T cell responses. Besides the specialization of some conventional DC subsets for the induction of polarized immunity, also the maturation stage, activation of specialized transcription factors and the cytokine production of DCs have major impact on CD4+ T cells. Since in vitro generated BM-DCs show a high diversity to shape CD4+ T cells and their high similarity to monocyte-derived DCs in vivo, this review reports data mainly on BM-DCs in this process and only touches the roles of transcription factors or of DC subsets, which have been discussed elsewhere. Here, recent findings on 1) the conversion of naive into anergic and further into Foxp3− regulatory T cells (Treg) by immature DCs, 2) the role of RelB in steady state migratory DCs (ssmDCs) for conversion of naive T cells into Foxp3+ Treg, 3) the DC maturation signature for polarized Th2 cell induction and 4) the DC source of IL-12 for Th1 induction are discussed. PMID:26937228

  5. Cell therapeutic options in liver diseases: cell types, medical devices and regulatory issues.

    PubMed

    Nussler, Andreas K; Zeilinger, Katrin; Schyschka, Lilianna; Ehnert, Sabrina; Gerlach, Jörg C; Yan, Xueying; Lee, Serene M L; Ilowski, Maren; Thasler, Wolfgang E; Weiss, Thomas S

    2011-05-01

    Although significant progress has been made in the field of orthotopic liver transplantation, cell-based therapies seem to be a promising alternative to whole-organ transplantation. The reasons are manifold but organ shortage is the main cause for this approach. However, many problems such as the question which cell type should be used or which application site is best for transplantation have been raised. In addition, some clinicians have had success by cultivating liver cells in bioreactors for temporary life support. Besides answering the question which cell type, which injection site or even which culture form should be used for liver support recent international harmonization of legal requirements is needed to be addressed by clinicians, scientists and companies dealing with cellular therapies. We here briefly summarize the possible cell types used to partially or temporarily correct liver diseases, the most recent development of bioreactor technology and important regulatory issues.

  6. Regulatory T cells delay disease progression in Alzheimer-like pathology.

    PubMed

    Dansokho, Cira; Ait Ahmed, Dylla; Aid, Saba; Toly-Ndour, Cécile; Chaigneau, Thomas; Calle, Vanessa; Cagnard, Nicolas; Holzenberger, Martin; Piaggio, Eliane; Aucouturier, Pierre; Dorothée, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies highlight the implication of innate and adaptive immunity in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease, and foster immunotherapy as a promising strategy for its treatment. Vaccines targeting amyloid-β peptide provided encouraging results in mouse models, but severe side effects attributed to T cell responses in the first clinical trial AN1792 underlined the need for better understanding adaptive immunity in Alzheimer's disease. We previously showed that regulatory T cells critically control amyloid-β-specific CD4(+) T cell responses in both physiological and pathological settings. Here, we analysed the impact of regulatory T cells on spontaneous disease progression in a murine model of Alzheimer's disease. Early transient depletion of regulatory T cells accelerated the onset of cognitive deficits in APPPS1 mice, without altering amyloid-β deposition. Earlier cognitive impairment correlated with reduced recruitment of microglia towards amyloid deposits and altered disease-related gene expression profile. Conversely, amplification of regulatory T cells through peripheral low-dose IL-2 treatment increased numbers of plaque-associated microglia, and restored cognitive functions in APPPS1 mice. These data suggest that regulatory T cells play a beneficial role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease, by slowing disease progression and modulating microglial response to amyloid-β deposition. Our study highlights the therapeutic potential of repurposed IL-2 for innovative immunotherapy based on modulation of regulatory T cells in Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Regulatory T cells delay disease progression in Alzheimer-like pathology.

    PubMed

    Dansokho, Cira; Ait Ahmed, Dylla; Aid, Saba; Toly-Ndour, Cécile; Chaigneau, Thomas; Calle, Vanessa; Cagnard, Nicolas; Holzenberger, Martin; Piaggio, Eliane; Aucouturier, Pierre; Dorothée, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies highlight the implication of innate and adaptive immunity in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease, and foster immunotherapy as a promising strategy for its treatment. Vaccines targeting amyloid-β peptide provided encouraging results in mouse models, but severe side effects attributed to T cell responses in the first clinical trial AN1792 underlined the need for better understanding adaptive immunity in Alzheimer's disease. We previously showed that regulatory T cells critically control amyloid-β-specific CD4(+) T cell responses in both physiological and pathological settings. Here, we analysed the impact of regulatory T cells on spontaneous disease progression in a murine model of Alzheimer's disease. Early transient depletion of regulatory T cells accelerated the onset of cognitive deficits in APPPS1 mice, without altering amyloid-β deposition. Earlier cognitive impairment correlated with reduced recruitment of microglia towards amyloid deposits and altered disease-related gene expression profile. Conversely, amplification of regulatory T cells through peripheral low-dose IL-2 treatment increased numbers of plaque-associated microglia, and restored cognitive functions in APPPS1 mice. These data suggest that regulatory T cells play a beneficial role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease, by slowing disease progression and modulating microglial response to amyloid-β deposition. Our study highlights the therapeutic potential of repurposed IL-2 for innovative immunotherapy based on modulation of regulatory T cells in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26912648

  8. Dendritic Cells Coordinate the Development and Homeostasis of Organ-Specific Regulatory T Cells.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Daniel S; Gilmore, Dana C; Berger, Julian M; Nishi, Saki; Lee, Victoria; Malchow, Sven; Kline, Douglas E; Kline, Justin; Vander Griend, Donald J; Huang, Haochu; Socci, Nicholas D; Savage, Peter A

    2016-04-19

    Although antigen recognition mediated by the T cell receptor (TCR) influences many facets of Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cell biology, including development and function, the cell types that present antigen to Treg cells in vivo remain largely undefined. By tracking a clonal population of Aire-dependent, prostate-specific Treg cells in mice, we demonstrated an essential role for dendritic cells (DCs) in regulating organ-specific Treg cell biology. We have shown that the thymic development of prostate-specific Treg cells required antigen presentation by DCs. Moreover, Batf3-dependent CD8α(+) DCs were dispensable for the development of this clonotype and had negligible impact on the polyclonal Treg cell repertoire. In the periphery, CCR7-dependent migratory DCs coordinated the activation of organ-specific Treg cells in the prostate-draining lymph nodes. Our results demonstrate that the development and peripheral regulation of organ-specific Treg cells are dependent on antigen presentation by DCs, implicating DCs as key mediators of organ-specific immune tolerance.

  9. Cell-type-specific enrichment of risk-associated regulatory elements at ovarian cancer susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Coetzee, Simon G.; Shen, Howard C.; Hazelett, Dennis J.; Lawrenson, Kate; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline; Tyrer, Jonathan; Rhie, Suhn K.; Levanon, Keren; Karst, Alison; Drapkin, Ronny; Ramus, Susan J.; Couch, Fergus J.; Offit, Kenneth; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.; Antoniou, Antonis; Freedman, Matthew; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Noushmehr, Houtan; Gayther, Simon A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the regulatory landscape of the human genome is a central question in complex trait genetics. Most single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with cancer risk lie in non-protein-coding regions, implicating regulatory DNA elements as functional targets of susceptibility variants. Here, we describe genome-wide annotation of regions of open chromatin and histone modification in fallopian tube and ovarian surface epithelial cells (FTSECs, OSECs), the debated cellular origins of high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOCs) and in endometriosis epithelial cells (EECs), the likely precursor of clear cell ovarian carcinomas (CCOCs). The regulatory architecture of these cell types was compared with normal human mammary epithelial cells and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. We observed similar positional patterns of global enhancer signatures across the three different ovarian cancer precursor cell types, and evidence of tissue-specific regulatory signatures compared to non-gynecological cell types. We found significant enrichment for risk-associated SNPs intersecting regulatory biofeatures at 17 known HGSOC susceptibility loci in FTSECs (P = 3.8 × 10−30), OSECs (P = 2.4 × 10−23) and HMECs (P = 6.7 × 10−15) but not for EECs (P = 0.45) or LNCaP cells (P = 0.88). Hierarchical clustering of risk SNPs conditioned on the six different cell types indicates FTSECs and OSECs are highly related (96% of samples using multi-scale bootstrapping) suggesting both cell types may be precursors of HGSOC. These data represent the first description of regulatory catalogues of normal precursor cells for different ovarian cancer subtypes, and provide unique insights into the tissue specific regulatory variation with respect to the likely functional targets of germline genetic susceptibility variants for ovarian cancer. PMID:25804953

  10. A Systematic Analysis of Drosophila Regulatory Peptide Expression in Enteroendocrine Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ji; Kim, Seol-min; Kwon, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    The digestive system is gaining interest as a major regulator of various functions including immune defense, nutrient accumulation, and regulation of feeding behavior, aside from its conventional function as a digestive organ. The Drosophila midgut epithelium is completely renewed every 1–2 weeks due to differentiation of pluripotent intestinal stem cells in the midgut. Intestinal stem cells constantly divide and differentiate into enterocytes that secrete digestive enzymes and absorb nutrients, or enteroendocrine cells that secrete regulatory peptides. Regulatory peptides have important roles in development and metabolism, but study has mainly focused on expression and functions in the nervous system, and not much is known about the roles in endocrine functions of enteroendocrine cells. We systemically examined the expression of 45 regulatory peptide genes in the Drosophila midgut, and verified that at least 10 genes are expressed in the midgut enteroendocrine cells through RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, antisera, and 25 regulatory peptide-GAL transgenes. The Drosophila midgut is highly compartmentalized, and individual peptides in enteroendocrine cells were observed to express in specific regions of the midgut. We also confirmed that some peptides expressed in the same region of the midgut are expressed in mutually exclusive enteroendocrine cells. These results indicate that the midgut enteroendocrine cells are functionally differentiated into different subgroups. Through this study, we have established a basis to study regulatory peptide functions in enteroendocrine cells as well as the complex organization of enteroendocrine cells in the Drosophila midgut. PMID:27025390

  11. Unexpected Regulatory Role of CCR9 in Regulatory T Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Evans-Marin, Heather L.; Cao, Anthony T.; Yao, Suxia; Chen, Feidi; He, Chong; Liu, Han; Wu, Wei; Gonzalez, Maria G.; Dann, Sara M.; Cong, Yingzi

    2015-01-01

    T cells reactive to microbiota regulate the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). As T cell trafficking to intestines is regulated through interactions between highly specific chemokine-chemokine receptors, efforts have been made to develop intestine-specific immunosuppression based on blocking these key processes. CCR9, a gut-trophic chemokine receptor expressed by lymphocytes and dendritic cells, has been implicated in the regulation of IBD through mediating recruitment of T cells to inflamed sites. However, the role of CCR9 in inducing and sustaining inflammation in the context of IBD is poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that CCR9 deficiency in effector T cells and Tregs does not affect the development of colitis in a microbiota antigen-specific, T cell-mediated model. However, Treg cells express higher levels of CCR9 compared to those in effector T cells. Interestingly, CCR9 inhibits Treg cell development, in that CCR9-/- mice demonstrate a high level of Foxp3+ Tregs, and ligation of CCR9 by its ligand CCL25 inhibits Treg cell differentiation in vitro. Collectively, our data indicate that in addition to acting as a gut-homing molecule, CCR9 signaling shapes immune responses by inhibiting Treg cell development. PMID:26230654

  12. Antibody Targeting of “Steady-State” Dendritic Cells Induces Tolerance Mediated by Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mahnke, Karsten; Ring, Sabine; Enk, Alexander H.

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are often defined as pivotal inducers of immunity, but these proinflammatory properties only develop after stimulation or ex vivo manipulation of DCs. Under non-inflammatory conditions in vivo, DCs are embedded into a tissue environment and encounter a plethora of self-antigens derived from apoptotic material. This material is transported to secondary lymphoid organs. As DCs maintain their non-activated phenotype in a sterile tissue environment, interaction with T cells will induce rather regulatory T cells than effector T cells. Thus, DCs are not only inducers of immunity but are also critical for maintenance of peripheral tolerance. Therapeutically, intervention for the induction of long-lasting tolerance in several autoimmune conditions may therefore be possible by manipulating DC activation and/or targeting of DCs in their “natural” tissue environment. PMID:26941742

  13. Serial analysis of gene expression provides new insights into regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Cobbold, Stephen P; Adams, Elizabeth; Graca, Luis; Waldmann, Herman

    2003-08-01

    It is now possible to induce donor-specific transplantation tolerance in adult rodents using a number of therapeutic strategies. Such peripheral tolerance is maintained by regulatory CD4+ T cells, not only in transplantation models, but also in autoimmunity. Differential gene expression analyses have been used to identify potential new markers for regulatory T cells, aiming to reveal new insights into their mechanisms of action, and to find novel targets for therapeutic manipulation of the immune system. PMID:14690045

  14. Bacterial Manipulation of NK Cell Regulatory Activity Increases Susceptibility to Listeria monocytogenes Infection

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, Brandon S.; Schmidt, Rebecca L.; Jamieson, Amanda; Merkel, Patricia; Knight, Vijaya; Cole, Caroline M.; Raulet, David H.; Lenz, Laurel L.

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells produce interferon (IFN)-γ and thus have been suggested to promote type I immunity during bacterial infections. Yet, Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) and some other pathogens encode proteins that cause increased NK cell activation. Here, we show that stimulation of NK cell activation increases susceptibility during Lm infection despite and independent from robust NK cell production of IFNγ. The increased susceptibility correlated with IL-10 production by responding NK cells. NK cells produced IL-10 as their IFNγ production waned and the Lm virulence protein p60 promoted induction of IL-10 production by mouse and human NK cells. NK cells consequently exerted regulatory effects to suppress accumulation and activation of inflammatory myeloid cells. Our results reveal new dimensions of the role played by NK cells during Lm infection and demonstrate the ability of this bacterial pathogen to exploit the induction of regulatory NK cell activity to increase host susceptibility. PMID:27295349

  15. Unexpected T cell regulatory activity of anti-histone H1 autoantibody: Its mode of action in regulatory T cell-dependent and -independent manners

    SciTech Connect

    Takaoka, Yuki; Kawamoto, Seiji; Katayama, Akiko; Nakano, Toshiaki; Yamanaka, Yasushi; Takahashi, Miki; Shimada, Yayoi; Chiang, Kuei-Chen; Ohmori, Naoya; Aki, Tsunehiro; Goto, Takeshi; Sato, Shuji; Goto, Shigeru; Chen, Chao-Long; Ono, Kazuhisa

    2013-02-08

    Highlights: ► Anti-histone H1 autoantibody (anti-H1) acts on T cells to inhibit their activation. ► Anti-H1 suppresses T cell activation in Treg cell-dependent and -independent manners. ► Suboptimal dose of anti-H1 enhances suppressor function of Treg cells. ► High dose of anti-H1 directly inhibits T cell receptor signaling. -- Abstract: Induction of anti-nuclear antibodies against DNA or histones is a hallmark of autoimmune disorders, but their actual contribution to disease predisposition remains to be clarified. We have previously reported that autoantibodies against histone H1 work as a critical graft survival factor in a rat model of tolerogeneic liver transplantation. Here we show that an immunosuppressive anti-histone H1 monoclonal antibody (anti-H1 mAb) acts directly on T cells to inhibit their activation in response to T cell receptor (TCR) ligation. Intriguingly, the T cell activation inhibitory activity of anti-H1 mAb under suboptimal dosages required regulatory T (Treg) cells, while high dose stimulation with anti-H1 mAb triggered a Treg cell-independent, direct negative regulation of T cell activation upon TCR cross-linking. In the Treg cell-dependent mode of immunosuppressive action, anti-H1 mAb did not induce the expansion of CD4{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} Treg cells, but rather potentiated their regulatory capacity. These results reveal a previously unappreciated T cell regulatory role of anti-H1 autoantibody, whose overproduction is generally thought to be pathogenic in the autoimmune settings.

  16. Treatment of ongoing autoimmune encephalomyelitis with activated B-cell progenitors maturing into regulatory B cells

    PubMed Central

    Korniotis, Sarantis; Gras, Christophe; Letscher, Hélène; Montandon, Ruddy; Mégret, Jérôme; Siegert, Stefanie; Ezine, Sophie; Fallon, Padraic G.; Luther, Sanjiv A.; Fillatreau, Simon; Zavala, Flora

    2016-01-01

    The influence of signals perceived by immature B cells during their development in bone marrow on their subsequent functions as mature cells are poorly defined. Here, we show that bone marrow cells transiently stimulated in vivo or in vitro through the Toll-like receptor 9 generate proB cells (CpG-proBs) that interrupt experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) when transferred at the onset of clinical symptoms. Protection requires differentiation of CpG-proBs into mature B cells that home to reactive lymph nodes, where they trap T cells by releasing the CCR7 ligand, CCL19, and to inflamed central nervous system, where they locally limit immunopathogenesis through interleukin-10 production, thereby cooperatively inhibiting ongoing EAE. These data demonstrate that a transient inflammation at the environment, where proB cells develop, is sufficient to confer regulatory functions onto their mature B-cell progeny. In addition, these properties of CpG-proBs open interesting perspectives for cell therapy of autoimmune diseases. PMID:27396388

  17. Functional role of regulatory T cells in B cell lymphoma and related mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Wan, Jun; Xia, Ruixiang; Huang, Zhenqi; Ni, Jing; Yang, Mingzhen

    2015-01-01

    B cell lymphoma (BCL) has a higher degree of malignancy and complicated pathogenic mechanism. Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) are known to exert certain immune suppression functions, in addition to immune mediating effects. Recent studies have revealed the role of Treg cells in pathogenesis and progression of multiple malignant tumors. This study therefore investigated the functional role and related mechanism of Treg cells in BCL. A cohort of thirty patients who were diagnosed with BCL in our hospital between January 2013 and December 2014. Another thirty healthy individuals were recruited. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were separated and analyzed for the ratio of CD4+/CD25+ Treg cells. The mRNA expression levels of Foxp3, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and interleukin (IL)-10 genes were quantified by real-time PCR, while their serum levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Meanwhile all laboratory indexes for patients were monitored during the complete remission (CR) stage. BCL patients significantly elevated ratio of CD4+/CD25+ Treg cells, which were decreased at CR stage. mRNA levels of Foxp3, TGF-β1 and IL-10, in addition to protein levels of TGF-β1 and IL-10 were potentiated in lymphoma patients but decreased in CR patients (P<0.05 in all cases). CD4+/CD25+ Treg cells exert immune suppressing functions in BCL via regulating cytokines, thereby facilitating the pathogenesis and progression of lymphoma. PMID:26464657

  18. A Transcriptional Regulatory Switch Underlying B-Cell Terminal Differentiation and Its Disruption by Dioxin (S)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The terminal differentiation of B cells in lymphoid organs into antibody-secreting plasma cells upon antigen stimulation is a crucial step in the humoral immune response. The architecture of the B-cell transcriptional regulatory network consists of coupled mutually-repressive fee...

  19. Manipulation of regulatory T cells and antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte-based tumour immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Shirin; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chakraborty, Nitya G

    2015-01-01

    The most potent killing machinery in our immune system is the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL). Since the possibility for self-destruction by these cells is high, many regulatory activities exist to prevent autoimmune destruction by these cells. A tumour (cancer) grows from the cells of the body and is tolerated by the body's immune system. Yet, it has been possible to generate tumour-associated antigen (TAA) -specific CTL that are also self-antigen specific in vivo, to achieve a degree of therapeutic efficacy. Tumour-associated antigen-specific T-cell tolerance through pathways of self-tolerance generation represents a significant challenge to successful immunotherapy. CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ T cells, referred to as T regulatory (Treg) cells, are selected in the thymus as controllers of the anti-self repertoire. These cells are referred to as natural T regulatory (nTreg) cells. According to the new consensus (Nature Immunology 2013; 14:307–308) these cells are to be termed as (tTreg). There is another class of CD4+ Treg cells also involved in regulatory function in the periphery, also phenotypically CD4+ CD25±, classified as induced Treg (iTreg) cells. These cells are to be termed as peripherally induced Treg (pTreg) cells. In vitro-induced Treg cells with suppressor function should be termed as iTreg. These different Treg cells differ in their requirements for activation and in their mode of action. The current challenges are to determine the degree of specificity of these Treg cells in recognizing the same TAA as the CTL population and to circumvent their regulatory constraints so as to achieve robust CTL responses against cancer. PMID:25243729

  20. Regulatory T Cells in Melanoma Revisited by a Computational Clustering of FOXP3+ T Cell Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Hiroko; Josse, Julie; Tanioka, Miki; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Husson, François

    2016-01-01

    CD4+ T cells that express the transcription factor FOXP3 (FOXP3+ T cells) are commonly regarded as immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs). FOXP3+ T cells are reported to be increased in tumor-bearing patients or animals and are considered to suppress antitumor immunity, but the evidence is often contradictory. In addition, accumulating evidence indicates that FOXP3 is induced by antigenic stimulation and that some non-Treg FOXP3+ T cells, especially memory-phenotype FOXP3low cells, produce proinflammatory cytokines. Accordingly, the subclassification of FOXP3+ T cells is fundamental for revealing the significance of FOXP3+ T cells in tumor immunity, but the arbitrariness and complexity of manual gating have complicated the issue. In this article, we report a computational method to automatically identify and classify FOXP3+ T cells into subsets using clustering algorithms. By analyzing flow cytometric data of melanoma patients, the proposed method showed that the FOXP3+ subpopulation that had relatively high FOXP3, CD45RO, and CD25 expressions was increased in melanoma patients, whereas manual gating did not produce significant results on the FOXP3+ subpopulations. Interestingly, the computationally identified FOXP3+ subpopulation included not only classical FOXP3high Tregs, but also memory-phenotype FOXP3low cells by manual gating. Furthermore, the proposed method successfully analyzed an independent data set, showing that the same FOXP3+ subpopulation was increased in melanoma patients, validating the method. Collectively, the proposed method successfully captured an important feature of melanoma without relying on the existing criteria of FOXP3+ T cells, revealing a hidden association between the T cell profile and melanoma, and providing new insights into FOXP3+ T cells and Tregs. PMID:26864030

  1. TGF-β-Induced Regulatory T Cells Directly Suppress B Cell Responses through a Noncytotoxic Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Xu, Anping; Liu, Ya; Chen, Weiqian; Wang, Julie; Xue, Youqiu; Huang, Feng; Rong, Liming; Lin, Jin; Liu, Dahai; Yan, Mei; Li, Quan-Zhen; Li, Bin; Song, Jianxun; Olsen, Nancy; Zheng, Song Guo

    2016-05-01

    Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) playing a crucial role in the maintenance of immune tolerance and prevention of autoimmune diseases consist of thymus-derived naturally occurring CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells (nTreg) and those that can be induced ex vivo with TGF-β (iTreg). Although both Treg subsets share similar phenotypes and functional characteristics, they also have potential biologic differences on their biology. The role of iTreg in regulating B cells remains unclear so far. The suppression assays of Treg subsets on activation, proliferation, and Abs production of B cells were measured using a Treg and B cell coculture system in vitro. Transwell and Ab blockade experiments were performed to assess the roles of cell contact and soluble cytokines. Treg were adoptively transferred to lupus mice to assess in vivo effects on B cells. Like nTreg, iTreg subset also directly suppressed activation and proliferation of B cells. nTreg subset suppressed B cell responses through cytotoxic manner related to expression of granzyme A, granzyme B, and perforin, whereas the role of iTreg subset on B cells did not involve in cytotoxic action but depending on TGF-β signaling. Furthermore, iTreg subset can significantly suppress Ab produced by lupus B cells in vitro. Comparison experiments using autoantibodies microarrays demonstrated that adoptive transfer of iTreg had a superior effect than nTreg subset on suppressing lupus B cell responses in vivo. Our data implicate a role and advantage of iTreg subset in treating B cell-mediated autoimmune diseases, boosting the translational potential of these findings. PMID:27001954

  2. Regulatory T-cells and IL17A(+) cells infiltrate oral lichen planus lesions.

    PubMed

    Javvadi, L R; Parachuru, V P B; Milne, T J; Seymour, G J; Rich, A M

    2016-10-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a complex immunological disorder, mediated in part by the release of cytokines from activated T-cells. Of late, two closely related T-helper (Th) cell subsets; regulatory T-cells (Tregs; FoxP3(+)) and Th17 cells (IL17(+)) have been described in various chronic inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of FoxP3 and IL17 in OLP using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). For IHC, formalin fixed, paraffin embedded archival specimens, an OLP group (n=10) and a non-specific inflammatory (NSI) control group (n=9) were used. In addition, 12 fresh tissue samples were used to determine gene expression of FoxP3 and IL17. Significantly more FoxP3(+) cells were present in OLP than in NSI. IL17(+) cells were significantly more frequent in the control tissues than in OLP. The gene expression experiments revealed a significantly higher expression of FoxP3 in OLP when compared to the controls. IL17 gene expression was not different between the groups. Double labelling immunofluorescence indicated co-localisation of IL17 with tryptase(+) mast cells. These findings suggest FoxP3(+) Tregs have a more prominent role in the pathogenesis of OLP when compared to IL17(+)cells. PMID:27594511

  3. Natural killer cells and regulatory T cells in early pregnancy loss

    PubMed Central

    SHARMA, SURENDRA

    2015-01-01

    Survival of the allogeneic embryo in the uterus depends on the maintenance of immune tolerance at the maternal-fetal interface. The pregnant uterus is replete with activated maternal immune cells. How this immune tolerance is acquired and maintained has been a topic of intense investigation. The key immune cells that predominantly populate the pregnant uterus are natural killer (NK) cells. In normal pregnancy, these cells are not killers, but rather provide a microenvironment that is pregnancy compatible and supports healthy placentation. In placental mammals, an array of highly orchestrated immune elements to support successful pregnancy outcome has been incorporated. This includes active cooperation between maternal immune cells, particularly NK cells, and trophoblast cells. This intricate process is required for placentation, immune regulation and to remodel the blood supply to the fetus. During the past decade, various types of maternal immune cells have been thought to be involved in cross-talk with trophoblasts and in programming immune tolerance. RegulatoryT cells (Tregs) have attracted a great deal of attention in promoting implantation and immune tolerance beyond implantation. However, what has not been fully addressed is how this immune-trophoblast axis breaks down during adverse pregnancy outcomes, particularly early pregnancy loss, and in response to unscheduled inflammation. Intense research efforts have begun to shed light on the roles of NK cells and Tregs in early pregnancy loss, although much remains to be unraveled in order to fully characterize the mechanisms underlying their detrimental activity. An increased understanding of host-environment interactions that lead to the cytotoxic phenotype of these otherwise pregnancy compatible maternal immune cells is important for prediction, prevention and treatment of pregnancy maladies, particularly recurrent pregnancy loss. In this review, we discuss relevant information from experimental and human

  4. Natural killer cells and regulatory T cells in early pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Surendra

    2014-01-01

    Survival of the allogeneic embryo in the uterus depends on the maintenance of immune tolerance at the maternal-fetal interface. The pregnant uterus is replete with activated maternal immune cells. How this immune tolerance is acquired and maintained has been a topic of intense investigation. The key immune cells that predominantly populate the pregnant uterus are natural killer (NK) cells. In normal pregnancy, these cells are not killers, but rather provide a microenvironment that is pregnancy compatible and supports healthy placentation. In placental mammals, an array of highly orchestrated immune elements to support successful pregnancy outcome has been incorporated. This includes active cooperation between maternal immune cells, particularly NK cells, and trophoblast cells. This intricate process is required for placentation, immune regulation and to remodel the blood supply to the fetus. During the past decade, various types of maternal immune cells have been thought to be involved in cross-talk with trophoblasts and in programming immune tolerance. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have attracted a great deal of attention in promoting implantation and immune tolerance beyond implantation. However, what has not been fully addressed is how this immune-trophoblast axis breaks down during adverse pregnancy outcomes, particularly early pregnancy loss, and in response to unscheduled inflammation. Intense research efforts have begun to shed light on the roles of NK cells and Tregs in early pregnancy loss, although much remains to be unraveled in order to fully characterize the mechanisms underlying their detrimental activity. An increased understanding of host-environment interactions that lead to the cytotoxic phenotype of these otherwise pregnancy compatible maternal immune cells is important for prediction, prevention and treatment of pregnancy maladies, particularly recurrent pregnancy loss. In this review, we discuss relevant information from experimental and human

  5. Mucosal Regulatory T Cells and T Helper 17 Cells in HIV-Associated Immune Activation

    PubMed Central

    Pandiyan, Pushpa; Younes, Souheil-Antoine; Ribeiro, Susan Pereira; Talla, Aarthi; McDonald, David; Bhaskaran, Natarajan; Levine, Alan D.; Weinberg, Aaron; Sekaly, Rafick P.

    2016-01-01

    Residual mucosal inflammation along with chronic systemic immune activation is an important feature in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and has been linked to a wide range of co-morbidities, including malignancy, opportunistic infections, immunopathology, and cardiovascular complications. Although combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) can reduce plasma viral loads to undetectable levels, reservoirs of virus persist, and increased mortality is associated with immune dysbiosis in mucosal lymphoid tissues. Immune-based therapies are pursued with the goal of improving CD4+ T-cell restoration, as well as reducing chronic immune activation in cART-treated patients. However, the majority of research on immune activation has been derived from analysis of circulating T cells. How immune cell alterations in mucosal tissues contribute to HIV immune dysregulation and the associated risk of non-infectious chronic complications is less studied. Given the significant differences between mucosal T cells and circulating T cells, and the immediate interactions of mucosal T cells with the microbiome, more attention should be devoted to mucosal immune cells and their contribution to systemic immune activation in HIV-infected individuals. Here, we will focus on mucosal immune cells with a specific emphasis on CD4+ T lymphocytes, such as T helper 17 cells and CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), which play crucial roles in maintaining mucosal barrier integrity and preventing inflammation, respectively. We hypothesize that pro-inflammatory milieu in cART-treated patients with immune activation significantly contributes to enhanced loss of Th17 cells and increased frequency of dysregulated Tregs in the mucosa, which in turn may exacerbate immune dysfunction in HIV-infected patients. We also present initial evidence to support this hypothesis. A better comprehension of how pro-inflammatory milieu impacts these two types of cells in the mucosa will shed light

  6. Genetic and epigenetic variation in the lineage specification of regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Arvey, Aaron; van der Veeken, Joris; Plitas, George; Rich, Stephen S; Concannon, Patrick; Rudensky, Alexander Y

    2015-10-28

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells, which suppress autoimmunity and other inflammatory states, are characterized by a distinct set of genetic elements controlling their gene expression. However, the extent of genetic and associated epigenetic variation in the Treg cell lineage and its possible relation to disease states in humans remain unknown. We explored evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements and natural human inter-individual epigenetic variation in Treg cells to identify the core transcriptional control program of lineage specification. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in core lineage-specific enhancers revealed disease associations, which were further corroborated by high-resolution genotyping to fine map causal polymorphisms in lineage-specific enhancers. Our findings suggest that a small set of regulatory elements specify the Treg lineage and that genetic variation in Treg cell-specific enhancers may alter Treg cell function contributing to polygenic disease.

  7. Induction of Regulatory T Cells by Intravenous Immunoglobulin: A Bridge between Adaptive and Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Gabriel N.; Massoud, Amir H.; Dembele, Marieme; Yona, Madelaine; Piccirillo, Ciriaco A.; Mazer, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is a polyclonal immunoglobulin G preparation with potent immunomodulatory properties. The mode of action of IVIg has been investigated in multiple disease states, with various mechanisms described to account for its benefits. Recent data indicate that IVIg increases both the number and the suppressive capacity of regulatory T cells, a subpopulation of T cells that are essential for immune homeostasis. IVIg alters dendritic cell function, cytokine and chemokine networks, and T lymphocytes, leading to development of regulatory T cells. The ability of IVIg to influence Treg induction has been shown both in animal models and in human diseases. In this review, we discuss data on the potential mechanisms contributing to the interaction between IVIg and the regulatory T-cell compartment. PMID:26441974

  8. Toward a complete in silico, multi-layered embryonic stem cell regulatory network

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huilei; Schaniel, Christoph; Lemischka, Ihor R.; Ma’ayan, Avi

    2010-01-01

    Recent efforts in systematically profiling embryonic stem (ES) cells have yielded a wealth of high-throughput data. Complementarily, emerging databases and computational tools facilitate ES cell studies and further pave the way toward the in silico reconstruction of regulatory networks encompassing multiple molecular layers. Here, we briefly survey databases, algorithms, and software tools used to organize and analyze high-throughput experimental data collected to study mammalian cellular systems with a focus on ES cells. The vision of using heterogeneous data to reconstruct a complete multilayered ES cell regulatory network is discussed. This review also provides an accompanying manually extracted dataset of different types of regulatory interactions from low-throughput experimental ES cell studies available at http://amp.pharm.mssm.edu/iscmid/literature. PMID:20890967

  9. Involvement of Regulatory T Cells in the Immunosuppression Characteristic of Patients with Paracoccidioidomycosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Maria Carolina; de Oliveira, Rômulo Tadeu Dias; da Silva, Rosiane Maria; Blotta, Maria Heloisa Souza Lima; Mamoni, Ronei Luciano

    2010-01-01

    Patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) exhibit a suppression of the cellular immune response characterized by negative delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigens, the apoptosis of lymphocytes, and high levels of expression of cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). The aim of this study was to investigate whether and how regulatory T cells (Treg cells) are involved in this immunosuppression by analyzing the number, phenotype, and activity of these cells in patients with active disease (AD group) and patients who had received treatment (TD group). Our results showed that the AD patients had more Treg cells than the TD patients or controls (C group) and also had elevated levels of expression of regulatory markers (glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor [TNF] receptor-related protein [GITR], CTLA-4, CD95L, LAP-1, and CD38). An analysis of regulatory activity showed that Treg cells from the AD group had greater activity than did cells from the other groups and that cell-cell contact is mandatory for this activity in the C group but was only partially involved in the regulatory activity of cells from AD patients. The addition of anti-IL-10 and anti-TGF-β neutralizing antibodies to the cultures showed that the production of cytokines may be another mechanism used by Treg cells. In conclusion, the elevated numbers of these cells with an increased regulatory phenotype and strong suppressive activity suggest a potential role for them in the immunosuppression characteristic of paracoccidioidomycosis. In addition, our results indicate that while Treg cells act by cell-cell contact, cytokine production also plays an important role. PMID:20643858

  10. A steganalysis-based approach to comprehensive identification and characterization of functional regulatory elements

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guandong; Zhang, Weixiong

    2006-01-01

    The comprehensive identification of cis-regulatory elements on a genome scale is a challenging problem. We develop a novel, steganalysis-based approach for genome-wide motif finding, called WordSpy, by viewing regulatory regions as a stegoscript with cis-elements embedded in 'background' sequences. We apply WordSpy to the promoters of cell-cycle-related genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana, identifying all known cell-cycle motifs with high ranking. WordSpy can discover a complete set of cis-elements and facilitate the systematic study of regulatory networks. PMID:16787547

  11. Multiple sclerosis associated genetic variants of CD226 impair regulatory T cell function.

    PubMed

    Piédavent-Salomon, Melanie; Willing, Anne; Engler, Jan Broder; Steinbach, Karin; Bauer, Simone; Eggert, Britta; Ufer, Friederike; Kursawe, Nina; Wehrmann, Sabine; Jäger, Jan; Reinhardt, Stefanie; Friese, Manuel A

    2015-11-01

    Recent association studies have linked numerous genetic variants with an increased risk for multiple sclerosis, although their functional relevance remains largely unknown. Here we investigated phenotypical and functional consequences of a genetic variant in the CD226 gene that, among other autoimmune diseases, predisposes to multiple sclerosis. Phenotypically, effector and regulatory CD4(+) memory T cells of healthy individuals carrying the predisposing CD226 genetic variant showed, in comparison to carriers of the protective variant, reduced surface expression of CD226 and an impaired induction of CD226 after stimulation. This haplotype-dependent reduction in CD226 expression on memory T cells was abrogated in patients with multiple sclerosis, as CD226 expression was comparable to healthy risk haplotype carriers irrespective of genetic variant. Functionally, FOXP3-positive regulatory T cells from healthy carriers of the genetic protective variant showed superior suppressive capacity, which was again abrogated in multiple sclerosis patients. Mimicking the phenotype of human CD226 genetic risk variant carriers, regulatory T cells derived from Cd226-deficient mice showed similarly reduced inhibitory activity, eventually resulting in an exacerbated disease course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, the animal model of multiple sclerosis. Therefore, by combining human and mouse analyses we show that CD226 exhibits an important role in the activation of regulatory T cells, with its genetically imposed dysregulation impairing regulatory T cell function.

  12. Breaking Free of Control: How Conventional T Cells Overcome Regulatory T Cell Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Mercadante, Emily R.; Lorenz, Ulrike M.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional T (Tcon) cells are crucial in shaping the immune response, whether it is protection against a pathogen, a cytotoxic attack on tumor cells, or an unwanted response to self-antigens in the context of autoimmunity. In each of these immune settings, regulatory T cells (Tregs) can potentially exert control over the Tcon cell response, resulting in either suppression or activation of the Tcon cells. Under physiological conditions, Tcon cells are able to transiently overcome Treg-imposed restraints to mount a protective response against an infectious threat, achieving clonal expansion, differentiation, and effector function. However, evidence has accumulated in recent years to suggest that Tcon cell resistance to Treg-mediated suppression centrally contributes to the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. Tipping the balance too far in the other direction, cancerous tumors utilize Tregs to establish an overly suppressive microenvironment, preventing antitumor Tcon cell responses. Given the wide-ranging clinical importance of the Tcon/Treg interaction, this review aims to provide a better understanding of what determines whether a Tcon cell is susceptible to Treg-mediated suppression and how perturbations to this finely tuned balance play a role in pathological conditions. Here, we focus in detail on the complex array of factors that confer Tcon cells with resistance to Treg suppression, which we have divided into two categories: (1) extracellular factor-mediated signaling and (2) intracellular signaling molecules. Further, we explore the therapeutic implications of manipulating the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway, which is proposed to be the convergence point of signaling pathways that mediate Tcon resistance to suppression. Finally, we address important unresolved questions on the timing and location of acquisition of resistance, and the stability of the “Treg-resistant” phenotype. PMID:27242798

  13. Breaking Free of Control: How Conventional T Cells Overcome Regulatory T Cell Suppression.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, Emily R; Lorenz, Ulrike M

    2016-01-01

    Conventional T (Tcon) cells are crucial in shaping the immune response, whether it is protection against a pathogen, a cytotoxic attack on tumor cells, or an unwanted response to self-antigens in the context of autoimmunity. In each of these immune settings, regulatory T cells (Tregs) can potentially exert control over the Tcon cell response, resulting in either suppression or activation of the Tcon cells. Under physiological conditions, Tcon cells are able to transiently overcome Treg-imposed restraints to mount a protective response against an infectious threat, achieving clonal expansion, differentiation, and effector function. However, evidence has accumulated in recent years to suggest that Tcon cell resistance to Treg-mediated suppression centrally contributes to the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. Tipping the balance too far in the other direction, cancerous tumors utilize Tregs to establish an overly suppressive microenvironment, preventing antitumor Tcon cell responses. Given the wide-ranging clinical importance of the Tcon/Treg interaction, this review aims to provide a better understanding of what determines whether a Tcon cell is susceptible to Treg-mediated suppression and how perturbations to this finely tuned balance play a role in pathological conditions. Here, we focus in detail on the complex array of factors that confer Tcon cells with resistance to Treg suppression, which we have divided into two categories: (1) extracellular factor-mediated signaling and (2) intracellular signaling molecules. Further, we explore the therapeutic implications of manipulating the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway, which is proposed to be the convergence point of signaling pathways that mediate Tcon resistance to suppression. Finally, we address important unresolved questions on the timing and location of acquisition of resistance, and the stability of the "Treg-resistant" phenotype. PMID:27242798

  14. Regulatory T cell effects in antitumor laser immunotherapy: a mathematical model and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawkins, Bryan A.; Laverty, Sean M.

    2016-03-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have tremendous influence on treatment outcomes in patients receiving immunotherapy for cancerous tumors. We present a mathematical model incorporating the primary cellular and molecular components of antitumor laser immunotherapy. We explicitly model developmental classes of dendritic cells (DCs), cytotoxic T cells (CTLs), primary and metastatic tumor cells, and tumor antigen. Regulatory T cells have been shown to kill antigen presenting cells, to influence dendritic cell maturation and migration, to kill activated killer CTLs in the tumor microenvironment, and to influence CTL proliferation. Since Tregs affect explicitly modeled cells, but we do not explicitly model dynamics of Treg themselves, we use model parameters to analyze effects of Treg immunosuppressive activity. We will outline a systematic method for assigning clinical outcomes to model simulations and use this condition to associate simulated patient treatment outcome with Treg activity.

  15. Comparison of circulating and intratumoral regulatory T cells in patients with renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Asma, Gati; Amal, Gorrab; Raja, Marrakchi; Amine, Derouiche; Mohammed, Chebil; Amel, Ben Ammar Elgaaied

    2015-05-01

    The clear evidence that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) exists in the tumor microenvironment raises the question why renal cell carcinoma (RCC) progresses. Numerous studies support the implication of CD4(+)CD25(high) regulatory T (Treg) cells in RCC development. We aimed in this study to characterize the phenotype and function of circulating and intratumoral Treg cells of RCC patient in order to evaluate their implication in the inhibition of the local antitumor immune response. Our results demonstrate that the proportion of Treg in TIL was, in average, similar to that found in circulating CD4(+) T cells of patients or healthy donors. However, intratumoral Treg exhibit a marked different phenotype when compared with the autologous circulating Treg. A higher CD25 mean level, HLA-DR, Fas, and GITR, and a lower CD45RA expression were observed in intratumoral Treg, suggesting therefore that these cells are effector in the tumor microenvironment. Additionally, intratumoral Treg showed a higher inhibitory function on autologous CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells when compared with circulating Treg that may be explained by an overexpression of FoxP3 transcription factor. These findings suggest that intratumoral Treg could be major actors in the impairment of local antitumor immune response for RCC patients.

  16. Comparison of circulating and intratumoral regulatory T cells in patients with renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Asma, Gati; Amal, Gorrab; Raja, Marrakchi; Amine, Derouiche; Mohammed, Chebil; Amel, Ben Ammar Elgaaied

    2015-05-01

    The clear evidence that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) exists in the tumor microenvironment raises the question why renal cell carcinoma (RCC) progresses. Numerous studies support the implication of CD4(+)CD25(high) regulatory T (Treg) cells in RCC development. We aimed in this study to characterize the phenotype and function of circulating and intratumoral Treg cells of RCC patient in order to evaluate their implication in the inhibition of the local antitumor immune response. Our results demonstrate that the proportion of Treg in TIL was, in average, similar to that found in circulating CD4(+) T cells of patients or healthy donors. However, intratumoral Treg exhibit a marked different phenotype when compared with the autologous circulating Treg. A higher CD25 mean level, HLA-DR, Fas, and GITR, and a lower CD45RA expression were observed in intratumoral Treg, suggesting therefore that these cells are effector in the tumor microenvironment. Additionally, intratumoral Treg showed a higher inhibitory function on autologous CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells when compared with circulating Treg that may be explained by an overexpression of FoxP3 transcription factor. These findings suggest that intratumoral Treg could be major actors in the impairment of local antitumor immune response for RCC patients. PMID:25563193

  17. T regulatory cell chemokine production mediates pathogenic T cell attraction and suppression.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Scott J; Pesenacker, Anne M; Wang, Adele Y; Gillies, Jana; Mojibian, Majid; Morishita, Kim; Tan, Rusung; Kieffer, Timothy J; Verchere, C Bruce; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina; Levings, Megan K

    2016-03-01

    T regulatory cells (Tregs) control immune homeostasis by preventing inappropriate responses to self and nonharmful foreign antigens. Tregs use multiple mechanisms to control immune responses, all of which require these cells to be near their targets of suppression; however, it is not known how Treg-to-target proximity is controlled. Here, we found that Tregs attract CD4+ and CD8+ T cells by producing chemokines. Specifically, Tregs produced both CCL3 and CCL4 in response to stimulation, and production of these chemokines was critical for migration of target T cells, as Tregs from Ccl3-/- mice, which are also deficient for CCL4 production, did not promote migration. Moreover, CCR5 expression by target T cells was required for migration of these cells to supernatants conditioned by Tregs. Tregs deficient for expression of CCL3 and CCL4 were impaired in their ability to suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis or islet allograft rejection in murine models. Moreover, Tregs from subjects with established type 1 diabetes were impaired in their ability to produce CCL3 and CCL4. Together, these results demonstrate a previously unappreciated facet of Treg function and suggest that chemokine secretion by Tregs is a fundamental aspect of their therapeutic effect in autoimmunity and transplantation. PMID:26854929

  18. T regulatory cells and B cells cooperate to form a regulatory loop that maintains gut homeostasis and suppresses dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Ray, A; Jiang, X; Wang, J-y; Basu, S; Liu, X; Qian, T; He, R; Dittel, B N; Chu, Y

    2015-11-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) and B cells present in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) are both implicated in the resolution of colitis. However, how the functions of these cells are coordinated remains elusive. We used the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model combined with gene-modified mice to monitor the progression of colitis, and simultaneously examine the number of Tregs and B cells, and the production of IgA antibodies. We found that DSS-treated mice exhibited more severe colitis in the absence of B cells, and that the adoptive transfer of B cells attenuated the disease. Moreover, the transfer of IL-10(-/-) B cells also attenuated colitis, suggesting that B cells inhibited colitis through an interleukin-10 (IL-10)-independent pathway. Furthermore, antibody depletion of Tregs resulted in exacerbated colitis. Intriguingly, the number of GALT Tregs in B cell-deficient mice was significantly decreased during colitis and the adoptive transfer of B cells into these mice restored the Treg numbers, indicating that B cells contribute to Treg homeostasis. We also found that B cells induced the proliferation of Tregs that in turn promoted B-cell differentiation into IgA-producing plasma cells. These results demonstrate that B cells and Tregs interact and cooperate to prevent excessive immune responses that can lead to colitis.

  19. T regulatory cells and B cells cooperate to form a regulatory loop that maintains gut homeostasis and suppresses dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L; Ray, A; Jiang, X; Wang, J-y; Basu, S; Liu, X; Qian, T; He, R; Dittel, B N; Chu, Y

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) and B cells present in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) are both implicated in the resolution of colitis. However, how the functions of these cells are coordinated remains elusive. We used the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model combined with gene-modified mice to monitor the progression of colitis, and simultaneously examine the number of Tregs and B cells, and the production of IgA antibodies. We found that DSS-treated mice exhibited more severe colitis in the absence of B cells, and that the adoptive transfer of B cells attenuated the disease. Moreover, the transfer of IL-10−/− B cells also attenuated colitis, suggesting that B cells inhibited colitis through an interleukin-10 (IL-10)-independent pathway. Furthermore, antibody depletion of Tregs resulted in exacerbated colitis. Intriguingly, the number of GALT Tregs in B cell-deficient mice was significantly decreased during colitis and the adoptive transfer of B cells into these mice restored the Treg numbers, indicating that B cells contribute to Treg homeostasis. We also found that B cells induced the proliferation of Tregs that in turn promoted B-cell differentiation into IgA-producing plasma cells. These results demonstrate that B cells and Tregs interact and cooperate to prevent excessive immune responses that can lead to colitis. PMID:25807185

  20. Tumor eradication after cyclophosphamide depends on concurrent depletion of regulatory T cells: a role for cycling TNFR2-expressing effector-suppressor T cells in limiting effective chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    van der Most, Robbert G; Currie, Andrew J; Mahendran, Sathish; Prosser, Amy; Darabi, Anna; Robinson, Bruce W S; Nowak, Anna K; Lake, Richard A

    2009-08-01

    Tumor cell death potentially engages with the immune system. However, the efficacy of anti-tumor chemotherapy may be limited by tumor-driven immunosuppression, e.g., through CD25+ regulatory T cells. We addressed this question in a mouse model of mesothelioma by depleting or reconstituting CD25+ regulatory T cells in combination with two different chemotherapeutic drugs. We found that the efficacy of cyclophosphamide to eradicate established tumors, which has been linked to regulatory T cell depletion, was negated by adoptive transfer of CD25+ regulatory T cells. Analysis of post-chemotherapy regulatory T cell populations revealed that cyclophosphamide depleted cycling (Ki-67(hi)) T cells, including foxp3+ regulatory CD4+ T cells. Ki-67(hi) CD4+ T cells expressed increased levels of two markers, TNFR2 and ICOS, that have been associated with a maximally suppressive phenotype according to recently published studies. This suggest that cyclophosphamide depletes a population of maximally suppressive regulatory T cells, which may explain its superior anti-tumor efficacy in our model. Our data suggest that regulatory T cell depletion could be used to improve the efficacy of anti-cancer chemotherapy regimens. Indeed, we observed that the drug gemcitabine, which does not deplete cycling regulatory T cells, eradicates established tumors in mice only when CD25+ CD4+ T cells are concurrently depleted. Cyclophosphamide could be used to achieve regulatory T cell depletion in combination with chemotherapy.

  1. Small non-coding RNAs, mammalian cells, and viruses: regulatory interactions?

    PubMed

    Yeung, Man Lung; Benkirane, Monsef; Jeang, Kuan-Teh

    2007-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that mammalian cells can use small non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) to regulate physiological viral infections. Here, we comment on several lines of evidence that support this concept. We discuss how viruses may in turn protect, suppress, evade, modulate, or adapt to the host cell's ncRNA regulatory schema. PMID:17937800

  2. A Transcriptional Regulatory Switch Underlying B-Cell Terminal Differentiation and its Disruption by Dioxin

    EPA Science Inventory

    The terminal differentiation of B lymphocytes into antibody-secreting plasma cells upon antigen stimulation is a crucial step in the humoral immune response. The mutually-repressive interactions among three key regulatory transcription factors underlying B to plasma cell differe...

  3. Estrogen induces multiple regulatory B cell subtypes and promotes M2 microglia and neuroprotection during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Benedek, Gil; Zhang, Jun; Bodhankar, Sheetal; Nguyen, Ha; Kent, Gail; Jordan, Kelley; Manning, Dustin; Vandenbark, Arthur A; Offner, Halina

    2016-04-15

    Sex hormones promote immunoregulatory effects on multiple sclerosis. The current study evaluated estrogen effects on regulatory B cells and resident CNS microglia during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Herein, we demonstrate an estrogen-dependent induction of multiple regulatory B cell markers indicative of IL-10 dependent as well as IFN-γ dependent pathways. Moreover, although estrogen pretreatment of EAE mice inhibited the infiltration of pro-inflammatory cells into the CNS, it enhanced the frequency of regulatory B cells and M2 microglia. Our study suggests that estrogen has a broad effect on the development of regulatory B cells during EAE, which in turn could promote neuroprotection. PMID:27049561

  4. Estrogen induces multiple regulatory B cell subtypes and promotes M2 microglia and neuroprotection during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Benedek, Gil; Zhang, Jun; Bodhankar, Sheetal; Nguyen, Ha; Kent, Gail; Jordan, Kelley; Manning, Dustin; Vandenbark, Arthur A; Offner, Halina

    2016-04-15

    Sex hormones promote immunoregulatory effects on multiple sclerosis. The current study evaluated estrogen effects on regulatory B cells and resident CNS microglia during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Herein, we demonstrate an estrogen-dependent induction of multiple regulatory B cell markers indicative of IL-10 dependent as well as IFN-γ dependent pathways. Moreover, although estrogen pretreatment of EAE mice inhibited the infiltration of pro-inflammatory cells into the CNS, it enhanced the frequency of regulatory B cells and M2 microglia. Our study suggests that estrogen has a broad effect on the development of regulatory B cells during EAE, which in turn could promote neuroprotection.

  5. An arabidopsis gene regulatory network for secondary cell wall synthesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plant cell wall is an important factor for determining cell shape, function and response to the environment. Secondary cell walls, such as those found in xylem, are composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin and account for the bulk of plant biomass. The coordination between transcriptiona...

  6. Regulatory System for Stem/Progenitor Cell Niches in the Adult Rodent Pituitary

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Saishu; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland is a master endocrine tissue composed of five types of endocrine cells. Although the turnover rate of pituitary endocrine cells is as low as about 1.6% per day, recent studies have demonstrated that Sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2)+-cells exist as pituitary stem/progenitor cells in the adult anterior lobe and contribute to cell regeneration. Notably, SOX2+-pituitary stem/progenitor cells form two types of niches in this tissue: the marginal cell layer (MCL-niche) and the dense cell clusters scattering in the parenchyma (parenchymal-niche). However, little is known about the mechanisms and factors for regulating the pituitary stem/progenitor cell niches, as well as the functional differences between the two types of niches. Elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms in the niches might enable us to understand the cell regeneration system that acts in accordance with physiological demands in the adult pituitary. In this review, so as to reveal the regulatory mechanisms of the two types of niche, we summarize the regulatory factors and their roles in the adult rodent pituitary niches by focusing on three components: soluble factors, cell surface proteins and extracellular matrixes. PMID:26761002

  7. NK Cell and CD4+FoxP3+ Regulatory T Cell Based Therapies for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Engraftment

    PubMed Central

    Pierini, Antonio; Alvarez, Maite; Negrin, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a powerful therapy to treat multiple hematological diseases. The intensive conditioning regimens used to allow for donor hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) engraftment are often associated with severe toxicity, delayed immune reconstitution, life-threatening infections, and thus higher relapse rates. Additionally, due to the high incidence of graft versus host disease (GvHD), HCT protocols have evolved to prevent such disease that has a detrimental impact on antitumor and antiviral responses. Here, we analyzed the role of host T and natural killer (NK) cells in the rejection of donor HSC engraftment as well as the impact of donor regulatory T cells (Treg) and NK cells on HSC engraftment. We review some of the current strategies that utilize NK or Treg to improve allogeneic HCT therapy in order to accomplish better HSC engraftment and immune reconstitution and achieve a lower incidence of cancer relapse, opportunistic infections, and GvHD. PMID:26880996

  8. Regulatory Roles of Fluctuation-Driven Mechanotransduction in Cell Function.

    PubMed

    Suki, Béla; Parameswaran, Harikrishnan; Imsirovic, Jasmin; Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet

    2016-09-01

    Cells in the body are exposed to irregular mechanical stimuli. Here, we review the so-called fluctuation-driven mechanotransduction in which stresses stretching cells vary on a cycle-by-cycle basis. We argue that such mechanotransduction is an emergent network phenomenon and offer several potential mechanisms of how it regulates cell function. Several examples from the vasculature, the lung, and tissue engineering are discussed. We conclude with a list of important open questions. PMID:27511461

  9. Regulation of the Nanog Gene by Both Positive and Negative cis-Regulatory Elements in Embryonal Carcinoma Cells and Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Boer, Brian; Cox, Jesse L.; Claassen, David; Mallanna, Sunil Kumar; Desler, Michelle; Rizzino, Angie

    2008-01-01

    The transcription factor Nanog is essential for mammalian embryogenesis, as well as the pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) cells. Work with ES cells and embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells previously identified positive and negative cis-regulatory elements that influence the activity of the Nanog promoter, including adjacent cis-regulatory elements that bind Sox2 and Oct-3/4. Given the importance of Nanog during mammalian development, we examined the cis-regulatory elements required for Nanog promoter activity more closely. In this study, we demonstrate that two positive cis-regulatory elements previously shown to be active in F9 EC cells are also active in ES cells. We also identify a novel negative regulatory region that is located in close proximity to two other positive Nanog cis-regulatory elements. Although this negative regulatory region is active in F9 EC cells and ES cells, it is inactive in P19 EC cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that one of the positive cis-regulatory elements active in F9 EC cells and ES cells is inactive in P19 EC cells. Together, these and other studies suggest that Nanog transcription is regulated by the interplay of positive and negative cis-regulatory elements. Given that P19 appears to be more closely related to a later developmental stage of mammalian development than F9 and ES cells, differential utilization of cis-regulatory elements may reflect mechanisms used during development to achieve the correct level of Nanog expression as embryogenesis unfolds. PMID:18537119

  10. Regulatory Oversight of Gene Therapy and Cell Therapy Products in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Minjoung; Han, Euiri; Lee, Sunmi; Kim, Taegyun; Shin, Won

    2015-01-01

    The Ministry of Food and Drug Safety regulates gene therapy and cell therapy products as biological products under the authority of the Pharmaceutical Affairs Act. As with other medicinal products, gene therapy and cell therapy products are subject to approval for use in clinical trials and for a subsequent marketing authorization and to post-market surveillance. Research and development of gene therapy and cell therapy products have been progressing rapidly in Korea with extensive investment, offering great potential for the treatment of various serious diseases. To facilitate development of safe and effective products and provide more opportunities to patients suffering from severe diseases, several regulatory programs, such as the use of investigational products for emergency situations, fast-track approval, prereview of application packages, and intensive regulatory consultation, can be applied to these products. The regulatory approach for these innovative products is case by case and founded on science-based review that is flexible and balances the risks and benefits.

  11. Immunomodulatory effects of deacetylase inhibitors: therapeutic targeting of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liqing; de Zoeten, Edwin F.; Greene, Mark I.; Hancock, Wayne W.

    2010-01-01

    Classical zinc-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) catalyse the removal of acetyl groups from histone tails and also from many non-histone proteins, including the transcription factor FOXP3, a key regulator of the development and function of regulatory T cells. Many HDAC inhibitors are in cancer clinical trials, but a subset of HDAC inhibitors has important anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive effects that might be of therapeutic benefit in immuno-inflammatory disorders or post-transplantation. At least some of these effects result from the ability of HDAC inhibitors to enhance the production and suppressive functions of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells. Understanding which HDACs contribute to the regulation of the functions of regulatory T cells may further stimulate the development of new class- or subclass-specific HDAC inhibitors with applications beyond oncology. PMID:19855427

  12. Characterization of Regulatory B Cells in Graves' Disease and Hashimoto's Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Birte; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Lundy, Steven K; Brimnes, Marie K; Smith, Terry J; Nielsen, Claus H

    2015-01-01

    A hallmark of regulatory B cells is IL-10 production, hence their designation as IL-10+ B cells. Little is known about the ability of self-antigens to induce IL-10+ B cells in Graves' disease (GD), Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), or other autoimmune disease. Here we pulsed purified B cells from 12 HT patients, 12 GD patients, and 12 healthy donors with the thyroid self-antigen, thyroglobulin (TG) and added the B cells back to the remaining peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). This procedure induced IL-10+ B-cell differentiation in GD. A similar tendency was observed in healthy donors, but not in cells from patients with HT. In GD, B cells primed with TG induced IL-10-producing CD4+ T cells. To assess the maximal frequency of inducible IL-10+ B cells in the three donor groups PBMCs were stimulated with PMA/ionomycin. The resulting IL-10+ B-cell frequency was similar in the three groups and correlated with free T3 levels in GD patients. IL-10+ B cells from both patient groups displayed CD25 or TIM-1 more frequently than did those from healthy donors. B-cell expression of two surface marker combinations previously associated with regulatory B-cell functions, CD24hiCD38hi and CD27+CD43+, did not differ between patients and healthy donors. In conclusion, our findings indicate that autoimmune thyroiditis is not associated with reduced frequency of IL-10+ B cells. These results do not rule out regulatory B-cell dysfunction, however. The observed phenotypic differences between IL-10+ B cells from patients and healthy donors are discussed.

  13. Dendritic Cells in the Periphery Control Antigen-Specific Natural and Induced Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Sayuri; Morita, Akimichi

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized antigen-presenting cells that regulate both immunity and tolerance. DCs in the periphery play a key role in expanding naturally occurring Foxp3+ CD25+ CD4+ regulatory T cells (Natural T-regs) and inducing Foxp3 expression (Induced T-regs) in Foxp3− CD4+ T cells. DCs are phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous, and further classified into several subsets depending on distinct marker expression and their location. Recent findings indicate the presence of specialized DC subsets that act to expand Natural T-regs or induce Foxp3+ T-regs from Foxp3− CD4+ T cells. For example, two major subsets of DCs in lymphoid organs act differentially in inducing Foxp3+ T-regs from Foxp3− cells or expanding Natural T-regs with model-antigen delivery by anti-DC subset monoclonal antibodies in vivo. Furthermore, DCs expressing CD103 in the intestine induce Foxp3+ T-regs from Foxp3− CD4+ T cells with endogenous TGF-β and retinoic acid. In addition, antigen-presenting DCs have a capacity to generate Foxp3+ T-regs in the oral cavity where many antigens and commensals exist, similar to intestine and skin. In skin and skin-draining lymph nodes, at least six DC subsets have been identified, suggesting a complex DC-T-reg network. Here, we will review the specific activity of DCs in expanding Natural T-regs and inducing Foxp3+ T-regs from Foxp3− precursors, and further discuss the critical function of DCs in maintaining tolerance at various locations including skin and oral cavity. PMID:23801989

  14. Linked T Cell Receptor and Cytokine Signaling Govern the Development of the Regulatory T cell Repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Burchill, Matthew A.; Yang, Jianying; Vang, Kieng B.; Moon, James J.; Chu, H. Hamlet; Lio, Chan-Wang J.; Vegoe, Amanda L.; Hsieh, Chyi-Song; Jenkins, Marc K.; Farrar, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Appropriate development of regulatory T cells (Tregs) is necessary to prevent autoimmunity. Neonatal mice, unlike adults, lack factors required for Treg development. It is unclear what these missing factors are. However, signals emanating from the TCR, CD28 and γc-dependent cytokine receptors are required for Treg development. Herein we demonstrate that expression of a constitutively-active STAT5b transgene (STAT5b-CA) allows for Treg development in neonatal mice and restores Treg numbers in CD28−/− mice. Sequence analysis of TCR genes in STAT5b-CA Tregs indicates that ectopic STAT5 activation results in a TCR repertoire that more closely resembles that of naïve T cells. Using MHCII tetramers to identify antigen-specific T cells, we demonstrate that STAT5 signals divert thymocytes normally destined to become naïve T cells into the Treg lineage. Our data support a two-step model of Treg differentiation in which TCR/CD28 signals induce cytokine responsiveness; STAT5-inducing cytokines then complete the program of Treg differentiation. PMID:18199418

  15. Immunomodulation of mesenchymal stromal cells on regulatory T cells and its possible mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhidong; Zhuansun, Yongxun; Chen, Rui; Li, Jianguo; Ran, Pixin

    2014-05-15

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) have both garnered abundant interests from immunologists worldwide, as both MSCs and Tregs can be considered immunosuppressive in their own right. But a little attention has been paid to the impacts of MSCs on Tregs. To clarify the effects of MSCs on Tregs, we performed the coculture systems within MSCs and Tregs. We confirmed that MSC-exposed Tregs are capable of more immunosuppressive than Tregs without coculturing with MSCs. And this augmenting suppressive capacity was accompanied with an upregulation of programmed cell death 1 receptor (PD-1) on Tregs. Importantly, we found that cell viability of Tregs was excluded from the influences of MSCs. Finally, we showed that PD-1/B7-H1 interactions and IL-10 might be responsible for the enhanced suppressive capability of MSC-exposed Tregs. Further analysis revealed that PD-1/B7-H1 interactions were not responsible for the productions of IL-10 and TGF-β1 in the MSC-Treg coculture systems; in contrast, IL-10 rather than TGF-β1 played a role in the upregualtion of PD-1. Furthermore, this is the first explorative study to evaluate the immunomodulation of MSCs on the suppressive capacity of Tregs in MSC-Treg in vitro coculture setting.

  16. Stem cell-derived tissue-associated regulatory T cells ameliorate the development of autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Mohammad; Song, Jianyong; Fino, Kristin; Sandhu, Praneet; Song, Xinmeng; Lei, Fengyang; Zheng, Songguo; Ni, Bing; Fang, Deyu; Song, Jianxun

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have the potential to produce almost all of the cells in the body, including regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, the exact conditions required for the development of antigen (Ag)-specific Tregs from PSCs (i.e., PSC-Tregs) are not well delineated. Ag-specific PSC-Tregs can be tissue/organ-associated and migrate to local inflamed tissues/organs to suppress the autoimmune response after adoptive transfer, thereby avoiding potential overall immunosuppression from non-specific Tregs. In this study, we developed a new approach to generate functional Ag-specific Tregs from induced PSCs (iPSCs), i.e., iPSC-Tregs, which had the ability to generate an Ag-specific immunosuppressive response in a murine model of arthritis. We retrovirally transduced murine iPSCs with a construct containing genes of Ag-specific T cell receptor (TCR) and the transcriptional factor FoxP3. We differentiated the iPSCs into Ag-specific iPSC-Tregs using in vitro or in vivo Notch signaling, and demonstrated that adoptive transfer of such Tregs dramatically suppressed autoimmunity in a well-established Ag-induced arthritis model, including the inflammation, joint destruction, cartilage prostaglandin depletion, osteoclast activity, and Th17 production. Our results indicate that PSCs can be used to develop Ag-specific Tregs, which have a therapeutic potential for Treg-based therapies of autoimmune disorders. PMID:26846186

  17. PLZF+ Innate T Cells Support the TGF-β-Dependent Generation of Activated/Memory-Like Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Byung Hyun; Park, Hyo Jin; Park, Hi Jung; Lee, Jae-II; Park, Seong Hoe; Jung, Kyeong Cheon

    2016-01-01

    PLZF-expressing invariant natural killer T cells and CD4 T cells are unique subsets of innate T cells. Both are selected via thymocyte-thymocyte interaction, and they contribute to the generation of activated/memory-like CD4 and CD8 T cells in the thymus via the production of IL-4. Here, we investigated whether PLZF+ innate T cells also affect the development and function of Foxp3+ regulatory CD4 T cells. Flow cytometry analysis of the thymus and spleen from both CIITA transgenic C57BL/6 and wild-type BALB/c mice, which have abundant PLZF+ CD4 T cells and invariant natural killer T cells, respectively, revealed that Foxp3+ T cells in these mice exhibited a CD103+ activated/memory-like phenotype. The frequency of CD103+ regulatory T cells was considerably decreased in PLZF+ cell-deficient CIITATgPlzflu/lu and BALB/c.CD1d−/− mice as well as in an IL-4-deficient background, such as in CIITATgIL-4−/− and BALB/c.lL-4−/− mice, indicating that the acquisition of an activated/memory-like phenotype was dependent on PLZF+ innate T cells and IL-4. Using fetal thymic organ culture, we further demonstrated that IL-4 in concert with TGF-β enhanced the acquisition of the activated/memory-like phenotype of regulatory T cells. In functional aspects, the activated/memory-like phenotype of Treg cells was directly related to their suppressive function; regulatory T cells of CIITATgPIV−/− mice more efficiently suppressed ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation compared with their counterparts from wild-type mice. All of these findings suggest that PLZF+ innate T cells also augmented the generation of activated/memory-like regulation via IL-4 production. PMID:27101876

  18. Fingolimod Increases CD39-Expressing Regulatory T Cells in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Muls, Nathalie; Dang, Hong Anh; Sindic, Christian J. M.; van Pesch, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) likely results from an imbalance between regulatory and inflammatory immune processes. CD39 is an ectoenzyme that cleaves ATP to AMP and has been suggested as a novel regulatory T cells (Treg) marker. As ATP has numerous proinflammatory effects, its degradation by CD39 has anti-inflammatory influence. The purpose of this study was to explore regulatory and inflammatory mechanisms activated in fingolimod treated MS patients. Methods and Findings Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from relapsing-remitting MS patients before starting fingolimod and three months after therapy start. mRNA expression was assessed in ex vivo PBMCs. The proportions of CD8, B cells, CD4 and CD39-expressing cells were analysed by flow cytometry. Treg proportion was quantified by flow cytometry and methylation-specific qPCR. Fingolimod treatment increased mRNA levels of CD39, AHR and CYP1B1 but decreased mRNA expression of IL-17, IL-22 and FOXP3 mRNA in PBMCs. B cells, CD4+ cells and Treg proportions were significantly reduced by this treatment, but remaining CD4+ T cells were enriched in FOXP3+ cells and in CD39-expressing Tregs. Conclusions In addition to the decrease in circulating CD4+ T cells and CD19+ B cells, our findings highlight additional immunoregulatory mechanisms induced by fingolimod. PMID:25411844

  19. IL-35-mediated induction of a potent regulatory T cell population.

    PubMed

    Collison, Lauren W; Chaturvedi, Vandana; Henderson, Abigail L; Giacomin, Paul R; Guy, Cliff; Bankoti, Jaishree; Finkelstein, David; Forbes, Karen; Workman, Creg J; Brown, Scott A; Rehg, Jerold E; Jones, Michael L; Ni, Hsiao-Tzu; Artis, David; Turk, Mary Jo; Vignali, Dario A A

    2010-12-01

    Regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells) have a critical role in the maintenance of immunological self-tolerance. Here we show that treatment of naive human or mouse T cells with IL-35 induced a regulatory population, which we call 'iT(R)35 cells', that mediated suppression via IL-35 but not via the inhibitory cytokines IL-10 or transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). We found that iT(R)35 cells did not express or require the transcription factor Foxp3, and were strongly suppressive and stable in vivo. T(reg) cells induced the generation of iT(R)35 cells in an IL-35- and IL-10-dependent manner in vitro and induced their generation in vivo under inflammatory conditions in intestines infected with Trichuris muris and within the tumor microenvironment (B16 melanoma and MC38 colorectal adenocarcinoma), where they contributed to the regulatory milieu. Thus, iT(R)35 cells constitute a key mediator of infectious tolerance and contribute to T(reg) cell-mediated tumor progression. Furthermore, iT(R)35 cells generated ex vivo might have therapeutic utility.

  20. Regulatory T cells prevent CD8 T cell maturation by inhibiting CD4 Th cells at tumor sites.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Nathalie; Darrasse-Jèze, Guillaume; Bergot, Anne-Sophie; Cordier, Corinne; Ngo-Abdalla, Stacie; Klatzmann, David; Azogui, Orly

    2007-10-15

    Natural regulatory T cells (Tregs) are present in high frequencies among tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and in draining lymph nodes, supposedly facilitating tumor development. To investigate their role in controlling local immune responses, we analyzed intratumoral T cell accumulation and function in the presence or absence of Tregs. Tumors that grew in normal BALB/c mice injected with the 4T1 tumor cell line were highly infiltrated by Tregs, CD4 and CD8 cells, all having unique characteristics. Most infiltrating Tregs expressed low levels of CD25Rs and Foxp3. They did not proliferate even in the presence of IL-2 but maintained a strong suppressor activity. CD4 T cells were profoundly anergic and CD8 T cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were severely impaired. Depletion of Tregs modified the characteristics of tumor infiltrates. Tumors were initially invaded by activated CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells, which produced IL-2 and IFN-gamma. This was followed by the recruitment of highly cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells at tumor sites leading to tumor rejection. The beneficial effect of Treg depletion in tumor regression was abrogated when CD4 helper cells were also depleted. These findings indicate that the massive infiltration of tumors by Tregs prevents the development of a successful helper response. The Tregs in our model prevent Th cell activation and subsequent development of efficient CD8 T cell activity required for the control of tumor growth. PMID:17911581

  1. Regulatory roles of B cells in infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Fillatreau, Simon

    2016-01-01

    B lymphocytes provide essential mechanisms of protection against infectious diseases. The secretion of specific antibodies by long-lived plasma cells is thought to account for the improved resistance afforded by most successful vaccines against pathogens. Accordingly, a goal in vaccine development is to induce potent B cell responses in order to drive the efficient formation of long-lived antibody-secreting cells. However, the roles of activated B cells are complex in infectious diseases. It was recently observed that activated B cells could also negatively regulate host defence mechanisms, both during primary infection and, after vaccination, upon secondary challenge, via mechanisms involving their production of the anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-35. Remarkably, the B cells expressing IL-10 and IL-35 in vivo were distinct subsets of IgMhiCD19+CD138hi antibody-secreting cells. A better understanding of the diverse roles of these distinct antibody-secreting cell subsets in immunity and immunological memory, as well as of the signals controlling their generation, might help the rational development of better prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. PMID:27586794

  2. Expression of regulatory dendritic cell-related cytokines in cattle experimentally infected with Trypanosoma evansi

    PubMed Central

    MEKATA, Hirohisa; MURATA, Shiro; MINGALA, Claro Niegos; OHASHI, Kazuhiko; KONNAI, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma evansi causes wasting disease in many livestock. T. evansi infection gives rise to inflammatory immune responses, which contribute to the development of inflammation-associated tissue injury. We previously reported that regulatory dendritic cells (DCs), which act as potential regulators of inflammation, were activated in infected mice and transfer of regulatory DCs to infected mice prolonged their survival. However, the kinetics of regulatory DCs in cattle, which are natural hosts of T. evansi, remained unclear. In this study, we report that the expressions of CCL8 and IL-10, which promote the development of regulatory DCs, were up-regulated in cattle experimentally infected with T. evansi. This finding is potentially useful for studying the control strategy of T. evansi infection in cattle. PMID:25819543

  3. Differential Responses of Human Regulatory T Cells (Treg) and Effector T Cells to Rapamycin

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Laura; Czystowska, Malgorzata; Szajnik, Marta; Mandapathil, Magis; Whiteside, Theresa L.

    2009-01-01

    Background The immunosuppressive drug rapamycin (RAPA) promotes the expansion of CD4+ CD25highFoxp3+ regulatory T cells via mechanisms that remain unknown. Here, we studied expansion, IL-2R-γ chain signaling, survival pathways and resistance to apoptosis in human Treg responding to RAPA. Methodology/Principal Findings CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25neg T cells were isolated from PBMC of normal controls (n = 21) using AutoMACS. These T cell subsets were cultured in the presence of anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies and 1000 IU/mL IL-2 for 3 to 6 weeks. RAPA (1–100 nM) was added to half of the cultures. After harvest, the cell phenotype, signaling via the PI3K/mTOR and STAT pathways, expression of survival proteins and Annexin V binding were determined and compared to values obtained with freshly-separated CD4+CD25high and CD4+CD25neg T cells. Suppressor function was tested in co-cultures with autologous CFSE-labeled CD4+CD25neg or CD8+CD25neg T-cell responders. The frequency and suppressor activity of Treg were increased after culture of CD4+CD25+ T cells in the presence of 1–100 nM RAPA (p<0.001). RAPA-expanded Treg were largely CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ cells and were resistant to apoptosis, while CD4+CD25neg T cells were sensitive. Only Treg upregulated anti-apoptotic and down-regulated pro-apoptotic proteins. Treg expressed higher levels of the PTEN protein than CD4+CD25neg cells. Activated Treg±RAPA preferentially phosphorylated STAT5 and STAT3 and did not utilize the PI3K/mTOR pathway. Conclusions/Significance RAPA favors Treg expansion and survival by differentially regulating signaling, proliferation and sensitivity to apoptosis of human effector T cells and Treg after TCR/IL-2 activation. PMID:19543393

  4. Modulation of liver tolerance by conventional and nonconventional antigen-presenting cells and regulatory immune cells

    PubMed Central

    Horst, Andrea Kristina; Neumann, Katrin; Diehl, Linda; Tiegs, Gisa

    2016-01-01

    The liver is a tolerogenic organ with exquisite mechanisms of immune regulation that ensure upkeep of local and systemic immune tolerance to self and foreign antigens, but that is also able to mount effective immune responses against pathogens. The immune privilege of liver allografts was recognized first in pigs in spite of major histo-compatibility complex mismatch, and termed the “liver tolerance effect”. Furthermore, liver transplants are spontaneously accepted with only low-dose immunosuppression, and induce tolerance for non-hepatic co-transplanted allografts of the same donor. Although this immunotolerogenic environment is favorable in the setting of organ transplantation, it is detrimental in chronic infectious liver diseases like hepatitis B or C, malaria, schistosomiasis or tumorigenesis, leading to pathogen persistence and weak anti-tumor effects. The liver is a primary site of T-cell activation, but it elicits poor or incomplete activation of T cells, leading to their abortive activation, exhaustion, suppression of their effector function and early death. This is exploited by pathogens and can impair pathogen control and clearance or allow tumor growth. Hepatic priming of T cells is mediated by a number of local conventional and nonconventional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), which promote tolerance by immune deviation, induction of T-cell anergy or apoptosis, and generating and expanding regulatory T cells. This review will focus on the communication between classical and nonclassical APCs and lymphocytes in the liver in tolerance induction and will discuss recent insights into the role of innate lymphocytes in this process. PMID:27041638

  5. (Rapid regulatory control of plant cell expansion and wall relaxation)

    SciTech Connect

    Cosgrove, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    This section presents a brief overview of accomplishments related to this project in the past 3-year period. Our work has focused on the basic mechanisms of plant cell expansion, particularly on the interrelations of water and solute transport with cell wall relaxation and expansion. To study these processes, we have developed new methods and used these methods to analyze the dynamic behavior of growth processes and to examine how various agents (GA, drought, light, genetic lesions) alter the growth machinery of the cell.

  6. Superior Cervical Ganglia Neurons Induce Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells via Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Szklany, Kirsten; Ruiter, Evelyn; Mian, Firoz; Kunze, Wolfgang; Bienenstock, John; Forsythe, Paul; Karimi, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    The nervous and immune systems communicate bidirectionally, utilizing diverse molecular signals including cytokines and neurotransmitters to provide an integrated response to changes in the body’s internal and external environment. Although, neuro-immune interactions are becoming better understood under inflammatory circumstances and it has been evidenced that interaction between neurons and T cells results in the conversion of encephalitogenic T cells to T regulatory cells, relatively little is known about the communication between neurons and naïve T cells. Here, we demonstrate that following co-culture of naïve CD4+ T cells with superior cervical ganglion neurons, the percentage of Foxp3 expressing CD4+CD25+ cells significantly increased. This was mediated in part by immune-regulatory cytokines TGF-β and IL-10, as well as the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide while vasoactive intestinal peptide was shown to play no role in generation of T regulatory cells. Additionally, T cells co-cultured with neurons showed a decrease in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ released upon in vitro stimulation. These findings suggest that the generation of Tregs may be promoted by naïve CD4+ T cell: neuron interaction through the release of neuropeptide CGRP. PMID:27022966

  7. Expansion of Regulatory T Cells in Patients with Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Senechal, Brigitte; Elain, Gaelle; Jeziorski, Eric; Grondin, Virginie; Patey-Mariaud de Serre, Natacha; Jaubert, Francis; Beldjord, Kheira; Lellouch, Arielle; Glorion, Christophe; Zerah, Michel; Mary, Pierre; Barkaoui, Mohammed; Emile, Jean Francois; Boccon-Gibod, Liliane; Josset, Patrice; Debré, Marianne; Fischer, Alain; Donadieu, Jean; Geissmann, Frederic

    2007-01-01

    Background Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare clonal granulomatous disease that affects mainly children. LCH can involve various tissues such as bone, skin, lung, bone marrow, lymph nodes, and the central nervous system, and is frequently responsible for functional sequelae. The pathophysiology of LCH is unclear, but the uncontrolled proliferation of Langerhans cells (LCs) is believed to be the primary event in the formation of granulomas. The present study was designed to further investigate the nature of proliferating cells and the immune mechanisms involved in the LCH granulomas. Methods and Findings Biopsies (n = 24) and/or blood samples (n = 25) from 40 patients aged 0.25 to 13 y (mean 7.8 y), were studied to identify cells that proliferate in blood and granulomas. We found that the proliferating index of LCs was low (∼1.9%), and we did not observe expansion of a monocyte or dendritic cell compartment in patients. We found that LCH lesions were a site of active inflammation, tissue remodeling, and neo-angiogenesis, and the majority of proliferating cells were endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and polyclonal T lymphocytes. Within granulomas, interleukin 10 was abundant, LCs expressed the TNF receptor family member RANK, and CD4+ CD25high FoxP3high regulatory T cells (T-regs) represented 20% of T cells, and were found in close contact with LCs. FoxP3+ T-regs were also expanded compared to controls, in the blood of LCH patients with active disease, among whom seven out of seven tested exhibited an impaired skin delayed-type hypersensitivity response. In contrast, the number of blood T-regs were normal after remission of LCH. Conclusions These findings indicate that LC accumulation in LCH results from survival rather than uncontrolled proliferation, and is associated with the expansion of T-regs. These data suggest that LCs may be involved in the expansion of T-regs in vivo, resulting in the failure of the host immune system to eliminate LCH cells. Thus

  8. A predictive modeling approach for cell line-specific long-range regulatory interactions

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sushmita; Siahpirani, Alireza Fotuhi; Chasman, Deborah; Knaack, Sara; Ay, Ferhat; Stewart, Ron; Wilson, Michael; Sridharan, Rupa

    2015-01-01

    Long range regulatory interactions among distal enhancers and target genes are important for tissue-specific gene expression. Genome-scale identification of these interactions in a cell line-specific manner, especially using the fewest possible datasets, is a significant challenge. We develop a novel computational approach, Regulatory Interaction Prediction for Promoters and Long-range Enhancers (RIPPLE), that integrates published Chromosome Conformation Capture (3C) data sets with a minimal set of regulatory genomic data sets to predict enhancer-promoter interactions in a cell line-specific manner. Our results suggest that CTCF, RAD21, a general transcription factor (TBP) and activating chromatin marks are important determinants of enhancer-promoter interactions. To predict interactions in a new cell line and to generate genome-wide interaction maps, we develop an ensemble version of RIPPLE and apply it to generate interactions in five human cell lines. Computational validation of these predictions using existing ChIA-PET and Hi-C data sets showed that RIPPLE accurately predicts interactions among enhancers and promoters. Enhancer-promoter interactions tend to be organized into subnetworks representing coordinately regulated sets of genes that are enriched for specific biological processes and cis-regulatory elements. Overall, our work provides a systematic approach to predict and interpret enhancer-promoter interactions in a genome-wide cell-type specific manner using a few experimentally tractable measurements. PMID:26338778

  9. Cell type-selective disease-association of genes under high regulatory load

    PubMed Central

    Galhardo, Mafalda; Berninger, Philipp; Nguyen, Thanh-Phuong; Sauter, Thomas; Sinkkonen, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed that disease-linked metabolic genes are often under combinatorial regulation. Using the genome-wide ChIP-Seq binding profiles for 93 transcription factors in nine different cell lines, we show that genes under high regulatory load are significantly enriched for disease-association across cell types. We find that transcription factor load correlates with the enhancer load of the genes and thereby allows the identification of genes under high regulatory load by epigenomic mapping of active enhancers. Identification of the high enhancer load genes across 139 samples from 96 different cell and tissue types reveals a consistent enrichment for disease-associated genes in a cell type-selective manner. The underlying genes are not limited to super-enhancer genes and show several types of disease-association evidence beyond genetic variation (such as biomarkers). Interestingly, the high regulatory load genes are involved in more KEGG pathways than expected by chance, exhibit increased betweenness centrality in the interaction network of liver disease genes, and carry longer 3′ UTRs with more microRNA (miRNA) binding sites than genes on average, suggesting a role as hubs integrating signals within regulatory networks. In summary, epigenetic mapping of active enhancers presents a promising and unbiased approach for identification of novel disease genes in a cell type-selective manner. PMID:26338775

  10. Cell type-selective disease-association of genes under high regulatory load.

    PubMed

    Galhardo, Mafalda; Berninger, Philipp; Nguyen, Thanh-Phuong; Sauter, Thomas; Sinkkonen, Lasse

    2015-10-15

    We previously showed that disease-linked metabolic genes are often under combinatorial regulation. Using the genome-wide ChIP-Seq binding profiles for 93 transcription factors in nine different cell lines, we show that genes under high regulatory load are significantly enriched for disease-association across cell types. We find that transcription factor load correlates with the enhancer load of the genes and thereby allows the identification of genes under high regulatory load by epigenomic mapping of active enhancers. Identification of the high enhancer load genes across 139 samples from 96 different cell and tissue types reveals a consistent enrichment for disease-associated genes in a cell type-selective manner. The underlying genes are not limited to super-enhancer genes and show several types of disease-association evidence beyond genetic variation (such as biomarkers). Interestingly, the high regulatory load genes are involved in more KEGG pathways than expected by chance, exhibit increased betweenness centrality in the interaction network of liver disease genes, and carry longer 3' UTRs with more microRNA (miRNA) binding sites than genes on average, suggesting a role as hubs integrating signals within regulatory networks. In summary, epigenetic mapping of active enhancers presents a promising and unbiased approach for identification of novel disease genes in a cell type-selective manner.

  11. Membrane-bound complement regulatory activity is decreased on vaccinia virus-infected cells.

    PubMed Central

    Baranyi, L; Okada, N; Baranji, K; Takizawa, H; Okada, H

    1994-01-01

    Decay accelerating factor (DAF), membrane cofactor protein (MCP), complement receptor 1 and mouse Crry are cell surface-bound complement regulatory proteins capable of inhibiting C3 convertase activity on cell membranes, and therefore provide a substantial protection from attack by homologous complement activated either by the classical or by the alternative pathway. Decrease in complement regulatory activity might lead to spontaneous complement deposition and subsequent cell injury. MoAb 5I2 can inhibit the complement regulatory activity of molecules on rat cells, resulting in deposition of homologous complement. The antigen recognized by 5I2 MoAb in rats is homologous to mouse Crry. Fifteen to 20 h after infection with vaccinia virus, in vitro cultured KDH-8 rat hepatoma cells show a strong decrease in expression of Crry-like antigen, and proved to be sensitive to complement deposition when 1:5 diluted normal rat serum was added to the culture medium as a source of complement. Addition of complement to the cultured KDH-8 cells infected with a very low dose of vaccinia virus (1 plaque-forming unit (PFU)/1000 cells) substantially reduced spreading of virus infection in the cell culture, while inactivation of complement by heat or zymosan treatment abrogated the protective effect. PMID:7923872

  12. Inflammatory monocytes are potent antitumor effectors controlled by regulatory CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Pommier, Arnaud; Audemard, Alexandra; Durand, Aurélie; Lengagne, Renée; Delpoux, Arnaud; Martin, Bruno; Douguet, Laetitia; Le Campion, Armelle; Kato, Masashi; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Auffray, Cédric; Lucas, Bruno; Prévost-Blondel, Armelle

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluates the impact of immune cell populations on metastatic development in a model of spontaneous melanoma [mice expressing the human RET oncogene under the control of the metallothionein promoter (MT/ret mice)]. In this model, cancer cells disseminate early but remain dormant for several weeks. Then, MT/ret mice develop cutaneous metastases and, finally, distant metastases. A total of 35% of MT/ret mice develop a vitiligo, a skin depigmentation attributable to the lysis of normal melanocytes, associated with a delay in tumor progression. Here, we find that regulatory CD4+ T cells accumulate in the skin, the spleen, and tumor-draining lymph nodes of MT/ret mice not developing vitiligo. Regulatory T-cell depletion and IL-10 neutralization led to increased occurrence of vitiligo that correlated with a decreased incidence of melanoma metastases. In contrast, inflammatory monocytes/dendritic cells accumulate in the skin of MT/ret mice with active vitiligo. Moreover, they inhibit tumor cell proliferation in vitro through a reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism, and both their depletion and reactive oxygen species neutralization in vivo increased tumor cell dissemination. Altogether, our data suggest that regulatory CD4+ T cells favor tumor progression, in part, by inhibiting recruitment and/or differentiation of inflammatory monocytes in the skin. PMID:23878221

  13. Glucocorticosteroids modify Langerhans cells to produce TGF-β and expand regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Stary, Georg; Klein, Irene; Bauer, Wolfgang; Koszik, Frieder; Reininger, Bärbel; Kohlhofer, Sabine; Gruber, Kristina; Skvara, Hans; Jung, Thomas; Stingl, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Although glucocorticosteroids (GCSs) have been used for many decades in transplantation and (auto)inflammatory diseases, the exact mechanisms responsible for their immunosuppressive properties are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effects of oral GCSs on the cutaneous immune response. We analyzed, by immunofluorescence staining and quantitative RT-PCR, residual skin biopsy material from a clinical study in which we had used oral GCS as positive control for determining the effects of candidate anti-inflammatory compounds on epicutaneous patch tests of Ni-allergic patients. Expectedly, oral GCS treatment led to a reduction of clinical symptoms and infiltrating leukocytes. Notably, we observed increased numbers of dermal FOXP3(+)CD25(+) T cells and epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) that were associated with upregulated mRNA expression of TGF-β in lesions of GCS-treated Ni-allergic patients. To investigate this phenomenon further, we exposed purified LCs to GCS. They exhibited, in contrast to GCS-nonexposed LCs, 1) a more immature phenotype, 2) higher intracellular amounts of TGF-β, and 3) increased receptor activator for NF-κB expression, conditions that reportedly favor the expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Indeed, we observed an enhancement of functionally suppressive FOXP3(+) T cells when CD3(+) cells were incubated with GCS-pretreated LCs. The expansion of Tregs was inhibited by TGF-β blockage alone, and their suppressive activity was neutralized by a combination of anti-TGF-β and anti-IL-10 Abs. Our data show that systemically applied GCSs endow LCs with Treg-promoting properties and thus shed new light on the mechanisms of GCS-mediated immunosuppression.

  14. Interleukin-35-mediated induction of a novel regulatory T cell population

    PubMed Central

    Collison, Lauren W.; Chaturvedi, Vandana; Henderson, Abigail L.; Giacomin, Paul R.; Guy, Cliff; Bankoti, Jaishree; Finkelstein, David; Forbes, Karen; Workman, Creg J.; Brown, Scott A.; Rehg, Jerold E.; Jones, Michael L.; Ni, Hsiao-Tzu; Artis, David; Turk, Mary Jo; Vignali, Dario A. A.

    2010-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in the maintenance of immunological self-tolerance. Naïve human or murine T cell treatment with the inhibitory cytokine IL-35 induces a regulatory population, termed iTR35, that mediates suppression via IL-35, but not IL-10 or TGFβ, neither express nor require Foxp3, are strongly suppressive in five in vivo models, and exhibit in vivo stability. Treg-mediated suppression induces iTR35 generation in an IL-35- and IL-10-dependent manner in vitro, and in inflammatory conditions in vivo in Trichuris-infected intestines and within the tumor microenvironment, where they appear to contribute to the regulatory milieu. iTR35 may constitute a key mediator of infectious tolerance, may contribute to Treg-mediated tumor progression, and ex vivo generated iTR35 may possess therapeutic utility. PMID:20953201

  15. Protein kinase CK2 enables regulatory T cells to suppress excessive TH2 responses in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ulges, Alexander; Klein, Matthias; Reuter, Sebastian; Gerlitzki, Bastian; Hoffmann, Markus; Grebe, Nadine; Staudt, Valérie; Stergiou, Natascha; Bohn, Toszka; Brühl, Till-Julius; Muth, Sabine; Yurugi, Hajime; Rajalingam, Krishnaraj; Bellinghausen, Iris; Tuettenberg, Andrea; Hahn, Susanne; Reißig, Sonja; Haben, Irma; Zipp, Frauke; Waisman, Ari; Probst, Hans-Christian; Beilhack, Andreas; Buchou, Thierry; Filhol-Cochet, Odile; Boldyreff, Brigitte; Breloer, Minka; Jonuleit, Helmut; Schild, Hansjörg; Schmitt, Edgar; Bopp, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    The quality of the adaptive immune response depends on the differentiation of distinct CD4(+) helper T cell subsets, and the magnitude of an immune response is controlled by CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg cells). However, how a tissue- and cell type-specific suppressor program of Treg cells is mechanistically orchestrated has remained largely unexplored. Through the use of Treg cell-specific gene targeting, we found that the suppression of allergic immune responses in the lungs mediated by T helper type 2 (TH2) cells was dependent on the activity of the protein kinase CK2. Genetic ablation of the β-subunit of CK2 specifically in Treg cells resulted in the proliferation of a hitherto-unexplored ILT3(+) Treg cell subpopulation that was unable to control the maturation of IRF4(+)PD-L2(+) dendritic cells required for the development of TH2 responses in vivo.

  16. [Helper T cell paradigm: Th17 and regulatory T cells involved in autoimmune inflammatory disorders, pathogen defense and allergic diseases].

    PubMed

    Noma, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    The helper T cell paradigm, divided into two distinct subsets, Th1 and Th2 cells, characterized by distinct cytokine and functions, has been expanded to IL-17-producing Th17 cells. Th1 cells producing IFN-γ are involved in delayed-type hypersensitivity, effective in intracellular pathogens defense, while Th2 cells secrete IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and IL-25 and has a central role in IgE production, eosinophilic inflammation, and the protection for helminthic parasite infection. Th17 cell lineages, expressing IL-17 family of cytokines and IL-23-mediated functions on T cells, plays a role in immune response to fungi and extracellular pathogens and autoimmune inflammatory disorders. Th17 cells are required the combination of IL-6 and TGF-β and the transcription factors, RORC2/RORgt (mice) and STAT3 for differentiation, and produce IL-17, IL-22, IL-17F, IL-21 and CCL20. FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells produce TGF-β and IL-10, which regulate effector T cells, and thus maintain peripheral tolerance. Four functionally unique CD4+ T cells, including the regulatory T (Treg) cells are now involved in the regulation of immune responses to pathogens, self-antigens and allergens. Any defect in the entire CD4+T cell population might results in human diseases. In this review, the biology of Th17 cells and Treg cells and their role in immune diseases are presented.

  17. Regulatory B cells correlate with HIV disease progression.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yanmei; Wang, Xi; Zhang, Tong; Sun, Lijun; Wang, Rui; Li, Wei; Ji, Yunxia; Wu, Hao; Liu, Cuie

    2014-08-01

    A rare subset of IL-10-producing B cells, named Breg, was recently identified in mice and humans. Currently, there are no unified cell surface markers to identify Breg, and the relationship between the frequency of Breg and HIV disease progression in chronic HIV infection is unclear. In the present study, we determined whether the cell surface markers of Breg reported for other diseases are suitable for identifying Breg in HIV-infected patients. In addition, we examined the relationship between Breg and HIV disease progression. We found that Breg frequency correlated positively with viral load and negatively with CD4 count in chronic HIV infection. Following antiretroviral treatment, the CD4 count increased and the frequency of Breg decreased stepwise. There was no difference in IL-10 expression of CD1d(hi) or CD1d(lo) cells isolated from HIV-infected patients. Therefore, CD1d may not be a marker of Breg in HIV-infected patients.

  18. From bench to FDA to bedside: US regulatory trends for new stem cell therapies.

    PubMed

    Knoepfler, Paul S

    2015-03-01

    The phrase "bench-to-bedside" is commonly used to describe the translation of basic discoveries such as those on stem cells to the clinic for therapeutic use in human patients. However, there is a key intermediate step in between the bench and the bedside involving governmental regulatory oversight such as by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States (US). Thus, it might be more accurate in most cases to describe the stem cell biological drug development process in this way: from bench to FDA to bedside. The intermediate development and regulatory stage for stem cell-based biological drugs is a multifactorial, continually evolving part of the process of developing a biological drug such as a stem cell-based regenerative medicine product. In some situations, stem cell-related products may not be classified as biological drugs in which case the FDA plays a relatively minor role. However, this middle stage is generally a major element of the process and is often colloquially referred to in an ominous way as "The Valley of Death". This moniker seems appropriate because it is at this point, and in particular in the work that ensues after Phase 1, clinical trials that most drug product development is terminated, often due to lack of funding, diseases being refractory to treatment, or regulatory issues. Not surprisingly, workarounds to deal with or entirely avoid this difficult stage of the process are evolving both inside and outside the domains of official regulatory authorities. In some cases these efforts involve the FDA invoking new mechanisms of accelerating the bench to beside process, but in other cases these new pathways bypass the FDA in part or entirely. Together these rapidly changing stem cell product development and regulatory pathways raise many scientific, ethical, and medical questions. These emerging trends and their potential consequences are reviewed here.

  19. From Bench to FDA to Bedside: US Regulatory Trends for New Stem Cell Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Knoepfler, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    The phrase “bench to bedside” is commonly used to describe the translation of basic discoveries such as those on stem cells to the clinic for therapeutic use in human patients. However, there is a key intermediate step in between the bench and the bedside involving governmental regulatory oversight such as by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States (US). Thus, it might be more accurate in most cases to describe the stem cell biological drug development process in this way: from bench to FDA to bedside. The intermediate development and regulatory stage for stem cell-based biological drugs is a multifactorial, continually evolving part of the process of developing a biological drug such as a stem cell-based regenerative medicine product. In some situations, stem cell-related products may not be classified as biological drugs in which case the FDA plays a relatively minor role. However, this middle stage is generally a major element of the process and is often colloquially referred to in an ominous way as “The Valley of Death”. This moniker seems appropriate because it is at this point and in particular in the work that ensues after Phase 1 clinical trials that most drug product development is terminated, often due to lack of funding, diseases being refractory to treatment, or regulatory issues. Not surprisingly, workarounds to deal with or entirely avoid this difficult stage of the process are evolving both inside and outside the domains of official regulatory authorities. In some cases these efforts involve the FDA invoking new mechanisms of accelerating the bench to beside process, but in other cases these new pathways bypass the FDA in part or entirely. Together these rapidly changing stem cell product development and regulatory pathways raise many scientific, ethical, and medical questions. These emerging trends and their potential consequences are reviewed here. PMID:25489841

  20. Proinflammatory cytokines contribute to development and function of regulatory T cells in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Helen E; Graham, Kate L; Chee, Jonathan; Thomas, Ranjeny; Kay, Thomas W; Krishnamurthy, Balasubramanian

    2013-04-01

    Type 1 diabetes is caused by immune-mediated loss of pancreatic beta cells. It has been proposed that inflammatory cytokines play a role in killing beta cells. Expression of interleukin (IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) has been detected in islets from patients with type 1 diabetes, and these cytokines can induce beta cell death in vitro. We produced nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice lacking receptors for these cytokines. Islets from mice lacking IL-1RI or TNFR1 were killed when transplanted into wild-type NOD mice, suggesting that cytokine action on beta cells is not required for killing. Mice lacking TNFR1 did not develop diabetes, and mice lacking IL-1R had delayed onset of diabetes, indicating a role for these cytokines in disease development. TNFR1-deficient mice had an increased number of CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells with enhanced suppressive capacity. IL-1 was produced at higher levels in NOD mice and resulted in dilution of suppressor function of CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells. Our data suggest that blocking inflammatory cytokines may increase the capacity of the immune system to suppress type 1 diabetes through regulatory T cells.

  1. Distinct regulatory elements mediate similar expression patterns in the excretory cell of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhongying; Fang, Li; Chen, Nansheng; Johnsen, Robert C; Stein, Lincoln; Baillie, David L

    2005-11-18

    Identification of cis-regulatory elements and their binding proteins constitutes an important part of understanding gene function and regulation. It is well accepted that co-expressed genes tend to share transcriptional elements. However, recent findings indicate that co-expression data show poor correlation with co-regulation data even in unicellular yeast. This motivates us to experimentally explore whether it is possible that co-expressed genes are subject to differential regulatory control using the excretory cell of Caenorhabditis elegans as an example. Excretory cell is a functional equivalent of human kidney. Transcriptional regulation of gene expression in the cell is largely unknown. We isolated a 10-bp excretory cell-specific cis-element, Ex-1, from a pgp-12 promoter. The significance of the element has been demonstrated by its capacity of converting an intestine-specific promoter into an excretory cell-specific one. We also isolated a cDNA encoding an Ex-1 binding transcription factor, DCP-66, using a yeast one-hybrid screen. Role of the factor in regulation of pgp-12 expression has been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. Search for occurrence of Ex-1 reveals that only a small portion of excretory cell-specific promoters contain Ex-1. Two other distinct cis-elements isolated from two different promoters can also dictate the excretory cell-specific expression but are independent of regulation by DCP-66. The results indicate that distinct regulatory elements are able to mediate the similar expression patterns.

  2. Effect of Salmonella infection on cecal tonsil regulatory T cell properties in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to study Regulatory T cell (Treg) properties post-Salmonella infection in broiler birds. Four-day-old broiler chicks were orally infected with 5x106 CFU/ml Salmonella enteritidis or sterile PBS (control). Samples were collected at 4, 7, 10, and 14 d post-infection. ...

  3. Regulatory T Cells Phenotype in Different Clinical Forms of Chagas' Disease

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Renato Zuquim Antas, Paulo; Assis Silva Gomes, Juliana; Sathler-Avelar, Renato; Otávio Costa Rocha, Manoel; Elói-Santos, Silvana Maria; Pinho, Rosa Teixeira; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2011-01-01

    CD25High CD4+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells) have been described as key players in immune regulation, preventing infection-induced immune pathology and limiting collateral tissue damage caused by vigorous anti-parasite immune response. In this review, we summarize data obtained by the investigation of Treg cells in different clinical forms of Chagas' disease. Ex vivo immunophenotyping of whole blood, as well as after stimulation with Trypanosoma cruzi antigens, demonstrated that individuals in the indeterminate (IND) clinical form of the disease have a higher frequency of Treg cells, suggesting that an expansion of those cells could be beneficial, possibly by limiting strong cytotoxic activity and tissue damage. Additional analysis demonstrated an activated status of Treg cells based on low expression of CD62L and high expression of CD40L, CD69, and CD54 by cells from all chagasic patients after T. cruzi antigenic stimulation. Moreover, there was an increase in the frequency of the population of Foxp3+ CD25HighCD4+ cells that was also IL-10+ in the IND group, whereas in the cardiac (CARD) group, there was an increase in the percentage of Foxp3+ CD25High CD4+ cells that expressed CTLA-4. These data suggest that IL-10 produced by Treg cells is effective in controlling disease development in IND patients. However, in CARD patients, the same regulatory mechanism, mediated by IL-10 and CTLA-4 expression is unlikely to be sufficient to control the progression of the disease. These data suggest that Treg cells may play an important role in controlling the immune response in Chagas' disease and the balance between regulatory and effector T cells may be important for the progression and development of the disease. Additional detailed analysis of the mechanisms on how these cells are activated and exert their function will certainly give insights for the rational design of procedure to achieve the appropriate balance between protection and pathology during parasite

  4. A microfluidic platform reveals differential response of regulatory T cells to micropatterned costimulation arrays.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joung-Hyun; Dustin, Michael L; Kam, Lance C

    2015-11-01

    T cells are key mediators of adaptive immunity. However, the overall immune response is often directed by minor subpopulations of this heterogeneous family of cells, owing to specificity of activation and amplification of functional response. Knowledge of differences in signaling and function between T cell subtypes is far from complete, but is clearly needed for understanding and ultimately leveraging this branch of the adaptive immune response. This report investigates differences in cell response to micropatterned surfaces by conventional and regulatory T cells. Specifically, the ability of cells to respond to the microscale geometry of TCR/CD3 and CD28 engagement is made possible using a magnetic-microfluidic device that overcomes limitations in imaging efficiency associated with conventional microscopy equipment. This device can be readily assembled onto micropatterned surfaces while maintaining the activity of proteins and other biomolecules necessary for such studies. In operation, a target population of cells is tagged using paramagnetic beads, and then trapped in a divergent magnetic field within the chamber. Following washing, the target cells are released to interact with a designated surface. Characterization of this system with mouse CD4(+) T cells demonstrated a 50-fold increase in target-to-background cell purity, with an 80% collection efficiency. Applying this approach to CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, it is then demonstrated that these rare cells respond less selectively to micro-scale features of anti-CD3 antibodies than CD4(+)CD25(-) conventional T cells, revealing a difference in balance between TCR/CD3 and LFA-1-based adhesion. PKC-θ localized to the distal pole of regulatory T cells, away from the cell-substrate interface, suggests a mechanism for differential regulation of TCR/LFA-1-based adhesion. Moreover, specificity of cell adhesion to anti-CD3 features was dependent on the relative position of anti-CD28 signaling within the cell

  5. A microfluidic platform reveals differential response of regulatory T cells to micropatterned costimulation arrays.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joung-Hyun; Dustin, Michael L; Kam, Lance C

    2015-11-01

    T cells are key mediators of adaptive immunity. However, the overall immune response is often directed by minor subpopulations of this heterogeneous family of cells, owing to specificity of activation and amplification of functional response. Knowledge of differences in signaling and function between T cell subtypes is far from complete, but is clearly needed for understanding and ultimately leveraging this branch of the adaptive immune response. This report investigates differences in cell response to micropatterned surfaces by conventional and regulatory T cells. Specifically, the ability of cells to respond to the microscale geometry of TCR/CD3 and CD28 engagement is made possible using a magnetic-microfluidic device that overcomes limitations in imaging efficiency associated with conventional microscopy equipment. This device can be readily assembled onto micropatterned surfaces while maintaining the activity of proteins and other biomolecules necessary for such studies. In operation, a target population of cells is tagged using paramagnetic beads, and then trapped in a divergent magnetic field within the chamber. Following washing, the target cells are released to interact with a designated surface. Characterization of this system with mouse CD4(+) T cells demonstrated a 50-fold increase in target-to-background cell purity, with an 80% collection efficiency. Applying this approach to CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells, it is then demonstrated that these rare cells respond less selectively to micro-scale features of anti-CD3 antibodies than CD4(+)CD25(-) conventional T cells, revealing a difference in balance between TCR/CD3 and LFA-1-based adhesion. PKC-θ localized to the distal pole of regulatory T cells, away from the cell-substrate interface, suggests a mechanism for differential regulation of TCR/LFA-1-based adhesion. Moreover, specificity of cell adhesion to anti-CD3 features was dependent on the relative position of anti-CD28 signaling within the cell

  6. Dietary antigens limit mucosal immunity by inducing regulatory T cells in the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Soon; Hong, Sung-Wook; Han, Daehee; Yi, Jaeu; Jung, Jisun; Yang, Bo-Gie; Lee, Jun Young; Lee, Minji; Surh, Charles D

    2016-02-19

    Dietary antigens are normally rendered nonimmunogenic through a poorly understood "oral tolerance" mechanism that involves immunosuppressive regulatory T (Treg) cells, especially Treg cells induced from conventional T cells in the periphery (pTreg cells). Although orally introducing nominal protein antigens is known to induce such pTreg cells, whether a typical diet induces a population of pTreg cells under normal conditions thus far has been unknown. By using germ-free mice raised and bred on an elemental diet devoid of dietary antigens, we demonstrated that under normal conditions, the vast majority of the small intestinal pTreg cells are induced by dietary antigens from solid foods. Moreover, these pTreg cells have a limited life span, are distinguishable from microbiota-induced pTreg cells, and repress underlying strong immunity to ingested protein antigens.

  7. A regulatory argument against human embryonic stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Napier, Stephen

    2009-10-01

    This article explores the plausibility of an argument against embryonic stem cell research based on what the regulations already say about research on pregnant women and fetuses. The center of the argument is the notion of vulnerability and whether such a concept is applicable to human embryos. It is argued that such an argument can be made plausible. The article concludes by responding to several important objections.

  8. Edge usage, motifs, and regulatory logic for cell cycling genetic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagorski, M.; Krzywicki, A.; Martin, O. C.

    2013-01-01

    The cell cycle is a tightly controlled process, yet it shows marked differences across species. Which of its structural features follow solely from the ability to control gene expression? We tackle this question in silico by examining the ensemble of all regulatory networks which satisfy the constraint of producing a given sequence of gene expressions. We focus on three cell cycle profiles coming from baker's yeast, fission yeast, and mammals. First, we show that the networks in each of the ensembles use just a few interactions that are repeatedly reused as building blocks. Second, we find an enrichment in network motifs that is similar in the two yeast cell cycle systems investigated. These motifs do not have autonomous functions, yet they reveal a regulatory logic for cell cycling based on a feed-forward cascade of activating interactions.

  9. Orchestration of transplantation tolerance by regulatory dendritic cell therapy or in situ targeting of dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Morelli, Adrian E.; Thomson, Angus W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Extensive research in murine transplant models over the past two decades has convincingly demonstrated the ability of regulatory dendritic cells (DCreg) to promote long-term allograft survival. We review important considerations regarding the source of therapeutic DCreg (donor or recipient) and their mode of action, in situ targeting of DCreg, and optimal therapeutic regimens to promote DCreg function. Recent findings Recent studies have defined protocols and mechanisms whereby ex vivo-generated DCreg of donor or recipient origin subvert allogeneic T cell responses and promote long-term organ transplant survival. Particular interest has focused on how donor antigen (Ag) is acquired, processed and presented by autologous DCs, on the stability of DCreg, and on in situ targeting of DC to promote their tolerogenic function. New evidence of the therapeutic efficacy of DCreg in a clinically-relevant non-human primate organ transplant model and production of clinical grade DCreg support early evaluation of DCreg therapy in human graft recipients. Summary We discuss strategies currently used to promote DC tolerogenicity, including DCreg therapy and in situ targeting of DC, with a view to improved understanding of underlying mechanisms and identification of the most promising strategies for therapeutic application. PMID:24926700

  10. Balancing Inflammation: The Link between Th17 and Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Diller, Maggie L.; Kudchadkar, Ragini R.; Delman, Keith A.; Lawson, David H.; Ford, Mandy L.

    2016-01-01

    CD4+ T cell compartments in mouse and man are composed of multiple distinct subsets each possessing unique phenotypic and functional characteristics. IL-17-producing CD4+ T cells (Th17 cells) represent a distinct subset of the CD4+ T cell lineage. Recent evidence suggests that Th17 cells carry out effector functions similar to cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and play an important role in the clearance of extracellular pathogens and fungi. Th17 cell differentiation and function are closely related to the development and function of regulatory T cells (TREG). The balance between these two cell populations is essential for immune homeostasis and dysregulation of this balance has been implicated in a variety of inflammatory conditions including autoimmunity, allograft rejection, and tumorigenesis. Emerging evidence reports a significant amount of plasticity between the Th17 and regulatory T cell compartments, and the mechanisms by which these cells communicate and influence each other are just beginning to be understood. In this review, we highlight recent findings detailing the mechanisms driving Th17 and TREG plasticity and discuss the biologic consequences of their unique relationship. PMID:27413254

  11. Balancing Inflammation: The Link between Th17 and Regulatory T Cells.

    PubMed

    Diller, Maggie L; Kudchadkar, Ragini R; Delman, Keith A; Lawson, David H; Ford, Mandy L

    2016-01-01

    CD4(+) T cell compartments in mouse and man are composed of multiple distinct subsets each possessing unique phenotypic and functional characteristics. IL-17-producing CD4(+) T cells (Th17 cells) represent a distinct subset of the CD4(+) T cell lineage. Recent evidence suggests that Th17 cells carry out effector functions similar to cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells and play an important role in the clearance of extracellular pathogens and fungi. Th17 cell differentiation and function are closely related to the development and function of regulatory T cells (TREG). The balance between these two cell populations is essential for immune homeostasis and dysregulation of this balance has been implicated in a variety of inflammatory conditions including autoimmunity, allograft rejection, and tumorigenesis. Emerging evidence reports a significant amount of plasticity between the Th17 and regulatory T cell compartments, and the mechanisms by which these cells communicate and influence each other are just beginning to be understood. In this review, we highlight recent findings detailing the mechanisms driving Th17 and TREG plasticity and discuss the biologic consequences of their unique relationship. PMID:27413254

  12. Review: hCG, Preeclampsia and Regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Wendy; Nevers, Tania; Sharma, Surendra; Kalkunte, Satyan

    2011-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is crucial for successful pregnancy. Its many functions include angiogenesis and immune regulation. Despite years of research, the etiology of preeclampsia remains unknown. Marked by insufficient trophoblast invasion and poor spiral artery remodeling, preeclampsia has also been linked to immune dysregulation. Here we discuss the roles of hCG in the context of endovascular cross-talk between trophoblasts and endothelial cells and immune tolerance. We propose that functional and glycosylation modifications of hCG may contribute to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. PMID:21295851

  13. The Regulatory Effects of Long Noncoding RNA-ANCR on Dental Tissue-Derived Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Jia, Qian; Chen, Xiaolin; Jiang, Wenkai; Wang, Wei; Guo, Bin; Ni, Longxing

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) have been recognized as important regulators in diverse biological processes, such as transcriptional regulation, stem cell proliferation, and differentiation. Previous study has demonstrated that lncRNA-ANCR (antidifferentiation ncRNA) plays a key role in regulating the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). However, little is known about the role of ANCR in regulating other types of dental tissue-derived stem cells (DTSCs) behaviours (including proliferation and multiple-potential of differentiation). In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of lncRNA-ANCR on the proliferation and differentiation (including osteogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic differentiation) of DTSCs, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), PDLSCs, and stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAP) by downregulation of lncRNA-ANCR. We found that downregulation of ANCR exerted little effect on proliferation of DPSCs and SCAP but promoted the osteogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic differentiation of DTSCs. These data provide an insight into the regulatory effects of long noncoding RNA-ANCR on DTSCs and indicate that ANCR is a very important regulatory factor in stem cell differentiation. PMID:27648074

  14. Conventional and Regulatory CD4+ T Cells That Share Identical TCRs Are Derived from Common Clones.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Kyle J; Emerson, Ryan O; Pingel, Jeanette; Buller, R Mark; DiPaolo, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Results from studies comparing the diversity and specificity of the TCR repertoires expressed by conventional (Tconv) and regulatory (Treg) CD4+ T cell have varied depending on the experimental system employed. We developed a new model in which T cells express a single fixed TCRα chain, randomly rearranged endogenous TCRβ chains, and a Foxp3-GFP reporter. We purified CD4+Foxp3- and CD4+Foxp3+ cells, then performed biased controlled multiplex PCR and high throughput sequencing of endogenous TCRβ chains. We identified >7,000 different TCRβ sequences in the periphery of 5 individual mice. On average, ~12% of TCR sequences were expressed by both conventional and regulatory populations within individual mice. The CD4+ T cells that expressed shared TCR sequences were present at higher frequencies compared to T cells expressing non-shared TCRs. Furthermore, nearly all (>90%) of the TCR sequences that were shared within mice were identical at the DNA sequence level, indicating that conventional and regulatory T cells that express shared TCRs are derived from common clones. Analysis of TCR repertoire overlap in the thymus reveals that a large proportion of Tconv and Treg sharing observed in the periphery is due to clonal expansion in the thymus. Together these data show that there are a limited number of TCR sequences shared between Tconv and Tregs. Also, Tconv and Tregs sharing identical TCRs are found at relatively high frequencies and are derived from common progenitors, of which a large portion are generated in the thymus. PMID:27100298

  15. Conventional and Regulatory CD4+ T Cells That Share Identical TCRs Are Derived from Common Clones

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Ryan O.; Pingel, Jeanette; Buller, R. Mark; DiPaolo, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Results from studies comparing the diversity and specificity of the TCR repertoires expressed by conventional (Tconv) and regulatory (Treg) CD4+ T cell have varied depending on the experimental system employed. We developed a new model in which T cells express a single fixed TCRα chain, randomly rearranged endogenous TCRβ chains, and a Foxp3-GFP reporter. We purified CD4+Foxp3- and CD4+Foxp3+ cells, then performed biased controlled multiplex PCR and high throughput sequencing of endogenous TCRβ chains. We identified >7,000 different TCRβ sequences in the periphery of 5 individual mice. On average, ~12% of TCR sequences were expressed by both conventional and regulatory populations within individual mice. The CD4+ T cells that expressed shared TCR sequences were present at higher frequencies compared to T cells expressing non-shared TCRs. Furthermore, nearly all (>90%) of the TCR sequences that were shared within mice were identical at the DNA sequence level, indicating that conventional and regulatory T cells that express shared TCRs are derived from common clones. Analysis of TCR repertoire overlap in the thymus reveals that a large proportion of Tconv and Treg sharing observed in the periphery is due to clonal expansion in the thymus. Together these data show that there are a limited number of TCR sequences shared between Tconv and Tregs. Also, Tconv and Tregs sharing identical TCRs are found at relatively high frequencies and are derived from common progenitors, of which a large portion are generated in the thymus. PMID:27100298

  16. The Regulatory Effects of Long Noncoding RNA-ANCR on Dental Tissue-Derived Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Qian; Chen, Xiaolin; Jiang, Wenkai; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) have been recognized as important regulators in diverse biological processes, such as transcriptional regulation, stem cell proliferation, and differentiation. Previous study has demonstrated that lncRNA-ANCR (antidifferentiation ncRNA) plays a key role in regulating the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). However, little is known about the role of ANCR in regulating other types of dental tissue-derived stem cells (DTSCs) behaviours (including proliferation and multiple-potential of differentiation). In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of lncRNA-ANCR on the proliferation and differentiation (including osteogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic differentiation) of DTSCs, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), PDLSCs, and stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAP) by downregulation of lncRNA-ANCR. We found that downregulation of ANCR exerted little effect on proliferation of DPSCs and SCAP but promoted the osteogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic differentiation of DTSCs. These data provide an insight into the regulatory effects of long noncoding RNA-ANCR on DTSCs and indicate that ANCR is a very important regulatory factor in stem cell differentiation.

  17. The Regulatory Effects of Long Noncoding RNA-ANCR on Dental Tissue-Derived Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Qian; Chen, Xiaolin; Jiang, Wenkai; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) have been recognized as important regulators in diverse biological processes, such as transcriptional regulation, stem cell proliferation, and differentiation. Previous study has demonstrated that lncRNA-ANCR (antidifferentiation ncRNA) plays a key role in regulating the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). However, little is known about the role of ANCR in regulating other types of dental tissue-derived stem cells (DTSCs) behaviours (including proliferation and multiple-potential of differentiation). In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of lncRNA-ANCR on the proliferation and differentiation (including osteogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic differentiation) of DTSCs, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), PDLSCs, and stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAP) by downregulation of lncRNA-ANCR. We found that downregulation of ANCR exerted little effect on proliferation of DPSCs and SCAP but promoted the osteogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic differentiation of DTSCs. These data provide an insight into the regulatory effects of long noncoding RNA-ANCR on DTSCs and indicate that ANCR is a very important regulatory factor in stem cell differentiation. PMID:27648074

  18. Regulatory T-cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: actor or innocent bystander?

    PubMed Central

    D’Arena, Giovanni; Simeon, Vittorio; D’Auria, Fiorella; Statuto, Teodora; Sanzo, Paola Di; Martino, Laura De; Marandino, Aurelio; Sangiorgio, Michele; Musto, Pellegrino; Feo, Vincenzo De

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells are now under extensive investigation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). This small subset of T-cells has been, in fact, considered to be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of CLL. However, whether Treg dysregulation in CLL plays a key role or it rather represents a simple epiphenomenon is still matter of debate. In the former case, Treg cells could be appealing for targeting therapies. Finally, Treg cells have also been proposed as a prognostic indicator of the disease clinical course. PMID:23358515

  19. Regulatory T Cells in Tumor-Associated Tertiary Lymphoid Structures Suppress Anti-tumor T Cell Responses.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Nikhil S; Akama-Garren, Elliot H; Lu, Yisi; Lee, Da-Yae; Chang, Gregory P; Li, Amy; DuPage, Michel; Tammela, Tuomas; Kerper, Natanya R; Farago, Anna F; Robbins, Rebecca; Crowley, Denise M; Bronson, Roderick T; Jacks, Tyler

    2015-09-15

    Infiltration of regulatory T (Treg) cells into many tumor types correlates with poor patient prognoses. However, mechanisms of intratumoral Treg cell function remain to be elucidated. We investigated Treg cell function in a genetically engineered mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma and found that Treg cells suppressed anti-tumor responses in tumor-associated tertiary lymphoid structures (TA-TLSs). TA-TLSs have been described in human lung cancers, but their function remains to be determined. TLSs in this model were spatially associated with >90% of tumors and facilitated interactions between T cells and tumor-antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs). Costimulatory ligand expression by DCs and T cell proliferation rates increased in TA-TLSs upon Treg cell depletion, leading to tumor destruction. Thus, we propose that Treg cells in TA-TLSs can inhibit endogenous immune responses against tumors, and targeting these cells might provide therapeutic benefit for cancer patients.

  20. Regulatory T cells in tumor-associated tertiary lymphoid structures suppress anti-tumor T cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Nikhil S.; Akama-Garren, Elliot H.; Lu, Yisi; Lee, Da-Yae; Chang, Gregory P.; Li, Amy; DuPage, Michel; Tammela, Tuomas; Kerper, Natanya R.; Farago, Anna F.; Robbins, Rebecca; Crowley, Denise M.; Bronson, Roderick T.; Jacks, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Infiltration of regulatory T (Treg) cells into many tumor types correlates with poor patient prognoses. However, mechanisms of intratumoral Treg cell function remain to be elucidated. We investigated Treg cell function in a genetically-engineered mouse lung adenocarcinoma model and found Treg cells suppress anti-tumor responses in tumor-associated tertiary lymphoid structures (TA-TLS). TA-TLS have been described in human lung cancers, but their function remains to be determined. TLS in this model were spatially associated with >90% of tumors and facilitated interactions between T cells and tumor-antigen presenting dendritic cells (DCs). Costimulatory ligand expression by DCs and T cell proliferation rates increased in TA-TLS upon Treg cell depletion, leading to tumor destruction. Thus, we propose Treg cells in TA-TLS can inhibit endogenous immune responses against tumors, and targeting these cells may provide therapeutic benefit for cancer patients. PMID:26341400

  1. Cis-regulatory mechanisms governing stem and progenitor cell transitions

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kirby D.; Kong, Guangyao; Gao, Xin; Chang, Yuan-I; Hewitt, Kyle J.; Sanalkumar, Rajendran; Prathibha, Rajalekshmi; Ranheim, Erik A.; Dewey, Colin N.; Zhang, Jing; Bresnick, Emery H.

    2015-01-01

    Cis-element encyclopedias provide information on phenotypic diversity and disease mechanisms. Although cis-element polymorphisms and mutations are instructive, deciphering function remains challenging. Mutation of an intronic GATA motif (+9.5) in GATA2, encoding a master regulator of hematopoiesis, underlies an immunodeficiency associated with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Whereas an inversion relocalizes another GATA2 cis-element (−77) to the proto-oncogene EVI1, inducing EVI1 expression and AML, whether this reflects ectopic or physiological activity is unknown. We describe a mouse strain that decouples −77 function from proto-oncogene deregulation. The −77−/− mice exhibited a novel phenotypic constellation including late embryonic lethality and anemia. The −77 established a vital sector of the myeloid progenitor transcriptome, conferring multipotentiality. Unlike the +9.5−/− embryos, hematopoietic stem cell genesis was unaffected in −77−/− embryos. These results illustrate a paradigm in which cis-elements in a locus differentially control stem and progenitor cell transitions, and therefore the individual cis-element alterations cause unique and overlapping disease phenotypes. PMID:26601269

  2. PD-1 marks dysfunctional regulatory T cells in malignant gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Lowther, Daniel E.; Goods, Brittany A.; Lucca, Liliana E.; Lerner, Benjamin A.; Raddassi, Khadir; van Dijk, David; Hernandez, Amanda L.; Duan, Xiangguo; Gunel, Murat; Coric, Vlad; Krishnaswamy, Smita; Hafler, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapies targeting the immune checkpoint receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) have shown remarkable efficacy in treating cancer. CD4+CD25hiFoxP3+ Tregs are critical regulators of immune responses in autoimmunity and malignancies, but the functional status of human Tregs expressing PD-1 remains unclear. We examined functional and molecular features of PD-1hi Tregs in healthy subjects and patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), combining functional assays, RNA sequencing, and cytometry by time of flight (CyTOF). In both patients with GBM and healthy subjects, circulating PD-1hi Tregs displayed reduced suppression of CD4+ effector T cells, production of IFN-γ, and molecular signatures of exhaustion. Transcriptional profiling of tumor-resident Tregs revealed that several genes coexpressed with PD-1 and associated with IFN-γ production and exhaustion as well as enrichment in exhaustion signatures compared with circulating PD-1hi Tregs. CyTOF analysis of circulating and tumor-infiltrating Tregs from patients with GBM treated with PD-1-blocking antibodies revealed that treatment shifts the profile of circulating Tregs toward a more exhausted phenotype reminiscent of that of tumor-infiltrating Tregs, further increasing IFN-γ production. Thus, high PD-1 expression on human Tregs identifies dysfunctional, exhausted Tregs secreting IFN-γ that exist in healthy individuals and are enriched in tumor infiltrates, possibly losing function as they attempt to modulate the antitumoral immune responses. PMID:27182555

  3. Role of regulatory B cells in immune tolerance to allergens and beyond.

    PubMed

    van de Veen, Willem; Stanic, Barbara; Wirz, Oliver F; Jansen, Kirstin; Globinska, Anna; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2016-09-01

    Immune tolerance to both self-antigens and innocuous non-self-antigens is essential to protect the host against chronic inflammatory diseases and tissue damage. A wide range of cell types and suppressive molecules are involved in induction and maintenance of tolerance. In addition to their key function in the production of immunoglobulins, B cells can regulate immune responses through their surface molecules and secretion of cytokines. Regulatory B (Breg) cells are characterized by their immunosuppressive capacity, which is often mediated through IL-10 secretion. However, IL-35 and TGF-β have also been associated with B cell-mediated immunosuppression. Several types of murine and human Breg cells have been described, such as mouse CD5(+)CD1d(hi) B10 cells, CD21(hi)CD23(hi)CD24(hi) transitional stage 2-like B cells, and CD138(+) plasma cells and plasmablasts. Human Breg cell types include CD27(+)CD24(high) B10 cells, CD24(hi)CD38(hi) immature transitional B cells, and CD73(-)CD25(+)CD71(+) BR1 cells and a subset of plasma cells. Support for the in vivo existence of allergen-specific human Breg cells comes from direct detection of their increase during the course of allergen-specific immunotherapy, as well as their increased expression in nonallergic but high-dose allergen-exposed beekeepers. Human BR1 cells selectively upregulate IgG4 antibodies on differentiation to plasma cells. This suggests an additional immune regulatory role because of the noninflammatory and blocking antibody function of IgG4. Taken together, Breg cells appear to be involved in mediating allergen tolerance, but many open questions remain to be answered. PMID:27596706

  4. Role of regulatory B cells in immune tolerance to allergens and beyond.

    PubMed

    van de Veen, Willem; Stanic, Barbara; Wirz, Oliver F; Jansen, Kirstin; Globinska, Anna; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2016-09-01

    Immune tolerance to both self-antigens and innocuous non-self-antigens is essential to protect the host against chronic inflammatory diseases and tissue damage. A wide range of cell types and suppressive molecules are involved in induction and maintenance of tolerance. In addition to their key function in the production of immunoglobulins, B cells can regulate immune responses through their surface molecules and secretion of cytokines. Regulatory B (Breg) cells are characterized by their immunosuppressive capacity, which is often mediated through IL-10 secretion. However, IL-35 and TGF-β have also been associated with B cell-mediated immunosuppression. Several types of murine and human Breg cells have been described, such as mouse CD5(+)CD1d(hi) B10 cells, CD21(hi)CD23(hi)CD24(hi) transitional stage 2-like B cells, and CD138(+) plasma cells and plasmablasts. Human Breg cell types include CD27(+)CD24(high) B10 cells, CD24(hi)CD38(hi) immature transitional B cells, and CD73(-)CD25(+)CD71(+) BR1 cells and a subset of plasma cells. Support for the in vivo existence of allergen-specific human Breg cells comes from direct detection of their increase during the course of allergen-specific immunotherapy, as well as their increased expression in nonallergic but high-dose allergen-exposed beekeepers. Human BR1 cells selectively upregulate IgG4 antibodies on differentiation to plasma cells. This suggests an additional immune regulatory role because of the noninflammatory and blocking antibody function of IgG4. Taken together, Breg cells appear to be involved in mediating allergen tolerance, but many open questions remain to be answered.

  5. Regulatory Frameworks for Gene and Cell Therapies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Daisuke; Yamaguchi, Teruhide; Ishizuka, Takami; Hirata, Masakazu; Takekita, Kazuhiro; Sato, Daisaku

    2015-01-01

    The regulations for the human use of advanced therapy medical products such as gene and cell therapy products have evolved in accordance with advance of clinical experience, scientific knowledge, and social acceptance to these technologies. In Japan, two laws, the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices (PMD) Act and the Act on the Safety of Regenerative Medicine (ASRM), were enacted in November 2014. The PMD Act defines regenerative medical products for the first time and introduces a system for the conditional and time-limited marketing authorization of regenerative medical products. Under ASRM, the responsibilities of medical institutions to ensure the safety and provide transparency of such medical technologies are described. Amendments to accompanying guidelines for these two Acts are currently in preparation. It is expected that the new legislative frameworks will promote the timely development of new products and technologies, to bring safe and effective regenerative medicines to Japanese patients.

  6. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells promote cross-tolerance in B-cell lymphoma by expanding regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Paolo; Mgebroff, Stephanie; Noonan, Kimberly; Borrello, Ivan

    2008-07-01

    Tumor-induced T-cell tolerance is a major mechanism that facilitates tumor progression and limits the efficacy of immune therapeutic interventions. Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a central role in the induction of tolerance to tumor antigens, yet the precise mechanisms regulating its induction in vivo remain to be elucidated. Using the A20 B-cell lymphoma model, here we identify myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) as the tolerogenic antigen presenting cells capable of antigen uptake and presentation to tumor-specific Tregs. MDSC-mediated Treg induction requires arginase but is transforming growth factor-beta independent. In vitro and in vivo inhibition of MDSC function, respectively, with NOHA or sildenafil abrogates Treg proliferation and tumor-induced tolerance in antigen-specific T cells. These findings establish a role for MDSCs in antigen-specific tolerance induction through preferential antigen uptake mediating the recruitment and expansion of Tregs. Furthermore, therapeutic interventions, such as in vivo phosphodiesterase 5-inhibition, which effectively abrogate the immunosuppressive role of MDSCs and reduce Treg numbers, may play a critical role in delaying and/or reversing tolerance induction. PMID:18593947

  7. Bone marrow-resident NK cells prime monocytes for regulatory function during infection

    PubMed Central

    Askenase, Michael H.; Han, Seong-Ji; Byrd, Allyson L.; da Fonseca, Denise Morais; Bouladoux, Nicolas; Wilhelm, Christoph; Konkel, Joanne E.; Hand, Timothy W.; Lacerda-Queiroz, Norinne; Su, Xin-Zhuan; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Grainger, John R.; Belkaid, Yasmine

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Tissue-infiltrating Ly6Chi monocytes play diverse roles in immunity, ranging from pathogen killing to immune regulation. How and where this diversity of function is imposed remains poorly understood. Here we show that during acute gastrointestinal infection, priming of monocytes for regulatory function preceded systemic inflammation and was initiated prior to bone marrow egress. Notably, natural killer (NK) cell-derived IFN-γ promoted a regulatory program in monocyte progenitors during development. Early bone marrow NK cell activation was controlled by systemic interleukin-12 (IL-12) produced by Batf3-dependent dendritic cells (DC) in the mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). This work challenges the paradigm that monocyte function is dominantly imposed by local signals following tissue recruitment, and instead proposes a sequential model of differentiation in which monocytes are pre-emptively educated during development in the bone marrow to promote their tissue-specific function. PMID:26070484

  8. Global regulatory developments for clinical stem cell research: diversification and challenges to collaborations.

    PubMed

    Rosemann, Achim; Bortz, Gabriela; Vasen, Federico; Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    2016-10-01

    In this article, we explore regulatory developments in stem cell medicine in seven jurisdictions: Japan, China, India, Argentina, Brazil, the USA and the EU. We will show that the research methods, ethical standards and approval procedures for the market use of clinical stem cell interventions are undergoing an important process of global diversification. We will discuss the implications of this process for international harmonization and the conduct of multicountry clinical research collaborations. It will become clear that the increasing heterogeneity of research standards and regulations in the stem cell field presents a significant challenge to international clinical trial partnerships, especially with countries that diverge from the regulatory models that have been developed in the USA and the EU. PMID:27622527

  9. Decoding the regulatory landscape of melanoma reveals TEADS as regulators of the invasive cell state.

    PubMed

    Verfaillie, Annelien; Imrichova, Hana; Atak, Zeynep Kalender; Dewaele, Michael; Rambow, Florian; Hulselmans, Gert; Christiaens, Valerie; Svetlichnyy, Dmitry; Luciani, Flavie; Van den Mooter, Laura; Claerhout, Sofie; Fiers, Mark; Journe, Fabrice; Ghanem, Ghanem-Elias; Herrmann, Carl; Halder, Georg; Marine, Jean-Christophe; Aerts, Stein

    2015-04-09

    Transcriptional reprogramming of proliferative melanoma cells into a phenotypically distinct invasive cell subpopulation is a critical event at the origin of metastatic spreading. Here we generate transcriptome, open chromatin and histone modification maps of melanoma cultures; and integrate this data with existing transcriptome and DNA methylation profiles from tumour biopsies to gain insight into the mechanisms underlying this key reprogramming event. This shows thousands of genomic regulatory regions underlying the proliferative and invasive states, identifying SOX10/MITF and AP-1/TEAD as regulators, respectively. Knockdown of TEADs shows a previously unrecognized role in the invasive gene network and establishes a causative link between these transcription factors, cell invasion and sensitivity to MAPK inhibitors. Using regulatory landscapes and in silico analysis, we show that transcriptional reprogramming underlies the distinct cellular states present in melanoma. Furthermore, it reveals an essential role for the TEADs, linking it to clinically relevant mechanisms such as invasion and resistance.

  10. Regulatory T Cells in Autoimmune Diabetes: Mechanisms of Action and Translational Potential.

    PubMed

    Ovcinnikovs, Vitalijs; Walker, Lucy S K

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of specialized T cells with regulatory function, harnessing the power of these cells to ameliorate autoimmunity has been a major goal. Here we collate the evidence that regulatory T cells (Treg) can inhibit Type 1 diabetes in animal models and humans. We discuss the anatomical sites and molecular mechanisms of Treg suppressive function in the Type 1 diabetes setting, citing evidence that Treg can function in both the pancreatic lymph nodes and within the pancreatic lesion. Involvement of the CTLA-4 pathway, as well as TGF-β and IL-2 deprivation will be considered. Finally, we summarize current efforts to manipulate Treg therapeutically in individuals with Type 1 diabetes. The translation of this research area from bench to bedside is still in its infancy, but the remarkable therapeutic potential of successfully manipulating Treg populations is clear to see. PMID:26615100

  11. Decoding the regulatory landscape of melanoma reveals TEADS as regulators of the invasive cell state

    PubMed Central

    Verfaillie, Annelien; Imrichova, Hana; Atak, Zeynep Kalender; Dewaele, Michael; Rambow, Florian; Hulselmans, Gert; Christiaens, Valerie; Svetlichnyy, Dmitry; Luciani, Flavie; Van den Mooter, Laura; Claerhout, Sofie; Fiers, Mark; Journe, Fabrice; Ghanem, Ghanem-Elias; Herrmann, Carl; Halder, Georg; Marine, Jean-Christophe; Aerts, Stein

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional reprogramming of proliferative melanoma cells into a phenotypically distinct invasive cell subpopulation is a critical event at the origin of metastatic spreading. Here we generate transcriptome, open chromatin and histone modification maps of melanoma cultures; and integrate this data with existing transcriptome and DNA methylation profiles from tumour biopsies to gain insight into the mechanisms underlying this key reprogramming event. This shows thousands of genomic regulatory regions underlying the proliferative and invasive states, identifying SOX10/MITF and AP-1/TEAD as regulators, respectively. Knockdown of TEADs shows a previously unrecognized role in the invasive gene network and establishes a causative link between these transcription factors, cell invasion and sensitivity to MAPK inhibitors. Using regulatory landscapes and in silico analysis, we show that transcriptional reprogramming underlies the distinct cellular states present in melanoma. Furthermore, it reveals an essential role for the TEADs, linking it to clinically relevant mechanisms such as invasion and resistance. PMID:25865119

  12. Regulatory mechanism of protein metabolic pathway during the differentiation process of chicken male germ cell.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Zuo, Qisheng; Lian, Chao; Zhang, Lei; Shi, Qingqing; Zhang, Zhentao; Wang, Yingjie; Ahmed, Mahmoud F; Tang, Beibei; Xiao, Tianrong; Zhang, Yani; Li, Bichun

    2015-08-01

    We explored the regulatory mechanism of protein metabolism during the differentiation process of chicken male germ cells and provide a basis for improving the induction system of embryonic stem cell differentiation to male germ cells in vitro. We sequenced the transcriptome of embryonic stem cells, primordial germ cells, and spermatogonial stem cells with RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), bioinformatics analysis methods, and detection of the key genes by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Finally, we found 16 amino acid metabolic pathways enriched in the biological metabolism during the differentiation process of embryonic stem cells to primordial germ cells and 15 amino acid metabolic pathways enriched in the differentiation stage of primordial germ cells to spermatogonial stem cells. We found three pathways, arginine-proline metabolic pathway, tyrosine metabolic pathway, and tryptophan metabolic pathway, significantly enriched in the whole differentiation process of embryonic stem cells to spermatogonial stem cells. Moreover, for these three pathways, we screened key genes such as NOS2, ADC, FAH, and IDO. qRT-PCR results showed that the expression trend of these genes were the same to RNA-Seq. Our findings showed that the three pathways and these key genes play an important role in the differentiation process of embryonic stem cells to male germ cells. These results provide basic information for improving the induction system of embryonic stem cell differentiation to male germ cells in vitro.

  13. Toll-like receptor 2-mediated modulation of growth and functions of regulatory T cells by oral streptococci.

    PubMed

    Saeki, A; Segawa, T; Abe, T; Sugiyama, M; Arimoto, T; Hara, H; Hasebe, A; Ohtani, M; Tanizume, N; Ohuchi, M; Kataoka, H; Kawanami, M; Yokoyama, A; Shibata, K

    2013-08-01

    This study was designed to determine whether oral streptococci modulate the growth and functions of regulatory T cells. Heat-killed cells of wild-type strains of Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus mutans induced the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) -mediated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, but their lipoprotein-deficient strains did not. Stimulation with these streptococci resulted in a significant increase in the frequency of CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in splenocytes derived from both TLR2(+/+) and TLR2(-/-) mice, but the level of increase in TLR2(+/+) splenocytes was stronger than that in TLR2(-/-) splenocytes. Both strains of S. gordonii enhanced the proliferation of CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells isolated from TLR2(+/+) mice at the same level as those from TLR2(-/-) mice in an interleukin-2-independent manner. However, wild-type and lipoprotein-deficient strains of both streptococci did not enhance the suppressive activity of the isolated regulatory T cells in vitro, but rather inhibited it. TLR ligands also inhibited the suppressive activity of the regulatory T cells. Inhibition of the suppressive activity was recovered by the addition of anti-IL-6 antibody. Pretreatment of antigen-presenting cells with the NF-κB inhibitor BAY11-7082 enhanced the suppressive activity of the regulatory T cells. These results suggested that interleukin-6 produced by antigen-presenting cells inhibits the suppressive activity of the regulatory T cells. Wild-type strain, but not lipoprotein-deficient strain, of S. gordonii reduced the frequency of CD4(+)  CD25(+)  Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in the acute infection model, whereas both strains of S. gordonii increased it in the chronic infection model mice. Hence, this study suggests that oral streptococci are capable of modulating the growth and functions of regulatory T cells in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Novel insights into the regulatory architecture of CD4+ T cells in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Aterido, Adrià; Palacio, Carlos; Marsal, Sara; Avila, Gabriela; Julià, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most frequent autoimmune chronic inflammatory disease of the joints and it is characterized by the inflammation of the synovial membrane and the subsequent destruction of the joints. In RA, CD4+ T cells are the main drivers of disease initiation and the perpetuation of the damaging inflammatory process. To date, however, the genetic regulatory mechanisms of CD4+ T cells associated with RA etiology are poorly understood. The genome-wide analysis of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in disease-relevant cell types is a recent genomic integration approach that is providing significant insights into the genetic regulatory mechanisms of many human pathologies. The objective of the present study was to analyze, for the first time, the genome-wide genetic regulatory mechanisms associated with the gene expression of CD4+ T cells in RA. Whole genome gene expression profiling of CD4+ T cells and the genome-wide genotyping (598,258 SNPs) of 29 RA patients with an active disease were performed. In order to avoid the excessive burden of multiple testing associated with genome-wide trans-eQTL analysis, we developed and implemented a novel systems genetics approach. Finally, we compared the genomic regulation pattern of CD4+ T cells in RA with the genomic regulation observed in reference lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). We identified a genome-wide significant cis-eQTL associated with the expression of FAM66C gene (P = 6.51e-9). Using our new systems genetics approach we identified six statistically significant trans-eQTLs associated with the expression of KIAA0101 (P<7.4e-8) and BIRC5 (P = 5.35e-8) genes. Finally, comparing the genomic regulation profiles between RA CD4+ T cells and control LCLs we found 20 genes showing differential regulatory patterns between both cell types. The present genome-wide eQTL analysis has identified new genetic regulatory elements that are key to the activity of CD4+ T cells in RA.

  15. Novel Insights into the Regulatory Architecture of CD4+ T Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Aterido, Adrià; Palacio, Carlos; Marsal, Sara; Ávila, Gabriela; Julià, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most frequent autoimmune chronic inflammatory disease of the joints and it is characterized by the inflammation of the synovial membrane and the subsequent destruction of the joints. In RA, CD4+ T cells are the main drivers of disease initiation and the perpetuation of the damaging inflammatory process. To date, however, the genetic regulatory mechanisms of CD4+ T cells associated with RA etiology are poorly understood. The genome-wide analysis of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in disease-relevant cell types is a recent genomic integration approach that is providing significant insights into the genetic regulatory mechanisms of many human pathologies. The objective of the present study was to analyze, for the first time, the genome-wide genetic regulatory mechanisms associated with the gene expression of CD4+ T cells in RA. Whole genome gene expression profiling of CD4+ T cells and the genome-wide genotyping (598,258 SNPs) of 29 RA patients with an active disease were performed. In order to avoid the excessive burden of multiple testing associated with genome-wide trans-eQTL analysis, we developed and implemented a novel systems genetics approach. Finally, we compared the genomic regulation pattern of CD4+ T cells in RA with the genomic regulation observed in reference lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). We identified a genome-wide significant cis-eQTL associated with the expression of FAM66C gene (P = 6.51e−9). Using our new systems genetics approach we identified six statistically significant trans-eQTLs associated with the expression of KIAA0101 (P<7.4e−8) and BIRC5 (P = 5.35e−8) genes. Finally, comparing the genomic regulation profiles between RA CD4+ T cells and control LCLs we found 20 genes showing differential regulatory patterns between both cell types. The present genome-wide eQTL analysis has identified new genetic regulatory elements that are key to the activity of CD4+ T cells in RA. PMID:24959711

  16. Arthritis protective regulatory potential of self–heat shock protein cross-reactive T cells

    PubMed Central

    van Eden, Willem; Wendling, Uwe; Paul, Liesbeth; Prakken, Berent; van Kooten, Peter; van der Zee, Ruurd

    2000-01-01

    Immunization with heat shock proteins has protective effects in models of induced arthritis. Analysis has shown a reduced synovial inflammation in such protected animals. Adoptive transfer and immunization with selected T cell epitopes (synthetic peptides) have indicated the protection to be mediated by T cells directed to conserved hsp epitopes. This was shown first for mycobacterial hsp60 and later for mycobacterial hsp70. Fine specificity analysis showed that such T cells were cross-reactive with the homologous self hsp. Therefore protection by microbial hsp reactive T cells can be by cross-recognition of self hsp overexpressed in the inflamed tissue. Preimmunization with hsp leads to a relative expansion of such self hsp cross-responsive T cells. The regulatory nature of such T cells may originate from mucosal tolerance maintained by commensal flora derived hsp or from partial activation through recognition of self hsp as a partial agonist (Altered Peptide Ligand) or in the absence of proper costimulation. Recently, we reported the selective upregulation of B7.2 on microbial hsp60 specific T cells in response to self hsp60. Through a preferred interaction with CTLA-4 on proinflammatory T cells this may constitute an effector mechanism of regulation. Also, regulatory T cells produced IL10. PMID:11189451

  17. Regulatory Oversight of Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapeutic Products and Gene Therapy Products in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Goh, Choon Wee; Kellathur, Srinivasan N; Ong, Lee Lee; Wu, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory environment for cell- and tissue-based therapeutic products and gene therapy products is rapidly evolving and drug regulatory agencies are working towards establishing a risk-based system in the regulatory framework. Similarly in Singapore, a risk-based tiered approach has been applied whereby clinical trials and product licence of high-risk cell- and tissue-based therapeutic products (substantially manipulated products, products intended for nonhomologous use or combined products) and gene therapy products are regulated as medicinal products under the Medicines Act. There is no legal definition for cell- and tissue-based therapeutic and gene therapy products. The current working definition for a cell- and tissue-based therapeutic product is an article containing or consisting of an autologous or allogeneic human cell or tissue that are used for or administered to, or intended to be used for or administered to, human beings for the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of human diseases or conditions. Gene therapy products are included under the current biological medicinal product definition.

  18. [Regulatory requirements regarding cell-based medicinal products for human and veterinary use - a comparison].

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann-Gottke, Johanna; Duchow, Karin

    2015-11-01

    At present, there is no separate regulatory framework for cell-based medicinal products (CBMP) for veterinary use at the European or German level. Current European and national regulations exclusively apply to the corresponding medicinal products for human use. An increasing number of requests for the regulatory classification of CBMP for veterinary use, such as allogeneic stem cell preparations and dendritic cell-based autologous tumour vaccines, and a rise in scientific advice for companies developing these products, illustrate the need for adequate legislation. Currently, advice is given and decisions are made on a case-by-case basis regarding the regulatory classification and authorisation requirements.Since some of the CBMP - in particular in the area of stem-cell products - are developed in parallel for human and veterinary use, there is an urgent need to create specific legal definitions, regulations, and guidelines for these complex innovative products in the veterinary sector as well. Otherwise, there is a risk that that the current legal grey area regarding veterinary medicinal products will impede therapeutic innovations in the long run. A harmonised EU-wide approach is desirable. Currently the European legislation on veterinary medicinal products is under revision. In this context, veterinary therapeutics based on allogeneic cells and tissues will be defined and regulated. Certainly, the legal framework does not have to be as comprehensive as for human CBMP; a leaner solution is conceivable, similar to the special provisions for advanced-therapy medicinal products laid down in the German Medicines Act.

  19. Engineered Interleukin-2 Antagonists for the Inhibition of Regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, David V.; Maier, Lisa M.; Hafler, David A.; Wittrup, K. Dane

    2014-01-01

    The immunosuppressive effects of CD4+ CD25high regulatory T cells interfere with anti-tumor immune responses in cancer patients. Here, we present a novel class of engineered human Interleukin (IL)-2 analogues that antagonize the IL-2 receptor, for inhibiting regulatory T cell suppression. These antagonists have been engineered for high affinity to the α subunit of the IL-2 receptor and very low affinity to either the β or γ subunit, resulting in a signaling-deficient IL-2 analogue that sequesters the IL-2 receptor α subunit from wild type IL-2. Two variants, “V91R” and “Q126T” with residue substitutions that disrupt the β and γ subunit binding interfaces, respectively, have been characterized in both a T cell line and in human primary regulatory T cells. These mutants retain their high affinity binding to IL-2 receptor α subunit, but do not activate STAT5 phosphorylation or stimulate T cell growth. The two mutants competitively antagonize wild-type IL-2 signaling through the IL-2 receptor with similar efficacy, with inhibition constants of 183 pM for V91R and 216 pM for Q126T. Here, we present a novel approach to CD25-mediated Treg inhibition, with the use of an engineered human IL-2 analogue that antagonizes the IL-2 receptor. PMID:19816193

  20. Classical dendritic cells are required for dietary antigen-mediated peripheral regulatory T cell and tolerance induction

    PubMed Central

    Esterházy, Daria; Loschko, Jakob; London, Mariya; Jove, Veronica; Oliveira, Thiago Y.; Mucida, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Oral tolerance prevents pathological inflammatory responses towards innocuous foreign antigens via peripheral regulatory T cells (pTreg cells). However, whether a particular subset of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) is required during dietary antigen exposure to instruct naïve CD4+ T cells to differentiate into pTreg cells has not been defined. Using myeloid lineage-specific APC depletion in mice, we found that monocyte-derived APCs are dispensable, while classical dendritic cells (cDCs) are critical for pTreg cell induction and oral tolerance. CD11b− cDCs from the gut-draining lymph nodes efficiently induced pTreg cells, and conversely, loss of IRF8-dependent CD11b− cDCs impaired their polarization, although oral tolerance remained intact. These data reveal the hierarchy of cDC subsets in pTreg cell induction and their redundancy during oral tolerance development. PMID:27019226

  1. Regulatory effects on the population dynamics and wave propagation in a cell lineage model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mao-Xiang; Ma, Yu-Qiang; Lai, Pik-Yin

    2016-03-21

    We consider the interplay of cell proliferation, cell differentiation (and de-differentiation), cell movement, and the effect of feedback regulations on the population and propagation dynamics of different cell types in a cell lineage model. Cells are assumed to secrete and respond to negative feedback molecules which act as a control on the cell lineage. The cell densities are described by coupled reaction-diffusion partial differential equations, and the propagating wave front solutions in one dimension are investigated analytically and by numerical solutions. In particular, wavefront propagation speeds are obtained analytically and verified by numerical solutions of the equations. The emphasis is on the effects of the feedback regulations on different stages in the cell lineage. It is found that when the progenitor cell is negatively regulated, the populations of the cell lineage are strongly down-regulated with the steady growth rate of the progenitor cell being driven to zero beyond a critical regulatory strength. An analytic expression for the critical regulation strength in terms of the model parameters is derived and verified by numerical solutions. On the other hand, if the inhibition is acting on the differentiated cells, the change in the population dynamics and wave propagation speed is small. In addition, it is found that only the propagating speed of the progenitor cells is affected by the regulation when the diffusion of the differentiated cells is large. In the presence of de-differentiation, the effect on down-regulating the progenitor population is weakened and there is no effect on the propagation speed due to regulation, suggesting that the effect of regulatory control is diminished by de-differentiation pathways.

  2. The Y chromosome as a regulatory element shaping immune cell transcriptomes and susceptibility to autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Case, Laure K; Wall, Emma H; Dragon, Julie A; Saligrama, Naresha; Krementsov, Dimitry N; Moussawi, Mohamad; Zachary, James F; Huber, Sally A; Blankenhorn, Elizabeth P; Teuscher, Cory

    2013-09-01

    Understanding the DNA elements that constitute and control the regulatory genome is critical for the appropriate therapeutic management of complex diseases. Here, using chromosome Y (ChrY) consomic mouse strains on the C57BL/6J (B6) background, we show that susceptibility to two diverse animal models of autoimmune disease, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) and experimental myocarditis, correlates with the natural variation in copy number of Sly and Rbmy multicopy ChrY genes. On the B6 background, ChrY possesses gene regulatory properties that impact genome-wide gene expression in pathogenic CD4(+) T cells. Using a ChrY consomic strain on the SJL background, we discovered a preference for ChrY-mediated gene regulation in macrophages, the immune cell subset underlying the EAE sexual dimorphism in SJL mice, rather than CD4(+) T cells. Importantly, in both genetic backgrounds, an inverse correlation exists between the number of Sly and Rbmy ChrY gene copies and the number of significantly up-regulated genes in immune cells, thereby supporting a link between copy number variation of Sly and Rbmy with the ChrY genetic element exerting regulatory properties. Additionally, we show that ChrY polymorphism can determine the sexual dimorphism in EAE and myocarditis. In humans, an analysis of the CD4(+) T cell transcriptome from male multiple sclerosis patients versus healthy controls provides further evidence for an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of gene regulation by ChrY. Thus, as in Drosophila, these data establish the mammalian ChrY as a member of the regulatory genome due to its ability to epigenetically regulate genome-wide gene expression in immune cells. PMID:23800453

  3. The Y chromosome as a regulatory element shaping immune cell transcriptomes and susceptibility to autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Case, Laure K; Wall, Emma H; Dragon, Julie A; Saligrama, Naresha; Krementsov, Dimitry N; Moussawi, Mohamad; Zachary, James F; Huber, Sally A; Blankenhorn, Elizabeth P; Teuscher, Cory

    2013-09-01

    Understanding the DNA elements that constitute and control the regulatory genome is critical for the appropriate therapeutic management of complex diseases. Here, using chromosome Y (ChrY) consomic mouse strains on the C57BL/6J (B6) background, we show that susceptibility to two diverse animal models of autoimmune disease, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) and experimental myocarditis, correlates with the natural variation in copy number of Sly and Rbmy multicopy ChrY genes. On the B6 background, ChrY possesses gene regulatory properties that impact genome-wide gene expression in pathogenic CD4(+) T cells. Using a ChrY consomic strain on the SJL background, we discovered a preference for ChrY-mediated gene regulation in macrophages, the immune cell subset underlying the EAE sexual dimorphism in SJL mice, rather than CD4(+) T cells. Importantly, in both genetic backgrounds, an inverse correlation exists between the number of Sly and Rbmy ChrY gene copies and the number of significantly up-regulated genes in immune cells, thereby supporting a link between copy number variation of Sly and Rbmy with the ChrY genetic element exerting regulatory properties. Additionally, we show that ChrY polymorphism can determine the sexual dimorphism in EAE and myocarditis. In humans, an analysis of the CD4(+) T cell transcriptome from male multiple sclerosis patients versus healthy controls provides further evidence for an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of gene regulation by ChrY. Thus, as in Drosophila, these data establish the mammalian ChrY as a member of the regulatory genome due to its ability to epigenetically regulate genome-wide gene expression in immune cells.

  4. Functional analysis of microRNA and transcription factor synergistic regulatory network based on identifying regulatory motifs in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lung cancer, especially non-small cell lung cancer, is a leading cause of malignant tumor death worldwide. Understanding the mechanisms employed by the main regulators, such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and transcription factors (TFs), still remains elusive. The patterns of their cooperation and biological functions in the synergistic regulatory network have rarely been studied. Results Here, we describe the first miRNA-TF synergistic regulation network in human lung cancer. We identified important regulators (MYC, NFKB1, miR-590, and miR-570) and significant miRNA-TF synergistic regulatory motifs by random simulations. The two most significant motifs were the co-regulation of miRNAs and TFs, and TF-mediated cascade regulation. We also developed an algorithm to uncover the biological functions of the human lung cancer miRNA-TF synergistic regulatory network (regulation of apoptosis, cellular protein metabolic process, and cell cycle), and the specific functions of each miRNA-TF synergistic subnetwork. We found that the miR-17 family exerted important effects in the regulation of non-small cell lung cancer, such as in proliferation and cell cycle regulation by targeting the retinoblastoma protein (RB1) and forming a feed forward loop with the E2F1 TF. We proposed a model for the miR-17 family, E2F1, and RB1 to demonstrate their potential roles in the occurrence and development of non-small cell lung cancer. Conclusions This work will provide a framework for constructing miRNA-TF synergistic regulatory networks, function analysis in diseases, and identification of the main regulators and regulatory motifs, which will be useful for understanding the putative regulatory motifs involving miRNAs and TFs, and for predicting new targets for cancer studies. PMID:24200043

  5. Dysregulated T helper cell differentiation in the absence of interferon regulatory factor 4.

    PubMed

    Lohoff, Michael; Mittrücker, Hans-Willi; Prechtl, Stefan; Bischof, Susi; Sommer, Frank; Kock, Sonja; Ferrick, David A; Duncan, Gordon S; Gessner, Andre; Mak, Tak W

    2002-09-01

    Certain IFN regulatory factor (IRF) transcription factors indirectly influence T helper (Th) cell differentiation by regulating the production of IL-12. Here, we show that IRF4 directly regulates Th cell differentiation in vitro and in vivo during murine leishmaniasis. In the absence of IRF4, IL-12-induced Th1 cell differentiation was compromised, while IL-4 failed to induce Th2 cell differentiation. Instead, IL-4 tended to induce Th1 cells, defined by production of IFN-gamma and TNF. Although early IL-4 signaling was normal in IRF4(-/-) Th cells, the protein GATA-3, a transcription factor critical for Th2 development, was not up-regulated following IL-4 treatment. Retroviral overexpression of GATA-3 rescued Th2 differentiation. Therefore, IRF4 deficiency manifests itself as severely dysregulated Th cell differentiation.

  6. Somite subdomains, muscle cell origins, and the four muscle regulatory factor proteins

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    We show by immunohistology that distinct expression patterns of the four muscle regulatory factor (MRF) proteins identify subdomains of mouse somites. Myf-5 and MyoD are, at specific stages, each expressed in both myotome and dermatome cells. Myf-5 expression is initially restricted to dorsal cells in all somites, as is MyoD expression in neck somites. In trunk somites, however, MyoD is initially expressed in ventral cells. Myogenin and MRF4 are restricted to myotome cells, though the MRF4-expressing cells are initially less widely distributed than the myogenin-expressing cells, which are at all stages found throughout the myotome. All somitic myocytes express one or more MRFs. The transiently distinct expression patterns of the four MRF proteins identify dorsal and ventral subdomains of somites, and suggest that skeletal muscle cells in somites originate at multiple sites and via multiple molecular pathways. PMID:7929574

  7. Protein phosphatase 2A is requisite for the function of regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Apostolidis, Sokratis A.; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Noé; Suárez-Fueyo, Abel; Dioufa, Nikolina; Ozcan, Esra; Crispín, José C.; Tsokos, Maria G.; Tsokos, George C.

    2015-01-01

    Immune homeostasis depends on the proper function of regulatory T (Treg) cells. Compromised Treg cell suppressive activity leads to autoimmune disease, graft rejection and promotes anti-tumor immunity. Here we report the previously unrecognized requirement of the serine/threonine phosphatase Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) for the function of Treg cells. Treg cells exhibited high PP2A activity and Treg cell-specific ablation of the PP2A complex resulted in a severe, multi-organ, lymphoproliferative autoimmune disorder. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that PP2A associates with components of the mTOR pathway and suppresses mTORC1 activity. In the absence of PP2A, Treg cells altered their metabolic and cytokine profile and were unable to suppress effector immune responses. Therefore, PP2A is requisite for the function of Treg cells and the prevention of autoimmunity. PMID:26974206

  8. Autophagy enforces functional integrity of regulatory T cells by coupling environmental cues and metabolic homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jun; Long, Lingyun; Yang, Kai; Guy, Cliff; Shrestha, Sharad; Chen, Zuojia; Wu, Chuan; Vogel, Peter; Neale, Geoffrey; Green, Douglas R; Chi, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells respond to immune and inflammatory signals to mediate immunosuppression, but how functional integrity of Treg cells is maintained under activating environments remains elusive. Here we found that autophagy was active in Treg cells and supported their lineage stability and survival fitness. Treg cell-specific deletion of the essential autophagy gene Atg7 or Atg5 led to loss of Treg cells, increased tumor resistance, and development of inflammatory disorders. Atg7-deficient Treg cells had increased apoptosis and readily lost Foxp3 expression, especially after activation. Mechanistically, autophagy deficiency upregulated mTORC1 and c-Myc function and glycolytic metabolism that contributed to defective Treg function. Therefore, autophagy couples environmental signals and metabolic homeostasis to protect lineage and survival integrity of Treg cells in activating contexts. PMID:26808230

  9. Cerebral regulatorycells restrain microglia/macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses via IL-10.

    PubMed

    Xie, Luokun; Choudhury, Gourav Roy; Winters, Ali; Yang, Shao-Hua; Jin, Kunlin

    2015-01-01

    Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells maintain the immune tolerance and prevent inflammatory responses in the periphery. However, the presence of Treg cells in the CNS under steady state has not been studied. Here, for the first time, we show a substantial TCRαβ (+) CD4(+) Foxp3(+) T-cell population (cerebral Treg cells) in the rat cerebrum, constituting more than 15% of the cerebral CD4(+) T-cell compartment. Cerebral Treg cells showed an activated/memory phenotype and expressed many Treg-cell signature genes at higher levels than peripheral Treg cells. Consistent with their activated/memory phenotype, cerebral Treg cells robustly restrained the LPS-induced inflammatory responses of brain microglia/macrophages, suggesting a role in maintaining the cerebral homeostasis by inhibiting the neuroinflammation. In addition, brain astrocytes were the helper cells that sustained Foxp3 expression in Treg cells through IL-2/STAT5 signaling, showing that the interaction between astrocytes and Treg cells contributes to the maintenance of Treg-cell identity in the brain. Taken together, our work represents the first study to characterize the phenotypic and functional features of Treg cells in the rat cerebrum. Our data have provided a novel insight for the contribution of Treg cells to the immunosurveillance and immunomodulation in the cerebrum under steady state.

  10. At homeostasis filarial infections have expanded adaptive T regulatory but not classical Th2 cells.

    PubMed

    Metenou, Simon; Dembele, Benoit; Konate, Siaka; Dolo, Housseini; Coulibaly, Siaka Y; Coulibaly, Yaya I; Diallo, Abdallah A; Soumaoro, Lamine; Coulibaly, Michel E; Sanogo, Dramane; Doumbia, Salif S; Traoré, Sekou F; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Klion, Amy; Nutman, Thomas B

    2010-05-01

    Despite the well-documented immune suppression associated with human helminth infections, studies characterizing the immune response at the single-cell level are scanty. We used multiparameter flow cytometry to characterize the type of effector (Th1, Th2, and Th17) and regulatory (natural T regulatory cells [nTregs] and adaptive Treg cells [aTreg/type 1 regulatory cells (Tr1s)]) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in filaria-infected (Fil(+)) and -uninfected (Fil(-)) individuals at homeostasis (in the absence of stimulation). Frequencies of CD4(+) lymphocytes spontaneously producing IL-4, IL-10, and IL-17A were significantly higher in Fil(+), as were those of IL-10(+)/IL-4(+) double-producing CD4(+) cells. Interestingly, frequencies of Th17 and aTreg/Tr1s but not classical Th1 or Th2 cells were significantly increased in Fil(+) compared to Fil(-) individuals. Although the frequency of nTreg was increased in Fil(+), IL-10 was overwhelmingly produced by CD4(+)CD25(-) cells. Moreover, the concentration of IL-10 produced spontaneously in vitro strongly correlated with the integrated geometric mean fluorescence intensity of IL-10-producing aTreg/Tr1s in Fil(+). Together, these data show that at steady state, IL-10-producing aTreg/Tr1 as well as nTreg and effector Th17 CD4(+) cells are expanded in vivo in human filarial infections. Moreover, we have established baseline ex vivo frequencies of effector and Tregs at homeostasis at a population level. PMID:20357251

  11. Regulatory T cell number in multiple sclerosis patients: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Noori-Zadeh, Ali; Mesbah-Namin, Seyed Alireza; Bistoon-Beigloo, Sara; Bakhtiyari, Salar; Abbaszadeh, Hojjat-Allah; Darabi, Shahram; Rajabibazl, Masoumeh; Abdanipour, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg cells), defined as CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) T cells by expression of CD4, high-affinity IL-2 receptor and the transcription factor, forkhead box P3 (FoxP3). They play a pivotal role in protecting individuals from autoimmunity and a growing body of evidence suggests their role in the prevention of multiple sclerosis development. However, there are discrepancies about the type of defect in the Treg cells of multiple sclerosis patients and especially whether the Treg number alteration could be contributed to multiple sclerosis pathogenesis. Indeed, whether low number of Treg cells can be a risk factor contributing to multiple sclerosis pathogenesis is the matter of debate and there is not any comprehensive agreement on it. Thus, the objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to precisely quantify the nature and magnitude of the association between Treg cell number and the risk ratio/odds ratio (OR) of multiple sclerosis in the case-control studies. Hence, medical databases of Embase, PubMed/Medline, PubMed, PubMed Central and SCOPUS were searched for empirical papers using "Regulatory T cell frequency", "Treg frequency" in combination with "multiple sclerosis". In the case-control studies, papers were reviewed for inclusion/exclusion criteria and 8 publications were included. Under random-effect model meta-analysis the data showed that the frequency of Treg cells was not a risk factor in multiple sclerosis using current laboratory methods.

  12. Robust and Accurate Discrimination of Self/Non-Self Antigen Presentations by Regulatory T Cell Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Furusawa, Chikara; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    The immune response by T cells usually discriminates self and non-self antigens, even though the negative selection of self-reactive T cells is imperfect and a certain fraction of T cells can respond to self-antigens. In this study, we construct a simple mathematical model of T cell populations to analyze how such self/non-self discrimination is possible. The results demonstrate that the control of the immune response by regulatory T cells enables a robust and accurate discrimination of self and non-self antigens, even when there is a significant overlap between the affinity distribution of T cells to self and non-self antigens. Here, the number of regulatory T cells in the system acts as a global variable controlling the T cell population dynamics. The present study provides a basis for the development of a quantitative theory for self and non-self discrimination in the immune system and a possible strategy for its experimental verification. PMID:27668873

  13. Genetic regulatory networks programming hematopoietic stem cells and erythroid lineage specification.

    PubMed

    Swiers, Gemma; Patient, Roger; Loose, Matthew

    2006-06-15

    Erythroid cell production results from passage through cellular hierarchies dependent on differential gene expression under the control of transcription factors responsive to changing niches. We have constructed Genetic Regulatory Networks (GRNs) describing this process, based predominantly on mouse data. Regulatory network motifs identified in E. coli and yeast GRNs are found in combination in these GRNs. Feed-forward motifs with autoregulation generate forward momentum and also control its rate, which is at its lowest in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The simultaneous requirement for multiple regulators in multi-input motifs (MIMs) provides tight control over expression of target genes. Combinations of MIMs, exemplified by the SCL/LMO2 complexes, which have variable content and binding sites, explain how individual regulators can have different targets in HSCs and erythroid cells and possibly also how HSCs maintain stem cell functions while expressing lineage-affiliated genes at low level, so-called multi-lineage priming. MIMs combined with cross-antagonism describe the relationship between PU.1 and GATA-1 and between two of their target genes, Fli-1 and EKLF, with victory for GATA-1 and EKLF leading to erythroid lineage specification. These GRNs are useful repositories for current regulatory information, are accessible in interactive form via the internet, enable the consequences of perturbation to be predicted, and can act as seed networks to organize the rapidly accumulating microarray data.

  14. Rapid and Efficient Generation of Regulatory T Cells to Commensal Antigens in the Periphery.

    PubMed

    Nutsch, Katherine; Chai, Jiani N; Ai, Teresa L; Russler-Germain, Emilie; Feehley, Taylor; Nagler, Cathryn R; Hsieh, Chyi-Song

    2016-09-27

    Commensal bacteria shape the colonic regulatory T (Treg) cell population required for intestinal tolerance. However, little is known about this process. Here, we use the transfer of naive commensal-reactive transgenic T cells expressing colonic Treg T cell receptors (TCRs) to study peripheral Treg (pTreg) cell development in normal hosts. We found that T cells were activated primarily in the distal mesenteric lymph node. Treg cell induction was rapid, generating >40% Foxp3(+) cells 1 week after transfer. Contrary to prior reports, Foxp3(+) cells underwent the most cell divisions, demonstrating that pTreg cell generation can be the dominant outcome from naive T cell activation. Moreover, Notch2-dependent, but not Batf3-dependent, dendritic cells were involved in Treg cell selection. Finally, neither deletion of the conserved nucleotide sequence 1 (CNS1) region in Foxp3 nor blockade of TGF-β (transforming growth factor-β)-receptor signaling completely abrogated Foxp3 induction. Thus, these data show that pTreg cell selection to commensal bacteria is rapid, is robust, and may be specified by TGF-β-independent signals. PMID:27681432

  15. An Integrated Gene Regulatory Network Controls Stem Cell Proliferation in Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Felszeghy, Szabolcs; Zelarayan, Laura C; Alonso, Maria T; Plikus, Maksim V; Maas, Richard L; Chuong, Cheng-Ming; Schimmang, Thomas; Thesleff, Irma

    2007-01-01

    Epithelial stem cells reside in specific niches that regulate their self-renewal and differentiation, and are responsible for the continuous regeneration of tissues such as hair, skin, and gut. Although the regenerative potential of mammalian teeth is limited, mouse incisors grow continuously throughout life and contain stem cells at their proximal ends in the cervical loops. In the labial cervical loop, the epithelial stem cells proliferate and migrate along the labial surface, differentiating into enamel-forming ameloblasts. In contrast, the lingual cervical loop contains fewer proliferating stem cells, and the lingual incisor surface lacks ameloblasts and enamel. Here we have used a combination of mouse mutant analyses, organ culture experiments, and expression studies to identify the key signaling molecules that regulate stem cell proliferation in the rodent incisor stem cell niche, and to elucidate their role in the generation of the intrinsic asymmetry of the incisors. We show that epithelial stem cell proliferation in the cervical loops is controlled by an integrated gene regulatory network consisting of Activin, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and Follistatin within the incisor stem cell niche. Mesenchymal FGF3 stimulates epithelial stem cell proliferation, and BMP4 represses Fgf3 expression. In turn, Activin, which is strongly expressed in labial mesenchyme, inhibits the repressive effect of BMP4 and restricts Fgf3 expression to labial dental mesenchyme, resulting in increased stem cell proliferation and a large, labial stem cell niche. Follistatin limits the number of lingual stem cells, further contributing to the characteristic asymmetry of mouse incisors, and on the basis of our findings, we suggest a model in which Follistatin antagonizes the activity of Activin. These results show how the spatially restricted and balanced effects of specific components of a signaling network can regulate stem cell proliferation in

  16. Hepatic compartmentalization of exhausted and regulatory cells in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients.

    PubMed

    Barrett, L; Trehanpati, N; Poonia, S; Daigh, L; Sarin, S Kumar; Masur, H; Kottilil, S

    2015-03-01

    Accelerated intrahepatic hepatitis C virus (HCV) pathogenesis is likely the result of dysregulation within both the innate and adaptive immune compartments, but the exact contribution of peripheral blood and liver lymphocyte subsets remains unclear. Prolonged activation and expansion of immunoregulatory cells have been thought to play a role. We determined immune cell subset frequency in contemporaneous liver and peripheral blood samples from chronic HCV-infected and HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and biopsy-derived liver-infiltrating lymphocytes from 26 HIV/HCV-coinfected, 10 chronic HCV-infected and 10 HIV-infected individuals were assessed for various subsets of T and B lymphocytes, dendritic cell, natural killer (NK) cell and NK T-cell frequency by flow cytometry. CD8(+) T cells expressing the exhaustion marker PD-1 were increased in HCV-infected individuals compared with uninfected individuals (P = 0.02), and HIV coinfection enhanced this effect (P = 0.005). In the liver, regulatory CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) T cells, as well as CD4(+) CD25(+) PD1(+) T cells, were more frequent in HIV/HCV-coinfected than in HCV-monoinfected samples (P < 0.001). HCV was associated with increased regulatory T cells, PD-1(+) T cells and decreased memory B cells, regardless of HIV infection (P ≤ 0.005 for all). Low CD8(+) expression was observed only in PD-1(+) CD8(+) T cells from HCV-infected individuals and healthy controls (P = 0.002) and was associated with enhanced expansion of exhausted CD8(+) T cells when exposed in vitro to PHA or CMV peptides. In conclusion, in HIV/HCV coinfection, ongoing HCV replication is associated with increased regulatory and exhausted T cells in the periphery and liver that may impact control of HCV. Simultaneous characterization of liver and peripheral blood highlights the disproportionate intrahepatic compartmentalization of immunoregulatory T cells, which may contribute to establishment of chronicity and

  17. A Dynamic Gene Regulatory Network Model That Recovers the Cyclic Behavior of Arabidopsis thaliana Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Elizabeth; García-Cruz, Karla; Azpeitia, Eugenio; Castillo, Aaron; Sánchez, María de la Paz; Álvarez-Buylla, Elena R.

    2015-01-01

    Cell cycle control is fundamental in eukaryotic development. Several modeling efforts have been used to integrate the complex network of interacting molecular components involved in cell cycle dynamics. In this paper, we aimed at recovering the regulatory logic upstream of previously known components of cell cycle control, with the aim of understanding the mechanisms underlying the emergence of the cyclic behavior of such components. We focus on Arabidopsis thaliana, but given that many components of cell cycle regulation are conserved among eukaryotes, when experimental data for this system was not available, we considered experimental results from yeast and animal systems. We are proposing a Boolean gene regulatory network (GRN) that converges into only one robust limit cycle attractor that closely resembles the cyclic behavior of the key cell-cycle molecular components and other regulators considered here. We validate the model by comparing our in silico configurations with data from loss- and gain-of-function mutants, where the endocyclic behavior also was recovered. Additionally, we approximate a continuous model and recovered the temporal periodic expression profiles of the cell-cycle molecular components involved, thus suggesting that the single limit cycle attractor recovered with the Boolean model is not an artifact of its discrete and synchronous nature, but rather an emergent consequence of the inherent characteristics of the regulatory logic proposed here. This dynamical model, hence provides a novel theoretical framework to address cell cycle regulation in plants, and it can also be used to propose novel predictions regarding cell cycle regulation in other eukaryotes. PMID:26340681

  18. Viral Interactions with B-Cells Contribute to Increased Regulatory T-Cells During Chronic HCV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Chris L.; Firan, Mihail; Pillai, Vinodh; Lee, William M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has a propensity to establish chronic infection that is characterized by attenuated virus-specific T-cell responses. Mechanisms leading to T-cell attenuation are poorly understood and likely involve dysfunctional interactions between antigen-presenting cells (APC) and effector/regulatory T-cells. Reports on dendritic cells (DC) have described only minor dysfunction during HCV infection. However, there is a paucity of reports regarding B-cell function, despite clear associations with B-cell-related secondary sequelae. In this study we evaluated the state of B-cells during chronic HCV infection, and observed a diminished ability to respond to mitogenic stimuli, correlating with increased apoptosis. This was in contrast to their ex vivo phenotype, which indicated ongoing chronic activation in vivo. There was a high association of HCV-positive strand RNA with B-cells in a subset of HCV patients. Interestingly, ex-vivo-derived HCV RNA-positive B-cells induced significantly greater proliferation in allogeneic T-cells than in HCV-negative B-cells, correlating with an increased generation of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs). In-vitro exposure of healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to HCV resulted in robust activation of resting B-cells. These HCV-exposed B-cells also showed an enhanced ability to generate Tregs. Our results provide strong evidence for a novel and paradoxical link between HCV-induced enhanced APC function and the generation of Tregs. PMID:21449722

  19. A regulatory framework for shoot stem cell control integrating metabolic, transcriptional, and phytohormone signals.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Christoph; Gaillochet, Christophe; Medzihradszky, Anna; Busch, Wolfgang; Daum, Gabor; Krebs, Melanie; Kehle, Andreas; Lohmann, Jan U

    2014-02-24

    Plants continuously maintain pluripotent stem cells embedded in specialized tissues called meristems, which drive long-term growth and organogenesis. Stem cell fate in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) is controlled by the homeodomain transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS) expressed in the niche adjacent to the stem cells. Here, we demonstrate that the bHLH transcription factor HECATE1 (HEC1) is a target of WUS and that it contributes to SAM function by promoting stem cell proliferation, while antagonizing niche cell activity. HEC1 represses the stem cell regulators WUS and CLAVATA3 (CLV3) and, like WUS, controls genes with functions in metabolism and hormone signaling. Among the targets shared by HEC1 and WUS are phytohormone response regulators, which we show to act as mobile signals in a universal feedback system. Thus, our work sheds light on the mechanisms guiding meristem function and suggests that the underlying regulatory system is far more complex than previously anticipated.

  20. Becoming self-aware: the thymic education of regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Lio, Chan-Wang J; Hsieh, Chyi-Song

    2011-04-01

    The generation of Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells in the thymus is essential for immune homeostasis. In the past several years, substantial progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms by which a minor portion of developing thymocytes are selected to become Treg cells. Although previously controversial, recent data support the importance of TCR specificity as a primary determinant for selecting self-reactive thymocytes to become Treg cells in a multi-step process involving cytokines, co-stimulatory molecules, and a variety of antigen-presenting cells. Importantly, the antigenic niche for Treg cell development appears to be typically quite small, implying the recognition of tissue-specific, rather than ubiquitous, self-antigens. Finally, it appears that an NF-κB transcription factor, c-Rel, may be the link between TCR recognition and the induction of Foxp3 expression, which is required for the function and stability of the natural Treg cell population.

  1. Nucleosomal occupancy changes locally over key regulatory regions during cell differentiation and reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    West, Jason A.; Cook, April; Alver, Burak H.; Stadtfeld, Matthias; Deaton, Aimee M.; Hochedlinger, Konrad; Park, Peter J.; Tolstorukov, Michael Y.; Kingston, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin structure determines DNA accessibility. We compare nucleosome occupancy in mouse and human embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced-pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and differentiated cell types using MNase-seq. To address variability inherent in this technique, we developed a bioinformatic approach to identify regions of difference (RoD) in nucleosome occupancy between pluripotent and somatic cells. Surprisingly, most chromatin remains unchanged; a majority of rearrangements appear to affect a single nucleosome. RoDs are enriched at genes and regulatory elements, including enhancers associated with pluripotency and differentiation. RoDs co-localize with binding sites of key developmental regulators, including the reprogramming factors Klf4, Oct4/Sox2 and c-Myc. Nucleosomal landscapes in ESC enhancers are extensively altered, exhibiting lower nucleosome occupancy in pluripotent cells than in somatic cells. Most changes are reset during reprogramming. We conclude that changes in nucleosome occupancy are a hallmark of cell differentiation and reprogramming and likely identify regulatory regions essential for these processes. PMID:25158628

  2. Autoimmune Hepatitis: Progress from Global Immunosuppression to Personalised Regulatory T Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Than, Nwe Ni; Jeffery, Hannah C.; Oo, Ye H.

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an immune mediated liver injury. The precise aetiology of AIH is still unknown but current evidence suggests both genetic and environmental factors are involved. Breakdown in peripheral self-tolerance, and impaired functions of FOXP3+ regulatory T cell along with effector cell resistance to suppression at the tissue level seem to play an important role in AIH immunopathogenesis. AIH is predominantly a T lymphocytes driven disease but B lymphocytes are also involved in the immunopathology. Innate immune cells are crucial in the initial onset of disease and their response is followed by adaptive T (Th1, Th17, and cytotoxic T cells) and B cell responses evidenced by liver histology and peripheral blood serology. Standard treatment regimens involving steroid and immunosuppressive medications lead to global immune suppression requiring life-long therapy with many side effects. Biologic therapies have been attempted but duration of remission is short-lived. Future direction of diagnosis and treatment for AIH should be guided by “omics” and the immunology profile of the individual patient and clinicians should aim to deliver personalised medicine for their patients. Cell therapy such as infusion of autologous, antigen-specific, and liver-homing regulatory T cells to restore hepatic immune tolerance may soon be a potential future treatment for AIH patients. PMID:27446862

  3. Promotion of regulatory T cell induction by immunomodulatory herbal medicine licorice and its two constituents.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ao; He, Dongming; Xu, Hong-Bo; Geng, Chang-An; Zhao, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a critical role to control immune responses and to prevent autoimmunity, thus selective increase of Treg cells in vivo has broad therapeutic implications for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Licorice is a well-known herbal medicine used worldwide for over thousands of years, and accumulating evidence has shown its immunomodulatory potential. However, it is not clear whether licorice could regulate the induction and function of Treg cells. Here we found licorice extract could promote Treg cell induction, and then we used a rational approach to isolate its functional fractions and constituents. The results showed that two constituents, isoliquiritigenin and naringenin, promoted Treg cell induction both in vitro and in vivo. The effective fractions and two constituents of licorice also enhanced immune suppression of Treg cells, and they further reduced severity of DSS-induced colitis in mice. This study suggested that promotion of regulatory T cell induction could be an underlying mechanism of the historically and widely used herbal medicine licorice, providing its two effective molecules against autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.

  4. Induction of T helper 3 regulatory cells by dendritic cells infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    SciTech Connect

    Silva-Campa, Erika; Flores-Mendoza, Lilian; Resendiz, Monica; Pinelli-Saavedra, Araceli; Mata-Haro, Veronica; Mwangi, Waithaka; Hernandez, Jesus

    2009-05-10

    Delayed development of virus-specific immune response has been observed in pigs infected with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Several studies support the hypothesis that the PRRSV is capable of modulating porcine immune system, but the mechanisms involved are yet to be defined. In this study, we evaluated the induction of T regulatory cells by PRRSV-infected dendritic cells (DCs). Our results showed that PRRSV-infected DCs significantly increased Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells, an effect that was reversible by IFN-alpha treatment, and this outcome was reproducible using two distinct PRRSV strains. Analysis of the expressed cytokines suggested that the induction of Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells is dependent on TGF-beta but not IL-10. In addition, a significant up-regulation of Foxp3 mRNA, but not TBX21 or GATA3, was detected. Importantly, our results showed that the induced Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells were able to suppress the proliferation of PHA-stimulated PBMCs. The T cells induced by the PRRSV-infected DCs fit the Foxp3{sup +}CD25{sup +} T helper 3 (Th3) regulatory cell phenotype described in the literature. The induction of this cell phenotype depended, at least in part, on PRRSV viability because IFN-alpha treatment or virus inactivation reversed these effects. In conclusion, this data supports the hypothesis that the PRRSV succeeds to establish and replicate in porcine cells early post-infection, in part, by inducing Th3 regulatory cells as a mechanism of modulating the porcine immune system.

  5. Interleukin-6 controls uterine Th9 cells and CD8(+) T regulatory cells to accelerate parturition in mice.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy; Olson, David M; Robertson, Sarah A

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL6) is a determinant of the timing of parturition and birth in mice. We previously demonstrated that genetic IL6 deficiency delays parturition by ~24 h, and this is restored by administration of exogenous IL6. In this study, we have investigated whether IL6 influences the number or phenotypes of T cells or other leukocytes in uterine decidual tissue at the maternal-fetal interface. In late gestation, decidual leukocytes in Il6 null mutant (Il6(-/-)) mice exhibit an altered profile, characterized by reduced numbers of cells expressing the monocyte/macrophage marker F4/80 or the T-cell marker CD4, increased cells expressing the natural killer (NK) cell marker CD49b or the dendritic cell marker CD11c, but no change in cells expressing the neutrophil marker Ly6G. These changes are specific to late pregnancy, as similar differences in decidual leukocytes were not evident in mid-gestation Il6(-/-) mice. The IL6-regulated changes in decidual NK and dendritic cells appear secondary to local recruitment, as no comparable changes occurred in peripheral blood of Il6(-/-) mice. When exogenous IL6 was administered to restore normal timing of parturition, a partial reversal of the altered leukocyte profile was observed, with a 10% increase in the proportion of decidual CD4(+) T cells, a notable 60% increase in CD8(+) T cells including CD8(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells and a 60% reduction in CD4(+)IL9(+) Th9 cells. Together these findings suggest that IL6-controlled accumulation of decidual CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) regulatory T cells, with an associated decline in decidual Th9 cells, is instrumental for progressing parturition in mice.

  6. Glucocorticoid receptor-mediated cell cycle arrest is achieved through distinct cell-specific transcriptional regulatory mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Rogatsky, I; Trowbridge, J M; Garabedian, M J

    1997-01-01

    Glucocorticoids inhibit proliferation of many cell types, but the events leading from the activated glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to growth arrest are not understood. Ectopic expression and activation of GR in human osteosarcoma cell lines U2OS and SAOS2, which lack endogenous receptors, result in a G1 cell cycle arrest. GR activation in U2OS cells represses expression of the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) CDK4 and CDK6 as well as their regulatory partner, cyclin D3, leading to hypophosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb). We also demonstrate a ligand-dependent reduction in the expression of E2F-1 and c-Myc, transcription factors involved in the G1-to-S-phase transition. Mitogen-activated protein kinase, CDK2, cyclin E, and the CDK inhibitors (CDIs) p27 and p21 are unaffected by receptor activation in U2OS cells. The receptor's N-terminal transcriptional activation domain is not required for growth arrest in U2OS cells. In Rb-deficient SAOS2 cells, however, the expression of p27 and p21 is induced upon receptor activation. Remarkably, in SAOS2 cells that express a GR deletion derivative lacking the N-terminal transcriptional activation domain, induction of CDI expression is abolished and the cells fail to undergo ligand-dependent cell cycle arrest. Similarly, murine S49 lymphoma cells, which, like SAOS2 cells, lack Rb, require the N-terminal activation domain for growth arrest and induce CDI expression upon GR activation. These cell-type-specific differences in receptor domains and cellular targets linking GR activation to cell cycle machinery suggest two distinct regulatory mechanisms of GR-mediated cell cycle arrest: one involving transcriptional repression of G1 cyclins and CDKs and the other involving enhanced transcription of CDIs by the activated receptor. PMID:9154817

  7. Identification of Cell Wall Synthesis Regulatory Genes Controlling Biomass Characteristics and Yield in Rice (Oryza Sativa)

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Zhaohua PEng; Ronald, Palmela; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2013-04-26

    This project aims to identify the regulatory genes of rice cell wall synthesis pathways using a cell wall removal and regeneration system. We completed the gene expression profiling studies following the time course from cell wall removal to cell wall regeneration in rice suspension cells. We also completed, total proteome, nuclear subproteome and histone modification studies following the course from cell wall removal and cell wall regeneration process. A large number of differentially expressed regulatory genes and proteins were identified. Meanwhile, we generated RNAi and over-expression transgenic rice for 45 genes with at least 10 independent transgenic lines for each gene. In addition, we ordered T-DNA and transposon insertion mutants for 60 genes from Korea, Japan, and France and characterized the mutants. Overall, we have mutants and transgenic lines for over 90 genes, exceeded our proposed goal of generating mutants for 50 genes. Interesting Discoveries a) Cell wall re-synthesis in protoplasts may involve a novel cell wall synthesis mechanism. The synthesis of the primary cell wall is initiated in late cytokinesis with further modification during cell expansion. Phragmoplast plays an essential role in cell wall synthesis. It services as a scaffold for building the cell plate and formation of a new cell wall. Only one phragmoplast and one new cell wall is produced for each dividing cell. When the cell wall was removed enzymatically, we found that cell wall re-synthesis started from multiple locations simultaneously, suggesting that a novel mechanism is involved in cell wall re-synthesis. This observation raised many interesting questions, such as how the starting sites of cell wall synthesis are determined, whether phragmoplast and cell plate like structures are involved in cell wall re-synthesis, and more importantly whether the same set of enzymes and apparatus are used in cell wall re-synthesis as during cytokinesis. Given that many known cell wall

  8. Regulatory T Cell Responses to High-Dose Methylprednisolone in Active Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Chader, Driss; Cohen-Aubart, Fleur; Haroche, Julien; Fadlallah, Jehane; Claër, Laetitia; Musset, Lucile; Gorochov, Guy; Amoura, Zahir; Miyara, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Background/Purpose A slight increase in the proportion of circulating regulatory T (Treg) cells has been reported in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients taking oral prednisone. The effects of intravenous (IV) high dose methylprednisolone (MP) on Tregs have not yet been described, especially in active SLE. Methods We prospectively analyzed the proportion of circulating CD4+ Treg cell subsets defined as follows: (1) naïve Treg (nTreg) FoxP3lowCD45RA+ cells; (2) effector Treg (eTreg) FoxP3highCD45RA− cells; and (3) non-suppressive FoxP3lowCD45RA− cells (non-regulatory Foxp3low T cells). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with active SLE were analyzed before the first infusion of IV high dose MP (day 0) and the following days (day 1, day 2, ±day 3 and ±day 8). The activity of SLE was assessed by the SLEDAI score. Results Seventeen patients were included. Following MP infusions, the median (range) percentage of eTregs significantly increased from 1.62% (0.53–8.43) at day 0 to 2.80% (0.83–14.60) at day 1 (p = 0.003 versus day 0), 4.64% (0.50–12.40) at day 2 (p = 0.06 versus day 1) and 7.50% (1.02–20.70) at day 3 (p = 0.008 versus day 2), and declined to baseline values at day 8. Expanding eTreg cells were actively proliferating, as they expressed Ki-67. The frequency of non-regulatory FoxP3low T cells decreased from 6.39% (3.20–17.70) at day 0 to 4.74% (1.03–9.72) at day 2 (p = 0.005); nTreg frequency did not change. All patients clinically improved immediately after MP pulses. The absence of flare after one year of follow up was associated with a higher frequency of eTregs at day 2. Conclusion IV high dose MP induces a rapid, dramatic and transient increase in circulating regulatory T cells. This increase may participate in the preventive effect of MP on subsequent flares in SLE. PMID:26629828

  9. How microRNA and transcription factor co-regulatory networks affect osteosarcoma cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Poos, Kathrin; Smida, Jan; Nathrath, Michaela; Maugg, Doris; Baumhoer, Daniel; Korsching, Eberhard

    2013-01-01

    Osteosarcomas (OS) are complex bone tumors with various genomic alterations. These alterations affect the expression and function of several genes due to drastic changes in the underlying gene regulatory network. However, we know little about critical gene regulators and their functional consequences on the pathogenesis of OS. Therefore, we aimed to determine microRNA and transcription factor (TF) co-regulatory networks in OS cell proliferation. Cell proliferation is an essential part in the pathogenesis of OS and deeper understanding of its regulation might help to identify potential therapeutic targets. Based on expression data of OS cell lines divided according to their proliferative activity, we obtained 12 proliferation-related microRNAs and corresponding target genes. Therewith, microRNA and TF co-regulatory networks were generated and analyzed regarding their structure and functional influence. We identified key co-regulators comprising the microRNAs miR-9-5p, miR-138, and miR-214 and the TFs SP1 and MYC in the derived networks. These regulators are implicated in NFKB- and RB1-signaling and focal adhesion processes based on their common or interacting target genes (e.g., CDK6, CTNNB1, E2F4, HES1, ITGA6, NFKB1, NOTCH1, and SIN3A). Thus, we proposed a model of OS cell proliferation which is primarily co-regulated through the interactions of the mentioned microRNA and TF combinations. This study illustrates the benefit of systems biological approaches in the analysis of complex diseases. We integrated experimental data with publicly available information to unravel the coordinated (post)-transcriptional control of microRNAs and TFs to identify potential therapeutic targets in OS. The resulting microRNA and TF co-regulatory networks are publicly available for further exploration to generate or evaluate own hypotheses of the pathogenesis of OS (http://www.complex-systems.uni-muenster.de/co_networks.html).

  10. Regulatory T Cell Immunotherapy for Type 1 Diabetes: A Step Closer to Success?

    PubMed

    Bayry, Jagadeesh; Gautier, Jean-François

    2016-02-01

    Regulatorycell (Treg) therapy has shown promises in experimental models of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and other autoimmune diseases. Now, Bluestone et al. (2015) report in a phase 1, dose-escalation study that ex vivo-expanded autologous polyclonal Treg therapy is safe and well tolerated in adult patients with recent-onset T1D. PMID:26863486

  11. The Spectrum and Regulatory Landscape of Intestinal Innate Lymphoid Cells Are Shaped by the Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Gury-BenAri, Meital; Thaiss, Christoph A; Serafini, Nicolas; Winter, Deborah R; Giladi, Amir; Lara-Astiaso, David; Levy, Maayan; Salame, Tomer Meir; Weiner, Assaf; David, Eyal; Shapiro, Hagit; Dori-Bachash, Mally; Pevsner-Fischer, Meirav; Lorenzo-Vivas, Erika; Keren-Shaul, Hadas; Paul, Franziska; Harmelin, Alon; Eberl, Gérard; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Tanay, Amos; Di Santo, James P; Elinav, Eran; Amit, Ido

    2016-08-25

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are critical modulators of mucosal immunity, inflammation, and tissue homeostasis, but their full spectrum of cellular states and regulatory landscapes remains elusive. Here, we combine genome-wide RNA-seq, ChIP-seq, and ATAC-seq to compare the transcriptional and epigenetic identity of small intestinal ILCs, identifying thousands of distinct gene profiles and regulatory elements. Single-cell RNA-seq and flow and mass cytometry analyses reveal compartmentalization of cytokine expression and metabolic activity within the three classical ILC subtypes and highlight transcriptional states beyond the current canonical classification. In addition, using antibiotic intervention and germ-free mice, we characterize the effect of the microbiome on the ILC regulatory landscape and determine the response of ILCs to microbial colonization at the single-cell level. Together, our work characterizes the spectrum of transcriptional identities of small intestinal ILCs and describes how ILCs differentially integrate signals from the microbial microenvironment to generate phenotypic and functional plasticity.

  12. Foxp3+ T-Regulatory Cells in Sjögren’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Christodoulou, Maria I.; Kapsogeorgou, Efstathia K.; Moutsopoulos, Niki M.; Moutsopoulos, Haralampos M.

    2008-01-01

    Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune exocrinopathy associated with variable lymphocytic infiltration of the affected organs (primarily salivary and lacrimal glands) and broad clinical manifestations, including lymphoma development. To investigate the potential implication of Foxp3+ T-regulatory cells in the regulation of SS inflammatory responses, we studied their incidence in the minor salivary glands (MSGs) and their relationship with histopathological and clinical disease parameters. Similar percentages of infiltrating Foxp3+ cells were observed in the MSG lesions of all SS patients (n = 30) and non-SS sialadenitis controls (n = 7). Foxp3+ cells were not detected in sicca-complaining controls with negative biopsy (n = 6). In SS patients, Foxp3+ cell frequency varied according to lesion severity, with the highest and lowest frequencies obtained in intermediate and mild MSG lesions, respectively. In the peripheral blood of these patients, reverse distribution of Foxp3+ cells was observed. Furthermore, the frequency of Foxp3+ cells in the MSG lesions and peripheral blood was negatively associated (r = −0.6679, P = 0.0065). MSG-infiltrating Foxp3+ cells were found to positively correlate with biopsy focus score (P = 0.05), infiltrating mononuclear cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages (P ≤ 0.024 each), and serum C4 levels (P = 0.0328), whereas lower Foxp3+ cell incidence correlated with adverse predictors for lymphoma development, such as the presence of C4 hypocomplementemia (P = 0.012) and SG enlargement (tendency, P = 0.067). Our findings suggest that the Foxp3+ T-regulatory cell frequency in the MSG lesions of SS patients correlates with inflammation grade and certain risk factors for lymphoma development. PMID:18818377

  13. Suppression of HIV Replication by CD8+ Regulatory T-Cells in Elite Controllers

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wei; Chen, Song; Lai, Chunhui; Lai, Mingyue; Fang, Hua; Dao, Hong; Kang, Jun; Fan, Jianhua; Guo, Weizhong; Fu, Linchun; Andrieu, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated in the Chinese macaque model that an oral vaccine made of inactivated SIV and Lactobacillus plantarum induced CD8+ regulatory T-cells, which suppressed the activation of SIV+CD4+ T-cells, prevented SIV replication, and protected macaques from SIV challenges. Here, we sought whether a similar population of CD8+ T-regs would induce the suppression of HIV replication in elite controllers (ECs), a small population (3‰) of HIV-infected patients with undetectable HIV replication. For that purpose, we investigated the in vitro antiviral activity of fresh CD8+ T-cells on HIV-infected CD4+ T-cells taken from 10 ECs. The 10 ECs had a classical genomic profile: all of them carried the KIR3DL1 gene and 9 carried at least 1 allele of HLA-B:Bw4-80Ile (i.e., with an isoleucine residue at position 80). In the nine HLA-B:Bw4-80Ile-positive patients, we demonstrated a strong viral suppression by KIR3DL1-expressing CD8+ T-cells that required cell-to-cell contact to switch off the activation signals in infected CD4+ T-cells. KIR3DL1-expressing CD8+ T-cells withdrawal and KIR3DL1 neutralization by a specific anti-killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) antibody inhibited the suppression of viral replication. Our findings provide the first evidence for an instrumental role of KIR-expressing CD8+ regulatory T-cells in the natural control of HIV-1 infection. PMID:27148256

  14. Suppression of HIV Replication by CD8(+) Regulatory T-Cells in Elite Controllers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei; Chen, Song; Lai, Chunhui; Lai, Mingyue; Fang, Hua; Dao, Hong; Kang, Jun; Fan, Jianhua; Guo, Weizhong; Fu, Linchun; Andrieu, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated in the Chinese macaque model that an oral vaccine made of inactivated SIV and Lactobacillus plantarum induced CD8(+) regulatory T-cells, which suppressed the activation of SIV(+)CD4(+) T-cells, prevented SIV replication, and protected macaques from SIV challenges. Here, we sought whether a similar population of CD8(+) T-regs would induce the suppression of HIV replication in elite controllers (ECs), a small population (3‰) of HIV-infected patients with undetectable HIV replication. For that purpose, we investigated the in vitro antiviral activity of fresh CD8(+) T-cells on HIV-infected CD4(+) T-cells taken from 10 ECs. The 10 ECs had a classical genomic profile: all of them carried the KIR3DL1 gene and 9 carried at least 1 allele of HLA-B:Bw4-80Ile (i.e., with an isoleucine residue at position 80). In the nine HLA-B:Bw4-80Ile-positive patients, we demonstrated a strong viral suppression by KIR3DL1-expressing CD8(+) T-cells that required cell-to-cell contact to switch off the activation signals in infected CD4(+) T-cells. KIR3DL1-expressing CD8(+) T-cells withdrawal and KIR3DL1 neutralization by a specific anti-killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) antibody inhibited the suppression of viral replication. Our findings provide the first evidence for an instrumental role of KIR-expressing CD8(+) regulatory T-cells in the natural control of HIV-1 infection.

  15. Deletion of CTLA-4 on regulatory T cells during adulthood leads to resistance to autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Alison M.; Lovitch, Scott B.; Sage, Peter T.; Juneja, Vikram R.; Lee, Youjin; Trombley, Justin D.; Arancibia-Cárcamo, Carolina V.; Sobel, Raymond A.; Rudensky, Alexander Y.; Kuchroo, Vijay K.; Freeman, Gordon J.

    2015-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is an essential negative regulator of T cell responses. Germline Ctla4 deficiency is lethal, making investigation of the function of CTLA-4 on mature T cells challenging. To elucidate the function of CTLA-4 on mature T cells, we have conditionally ablated Ctla4 in adult mice. We show that, in contrast to germline knockout mice, deletion of Ctla4 during adulthood does not precipitate systemic autoimmunity, but surprisingly confers protection from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and does not lead to increased resistance to MC38 tumors. Deletion of Ctla4 during adulthood was accompanied by activation and expansion of both conventional CD4+Foxp3− (T conv) and regulatory Foxp3+ (T reg cells) T cell subsets; however, deletion of CTLA-4 on T reg cells was necessary and sufficient for protection from EAE. CTLA-4 deleted T reg cells remained functionally suppressive. Deletion of Ctla4 on T reg cells alone or on all adult T cells led to major changes in the Ctla4 sufficient T conv cell compartment, including up-regulation of immunoinhibitory molecules IL-10, LAG-3 and PD-1, thereby providing a compensatory immunosuppressive mechanism. Collectively, our findings point to a profound role for CTLA-4 on T reg cells in limiting their peripheral expansion and activation, thereby regulating the phenotype and function of T conv cells. PMID:26371185

  16. Cell differentiation within a yeast colony: metabolic and regulatory parallels with a tumor-affected organism.

    PubMed

    Cáp, Michal; Stěpánek, Luděk; Harant, Karel; Váchová, Libuše; Palková, Zdena

    2012-05-25

    Nutrient sensing and metabolic reprogramming are crucial for metazoan cell aging and tumor growth. Here, we identify metabolic and regulatory parallels between a layered, multicellular yeast colony and a tumor-affected organism. During development, a yeast colony stratifies into U and L cells occupying the upper and lower colony regions, respectively. U cells activate a unique metabolism controlled by the glutamine-induced TOR pathway, amino acid-sensing systems (SPS and Gcn4p) and signaling from mitochondria with lowered respiration. These systems jointly modulate U cell physiology, which adapts to nutrient limitations and utilize the nutrients released from L cells. Stress-resistant U cells share metabolic pathways and other similar characteristics with tumor cells, including the ability to proliferate. L cells behave similarly to stressed and starving cells, which activate degradative mechanisms to provide nutrients to U cells. Our data suggest a nutrient flow between both cell types, resembling the Cori cycle and glutamine-NH(4)(+) shuttle between tumor and healthy metazoan cells.

  17. Functional regulatory T cells produced by inhibiting cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase type 3 prevent allograft rejection

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Gang; Nadig, Satish N.; Bäckdahl, Liselotte; Beck, Stephan; Francis, Ross S.; Schiopu, Alexandru; Whatcott, Andrew; Wood, Kathryn J.; Bushell, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) manipulated ex vivo have potential as cellular therapeutics in autoimmunity and transplantation. Although it is possible to expand naturally occurring Tregs, an attractive alternative possibility, particularly suited to solid organ and bone marrow transplantation, is the stimulation of total T cell populations with defined allogeneic antigen presenting cells under conditions that lead to the generation or expansion of donor-reactive, adaptive Tregs. Here we demonstrate that stimulation of mouse CD4+ T cells by immature allogeneic dendritic cells (DCs) combined with pharmacological inhibition of phosphodiesterase 3 (PDEi) results in a functional enrichment of Foxp3+ T cells. Without further manipulation or selection, the resultant population delayed skin allograft rejection mediated by polyclonal CD4+ effectors or donor-reactive CD8+ TCR transgenic T cells and inhibited both effector cell proliferation and T cell priming for IFN-γ production. Notably, PDE inhibition also enhanced the enrichment of human Foxp3+ CD4+ T cells driven by allogeneic APC. These cells inhibited T cell proliferation in a standard in vitro mixed lymphocyte assay and importantly, attenuated the development of vasculopathy mediated by autologous PBMC in a functionally relevant humanized mouse transplant model. These data establish a method for the ex vivo generation of graft-reactive, functional mouse and human Tregs that uses a clinically approved agent, making pharmacological PDE inhibition a potential strategy for Treg-based therapies PMID:21593400

  18. The Special Relationship in the Development and Function of T Helper 17 and Regulatory T Cells.

    PubMed

    Lochner, Matthias; Wang, Zuobai; Sparwasser, Tim

    2015-01-01

    T helper 17 (Th17) cells play an essential role in the clearance of extracellular pathogenic bacteria and fungi. However, this subset is critically involved in the pathology of many autoimmune diseases, e.g., psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, allergy, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel diseases in humans. Therefore, Th17 responses need to be tightly regulated in vivo to mediate effective host defenses against pathogens without causing excessive host tissue damage. Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells play an important role in maintaining peripheral tolerance to self-antigens and in counteracting the inflammatory activity of effector T helper cell subsets. Although Th17 and Treg cells represent two CD4(+) T cell subsets with opposing principal functions, these cell types are functionally connected. In this review, we will first give an overview on the biology of Th17 cells and describe their development and in vivo function, followed by an account on the special developmental relationship between Th17 and Treg cells. We will describe the identification of Treg/Th17 intermediates and consider their lineage stability and function in vivo. Finally, we will discuss how Treg cells may regulate the Th17 cell response in the context of infection and inflammation, and elude on findings demonstrating that Treg cells can also have a prominent function in promoting the differentiation of Th17 cells. PMID:26615094

  19. Increased frequencies of CD4+CD25high regulatory T cells in acute dengue infection

    PubMed Central

    Lühn, Kerstin; Simmons, Cameron P.; Moran, Edward; Dung, Nguyen Thi Phuong; Chau, Tran Nguyen Bich; Quyen, Nguyen Than Ha; Thao, Le Thi Thu; Van Ngoc, Tran; Dung, Nguyen Minh; Wills, Bridget; Farrar, Jeremy; McMichael, Andrew J.; Dong, Tao; Rowland-Jones, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Dengue virus infection is an increasingly important tropical disease, causing 100 million cases each year. Symptoms range from mild febrile illness to severe hemorrhagic fever. The pathogenesis is incompletely understood, but immunopathology is thought to play a part, with antibody-dependent enhancement and massive immune activation of T cells and monocytes/macrophages leading to a disproportionate production of proinflammatory cytokines. We sought to investigate whether a defective population of regulatory T cells (T reg cells) could be contributing to immunopathology in severe dengue disease. CD4+CD25highFoxP3+ T reg cells of patients with acute dengue infection of different severities showed a conventional phenotype. Unexpectedly, their capacity to suppress T cell proliferation and to secrete interleukin-10 was not altered. Moreover, T reg cells suppressed the production of vasoactive cytokines after dengue-specific stimulation. Furthermore, T reg cell frequencies and also T reg cell/effector T cell ratios were increased in patients with acute infection. A strong indication that a relative rise of T reg cell/effector T cell ratios is beneficial for disease outcome comes from patients with mild disease in which this ratio is significantly increased (P < 0.0001) in contrast to severe cases (P = 0.2145). We conclude that although T reg cells expand and function normally in acute dengue infection, their relative frequencies are insufficient to control the immunopathology of severe disease. PMID:17452519

  20. CD8α+ Dendritic cells prime TCR-peptide-reactive regulatory CD4+FOXP3− T cells

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Trevor R. F.; Maricic, Igor; Ria, Francesco; Schneider, Susan; Kumar, Vipin

    2011-01-01

    Summary CD4+ T cells with immune regulatory function can be either FOXP3+ or FOXP3−. We have previously shown that priming of naturally occurring TCR-peptide-reactive regulatory CD4+FOXP3− T cells (Treg) specifically controls Vβ8.2+CD4+ T cells mediating experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the mechanism by which these Treg are primed to recognize their cognate antigenic determinant, which is derived from the TCRVβ8.2-chain, is not known. In this study we show that antigen presenting cells (APC) derived from splenocytes of naïve mice are able to stimulate cloned CD4+ Treg in the absence of exogenous antigen, and their stimulation capacity is augmented during EAE. Among the APC populations DC were the most efficient in stimulating the Treg. Stimulation of CD4+ Treg was dependent upon processing and presentation of TCR peptides from ingested Vβ8.2TCR+ CD4+ T cells. Additionally, dendritic cells pulsed with TCR peptide or apoptotic Vβ8.2+ T cells are able to prime Treg in vivo and mediate protection from disease in a CD8-dependent fashion. These data highlight a novel mechanism for the priming of CD4+ Treg by CD8α+ DC, and suggest a pathway that can be exploited to prime antigen-specific regulation of T cell-mediated inflammatory disease. PMID:20394075

  1. Antibodies targeting human OX40 expand effector T cells and block inducible and natural regulatory T cell function

    PubMed Central

    Voo, Kui S.; Bover, Laura; Harline, Megan L.; Vien, Long T.; Facchinetti, Valeria; Arima, Kazuhiko; Kwak, Larry W.; Liu, Yong J.

    2013-01-01

    Current cancer vaccines induce tumor-specific T cell responses without sustained tumor regression because immunosuppressive elements within the tumor induce exhaustion of effector T cells and infiltration of immune-suppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs). Therefore, much effort has been made to generate agonistic Abs targeting members of the TNFR superfamily, such as OX40, 4- 1BB, and GITR, expressed on effector T cells and Tregs, to reinvigorate T cell effector function and block Treg-suppressive function. In this article, we describe the development of a panel of anti-human OX40 agonistic mouse mAbs that could promote effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation, inhibit the induction of CD4+ IL-10 -producing type 1 regulatory T cells, inhibit the expansion of ICOS+IL-10+ Tregs, inhibit TGF-b–induced FOXP3 expression on naive CD4+ T cells, and block natural Treg–suppressive function. We humanized two anti–human OX40 mAb clones, and they retained the potency of their parental clones. These Abs should provide broad opportunities for potential combination therapy to treat a wide realm of cancers and preventative vaccines against infectious diseases. PMID:24014877

  2. Antibodies targeting human OX40 expand effector T cells and block inducible and natural regulatory T cell function.

    PubMed

    Voo, Kui S; Bover, Laura; Harline, Megan L; Vien, Long T; Facchinetti, Valeria; Arima, Kazuhiko; Kwak, Larry W; Liu, Yong J

    2013-10-01

    Current cancer vaccines induce tumor-specific T cell responses without sustained tumor regression because immunosuppressive elements within the tumor induce exhaustion of effector T cells and infiltration of immune-suppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs). Therefore, much effort has been made to generate agonistic Abs targeting members of the TNFR superfamily, such as OX40, 4-1BB, and GITR, expressed on effector T cells and Tregs, to reinvigorate T cell effector function and block Treg-suppressive function. In this article, we describe the development of a panel of anti-human OX40 agonistic mouse mAbs that could promote effector CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation, inhibit the induction of CD4(+) IL-10 -producing type 1 regulatory T cells, inhibit the expansion of ICOS(+)IL-10(+) Tregs, inhibit TGF-β-induced FOXP3 expression on naive CD4(+) T cells, and block natural Treg-suppressive function. We humanized two anti-human OX40 mAb clones, and they retained the potency of their parental clones. These Abs should provide broad opportunities for potential combination therapy to treat a wide realm of cancers and preventative vaccines against infectious diseases. PMID:24014877

  3. [Regulatory T cell depletion increases the number of CD8 cells during mouse mammary tumor virus infection].

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Gabriel; Mundiñano, Juliana; Camicia, Gabriela; Costa, Héctor; Nepomnaschy, Irene; Piazzon, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a milk-borne betaretrovirus that has developed strategies to exploit and subvert the host immune system. We have shown in a natural model of MMTV infection that the virus causes early and progressive increases in superantigen (Sag)-specific CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) in Peyer's patches. Herein, we evaluated whether the depletion of Treg cells affects the CD8+ population during milk-borne MMTV infection. At day 6 of infection, the depletion of Treg cells increased the percentage and absolute number of CD8+ cells in lymph nodes as well as the mean intensity fluorescence of the CD44 activation marker. The absolute number of CD8+ cells was increased in cells bearing both Sag reactive and non-reactive TCR Vβ chains. We have previously shown that regulatory T cell depletion at day 6 of infection decrease viral load. Results reported herein suggest that at least after day 6 of MMTV infection Treg cells play an inhibiting role on CD8 antiviral response. PMID:21745773

  4. TIM-1 signaling is required for maintenance and induction of regulatory B cells.

    PubMed

    Yeung, M Y; Ding, Q; Brooks, C R; Xiao, S; Workman, C J; Vignali, D A A; Ueno, T; Padera, R F; Kuchroo, V K; Najafian, N; Rothstein, D M

    2015-04-01

    Apart from their role in humoral immunity, B cells can exhibit IL-10-dependent regulatory activity (Bregs). These regulatory subpopulations have been shown to inhibit inflammation and allograft rejection. However, our understanding of Bregs has been hampered by their rarity, lack of a specific marker, and poor insight into their induction and maintenance. We previously demonstrated that T cell immunoglobulin mucin domain-1 (TIM-1) identifies over 70% of IL-10-producing B cells, irrespective of other markers. We now show that TIM-1 is the primary receptor responsible for Breg induction by apoptotic cells (ACs). However, B cells that express a mutant form of TIM-1 lacking the mucin domain (TIM-1(Δmucin) ) exhibit decreased phosphatidylserine binding and are unable to produce IL-10 in response to ACs or by specific ligation with anti-TIM-1. TIM-1(Δmucin) mice also exhibit accelerated allograft rejection, which appears to be due in part to their defect in both baseline and induced IL-10(+) Bregs, since a single transfer of WT TIM-1(+) B cells can restore long-term graft survival. These data suggest that TIM-1 signaling plays a direct role in Breg maintenance and induction both under physiological conditions (in response to ACs) and in response to therapy through TIM-1 ligation. Moreover, they directly demonstrate that the mucin domain regulates TIM-1 signaling.

  5. Regulatory volume decrease in perfused proximal nephron: evidence for a dumping of cell K+.

    PubMed

    Kirk, K L; DiBona, D R; Schafer, J A

    1987-05-01

    We utilized the microscopic and morphometric procedures described in the preceding paper to examine the role of a swelling-activated dumping of K-salt in the reversal of hyposmotic cell swelling in the perfused proximal nephron. The rate of the regulatory volume decrease that follows cell swelling in dilute solutions was reduced by two maneuvers that attenuate the K+ chemical potential difference across the basolateral membrane; inhibiting the Na+-K+ pump (e.g., with ouabain) and raising the peritubular K+ concentration. The rate of the regulatory volume decrease was also inhibited by peritubular quinine, which blocks K channels and volume regulation for a number of mammalian cells. Additionally, exposure to hyposmotic solutions resulted in a sustained and quinine-sensitive increase in the apparent permeability of the basolateral membrane to K+ salt, which was monitored qualitatively as the rate of cell volume change that was induced by a perturbation in the peritubular K+ concentration. The simplest interpretation of these results is that the reversal of hyposmotic cell swelling in the proximal nephron is referable at least in part to a swelling-activated loss of K-salt and water from the cells. PMID:2437806

  6. Quantitative and functional analysis of CD69(+) NKG2D(+) T regulatory cells in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Vitales-Noyola, M; Doníz-Padilla, L; Álvarez-Quiroga, C; Monsiváis-Urenda, A; Portillo-Salazar, H; González-Amaro, R

    2015-07-01

    T regulatory (Treg) cells have a key role in immune homeostasis and the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. CD69 is an early leukocyte activation molecule that under steady state conditions is detected in a small proportion of lymphocytes in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues. Although it has been reported that a subset of CD69(+) T cells behaves as Treg lymphocytes, the possible relationship between CD69(+) Treg cells and CD4(+)NKG2D(+) T lymphocytes, which also exert immunosuppressive activity, has not been explored. In this study, we analyzed the expression of CD69 and NKG2D by T lymphocytes from the peripheral blood of twenty-five healthy subjects by multi-parametric flow cytometry analysis, and their suppressive activity by an assay of inhibition of lymphocyte activation (CD40L expression) and proliferation (carboxyfluorescein partition assay). We found a very small percentage of CD4(+)CD69(+)NKG2D(+) T cells (median 0.002%, Q1-Q3, 0.001-0.004%), which also expressed TGF-β (Latency Associated Peptide or LAP) and IL-10, in all samples analyzed. These cells exerted an important in vitro suppressive effect on both activation and proliferation of T effector cells. Our data suggest that at very small numbers, CD4(+)CD69(+)NKG2D(+) lymphocytes seem to exert a relevant functional immune-regulatory role in healthy subjects.

  7. The Role of Different Subsets of Regulatory T Cells in Immunopathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Gol-Ara, Maryam; Jadidi-Niaragh, Farhad; Sadria, Reza; Azizi, Gholamreza; Mirshafiey, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune disease and a systemic inflammatory disease which is characterized by chronic joint inflammation and variable degrees of bone and cartilage erosion and hyperplasia of synovial tissues. Considering the role of autoreactive T cells (particularly Th1 and Th17 cells) in pathophysiology of RA, it might be assumed that the regulatory T cells (Tregs) will be able to control the initiation and progression of disease. The frequency, function, and properties of various subsets of Tregs including natural Tregs (nTregs), IL-10-producing type 1 Tregs (Tr1 cells), TGF-β-producing Th3 cells, CD8+ Tregs, and NKT regulatory cells have been investigated in various studies associated with RA and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) as experimental model of this disease. In this paper, we intend to submit the comprehensive information about the immunobiology of various subsets of Tregs and their roles and function in immunopathophysiology of RA and its animal model, CIA. PMID:23133752

  8. Phenotypical and functional alterations of CD8 regulatory T cells in primary biliary cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Bernuzzi, Francesca; Fenoglio, Daniela; Battaglia, Florinda; Fravega, Marco; Gershwin, M. Eric; Indiveri, Francesco; Ansari, Aftab A.; Podda, Mauro; Invernizzi, Pietro; Filaci, Gilberto

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms that lead to loss of tolerance in autoimmune disease have remained both elusive and diverse, including both genetic predisposition and generic dysregulation of critical mononuclear cell subsets. In primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), patients exhibit a multilineage response to the E2 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase involving antibody as well as autoreactive CD4 and CD8 responses. Recent data from murine models of PBC have suggested that a critical mechanism of biliary destruction is mediated by liver-infiltrating CD8 cells. Further, the number of autoreactive liver-infiltrating CD4 and CD8 cells is significantly higher in liver than blood in patients with PBC. Based on this data, we have studied the frequencies and phenotypic characterization of both CD4 and CD8 regulatory T cell components in both patients with PBC and age–sex matched controls. Our data is striking and indicate that CD8 Treg populations from PBC patients, but not controls, have significant phenotypic alterations, including increased expression of CD127 and reduced CD39. Furthermore, in vitro induction of CD8 Tregs by incubation with IL10 is significantly reduced in PBC patients. Importantly, the frequencies of circulating CD4+CD25+ and CD8+ and CD28− T cell subpopulations are not significantly different between patients and controls. In conclusion, these data identify the CD8 Treg subset as a regulatory T cell subpopulation altered in patients with PBC. PMID:20638239

  9. Special regulatory T cell review: The resurgence of the concept of contrasuppression in immunoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Lehner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The original concept of contrasuppression (CS) is evident in many immunoregulatory mechanisms. Inhibition of suppressor activity – CS – may be critical in microbial infection and autoimmunity. The major cellular interactions involved in suppression are the CD25+ FoxP3+ CD4+ T regulatory cells, programmed death-1 (PD-1) : PD-L1/L2 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) : CD80/86 pathways. These cellular functions are affected by dendritic cells (DC) and a complex array of cytokines of which interleukin (IL)-2, IL-10, IL-6 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) are especially significant. Inhibition of regulatory cells, suppressor pathways or cytokines, is consistent with CS and can be attributed to IL-6, IL-2, PD-1 or PD-L-1 antibodies, blockade of CTLA-4 : CD80/86 pathway, inhibition of CD40–CD40L pathways, and TGF-β, IL-10 antibodies. Contrasuppression may regulate innate immunity by Toll-like receptor expressed not only in non-cognate DC, monocytes, natural killer cells and γδ T cells but also in adaptive T cells. Furthermore, cross-talk between innate and adaptive immunity may be facilitated by contrasuppressor activity. ‘‘What’s in a name? That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet.’’ From Romeo and Juliet (II, 47–8) W. Shakespeare PMID:18154618

  10. Special regulatory T cell review: The resurgence of the concept of contrasuppression in immunoregulation.

    PubMed

    Lehner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The original concept of contrasuppression (CS) is evident in many immunoregulatory mechanisms. Inhibition of suppressor activity--CS--may be critical in microbial infection and autoimmunity. The major cellular interactions involved in suppression are the CD25+ FoxP3+ CD4+ T regulatory cells, programmed death-1 (PD-1) : PD-L1/L2 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) : CD80/86 pathways. These cellular functions are affected by dendritic cells (DC) and a complex array of cytokines of which interleukin (IL)-2, IL-10, IL-6 and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) are especially significant. Inhibition of regulatory cells, suppressor pathways or cytokines, is consistent with CS and can be attributed to IL-6, IL-2, PD-1 or PD-L-1 antibodies, blockade of CTLA-4 : CD80/86 pathway, inhibition of CD40-CD40L pathways, and TGF-beta, IL-10 antibodies. Contrasuppression may regulate innate immunity by Toll-like receptor expressed not only in non-cognate DC, monocytes, natural killer cells and gammadelta T cells but also in adaptive T cells. Furthermore, cross-talk between innate and adaptive immunity may be facilitated by contrasuppressor activity. ''What's in a name? That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet.'' From Romeo and Juliet (II, 47-8) W. Shakespeare.

  11. Regulatory T cells, especially ICOS+ FOXP3+ regulatory T cells, are increased in the hepatocellular carcinoma microenvironment and predict reduced survival

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Jian-Fei; Ding, Ya-Hui; Ying, Xi-Hui; Wu, Fa-Zong; Zhou, Xin-Mu; Zhang, Deng-Ke; Zou, Hai; Ji, Jian-Song

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant tumour, especially in Asia. Its prognosis is poor, and there are limited methods for predicting patient survival. This study was carried out to analyse the prognostic value of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), especially regulatory T cells (Tregs), in HCC patients. TILs were analysed in 57 randomly selected HCC patients. The prognostic effects of groups with high and low numbers were evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier and Cox model analyses. Although higher densities of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTLs) as well as CD56+ NK cells and CD68+ macrophages were observed in peritumoural tissue, increased numbers of forkhead/winged helix transcription factor P3+ (FOXP3+) Tregs were found in intratumoural tissue. Additionally, regarding ICOS+ FOXP3+ Tregs, an increased prevalence in carcinoma was not only associated with the absolute number but also with the percentage of FOXP3+ cells. Higher Treg levels in tumour tissues indicated a worse prognosis, and the FOXP3+ Tregs/CD4+ T cells ratio was an independent prognostic factor for OS. Therefore, FOXP3+ Tregs, especially ICOS+ FOXP3+ Tregs, contribute to the immunosuppressive HCC microenvironment. High tumour-infiltrating Tregs are thought to be an unfavourable prognostic indicator of HCC. PMID:27725696

  12. The inhibitory cytokine IL-35 contributes to regulatory T-cell function.

    PubMed

    Collison, Lauren W; Workman, Creg J; Kuo, Timothy T; Boyd, Kelli; Wang, Yao; Vignali, Kate M; Cross, Richard; Sehy, David; Blumberg, Richard S; Vignali, Dario A A

    2007-11-22

    Regulatory T (T(reg)) cells are a critical sub-population of CD4+ T cells that are essential for maintaining self tolerance and preventing autoimmunity, for limiting chronic inflammatory diseases, such as asthma and inflammatory bowel disease, and for regulating homeostatic lymphocyte expansion. However, they also suppress natural immune responses to parasites and viruses as well as anti-tumour immunity induced by therapeutic vaccines. Although the manipulation of T(reg) function is an important goal of immunotherapy, the molecules that mediate their suppressive activity remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that Epstein-Barr-virus-induced gene 3 (Ebi3, which encodes IL-27beta) and interleukin-12 alpha (Il12a, which encodes IL-12alpha/p35) are highly expressed by mouse Foxp3+ (forkhead box P3) T(reg) cells but not by resting or activated effector CD4+ T (T(eff)) cells, and that an Ebi3-IL-12alpha heterodimer is constitutively secreted by T(reg) but not T(eff) cells. Both Ebi3 and Il12a messenger RNA are markedly upregulated in T(reg) cells co-cultured with T(eff) cells, thereby boosting Ebi3 and IL-12alpha production in trans. T(reg)-cell restriction of this cytokine occurs because Ebi3 is a downstream target of Foxp3, a transcription factor that is required for T(reg)-cell development and function. Ebi3-/- and Il12a-/- T(reg) cells have significantly reduced regulatory activity in vitro and fail to control homeostatic proliferation and to cure inflammatory bowel disease in vivo. Because these phenotypic characteristics are distinct from those of other IL-12 family members, this novel Ebi3-IL-12alpha heterodimeric cytokine has been designated interleukin-35 (IL-35). Ectopic expression of IL-35 confers regulatory activity on naive T cells, whereas recombinant IL-35 suppresses T-cell proliferation. Taken together, these data identify IL-35 as a novel inhibitory cytokine that may be specifically produced by T(reg) cells and is required for maximal suppressive

  13. CD8+CD122+CD49dlow regulatory T cells maintain T-cell homeostasis by killing activated T cells via Fas/FasL-mediated cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Akane, Kazuyuki; Kojima, Seiji; Mak, Tak W; Shiku, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Haruhiko

    2016-03-01

    The Fas/FasL (CD95/CD178) system is required for immune regulation; however, it is unclear in which cells, when, and where Fas/FasL molecules act in the immune system. We found that CD8(+)CD122(+) cells, which are mostly composed of memory T cells in comparison with naïve cells in the CD8(+)CD122(-) population, were previously shown to include cells with regulatory activity and could be separated into CD49d(low) cells and CD49d(high) cells. We established in vitro and in vivo experimental systems to evaluate the regulatory activity of CD122(+) cells. Regulatory activity was observed in CD8(+)CD122(+)CD49d(low) but not in CD8(+)CD122(+)CD49d(high) cells, indicating that the regulatory cells in the CD8(+)CD122(+) population could be narrowed down to CD49d(low) cells. CD8(+)CD122(-) cells taken from lymphoproliferation (lpr) mice were resistant to regulation by normal CD122(+) Tregs. CD122(+) Tregs taken from generalized lymphoproliferative disease (gld) mice did not regulate wild-type CD8(+)CD122(-) cells, indicating that the regulation by CD122(+) Tregs is Fas/FasL-dependent. CD122(+) Tregs taken from IL-10-deficient mice could regulate CD8(+)CD122(-) cells as equally as wild-type CD122(+) Tregs both in vitro and in vivo. MHC class I-missing T cells were not regulated by CD122(+) Tregs in vitro. CD122(+) Tregs also regulated CD4(+) cells in a Fas/FasL-dependent manner in vitro. These results suggest an essential role of Fas/FasL as a terminal effector of the CD122(+) Tregs that kill activated T cells to maintain immune homeostasis. PMID:26869716

  14. Regular tai chi chuan exercise enhances functional mobility and CD4CD25 regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, S‐H; Chuang, H; Lin, L‐W; Hsiao, C‐Y; Eng, H L

    2006-01-01

    Background The duration and vigour of physical exercise are widely considered to be critical elements that may positively or negatively affect physical health and immune response. Objectives To investigate the effect of a 12 week programme of regular tai chi chuan exercise (TCC) on functional mobility, beliefs about benefits of exercise on physical and psychological health, and immune regulation in middle aged volunteers. Methods This quasi‐experimental research design involving one group with testing before and after the programme was conducted to measure the effect of 12 weeks of TCC exercise in 14 men and 23 women from the normal community. Results Regular TCC exercise had a highly significant positive effect on functional mobility (p  =  0.001) and beliefs about the health benefits of exercise (p  =  0.013) in the 37 participants. Total white blood cell and red blood cell count did not change significantly, but a highly significant (p<0.001) decrease in monocyte count occurred. A significant (p  =  0.05) increase in the ratio of T helper to suppressor cells (CD4:CD8) was found, along with a significant (p  =  0.015) increase in CD4CD25 regulatory T cells. Production of the regulatory T cell mediators transforming growth factor β and interleukin 10 under specific antigen stimulation (varicella zoster virus) was also significantly increased after this exercise programme. Conclusions A 12 week programme of regular TCC exercise enhances functional mobility, personal health expectations, and regulatory T cell function. PMID:16505081

  15. Clinical Potential of Regulatory T Cell Therapy in Liver Diseases: An Overview and Current Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, Hannah C.; Braitch, Manjit Kaur; Brown, Solomon; Oo, Ye Htun

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand for liver transplantation and the decline in donor organs has highlighted the need for alternative novel therapies to prevent chronic active hepatitis, which eventually leads to liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. Liver histology of chronic hepatitis is composed of both effector and regulatory lymphocytes. The human liver contains different subsets of effector lymphocytes that are kept in check by a subpopulation of T cells known as Regulatory T cells (Treg). The balance of effector and regulatory lymphocytes generally determines the outcome of hepatic inflammation: resolution, fulminant hepatitis, or chronic active hepatitis. Thus, maintaining and adjusting this balance is crucial in immunological manipulation of liver diseases. One of the options to restore this balance is to enrich Treg in the liver disease patients. Advances in the knowledge of Treg biology and development of clinical grade isolation reagents, cell sorting equipment, and good manufacturing practice facilities have paved the way to apply Treg cells as a potential therapy to restore peripheral self-tolerance in autoimmune liver diseases (AILD), chronic rejection, and posttransplantation. Past and on-going studies have applied Treg in type-1 diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythematosus, graft versus host diseases, and solid organ transplantations. There have not been any new therapies for the AILD for more than three decades; thus, the clinical potential for the application of autologous Treg cell therapy to treat autoimmune liver disease is an attractive and novel option. However, it is fundamental to understand the deep immunology, genetic profiles, biology, homing behavior, and microenvironment of Treg before applying the cells to the patients.

  16. Clinical Potential of Regulatory T Cell Therapy in Liver Diseases: An Overview and Current Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, Hannah C.; Braitch, Manjit Kaur; Brown, Solomon; Oo, Ye Htun

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand for liver transplantation and the decline in donor organs has highlighted the need for alternative novel therapies to prevent chronic active hepatitis, which eventually leads to liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. Liver histology of chronic hepatitis is composed of both effector and regulatory lymphocytes. The human liver contains different subsets of effector lymphocytes that are kept in check by a subpopulation of T cells known as Regulatory T cells (Treg). The balance of effector and regulatory lymphocytes generally determines the outcome of hepatic inflammation: resolution, fulminant hepatitis, or chronic active hepatitis. Thus, maintaining and adjusting this balance is crucial in immunological manipulation of liver diseases. One of the options to restore this balance is to enrich Treg in the liver disease patients. Advances in the knowledge of Treg biology and development of clinical grade isolation reagents, cell sorting equipment, and good manufacturing practice facilities have paved the way to apply Treg cells as a potential therapy to restore peripheral self-tolerance in autoimmune liver diseases (AILD), chronic rejection, and posttransplantation. Past and on-going studies have applied Treg in type-1 diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythematosus, graft versus host diseases, and solid organ transplantations. There have not been any new therapies for the AILD for more than three decades; thus, the clinical potential for the application of autologous Treg cell therapy to treat autoimmune liver disease is an attractive and novel option. However, it is fundamental to understand the deep immunology, genetic profiles, biology, homing behavior, and microenvironment of Treg before applying the cells to the patients. PMID:27656181

  17. Upstream Distal Regulatory Elements Contact the Lmo2 Promoter in Mouse Erythroid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Anandi; Chen, Chih-Yu; Ho, Sara; Mitchell, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    The Lim domain only 2 (Lmo2) gene encodes a transcriptional cofactor critical for the development of hematopoietic stem cells. Several distal regulatory elements have been identified upstream of the Lmo2 gene in the human and mouse genomes that are capable of enhancing reporter gene expression in erythroid cells and may be responsible for the high level transcription of Lmo2 in the erythroid lineage. In this study we investigate how these elements regulate transcription of Lmo2 and whether or not they function cooperatively in the endogenous context. Chromosome conformation capture (3C) experiments show that chromatin-chromatin interactions exist between upstream regulatory elements and the Lmo2 promoter in erythroid cells but that these interactions are absent from kidney where Lmo2 is transcribed at twelve fold lower levels. Specifically, long range chromatin-chromatin interactions occur between the Lmo2 proximal promoter and two broad regions, 3–31 and 66–105 kb upstream of Lmo2, which we term the proximal and distal control regions for Lmo2 (pCR and dCR respectively). Each of these regions is bound by several transcription factors suggesting that multiple regulatory elements cooperate in regulating high level transcription of Lmo2 in erythroid cells. Binding of CTCF and cohesin which support chromatin loops at other loci were also found within the dCR and at the Lmo2 proximal promoter. Intergenic transcription occurs throughout the dCR in erythroid cells but not in kidney suggesting a role for these intergenic transcripts in regulating Lmo2, similar to the broad domain of intergenic transcription observed at the human β-globin locus control region. Our data supports a model in which the dCR functions through a chromatin looping mechanism to contact and enhance Lmo2 transcription specifically in erythroid cells. Furthermore, these chromatin loops are supported by the cohesin complex recruited to both CTCF and transcription factor bound regions. PMID

  18. Clinical Potential of Regulatory T Cell Therapy in Liver Diseases: An Overview and Current Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Hannah C; Braitch, Manjit Kaur; Brown, Solomon; Oo, Ye Htun

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand for liver transplantation and the decline in donor organs has highlighted the need for alternative novel therapies to prevent chronic active hepatitis, which eventually leads to liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. Liver histology of chronic hepatitis is composed of both effector and regulatory lymphocytes. The human liver contains different subsets of effector lymphocytes that are kept in check by a subpopulation of T cells known as Regulatory T cells (Treg). The balance of effector and regulatory lymphocytes generally determines the outcome of hepatic inflammation: resolution, fulminant hepatitis, or chronic active hepatitis. Thus, maintaining and adjusting this balance is crucial in immunological manipulation of liver diseases. One of the options to restore this balance is to enrich Treg in the liver disease patients. Advances in the knowledge of Treg biology and development of clinical grade isolation reagents, cell sorting equipment, and good manufacturing practice facilities have paved the way to apply Treg cells as a potential therapy to restore peripheral self-tolerance in autoimmune liver diseases (AILD), chronic rejection, and posttransplantation. Past and on-going studies have applied Treg in type-1 diabetes mellitus, systemic lupus erythematosus, graft versus host diseases, and solid organ transplantations. There have not been any new therapies for the AILD for more than three decades; thus, the clinical potential for the application of autologous Treg cell therapy to treat autoimmune liver disease is an attractive and novel option. However, it is fundamental to understand the deep immunology, genetic profiles, biology, homing behavior, and microenvironment of Treg before applying the cells to the patients. PMID:27656181

  19. Evolution of New cis-Regulatory Motifs Required for Cell-Specific Gene Expression in Caenorhabditis

    PubMed Central

    Félix, Marie-Anne

    2016-01-01

    Patterning of C. elegans vulval cell fates relies on inductive signaling. In this induction event, a single cell, the gonadal anchor cell, secretes LIN-3/EGF and induces three out of six competent precursor cells to acquire a vulval fate. We previously showed that this developmental system is robust to a four-fold variation in lin-3/EGF genetic dose. Here using single-molecule FISH, we find that the mean level of expression of lin-3 in the anchor cell is remarkably conserved. No change in lin-3 expression level could be detected among C. elegans wild isolates and only a low level of change—less than 30%—in the Caenorhabditis genus and in Oscheius tipulae. In C. elegans, lin-3 expression in the anchor cell is known to require three transcription factor binding sites, specifically two E-boxes and a nuclear-hormone-receptor (NHR) binding site. Mutation of any of these three elements in C. elegans results in a dramatic decrease in lin-3 expression. Yet only a single E-box is found in the Drosophilae supergroup of Caenorhabditis species, including C. angaria, while the NHR-binding site likely only evolved at the base of the Elegans group. We find that a transgene from C. angaria bearing a single E-box is sufficient for normal expression in C. elegans. Even a short 58 bp cis-regulatory fragment from C. angaria with this single E-box is able to replace the three transcription factor binding sites at the endogenous C. elegans lin-3 locus, resulting in the wild-type expression level. Thus, regulatory evolution occurring in cis within a 58 bp lin-3 fragment, results in a strict requirement for the NHR binding site and a second E-box in C. elegans. This single-cell, single-molecule, quantitative and functional evo-devo study demonstrates that conserved expression levels can hide extensive change in cis-regulatory site requirements and highlights the evolution of new cis-regulatory elements required for cell-specific gene expression. PMID:27588814

  20. Evolution of New cis-Regulatory Motifs Required for Cell-Specific Gene Expression in Caenorhabditis.

    PubMed

    Barkoulas, Michalis; Vargas Velazquez, Amhed M; Peluffo, Alexandre E; Félix, Marie-Anne

    2016-09-01

    Patterning of C. elegans vulval cell fates relies on inductive signaling. In this induction event, a single cell, the gonadal anchor cell, secretes LIN-3/EGF and induces three out of six competent precursor cells to acquire a vulval fate. We previously showed that this developmental system is robust to a four-fold variation in lin-3/EGF genetic dose. Here using single-molecule FISH, we find that the mean level of expression of lin-3 in the anchor cell is remarkably conserved. No change in lin-3 expression level could be detected among C. elegans wild isolates and only a low level of change-less than 30%-in the Caenorhabditis genus and in Oscheius tipulae. In C. elegans, lin-3 expression in the anchor cell is known to require three transcription factor binding sites, specifically two E-boxes and a nuclear-hormone-receptor (NHR) binding site. Mutation of any of these three elements in C. elegans results in a dramatic decrease in lin-3 expression. Yet only a single E-box is found in the Drosophilae supergroup of Caenorhabditis species, including C. angaria, while the NHR-binding site likely only evolved at the base of the Elegans group. We find that a transgene from C. angaria bearing a single E-box is sufficient for normal expression in C. elegans. Even a short 58 bp cis-regulatory fragment from C. angaria with this single E-box is able to replace the three transcription factor binding sites at the endogenous C. elegans lin-3 locus, resulting in the wild-type expression level. Thus, regulatory evolution occurring in cis within a 58 bp lin-3 fragment, results in a strict requirement for the NHR binding site and a second E-box in C. elegans. This single-cell, single-molecule, quantitative and functional evo-devo study demonstrates that conserved expression levels can hide extensive change in cis-regulatory site requirements and highlights the evolution of new cis-regulatory elements required for cell-specific gene expression. PMID:27588814

  1. A Generalized Gene-Regulatory Network Model of Stem Cell Differentiation for Predicting Lineage Specifiers.

    PubMed

    Okawa, Satoshi; Nicklas, Sarah; Zickenrott, Sascha; Schwamborn, Jens C; Del Sol, Antonio

    2016-09-13

    Identification of cell-fate determinants for directing stem cell differentiation remains a challenge. Moreover, little is known about how cell-fate determinants are regulated in functionally important subnetworks in large gene-regulatory networks (i.e., GRN motifs). Here we propose a model of stem cell differentiation in which cell-fate determinants work synergistically to determine different cellular identities, and reside in a class of GRN motifs known as feedback loops. Based on this model, we develop a computational method that can systematically predict cell-fate determinants and their GRN motifs. The method was able to recapitulate experimentally validated cell-fate determinants, and validation of two predicted cell-fate determinants confirmed that overexpression of ESR1 and RUNX2 in mouse neural stem cells induces neuronal and astrocyte differentiation, respectively. Thus, the presented GRN-based model of stem cell differentiation and computational method can guide differentiation experiments in stem cell research and regenerative medicine. PMID:27546532

  2. Tumor-suppressor Genes, Cell Cycle Regulatory Checkpoints, and the Skin.

    PubMed

    Abreu Velez, Ana Maria; Howard, Michael S

    2015-05-01

    The cell cycle (or cell-division cycle) is a series of events that take place in a cell, leading to its division and duplication. Cell division requires cell cycle checkpoints (CPs) that are used by the cell to both monitor and regulate the progress of the cell cycle. Tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs) or antioncogenes are genes that protect the cell from a single event or multiple events leading to cancer. When these genes mutate, the cell can progress to a cancerous state. We aimed to perform a narrative review, based on evaluation of the manuscripts published in MEDLINE-indexed journals using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms "tumor suppressor's genes," "skin," and "cell cycle regulatory checkpoints." We aimed to review the current concepts regarding TSGs, CPs, and their association with selected cutaneous diseases. It is important to take into account that in some cell cycle disorders, multiple genetic abnormalities may occur simultaneously. These abnormalities may include intrachromosomal insertions, unbalanced division products, recombinations, reciprocal deletions, and/or duplication of the inserted segments or genes; thus, these presentations usually involve several genes. Due to their complexity, these disorders require specialized expertise for proper diagnosis, counseling, personal and family support, and genetic studies. Alterations in the TSGs or CP regulators may occur in many benign skin proliferative disorders, neoplastic processes, and genodermatoses.

  3. Highly heterogeneous, activated and short-lived regulatory T cells during chronic filarial infection

    PubMed Central

    Metenou, Simon; Coulibaly, Yaya I.; Sturdevant, Daniel; Dolo, Housseini; Diallo, Abdallah A.; Soumaoro, Lamine; Coulibaly, Michel E.; Kanakabandi, Kishore; Porcella, Stephen F.; Klion, Amy D.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the increase in the numbers of regulatory T (Treg) cells in chronic infection settings remain unclear. Here we have delineated the phenotype and transcriptional profiles of Treg cells from 18 filarial-infected (Fil+) and 19 filarial-uninfected (Fil-) subjects. We found that the frequencies of Foxp3+ Treg cells expressing CTLA-4, GITR, LAG-3 and IL-10 were significantly higher in Fil+ subjects compared with that in Fil- subjects. Foxp3-expressing Treg-cell populations in Fil+ subjects were also more heterogeneous and had higher expression of IL-10, CCL-4, IL-29, CTLA-4 and TGF-β than Fil- subjects, each of these cytokines having been implicated in immune suppression. Moreover, Foxp3-expressing Treg cells from Fil+ subjects had markedly upregulated expression of activation-induced apoptotic genes with concomitant downregulation of those involved in cell survival. To determine whether the expression of apoptotic genes was due to Treg-cell activation, we found that the expression of CTLA-4, CDk8, RAD50, TNFRSF1A, FOXO3 and RHOA were significantly upregulated in stimulated cells compared with unstimulated cells. Taken together, our results suggest that in patent filarial infection, the expanded Treg-cell populations are heterogeneous, short-lived, activated and express higher levels of molecules known to modulate immune responsiveness, suggesting that filarial infection is associated with high Treg-cell turnover. PMID:24737144

  4. Tumor-suppressor Genes, Cell Cycle Regulatory Checkpoints, and the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Velez, Ana Maria Abreu; Howard, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    The cell cycle (or cell-division cycle) is a series of events that take place in a cell, leading to its division and duplication. Cell division requires cell cycle checkpoints (CPs) that are used by the cell to both monitor and regulate the progress of the cell cycle. Tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs) or antioncogenes are genes that protect the cell from a single event or multiple events leading to cancer. When these genes mutate, the cell can progress to a cancerous state. We aimed to perform a narrative review, based on evaluation of the manuscripts published in MEDLINE-indexed journals using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms “tumor suppressor's genes,” “skin,” and “cell cycle regulatory checkpoints.” We aimed to review the current concepts regarding TSGs, CPs, and their association with selected cutaneous diseases. It is important to take into account that in some cell cycle disorders, multiple genetic abnormalities may occur simultaneously. These abnormalities may include intrachromosomal insertions, unbalanced division products, recombinations, reciprocal deletions, and/or duplication of the inserted segments or genes; thus, these presentations usually involve several genes. Due to their complexity, these disorders require specialized expertise for proper diagnosis, counseling, personal and family support, and genetic studies. Alterations in the TSGs or CP regulators may occur in many benign skin proliferative disorders, neoplastic processes, and genodermatoses. PMID:26110128

  5. Human CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells do not constitutively express IL-35.

    PubMed

    Bardel, Emilie; Larousserie, Frédérique; Charlot-Rabiega, Pascaline; Coulomb-L'Herminé, Aurore; Devergne, Odile

    2008-11-15

    EBV-induced gene 3 (EBI3) can associate with p28 to form the heterodimeric cytokine IL-27, or with the p35 subunit of IL-12 to form the EBI3/p35 heterodimer, recently named IL-35. In mice, IL-35 has been shown to be constitutively expressed by CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg cells) and suggested to contribute to their suppressive activity. In this study, we investigated whether human Treg cells express IL-35. Double-staining analysis of human thymuses showed that neither Foxp3(+) nor CD25(+) cells coexpressed EBI3. Similarly, Foxp3(+) cells present in human lymph nodes, tonsils, spleens, and intestines did not express EBI3. Consistent with these in situ observations, Treg cells purified from blood or tonsils were negative for EBI3 by immunoblotting. Other human T cell subsets, including effector T cells, naive and memory CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) and gammadelta T cells also did not constitutively express EBI3, which contrasts with IL-35 expression observed in murine CD8(+) and gammadelta T cells. Furthermore, although CD3/CD28 stimulation consistently induced low levels of EBI3 in various CD4(+) T cell subsets, no EBI3 could be detected in CD3/CD28-stimulated Treg cells. RT-PCR analysis showed that, whereas p35 transcripts were detected in both Teff and Treg cells, EBI3 transcripts were detected only in activated Teff cells, but not in resting or activated Treg cells. Thus, in contrast to their murine counterpart, human Treg cells do not express detectable amounts of IL-35.

  6. p38β, A novel regulatory target of Pokemon in hepatic cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Nannan; Cao, Deliang; Liu, Min; Tan, Ying; Jiang, Yuyang

    2013-01-01

    Pokemon is an important proto-oncogene involved in various biological processes and cancer development, such as cell differentiation, tumorigenesis and metastasis. Pokemon is recognized as a transcription factor localized upstream of several oncogenes, regulating their expression. p38MAPKs act as key regulatory factors in cellular signaling pathways associated with inflammatory responses, cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. p38β, a member of p38MAPK family, is closely correlated with tumorigenesis, but the mechanism of activation remains unclear. In this study, we found overexpression of Pokemon promoted the growth, migration and invasion of HepG2 cells. However, a p38 inhibitor SB202190 efficiently attenuated the promoting effect of Pokemon in the HepG2 cells. Targeted expression or silencing of Pokemon changed cellular p38β protein level and phosphorylation of downstream ATF2 in the p38 signaling pathway. Both dual luciferase report assay and ChIP assay suggested that p38β is a novel regulatory target of the transcription factor Pokemon and positively regulated by Pokemon in hepatic cells. PMID:23807508

  7. p38β, A Novel Regulatory Target of Pokemon in Hepatic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhe; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Nannan; Cao, Deliang; Liu, Min; Tan, Ying; Jiang, Yuyang

    2013-01-01

    Pokemon is an important proto-oncogene involved in various biological processes and cancer development, such as cell differentiation, tumorigenesis and metastasis. Pokemon is recognized as a transcription factor localized upstream of several oncogenes, regulating their expression. p38MAPKs act as key regulatory factors in cellular signaling pathways associated with inflammatory responses, cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. p38β, a member of p38MAPK family, is closely correlated with tumorigenesis, but the mechanism of activation remains unclear. In this study, we found overexpression of Pokemon promoted the growth, migration and invasion of HepG2 cells. However, a p38 inhibitor SB202190 efficiently attenuated the promoting effect of Pokemon in the HepG2 cells. Targeted expression or silencing of Pokemon changed cellular p38β protein level and phosphorylation of downstream ATF2 in the p38 signaling pathway. Both dual luciferase report assay and ChIP assay suggested that p38β is a novel regulatory target of the transcription factor Pokemon and positively regulated by Pokemon in hepatic cells. PMID:23807508

  8. Regulatory T cells in the induction and maintenance of peripheral transplantation tolerance.

    PubMed

    Cobbold, Stephen P; Graca, Luis; Lin, Chun-Yen; Adams, Elizabeth; Waldmann, Herman

    2003-02-01

    It is now possible to induce donor-specific transplantation tolerance in adult rodents using non-depleting monoclonal antibodies against T cell co-receptor and co-stimulation molecules or by immunisation with tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells. It is a common finding of all these models of peripheral tolerance, as well as of various mouse models of autoimmune disease, that regulatory CD4(+) T cells are the principal mediators. There are currently no specific markers for regulatory T cells, but in some autoimmune models their activity has been associated with the expression of activation markers such as CD25 and CTLA4, or anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-beta. CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells from both naïve and tolerised donors are able to transfer tolerance to grafts in lymphopenic recipients, and this may be directly applicable to bone-marrow transplantation. The challenge is now to understand the biological principles that allow such immune re-programming so that they can be safely applied to clinical organ grafting. PMID:12595967

  9. p38β, A novel regulatory target of Pokemon in hepatic cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Nannan; Cao, Deliang; Liu, Min; Tan, Ying; Jiang, Yuyang

    2013-01-01

    Pokemon is an important proto-oncogene involved in various biological processes and cancer development, such as cell differentiation, tumorigenesis and metastasis. Pokemon is recognized as a transcription factor localized upstream of several oncogenes, regulating their expression. p38MAPKs act as key regulatory factors in cellular signaling pathways associated with inflammatory responses, cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. p38β, a member of p38MAPK family, is closely correlated with tumorigenesis, but the mechanism of activation remains unclear. In this study, we found overexpression of Pokemon promoted the growth, migration and invasion of HepG2 cells. However, a p38 inhibitor SB202190 efficiently attenuated the promoting effect of Pokemon in the HepG2 cells. Targeted expression or silencing of Pokemon changed cellular p38β protein level and phosphorylation of downstream ATF2 in the p38 signaling pathway. Both dual luciferase report assay and ChIP assay suggested that p38β is a novel regulatory target of the transcription factor Pokemon and positively regulated by Pokemon in hepatic cells.

  10. Role of Regulatory T-cells in Different Clinical Expressions of Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Nader; Azadegan-Dehkordi, Fatemeh; Rahimian, Ghorbanali; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Shirzad, Hedayatollah

    2016-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization induces vigorous innate and specific immune responses; however, the infection does not disappear and a chronic active gastritis continues if left untreated. It has been shown that the topographical pattern and immune response of gastritis are the main reasons for the bacteria persistence and the clinical outcome. Gastritis due to H. pylori is caused by a complicated interaction among a variety of T cell subsets. Regulatory T (Treg) cells suppressing the immune response of antigen-specific T-cells have recently been demonstrated to play a key role in chronic inflammation by immunologic tolerance. Treg cells have been identified as the major regulatory component of the adaptive immune response and being involved in H. pylori-related inflammation and bacterial persistence. There have been many controversies over the role of Treg cells in H. pylori infection. Many studies have shown that the local Treg response protects the gastric mucosa from intensified inflammation and tissue damage, and the risk of H. pylori-associated diseases has an inverse correlation with Treg accumulation, even if the decrease in the inflammatory response is recognized by Treg it causes increase in bacterial density. This paper reviews the role of Treg in different clinical expressions of H. pylori infection. PMID:27664483

  11. The Effect of Traditional Chinese Formula Danchaiheji on the Differentiation of Regulatory Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaodong; Tong, Jingzhi; Li, Keqiu; Jing, Yaqing

    2016-01-01

    Recently, regulatory dendritic cells (DCregs), a newly described dendritic cell subset with potent immunomodulatory function, have attracted increased attention for their utility in treating immune response-related diseases, such as graft-versus-host disease, hypersensitivity, and autoimmune diseases. Danchaiheji (DCHJ) is a traditional Chinese formula that has been used for many years in the clinic. However, whether DCHJ can program dendritic cells towards a regulatory phenotype and the underlying mechanism behind this process remain unknown. Herein, we investigate the effects of traditional Chinese DCHJ on DCregs differentiation and a mouse model of skin transplantation. The current study demonstrates that DCHJ can induce dendritic cells to differentiate into DCregs, which are represented by high CD11b and low CD86 and HLA-DR expression as well as the secretion of IL-10 and TGF-β. In addition, DCHJ inhibited DC migration and T cell proliferation, which correlated with increased IDO expression. Furthermore, DCHJ significantly prolonged skin graft survival time in a mouse model of skin transplantation without any liver or kidney toxicity. The traditional Chinese formula DCHJ has the potential to be a potent immunosuppressive agent with high efficiency and nontoxicity. PMID:27525028

  12. A systems biology approach to defining regulatory mechanisms for cartilage and tendon cell phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, A. J.; Tew, S. R.; Vasieva, O.; Clegg, P. D.; Canty-Laird, E. G.

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity of adult somatic cells has provided emerging avenues for the development of regenerative therapeutics. In musculoskeletal biology the mechanistic regulatory networks of genes governing the phenotypic plasticity of cartilage and tendon cells has not been considered systematically. Additionally, a lack of strategies to effectively reproduce in vitro functional models of cartilage and tendon is retarding progress in this field. De- and redifferentiation represent phenotypic transitions that may contribute to loss of function in ageing musculoskeletal tissues. Applying a systems biology network analysis approach to global gene expression profiles derived from common in vitro culture systems (monolayer and three-dimensional cultures) this study demonstrates common regulatory mechanisms governing de- and redifferentiation transitions in cartilage and tendon cells. Furthermore, evidence of convergence of gene expression profiles during monolayer expansion of cartilage and tendon cells, and the expression of key developmental markers, challenges the physiological relevance of this culture system. The study also suggests that oxidative stress and PI3K signalling pathways are key modulators of in vitro phenotypes for cells of musculoskeletal origin. PMID:27670352

  13. Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells (MDSC) Protect Islet Transplants via B7-H1 Mediated Enhancement of T Regulatory Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Hong-Shiue; Hsieh, Ching-Chuan; Charles, Ronald; Wang, Lianfu; Wagner, Timothy; Fung, John J.; Qian, Shiguang; L, Lina Lu

    2011-01-01

    Background Side effects of lifetime immunosuppression for cell transplants often outweigh the benefits, therefore, induction of transplant tolerance is needed. We have shown that cotransplantation with myeoid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) effectively protect islet allografts from rejection without requirement of immunosuppression. This study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Methods MDSC were generated by addition of hepatic stellate cells (HpSC) from various stain mice into dendritic cell (DC) culture. The quality of MDSC was monitored by phenotype and function analyses. MDSC mixed with islet allografts were transplanted into diabetic recipients. T cell response was analyzed following transplant by flow and histochemical analyses, and compared to islet alone and islet/DC transplant groups. B7-H1 knockout mice were used to determine the role of B7-H1 on MDSC in regulation of T cell response. Results Cotransplantation with MDSC (not DC) effectively protected islet allografts without requirement of immunosuppression. This is associated with attenuation of CD8 T cells in the grafts and marked expansion of T regulatory (Treg) cells, which contributed to MDSC-induced T cell hyporesponsiveness. Antigen-specific Treg cells were prone to accumulate in lymphoid organs close to the grafts. Both in vitro and in vivo data demonstrated that B7-H1 was absolutely required for MDSC to exert immune regulatory activity and induction of Treg cells. Conclusion The described approach holds great clinical application potential, and may overcome the limitation of requiring chronic administration of immunosuppression in cell transplants. Understanding the underlying mechanisms will facilitate the development of this novel therapeutic strategy. PMID:22179405

  14. Reprint of "Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women impairs regulatory T cell function".

    PubMed

    Vijayendra Chary, A; Hemalatha, R; Seshacharyulu, M; Vasudeva Murali, M; Jayaprakash, D; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-04-01

    Regulatory T cells and IgE receptors (CD23 and CD21) on B cells were assessed in vitamin D deficient pregnant women. For this, 153 pregnant women were recruited from a government hospital and were categorized into three groups based on 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) status. Regulatory T cell population (Treg cells) and CD23/CD21 expression on B cells were quantified by FACS ARIA II in maternal blood at third trimester; and the same parameters were evaluated in cord blood soon after delivery. In addition, TGF β and IL-10 were quantified in maternal and cord blood by using Milliplex kits. In a representative sample of eight women from each group (vitamin D sufficient, insufficient and deficient), placental tissues were processed for mRNA expressions of vitamin D receptor (VDR), retinoic acid receptor (RXR), vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and vitamin D regulating enzymes. Of the 153 pregnant women, 18 were sufficient (≥30ng/mL), 55 were insufficient (20-29ng/mL) and 80 were deficient (≤19ng/mL) for 25(OH)D3 status. The maternal blood Treg cell population (mean (%)±SE) was lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.2±0.01) pregnant women compared to insufficient (0.34±0.01) and sufficient (0.45±0.02) pregnant women. Similarly, cord blood Treg cell population (mean (%)±SE) was also lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.63±0.03) pregnant women when compared to insufficient (1.05±0.04) and sufficient (1.75±0.02) pregnant women. Mean (%)±SE of B cells with CD23 and CD21 in maternal blood was higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient pregnant women (0.35±0.02; 1.65±0.04) when compared to insufficient (0.22±0.02; 0.55±0.05) and sufficient (0.15±0.02; 0.21±0.01) pregnant women. Similarly, mean (%)±SE of B cell population with CD23 and CD21 in cord blood was also higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.41±0.02; 1.2±0.03) when compared to insufficient (0.32±0.01; 0.6±0.05) and sufficient (0.2±0.01; 0.4±0.02) pregnant women. Regulatory cytokines, TGF

  15. Reprint of "Vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women impairs regulatory T cell function".

    PubMed

    Vijayendra Chary, A; Hemalatha, R; Seshacharyulu, M; Vasudeva Murali, M; Jayaprakash, D; Dinesh Kumar, B

    2015-04-01

    Regulatory T cells and IgE receptors (CD23 and CD21) on B cells were assessed in vitamin D deficient pregnant women. For this, 153 pregnant women were recruited from a government hospital and were categorized into three groups based on 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) status. Regulatory T cell population (Treg cells) and CD23/CD21 expression on B cells were quantified by FACS ARIA II in maternal blood at third trimester; and the same parameters were evaluated in cord blood soon after delivery. In addition, TGF β and IL-10 were quantified in maternal and cord blood by using Milliplex kits. In a representative sample of eight women from each group (vitamin D sufficient, insufficient and deficient), placental tissues were processed for mRNA expressions of vitamin D receptor (VDR), retinoic acid receptor (RXR), vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and vitamin D regulating enzymes. Of the 153 pregnant women, 18 were sufficient (≥30ng/mL), 55 were insufficient (20-29ng/mL) and 80 were deficient (≤19ng/mL) for 25(OH)D3 status. The maternal blood Treg cell population (mean (%)±SE) was lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.2±0.01) pregnant women compared to insufficient (0.34±0.01) and sufficient (0.45±0.02) pregnant women. Similarly, cord blood Treg cell population (mean (%)±SE) was also lower (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.63±0.03) pregnant women when compared to insufficient (1.05±0.04) and sufficient (1.75±0.02) pregnant women. Mean (%)±SE of B cells with CD23 and CD21 in maternal blood was higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient pregnant women (0.35±0.02; 1.65±0.04) when compared to insufficient (0.22±0.02; 0.55±0.05) and sufficient (0.15±0.02; 0.21±0.01) pregnant women. Similarly, mean (%)±SE of B cell population with CD23 and CD21 in cord blood was also higher (p<0.05) in 25(OH)D3 deficient (0.41±0.02; 1.2±0.03) when compared to insufficient (0.32±0.01; 0.6±0.05) and sufficient (0.2±0.01; 0.4±0.02) pregnant women. Regulatory cytokines, TGF

  16. Assay of Peripheral Regulatory Vδ1 T Cells in Ankylosing Spondylitis and its Significance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongliang; Sun, Na; Li, Ka; Tian, Jiguang; Li, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Background Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) involves inflammation at the sacroiliac joint and spine attachment site. This study aimed to observe the ratio and function of peripheral regulatory Vδ1 T cells in AS patients to investigate their roles in AS pathogenesis. Material/Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were separated by density-gradient centrifugation from AS patients and healthy controls. Flow cytometry was used to determine the ratio between Vδ1 and CD4 T cells of PBMC in AS patients and controls. Flow cytometry sorting (FCS) was used to obtain Vδ1 and naïve CD4 T cells with purity higher than 90%. CFSE staining method was used to detect the effect of Vδ1 T cells on proliferation of naïve CD4 T cells. The effect of Vδ1 T cells on secretion of IFN-γ from naïve CD4 T cells and the ability to secrete IL-10 from Vδ1 T cells were determined by flow cytometry. Results AS patients had significantly lower Vδ1 T cell ratio in PBMC compared to controls (p<0.05), but their CD4 T cell ratio was significantly elevated (p<0.05). Functional assay showed suppression of naïve CD4 T cell proliferation and IFN-γ secretion by peripheral Vδ1 T cells in AS patients (p<0.01). AS patients also had lower IL-10 secreting level from peripheral derived Vδ1 T cells (p<0.01). Conclusions The immune suppression of peripheral Vδ1 T cell in AS patient increases the ratio of peripheral CD4 T cells and IFN-γ level, leading to AS pathogenesis. This immune suppression is mainly due to suppressed IL-10 secretion. PMID:27598263

  17. Assay of Peripheral Regulatory Vδ1 T Cells in Ankylosing Spondylitis and its Significance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongliang; Sun, Na; Li, Ka; Tian, Jiguang; Li, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) involves inflammation at the sacroiliac joint and spine attachment site. This study aimed to observe the ratio and function of peripheral regulatory Vδ1 T cells in AS patients to investigate their roles in AS pathogenesis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were separated by density-gradient centrifugation from AS patients and healthy controls. Flow cytometry was used to determine the ratio between Vδ1 and CD4 T cells of PBMC in AS patients and controls. Flow cytometry sorting (FCS) was used to obtain Vδ1 and naïve CD4 T cells with purity higher than 90%. CFSE staining method was used to detect the effect of Vδ1 T cells on proliferation of naïve CD4 T cells. The effect of Vδ1 T cells on secretion of IFN-γ from naïve CD4 T cells and the ability to secrete IL-10 from Vδ1 T cells were determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS AS patients had significantly lower Vδ1 T cell ratio in PBMC compared to controls (p<0.05), but their CD4 T cell ratio was significantly elevated (p<0.05). Functional assay showed suppression of naïve CD4 T cell proliferation and IFN-γ secretion by peripheral Vδ1 T cells in AS patients (p<0.01). AS patients also had lower IL-10 secreting level from peripheral derived Vδ1 T cells (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS The immune suppression of peripheral Vδ1 T cell in AS patient increases the ratio of peripheral CD4 T cells and IFN-γ level, leading to AS pathogenesis. This immune suppression is mainly due to suppressed IL-10 secretion. PMID:27598263

  18. When do tissues and cells become products? Regulatory oversight of emerging biological therapies.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Although therapeutics derived from biological sources have been subjected to regulatory oversight for some time, the products used in transplantation procedures have historically been exempt from this oversight. These products have been viewed as being part of medical practice rather than as the result of mainstream pharmaceutical manufacture. Furthermore, their unique source makes them difficult to assess in traditional regulatory systems based on the tenets of pharmaceutical quality control. With the increasing use of transplantation therapies to both replace dysfunctional organs and to influence genetic and metabolic processes, public health concerns on these therapies have increased. In addition, it is recognized that therapeutic claims for some of these interventions need to be properly assessed. These considerations have led the established regulatory agencies of the developed world to develop new regulatory paradigms for the products of transplantation practice. While a number of concerns have driven these developments, the minimization of infectious disease risk remains the paramount driver for introducing these regulatory systems. More than the regulation of medicines and medical devices manufactured in traditional pharmaceutical modes, the regulation of cell and tissue products is intimately linked to areas of public health policy and funding. This places regulators in a challenging position as they attempt to reconcile their roles as independent assessors with the needs of the overall public health framework. This is particularly difficult when considering measures which may affect access to life saving therapies. Regulators have recognized the need to assess these therapies through systems which incorporate consideration of risk-benefit ratios and include mechanisms for transparent and accountable release of products when full compliance to traditional concepts of manufacturing practice is not possible.

  19. Multiple Regulatory Systems Coordinate DNA Replication with Cell Growth in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Heath; Koh, Alan

    2014-01-01

    In many bacteria the rate of DNA replication is linked with cellular physiology to ensure that genome duplication is coordinated with growth. Nutrient-mediated growth rate control of DNA replication initiation has been appreciated for decades, however the mechanism(s) that connects these cell cycle activities has eluded understanding. In order to help address this fundamental question we have investigated regulation of DNA replication in the model organism Bacillus subtilis. Contrary to the prevailing view we find that changes in DnaA protein level are not sufficient to account for nutrient-mediated growth rate control of DNA replication initiation, although this regulation does require both DnaA and the endogenous replication origin. We go on to report connections between DNA replication and several essential cellular activities required for rapid bacterial growth, including respiration, central carbon metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, phospholipid synthesis, and protein synthesis. Unexpectedly, the results indicate that multiple regulatory systems are involved in coordinating DNA replication with cell physiology, with some of the regulatory systems targeting oriC while others act in a oriC-independent manner. We propose that distinct regulatory systems are utilized to control DNA replication in response to diverse physiological and chemical changes. PMID:25340815

  20. Commensal microbe-derived butyrate induces the differentiation of colonic regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Furusawa, Yukihiro; Obata, Yuuki; Fukuda, Shinji; Endo, Takaho A; Nakato, Gaku; Takahashi, Daisuke; Nakanishi, Yumiko; Uetake, Chikako; Kato, Keiko; Kato, Tamotsu; Takahashi, Masumi; Fukuda, Noriko N; Murakami, Shinnosuke; Miyauchi, Eiji; Hino, Shingo; Atarashi, Koji; Onawa, Satoshi; Fujimura, Yumiko; Lockett, Trevor; Clarke, Julie M; Topping, David L; Tomita, Masaru; Hori, Shohei; Ohara, Osamu; Morita, Tatsuya; Koseki, Haruhiko; Kikuchi, Jun; Honda, Kenya; Hase, Koji; Ohno, Hiroshi

    2013-12-19

    Gut commensal microbes shape the mucosal immune system by regulating the differentiation and expansion of several types of T cell. Clostridia, a dominant class of commensal microbe, can induce colonic regulatory T (Treg) cells, which have a central role in the suppression of inflammatory and allergic responses. However, the molecular mechanisms by which commensal microbes induce colonic Treg cells have been unclear. Here we show that a large bowel microbial fermentation product, butyrate, induces the differentiation of colonic Treg cells in mice. A comparative NMR-based metabolome analysis suggests that the luminal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids positively correlates with the number of Treg cells in the colon. Among short-chain fatty acids, butyrate induced the differentiation of Treg cells in vitro and in vivo, and ameliorated the development of colitis induced by adoptive transfer of CD4(+) CD45RB(hi) T cells in Rag1(-/-) mice. Treatment of naive T cells under the Treg-cell-polarizing conditions with butyrate enhanced histone H3 acetylation in the promoter and conserved non-coding sequence regions of the Foxp3 locus, suggesting a possible mechanism for how microbial-derived butyrate regulates the differentiation of Treg cells. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanisms by which host-microbe interactions establish immunological homeostasis in the gut.

  1. The Global Regulatory Architecture of Transcription during the Caulobacter Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bo; Schrader, Jared M.; Kalogeraki, Virginia S.; Abeliuk, Eduardo; Dinh, Cong B.; Pham, James Q.; Cui, Zhongying Z.; Dill, David L.; McAdams, Harley H.; Shapiro, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Each Caulobacter cell cycle involves differentiation and an asymmetric cell division driven by a cyclical regulatory circuit comprised of four transcription factors (TFs) and a DNA methyltransferase. Using a modified global 5′ RACE protocol, we globally mapped transcription start sites (TSSs) at base-pair resolution, measured their transcription levels at multiple times in the cell cycle, and identified their transcription factor binding sites. Out of 2726 TSSs, 586 were shown to be cell cycle-regulated and we identified 529 binding sites for the cell cycle master regulators. Twenty-three percent of the cell cycle-regulated promoters were found to be under the combinatorial control of two or more of the global regulators. Previously unknown features of the core cell cycle circuit were identified, including 107 antisense TSSs which exhibit cell cycle-control, and 241 genes with multiple TSSs whose transcription levels often exhibited different cell cycle timing. Cumulatively, this study uncovered novel new layers of transcriptional regulation mediating the bacterial cell cycle. PMID:25569173

  2. Docosahexaenoic acid reduces suppressive and migratory functions of CD4CD25 regulatory T-cells

    PubMed Central

    Yessoufou, Akadiri; Plé, Aude; Moutairou, Kabirou; Hichami, Aziz; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2009-01-01

    Immunological tolerance is one of the fundamental aspects of the immune system. The CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells have emerged as key players in the development of tolerance to self and foreign antigens. However, little is known about the endogenous factors and mechanisms controlling their suppressive capacity on immune response. In this study, we observed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, diminished, in a dose-dependent manner, the capacity of Treg cells to inhibit the CD4+CD25− effector T-cell proliferation. DHA not only reduced the migration of Treg cells toward chemokines but also downregulated the mRNA expression of CCR-4 and CXCR-4 in Treg cells. DHA also curtailed ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation and downregulated the Smad7 levels in these cells. Contradictorily, DHA upregulated the mRNA expression of Foxp3, CTLA-4, TGF-β, and IL-10; nonetheless, this fatty acid increased the expression of p27KIP1 mRNA, known to be involved in Treg cell unresponsiveness. In Foxp3-immunoprepitated nuclear proteins, DHA upregulated histone desacetylase 7 levels that would again participate in the unresposnsiveness of these cells. Finally, a DHA-enriched diet also diminished, ex vivo, the suppressive capacity of Treg cells. Altogether, these results suggest that DHA, by diminishing Treg cell functions, may play a key role in health and disease. PMID:19561360

  3. Human regulatory B cells combine phenotypic and genetic hallmarks with a distinct differentiation fate.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wenyu; Cerny, Daniela; Chua, Edmond; Duan, Kaibo; Yi, June Tai Jing; Shadan, Nurhidaya Binte; Lum, Josephine; Maho-Vaillant, Maud; Zolezzi, Francesca; Wong, Siew Cheng; Larbi, Anis; Fink, Katja; Musette, Philippe; Poidinger, Michael; Calbo, Sébastien

    2014-09-01

    Regulatory B cells (B-reg) produce IL-10 and suppress inflammation in both mice and humans, but limited data on the phenotype and function of these cells have precluded detailed assessment of their contribution to host immunity. In this article, we report that human B-reg cannot be defined based on a phenotype composed of conventional B cell markers, and that IL-10 production can be elicited in both the CD27(+) memory population and naive B cell subset after only a brief stimulation in vitro. We therefore sought to obtain a better definition of IL-10-producing human B-regs using a multiparameter analysis of B cell phenotype, function, and gene expression profile. Exposure to CpG and anti-Ig are the most potent stimuli for IL-10 secretion in human B cells, but microarray analysis revealed that human B cells cotreated with these reagents resulted in only ∼0.7% of genes being differentially expressed between IL-10(+) and IL-10(-) cells. Instead, connectivity map analysis revealed that IL-10-secreting B cells are those undergoing specific differentiation toward a germinal center fate, and we identified a CD11c(+) B cell subset that was not capable of producing IL-10 even under optimal conditions. Our findings will assist in the identification of a broader range of human pro-B-reg populations that may represent novel targets for immunotherapy. PMID:25080484

  4. Docosahexaenoic acid reduces suppressive and migratory functions of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T-cells.

    PubMed

    Yessoufou, Akadiri; Plé, Aude; Moutairou, Kabirou; Hichami, Aziz; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2009-12-01

    Immunological tolerance is one of the fundamental aspects of the immune system. The CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells have emerged as key players in the development of tolerance to self and foreign antigens. However, little is known about the endogenous factors and mechanisms controlling their suppressive capacity on immune response. In this study, we observed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, diminished, in a dose-dependent manner, the capacity of Treg cells to inhibit the CD4(+)CD25(-) effector T-cell proliferation. DHA not only reduced the migration of Treg cells toward chemokines but also downregulated the mRNA expression of CCR-4 and CXCR-4 in Treg cells. DHA also curtailed ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation and downregulated the Smad7 levels in these cells. Contradictorily, DHA upregulated the mRNA expression of Foxp3, CTLA-4, TGF-beta, and IL-10; nonetheless, this fatty acid increased the expression of p27(KIP1) mRNA, known to be involved in Treg cell unresponsiveness. In Foxp3-immunoprepitated nuclear proteins, DHA upregulated histone desacetylase 7 levels that would again participate in the unresposnsiveness of these cells. Finally, a DHA-enriched diet also diminished, ex vivo, the suppressive capacity of Treg cells. Altogether, these results suggest that DHA, by diminishing Treg cell functions, may play a key role in health and disease.

  5. Comprehensive analysis of current approaches to inhibit regulatory T cells in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pere, Helene; Tanchot, Corinne; Bayry, Jagadeesh; Terme, Magali; Taieb, Julien; Badoual, Cecile; Adotevi, Olivier; Merillon, Nathalie; Marcheteau, Elie; Quillien, Ve´ronique; Banissi, Claire; Carpentier, Alain; Sandoval, Federico; Nizard, Mevyn; Quintin-Colonna, Françoise; Kroemer, Guido; Fridman, Wolf H.; Zitvogel, Laurence; Oudard, Ste´phane; Tartour, Eric

    2012-01-01

    CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) have emerged as a dominant T cell population inhibiting anti-tumor effector T cells. Initial strategies used for Treg-depletion (cyclophosphamide, anti-CD25 mAb…) also targeted activated T cells, as they share many phenotypic markers. Current, ameliorated approaches to inhibit Treg aim to either block their function or their migration to lymph nodes and the tumor microenvironment. Various drugs originally developed for other therapeutic indications (anti-angiogenic molecules, tyrosine kinase inhibitors,etc) have recently been discovered to inhibit Treg. These approaches are expected to be rapidly translated to clinical applications for therapeutic use in combination with immunomodulators. PMID:22737608

  6. Design Principles of Regulatory Networks: Searching for the Molecular Algorithms of the Cell

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Wendell A.; Lee, Connie M.; Tang, Chao

    2013-01-01

    A challenge in biology is to understand how complex molecular networks in the cell execute sophisticated regulatory functions. Here we explore the idea that there are common and general principles that link network structures to biological functions, principles that constrain the design solutions that evolution can converge upon for accomplishing a given cellular task. We describe approaches for classifying networks based on abstract architectures and functions, rather than on the specific molecular components of the networks. For any common regulatory task, can we define the space of all possible molecular solutions? Such inverse approaches might ultimately allow the assembly of a design table of core molecular algorithms that could serve as a guide for building synthetic networks and modulating disease networks. PMID:23352241

  7. Quiescence of Memory CD8(+) T Cells Is Mediated by Regulatory T Cells through Inhibitory Receptor CTLA-4.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Vandana; Penny, Laura Anne; Yuzefpolskiy, Yevgeniy; Baumann, Florian Martin; Sarkar, Surojit

    2015-06-16

    Immune memory cells are poised to rapidly expand and elaborate effector functions upon reinfection yet exist in a functionally quiescent state. The paradigm is that memory T cells remain inactive due to lack of T cell receptor (TCR) stimuli. Here, we report that regulatory T (Treg) cells orchestrate memory T cell quiescence by suppressing effector and proliferation programs through inhibitory receptor, cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4 (CTLA-4). Loss of Treg cells resulted in activation of genome-wide transcriptional programs characteristic of effector T cells and drove transitioning as well as established memory CD8(+) T cells toward terminally differentiated KLRG-1(hi)IL-7Rα(lo)GzmB(hi) phenotype, with compromised metabolic fitness, longevity, polyfunctionality, and protective efficacy. CTLA-4 functionally replaced Treg cells in trans to rescue memory T cell defects and restore homeostasis. These studies present the CTLA-4-CD28-CD80/CD86 axis as a potential target to accelerate vaccine-induced immunity and improve T cell memory quality in current cancer immunotherapies proposing transient Treg cell ablation.

  8. Inflammatory regulatory T cells in the microenvironments of ulcerative colitis and colon carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kryczek, Ilona; Wang, Lin; Wu, Ke; Li, Wei; Zhao, Ende; Cui, Tracy; Wei, Shuang; Liu, Yan; Wang, Yin; Vatan, Linda; Szeliga, Wojciech; Greenson, Joel K; Roliński, Jacek; Zgodzinski, Witold; Huang, Emina; Tao, Kaixiong; Wang, Guobin; Zou, Weiping

    2016-08-01

    Foxp3(+)CD4(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells are thought to express negligible levels of effector cytokines, and inhibit immune responses and inflammation. Here, we have identified a population of IL-8(+)Foxp3(+)CD4(+) T cells in human peripheral blood, which is selectively increased in the microenvironments of ulcerative colitis and colon carcinoma. Phenotypically, this population is minimally overlapping with IL-17(+)Foxp3(+)CD4(+) T cells, and is different from IL-8(-)Foxp3(+)CD4(+) T cells in the same microenvironment. 40-60% of IL-8(+)Foxp3(+)CD4(+) T cells exhibit naive phenotype and express CD127, whereas IL-8(-)Foxp3(+)CD4(+) cells are basically memory T cells and express minimal CD127. The levels of CXCR5 expression are higher in IL-8(+)Foxp3(+) cells than in IL-8(-)Foxp3(+) cells. IL-2 and TGFβ induce IL-8(+)Foxp3(+) T cells. Exogenous Foxp3 expression promotes IL-8(+)Foxp3(+) T cells and inhibits effector cytokine IFNγ and IL-2 expression. Furthermore, Foxp3 binds to IL-8 proximal promoter and increases its activity. Functionally, IL-8(+)Foxp3(+) T cells inhibit T cell proliferation and effector cytokine production, but stimulate inflammatory cytokine production in the colon tissues, and promote neutrophil trafficking through IL-8. Thus, IL-8(+)Foxp3(+) cells may be an "inflammatory" Treg subset, and possess inflammatory and immunosuppressive dual biological activities. Given their dual roles and localization, these cells may be in a unique position to support tumor initiation and development in human chronic inflammatory environment. PMID:27622054

  9. Future research and therapeutic applications of human stem cells: general, regulatory, and bioethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Liras, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    There is much to be investigated about the specific characteristics of stem cells and about the efficacy and safety of the new drugs based on this type of cells, both embryonic as adult stem cells, for several therapeutic indications (cardiovascular and ischemic diseases, diabetes, hematopoietic diseases, liver diseases). Along with recent progress in transference of nuclei from human somatic cells, as well as iPSC technology, has allowed availability of lineages of all three germ layers genetically identical to those of the donor patient, which permits safe transplantation of organ-tissue-specific adult stem cells with no immune rejection. The main objective is the need for expansion of stem cell characteristics to maximize stem cell efficacy (i.e. the proper selection of a stem cell) and the efficacy (maximum effect) and safety of stem cell derived drugs. Other considerations to take into account in cell therapy will be the suitability of infrastructure and technical staff, biomaterials, production costs, biobanks, biosecurity, and the biotechnological industry. The general objectives in the area of stem cell research in the next few years, are related to identification of therapeutic targets and potential therapeutic tests, studies of cell differentiation and physiological mechanisms, culture conditions of pluripotent stem cells and efficacy and safety tests for stem cell-based drugs or procedures to be performed in both animal and human models in the corresponding clinical trials. A regulatory framework will be required to ensure patient accessibility to products and governmental assistance for their regulation and control. Bioethical aspects will be required related to the scientific and therapeutic relevance and cost of cryopreservation over time, but specially with respect to embryos which may ultimately be used for scientific uses of research as source of embryonic stem cells, in which case the bioethical conflict may be further aggravated. PMID:21143967

  10. Future research and therapeutic applications of human stem cells: general, regulatory, and bioethical aspects

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    There is much to be investigated about the specific characteristics of stem cells and about the efficacy and safety of the new drugs based on this type of cells, both embryonic as adult stem cells, for several therapeutic indications (cardiovascular and ischemic diseases, diabetes, hematopoietic diseases, liver diseases). Along with recent progress in transference of nuclei from human somatic cells, as well as iPSC technology, has allowed availability of lineages of all three germ layers genetically identical to those of the donor patient, which permits safe transplantation of organ-tissue-specific adult stem cells with no immune rejection. The main objective is the need for expansion of stem cell characteristics to maximize stem cell efficacy (i.e. the proper selection of a stem cell) and the efficacy (maximum effect) and safety of stem cell derived drugs. Other considerations to take into account in cell therapy will be the suitability of infrastructure and technical staff, biomaterials, production costs, biobanks, biosecurity, and the biotechnological industry. The general objectives in the area of stem cell research in the next few years, are related to identification of therapeutic targets and potential therapeutic tests, studies of cell differentiation and physiological mechanisms, culture conditions of pluripotent stem cells and efficacy and safety tests for stem cell-based drugs or procedures to be performed in both animal and human models in the corresponding clinical trials. A regulatory framework will be required to ensure patient accessibility to products and governmental assistance for their regulation and control. Bioethical aspects will be required related to the scientific and therapeutic relevance and cost of cryopreservation over time, but specially with respect to embryos which may ultimately be used for scientific uses of research as source of embryonic stem cells, in which case the bioethical conflict may be further aggravated. PMID:21143967

  11. Future research and therapeutic applications of human stem cells: general, regulatory, and bioethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Liras, Antonio

    2010-12-10

    There is much to be investigated about the specific characteristics of stem cells and about the efficacy and safety of the new drugs based on this type of cells, both embryonic as adult stem cells, for several therapeutic indications (cardiovascular and ischemic diseases, diabetes, hematopoietic diseases, liver diseases). Along with recent progress in transference of nuclei from human somatic cells, as well as iPSC technology, has allowed availability of lineages of all three germ layers genetically identical to those of the donor patient, which permits safe transplantation of organ-tissue-specific adult stem cells with no immune rejection. The main objective is the need for expansion of stem cell characteristics to maximize stem cell efficacy (i.e. the proper selection of a stem cell) and the efficacy (maximum effect) and safety of stem cell derived drugs. Other considerations to take into account in cell therapy will be the suitability of infrastructure and technical staff, biomaterials, production costs, biobanks, biosecurity, and the biotechnological industry. The general objectives in the area of stem cell research in the next few years, are related to identification of therapeutic targets and potential therapeutic tests, studies of cell differentiation and physiological mechanisms, culture conditions of pluripotent stem cells and efficacy and safety tests for stem cell-based drugs or procedures to be performed in both animal and human models in the corresponding clinical trials. A regulatory framework will be required to ensure patient accessibility to products and governmental assistance for their regulation and control. Bioethical aspects will be required related to the scientific and therapeutic relevance and cost of cryopreservation over time, but specially with respect to embryos which may ultimately be used for scientific uses of research as source of embryonic stem cells, in which case the bioethical conflict may be further aggravated.

  12. Developmental Stage-Specific Hepatocytes Induce Maturation of HepG2 Cells by Rebuilding the Regulatory Circuit.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanning; Liu, Demei; Zong, Yanhong; Qi, Jinsheng; Li, Bin; Liu, Kun; Xiao, Hui

    2015-04-14

    On the basis of their characteristics, we presume that developmental stage-specific hepatocytes should have the ability to induce maturation of hepatoma cells. A regulatory circuit formed by hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4α, HNF-1α, HNF-6 and the upstream stimulatory factor (USF-1) play a key role in the maturation of embryonic hepatocytes; however, it is unclear whether the regulatory circuit mediates the embryonic induction of hepatoma cell maturation. In this study, 12.5-d to 15.5-d mouse embryonic hepatocytes or their medium were used to coculture or treat HepG2 cells, and the induced maturation was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. In the induced HepG2 cells, the components of the regulatory circuit were detected, their cross-regulation was evaluated and HNF-4α RNA interference was performed. We found that 13.5-d to 14.5-d embryonic hepatocytes could induce HepG2 cell maturation, demonstrated by morphological changes, increased maturation markers and decreased c-Myc and α-fetoprotein (AFP) in vitro. The majority of HepG2 tumors were eliminated by 13.5-d embryonic induction in vivo. All components of the regulatory circuit were upregulated and the binding of HNF-4α, HNF-1α, HNF-6 and USF-1 to their target sites was promoted to rebuild the regulatory circuit in the induced HepG2 cells. Moreover, RNA interference targeting HNF-4α, which is the core of the regulatory circuit, attenuated the induced maturation of HepG2 cells with downregulation of the regulatory circuit. These results revealed that developmental stage-specific hepatocytes could induce the maturation of HepG2 cells by rebuilding the regulatory circuit.

  13. A GATA/RUNX cis-regulatory module couples Drosophila blood cell commitment and differentiation into crystal cells.

    PubMed

    Ferjoux, Géraldine; Augé, Benoit; Boyer, Karène; Haenlin, Marc; Waltzer, Lucas

    2007-05-15

    Members of the RUNX and GATA transcription factor families play critical roles during hematopoiesis from Drosophila to mammals. In Drosophila, the formation of the crystal cell hematopoietic lineage depends on the continuous expression of the lineage-specific RUNX factor Lozenge (Lz) and on its interaction with the GATA factor Serpent (Srp). Crystal cells are the main source of prophenoloxidases (proPOs), the enzymes required for melanization. By analyzing the promoter regions of several insect proPOs, we identify a conserved GATA/RUNX cis-regulatory module that ensures the crystal cell-specific expression of the three Drosophila melanogaster proPO. We demonstrate that activation of this module requires the direct binding of both Srp and Lz. Interestingly, a similar GATA/RUNX signature is over-represented in crystal cell differentiation markers, allowing us to identify new Srp/Lz target genes by genome-wide screening of Drosophila promoter regions. Finally, we show that the expression of lz in the crystal cells also relies on Srp/Lz-mediated activation via a similar module, indicating that crystal cell fate choice maintenance and activation of the differentiation program are coupled. Based on our observations, we propose that this GATA/RUNX cis-regulatory module may be reiteratively used during hematopoietic development through evolution.

  14. Immune homeostasis enforced by co-localized effector and regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiduo; Gerner, Michael Y.; Van Panhuys, Nicholas; Levine, Andrew G.; Rudensky, Alexander Y.; Germain, Ronald N.

    2015-01-01

    Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in preventing autoimmune disease by limiting the effector activity of conventional T cells that have escaped thymic negative selection or cell-autonomous peripheral inactivation1–3. However, despite the substantial information available about the molecular players mediating Treg functional interference with auto-aggressive effector responses4,5, the relevant cellular events in intact tissues remain largely unexplored and the issues of whether Tregs prevent activation of self-specific T cells or function primarily to limit damage from such cells have not been addressed6. Here we have employed multiplex, high-resolution, quantitative imaging to reveal that within most secondary lymphoid tissues, Tregs expressing phosphorylated STAT5 (pSTAT5) and high amounts of the suppressive molecules CD73 and CTLA-4 exist in discrete clusters with rare IL-2 producing effector T cells activated by self-antigens. This local IL-2 production induces the STAT5 phosphorylation in the Tregs and is part of a feedback circuit that augments the suppressive properties of the Tregs to limit further autoimmune responses. Inducible ablation of TCR expression by Tregs reduces their regulatory capacity and disrupts their localization in such clusters, resulting in uncontrolled effector T cell responses. Our data thus reveal that autoreactive T cells reach a state of activation and cytokine gene induction on a regular basis, with physically co-clustering, TCR-stimulated Tregs responding to this activation in a feedback manner to suppress incipient autoimmunity and maintain immune homeostasis. PMID:26605524

  15. Unbalanced recovery of regulatory and effector T cells after allogeneic stem cell transplantation contributes to chronic GVHD

    PubMed Central

    Alho, Ana C.; Kim, Haesook T.; Chammas, Marie J.; Reynolds, Carol G.; Matos, Tiago R.; Forcade, Edouard; Whangbo, Jennifer; Nikiforow, Sarah; Cutler, Corey S.; Koreth, John; Ho, Vincent T.; Armand, Philippe; Antin, Joseph H.; Alyea, Edwin P.; Lacerda, Joao F.; Soiffer, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The development and maintenance of immune tolerance after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) requires the balanced reconstitution of donor-derived CD4 regulatory T cells (CD4Tregs) as well as effector CD4 (conventional CD4 T cells [CD4Tcons]) and CD8 T cells. To characterize the complex mechanisms that lead to unbalanced recovery of these distinct T-cell populations, we studied 107 adult patients who received T-replete stem cell grafts after reduced-intensity conditioning. Immune reconstitution of CD4Treg, CD4Tcon, and CD8 T cells was monitored for a 2-year period. CD3 T-cell counts gradually recovered to normal levels during this period but CD8 T cells recovered more rapidly than either CD4Tregs or CD4Tcons. Reconstituting CD4Tregs and CD4Tcons were predominantly central memory (CM) and effector memory (EM) cells and CD8 T cells were predominantly terminal EM cells. Thymic generation of naive CD4Tcon and CD8 T cells was maintained but thymic production of CD4Tregs was markedly decreased with little recovery during the 2-year study. T-cell proliferation was skewed in favor of CM and EM CD4Tcon and CD8 T cells, especially 6 to 12 months after HSCT. Intracellular expression of BCL2 was increased in CD4Tcon and CD8 T cells in the first 3 to 6 months after HSCT. Early recovery of naive and CM fractions within each T-cell population 3 months after transplant was also strongly correlated with the subsequent development of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). These dynamic imbalances favor the production, expansion, and persistence of effector T cells over CD4Tregs and were associated with the development of chronic GVHD. PMID:26670634

  16. Altered Immunoregulation in Rheumatoid Arthritis: The Role of Regulatory T Cells and Proinflammatory Th17 Cells and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Alunno, Alessia; Caterbi, Sara; Ibba-Manneschi, Lidia; Bistoni, Onelia; Bartoloni, Elena; Valentini, Valentina; Terenzi, Riccardo; Gerli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    In recent years several studies investigated the role of T lymphocyte subpopulations in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Pathogenic Th17 cells mediate pannus growth, osteoclastogenesis, and synovial neoangiogenesis; hence they are key players in the development of the disease. On the other hand, regulatory T (Treg) cells are a T cell subset whose peculiar function is to suppress autoreactive lymphocytes. The imbalance between Th17 and Treg cells has been identified as a crucial event in the pathogenesis of RA. In addition, the effects of currently employed RA therapeutic strategies on these lymphocyte subpopulations have been extensively investigated. This review article aims to discuss current knowledge on Treg and Th17 cells in RA and possible implications of their therapeutic targeting in this disorder. PMID:25918479

  17. Engraftment of Embryonic Stem Cells and Differentiated Progeny Following Host Conditioning with Total Lymphoid Irradiation and Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yuqiong; Leveson-Gower, Dennis B.; de Almeida, Patricia E.; Pierini, Antonio; Baker, Jeanette; Florek, Mareike; Nishikii, Hidekazu; Kim, Byung-Su; Ke, Rong; Wu, Joseph C.; Negrin, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) hold promise for the treatment of many medical conditions, however, their utility is limited by immune rejection. The objective of our study is to establish tolerance or promote engraftment of transplanted ESCs as well as mature cell populations derived from ESCs. Luciferase (luc+) expressing ESCs were utilized to monitor the survival of the ESCs and differentiated progeny in living recipients. Allogeneic recipients conditioned with fractioned total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and anti-thymocyte serum (ATS) or TLI plus regulatory T cells (Treg) promoted engraftment of ESC allografts after transplantation. Following these treatments, the engraftment of transplanted terminally differentiated endothelial cells derived from ESCs was also significantly enhanced. Our findings provide clinically translatable strategies of inducing tolerance to adoptively transferred ESCs for cell replacement therapy of medical disorders. PMID:25801020

  18. The lysophosphatidylserine receptor GPR174 constrains regulatory T cell development and function

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Michael J.; Li, Chien-Ming; Xu, Ying; An, Jinping; Huang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory T cell (T reg cell) numbers and activities are tightly calibrated to maintain immune homeostasis, but the mechanisms involved are incompletely defined. Here, we report that the lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS) receptor GPR174 is abundantly expressed in developing and mature T reg cells. In mice that lacked this X-linked gene, T reg cell generation in the thymus was intrinsically favored, and a higher fraction of peripheral T reg cells expressed CD103. LysoPS could act in vitro via GPR174 to suppress T cell proliferation and T reg cell generation. In vivo, LysoPS was detected in lymphoid organ and spinal cord tissues and was abundant in the colon. Gpr174−/Y mice were less susceptible to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis than wild-type mice, and GPR174 deficiency in T reg cells contributed to this phenotype. This study provides evidence that a bioactive lipid, LysoPS, negatively influences T reg cell accumulation and activity through GPR174. As such, GPR174 antagonists might have therapeutic potential for promoting immune regulation in the context of autoimmune disease. PMID:26077720

  19. Increased regulatory T cell counts in HIV-infected nonresponders to hepatitis B virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    del Pozo Balado, María del Mar; Leal, Manuel; Méndez Lagares, Gema; Mata, Rosario C; López-Cortés, Luis F; Viciana, Pompeyo; Pacheco, Yolanda M

    2010-08-15

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection is a main cause of liver-related mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects. Unfortunately, HIV-infected subjects show a low rate of response to standard HBV vaccination (23%-56%), in contrast to rates >90% found in the general population, and the underlying causes (particularly cellular and molecular causes) are still unknown. We hypothesized that an increased frequency of regulatory T (T(reg)) cells could be involved in the low rate of seroconversion in HIV-infected subjects. Forty HIV-infected subjects were enrolled in the Assistance Vaccination Program against HBV of the Infectious Diseases Service from the Virgen del Rocío University Hospital, Seville, Spain. Freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from baseline were immunophenotyped for T(reg) cells, CD4, and CD8 T cells in both naive and memory subpopulations and activation degree, as well as recent thymic emigrants. Baseline T(reg) cell frequency was found independently associated with the final nonresponse to HBV vaccine in HIV-infected subjects. Furthermore, a negative correlation between baseline frequency of T(reg) cells and antibody titers in the final response was found. These findings suggest an active role played by T(reg) cells on the immunization antigen-specific T and/or B cell responses with the final consequence of a B cell anti-HBs lower production.

  20. Breast cancer lung metastasis requires expression of chemokine receptor CCR4 and regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Olkhanud, Purevdorj B; Baatar, Dolgor; Bodogai, Monica; Hakim, Fran; Gress, Ronald; Anderson, Robin L; Deng, Jie; Xu, Mai; Briest, Susanne; Biragyn, Arya

    2009-07-15

    Cancer metastasis is a leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. More needs to be learned about mechanisms that control this process. In particular, the role of chemokine receptors in metastasis remains controversial. Here, using a highly metastatic breast cancer (4T1) model, we show that lung metastasis is a feature of only a proportion of the tumor cells that express CCR4. Moreover, the primary tumor growing in mammary pads activates remotely the expression of TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 in the lungs. These chemokines acting through CCR4 attract both tumor and immune cells. However, CCR4-mediated chemotaxis was not sufficient to produce metastasis, as tumor cells in the lung were efficiently eliminated by natural killer (NK) cells. Lung metastasis required CCR4(+) regulatory T cells (Treg), which directly killed NK cells using beta-galactoside-binding protein. Thus, strategies that abrogate any part of this process should improve the outcome through activation of effector cells and prevention of tumor cell migration. We confirm this prediction by killing CCR4(+) cells through delivery of TARC-fused toxins or depleting Tregs and preventing lung metastasis. PMID:19567680

  1. Increased generation of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells by manipulating antigen presentation in the thymus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiqiang; Yang, Lu; Silva, Hernandez Moura; Trzeciak, Alissa; Choi, Yongwon; Schwab, Susan R; Dustin, Michael L; Lafaille, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T-cell (Treg) selection in the thymus is essential to prevent autoimmune diseases. Although important rules for Treg selection have been established, there is controversy regarding the degree of self-reactivity displayed by T-cell receptors expressed by Treg cells. In this study we have developed a model of autoimmune skin inflammation, to determine key parameters in the generation of skin-reactive Treg cells in the thymus (tTreg). tTreg development is predominantly AIRE dependent, with an AIRE-independent component. Without the knowledge of antigen recognized by skin-reactive Treg cells, we are able to enhance skin-specific tTreg cell generation using three approaches. First, we increase medullary thymic epithelial cells by using mice lacking osteoprotegerin or by adding TRANCE (RANKL, Tnfsf11). Second, we inject intrathymically peripheral dendritic cells from skin-draining sites. Finally, we inject skin tissue lysates intrathymically. These findings have implications for enhancing the generation of organ-specific Treg cells in autoimmune diseases. PMID:26923114

  2. Controversies concerning thymus-derived regulatory T cells: fundamental issues and a new perspective.

    PubMed

    Ono, Masahiro; Tanaka, Reiko J

    2016-01-01

    Thymus-derived regulatory T cells (Tregs) are considered to be a distinct T-cell lineage that is genetically programmed and specialised for immunosuppression. This perspective is based on the key evidence that CD25(+) Tregs emigrate to neonatal spleen a few days later than other T cells and that thymectomy of 3-day-old mice depletes Tregs only, causing autoimmune diseases. Although widely believed, the evidence has never been reproduced as originally reported, and some studies indicate that Tregs exist in neonates. Thus we examine the consequences of the controversial evidence, revisit the fundamental issues of Tregs and thereby reveal the overlooked relationship of T-cell activation and Foxp3-mediated control of the T-cell system. Here we provide a new model of Tregs and Foxp3, a feedback control perspective, which views Tregs as a component of the system that controls T-cell activation, rather than as a distinct genetically programmed lineage. This perspective provides new insights into the roles of self-reactivity, T cell-antigen-presenting cell interaction and T-cell activation in Foxp3-mediated immune regulation.

  3. Neuropilin 1 deficiency on CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells impairs mouse melanoma growth

    PubMed Central

    Hutzler, Marina; Abel, Simone; Alter, Christina; Stockmann, Christian; Kliche, Stefanie; Albert, Juliane; Sparwasser, Tim; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Westendorf, Astrid M.; Schadendorf, Dirk; Buer, Jan; Helfrich, Iris

    2012-01-01

    Infiltration of Foxp3+ regulatory T (T reg) cells is considered to be a critical step during tumor development and progression. T reg cells supposedly suppress locally an effective anti-tumor immune response within tumor tissues, although the precise mechanism by which T reg cells infiltrate the tumor is still unclear. We provide evidence that Neuropilin 1 (Nrp-1), highly expressed by Foxp3+ T reg cells, regulates the immunological anti-tumor control by guiding T reg cells into the tumor in response to tumor-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We demonstrate for the first time that T cell–specific ablation of Nrp-1 expression results in a significant breakdown in tumor immune escape in various transplantation models and in a spontaneous, endogenously driven melanoma model associated with strongly reduced tumor growth and prolonged tumor-free survival. Strikingly, numbers of tumor-infiltrating Foxp3+ T reg cells were significantly reduced accompanied by enhanced activation of CD8+ T cells within tumors of T cell–specific Nrp-1–deficient mice. This phenotype can be reversed by adoptive transfer of Nrp-1+ T reg cells from wild-type mice. Thus, our data strongly suggest that Nrp-1 acts as a key mediator of Foxp3+ T reg cell infiltration into the tumor site resulting in a dampened anti-tumor immune response and enhanced tumor progression. PMID:23045606

  4. The growth regulatory fibroblast IK channel is the prominent electrophysiological feature of rat prostatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rane, S G

    2000-03-16

    Physiological effectors for mitogenic cell growth control remain to be determined for mammalian tumor cells, particularly those derived from prostatic tissue. One such effector for mitogenic Ras/MAPK signaling in fibroblasts is an intermediate-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channel (FIK). In this study patch-clamp electrophysiology was used to show that both AT2.1 and MatLyLu rat prostate cancer cell lines express high levels of a current identified as FIK, based on the following criteria: activation by elevation of intracellular calcium, voltage independence, potassium selectivity, and block by charybdotoxin (ChTX) and the Stichodactyla helianthus potassium channel neurotoxin (StK). FIK current densities in AT2.1 and MatLyLu cells were comparable to the high levels seen in fibroblasts transfected with oncogenic Ras or Raf, suggesting hyperactivity of the Ras/MAPK pathway in prostatic cancer cells. Voltage-gated sodium current was present in most MatLyLu cells but absent from AT2.1 cells, and all AT2.1 cells had voltage-gated potassium currents. Thus, FIK is the main electrophysiological feature of rat prostatic cancer cells as it is for mitogenically active fibroblasts, suggesting it may play a similar growth regulatory role in both. PMID:10708575

  5. The lysophosphatidylserine receptor GPR174 constrains regulatory T cell development and function.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Michael J; Li, Chien-Ming; Xu, Ying; An, Jinping; Huang, Yong; Cyster, Jason G

    2015-06-29

    Regulatory T cell (T reg cell) numbers and activities are tightly calibrated to maintain immune homeostasis, but the mechanisms involved are incompletely defined. Here, we report that the lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS) receptor GPR174 is abundantly expressed in developing and mature T reg cells. In mice that lacked this X-linked gene, T reg cell generation in the thymus was intrinsically favored, and a higher fraction of peripheral T reg cells expressed CD103. LysoPS could act in vitro via GPR174 to suppress T cell proliferation and T reg cell generation. In vivo, LysoPS was detected in lymphoid organ and spinal cord tissues and was abundant in the colon. Gpr174(-/Y) mice were less susceptible to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis than wild-type mice, and GPR174 deficiency in T reg cells contributed to this phenotype. This study provides evidence that a bioactive lipid, LysoPS, negatively influences T reg cell accumulation and activity through GPR174. As such, GPR174 antagonists might have therapeutic potential for promoting immune regulation in the context of autoimmune disease. PMID:26077720

  6. GITR ligand-costimulation activates effector and regulatory functions of CD4{sup +} T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Igarashi, Hanna; Cao, Yujia; Iwai, Hideyuki; Piao, Jinhua; Kamimura, Yosuke; Hashiguchi, Masaaki; Amagasa, Teruo; Azuma, Miyuki

    2008-05-16

    Engagement of glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR) enables the costimulation of both CD25{sup -}CD4{sup +} effector (Teff) and CD25{sup +}CD4{sup +} regulatory (Treg) cells; however, the effects of GITR-costimulation on Treg function remain controversial. In this study, we examined the effects of GITR ligand (GITRL) binding on the respective functions of CD4{sup +} T cells. GITRL-P815 transfectants efficiently augmented anti-CD3-induced proliferation and cytokine production by Teff cells. Proliferation and IL-10 production in Treg were also enhanced by GITRL transfectants when exogenous IL-2 and stronger CD3 stimulation was provided. Concomitant GITRL-costimulation of Teff and Treg converted the anergic state of Treg into a proliferating state, maintaining and augmenting their function. Thus, GITRL-costimulation augments both effector and regulatory functions of CD4{sup +} T cells. Our results suggest that highly activated and increased ratios of Treg reverse the immune-enhancing effects of GITRL-costimulation in Teff, which may be problematic for therapeutic applications using strong GITR agonists.

  7. Relationship of regulatory T cells to Plasmodium falciparum malaria symptomatology in a hypoendemic region

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous data have suggested that regulatory T cells (Tregs) balance protective immune responses with immune mediated pathology in malaria. This study aimed to determine to test the hypothesis that Treg proportions or absolute levels are associated with parasitaemia and malaria symptoms. Methods Treg cells were quantified by flow cytometry as CD4+ CD25+, Foxp3+, CD127low T cells. Three patient groups were assessed: patients with symptomatic Plasmodium falciparum malaria (S), subjects with asymptomatic P. falciparum parasitaemia (AS) and uninfected control individuals (C). Results S, AS and C groups had similar absolute numbers and percentage of Tregs (3.9%, 3.5% and 3.5% respectively). Levels of parasitaemia were not associated with Treg percentage (p = 0.47). Conclusion Neither relative nor absolute regulatory T cell numbers were found to be associated with malaria-related symptomatology in this study. Immune mechanisms other than Tregs are likely to be responsible for the state of asymptomatic P. falciparum parasitaemia in the Peruvian Amazon; but further study to explore these mechanisms is needed. PMID:24642188

  8. Regulatory crackdown on stem cell therapy: what would the position be in South Africa?

    PubMed

    Jordaan, Donrich

    2012-03-07

    This article attempts to answer the question of whether stem cell therapy falls within the current South African regulatory framework, using the Regenexx case in the USA as an example. The USA regulator, the Federal Drug Administration (FDA), is seeking to regulate the Regenexx autologous stem cell therapy as a 'drug' and a 'biological product'. The opposing position taken by the inventors of the Regenexx therapy is that re-implantation of one's own body parts can in principle not be a 'drug' and that the FDA is exceeding its mandate. In this article arguments are presented that the Regenexx therapy would qualify as a 'biological medicinal product' in the South African regulatory framework established in terms of the Medicines and Related Substances Control Act. As such, the Regenexx therapy would be subject to registration with the Medicines Control Council (MCC) as a legal precondition for its commercialisation. Furthermore, in order to convince the MCC of the safety, efficacy and quality of the Regenexx therapy, such therapy must - similar to any other new medicine - first be subjected to clinical trials. It is therefore concluded that stem cell therapy is indeed comprehensively regulated in South Africa, and that a recent opinion expressed in this journal that there exists a 'legislative vacuum' with relation to the regulation of stem cell therapy in South Africa is plainly incorrect.

  9. Requirements for efficient cell-type proportioning: regulatory timescales, stochasticity and lateral inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeuty, B.; Kaneko, K.

    2016-04-01

    The proper functioning of multicellular organisms requires the robust establishment of precise proportions between distinct cell types. This developmental differentiation process typically involves intracellular regulatory and stochastic mechanisms to generate cell-fate diversity as well as intercellular signaling mechanisms to coordinate cell-fate decisions at tissue level. We thus surmise that key insights about the developmental regulation of cell-type proportion can be captured by the modeling study of clustering dynamics in population of inhibitory-coupled noisy bistable systems. This general class of dynamical system is shown to exhibit a very stable two-cluster state, but also metastability, collective oscillations or noise-induced state hopping, which can prevent from timely and reliably reaching a robust and well-proportioned clustered state. To circumvent these obstacles or to avoid fine-tuning, we highlight a general strategy based on dual-time positive feedback loops, such as mediated through transcriptional versus epigenetic mechanisms, which improves proportion regulation by coordinating early and flexible lineage priming with late and firm commitment. This result sheds new light on the respective and cooperative roles of multiple regulatory feedback, stochasticity and lateral inhibition in developmental dynamics.

  10. Ex Vivo Induced Regulatory Human/Murine Mesenchymal Stem Cells as Immune Modulators.

    PubMed

    Hinden, Liad; Shainer, Reut; Almogi-Hazan, Osnat; Or, Reuven

    2015-07-01

    Over the past decade there has been a growing interest in using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as an immune-regulatory agent for prevention and treatment of various immune disorders including graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), transplanted organ rejection, and autoimmune diseases. However, the high diversity in the results from clinical trials using MSCs for such disorders emphasizes the need for MSCs to be "professionalized" ex vivo to a more defined regulatory phenotype before administering to patients. To this aim, we have established an ex vivo immunomodulatory triple combination treatment (TCT) for MSCs, using IFNγ, TGFβ, and kynurenine. We show that pretreated MSCs acquire an immunomodulatory phenotype, have improved regulatory functions, and upregulate the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), heme oxygenase 1, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and programmed death ligand 1. We define the pathway of kynurenine induced aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation in MSCs and how it contributes to the upregulation of COX2 expression and IL-6 downregulation. The combination of reduced IL-6 secretion with enhanced LIF expression leads to the inhibition of Th17 differentiation in coculture of TCT MSCs and lymphocytes. To test the immunomodulatory function of TCT MSCs in vivo, we used the cells as GVHD prophylaxis in a GVHD mouse model. TCT MSCs administration significantly decreased GVHD score and improved mouse survival. Importantly, single administration could attenuate disease symptoms for more than 3 weeks. Based on these results, we suggest considering TCT MSCs as an improved cell therapy for systemic diseases with an underlying inflammatory and immunologic etiology. Stem Cells 2015;33:2256-2267.

  11. B regulatory cells are increased in hypercholesterolaemic mice and protect from lesion development via IL-10.

    PubMed

    Strom, Asa C; Cross, Amanda J; Cole, Jennifer E; Blair, Paul A; Leib, Christoph; Goddard, Michael E; Rosser, Elizabeth C; Park, Inhye; Hultgårdh Nilsson, Anna; Nilsson, Jan; Mauri, Claudia; Monaco, Claudia

    2015-10-01

    Whilst innate B1-B cells are atheroprotective, adaptive B2-B cells are considered pro-atherogenic. Different subsets of B regulatory cells (B(reg)) have been described. In experimental arthritis and lupus-like disease, B(reg) are contained within the CD21(hi)CD23(hi)CD24(hi) B cell pool. The existence and role of B(reg) in vascular disease is not known. We sought to investigate the existence, identity and location of B(reg) in vascular disease. The representation of B2-B cell subsets in the spleens and lymph nodes (LNs) of Apolipoprotein E(-/-) (ApoE(-/-)) mice compared to controls was characterised by flow cytometry. Additionally, we utilised a model of neointima formation based on the placement of a perivascular collar around the carotid artery in ApoE(-/-) mice to ascertain whether B cells and B cell subsets confer protection against lesion development. Adoptive transfer of B cells was performed from wild type or genetically modified mice. We showed that CD21(hi)CD23(hi)CD24(hi) B cells are unexpectedly increased in the draining LNs of ApoE(-/-) mice. Adoptive transfer of LN-derived B2-B cells or purified CD21(hi)CD23(hi)CD24(hi) B cells to syngeneic mice reduced lesion size and inflammation without changing serum cholesterol levels. Follicular B2-B cells did not confer protection. IL-10 blockade or transfer of IL10-deficient B cells prevented LN-derived B cell-mediated protection. This is the first identification of a specific LN-derived B2-B(reg) subset that confers IL-10 mediated protection from neointima formation. This may open the way for immune modulatory approaches in cardiovascular disease.

  12. Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, immune stimulation and host defence against infection

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Jared H; Ertelt, James M; Way, Sing Sing

    2012-01-01

    The immune system is intricately regulated allowing potent effectors to expand and become rapidly mobilized after infection, while simultaneously silencing potentially detrimental responses that averts immune-mediated damage to host tissues. This relies in large part on the delicate interplay between immune suppressive regulatory CD4+ T (Treg) cells and immune effectors that without active suppression by Treg cells cause systemic and organ-specific autoimmunity. Although these beneficial roles have been classically described as counterbalanced by impaired host defence against infection, newfound protective roles for Treg cells against specific viral pathogens (e.g. herpes simplex virus 2, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, West Nile virus) have been uncovered using transgenic mice that allow in vivo Treg-cell ablation based on Foxp3 expression. In turn, Foxp3+ Treg cells also provide protection against some parasitic (Plasmodium sp., Toxoplasma gondii) and fungal (Candida albicans) pathogens. By contrast, for bacterial and mycobacterial infections (e.g. Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, Mycobacterium tuberculosis), experimental manipulation of Foxp3+ cells continues to indicate detrimental roles for Treg cells in host defence. This variance is probably related to functional plasticity in Treg cell suppression that shifts discordantly following infection with different types of pathogens. Furthermore, the efficiency whereby Treg cells silence immune activation coupled with the plasticity in Foxp3+ cell activity suggest that overriding Treg-mediated suppression represents a prerequisite ‘signal zero’ that together with other stimulation signals [T-cell receptor (signal 1), co-stimulation (signal 2), inflammatory cytokines (signal 3)] are essential for T-cell activation in vivo. Herein, the importance of Foxp3+ Treg cells in host defence against infection, and the significance of infection-induced shifts in Treg-cell suppression are summarized. PMID

  13. Expression of complement regulatory proteins on human natural killer cell subsets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Halliday, Deborah; Johnson, Peter M; Christmas, Stephen E

    2007-10-15

    The cell surface complement regulatory (CReg) proteins CD46, CD55 and CD59 are widely distributed on human leucocytes and protect against complement-mediated damage. To investigate heterogeneity in CReg protein expression by human natural killer (NK) cells, levels were assessed on resting and activated NK cell subsets identified phenotypically on the basis of expression of CD56 and CD158 markers. Levels of all three CReg proteins on CD56+ cells were lower than on T cells (p<0.05). Freshly isolated CD56(bright) cells expressed higher levels of CD55 than CD56dim cells (p<0.05). CD158a+ cells expressed significantly lower levels of both CD46 and CD59, and CD158e+ cells expressed significantly lower levels of CD46, than CD158a(-) CD158e(-) cells, respectively (both p<0.05). Stimulation with PHA did not significantly alter NK cell surface CReg protein levels whereas, following culture with IL-2, CD46 and CD59 were decreased on both CD56bright and CD56dim subsets (p<0.05). In the case of CD59, this was independent of T cells. Only CD46 was significantly downregulated on CD158b+ (GL183+) and CD158e (NKB1+) subsets (p<0.05). However, culture in IL-15 significantly increased levels of all three CReg proteins. These observations that CReg proteins are downregulated on certain NK cell subsets following activation with IL-2 are opposite to previous findings for other leucocyte subpopulations. Activated NK cells may instead use other strategies for protection against complement-mediated damage in a local inflammatory response.

  14. Cord Blood Derived CD4+CD25high T Cells Become Functional Regulatory T Cells upon Antigen Encounter

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Elisabeth; Bannert, Christina; Gruber, Saskia; Klunker, Sven; Spittler, Andreas; Akdis, Cezmi A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Upon antigen exposure, cord blood derived T cells respond to ubiquitous environmental antigens by high proliferation. To date it remains unclear whether these “excessive” responses relate to different regulatory properties of the putative T regulatory cell (Treg) compartment or even expansion of the Treg compartment itself. Methods: Cord blood (>37 week of gestation) and peripheral blood (healthy controls) were obtained and different Treg cell subsets were isolated. The suppressive potential of Treg populations after antigen exposure was evaluated via functional inhibition assays ([3H]thymidine incorporation assay and CFSE staining) with or without allergen stimulation. The frequency and markers of CD4+CD25highFoxP3+ T cells were characterized by mRNA analysis and flow cytometry. Results: Cord blood derived CD4+CD25high cells did not show substantial suppressor capacity upon TCR activation, in contrast to CD4+CD25high cells freshly purified from adult blood. This could not be explained by a lower frequency of FoxP3+CD4+CD25highcells or FOXP3 mRNA expression. However, after antigen-specific stimulation in vitro, these cells showed strong proliferation and expansion and gained potent suppressive properties. The efficiency of their suppressive capacity can be enhanced in the presence of endotoxins. If T-cells were sorted according to their CD127 expression, a tiny subset of Treg cells (CD4+CD25+CD127low) is highly suppressive even without prior antigen exposure. Conclusion: Cord blood harbors a very small subset of CD4+CD25high Treg cells that requires antigen-stimulation to show expansion and become functional suppressive Tregs. PMID:22272233

  15. T cell responses against microsatellite instability-induced frameshift peptides and influence of regulatory T cells in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Kathrin; Nelius, Nina; Reuschenbach, Miriam; Koch, Moritz; Weitz, Jürgen; Steinert, Gunnar; Kopitz, Jürgen; Beckhove, Philipp; Tariverdian, Mirjam; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Kloor, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    High-level microsatellite-unstable (MSI-H) colorectal carcinomas (CRC) represent a distinct subtype of tumors commonly characterized by dense infiltration with cytotoxic T cells, most likely due to expression of MSI-H-related frameshift peptides (FSP). The contribution of FSP and classical antigens like MUC1 and CEA to the cellular immune response against MSI-H CRC had not been analyzed so far. We analyzed tumor-infiltrating and peripheral T cells from MSI-H (n = 4 and n = 14, respectively) and microsatellite-stable (MSS) tumor patients (n = 26 and n = 17) using interferon gamma ELISpot assays. Responses against 4 FSP antigens and peptides derived from MUC1 to CEA were compared with and without depletion of regulatory T cells, and the results were related to the presence of the respective antigens in tumor tissue. Preexisting FSP-specific T cell responses were detected in all (4 out of 4) tumor-infiltrating and in the majority (10 out of 14) of peripheral T cell samples from MSI-H CRC patients, but rarely observed in MSS CRC patients. Preexisting T cell responses in MSI-H CRC patients were significantly more frequently directed against FSP tested in the present study than against peptides derived from classical antigens MUC1 or CEA (p = 0.049). Depletion of regulatory T cells increased the frequency of effector T cell responses specific for MUC1/CEA-derived peptides and, to a lesser extent, T cell responses specific for FSP. Our data suggest that the analyzed FSP may represent an immunologically relevant pool of antigens capable of eliciting antitumoral effector T cell responses.

  16. Restricted maternal nutrition alters myogenic regulatory factor expression in satellite cells of ovine offspring.

    PubMed

    Raja, J S; Hoffman, M L; Govoni, K E; Zinn, S A; Reed, S A

    2016-07-01

    Poor maternal nutrition inhibits muscle development and postnatal muscle growth. Satellite cells are myogenic precursor cells that contribute to postnatal muscle growth, and their activity can be evaluated by the expression of several transcription factors. Paired-box (Pax)7 is expressed in quiescent and active satellite cells. MyoD is expressed in activated and proliferating satellite cells and myogenin is expressed in terminally differentiating cells. Disruption in the expression pattern or timing of expression of myogenic regulatory factors negatively affects muscle development and growth. We hypothesized that poor maternal nutrition during gestation would alter the in vitro temporal expression of MyoD and myogenin in satellite cells from offspring at birth and 3 months of age. Ewes were fed 100% or 60% of NRC requirements from day 31±1.3 of gestation. Lambs from control-fed (CON) or restricted-fed (RES) ewes were euthanized within 24 h of birth (birth; n=5) or were fed a control diet until 3 months of age (n=5). Satellite cells isolated from the semitendinosus muscle were used for gene expression analysis or cultured for 24, 48 or 72 h and immunostained for Pax7, MyoD or myogenin. Fusion index was calculated from a subset of cells allowed to differentiate. Compared with CON, temporal expression of MyoD and myogenin was altered in cultured satellite cells isolated from RES lambs at birth. The percent of cells expressing MyoD was greater in RES than CON (P=0.03) after 24 h in culture. After 48 h of culture, there was a greater percent of cells expressing myogenin in RES compared with CON (P0.05). In satellite cells from RES lambs at 3 months of age, the percent of cells expressing MyoD and myogenin were greater than CON after 72 h in culture (P<0.05). Fusion index was reduced in RES lambs at 3 months of age compared with CON (P<0.001). Restricted nutrition during gestation alters the temporal expression of myogenic regulatory factors in satellite cells of the

  17. Single-cell quantification of IL-2 response by effector and regulatory T cells reveals critical plasticity in immune response

    PubMed Central

    Feinerman, Ofer; Jentsch, Garrit; Tkach, Karen E; Coward, Jesse W; Hathorn, Matthew M; Sneddon, Michael W; Emonet, Thierry; Smith, Kendall A; Altan-Bonnet, Grégoire

    2010-01-01

    Understanding how the immune system decides between tolerance and activation by antigens requires addressing cytokine regulation as a highly dynamic process. We quantified the dynamics of interleukin-2 (IL-2) signaling in a population of T cells during an immune response by combining in silico modeling and single-cell measurements in vitro. We demonstrate that IL-2 receptor expression levels vary widely among T cells creating a large variability in the ability of the individual cells to consume, produce and participate in IL-2 signaling within the population. Our model reveals that at the population level, these heterogeneous cells are engaged in a tug-of-war for IL-2 between regulatory (Treg) and effector (Teff) T cells, whereby access to IL-2 can either increase the survival of Teff cells or the suppressive capacity of Treg cells. This tug-of-war is the mechanism enforcing, at the systems level, a core function of Treg cells, namely the specific suppression of survival signals for weakly activated Teff cells but not for strongly activated cells. Our integrated model yields quantitative, experimentally validated predictions for the manipulation of Treg suppression. PMID:21119631

  18. Decidual vascular endothelial cells promote maternal-fetal immune tolerance by inducing regulatory T cells through canonical Notch1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yanyi; Song, Jieping; Wang, Weipeng; Liu, Nian

    2016-05-01

    Adaptation of the maternal immune response to accommodate the semiallogeneic fetus is necessary for pregnancy success. However, the mechanisms by which the fetus avoids rejection despite expression of paternal alloantigens remain incompletely understood. Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) are pivotal for maintaining immune homeostasis, preventing autoimmune disease and fetus rejection. In this study, we found that maternal decidual vascular endothelial cells (DVECs) sustained Foxp3 expression in resting Treg cells in vitro. Moreover, under in vitro Treg cell induction condition with agonistic antibodies and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, DVECs promoted Treg cell differentiation from non-Treg conventional T cells. Consistent with the promotion of Treg cell maintenance and differentiation, Treg cell-associated gene expression such as TGF-β, Epstein-Barr-induced gene-3, CD39 and glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor was also increased in the presence of DVECs. Further study revealed that DVECs expressed Notch ligands such as Jagged-1, Delta-like protein 1 (DLL-1) and DLL-4, while Treg cells expressed Notch1 on their surface. The effects of DVECs on Treg cells was inhibited by siRNA-induced knockdown of expression of Jagged-1 and DLL-1 in DVECs. Downregulation of Notch1 in Treg cells using lentiviral shRNA transduction decreased Foxp3 expression in Treg cells. Adoptive transfer of Notch1-deficient Treg cells increased abortion rate in a murine semiallogeneic pregnancy model. Taken together, our study suggests that maternal DVECs are able to maintain decidual Treg cell identity and promote Treg cell differentiation through activation of Notch1 signal pathway in Treg cells and subsequently inhibit the immune response against semiallogeneic fetuses and preventing spontaneous abortion. PMID:26714886

  19. Clinical grade production of IL-10 producing regulatory Tr1 lymphocytes for cell therapy of chronic inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Brun, Valérie; Bastian, Hervé; Neveu, Virginie; Foussat, Arnaud

    2009-05-01

    IL-10 producing regulatory type 1 (Tr1) cells represents a subpopulation of CD4(+) regulatory cells able to prevent in vitro bystander T-cell proliferation and to cure ongoing chronic colitis in mice. In order to assess the efficacy and tolerance of Tr1 cell therapy in a Phase I/IIa clinical trial in patients displaying severe Crohn's disease, we set up a reproducible manufacturing process for the GMP production of human ovalbumin specific Tr1 cells. Procedures used for Tr1-cell production include the use of Drosophila derived artificial Antigen Presenting Cells transfected with specific stimulatory molecules. Characterization of the human cell therapy product shows an in vitro suppressive activity on T-cell proliferation dependent on the production of both IL-10 and TGF-beta. Manufactured Tr1 cells display a regulatory phenotype including Foxp3, GITR and CTLA-4 surface expression. In vitro toxicity studies of human Tr1 cell product show a safety profile compatible with the use of these regulatory Tr1 lymphocytes for cell therapy. PMID:19539556

  20. Imbalanced signal transduction in regulatory T cells expressing the transcription factor FoxP3

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Dapeng; Farache, Julia; Mingueneau, Michael; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    FoxP3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells have a fundamental role in immunological tolerance, with transcriptional and functional phenotypes that demarcate them from conventional CD4+ T cells (Tconv). Differences between these two lineages in the signaling downstream of T-cell receptor-triggered activation have been reported, and there are different requirements for some signaling factors. Seeking a comprehensive view, we found that Treg cells have a broadly dampened activation of several pathways and signaling nodes upon TCR-mediated activation, with low phosphorylation of CD3ζ, SLP76, Erk1/2, AKT, or S6 and lower calcium flux. In contrast, STAT phosphorylation triggered by interferons, IL2 or IL6, showed variations between Treg and Tconv in magnitude or choice of preferential STAT activation but no general Treg signaling defect. Much, but not all, of the Treg/Tconv difference in TCR-triggered responses could be attributed to lower responsiveness of antigen-experienced cells with CD44hi or CD62Llo phenotypes, which form a greater proportion of the Treg pool. Candidate regulators were tested, but the Treg/Tconv differential could not be explained by overexpression in Treg cells of the signaling modulator CD5, the coinhibitors PD-1 and CTLA4, or the regulatory phosphatase DUSP4. However, transcriptome profiling in Dusp4-deficient mice showed that DUSP4 enhances the expression of a segment of the canonical Treg transcriptional signature, which partially overlaps with the TCR-dependent Treg gene set. Thus, Treg cells, likely because of their intrinsically higher reactivity to self, tune down TCR signals but seem comparatively more attuned to cytokines or other intercellular signals. PMID:26627244

  1. Salmon cartilage proteoglycan suppresses mouse experimental colitis through induction of Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsui, Toshihito; Sashinami, Hiroshi; Sato, Fuyuki; Kijima, Hiroshi; Ishiguro, Yoh; Fukuda, Shinsaku; Yoshihara, Shuichi; Hakamada, Ken-Ichi; Nakane, Akio

    2010-11-12

    Research highlights: {yields} Salmon proteoglycan suppresses IL-10{sup -/-} cell transfer-induced colitis progression. {yields} Salmon proteoglycan suppresses Th1- and Th17-related factors in colitis mice. {yields} Salmon proteoglycan enhances Foxp3 expression. -- Abstract: Proteoglycans (PGs) are complex glycohydrates which are widely distributed in extracellular matrix (ECM). PGs are involved in the construction of ECM, cell proliferation and differentiation. ECM components are involved in transduction of proinflammatory responses, but it is still unknown whether PGs are involved in inflammatory response. In this study, we investigated the effect of PG extracted from salmon cartilage on the progression of experimental colitis-induced in severe combined immunodeficiency mice by cell transfer from interleukin-10 (IL-10){sup -/-} mice. IL-10{sup -/-} cell-transferred mice showed weight loss, colon shortening and histological appearance of mild colitis. Daily oral administration of PG attenuated the clinical progression of colitis in a dose-dependent manner. Colitis-induced mice showed the elevated expression of IFN-{gamma}, IL-12, TNF-{alpha}, IL-21, IL-23p19, IL-6, IL-17A and retinoic acid-related orphan receptor {gamma}t (ROR{gamma}t) in lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) and oral administration of PG suppressed the expression of these factors. Conversely, expression of Foxp3 that induces CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} regulatory T cells in LPMCs was enhanced by PG administration. These findings suggested that salmon PG attenuated the progression of colitis due to suppression of inflammatory response by enhancement of regulatory T cell induction.

  2. Functional analysis of highly defined, FACS-isolated populations of human regulatory CD4+ CD25+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Baecher-Allan, Clare; Wolf, Elizabeth; Hafler, David A

    2005-04-01

    The importance of CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) in maintaining immune homeostasis has been directly demonstrated in vivo by their manipulation in a number of autoimmune disease models in the mouse. In the study of human regulatory cells, we have found that the cells that consistently demonstrate the in vitro regulatory activity most similar to that described for murine cells in vitro are best identified by restricting the isolation of CD25+ CD4 T cells to those cells expressing only the highest levels of CD25, representing approximately 2-3% of total CD4 T cells. Thus, it is the CD4+ CD25high subset that exhibits the in vitro characteristics that are identical to the CD4+ CD25+ regulatory cells initially characterized in mice. Furthermore, the cells expressing medium to low levels of CD25 not only do not exhibit suppressive activity directly ex vivo, but also actually contain a significant proportion of CD62L- CD4 T cells which are believed to be in vivo activated T cells. Due to the inherent difficulties in using CD25 as a marker for the purification of Treg cells, the finding that selection of the CD25high subset of CD4+ CD25+ T cells minimizes the co-isolation of contaminating activated CD4 T cells is important for future studies of these Treg cells in human disease. In order to perform these studies, we first had to establish a highly reproducible 'micro in vitro co-culture' assay system to enable the functional analysis of high-purity, but low-yield regulatory populations derived from FACS sorting. With this system in place, we are poised to dissect the potential heterogeneity of mechanisms employed by highly specific subpopulations of CD4+ CD25+ cells.

  3. Generation of regulatory dendritic cells and CD4+Foxp3+ T cells by probiotics administration suppresses immune disorders.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ho-Keun; Lee, Choong-Gu; So, Jae-Seon; Chae, Chang-Suk; Hwang, Ji-Sun; Sahoo, Anupama; Nam, Jong Hee; Rhee, Joon Haeng; Hwang, Ki-Chul; Im, Sin-Hyeog

    2010-02-01

    The beneficial effects of probiotics have been described in many diseases, but the mechanism by which they modulate the immune system is poorly understood. In this study, we identified a mixture of probiotics that up-regulates CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). Administration of the probiotics mixture induced both T-cell and B-cell hyporesponsiveness and down-regulated T helper (Th) 1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines without apoptosis induction. It also induced generation of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs from the CD4(+)CD25(-) population and increased the suppressor activity of naturally occurring CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs. Conversion of T cells into Foxp3(+) Tregs is directly mediated by regulatory dendritic cells (rDCs) that express high levels of IL-10, TGF-beta, COX-2, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Administration of probiotics had therapeutical effects in experimental inflammatory bowel disease, atopic dermatitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. The therapeutical effect of the probiotics is associated with enrichment of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs in the inflamed regions. Collectively, the administration of probiotics that enhance the generation of rDCs and Tregs represents an applicable treatment of inflammatory immune disorders.

  4. Imbalanced expression of functional surface molecules in regulatory and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, D; Cruvinel, W M; Araujo, J A P; Salmazi, K C; Kallas, E G; Andrade, L E C

    2014-08-01

    Regulatory T (TREG) cells play an important role in maintaining immune tolerance and avoiding autoimmunity. We analyzed the expression of membrane molecules in TREG and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). TREG and effector T cells were analyzed for the expression of CTLA-4, PD1, CD28, CD95, GITR, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO in 26 patients with active disease, 31 with inactive disease, and 26 healthy controls. TREG cells were defined as CD25+/high CD127 Ø/low FoxP3+, and effector T cells were defined as CD25+CD127+FoxP3 Ø. The ratio of TREG to effector T cells expressing GITR, PD1, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO was determined in the three groups. The frequency of TREG cells was similar in patients with SLE and controls. However, SLE patients had a decreased frequency of CTLA-4+TREG and CD28+TREG cells and an increased frequency of CD40L+TREG cells. There was a decrease in the TREG/effector-T ratio for GITR+, HLA-DR+, OX40+, and CD45RO+ cells, and an increased ratio of TREG/effector-T CD40L+ cells in patients with SLE. In addition, CD40L+TREG cell frequency correlated with the SLE disease activity index (P=0.0163). In conclusion, our findings showed several abnormalities in the expression of functionally critical surface molecules in TREG and effector T cells in SLE that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:25098715

  5. Imbalanced expression of functional surface molecules in regulatory and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita Júnior, D.; Cruvinel, W.M.; Araujo, J.A.P.; Salmazi, K.C.; Kallas, E.G.; Andrade, L.E.C.

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory T (TREG) cells play an important role in maintaining immune tolerance and avoiding autoimmunity. We analyzed the expression of membrane molecules in TREG and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). TREG and effector T cells were analyzed for the expression of CTLA-4, PD1, CD28, CD95, GITR, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO in 26 patients with active disease, 31 with inactive disease, and 26 healthy controls. TREG cells were defined as CD25+/highCD127Ø/lowFoxP3+, and effector T cells were defined as CD25+CD127+FoxP3Ø. The ratio of TREG to effector T cells expressing GITR, PD1, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO was determined in the three groups. The frequency of TREG cells was similar in patients with SLE and controls. However, SLE patients had a decreased frequency of CTLA-4+TREG and CD28+TREG cells and an increased frequency of CD40L+TREG cells. There was a decrease in the TREG/effector-T ratio for GITR+, HLA-DR+, OX40+, and CD45RO+ cells, and an increased ratio of TREG/effector-T CD40L+ cells in patients with SLE. In addition, CD40L+TREG cell frequency correlated with the SLE disease activity index (P=0.0163). In conclusion, our findings showed several abnormalities in the expression of functionally critical surface molecules in TREG and effector T cells in SLE that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:25098715

  6. Human Regulatory T Cells with Alloantigen Specificity Are More Potent Inhibitors of Alloimmune Skin Graft Damage than Polyclonal Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sagoo, Pervinder; Ali, Niwa; Garg, Garima; Nestle, Frank O.; Lechler, Robert I.; Lombardi, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Graft rejection by the immune system is a major cause of transplant failure. Lifelong immunosuppression decreases the incidence of graft rejection; however, nonspecific immunosuppression results in increased susceptibly to infection and cancer. Regulatory T cells (Tregs), which suppress the activation of the immune system and induce tolerance, are currently under evaluation for use in clinical transplantation. Ex vivo expanded polyclonal Tregs that are introduced into transplant recipients alter the balance of T effector cells to Tregs; however, experimental data suggest that alloantigen-specific Tregs would be more effective at preventing graft rejection. We have developed a method to enrich alloantigen-specific human Tregs based on the coexpression of activation markers, CD69 and CD71. These Tregs could be readily expanded in vitro and demonstrated potent antigen-specific suppression. In a humanized mouse model of alloimmune-mediated injury of human skin grafts, alloantigen-specific Tregs resulted in a significant reduction in clinically relevant indicators of dermal tissue injury when compared with polyclonal Tregs, restoring a histology comparable to healthy skin. This method of human allospecific Treg selection should be scalable to the clinic. The improved in vivo efficacy of alloantigen-specific Tregs over polyclonal Tregs shown here suggests that generating “customized” Tregs with defined anti-donor allospecificities may improve current practice in clinical immunotherapy. PMID:21593402

  7. A Cell-Regulatory Mechanism Involving Feedback between Contraction and Tissue Formation Guides Wound Healing Progression

    PubMed Central

    Valero, Clara; Javierre, Etelvina; García-Aznar, José Manuel; Gómez-Benito, María José

    2014-01-01

    Wound healing is a process driven by cells. The ability of cells to sense mechanical stimuli from the extracellular matrix that surrounds them is used to regulate the forces that cells exert on the tissue. Stresses exerted by cells play a central role in wound contraction and have been broadly modelled. Traditionally, these stresses are assumed to be dependent on variables such as the extracellular matrix and cell or collagen densities. However, we postulate that cells are able to regulate the healing process through a mechanosensing mechanism regulated by the contraction that they exert. We propose that cells adjust the contraction level to determine the tissue functions regulating all main activities, such as proliferation, differentiation and matrix production. Hence, a closed-regulatory feedback loop is proposed between contraction and tissue formation. The model consists of a system of partial differential equations that simulates the evolution of fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, collagen and a generic growth factor, as well as the deformation of the extracellular matrix. This model is able to predict the wound healing outcome without requiring the addition of phenomenological laws to describe the time-dependent contraction evolution. We have reproduced two in vivo experiments to evaluate the predictive capacity of the model, and we conclude that there is feedback between the level of cell contraction and the tissue regenerated in the wound. PMID:24681636

  8. Parallels between neuron and lens fiber cell structure and molecular regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    Frederikse, Peter H; Kasinathan, Chinnaswamy; Kleiman, Norman J

    2012-08-15

    Studies over the past fifty years have identified extensive similarities between neurons and elongated fiber cells that make up in the interior of the ocular lens. Electron micrographs showed parallels in the organization of their intracellular vesicle transport machinery and between lens fiber cell lateral protrusions and dendritic spines. Consistent with those observations, a number of gene products first characterized as highly neuron-preferred in their expression were also demonstrated in lens fiber cells. Going further, a fundamental network of regulatory factors with critical roles in determining the neuronal phenotype were also identified in lenses, and showed a corresponding mutually exclusive distribution of neural and non-neural factor isoforms in mitotic lens epithelial cells and post-mitotic fiber cells consistent with their interlocking functions in neural cells. These included REST/NRSF transcription factors, members of major RNA binding protein families, and "brain-specific" miRNAs that were each shown to have global roles in governing neural and non-neural gene expression and alternative transcript splicing in vertebrates. This review discusses these extensive parallels between neurons and fiber cells and implications regarding common themes in lens and neural cell physiology and disease, which may also suggest related evolutionary processes. PMID:22641011

  9. Controversies concerning thymus-derived regulatory T cells: fundamental issues and a new perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Masahiro; Tanaka, Reiko J

    2016-01-01

    Thymus-derived regulatory T cells (Tregs) are considered to be a distinct T-cell lineage that is genetically programmed and specialised for immunosuppression. This perspective is based on the key evidence that CD25+ Tregs emigrate to neonatal spleen a few days later than other T cells and that thymectomy of 3-day-old mice depletes Tregs only, causing autoimmune diseases. Although widely believed, the evidence has never been reproduced as originally reported, and some studies indicate that Tregs exist in neonates. Thus we examine the consequences of the controversial evidence, revisit the fundamental issues of Tregs and thereby reveal the overlooked relationship of T-cell activation and Foxp3-mediated control of the T-cell system. Here we provide a new model of Tregs and Foxp3, a feedback control perspective, which views Tregs as a component of the system that controls T-cell activation, rather than as a distinct genetically programmed lineage. This perspective provides new insights into the roles of self-reactivity, T cell–antigen-presenting cell interaction and T-cell activation in Foxp3-mediated immune regulation. PMID:26215792

  10. Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 controls TH1 cell effector function and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mahnke, Justus; Schumacher, Valéa; Ahrens, Stefanie; Käding, Nadja; Feldhoff, Lea Marie; Huber, Magdalena; Rupp, Jan; Raczkowski, Friederike; Mittrücker, Hans-Willi

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 (IRF4) is essential for TH2 and TH17 cell formation and controls peripheral CD8+ T cell differentiation. We used Listeria monocytogenes infection to characterize the function of IRF4 in TH1 responses. IRF4−/− mice generated only marginal numbers of listeria-specific TH1 cells. After transfer into infected mice, IRF4−/− CD4+ T cells failed to differentiate into TH1 cells as indicated by reduced T-bet and IFN-γ expression, and showed limited proliferation. Activated IRF4−/− CD4+ T cells exhibited diminished uptake of the glucose analog 2-NBDG, limited oxidative phosphorylation and strongly reduced aerobic glycolysis. Insufficient metabolic adaptation contributed to the limited proliferation and TH1 differentiation of IRF4−/− CD4+ T cells. Our study identifies IRF4 as central regulator of TH1 responses and cellular metabolism. We propose that this function of IRF4 is fundamental for the initiation and maintenance of all TH cell responses. PMID:27762344

  11. A regulatory cross-talk between Vgamma9Vdelta2 T lymphocytes and mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Martinet, Ludovic; Fleury-Cappellesso, Sandrine; Gadelorge, Mélanie; Dietrich, Gilles; Bourin, Philippe; Fournié, Jean-Jacques; Poupot, Rémy

    2009-03-01

    The physiological functions of human TCRVgamma9Vdelta2(+) gammadelta lymphocytes reactive to non-peptide phosphoantigens contribute to cancer immunosurveillance and immunotherapy. However, their regulation by mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), multipotent and immunomodulatory progenitor cells able to infiltrate tumors, has not been investigated so far. By analyzing freshly isolated TCRVgamma9Vdelta2(+) lymphocytes and primary cell lines stimulated with synthetic phosphoantigen or B-cell lymphoma cell lines in the presence of MSC, we demonstrated that MSC were potent suppressors of gammadelta-cell proliferation, cytokine production and cytolytic responses in vitro. This inhibition was mediated by the COX-2-dependent production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) and by MSC through EP2 and EP4 inhibitory receptors expressed by Vgamma9Vdelta2 T lymphocytes. COX-2 expression and PGE(2) production by MSC were not constitutive, but were induced by IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha secreted by activated Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells. This regulatory cross-talk between MSC and Vgamma9Vdelta2 T lymphocytes involving PGE(2) could be of importance for the antitumor and antimicrobial activities of gammadelta T cells.

  12. A regulatory role for the memory B cell as suppressor-inducer of feedback control

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, M.W.; Thomas, D.B.

    1983-02-01

    A regulatory role is proposed for the antigen-responsive B cell, as suppressor-inducer of feedback control during the secondary response in vivo. In a double adoptive transfer of memory cells primed to a thymus-dependent antigen from one irradiated host to another, antigen-specific suppressors are generated after a critical time in the primary recipient, able to entirely ablate a secondary anti-hapten response. Positive cell selection in the fluorescence-activated cell sorter confirmed that suppression was mediated by an Lyt-2+ T cell; however, positively selected B cells were also inhibitory and able to induce suppressors in a carrier-specific manner: Bhapten induced suppressors in a carrier-primed population, and Bcarrier induced suppressors in a hapten-carrier population. At the peak of the antibody response in the primary host, memory B cells and their progeny were unable to differentiate further to plasma cells due to their intrinsic suppressor-inducer activity, but this autoregulatory circuit could be severed by adoptive transfer to carrier-primed, X-irradiated recipients.

  13. Impaired CD98 signaling protects against graft-versus-host disease by increasing regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Yoshiaki; Fujino, Masayuki; Cai, Songjie; Kitajima, Yuya; Saito, Taro; Tsumura, Hideki; Ito, Morihiro; Ito, Yasuhiko; Nagahara, Yukitoshi; Li, Xiao-Kang

    2016-03-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a major barrier to the broader use of allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for non-malignant clinical applications. A murine model of C57BL/6 to B6D2F1 acute GvHD was employed with T lymphocytes harboring a deletion of the CD98 heavy chain (CD98hc(-/-)) as donor cells. The CD98hc(-/-) resulted in lower responses to alloantigen stimulation in a mixed leukocyte reaction assay, and prevented the mortality associated with disease progression. The percentage of donor CD8 T lymphocytes was significantly decreased, while the percentage of Foxp3-positive regulatory T cells (Tregs) in recipients was increased by CD98hc(-/-). Decreased expression of FAS, FASL, ICOS, ICOSL, PD-1 and PD-L1 by donor CD8 T cells, and mRNA expression of cytotoxic T cell-related cytokines in the recipients were shown in those with CD98hc(-/-). Fewer infiltrated cells are found in the lungs, liver, tongue and skin of recipients with CD98hc(-/-) compared with the wild type recipients. Taken together, our data indicate that T cell-specific deletion of CD98hc can contribute to the prevention of GvHD development due to the attenuation of lymphocyte migration and by increasing the generation of Treg cells. These findings are expected to make it possible to develop novel approaches for the prevention of GvHD. PMID:26836475

  14. CCR7 Deficiency Exacerbates Injury in Acute Nephritis Due to Aberrant Localization of Regulatory T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Eller, Kathrin; Weber, Tobias; Pruenster, Monika; Wolf, Anna M.; Mayer, Gert

    2010-01-01

    The homing of dendritic cells and T cells to secondary lymphoid organs requires chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) expression on these cells. T cells mediate the pathogenesis of experimental accelerated nephrotoxic serum nephritis (NTS), including its suppression by regulatory T cells (Tregs), but the contribution of CCR7 to this disease is unknown. Here, we compared the development of NTS in CCR7-knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. Compared with WT mice, CCR7KO mice developed more severe disease with significantly more inflammatory cells infiltrating the kidney. These cells included FoxP3+ Tregs, which were virtually absent from WT kidneys. The adoptive transfer of WT Tregs into CCR7KO mice at the time of immunization protected the recipients from disease; these cells homed to secondary lymphoid organs but not to kidneys. Conversely, adoptive transfer of CCR7KO Tregs into WT mice did not inhibit development of NTS. These data suggest that NTS can develop without CCR7 expression, but Treg-mediated disease suppression, which seems to occur in secondary lymphoid organs, requires CCR7. PMID:19917782

  15. Molecular analysis of selected cell cycle regulatory proteins during aerobic and hypoxic maintenance of human ovarian carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Krtolica, A; Krucher, N A; Ludlow, J W

    1999-01-01

    We have previously reported on the development of an in vitro model system for studying the effect of hypoxia on ovarian carcinoma cell proliferation and invasion (Krtolica and Ludlow, 1996). These data indicate that the cell division cycle is reversibly arrested during the G1 phase. Here, we have continued this study to include the proliferation properties of both aerobic and hypoxic human ovarian carcinoma cells at the molecular level. The growth suppressor product of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene, pRB, appears to be functional in these cells as determined by SV40 T-antigen binding studies. Additional G1-to-S cell cycle regulatory proteins, cyclins D and E, cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) 4 and 2, and cdk inhibitors p27 and p18, also appear to be intact based on their apparent molecular weights and cell cycle stage-specific abundance. During hypoxia, there is a decrease in abundance of cyclins D and E, with an increase in p27 abundance. cdk4 activity towards pRB and cdk2 activity towards histone H1 are also decreased. Co-precipitation studies revealed an increased amount of p27 complexing with cyclin E-cdk2 during hypoxia than during aerobic cell growth. In addition, pRB-directed phosphatase activity was found to be greater in hypoxic than aerobic cells. Taken together, a model is suggested to explain hypoxia-induced cell cycle arrest in SKA human ovarian carcinoma cells. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10471034

  16. Molecular analysis of selected cell cycle regulatory proteins during aerobic and hypoxic maintenance of human ovarian carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Krtolica, A; Krucher, N A; Ludlow, J W

    1999-08-01

    We have previously reported on the development of an in vitro model system for studying the effect of hypoxia on ovarian carcinoma cell proliferation and invasion (Krtolica and Ludlow, 1996). These data indicate that the cell division cycle is reversibly arrested during the G1 phase. Here, we have continued this study to include the proliferation properties of both aerobic and hypoxic human ovarian carcinoma cells at the molecular level. The growth suppressor product of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene, pRB, appears to be functional in these cells as determined by SV40 T-antigen binding studies. Additional G1-to-S cell cycle regulatory proteins, cyclins D and E, cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) 4 and 2, and cdk inhibitors p27 and p18, also appear to be intact based on their apparent molecular weights and cell cycle stage-specific abundance. During hypoxia, there is a decrease in abundance of cyclins D and E, with an increase in p27 abundance. cdk4 activity towards pRB and cdk2 activity towards histone H1 are also decreased. Co-precipitation studies revealed an increased amount of p27 complexing with cyclin E-cdk2 during hypoxia than during aerobic cell growth. In addition, pRB-directed phosphatase activity was found to be greater in hypoxic than aerobic cells. Taken together, a model is suggested to explain hypoxia-induced cell cycle arrest in SKA human ovarian carcinoma cells. PMID:10471034

  17. Availability of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to antigen presenting cells controls the balance between regulatory and inflammatory T cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, Louisa E.; Wood, Alice M.; Qureshi, Omar S; Hou, Tie Zheng; Gardner, David; Briggs, Zoe; Kaur, Satdip; Raza, Karim; Sansom, David M.

    2012-01-01

    1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), the active form of vitamin D, exerts potent effects on several tissues including cells of the immune system, where it affects T cell activation, differentiation and migration. The circulating, inactive form of vitamin D, 25(OH)D3, is generally used as an indication of “vitamin D status”. However, utilization of this precursor depends on its uptake by cells and subsequent conversion by the enzyme 25(OH)D3-1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) into active 1,25(OH)2D3. Using human T cells, we now show that addition of inactive 25(OH)D3 is sufficient to alter T cell responses only when dendritic cells (DCs) are present. Mechanistically, CYP27B1 is induced in DCs upon maturation with LPS or upon T cell contact resulting in the generation and release of 1,25(OH)2D3 which subsequently affects T cell responses. In most tissues, vitamin D binding protein (DBP) acts as a carrier to enhance the utilization of vitamin D. However, we show that DBP modulates T cell responses by restricting the availability of inactive 25(OH)D3 to DC. These data indicate that the level of “free” 25(OH)D3 available to DCs determines the inflammatory/regulatory balance of ensuing T cell responses. PMID:23087405

  18. Frequency, Suppressive Capacity, Recruitment and Induction Mechanisms of Regulatory T Cells in Sinonasal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Nasal Inverted Papilloma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pingdong; Zhou, Weiguo; Wang, Yang; Fan, Erzhong; Li, Ying; Wang, Hong; Liu, Zhongyan; Xiao, Lei; Wang, Chengshuo; Zhang, Luo

    2015-01-01

    Background Sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SSCC) and nasal inverted papilloma (NIP) represent the predominant type of malignant and benign tumors in sinonasal tract, respectively. CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ natural regulatory T (Treg) cells might play critical role(s) in the suppression of anti-tumor immune response and thus shed light on tumor progression from benign to malignant. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the frequency and suppressive capacity of Treg cells in SSCC compared to NIP and further to explore the underlying mechanisms. Patients and Methods Frequencies of Treg, Th1 and Th2 cells were evaluated by flow cytometry in tissue homogenate and peripheral blood from 31 SSCC patients, 32 NIP patients and 35 normal controls. Treg cells were tested for regulatory function by co-culture with effector T cells. CCR4 and its ligands, CCL22 and CCL17, were analyzed by flow cytometry and Luminex, respectively. The chemoattractant properties of CCR4/CCL22 and CCR4/CCL17 for Treg cells were assessed using the Boyden chamber technique, to elucidate the potential mechanisms of Treg recruitment in tumor microenvironment. Treg cells induction via TGF-β was assessed with transwells after local CD4+Foxp3+ T cells were assessed by immunohistochemistry and TGF-β concentration was measured by Luminex. Results Tumor-infiltrating Treg cells increased significantly from normal to NIP to SSCC (P ≤ 0.001 for normal vs. NIP and P = 0.004 for NIP vs. SSCC). Significantly elevated frequency and enhanced suppression capacity of circulating Treg cells in SSCC were detected compared to NIP and healthy controls, concomitant with Th1 decrease and Th2 increase. Apparently increased CCL22 attracted CCR4-expressing Treg cells to tumor microenvironment in SSCC, compared to NIP. SSCC produced significantly more TGF-β than NIP and thus possessed greater potential for Treg cell induction. Conclusion Frequency and suppressive capacity of Treg cells enhanced with progression of malignancy from

  19. A Wave of Regulatory T Cells into Neonatal Skin Mediates Tolerance to Commensal Microbes.

    PubMed

    Scharschmidt, Tiffany C; Vasquez, Kimberly S; Truong, Hong-An; Gearty, Sofia V; Pauli, Mariela L; Nosbaum, Audrey; Gratz, Iris K; Otto, Michael; Moon, James J; Liese, Jan; Abbas, Abul K; Fischbach, Michael A; Rosenblum, Michael D

    2015-11-17

    The skin is a site of constant dialog between the immune system and commensal bacteria. However, the molecular mechanisms that allow us to tolerate the presence of skin commensals without eliciting destructive inflammation are unknown. Using a model system to study the antigen-specific response to S. epidermidis, we demonstrated that skin colonization during a defined period of neonatal life was required for establishing immune tolerance to commensal microbes. This crucial window was characterized by an abrupt influx of highly activated regulatory T (Treg) cells into neonatal skin. Selective inhibition of this Treg cell wave completely abrogated tolerance. Thus, the host-commensal relationship in the skin relied on a unique Treg cell population that mediated tolerance to bacterial antigens during a defined developmental window. This suggests that the cutaneous microbiome composition in neonatal life is crucial in shaping adaptive immune responses to commensals, and disrupting these interactions might have enduring health implications. PMID:26588783

  20. A Wave of Regulatory T Cells into Neonatal Skin Mediates Tolerance to Commensal Microbes.

    PubMed

    Scharschmidt, Tiffany C; Vasquez, Kimberly S; Truong, Hong-An; Gearty, Sofia V; Pauli, Mariela L; Nosbaum, Audrey; Gratz, Iris K; Otto, Michael; Moon, James J; Liese, Jan; Abbas, Abul K; Fischbach, Michael A; Rosenblum, Michael D

    2015-11-17

    The skin is a site of constant dialog between the immune system and commensal bacteria. However, the molecular mechanisms that allow us to tolerate the presence of skin commensals without eliciting destructive inflammation are unknown. Using a model system to study the antigen-specific response to S. epidermidis, we demonstrated that skin colonization during a defined period of neonatal life was required for establishing immune tolerance to commensal microbes. This crucial window was characterized by an abrupt influx of highly activated regulatory T (Treg) cells into neonatal skin. Selective inhibition of this Treg cell wave completely abrogated tolerance. Thus, the host-commensal relationship in the skin relied on a unique Treg cell population that mediated tolerance to bacterial antigens during a defined developmental window. This suggests that the cutaneous microbiome composition in neonatal life is crucial in shaping adaptive immune responses to commensals, and disrupting these interactions might have enduring health implications.

  1. Regulatory T-Cells in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    D’Arena, Giovanni; Rossi, Giovanni; Vannata, Barbara; Deaglio, Silvia; Mansueto, Giovanna; D’Auria, Fiorella; Statuto, Teodora; Simeon, Vittorio; De Martino, Laura; Marandino, Aurelio; Del Poeta8, Giovanni; De Feo, Vincenzo; Musto, Pellegrino

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) constitute a small subset of cells that are actively involved in maintaining self-tolerance, in immune homeostasis and in antitumor immunity. They are thought to play a significant role in the progression of cancer and are generally increased in patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Their number correlates with more aggressive disease status and is predictive of the time to treatment, as well. Moreover, it is now clear that dysregulation in Tregs cell frequency and/or function may result in a plethora of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, myasthenia gravis, systemic lupus erythematosus, autoimmune lymphoproliferative disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriasis. Efforts are made aiming to develop approaches to deplete Tregs or inhibit their function in cancer and autoimmune disorders, as well. PMID:22973497

  2. Regulatory T Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment and Cancer Progression: Role and Therapeutic Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Belal; Elkord, Eyad

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen significant efforts in understanding and modulating the immune response in cancer. In this context, immunosuppressive cells, including regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), have come under intense investigation for their proposed roles in suppressing tumor-specific immune responses and establishing an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, thus enabling tumor immune evasion. Additionally, recent evidence indicates that Tregs comprise diverse and heterogeneous subsets; phenotypically and functionally distinct subsets of tumor-infiltrating Tregs could contribute differently to cancer prognosis and clinical outcomes. Understanding Treg biology in the setting of cancer, and specifically the tumor microenvironment, is important for designing effective cancer therapies. In this review, we critically examine the role of Tregs in the tumor microenvironment and in cancer progression focusing on human studies. We also discuss the impact of current therapeutic modalities on Treg biology and the therapeutic opportunities for targeting Tregs to enhance anti-tumor immune responses and clinical benefits. PMID:27509527

  3. Generation and immunosuppressive functions of p53-induced human adaptive regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Mandapathil, Magis; Visus, Carmen; Finn, Olivera J; Lang, Stephan; Whiteside, Theresa L

    2013-01-01

    Inducible regulatory T cells (iTregs, also called Tr1 cells) are generated in the periphery (circulation or tissue) of cancer patients upon the encounter of naïve CD4+ T cells with tumor-associated antigens. As p53 is often inactivated by genetic or epigenetic events during oncogenesis, p53-induced Tr1 cells might play a key role in establishing immunosuppressive networks in cancer patients. Tr1 cells were generated by co-culturing circulating CD4+CD25− T cells with autologous immature dendritic cells pulsed with a wild-type (WT) p53-derived peptide or an unrelated peptide derived from mucin 1 (MUC1). The Tr1 phenotype and the specificity for p53 of these cells were confirmed by multicolor flow cytometry. Moreover, the Tr1 cell-mediated suppression of T-cell proliferation was evaluated by CFSE-based flow cytometry, while their ability to alter the T-cell cytokine profile by ELISA and Luminex assays. The capacity of p53-induced Tr1 cells to suppress the generation and function of cytotoxic T lymphcoytes (CTLs) was assessed by flow cytometry and ELISPOT. Of note, low doses of the p53-derived peptide (p53low) induced greater numbers of Tr1 cells than the same peptide employed at high doses (p53high). Moreover, Tr1/p53low cells not secreted higher levels of interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor β1, but also mediated more robust suppressive effects on CTL proliferation than Tr1/p53high cells. Tr1/p53low cells, Tr1/p53high cells, as well as Tr1 cells generated with low doses of an unrelated MUC1-derived peptide were equally effective in suppressing the expansion and antitumor activity of p53-reactive CTLs. p53low induced the expansion of highly suppressive p53-reactive Tr1 cells. However, the capacity of these Tr1 cells to suppress the generation and function of p53-reactive CTLs was independent of their antigen-specificity. PMID:24073385

  4. Stat3 Programs Th17-Specific Regulatory T Cells to Control GN

    PubMed Central

    Kluger, Malte A.; Luig, Michael; Wegscheid, Claudia; Goerke, Boeren; Paust, Hans-Joachim; Brix, Silke R.; Yan, Isabell; Mittrücker, Hans-Willi; Hagl, Beate; Renner, Ellen D.; Tiegs, Gisa; Wiech, Thorsten; Stahl, Rolf A.K.; Panzer, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    A pathogenic role for Th17 cells in inflammatory renal disease is well established. The mechanisms underlying their counter-regulation are, however, largely unknown. Recently, Th17 lineage-specific regulatory T cells (Treg17) that depend on activation of the transcription factor Stat3 were identified. We studied the function of Treg17 in the nephrotoxic nephritis (NTN) model of crescentic GN. The absence of Treg17 cells in Foxp3Cre×Stat3fl/fl mice resulted in the aggravation of NTN and skewing of renal and systemic immune responses toward Th17. Detailed analysis of Stat3-deficient Tregs revealed that the survival, activation, proliferation, and suppressive function of these cells remained intact. However, Tregs from Foxp3Cre×Stat3fl/fl mice lacked surface expression of the chemokine receptor CCR6, which resulted in impaired renal trafficking. Furthermore, aggravation of NTN was reversible in the absence of Th17 responses, as shown in CD4Cre×Stat3fl/fl mice lacking both Treg17 and Th17 cells, suggesting that Th17 cells are indeed the major target of Treg17 cells. Notably, immunohistochemistry revealed CCR6-bearing Treg17 cells in kidney biopsy specimens of patients with GN. CCR6 expression on human Treg17 cells also appears dependent on STAT3, as shown by analysis of Tregs from patients with dominant-negative STAT3 mutations. Our data indicate the presence and involvement of Stat3/STAT3-dependent Treg17 cells that specifically target Th17 cells in murine and human crescentic GN, and suggest the kidney-specific action of these Treg17 cells is regulated by CCR6-directed migration into areas of Th17 inflammation. PMID:24511136

  5. Functional Improvement of Regulatory T Cells from Rheumatoid Arthritis Subjects Induced by Capsular Polysaccharide Glucuronoxylomannogalactan

    PubMed Central

    Alunno, Alessia; Bartoloni Bocci, Elena; Perito, Stefano; Chow, Siu-Kei; Cenci, Elio; Casadevall, Arturo; Gerli, Roberto; Vecchiarelli, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Objective Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a critical role in the prevention of autoimmunity, and the suppressive activity of these cells is impaired in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of the present study was to investigate function and properties of Treg of RA patients in response to purified polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannogalactan (GXMGal). Methods Flow cytometry and western blot analysis were used to investigate the frequency, function and properties of Treg cells. Results GXMGal was able to: i) induce strong increase of FOXP3 on CD4+ T cells without affecting the number of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Treg cells with parallel increase in the percentage of non-conventional CD4+CD25−FOXP3+ Treg cells; ii) increase intracellular levels of TGF-β1 in CD4+CD25−FOXP3+ Treg cells and of IL-10 in both CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ and CD4+CD25−FOXP3+ Treg cells; iii) enhance the suppressive activity of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ and CD4+CD25−FOXP3+ Treg cells in terms of inhibition of effector T cell activity and increased secretion of IL-10; iv) decrease Th1 response as demonstrated by inhibition of T-bet activation and down-regulation of IFN-γ and IL-12p70 production; v) decrease Th17 differentiation by down-regulating pSTAT3 activation and IL-17A, IL-23, IL-21, IL-22 and IL-6 production. Conclusion These data show that GXMGal improves Treg functions and increases the number and function of CD4+CD25−FOXP3+ Treg cells of RA patients. It is suggested that GXMGal may be potentially useful for restoring impaired Treg functions in autoimmune disorders and for developing Treg cell-based strategies for the treatment of these diseases. PMID:25338013

  6. T regulatory cells participate in the control of germinal centre reactions

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Carla-Maria; Tygrett, Lorraine T; Boyden, Alexander W; Wolniak, Kristy L; Legge, Kevin L; Waldschmidt, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Germinal centre (GC) reactions are central features of T-cell-driven B-cell responses, and the site where antibody-producing cells and memory B cells are generated. Within GCs, a range of complex cellular and molecular events occur which are critical for the generation of high affinity antibodies. These processes require exquisite regulation not only to ensure the production of desired antibodies, but to minimize unwanted autoreactive or low affinity antibodies. To assess whether T regulatory (Treg) cells participate in the control of GC responses, immunized mice were treated with an anti-glucocorticoid-induced tumour necrosis factor receptor-related protein (GITR) monoclonal antibody (mAb) to disrupt Treg-cell activity. In anti-GITR-treated mice, the GC B-cell pool was significantly larger compared with control-treated animals, with switched GC B cells composing an abnormally high proportion of the response. Dysregulated GCs were also observed regardless of strain, T helper type 1 or 2 polarizing antigens, and were also seen after anti-CD25 mAb treatment. Within the spleens of immunized mice, CXCR5+ and CCR7− Treg cells were documented by flow cytometry and Foxp3+ cells were found within GCs using immunohistology. Final studies demonstrated administration of either anti-transforming growth factor-β or anti-interleukin-10 receptor blocking mAb to likewise result in dysregulated GCs, suggesting that generation of inducible Treg cells is important in controlling the GC response. Taken together, these findings indicate that Treg cells contribute to the overall size and quality of the humoral response by controlling homeostasis within GCs. PMID:21635248

  7. Regulatory requirements for clinical trial and marketing authorisation application for cell-based medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Salmikangas, P; Flory, E; Reinhardt, J; Hinz, T; Maciulaitis, R

    2010-01-01

    The new era of regenerative medicine has led to rapid development of new innovative therapies especially for diseases and tissue/organ defects for which traditional therapies and medicinal products have not provided satisfactory outcome. Although the clinical use and developments of cell-based medicinal products (CBMPs) could be witnessed already for a decade, robust scientific and regulatory provisions for these products have only recently been enacted. The new Regulation for Advanced Therapies (EC) 1394/2007 together with the revised Annex I, Part IV of Directive 2001/83/EC provides the new legal framework for CBMPs. The wide variety of cell-based products and the foreseen limitations (small sample sizes, short shelf life) vs. particular risks (microbiological purity, variability, immunogenicity, tumourigenicity) associated with CBMPs have called for a flexible, case-by-case regulatory approach for these products. Consequently, a risk-based approach has been developed to allow definition of the amount of scientific data needed for a Marketing Authorisation Application (MAA) of each CBMP. The article provides further insight into the initial risk evaluation, as well as to the quality, non-clinical, and clinical requirements of CBMPs. Special somatic cell therapies designed for active immunotherapy are also addressed. PMID:19940964

  8. Activity of JC virus archetype and PML-type regulatory regions in glial cells.

    PubMed

    Ault, G S

    1997-01-01

    Sequence variations are seen in the JC virus promoter/enhancer in virus taken from progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) brains and it has been hypothesized that the variations arise in the host at some point in the development of PML. These rearrangements may be adaptations for enhanced growth in glial cells; if so, transcription or replication levels should differ between archetypal and rearranged PML-type promoters. The archetype and four PML-type promoters were analysed in human glial cells for early and late transcriptional activity in the absence or presence of virus T antigen, and for DNA replication. CAT reporter expression differed within a fivefold range and the archetype was intermediate in strength to the PML-type regulatory regions. The archetype differed from rearranged promoters in that the late promoter was less responsive to T antigen and the shift from early to late activity with T antigen was less pronounced. All five regulatory regions demonstrated similar levels of DNA replicating activity. Rearrangement of the archetype was not required for activity in glial cells, but the potential for differences in the regulation of the late capsid genes was found.

  9. Regulatory requirements for clinical trial and marketing authorisation application for cell-based medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Salmikangas, P; Flory, E; Reinhardt, J; Hinz, T; Maciulaitis, R

    2010-01-01

    The new era of regenerative medicine has led to rapid development of new innovative therapies especially for diseases and tissue/organ defects for which traditional therapies and medicinal products have not provided satisfactory outcome. Although the clinical use and developments of cell-based medicinal products (CBMPs) could be witnessed already for a decade, robust scientific and regulatory provisions for these products have only recently been enacted. The new Regulation for Advanced Therapies (EC) 1394/2007 together with the revised Annex I, Part IV of Directive 2001/83/EC provides the new legal framework for CBMPs. The wide variety of cell-based products and the foreseen limitations (small sample sizes, short shelf life) vs. particular risks (microbiological purity, variability, immunogenicity, tumourigenicity) associated with CBMPs have called for a flexible, case-by-case regulatory approach for these products. Consequently, a risk-based approach has been developed to allow definition of the amount of scientific data needed for a Marketing Authorisation Application (MAA) of each CBMP. The article provides further insight into the initial risk evaluation, as well as to the quality, non-clinical, and clinical requirements of CBMPs. Special somatic cell therapies designed for active immunotherapy are also addressed.

  10. Messenger RNA in dormant cells of Sterkiella histriomuscorum (Oxytrichiade): indentification of putative regulatory gene transcripts.

    PubMed

    Tourancheau, A B; Morin, L; Yang, T; Perasso, R

    1999-08-01

    In the absence of food, the oxytrichid Sterkiella histriomuscorum, like many ciliates, enters into dormancy and transforms into a round and walled encysted cell. When transferred back into a feeding medium, the cyst re-transforms into a vegetative cell in a few hours. This encystment-excystment pathway, which is common to many free-living and parasitic protists, is still poorly understood at the molecular level. In order to identify potential dormant transcripts in the cysts of Sterkiella, we have constructed cDNA libraries from mature cysts. Transcripts have been isolated confirming the presence of a mRNA pool in the dormant cells. The sequence analysis of two cDNA indicates open reading frames which show significant similarities to known proteins involved in mechanisms of regulation: 1) nifR3, an element of the nitrogen regulatory system in bacteria and 2) CROC-1, a newly identified human transcription factor. The two corresponding macronuclear genes represent the first putative regulatory genes isolated in ciliates. From a differential screening of the cDNA library against vegetative cDNA, one cyst-specific (and very abundant) transcript has been isolated but the product has not yet been identified. The possible involvment of these new ciliate genes in the excystment process is discussed.

  11. Shape-dependent control of cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis: switching between attractors in cell regulatory networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, S.; Ingber, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    Development of characteristic tissue patterns requires that individual cells be switched locally between different phenotypes or "fates;" while one cell may proliferate, its neighbors may differentiate or die. Recent studies have revealed that local switching between these different gene programs is controlled through interplay between soluble growth factors, insoluble extracellular matrix molecules, and mechanical forces which produce cell shape distortion. Although the precise molecular basis remains unknown, shape-dependent control of cell growth and function appears to be mediated by tension-dependent changes in the actin cytoskeleton. However, the question remains: how can a generalized physical stimulus, such as cell distortion, activate the same set of genes and signaling proteins that are triggered by molecules which bind to specific cell surface receptors. In this article, we use computer simulations based on dynamic Boolean networks to show that the different cell fates that a particular cell can exhibit may represent a preprogrammed set of common end programs or "attractors" which self-organize within the cell's regulatory networks. In this type of dynamic network model of information processing, generalized stimuli (e.g., mechanical forces) and specific molecular cues elicit signals which follow different trajectories, but eventually converge onto one of a small set of common end programs (growth, quiescence, differentiation, apoptosis, etc.). In other words, if cells use this type of information processing system, then control of cell function would involve selection of preexisting (latent) behavioral modes of the cell, rather than instruction by specific binding molecules. Importantly, the results of the computer simulation closely mimic experimental data obtained with living endothelial cells. The major implication of this finding is that current methods used for analysis of cell function that rely on characterization of linear signaling pathways or

  12. Trypanosoma cruzi Experimental Infection Impacts on the Thymic Regulatory T Cell Compartment

    PubMed Central

    González, Florencia Belén; Calmon-Hamaty, Flavia; Nô Seara Cordeiro, Synara; Fernández Bussy, Rodrigo; Spinelli, Silvana Virginia; D'Attilio, Luciano; Bottasso, Oscar; Savino, Wilson; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vinícius; Villar, Silvina Raquel; Pérez, Ana Rosa

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of regulatory T cells in the course of Trypanosoma cruzi infection is still debated. We previously demonstrated that acute murine T. cruzi infection results in an impaired peripheral CD4+Foxp3+ T cell differentiation due to the acquisition of an abnormal Th1-like phenotype and altered functional features, negatively impacting on the course of infection. Moreover, T. cruzi infection induces an intense thymic atrophy. As known, the thymus is the primary lymphoid organ in which thymic-derived regulatory T cells, known as tTregs, differentiate. Considering the lack of available data about the effect of T. cruzi infection upon tTregs, we examined tTreg dynamics during the course of disease. We confirmed that T. cruzi infection induces a marked loss of tTreg cell number associated to cell precursor exhaustion, partially avoided by glucocorticoid ablation- and IL-2 survival factor depletion. At the same time, tTregs accumulate within the CD4 single-positive compartment, exhibiting an increased Ki-67/Annexin V ratio compared to controls. Moreover, tTregs enhance after the infection the expression of signature markers (CD25, CD62L and GITR) and they also display alterations in the expression of migration-associated molecules (α chains of VLAs and chemokine receptors) such as functional fibronectin-driven migratory disturbance. Taken together, we provide data demonstrating profound alterations in tTreg compartment during acute murine T. cruzi infection, denoting that their homeostasis is significantly affected. The evident loss of tTreg cell number may compromise the composition of tTreg peripheral pool, and such sustained alteration over time may be partially related to the immune dysregulation observed in the chronic phase of the disease. PMID:26745276

  13. Trypanosoma cruzi Experimental Infection Impacts on the Thymic Regulatory T Cell Compartment.

    PubMed

    González, Florencia Belén; Calmon-Hamaty, Flavia; Nô Seara Cordeiro, Synara; Fernández Bussy, Rodrigo; Spinelli, Silvana Virginia; D'Attilio, Luciano; Bottasso, Oscar; Savino, Wilson; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vinícius; Villar, Silvina Raquel; Pérez, Ana Rosa

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of regulatory T cells in the course of Trypanosoma cruzi infection is still debated. We previously demonstrated that acute murine T. cruzi infection results in an impaired peripheral CD4+Foxp3+ T cell differentiation due to the acquisition of an abnormal Th1-like phenotype and altered functional features, negatively impacting on the course of infection. Moreover, T. cruzi infection induces an intense thymic atrophy. As known, the thymus is the primary lymphoid organ in which thymic-derived regulatory T cells, known as tTregs, differentiate. Considering the lack of available data about the effect of T. cruzi infection upon tTregs, we examined tTreg dynamics during the course of disease. We confirmed that T. cruzi infection induces a marked loss of tTreg cell number associated to cell precursor exhaustion, partially avoided by glucocorticoid ablation- and IL-2 survival factor depletion. At the same time, tTregs accumulate within the CD4 single-positive compartment, exhibiting an increased Ki-67/Annexin V ratio compared to controls. Moreover, tTregs enhance after the infection the expression of signature markers (CD25, CD62L and GITR) and they also display alterations in the expression of migration-associated molecules (α chains of VLAs and chemokine receptors) such as functional fibronectin-driven migratory disturbance. Taken together, we provide data demonstrating profound alterations in tTreg compartment during acute murine T. cruzi infection, denoting that their homeostasis is significantly affected. The evident loss of tTreg cell number may compromise the composition of tTreg peripheral pool, and such sustained alteration over time may be partially related to the immune dysregulation observed in the chronic phase of the disease. PMID:26745276

  14. Trypanosoma cruzi Experimental Infection Impacts on the Thymic Regulatory T Cell Compartment.

    PubMed

    González, Florencia Belén; Calmon-Hamaty, Flavia; Nô Seara Cordeiro, Synara; Fernández Bussy, Rodrigo; Spinelli, Silvana Virginia; D'Attilio, Luciano; Bottasso, Oscar; Savino, Wilson; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vinícius; Villar, Silvina Raquel; Pérez, Ana Rosa

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of regulatory T cells in the course of Trypanosoma cruzi infection is still debated. We previously demonstrated that acute murine T. cruzi infection results in an impaired peripheral CD4+Foxp3+ T cell differentiation due to the acquisition of an abnormal Th1-like phenotype and altered functional features, negatively impacting on the course of infection. Moreover, T. cruzi infection induces an intense thymic atrophy. As known, the thymus is the primary lymphoid organ in which thymic-derived regulatory T cells, known as tTregs, differentiate. Considering the lack of available data about the effect of T. cruzi infection upon tTregs, we examined tTreg dynamics during the course of disease. We confirmed that T. cruzi infection induces a marked loss of tTreg cell number associated to cell precursor exhaustion, partially avoided by glucocorticoid ablation- and IL-2 survival factor depletion. At the same time, tTregs accumulate within the CD4 single-positive compartment, exhibiting an increased Ki-67/Annexin V ratio compared to controls. Moreover, tTregs enhance after the infection the expression of signature markers (CD25, CD62L and GITR) and they also display alterations in the expression of migration-associated molecules (α chains of VLAs and chemokine receptors) such as functional fibronectin-driven migratory disturbance. Taken together, we provide data demonstrating profound alterations in tTreg compartment during acute murine T. cruzi infection, denoting that their homeostasis is significantly affected. The evident loss of tTreg cell number may compromise the composition of tTreg peripheral pool, and such sustained alteration over time may be partially related to the immune dysregulation observed in the chronic phase of the disease.

  15. Regulatory Networks that Direct the Development of Specialized Cell Types in the Drosophila Heart

    PubMed Central

    Lovato, TyAnna L.; Cripps, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila cardiac tube was once thought to be a simple linear structure, however research over the past 15 years has revealed significant cellular and molecular complexity to this organ. Prior reviews have focused upon the gene regulatory networks responsible for the specification of the cardiac field and the activation of cardiac muscle structural genes. Here we focus upon highlighting the existence, function, and development of unique cell types within the dorsal vessel, and discuss their correspondence to analogous structures in the vertebrate heart. PMID:27695700

  16. Regulatory T-Cells in Pregnancy: Historical Perspective, State of the Art, and Burning Questions

    PubMed Central

    Ruocco, Maria Grazia; Chaouat, Gérard; Florez, Laura; Bensussan, Armand; Klatzmann, David

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we first revisit the original concept of “suppressor T-cells” in pregnancy, put it in a historical perspective, and then highlight the main data that licensed its resurrection and revision into the concept of “regulatory T-cells” (Tregs) in pregnancy. We review the evidence for a major role of Tregs in murine and human pregnancy and discuss Treg interactions with dendritic and uterine natural killer cells, other players of maternal–fetal tolerance. Finally, we highlight what we consider as the most important questions in the field. PMID:25191324

  17. Prevention and Mitigation of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Murine β-Defensins via Induction of Regulatory T Cells.

    PubMed

    Bruhs, Anika; Schwarz, Thomas; Schwarz, Agatha

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide murine β-defensin-14 (mBD14) was found to exert, in addition to its antimicrobial activity, the capacity to induce regulatory T cells as demonstrated in the model of contact hypersensitivity. Because it is induced by ultraviolet radiation, mBD14 may contribute to the antigen-specific immunosuppression by ultraviolet radiation. To prove whether this applies also for other immunologic models and because ultraviolet radiation appears to have beneficial effects on multiple sclerosis, we utilized the model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Injection of mBD14 into mice before immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein caused amelioration of the disease with less central nervous system inflammation and decreased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic T cells. The beneficial effect was due to Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells because it was lost on in vivo depletion of regulatory T cells. mBD14, however, also acts in a therapeutic setting, because injection of mBD14 into mice with clinical features of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis reduced the clinical score significantly. Human β-defensin-3, the human orthologue of mBD14, induced in vitro regulatory T cell-specific markers in CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells, shifting these nonregulatory cells into a regulatory phenotype with suppressive features. Thus, defensins may represent candidates worth being further pursued for the therapy of multiple sclerosis. PMID:26763437

  18. Galectin-8 promotes regulatory T cell differentiation by modulating IL-2 and TGFβ signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, James F.; Suryawanshi, Amol; Chen, Wei-Sheng; Rabinovich, Gabriel A.; Panjwani, Noorjahan

    2015-01-01

    Galectins have emerged as potent immunoregulatory molecules that control chronic inflammation through distinct mechanisms. Galectin-8 (Gal-8), a tandem-repeat type galectin with unique preference for α2,3-sialylated glycans, is ubiquitously expressed, but little is known about its role in T cell differentiation. Here, we report that Gal-8 promotes the polyclonal differentiation of primary mouse Treg cells in vitro. We further show that Gal-8 also facilitates antigen-specific differentiation of regulatory T (Treg) cells, and that Treg cells polarized in the presence of Gal-8 express cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and IL-10 at a higher frequency than control Treg cells, and efficiently inhibit proliferation of activated T cells in vitro. Investigation of the mechanism by which Gal-8 promotes Treg conversion revealed that Gal-8 activates TGFβ signaling and promotes sustained IL-2R signaling. Taken together, these data suggest that Gal-8 promotes the differentiation of highly suppressive Treg cells, which has implications for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. PMID:26282995

  19. Stem cell regulatory function mediated by expression of a novel mouse Oct4 pseudogene

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Huey; Shabbir, Arsalan; Molnar, Merced; Lee, Techung . E-mail: chunglee@buffalo.edu

    2007-03-30

    Multiple pseudogenes have been proposed for embryonic stem (ES) cell-specific genes, and their abundance suggests that some of these potential pseudogenes may be functional. ES cell-specific expression of Oct4 regulates stem cell pluripotency and self-renewing state. Although Oct4 expression has been reported in adult tissues during gene reprogramming, the detected Oct4 signal might be contributed by Oct4 pseudogenes. Among the multiple Oct4 transcripts characterized here is a {approx}1 kb clone derived from P19 embryonal carcinoma stem cells, which shares a {approx}87% sequence homology with the parent Oct4 gene, and has the potential of encoding an 80-amino acid product (designated as Oct4P1). Adenoviral expression of Oct4P1 in mesenchymal stem cells promotes their proliferation and inhibits their osteochondral differentiation. These dual effects of Oct4P1 are reminiscent of the stem cell regulatory function of the parent Oct4, and suggest that Oct4P1 may be a functional pseudogene or a novel Oct4-related gene with a unique function in stem cells.

  20. Metabolic control of type 1 regulatory (Tr1) cell differentiation by AHR and HIF1-α

    PubMed Central

    Mascanfroni, Ivan D.; Takenaka, Maisa C.; Yeste, Ada; Patel, Bonny; Wu, Yan; Kenison, Jessica E.; Siddiqui, Shafiuddin; Basso, Alexandre S.; Otterbein, Leo E.; Pardoll, Drew M.; Pan, Fan; Priel, Avner; Clish, Clary B.; Robson, Simon C.; Quintana, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of the pathways that regulate lymphocyte metabolism, as well as the effects of metabolism and its products on the immune response, is still limited. We report that a metabolic program controlled by the transcription factors hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1-α) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) supports the differentiation of type 1 regulatory (Tr1) cells. HIF1-α controls the early metabolic reprograming of Tr1 cells. At later time points, AHR promotes HIF1-α degradation and takes control of Tr1 cell metabolism. Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (eATP) and hypoxia, linked to inflammation, trigger AHR inactivation by HIF1-α and inhibit Tr1 cell differentiation. Conversely, CD39 promotes Tr1 cell differentiation by depleting eATP. CD39 also contributes to Tr1 suppressive activity by generating adenosine in cooperation with CD73 expressed by responder T cells and antigen presenting cells. These results suggest that HIF1-α and AHR integrate immunological, metabolic and environmental signals to regulate the immune response. PMID:26005855

  1. A validated gene regulatory network and GWAS identifies early regulators of T cell-associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Mika; Gawel, Danuta R; Alfredsson, Lars; Baranzini, Sergio; Björkander, Janne; Blomgran, Robert; Hellberg, Sandra; Eklund, Daniel; Ernerudh, Jan; Kockum, Ingrid; Konstantinell, Aelita; Lahesmaa, Riita; Lentini, Antonio; Liljenström, H Robert I; Mattson, Lina; Matussek, Andreas; Mellergård, Johan; Mendez, Melissa; Olsson, Tomas; Pujana, Miguel A; Rasool, Omid; Serra-Musach, Jordi; Stenmarker, Margaretha; Tripathi, Subhash; Viitala, Miro; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Huan; Nestor, Colm E; Benson, Mikael

    2015-11-11

    Early regulators of disease may increase understanding of disease mechanisms and serve as markers for presymptomatic diagnosis and treatment. However, early regulators are difficult to identify because patients generally present after they are symptomatic. We hypothesized that early regulators of T cell-associated diseases could be found by identifying upstream transcription factors (TFs) in T cell differentiation and by prioritizing hub TFs that were enriched for disease-associated polymorphisms. A gene regulatory network (GRN) was constructed by time series profiling of the transcriptomes and methylomes of human CD4(+) T cells during in vitro differentiation into four helper T cell lineages, in combination with sequence-based TF binding predictions. The TFs GATA3, MAF, and MYB were identified as early regulators and validated by ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing) and small interfering RNA knockdowns. Differential mRNA expression of the TFs and their targets in T cell-associated diseases supports their clinical relevance. To directly test if the TFs were altered early in disease, T cells from patients with two T cell-mediated diseases, multiple sclerosis and seasonal allergic rhinitis, were analyzed. Strikingly, the TFs were differentially expressed during asymptomatic stages of both diseases, whereas their targets showed altered expression during symptomatic stages. This analytical strategy to identify early regulators of disease by combining GRNs with genome-wide association studies may be generally applicable for functional and clinical studies of early disease development. PMID:26560356

  2. In vivo prevention of transplant arteriosclerosis by ex vivo-expanded human regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Nadig, Satish N; Wieckiewicz, Joanna; Wu, Douglas C; Warnecke, Gregor; Zhang, Wei; Luo, Shiqiao; Schiopu, Alexandru; Taggart, David P; Wood, Kathryn J

    2010-07-01

    Transplant arteriosclerosis is the hallmark of chronic allograft dysfunction (CAD) affecting transplanted organs in the long term. These fibroproliferative lesions lead to neointimal thickening of arteries in all transplanted allografts. Luminal narrowing then leads to graft ischemia and organ demise. To date, there are no known tolerance induction strategies that prevent transplant arteriosclerosis. Therefore, we designed this study to test the hypothesis that human regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells) expanded ex vivo can prevent transplant arteriosclerosis. Here we show the comparative capacity of T(reg) cells, sorted via two separate strategies, to prevent transplant arteriosclerosis in a clinically relevant chimeric humanized mouse system. We found that the in vivo development of transplant arteriosclerosis in human arteries was prevented by treatment of ex vivo-expanded human T(reg) cells. Additionally, we show that T(reg) cells sorted on the basis of low expression of CD127 provide a more potent therapy to conventional T(reg) cells. Our results demonstrate that human T(reg) cells can inhibit transplant arteriosclerosis by impairing effector function and graft infiltration. We anticipate our findings to serve as a foundation for the clinical development of therapeutics targeting transplant arteriosclerosis in both allograft transplantation and other immune-mediated causes of vasculopathy.

  3. Banks, repositories and registries of stem cell lines in Europe: regulatory and ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Hug, Kristina

    2009-03-01

    To overview banks, repositories and registries of stem cell lines in Europe excluding bone marrow and cord blood banks; to concisely discuss the most important scientific, regulatory and ethical aspects of stem cell banking in a manner understandable to a layperson, but remain detailed enough not to compromise thoroughness of information. Review of scientific publications, laws and ethical guidelines in this field up through September 2008; hearing the opinions of key persons working in stem cell banking. The article discusses the procedure of stem cell banking and related safety issues and reviews the regulation of stem cell banking at the regional (European) and the national level. Stem cell banking can help meet scientific and certain ethical imperatives, but is complicated in the context of heterogeneous laws, guidelines, and ethical standards. In the pluralistic European society with cultural diversity leading to heterogeneous laws, harmonisation of international guidelines and national laws regulating stem cell banking is needed, as well as mapping of implementation at the national level.

  4. Impaired CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell activity in the peripheral blood of patients with autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ming; Zhang, Han Bing; Liu, Fang; Yin, Hai Ying; Xu, An Ting

    2008-09-01

    CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells exert an immune regulatory function and thus play an important role in the control of self-reactivity in the pathogenesis of autoimmune inflammatory conditions. The aim of the study presented here is to perform a quantitative and functional analyses of these cells in patients with autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss (ASNHL). T cell subsets (CD4+CD25+, CD4+CD25(high), CD4+, and CD8+) from the peripheral blood of 17 patients with ASNHL, 16 patients with noise induced hearing loss (NHL), and 100 normal controls were analyzed by flow cytometry. The CD4/CD8 ratio was also analyzed. In addition, the suppressive capability of CD4+CD25+ T cells was tested in vitro by measuring their ability to suppress the proliferation and IFN-gamma secretion of CD4+CD25- T cells. No significant difference was found in the T cell subsets of ASNHL patients comp