Science.gov

Sample records for cell dependent modulation

  1. Temperature dependence of photovoltaic cells, modules, and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, K.; Burdick, J.; Caiyem, Y.

    1996-05-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) cells and modules are often rated in terms of a set of standard reporting conditions defined by a temperature, spectral irradiance, and total irradiance. Because PV devices operates over a wide range of temperatures and irradiances, the temperature and irradiance related behavior must be known. This paper surveys the temperature dependence of crystalline and thin-film, state-of-the-art, research-size cells, modules, and systems measured by a variety of methods. The various error sources and measurement methods that contribute to cause differences in the temperature coefficient for a given cell or module measured with various methods are discussed.

  2. Temperature dependence of photovoltaic cells, modules, and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, K.; Burdick, J.; Caiyem, Y.

    1996-09-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) cells and modules are often rated in terms of a set of standard reporting conditions defined by a temperature, spectral irradiance, and total irradiance. Because PV devices operate over a wide range of temperatures and irradiances, the temperature and irradiance related behavior must be known. This paper surveys the temperature dependence of crystalline and thin-film, state-of-the-art, research-size cells, modules, and systems measured by a variety of methods. The various error sources and measurement methods that contribute to cause differences in the temperature coefficient for a given cell or module measured with various methods are discussed.

  3. Toll pathway modulates TNF-induced JNK-dependent cell death in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenxi; Chen, Changyan; Dai, Jianli; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yujun; Li, Wenzhe; Pastor-Pareja, José Carlos; Xue, Lei

    2015-07-01

    Signalling networks that control the life or death of a cell are of central interest in modern biology. While the defined roles of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway in regulating cell death have been well-established, additional factors that modulate JNK-mediated cell death have yet to be fully elucidated. To identify novel regulators of JNK-dependent cell death, we performed a dominant-modifier screen in Drosophila and found that the Toll pathway participates in JNK-mediated cell death. Loss of Toll signalling suppresses ectopically and physiologically activated JNK signalling-induced cell death. Our epistasis analysis suggests that the Toll pathway acts as a downstream modulator for JNK-dependent cell death. In addition, gain of JNK signalling results in Toll pathway activation, revealed by stimulated transcription of Drosomycin (Drs) and increased cytoplasm-to-nucleus translocation of Dorsal. Furthermore, the Spätzle (Spz) family ligands for the Toll receptor are transcriptionally upregulated by activated JNK signalling in a non-cell-autonomous manner, providing a molecular mechanism for JNK-induced Toll pathway activation. Finally, gain of Toll signalling exacerbates JNK-mediated cell death and promotes cell death independent of caspases. Thus, we have identified another important function for the evolutionarily conserved Toll pathway, in addition to its well-studied roles in embryonic dorso-ventral patterning and innate immunity.

  4. Toll pathway modulates TNF-induced JNK-dependent cell death in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chenxi; Chen, Changyan; Dai, Jianli; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yujun; Li, Wenzhe; Pastor-Pareja, José Carlos; Xue, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Signalling networks that control the life or death of a cell are of central interest in modern biology. While the defined roles of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway in regulating cell death have been well-established, additional factors that modulate JNK-mediated cell death have yet to be fully elucidated. To identify novel regulators of JNK-dependent cell death, we performed a dominant-modifier screen in Drosophila and found that the Toll pathway participates in JNK-mediated cell death. Loss of Toll signalling suppresses ectopically and physiologically activated JNK signalling-induced cell death. Our epistasis analysis suggests that the Toll pathway acts as a downstream modulator for JNK-dependent cell death. In addition, gain of JNK signalling results in Toll pathway activation, revealed by stimulated transcription of Drosomycin (Drs) and increased cytoplasm-to-nucleus translocation of Dorsal. Furthermore, the Spätzle (Spz) family ligands for the Toll receptor are transcriptionally upregulated by activated JNK signalling in a non-cell-autonomous manner, providing a molecular mechanism for JNK-induced Toll pathway activation. Finally, gain of Toll signalling exacerbates JNK-mediated cell death and promotes cell death independent of caspases. Thus, we have identified another important function for the evolutionarily conserved Toll pathway, in addition to its well-studied roles in embryonic dorso-ventral patterning and innate immunity. PMID:26202785

  5. IDO2 Modulates T Cell-Dependent Autoimmune Responses through a B Cell-Intrinsic Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Lauren M F; DuHadaway, James B; Grabler, Samantha; Prendergast, George C; Muller, Alexander J; Mandik-Nayak, Laura

    2016-06-01

    Mechanistic insight into how adaptive immune responses are modified along the self-nonself continuum may offer more effective opportunities to treat autoimmune disease, cancer, and other sterile inflammatory disorders. Recent genetic studies in the KRN mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis demonstrate that the immunomodulatory molecule IDO2 modifies responses to self-antigens; however, the mechanisms involved are obscure. In this study, we show that IDO2 exerts a critical function in B cells to support the generation of autoimmunity. In experiments with IDO2-deficient mice, adoptive transplant experiments demonstrated that IDO2 expression in B cells was both necessary and sufficient to support robust arthritis development. IDO2 function in B cells was contingent on a cognate, Ag-specific interaction to exert its immunomodulatory effects on arthritis development. We confirmed a similar requirement in an established model of contact hypersensitivity, in which IDO2-expressing B cells are required for a robust inflammatory response. Mechanistic investigations showed that IDO2-deficient B cells lacked the ability to upregulate the costimulatory marker CD40, suggesting IDO2 acts at the T-B cell interface to modulate the potency of T cell help needed to promote autoantibody production. Overall, our findings revealed that IDO2 expression by B cells modulates autoimmune responses by supporting the cross talk between autoreactive T and B cells.

  6. An EAR-Dependent Regulatory Module Promotes Male Germ Cell Division and Sperm Fertility in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Borg, Michael; Rutley, Nicholas; Kagale, Sateesh; Hamamura, Yuki; Gherghinoiu, Mihai; Kumar, Sanjeev; Sari, Ugur; Esparza-Franco, Manuel A; Sakamoto, Wataru; Rozwadowski, Kevin; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Twell, David

    2014-05-01

    The production of the sperm cells in angiosperms requires coordination of cell division and cell differentiation. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the germline-specific MYB protein DUO1 integrates these processes, but the regulatory hierarchy in which DUO1 functions is unknown. Here, we identify an essential role for two germline-specific DUO1 target genes, DAZ1 and DAZ2, which encode EAR motif-containing C2H2-type zinc finger proteins. We show that DAZ1/DAZ2 are required for germ cell division and for the proper accumulation of mitotic cyclins. Importantly, DAZ1/DAZ2 are sufficient to promote G2- to M-phase transition and germ cell division in the absence of DUO1. DAZ1/DAZ2 are also required for DUO1-dependent cell differentiation and are essential for gamete fusion at fertilization. We demonstrate that the two EAR motifs in DAZ1/DAZ2 mediate their function in the male germline and are required for transcriptional repression and for physical interaction with the corepressor TOPLESS. Our findings uncover an essential module in a regulatory hierarchy that drives mitotic transition in male germ cells and implicates gene repression pathways in sperm cell formation and fertility.

  7. MK3 Modulation Affects BMI1-Dependent and Independent Cell Cycle Check-Points

    PubMed Central

    Dahlmans, Vivian E. H.; Spaapen, Frank; Salvaing, Juliette; Vanhove, Jolien; Geijselaers, Claudia; Bartels, Stefanie J. J.; Partouns, Iris; Neumann, Dietbert; Speel, Ernst-Jan; Takihara, Yoshihiro; Wouters, Bradly G.; Voncken, Jan Willem

    2015-01-01

    Although the MK3 gene was originally found deleted in some cancers, it is highly expressed in others. The relevance of MK3 for oncogenesis is currently not clear. We recently reported that MK3 controls ERK activity via a negative feedback mechanism. This prompted us to investigate a potential role for MK3 in cell proliferation. We here show that overexpression of MK3 induces a proliferative arrest in normal diploid human fibroblasts, characterized by enhanced expression of replication stress- and senescence-associated markers. Surprisingly, MK3 depletion evokes similar senescence characteristics in the fibroblast model. We previously identified MK3 as a binding partner of Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) proteins. In the current study we show that MK3 overexpression results in reduced cellular EZH2 levels and concomitant loss of epigenetic H3K27me3-marking and PRC1/chromatin-occupation at the CDKN2A/INK4A locus. In agreement with this, the PRC1 oncoprotein BMI1, but not the PCR2 protein EZH2, bypasses MK3-induced senescence in fibroblasts and suppresses P16INK4A expression. In contrast, BMI1 does not rescue the MK3 loss-of-function phenotype, suggesting the involvement of multiple different checkpoints in gain and loss of MK3 function. Notably, MK3 ablation enhances proliferation in two different cancer cells. Finally, the fibroblast model was used to evaluate the effect of potential tumorigenic MK3 driver-mutations on cell proliferation and M/SAPK signaling imbalance. Taken together, our findings support a role for MK3 in control of proliferation and replicative life-span, in part through concerted action with BMI1, and suggest that the effect of MK3 modulation or mutation on M/SAPK signaling and, ultimately, proliferation, is cell context-dependent. PMID:25853770

  8. Aspirin induces cell death by directly modulating mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC)

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Debanjan; Majumdar, Dhriti; Vallabhaneni, Sirisha; Bera, Amal Kanti

    2017-01-01

    Aspirin induces apoptotic cell death in various cancer cell lines. Here we showed that silencing of VDAC1 protected HeLa cells from aspirin-induced cell death. Compared to the wild type cells, VDAC1 knocked down cells showed lesser change of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), upon aspirin treatment. Aspirin augmented ATP and ionomycin-induced mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake which was abolished in VDAC1 knocked down cells. Aspirin dissociated bound hexokinase II (HK-II) from mitochondria. Further, aspirin promoted the closure of recombinant human VDAC1, reconstituted in planar lipid bilayer. Taken together, these results imply that VDAC1 serves as a novel target for aspirin. Modulation of VDAC1 is possibly associated with the cell death and anticancer effects of aspirin. PMID:28327594

  9. Modulation of breast cancer cell viability by a cannabinoid receptor 2 agonist, JWH-015, is calcium dependent

    PubMed Central

    Hanlon, Katherine E; Lozano-Ondoua, Alysia N; Umaretiya, Puja J; Symons-Liguori, Ashley M; Chandramouli, Anupama; Moy, Jamie K; Kwass, William K; Mantyh, Patrick W; Nelson, Mark A; Vanderah, Todd W

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cannabinoid compounds, both nonspecific as well as agonists selective for either cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) or cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), have been shown to modulate the tumor microenvironment by inducing apoptosis in tumor cells in several model systems. The mechanism of this modulation remains only partially delineated, and activity induced via the CB1 and CB2 receptors may be distinct despite significant sequence homology and structural similarity of ligands. Methods The CB2-selective agonist JWH-015 was used to investigate mechanisms downstream of CB2 activation in mouse and human breast cancer cell lines in vitro and in a murine mammary tumor model. Results JWH-015 treatment significantly reduced primary tumor burden and metastasis of luciferase-tagged murine mammary carcinoma 4T1 cells in immunocompetent mice in vivo. Furthermore, JWH-015 reduced the viability of murine 4T1 and human MCF7 mammary carcinoma cells in vitro by inducing apoptosis. JWH-015-mediated reduction of breast cancer cell viability was not dependent on Gαi signaling in vitro or modified by classical pharmacological blockade of CB1, GPR55, TRPV1, or TRPA1 receptors. JWH-015 effects were calcium dependent and induced changes in MAPK/ERK signaling. Conclusion The results of this work characterize the actions of a CB2-selective agonist on breast cancer cells in a syngeneic murine model representing how a clinical presentation of cancer progression and metastasis may be significantly modulated by a G-protein-coupled receptor. PMID:27186076

  10. An Fc engineering approach that modulates antibody-dependent cytokine release without altering cell-killing functions.

    PubMed

    Kinder, Michelle; Greenplate, Allison R; Strohl, William R; Jordan, Robert E; Brezski, Randall J

    2015-01-01

    Cytotoxic therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) often mediate target cell-killing by eliciting immune effector functions via Fc region interactions with cellular and humoral components of the immune system. Key functions include antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). However, there has been increased appreciation that along with cell-killing functions, the induction of antibody-dependent cytokine release (ADCR) can also influence disease microenvironments and therapeutic outcomes. Historically, most Fc engineering approaches have been aimed toward modulating ADCC, ADCP, or CDC. In the present study, we describe an Fc engineering approach that, while not resulting in impaired ADCC or ADCP, profoundly affects ADCR. As such, when peripheral blood mononuclear cells are used as effector cells against mAb-opsonized tumor cells, the described mAb variants elicit a similar profile and quantity of cytokines as IgG1. In contrast, although the variants elicit similar levels of tumor cell-killing as IgG1 with macrophage effector cells, the variants do not elicit macrophage-mediated ADCR against mAb-opsonized tumor cells. This study demonstrates that Fc engineering approaches can be employed to uncouple macrophage-mediated phagocytic and subsequent cell-killing functions from cytokine release.

  11. Aplotaxene blocks T cell activation by modulation of protein kinase C-θ-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Na, Bo-Ra; Kim, Hye-Ran; Kwon, Min-Sung; Lee, Hyun-Su; Piragyte, Indre; Choi, Eun-Ju; Choi, Hyun-Kyu; Han, Weon-Cheol; Lee, Seung-Ho; Jun, Chang-Duk

    2013-12-01

    Aplotaxene, (8Z, 11Z, 14Z)-heptadeca-1, 8, 11, 14-tetraene, is one of the major components of essential oil obtained from Inula helenium root, which is used in Oriental medicine. However, the effects of aplotaxene on immunity have not been investigated. Here, we show that aplotaxene inhibits T cell activation in terms of IL-2 and CD69 expression. Aplotaxene, at a concentration that optimally inhibits IL-2 production, has little effect on apoptotic or necrotic cell death, suggesting that apoptosis is not a mechanism for aplotaxene-mediated inhibition of T cell activation. Aplotaxene affects neither superantigeninduced conjugate formation between Jurkat T cells and Raji B cells nor clustering of CD3 and LFA-1 at the immunological synapse. Aplotaxene significantly inhibits PKC-θ phosphorylation and translocation to the immunological synapse, and blocks PMA-induced T-cell receptor internalization. Furthermore, aplotaxene leads to inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases (JNK, ERK and p38) phosphorylation and NF-κB, NF-AT, and AP-1 promoter activities in Jurkat T cells. Taken together, our findings provide evidence for the immunosuppressive effect of aplotaxene on activated T cells through the modulation of the PKC-θ and MAPK pathways, suggesting that aplotaxene may be a novel immunotherapeutic agent for immunological diseases related to the overactivation of T cells.

  12. [Bacteria and viruses modulate FcεRI-dependent mast cell activity].

    PubMed

    Słodka, Aleksandra; Brzezińska-Błaszczyk, Ewa

    2013-03-08

    Undoubtedly, mast cells play a central role in allergic processes. Specific allergen cross-linking of IgE bound to the high affinity receptors (FcεRI) on the mast cell surface leads to the release of preformed mediators and newly synthesized mediators, i.e. metabolites of arachidonic acid and cytokines. More and more data indicate that bacteria and viruses can influence FcεRI-dependent mast cell activation. Some bacterial and viral components can reduce the surface expression of FcεRI. There are also findings that ligation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) by bacterial or viral antigens can affect IgE-dependent mast cell degranulation and preformed mediator release as well as eicosanoid production. The synergistic interaction of TLR ligands and allergen can also modify cytokine synthesis by mast cells stimulated via FcεRI. Moreover, data suggest that specific IgE for bacterial or viral antigens can influence mast cell activity. What is more, some bacterial and viral components or some endogenous proteins produced during viral infection can act as superantigens by interacting with the VH3 domain of IgE. All these observations indicate that bacterial and viral infections modify the course of allergic diseases by affecting FcεRI-dependent mast cell activation. 

  13. SAP modulates B cell functions in a genetic background-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Detre, Cynthia; Yigit, Burcu; Keszei, Marton; Castro, Wilson; Magelky, Erica M; Terhorst, Cox

    2013-06-01

    Mutations affecting the SLAM-associated protein (SAP) are responsible for the X-linked lympho-proliferative syndrome (XLP), a severe primary immunodeficiency syndrome with disease manifestations that include fatal mononucleosis, B cell lymphoma and dysgammaglobulinemia. It is well accepted that insufficient help by SAP-/- CD4+ T cells, in particular during the germinal center reaction, is a component of dysgammaglobulinemia in XLP patients and SAP-/- animals. It is however not well understood whether in XLP patients and SAP-/- mice B cell functions are affected, even though B cells themselves do not express SAP. Here we report that B cell intrinsic responses to haptenated protein antigens are impaired in SAP-/- mice and in Rag-/- mice into which B cells derived from SAP-/- mice together with wt CD4+ T cells had been transferred. This impaired B cells functions are in part depending on the genetic background of the SAP-/- mouse, which affects B cell homeostasis. Surprisingly, stimulation with an agonistic anti-CD40 causes strong in vivo and in vitro B cell responses in SAP-/- mice. Taken together, the data demonstrate that genetic factors play an important role in the SAP-related B cell functions. The finding that anti-CD40 can in part restore impaired B cell responses in SAP-/- mice, suggests potentially novel therapeutic interventions in subsets of XLP patients.

  14. Genistein modulates proliferation and mitochondrial functionality in breast cancer cells depending on ERalpha/ERbeta ratio.

    PubMed

    Pons, Daniel Gabriel; Nadal-Serrano, Mercedes; Blanquer-Rossello, M Mar; Sastre-Serra, Jorge; Oliver, Jordi; Roca, Pilar

    2014-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women of developed countries. The aim of this study was to investigate whether genistein, a soy phytoestrogen, and 17β-estradiol (E2) could have effects on the cell cycle and mitochondrial function and dynamics. Three human breast cancer cell lines with different estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) ratio were used: MCF-7 (high ERα/ERβ ratio), T47D (low ERα/ERβ ratio) and MDA-MB-231 (ER-negative). Cell proliferation, cell cycle, mitochondrial functionality, and mitochondrial dynamics parameters were analyzed. E2 and genistein treatment induced cell proliferation and apoptosis inhibition in MCF-7, but not in T47D and MDA-MB-231. Moreover, genistein treatment produced an up-regulation of ERβ and a rise in cytochrome c oxidase activity in T47D cells, decreasing the ATP synthase/cytochrome c oxidase ratio. Finally, genistein treatment produced a drop in mitochondrial dynamics only in MCF-7 cells. In summary, the beneficial effects of genistein consumption depend on the ERα/ERβ ratio in breast cells. Therefore, genistein treatment produces cell cycle arrest and an improvement of mitochondrial functionality in T47D cells with a low ERα/ERβ ratio, but not in MCF-7 (high ERα/ERβ ratio) and MDA-MB-231 (ER-negative) ones.

  15. Sonic Hedgehog modulates EGFR dependent proliferation of neural stem cells during late mouse embryogenesis through EGFR transactivation

    PubMed Central

    Reinchisi, Gisela; Parada, Margarita; Lois, Pablo; Oyanadel, Claudia; Shaughnessy, Ronan; Gonzalez, Alfonso; Palma, Verónica

    2013-01-01

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh/GLI) and EGFR signaling pathways modulate Neural Stem Cell (NSC) proliferation. How these signals cooperate is therefore critical for understanding normal brain development and function. Here we report a novel acute effect of Shh signaling on EGFR function. We show that during late neocortex development, Shh mediates the activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway in Radial Glial cells (RGC) through EGFR transactivation. This process is dependent on metalloprotease activity and accounts for almost 50% of the EGFR-dependent mitogenic response of late NSCs. Furthermore, in HeLa cancer cells, a well-known model for studying the EGFR receptor function, Shh also induces cell proliferation involving EGFR activation, as reflected by EGFR internalization and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. These findings may have important implications for understanding the mechanisms that regulate NSC proliferation during neurogenesis and may lead to novel approaches to the treatment of tumors. PMID:24133411

  16. Sonic Hedgehog modulates EGFR dependent proliferation of neural stem cells during late mouse embryogenesis through EGFR transactivation.

    PubMed

    Reinchisi, Gisela; Parada, Margarita; Lois, Pablo; Oyanadel, Claudia; Shaughnessy, Ronan; Gonzalez, Alfonso; Palma, Verónica

    2013-01-01

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh/GLI) and EGFR signaling pathways modulate Neural Stem Cell (NSC) proliferation. How these signals cooperate is therefore critical for understanding normal brain development and function. Here we report a novel acute effect of Shh signaling on EGFR function. We show that during late neocortex development, Shh mediates the activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway in Radial Glial cells (RGC) through EGFR transactivation. This process is dependent on metalloprotease activity and accounts for almost 50% of the EGFR-dependent mitogenic response of late NSCs. Furthermore, in HeLa cancer cells, a well-known model for studying the EGFR receptor function, Shh also induces cell proliferation involving EGFR activation, as reflected by EGFR internalization and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. These findings may have important implications for understanding the mechanisms that regulate NSC proliferation during neurogenesis and may lead to novel approaches to the treatment of tumors.

  17. Cell viability modulation through changes of Ca(2+)-dependent signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Wójcik-Piotrowicz, Karolina; Kaszuba-Zwoińska, Jolanta; Rokita, Eugeniusz; Thor, Piotr

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the correlations between intracellular calcium ion level and a cell's ability to survive. The intracellular concentration of Ca(2+) ions, maintained through different mechanisms, plays an important role in signalling in cells. The deregulation of these mechanisms by various cell stressors (e.g. cytotoxic agents) can disturb Ca(2+) homeostasis and influence Ca(2+)-dependent signalling pathways in the cell. Perturbations of intracellular electrochemical equilibrium may lead to changes in cell function or even to cell death. According to some experimental results, one of the cell stressors may be exposure to magnetic fields (MF). Because of the wide distribution of MF sources in our environment, magnetic fields have recently been intensively examined in relation to the occurrence of cancer. Nevertheless, two questions still remain unanswered: Is the influence of MF on cells positive or negative, and what mechanism(s) underlie the effects of MF action on cells? Most studies focus on the influence of MF on Ca(2+) ion fluxes as calcium ions play the role of intracellular second messengers, triggering many signalling cascades. Physical models assuming the mechanisms generating the disturbance of ionic transport and/or the dysfunction of ion-protein complexes in cells due to MF action have been widely discussed in the literature, but a detailed explanation of experimental results is still awaited. The dynamics of the concentration of intracellular calcium ions can be detected by various methods, including optical and non-optical techniques. This review combines an insight into basic intracellular Ca(2+) regulative mechanisms and common techniques used to detect changes in Ca(2+) concentration inside the cell. The emphasis here is on the determination of Ca(2+) regulative mechanisms developed in non-excitable cells (e.g. U937 cells, HeLa, etc.), which are probably mainly involved in cell responses to external stress (e.g. MF stimuli).

  18. Age-dependent modulation of vascular niches for haematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kusumbe, Anjali P.; Ramasamy, Saravana K.; Itkin, Tomer; Andaloussi Mäe, Maarja; Langen, Urs H.; Betsholtz, Christer; Lapidot, Tsvee; Adams, Ralf H.

    2016-01-01

    Blood vessels define local microenvironments in the skeletal system, play crucial roles in osteogenesis and provide niches for haematopoietic stem cells1–6. The properties of niche-forming vessels and their changes in the ageing organism remain incompletely understood. Here, we show that Notch signalling in endothelial cells leads to the expansion of haematopoietic stem cell niches in bone, which involves increases in CD31-positive capillaries and PDGFRβ-positive perivascular cells, arteriole formation, and elevation of cellular stem cell factor levels. While endothelial hypoxia-inducible factor signalling promotes some of these aspects, it fails to enhance vascular niche function because of lacking arterialization and expansion of PDGFRβ-positive cells. In ageing mice, niche-forming vessels in the skeletal system are strongly reduced but can be restored by activation of endothelial Notch signalling. These findings argue that vascular niches for haematopoietic stem cells are part of complex, age-dependent microenvironments involving multiple cell populations and vessel subtypes. PMID:27074508

  19. Alarmin’ Immunologists: IL-33 as a Putative Target for Modulating T Cell-Dependent Responses

    PubMed Central

    Gajardo Carrasco, Tania; Morales, Rodrigo A.; Pérez, Francisco; Terraza, Claudia; Yáñez, Luz; Campos-Mora, Mauricio; Pino-Lagos, Karina

    2015-01-01

    IL-33 is a known member of the IL-1 cytokine superfamily classically named “atypical” due to its diverse functions. The receptor for this cytokine is the ST2 chain (or IL-1RL1), part of the IL-1R family, and the accessory chain IL-1R. ST2 can be found as both soluble and membrane-bound forms, property that explains, at least in part, its wide range of functions. IL-33 has increasingly gained our attention as a potential target to modulate immune responses. At the beginning, it was known as one of the participants during the development of allergic states and other Th2-mediated responses and it is now accepted that IL-33 contributes to Th1-driven pathologies as demonstrated in animal models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), collagen-induced arthritis, and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced experimental colitis, among others. Interestingly, current data are placing IL-33 as a novel regulator of immune tolerance by affecting regulatory T cells (Tregs); although the mechanism is not fully understood, it seems that dendritic cells and myeloid suppressor-derived cells may be cooperating in the generation and/or establishment of IL-33-mediated tolerance. Here, we review the most updated literature on IL-33, its role on T cell biology, and its impact in immune tolerance. PMID:26082774

  20. HOCl-dependent singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical generation modulate and induce apoptosis of malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Georg

    2013-09-01

    The lack of extracellular superoxide anion production by non-transformed cells prevents H2O2/peroxidase-mediated HOCl synthesis by these cells, as well as apoptosis induction by exogenous HOCl. In contrast, transformed cells generate extracellular superoxide anions and HOCl, and die by apoptosis after HOCl/superoxide-dependent hydroxyl radical generation at their membrane. Tumor cells prevent HOCl synthesis through expression of membrane-associated catalase, but their extracellular superoxide anions readily react with exogenous HOCl. The interaction between HOCl and H2O2 causes singlet oxygen generation that inactivates superoxide dismutase (SOD) on the surface of the tumor cells and thus enhances HOCl-mediated apoptosis through an increase in free superoxide anions. Higher concentrations of singlet oxygen inactivate membrane-associated catalase and thus lead to partial inhibition of apoptosis induction by exogenous HOCl, due to consumption of HOCl by H2O2. The data presented here show a complex, but coherent picture of interactions between defined reactive oxygen species and protective enzymes on the surface of tumor cells.

  1. Overexpression of the Auxin Binding PROTEIN1 Modulates PIN-Dependent Auxin Transport in Tobacco Cells

    PubMed Central

    Čovanová, Milada; Sauer, Michael; Rychtář, Jan; Friml, Jiří; Petrášek, Jan; Zažímalová, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Background Auxin binding protein 1 (ABP1) is a putative auxin receptor and its function is indispensable for plant growth and development. ABP1 has been shown to be involved in auxin-dependent regulation of cell division and expansion, in plasma-membrane-related processes such as changes in transmembrane potential, and in the regulation of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. However, the ABP1-regulated downstream pathway remains elusive. Methodology/Principal Findings Using auxin transport assays and quantitative analysis of cellular morphology we show that ABP1 regulates auxin efflux from tobacco BY-2 cells. The overexpression of ABP1can counterbalance increased auxin efflux and auxin starvation phenotypes caused by the overexpression of PIN auxin efflux carrier. Relevant mechanism involves the ABP1-controlled vesicle trafficking processes, including positive regulation of endocytosis of PIN auxin efflux carriers, as indicated by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and pharmacological manipulations. Conclusions/Significance The findings indicate the involvement of ABP1 in control of rate of auxin transport across plasma membrane emphasizing the role of ABP1 in regulation of PIN activity at the plasma membrane, and highlighting the relevance of ABP1 for the formation of developmentally important, PIN-dependent auxin gradients. PMID:23894588

  2. Calcium-dependent oligomerization of CAR proteins at cell membrane modulates ABA signaling

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Maira; Sanchez-Barrena, Maria Jose; Gonzalez-Rubio, Juana Maria; Rodriguez, Lesia; Fernandez, Daniel; Antoni, Regina; Yunta, Cristina; Belda-Palazon, Borja; Gonzalez-Guzman, Miguel; Peirats-Llobet, Marta; Menendez, Margarita; Boskovic, Jasminka; Marquez, Jose A.; Rodriguez, Pedro L.; Albert, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of ion transport in plants is essential for cell function. Abiotic stress unbalances cell ion homeostasis, and plants tend to readjust it, regulating membrane transporters and channels. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the second messenger Ca2+ are central in such processes, as they are involved in the regulation of protein kinases and phosphatases that control ion transport activity in response to environmental stimuli. The identification and characterization of the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of ABA and Ca2+ signaling pathways on membrane function are central and could provide opportunities for crop improvement. The C2-domain ABA-related (CAR) family of small proteins is involved in the Ca2+-dependent recruitment of the pyrabactin resistance 1/PYR1-like (PYR/PYL) ABA receptors to the membrane. However, to fully understand CAR function, it is necessary to define a molecular mechanism that integrates Ca2+ sensing, membrane interaction, and the recognition of the PYR/PYL interacting partners. We present structural and biochemical data showing that CARs are peripheral membrane proteins that functionally cluster on the membrane and generate strong positive membrane curvature in a Ca2+-dependent manner. These features represent a mechanism for the generation, stabilization, and/or specific recognition of membrane discontinuities. Such structures may act as signaling platforms involved in the recruitment of PYR/PYL receptors and other signaling components involved in cell responses to stress. PMID:26719420

  3. Calcium-dependent oligomerization of CAR proteins at cell membrane modulates ABA signaling.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Maira; Sanchez-Barrena, Maria Jose; Gonzalez-Rubio, Juana Maria; Rodriguez, Lesia; Fernandez, Daniel; Antoni, Regina; Yunta, Cristina; Belda-Palazon, Borja; Gonzalez-Guzman, Miguel; Peirats-Llobet, Marta; Menendez, Margarita; Boskovic, Jasminka; Marquez, Jose A; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Albert, Armando

    2016-01-19

    Regulation of ion transport in plants is essential for cell function. Abiotic stress unbalances cell ion homeostasis, and plants tend to readjust it, regulating membrane transporters and channels. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the second messenger Ca(2+) are central in such processes, as they are involved in the regulation of protein kinases and phosphatases that control ion transport activity in response to environmental stimuli. The identification and characterization of the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of ABA and Ca(2+) signaling pathways on membrane function are central and could provide opportunities for crop improvement. The C2-domain ABA-related (CAR) family of small proteins is involved in the Ca(2+)-dependent recruitment of the pyrabactin resistance 1/PYR1-like (PYR/PYL) ABA receptors to the membrane. However, to fully understand CAR function, it is necessary to define a molecular mechanism that integrates Ca(2+) sensing, membrane interaction, and the recognition of the PYR/PYL interacting partners. We present structural and biochemical data showing that CARs are peripheral membrane proteins that functionally cluster on the membrane and generate strong positive membrane curvature in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. These features represent a mechanism for the generation, stabilization, and/or specific recognition of membrane discontinuities. Such structures may act as signaling platforms involved in the recruitment of PYR/PYL receptors and other signaling components involved in cell responses to stress.

  4. The modulation of cardiac progenitor cell function by hydrogel-dependent Notch1 activation.

    PubMed

    Boopathy, Archana V; Che, Pao Lin; Somasuntharam, Inthirai; Fiore, Vincent F; Cabigas, E Bernadette; Ban, Kiwon; Brown, Milton E; Narui, Yoshie; Barker, Thomas H; Yoon, Young-Sup; Salaita, Khalid; García, Andrés J; Davis, Michael E

    2014-09-01

    Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death worldwide and phase I clinical trials utilizing cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) have shown promising outcomes. Notch1 signaling plays a critical role in cardiac development and in the survival, cardiogenic lineage commitment, and differentiation of cardiac stem/progenitor cells. In this study, we functionalized self-assembling peptide (SAP) hydrogels with a peptide mimic of the Notch1 ligand Jagged1 (RJ) to evaluate the therapeutic benefit of CPC delivery in the hydrogels in a rat model of myocardial infarction. The behavior of CPCs cultured in the 3D hydrogels in vitro including gene expression, proliferation, and growth factor production was evaluated. Interestingly, we observed Notch1 activation to be dependent on hydrogel polymer density/stiffness with synergistic increase in presence of RJ. Our results show that RJ mediated Notch1 activation depending on hydrogel concentration differentially regulated cardiogenic gene expression, proliferation, and growth factor production in CPCs in vitro. In rats subjected to experimental myocardial infarction, improvement in acute retention and cardiac function was observed following cell therapy in RJ hydrogels compared to unmodified or scrambled peptide containing hydrogels. This study demonstrates the potential therapeutic benefit of functionalizing SAP hydrogels with RJ for CPC based cardiac repair.

  5. Commensal gut bacteria modulate phosphorylation-dependent PPARγ transcriptional activity in human intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Nepelska, Malgorzata; de Wouters, Tomas; Jacouton, Elsa; Béguet-Crespel, Fabienne; Lapaque, Nicolas; Doré, Joël; Arulampalam, Velmurugesan; Blottière, Hervé M.

    2017-01-01

    In healthy subjects, the intestinal microbiota interacts with the host’s epithelium, regulating gene expression to the benefit of both, host and microbiota. The underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood, however. Although many gut bacteria are not yet cultured, constantly growing culture collections have been established. We selected 57 representative commensal bacterial strains to study bacteria-host interactions, focusing on PPARγ, a key nuclear receptor in colonocytes linking metabolism and inflammation to the microbiota. Conditioned media (CM) were harvested from anaerobic cultures and assessed for their ability to modulate PPARγ using a reporter cell line. Activation of PPARγ transcriptional activity was linked to the presence of butyrate and propionate, two of the main metabolites of intestinal bacteria. Interestingly, some stimulatory CMs were devoid of these metabolites. A Prevotella and an Atopobium strain were chosen for further study, and shown to up-regulate two PPARγ-target genes, ANGPTL4 and ADRP. The molecular mechanisms of these activations involved the phosphorylation of PPARγ through ERK1/2. The responsible metabolites were shown to be heat sensitive but markedly diverged in size, emphasizing the diversity of bioactive compounds found in the intestine. Here we describe different mechanisms by which single intestinal bacteria can directly impact their host’s health through transcriptional regulation. PMID:28266623

  6. Commensal gut bacteria modulate phosphorylation-dependent PPARγ transcriptional activity in human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nepelska, Malgorzata; de Wouters, Tomas; Jacouton, Elsa; Béguet-Crespel, Fabienne; Lapaque, Nicolas; Doré, Joël; Arulampalam, Velmurugesan; Blottière, Hervé M

    2017-03-07

    In healthy subjects, the intestinal microbiota interacts with the host's epithelium, regulating gene expression to the benefit of both, host and microbiota. The underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood, however. Although many gut bacteria are not yet cultured, constantly growing culture collections have been established. We selected 57 representative commensal bacterial strains to study bacteria-host interactions, focusing on PPARγ, a key nuclear receptor in colonocytes linking metabolism and inflammation to the microbiota. Conditioned media (CM) were harvested from anaerobic cultures and assessed for their ability to modulate PPARγ using a reporter cell line. Activation of PPARγ transcriptional activity was linked to the presence of butyrate and propionate, two of the main metabolites of intestinal bacteria. Interestingly, some stimulatory CMs were devoid of these metabolites. A Prevotella and an Atopobium strain were chosen for further study, and shown to up-regulate two PPARγ-target genes, ANGPTL4 and ADRP. The molecular mechanisms of these activations involved the phosphorylation of PPARγ through ERK1/2. The responsible metabolites were shown to be heat sensitive but markedly diverged in size, emphasizing the diversity of bioactive compounds found in the intestine. Here we describe different mechanisms by which single intestinal bacteria can directly impact their host's health through transcriptional regulation.

  7. Smurf2 E3 ubiquitin ligase modulates proliferation and invasiveness of breast cancer cells in a CNKSR2 dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Smurf2 is a member of the HECT family of E3 ubiquitin ligases that play important roles in determining the competence of cells to respond to TGF- β/BMP signaling pathway. However, besides TGF-β/BMP pathway, Smurf2 regulates a repertoire of other signaling pathways ranging from planar cell polarity during embryonic development to cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and senescence. Expression of Smurf2 is found to be dysregulated in many cancers including breast cancer. The purpose of the present study is to examine the effect of Smurf2 knockdown on the tumorigenic potential of human breast cancer cells emphasizing more on proliferative signaling pathway. Methods siRNAs targeting different regions of the Smurf2 mRNA were employed to knockdown the expression of Smurf2. The biological effects of synthetic siRNAs on human breast cancer cells were investigated by examining the cell proliferation, migration, invasion, focus formation, anchorage-independent growth, cell cycle arrest, and cell cycle and cell proliferation related protein expressions upon Smurf2 silencing. Results Smurf2 silencing in human breast cancer cells resulted in a decreased focus formation potential and clonogenicity as well as in vitro cell migration/invasion capabilities. Moreover, knockdown of Smurf2 suppressed cell proliferation. Cell cycle analysis showed that the anti-proliferative effect of Smurf2 siRNA was mediated by arresting cells in the G0/G1 phase, which was caused by decreased expression of cyclin D1and cdk4, followed by upregulation p21 and p27. Furthermore, we demonstrated that silencing of Smurf2 downregulated the proliferation of breast cancer cells by modulating the PI3K- PTEN-AKT-FoxO3a pathway via the scaffold protein CNKSR2 which is involved in RAS-dependent signaling pathways. The present study provides the first evidence that silencing Smurf2 using synthetic siRNAs can regulate the tumorigenic properties of human breast cancer cells in a CNKSR2

  8. Cell Intrinsic Galectin-3 Attenuates Neutrophil ROS-Dependent Killing of Candida by Modulating CR3 Downstream Syk Activation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sheng-Yang; Huang, Juin-Hua; Chen, Wen-Yu; Chan, Yi-Chen; Lin, Chun-Hung; Chen, Yee-Chun; Liu, Fu-Tong; Wu-Hsieh, Betty A.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis is a leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection. Neutrophils are the important effector cells in host resistance to candidiasis. To investigate the modulation of neutrophil fungicidal function will advance our knowledge on the control of candidiasis. While recombinant galectin-3 enhances neutrophil phagocytosis of Candida, we found that intracellular galectin-3 downregulates neutrophil fungicidal functions. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence staining reveal that cytosolic gal3 physically interacts with Syk in neutrophils after Candida stimulation. Gal3−/− neutrophils have higher level of Syk activation as well as greater abilities to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and kill Candida than gal3+/+ cells. While galectin-3 deficiency modulates neutrophil and macrophage activation and the recruitment of monocytes and dendritic cells, the deficiency does not affect the numbers of infiltrating neutrophils or macrophages. Galectin-3 deficiency ameliorates systemic candidiasis by reducing fungal burden, renal pathology, and mortality. Adoptive transfer experiments demonstrate that cell intrinsic galectin-3 negatively regulates neutrophil effector functions against candidiasis. Reducing galectin-3 expression or activity by siRNA or gal3 inhibitor TD139 enhances human neutrophil ROS production. Mice treated with TD139 have enhanced ability to clear the fungus. Our work unravels the mechanism by which galectin-3 regulates Syk-dependent neutrophil fungicidal functions and raises the possibility that blocking gal3 in neutrophils may be a promising therapeutic strategy for treating systemic candidiasis. PMID:28217127

  9. Pharmacological modulation of transmitter release by inhibition of pressure-dependent potassium currents in vestibular hair cells.

    PubMed

    Haasler, Thorsten; Homann, Georg; Duong Dinh, Thien An; Jüngling, Eberhard; Westhofen, Martin; Lückhoff, Andreas

    2009-12-01

    Vestibular vertigo may be induced by increases in the endolymphatic pressure that activate pressure-dependent K(+) currents (I(K,p)) in vestibular hair cells. I(K,p) have been demonstrated to modulate transmitter release and are inhibited by low concentrations of cinnarizine. Beneficial effects against vestibular vertigo of cinnarizine have been attributed to its inhibition of calcium currents. Our aim was to determine the extent by which the inhibition of I(K,p) by cinnarizine may alter the voltage response to stimulating currents and to analyze whether such alterations may be sufficient to modulate the activation of Ca(2+) currents and transmitter release. Vestibular type II hair cells from guinea pigs were studied using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. In current clamp, voltage responses to trains of stimulating currents were recorded. In voltage clamp, transmitter release was assessed from changes in the cell capacitance, as calculated from the phase shift during application of sine waves. Cinnarizine (0.05-3 microM) concentration dependently reversed the depressing effects of increases in the hydrostatic pressure (from 0.2 to 0.5 cm H(2)O) on the voltage responses to stimulating currents. Voltage protocols that simulated these responses were applied in voltage clamp and revealed a significantly enhanced transmitter release in conditions mimicking an inhibition of I(K,p). Cinnarizine (< or =0.5 microM) did not inhibit calcium currents. We conclude that cinnarizine, in pharmacologically relevant concentrations, enhances transmitter release in the presence of elevated hydrostatic pressure by an indirect mechanism, involving inhibition of I(K,p), enhancing depolarization, and increasing the voltage-dependent activation of Ca(2+) currents, without directly affecting Ca(2+) current.

  10. T Cell Subset and Stimulation Strength-Dependent Modulation of T Cell Activation by Kv1.3 Blockers

    PubMed Central

    Fung-Leung, Wai-Ping; Edwards, Wilson; Liu, Yi; Ngo, Karen; Angsana, Julianty; Castro, Glenda; Wu, Nancy; Liu, Xuejun; Swanson, Ronald V.; Wickenden, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    Kv1.3 is a voltage-gated potassium channel expressed on T cells that plays an important role in T cell activation. Previous studies have shown that blocking Kv1.3 channels in human T cells during activation results in reduced calcium entry, cytokine production, and proliferation. The aim of the present study was to further explore the effects of Kv1.3 blockers on the response of different human T cell subsets under various stimulation conditions. Our studies show that, unlike the immune suppressor cyclosporine A, the inhibitory effect of Kv1.3 blockers was partial and stimulation strength dependent, with reduced inhibitory efficacy on T cells under strengthened anti-CD3/CD28 stimulations. T cell responses to allergens including house dust mites and ragweed were partially reduced by Kv1.3 blockers. The effect of Kv1.3 inhibition was dependent on T cell subsets, with stronger effects on CCR7- effector memory compared to CCR7+ central memory CD4 T cells. Calcium entry studies also revealed a population of CD4 T cells resistant to Kv1.3 blockade. Activation of CD4 T cells was accompanied with an increase in Kv1.3 currents but Kv1.3 transcripts were found to be reduced, suggesting a posttranscriptional mechanism in the regulation of Kv1.3 activities. In summary, Kv1.3 blockers inhibit T cell activation in a manner that is highly dependent on the T cell identity and stimulation strength, These findings suggest that Kv1.3 blockers inhibit T cells in a unique, conditional manner, further refining our understanding of the therapeutic potential of Kv1.3 blockers. PMID:28107393

  11. Genistein modulates prostate epithelial cell proliferation via estrogen- and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingya; Clubbs, Elizabeth A; Bomser, Joshua A

    2006-03-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that consumption of soy is associated with a decreased risk for prostate cancer. Genistein, the most abundant isoflavone present in soy, is thought to be responsible, in part, for these anticancer effects. The present study examined the effects of genistein on cellular proliferation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) activity and apoptosis in a nontumorigenic human prostate epithelial cell line (RWPE-1). Low concentrations of genistein (0-12.5 micromol/L) significantly increased cell proliferation and ERK1/2 activity (P<.01) in RWPE-1 cells, while higher concentrations (50 and 100 micromol/L) of genistein significantly inhibited cell proliferation and ERK1/2 activity (P<.001). A similar biphasic effect of genistein on MEK1 activity, an ERK1/2 kinase, was also observed. Pretreatment of cells with a MEK1 inhibitor (PD 098059) significantly blocked genistein-induced proliferation and ERK1/2 activity (P<.01). In addition, treatment of cells with ICI 182,780, a pure antiestrogen, inhibited genistein-induced RWPE-1 proliferation and ERK1/2 signaling. Taken together, these results suggest that genistein modulates RWPE-1 cell proliferation and signal transduction via an estrogen-dependent pathway involving ERK1/2 activation.

  12. Chloride-dependent acceleration of cell cycle via modulation of Rb and cdc2 in osteoblastic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, Masahiro; Miyazaki, Hiroaki; Nakajima, Ken-ichi; Yamane, Junko; Niisato, Naomi; Morihara, Toru; Kubo, Toshikazu; Marunaka, Yoshinori

    2007-10-05

    In the present study, we investigated if Cl{sup -} regulates the proliferation of the MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. The proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells was diminished by lowering the extracellular Cl{sup -} concentration ([Cl{sup -}]{sub o}) in the culture medium. The lowered in [Cl{sup -}]{sub o} increased the periods of the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} and the G{sub 2}/M phases in cell cycle. We further studied the effects of [Cl{sup -}]{sub o} on the key enzymes, Rb and cdc2, playing key roles in checking points of the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} and the G{sub 2}/M phases in cell cycle. The lowered in [Cl{sup -}]{sub o} diminished the active forms of enzymes, Rb and cdc2. We further found that the action of lowered [Cl{sup -}]{sub o} on the cell proliferation, the cell cycle, Rb and cdc2 was abolished by the presence of 2 mM glutamine, but not by that of pyruvate as another Krebs cycle substrate. Taken together, these observations indicate here for the first time that Cl{sup -} modulates Rb and cdc2, enhancing the proliferation of the MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells.

  13. Behavioral-state modulation of inhibition is context-dependent and cell type specific in mouse visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Pakan, Janelle MP; Lowe, Scott C; Dylda, Evelyn; Keemink, Sander W; Currie, Stephen P; Coutts, Christopher A; Rochefort, Nathalie L

    2016-01-01

    Cortical responses to sensory stimuli are modulated by behavioral state. In the primary visual cortex (V1), visual responses of pyramidal neurons increase during locomotion. This response gain was suggested to be mediated through inhibitory neurons, resulting in the disinhibition of pyramidal neurons. Using in vivo two-photon calcium imaging in layers 2/3 and 4 in mouse V1, we reveal that locomotion increases the activity of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), somatostatin (SST) and parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons during visual stimulation, challenging the disinhibition model. In darkness, while most VIP and PV neurons remained locomotion responsive, SST and excitatory neurons were largely non-responsive. Context-dependent locomotion responses were found in each cell type, with the highest proportion among SST neurons. These findings establish that modulation of neuronal activity by locomotion is context-dependent and contest the generality of a disinhibitory circuit for gain control of sensory responses by behavioral state. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14985.001 PMID:27552056

  14. Reishi immuno-modulation protein induces interleukin-2 expression via protein kinase-dependent signaling pathways within human T cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsien-Yeh; Hua, Kuo-Feng; Wu, Wei-Chi; Hsu, Jason; Weng, Shih-Ting; Lin, Tsai-Leng; Liu, Chun-Yi; Hseu, Ruey-Shyang; Huang, Ching-Tsan

    2008-04-01

    Ganoderma lucidum, a medicinal fungus is thought to possess and enhance a variety of human immune functions. An immuno-modulatory protein, Ling Zhi-8 (LZ-8) isolated from G. lucidum exhibited potent mitogenic effects upon human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). However, LZ-8-mediated signal transduction in the regulation of interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene expression within human T cells is largely unknown. Here we cloned the LZ-8 gene of G. lucidum, and expressed the recombinant LZ-8 protein (rLZ-8) by means of a yeast Pichia pastoris protein expression system. We found that rLZ-8 induces IL-2 gene expression via the Src-family protein tyrosine kinase (PTK), via reactive oxygen species (ROS), and differential protein kinase-dependent pathways within human primary T cells and cultured Jurkat T cells. In essence, we have established the nature of the rLZ-8-mediated signal-transduction pathways, such as PTK/protein kinase C (PKC)/ROS, PTK/PLC/PKCalpha/ERK1/2, and PTK/PLC/PKCalpha/p38 pathways in the regulation of IL-2 gene expression within human T cells. Our current results of analyzing rLZ-8-mediated signal transduction in T cells might provide a potential application for rLZ-8 as a pharmacological immune-modulating agent.

  15. SHOEBOX Modulates Root Meristem Size in Rice through Dose-Dependent Effects of Gibberellins on Cell Elongation and Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jintao; Zhao, Yu; Chu, Huangwei; Wang, Likai; Fu, Yanru; Liu, Ping; Upadhyaya, Narayana; Chen, Chunli; Mou, Tongmin; Feng, Yuqi; Kumar, Prakash; Xu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how the size of meristem cells is regulated and whether it participates in the control of meristem size in plants. Here, we report our findings on shoebox (shb), a mild gibberellin (GA) deficient rice mutant that has a short root meristem size. Quantitative analysis of cortical cell length and number indicates that shb has shorter, rather than fewer, cells in the root meristem until around the fifth day after sowing, from which the number of cortical cells is also reduced. These defects can be either corrected by exogenous application of bioactive GA or induced in wild-type roots by a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of paclobutrazol on GA biosynthesis, suggesting that GA deficiency is the primary cause of shb mutant phenotypes. SHB encodes an AP2/ERF transcription factor that directly activates transcription of the GA biosynthesis gene KS1. Thus, root meristem size in rice is modulated by SHB-mediated GA biosynthesis that regulates the elongation and proliferation of meristem cells in a developmental stage-specific manner. PMID:26275148

  16. Apoptotic cell death during Drosophila oogenesis is differentially increased by electromagnetic radiation depending on modulation, intensity and duration of exposure.

    PubMed

    Sagioglou, Niki E; Manta, Areti K; Giannarakis, Ioannis K; Skouroliakou, Aikaterini S; Margaritis, Lukas H

    2016-01-01

    Present generations are being repeatedly exposed to different types and doses of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) from wireless technologies (FM radio, TETRA and TV stations, GSM and UMTS phones/base stations, Wi-Fi networks, DECT phones). Although there is controversy on the published data regarding the non-thermal effects of NIR, studies have convincingly demonstrated bioeffects. Their results indicate that modulation, intensity, exposure duration and model system are important factors determining the biological response to irradiation. Attempting to address the dependence of NIR bioeffectiveness on these factors, apoptosis in the model biological system Drosophila melanogaster was studied under different exposure protocols. A signal generator was used operating alternatively under Continuous Wave (CW) or Frequency Modulation (FM) emission modes, at three power output values (10 dB, 0, -10 dB), under four carrier frequencies (100, 395, 682, 900 MHz). Newly emerged flies were exposed either acutely (6 min or 60 min on the 6th day), or repeatedly (6 min or 60 min daily for the first 6 days of their life). All exposure protocols resulted in an increase of apoptotic cell death (ACD) observed in egg chambers, even at very low electric field strengths. FM waves seem to have a stronger effect in ACD than continuous waves. Regarding intensity and temporal exposure pattern, EMF-biological tissue interaction is not linear in response. Intensity threshold for the induction of biological effects depends on frequency, modulation and temporal exposure pattern with unknown so far mechanisms. Given this complexity, translating such experimental data into possible human exposure guidelines is yet arbitrary.

  17. T cell receptor-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of beta2-chimaerin modulates its Rac-GAP function in T cells.

    PubMed

    Siliceo, María; Mérida, Isabel

    2009-04-24

    The actin cytoskeleton has an important role in the organization and function of the immune synapse during antigen recognition. Dynamic rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton in response to T cell receptor (TCR) triggering requires the coordinated activation of Rho family GTPases that cycle between active and inactive conformations. This is controlled by GTPase-activating proteins (GAP), which regulate inactivation of Rho GTPases, and guanine exchange factors, which mediate their activation. Whereas much attention has centered on guanine exchange factors for Rho GTPases in T cell activation, the identity and functional roles of the GAP in this process are largely unknown. We previously reported beta2-chimaerin as a diacylglycerol-regulated Rac-GAP that is expressed in T cells. We now demonstrate Lck-dependent phosphorylation of beta2-chimaerin in response to TCR triggering. We identify Tyr-153 as the Lck-dependent phosphorylation residue and show that its phosphorylation negatively regulates membrane stabilization of beta2-chimaerin, decreasing its GAP activity to Rac. This study establishes the existence of TCR-dependent regulation of beta2-chimaerin and identifies a novel mechanism for its inactivation.

  18. Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells Modulate the Neuronal Network by Activity-Dependent Ectodomain Cleavage of Glial NG2

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jeet; Frischknecht, Renato; Marongiu, Daniele; Binamé, Fabien; Perera, Sumudhu S.; Endres, Kristina; Lutz, Beat; Radyushkin, Konstantin; Trotter, Jacqueline; Mittmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The role of glia in modulating neuronal network activity is an important question. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) characteristically express the transmembrane proteoglycan nerve-glia antigen 2 (NG2) and are unique glial cells receiving synaptic input from neurons. The development of NG2+ OPC into myelinating oligodendrocytes has been well studied, yet the retention of a large population of synapse-bearing OPC in the adult brain poses the question as to additional functional roles of OPC in the neuronal network. Here we report that activity-dependent processing of NG2 by OPC-expressed secretases functionally regulates the neuronal network. NG2 cleavage by the α-secretase ADAM10 yields an ectodomain present in the extracellular matrix and a C-terminal fragment that is subsequently further processed by the γ-secretase to release an intracellular domain. ADAM10-dependent NG2 ectodomain cleavage and release (shedding) in acute brain slices or isolated OPC is increased by distinct activity-increasing stimuli. Lack of NG2 expression in OPC (NG2-knockout mice), or pharmacological inhibition of NG2 ectodomain shedding in wild-type OPC, results in a striking reduction of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) in pyramidal neurons of the somatosensory cortex and alterations in the subunit composition of their α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepr opionicacid (AMPA) receptors. In NG2-knockout mice these neurons exhibit diminished AMPA and NMDA receptor-dependent current amplitudes; strikingly AMPA receptor currents can be rescued by application of conserved LNS protein domains of the NG2 ectodomain. Furthermore, NG2-knockout mice exhibit altered behavior in tests measuring sensorimotor function. These results demonstrate for the first time a bidirectional cross-talk between OPC and the surrounding neuronal network and demonstrate a novel physiological role for OPC in regulating information processing at neuronal synapses. PMID

  19. Redox modulation of tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent neutrophil adherence to endothelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibodeau, Paul A.; Gozin, Alexia; Gougerot-Pocidalo, Marie-Anne; Pasquier, Catherine

    2005-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are now well known to be involved in an increased interaction between neutrophils and endothelial cells. Previously, we have shown that the increased adhesion of neutrophils to ROS-stimulated endothelial cells involves an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase, p125 FAK, and several cytoskeleton proteins. This review article focuses on the involvement of adhesion molecules in the increased adhesion of neutrophils to ROS-stimulated endothelial cells, on the oxygen species responsible for this adhesion, and on the intracellular signaling pathway leading to the modification of the cytoskeleton by ROS. The evidence from our laboratory and others describing these events is summarized. Finally, the future perspectives that need to be explored in order to inhibit or reduce the ROS-mediated adhesion of neutrophils to endothelial cells are addressed.

  20. Modulation of Intracellular Calcium Levels by Calcium Lactate Affects Colon Cancer Cell Motility through Calcium-Dependent Calpain

    PubMed Central

    Sundaramoorthy, Pasupathi; Sim, Jae Jun; Jang, Yeong-Su; Mishra, Siddhartha Kumar; Jeong, Keun-Yeong; Mander, Poonam; Chul, Oh Byung; Shim, Won-Sik; Oh, Seung Hyun; Nam, Ky-Youb; Kim, Hwan Mook

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cell motility is a key phenomenon regulating invasion and metastasis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a major role in cellular adhesion and metastasis of various cancers. The relationship between dietary supplementation of calcium and colon cancer has been extensively investigated. However, the effect of calcium (Ca2+) supplementation on calpain-FAK-motility is not clearly understood. We sought to identify the mechanism of FAK cleavage through Ca2+ bound lactate (CaLa), its downstream signaling and role in the motility of human colon cancer cells. We found that treating HCT116 and HT-29 cells with CaLa immediately increased the intracellular Ca2+ (iCa2+) levels for a prolonged period of time. Ca2+ influx induced cleavage of FAK into an N-terminal FAK (FERM domain) in a dose-dependent manner. Phosphorylated FAK (p-FAK) was also cleaved in to its p-N-terminal FAK. CaLa increased colon cancer cells motility. Calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor, reversed the effects of CaLa on FAK and pFAK cleavage in both cancer cell lines. The cleaved FAK translocates into the nucleus and modulates p53 stability through MDM2-associated ubiquitination. CaLa-induced Ca2+ influx increased the motility of colon cancer cells was mediated by calpain activity through FAK and pFAK protein destabilization. In conclusion, these results suggest that careful consideration may be given in deciding dietary Ca2+ supplementation to patient undergoing treatment for metastatic cancer. PMID:25629974

  1. Nrdp1 inhibits metastasis of colorectal cancer cells by EGFR signaling-dependent MMP7 modulation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yongsheng; Sun, Shaochuan; Liu, Guoqin; Yan, Bing; Niu, Jun

    2015-02-01

    The molecular mechanism underlying cancer invasiveness and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) remains elusive. Here we reported a strong correlation of the levels of neuregulin receptor degradation protein-1 (Nrdp1) and matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7) in CRC from the patients. We then used a human CRC line, Caco-2, to study the underlying molecular basis. We found that Nrdp1 inhibited the phosphorylation of ErB3, a key player in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in Caco-2 cells, which is required for activation of MMP7 to promote cell invasion. Our findings thus reveal Nrdp1, EGFR signaling, and MMP7 as promising therapeutic targets for preventing the metastasis of CRC.

  2. A replication-dependent passive mechanism modulates DNA demethylation in mouse primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Rika; Nakayama, Megumi; Naruse, Chie; Okashita, Naoki; Takano, Osamu; Tachibana, Makoto; Asano, Masahide; Saitou, Mitinori; Seki, Yoshiyuki

    2013-07-01

    Germline cells reprogramme extensive epigenetic modifications to ensure the cellular totipotency of subsequent generations and to prevent the accumulation of epimutations. Notably, primordial germ cells (PGCs) erase genome-wide DNA methylation and H3K9 dimethylation marks in a stepwise manner during migration and gonadal periods. In this study, we profiled DNA and histone methylation on transposable elements during PGC development, and examined the role of DNA replication in DNA demethylation in gonadal PGCs. CpGs in short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) B1 and B2 were substantially demethylated in migrating PGCs, whereas CpGs in long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs), such as LINE-1, were resistant to early demethylation. By contrast, CpGs in both LINE-1 and SINEs were rapidly demethylated in gonadal PGCs. Four major modifiers of DNA and histone methylation, Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, Glp and Uhrf1, were actively repressed at distinct stages of PGC development. DNMT1 was localised at replication foci in nascent PGCs, whereas the efficiency of recruitment of DNMT1 into replication foci was severely impaired in gonadal PGCs. Hairpin bisulphite sequencing analysis showed that strand-specific hemi-methylated CpGs on LINE-1 were predominant in gonadal PGCs. Furthermore, DNA demethylation in SINEs and LINE-1 was impaired in Cbx3-deficient PGCs, indicating abnormalities in G1 to S phase progression. We propose that PGCs employ active and passive mechanisms for efficient and widespread erasure of genomic DNA methylation.

  3. Antibody-induced antigenic modulation is antigen dependent: characterization of 22 proteins on a malignant human B cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Pesando, J.M.; Hoffman, P.; Abed, M.

    1986-12-01

    Expression of several of the surface antigens on normal and malignant hematopoietic cells is reduced or is modulated by incubation with specific antibodies. Although antigenic modulation provides a means by which cells can escape antibody-mediated immune destruction, the physiologic significance and frequency of this phenomenon are both poorly understood. To begin to address these issues, the authors identified and characterized surface antigens on the malignant B cell line Laz 221 established from a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Indirect immunofluorescence analysis with the use of 26 hematopoietic cell populations and immune precipitation studies with the use of iodinated ALL cells indicate the 163 monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) identify 22 different proteins on this cell line, including at least six previously described surface molecules. Seven of these antigens are expressed by all nucleated cells examined, whereas only the ..mu.. chain of immunoglobulin is B cell specific. Studies that made use of multiple MoAb specific for the same antigen suggest that the capacity for antigenic modulation is an intrinsic property of individual antigens. These studies also suggest that the murine immune response to shared human antigens varies from one immunizing cell population to another. Immunogenicity of individual human antigens in the mouse may be a function of their cell surface environment.

  4. Angiotensin II Signaling in Human Preadipose Cells: Participation of ERK1,2-Dependent Modulation of Akt

    PubMed Central

    Dünner, Natalia; Quezada, Carolina; Berndt, F. Andrés; Cánovas, José; Rojas, Cecilia V.

    2013-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system expressed in adipose tissue has been implicated in the modulation of adipocyte formation, glucose metabolism, triglyceride accumulation, lipolysis, and the onset of the adverse metabolic consequences of obesity. As we investigated angiotensin II signal transduction mechanisms in human preadipose cells, an interplay of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1,2) and Akt/PKB became evident. Angiotensin II caused attenuation of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), at serine 473; the p-Akt/Akt ratio decreased to 0.5±0.2-fold the control value without angiotensin II (p<0.001). Here we report that the reduction of phosphorylated Akt associates with ERK1,2 activities. In the absence of angiotensin II, inhibition of ERK1,2 activation with U0126 or PD98059 resulted in a 2.1±0.5 (p<0.001) and 1.4±0.2-fold (p<0.05) increase in the p-Akt/Akt ratio, respectively. In addition, partial knockdown of ERK1 protein expression by the short hairpin RNA technique also raised phosphorylated Akt in these cells (the p-Akt/Akt ratio was 1.5±0.1-fold the corresponding control; p<0.05). Furthermore, inhibition of ERK1,2 activation with U0126 prevented the reduction of p-Akt/Akt by angiotensin II. An analogous effect was found on the phosphorylation status of Akt downstream effectors, the forkhead box (Fox) proteins O1 and O4. Altogether, these results indicate that angiotensin II signaling in human preadipose cells involves an ERK1,2-dependent attenuation of Akt activity, whose impact on the biological functions under its regulation is not fully understood. PMID:24098385

  5. Apple phytochemical extracts inhibit proliferation of estrogen-dependent and estrogen-independent human breast cancer cells through cell cycle modulation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jie; Liu, Rui Hai

    2008-12-24

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women in the United States. Dietary modification, particularly increased intake of fruits and vegetables, has been consistently associated with a reduced risk of various cancers, including breast cancer. Apples are a major source of dietary phytochemicals and flavonoids and possess potent antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity in vitro. However, the molecular mechanisms of the anticancer properties of apple phytochemical extracts are not completely understood. In this study a possible mechanism by which apple extracts could inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro using estrogen-dependent MCF-7 and estrogen-independent MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines was analyzed. The data showed that apple phytochemical extracts significantly inhibited human breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation at concentrations of 10-80 mg/mL (p < 0.05). DNA flow cytometric analysis showed that apple extracts significantly induced G1 arrest in MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations >20 mg/mL (p < 0.05). At concentrations of 15, 30, and 50 mg/mL, apple extracts caused a greater increase in the G1/S ratio in MDA-MB-231 cells when compared with MCF-7 cells (p < 0.05). Cyclin D1 and Cdk4 proteins, the two major G1/S transit regulators, decreased in a dose-dependent manner after exposure to apple extracts. These results suggest that the antiproliferative activities of apple phytochemical extracts toward human breast cancer cells might be due to the modulation effects on cell cycle machinery.

  6. Voltage-dependent modulation of single N-Type Ca2+ channel kinetics by receptor agonists in IMR32 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Carabelli, V; Lovallo, M; Magnelli, V; Zucker, H; Carbone, E

    1996-01-01

    The voltage-dependent inhibition of single N-type Ca(2+) channels by noradrenaline (NA) and the delta-opioid agonist D-Pen(2)-D-Pen (5)-enkephalin (DPDPE) was investigated in cell-attached patches of human neuroblastoma IMR32 cells with 100 mM Ba(2+) and 5 microM nifedipine to block L-type channels. In 70% of patches, addition of 20 microM NA + 1 microM DPDPE delayed markedly the first channel openings, causing a four- to fivefold increase of the first latency at +20 mV. The two agonists or NA alone decreased also by 35% the open probability (P(o)), prolonged partially the mean closed time, and increased the number of null sweeps. In contrast, NA + DPDPE had little action on the single-channel conductance (19 versus 19.2 pS) and minor effects on the mean open time. Similarly to macroscopic Ba(2+) currents, the ensemble currents were fast activating at control but slowly activating and depressed with the two agonists. Inhibition of single N-type channels was effectively removed (facilitated) by short and large depolarizations. Facilitatory pre-pulses increased P(o) significantly and decreased fourfold the first latency. Ensemble currents were small and slowly activating before pre-pulses and became threefold larger and fast decaying after facilitation. Our data suggest that slowdown of Ca(2+) channel activation by transmitters is mostly due to delayed transitions from a modified to a normal (facilitated) gating mode. This single-channel gating modulation could be well simulated by a Monte Carlo method using previously proposed kinetic models predicting marked prolongation of first channel openings. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 7 PMID:9172738

  7. Modulation of T-bet and Eomes during Maturation of Peripheral Blood NK Cells Does Not Depend on Licensing/Educating KIR.

    PubMed

    Pradier, Amandine; Simonetta, Federico; Waldvogel, Sophie; Bosshard, Carine; Tiercy, Jean-Marie; Roosnek, Eddy

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral natural killer (NK) cells upregulate T-bet and downregulate Eomes, the key transcription factors regulating NK cell maturation and function during the last maturation steps toward terminally differentiated effector cells. During this process, NK cells acquire killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and effector functions, such as cytotoxicity and target cell-induced cytokine production. Inhibitory KIR are pivotal in the control of effector functions, but whether they also modulate T-bet/Eomes expression is unknown. We have measured T-bet/Eomes levels, KIR expression, and effector functions of maturing CD94(neg)CD56(dim)NK cells using CD57 as surface marker for maturation. Our cohort consisted of 23 healthy blood donors (HBD) homozygous for the KIR A haplotype that contains only inhibitory KIR2DL1 (ligand HLA-C2), KIR2DL3 (ligand HLA-C1), and KIR3DL1 (ligand HLA-Bw4). We confirm that during maturation of NK cells, the number of KIR increases, levels of T-bet/Eomes are modulated, and that cells acquire effector functions, such as cytotoxicity (CD107) and target cell-induced cytokine production (TNF-α). Because maturation was associated with the increase of the number of KIR as well as with the modulation of T-bet/Eomes, the number of KIR correlated with the extent of T-bet/Eomes modulation. However, whether the KIR were triggered by their cognate HLA ligands or not had no impact on T-bet and Eomes expression, indicating that modulation of T-box transcription factors during NK cell maturation does not depend on signals conveyed by KIR. We discuss the relevance of this finding in the context of models of NK cell maturation while cautioning that results obtained in a perhaps quite heterogeneous cohort of HBD are not necessarily conclusive.

  8. Redox-modulating agents target NOX2-dependent IKKε oncogenic kinase expression and proliferation in human breast cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Mukawera, Espérance; Chartier, Stefany; Williams, Virginie; Pagano, Patrick J.; Lapointe, Réjean; Grandvaux, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is considered a causative factor in carcinogenesis, but also in the development of resistance to current chemotherapies. The appropriate usage of redox-modulating compounds is limited by the lack of knowledge of their impact on specific molecular pathways. Increased levels of the IKKε kinase, as a result of gene amplification or aberrant expression, are observed in a substantial number of breast carcinomas. IKKε not only plays a key role in cell transformation and invasiveness, but also in the development of resistance to tamoxifen. Here, we studied the effect of in vitro treatment with the redox-modulating triphenylmethane dyes, Gentian Violet and Brilliant Green, and nitroxide Tempol on IKKε expression and cell proliferation in the human breast cancer epithelial cell lines exhibiting amplification of IKKε, MCF-7 and ZR75.1. We show that Gentian Violet, Brilliant Green and Tempol significantly decrease intracellular superoxide anion levels and inhibit IKKε expression and cell viability. Treatment with Gentian Violet and Brilliant Green was associated with a reduced cyclin D1 expression and activation of caspase 3 and/or 7. Tempol decreased cyclin D1 expression in both cell lines, while activation of caspase 7 was only observed in MCF-7 cells. Silencing of the superoxide-generating NOX2 NADPH oxidase expressed in breast cancer cells resulted in the significant reduction of IKKε expression. Taken together, our results suggest that redox-modulating compounds targeting NOX2 could present a particular therapeutic interest in combination therapy against breast carcinomas exhibiting IKKε amplification. PMID:26177467

  9. PLC-β2 is modulated by low oxygen availability in breast tumor cells and plays a phenotype dependent role in their hypoxia-related malignant potential.

    PubMed

    Brugnoli, Federica; Grassilli, Silvia; Al-Qassab, Yasamin; Capitani, Silvano; Bertagnolo, Valeria

    2016-12-01

    Limited oxygen availability plays a critical role in the malignant progression of breast cancer by orchestrating a complex modulation of the gene transcription largely dependent on the tumor phenotype. Invasive breast tumors belonging to different molecular subtypes are characterized by over-expression of PLC-β2, whose amount positively correlates with the malignant evolution of breast neoplasia and supports the invasive potential of breast tumor cells. Here we report that hypoxia modulates the expression of PLC-β2 in breast tumor cells in a phenotype-related manner, since a decrease of the protein was observed in the BT-474 and MCF7 cell lines while an increase was revealed in MDA-MB-231 cells as a consequence of low oxygen availability. Under hypoxia, the down-modulation of PLC-β2 was mainly correlated with the decrease of the EMT marker E-cadherin in the BT-474 cells and with the up-regulation of the stem cell marker CD133 in MCF7 cells. The increase of PLC-β2 induced by low oxygen in MDA-MB-231 cells supports the hypoxia-related reorganization of actin cytoskeleton and sustains invasion capability. In all examined cell lines, but with an opposite role in the ER-positive and ER-negative cells, PLC-β2 was involved in the hypoxia-induced increase of HIF-1α, known to affect both EMT and CD133 expression. Our data include PLC-β2 in the complex and interconnected signaling pathways induced by low oxygen availability in breast tumor cells and suggest that the forced modulation of PLC-β2 programmed on the basis of tumor phenotype may prevent the malignant progression of breast neoplasia as a consequence of intra-tumoral hypoxia. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Cisplatin modulates B-cell translocation gene 2 to attenuate cell proliferation of prostate carcinoma cells in both p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Tsui, Ke-Hung; Chung, Li-Chuan; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Feng, Tsui-Hsia; Chen, Wen-Tsung; Chang, Phei-Lang; Chiang, Hou-Yu; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2014-07-01

    Cisplatin is a widely used anti-cancer drug. The B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) is involved in the cell cycle transition regulation. We evaluated the cisplatin effects on prostate cancer cell proliferation and the expressions of BTG2, p53, androgen receptor (AR) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in prostate carcinoma, p53 wild-type LNCaP or p53-null PC-3, cells. Cisplatin treatments attenuated cell prostate cancer cell growth through inducing Go/G1 cell cycle arrest in lower concentration and apoptosis at higher dosage. Cisplatin treatments enhanced p53 and BTG2 expression, repressed AR and PSA expression, and blocked the activation of androgen on the PSA secretion in LNCaP cells. BTG2 knockdown in LNCaP cells attenuated cisplatin-mediated growth inhibition. Cisplatin enhanced BTG2 gene expression dependent on the DNA fragment located within -173 to -82 upstream of BTG2 translation initiation site in prostate cancer cells. Mutation of the p53 response element from GGGCAGAGCCC to GGGCACC or mutation of the NFκB response element from GGAAAGTCC to GGAAAGGAA by site-directed mutagenesis abolished the stimulation of cisplatin on the BTG2 promoter activity in LNCaP or PC-3 cells, respectively. Our results indicated that cisplatin attenuates prostate cancer cell proliferation partly mediated by upregulation of BTG2 through the p53-dependent pathway or p53-independent NFκB pathway.

  11. Transparent solar cell module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonides, G. J.; Dillard, P. A.; Fritz, W. M.; Lott, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    Modified solar cell module uses high transmission glass and adhesives, and heat dissipation to boost power per unit area by 25% (9.84% efficiency based on cell area at 60 C and 100 mW/sq cm flux). Design is suited for automatic production and is potentially more cost effective.

  12. Environmental enrichment modulates intrinsic cellular excitability of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in a housing duration and anatomical location-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Valero-Aracama, María Jesús; Sauvage, Magdalena M; Yoshida, Motoharu

    2015-10-01

    Housing animals in enriched environments (EEs) results in improved learning and memory (L&M) performance. While increased intrinsic cellular excitability in the hippocampal neurons might underlie the environmental enrichment-dependent L&M enhancement, literature in respect to this remains scarce and controversial. In this study, we explore whether intrinsic cellular excitability in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells is modulated differently, depending on housing duration and anatomical location of cells. Using in vitro patch clamp recordings in mice, we first demonstrate that cellular excitability of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells is significantly increased only in animals housed in an EE for a relatively short (<40 days) duration. Second, anatomical analysis shows that increased excitability is mainly restricted to the dorsal and proximal sections of the CA1 region. Further analysis reveals that the input resistance and the spike threshold, which are differently modulated by anatomical location and housing duration, respectively, may underlie the increased excitability. These results indicate that housing duration and anatomical location are crucial factors for environmental enrichment-dependent modulations of intrinsic excitability. While the dorsally restricted increase in excitability is in agreement with the specific up-regulation of L&M supported by the dorsal hippocampus, the selective modulation of the proximal area is in line with enhanced spatial abilities often observed after environmental enrichment. The housing duration specificity we observed here, together with previous findings, suggests that the modulation of some physiological properties by an environmental enrichment is transient. Finally, these results could coherently account for earlier controversial reports.

  13. Histone deacetylase inhibitors potentiate vesicular stomatitis virus oncolysis in prostate cancer cells by modulating NF-κB-dependent autophagy.

    PubMed

    Shulak, Laura; Beljanski, Vladimir; Chiang, Cindy; Dutta, Sucharita M; Van Grevenynghe, Julien; Belgnaoui, S Mehdi; Nguyên, Thi Lien-Anh; Di Lenardo, Thomas; Semmes, O John; Lin, Rongtuan; Hiscott, John

    2014-03-01

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an oncolytic virus that induces cancer cell death through activation of the apoptotic pathway. Intrinsic resistance to oncolysis is found in some cell lines and many primary tumors as a consequence of residual innate immunity to VSV. In resistant-tumor models, VSV oncolytic potential can be reversibly stimulated by combination with epigenetic modulators, such as the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat. Based on this reversible effect of vorinostat, we reasoned that critical host genes involved in oncolysis may likewise be reversibly regulated by vorinostat. A transcriptome analysis in prostate cancer PC3 cells identified a subset of NF-κB target genes reversibly regulated by vorinostat, as well as a group of interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs). Consistent with the induction of NF-κB target genes, vorinostat-mediated enhancement of VSV oncolysis increased hyperacetylation of NF-κB RELA/p65. Additional bioinformatics analysis revealed that NF-κB signaling also increased the expression of several autophagy-related genes. Kinetically, autophagy preceded apoptosis, and apoptosis was observed only when cells were treated with both VSV and vorinostat. VSV replication and cell killing were suppressed when NF-κB signaling was inhibited using pharmacological or genetic approaches. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) enhanced expression of ISGs, and either 3-MA treatment or genetic ablation of the autophagic marker Atg5 decreased VSV replication and oncolysis. Together, these data demonstrate that vorinostat stimulates NF-κB activity in a reversible manner via modulation of RELA/p65 signaling, leading to induction of autophagy, suppression of the IFN-mediated response, and subsequent enhancement of VSV replication and apoptosis.

  14. Secreted CLCA1 modulates TMEM16A to activate Ca(2+)-dependent chloride currents in human cells.

    PubMed

    Sala-Rabanal, Monica; Yurtsever, Zeynep; Nichols, Colin G; Brett, Tom J

    2015-03-17

    Calcium-activated chloride channel regulator 1 (CLCA1) activates calcium-dependent chloride currents; neither the target, nor mechanism, is known. We demonstrate that secreted CLCA1 activates calcium-dependent chloride currents in HEK293T cells in a paracrine fashion, and endogenous TMEM16A/Anoctamin1 conducts the currents. Exposure to exogenous CLCA1 increases cell surface levels of TMEM16A and cellular binding experiments indicate CLCA1 engages TMEM16A on the surface of these cells. Altogether, our data suggest that CLCA1 stabilizes TMEM16A on the cell surface, thus increasing surface expression, which results in increased calcium-dependent chloride currents. Our results identify the first Cl(-) channel target of the CLCA family of proteins and establish CLCA1 as the first secreted direct modifier of TMEM16A activity, delineating a unique mechanism to increase currents. These results suggest cooperative roles for CLCA and TMEM16 proteins in influencing the physiology of multiple tissues, and the pathology of multiple diseases, including asthma, COPD, cystic fibrosis, and certain cancers.

  15. Identification of VLDLR as a novel endothelial cell receptor for fibrin that modulates fibrin-dependent transendothelial migration of leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Yakovlev, Sergiy; Mikhailenko, Irina; Cao, Chunzhang; Zhang, Li; Strickland, Dudley K; Medved, Leonid

    2012-01-12

    While testing the effect of the (β15-66)(2) fragment, which mimics a pair of fibrin βN-domains, on the morphology of endothelial cells, we found that this fragment induces redistribution of vascular endothelial-cadherin in a process that is inhibited by the receptor-associated protein (RAP). Based on this finding, we hypothesized that fibrin may interact with members of RAP-dependent low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor family. To test this hypothesis, we examined the interaction of (β15-66)(2), fibrin, and several fibrin-derived fragments with 2 members of this family by ELISA and surface plasmon resonance. The experiments showed that very LDL (VLDL) receptor (VLDLR) interacts with high affinity with fibrin through its βN-domains, and this interaction is inhibited by RAP and (β15-66)(2). Furthermore, RAP inhibited transendothelial migration of neutrophils induced by fibrin-derived NDSK-II fragment containing βN-domains, suggesting the involvement of VLDLR in fibrin-dependent leukocyte transmigration. Our experiments with VLDLR-deficient mice confirmed this suggestion by showing that, in contrast to wild-type mice, fibrin-dependent leukocyte transmigration does not occur in such mice. Altogether, the present study identified VLDLR as a novel endothelial cell receptor for fibrin that promotes fibrin-dependent leukocyte transmigration and thereby inflammation. Establishing the molecular mechanism underlying this interaction may result in the development of novel inhibitors of fibrin-dependent inflammation.

  16. Inter-kingdom Signaling by the Legionella Quorum Sensing Molecule LAI-1 Modulates Cell Migration through an IQGAP1-Cdc42-ARHGEF9-Dependent Pathway.

    PubMed

    Simon, Sylvia; Schell, Ursula; Heuer, Natalie; Hager, Dominik; Albers, Michael F; Matthias, Jan; Fahrnbauer, Felix; Trauner, Dirk; Eichinger, Ludwig; Hedberg, Christian; Hilbi, Hubert

    2015-12-01

    Small molecule signaling promotes the communication between bacteria as well as between bacteria and eukaryotes. The opportunistic pathogenic bacterium Legionella pneumophila employs LAI-1 (3-hydroxypentadecane-4-one) for bacterial cell-cell communication. LAI-1 is produced and detected by the Lqs (Legionella quorum sensing) system, which regulates a variety of processes including natural competence for DNA uptake and pathogen-host cell interactions. In this study, we analyze the role of LAI-1 in inter-kingdom signaling. L. pneumophila lacking the autoinducer synthase LqsA no longer impeded the migration of infected cells, and the defect was complemented by plasmid-borne lqsA. Synthetic LAI-1 dose-dependently inhibited cell migration, without affecting bacterial uptake or cytotoxicity. The forward migration index but not the velocity of LAI-1-treated cells was reduced, and the cell cytoskeleton appeared destabilized. LAI-1-dependent inhibition of cell migration involved the scaffold protein IQGAP1, the small GTPase Cdc42 as well as the Cdc42-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF9, but not other modulators of Cdc42, or RhoA, Rac1 or Ran GTPase. Upon treatment with LAI-1, Cdc42 was inactivated and IQGAP1 redistributed to the cell cortex regardless of whether Cdc42 was present or not. Furthermore, LAI-1 reversed the inhibition of cell migration by L. pneumophila, suggesting that the compound and the bacteria antagonistically target host signaling pathway(s). Collectively, the results indicate that the L. pneumophila quorum sensing compound LAI-1 modulates migration of eukaryotic cells through a signaling pathway involving IQGAP1, Cdc42 and ARHGEF9.

  17. Inter-kingdom Signaling by the Legionella Quorum Sensing Molecule LAI-1 Modulates Cell Migration through an IQGAP1-Cdc42-ARHGEF9-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Sylvia; Schell, Ursula; Heuer, Natalie; Hager, Dominik; Albers, Michael F.; Matthias, Jan; Fahrnbauer, Felix; Trauner, Dirk; Eichinger, Ludwig; Hedberg, Christian; Hilbi, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Small molecule signaling promotes the communication between bacteria as well as between bacteria and eukaryotes. The opportunistic pathogenic bacterium Legionella pneumophila employs LAI-1 (3-hydroxypentadecane-4-one) for bacterial cell-cell communication. LAI-1 is produced and detected by the Lqs (Legionella quorum sensing) system, which regulates a variety of processes including natural competence for DNA uptake and pathogen-host cell interactions. In this study, we analyze the role of LAI-1 in inter-kingdom signaling. L. pneumophila lacking the autoinducer synthase LqsA no longer impeded the migration of infected cells, and the defect was complemented by plasmid-borne lqsA. Synthetic LAI-1 dose-dependently inhibited cell migration, without affecting bacterial uptake or cytotoxicity. The forward migration index but not the velocity of LAI-1-treated cells was reduced, and the cell cytoskeleton appeared destabilized. LAI-1-dependent inhibition of cell migration involved the scaffold protein IQGAP1, the small GTPase Cdc42 as well as the Cdc42-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF9, but not other modulators of Cdc42, or RhoA, Rac1 or Ran GTPase. Upon treatment with LAI-1, Cdc42 was inactivated and IQGAP1 redistributed to the cell cortex regardless of whether Cdc42 was present or not. Furthermore, LAI-1 reversed the inhibition of cell migration by L. pneumophila, suggesting that the compound and the bacteria antagonistically target host signaling pathway(s). Collectively, the results indicate that the L. pneumophila quorum sensing compound LAI-1 modulates migration of eukaryotic cells through a signaling pathway involving IQGAP1, Cdc42 and ARHGEF9. PMID:26633832

  18. Hypotonic shock modulates Na(+) current via a Cl(-) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin dependent mechanism in alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Dagenais, André; Tessier, Marie-Claude; Tatur, Sabina; Brochiero, Emmanuelle; Grygorczyk, Ryszard; Berthiaume, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Alveolar epithelial cells are involved in Na(+) absorption via the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC), an important process for maintaining an appropriate volume of liquid lining the respiratory epithelium and for lung oedema clearance. Here, we investigated how a 20% hypotonic shock modulates the ionic current in these cells. Polarized alveolar epithelial cells isolated from rat lungs were cultured on permeant filters and their electrophysiological properties recorded. A 20% bilateral hypotonic shock induced an immediate, but transient 52% rise in total transepithelial current and a 67% increase in the amiloride-sensitive current mediated by ENaC. Amiloride pre-treatment decreased the current rise after hypotonic shock, showing that ENaC current is involved in this response. Since Cl(-) transport is modulated by hypotonic shock, its contribution to the basal and hypotonic-induced transepithelial current was also assessed. Apical NPPB, a broad Cl(-) channel inhibitor and basolateral DIOA a potassium chloride co-transporter (KCC) inhibitor reduced the total and ENaC currents, showing that transcellular Cl(-) transport plays a major role in that process. During hypotonic shock, a basolateral Cl(-) influx, partly inhibited by NPPB is essential for the hypotonic-induced current rise. Hypotonic shock promoted apical ATP secretion and increased intracellular Ca(2+). While apyrase, an ATP scavenger, did not inhibit the hypotonic shock current response, W7 a calmodulin antagonist completely prevented the hypotonic current rise. These results indicate that a basolateral Cl(-) influx as well as Ca(2+)/calmodulin, but not ATP, are involved in the acute transepithelial current rise elicited by hypotonic shock.

  19. (-)-Epigallocatechingallate induces apoptosis in B lymphoma cells via caspase-dependent pathway and Bcl-2 family protein modulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiangyan; Xie, Yu'an; Feng, Yan; Zhang, Litu; Huang, Xinping; Shen, Xiaoyun; Luo, Xiaoling

    2015-04-01

    (-)-Epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) as a representative polyphenol has attracted increasing attention due to its diversified effects, especially its potential as an agent for the prevention or treatment of certain cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms of EGCG-induced apoptosis in B lymphoma cells are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of EGCG on proliferation and apoptosis in the B lymphoma cell lines Jeko-1 and Raji, and determine the underlying mechanisms. Cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were determined by the cell counting kit (CCK-8) assay; apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry using the Annexin V-PE/7AAD double staining; Fas, Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA expression levels were determined by real-time PCR; caspase activity was measured by the caspase activity assay kit; the expression levels of apoptosis-associated proteins were determined by western blot analysis. We demonstrated that EGCG induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In agreement, EGCG upregulated the mRNA expression of Fas and Bax while downregulating Bcl-2. Protein expression levels of Bax, activated caspase-3, -7, -8, and -9, and PARP were increased, while Bcl-2 protein levels were reduced by EGCG treatment. Taken together, EGCG induces B lymphoma cell apoptosis by triggering caspase-dependent intrinsic (mitochondrial) and extrinsic (death receptor) pathways. These findings suggest that EGCG may be a potential agent for the treatment of B lymphoma.

  20. Stat3-dependent acute Rantes production in vascular smooth muscle cells modulates inflammation following arterial injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kovacic, Jason C.; Gupta, Rohit; Lee, Angela C.; Ma, Mingchao; Fang, Fang; Tolbert, Claire N.; Walts, Avram D.; Beltran, Leilani E.; San, Hong; Chen, Guibin; St. Hilaire, Cynthia; Boehm, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation is a key component of arterial injury, with VSMC proliferation and neointimal formation serving as the final outcomes of this process. However, the acute events transpiring immediately after arterial injury that establish the blueprint for this inflammatory program are largely unknown. We therefore studied these events in mice and found that immediately following arterial injury, medial VSMCs upregulated Rantes in an acute manner dependent on Stat3 and NF-κB (p65 subunit). This led to early T cell and macrophage recruitment, processes also under the regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21Cip1. Unique to VSMCs, Rantes production was initiated by Tnf-α, but not by Il-6/gp130. This Rantes production was dependent on the binding of a p65/Stat3 complex to NF-κB–binding sites within the Rantes promoter, with shRNA knockdown of either Stat3 or p65 markedly attenuating Rantes production. In vivo, acute NF-κB and Stat3 activation in medial VSMCs was identified, with acute Rantes production after injury substantially reduced in Tnfa–/– mice compared with controls. Finally, we generated mice with SMC-specific conditional Stat3 deficiency and confirmed the Stat3 dependence of acute Rantes production by VSMCs. Together, these observations unify inflammatory events after vascular injury, demonstrating that VSMCs orchestrate the arterial inflammatory response program via acute Rantes production and subsequent inflammatory cell recruitment. PMID:20038813

  1. Autophagy modulates keratin-containing inclusion formation and apoptosis in cell culture in a context-dependent fashion.

    PubMed

    Harada, M; Strnad, P; Toivola, D M; Omary, M B

    2008-05-01

    The major pathways for protein degradation are the proteasomal and lysosomal systems. Derangement of protein degradation causes the formation of intracellular inclusions, and apoptosis and is associated with several diseases. We utilized hepatocyte-derived cell lines to examine the consequences of the cytoplasmic hepatocyte Mallory-Denk body-like inclusions on organelle organization, autophagy and apoptosis, and tested the hypothesis that autophagy affects inclusion turnover. Proteasome inhibitors (PIs) generate keratin-containing Mallory-Denk body-like inclusions in cultured cells and cause reorganization of mitochondria and other organelles, autophagy and apoptosis. In cultured hepatoma cells, caspase inhibition blocks PI-induced apoptosis but not inclusion formation or autophagy activation. Autophagy induction by rapamycin decreases the extent of PI-induced inclusions and apoptosis in Huh7 and OUMS29 cells. Surprisingly, blocking of autophagy sequestration by 3 methyl adenine or beclin 1 siRNA, but not bafilomycin A1 inhibition of autophagic degradation, also inhibits inclusion formation in the tested cells. Therefore, autophagy can be upstream of apoptosis and may promote or alleviate inclusion formation in cell culture in a context-dependent manner via putative autophagy-associated molecular triggers. Manipulation of autophagy may offer a strategy to address the importance of inclusion formation and its significance in inclusion-associated diseases.

  2. Gene expression profiles modulated by the human carcinogen aristolochic acid I in human cancer cells and their dependence on TP53

    SciTech Connect

    Simoes, Maria L.; Hockley, Sarah L.; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Schmeiser, Heinz H.; Phillips, David H.; Arlt, Volker M.

    2008-10-01

    Aristolochic acid (AA) is the causative agent of urothelial tumours associated with aristolochic acid nephropathy. These tumours contain TP53 mutations and over-express TP53. We compared transcriptional and translational responses of two isogenic HCT116 cell lines, one expressing TP53 (p53-WT) and the other with this gene knocked out (p53-null), to treatment with aristolochic acid I (AAI) (50-100 {mu}M) for 6-48 h. Modulation of 118 genes was observed in p53-WT cells and 123 genes in p53-null cells. Some genes, including INSIG1, EGR1, CAV1, LCN2 and CCNG1, were differentially expressed in the two cell lines. CDKN1A was selectively up-regulated in p53-WT cells, leading to accumulation of TP53 and CDKN1A. Apoptotic signalling, measured by caspase-3 and -7 activity, was TP53-dependent. Both cell types accumulated in S phase, suggesting that AAI-DNA adducts interfere with DNA replication, independently of TP53 status. The oncogene MYC, frequently over-expressed in urothelial tumours, was up-regulated by AAI, whereas FOS was down-regulated. Observed modulation of genes involved in endocytosis, e.g. RAB5A, may be relevant to the known inhibition of receptor-mediated endocytosis, an early sign of AA-mediated proximal tubule injury. AAI-DNA adduct formation was significantly greater in p53-WT cells than in p53-null cells. Collectively, phenotypic anchoring of the AAI-induced expression profiles to DNA adduct formation, cell-cycle parameters, TP53 expression and apoptosis identified several genes linked to these biological outcomes, some of which are TP53-dependent. These results strengthen the importance of TP53 in AA-induced cancer, and indicate that other alterations, e.g. to MYC oncogenic pathways, may also contribute.

  3. Salicylic acid modulates levels of phosphoinositide dependent-phospholipase C substrates and products to remodel the Arabidopsis suspension cell transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Ruelland, Eric; Pokotylo, Igor; Djafi, Nabila; Cantrel, Catherine; Repellin, Anne; Zachowski, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Basal phosphoinositide-dependent phospholipase C (PI-PLC) activity controls gene expression in Arabidopsis suspension cells and seedlings. PI-PLC catalyzes the production of phosphorylated inositol and diacylglycerol (DAG) from phosphoinositides. It is not known how PI-PLC regulates the transcriptome although the action of DAG-kinase (DGK) on DAG immediately downstream from PI-PLC is responsible for some of the regulation. We previously established a list of genes whose expression is affected in the presence of PI-PLC inhibitors. Here this list of genes was used as a signature in similarity searches of curated plant hormone response transcriptome data. The strongest correlations obtained with the inhibited PI-PLC signature were with salicylic acid (SA) treatments. We confirm here that in Arabidopsis suspension cells SA treatment leads to an increase in phosphoinositides, then demonstrate that SA leads to a significant 20% decrease in phosphatidic acid, indicative of a decrease in PI-PLC products. Previous sets of microarray data were re-assessed. The SA response of one set of genes was dependent on phosphoinositides. Alterations in the levels of a second set of genes, mostly SA-repressed genes, could be related to decreases in PI-PLC products that occur in response to SA action. Together, the two groups of genes comprise at least 40% of all SA-responsive genes. Overall these two groups of genes are distinct in the functional categories of the proteins they encode, their promoter cis-elements and their regulation by DGK or phospholipase D. SA-regulated genes dependent on phosphoinositides are typical SA response genes while those with an SA response that is possibly dependent on PI-PLC products are less SA-specific. We propose a model in which SA inhibits PI-PLC activity and alters levels of PI-PLC products and substrates, thereby regulating gene expression divergently. PMID:25426125

  4. Voltage-dependent anion channels modulate mitochondrial metabolism in cancer cells: regulation by free tubulin and erastin.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Eduardo N; Sheldon, Kely L; DeHart, David N; Patnaik, Jyoti; Manevich, Yefim; Townsend, Danyelle M; Bezrukov, Sergey M; Rostovtseva, Tatiana K; Lemasters, John J

    2013-04-26

    Respiratory substrates and adenine nucleotides cross the mitochondrial outer membrane through the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), comprising three isoforms--VDAC1, 2, and 3. We characterized the role of individual isoforms in mitochondrial metabolism by HepG2 human hepatoma cells using siRNA. With VDAC3 to the greatest extent, all VDAC isoforms contributed to the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential, but only VDAC3 knockdown decreased ATP, ADP, NAD(P)H, and mitochondrial redox state. Cells expressing predominantly VDAC3 were least sensitive to depolarization induced by increased free tubulin. In planar lipid bilayers, free tubulin inhibited VDAC1 and VDAC2 but not VDAC3. Erastin, a compound that interacts with VDAC, blocked and reversed mitochondrial depolarization after microtubule destabilizers in intact cells and antagonized tubulin-induced VDAC blockage in planar bilayers. In conclusion, free tubulin inhibits VDAC1/2 and limits mitochondrial metabolism in HepG2 cells, contributing to the Warburg phenomenon. Reversal of tubulin-VDAC interaction by erastin antagonizes Warburg metabolism and restores oxidative mitochondrial metabolism.

  5. AKAP-dependent modulation of BCAM/Lu adhesion on normal and sickle cell disease RBCs revealed by force nanoscopy.

    PubMed

    Maciaszek, Jamie L; Andemariam, Biree; Abiraman, Krithika; Lykotrafitis, George

    2014-03-18

    Human normal and sickle red blood cells (RBCs) adhere with high affinity to the alpha5 chain of laminin (LAMA5) via the basal cell adhesion molecule/Lutheran (BCAM/Lu) receptor, which is implicated in vasoocclusive episodes in sickle cell disease and activated through the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway. However, the effect of the cAMP pathway on the expression of active BCAM/Lu receptors at the single-molecule level is unknown. We established an in vitro technique, based on atomic force microscopy, which enables detection of single BCAM/Lu proteins on the RBC surface and measures the unbinding force between BCAM/Lu and LAMA5. We showed that the expression of active BCAM/Lu receptors is higher in homozygous sickle RBCs (SS-RBCs) than normal RBCs and that it is critically dependent on the cAMP signaling pathway on both normal and SS-RBCs. Of importance, we illustrated that A-kinase anchoring proteins are crucial for BCAM/Lu receptor activation. Furthermore, we found that SS-RBCs from hydroxyurea-treated patients show a lower expression of active BCAM/Lu receptors, a lower unbinding force to LAMA5, and insignificant stimulation by epinephrine as compared to SS-RBCs from untreated patients. To our knowledge, these findings may lead to novel antiadhesive targets for vasoocclusive episodes in sickle cell disease.

  6. Ixazomib suppresses human dendritic cell and modulates murine graft-versus-host disease in a schedule-dependent fashion.

    PubMed

    Al-Homsi, Ahmad Samer; Goodyke, Austin; Cole, Kelli; Muilenburg, Marlee; McLane, Michael; Abdel-Mageed, Sarah; Feng, Yuxin

    2017-04-01

    There is an abiding need for innovative approaches to the prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Interest in prevention of GvHD by dendritic cell (DC) suppression has re-emerged since the introduction of proteasome inhibitors into clinical practice. Ixazomib is an orally bioavailable proteasome inhibitor with a rapid proteasome dissociation rate. We studied the effects of ixazomib on human DC maturation, viability, and cytokine production in vitro. We also determined the effects of ixazomib in a murine GvHD model. Although ixazomib suppressed naïve human DC maturation, it had only a limited effect on cell viability. Ixazomib decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine production of resting DCs. This effect was diminished or reversed when DCs were pre-stimulated. In vivo, ixazomib administered post-transplantation on days +1 and +4 or days -1, +2, and +5 ameliorated GvHD in comparison to the GvHD group. Although a fraction of mice treated according to the prolonged schedule died abruptly after the day +5 treatment, both schedules resulted in improved overall survival. When we examined the effects of ixazomib on splenic cells and serum cytokines, we found that ixazomib exerted complex schedule-dependent immunomodulatory effects. Our study provides a rationale for the potential use of ixazomib in the prevention of GvHD.

  7. Glutamate receptors modulate sodium-dependent and calcium-independent vitamin C bidirectional transport in cultured avian retinal cells.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Camila Cabral; Miya, Vivian Sayuri; Calaza, Karin da Costa; Santos, Rochelle Alberto Martins; Paes-de-Carvalho, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin C is transported in the brain by sodium vitamin C co-transporter 2 (SVCT-2) for ascorbate and glucose transporters for dehydroascorbate. Here we have studied the expression of SVCT-2 and the uptake and release of [(14)C] ascorbate in chick retinal cells. SVCT-2 immunoreactivity was detected in rat and chick retina, specially in amacrine cells and in cells in the ganglion cell layer. Accordingly, SVCT-2 was expressed in cultured retinal neurons, but not in glial cells. [(14)C] ascorbate uptake was saturable and inhibited by sulfinpyrazone or sodium-free medium, but not by treatments that inhibit dehydroascorbate transport. Glutamate-stimulated vitamin C release was not inhibited by the glutamate transport inhibitor l-beta-threo-benzylaspartate, indicating that vitamin C release was not mediated by glutamate uptake. Also, ascorbate had no effect on [(3)H] D-aspartate release, ruling out a glutamate/ascorbate exchange mechanism. 2-Carboxy-3-carboxymethyl-4-isopropenylpyrrolidine (Kainate) or NMDA stimulated the release, effects blocked by their respective antagonists 6,7-initroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX) or (5R,2S)-(1)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine hydrogen maleate (MK-801). However, DNQX, but not MK-801 or 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV), blocked the stimulation by glutamate. Interestingly, DNQX prevented the stimulation by NMDA, suggesting that the effect of NMDA was mediated by glutamate release and stimulation of non-NMDA receptors. The effect of glutamate was neither dependent on external calcium nor inhibited by 1,2-bis (2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N',N',N',N',-tetraacetic acid tetrakis (acetoxy-methyl ester) (BAPTA-AM), an internal calcium chelator, but was inhibited by sulfinpyrazone or by the absence of sodium. In conclusion, retinal cells take up and release vitamin C, probably through SVCT-2, and the release can be stimulated by NMDA or non-NMDA glutamate receptors.

  8. Ligand- and cell-dependent determinants of internalization and cAMP modulation by delta opioid receptor (DOR) agonists.

    PubMed

    Charfi, Iness; Nagi, Karim; Mnie-Filali, Ouissame; Thibault, Dominic; Balboni, Gianfranco; Schiller, Peter W; Trudeau, Louis-Eric; Pineyro, Graciela

    2014-04-01

    Signaling bias refers to G protein-coupled receptor ligand ability to preferentially activate one type of signal over another. Bias to evoke signaling as opposed to sequestration has been proposed as a predictor of opioid ligand potential for generating tolerance. Here we measured whether delta opioid receptor agonists preferentially inhibited cyclase activity over internalization in HEK cells. Efficacy (τ) and affinity (KA) values were estimated from functional data and bias was calculated from efficiency coefficients (log τ/KA). This approach better represented the data as compared to alternative methods that estimate bias exclusively from τ values. Log (τ/KA) coefficients indicated that SNC-80 and UFP-512 promoted cyclase inhibition more efficiently than DOR internalization as compared to DPDPE (bias factor for SNC-80: 50 and for UFP-512: 132). Molecular determinants of internalization were different in HEK293 cells and neurons with βarrs contributing to internalization in both cell types, while PKC and GRK2 activities were only involved in neurons. Rank orders of ligand ability to engage different internalization mechanisms in neurons were compared to rank order of E max values for cyclase assays in HEK cells. Comparison revealed a significant reversal in rank order for cyclase E max values and βarr-dependent internalization in neurons, indicating that these responses were ligand-specific. Despite this evidence, and because kinases involved in internalization were not the same across cellular backgrounds, it is not possible to assert if the magnitude and nature of bias revealed by rank orders of maximal responses is the same as the one measured in HEK cells.

  9. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling regulates transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ)-dependent smooth muscle cell phenotype modulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pei-Yu; Qin, Lingfeng; Li, Guangxin; Tellides, George; Simons, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in normal blood vessels exist in a highly differentiate state characterized by expression of SMC-specific contractile proteins (“contractile phenotype”). Following blood vessel injury in vivo or when cultured in vitro in the presence of multiple growth factors, SMC undergo a phenotype switch characterized by the loss of contractile markers and appearance of expression of non-muscle proteins (“proliferative phenotype”). While a number of factors have been reported to modulate this process, its regulation remains uncertain. Here we show that induction of SMC FGF signaling inhibits TGFβ signaling and converts contractile SMCs to the proliferative phenotype. Conversely, inhibition of SMC FGF signaling induces TGFβ signaling converting proliferating SMCs to the contractile phenotype, even in the presence of various growth factors in vitro or vascular injury in vivo. The importance of this signaling cross-talk is supported by in vivo data that show that an SMC deletion of a pan-FGF receptor adaptor Frs2α (fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2 alpha) in mice profoundly reduces neointima formation and vascular remodelling following carotid artery ligation. These results demonstrate that FGF-TGFβ signaling antagonism is the primary regulator of the SMC phenotype switch. Manipulation of this cross-talk may be an effective strategy for treatment of SMC-proliferation related diseases. PMID:27634335

  10. Methylmercury-Dependent Increases in Fluo4 Fluorescence in Neonatal Rat Cerebellar Slices Depend on Granule Cell Migrational Stage and GABAA Receptor Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Aaron B.; Mancini, Jayme D.

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) disrupts cerebellar function, especially during development. Cerebellar granule cells (CGC), which are particularly susceptible to MeHg by unknown mechanisms, migrate during this process. Transient changes in intracellular Ca2+ (Ca2+i) are crucial to proper migration, and MeHg is well known to disrupt CGC Ca2+i regulation. Acutely prepared slices of neonatal rat cerebellum in conjunction with confocal microscopy and fluo4 epifluorescence were used to track changes induced by MeHg in CGC Ca2+i regulation in the external (EGL) and internal granule cell layers (IGL) as well as the molecular layer (ML). MeHg caused no cytotoxicity but did cause a time-dependent increase in fluo4 fluorescence that depended on the stage of CGC development. CGCs in the EGL were most susceptible to MeHg-induced increases in fluo4 fluorescence. MeHg increased fluorescence in CGC processes but only diffusely; Purkinje cells rarely fluoresced in these slices. Neither muscimol nor bicuculline alone altered baseline fluo4 fluorescence in any CGC layer, but each delayed the onset and reduced the magnitude of effect of MeHg on fluo4 fluorescence in the EGL and ML. In the IGL, both muscimol and bicuculline delayed the onset of MeHg-induced increases in fluo4 fluorescence but did not affect fluorescence magnitude. Thus, acute exposure to MeHg causes developmental stage-dependent increases in Ca2+i in CGCs. Effects are most prominent in CGCs during development or early stages of migration. GABAA receptors participate in an as yet unclear manner to MeHg-induced Ca2+i dysregulation of CGCs. PMID:26514794

  11. Role of curcumin-dependent modulation of tumor microenvironment of a murine T cell lymphoma in altered regulation of tumor cell survival

    SciTech Connect

    Vishvakarma, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Anjani; Singh, Sukh Mahendra

    2011-05-01

    Using a murine model of a T cell lymphoma, in the present study, we report that tumor growth retarding action of curcumin involves modulation of some crucial parameters of tumor microenvironment regulating tumor progression. Curcumin-administration to tumor-bearing host caused an altered pH regulation in tumor cells associated with alteration in expression of cell survival and apoptosis regulatory proteins and genes. Nevertheless, an alteration was also observed in biophysical parameters of tumor microenvironment responsible for modulation of tumor growth pertaining to hypoxia, tumor acidosis, and glucose metabolism. The study thus sheds new light with respect to the antineoplastic action of curcumin against a tumor-bearing host with progressively growing tumor of hematological origin. This will help in optimizing application of the drug and anticancer research and therapy. - Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted

  12. Modulation of cerebral endothelial cell function by TGF-β in glioblastoma: VEGF-dependent angiogenesis versus endothelial mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Shanmugarajan; Szabo, Emese; Burghardt, Isabel; Frei, Karl; Tabatabai, Ghazaleh; Weller, Michael

    2015-09-08

    Glioblastoma are among the most angiogenic tumors. The molecular mechanisms that control blood vessel formation by endothelial cells (EC) in glioblastoma remain incompletely understood. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a key regulatory cytokine that has proinvasive and stemness-maintaining autocrine properties in glioblastoma and confers immunosuppression to the tumor microenvironment. Here we characterize potential pro- and anti-angiogenic activities of TGF-β in the context of glioblastoma in vitro, using human brain-derived microvascular endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3) and glioblastoma-derived endothelial cells (GMEC) as model systems. We find that TGF-β induces vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placental growth factor (PlGF) mRNA expression and protein release in a TGF-β receptor (TβR) II / activin-like kinase (ALK)-5-dependent manner under normoxia and hypoxia, defining potential indirect proangiogenic activity of TGF-β in glioblastoma. In parallel, exogenous TGF-β has also inhibitory effects on EC properties and induces endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) in hCMEC and GMEC. Accordingly, direct inhibition of endogenous TGF-β/ALK-5 signalling increases EC properties such as tube formation, von-Willebrand factor (vWF) and claudin (CLDN) 5 expression. Yet, the supernatant of TGF-β-stimulated hCMEC and GMEC strongly promotes EC-related gene expression and tube formation in a cediranib-sensitive manner. These observations shed light on the complex pro- and anti-angiogenic pathways involving the cross-talk between TGF-β and VEGF/PLGF signalling in glioblastoma which may involve parallel stimulation of angiogenesis and EndMT in distinct target cell populations.

  13. Modulation of Tim-3 Expression by Antigen-Dependent and -Independent Factors on T Cells from Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jie; Yang, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Lin-Xu; Wei, Xin; Wang, An-Hui; Hao, Chun-Qiu; Shen, Huan-Jun; Huang, Chang-Xing; Zhang, Ye; Lian, Jian-Qi

    2017-01-01

    T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) was up-regulated on viral specific T cells and contributed to T cells exhaustion during chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, modulation of Tim-3 expression was still not fully elucidated. To evaluate the potential viral and inflammatory factors involved in the inductor of Tim-3 expression on T cells, 76 patients with chronic HBV infection (including 40 chronic hepatitis B [CHB] and 36 asymptomatic HBV carriers [AsC]) and 40 of normal controls (NCs) were enrolled in this study. Tim-3 expressions on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were assessed in response to HBV-encoding antigens, HBV peptide pools, and common γ-chain (γc) cytokines stimulation by flow cytometry. HBV peptides and anti-CD3/CD28 directly induced Tim-3 expression on T cells. γc cytokines also drive Tim-3 up-regulations on both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in patients with chronic HBV infection. However, γc cytokines did not enhance the Tim-3 inductions by either anti-CD3/CD28 or HBV peptides stimulation. Furthermore, γc cytokines-mediated Tim-3 induction could not be abrogated by γc cytokine receptor-neutralizing antibodies. The current results suggested that elevation of Tim-3 expression on T cells could be regulated by both antigen-dependent and -independent manner in patients with chronic HBV infection. The role of γc cytokines in modulation of inhibitory pathway might be evaluated as immunotherapies in humans.

  14. Modulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity by hyaluronan is dependent on NF-kappaB activity in lymphoma cell lines with dissimilar invasive behavior.

    PubMed

    Alaniz, Laura; García, Mariana; Cabrera, Paula; Arnaiz, María; Cavaliere, Victoria; Blanco, Guillermo; Alvarez, Elida; Hajos, Silvia

    2004-11-12

    Expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) as well as its relationship with hyaluronan (HA) and NF-kappaB activity were analyzed in two murine lymphoma cell lines with dissimilar migration and invasive behavior. MMP activity was evaluated by zymograms in supernatants, membrane extracts of tumor cells, and in the organs invaded by these cells. The more aggressive LBLa cell line showed MMP-9 activity in vitro, which increased after HA treatment and was blocked by anti-CD44 mAb. Such activity was not found in the less aggressive LBLc. MMP-9 and MMP-2 activity was found in organs invaded by both cell lines, although differential MMP-9 activity was observed in lung infiltrated only by LBLa cell line. NF-kappaB activation was evaluated to determine whether differential activity of MMP-9 was dependent on downstream signaling pathway, showing higher NF-kappaB activity in the more aggressive LBLa cell line. Our results showed that MMP-9 activity modulated by HA through NF-kappaB signaling pathway may be involved in the aggressive behavior of LBLa.

  15. Coincident diabetes mellitus modulates Th1-, Th2-, and Th17-cell responses in latent tuberculosis in an IL-10- and TGF-β-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nathella Pavan; Moideen, Kadar; George, Parakkal Jovvian; Dolla, Chandrakumar; Kumaran, Paul; Babu, Subash

    2016-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for the development of active tuberculosis (TB), although its role in the TB-induced responses in latent TB (LTB) is not well understood. Since Th1, Th2, and Th17 responses are important in immunity to LTB, we postulated that coincident DM could alter the function of these CD4(+) T-cell subsets. To this end, we examined mycobacteria-induced immune responses in the whole blood of individuals with LTB-DM and compared them with responses of individuals without DM (LTB-NDM). T-cell responses from LTB-DM are characterized by diminished frequencies of mono- and dual-functional CD4(+) Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells at baseline and following stimulation with mycobacterial antigens-purified protein derivative, early secreted antigen-6, and culture filtrate protein-10. This modulation was at least partially dependent on IL-10 and TGF-β, since neutralization of either cytokine resulted in significantly increased frequencies of Th1 and Th2 cells but not Th17 cells in LTB-DM but not LTB individuals. LTB-DM is therefore characterized by diminished frequencies of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells, indicating that DM alters the immune response in latent TB leading to a suboptimal induction of protective CD4(+) T-cell responses, thereby providing a potential mechanism for increased susceptibility to active disease.

  16. Dopamine D1 and D5 Receptors Modulate Spike Timing-Dependent Plasticity at Medial Perforant Path to Dentate Granule Cell Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kechun

    2014-01-01

    Although evidence suggests that DA modulates hippocampal function, the mechanisms underlying that dopaminergic modulation are largely unknown. Using perforated-patch electrophysiological techniques to maintain the intracellular milieu, we investigated how the activation of D1-type DA receptors regulates spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) of the medial perforant path (mPP) synapse onto dentate granule cells. When D1-type receptors were inhibited, a relatively mild STDP protocol induced LTP only within a very narrow timing window between presynaptic stimulation and postsynaptic response. The stimulus protocol produced timing-dependent LTP (tLTP) only when the presynaptic stimulation was followed 30 ms later by depolarization-induced postsynaptic action potentials. That is, the time between presynaptic stimulation and postsynaptic response was 30 ms (Δt = +30 ms). When D1-type receptors were activated, however, the same mild STDP protocol induced tLTP over a much broader timing window: tLTP was induced when −30 ms ≤ Δt ≤ +30 ms. The result indicated that D1-type receptor activation enabled synaptic potentiation even when postsynaptic activity preceded presynaptic stimulation within this Δt range. Results with null mice lacking the Kv4.2 potassium channel and with the potassium channel inhibitor, 4-aminopyridine, suggested that D1-type receptors enhanced tLTP induction by suppressing the transient IA-type K+ current. Results obtained with antagonists and DA receptor knock-out mice indicated that endogenous activity of both D1 and D5 receptors modulated plasticity in the mPP. The DA D5 receptors appeared particularly important in regulating plasticity of the mPP onto the dentate granule cells. PMID:25429131

  17. Modulation of CD112 by the alphaherpesvirus gD protein suppresses DNAM-1-dependent NK cell-mediated lysis of infected cells.

    PubMed

    Grauwet, Korneel; Cantoni, Claudia; Parodi, Monica; De Maria, Andrea; Devriendt, Bert; Pende, Daniela; Moretta, Lorenzo; Vitale, Massimo; Favoreel, Herman W

    2014-11-11

    Natural killer (NK) cells are key players in the innate response to viruses, including herpesviruses. In particular, the variety of viral strategies to modulate the recognition of certain herpesviruses witnesses the importance of NK cells in the control of this group of viruses. Still, NK evasion strategies have remained largely elusive for the largest herpesvirus subfamily, the alphaherpesviruses. Here, we report that the gD glycoprotein of the alphaherpesviruses pseudorabies virus (PRV) and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) displays previously uncharacterized immune evasion properties toward NK cells. Expression of gD during infection or transfection led to degradation and consequent down-regulation of CD112, a ligand for the activating NK receptor DNAX accessory molecule 1 (DNAM-1). CD112 downregulation resulted in a reduced ability of DNAM-1 to bind to the surface of both virus-infected and gD-transfected cells. Consequently, expression of gD suppressed NK cell degranulation and NK cell-mediated lysis of PRV- or HSV-2-infected cells. These data identify an alphaherpesvirus evasion strategy from NK cells and point out that interactions between viral envelope proteins and host cell receptors can have biological consequences that stretch beyond virus entry.

  18. Chlamydia pneumoniae-induced foam cell formation requires MyD88-dependent and -independent signaling and is reciprocally modulated by liver X receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuang; Sorrentino, Rosalinda; Shimada, Kenichi; Bulut, Yonca; Doherty, Terence M; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe

    2008-11-15

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is detected by macrophages and other APCs via TLRs and can exacerbate developing atherosclerotic lesions, but how that occurs is not known. Liver X receptors (LXRs) centrally control reverse cholesterol transport, but also negatively modulate TLR-mediated inflammatory pathways. We isolated peritoneal macrophages from wild-type, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR2/4, MyD88, TRIF, MyD88/TRIF, and IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) KO mice, treated them with live or UV-killed C. pneumoniae in the presence or absence of oxidized LDL, then measured foam cell formation. In some experiments, the synthetic LXR agonist GW3965 was added to macrophages infected with C. pneumoniae in the presence of oxidized LDL. Both live and UV-killed C. pneumoniae induced IRF3 activation and promoted foam cell formation in wild-type macrophages, whereas the genetic absence of TLR2, TLR4, MyD88, TRIF, or IRF3, but not TLR3, significantly reduced foam cell formation. C. pneumoniae-induced foam cell formation was significantly reduced by the LXR agonist GW3965, which in turn inhibited C. pneumoniae-induced IRF3 activation, suggesting a bidirectional cross-talk. We conclude that C. pneumoniae facilitates foam cell formation via activation of both MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent (i.e., TRIF-dependent and IRF3-dependent) pathways downstream of TLR2 and TLR4 signaling and that TLR3 is not involved in this process. This mechanism could at least partly explain why infection with C. pneumoniae accelerates the development of atherosclerotic plaque and lends support to the proposal that LXR agonists might prove clinically useful in suppressing atherogenesis.

  19. Modulation of CD4+ T Cell-Dependent Specific Cytotoxic CD8+ T Cells Differentiation and Proliferation by the Timing of Increase in the Pathogen Load

    PubMed Central

    Tzelepis, Fanny; Persechini, Pedro M.; Rodrigues, Mauricio M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Following infection with viruses, bacteria or protozoan parasites, naïve antigen-specific CD8+ T cells undergo a process of differentiation and proliferation to generate effector cells. Recent evidences suggest that the timing of generation of specific effector CD8+ T cells varies widely according to different pathogens. We hypothesized that the timing of increase in the pathogen load could be a critical parameter governing this process. Methodology/Principal Findings Using increasing doses of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi to infect C57BL/6 mice, we observed a significant acceleration in the timing of parasitemia without an increase in mouse susceptibility. In contrast, in CD8 deficient mice, we observed an inverse relationship between the parasite inoculum and the timing of death. These results suggest that in normal mice CD8+ T cells became protective earlier, following the accelerated development of parasitemia. The evaluation of specific cytotoxic responses in vivo to three distinct epitopes revealed that increasing the parasite inoculum hastened the expansion of specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells following infection. The differentiation and expansion of T. cruzi-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells is in fact dependent on parasite multiplication, as radiation-attenuated parasites were unable to activate these cells. We also observed that, in contrast to most pathogens, the activation process of T. cruzi-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells was dependent on MHC class II restricted CD4+ T cells. Conclusions/Significance Our results are compatible with our initial hypothesis that the timing of increase in the pathogen load can be a critical parameter governing the kinetics of CD4+ T cell-dependent expansion of pathogen-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. PMID:17460760

  20. Oesophagostomum dentatum Extract Modulates T Cell-Dependent Immune Responses to Bystander Antigens and Prevents the Development of Allergy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schabussova, Irma; Ul-Haq, Onisa; Hoflehner, Elisabeth; Akgün, Johnnie; Wagner, Angelika; Loupal, Gerhard; Joachim, Anja; Ruttkowski, Bärbel; Maizels, Rick M.; Wiedermann, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    One third of the human population is currently infected by one or more species of parasitic helminths. Certain helminths establish long-term chronic infections resulting in a modulation of the host’s immune system with attenuated responsiveness to “bystander” antigens such as allergens or vaccines. In this study we investigated whether parasite-derived products suppress the development of allergic inflammation in a mouse model. We show that extract derived from adult male Oesophagostomum dentatum (eMOD) induced Th2 and regulatory responses in BALB/c mice. Stimulation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells induced production of regulatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-beta. In a mouse model of birch pollen allergy, co-administration of eMOD with sensitizing allergen Bet v 1 markedly reduced the production of allergen-specific antibodies in serum as well as IgE-dependent basophil degranulation. Furthermore, eMOD prevented the development of airway inflammation, as demonstrated by attenuation of bronchoalveolar lavages eosinophil influx, peribronchial inflammatory infiltrate, and mucus secretion in lungs and IL-4 and IL-5 levels in lung cell cultures. Reduced secretion of Th2-related cytokines by birch pollen-re-stimulated splenocytes and mesenteric lymph node cells was observed in eMOD-treated/sensitized and challenged mice in comparison to sensitized and challenged controls. The suppressive effects of eMOD were heat-stable. Immunization with model antigens in the presence of eMOD reduced production of antibodies to thymus-dependent but not to thymus-independent antigen, suggesting that suppression of the immune responses by eMOD was mediated by interference with antigen presenting cell or T helper cell function but did not directly suppress B cell function. In conclusion, we have shown that eMOD possesses immunomodulatory properties and that heat-stable factors in eMOD are responsible for the dramatic suppression of allergic responses in a mouse model of type I

  1. 1α,25(OH)2D3-dependent modulation of Akt in proliferating and differentiating C2C12 skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Claudia G; Arango, Nadia S; Boland, Ricardo L

    2012-04-01

    We previously reported that 1α,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D(3) [1α,25(OH)(2)D(3)] induces non-transcriptional rapid responses through activation of Src and MAPKs in the skeletal muscle cell line C2C12. In the present study we investigated the modulation of Akt by the secosteroid hormone in C2C12 cells at proliferative stage (myoblasts) and at early differentiation stage. In proliferating cells, 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) activates Akt by phosphorylation in Ser473 in a time-dependent manner (5-60 min). When these cells were pretreated with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin to disrupt caveolae microdomains, hormone-induced activation of Akt was suppressed. Similar results were obtained by siRNA silencing of caveolin-1 expression, further indicating that hormone effects on cell membrane caveolae are required for downstream signaling. PI3K and p38 MAPK, but not ERK1/2, participate in 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) activation of Akt in myoblasts. The involvement of p38 MAPK in Akt phosphorylation by the hormone probably occurs through MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2), which is activated by the steroid. In addition, the participation of Src in Akt phosphorylation by 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) was demonstrated using the inhibitor PP2 and antisense oligodeoxynucleotides that suppress Src expression. We also observed that PI3K participates in hormone-induced proliferation. During the early phase of C2C12 cell differentiation 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) also increases Akt phosphorylation and activates Src. Of relevance, Src and PI3K are involved in Akt activation and in MHC and myogenin increased expression by 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3). Altogether, these data suggest that 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) upregulates Akt through Src, PI(3)K, and p38 MAPK to stimulate myogenesis in C2C12 cells.

  2. Calcium- and guanine-nucleotide-dependent exocytosis in permeabilized rat mast cells. Modulation by protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    Koopmann, W R; Jackson, R C

    1990-01-01

    We have used a digitonin-permeabilized cell system to study the signal transduction pathways responsible for stimulus-secretion coupling in the rat peritoneal mast cell. Conditions were established for permeabilizing the mast cell plasma membrane without disrupting secretory vesicles. Exocytotic release of histamine from digitonin-permeabilized cells required a combination of micromolar concentrations of Ca2+ and the stable guanine nucleotide analogue guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]), but was independent of exogenous ATP. In the presence of 40 microM-GTP[S], exocytosis was half-maximal at 1.3 microM-Ca2+ and maximal at 10 microM-Ca2+; GTP[S] alone (100 microM) had no effect on histamine release in the absence of added Ca2+. In the presence of 10 microM free Ca2+, 5 microM-GTP[S] was required for half-maximal exocytosis. To examine the possible role of protein kinase C (PKC) in exocytosis, we utilized 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) to activate PKC and studied its effect on histamine release from permeabilized mast cells. Cells that had been incubated with TPA (25 nM for 5 min) exhibited increased sensitivity to both GTP[S] and Ca2+. The PKC inhibitor staurosporine blocked the effect of TPA without inhibiting normal exocytosis in response to the combination of GTP[S] and Ca2+. In addition, down-regulation of mast-cell PKC by long-term TPA treatment (25 nM for 20 h) blocked the ability of the cells to respond to TPA and inhibited exocytosis in response to Ca2+ and GTP[S] by 40-50%. These results suggest that the sensitivity of the exocytotic machinery of the mast cell can be altered by PKC-catalysed phosphorylation events, but that activation of PKC is not required for exocytosis to occur. Images Fig. 7. PMID:1689146

  3. Modulation of BK channels contributes to activity-dependent increase of excitability through MTORC1 activity in CA1 pyramidal cells of mouse hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Steven J.; Burkett, Brian J.; Schrader, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Memory acquisition and synaptic plasticity are accompanied by changes in the intrinsic excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons. These activity-dependent changes in excitability are mediated by modulation of intrinsic currents which alters the responsiveness of the cell to synaptic inputs. The afterhyperpolarization (AHP), a major contributor to the regulation of neuronal excitability, is reduced in animals that have acquired several types of hippocampus-dependent memory tasks and also following synaptic potentiation by high frequency stimulation. BK channels underlie the fast AHP and contribute to spike repolarization, and this AHP is reduced in animals that successfully acquired trace-eyeblink conditioning. This suggests that BK channel function is activity-dependent, but the mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we found that blockade of BK channels with paxilline (10 μM) decreased IAHP amplitude and increased spike half-width and instantaneous frequency in response to a +100 pA depolarization. In addition, induction of long term potentiation (LTP) by theta burst stimulation (TBS) in CA1 pyramidal neurons reduced BK channel’s contribution to IAHP, spike repolarization, and instantaneous frequency. This result indicates that BK channel activity is decreased following synaptic potentiation. Interestingly, blockade of mammalian target of rapamycin (MTORC1) with rapamycin (400 nM) following synaptic potentiation restored BK channel function, suggesting a role for protein translation in signaling events which decreased postsynaptic BK channel activity following synaptic potentiation. PMID:25628536

  4. Cobra CRISP functions as an inflammatory modulator via a novel Zn2+- and heparan sulfate-dependent transcriptional regulation of endothelial cell adhesion molecules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Ling; Kuo, Je-Hung; Lee, Shao-Chen; Liu, Jai-Shin; Hsieh, Yin-Cheng; Shih, Yu-Tsung; Chen, Chun-Jung; Chiu, Jeng-Jiann; Wu, Wen-Guey

    2010-11-26

    Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) have been identified as a toxin family in most animal venoms with biological functions mainly associated with the ion channel activity of cysteine-rich domain (CRD). CRISPs also bind to Zn(2+) at their N-terminal pathogenesis-related (PR-1) domain, but their function remains unknown. Interestingly, similar the Zn(2+)-binding site exists in all CRISP family, including those identified in a wide range of organisms. Here, we report that the CRISP from Naja atra (natrin) could induce expression of vascular endothelial cell adhesion molecules, i.e. intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin, to promote monocytic cell adhesion in a heparan sulfate (HS)- and Zn(2+)-dependent manner. Using specific inhibitors and small interfering RNAs, the activation mechanisms are shown to involve both mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-κB. Biophysical characterization of natrin by using fluorescence, circular dichroism, and x-ray crystallographic methods further reveals the presence of two Zn(2+)-binding sites for natrin. The strong binding site is located near the putative Ser-His-Glu catalytic triad of the N-terminal domain. The weak binding site remains to be characterized, but it may modulate HS binding by enhancing its interaction with long chain HS. Our results strongly suggest that natrin may serve as an inflammatory modulator that could perturb the wound-healing process of the bitten victim by regulating adhesion molecule expression in endothelial cells. Our finding uncovers a new aspect of the biological role of CRISP family in immune response and is expected to facilitate future development of new therapeutic strategy for the envenomed victims.

  5. Unsaturated Fatty Acids Drive Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase (ADAM)-dependent Cell Adhesion, Proliferation, and Migration by Modulating Membrane Fluidity*

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, Karina; Cornelsen, Isabell; Husmann, Matthias; Gimpl, Gerald; Bhakdi, Sucharit

    2011-01-01

    The disintegrin-metalloproteinases ADAM10 and ADAM17 mediate the release of several cell signaling molecules and cell adhesion molecules such as vascular endothelial cadherin or L-selectin affecting endothelial permeability and leukocyte transmigration. Dysregulation of ADAM activity may contribute to the pathogenesis of vascular diseases, but the mechanisms underlying the control of ADAM functions are still incompletely understood. Atherosclerosis is characterized by lipid plaque formation and local accumulation of unsaturated free fatty acids (FFA). Here, we show that unsaturated FFA increase ADAM-mediated substrate cleavage. We demonstrate that these alterations are not due to genuine changes in enzyme activity, but correlate with changes in membrane fluidity as revealed by measurement of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene fluorescence anisotropy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analyses. ELISA and immunoblot experiments conducted with granulocytes, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes revealed rapid increase of ectodomain shedding of ADAM10 and ADAM17 substrates upon membrane fluidization. Large amounts of unsaturated FFA may be liberated from cholesteryl esters in LDL that is entrapped in atherosclerotic lesions. Incubation of cells with thus modified LDL resulted in rapid cleavage of ADAM substrates with corresponding functional consequences on cell proliferation, cell migration, and endothelial permeability, events of high significance in atherogenesis. We propose that FFA represent critical regulators of ADAM function that may assume relevance in many biological settings through their influence on mobility of enzyme and substrate in lipid bilayers. PMID:21642425

  6. Unsaturated fatty acids drive disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)-dependent cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration by modulating membrane fluidity.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Karina; Cornelsen, Isabell; Husmann, Matthias; Gimpl, Gerald; Bhakdi, Sucharit

    2011-07-29

    The disintegrin-metalloproteinases ADAM10 and ADAM17 mediate the release of several cell signaling molecules and cell adhesion molecules such as vascular endothelial cadherin or L-selectin affecting endothelial permeability and leukocyte transmigration. Dysregulation of ADAM activity may contribute to the pathogenesis of vascular diseases, but the mechanisms underlying the control of ADAM functions are still incompletely understood. Atherosclerosis is characterized by lipid plaque formation and local accumulation of unsaturated free fatty acids (FFA). Here, we show that unsaturated FFA increase ADAM-mediated substrate cleavage. We demonstrate that these alterations are not due to genuine changes in enzyme activity, but correlate with changes in membrane fluidity as revealed by measurement of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene fluorescence anisotropy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analyses. ELISA and immunoblot experiments conducted with granulocytes, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes revealed rapid increase of ectodomain shedding of ADAM10 and ADAM17 substrates upon membrane fluidization. Large amounts of unsaturated FFA may be liberated from cholesteryl esters in LDL that is entrapped in atherosclerotic lesions. Incubation of cells with thus modified LDL resulted in rapid cleavage of ADAM substrates with corresponding functional consequences on cell proliferation, cell migration, and endothelial permeability, events of high significance in atherogenesis. We propose that FFA represent critical regulators of ADAM function that may assume relevance in many biological settings through their influence on mobility of enzyme and substrate in lipid bilayers.

  7. Snail modulates cell metabolism in MDCK cells

    SciTech Connect

    Haraguchi, Misako; Indo, Hiroko P.; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Iwashita, Yoichiro; Fukushige, Tomoko; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Izumo, Kimiko; Horiuchi, Masahisa; Kanekura, Takuro; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Ozawa, Masayuki

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► MDCK/snail cells were more sensitive to glucose deprivation than MDCK/neo cells. ► MDCK/snail cells had decreased oxidative phosphorylation, O{sub 2} consumption and ATP content. ► TCA cycle enzyme activity, but not expression, was lower in MDCK/snail cells. ► MDCK/snail cells showed reduced PDH activity and increased PDK1 expression. ► MDCK/snail cells showed reduced expression of GLS2 and ACLY. -- Abstract: Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin gene transcription, induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and is involved in tumor progression. Snail also mediates resistance to cell death induced by serum depletion. By contrast, we observed that snail-expressing MDCK (MDCK/snail) cells undergo cell death at a higher rate than control (MDCK/neo) cells in low-glucose medium. Therefore, we investigated whether snail expression influences cell metabolism in MDCK cells. Although gylcolysis was not affected in MDCK/snail cells, they did exhibit reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, which controls pyruvate entry into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Indeed, the activity of multiple enzymes involved in the TCA cycle was decreased in MDCK/snail cells, including that of mitochondrial NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and electron transport Complex II and Complex IV. Consequently, lower ATP content, lower oxygen consumption and increased survival under hypoxic conditions was also observed in MDCK/snail cells compared to MDCK/neo cells. In addition, the expression and promoter activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), which phosphorylates and inhibits the activity of PDH, was increased in MDCK/snail cells, while expression levels of glutaminase 2 (GLS2) and ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), which are involved in glutaminolysis and fatty acid synthesis, were decreased in MDCK/snail cells. These results suggest that snail modulates cell metabolism by altering the expression and activity of

  8. Invoking the frequency dependence in square modulated light intensity techniques for the measurement of electron time constants in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaithan, Hamid M.; Qaid, Saif M.; Hezam, Mahmoud; Siddique, Muhemmad B.; Bedja, Idriss M.; Aldwayyana, Abdullah S.

    2015-08-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been considered as one of the most promising new generation solar cells. Enormous research efforts have been invested to improve the efficiency of solar energy conversion which is determined by the light harvesting efficiency, electron injection efficiency and undesirable electron lifetime. A simple, cheap and trustable laser-induced photovoltage and photocurrent decay (LIPVCD) technique is adopted in this work in order to determine the electron lifetime (τe) and electron transport (τtr) in DSSCs. In LIPVCD technique, DSSC is illuminated by a small squared intensity-modulated laser beam. Time-based response of the DSSC is recorded using a transient digitized oscilloscope for further analysis. Frequency-based response was also investigated in this work. The frequency-dependent measurements turned out to be a powerful method to determine electron time constants in a fast, real-time fashion. Measurements were carried out using a standard dye-sensitized solar cell, and results were in excellent agreement with results obtained from traditional IMVS-MPS measurements. Measurements were also performed for a variety of DSSCs, having various electrodes including TiO2 nanoparticles, TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {001} facets and ZnO vertically aligned nanowires. Results will also be presented and discussed in this work.

  9. T Cell Receptor-dependent Tyrosine Phosphorylation of β2-Chimaerin Modulates Its Rac-GAP Function in T Cells*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Siliceo, María; Mérida, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton has an important role in the organization and function of the immune synapse during antigen recognition. Dynamic rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton in response to T cell receptor (TCR) triggering requires the coordinated activation of Rho family GTPases that cycle between active and inactive conformations. This is controlled by GTPase-activating proteins (GAP), which regulate inactivation of Rho GTPases, and guanine exchange factors, which mediate their activation. Whereas much attention has centered on guanine exchange factors for Rho GTPases in T cell activation, the identity and functional roles of the GAP in this process are largely unknown. We previously reported β2-chimaerin as a diacylglycerol-regulated Rac-GAP that is expressed in T cells. We now demonstrate Lck-dependent phosphorylation of β2-chimaerin in response to TCR triggering. We identify Tyr-153 as the Lck-dependent phosphorylation residue and show that its phosphorylation negatively regulates membrane stabilization of β2-chimaerin, decreasing its GAP activity to Rac. This study establishes the existence of TCR-dependent regulation of β2-chimaerin and identifies a novel mechanism for its inactivation. PMID:19201754

  10. Phosphorylation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) regulatory subunit modulates PKA-AKAP interaction, substrate phosphorylation, and calcium signaling in cardiac cells.

    PubMed

    Manni, Sabrina; Mauban, Joseph H; Ward, Christopher W; Bond, Meredith

    2008-08-29

    Subcellular compartmentalization of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) by protein kinase A-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) facilitates local protein phosphorylation. However, little is known about how PKA targeting to AKAPs is regulated in the intact cell. PKA binds to an amphipathic helical region of AKAPs via an N-terminal domain of the regulatory subunit. In vitro studies showed that autophosphorylation of type II regulatory subunit (RII) can alter its affinity for AKAPs and the catalytic subunit (PKA(cat)). We now investigate whether phosphorylation of serine 96 on RII regulates PKA targeting to AKAPs, downstream substrate phosphorylation and calcium cycling in primary cultured cardiomyocytes. We demonstrated that, whereas there is basal phosphorylation of RII subunits, persistent maximal activation of PKA results in a phosphatase-dependent loss of RII phosphorylation. To investigate the functional effects of RII phosphorylation, we constructed adenoviral vectors incorporating mutants which mimic phosphorylated (RIIS96D), nonphosphorylated (RIIS96A) RII, or wild-type (WT) RII and performed adenoviral infection of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Coimmunoprecipitation showed that more AKAP15/18 was pulled down by the phosphomimic, RIIS96D, than RIIS96A. Phosphorylation of phospholamban and ryanodine receptor was significantly increased in cells expressing RIIS96D versus RIIS96A. Expression of recombinant RII constructs showed significant effects on cytosolic calcium transients. We propose a model illustrating a central role of RII phosphorylation in the regulation of local PKA activity. We conclude that RII phosphorylation regulates PKA-dependent substrate phosphorylation and may have significant implications for modulation of cardiac function.

  11. Modulation of Intestinal Inflammation by Yeasts and Cell Wall Extracts: Strain Dependence and Unexpected Anti-Inflammatory Role of Glucan Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Jawhara, Samir; Habib, Khalid; Maggiotto, François; Pignede, Georges; Vandekerckove, Pascal; Maes, Emmanuel; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Fontaine, Thierry; Guerardel, Yann; Poulain, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Yeasts and their glycan components can have a beneficial or adverse effect on intestinal inflammation. Previous research has shown that the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii (Sb) reduces intestinal inflammation and colonization by Candida albicans. The aim of this study was to identify dietary yeasts, which have comparable effects to the anti-C. albicans and anti-inflammatory properties of Sb and to assess the capabilities of yeast cell wall components to modulate intestinal inflammation. Mice received a single oral challenge of C. albicans and were then given 1.5% dextran-sulphate-sodium (DSS) for 2 weeks followed by a 3-day restitution period. S. cerevisiae strains (Sb, Sc1 to Sc4), as well as mannoprotein (MP) and β-glucan crude fractions prepared from Sc2 and highly purified β-glucans prepared from C. albicans were used in this curative model, starting 3 days after C. albicans challenge. Mice were assessed for the clinical, histological and inflammatory responses related to DSS administration. Strain Sc1-1 gave the same level of protection against C. albicans as Sb when assessed by mortality, clinical scores, colonization levels, reduction of TNFα and increase in IL-10 transcription. When Sc1-1 was compared with the other S. cerevisiae strains, the preparation process had a strong influence on biological activity. Interestingly, some S. cerevisiae strains dramatically increased mortality and clinical scores. Strain Sc4 and MP fraction favoured C. albicans colonization and inflammation, whereas β-glucan fraction was protective against both. Surprisingly, purified β-glucans from C. albicans had the same protective effect. Thus, some yeasts appear to be strong modulators of intestinal inflammation. These effects are dependent on the strain, species, preparation process and cell wall fraction. It was striking that β-glucan fractions or pure β-glucans from C. albicans displayed the most potent anti-inflammatory effect in the DSS model. PMID

  12. Thyroxine-dependent modulations of the expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM during Xenopus laevis metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Levi, G; Broders, F; Dunon, D; Edelman, G M; Thiery, J P

    1990-04-01

    During amphibian metamorphosis, a complete remodeling of the phenotype takes place under complex hormonal control whose final effectors are thyroid hormones. This process implies the activation of coordinated programs of cell death, proliferation, migration, adhesion and differentiation. Inasmuch as the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM is thought to play a central role in the control of morphogenetic processes, we have studied by immunohistofluorescence and immunoblots the patterns of expression of N-CAM at different stages of Xenopus laevis metamorphosis. A scan was made of all major organs and appendages. Before the metamorphic climax, all neuronal cell bodies and processes express high levels of N-CAM. During the metamorphic climax, N-CAM expression decreases sharply on the cell bodies and processes of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) but remains high in the central nervous system (CNS). Towards the end of metamorphosis, the PNS and spinal nerves are virtually negative for N-CAM while the CNS is still positive. The optic and olfactory nerves, although myelinated, are still strongly positive for N-CAM. The lens and olfactory epithelia express N-CAM throughout metamorphosis. In the brain. N-CAM is present at all times as three polypeptides of 180, 140, and 120 X 10(3) Mr; before metamorphosis some of the N-CAM is in its polysialylated form. During metamorphosis and the subsequent growth of the animal, the amount of N-CAM decreases gradually. In all polypeptides, the polysialylated form is the first to disappear. Cardiac muscle expresses high level of N-CAM from its first formation throughout metamorphosis; in contrast, the level of N-CAM in skeletal muscle is high in newly formed muscles, but decreases rapidly after myoblast fusion. The liver of adult Xenopus contains large amounts of a 160 X 10(3) polypeptide that is recognized by polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against N-CAM. cDNA probes of Xenopus brain N-CAM recognize major transcripts of 9.2, 3

  13. GIRK Channels Modulate Opioid-Induced Motor Activity in a Cell Type- and Subunit-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Kotecki, Lydia; Hearing, Matthew; McCall, Nora M.; Marron Fernandez de Velasco, Ezequiel; Pravetoni, Marco; Arora, Devinder; Victoria, Nicole C.; Munoz, Michaelanne B.; Xia, Zhilian; Slesinger, Paul A.; Weaver, C. David

    2015-01-01

    G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying K+ (GIRK/Kir3) channel activation underlies key physiological effects of opioids, including analgesia and dependence. GIRK channel activation has also been implicated in the opioid-induced inhibition of midbrain GABA neurons and consequent disinhibition of dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Drug-induced disinhibition of VTA DA neurons has been linked to reward-related behaviors and underlies opioid-induced motor activation. Here, we demonstrate that mouse VTA GABA neurons express a GIRK channel formed by GIRK1 and GIRK2 subunits. Nevertheless, neither constitutive genetic ablation of Girk1 or Girk2, nor the selective ablation of GIRK channels in GABA neurons, diminished morphine-induced motor activity in mice. Moreover, direct activation of GIRK channels in midbrain GABA neurons did not enhance motor activity. In contrast, genetic manipulations that selectively enhanced or suppressed GIRK channel function in midbrain DA neurons correlated with decreased and increased sensitivity, respectively, to the motor-stimulatory effect of systemic morphine. Collectively, these data support the contention that the unique GIRK channel subtype in VTA DA neurons, the GIRK2/GIRK3 heteromer, regulates the sensitivity of the mouse mesolimbic DA system to drugs with addictive potential. PMID:25948263

  14. ETHANOL AND ARACHIDONIC ACID SYNERGIZE TO ACTIVATE KUPFFER CELLS AND MODULATE THE FIBROGENIC RESPONSE VIA TNFα, GSH, AND TGFβ-DEPENDENT MECHANISMS

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aim because of the contribution of ethanol and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to alcoholic liver disease, we investigated whether chronic ethanol administration and arachidonic acid (AA) could synergistically mediate Kupffer cell (KC) activation and modulate the stellate cell (HSC) fibrogenic response. Results 1) Ethanol and AA effects on KC and HSC mono-cultures: cell proliferation, lipid peroxidation, H2O2, O2.−, NADPH oxidase activity, and TNFα were higher in KCethanol than in KCcontrol, and were enhanced by AA; HSCethanol proliferated faster, increased collagen, and showed higher GSH than HSCcontrol, with modest effects by AA. 2) AA effects on the control co-culture: we previously reported (1) the ability of KC to induce a pro-fibrogenic response in HSC via ROS-dependent mechanisms; we now show that AA further increases cell proliferation and collagen in the control co-culture. The latter was prevented by vitamin E (an antioxidant) and by diphenyleneiodonium (a NADPH oxidase inhibitor). 3) Ethanol effects on the co-cultures: co-culture with KCcontrol or KCethanol induced HSCcontrol and HSCethanol proliferation; however, the pro-fibrogenic response in HSCethanol was suppressed due to up-regulation of TNFα and GSH, which was prevented by a TNFα neutralizing Ab and by l-buthionine-sulfoximine, a GSH-depleting agent. 4) Ethanol plus AA effects on the co-cultures: AA lowered TNFα in the HSCcontrol co-cultures allowing for enhanced collagen deposition; furthermore, AA restored the pro-fibrogenic response in the HSCethanol co-cultures by counteracting the up-regulation of TNFα and GSH with a significant increase in GSSG and in pro-fibrogenic TGFβ. Conclusion these results unveil synergism between ethanol and AA to the mechanism whereby KC mediate ECM remodeling, and suggest that even if chronic ethanol consumption sensitizes HSC to up-regulate anti-fibrogenic signals, their effects are blunted by a second ‘hit’ such as AA. PMID:19003881

  15. Solar cell module lamination process

    DOEpatents

    Carey, Paul G.; Thompson, Jesse B.; Aceves, Randy C.

    2002-01-01

    A solar cell module lamination process using fluoropolymers to provide protection from adverse environmental conditions and thus enable more extended use of solar cells, particularly in space applications. A laminate of fluoropolymer material provides a hermetically sealed solar cell module structure that is flexible and very durable. The laminate is virtually chemically inert, highly transmissive in the visible spectrum, dimensionally stable at temperatures up to about 200.degree. C. highly abrasion resistant, and exhibits very little ultra-violet degradation.

  16. Modulation of DNA polymerase beta-dependent base excision repair in cultured human cells after low dose exposure to arsenite

    SciTech Connect

    Sykora, Peter; Snow, Elizabeth T.

    2008-05-01

    Base excision repair (BER) is crucial for development and for the repair of endogenous DNA damage. However, unlike nucleotide excision repair, the regulation of BER is not well understood. Arsenic, a well-established human carcinogen, is known to produce oxidative DNA damage, which is repaired primarily by BER, whilst high doses of arsenic can also inhibit DNA repair. However, the mechanism of repair inhibition by arsenic and the steps inhibited are not well defined. To address this question we have investigated the regulation of DNA polymerase {beta} (Pol {beta}) and AP endonuclease (APE1), in response to low, physiologically relevant doses of arsenic. GM847 lung fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes were exposed to sodium arsenite, As(III), and mRNA, protein levels and BER activity were assessed. Both Pol {beta} and APE1 mRNA exhibited significant dose-dependant down regulation at doses of As(III) above 1 {mu}M. However, at lower doses Pol {beta} mRNA and protein levels, and consequently, BER activity were significantly increased. In contrast, APE1 protein levels were only marginally increased by low doses of As(III) and there was no correlation between APE1 and overall BER activity. Enzyme supplementation of nuclear extracts confirmed that Pol {beta} was rate limiting. These changes in BER correlated with overall protection against sunlight UV-induced toxicity at low doses of As(III) and produced synergistic toxicity at high doses. The results provide evidence that changes in BER due to low doses of arsenic could contribute to a non-linear, threshold dose response for arsenic carcinogenesis.

  17. Cholinergic receptor signaling modulates spontaneous firing of sinoatrial nodal cells via integrated effects on PKA-dependent Ca2+ cycling and IKACh

    PubMed Central

    Lyashkov, Alexey E.; Vinogradova, Tatiana M.; Zahanich, Ihor; Li, Yue; Younes, Antoine; Nuss, H. Bradley; Spurgeon, Harold A.; Maltsev, Victor A.; Lakatta, Edward G.

    2009-01-01

    Prior studies indicate that cholinergic receptor (ChR) activation is linked to beating rate reduction (BRR) in sinoatrial nodal cells (SANC) via 1) a Gi-coupled reduction in adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity, leading to a reduction of cAMP or protein kinase A (PKA) modulation of hyperpolarization-activated current (If) or L-type Ca2+ currents (ICa,L), respectively; and 2) direct Gi-coupled activation of ACh-activated potassium current (IKACh). More recent studies, however, have indicated that Ca2+ cycling by the sarcoplasmic reticulum within SANC (referred to as a Ca2+ clock) generates rhythmic, spontaneous local Ca2+ releases (LCR) that are AC-PKA dependent. LCRs activate Na+-Ca2+ exchange (NCX) current, which ignites the surface membrane ion channels to effect an AP. The purpose of the present study was to determine how ChR signaling initiated by a cholinergic agonist, carbachol (CCh), affects AC, cAMP, and PKA or sarcolemmal ion channels and LCRs and how these effects become integrated to generate the net response to a given intensity of ChR stimulation in single, isolated rabbit SANC. The threshold CCh concentration ([CCh]) for BRR was ∼10 nM, half maximal inhibition (IC50) was achieved at 100 nM, and 1,000 nM stopped spontaneous beating. Gi inhibition by pertussis toxin blocked all CCh effects on BRR. Using specific ion channel blockers, we established that If blockade did not affect BRR at any [CCh] and that IKACh activation, evidenced by hyperpolarization, first became apparent at [CCh] > 30 nM. At IC50, CCh reduced cAMP and reduced PKA-dependent phospholamban (PLB) phosphorylation by ∼50%. The dose response of BRR to CCh in the presence of IKACh blockade by a specific inhibitor, tertiapin Q, mirrored that of CCh to reduced PLB phosphorylation. At IC50, CCh caused a time-dependent reduction in the number and size of LCRs and a time dependent increase in LCR period that paralleled coincident BRR. The phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A reversed the effect of

  18. Advanced Fuel-Cell Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, William F., III; Martin, Ronald E.; Struning, Albin J.; Whitehill, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Modules designed for long life, light weight, reliability, and low cost. Stack of alkaline fuel cells based on modules, consisting of three fuel cells and cooler. Each cell includes following components: ribbed carbon fine-pore anode electrolyte-reservoir plate; platinum-on-carbon catalyst anode; potassium titanate matrix bonded with butyl rubber; gold-plated nickel-foil electrode substrates; and silver plated, gold-flashed molded polyphenylene sulfide cell holder. Each cell has active area of 1ft to the 2nd power (0.09 m to the 2nd power). Materials and configurations of parts chosen to extend life expectancy, reduce weight and manufacturing cost, and increase reliability.

  19. Apoptosis, cell proliferation and modulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(cip1) in vascular remodelling during vein arterialization in the rat.

    PubMed

    Borin, Thaiz Ferraz; Miyakawa, Ayumi Aurea; Cardoso, Leandro; de Figueiredo Borges, Luciano; Gonçalves, Giovana Aparecida; Krieger, Jose Eduardo

    2009-06-01

    Neo-intima development and atherosclerosis limit long-term vein graft use for revascularization of ischaemic tissues. Using a rat model, which is technically less challenging than smaller rodents, we provide evidence that the temporal morphological, cellular, and key molecular events during vein arterialization resemble the human vein graft adaptation. Right jugular vein was surgically connected to carotid artery and observed up to 90 days. Morphometry demonstrated gradual thickening of the medial layer and important formation of neo-intima with deposition of smooth muscle cells (SMC) in the subendothelial layer from day 7 onwards. Transmission electron microscopy showed that SMCs switch from the contractile to synthetic phenotype on day 3 and new elastic lamellae formation occurs from day 7 onwards. Apoptosis markedly increased on day 1, while alpha-actin immunostaining for SMC almost disappeared by day 3. On day 7, cell proliferation reached the highest level and cellular density gradually increased until day 90. The relative magnitude of cellular changes was higher in the intima vs. the media layer (100 vs. 2 times respectively). Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) p27(Kip1) and p16(INKA) remained unchanged, whereas p21(Cip1) was gradually downregulated, reaching the lowest levels by day 7 until day 90. Taken together, these data indicate for the first time that p21(Cip1) is the main CDKI protein modulated during the arterialization process the rat model of vein arterialization that may be useful to identify and validate new targets and interventions to improve the long-term patency of vein grafts.

  20. Estrogen Mediated-Activation of miR-191/425 Cluster Modulates Tumorigenicity of Breast Cancer Cells Depending on Estrogen Receptor Status

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, Pierluigi; Ngankeu, Apollinaire; Taccioli, Cristian; Briskin, Daniel; Cheung, Douglas G.; Bolon, Brad; Anderlucci, Laura; Alder, Hansjuerg; Nuovo, Gerard; Li, Meng; Iorio, Marilena V.; Galasso, Marco; Ramasamy, Santhanam; Marcucci, Guido; Perrotti, Danilo; Powell, Kimerly A.; Bratasz, Anna; Garofalo, Michela; Nephew, Kenneth P.; Croce, Carlo M.

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), single-stranded non-coding RNAs, influence myriad biological processes that can contribute to cancer. Although tumor-suppressive and oncogenic functions have been characterized for some miRNAs, the majority of microRNAs have not been investigated for their ability to promote and modulate tumorigenesis. Here, we established that the miR-191/425 cluster is transcriptionally dependent on the host gene, DALRD3, and that the hormone 17β-estradiol (estrogen or E2) controls expression of both miR-191/425 and DALRD3. MiR-191/425 locus characterization revealed that the recruitment of estrogen receptor α (ERα) to the regulatory region of the miR-191/425-DALRD3 unit resulted in the accumulation of miR-191 and miR-425 and subsequent decrease in DALRD3 expression levels. We demonstrated that miR-191 protects ERα positive breast cancer cells from hormone starvation-induced apoptosis through the suppression of tumor-suppressor EGR1. Furthermore, enforced expression of the miR-191/425 cluster in aggressive breast cancer cells altered global gene expression profiles and enabled us to identify important tumor promoting genes, including SATB1, CCND2, and FSCN1, as targets of miR-191 and miR-425. Finally, in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that miR-191 and miR-425 reduced proliferation, impaired tumorigenesis and metastasis, and increased expression of epithelial markers in aggressive breast cancer cells. Our data provide compelling evidence for the transcriptional regulation of the miR-191/425 cluster and for its context-specific biological determinants in breast cancers. Importantly, we demonstrated that the miR-191/425 cluster, by reducing the expression of an extensive network of genes, has a fundamental impact on cancer initiation and progression of breast cancer cells. PMID:23505378

  1. Kinase Inhibitor Screening Identifies Cyclin-Dependent Kinases and Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 as Potential Modulators of TDP-43 Cytosolic Accumulation during Cell Stress.

    PubMed

    Moujalled, Diane; James, Janine L; Parker, Sarah J; Lidgerwood, Grace E; Duncan, Clare; Meyerowitz, Jodi; Nonaka, Takashi; Hasegawa, Masato; Kanninen, Katja M; Grubman, Alexandra; Liddell, Jeffrey R; Crouch, Peter J; White, Anthony R

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal processing of TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) has been identified as a major factor in neuronal degeneration during amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). It is unclear how changes to TDP-43, including nuclear to cytosolic translocation and subsequent accumulation, are controlled in these diseases. TDP-43 is a member of the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) RNA binding protein family and is known to associate with cytosolic RNA stress granule proteins in ALS and FTLD. hnRNP trafficking and accumulation is controlled by the action of specific kinases including members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. However, little is known about how kinase pathways control TDP-43 movement and accumulation. In this study, we used an in vitro model of TDP-43-positve stress granule formation to screen for the effect of kinase inhibitors on TDP-43 accumulation. We found that while a number of kinase inhibitors, particularly of the MAPK pathways modulated both TDP-43 and the global stress granule marker, human antigen R (HuR), multiple inhibitors were more specific to TDP-43 accumulation, including inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). Close correlation was observed between effects of these inhibitors on TDP-43, hnRNP K and TIAR, but often with different effects on HuR accumulation. This may indicate a potential interaction between TDP-43, hnRNP K and TIAR. CDK inhibitors were also found to reverse pre-formed TDP-43-positive stress granules and both CDK and GSK3 inhibitors abrogated the accumulation of C-terminal TDP-43 (219-414) in transfected cells. Further studies are required to confirm the specific kinases involved and whether their action is through phosphorylation of the TDP-43 binding partner hnRNP K. This knowledge provides a valuable insight into the mechanisms controlling abnormal cytoplasmic TDP-43 accumulation and may herald new opportunities

  2. Context-Dependent Modulation of GABAAR-Mediated Tonic Currents

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Bijal; Bright, Damian P.; Mortensen, Martin; Frølund, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Tonic GABA currents mediated by high-affinity extrasynaptic GABAA receptors, are increasingly recognized as important regulators of cell and neuronal network excitability. Dysfunctional GABAA receptor signaling that results in modified tonic GABA currents is associated with a number of neurological disorders. Consequently, developing compounds to selectively modulate the activity of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors underlying tonic inhibition is likely to prove therapeutically useful. Here, we examine the GABAA receptor subtype selectivity of the weak partial agonist, 5-(4-piperidyl)isoxazol-3-ol (4-PIOL), as a potential mechanism for modulating extrasynaptic GABAA receptor-mediated tonic currents. By using recombinant GABAA receptors expressed in HEK293 cells, and native GABAA receptors of cerebellar granule cells, hippocampal neurons, and thalamic relay neurons, 4-PIOL evidently displayed differential agonist and antagonist-type profiles, depending on the extrasynaptic GABAA receptor isoforms targeted. For neurons, this resulted in differential modulation of GABA tonic currents, depending on the cell type studied, their respective GABAA receptor subunit compositions, and critically, on the ambient GABA levels. Unexpectedly, 4-PIOL revealed a significant population of relatively low-affinity γ2 subunit-containing GABAA receptors in the thalamus, which can contribute to tonic inhibition under specific conditions when GABA levels are raised. Together, these data indicate that partial agonists, such as 4-PIOL, may be useful for modulating GABAA receptor-mediated tonic currents, but the direction and extent of this modulation is strongly dependent on relative expression levels of different extrasynaptic GABAA receptor subtypes, and on the ambient GABA levels. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A background level of inhibition (tonic) is important in the brain for controlling neuronal excitability. Increased levels of tonic inhibition are associated with some neurological disorders

  3. Ascorbate-dependent impact on cell-derived matrix in modulation of stiffness and rejuvenation of infrapatellar fat derived stem cells toward chondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pizzute, Tyler; Zhang, Ying; He, Fan; Pei, Ming

    2016-08-10

    Developing an in vitro microenvironment using cell-derived decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) is a promising approach to efficiently expand adult stem cells for cartilage engineering and regeneration. Ascorbic acid serves as a critical stimulus for cells to synthesize collagens, which constitute the major component of dECM. In this study, we hypothesized that optimization of ascorbate treatment would maximize the rejuvenation effect of dECM on expanded stem cells from human infrapatellar fat pad in both proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. In the duration regimen study, we found that dECM without L-ascorbic acid phosphate (AA) treatment, exhibiting lower stiffness measured by atomic force microscopy, yielded expanded cells with higher proliferation capacity but lower chondrogenic potential when compared to those with varied durations of AA treatment. dECM with 250 µM of AA treatment for 10 d had better rejuvenation in chondrogenic capacity if the deposited cells were from passage 2 rather than passage 5, despite no significant difference in matrix stiffness. In the dose regimen study, we found that dECMs deposited by varied concentrations of AA yielded expanded cells with higher proliferation capacity despite lower expression levels of stem cell related surface markers. Compared to cells expanded on tissue culture polystyrene, those on dECM exhibited greater chondrogenic potential, particularly for the dECMs with 50 µM and 250 µM of AA treatment. With the supplementation of ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (EDHB), an inhibitor targeting procollagen synthesis, the dECM with 50 µM of AA treatment exhibited a dramatic decrease in the rejuvenation effect of expanded cell chondrogenic potential at both mRNA and protein levels despite no significant difference in matrix stiffness. Defined AA treatments during matrix preparation will benefit dECM-mediated stem cell engineering and future treatments for cartilage defects.

  4. Synthesis and study of benzothiazole conjugates in the control of cell proliferation by modulating Ras/MEK/ERK-dependent pathway in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Ahmed; Faazil, Shaikh; Ramaiah, M Janaki; Ashraf, Md; Balakrishna, M; Pushpavalli, S N C V L; Patel, Nibedita; Pal-Bhadra, Manika

    2013-10-15

    By applying a methodology, a series of benzothiazole-pyrrole based conjugates (4a-r) were synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity. Compounds such as 4a, 4c, 4e, 4g-j, 4m, 4n, 4o and 4r exhibited significant cytotoxic effect in the MCF-7 cell line. Cell cycle effects were examined for these conjugates at 2 μM as well as 4 μM concentrations and FACS analysis show an increase of G2/M phase cells with concomitant decrease of G1 phase cells thereby indicating G2/M cell cycle arrest by them. Interestingly 4o and 4r are effective in causing apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, 4o showed down regulation of oncogenic expression of Ras and its downstream effector molecules such as MEK1, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and VEGF. The apoptotic aspect of this conjugate is further evidenced by increased expression of caspase-9 in MCF-7 cells. Hence these small molecules have the potential to control both the cell proliferation as well as the invasion process in the highly malignant breast cancers.

  5. Sialylation and glycosylation modulate cell adhesion and invasion to extracellular matrix in human malignant lymphoma: Dependency on integrin and the Rho GTPase family.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Osamu; Abe, Masafumi; Hashimoto, Yuko

    2015-12-01

    To determine the biological roles of cell surface glycosylation, we modified the surface glycosylation of human malignant lymphoma cell lines using glycosylation inhibitors. The O-glycosylation inhibitor, benzyl-α-GalNAc (BZ) enhanced the fibronectin adhesion of HBL-8 cells, a human Burkitt's lymphoma cell line, and of H-ALCL cells, a human anaplastic large cell lymphoma cell line, both of which were established in our laboratory. The N-glycosylation inhibitor, tunicamycin (TM) inhibited the surface expression of Phaseolus vulgaris leukoagglutinating (L-PHA) lectin- and Canavalia ensiformis (ConA) lectin-reactive oligosaccharides in the HBL-8 cell line. Assay of the adhesion of HBL-8 cells to fibronectin showed that fibronectin adhesion is mediated by the integrin very late antigen (VLA)-4 and that not only BZ but also TM treatment enhanced HBL-8 cell adhesion to fibronectin. Furthermore, although BZ treatment also enhanced H-ALCL cell adhesion to fibronectin, this effect was not mediated by VLA-5 or the RGD sequence of fibronectin. We also showed that H-ALCL cell adhesion to galectin-3 was enhanced by pre-treatment with neuraminidase, which cleaves cell surface sialic acid. Additionally, H-ALCL cell adhesion to galectin-3 was inhibited by pre‑treatment with the RGD peptide suggesting that cell adhesion to galectin-3 is mediated by integrin (VLA-5). Furthermore, H-ALCL cell invasion of galectin-1 and galectin-3 was inhibited by pre-treatment with the RGD peptide. Therefore, cell adhesion to and invasion of galectin-1 and galectin-3 are integrin-dependent. In addition to these findings, cell adhesion to galectin-3 was markedly inhibited by treatment with β-lactose compared to treatment with sucrose. Therefore, interactions between integrins and galectin-3 may be mediated through β-galactose that is linked to glycans of integrins. AZA1, an inhibitor of Ras homolog oncoprotein (Rho) GTPase family proteins, RAS-related C3 botulinus toxin substrate 1 (Rac 1) and

  6. Bile acids modulate the Golgi membrane fission process via a protein kinase Ceta and protein kinase D-dependent pathway in colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Anne-Marie; Foran, Eilis; Sharma, Ruchika; Davies, Anthony; Mahon, Ciara; O'Sullivan, Jacintha; O'Donoghue, Diarmuid; Kelleher, Dermot; Long, Aideen

    2010-04-01

    Deoxycholic acid (DCA) is a secondary bile acid that modulates signalling pathways in epithelial cells. DCA has been implicated in pathogenesis of colon carcinoma, particularly by activation of the protein kinase C (PKC) pathway. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a tertiary bile acid, has been observed to have chemopreventive effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of DCA and UDCA on the subcellular localization and activity of PKCeta and its downstream effects on Golgi structure in a colon cancer cell model. PKCeta expression was localized to the Golgi in HCT116 colon cancer cells. DCA induced fragmentation of the Golgi in these cells following activation of PKCeta and its downstream effector protein kinase D (PKD). Pretreatment of cells with UDCA or a glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, inhibited DCA-induced PKCeta/PKD activation and Golgi fragmentation. Knockdown of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression using small interfering RNA or inhibition using the GR antagonist mifepristone attenuated the inhibitory effect of UDCA on Golgi fragmentation. Elevated serum and faecal levels of DCA have been previously reported in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and colon cancer. Analysis of Golgi architecture in vivo using tissue microarrays revealed Golgi fragmentation in UC and colorectal cancer tissue. We have demonstrated that DCA can disrupt the structure of the Golgi, an organelle critical for normal cell function. Inhibition of this DCA-induced Golgi fragmentation by UDCA was mediated via the GR. This represents a potential mechanism of observed chemopreventive effects of UDCA in benign and malignant disease of the colon.

  7. Rac1 and Cdc42 differentially modulate cigarette smoke-induced airway cell migration through p120-catenin-dependent and -independent pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Gallup, Marianne; Zlock, Lorna; Finkbeiner, Walter E; McNamara, Nancy A

    2013-06-01

    The adherens junction protein p120-catenin (p120ctn) shuttles between E-cadherin-bound and cytoplasmic pools to regulate E-cadherin/catenin complex stability and cell migration, respectively. When released from the adherens junction, p120ctn promotes cell migration through modulation of the Rho GTPases Rac1, Cdc42, and RhoA. Accordingly, the down-regulation and cytoplasmic mislocalization of p120ctn has been reported in all subtypes of lung cancers and is associated with grave prognosis. Previously, we reported that cigarette smoke induced cytoplasmic translocation of p120ctn and cell migration, but the underlying mechanism was unclear. Using primary human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to smoke-concentrated medium (Smk), we observed the translocation of Rac1 and Cdc42, but not RhoA, to the leading edge of polarized and migrating human bronchial epithelial cells. Rac1 and Cdc42 were robustly activated by smoke, whereas RhoA was inhibited. Accordingly, siRNA knockdown of Rac1 or Cdc42 completely abolished Smk-induced cell migration, whereas knockdown of RhoA had no effect. p120ctn/Rac1 double knockdown completely abolished Smk-induced cell migration, whereas p120ctn/Cdc42 double knockdown did not. These data suggested that Rac1 and Cdc42 coactivation was essential to smoke-promoted cell migration in the presence of p120ctn, whereas migration proceeded via Rac1 alone in the absence of p120ctn. Thus, Rac1 may provide an omnipotent therapeutic target in reversing cell migration during the early (intact p120ctn) and late (loss of p120ctn) stages of lung carcinogenesis.

  8. p38 and JNK pathways control E-selectin-dependent extravasation of colon cancer cells by modulating miR-31 transcription

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Liang; Simoneau, Bryan; Huot, Jacques; Simard, Martin J.

    2017-01-01

    Extravasation of circulating cancer cells is a key event of metastatic dissemination that is initiated by the adhesion of cancer cells to vascular endothelial cells. It requires the interaction between adhesion receptors such as E-selectin present on endothelial cells and their ligands on cancer cells. Notably, E-selectin influences the metastatic potential of breast, bladder, gastric, pancreatic, and colorectal carcinoma as well as of leukemia and lymphoma. Here, we show that E-selectin expression induced by the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β is directly and negatively regulated by miR-31. The transcription of miR-31 is activated by IL-1β. This activation depends on p38 and JNK MAP kinases, and their downstream transcription factors GATA2, c-Fos and c-Jun. The miR-31-mediated repression of E-selectin impairs the metastatic potential of colon cancer cells by decreasing their adhesion to, and migration through, the endothelium. These results highlight for the first time that microRNA mediates E-selectin-dependent extravasation of colon cancer cells. PMID:27926494

  9. Development of stably transfected human and rat hepatoma cell lines for the species-specific assessment of xenobiotic response enhancer module (XREM)-dependent induction of drug metabolism.

    PubMed

    Fery, Yvonne; Mueller, Stefan O; Schrenk, Dieter

    2010-11-09

    Based on our current knowledge, PXR holds a key position in the induction of a selective battery of enzymes and transporters of drug metabolism. In order to prevent serious adverse drug effects or unpredicted drug-drug interactions (DDI), it is compulsory to investigate the possible inducing potency of drugs under development. Furthermore, analysis of the inducing potency of environmental pollutants and new or manufactured chemicals is part of toxicological risk assessment. In non-transfected human HepG2 and rat H4IIE hepatoma cells, we examined the characteristics of expression of 45 genes involved in drug metabolism. A few gene products such as CYP2B6 or CYP3A4 mRNA were prominent in HepG2 cells while their major rat counterparts were, e.g., CYP2B3 or CYP3A1/3A3. Furthermore, a number of xenobiotic receptors including PXR were expressed in both cell lines. A number of genes were regulated in a cell type and species-specific manner after incubation with the prototypical PXR agonists rifampicin or dexamethasone, respectively. Then, we established cell-based reporter gene assays for screening for PXR-dependent induction of drug metabolism. HepG2 and H4IIE cells were stably transfected with a reporter gene containing PXR responsive elements (XREMs) which mediate the induction of PXR target genes such as CYP3A enzymes. With both stable cell lines the CYP inducers clotrimazole, dexamethasone, omeprazole, phenobarbital, rifampicin, as well as the drug candidate EMD 392949 and the brominated flame retardants hexabromocylododecane (HBCD) and a pentabromodiphenyl ether (pentaBDE) mixture were screened. In the human HepG2-XREM3 and rat H4IIE-XREM3 cells, clotrimazole and HBCD were found as common activators of the human and rat PXR whereas pentaBDE was more effective with the human cell system. Omeprazole and phenobarbital did not induce the rat PXR-dependent reporter gene expression in H4IIE-XREM3 cells, while a moderate increase was found in HepG2-XREM3 cells. EMD 392949

  10. L-type calcium channel gating is modulated by bradykinin with a PKC-dependent mechanism in NG108-15 cells.

    PubMed

    Toselli, Mauro; Taglietti, Vanni

    2005-05-01

    Bradykinin (BK) excites dorsal root ganglion cells, leading to the sensation of pain. The actions of BK are thought to be mediated by heterotrimeric G protein-regulated pathways. Indeed there is strong evidence that in different cell types BK is involved in phosphoinositide breakdown following activation of G(q/11). In the present study we show that the Ca(2+) current flowing through L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels in NG108-15 cells (differentiated in vitro to acquire a neuronal phenotype), measured using the whole-cell patch clamp configuration, is reversibly inhibited by BK in a voltage-independent fashion, suggesting a cascade process where a second messenger system is involved. This inhibitory action of BK is mimicked by the application of 1,2-oleoyl-acetyl glycerol (OAG), an analog of diacylglycerol that activates PKC. Interestingly, OAG occluded the effects of BK and both effects were blocked by selective PKC inhibitors. The down modulation of single L-type Ca(2+) channels by BK and OAG was also investigated in cell-attached patches. Our results indicate that the inhibitory action of BK involves activation of PKC and mainly shows up in a significant reduction of the probability of channel opening, caused by an increase and clustering of null sweeps in response to BK.

  11. Cholinergic Stimulation Prevents the Development of Autoimmune Diabetes: Evidence for the Modulation of Th17 Effector Cells via an IFNγ-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    George, Junu A.; Bashir, Ghada; Qureshi, Mohammed M.; Mohamed, Yassir A.; Azzi, Jamil; al-Ramadi, Basel K.; Fernández-Cabezudo, Maria J.

    2016-01-01

    Type I diabetes (T1D) results from T cell-mediated damage of pancreatic β-cells and loss of insulin production. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway represents a physiological link connecting the central nervous and immune systems via vagus nerve, and functions to control the release of proinflammatory cytokines. Using the multiple low-dose streptozotocin (MLD-STZ) model to induce experimental autoimmune diabetes, we investigated the potential of regulating the development of hyperglycemia through administration of paraoxon, a highly specific acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI). We demonstrate that pretreatment with paraoxon prevented hyperglycemia in STZ-treated C57BL/6 mice. This correlated with a reduction in T cell infiltration into pancreatic islets and preservation of the structure and functionality of β-cells. Gene expression analysis of pancreatic tissue revealed that increased peripheral cholinergic activity prevented STZ-mediated loss of insulin production, this being associated with a reduction in IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-17 proinflammatory cytokines. Intracellular cytokine analysis in splenic T cells demonstrated that inhibition of AChE led to a shift in STZ-induced immune response from a predominantly disease-causing IL-17-expressing Th17 cells to IFNγ-positive Th1 cells. Consistent with this conclusion, inhibition of AChE failed to prevent STZ-induced hyperglycemia in IFNγ-deficient mice. Our results provide mechanistic evidence for the prevention of murine T1D by inhibition of AChE and suggest a promising strategy for modulating disease severity. PMID:27790217

  12. 5-AED enhances survival of irradiated mice in a G-CSF-dependent manner, stimulates innate immune cell function, reduces radiation-induced DNA damage and induces genes that modulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Marcy B.; Singh, Vijay K.; Rhee, Juong G.; Jackson, William E.; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Whitnall, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    The steroid androst-5-ene-3ß,17ß-diol (5-androstenediol, 5-AED) elevates circulating granulocytes and platelets in animals and humans, and enhances survival during the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) in mice and non-human primates. 5-AED promotes survival of irradiated human hematopoietic progenitors in vitro through induction of Nuclear Factor-κB (NFκB)-dependent Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) expression, and causes elevations of circulating G-CSF and interleukin-6 (IL-6). However, the in vivo cellular and molecular effects of 5-AED are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of action of 5-AED administered subcutaneously (s.c.) to mice 24 h before total body γ- or X-irradiation (TBI). We used neutralizing antibodies, flow cytometric functional assays of circulating innate immune cells, analysis of expression of genes related to cell cycle progression, DNA repair and apoptosis, and assessment of DNA strand breaks with halo-comet assays. Neutralization experiments indicated endogenous G-CSF but not IL-6 was involved in survival enhancement by 5-AED. In keeping with known effects of G-CSF on the innate immune system, s.c. 5-AED stimulated phagocytosis in circulating granulocytes and oxidative burst in monocytes. 5-AED induced expression of both bax and bcl-2 in irradiated animals. Cdkn1a and ddb1, but not gadd45a expression, were upregulated by 5-AED in irradiated mice. S.c. 5-AED administration caused decreased DNA strand breaks in splenocytes from irradiated mice. Our results suggest 5-AED survival enhancement is G-CSF-dependent, and that it stimulates innate immune cell function and reduces radiation-induced DNA damage via induction of genes that modulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis. PMID:22843381

  13. 5-AED enhances survival of irradiated mice in a G-CSF-dependent manner, stimulates innate immune cell function, reduces radiation-induced DNA damage and induces genes that modulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Grace, Marcy B; Singh, Vijay K; Rhee, Juong G; Jackson, William E; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Whitnall, Mark H

    2012-11-01

    The steroid androst-5-ene-3ß,17ß-diol (5-androstenediol, 5-AED) elevates circulating granulocytes and platelets in animals and humans, and enhances survival during the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) in mice and non-human primates. 5-AED promotes survival of irradiated human hematopoietic progenitors in vitro through induction of Nuclear Factor-κB (NFκB)-dependent Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) expression, and causes elevations of circulating G-CSF and interleukin-6 (IL-6). However, the in vivo cellular and molecular effects of 5-AED are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of action of 5-AED administered subcutaneously (s.c.) to mice 24 h before total body γ- or X-irradiation (TBI). We used neutralizing antibodies, flow cytometric functional assays of circulating innate immune cells, analysis of expression of genes related to cell cycle progression, DNA repair and apoptosis, and assessment of DNA strand breaks with halo-comet assays. Neutralization experiments indicated endogenous G-CSF but not IL-6 was involved in survival enhancement by 5-AED. In keeping with known effects of G-CSF on the innate immune system, s.c. 5-AED stimulated phagocytosis in circulating granulocytes and oxidative burst in monocytes. 5-AED induced expression of both bax and bcl-2 in irradiated animals. Cdkn1a and ddb1, but not gadd45a expression, were upregulated by 5-AED in irradiated mice. S.c. 5-AED administration caused decreased DNA strand breaks in splenocytes from irradiated mice. Our results suggest 5-AED survival enhancement is G-CSF-dependent, and that it stimulates innate immune cell function and reduces radiation-induced DNA damage via induction of genes that modulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis.

  14. Direct modulation of the outer mitochondrial membrane channel, voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) by cannabidiol: a novel mechanism for cannabinoid-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Rimmerman, N; Ben-Hail, D; Porat, Z; Juknat, A; Kozela, E; Daniels, M P; Connelly, P S; Leishman, E; Bradshaw, H B; Shoshan-Barmatz, V; Vogel, Z

    2013-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive plant cannabinoid that inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death of cancer cells and activated immune cells. It is not an agonist of the classical CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptors and the mechanism by which it functions is unknown. Here, we studied the effects of CBD on various mitochondrial functions in BV-2 microglial cells. Our findings indicate that CBD treatment leads to a biphasic increase in intracellular calcium levels and to changes in mitochondrial function and morphology leading to cell death. Density gradient fractionation analysis by mass spectrometry and western blotting showed colocalization of CBD with protein markers of mitochondria. Single-channel recordings of the outer-mitochondrial membrane protein, the voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) functioning in cell energy, metabolic homeostasis and apoptosis revealed that CBD markedly decreases channel conductance. Finally, using microscale thermophoresis, we showed a direct interaction between purified fluorescently labeled VDAC1 and CBD. Thus, VDAC1 seems to serve as a novel mitochondrial target for CBD. The inhibition of VDAC1 by CBD may be responsible for the immunosuppressive and anticancer effects of CBD. PMID:24309936

  15. Self-sacrificial template-induced modulation of conjugated microporous polymer microcapsules and shape-dependent enhanced photothermal efficiency for ablation of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jing; Wan, Jiaxun; Guo, Jia; Wang, Changchun

    2015-12-21

    The one-step synthesis of nanoscale conjugated microporous polymer (NCMP) capsules is presented by using PMAA microspheres as self-sacrificial templates. Precise control over the morphology, nanostructure and shell thickness makes the NCMPs have a tunable NIR absorption ability and a shape-dependent photothermal conversion efficiency. Upon exposure to 808 nm light, they rapidly generate heat (NCMP concentration: 100 μg mL(-1)) and cause thermal ablation of HeLa cells with less than 10% viability.

  16. Modulation of Elk-dependent-transcription by Gene33.

    PubMed

    Keeton, Adam B; Messina, Joseph L

    2005-04-15

    Gene33 is a cytoplasmic protein expressed in many cell types, including those of renal and hepatic origin. Its expression is regulated by a large number of mitogenic and stressful stimuli, both in cultured cells and in vivo. Gene33 protein possesses binding domains for ErbB receptors, 14-3-3 proteins, SH-3 domains, and GTP bound Cdc42, suggesting that it may play a role in signal transduction. Indeed, these regions of Gene33 have been reported to modulate signaling through the ERK, JNK, and NFkappaB pathways. In the present work, epitope-tagged full-length and truncation mutants, as well as wild-type Gene33, were overexpressed in 293 cells. The expression of these proteins was compared to the level of endogenous Gene33 by Western blot using a newly developed polyclonal antibody. As proxies for activity of the ERK and JNK pathways, Elk- and c-Jun-dependent transcription were measured by a luciferase reporter gene. Moderate expression levels of full-length Gene33 caused a twofold increase in Elk-dependent transcription, while at higher levels, c-Jun-dependent transcription was partially inhibited. The C-terminal half of Gene33 significantly increased both Elk- and c-Jun-dependent transcription when expressed at approximately threefold above control levels. This effect on Elk-dependent transcription was lost at higher levels of Gene33 expression. In contrast, higher levels of the C-terminal half of Gene33 caused a progressively greater effect on c-Jun-dependent transcription. These findings suggest that Gene33 may increase ERK activity, and that the C-terminal half of Gene33 may act less specifically in the absence of the N-terminal half, inducing JNK activity.

  17. Pleiotropic effects of the sirtuin inhibitor sirtinol involves concentration-dependent modulation of multiple nuclear receptor-mediated pathways in androgen-responsive prostate cancer cell LNCaP.

    PubMed

    Wang, Thomas T Y; Schoene, Norberta W; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Young S

    2013-09-01

    Sirtinol is a purported specific inhibitor of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent type III histone deacetylase (also known as sirtuin). Sirtinol has been used extensively to identify chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agents that modulate the sirtuins. However, the molecular effect of sirtinol other than serving as sirtuin inhibitor in cells is less clear. The present study addressed this deficiency in the literature. Based on structural similarity with plant-derived cancer preventive/therapeutic compounds such as 3', 3'-diindolylmethane, resveratrol, and genistein, we hypothesized that sirtinol may act on pathways similar to that affected by these compounds in the human prostate cancer cell LNCaP. We found that treatment of LNCaP cells with sirtinol led to concentration-dependent effects on multiple pathways. Sirtinol inhibited LNCaP cell cycle and growth that was correlated with up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A mRNA and protein levels. This effect of sirtinol may due in part to modulation of androgen, estrogen, and insulin-like growth factor-1 mediated pathways as sirtinol treatment led to inhibition of mRNA and protein expression of marker genes involved in these pathways. We also found sirtinol activates aryl hydrocarbon-dependent pathways in LNCaP cells. The effects of sirtinol were observed at 25 µM, a concentration lower than Ki (38 µM) for sirtuin activity. Based on these results we reasoned that sirtinol exerts pleiotropic effects in cells and that biological effects of sirtinol may not be due solely to inhibition of sirtuin.

  18. Glutaredoxin modulates platelet-derived growth factor-dependent cell signaling by regulating the redox status of low molecular weight protein-tyrosine phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Munetake; Ihara, Yoshito; Murata, Hiroaki; Urata, Yoshishige; Kono, Takaaki; Yodoi, Junji; Seto, Shinji; Yano, Katsusuke; Kondo, Takahito

    2006-09-29

    Glutaredoxin (GRX) is a glutathione-disulfide oxidoreductase involved in various cellular functions, including the redox-dependent regulation of certain integral proteins. Here we demonstrated that overexpression of GRX suppressed the proliferation of myocardiac H9c2 cells treated with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB. After stimulation with PDGF-BB, the phosphorylation of PDGF receptor (PDGFR) beta was suppressed in GRX gene-transfected cells, compared with controls. Conversely, the phosphorylation was enhanced by depletion of GRX by RNA interference. In this study we focused on the role of low molecular weight protein-tyrosine phosphatase (LMW-PTP) in the dephosphorylation of PDGFRbeta via a redox-dependent mechanism. We found that depletion of LMW-PTP using RNA interference enhanced the PDGF-BB-induced phosphorylation of PDGFRbeta, indicating that LMW-PTP works for PDGFRbeta. The enhancement of the phosphorylation of PDGFRbeta was well correlated with inactivation of LMW-PTP by cellular peroxide generated in the cells stimulated with PDGF-BB. In vitro, with hydrogen peroxide treatment, LMW-PTP showed decreased activity with the concomitant formation of dithiothreitol-reducible oligomers. GRX protected LMW-PTP from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidation and inactivation in concert with glutathione, NADPH, and glutathione disulfide reductase. This strongly suggests that retention of activity of LMW-PTP by enhanced GRX expression suppresses the proliferation of cells treated with PDGF-BB via enhanced dephosphorylation of PDGFRbeta. Thus, GRX plays an important role in PDGF-BB-dependent cell proliferation by regulating the redox state of LMW-PTP.

  19. The Epigenetic Regulator HDAC1 Modulates Transcription of a Core Cardiogenic Program in Human Cardiac Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Through a p53-Dependent Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Moore, Joseph B; Zhao, John; Keith, Matthew C L; Amraotkar, Alok R; Wysoczynski, Marcin; Hong, Kyung U; Bolli, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) regulation is an essential process in myogenic differentiation. Inhibitors targeting the activity of specific HDAC family members have been shown to enhance the cardiogenic differentiation capacity of discrete progenitor cell types; a key property of donor cell populations contributing to their afforded benefits in cardiac cell therapy applications. The influence of HDAC inhibition on cardiac-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (CMC) transdifferentiation or the role of specific HDAC family members in dictating cardiovascular cell lineage specification has not been investigated. In the current study, the consequences of HDAC inhibition on patient-derived CMC proliferation, cardiogenic program activation, and cardiovascular differentiation/cell lineage specification were investigated using pharmacologic and genetic targeting approaches. Here, CMCs exposed to the pan-HDAC inhibitor sodium butyrate exhibited induction of a cardiogenic transcriptional program and heightened expression of myocyte and endothelial lineage-specific markers when coaxed to differentiate in vitro. Further, shRNA knockdown screens revealed CMCs depleted of HDAC1 to promote the induction of a cardiogenic transcriptional program characterized by enhanced expression of cardiomyogenic- and vasculogenic-specific markers, a finding which depended on and correlated with enhanced acetylation and stabilization of p53. Cardiogenic gene activation and elevated p53 expression levels observed in HDAC1-depleted CMCs were associated with improved aptitude to assume a cardiomyogenic/vasculogenic cell-like fate in vitro. These results suggest that HDAC1 depletion-induced p53 expression alters CMC cell fate decisions and identify HDAC1 as a potential exploitable target to facilitate CMC-mediated myocardial repair in ischemic cardiomyopathy. Stem Cells 2016;34:2916-2929.

  20. A novel small compound SH-2251 suppresses Th2 cell-dependent airway inflammation through selective modulation of chromatin status at the Il5 gene locus.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Junpei; Kuwahara, Makoto; Tofukuji, Soichi; Imamura, Masashi; Kato, Fuminori; Nakayama, Toshinori; Ohara, Osamu; Yamashita, Masakatsu

    2013-01-01

    IL-5 is a key cytokine that plays an important role in the development of pathological conditions in allergic inflammation. Identifying strategies to inhibit IL-5 production is important in order to establish new therapies for treating allergic inflammation. We found that SH-2251, a novel thioamide-related small compound, selectively inhibits the differentiation of IL-5-producing Th2 cells. SH-2251 inhibited the induction of active histone marks at the Il5 gene locus during Th2 cell differentiation. The recruitment of RNA polymerase II, and following expression of the Th2 cell-specific intergenic transcripts around the Il5 gene locus was also inhibited. Furthermore, Th2 cell-dependent airway inflammation in mice was suppressed by the oral administration of SH-2251. Gfi1, a transcriptional repressor, was identified as a downstream target molecule of SH-2251 using a DNA microarray analysis. The Gfi1 expression dramatically decreased in SH-2251-treated Th2 cells, and the SH-2251-mediated inhibition of IL-5-producing Th2 cell differentiation was restored by transduction of Gfi1. Therefore, our study unearthed SH-2251 as a novel therapeutic candidate for allergic inflammation that selectively inhibits active histone marks at the Il5 gene locus.

  1. Notch 1 and 3 receptor signaling modulates vascular smooth muscle cell growth, apoptosis, and migration via a CBF-1/RBP-Jk dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Catherine; Morrow, David; Birney, Yvonne A; Coyle, Seamus; Hennessy, Colm; Scheller, Agnieszka; Cummins, Philip M; Walls, Dermot; Redmond, Eileen M; Cahill, Paul A

    2004-09-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) fate decisions (cell growth, migration, and apoptosis) are fundamental features in the pathogenesis of vascular disease. We investigated the role of Notch 1 and 3 receptor signaling in controlling adult SMC fate in vitro by establishing that hairy enhancer of split (hes-1 and -5) and related hrt's (hrt-1, -2, and -3) are direct downstream target genes of Notch 1 and 3 receptors in SMC and identified an essential role for nuclear protein CBF-1/RBP-Jk in their regulation. Constitutive expression of active Notch 1 and 3 receptors (Notch IC) resulted in a significant up-regulation of CBF-1/RBP-Jk-dependent promoter activity and Notch target gene expression concomitant with significant increases in SMC growth while concurrently inhibiting SMC apoptosis and migration. Moreover, inhibition of endogenous Notch mediated CBF-1/RBP-Jk regulated gene expression with a non-DNA binding mutant of CBF-1, a Notch IC deleted of its delta RAM domain and the Epstein-Barr virus encoded RPMS-1, in conjunction with pharmacological inhibitors of Notch IC receptor trafficking (brefeldin A and monensin), resulted in a significant decrease in cell growth while concomitantly increasing SMC apoptosis and migration. These findings suggest that endogenous Notch receptors and downstream target genes control vascular cell fate in vitro. Notch signaling, therefore, represents a novel therapeutic target for disease states in which changes in vascular cell fate occur in vivo.

  2. Bisphenol A affects germination and tube growth in Picea meyeri pollen through modulating Ca2+ flux and disturbing actin-dependent vesicular trafficking during cell wall construction.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tongjie; Fan, Chengyu; Man, Yi; Zhou, Junhui; Jing, Yanping

    2015-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a widespread pollutant, is reportedly harmful to humans, animals and plants. However, the effect of BPA on plant pollen tube growth, as well as the mechanism involved, remains unclear. Here, we report that BPA significantly inhibited Picea meyeri pollen germination and tube elongation in a dose-dependent manner. Transmission electron microscopy showed that BPA was detrimental to organelles such as mitochondria and Golgi apparatus. Non-invasive detection revealed that BPA inhibited extracellular Ca(2+) influx and promoted intracellular Ca(2+) efflux at the pollen tube tip, thereby inducing a dissipated Ca(2+) gradient. Fluorescence labeling showed that BPA disorganized actin filaments (AFs), which subsequently led to abnormal vesicle trafficking. Furthermore, BPA reduced the activity of acid phosphatase, a typical exocytosis enzyme. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis and subsequent fluorescence labeling revealed that BPA induced an abnormal deposition of cell wall components, including pectins and callose. Taken together, our results indicate that BPA, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, disturbs Ca(2+) flux in P. meyeri pollen tubes, thus disrupting AF organization, resulting in abnormal actin-dependent vesicle trafficking and further affecting the deposition of cell wall components. These findings provide new insight into the mechanism of BPA toxicity in pollen tube tip growth.

  3. Cell shunt resistance and photovoltaic module performance

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, T.J.; Basso, T.S.; Rummel, S.R.

    1996-09-01

    Shunt resistance of cells in photovoltaic modules can affect module power output and could indicate flawed manufacturing processes and reliability problems. The authors describe a two-terminal diagnostic method to directly measure the shunt resistance of individual cells in a series-connected module non-intrusively, without deencapsulation. Peak power efficiency vs. light intensity was measured on a 12-cell, series-connected, single crystalline module having relatively high cell shunt resistances. The module was remeasured with 0.5-, 1-, and 2-ohm resistors attached across each cell to simulate shunt resistances of several emerging technologies. Peak power efficiencies decreased dramatically at lower light levels. Using the PSpice circuit simulator, they verified that cell shunt and series resistances can indeed be responsible for the observed peak power efficiency vs. intensity behavior. They discuss the effect of basic cell diode parameters, i.e., shunt resistance, series resistance, and recombination losses, on PV module performance as a function of light intensity.

  4. Activity of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cell cycle-dependent internal ribosomal entry site is modulated by IRES trans-acting factors.

    PubMed

    Vallejos, Maricarmen; Deforges, Jules; Plank, Terra-Dawn M; Letelier, Alejandro; Ramdohr, Pablo; Abraham, Christopher G; Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando; Kieft, Jeffrey S; Sargueil, Bruno; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2011-08-01

    The 5' leader of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genomic RNA harbors an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that is functional during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Here we show that translation initiation mediated by the HIV-1 IRES requires the participation of trans-acting cellular factors other than the canonical translational machinery. We used 'standard' chemical and enzymatic probes and an 'RNA SHAPE' analysis to model the structure of the HIV-1 5' leader and we show, by means of a footprinting assay, that G2/M extracts provide protections to regions previously identified as crucial for HIV-1 IRES activity. We also assessed the impact of mutations on IRES function. Strikingly, mutations did not significantly affect IRES activity suggesting that the requirement for pre-formed stable secondary or tertiary structure within the HIV-1 IRES may not be as strict as has been described for other viral IRESes. Finally, we used a proteomic approach to identify cellular proteins within the G2/M extracts that interact with the HIV-1 5' leader. Together, data show that HIV-1 IRES-mediated translation initiation is modulated by cellular proteins.

  5. Activity of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cell cycle-dependent internal ribosomal entry site is modulated by IRES trans-acting factors

    PubMed Central

    Vallejos, Maricarmen; Deforges, Jules; Plank, Terra-Dawn M.; Letelier, Alejandro; Ramdohr, Pablo; Abraham, Christopher G.; Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando; Kieft, Jeffrey S.; Sargueil, Bruno; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    The 5′ leader of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genomic RNA harbors an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that is functional during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Here we show that translation initiation mediated by the HIV-1 IRES requires the participation of trans-acting cellular factors other than the canonical translational machinery. We used ‘standard’ chemical and enzymatic probes and an ‘RNA SHAPE’ analysis to model the structure of the HIV-1 5′ leader and we show, by means of a footprinting assay, that G2/M extracts provide protections to regions previously identified as crucial for HIV-1 IRES activity. We also assessed the impact of mutations on IRES function. Strikingly, mutations did not significantly affect IRES activity suggesting that the requirement for pre-formed stable secondary or tertiary structure within the HIV-1 IRES may not be as strict as has been described for other viral IRESes. Finally, we used a proteomic approach to identify cellular proteins within the G2/M extracts that interact with the HIV-1 5′ leader. Together, data show that HIV-1 IRES-mediated translation initiation is modulated by cellular proteins. PMID:21482538

  6. Solar Cell Modules with Parallel Oriented Interconnections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Twenty-four solar modules, half of which were 48 cells in an all-series electrical configuration and half of a six parallel cells by eight series cells were provided. Upon delivery of environmentally tested modules, low power outputs were discovered. These low power modules were determined to have cracked cells which were thought to cause the low output power. The cracks tended to be linear or circular which were caused by different stressing mechanisms. These stressing mechanisms were fully explored. Efforts were undertaken to determine the causes of cell fracture. This resulted in module design and process modifications. The design and process changes were subsequently implemented in production.

  7. NKG2D- and T-cell receptor-dependent lysis of malignant glioma cell lines by human γδ T cells: Modulation by temozolomide and A disintegrin and metalloproteases 10 and 17 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Chitadze, Guranda; Lettau, Marcus; Luecke, Stefanie; Wang, Ting; Janssen, Ottmar; Fürst, Daniel; Mytilineos, Joannis; Wesch, Daniela; Oberg, Hans-Heinrich; Held-Feindt, Janka; Kabelitz, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The interaction of the MHC class I-related chain molecules A and B (MICA and MICB) and UL-16 binding protein (ULBP) family members expressed on tumor cells with the corresponding NKG2D receptor triggers cytotoxic effector functions in NK cells and γδ T cells. However, as a mechanism of tumor immune escape, NKG2D ligands (NKG2DLs) can be released from the cell surface. In this study, we investigated the NKG2DL system in different human glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines, the most lethal brain tumor in adults. Flow cytometric analysis and ELISA revealed that despite the expression of various NKG2DLs only ULBP2 is released as a soluble protein via the proteolytic activity of “a disintegrin and metalloproteases” (ADAM) 10 and 17. Moreover, we report that temozolomide (TMZ), a chemotherapeutic agent in clinical use for the treatment of GBM, increases the cell surface expression of NKG2DLs and sensitizes GBM cells to γδ T cell-mediated lysis. Both NKG2D and the T-cell receptor (TCR) are involved. The cytotoxic activity of γδ T cells toward GBM cells is strongly enhanced in a TCR-dependent manner by stimulation with pyrophosphate antigens. These data clearly demonstrate the complexity of mechanisms regulating NKG2DL expression in GBM cells and further show that treatment with TMZ can increase the immunogenicity of GBM. Thus, TMZ might enhance the potential of the adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded γδ T cells for the treatment of malignant glioblastoma. PMID:27141377

  8. CysLT2 receptors interact with CysLT1 receptors and down-modulate cysteinyl leukotriene–dependent mitogenic responses of mast cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yongfeng; Borrelli, Laura A.; Kanaoka, Yoshihide; Bacskai, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cys-LTs) induce inflammation through 2 G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), CysLT1 and CysLT2, which are coexpressed by most myeloid cells. Cys-LTs induce proliferation of mast cells (MCs), transactivate c-Kit, and phosphorylate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Although MCs express CysLT2, their responses to cys-LTs are blocked by antagonists of CysLT1. We demonstrate that CysLT2 interacts with CysLT1, and that knockdown of CysLT2 increases CysLT1 surface expression and CysLT1-dependent proliferation of cord blood–derived human MCs (hMCs). Cys-LT–mediated responses were absent in MCs from mice lacking CysLT1 receptors, but enhanced by the absence of CysLT2 receptors. CysLT1 and CysLT2 receptors colocalized to the plasma membranes and nuclei of a human MC line, LAD2. Antibody-based fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy confirmed complexes containing both receptors based on fluorescence energy transfer. Negative regulation of CysLT1-induced mitogenic signaling responses of MCs by CysLT2 demonstrates physiologically relevant functions for GPCR heterodimers on primary cells central to inflammation. PMID:17693579

  9. Fentanyl inhibits the progression of human gastric carcinoma MGC-803 cells by modulating NF-κB-dependent gene expression in vivo

    PubMed Central

    HE, GUODONG; LI, LI; GUAN, ENJIAN; CHEN, JING; QIN, YI; XIE, YUBO

    2016-01-01

    Fentanyl is widely used to treat acute and chronic pain. Previous in vitro studies by the present authors demonstrated that fentanyl inhibits the progression of the MGC-803 human gastric carcinoma cell line by affecting apoptosis-related genes, including nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and phosphatase and tensin homolog. In the present study, the effects of fentanyl on NF-κB-dependent gene expression were investigated in vivo. Nude mice were inoculated with an MGC-803 cell suspension, and mice that developed subcutaneous tumors measuring >1.0×1.0 cm were selected for study. Mice were administered intraperitoneal injections of fentanyl (0.05 mg/kg, group F1; 0.1 mg/kg, group F2; 0.2 mg/kg, group F3; and 0.4 mg/kg, group F4) for 14 consecutive days. Non-fentanyl-treated mice (group C) and normal saline-treated mice (group N) served as the control groups. Tumor growth was monitored by calculating the time-shift of the growth curve. Morphological changes were also observed using microscopy. The expression of NF-κB, B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), B-cell associated X protein (Bax), vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in the subcutaneous tumor tissue was also analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, and confirmed using immunohistochemistry. The relative tumor volumes of groups F1, F2, F3 and F4 were significantly reduced compared with groups C and N. Furthermore, subcutaneous tumor cells exhibited nuclear swelling, chromatin condensation, reduced chromatin and nuclear fragmentation in the F1, F2, F3 and F4 groups. The number of NF-κB+, Bcl-2+, VEGF-A+ and MMP-9+ subcutaneous tumor cells was reduced, whereas the number of Bax+ cells was increased in the F1, F2, F3 and F4 groups. Additionally, in these groups, tumor expression of NF-κB, Bcl-2, VEGF-A and MMP-9 transcripts and proteins was downregulated, while Bax messenger RNA and protein expression levels were upregulated. The

  10. Analysis of the mechanism for the development of allergic skin inflammation and the application for its treatment: aspirin modulation of IgE-dependent mast cell activation: role of aspirin-induced exacerbation of immediate allergy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Ra, Chisei

    2009-07-01

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is a well-known nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that can potentiate some acute allergies and causes adverse immunological reactions collectively referred to as aspirin intolerance, a disorder that induces urticaria, asthma, and anaphylaxis in response to oral administration of the drug. Aspirin also potentiates some acute allergies such as food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA), a food allergy induced by physical exercise. The anti-inflammatory actions as well as the adverse immunological effects have been thought to be primarily due to inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that mechanisms unrelated to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis are involved. One key feature of aspirin intolerance is the overproductions of cysteinyl leukotrienes (LTs), in which mast cells have been implicated to play a role. In this review, we provide an overview of our current knowledge about the regulatory mechanisms of LTC(4) secretion in mast cells and its modulation by aspirin, with a special emphasis on the role of Ca(2+) signals. We also introduced our recent findings that mast cells express dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type Ca(2+) channels (LTCCs) and that Ca(2+) channels of this kind mediate aspirin modulation of LTC(4) secretion in mast cells.

  11. Strain-modulation of spin-dependent transport in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Zhen-Zhou Hou, Jin; Cheng, Yan-Fu; Li, Guan-Qiang

    2014-10-27

    We investigate strain modulation of the spin-dependent electron transport in a graphene junction using the transfer matrix method. As an analogy to optics, we define the modulation depth in the electron optics domain. Additionally, we discuss the transport properties and show that the modulation depth and the conductance depend on the spin-orbit coupling strength, the strain magnitude, the width of the strained area, and the energy of the incident electron. The conductances of the spin-down and spin-up electrons have opposite and symmetrical variations, which results in the analogous features of their modulation depths. The maximum conditions for both the modulation depth and the electron spin upset rate are also analyzed.

  12. Transparent superstrate terrestrial solar cell module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication, and testing of the transparent solar cell module were examined. Cell performance and material process characteristics were determined by extensive tests and design modifications were made prior to preproduction fabrication. These tests included three cell submodules and two full size engineering modules. Along with hardware and test activity, engineering documentation was prepared and submitted.

  13. Murein Lytic Enzyme TgaA of Bifidobacterium bifidum MIMBb75 Modulates Dendritic Cell Maturation through Its Cysteine- and Histidine-Dependent Amidohydrolase/Peptidase (CHAP) Amidase Domain

    PubMed Central

    Zanoni, Ivan; Balzaretti, Silvia; Miriani, Matteo; Taverniti, Valentina; De Noni, Ivano; Presti, Ilaria; Stuknyte, Milda; Scarafoni, Alessio; Arioli, Stefania; Iametti, Stefania; Bonomi, Francesco; Mora, Diego; Karp, Matti; Granucci, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are Gram-positive inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract that have evolved close interaction with their host and especially with the host's immune system. The molecular mechanisms underlying such interactions, however, are largely unidentified. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory potential of Bifidobacterium bifidum MIMBb75, a bacterium of human intestinal origin commercially used as a probiotic. Particularly, we focused our attention on TgaA, a protein expressed on the outer surface of MIMBb75's cells and homologous to other known bacterial immunoactive proteins. TgaA is a peptidoglycan lytic enzyme containing two active domains: lytic murein transglycosylase (LT) and cysteine- and histidine-dependent amidohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP). We ran immunological experiments stimulating dendritic cells (DCs) with the B. bifidum MIMBb75 and TgaA, with the result that both the bacterium and the protein activated DCs and triggered interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. In addition, we observed that the heterologous expression of TgaA in Bifidobacterium longum transferred to the bacterium the ability to induce IL-2. Subsequently, immunological experiments performed using two purified recombinant proteins corresponding to the single domains LT and CHAP demonstrated that the CHAP domain is the immune-reactive region of TgaA. Finally, we also showed that TgaA-dependent activation of DCs requires the protein CD14, marginally involves TRIF, and is independent of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and MyD88. In conclusion, our study suggests that the bacterial CHAP domain is a novel microbe-associated molecular pattern actively participating in the cross talk mechanisms between bifidobacteria and the host's immune system. PMID:24814791

  14. Murein lytic enzyme TgaA of Bifidobacterium bifidum MIMBb75 modulates dendritic cell maturation through its cysteine- and histidine-dependent amidohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP) amidase domain.

    PubMed

    Guglielmetti, Simone; Zanoni, Ivan; Balzaretti, Silvia; Miriani, Matteo; Taverniti, Valentina; De Noni, Ivano; Presti, Ilaria; Stuknyte, Milda; Scarafoni, Alessio; Arioli, Stefania; Iametti, Stefania; Bonomi, Francesco; Mora, Diego; Karp, Matti; Granucci, Francesca

    2014-09-01

    Bifidobacteria are Gram-positive inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract that have evolved close interaction with their host and especially with the host's immune system. The molecular mechanisms underlying such interactions, however, are largely unidentified. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory potential of Bifidobacterium bifidum MIMBb75, a bacterium of human intestinal origin commercially used as a probiotic. Particularly, we focused our attention on TgaA, a protein expressed on the outer surface of MIMBb75's cells and homologous to other known bacterial immunoactive proteins. TgaA is a peptidoglycan lytic enzyme containing two active domains: lytic murein transglycosylase (LT) and cysteine- and histidine-dependent amidohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP). We ran immunological experiments stimulating dendritic cells (DCs) with the B. bifidum MIMBb75 and TgaA, with the result that both the bacterium and the protein activated DCs and triggered interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. In addition, we observed that the heterologous expression of TgaA in Bifidobacterium longum transferred to the bacterium the ability to induce IL-2. Subsequently, immunological experiments performed using two purified recombinant proteins corresponding to the single domains LT and CHAP demonstrated that the CHAP domain is the immune-reactive region of TgaA. Finally, we also showed that TgaA-dependent activation of DCs requires the protein CD14, marginally involves TRIF, and is independent of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and MyD88. In conclusion, our study suggests that the bacterial CHAP domain is a novel microbe-associated molecular pattern actively participating in the cross talk mechanisms between bifidobacteria and the host's immune system.

  15. eIF4A RNA Helicase Associates with Cyclin-Dependent Protein Kinase A in Proliferating Cells and Is Modulated by Phosphorylation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Maxwell S.; Pierrat, Olivier; Nibau, Candida; Mikitova, Veronika; Zheng, Tao; Corke, Fiona M. K.; Mayberry, Laura K.; Browning, Karen S.

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) is a highly conserved RNA-stimulated ATPase and helicase involved in the initiation of messenger RNA translation. Previously, we found that eIF4A interacts with cyclin-dependent kinase A (CDKA), the plant ortholog of mammalian CDK1. Here, we show that this interaction occurs only in proliferating cells where the two proteins coassociate with 5′-cap-binding protein complexes, eIF4F or the plant-specific eIFiso4F. CDKA phosphorylates eIF4A on a conserved threonine residue (threonine-164) within the RNA-binding motif 1b TPGR. In vivo, a phospho-null (APGR) variant of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) eIF4A1 protein retains the ability to functionally complement a mutant (eif4a1) plant line lacking eIF4A1, whereas a phosphomimetic (EPGR) variant fails to complement. The phospho-null variant (APGR) rescues the slow growth rate of roots and rosettes, together with the ovule-abortion and late-flowering phenotypes. In vitro, wild-type recombinant eIF4A1 and its phospho-null variant both support translation in cell-free wheat germ extracts dependent upon eIF4A, but the phosphomimetic variant does not support translation and also was deficient in ATP hydrolysis and helicase activity. These observations suggest a mechanism whereby CDK phosphorylation has the potential to down-regulate eIF4A activity and thereby affect translation. PMID:27388680

  16. Caveolae and caveolin-1 are implicated in 1alpha,25(OH)2-vitamin D3-dependent modulation of Src, MAPK cascades and VDR localization in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Claudia; Boland, Ricardo

    2010-07-01

    We previously reported that 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 induces non-transcriptional rapid responses through activation of MAPKs in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. However, there is little information on the molecular mechanism underlying the initiation of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 signaling through this pathway. Plasma membrane components have been involved in some non-genomic effects. In this work, we investigated the role of caveolae and caveolin-1 (cav-1) in 1alpha,25(OH)2D3-stimulation of c-Src and MAPKs. When proliferating cells were pretreated with methyl beta cyclodextrin (MbetaCD), a caveolae disrupting agent, under conditions in which cell morphology is not affected and no signs of apoptosis are observed, 1alpha,25(OH)2D3-dependent activation of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and c-Src was suppressed. Similar results were obtained by siRNA technology whereby silencing of cav-1 expression abolished activation of c-Src and MAPKs induced by the hormone. By confocal immunocytochemistry it was observed that cav-1 colocalizes with c-Src in the periplasma membrane zone at basal conditions. Hormone treatment disrupted the colocalization of these proteins and redistributed them into cytoplasm and nucleus. Co-immunoprecipitation assays corroborated these observations. Changes in VDR localization after 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 exposure were also investigated. Confocal microscopy images showed that the hormone induces VDR translocation to the plasma membrane, and this effect is abolished by MbetaCD. Altogether, these data suggest that caveolae is involved upstream in c-Src-MAPKs activation by 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 and that VDR and cav-1 participate in the rapid signaling elicited by the hormone.

  17. Matching the characteristics of batteries with solar cell modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, C. F.; Kapur, V. K.; Pyle, B.; Rumburg, J.; Manfredi, A.

    The typical photovoltaic (PV) power system consists currently of one or a few PV modules. Each module contains from 32 to 40 cells. The modules are connected to one or more six-cell (12 V) lead-acid batteries through a voltage regulator or charge controller. Input conditions for design optimization are discussed, taking into account the basic system, the standard solar day and typical variations, and the dependence of PV module performance on insolation and temperature. Problems regarding the matching of the module voltage to battery characteristics are considered, and a description is provided of the results obtained with a module which was designed to satisfy certain requirements. The investigation shows that it is possible to design a photovoltaic generator to match appropriate characteristics of the battery, taking into account the possibility to maintain self-regulation in practical field operations.

  18. Norepinephrine Modulates Pyramidal Cell Synaptic Properties in the Anterior Piriform Cortex of Mice: Age-Dependent Effects of β-adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Abhinaba; Purchase, Nicole C; Chen, Xihua; Yuan, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Early odor preference learning in rodents occurs within a sensitive period [≤postnatal day (P)10-12], during which pups show a heightened ability to form an odor preference when a novel odor is paired with a tactile stimulation (e.g., stroking). Norepinephrine (NE) release from the locus coeruleus during stroking mediates this learning. However, in older pups, stroking loses its ability to induce learning. The cellular and circuitry mechanisms underpinning the sensitive period for odor preference learning is not well understood. We first established the sensitive period learning model in mice - odor paired with stroking induced odor preference in P8 but not P14 mice. This learning was dependent on NE-β-adrenoceptors as it was prevented by propranolol injection prior to training. We then tested whether there are developmental changes in pyramidal cell excitability and NE responsiveness in the anterior piriform cortex (aPC) in mouse pups. Although significant differences of pyramidal cell intrinsic properties were found in two age groups (P8-11 and P14+), NE at two concentrations (0.1 and 10 μM) did not alter intrinsic properties in either group. In contrast, in P8-11 pups, NE at 0.1 μM presynaptically decreased miniature IPSC and increased miniature EPSC frequencies. These effects were reversed with a higher dose of NE (10 μM), suggesting involvement of different adrenoceptor subtypes. In P14+ pups, NE at higher doses (1 and 10 μM) acted both pre- and postsynaptically to promote inhibition. These results suggest that enhanced synaptic excitation and reduced inhibition by NE in the aPC network may underlie the sensitive period.

  19. Systemic Injection of CD34+-Enriched Human Cord Blood Cells Modulates Poststroke Neural and Glial Response in a Sex-Dependent Manner in CD1 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kadam, Shilpa D.; Chen, HuiGen; Markowitz, Geoffrey J.; Raja, Saba; George, Shanu; Shotwell, Elisabeth; Loechelt, Brett; Johnston, Michael V.; Kamani, Naynesh; Fatemi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Stroke in the developing brain is an important cause of neurological morbidity. We determined the impact of human cord blood-derived CD34+-enriched mononuclear cells (CBSC) intraperitoneally injected 48 h after an ischemic stroke at postnatal day 12 by evaluating poststroke neurogenic niche proliferation, glial response, and recovery in CD1 mice. Percent brain atrophy was quantified from Nissl-stained sections. Density of BrdU, Iba-1, and GFAP staining were quantified in the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone (SVZ). Immunohistochemistry for human nuclear antibody, human mitochondrial antibody, and human CD34+ cells was done on injured and uninjured brains from CBSC- and vehicle-treated mice. Developmental neurobehavioral milestones were evaluated pre- and post-treatment. No significant differences in stroke severity were noted between CBSC and vehicle-treated injured animals. With a 1×105 CBSC dose, there was a significant increase in subgranular zone (SGZ) proliferation in the CBSC-versus vehicle-treated stroke-injured male mice. SVZ glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression was increased contralaterally in injured females treated with CBSC but suppressed in injured males. Significant negative correlations between severity of the stroke-injury and spleen weights, and between spleen weights and SGZ proliferation, and a positive correlation between GFAP expression and severity of brain injury were noted in the vehicle-treated injured mice but not in the CBSC-treated mice. GFAP expression and SVZ proliferation were positively correlated. In conclusion, neurogenic niche proliferation and glial brain responses to CBSC after neonatal stroke may involve interactions with the spleen and are sex dependent. PMID:25121827

  20. PV Cell and Module Calibrations at NREL

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, Keith

    2012-10-22

    NREL has equipment to measure any conceivable cell or module technology. The lack of standards for low concentration modules complicates matters. Spectrally adjustable simulators are critical for more than three junctions. NREL's 10-channel fiber optic simulator has shown that the light can be set for each junction within 1% of what it would be under the reference spectrum for up to a five-junction cell. Uncertainty in module simulators dominated by spatial nonuniformity for calibration labs. Manufacturers can mitigate this error by using matched reference modules instead of cells.

  1. Rigidity Dependence of Cosmic Ray Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal Mishra, Rekha; Mishra, Rajesh Kumar

    2012-07-01

    The various observed harmonics of the cosmic ray variation may be understood on a unified basis if the free space cosmic ray anisotropy is non-sinusoidal in form. The major objective of this paper is to study the first three harmonics of cosmic ray intensity on geo-magnetically quiet days over the period 1965-1990 for Deep River, Goose Bay and Tokyo neutron monitoring stations. The amplitude of first harmonic remains high for Deep River having low cutoff rigidity as compared to Tokyo neutron monitor having high cutoff rigidity on quiet days. The diurnal amplitude significantly decreases in 1987 at Deep River and in 1986 at Tokyo during solar activity minimum years. The diurnal time of maximum significantly shifts to an earlier time as compared to the corotational direction at both the stations having different cutoff rigidities. The time of maximum for first harmonic significantly shifts towards later hours and for second harmonic it shifts towards earlier hours at low cutoff rigidity station i.e. Deep River as compared to the high cut off rigidity station i.e. Tokyo on quiet days. The amplitude of second/third harmonics shows a good positive correlation with solar wind velocity, while the others (i.e. amplitude and phase) have no significant correlation on quiet days. The solar wind velocity significantly remains in the range 350 to 425 km/s i.e. being nearly average on quiet days. The amplitude and direction of the anisotropy on quiet days are weakly dependent on high-speed solar wind streams for these neutron monitoring stations of low and high cutoff rigidity threshold. Keywords: cosmic ray, cut off rigidity, quiet days, harmonics.

  2. Module level solutions to solar cell polarization

    DOEpatents

    Xavier, Grace , Li; Bo, [San Jose, CA

    2012-05-29

    A solar cell module includes interconnected solar cells, a transparent cover over the front sides of the solar cells, and a backsheet on the backsides of the solar cells. The solar cell module includes an electrical insulator between the transparent cover and the front sides of the solar cells. An encapsulant protectively packages the solar cells. To prevent polarization, the insulator has resistance suitable to prevent charge from leaking from the front sides of the solar cells to other portions of the solar cell module by way of the transparent cover. The insulator may be attached (e.g., by coating) directly on an underside of the transparent cover or be a separate layer formed between layers of the encapsulant. The solar cells may be back junction solar cells.

  3. SOLARPROP: Charge-sign dependent solar modulation for everyone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappl, Rolf

    2016-10-01

    We present SOLARPROP, a tool to compute the influence of charge-sign dependent solar modulation for cosmic ray spectra. SOLARPROP is able to use the output of popular tools like GALPROP or DRAGON and offers the possibility to embed new models for solar modulation. We present some examples for proton, antiproton and positron fluxes in the light of the recent PAMELA and AMS-02 data.

  4. Process of making solar cell module

    DOEpatents

    Packer, M.; Coyle, P.J.

    1981-03-09

    A process is presented for the manufacture of solar cell modules. A solution comprising a highly plasticized polyvinyl butyral is applied to a solar cell array. The coated array is dried and sandwiched between at last two sheets of polyvinyl butyral and at least two sheets of a rigid transparent member. The sandwich is laminated by the application of heat and pressure to cause fusion and bonding of the solar cell array with the rigid transparent members to produce a solar cell module.

  5. Modulation of TGFβ1-Dependent Myofibroblast Differentiation by Hyaluronan

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Jason; Jenkins, Robert H.; Meran, Soma; Phillips, Aled; Steadman, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Myofibroblasts are contractile cells that are characterized by the expression of α-smooth muscle actin and mediate the closure of wounds and the formation of collagen-rich scars. Their presence in organs such as lungs, liver, and kidney has long been established as a marker of progressive fibrosis. The transforming growth factor beta1-driven differentiation of fibroblasts is a major source of myofibroblasts, and recent data have shown that hyaluronan is a major modulator of this process. This study examines this differentiation mechanism in more detail. Transforming growth factor beta1-dependent differentiation to the myofibroblastic phenotype was antagonized by the inhibition of hyaluronan synthesis, confirming that hyaluronan was necessary for differentiation. This response, however, was not reproduced by simply adding hyaluronan to fibroblasts, as the results implicated hyaladherins, as well as the macromolecular assembly of de novo hyaluronan, as essential in this process. We previously suggested that there is a relocalization of lipid-raft components during myofibroblastic differentiation. The present study demonstrates that the hyaluronan receptor CD44, the hyaluronidase HYAL 2, and the transforming growth factor beta1-receptor ALK5 all relocalized from raft to non-raft locations, which was reversed by the addition of exogenous hyaluronan. These data highlight a role for endogenous hyaluronan in the mediation of myofibroblastic differentiation. While hyaluronan synthesis was both essential and necessary for differentiation, exogenously provided hyaluronan antagonized differentiation, underscoring a pathological role for hyaluronan in such cell fate processes. PMID:19541937

  6. Regulation of VDAC trafficking modulates cell death

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Ashvini K; Godbole, Ashwini; Mathew, M K

    2016-01-01

    The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) and mitochondria-associated hexokinase (HxK) have crucial roles in both cell survival and death. Both the individual abundances and their ratio seem to influence the balance of survival and death and are thus critical in scenarios, such as neurodegeneration and cancer. Elevated levels of both VDAC and HxK have been reported in cancerous cells. Physical interaction is surmised and specific residues or regions involved have been identified, but details of the interaction and the mechanism by which it modulates survival are yet to be elucidated. We and others have shown that heterologous expression of VDAC can induce cell death, which can be mitigated by concomitant overexpression of HxK. We have also observed that upon overexpression, fluorescently tagged VDAC is distributed between the cytosol and mitochondria. In this study, we show that cell death ensues only when the protein, which is synthesized on cytoplasmic ribosomes, migrates to the mitochondrion. Further, coexpression of rat HxK II (rHxKII) can delay the translocation of human VDAC1 (hVDAC1) protein to mitochondria and thereby inhibit VDAC-induced cell death. Variation in the level of HxK protein as seen endogenously in different cell lines, or as experimentally manipulated by silencing and overexpression, can lead to differential VDAC translocation kinetics and related cell death. The N-terminal region of HxK and the Glu73 residue of hVDAC1, which have previously been implicated in a physical interaction, are required for cytosolic retention of VDAC. Finally, we show that, in otherwise unperturbed cells in culture, there is a small but significant amount of soluble VDAC in the cytosol present in a complex with HxK. This complex could well determine how a cell is poised with respect to incoming thanatopic signals, thereby tilting the survival/death balance in pharmacologically interesting situations, such as neurodegeneration and cancer. PMID:28028442

  7. Design and fabrication of solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaughnessy, T. P.

    1978-01-01

    A program conducted for design, fabrication and evaluation of twelve silicon solar cell modules is described. The purpose of the program was to develop a module design consistent with the requirements and objectives of JPL specification and to also incorporate elements of new technologies under development to meet LSSA Project goals. Module development emphasized preparation of a technically and economically competitive design based upon utilization of ion implanted solar cells and a glass encapsulation system. The modules fabricated, tested and delivered were of nominal 2 X 2 foot dimensions and 20 watt minimum rating. Basic design, design rationale, performance and results of environmental testing are described.

  8. Center punched solar cell module development effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. E.; Mortensen, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    The results are given of an advanced module development program with the objective of providing a low cost solar cell mechanical interconnect design. The design approach, which avoids soldering or welding operations, lends itself to automated assembly techniques thus supporting the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project goals. The first group of six modules contained aluminum contact cells and the second group of six modules contained silver-titanium-palladium contact cells. Extensive component and environmental testing at the module level showed that reliable cell mechanical interconnection can be achieved when utilizing the proper electrical contact materials and pressures. A discussion is given of the module design, manufacturing procedure, test program, significant problem areas and solutions, and conclusions and recommendations as formulated and conducted by XEOS.

  9. Circuit analysis method for thin-film solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The design of a thin-film solar cell module is dependent on the probability of occurrence of pinhole shunt defects. Using known or assumed defect density data, dichotomous population statistics can be used to calculate the number of defects expected in a module. Probability theory is then used to assign the defective cells to individual strings in a selected series-parallel circuit design. Iterative numerical calculation is used to calcuate I-V curves using cell test values or assumed defective cell values as inputs. Good and shunted cell I-V curves are added to determine the module output power and I-V curve. Different levels of shunt resistance can be selected to model different defect levels.

  10. Circuit analysis method for thin-film solar cell modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, D. R.

    1985-12-01

    The design of a thin-film solar cell module is dependent on the probability of occurrence of pinhole shunt defects. Using known or assumed defect density data, dichotomous population statistics can be used to calculate the number of defects expected in a module. Probability theory is then used to assign the defective cells to individual strings in a selected series-parallel circuit design. Iterative numerical calculation is used to calcuate I-V curves using cell test values or assumed defective cell values as inputs. Good and shunted cell I-V curves are added to determine the module output power and I-V curve. Different levels of shunt resistance can be selected to model different defect levels.

  11. Space Qualification Test of a-Silicon Solar Cell Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Q.; Lawton, R. A.; Manion, S. J.; Okuno, J. O.; Ruiz, R. P.; Vu, D. T.; Vu, D. T.; Kayali, S. A.; Jeffrey, F. R.

    2004-01-01

    The basic requirements of solar cell modules for space applications are generally described in MIL-S-83576 for the specific needs of the USAF. However, the specifications of solar cells intended for use on space terrestrial applications are not well defined. Therefore, this qualifications test effort was concentrated on critical areas specific to the microseismometer probe which is intended to be included in the Mars microprobe programs. Parameters that were evaluated included performance dependence on: illuminating angles, terrestrial temperatures, lifetime, as well as impact landing conditions. Our qualification efforts were limited to these most critical areas of concern. Most of the tested solar cell modules have met the requirements of the program except the impact tests. Surprisingly, one of the two single PIN 2 x 1 amorphous solar cell modules continued to function even after the 80000G impact tests. The output power parameters, Pout, FF, Isc and Voc, of the single PIN amorphous solar cell module were found to be 3.14 mW, 0.40, 9.98 mA and 0.78 V, respectively. These parameters are good enough to consider the solar module as a possible power source for the microprobe seismometer. Some recommendations were made to improve the usefulness of the amorphous silicon solar cell modules in space terrestrial applications, based on the results obtained from the intensive short term lab test effort.

  12. Cell shunt resistance and photovoltaic module performance

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, T.J.; Basso, T.S.; Rummel, S.R.

    1996-05-01

    Shunt resistance of cells in photovoltaic modules can affect module power output and could indicate flawed manufacturing processes and reliability problems. The authors describe a two-terminal diagnostic method to directly measure the shunt resistance of individual cells in a series-connected module non-intrusively, without deencapsulation. Peak power efficiency vs. light intensity was measured on a 12-cell, series-connected, single crystalline module having relatively high cell shunt resistances. The module was remeasured with 0.5-, 1-, and 2-ohm resistors attached across each cell to simulate shunt resistances of several emerging technologies. Peak power efficiencies decreased dramatically at lower light levels. Using the PSpice circuit simulator, the authors verified that cell shunt and series resistances can indeed be responsible for the observed peak power efficiency vs. intensity behavior. The authors discuss the effect of basic cell diode parameters, i.e., shunt resistance, series resistance, and recombination losses, on PV module performance as a function of light intensity.

  13. Cell module and fuel conditioner development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The phosphoric acid fuel cell module (stack) development which culminated in an 80 cell air-cooled stack with separated gas cooling and treed cooling plates is described. The performance of the 80 cell stack was approx. 100 mV per cell higher than that attained during phase 1. The components and materials performed stably for over 8000 hours in a 5 cell stack. The conceptual design of a fuel conditioning system is described.

  14. Environmental testing of block 3 solar cell modules. Part 1: Qualification testing of standard production modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, J. S.

    1979-01-01

    Qualification tests of solar cell modules are described. These modules continue to show improvement over earlier type modules tested. Cell cracking and delamination are less prevalent, and interconnect problems and electrical degradation from environmental testing are now rare.

  15. Anti-tumor activity of SL4 against breast cancer cells: induction of G2/M arrest through modulation of the MAPK-dependent p21 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Hui; Jiang, Xiao-Rui; Chen, Guo-Liang; Guo, Wei; Zhang, Jing-Yuan; Cui, Li-Juan; Li, Hua-Huan; Li, Meng; Liu, Xing; Yang, Jing-Yu; Wu, Chun-Fu

    2016-01-01

    SL4, a chalcone-based compound, has been shown to retard tumor invasion and angiogenesis by suppressing HIF1 activity and to induce apoptosis by promoting ROS release. Here, we report that SL4 is able to inhibit the proliferation of different types of breast cancer cell in vitro and in vivo by inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest. Our results showed that SL4 exhibited strong anti-proliferative activity in several human breast cancer cell lines, with IC50 values lower than 1.3 μM. Further studies indicated that SL4 induced G2/M arrest in these cell lines. Mechanistically, SL4 reduces the expression of cyclin A2 and cdc25C and decreases the activity of the cdc2/cyclin B1 complex. Notably, SL4 treatment resulted in an obvious increase in p21 mRNA and protein levels through activation of MAPK signaling pathways, but not the TGF-β pathway. SP600125 and PD98059, specific inhibitors of JNK kinase and ERK kinase, significantly blocked the SL4-induced G2/M phase arrest and upregulation of p21. Furthermore, SL4 suppressed the growth of established breast tumors in nude mice through upregulation of p21 and downregulation of cdc25C, and displayed a good safety profile. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the potential value of SL4 as a novel multi-target anti-tumor drug candidate. PMID:27819344

  16. Induction of memory cytotoxic T cells to influenza A virus and subsequent viral clearance is not modulated by PB1-F2-dependent inflammasome activation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Patricia (Hoi Yee); Bird, Nicola; MacKenzie-Kludas, Charley; Mansell, Ashley; Kedzierska, Katherine; Brown, Lorena; McAuley, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Expression of the viral virulence protein PB1-F2 during infection has been linked to NLRP3 inflammasome complex activation in macrophages and induction of early inflammatory events enhancing immunopathology during influenza disease. We sought to determine whether PB1-F2-specific NLRP3 inflammasome activation influenced the magnitude and/or robustness of the CD8+ T-cell responses specific for conserved viral antigens and subsequent virus elimination. Using murine heterosubtypic viral infection models, we showed that mice infected with virus unable to produce PB1-F2 protein showed no deficit in the overall magnitude and functional memory responses of CD8+ T cells established during the effector phase compared with those infected with wild-type PB1-F2-expressing virus and were equally capable of mounting robust recall responses. These data indicate that while expression of PB1-F2 protein can induce inflammatory events, the capacity to generate memory CD8+ T cells specific for immunodominant viral epitopes remains uncompromised. PMID:26667784

  17. Nanoparticles modulate autophagic effect in a dispersity-dependent manner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dengtong; Zhou, Hualu; Gao, Jinhao

    2015-09-01

    Autophagy plays a key role in human health and disease, especially in cancer and neurodegeneration. Many autophagy regulators are developed for therapy. Diverse nanomaterials have been reported to induce autophagy. However, the underlying mechanisms and universal rules remain unclear. Here, for the first time, we show a reliable and general mechanism by which nanoparticles induce autophagy and then successfully modulate autophagy via tuning their dispersity. Various well-designed univariate experiments demonstrate that nanomaterials induce autophagy in a dispersity-dependent manner. Aggregated nanoparticles induce significant autophagic effect in comparison with well-dispersed nanoparticles. As the highly stable nanoparticles may block autophagic degradation in autolysosomes, endocytosis and intracellular accumulation of nanoparticles can be responsible for this interesting phenomenon. Our results suggest dispersity-dependent autophagic effect as a common cellular response to nanoparticles, reveal the relationship between properties of nanoparticles and autophagy, and offer a new alternative way to modulate autophagy.

  18. Multifunctional ferromagnetic disks for modulating cell function

    PubMed Central

    Vitol, Elina A.; Novosad, Valentyn; Rozhkova, Elena A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we focus on the methods for controlling cell function with ferromagnetic disk-shaped particles. We will first review the history of magnetically assisted modulation of cell behavior and applications of magnetic particles for studying physical properties of a cell. Then, we consider the biological applications of the microdisks such as the method for induction of cancer cell apoptosis, controlled drug release, hyperthermia and MRI imaging. PMID:23766544

  19. 5-AED Enhances Survival of Irradiated Mice in a G-CSF-Dependent Manner, Stimulates Innate Immune Cell Function, Reduces Radiation-induced DNA Damage and Induces Genes that Modulate Cell Cycle Progression and Apoptosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    pre-irradiation) radio- protectants and (post-irradiation) therapeutics, as recognized by civilian and military government agencies [2– 4 ]. 5-AED is...2012 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5-AED Enhances Survival of Irradiated Mice in a G-CSF-Dependent Manner, Stimulates Innate Immune Cell Function, Reduces...control after 4 days, but not 8 days. The time course of plasma 5-AED after buccal de- livery (60 mg/kg) was similar, but levels were significantly lower

  20. Effect of ATP-dependent channel modulators on ischemia-induced arrhythmia change depending on age and gender.

    PubMed

    Bozdogan, Ömer; Kaya, Salih Tunç; Yasar, Selçuk; Orallar, Hayriye

    2013-10-01

    The number of ATP-dependent potassium channels in myocardial cells has been previously shown to change depending on gender and age. Different effects of the ATP-dependent potassium channel blocker, glybenclamide and ATP-dependent potassium channel opener, pinacidil on ischemia or reperfusion-induced arrhythmia observed in various research might depend on different ages and genders of the animals used. The aim of this study is to research the effect of ATP-dependent potassium channel modulators on ischemia-induced arrhythmia in animals of different ages and genders. Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages and genders were used in this study. Ischemia was produced by the ligation of the left coronary artery for 30 min. Electrocardiogram (ECG), blood pressure, infarct area and blood glucose were determined during the 30 min of ischemia. An arrhythmia score from an ECG recorded during 30 min of ischemia was determined by examining the duration and type of arrhythmia. Different effects of glybenclamide and pinacidil on the arrhythmias were observed in male and female young and middle-age rats. Pinacidil decreased the infarct zone in younger female rats, but differences in the type and length of ischemia-induced arrhythmias between females and males disappeared in older age. The results of this study showed that the effect of ATP-dependent potassium channel modulators on ischemia-induced arrhythmia changed due to the age and gender of rats.

  1. Extracellular protonation modulates cell-cell interaction mechanics and tissue invasion in human melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Hofschröer, Verena; Koch, Kevin Alexander; Ludwig, Florian Timo; Friedl, Peter; Oberleithner, Hans; Stock, Christian; Schwab, Albrecht

    2017-01-01

    Detachment of cells from the primary tumour precedes metastatic progression by facilitating cell release into the tissue. Solid tumours exhibit altered pH homeostasis with extracellular acidification. In human melanoma, the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 is an important modifier of the tumour nanoenvironment. Here we tested the modulation of cell-cell-adhesion by extracellular pH and NHE1. MV3 tumour spheroids embedded in a collagen matrix unravelled the efficacy of cell-cell contact loosening and 3D emigration into an environment mimicking physiological confinement. Adhesive interaction strength between individual MV3 cells was quantified using atomic force microscopy and validated by multicellular aggregation assays. Extracellular acidification from pHe7.4 to 6.4 decreases cell migration and invasion but increases single cell detachment from the spheroids. Acidification and NHE1 overexpression both reduce cell-cell adhesion strength, indicated by reduced maximum pulling forces and adhesion energies. Multicellular aggregation and spheroid formation are strongly impaired under acidification or NHE1 overexpression. We show a clear dependence of melanoma cell-cell adhesion on pHe and NHE1 as a modulator. These effects are opposite to cell-matrix interactions that are strengthened by protons extruded via NHE1. We conclude that these opposite effects of NHE1 act synergistically during the metastatic cascade. PMID:28205573

  2. Extracellular protonation modulates cell-cell interaction mechanics and tissue invasion in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hofschröer, Verena; Koch, Kevin Alexander; Ludwig, Florian Timo; Friedl, Peter; Oberleithner, Hans; Stock, Christian; Schwab, Albrecht

    2017-02-13

    Detachment of cells from the primary tumour precedes metastatic progression by facilitating cell release into the tissue. Solid tumours exhibit altered pH homeostasis with extracellular acidification. In human melanoma, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE1 is an important modifier of the tumour nanoenvironment. Here we tested the modulation of cell-cell-adhesion by extracellular pH and NHE1. MV3 tumour spheroids embedded in a collagen matrix unravelled the efficacy of cell-cell contact loosening and 3D emigration into an environment mimicking physiological confinement. Adhesive interaction strength between individual MV3 cells was quantified using atomic force microscopy and validated by multicellular aggregation assays. Extracellular acidification from pHe7.4 to 6.4 decreases cell migration and invasion but increases single cell detachment from the spheroids. Acidification and NHE1 overexpression both reduce cell-cell adhesion strength, indicated by reduced maximum pulling forces and adhesion energies. Multicellular aggregation and spheroid formation are strongly impaired under acidification or NHE1 overexpression. We show a clear dependence of melanoma cell-cell adhesion on pHe and NHE1 as a modulator. These effects are opposite to cell-matrix interactions that are strengthened by protons extruded via NHE1. We conclude that these opposite effects of NHE1 act synergistically during the metastatic cascade.

  3. Solar Cell Modules With Improved Backskin

    DOEpatents

    Gonsiorawski, Ronald C.

    2003-12-09

    A laminated solar cell module comprises a front light transmitting support, a plurality of interconnected solar cells encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant material, and an improved backskin formed of an ionomer/nylon alloy. The improved backskin has a toughness and melting point temperature sufficiently great to avoid any likelihood of it being pierced by any of the components that interconnect the solar cells.

  4. Cell module and fuel conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The results of the completed tests on Stack 561 and the on-going tests of 562 (23 cell stacks of the MK-1 and M-2 designs respectively) are reported and their performance is compared. Results of the on-going endurance test of Stack 560 (5 cell, MK-2) are reported. Plans for fabrication of Stacks 563 and 564 (23 cell stacks of the MK-1 and MK-2 design) are summarized. Results of the burner tests are given. Excellent performance was achieved on simulated anode exhaust gas over very wide load and air/fuel ranges.

  5. Pleiotropic effects of the sirtuin inhibitor sirtinol involves concentration-dependent modulation of multiple nuclear receptor-mediated pathways in the androgen-responsive prostate cancer cell LNCaP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sirtinol, a purported specific inhibitor of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent type III histone deacetylase (also known as sirtuin), has been used extensively to identify chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agents that modulate the activity of this group of enzymes. However, the mole...

  6. Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis Induction via Modulation of Mitochondrial Integrity by Bcl-2 Family Members and Caspase Dependence in Dracaena cinnabari-Treated H400 Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Alabsi, Aied M.; Lim, Kai Li; Paterson, Ian C.; Ali-Saeed, Rola; Muharram, Bushra A.

    2016-01-01

    Dracaena cinnabari Balf.f. is a red resin endemic to Socotra Island, Yemen. Although there have been several reports on its therapeutic properties, information on its cytotoxicity and anticancer effects is very limited. This study utilized a bioassay-guided fractionation approach to determine the cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing effects of D. cinnabari on human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The cytotoxic effects of D. cinnabari crude extract were observed in a panel of OSCC cell lines and were most pronounced in H400. Only fractions DCc and DCd were active on H400 cells; subfractions DCc15 and DCd16 exhibited the greatest cytotoxicity against H400 cells and D. cinnabari inhibited cells proliferation in a time-dependent manner. This was achieved primarily via apoptosis where externalization of phospholipid phosphatidylserine was observed using DAPI/Annexin V fluorescence double staining mechanism studied through mitochondrial membrane potential assay cytochrome c enzyme-linked immunosorbent and caspases activities revealed depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and significant activation of caspases 9 and 3/7, concomitant with S phase arrest. Apoptotic proteins array suggested that MMP was regulated by Bcl-2 proteins family as results demonstrated an upregulation of Bax, Bad, and Bid as well as downregulation of Bcl-2. Hence, D. cinnabari has the potential to be developed as an anticancer agent. PMID:27123447

  7. Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis Induction via Modulation of Mitochondrial Integrity by Bcl-2 Family Members and Caspase Dependence in Dracaena cinnabari-Treated H400 Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Alabsi, Aied M; Lim, Kai Li; Paterson, Ian C; Ali-Saeed, Rola; Muharram, Bushra A

    2016-01-01

    Dracaena cinnabari Balf.f. is a red resin endemic to Socotra Island, Yemen. Although there have been several reports on its therapeutic properties, information on its cytotoxicity and anticancer effects is very limited. This study utilized a bioassay-guided fractionation approach to determine the cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing effects of D. cinnabari on human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The cytotoxic effects of D. cinnabari crude extract were observed in a panel of OSCC cell lines and were most pronounced in H400. Only fractions DCc and DCd were active on H400 cells; subfractions DCc15 and DCd16 exhibited the greatest cytotoxicity against H400 cells and D. cinnabari inhibited cells proliferation in a time-dependent manner. This was achieved primarily via apoptosis where externalization of phospholipid phosphatidylserine was observed using DAPI/Annexin V fluorescence double staining mechanism studied through mitochondrial membrane potential assay cytochrome c enzyme-linked immunosorbent and caspases activities revealed depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and significant activation of caspases 9 and 3/7, concomitant with S phase arrest. Apoptotic proteins array suggested that MMP was regulated by Bcl-2 proteins family as results demonstrated an upregulation of Bax, Bad, and Bid as well as downregulation of Bcl-2. Hence, D. cinnabari has the potential to be developed as an anticancer agent.

  8. Solar cell modules for plasma interaction evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A plasma interaction analysis in support of the solar electric propulsion subsystem examined the effects of a large high voltage solar array interacting with an ion thruster produced plasma. Two solar array test modules consisting of 36 large area wraparound contact solar cells welded to a flexible Kapton integrated circuit substrate were abricated. The modules contained certain features of the effects of insulation, din-holes, and bonding of the cell to the substrate and a ground plane. The possibility of a significant power loss occurring due to the collection of charged particles on the solar array interconnects was the focus of the research.

  9. Caffeine Positively Modulates Ferritin Heavy Chain Expression in H460 Cells: Effects on Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Zolea, Fabiana; Biamonte, Flavia; Battaglia, Anna Martina; Faniello, Maria Concetta; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco

    Both the methylxanthine caffeine and the heavy subunit of ferritin molecule (FHC) are able to control the proliferation rate of several cancer cell lines. While caffeine acts exclusively as a negative modulator of cell proliferation, FHC might reduce or enhance cell viability depending upon the different cell type. In this work we have demonstrated that physiological concentrations of caffeine reduce the proliferation rate of H460 cells: along with the modulation of p53, pAKT and Cyclin D1, caffeine also determines a significant FHC up-regulation through the activation of its transcriptional efficiency. FHC plays a central role in the molecular pathways modulated by caffeine, ending in a reduced cell growth, since its specific silencing by siRNA almost completely abolishes caffeine effects on H460 cell proliferation. These results allow the inclusion of ferritin heavy subunits among the multiple molecular targets of caffeine and open the way for studying the relationship between caffeine and intracellular iron metabolism.

  10. Cell module and fuel conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Stack tests indicate that the discrepancies between calculated and measured temperature profiles are due to reactant cross-over and a lower than expected thermal conductivity of cells. Preliminary results indicate that acceptable contact resistance between cooling plane halves can be achieved without the use of paper. The preliminary design of the enclosure, definition of required labor and equipment for manufacturing repeating components, and the assembly procedures for the benchwork design were developed. Fabrication of components for a second 5-cell stack of the MK-2 design and a second 23-cell stack of the MK-1 design was started. The definition of water and fuel for the reforming subsystem was developed along with a preliminary definition of the control system for the subsystem. The construction and shakedown of the differential catalytic reactor was completed and testing of the first catalyst initiated.

  11. Network-dependent modulation of brain activity during sleep.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Kan, Shigeyuki; Koike, Takahiko; Misaki, Masaya; Konishi, Seiki; Miyauchi, Satoru; Miyahsita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-09-01

    Brain activity dynamically changes even during sleep. A line of neuroimaging studies has reported changes in functional connectivity and regional activity across different sleep stages such as slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. However, it remains unclear whether and how the large-scale network activity of human brains changes within a given sleep stage. Here, we investigated modulation of network activity within sleep stages by applying the pairwise maximum entropy model to brain activity obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging from sleeping healthy subjects. We found that the brain activity of individual brain regions and functional interactions between pairs of regions significantly increased in the default-mode network during SWS and decreased during REM sleep. In contrast, the network activity of the fronto-parietal and sensory-motor networks showed the opposite pattern. Furthermore, in the three networks, the amount of the activity changes throughout REM sleep was negatively correlated with that throughout SWS. The present findings suggest that the brain activity is dynamically modulated even in a sleep stage and that the pattern of modulation depends on the type of the large-scale brain networks.

  12. Cell module and fuel conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The computer code for the detailed analytical model of the MK-2 stacks is described. An ERC proprietary matrix is incorporated in the stacks. The mechanical behavior of the stack during thermal cycles under compression was determined. A 5 cell stack of the MK-2 design was fabricated and tested. Designs for the next three stacks were selected and component fabrication initiated. A 3 cell stack which verified the use of wet assembly and a new acid fill procedure were fabricated and tested. Components for the 2 kW test facility were received or fabricated and construction of the facility is underway. The definition of fuel and water is used in a study of the fuel conditioning subsystem. Kinetic data on several catalysts, both crushed and pellets, was obtained in the differential reactor. A preliminary definition of the equipment requirements for treating tap and recovered water was developed.

  13. Parametric dependence of ocean wave-radar modulation transfer functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plant, W. J.; Keller, W. C.; Cross, A.

    1983-01-01

    Microwave techniques at X and L band were used to determine the dependence of ocean-wave radar modulation transfer functions (MTFs) on various environmental and radar parameters during the Marine Remote Sensing experiment of 1979 (MARSEN 79). These MIF are presented, as are coherence functions between the AM and FM parts of the backscattered microwave signal. It is shown that they both depend on several of these parameters. Besides confirming many of the properties of transfer functions reported by previous authors, indications are found that MTFs decrease with increasing angle between wave propagation and antenna-look directions but are essentially independent of small changes in air-sea temperature difference. However, coherence functions are much smaller when the antennas are pointed perpendicular to long waves. It is found that X band transfer functions measured with horizontally polarized microwave radiation have larger magnitudes than those obtained by using vertical polarization.

  14. Cell asymmetry correction for temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikiriyama, K.; Wunderlich, B. |

    1996-12-31

    The quality of measurement of heat capacity by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is based on strict symmetry of the twin calorimeter, which is important for temperature-modulated DSC. Heat capacities for sapphire-filled and empty aluminium calorimeters (pans) under designed cell imbalance caused by different pan-masses were measured. In addition, positive and negative signs of asymmetry were explored by analyzing the phase-shift between temperature and heat flow for sapphire and empty runs. The phase shifts change by more than 18{degree} depending on asymmetry sign. Once the asymmetry sign is determined, the asymmetry correction for modulated DSC can be made.

  15. Very High Efficiency Solar Cell Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, A.; Kirkpatrick, D.; Honsberg, C.; Moore, D.; Wanlass, M.; Emery, K.; Schwartz, R.; Carlson, D.; Bowden, S.; Aiken, D.; Gray, A.; Kurtz, S.; Kazmerski, L., et al

    2009-01-01

    The Very High Efficiency Solar Cell (VHESC) program is developing integrated optical system - PV modules for portable applications that operate at greater than 50% efficiency. We are integrating the optical design with the solar cell design, and have entered previously unoccupied design space. Our approach is driven by proven quantitative models for the solar cell design, the optical design, and the integration of these designs. Optical systems efficiency with an optical efficiency of 93% and solar cell device results under ideal dichroic splitting optics summing to 42.7 {+-} 2.5% are described.

  16. State-dependent μ-opioid modulation of social motivation

    PubMed Central

    Loseth, Guro E.; Ellingsen, Dan-Mikael; Leknes, Siri

    2014-01-01

    Social mammals engage in affiliative interactions both when seeking relief from negative affect and when searching for pleasure and joy. These two motivational states are both modulated by μ-opioid transmission. The μ-opioid receptor (MOR) system in the brain mediates pain relief and reward behaviors, and is implicated in social reward processing and affiliative bonding across mammalian species. However, pharmacological manipulation of the μ-opioid system has yielded opposite effects on rodents and primates: in rodents, social motivation is generally increased by MOR agonists and reduced by antagonists, whereas the opposite pattern has been shown in primates. Here, we address this paradox by taking into account differences in motivational state. We first review evidence for μ-opioid mediation of reward processing, emotion regulation, and affiliation in humans, non-human primates, rodents and other species. Based on the consistent cross-species similarities in opioid functioning, we propose a unified, state-dependent model for μ-opioid modulation of affiliation across the mammalian species. Finally, we show that this state-dependent model is supported by evidence from both rodent and primate studies, when species and age differences in social separation response are taken into account. PMID:25565999

  17. State-dependent μ-opioid modulation of social motivation.

    PubMed

    Loseth, Guro E; Ellingsen, Dan-Mikael; Leknes, Siri

    2014-01-01

    Social mammals engage in affiliative interactions both when seeking relief from negative affect and when searching for pleasure and joy. These two motivational states are both modulated by μ-opioid transmission. The μ-opioid receptor (MOR) system in the brain mediates pain relief and reward behaviors, and is implicated in social reward processing and affiliative bonding across mammalian species. However, pharmacological manipulation of the μ-opioid system has yielded opposite effects on rodents and primates: in rodents, social motivation is generally increased by MOR agonists and reduced by antagonists, whereas the opposite pattern has been shown in primates. Here, we address this paradox by taking into account differences in motivational state. We first review evidence for μ-opioid mediation of reward processing, emotion regulation, and affiliation in humans, non-human primates, rodents and other species. Based on the consistent cross-species similarities in opioid functioning, we propose a unified, state-dependent model for μ-opioid modulation of affiliation across the mammalian species. Finally, we show that this state-dependent model is supported by evidence from both rodent and primate studies, when species and age differences in social separation response are taken into account.

  18. Cell module and fuel conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of stack height changes with temperature and cell material characteristics were made. Stack 559 was assembled and components were fabricated for 560, 561, and 562. Stack 425 was transferred from the parallel DOE program and installed in the OS/IES simulation loop for mechanical and electrical testing. Construction and preliminary checkout of the 2 kW test facility was completed and design and procurement of the 8 kW test facility was initiated. The fuel conditioning subsystem design continued to evolve and the state points for the current design were calculated at full and part load conditions. Steam reforming catalyst activity tests were essentially completed and aging tests and CO shift converter tests were initiated.

  19. Niche-modulated and niche-modulating genes in bone marrow cells

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Y; Garach-Jehoshua, O; Bar-Chaim, A; Kornberg, A

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow (BM) cells depend on their niche for growth and survival. However, the genes modulated by niche stimuli have not been discriminated yet. For this purpose, we investigated BM aspirations from patients with various hematological malignancies. Each aspirate was fractionated, and the various samples were fixed at different time points and analyzed by microarray. Identification of niche-modulated genes relied on sustained change in expression following loss of niche regulation. Compared with the reference (‘authentic') samples, which were fixed immediately following aspiration, the BM samples fixed after longer stay out-of-niche acquired numerous changes in gene-expression profile (GEP). The overall genes modulated included a common subset of functionally diverse genes displaying prompt and sustained ‘switch' in expression irrespective of the tumor type. Interestingly, the ‘switch' in GEP was reversible and turned ‘off-and-on' again in culture conditions, resuming cell–cell–matrix contact versus respread into suspension, respectively. Moreover, the resuming of contact prolonged the survival of tumor cells out-of-niche, and the regression of the ‘contactless switch' was followed by induction of a new set of genes, this time mainly encoding extracellular proteins including angiogenic factors and extracellular matrix proteins. Our data set, being unique in authentic expression design, uncovered niche-modulated and niche-modulating genes capable of controlling homing, expansion and angiogenesis. PMID:23241658

  20. Modulation of lens cell adhesion molecules by particle beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, M. P.; Bjornstad, K. A.; Chang, P. Y.; Chou, W.; Lockett, S. J.; Blakely, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are proteins which anchor cells to each other and to the extracellular matrix (ECM), but whose functions also include signal transduction, differentiation, and apoptosis. We are testing a hypothesis that particle radiations modulate CAM expression and this contributes to radiation-induced lens opacification. We observed dose-dependent changes in the expression of beta 1-integrin and ICAM-1 in exponentially-growing and confluent cells of a differentiating human lens epithelial cell model after exposure to particle beams. Human lens epithelial (HLE) cells, less than 10 passages after their initial culture from fetal tissue, were grown on bovine corneal endothelial cell-derived ECM in medium containing 15% fetal bovine serum and supplemented with 5 ng/ml basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). Multiple cell populations at three different stages of differentiation were prepared for experiment: cells in exponential growth, and cells at 5 and 10 days post-confluence. The differentiation status of cells was characterized morphologically by digital image analysis, and biochemically by Western blotting using lens epithelial and fiber cell-specific markers. Cultures were irradiated with single doses (4, 8 or 12 Gy) of 55 MeV protons and, along with unirradiated control samples, were fixed using -20 degrees C methanol at 6 hours after exposure. Replicate experiments and similar experiments with helium ions are in progress. The intracellular localization of beta 1-integrin and ICAM-1 was detected by immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibodies specific for each CAM. Cells known to express each CAM were also processed as positive controls. Both exponentially-growing and confluent, differentiating cells demonstrated a dramatic proton-dose-dependent modulation (upregulation for exponential cells, downregulation for confluent cells) and a change in the intracellular distribution of the beta 1-integrin, compared to unirradiated controls. In contrast

  1. Thermal modulation of selective transmittance spectra by combination of cholesteric liquid crystal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiwara, Akifumi; Kakiuchida, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    The effects of the combination of cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) cells on selective wavelength are investigated by the spectroscopic analysis under thermal modulation. The several kinds of CLC cells are formed by using the chiral dopants with different magnitudes and signs of helical twisting power (HTP). The combination of CLC cells with different temperature dependence shows that the infrared light range longer than 700nm is widely reflected and the visible light is little modulated when the temperature increase from 25 °C to 45 °C. The results demonstrate that the thermal modulation of selective transmittance spectra is controllable by the combination of CLC cells with different temperature dependence.

  2. Genetic modulation of sickle cell anemia

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.H.

    1995-05-01

    Sickle cell anemia, a common disorder associated with reduced life span of the red blood cell and vasoocclusive events, is caused by a mutation in the {Beta}-hemoglobin gene. Yet, despite this genetic homogeneity, the phenotype of the disease is heterogeneous. This suggests the modulating influence of associated inherited traits. Some of these may influence the accumulation of fetal hemoglobin, a hemoglobin type that interferes with the polymerization of sickle hemoglobin. Another inherited trait determines the accumulation of {alpha}-globin chains. This review focuses on potential genetic regulators of the phenotype of sickle cell anemia. 125 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Ocular allergy modulation to hi-dose antigen sensitization is a Treg-dependent process.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Soo; Schlereth, Simona; Khandelwal, Payal; Saban, Daniel R

    2013-01-01

    A reproducible method to inhibit allergic immune responses is accomplished with hi-dose Ag sensitization, via intraperitoneal (IP) injection. However, the role of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ T regulatory cells (Treg) in this process is unknown, as is whether such modulation extends to ocular allergy. We therefore determined herein whether hi-dose sensitization modulates ocular allergy, and whether CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Treg are involved. C57BL/6 mice were IP sensitized via low-dose (100 µg) versus hi-dose (1000 µg) ovalbumin (OVA), in aluminum hydroxide (1 mg) and pertussis-toxin (300 ng). Other mice received anti-CD25 Ab (PC61) to ablate Treg during sensitization. In another experiment, Treg from hi-dose sensitized mice were adoptively transferred into low-dose sensitized mice. Once daily OVA challenges were administered. Clinical signs, IgE, T cell cytokines, and eosinophils were assessed. Data revealed that hi-dose, but not low-dose, sensitization led to allergy modulation, indicated by decreased clinical signs, serum IgE levels, Th2 recall responses, and eosinophil recruitment. T cells from hi-dose sensitized mice showed a robust increase in TGF-b production, and Treg from these mice were able to efficiently suppress effector T cell proliferation in vitro. In addition, in vivo Treg ablation in hi-dose sensitized mice revoked allergy modulation. Lastly, Treg from hi-dose sensitized mice were able to adoptively transfer allergy modulation to their low-dose sensitized counterparts. Collectively, these findings indicate that modulation to hi-dose sensitization, which is extended to ocular allergy, occurs in a Treg-dependent manner. In addition, our data suggest that hi-dose sensitization may henceforth facilitate the further examination of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ Treg in allergic disease.

  4. Sheet silicon cell/module technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    The cost involved in the performance of the standard operations for the manufacture of silicon wafers is insignificant in the case of space photovoltaics applications. It is, however, a decisive factor with respect to terrestrial applications of silicon photovoltaic devices. In 1975, a program was, therefore, begun to develop low cost silicon solar arrays for terrestrial applications. The goal was silicon-based photovoltaic (PV) modules ready for installation at a selling price of $0.50/watt (1975 dollars). Sheet and ribbon silicon growth held out the promise of reduced cost through continuous operation, high material throughput, high material utilization efficiency, and a product whose shape lent itself to the assembly of high packing density modules. Attention is given to ribbon growth technologies, sheet technology generic problems, and ribbon cell and module technology status. It is concluded that the potential for crystalline ribbon silicon appears to be better today than ever before.

  5. Theoretical temperature dependence of solar cell parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, John C. C.

    1986-01-01

    A simple formulation has been derived for the temperature dependence of cell parameters for any solar cell material. Detailed calculations have been performed for high-quality monocrystalline GaAs, Si and Ge cells. Preliminary experimental data for GaAs and Si cells are close to the calculated values. In general, the higher the energy gap of a material, the small is the temperature dependence of its solar cell parameters.

  6. Solar module having reflector between cells

    DOEpatents

    Kardauskas, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    A photovoltaic module comprising an array of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells disposed in a planar and mutually spaced relationship between a light-transparent front cover member in sheet form and a back sheet structure is provided with a novel light-reflecting means disposed between adjacent cells for reflecting light falling in the areas between cells back toward said transparent cover member for further internal reflection onto the solar cells. The light-reflecting comprises a flexible plastic film that has been embossed so as to have a plurality of small V-shaped grooves in its front surface, and a thin light-reflecting coating on said front surface, the portions of said coating along the sides of said grooves forming light-reflecting facets, said grooves being formed so that said facets will reflect light impinging thereon back into said transparent cover sheet with an angle of incidence greater than the critical angle, whereby substantially all of the reflected light will be internally reflected from said cover sheet back to said solar modules, thereby increasing the current output of the module.

  7. Interference with immunoglobulin (Ig)alpha immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) phosphorylation modulates or blocks B cell development, depending on the availability of an Igbeta cytoplasmic tail.

    PubMed

    Kraus, M; Pao, L I; Reichlin, A; Hu, Y; Canono, B; Cambier, J C; Nussenzweig, M C; Rajewsky, K

    2001-08-20

    To determine the function of immunoglobulin (Ig)alpha immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) phosphorylation, we generated mice in which Igalpha ITAM tyrosines were replaced by phenylalanines (Igalpha(FF/FF)). Igalpha(FF/FF) mice had a specific reduction of B1 and marginal zone B cells, whereas B2 cell development appeared to be normal, except that lambda1 light chain usage was increased. The mutants responded less efficiently to T cell-dependent antigens, whereas T cell-independent responses were unaffected. Upon B cell receptor ligation, the cells exhibited heightened calcium flux, weaker Lyn and Syk tyrosine phosphorylation, and phosphorylation of Igalpha non-ITAM tyrosines. Strikingly, when the Igalpha ITAM mutation was combined with a truncation of Igbeta, B cell development was completely blocked at the pro-B cell stage, indicating a crucial role of ITAM phosphorylation in B cell development.

  8. Nanotopographical Modulation of Cell Function through Nuclear Deformation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Bruce, Allison; Mezan, Ryan; Kadiyala, Anand; Wang, Liying; Dawson, Jeremy; Rojanasakul, Yon; Yang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Although nanotopography has been shown to be a potent modulator of cell behavior, it is unclear how the nanotopographical cue, through focal adhesions, affects the nucleus, eventually influencing cell phenotype and function. Thus, current methods to apply nanotopography to regulate cell behavior are basically empirical. We, herein, engineered nanotopographies of various shapes (gratings and pillars) and dimensions (feature size, spacing and height), and thoroughly investigated cell spreading, focal adhesion organization and nuclear deformation of human primary fibroblasts as the model cell grown on the nanotopographies. We examined the correlation between nuclear deformation and cell functions such as cell proliferation, transfection and extracellular matrix protein type I collagen production. It was found that the nanoscale gratings and pillars could facilitate focal adhesion elongation by providing anchoring sites, and the nanogratings could orient focal adhesions and nuclei along the nanograting direction, depending on not only the feature size but also the spacing of the nanogratings. Compared with continuous nanogratings, discrete nanopillars tended to disrupt the formation and growth of focal adhesions and thus had less profound effects on nuclear deformation. Notably, nuclear volume could be effectively modulated by the height of nanotopography. Further, we demonstrated that cell proliferation, transfection, and type I collagen production were strongly associated with the nuclear volume, indicating that the nucleus serves as a critical mechanosensor for cell regulation. Our study delineated the relationships between focal adhesions, nucleus and cell function and highlighted that the nanotopography could regulate cell phenotype and function by modulating nuclear deformation. This study provides insight into the rational design of nanotopography for new biomaterials and the cell–substrate interfaces of implants and medical devices. PMID:26844365

  9. Presenilin-dependent γ-secretase activity modulates thymocyte development

    PubMed Central

    Doerfler, Petra; Shearman, Mark S.; Perlmutter, Roger M.

    2001-01-01

    In neuronal cells, presenilin-dependent γ-secretase activity cleaves amyloid precursor proteins to release Aβ peptides, and also catalyzes the release of the intracellular domain of the transmembrane receptor Notch. Accumulation of aberrant Aβ peptides appears to be causally related to Alzheimer's disease. Inhibition of Aβ peptide production is therefore a potential target for therapeutic intervention. Notch proteins play an important role in cell fate determination in many different organisms and at different stages of development, for example in mammalian T cell development. We therefore addressed whether structurally diverse γ-secretase inhibitors impair Notch function by studying thymocyte development in murine fetal thymic organ cultures. Here we show that high concentrations of the most potent inhibitors blocked thymocyte development at the most immature stage. In contrast, lower concentrations or less potent inhibitors impaired differentiation at a later stage, most notably suppressing the development of CD8 single-positive T cells. These phenotypes are consistent with an impairment of Notch signaling by γ-secretase inhibitors and define a strict Notch dose dependence of consecutive stages during thymocyte development. PMID:11470902

  10. DNA-PKcs-Dependent Modulation of Cellular Radiosensitivity by a Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Kodym, Elisabeth; Kodym, Reinhard; Chen, Benjamin P.; Chen, David J.; Morotomi-Yano, Keiko; Choy, Hak; Saha, Debabrata

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 has been shown to increase radiosensitivity. Recently, the suppression of radiation-induced DNA-dependant protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity by the selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib was reported. Given the importance of DNA-PK for repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks by nonhomologous end-joining and the clinical use of the substance, we investigated the relevance of the DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) for the modulation of cellular radiosensitivity by celecoxib. Methods and Materials: We used a syngeneic model of Chinese hamster ovarian cell lines: AA8, possessing a wild-type DNK-PKcs; V3, lacking a functional DNA-PKcs; and V3/WT11, V3 stably transfected with the DNA-PKcs. The cells were treated with celecoxib (50 {mu}M) for 24 h before irradiation. The modulation of radiosensitivity was determined using the colony formation assay. Results: Treatment with celecoxib increased the cellular radiosensitivity in the DNA-PKcs-deficient cell line V3 with a dose-enhancement ratio of 1.3 for a surviving fraction of 0.5. In contrast, clonogenic survival was increased in DNA-PKcs wild-type-expressing AA8 cells and in V3 cells transfected with DNA-PKcs (V3/WT11). The decrease in radiosensitivity was comparable to the radiosensitization in V3 cells, with a dose-enhancement ratio of 0.76 (AA8) and 0.80 (V3/WT11) for a survival of 0.5. Conclusions: We have demonstrated a DNA-PKcs-dependent differential modulation of cellular radiosensitivity by celecoxib. These effects might be attributed to alterations in signaling cascades downstream of DNA-PK toward cell survival. These findings offer an explanation for the poor outcomes in some recently published clinical trials.

  11. Germinal Center Marker GL7 Probes Activation-Dependent Repression of N-Glycolylneuraminic Acid, a Sialic Acid Species Involved in the Negative Modulation of B-Cell Activation▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Naito, Yuko; Takematsu, Hiromu; Koyama, Susumu; Miyake, Shizu; Yamamoto, Harumi; Fujinawa, Reiko; Sugai, Manabu; Okuno, Yasushi; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Yamaji, Toshiyuki; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Kawasaki, Toshisuke; Suzuki, Akemi; Kozutsumi, Yasunori

    2007-01-01

    Sialic acid (Sia) is a family of acidic nine-carbon sugars that occupies the nonreducing terminus of glycan chains. Diversity of Sia is achieved by variation in the linkage to the underlying sugar and modification of the Sia molecule. Here we identified Sia-dependent epitope specificity for GL7, a rat monoclonal antibody, to probe germinal centers upon T cell-dependent immunity. GL7 recognizes sialylated glycan(s), the α2,6-linked N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) on a lactosamine glycan chain(s), in both Sia modification- and Sia linkage-dependent manners. In mouse germinal center B cells, the expression of the GL7 epitope was upregulated due to the in situ repression of CMP-Neu5Ac hydroxylase (Cmah), the enzyme responsible for Sia modification of Neu5Ac to Neu5Gc. Such Cmah repression caused activation-dependent dynamic reduction of CD22 ligand expression without losing α2,6-linked sialylation in germinal centers. The in vivo function of Cmah was analyzed using gene-disrupted mice. Phenotypic analyses showed that Neu5Gc glycan functions as a negative regulator for B-cell activation in assays of T-cell-independent immunization response and splenic B-cell proliferation. Thus, Neu5Gc is required for optimal negative regulation, and the reaction is specifically suppressed in activated B cells, i.e., germinal center B cells. PMID:17296732

  12. Adrenal-dependent diurnal modulation of conditioned fear extinction learning

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, Elizabeth R.; Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Chun, Lauren E.; Fardi, Sara; Hinds, Laura R.; Spencer, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is associated with altered conditioned fear extinction expression and impaired circadian function including dysregulation of glucocorticoid hormone secretion. We examined in adult male rats the relationship between conditioned fear extinction learning, circadian phase, and endogenous glucocorticoids (CORT). Rats maintained on a 12 hr light:dark cycle were trained and tested across 3 separate daily sessions (conditioned fear acquisition and 2 extinction sessions) that were administered during either the rats’ active or inactive circadian phase. In an initial experiment we found that rats at both circadian phases acquired and extinguished auditory cue conditioned fear to a similar degree in the first extinction session. However, rats trained and tested at zeitgeber time-16 (ZT16) (active phase) showed enhanced extinction memory expression during the second extinction session compared to rats trained and tested at ZT4 (inactive phase). In a follow-up experiment, adrenalectomized (ADX) or sham surgery rats were similarly trained and tested across 3 separate daily sessions at either ZT4 or ZT16. ADX had no effect on conditioned fear acquisition or conditioned fear memory. Sham ADX rats trained and tested at ZT16 exhibited better extinction learning across the two extinction sessions compared to all other groups of rats. These results indicate that conditioned fear extinction learning is modulated by time of day, and this diurnal modulation requires the presence of adrenal hormones. These results support an important role of CORT-dependent circadian processes in regulating conditioned fear extinction learning, which may be capitalized upon to optimize effective treatment of PTSD. PMID:25746455

  13. Adrenal-dependent diurnal modulation of conditioned fear extinction learning.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Elizabeth R; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Chun, Lauren E; Fardi, Sara; Hinds, Laura R; Spencer, Robert L

    2015-06-01

    Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with altered conditioned fear extinction expression and impaired circadian function including dysregulation of glucocorticoid hormone secretion. We examined in adult male rats the relationship between conditioned fear extinction learning, circadian phase, and endogenous glucocorticoids (CORT). Rats maintained on a 12h light:dark cycle were trained and tested across 3 separate daily sessions (conditioned fear acquisition and 2 extinction sessions) that were administered during either the rats' active or inactive circadian phase. In an initial experiment we found that rats at both circadian phases acquired and extinguished auditory cue conditioned fear to a similar degree in the first extinction session. However, rats trained and tested at zeitgeber time-16 (ZT16) (active phase) showed enhanced extinction memory expression during the second extinction session compared to rats trained and tested at ZT4 (inactive phase). In a follow-up experiment, adrenalectomized (ADX) or sham surgery rats were similarly trained and tested across 3 separate daily sessions at either ZT4 or ZT16. ADX had no effect on conditioned fear acquisition or conditioned fear memory. Sham ADX rats trained and tested at ZT16 exhibited better extinction learning across the two extinction sessions compared to all other groups of rats. These results indicate that conditioned fear extinction learning is modulated by time of day, and this diurnal modulation requires the presence of adrenal hormones. These results support an important role of CORT-dependent circadian processes in regulating conditioned fear extinction learning, which may be capitalized upon to optimize effective treatment of PTSD.

  14. Neuroimmune interactions: dendritic cell modulation by the sympathetic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Maisa C; Guereschi, Marcia G; Basso, Alexandre S

    2017-02-01

    Dendritic cells are of paramount importance bridging innate and adaptive immune responses. Depending on the context, after sensing environmental antigens, commensal microorganisms, pathogenic agents, or antigens from the diet, dendritic cells may drive either different effector adaptive immune responses or tolerance, avoiding tissue damage. Although the plasticity of the immune response and the capacity to regulate itself are considered essential to orchestrate appropriate physiological responses, it is known that the nervous system plays a relevant role controlling immune cell function. Dendritic cells present in the skin, the intestine, and lymphoid organs, besides expressing adrenergic receptors, can be reached by neurotransmitters released by sympathetic fibers innervating these tissues. These review focus on how neurotransmitters from the sympathetic nervous system can modulate dendritic cell function and how this may impact the immune response and immune-mediated disorders.

  15. Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles and Immune-Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Burrello, Jacopo; Monticone, Silvia; Gai, Chiara; Gomez, Yonathan; Kholia, Sharad; Camussi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Extra-cellular vesicles (EVs) are bilayer membrane structures enriched with proteins, nucleic acids, and other active molecules and have been implicated in many physiological and pathological processes over the past decade. Recently, evidence suggests EVs to play a more dichotomic role in the regulation of the immune system, whereby an immune response may be enhanced or supressed by EVs depending on their cell of origin and its functional state. EVs derived from antigen (Ag)-presenting cells for instance, have been involved in both innate and acquired (or adaptive) immune responses, as Ag carriers or presenters, or as vehicles for delivering active signaling molecules. On the other hand, tumor and stem cell derived EVs have been identified to exert an inhibitory effect on immune responses by carrying immuno-modulatory effectors, such as transcriptional factors, non-coding RNA (Species), and cytokines. In addition, stem cell-derived EVs have also been reported to impair dendritic cell maturation and to regulate the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of B cells. They have been shown to control natural killer cell activity and to suppress the innate immune response (IIR). Studies reporting the role of EVs on T lymphocyte modulation are controversial. Discrepancy in literature may be due to stem cell culture conditions, methods of EV purification, EV molecular content, and functional state of both parental and target cells. However, mesenchymal stem cell-derived EVs were shown to play a more suppressive role by shifting T cells from an activated to a T regulatory phenotype. In this review, we will discuss how stem cell-derived EVs may contribute toward the modulation of the immune response. Collectively, stem cell-derived EVs mainly exhibit an inhibitory effect on the immune system. PMID:27597941

  16. Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles and Immune-Modulation.

    PubMed

    Burrello, Jacopo; Monticone, Silvia; Gai, Chiara; Gomez, Yonathan; Kholia, Sharad; Camussi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Extra-cellular vesicles (EVs) are bilayer membrane structures enriched with proteins, nucleic acids, and other active molecules and have been implicated in many physiological and pathological processes over the past decade. Recently, evidence suggests EVs to play a more dichotomic role in the regulation of the immune system, whereby an immune response may be enhanced or supressed by EVs depending on their cell of origin and its functional state. EVs derived from antigen (Ag)-presenting cells for instance, have been involved in both innate and acquired (or adaptive) immune responses, as Ag carriers or presenters, or as vehicles for delivering active signaling molecules. On the other hand, tumor and stem cell derived EVs have been identified to exert an inhibitory effect on immune responses by carrying immuno-modulatory effectors, such as transcriptional factors, non-coding RNA (Species), and cytokines. In addition, stem cell-derived EVs have also been reported to impair dendritic cell maturation and to regulate the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of B cells. They have been shown to control natural killer cell activity and to suppress the innate immune response (IIR). Studies reporting the role of EVs on T lymphocyte modulation are controversial. Discrepancy in literature may be due to stem cell culture conditions, methods of EV purification, EV molecular content, and functional state of both parental and target cells. However, mesenchymal stem cell-derived EVs were shown to play a more suppressive role by shifting T cells from an activated to a T regulatory phenotype. In this review, we will discuss how stem cell-derived EVs may contribute toward the modulation of the immune response. Collectively, stem cell-derived EVs mainly exhibit an inhibitory effect on the immune system.

  17. "Natural Regulators": NK Cells as Modulators of T Cell Immunity.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Iona S; Coudert, Jerome D; Andoniou, Christopher E; Degli-Esposti, Mariapia A

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are known as frontline responders capable of rapidly mediating a response upon encountering transformed or infected cells. Recent findings indicate that NK cells, in addition to acting as innate effectors, can also regulate adaptive immune responses. Here, we review recent studies on the immunoregulatory function of NK cells with a specific focus on their ability to affect the generation of early, as well as long-term antiviral T cell responses, and their role in modulating immune pathology and disease. In addition, we summarize the current knowledge of the factors governing regulatory NK cell responses and discuss origin, tissue specificity, and open questions about the classification of regulatory NK cells as classical NK cells versus group 1 innate lymphoid cells.

  18. Performance improvement of PEFC modules with cell containing low amount of platinum

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, Y.; Kadowaki, M.; Hamada, A.

    1996-12-31

    Cell components of the PEFC module were studied to improve the module performance. The cell performance in a high air utilization region was improved by selecting an air channel design of the separator in which high air flow speed was obtained. Optimization of Teflon{reg_sign} amount on the cathode backing carbon paper also contributed the cell performance. Modifications of the gas channel design and the backing carbon paper were carried out in a 200 cm{sup 2} x 20-cell module and 36-cell module. Dependence of air utilization on module performance was remarkably improved and power density of more than 0.3 W/cm{sup 2} was achieved in spite of the platinum amount in the cells was decreased to 1.1 Mg/cm{sup 2}.

  19. Compatibility of Fresnel lenses and photovoltaic cells in concentrator modules

    SciTech Connect

    Stillwell, C.B.; Shafer, B.D.

    1981-01-01

    Test data are used to compare, for point focus photovoltaic concentrator modules, the relationship between Fresnel lens and module efficiency. The data shows that lenses designed for maximum optical efficiency may not produce the maximum module efficiency. Lenses designed with consideration for the photon flux distribution on the solar cell may improve module efficiency possibly at some loss in lens optical performance.

  20. User handbook for block IV silicon solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smokler, M. I.

    1982-01-01

    The essential electrical and mechanical characteristics of block 4 photovoltaic solar cell modules are described. Such module characteristics as power output, nominal operating voltage, current-voltage characteristics, nominal operating cell temperature, and dimensions are tabulated. The limits of the environmental and other stress tests to which the modules are subjected are briefly described.

  1. Rate dependency of beta-adrenergic modulation of repolarizing currents in the guinea-pig ventricle.

    PubMed

    Rocchetti, M; Freli, V; Perego, V; Altomare, C; Mostacciuolo, G; Zaza, A

    2006-07-01

    Beta-adrenergic stimulation modulates ventricular currents and sinus cycle length (CL). We investigated how changes in CL affect the current induced by isoprenaline (Iso) during the action potential (AP) of guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. Action-potential clamp was applied at CLs of 250 and 1000 ms to measure: (1) the net current induced by 0.1 microm Iso (I(Iso)); (2) the L-type Ca2+ current I(CaL) and slow delayed rectifier current I(Ks) components of I(Iso) (I(IsoCa) and I(IsoK)), identified as the Iso-induced current sensitive to nifedipine and HMR1556, respectively; and (3) I(Iso) persisting after inhibition of both I(Ca) and I(Ks) (I(isoR)). The pause dependency of I(Ks) and its modulation were evaluated in voltage-clamp experiments. The rate dependency of the duration of the action potential at 90% repolarization (APD90) and its modulation by isoprenaline were tested in current-clamp experiments. At a CL of 250 ms I(Iso) was inward during initial repolarization and reversed at 59% of APD90. At a CL of 1000 ms I(Iso) became mostly inward in all cells. Switching to shorter CL did not change I(IsoCa) and I(IsoK) amplitudes, but moved their peak amplitudes to earlier repolarization; I(IsoR) was independent of CL. Acceleration of I(IsoK) at shorter CL was based on faster pause dependency of I(Ks) activation rate. The 'restitution' of activation rates was modulated by isoprenaline. The APD90-CL relation was rotated anticlockwise by isoprenaline and crossed the control curve at a CL of 150 ms (400 beats min(-1)). We conclude that: (1) isoprenaline induced markedly different current profiles according to pacing rate, involving CL-dependent I(Ca) and I(Ks) modulation; (2) the effect of isoprenaline on APD90 was CL dependent, and negligible during tachycardia; and (3) during sympathetic activation, repolarization stability may involve matched modulation of sinus rate and repolarizing currents.

  2. Large area perovskite solar cell module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Longhua; Liang, Lusheng; Wu, Jifeng; Ding, Bin; Gao, Lili; Fan, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The recent dramatic rise in power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of perovskite solar cells has triggered intense research worldwide. However, their practical development is hampered by poor stability and low PCE values with large areas devices. Here, we developed a gas-pumping method to avoid pinholes and eliminate local structural defects over large areas of perovskite film, even for 5 × 5 cm2 modules, the PCE reached 10.6% and no significant degradation was found after 140 days of outdoor testing. Our approach enables the realization of high performance large-area PSCs for practical application.

  3. Validation of Immune Cell Modules in Multicellular Transcriptomic Data

    PubMed Central

    Heather, James M.; Byng-Maddick, Rachel; Guppy, Naomi; Ellis, Matthew; Turner, Carolin T.; Chain, Benjamin M.; Noursadeghi, Mahdad

    2017-01-01

    Numerous gene signatures, or modules have been described to evaluate the immune cell composition in transcriptomes of multicellular tissue samples. However, significant diversity in module gene content for specific cell types is associated with heterogeneity in their performance. In order to rank modules that best reflect their purported association, we have generated the modular discrimination index (MDI) score that assesses expression of each module in the target cell type relative to other cells. We demonstrate that MDI scores predict modules that best reflect independently validated differences in cellular composition, and correlate with the covariance between cell numbers and module expression in human blood and tissue samples. Our analyses demonstrate that MDI scores provide an ordinal summary statistic that reliably ranks the accuracy of gene expression modules for deconvolution of cell type abundance in transcriptional data. PMID:28045996

  4. Some Lower Valence Vanadium Fluorides: Their Crystal Distortions, Domain Structures, Modulated Structures, Ferrimagnetism, and Composition Dependence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Y. S.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes some contemporary concepts unique to the structure of advanced solids, i.e., their crystal distortions, domain structures, modulated structures, ferrimagnetism, and composition dependence. (Author/CS)

  5. Block 2 solar cell module environmental test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, K. L.

    1978-01-01

    Environmental tests were performed of on 76 solar cell modules produced by four different manufacturers. The following tests were performed: (1) 28 day temperature and humidity; (2) rain and icing; (3) salt fog; (4) sand and dust; (5) vacuum/steam/pressure; (6) fungus; (7) temperature/altitude; and (8) thermal shock. Environmental testing of the solar cell modules produced cracked cells, cracked encapsulant and encapsulant delaminations on various modules. In addition, there was some minor cell and frame corrosion.

  6. Microenvironmental modulation of asymmetric cell division in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Pine, Sharon R; Ryan, Bríd M; Varticovski, Lyuba; Robles, Ana I; Harris, Curtis C

    2010-02-02

    Normal tissue homeostasis is maintained through asymmetric cell divisions that produce daughter cells with differing self-renewal and differentiation potentials. Certain tumor cell subfractions can self-renew and repopulate the heterogeneous tumor bulk, suggestive of asymmetric cell division, but an equally plausible explanation is that daughter cells of a symmetric division subsequently adopt differing cell fates. Cosegregation of template DNA during mitosis is one mechanism by which cellular components are segregated asymmetrically during cell division in fibroblast, muscle, mammary, intestinal, and neural cells. Asymmetric cell division of template DNA in tumor cells has remained elusive, however. Through pulse-chase experiments with halogenated thymidine analogs, we determined that a small population of cells within human lung cancer cell lines and primary tumor cell cultures asymmetrically divided their template DNA, which could be visualized in single cells and in real time. Template DNA cosegregation was enhanced by cell-cell contact. Its frequency was density-dependent and modulated by environmental changes, including serum deprivation and hypoxia. In addition, we found that isolated CD133(+) lung cancer cells were capable of tumor cell repopulation. Strikingly, during cell division, CD133 cosegregated with the template DNA, whereas the differentiation markers prosurfactant protein-C and pan-cytokeratins were passed to the opposing daughter cell, demonstrating that segregation of template DNA correlates with lung cancer cell fate. Our results demonstrate that human lung tumor cell fate decisions may be regulated during the cell division process. The characterization and modulation of asymmetric cell division in lung cancer can provide insight into tumor initiation, growth, and maintenance.

  7. Bacteroides fragilis Enterotoxin Upregulates Heme Oxygenase-1 in Intestinal Epithelial Cells via a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase- and NF-κB-Dependent Pathway, Leading to Modulation of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Su Hyuk; Rho, Da Jeong; Jeon, Jong Ik; Kim, Young-Jeon; Woo, Hyun Ae; Lee, Yun Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The Bacteroides fragilis enterotoxin (BFT), a virulence factor of enterotoxigenic B. fragilis (ETBF), interacts with intestinal epithelial cells and can provoke signals that induce mucosal inflammation. Although expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is associated with regulation of inflammatory responses, little is known about HO-1 induction in ETBF infection. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of BFT on HO-1 expression in intestinal epithelial cells. Stimulation of intestinal epithelial cells with BFT resulted in upregulated expression of HO-1. BFT activated transcription factors such as NF-κB, AP-1, and Nrf2 in intestinal epithelial cells. Upregulation of HO-1 in intestinal epithelial cells was dependent on activated IκB kinase (IKK)–NF-κB signals. However, suppression of Nrf2 or AP-1 signals in intestinal epithelial cells did not result in significant attenuation of BFT-induced HO-1 expression. HO-1 induction via IKK–NF-κB in intestinal epithelial cells was regulated by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Furthermore, suppression of HO-1 activity led to increased apoptosis in BFT-stimulated epithelial cells. These results suggest that a signaling pathway involving p38 MAPK–IKK–NF-κB in intestinal epithelial cells is required for HO-1 induction during exposure to BFT. Following this induction, increased HO-1 expression may regulate the apoptotic process in responses to BFT stimulation. PMID:27324483

  8. On the dependence of the thermal conductivity of width-modulated nanowires on the number of modulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zianni, Xanthippi; Termentzidis, Konstantinos; Lacroix, David

    2017-01-01

    Our previous Monte Carlo simulations on the thermal conductivity of width-modulated nanowires indicated two distinct dependences of the decrease of the thermal conductivity κ relative to that of the non-modulated nanowire: (i) in the case of multiple constrictions κ scales with the nanowire transmissivity, (ii) in the case of a single constriction κ is determined by the ballistic constriction resistance. Here, we report on the transition between the two regimes. We discuss the thermal conductivity of width modulated nanowires as a function of the number of modulations. Phenomenology has been derived to interpret the MC simulations.

  9. Prostacyclin receptor-dependent modulation of pulmonary vascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Hoshikawa, Y; Voelkel, N F; Gesell, T L; Moore, M D; Morris, K G; Alger, L A; Narumiya, S; Geraci, M W

    2001-07-15

    Prostacyclin (PGI(2)) reduces pulmonary vascular resistance and attenuates vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation through signal transduction following ligand binding to its receptor. Because patients with severe pulmonary hypertension have a reduced PGI(2) receptor (PGI-R) expression in the remodeled pulmonary arterial smooth muscle, we hypothesized that pulmonary vascular remodeling may be modified PGI-R dependently. To test this hypothesis, PGI-R knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to a simulated altitude of 17,000 ft or Denver altitude for 3 wk, and right ventricular pressure and lung histology were assessed. The PGI-R KO mice developed more severe pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling after chronic hypoxic exposure when compared to the WT mice. Our results indicate that PGI(2) and its receptor play an important role in the regulation of hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling, and that the absence of a functional receptor worsens pulmonary hypertension.

  10. Note: extraction of temperature-dependent interfacial resistance of thermoelectric modules.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min

    2011-11-01

    This article discusses an approach for extracting the temperature dependency of the electrical interfacial resistance associated with thermoelectric devices. The method combines a traditional module-level test rig and a nonlinear numerical model of thermoelectricity to minimize measurement errors on the interfacial resistance. The extracted results represent useful data to investigating the characteristics of thermoelectric module resistance and comparing performance of various modules.

  11. 5-AED Enhances Survival of Irradiated Mice in a G-CSF-Dependent Manner, Stimulates Innate Immune Cell Function, Reduces Radiation-Induced DNA Damage and Induces Genes that Modulate Cell Cycle Progression and Apoptosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-22

    cytokines [15, 24]. However, this speculation was based on correla- tions, rather than a direct test of the hypothesis by blocking hematopoietic... tested the effects of 5-AED on irradiated human hematopoietic progenitor (CD34+) cells [26]. We found that 5-AED protected CD34+ cells from radi- ation...animals, this required a direct test in vivo. We compared the effects of blocking G-CSF to blocking IL-6, since IL-6 is induced by 5-AED [24, 26], but was

  12. Neurosecretory Habituation in PC12 Cells: Modulation During Parallel Habituation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Paul T.; Koshland, Daniel E., Jr.

    1995-05-01

    PC12 cells habituate during repetitive stimulation with acetylcholine, bradykinin, or high potassium. Interspersing these stimulants did not affect the rate of habituation of the others, but it could modulate the amplitude of the norepinephrine secretion each could achieve. Stimulation with acetylcholine inhibited norepinephrine secretion caused by high potassium and bradykinin stimulation, while high potassium had no effect on acetylcholine or bradykinin, and bradykinin increased secretion caused by acetylcholine. Changes in norepinephrine secretion resulting from any of these stimulants correlated with changes in internal calcium levels. Cyclic AMP-, protein kinase C-, and calmodulin-dependent second messenger pathways all modulated norepinephrine secretion caused by acetylcholine and high potassium and showed a distinct hierarchy in their effectiveness. These data demonstrate that different receptor pathways can change the norepinephrine response of one another while not changing the levels of the molecules responsible for habituation.

  13. The irre cell recognition module (IRM) proteins.

    PubMed

    Fischbach, Karl-Friedrich; Linneweber, Gerit Arne; Andlauer, Till Felix Malte; Hertenstein, Alexander; Bonengel, Bernhard; Chaudhary, Kokil

    2009-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems in developmental neurosciences is to understand the establishment and maintenance of specific membrane contacts between axonal, dendritic, and glial processes in the neuropils, which eventually secure neuronal connectivity. However, underlying cell recognition events are pivotal in other tissues as well. This brief review focuses on the pleiotropic functions of a small, evolutionarily conserved group of proteins of the immunoglobulin superfamily involved in cell recognition. In Drosophila, this protein family comprises Irregular chiasm C/Roughest (IrreC/Rst), Kin of irre (Kirre), and their interacting protein partners, Sticks and stones (SNS) and Hibris (Hbs). For simplicity, we propose to name this ensemble of proteins the irre cell recognition module (IRM) after the first identified member of this family. Here, we summarize evidence that the IRM proteins function together in various cellular interactions, including myoblast fusion, cell sorting, axonal pathfinding, and target recognition in the optic neuropils of Drosophila. Understanding IRM protein function will help to unravel the epigenetic rules by which the intricate neurite networks in sensory neuropils are formed.

  14. Quantification of Cell Edge Velocities and Traction Forces Reveals Distinct Motility Modules during Cell Spreading

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yunfei; Xenias, Harry; Spielman, Ingrid; Shneidman, Anna V.; David, Lawrence A.; Döbereiner, Hans-Günther; Wiggins, Chris H.; Sheetz, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Actin-based cell motility and force generation are central to immune response, tissue development, and cancer metastasis, and understanding actin cytoskeleton regulation is a major goal of cell biologists. Cell spreading is a commonly used model system for motility experiments – spreading fibroblasts exhibit stereotypic, spatially-isotropic edge dynamics during a reproducible sequence of functional phases: 1) During early spreading, cells form initial contacts with the surface. 2) The middle spreading phase exhibits rapidly increasing attachment area. 3) Late spreading is characterized by periodic contractions and stable adhesions formation. While differences in cytoskeletal regulation between phases are known, a global analysis of the spatial and temporal coordination of motility and force generation is missing. Implementing improved algorithms for analyzing edge dynamics over the entire cell periphery, we observed that a single domain of homogeneous cytoskeletal dynamics dominated each of the three phases of spreading. These domains exhibited a unique combination of biophysical and biochemical parameters – a motility module. Biophysical characterization of the motility modules revealed that the early phase was dominated by periodic, rapid membrane blebbing; the middle phase exhibited continuous protrusion with very low traction force generation; and the late phase was characterized by global periodic contractions and high force generation. Biochemically, each motility module exhibited a different distribution of the actin-related protein VASP, while inhibition of actin polymerization revealed different dependencies on barbed-end polymerization. In addition, our whole-cell analysis revealed that many cells exhibited heterogeneous combinations of motility modules in neighboring regions of the cell edge. Together, these observations support a model of motility in which regions of the cell edge exhibit one of a limited number of motility modules that, together

  15. Solid oxide fuel cell matrix and modules

    DOEpatents

    Riley, B.

    1988-04-22

    Porous refractory ceramic blocks arranged in an abutting, stacked configuration and forming a three dimensional array provide a support structure and coupling means for a plurality of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The stack of ceramic blocks is self-supporting, with a plurality of such stacked arrays forming a matrix enclosed in an insulating refractory brick structure having an outer steel layer. The necessary connections for air, fuel, burnt gas, and anode and cathode connections are provided through the brick and steel outer shell. The ceramic blocks are so designed with respect to the strings of modules that by simple and logical design the strings could be replaced by hot reloading if one should fail. The hot reloading concept has not been included in any previous designs. 11 figs.

  16. Hypervelocity Impact Studies on Solar Cell Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; Best, Stevie R.

    2001-01-01

    Space environmental effects have caused severe problems as satellites move toward increased power and operating voltage levels. The greatest unknown, however, is the effect of high velocity micrometeoroid impacts on high voltage arrays (>200V). Understanding such impact phenomena is necessary for the design of future reliable, high voltage solar arrays, especially for Space Solar Power applications. Therefore, the objective of this work was to study the effect of hypervelocity impacts on high voltage solar arrays. Initially, state of the art, 18% efficient GaAs solar cell strings were targeted. The maximum bias voltage on a two-cell string was -200 V while the adjacent string was held at -140 V relative to the plasma potential. A hollow cathode device provided the plasma. Soda lime glass particles 40-120 micrometers in diameter were accelerated in the Hypervelocity Impact Facility to velocities as high as 11.6 km/sec. Coordinates and velocity were obtained for each of the approximately 40 particle impact sites on each shot. Arcing did occur, and both discharging and recharging of arcs between the two strings was observed. The recharging phenomena appeared to stop at approximately 66V string differential. No arcing was observed at 400 V on concentrator cell modules for the Stretched Lens Array.

  17. Flexible, FEP-Teflon covered solar cell module development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauschenbach, H. S.; Cannady, M. D.

    1976-01-01

    Techniques and equipment were developed for the large scale, low-cost fabrication of lightweight, roll-up and fold-up, FEP-Teflon encapsulated solar cell modules. Modules were fabricated by interconnecting solderless single-crystal silicon solar cells and heat laminating them at approximately 300 C between layers of optically clear FEP and to a loadbearing Kapton substrate sheet. Modules were fabricated from both conventional and wraparound contact solar cells. A heat seal technique was developed for mechanically interconnecting modules into an array. The electrical interconnections for both roll-up and fold-up arrays were also developed. The use of parallel-gap resistance welding, ultrasonic bonding, and thermocompression bonding processes for attaching interconnects to solar cells were investigated. Parallel-gap welding was found to be best suited for interconnecting the solderless solar cells into modules. Details of the fabrication equipment, fabrication processes, module and interconnect designs, environmental test equipment, and test results are presented.

  18. Synaptic modulation by astrocytes via Ca2+-dependent glutamate release.

    PubMed

    Santello, M; Volterra, A

    2009-01-12

    In the past 15 years the classical view that astrocytes play a relatively passive role in brain function has been overturned and it has become increasingly clear that signaling between neurons and astrocytes may play a crucial role in the information processing that the brain carries out. This new view stems from two seminal observations made in the early 1990s: 1. astrocytes respond to neurotransmitters released during synaptic activity with elevation of their intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i); 2. astrocytes release chemical transmitters, including glutamate, in response to [Ca2+]i elevations. The simultaneous recognition that astrocytes sense neuronal activity and release neuroactive agents has been instrumental for understanding previously unknown roles of these cells in the control of synapse formation, function and plasticity. These findings open a conceptual revolution, leading to rethink how brain communication works, as they imply that information travels (and is processed) not just in the neuronal circuitry but in an expanded neuron-glia network. In this review we critically discuss the available information concerning: 1. the characteristics of the astrocytic Ca2+ responses to synaptic activity; 2. the basis of Ca2+-dependent glutamate exocytosis from astrocytes; 3. the modes of action of astrocytic glutamate on synaptic function.

  19. Modulation of basal nitric oxide-dependent cyclic-GMP production by ambient glucose, myo-inositol, and protein kinase C in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Shindo, H; Thomas, T P; Larkin, D D; Karihaloo, A K; Inada, H; Onaya, T; Stevens, M J; Greene, D A

    1996-01-01

    Defective tissue perfusion and nitric oxide production and altered myo-inositol metabolism and protein kinase C activation have been invoked in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications including neuropathy. The precise cellular compartmentalization and mechanistic interrelationships of these abnormalities remain obscure, and nitric oxide possesses both neurotransmitter and vasodilator activity. Therefore the effects of ambient glucose and myo-inositol on nitric oxide-dependent cGMP production and protein kinase C activity were studied in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, a cell culture model for peripheral cholinergic neurons. D-Glucose lowered cellular myo-inositol content, phosphatidylinositol synthesis, and phosphorylation of an endogenous protein kinase C substrate, and specifically reduced nitric oxide-dependent cGMP production a time- and dose-dependent manner with an apparent IC50 of approximately 30 mM. The near maximal decrease in cGMP induced by 50 mM D-glucose was corrected by the addition of protein kinase C agonists or 500 microM myo-inositol to the culture medium, and was reproduced by protein kinase C inhibition or downregulation, or by myo-inositol deficient medium. Sodium nitroprusside increased cGMP in a dose-dependent fashion, with low concentrations (1 microM) counteracting the effects of 50 mM D-glucose or protein kinase C inhibition. The demonstration that elevated D-glucose diminishes basal nitric oxide-dependent cGMP production by myo-inositol depletion and protein kinase C inhibition in peripheral cholinergic neurons provides a potential metabolic basis for impaired nitric oxide production, nerve blood flow, and nerve impulse conduction in diabetes. PMID:8609230

  20. Dynamics of Ca2+-dependent Cl- channel modulation by niflumic acid in rabbit coronary arterial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, Jonathan; Greenwood, Iain A; Leblanc, Normand

    2005-01-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels (Cl(Ca)) are crucial regulators of vascular tone by promoting a depolarizing influence on the resting membrane potential of vascular smooth muscle cells. Niflumic acid (NFA), a potent blocker of Cl(Ca) in vascular myocytes, was shown recently to cause inhibition and paradoxical stimulation of sustained calcium-activated chloride currents [I(Cl(Ca))] in rabbit pulmonary artery myocytes. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether NFA produced a similar dual effect in coronary artery smooth muscle cells and to determine the concentration-dependence and dynamics of such a phenomenon. Sustained I(Cl(Ca)) evoked by intracellular Ca(2+) clamped at 500 nM were dose-dependently inhibited by NFA (IC(50) = 159 microM) and transiently augmented in a concentration-independent manner (10 microM to 1 mM) approximately 2-fold after NFA removal. However, the time to peak and duration of NFA-enhanced I(Cl(Ca)) increased in a concentration-dependent fashion. Moreover, the rate of recovery was reduced by membrane depolarization, suggesting the involvement of a voltage-dependent step in the interaction of NFA, leading to stimulation of I(Cl(Ca)). Computer simulations derived from a kinetic model involving low (K(i) = 1.25 mM) and high (K(i) < 30 microM) affinity sites could reproduce the properties of the NFA-modulated I(Cl(Ca)) fairly well.

  1. Slow State Transitions of Sustained Neural Oscillations by Activity-Dependent Modulation of Intrinsic Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich, Flavio; Bazhenov, Maxim; Timofeev, Igor; Steriade, Mircea; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the dynamics and mechanisms of transitions between tonic firing and bursting in cortical networks. Here, we use a computational model of a neocortical circuit with extracellular potassium dynamics to show that activity-dependent modulation of intrinsic excitability can lead to sustained oscillations with slow transitions between two distinct firing modes: fast run (tonic spiking or fast bursts with few spikes) and slow bursting. These transitions are caused by a bistability with hysteresis in a pyramidal cell model. Balanced excitation and inhibition stabilizes a network of pyramidal cells and inhibitory interneurons in the bistable region and causes sustained periodic alternations between distinct oscillatory states. During spike-wave seizures, neocortical paroxysmal activity exhibits qualitatively similar slow transitions between fast run and bursting. We therefore predict that extracellular potassium dynamics can cause alternating episodes of fast and slow oscillatory states in both normal and epileptic neocortical networks. PMID:16763023

  2. Carbon monoxide and mitochondria—modulation of cell metabolism, redox response and cell death

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Ana S.; Figueiredo-Pereira, Cláudia; Vieira, Helena L. A.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenously produced gasotransmitter, which is associated with cytoprotection and cellular homeostasis in several distinct cell types and tissues. CO mainly targets mitochondria because: (i) mitochondrial heme-proteins are the main potential candidates for CO to bind, (ii) many CO's biological actions are dependent on mitochondrial ROS signaling and (iii) heme is generated in the mitochondrial compartment. Mitochondria are the key cell energy factory, producing ATP through oxidative phosphorylation and regulating cell metabolism. These organelles are also implicated in many cell signaling pathways and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Finally, mitochondria contain several factors activating programmed cell death pathways, which are released from the mitochondrial inter-membrane space upon mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. Therefore, disclosing CO mode of action at mitochondria opens avenues for deeper understanding CO's biological properties. Herein, it is discussed how CO affects the three main aspects of mitochondrial modulation of cell function: metabolism, redox response and cell death. PMID:25709582

  3. Caffeine Positively Modulates Ferritin Heavy Chain Expression in H460 Cells: Effects on Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Battaglia, Anna Martina; Faniello, Maria Concetta; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Both the methylxanthine caffeine and the heavy subunit of ferritin molecule (FHC) are able to control the proliferation rate of several cancer cell lines. While caffeine acts exclusively as a negative modulator of cell proliferation, FHC might reduce or enhance cell viability depending upon the different cell type. In this work we have demonstrated that physiological concentrations of caffeine reduce the proliferation rate of H460 cells: along with the modulation of p53, pAKT and Cyclin D1, caffeine also determines a significant FHC up-regulation through the activation of its transcriptional efficiency. FHC plays a central role in the molecular pathways modulated by caffeine, ending in a reduced cell growth, since its specific silencing by siRNA almost completely abolishes caffeine effects on H460 cell proliferation. These results allow the inclusion of ferritin heavy subunits among the multiple molecular targets of caffeine and open the way for studying the relationship between caffeine and intracellular iron metabolism. PMID:27657916

  4. Viscumins functionally modulate cell motility-associated gene expression.

    PubMed

    Schötterl, Sonja; Hübner, Miriam; Armento, Angela; Veninga, Vivien; Wirsik, Naita Maren; Bernatz, Simon; Lentzen, Hans; Mittelbronn, Michel; Naumann, Ulrike

    2017-02-01

    In Europe extracts from Viscum album L., the European white-berry mistletoe, are widely used as a complementary cancer therapy. Viscumins (mistletoe lectins, ML) have been scrutinized as important active components of mistletoe and exhibit a variety of anticancer effects such as stimulation of the immune system, induction of cytotoxicity, reduction of tumor cell motility as well as changes in the expression of genes associated with cancer development and progression. By microarray expression analysis, quantitative RT-PCR and RT-PCR based validation of microarray data we demonstrate for the Viscum album extract Iscador Qu and for the lectins Aviscumine and ML-1 that in glioma cells these drugs differentially modulate the expression of genes involved in the regulation of cell migration and invasion, including processes modulating cell architecture and cell adhesion. A variety of differentially expressed genes in ML treated cells are associated with the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling pathway or are targets of TGF-β. ML treatment downregulated the expression of TGF-β itself, of the TGF-β receptor II (TGFBR2), of the TGF-β intracellular signal transducer protein SMAD2, and of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP) MMP-2 and MMP-14. Even if the changes in gene expression differ between Aviscumine, Iscador Qu and ML-1, the overall regulation of motility associated gene expression by all drugs showed functional effects since tumor cell motility was reduced in a ML-dependent manner. Therefore, ML containing compounds might provide clinical benefit as adjuvant therapeutics in the treatment of patients with invasively growing tumors such as glioblastomas.

  5. Dendritic web-type solar cell mini-modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-five minimodules composed of dendritic web solar cells with nominal glass size of 12 by 40 cm were provided for study. The modules were identical with respect to design, materials, and manufacturing and assembly processes to full scale modules. The modules were also electrically functional. These minimodules were fabricated to provide test vehicle for environmental testing and to assess reliability of process and design procedures. The module design and performance are outlined.

  6. Anchorage Dependent Cells Attached to a Polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Anchorage dependent cells on STS-95 will be grown on beads similar to these cells produced during previous investigations. Recombinant proteins may offer the possibility of reducing or eliminating transplant rejections. Research by Synthecon, Inc. using the BioDyn Bioreactor will focus on the preliminary process for growing a proprietary recombinant protein that can decrease rejection of transplanted tissue. The cells producing this protein are anchorage dependent, meaning that they must attach to something to grow. These cells will be cultured in the bioreactor in a medium containing polymer microbeads. Synthecon hopes that the data from this mission will lead to the development of a commercial protein that will aid in prevention of transplant rejection.

  7. Anchorage Dependent Cells Attached to a Polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Anchorage dependent cells on STS-95 will be grown on beads, similar to these cells produced during previous investigations. Recombinant proteins may offer the possibility of reducing or eliminating transplant rejections. Research by Synthecon, Inc. using the BioDyn Bioreactor will focus on the preliminary process for growing a proprietary recombinant protein that can decrease rejection of transplanted tissue. The cells producing this protein are anchorage dependent, meaning that they must attach to something to grow. These cells will be cultured in the bioreactor in a medium containing polymer microbeads. Synthecon hopes that the data from this mission will lead to the development of a commercial protein that will aid in prevention of transplant rejection.

  8. Cinnamaldehyde modulates LPS-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome through TRPA1-dependent and independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Saulo J F; Sousa, Fernanda I A B; Pereira, Domingos M S; Ferro, Thiago A F; Pereira, Ione C P; Silva, Bruna L R; Pinheiro, Aruanã J M C R; Mouchrek, Adriana Q S; Monteiro-Neto, Valério; Costa, Soraia K P; Nascimento, José L M; Grisotto, Marcos A G; da Costa, Robson; Fernandes, Elizabeth S

    2016-05-01

    Cinnamaldehyde is a natural essential oil suggested to possess anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties; and to activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels expressed on neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Here, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of cinnamaldehyde in an in vivo model of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) induced by lipopolysaccharide. Swiss mice received a single oral treatment with cinnamaldehyde 1 h before LPS injection. To investigate whether cinnamaldehyde effects are dependent on TRPA1 activation, animals were treated subcutaneously with the selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 5 min prior to cinnamaldehyde administration. Vehicle-treated mice were used as controls. Cinnamaldehyde ameliorated SIRS severity in LPS-injected animals. Diminished numbers of circulating mononuclear cells and increased numbers of peritoneal mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cell numbers were also observed. Cinnamaldehyde augmented the number of peritoneal Ly6C(high) and Ly6C(low) monocyte/macrophage cells in LPS-injected mice. Reduced levels of nitric oxide, plasma TNFα and plasma and peritoneal IL-10 were also detected. Additionally, IL-1β levels were increased in the same animals. TRPA1 antagonism by HC-030031 reversed the changes in the number of circulating and peritoneal leukocytes in cinnamaldehyde-treated animals, whilst increasing the levels of peritoneal IL-10 and reducing peritoneal IL-1β. Overall, cinnamaldehyde modulates SIRS through TRPA1-dependent and independent mechanisms.

  9. Real time outdoor exposure testing of solar cell modules and component materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anagnostou, E.; Forestieri, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    Plastic samples, solar cell modules, and sub-modules were exposed at test sites in Florida, Arizona, Puerto Rico, and Cleveland, Ohio, in order to determine materials suitable for use in solar cell modules with a proposed 20-year lifetime. Various environments were encountered including subtropical, subtropical with a sea air atmosphere, desert, rain forest, normal urban, and urban-polluted. The samples were exposed for periods up to six months. Materials found not suitable were polyurethane, polyester, Kapton, Mylar, and UV-stabilized Lexan. Suitable materials were acrylic, FEP-A, and glass. The results of exposure of polyvinylidene fluoride were dependent on the specific formulation, but several types appear suitable. RTV silicone rubber (clear) appears to pick up and hold dirt both as a free film and as a potting medium for modules. The results indicate that dirt accumulation and cleanability are important factors in the selection of solar cell module covers and encapsulants.

  10. Enumeration of condition-dependent dense modules in protein interaction networks

    PubMed Central

    Georgii, Elisabeth; Dietmann, Sabine; Uno, Takeaki; Pagel, Philipp; Tsuda, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Modern systems biology aims at understanding how the different molecular components of a biological cell interact. Often, cellular functions are performed by complexes consisting of many different proteins. The composition of these complexes may change according to the cellular environment, and one protein may be involved in several different processes. The automatic discovery of functional complexes from protein interaction data is challenging. While previous approaches use approximations to extract dense modules, our approach exactly solves the problem of dense module enumeration. Furthermore, constraints from additional information sources such as gene expression and phenotype data can be integrated, so we can systematically mine for dense modules with interesting profiles. Results: Given a weighted protein interaction network, our method discovers all protein sets that satisfy a user-defined minimum density threshold. We employ a reverse search strategy, which allows us to exploit the density criterion in an efficient way. Our experiments show that the novel approach is feasible and produces biologically meaningful results. In comparative validation studies using yeast data, the method achieved the best overall prediction performance with respect to confirmed complexes. Moreover, by enhancing the yeast network with phenotypic and phylogenetic profiles and the human network with tissue-specific expression data, we identified condition-dependent complex variants. Availability: A C++ implementation of the algorithm is available at http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/~georgii/dme.html. Contact: koji.tsuda@tuebingen.mpg.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19213739

  11. Quantifying Solar Cell Cracks in Photovoltaic Modules by Electroluminescence Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Sera, Dezso; Glick, Stephen; Kerekes, Tamas; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-06-14

    This article proposes a method for quantifying the percentage of partially and totally disconnected solar cell cracks by analyzing electroluminescence images of the photovoltaic module taken under high- and low-current forward bias. The method is based on the analysis of the module's electroluminescence intensity distribution, applied at module and cell level. These concepts are demonstrated on a crystalline silicon photovoltaic module that was subjected to several rounds of mechanical loading and humidity-freeze cycling, causing increasing levels of solar cell cracks. The proposed method can be used as a diagnostic tool to rate cell damage or quality of modules after transportation. Moreover, the method can be automated and used in quality control for module manufacturers, installers, or as a diagnostic tool by plant operators and diagnostic service providers.

  12. Solid oxide fuel cell matrix and modules

    DOEpatents

    Riley, Brian

    1990-01-01

    Porous refractory ceramic blocks arranged in an abutting, stacked configuration and forming a three dimensional array provide a support structure and coupling means for a plurality of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Each of the blocks includes a square center channel which forms a vertical shaft when the blocks are arranged in a stacked array. Positioned within the channel is a SOFC unit cell such that a plurality of such SOFC units disposed within a vertical shaft form a string of SOFC units coupled in series. A first pair of facing inner walls of each of the blocks each include an interconnecting channel hole cut horizontally and vertically into the block walls to form gas exit channels. A second pair of facing lateral walls of each block further include a pair of inner half circular grooves which form sleeves to accommodate anode fuel and cathode air tubes. The stack of ceramic blocks is self-supporting, with a plurality of such stacked arrays forming a matrix enclosed in an insulating refractory brick structure having an outer steel layer. The necessary connections for air, fuel, burnt gas, and anode and cathode connections are provided through the brick and steel outer shell. The ceramic blocks are so designed with respect to the strings of modules that by simple and logical design the strings could be replaced by hot reloading if one should fail. The hot reloading concept has not been included in any previous designs.

  13. Laminated photovoltaic modules using back-contact solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Gee, James M.; Garrett, Stephen E.; Morgan, William P.; Worobey, Walter

    1999-09-14

    Photovoltaic modules which comprise back-contact solar cells, such as back-contact crystalline silicon solar cells, positioned atop electrically conductive circuit elements affixed to a planar support so that a circuit capable of generating electric power is created. The modules are encapsulated using encapsulant materials such as EVA which are commonly used in photovoltaic module manufacture. The module designs allow multiple cells to be electrically connected in a single encapsulation step rather than by sequential soldering which characterizes the currently used commercial practices.

  14. NSCA-1-a novel N-substituted coumalamide derivative-increases Adriamycin sensitivity in HepG2/adriamycin cells through modulating Akt/GSK-3β signaling and p53-dependant apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yanhua; Liu, Jianyu; Liu, Dan; Zhou, Zhipeng; Bao, Ying; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Qingchun; Xu, Yongnan

    2017-01-01

    Coumalamide derivatives are one of 2-pyrones derivatives, exerting multifunctional bioactivity. An array of coumalamide derivatives have been developed and presented good antiproliferative properties on cancer cells. However, the synthesis of 5-substituted coumalamide derivatives has not yet been published. Resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs is a major obstacle in hepatocellular carcinoma therapy. Recent evidence suggests that overexpression of constitutively active Akt confers on cancer cells resistance to chemotherapy. In this study, we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel N-substituted coumalamide derivative (NSCA-1). The results indicated that NSCA-1 exerts synergistic cytotoxicity with Adriamycin in HepG2/ADR (HepG2/adriamycin) cells. Furthermore, both of the Akt kinase activity and phosphorylated Akt (Ser473) were found to be inhibited by NSCA-1 and subsequently resulting in decreased phosphorylation of GSK-3β. The intracellular accumulation of Adriamycin was also boosted by NSCA-1 via reducing the expression of p-gp. In addition, we found that combined treatment with NSCA-1 enhance cell apoptosis induced by Adriamycin via p53-dependant apoptotic pathway.

  15. SR4 Uncouples Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation, Modulates AMP-dependent Kinase (AMPK)-Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Signaling, and Inhibits Proliferation of HepG2 Hepatocarcinoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Figarola, James L.; Singhal, Jyotsana; Tompkins, Joshua D.; Rogers, George W.; Warden, Charles; Horne, David; Riggs, Arthur D.; Awasthi, Sanjay; Singhal, Sharad S.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation produces most of the energy in aerobic cells by coupling respiration to the production of ATP. Mitochondrial uncouplers, which reduce the proton gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane, create a futile cycle of nutrient oxidation without generating ATP. Regulation of mitochondrial dysfunction and associated cellular bioenergetics has been recently identified as a promising target for anticancer therapy. Here, we show that SR4 is a novel mitochondrial uncoupler that causes dose-dependent increase in mitochondrial respiration and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells. These effects were reversed by the recoupling agent 6-ketocholestanol but not cyclosporin A and were nonexistent in mitochondrial DNA-depleted HepG2 cells. In isolated mouse liver mitochondria, SR4 similarly increased oxygen consumption independent of adenine nucleotide translocase and uncoupling proteins, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and promoted swelling of valinomycin-treated mitochondria in potassium acetate medium. Mitochondrial uncoupling in HepG2 cells by SR4 results in the reduction of cellular ATP production, increased ROS production, activation of the energy-sensing enzyme AMPK, and inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathways, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Global analysis of SR4-associated differential gene expression confirms these observations, including significant induction of apoptotic genes and down-regulation of cell cycle, mitochondrial, and oxidative phosphorylation pathway transcripts at 24 h post-treatment. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that the previously reported indirect activation of AMPK and in vitro anticancer properties of SR4 as well as its beneficial effects in both animal xenograft and obese mice models could be a direct consequence of its mitochondrial uncoupling activity. PMID:26534958

  16. Nutrient-dependent secretion of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide from primary murine K cells

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, G. J.; Gribble, F. M.; Reimann, F.

    2015-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin hormone with anti-apoptotic effects on the pancreatic beta cell. The aim of this study was to generate transgenic mice with fluorescently labelled GIP-secreting K cells and to use these to investigate pathways by which K cells detect nutrients. Methods Transgenic mice were generated in which the GIP promoter drives the expression of the yellow fluorescent protein Venus. Fluorescent cells were purified by flow cytometry and analysed by quantitative RT-PCR. GIP secretion was assayed in primary cultures of small intestine. Results Expression of Venus in transgenic mice was restricted to K cells, as assessed by immunofluorescence and measurements of the Gip mRNA and GIP protein contents of purified cells. K cells expressed high levels of mRNA for Kir6.2 (also known as Kcnj11), Sur1 (also known as Abcc8), 1 Sglt1 (also known as Slc5a1), and of the G-protein-coupled lipid receptors Gpr40 (also known as Ffar1), Gpr119 and Gpr120. In primary cultures, GIP release was stimulated by glucose, glutamine and linoleic acid, and potentiated by forskolin plus 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), but was unaffected by the artificial sweetener sucralose. Secretion was half-maximal at 0.6 mmol/l glucose and partially mimicked by α-methylglucopyranoside, suggesting the involvement of SGLT1. Tolbutamide triggered secretion under basal conditions, whereas diazoxide suppressed responses in forskolin/IBMX. Conclusions/interpretation These transgenic mouse and primary culture techniques provide novel opportunities to interrogate the mechanisms of GIP secretion. Glucose-triggered GIP secretion was SGLT1-dependent and modulated by KATP channel activity but not determined by sweet taste receptors. Synergistic stimulation by elevated cAMP and glucose suggests that targeting appropriate G-protein-coupled receptors may provide opportunities to modulate GIP release in vivo. PMID:19082577

  17. Advances in cell culture: anchorage dependence

    PubMed Central

    Merten, Otto-Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    Anchorage-dependent cells are of great interest for various biotechnological applications. (i) They represent a formidable production means of viruses for vaccination purposes at very large scales (in 1000–6000 l reactors) using microcarriers, and in the last decade many more novel viral vaccines have been developed using this production technology. (ii) With the advent of stem cells and their use/potential use in clinics for cell therapy and regenerative medicine purposes, the development of novel culture devices and technologies for adherent cells has accelerated greatly with a view to the large-scale expansion of these cells. Presently, the really scalable systems—microcarrier/microcarrier-clump cultures using stirred-tank reactors—for the expansion of stem cells are still in their infancy. Only laboratory scale reactors of maximally 2.5 l working volume have been evaluated because thorough knowledge and basic understanding of critical issues with respect to cell expansion while retaining pluripotency and differentiation potential, and the impact of the culture environment on stem cell fate, etc., are still lacking and require further studies. This article gives an overview on critical issues common to all cell culture systems for adherent cells as well as specifics for different types of stem cells in view of small- and large-scale cell expansion and production processes. PMID:25533097

  18. Development of High Efficiency (14%) Solar Cell Array Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iles, P. A.; Khemthong, S.; Olah, S.; Sampson, W. J.; Ling, K. S.

    1979-01-01

    High efficiency solar cells required for the low cost modules was developed. The production tooling for the manufacture of the cells and modules was designed. The tooling consisted of: (1) back contact soldering machine; (2) vacuum pickup; (3) antireflective coating tooling; and (4) test fixture.

  19. Methylene blue modulates transendothelial migration of peripheral blood cells.

    PubMed

    Werner, Isabella; Guo, Fengwei; Bogert, Nicolai V; Stock, Ulrich A; Meybohm, Patrick; Moritz, Anton; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres

    2013-01-01

    Vasoplegia is a severe complication after cardiac surgery. Within the last years the administration of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor methylene blue (MB) became a new therapeutic strategy. Our aim was to investigate the role of MB on transendothelial migration of circulating blood cells, the potential role of cyclic cGMP, eNOS and iNOS in this process, and the influence of MB on endothelial cell apoptosis. Human vascular endothelial cells (HuMEC-1) were treated for 30 minutes or 2 hours with different concentrations of MB. Inflammation was mimicked by LPS stimulation prior and after MB. Transmigration of PBMCs and T-Lymphocytes through the treated endothelial cells was investigated. The influence of MB upon the different subsets of PBMCs (Granulocytes, T- and B-Lymphocytes, and Monocytes) was assessed after transmigration by means of flow-cytometry. The effect of MB on cell apoptosis was evaluated using Annexin-V and Propidium Iodide stainings. Analyses of the expression of cyclic cGMP, eNOS and iNOS were performed by means of RT-PCR and Western Blot. Results were analyzed using unpaired Students T-test. Analysis of endothelial cell apoptosis by MB indicated a dose-dependent increase of apoptotic cells. We observed time- and dose-dependent effects of MB on transendothelial migration of PBMCs. The prophylactic administration of MB led to an increase of transendothelial migration of PBMCs but not Jurkat cells. Furthermore, HuMEC-1 secretion of cGMP correlated with iNOS expression after MB administration but not with eNOS expression. Expression of these molecules was reduced after MB administration at protein level. This study clearly reveals that endothelial response to MB is dose- and especially time-dependent. MB shows different effects on circulating blood cell-subtypes, and modifies the release patterns of eNOS, iNOS, and cGMP. The transendothelial migration is modulated after treatment with MB. Furthermore, MB provokes apoptosis of endothelial cells in a dose/time-dependent

  20. Performance of Novel Thermoelectric Cooling Module Depending on Geometrical Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derebasi, Naim; Eltez, Muhammed; Guldiken, Fikret; Sever, Aziz; Kallis, Klaus; Kilic, Halil; Ozmutlu, Emin N.

    2015-06-01

    A geometrical shape factor was investigated for optimum thermoelectric performance of a thermoelectric module using finite element analysis. The cooling power, electrical energy consumption, and coefficient of performance were analyzed using simulation with different current values passing through the thermoelectric elements for varying temperature differences between the two sides. A dramatic increase in cooling power density was obtained, since it was inversely proportional to the length of the thermoelectric legs. An artificial neural network model for each thermoelectric property was also developed using input-output relations. The models including the shape factor showed good predictive capability and agreement with simulation results. The correlation of the models was found to be 99%, and the overall prediction error was in the range of 1.5% and 1.0%, which is within acceptable limits. A thermoelectric module was produced based on the numerical results and was shown to be a promising device for use in cooling systems.

  1. LETM1-dependent mitochondrial Ca2+ flux modulates cellular bioenergetics and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Doonan, Patrick J.; Chandramoorthy, Harish C.; Hoffman, Nicholas E.; Zhang, Xueqian; Cárdenas, César; Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Rajan, Sudarsan; Vallem, Sandhya; Chen, Xiongwen; Foskett, J. Kevin; Cheung, Joseph Y.; Houser, Steven R.; Madesh, Muniswamy

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulation of mitochondrial Ca2+-dependent bioenergetics has been implicated in various pathophysiological settings, including neurodegeneration and myocardial infarction. Although mitochondrial Ca2+ transport has been characterized, and several molecules, including LETM1, have been identified, the functional role of LETM1-mediated Ca2+ transport remains unresolved. This study examines LETM1-mediated mitochondrial Ca2+ transport and bioenergetics in multiple cell types, including fibroblasts derived from patients with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS). The results show that both mitochondrial Ca2+ influx and efflux rates are impaired in LETM1 knockdown, and similar phenotypes were observed in ΔEF hand, D676A D688KLETM1 mutant-overexpressed cells, and in cells derived from patients with WHS. Although LETM1 levels were lower in WHS-derived fibroblasts, the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter components MCU, MCUR1, and MICU1 remain unaltered. In addition, the MCU mitoplast patch-clamp current (IMCU) was largely unaffected in LETM1-knockdown cells. Silencing of LETM1 also impaired basal mitochondrial oxygen consumption, possibly via complex IV inactivation and ATP production. Remarkably, LETM1 knockdown also resulted in increased reactive oxygen species production. Further, LETM1 silencing promoted AMPK activation, autophagy, and cell cycle arrest. Reconstitution of LETM1 or antioxidant overexpression rescued mitochondrial Ca2+ transport and bioenergetics. These findings reveal the role of LETM1-dependent mitochondrial Ca2+ flux in shaping cellular bioenergetics.—Doonan, P J., Chandramoorthy, H. C., Hoffman, N. E., Zhang, X., Cárdenas, C., Shanmughapriya, S., Rajan, S., Vallem, S., Chen, X., Foskett, J. K., Cheung, J. Y., Houser, S. R., Madesh, M. LETM1-dependent mitochondrial Ca2+ flux modulates cellular bioenergetics and proliferation. PMID:25077561

  2. Salvianolic acid A attenuates TNF-α- and D-GalN-induced ER stress-mediated and mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis by modulating Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and calcium release in hepatocyte LO2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaojing; Jiang, Zequn; Bi, Lei; Yang, Ye; Chen, Weiping

    2015-08-01

    Salvianolic acid (Sal A) is a water-soluble compound extracted from Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza (danshen), which has been widely used to treat acute hepatitis and hepatic damage in traditional Chinese medicine. The aim of the present study was to delineate the antiapoptotic signaling pathways involved in Sal A's hepato-protective action in hepatocyte LO2 cells and to further elucidate the mechanism by which Sal A elicits the antiapoptotic effects on hepatocytes. Here, the study showed that Sal A had antiapoptotic effects on the TNF-α/D-GalN-treated LO2 cells. Moreover, Western blotting demonstrated that the levels of p-eIF2α, ATF4, GRP78, CHOP and caspase-4 were markedly decreased in Sal A group. Additionally, the decrease of the cell mitochondrial membrane permeability and increase of ΔΨm were detected in Sal A-treated cells by high-content screening (HCS) analysis. And the levels of cleaved-caspase-9, cleaved-caspase-3, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), Apaf-1, and Cytc (cyto) were downregulated, while Cytc (mito) was upregulated by Sal A via Western blotting. Furthermore, the decreased levels of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and calcium release were measured in Sal A-treated cells. In summary, Sal A attenuates TNF-α- and D-GalN-induced both ER stress and mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis by suppression of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and prevention of calcium release, which support the notion that Sal A could be developed into a novel hepatic protectant.

  3. Arginine deiminase modulates endothelial tip cells via excessive synthesis of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Wei; Song, Xiaomin; Zhou, Hao; Luo, Yongzhang

    2011-10-01

    ADI (arginine deiminase), an enzyme that hydrolyses arginine, has been reported as an anti-angiogenesis agent. However, its molecular mechanism is unclear. We have demonstrated for the first time that ADI modulates the angiogenic activity of endothelial tip cells. By arginine depletion, ADI disturbs actin filament in endothelial tip cells, causing disordered migratory direction and decreased migration ability. Furthermore, ADI induces excessive synthesis of ROS (reactive oxygen species), and activates caspase 8-, but not caspase 9-, dependent apoptosis in endothelial cells. These findings provide a novel mechanism by which ADI inhibits tumour angiogenesis through modulating endothelial tip cells.

  4. Calcium channel beta subunit promotes voltage-dependent modulation of alpha 1 B by G beta gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Meir, A; Bell, D C; Stephens, G J; Page, K M; Dolphin, A C

    2000-01-01

    Voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) are heteromultimers composed of a pore-forming alpha1 subunit and auxiliary subunits, including the intracellular beta subunit, which has a strong influence on the channel properties. Voltage-dependent inhibitory modulation of neuronal VDCCs occurs primarily by activation of G-proteins and elevation of the free G beta gamma dimer concentration. Here we have examined the interaction between the regulation of N-type (alpha 1 B) channels by their beta subunits and by G beta gamma dimers, heterologously expressed in COS-7 cells. In contrast to previous studies suggesting antagonism of G protein inhibition by the VDCC beta subunit, we found a significantly larger G beta gamma-dependent inhibition of alpha 1 B channel activation when the VDCC alpha 1 B and beta subunits were coexpressed. In the absence of coexpressed VDCC beta subunit, the G beta gamma dimers, either expressed tonically or elevated via receptor activation, did not produce the expected features of voltage-dependent G protein modulation of N-type channels, including slowed activation and prepulse facilitation, while VDCC beta subunit coexpression restored all of the hallmarks of G beta gamma modulation. These results suggest that the VDCC beta subunit must be present for G beta gamma to induce voltage-dependent modulation of N-type calcium channels. PMID:10920007

  5. Dictyostelium discoideum lipids modulate cell-cell cohesion and cyclic AMP signaling.

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, D R; Luo, C S; Phillips, J C

    1991-01-01

    During Dictyostelium discoideum development, cell-cell communication is mediated through cyclic AMP (cAMP)-induced cAMP synthesis and secretion (cAMP signaling) and cell-cell contact. Cell-cell contact elicits cAMP secretion and modulates the magnitude of a subsequent cAMP signaling response (D. R. Fontana and P. L. Price, Differentiation 41:184-192, 1989), demonstrating that cell-cell contact and cAMP signaling are not independent events. To identify components involved in the contact-mediated modulation of cAMP signaling, amoebal membranes were added to aggregation-competent amoebae in suspension. The membranes from aggregation-competent amoebae inhibited cAMP signaling at all concentrations tested, while the membranes from vegetative amoebae exhibited a concentration-dependent enhancement or inhibition of cAMP signaling. Membrane lipids inhibited cAMP signaling at all concentrations tested. The lipids abolished cAMP signaling by blocking cAMP-induced adenylyl cyclase activation. The membrane lipids also inhibited amoeba-amoeba cohesion at concentrations comparable to those which inhibited cAMP signaling. The phospholipids and neutral lipids decreased cohesion and inhibited the cAMP signaling response. The glycolipid/sulfolipid fraction enhanced cohesion and cAMP signaling. Caffeine, a known inhibitor of cAMP-induced adenylyl cyclase activation, inhibited amoeba-amoeba cohesion. These studies demonstrate that endogenous lipids are capable of modulating amoeba-amoeba cohesion and cAMP-induced activation of the adenylyl cyclase. These results suggest that cohesion may modulate cAMP-induced adenylyl cyclase activation. Because the complete elimination of cohesion is accompanied by the complete elimination of cAMP signaling, these results further suggest that cohesion may be necessary for cAMP-induced adenylyl cyclase activation in D. discoideum. PMID:1846024

  6. Modulation of Epstein–Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 2-dependent transcription by protein arginine methyltransferase 5

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Cheng-Der; Cheng, Chi-Ping; Fang, Jia-Shih; Chen, Ling-Chih; Zhao, Bo; Kieff, Elliott; Peng, Chih-Wen

    2013-01-18

    Highlights: ► Catalytic active PRMT5 substantially binds to the EBNA2 RG domain. ► PRMT5 augments the EBNA2-dependent transcription. ► PRMT5 triggers the symmetric dimethylation of the EBNA2 RG domain. ► PRMT5 enhances the promoter occupancy of EBNA2 on its target promoters. -- Abstract: Epstein–Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen (EBNA) 2 features an Arginine–Glycine repeat (RG) domain at amino acid positions 335–360, which is a known target for protein arginine methyltransferaser 5 (PRMT5). In this study, we performed protein affinity pull-down assays to demonstrate that endogenous PRMT5 derived from lymphoblastoid cells specifically associated with the protein bait GST-E2 RG. Transfection of a plasmid expressing PRMT5 induced a 2.5- to 3-fold increase in EBNA2-dependent transcription of both the LMP1 promoter in AKATA cells, which contain the EBV genome endogenously, and a Cp-Luc reporter plasmid in BJAB cells, which are EBV negative. Furthermore, we showed that there was a 2-fold enrichment of EBNA2 occupancy in target promoters in the presence of exogenous PRMT5. Taken together, we show that PRMT5 triggers the symmetric dimethylation of EBNA2 RG domain to coordinate with EBNA2-mediated transcription. This modulation suggests that PRMT5 may play a role in latent EBV infection.

  7. Cannabinoids modulate spontaneous synaptic activity in retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Middleton, T P; Protti, D A

    2011-09-01

    The endocannabinoid (ECB) system has been found throughout the central nervous system and modulates cell excitability in various forms of short-term plasticity. ECBs and their receptors have also been localized to all retinal cells, and cannabinoid receptor activation has been shown to alter voltage-dependent conductances in several different retinal cell types, suggesting a possible role for cannabinoids in retinal processing. Their effects on synaptic transmission in the mammalian retina, however, have not been previously investigated. Here, we show that exogenous cannabinoids alter spontaneous synaptic transmission onto retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Using whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in whole-mount retinas, we measured spontaneous postsynaptic currents (SPSCs) in RGCs in adult and young (P14-P21) mice. We found that the addition of an exogenous cannabinoid agonist, WIN55212-2 (5 μM), caused a significant reversible reduction in the frequency of SPSCs. This change, however, did not alter the kinetics of the SPSCs, indicating a presynaptic locus of action. Using blockers to isolate inhibitory or excitatory currents, we found that cannabinoids significantly reduced the release probability of both GABA and glutamate, respectively. While the addition of cannabinoids reduced the frequency of both GABAergic and glutamatergic SPSCs in both young and adult mice, we found that the largest effect was on GABA-mediated currents in young mice. These results suggest that the ECB system may potentially be involved in the modulation of signal transmission in the retina. Furthermore, they suggest that it might play a role in the developmental maturation of synaptic circuits, and that exogenous cannabinoids are likely able to disrupt retinal processing and consequently alter vision.

  8. Two terminal diagnostics for cells in series connected photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, T.J.; Basso, T.S.

    1995-11-01

    The authors have developed a method that allows us to know if a cell`s shunt resistance is affecting the output of a two-terminal, series-connected photovoltaic module, without the need of encapsulation. This two-terminal diagnostic method directly measures the shunt resistance of the individual cells within a series-connected module non-intrusively. Being a phase sensitive, lock-in technique, individual cell shunt resistance values are measured over a wide range, from a fraction of an ohm to thousands of ohms. The authors have applied this method to amorphous Si, Si and CuInSe{sub 2}-based modules, some with as few as eight cells in series, but usually with 28 to 68 cells. ``Two-terminal values`` are more accurate for cells that have lower shunt resistance, i.e., the ``problem`` cells. Cells with visual defects may be a significant problem if they provide a substantial shunt path.

  9. Environmental testing of block 2 solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, J. S.

    1979-01-01

    The testing procedures and results of samples of the LSA Project Block 2 procurement of silicon solar cell modules are described. Block 2 was the second large scale procurement of silicon solar cell modules made by the JPL Low-cost Solar Array Project with deliveries in 1977 and early 1978. The results showed that the Block 2 modules were greatly improved over Block 1 modules. In several cases it was shown that design improvements were needed to reduce environmental test degradation. These improvements were incorporated during this production run.

  10. Terrestrial applications of FEP-encapsulated solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Ratajczak, A. F.

    1974-01-01

    FEP-encapsulated solar cell modules and arrays have been designed and built expressly for terrestrial applications. System design including solar cell array mechanical design and the approach to system sizing is outlined. Such solar cell systems have been installed at six sites. Individual modules have undergone marine environment tests. Results from seven months of operation indicate that the system is meeting its electrical design requirements. No mechanical degradation has been reported. An array on Mammoth Mountain, California has been damaged by rime ice but shows no loss in electrical output. Marine environment tests on single modules have shown that elements of the module must be completely sealed by the FEP. Based on the limited test data available, the FEP-encapsulated solar cell module appears well suited to terrestrial applications.

  11. Development of a shingle-type solar cell module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.; Sanchez, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    The development of a solar cell module, which is suitable for use in place of shingles on the sloping roofs of residental or commercial buildings, is reported. The design consists of nineteen series-connected 53 mm diameter solar cells arranged in a closely packed hexagon configuration. The shingle solar cell module consists of two basic functional parts: an exposed rigid portion which contains the solar cell assembly, and a semi-flexible portion which is overlapped by the higher courses of the roof installation. Consideration is given to the semi-flexible substrate configuration and solar cell and module-to-module interconnectors. The results of an electrical performance analysis are given and it is noted that high specific power output can be attributed to the efficient packing of the circular cells within the hexagon shape. The shingle should function for at least 15 years, with a specific power output of 98 W/sq w.

  12. Simvastatin requires activation in accessory cells to modulate T-cell responses in asthma and COPD.

    PubMed

    Knobloch, Jürgen; Yakin, Yakup; Körber, Sandra; Grensemann, Barbara; Bendella, Zeynep; Boyaci, Niyazi; Gallert, Willem-Jakob; Yanik, Sarah Derya; Jungck, David; Koch, Andrea

    2016-10-05

    T-cell-dependent airway and systemic inflammation triggers the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Retrospective studies suggest that simvastatin has anti-inflammatory effects in both diseases but it is unclear, which cell types are targeted. We hypothesized that simvastatin modulates T-cell activity. Circulating CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, either pure, co-cultured with monocytes or alveolar macrophages (AM) or in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), were ex vivo activated towards Th1/Tc1 or Th2/Tc2 and incubated with simvastatin. Markers for Th1/Tc1 (IFNγ) and Th2/Tc2 (IL-5, IL-13) were measured by ELISA; with PBMCs this was done comparative between 11 healthy never-smokers, 11 current smokers without airflow limitation, 14 smokers with COPD and 11 never-smokers with atopic asthma. T-cell activation induced IFNγ, IL-5 and IL-13 in the presence and absence of accessory cells. Simvastatin did not modulate cytokine expression in pure T-cell fractions. β-hydroxy-simvastatin acid (activated simvastatin) suppressed IL-5 and IL-13 in pure Th2- and Tc2-cells. Simvastatin suppressed IL-5 and IL-13 in Th2-cells co-cultivated with monocytes or AM, which was partially reversed by the carboxylesterase inhibitor benzil. Simvastatin suppressed IL-5 production of Th2/Tc2-cells in PBMCs without differences between cohorts and IL-13 stronger in never-smokers and asthma compared to COPD. Simvastatin induced IFNγ in Th1/Tc1-cells in PBMCs of all cohorts except asthmatics. Simvastatin requires activation in accessory cells likely by carboxylesterase to suppress IL-5 and IL-13 in Th2/Tc2-cells. The effects on Il-13 are partially reduced in COPD. Asthma pathogenesis prevents simvastatin-induced IFNγ up-regulation. Simvastatin has anti-inflammatory effects that could be of interest for asthma therapy.

  13. Amyloid precursor protein modulates macrophage phenotype and diet-dependent weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Puig, Kendra L.; Brose, Stephen A.; Zhou, Xudong; Sens, Mary A.; Combs, Gerald F.; Jensen, Michael D.; Golovko, Mikhail Y.; Combs, Colin K.

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that mutations in the gene coding for amyloid precursor protein are responsible for autosomal dominant forms of Alzheimer’s disease. Proteolytic processing of the protein leads to a number of metabolites including the amyloid beta peptide. Although brain amyloid precursor protein expression and amyloid beta production are associated with the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease, it is clear that amyloid precursor protein is expressed in numerous cell types and tissues. Here we demonstrate that amyloid precursor protein is involved in regulating the phenotype of both adipocytes and peripheral macrophages and is required for high fat diet-dependent weight gain in mice. These data suggest that functions of this protein include modulation of the peripheral immune system and lipid metabolism. This biology may have relevance not only to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease but also diet-associated obesity. PMID:28262782

  14. Tannic Acid-Dependent Modulation of Selected Lactobacillus plantarum Traits Linked to Gastrointestinal Survival

    PubMed Central

    Reverón, Inés; Rodríguez, Héctor; Campos, Gema; Curiel, José Antonio; Ascaso, Carmen; Carrascosa, Alfonso V.; Prieto, Alicia; de las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario; de Felipe, Félix López

    2013-01-01

    Background Owing to its antimicrobial properties dietary tannins may alter the functional efficacy of probiotic lactobacilli in the gastrointestinal (GI)-tract influencing their growth, viability and molecular adaptation to the intestinal environment. Methods and Findings The effects of tannic acid on Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 were studied by in vitro growth monitoring and visualizing the morphological alteration on the cell wall using transmission electron microscopy. Growth upon tannic acid was characterized by dose-dependent reductions of initial viable counts and extended lag phases. Lag phase-cells growing upon 0.5 mM tannic acid were abnormally shaped and experienced disturbance on the cell wall such as roughness, occasional leakage and release of cell debris, but resumed growth later at tannic acid concentrations high as 2.5 mM. To gain insight on how the response to tannic acid influenced the molecular adaptation of L. plantarum to the GI-tract conditions, gene expression of selected biomarkers for GI-survival was assessed by RT-qPCR on cDNA templates synthetized from mRNA samples obtained from cells treated with 0.5 or 2 mM tannic acid. Tannic acid-dependent gene induction was confirmed for selected genes highly expressed in the gut or with confirmed roles in GI-survival. No differential expression was observed for the pbp2A gene, a biomarker negatively related with GI-survival. However PBP2A was not labeled by Bocillin FL, a fluorescent dye-labeled penicillin V derivative, in the presence of tannic acid which suggests for enhanced GI-survival reportedly associated with the inactivation of this function. Conclusions Probiotic L. plantarum WCFS1 is able to overcome the toxic effects of tannic acid. This dietary constituent modulates molecular traits linked to the adaptation to intestinal environment in ways previously shown to enhance GI-survival. PMID:23776675

  15. Microtopography and flow modulate the direction of endothelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Uttayarat, P; Chen, M; Li, M; Allen, F D; Composto, R J; Lelkes, P I

    2008-02-01

    The migration of vascular endothelial cells under flow can be modulated by the addition of chemical or mechanical stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate how topographic cues derived from a substrate containing three-dimensional microtopography interact with fluid shear stress in directing endothelial cell migration. Subconfluent bovine aortic endothelial cells were seeded on fibronectin-coated poly(dimethylsiloxane) substrates patterned with a combinatorial array of parallel and orthogonal microgrooves ranging from 2 to 5 microm in width at a constant depth of 1 microm. During a 4-h time-lapse observation in the absence of flow, the majority of the prealigned cells migrated parallel to the grooves with the distribution of their focal adhesions (FAs) depending on the groove width. No change in this migratory pattern was observed after the cells were exposed to moderate shear stress (13.5 dyn/cm(2)), irrespective of groove direction with respect to flow. After 4-h exposure to high shear stress (58 dyn/cm(2)) parallel to the grooves, the cells continued to migrate in the direction of both grooves and flow. By contrast, when microgrooves were oriented perpendicular to flow, most cells migrated orthogonal to the grooves and downstream with flow. Despite the change in the migration direction of the cells under high shear stress, most FAs and actin microfilaments maintained their original alignment parallel to the grooves, suggesting that topographic cues were more effective than those derived from shear stress in guiding the orientation of cytoskeletal and adhesion proteins during the initial exposure to flow.

  16. Carbon Monoxide Modulates Connexin Function through a Lipid Peroxidation-Dependent Process: A Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Retamal, Mauricio A.

    2016-01-01

    Hemichannels are ion channels composed of six connexins (Cxs), and they have the peculiarity to be permeable not only to ions, but also to molecules such as ATP and glutamate. Under physiological conditions they present a low open probability, which is sufficient to enable them to participate in several physiological functions. However, massive and/or prolonged hemichannel opening induces or accelerates cell death. Therefore, the study of the molecular mechanisms that control hemichannel activity appears to be essential for understanding several physiological and pathological processes. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous transmitter that modulates many cellular processes, some of them through modulation of ion channel activity. CO exerts its biological actions through the activation of guanylate cyclase and/or inducing direct carbonylation of proline, threonine, lysine, and arginine. It is well accepted that guanylate cyclase dependent pathway and direct carbonylation, are not sensitive to reducing agents. However, it is important to point out that CO—through a lipid peroxide dependent process—can also induce a secondary carbonylation in cysteine groups, which is sensitive to reducing agents. Recently, in our laboratory we demonstrated that the application of CO donors to the bath solution inhibited Cx46 hemichannel currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes, a phenomenon that was fully reverted by reducing agents. Therefore, a plausible mechanism of CO-induced Cx46 hemichannel inhibition is through Cx46-lipid oxidation. In this work, I will present current evidence and some preliminary results that support the following hypothesis: Carbon monoxide inhibits Cx46 HCs through a lipid peroxidation-dependent process. The main goal of this paper is to broaden the scientific community interest in studying the relationship between CO-Fatty acids and hemichannels, which will pave the way to more research directed to the understanding of the molecular mechanism(s) that control

  17. Nerve growth factor modulate proliferation of cultured rabbit corneal endothelial cells and epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinyu; Li, Zhongguo; Qiu, Liangxiu; Zhao, Changsong; Hu, Zhulin

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) on the proliferation of rabbit corneal endothelial cells and epithelial cells, the in vitro cultured rabbit corneal endothelial cells and epithelial cells were treated with different concentrations of NGF. MTT assay was used to examine the clonal growth and proliferation of the cells by determining the absorbency values at 570 nm. The results showed that NGF with three concentrations ranging from 5 U/mL to 500 U/mL enhanced the proliferation of rabbit corneal endothelial cells in a concentration-dependent manner. 50 U/mL and 500 U/mL NGF got more increase of proliferation than that of 5 U/mL NGF did. Meanwhile, 50 U/mL and 500 U/mL NGF could promote the proliferation of the rabbit corneal epithelial cells significantly in a concentration-dependent manner. However, 5 U/mL NGF did not enhance the proliferation of epithelial cells. It was suggested that exogenous NGF can stimulate the proliferation of both rabbit corneal endothelial and epithelial cells, but the extent of modulation is different.

  18. 77 FR 14732 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... International Trade Administration Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules... of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not assembled into modules, from the People's.... \\1\\ See Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From...

  19. Helix O modulates voltage dependency of CLC-1.

    PubMed

    Seong, Ju Yong; Ha, Kotdaji; Hong, Chansik; Myeong, Jongyun; Lim, Hyun-Ho; Yang, Dongki; So, Insuk

    2017-02-01

    The chloride channel (CLC) family of proteins consists of channels and transporters that share similarities in architecture and play essential roles in physiological functions. Among the CLC family, CLC-1 channels have the representative homodimeric double-barreled structure carrying two gating processes. One is protopore gating that acts on each pore independently by glutamate residue (Eext). The other is common gating that closes both pores simultaneously in association with large conformational changes across each subunit. In skeletal muscle, CLC-1 is associated with maintaining normal sarcolemmal excitability, and a number of myotonic mutants were reported to modify the channel gating of CLC-1. In this study, we characterized highly conserved helix O as a key determinant of structural stability in CLC-1. Supporting this hypothesis, myotonic mutant (G523D) at N-terminal of helix O showed the activation at hyperpolarizing membrane potentials with a reversed voltage dependency. However, introducing glutamate at serine residue (S537) at the C-terminal of the helix O on G523D restored WT-like voltage dependency of the common gate and showed proton insensitive voltage dependency. To further validate this significant site, site-specific mutagenesis experiments was performed on V292 that is highly conserved as glutamate in antiporter and closely located to S537 and showed that this area is essential for channel function. Taken together, the results of our study suggest the importance of helix O as the main contributor for stable structure of evolutionary conserved CLC proteins and its key role in voltage dependency of the CLC-1. Furthermore, the C-terminal of the helix O can offer a clue for possible proton involvement in CLC-1 channel.

  20. Cancer cell proliferation is inhibited by specific modulation frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, J W; Pennison, M J; Brezovich, I; Yi, N; Yang, C T; Ramaker, R; Absher, D; Myers, R M; Kuster, N; Costa, F P; Barbault, A; Pasche, B

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is clinical evidence that very low and safe levels of amplitude-modulated electromagnetic fields administered via an intrabuccal spoon-shaped probe may elicit therapeutic responses in patients with cancer. However, there is no known mechanism explaining the anti-proliferative effect of very low intensity electromagnetic fields. Methods: To understand the mechanism of this novel approach, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells were exposed to 27.12 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields using in vitro exposure systems designed to replicate in vivo conditions. Cancer cells were exposed to tumour-specific modulation frequencies, previously identified by biofeedback methods in patients with a diagnosis of cancer. Control modulation frequencies consisted of randomly chosen modulation frequencies within the same 100 Hz–21 kHz range as cancer-specific frequencies. Results: The growth of HCC and breast cancer cells was significantly decreased by HCC-specific and breast cancer-specific modulation frequencies, respectively. However, the same frequencies did not affect proliferation of nonmalignant hepatocytes or breast epithelial cells. Inhibition of HCC cell proliferation was associated with downregulation of XCL2 and PLP2. Furthermore, HCC-specific modulation frequencies disrupted the mitotic spindle. Conclusion: These findings uncover a novel mechanism controlling the growth of cancer cells at specific modulation frequencies without affecting normal tissues, which may have broad implications in oncology. PMID:22134506

  1. Polarization-dependent interfacial coupling modulation of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect in PZT-ZnO heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Dan-Feng; Bi, Gui-Feng; Chen, Guang-Yi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-03-01

    Recently, ferroelectric perovskite oxides have drawn much attention due to potential applications in the field of solar energy conversion. However, the power conversion efficiency of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect currently reported is far below the expectable value. One of the crucial problems lies in the two back-to-back Schottky barriers, which are formed at the ferroelectric-electrode interfaces and blocking most of photo-generated carriers to reach the outside circuit. Herein, we develop a new approach to enhance the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect by introducing the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect. Through inserting a semiconductor ZnO layer with spontaneous polarization into the ferroelectric ITO/PZT/Au film, a p-n junction with strong polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect is formed. The power conversion efficiency of the heterostructure is improved by nearly two orders of magnitude and the polarization modulation ratio is increased about four times. It is demonstrated that the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect can give rise to a great change in band structure of the heterostructure, not only producing an aligned internal electric field but also tuning both depletion layer width and potential barrier height at PZT-ZnO interface. This work provides an efficient way in developing highly efficient ferroelectric-based solar cells and novel optoelectronic memory devices.

  2. Polarization-dependent interfacial coupling modulation of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect in PZT-ZnO heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Pan, Dan-Feng; Bi, Gui-Feng; Chen, Guang-Yi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-03-08

    Recently, ferroelectric perovskite oxides have drawn much attention due to potential applications in the field of solar energy conversion. However, the power conversion efficiency of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect currently reported is far below the expectable value. One of the crucial problems lies in the two back-to-back Schottky barriers, which are formed at the ferroelectric-electrode interfaces and blocking most of photo-generated carriers to reach the outside circuit. Herein, we develop a new approach to enhance the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect by introducing the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect. Through inserting a semiconductor ZnO layer with spontaneous polarization into the ferroelectric ITO/PZT/Au film, a p-n junction with strong polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect is formed. The power conversion efficiency of the heterostructure is improved by nearly two orders of magnitude and the polarization modulation ratio is increased about four times. It is demonstrated that the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect can give rise to a great change in band structure of the heterostructure, not only producing an aligned internal electric field but also tuning both depletion layer width and potential barrier height at PZT-ZnO interface. This work provides an efficient way in developing highly efficient ferroelectric-based solar cells and novel optoelectronic memory devices.

  3. Polarization-dependent interfacial coupling modulation of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect in PZT-ZnO heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Dan-Feng; Bi, Gui-Feng; Chen, Guang-Yi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, ferroelectric perovskite oxides have drawn much attention due to potential applications in the field of solar energy conversion. However, the power conversion efficiency of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect currently reported is far below the expectable value. One of the crucial problems lies in the two back-to-back Schottky barriers, which are formed at the ferroelectric-electrode interfaces and blocking most of photo-generated carriers to reach the outside circuit. Herein, we develop a new approach to enhance the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect by introducing the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect. Through inserting a semiconductor ZnO layer with spontaneous polarization into the ferroelectric ITO/PZT/Au film, a p-n junction with strong polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect is formed. The power conversion efficiency of the heterostructure is improved by nearly two orders of magnitude and the polarization modulation ratio is increased about four times. It is demonstrated that the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect can give rise to a great change in band structure of the heterostructure, not only producing an aligned internal electric field but also tuning both depletion layer width and potential barrier height at PZT-ZnO interface. This work provides an efficient way in developing highly efficient ferroelectric-based solar cells and novel optoelectronic memory devices. PMID:26954833

  4. Human CYP2E1-dependent and human sulfotransferase 1A1-modulated induction of micronuclei by benzene and its hydroxylated metabolites in Chinese hamster V79-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Lai, Yanmei; Hu, Keqi; Wei, Qinzhi; Liu, Yungang

    2014-12-01

    Benzene is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and a confirmed human carcinogen, which requires metabolic activation, primarily by CYP2E1, for most of its biological actions. Chromosome damages in benzene-exposed workers and rodents have been observed, and in their urine sulfo- and glucuronide-conjugates of phenol and hydroquinone were present. Yet, direct evidence for human CYP2E1-activated mutagenicity of benzene and the exact significance of phase II metabolism for inactivating benzene metabolites are still missing. In the present study, benzene and its oxidized metabolites (phenol, hydroquinone, catechol, 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene and 1,4-benzoquinone) were investigated for induction of micronuclei in a V79-derived cell line genetically engineered for expression of both human CYP2E1 and human sulfotransferase (SULT) 1A1 (indicated by active micronuclei induction by 1-hydroxymethylpyrene). The results demonstrated concentration-dependent induction of micronuclei by benzene and phenol, though with lower potency or efficacy than the other metabolites. Inhibition of CYP2E1 by 1-aminobenzotriazole did not change the effect of benzoquinone, but completely abolished that of benzene and phenol, and attenuated that of the other compounds. Moreover, inhibition of SULT1A1 by pentachlorophenol potentiated the effects of benzene, hydroquinone, catechol and trihydroxybenzene. Ascorbic acid, a reducing and free radical-scavenging agent, significantly lowered the effects of hydroquinone, catechol, trihydroxybenzene as well as N-nitrosodimethylamine (a known CYP2E1-dependent promutagen), with that of benzoquinone unaffected. These results suggest that in addition to activating benzene and phenol, human CYP2E1 may further convert hydroquinone, catechol and trihydroxybenzene to more genotoxic metabolites, and sulfo-conjugation of the multi-hydroxylated metabolites of benzene by human SULT1A1 may represent an important detoxifying pathway.

  5. Modulation of corticospinal excitability by reward depends on task framing

    PubMed Central

    Mooshagian, Eric; Keisler, Aysha; Zimmermann, Trelawny; Schweickert, Janell M.; Wassermann, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Findings from previous transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) experiments suggest that the primary motor cortex (M1) is sensitive to reward conditions in the environment. However, the nature of this influence on M1 activity is poorly understood. The dopamine neuron response to conditioned stimuli encodes reward probability and outcome uncertainty, or the extent to which the outcome of a situation is known. Reward uncertainty and probability are related: uncertainty is maximal when probability is 0.5 and minimal when probability is 0 or 1 (i.e., certain outcome). Previous TMS-reward studies did not examine these factors independently. Here, we used single-pulse TMS to measure corticospinal excitability in 40 individuals while they performed a simple computer task, making guesses to find or avoid a hidden target. The task stimuli implied three levels of reward probability and two levels of uncertainty. We found that reward probability level interacted with the trial search condition. That is, motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude, a measure of corticospinal neuron excitability, increased with increasing reward probability when participants were instructed to “find” a target, but not when they were instructed to “avoid” a target. There was no effect of uncertainty on MEPs. Response times varied with the number of choices. A subset of participants also received paired-pulse stimulation to evaluate changes in short-intracortical inhibition (SICI). No effects of SICI were observed. Taken together, the results suggest that the reward-contingent modulation of M1 activity reflects reward probability or a related aspect of utility, not outcome uncertainty, and that this effect is sensitive to the conceptual framing of the task. PMID:25543022

  6. Melittin modulates keratinocyte function through P2 receptor-dependent ADAM activation.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Anselm; Fries, Anja; Cornelsen, Isabell; Speck, Nancy; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich; Gimpl, Gerald; Andrä, Jörg; Bhakdi, Sucharit; Reiss, Karina

    2012-07-06

    Melittin, the major component of the bee venom, is an amphipathic, cationic peptide with a wide spectrum of biological properties that is being considered as an anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer agent. It modulates multiple cellular functions but the underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. Here, we report that melittin activates disintegrin-like metalloproteases (ADAMs) and that downstream events likely contribute to the biological effects evoked by the peptide. Melittin stimulated the proteolysis of ADAM10 and ADAM17 substrates in human neutrophil granulocytes, endothelial cells and murine fibroblasts. In human HaCaT keratinocytes, melittin induced shedding of the adhesion molecule E-cadherin and release of TGF-α, which was accompanied by transactivation of the EGF receptor and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. This was followed by functional consequences such as increased keratinocyte proliferation and enhanced cell migration. Evidence is provided that ATP release and activation of purinergic P2 receptors are involved in melittin-induced ADAM activation. E-cadherin shedding and EGFR phosphorylation were dose-dependently reduced in the presence of ATPases or P2 receptor antagonists. The involvement of P2 receptors was underscored in experiments with HEK cells, which lack the P2X7 receptor and showed strikingly increased response to melittin stimulation after transfection with this receptor. Our study provides new insight into the mechanism of melittin function which should be of interest particularly in the context of its potential use as an anti-inflammatory or anti-cancer agent.

  7. Terrestrial solar cell module automated array assembly, task 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A cost effective design and manufacturing process which would produce solar cell modules capable of meeting qualification test criteria was developed. Emphasis was placed on the development of an aluminum paste back contact process.

  8. Iron alters cell survival in a mitochondria-dependent pathway in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bauckman, Kyle; Haller, Edward; Taran, Nicholas; Rockfield, Stephanie; Ruiz-Rivera, Abigail; Nanjundan, Meera

    2015-03-01

    The role of iron in the development of cancer remains unclear. We previously reported that iron reduces cell survival in a Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent manner in ovarian cells; however, the underlying downstream pathway leading to reduced survival was unclear. Although levels of intracellular iron, ferritin/CD71 protein and reactive oxygen species did not correlate with iron-induced cell survival changes, we identified mitochondrial damage (via TEM) and reduced expression of outer mitochondrial membrane proteins (translocase of outer membrane: TOM20 and TOM70) in cell lines sensitive to iron. Interestingly, Ru360 (an inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter) reversed mitochondrial changes and restored cell survival in HEY ovarian carcinoma cells treated with iron. Further, cells treated with Ru360 and iron also had reduced autophagic punctae with increased lysosomal numbers, implying cross-talk between these compartments. Mitochondrial changes were dependent on activation of the Ras/MAPK pathway since treatment with a MAPK inhibitor restored expression of TOM20/TOM70 proteins. Although glutathione antioxidant levels were reduced in HEY treated with iron, extracellular glutamate levels were unaltered. Strikingly, oxalomalate (inhibitor of aconitase, involved in glutamate production) reversed iron-induced responses in a similar manner to Ru360. Collectively, our results implicate iron in modulating cell survival in a mitochondria-dependent manner in ovarian cancer cells.

  9. Cell-ECM traction force modulates endogenous tension at cell-cell contacts.

    PubMed

    Maruthamuthu, Venkat; Sabass, Benedikt; Schwarz, Ulrich S; Gardel, Margaret L

    2011-03-22

    Cells in tissues are mechanically coupled both to the ECM and neighboring cells, but the coordination and interdependency of forces sustained at cell-ECM and cell-cell adhesions are unknown. In this paper, we demonstrate that the endogenous force sustained at the cell-cell contact between a pair of epithelial cells is approximately 100 nN, directed perpendicular to the cell-cell interface and concentrated at the contact edges. This force is stably maintained over time despite significant fluctuations in cell-cell contact length and cell morphology. A direct relationship between the total cellular traction force on the ECM and the endogenous cell-cell force exists, indicating that the cell-cell tension is a constant fraction of the cell-ECM traction. Thus, modulation of ECM properties that impact cell-ECM traction alters cell-cell tension. Finally, we show in a minimal model of a tissue that all cells experience similar forces from the surrounding microenvironment, despite differences in the extent of cell-ECM and cell-cell adhesion. This interdependence of cell-cell and cell-ECM forces has significant implications for the maintenance of the mechanical integrity of tissues, mechanotransduction, and tumor mechanobiology.

  10. Sequence dependence of phase-induced intensity noise in optical networks that employ direct modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tur, M.; Legg, P. J.; Shabeer, M.; Andonovic, I.

    1995-02-01

    Phase-induced intensity noise in optical networks that employ directly modulated laser sources is observed to be bit-sequence dependent. This dependence is explained by optical frequency variations that are due to the heating history of the laser chip and is accurately modeled. This effect may permit suppression of phase-induced intensity noise in many types of fiber system with multipaths.

  11. Liposomes as immune adjuvants: T cell dependence.

    PubMed

    Beatty, J D; Beatty, B G; Paraskevas, F; Froese, E

    1984-08-01

    The T cell dependence of the immune adjuvant action of liposomes containing the soluble antigens bovine serum albumin (BSA) and chicken immunoglobulin (CIgG) was studied with use of a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure serum antibody levels. Normal BALB/c mice, adult thymectomized mice, and congenitally athymic (nu+/nu+) mice were intravenously inoculated with liposomes containing BSA (Lip-BSA). The high levels of serum anti-BSA antibody that were seen in the normal group were decreased in the adult thymectomized group and were almost completely abrogated in the nu+/nu+ group. Reconstitution of nu+/nu+ mice with normal thymocytes and cortisone-resistant thymocytes led to a partial restoration of the anti-BSA antibody production after Lip-BSA immunization. Examination of the class of immunoglobulin produced in normal mice, immunized with Lip-BSA, showed an early low IgM response and a sustained higher IgG response that was primarily due to the IgG1 subclass. Trypsin removal of BSA exposed on the liposome surface decreased the resulting serum anti-BSA antibody level by 30% to 50%. Animals could be primed equally with a very low dose (0.2 micrograms) of Lip-BSA or with peritoneal macrophages that had phagocytosed the same dose of Lip-BSA. The adjuvant effect of liposomes containing CIgG on the number and type of specific anti-CIgG antibody-producing cells in the spleen was an early increase in IgM-producing cells followed by a substantially higher increase in IgG-producing cells. These observations suggest that liposome encapsulation of a soluble T-dependent antigen stimulates the helper T cell, not the suppressor T cell population, and that this stimulation involves uptake by macrophages.

  12. Reduced costs for solar-cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Anagnostou, E.

    1977-01-01

    Production expenses are decreased by embossing encapsulating plastic film to position and secure cells. Electric circuit is printed on plastic film simultaneously with cell encapsulation process. Procedure can be used with standard-contact and wraparound contact cells.

  13. Microrheology of cells with magnetic force modulation atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Rebêlo, L M; de Sousa, J S; Mendes Filho, J; Schäpe, J; Doschke, H; Radmacher, M

    2014-04-07

    We propose a magnetic force modulation method to measure the stiffness and viscosity of living cells using a modified AFM apparatus. An oscillating magnetic field makes a magnetic cantilever oscillate in contact with the sample, producing a small AC indentation. By comparing the amplitude of the free cantilever motion (A0) with the motion of the cantilever in contact with the sample (A1), we determine the sample stiffness and viscosity. To test the method, the frequency-dependent stiffness of 3T3 fibroblasts was determined as a power law k(s)(f) = α + β(f/f¯)(γ) (α = 7.6 × 10(-4) N m(-1), β = 1.0 × 10(-4) N m(-1), f¯ = 1 Hz, γ = 0.6), where the coefficient γ = 0.6 is in good agreement with rheological data of actin solutions with concentrations similar to those in cells. The method also allows estimation of the internal friction of the cells. In particular we found an average damping coefficient of 75.1 μN s m(-1) for indentation depths ranging between 1.0 μm and 2.0 μm.

  14. Calcium modulation of doxorubicin cytotoxicity in yeast and human cells.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Thuy Trang; Lim, Ying Jun; Fan, Melanie Hui Min; Jackson, Rebecca A; Lim, Kim Kiat; Ang, Wee Han; Ban, Kenneth Hon Kim; Chen, Ee Sin

    2016-03-01

    Doxorubicin is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent, but its utility is limited by cellular resistance and off-target effects. To understand the molecular mechanisms regulating chemotherapeutic responses to doxorubicin, we previously carried out a genomewide search of doxorubicin-resistance genes in Schizosaccharomyces pombe fission yeast and showed that these genes are organized into networks that counteract doxorubicin cytotoxicity. Here, we describe the identification of a subgroup of doxorubicin-resistance genes that, when disrupted, leads to reduced tolerance to exogenous calcium. Unexpectedly, we observed a suppressive effect of calcium on doxorubicin cytotoxicity, where concurrent calcium and doxorubicin treatment resulted in significantly higher cell survival compared with cells treated with doxorubicin alone. Conversely, inhibitors of voltage-gated calcium channels enhanced doxorubicin cytotoxicity in the mutants. Consistent with these observations in fission yeast, calcium also suppressed doxorubicin cytotoxicity in human breast cancer cells. Further epistasis analyses in yeast showed that this suppression of doxorubicin toxicity by calcium was synergistically dependent on Rav1 and Vph2, two regulators of vacuolar-ATPase assembly; this suggests potential modulation of the calcium-doxorubicin interaction by fluctuating proton concentrations within the cellular environment. Thus, the modulatory effects of drugs or diet on calcium concentrations should be considered in doxorubicin treatment regimes.

  15. Multivalent proteoglycan modulation of FGF mitogenic responses in perivascular cells.

    PubMed

    Cattaruzza, Sabrina; Ozerdem, Ugur; Denzel, Martin; Ranscht, Barbara; Bulian, Pietro; Cavallaro, Ugo; Zanocco, Daniela; Colombatti, Alfonso; Stallcup, William B; Perris, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    Sprouting of angiogenic perivascular cells is thought to be highly dependent upon autocrine and paracrine growth factor stimulation. Accordingly, we report that corneal angiogenesis induced by ectopic FGF implantation is strongly impaired in NG2/CSPG4 proteoglycan (PG) null mice known to harbour a putative deficit in pericyte proliferation/mobilization. Conversely, no significant differences were seen between wild type and knockout corneas when VEGF was used as an angiocrine factor. Perturbed responsiveness of NG2-deficient pericytes to paracrine and autocrine stimulation by several FGFs could be confirmed in cells isolated from NG2 null mice, while proliferation induced by other growth factors was equivalent in wild type and knockout cells. Identical results were obtained after siRNA-mediated knock-down of NG2 in human smooth muscle-like cell lines, as also demonstrated by the decreased levels of FGF receptor phosphorylation detected in these NG2 deprived cells. Binding assays with recombinant proteins and molecular interactions examined on live cells asserted that FGF-2 bound to NG2 in a glycosaminoglycan-independent, core protein-mediated manner and that the PG was alone capable of retaining FGF-2 on the cell membrane for subsequent receptor presentation. The use of dominant-negative mutant cells, engineered by combined transduction of NG2 deletion constructs and siRNA knock-down of the endogenous PG, allowed us to establish that the FGF co-receptor activity of NG2 is entirely mediated by its extracellular portion. In fact, forced overexpression of the NG2 ectodomain in human smooth muscle-like cells increased their FGF-2-induced mitosis and compensated for low levels of FGF receptor surface expression, in a manner equivalent to that produced by overexpression of the full-length NG2. Upon FGF binding, the cytoplasmic domain of NG2 is phosphorylated, but there is no evidence that this event elicits signal transductions that could bypass the FGFR-mediated ones

  16. Corticospinal modulation induced by sounds depends on action preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Marinovic, Welber; Tresilian, James R; de Rugy, Aymar; Sidhu, Simranjit; Riek, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A loud acoustic stimulus (LAS) presented during movement preparation can induce an early release of the prepared action. Because loud sound has been found to have an inhibitory effect on motor cortex excitability, it is possible that the motor cortex plays little role in the early release of prepared responses. We sought to shed new light on this suggestion by probing changes in corticospinal excitability after LAS presentation during preparation for an anticipatory action. Unexpectedly, we show that the changes in corticospinal excitability after LAS presentation are not fixed. Based on the magnitude of motor-evoked potentials elicited by transcranial magnetic and electric stimulation of the motor cortex, we demonstrate that the effects of auditory stimuli on corticospinal excitability depend on the level of readiness for action: inhibition in early preparation and facilitation close to movement onset. We also show that auditory stimuli can regulate intracortical excitability by increasing intracortical facilitation and reducing short-interval intracortical inhibition. Together, these findings indicate that, at least in part, the early release of motor responses by auditory stimuli involves the motor cortex. PMID:24081157

  17. Isosmotic modulation of cell volume and intracellular ion activities during stimulation of single exocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Foskett, J K; Wong, M M; Sue-A-Quan, G; Robertson, M A

    1994-02-01

    Stimulation of salivary secretion is associated with a rise of [Ca2+]i in acinar cells. We examined the osmotic and ionic consequences of activation of Ca(2+)-dependent K+ and Cl- channels, by simultaneous optical determinations of cell volume and [Ca2+]i, [Cl-]i or [Na+]i during muscarinic stimulation of single salivary acinar cells, using a differential interference contrast (DIC)-fluorescence microscope. Carbachol caused a rapid rise of [Ca2+]i, as well as a substantial cell shrinkage. Despite variability in the level and kinetics of the subsequent sustained phase of the [Ca2+]i response, cell volume was correlated with [Ca2+]i in all cases. Elevated [Ca2+]i was both necessary and sufficient to cause these changes in cell volume. The proposition that changes in cell volume reflected changes in cell solute content was confirmed by simultaneously measuring [Cl-]i and cell volume. Simultaneous determinations of cell volume and [Na+]i indicated that the initial cell shrinkage was due entirely to K+ and Cl- efflux. Subsequent to the initial shrinkage, [Na+]i rose to high levels, primarily due to activation of Na+/H+ exchange. Thus, modulation of ion transport activities under isosmotic conditions results in substantial changes in cell solute content and cell volume. Subsequent to the early Ca(2+)-induced changes in these parameters, other transporters become active, but it is unclear what signals their activation. Cell swelling by osmotic dilution of the bath resulted in compensatory cell shrinkage (RVD) which was sensitive to K+ and Cl- gradients. Nevertheless, a rise of [Ca2+]i was not necessary for RVD. Osmotic shrinkage and/or cell acidification were insufficient to activate Na+ influx.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Prospects for detection of target-dependent annual modulation in direct dark matter searches

    SciTech Connect

    Nobile, Eugenio Del; Gelmini, Graciela B.; Witte, Samuel J. E-mail: gelmini@physics.ucla.edu

    2016-02-01

    Earth's rotation about the Sun produces an annual modulation in the expected scattering rate at direct dark matter detection experiments. The annual modulation as a function of the recoil energy E{sub R} imparted by the dark matter particle to a target nucleus is expected to vary depending on the detector material. However, for most interactions a change of variables from E{sub R} to v{sub min}, the minimum speed a dark matter particle must have to impart a fixed E{sub R} to a target nucleus, produces an annual modulation independent of the target element. We recently showed that if the dark matter-nucleus cross section contains a non-factorizable target and dark matter velocity dependence, the annual modulation as a function of v{sub min} can be target dependent. Here we examine more extensively the necessary conditions for target-dependent modulation, its observability in present-day experiments, and the extent to which putative signals could identify a dark matter-nucleus differential cross section with a non-factorizable dependence on the dark matter velocity.

  19. Modulation of sensory-motor integration as a general mechanism for context dependence of behavior.

    PubMed

    Hoke, Kim Lisa; Pitts, Natalie Lynn

    2012-05-01

    Social communication is context-dependent, with both the production of signals and the responses of receivers tailored to each animal's internal needs and external environmental conditions. We propose that this context dependence arises because of neural modulation of the sensory-motor transformation that underlies the social behavior. Neural systems that are restricted to individual behaviors may be modulated at early stages of the sensory or motor pathways for optimal energy expenditure. However, when neural systems contribute to multiple important behaviors, we argue that the sensory-motor relay is the likely site of modulation. Plasticity in the sensory-motor relay enables subtle context dependence of the social behavior while preserving other functions of the sensory and motor systems. We review evidence that the robust responses of anurans to conspecific signals are dependent on reproductive state, sex, prior experience, and current context. A well-characterized midbrain sensory-motor relay establishes signal selectivity and gates locomotive responses to sound. The social decision-making network may modulate this auditory-motor transformation to confer context dependence of anuran reproductive responses to sound. We argue that similar modulation may be a general mechanism by which vertebrates prioritize their behaviors.

  20. Evaluation of Temperature-Dependent Effective Material Properties and Performance of a Thermoelectric Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Heng-Chieh; Chu, En-Ting; Hsieh, Huey-Lin; Huang, Jing-Yi; Wu, Sheng-Tsai; Dai, Ming-Ji; Liu, Chun-Kai; Yao, Da-Jeng

    2013-07-01

    We devised a novel method to evaluate the temperature-dependent effective properties of a thermoelectric module (TEM): Seebeck coefficient ( S m), internal electrical resistance ( R m), and thermal conductance ( K m). After calculation, the effective properties of the module are converted to the average material properties of a p- n thermoelectric pillar pair inside the module: Seebeck coefficient ( S TE), electrical resistivity ( ρ TE), and thermal conductivity ( k TE). For a commercial thermoelectric module (Altec 1091) chosen to verify the novel method, the measured S TE has a maximum value at bath temperature of 110°C; ρ TE shows a positive linear trend dependent on the bath temperature, and k TE increases slightly with increasing bath temperature. The results show the method to have satisfactory measurement performance in terms of practicability and reliability; the data for tests near 23°C agree with published values.

  1. Sphingolipids inhibit vimentin-dependent cell migration.

    PubMed

    Hyder, Claire L; Kemppainen, Kati; Isoniemi, Kimmo O; Imanishi, Susumu Y; Goto, Hidemasa; Inagaki, Masaki; Fazeli, Elnaz; Eriksson, John E; Törnquist, Kid

    2015-06-01

    The sphingolipids, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC), can induce or inhibit cellular migration. The intermediate filament protein vimentin is an inducer of migration and a marker for epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Given that keratin intermediate filaments are regulated by SPC, with consequences for cell motility, we wanted to determine whether vimentin is also regulated by sphingolipid signalling and whether it is a determinant for sphingolipid-mediated functions. In cancer cells where S1P and SPC inhibited migration, we observed that S1P and SPC induced phosphorylation of vimentin on S71, leading to a corresponding reorganization of vimentin filaments. These effects were sphingolipid-signalling-dependent, because inhibition of either the S1P2 receptor (also known as S1PR2) or its downstream effector Rho-associated kinase (ROCK, for which there are two isoforms ROCK1 and ROCK2) nullified the sphingolipid-induced effects on vimentin organization and S71 phosphorylation. Furthermore, the anti-migratory effect of S1P and SPC could be prevented by expressing S71-phosphorylation-deficient vimentin. In addition, we demonstrated, by using wild-type and vimentin-knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts, that the sphingolipid-mediated inhibition of migration is dependent on vimentin. These results imply that this newly discovered sphingolipid-vimentin signalling axis exerts brake-and-throttle functions in the regulation of cell migration.

  2. Metabolic dependence of red cell deformability

    PubMed Central

    Weed, Robert I.; LaCelle, Paul L.; Merrill, Edward W.

    1969-01-01

    of red cell viability relates to preservation of red cell membrane deformability. It is proposed that the changes seen in the physical properties of ATP-depleted erythrocytes represent ATP-calcium-dependent sol-gel changes occurring at the interface between the membrane and the cell interior, and that the sol-gel balance determines membrane deformability. Images PMID:4388591

  3. Corticotropin releasing factor dose-dependently modulates excitatory synaptic transmission in the noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Prouty, Eric W; Waterhouse, Barry D; Chandler, Daniel J

    2017-03-01

    The noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus (LC) is critically involved in the stress response and receives afferent input from a number of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) containing structures. Several in vivo and in vitro studies in rat have shown that CRF robustly increases the firing rate of LC neurons in a dose-dependent manner. While it is known that these increases are dependent on CRF receptor subtype 1 and mediated by effects of cAMP intracellular signaling cascades on potassium conductance, the impact of CRF on synaptic transmission within LC has not been clarified. In the present study, we used whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology to assess how varying concentrations of bath-applied CRF affect AMPA-receptor dependent spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic currents (sEPSCs). Compared to vehicle, 10, 25, and 100 nm CRF had no significant effects on any sEPSC parameters. Fifty nanomolar CRF, however, significantly increased sEPSC amplitude, half-width, and charge transfer, while these measures were significantly decreased by 200 nm CRF. These observations suggest that stress may differentially affect ongoing excitatory synaptic transmission in LC depending on how much CRF is released from presynaptic terminals. Combined with the well-documented effects of CRF on membrane properties and spontaneous LC discharge, these observations may help explain how stress and CRF release are able to modulate the signal to noise ratio of LC neurons. These findings have implications for how stress affects the fidelity of signal transmission and information flow through LC and how it might impact norepinephrine release in the CNS.

  4. Feasibility of controlling speed-dependent low-frequency brake vibration amplification by modulating actuation pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Osman Taha; Dreyer, Jason T.; Singh, Rajendra

    2014-12-01

    In this article, a feasibility study of controlling the low frequency torque response of a disc brake system with modulated actuation pressure (in the open loop mode) is conducted. First, a quasi-linear model of the torsional system is introduced, and analytical solutions are proposed to incorporate the modulation effect. Tractable expressions for three different modulation schemes are obtained, and conditions that would lead to a reduction in the oscillatory amplitudes are identified. Second, these conditions are evaluated with a numerical model of the torsional system with clearance nonlinearity, and analytical solutions are verified in terms of the trends observed. Finally, a laboratory experiment with a solenoid valve is built to modulate actuation pressure with a constant duty cycle, and time-frequency domain data are acquired. Measurements are utilized to assess analytical observations, and all methods show that the speed-dependent brake torque amplitudes can be altered with an appropriate modulation of actuation pressure.

  5. Temperature-Dependent Light-Stabilized States in Thin-Film PV Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Deceglie, Michael G.; Silverman, Timothy J.; Marion, Bill; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2015-09-17

    Thin-film photovoltaic modules are known to exhibit light-induced transient behavior which interferes with accurate and repeatable measurements of power. Typically power measurements are made after a light exposure in order to target a 'light state' of the module that is representative of outdoor performance. Here we show that the concept of a unique light state is poorly defined for both CIGS and CdTe modules. Instead we find that their metastable state after a light exposure can depend on the temperature of the module during the exposure. We observe changes in power as large as 5.8% for a 20 degrees C difference in light exposure temperature. These results lead us to conclude that for applications in which reproducibility and repeatability are critical, module temperature should be tightly controlled during light exposure.

  6. Temperature-Dependent Light-Stabilized States in Thin-Film PV Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Deceglie, Michael G.; Silverman, Timothy J.; Marion, Bill; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2015-06-14

    Thin-film photovoltaic modules are known to exhibit light-induced transient behavior which interferes with accurate and repeatable measurements of power. Typically power measurements are made after a light exposure in order to target a 'light state' of the module that is representative of outdoor performance. Here we show that the concept of a unique light state is poorly defined for both CIGS and CdTe modules. Instead we find that their metastable state after a light exposure can depend on the temperature of the module during the exposure. We observe changes in power as large as 5.8% for a 20 degrees C difference in light exposure temperature. These results lead us to conclude that for applications in which reproducibility and repeatability are critical, module temperature should be tightly controlled during light exposure.

  7. Human Opiorphin, a natural antinociceptive modulator of opioid-dependent pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wisner, Anne; Dufour, Evelyne; Messaoudi, Michaël; Nejdi, Amine; Marcel, Audrey; Ungeheuer, Marie-Noelle; Rougeot, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Mammalian zinc ectopeptidases play important roles in turning off neural and hormonal peptide signals at the cell surface, notably those processing sensory information. We report here the discovery of a previously uncharacterized physiological inhibitor of enkephalin-inactivating zinc ectopeptidases in humans, which we have named Opiorphin. It is a QRFSR peptide that inhibits two enkephalin-catabolizing ectoenzymes, human neutral ecto-endopeptidase, hNEP (EC 3.4.24.11), and human ecto-aminopeptidase, hAP-N (EC 3.4.11.2). Opiorphin displays potent analgesic activity in chemical and mechanical pain models by activating endogenous opioid-dependent transmission. Its function is closely related to the rat sialorphin peptide, which is an inhibitor of pain perception and acts by potentiating endogenous μ- and δ-opioid receptor-dependent enkephalinergic pathways. Here we demonstrate the functional specificity in vivo of human Opiorphin. The pain-suppressive potency of Opiorphin is as effective as morphine in the behavioral rat model of acute mechanical pain, the pin-pain test. Thus, our discovery of Opiorphin is extremely exciting from a physiological point of view in the context of endogenous opioidergic pathways, notably in modulating mood-related states and pain sensation. Furthermore, because of its in vivo properties, Opiorphin may have therapeutic implications. PMID:17101991

  8. Human Opiorphin, a natural antinociceptive modulator of opioid-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Wisner, Anne; Dufour, Evelyne; Messaoudi, Michaël; Nejdi, Amine; Marcel, Audrey; Ungeheuer, Marie-Noelle; Rougeot, Catherine

    2006-11-21

    Mammalian zinc ectopeptidases play important roles in turning off neural and hormonal peptide signals at the cell surface, notably those processing sensory information. We report here the discovery of a previously uncharacterized physiological inhibitor of enkephalin-inactivating zinc ectopeptidases in humans, which we have named Opiorphin. It is a QRFSR peptide that inhibits two enkephalin-catabolizing ectoenzymes, human neutral ecto-endopeptidase, hNEP (EC 3.4.24.11), and human ecto-aminopeptidase, hAP-N (EC 3.4.11.2). Opiorphin displays potent analgesic activity in chemical and mechanical pain models by activating endogenous opioid-dependent transmission. Its function is closely related to the rat sialorphin peptide, which is an inhibitor of pain perception and acts by potentiating endogenous mu- and delta-opioid receptor-dependent enkephalinergic pathways. Here we demonstrate the functional specificity in vivo of human Opiorphin. The pain-suppressive potency of Opiorphin is as effective as morphine in the behavioral rat model of acute mechanical pain, the pin-pain test. Thus, our discovery of Opiorphin is extremely exciting from a physiological point of view in the context of endogenous opioidergic pathways, notably in modulating mood-related states and pain sensation. Furthermore, because of its in vivo properties, Opiorphin may have therapeutic implications.

  9. IKK{epsilon} modulates RSV-induced NF-{kappa}B-dependent gene transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Bao Xiaoyong; Indukuri, Hemalatha; Liu Tianshuang; Liao Suiling; Tian, Bing; Brasier, Allan R.; Garofalo, Roberto P.; Casola, Antonella

    2010-12-20

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a negative-strand RNA virus, is the most common cause of epidemic respiratory disease in infants and young children. RSV infection of airway epithelial cells induces the expression of immune/inflammatory genes through the activation of a subset of transcription factors, including Nuclear Factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). In this study we have investigated the role of the non canonical I{kappa}B kinase (IKK){epsilon} in modulating RSV-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. Our results show that inhibition of IKK{epsilon} activation results in significant impairment of viral-induced NF-{kappa}B-dependent gene expression, through a reduction in NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity, without changes in nuclear translocation or DNA-binding activity. Absence of IKK{epsilon} results in a significant decrease of RSV-induced NF-{kappa}B phosphorylation on serine 536, a post-translational modification important for RSV-induced NF-{kappa}B-dependent gene expression, known to regulate NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity without affecting nuclear translocation. This study identifies a novel mechanism by which IKK{epsilon} regulates viral-induced cellular signaling.

  10. Solar Photovoltaic Cell/Module Shipments Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Summary data for the photovoltaic industry in the United States. Data includes manufacturing, imports, and exports of modules in the United States and its territories. Summary data include volumes in peak kilowatts and average prices. Where possible, imports and exports are listed by country, and shipments to the United States are listed by state.

  11. Development and Testing of Shingle-type Solar Cell Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication and testing of a shingle-type terrestrial solar cell module which produces 98 watts/sq m of exposed module area at 1 kW/sq m insolation and 61 C are reported. These modules make it possible to easily incorporate photovoltaic power generation into the sloping roofs of residential or commercial buildings by simply nailing the modules to the plywood roof sheathing. This design consists of nineteen series-connected 53 mm diameter solar cells arranged in a closely packed hexagon configuration. These cells are individually bonded to the embossed surface of a 3 mm thick thermally tempered hexagon-shaped piece of glass. Polyvinyl butyral is used as the laminating adhesive.

  12. Investigations of Polarization Dependent Loss in Polarization Modulated Analog Optical Links

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-29

    efficiency . In links employing polarization modulation, various processes can negatively impact performance such a polarization dependent loss (PDL...motivate the impact of PDL impairments, we first examine the transformation of state s incident on a partial polarizer to its output state fs , in...modulator. Again, a similarity transform allows this to be generalized to any M  [11],[12]. Using form (3), and employing (10) for operator M , we

  13. Range and modulation dependencies for proton beam dose per monitor unit calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Hsi, Wen C.; Schreuder, Andries N.; Moyers, Michael F.; Allgower, Chris E.; Farr, Jonathan B.; Mascia, Anthony E.

    2009-02-15

    Calculations of dose per monitor unit (D/MU) are required in addition to measurements to increase patient safety in the clinical practice of proton radiotherapy. As in conventional photon and electron therapy, the D/MU depends on several factors. This study focused on obtaining range and modulation dependence factors used in D/MU calculations for the double scattered proton beam line at the Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute. Three dependencies on range and one dependency on modulation were found. A carefully selected set of measurements was performed to discern these individual dependencies. Dependencies on range were due to: (1) the stopping power of the protons passing through the monitor chamber; (2) the reduction of proton fluence due to nuclear interactions within the patient; and (3) the variation of proton fluence passing through the monitor chamber due to different source-to-axis distances (SADs) for different beam ranges. Different SADs are produced by reconfigurations of beamline elements to provide different field sizes and ranges. The SAD effect on the D/MU varies smoothly as the beam range is varied, except at the beam range for which the first scatterers are exchanged and relocated to accommodate low and high beam ranges. A geometry factor was devised to model the SAD variation effect on the D/MU. The measured D/MU variation as a function of range can be predicted within 1% using the three modeled dependencies on range. Investigation of modulated beams showed that an analytical formula can predict the D/MU dependency as a function of modulation to within 1.5%. Special attention must be applied when measuring the D/MU dependence on modulation to avoid interplay between range and SAD effects.

  14. Prostaglandin-dependent modulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission elicits inflammation-induced aversion in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Michael; Klawonn, Anna M.; Nilsson, Anna; Singh, Anand Kumar; Zajdel, Joanna; Björk Wilhelms, Daniel; Lazarus, Michael; Löfberg, Andreas; Jaarola, Maarit; Örtegren Kugelberg, Unn; Billiar, Timothy R.; Hackam, David J.; Sodhi, Chhinder P.; Breyer, Matthew D.; Jakobsson, Johan; Schwaninger, Markus; Schütz, Günther; Rodriguez Parkitna, Jan; Saper, Clifford B.; Blomqvist, Anders; Engblom, David

    2015-01-01

    Systemic inflammation causes malaise and general feelings of discomfort. This fundamental aspect of the sickness response reduces the quality of life for people suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases and is a nuisance during mild infections like common colds or the flu. To investigate how inflammation is perceived as unpleasant and causes negative affect, we used a behavioral test in which mice avoid an environment that they have learned to associate with inflammation-induced discomfort. Using a combination of cell-type–specific gene deletions, pharmacology, and chemogenetics, we found that systemic inflammation triggered aversion through MyD88-dependent activation of the brain endothelium followed by COX1-mediated cerebral prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis. Further, we showed that inflammation-induced PGE2 targeted EP1 receptors on striatal dopamine D1 receptor–expressing neurons and that this signaling sequence induced aversion through GABA-mediated inhibition of dopaminergic cells. Finally, we demonstrated that inflammation-induced aversion was not an indirect consequence of fever or anorexia but that it constituted an independent inflammatory symptom triggered by a unique molecular mechanism. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that PGE2-mediated modulation of the dopaminergic motivational circuitry is a key mechanism underlying the negative affect induced by inflammation. PMID:26690700

  15. Local Time-Dependent Charging in a Perovskite Solar Cell.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Victor W; Guo, Yunlong; Tanaka, Hideyuki; Hermes, Ilka M; Li, Dan; Klasen, Alexander; Bretschneider, Simon A; Nakamura, Eiichi; Berger, Rüdiger; Weber, Stefan A L

    2016-08-03

    Efficient charge extraction within solar cells explicitly depends on the optimization of the internal interfaces. Potential barriers, unbalanced charge extraction, and interfacial trap states can prevent cells from reaching high power conversion efficiencies. In the case of perovskite solar cells, slow processes happening on time scales of seconds cause hysteresis in the current-voltage characteristics. In this work, we localized and investigated these slow processes using frequency-modulation Kelvin probe force microscopy (FM-KPFM) on cross sections of planar methylammonium lead iodide (MAPI) perovskite solar cells. FM-KPFM can map the charge density distribution and its dynamics at internal interfaces. Upon illumination, space charge layers formed at the interfaces of the selective contacts with the MAPI layer within several seconds. We observed distinct differences in the charging dynamics at the interfaces of MAPI with adjacent layers. Our results indicate that more than one process is involved in hysteresis. This finding is in agreement with recent simulation studies claiming that a combination of ion migration and interfacial trap states causes the hysteresis in perovskite solar cells. Such differences in the charging rates at different interfaces cannot be separated by conventional device measurements.

  16. Oxidative stress-dependent activation of the eIF2α–ATF4 unfolded protein response branch by skin sensitizer 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene modulates dendritic-like cell maturation and inflammatory status in a biphasic manner [corrected].

    PubMed

    Luís, Andreia; Martins, João Demétrio; Silva, Ana; Ferreira, Isabel; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Neves, Bruno Miguel

    2014-12-01

    The pathogenesis of allergic contact dermatitis, the most common manifestation of immunotoxicity in humans, is intimately connected to hapten-induced maturation of dendritic cells (DC). The molecular mechanisms driving this maturational program are not completely known; however, initial danger signals such as the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were shown to play a critical role. Recent evidence linking ROS production, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases led us to analyze, in the present work, the ability of the skin sensitizer 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNFB) to evoke ER stress in DC-like THP-1 cells and the concomitant consequences to their immunobiology. We found that DNFB triggers a ROS-dependent activation of the PERK-eIFα-ATF4 unfolded protein response (UPR) branch conferring cytoprotection and modulating the maturation/proinflammatory cell status in a biphasic manner. Early DNFB induction of ATF4 positively modulates autophagy-related genes MAP1LC3B and ATG3 and stabilizes the transcription factor Nrf2, causing a strong induction of the HMOX1-detoxifying gene. Moreover, we observed that in a first phase, DNFB-induced ATF4 upregulates IL8 mRNA levels while blocking CD86, IL1B, IL12B, and CXL10 transcription. Later, following ATF4 decay, HMOX1 and IL8 transcription drastically decrease and CD86, IL1B, and Il12B are upregulated. Overall, our results evidence a connection between sensitizer-induced redox imbalance and the establishment of ER stress in DC-like cells and provide new insights into the role of UPR effectors such as ATF4 to the complex DC maturational program.

  17. Alternative splicing modulates stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ru-Huei; Liu, Shih-Ping; Ou, Chen-Wei; Yu, Hsiu-Hui; Li, Kuo-Wei; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Lin, Shinn-Zong

    2009-01-01

    Stem cells have the surprising potential to develop into many different cell types. Therefore, major research efforts have focused on transplantation of stem cells and/or derived progenitors for restoring depleted diseased cells in degenerative disorders. Understanding the molecular controls, including alternative splicing, that arise during lineage differentiation of stem cells is crucial for developing stem cell therapeutic approaches in regeneration medicine. Alternative splicing to allow a single gene to encode multiple transcripts with different protein coding sequences and RNA regulatory elements increases genomic complexities. Utilizing differences in alternative splicing as a molecular marker may be more sensitive than simply gene expression in various degrees of stem cell differentiation. Moreover, alternative splicing maybe provide a new concept to acquire induced pluripotent stem cells or promote cell-cell transdifferentiation for restorative therapies and basic medicine researches. In this review, we highlight the recent advances of alternative splicing regulation in stem cells and their progenitors. It will hopefully provide much needed knowledge into realizing stem cell biology and related applications.

  18. 76 FR 70966 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... International Trade Administration Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules... photovoltaic cells, whether or not assembled into modules (solar cells), from the People's Republic of China... Imposition of Antidumping and Countervailing Duties Against Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells,...

  19. Plant cell shape: modulators and measurements

    PubMed Central

    Ivakov, Alexander; Persson, Staffan

    2013-01-01

    Plant cell shape, seen as an integrative output, is of considerable interest in various fields, such as cell wall research, cytoskeleton dynamics and biomechanics. In this review we summarize the current state of knowledge on cell shape formation in plants focusing on shape of simple cylindrical cells, as well as in complex multipolar cells such as leaf pavement cells and trichomes. We summarize established concepts as well as recent additions to the understanding of how cells construct cell walls of a given shape and the underlying processes. These processes include cell wall synthesis, activity of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons, in particular their regulation by microtubule associated proteins, actin-related proteins, GTP'ases and their effectors, as well as the recently-elucidated roles of plant hormone signaling and vesicular membrane trafficking. We discuss some of the challenges in cell shape research with a particular emphasis on quantitative imaging and statistical analysis of shape in 2D and 3D, as well as novel developments in this area. Finally, we review recent examples of the use of novel imaging techniques and how they have contributed to our understanding of cell shape formation. PMID:24312104

  20. Concentration-dependent activation of dopamine receptors differentially modulates GABA release onto orexin neurons

    PubMed Central

    Linehan, Victoria; Trask, Robert B.; Briggs, Chantalle; Rowe, Todd M.; Hirasawa, Michiru

    2017-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) and orexin neurons play important roles in reward and food intake. There are anatomical and functional connections between these two cell groups, where orexin peptides stimulate DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area and DA inhibits orexin neurons in the hypothalamus. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying DA action on orexin neurons remain incompletely understood. Therefore, the effect of DA on inhibitory transmission to orexin neurons was investigated in rat brain slices using whole cell patch clamp technique. We found that DA modulated the frequency of spontaneous and miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) in a concentration dependent, bidirectional manner. Low (1 μM) and high concentrations (100 μM) of DA decreased and increased IPSC frequency, respectively. These effects did not accompany a change in mIPSC amplitude and persisted in the presence of G protein signaling inhibitor GDPβS in the pipette, suggesting that DA acts presynaptically. The decrease in mIPSC frequency was mediated by D2 receptors, whereas the increase required co-activation of D1 and D2 receptors and subsequent activation of phospholipase C. In summary, our results suggest that DA has complex effects on GABAergic transmission to orexin neurons, involving cooperation of multiple receptor subtypes. The direction of dopaminergic influence on orexin neurons is dependent on the level of DA in the hypothalamus. At low levels DA disinhibits orexin neurons whereas at high levels it facilitates GABA release, which may act as negative feedback to curb the excitatory orexinergic output to DA neurons. These mechanisms may have implications for consummatory and motivated behaviours. PMID:26036709

  1. Concentration-dependent activation of dopamine receptors differentially modulates GABA release onto orexin neurons.

    PubMed

    Linehan, Victoria; Trask, Robert B; Briggs, Chantalle; Rowe, Todd M; Hirasawa, Michiru

    2015-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) and orexin neurons play important roles in reward and food intake. There are anatomical and functional connections between these two cell groups: orexin peptides stimulate DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area and DA inhibits orexin neurons in the hypothalamus. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying the action of DA on orexin neurons remain incompletely understood. Therefore, the effect of DA on inhibitory transmission to orexin neurons was investigated in rat brain slices using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. We found that DA modulated the frequency of spontaneous and miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) in a concentration-dependent bidirectional manner. Low (1 μM) and high (100 μM) concentrations of DA decreased and increased IPSC frequency, respectively. These effects did not accompany a change in mIPSC amplitude and persisted in the presence of G-protein signaling inhibitor GDPβS in the pipette, suggesting that DA acts presynaptically. The decrease in mIPSC frequency was mediated by D2 receptors whereas the increase required co-activation of D1 and D2 receptors and subsequent activation of phospholipase C. In summary, our results suggest that DA has complex effects on GABAergic transmission to orexin neurons, involving cooperation of multiple receptor subtypes. The direction of dopaminergic influence on orexin neurons is dependent on the level of DA in the hypothalamus. At low levels DA disinhibits orexin neurons whereas at high levels it facilitates GABA release, which may act as negative feedback to curb the excitatory orexinergic output to DA neurons. These mechanisms may have implications for consummatory and motivated behaviours.

  2. Applications of ``PV Optics`` for solar cell and module design

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B.L.; Madjdpour, J.; Chen, W.

    1998-09-01

    This paper describes some applications of a new optics software package, PV Optics, developed for the optical design of solar cells and modules. PV Optics is suitable for the analysis and design of both thick and thin solar cells. It also includes a feature for calculation of metallic losses related to contacts and back reflectors.

  3. Monoaminergic modulation of GABAergic transmission onto cerebellar globular cells.

    PubMed

    Hirono, Moritoshi; Nagao, Soichi; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Konishi, Shiro

    2017-03-11

    Cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) project their axon collaterals to underneath of the PC layer and make GABAergic synaptic contacts with globular cells, a subgroup of Lugaro cells. GABAergic transmission derived from the PC axon collaterals is so powerful that it could inhibit globular cells and regulate their firing patterns. However, the physiological properties and implications of the GABAergic synapses on globular cells remain unknown. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from globular cells in the mouse cerebellum, we examined the monoaminergic modulation of GABAergic inputs to these cells. Application of either serotonin (5-HT) or noradrenaline (NA) excited globular cells, thereby leading to their firing. The 5-HT- and NA-induced firing was temporally confined and attenuated by GABAergic transmission, although 5-HT and NA exerted an inhibitory effect on the release of GABA from presynaptic terminals of PC axon collaterals. Agonists for 5-HT1B receptors and α2-adrenoceptors mimicked the 5-HT- and NA-induced suppression of GABAergic activity. Through their differential modulatory actions on the cerebellar inhibitory neural circuits, 5-HT facilitated PC firing, whereas NA suppressed it. These results indicate that 5-HT and NA regulate the membrane excitability of globular cells and PCs through their differential modulation of not only the membrane potential but also GABAergic synaptic circuits. Monoaminergic modulation of the neural connections between globular cells and PCs could play a role in cerebellar motor coordination.

  4. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of vimentin in rat sertoli cells.

    PubMed Central

    Spruill, W A; Zysk, J R; Tres, L L; Kierszenbaum, A L

    1983-01-01

    Ca2+-dependent protein phosphorylation and the role of calmodulin in this process was investigated in subcellular fractions of primary cultures of rat Sertoli cells. Significant Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphorylation in Sertoli cells was restricted to the cytosol fraction. The calmodulin dependence of these effects was confirmed by using the calmodulin inhibitor trifluoperazine. One of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphoproteins was identified as the intermediate filament protein vimentin, based on the following criteria: (i) migration pattern in two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels, (ii) Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphorylation of a 58-kilodalton protein present in detergent-insoluble intermediate filament protein extract of Sertoli cells, and (iii) peptide mapping of the phosphoprotein. These data support a role for Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphorylation in the modulation of Sertoli cell cytoskeletal components. Images PMID:6572367

  5. Phosphorylation state–dependent modulation of spinal glycine receptors alleviates inflammatory pain

    PubMed Central

    Yévenes, Gonzalo E.; Ralvenius, William T.; Benke, Dietmar; Di Lio, Alessandra; Lara, Cesar O.; Muñoz, Braulio; Burgos, Carlos F.; Moraga-Cid, Gustavo; Corringer, Pierre-Jean

    2016-01-01

    Diminished inhibitory neurotransmission in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord is thought to contribute to chronic pain. In inflammatory pain, reductions in synaptic inhibition occur partially through prostaglandin E2- (PGE2-) and PKA-dependent phosphorylation of a specific subtype of glycine receptors (GlyRs) that contain α3 subunits. Here, we demonstrated that 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol (2,6-DTBP), a nonanesthetic propofol derivative, reverses inflammation-mediated disinhibition through a specific interaction with heteromeric αβGlyRs containing phosphorylated α3 subunits. We expressed mutant GlyRs in HEK293T cells, and electrophysiological analyses of these receptors showed that 2,6-DTBP interacted with a conserved phenylalanine residue in the membrane-associated stretch between transmembrane regions 3 and 4 of the GlyR α3 subunit. In native murine spinal cord tissue, 2,6-DTBP modulated synaptic, presumably αβ heteromeric, GlyRs only after priming with PGE2. This observation is consistent with results obtained from molecular modeling of the α-β subunit interface and suggests that in α3βGlyRs, the binding site is accessible to 2,6-DTBP only after PKA-dependent phosphorylation. In murine models of inflammatory pain, 2,6-DTBP reduced inflammatory hyperalgesia in an α3GlyR-dependent manner. Together, our data thus establish that selective potentiation of GlyR function is a promising strategy against chronic inflammatory pain and that, to our knowledge, 2,6-DTBP has a unique pharmacological profile that favors an interaction with GlyRs that have been primed by peripheral inflammation. PMID:27270175

  6. RNA Directed Modulation of Phenotypic Plasticity in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Burdach, Jon; Morris, Kevin V.

    2016-01-01

    Natural selective processes have been known to drive phenotypic plasticity, which is the emergence of different phenotypes from one genome following environmental stimulation. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been observed to modulate transcriptional and epigenetic states of genes in human cells. We surmised that lncRNAs are governors of phenotypic plasticity and drive natural selective processes through epigenetic modulation of gene expression. Using heat shocked human cells as a model we find several differentially expressed transcripts with the top candidates being lncRNAs derived from retro-elements. One particular retro-element derived transcripts, Retro-EIF2S2, was found to be abundantly over-expressed in heat shocked cells. Over-expression of Retro-EIF2S2 significantly enhanced cell viability and modulated a predisposition for an adherent cellular phenotype upon heat shock. Mechanistically, we find that this retro-element derived transcript interacts directly with a network of proteins including 40S ribosomal protein S30 (FAU), Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (EIF5A), and Ubiquitin-60S ribosomal protein L40 (UBA52) to affect protein modulated cell adhesion pathways. We find one motif in Retro-EIF2S2 that exhibits binding to FAU and modulates phenotypic cell transitions from adherent to suspension states. The observations presented here suggest that retroviral derived transcripts actively modulate phenotypic plasticity in human cells in response to environmental selective pressures and suggest that natural selection may play out through the action of retro-elements in human cells. PMID:27082860

  7. RNA Directed Modulation of Phenotypic Plasticity in Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Trakman, Laura; Hewson, Chris; Burdach, Jon; Morris, Kevin V

    2016-01-01

    Natural selective processes have been known to drive phenotypic plasticity, which is the emergence of different phenotypes from one genome following environmental stimulation. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been observed to modulate transcriptional and epigenetic states of genes in human cells. We surmised that lncRNAs are governors of phenotypic plasticity and drive natural selective processes through epigenetic modulation of gene expression. Using heat shocked human cells as a model we find several differentially expressed transcripts with the top candidates being lncRNAs derived from retro-elements. One particular retro-element derived transcripts, Retro-EIF2S2, was found to be abundantly over-expressed in heat shocked cells. Over-expression of Retro-EIF2S2 significantly enhanced cell viability and modulated a predisposition for an adherent cellular phenotype upon heat shock. Mechanistically, we find that this retro-element derived transcript interacts directly with a network of proteins including 40S ribosomal protein S30 (FAU), Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (EIF5A), and Ubiquitin-60S ribosomal protein L40 (UBA52) to affect protein modulated cell adhesion pathways. We find one motif in Retro-EIF2S2 that exhibits binding to FAU and modulates phenotypic cell transitions from adherent to suspension states. The observations presented here suggest that retroviral derived transcripts actively modulate phenotypic plasticity in human cells in response to environmental selective pressures and suggest that natural selection may play out through the action of retro-elements in human cells.

  8. Periodically Modulated Size-Dependent Elastic Properties of Armchair Graphene Nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Zhang, Tong-Yi; Su, Y J

    2015-08-12

    First-principles calculations were conducted on armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) to simulate the elastic behavior of AGNRs with hydrogen-terminated and bare edges. The results show width-dependent elastic properties with a periodicity of three, which depends on the nature of edge. The edge eigenstress and eigendisplacement models are able to predict the width-dependent nominal Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, while the Clar structure explains the crucial role of edges in the periodically modulated size-dependent elastic properties.

  9. Cholinergic modulation of hippocampal cells and circuits

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Stuart R; Davies, Ceri H

    2005-01-01

    Septo-hippocampal cholinergic fibres ramify extensively throughout the hippocampal formation to release acetylcholine upon a diverse range of muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that are differentially expressed by distinct populations of neurones. The resultant modulation of cellular excitability and synaptic transmission within hippocampal circuits underlies the ability of acetylcholine to influence the dynamic properties of the hippocampal network and results in the emergence of a range of stable oscillatory network states. Recent findings suggest a multitude of actions contribute to the oscillogenic properties of acetylcholine which are principally induced by activation of muscarinic receptors but also regulated through activation of nicotinic receptor subtypes. PMID:15528238

  10. Melittin Modulates Keratinocyte Function through P2 Receptor-dependent ADAM Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Anselm; Fries, Anja; Cornelsen, Isabell; Speck, Nancy; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich; Gimpl, Gerald; Andrä, Jörg; Bhakdi, Sucharit; Reiss, Karina

    2012-01-01

    Melittin, the major component of the bee venom, is an amphipathic, cationic peptide with a wide spectrum of biological properties that is being considered as an anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer agent. It modulates multiple cellular functions but the underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. Here, we report that melittin activates disintegrin-like metalloproteases (ADAMs) and that downstream events likely contribute to the biological effects evoked by the peptide. Melittin stimulated the proteolysis of ADAM10 and ADAM17 substrates in human neutrophil granulocytes, endothelial cells and murine fibroblasts. In human HaCaT keratinocytes, melittin induced shedding of the adhesion molecule E-cadherin and release of TGF-α, which was accompanied by transactivation of the EGF receptor and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. This was followed by functional consequences such as increased keratinocyte proliferation and enhanced cell migration. Evidence is provided that ATP release and activation of purinergic P2 receptors are involved in melittin-induced ADAM activation. E-cadherin shedding and EGFR phosphorylation were dose-dependently reduced in the presence of ATPases or P2 receptor antagonists. The involvement of P2 receptors was underscored in experiments with HEK cells, which lack the P2X7 receptor and showed strikingly increased response to melittin stimulation after transfection with this receptor. Our study provides new insight into the mechanism of melittin function which should be of interest particularly in the context of its potential use as an anti-inflammatory or anti-cancer agent. PMID:22613720

  11. Influence of modulation frequency in rubidium cell frequency standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Audoin, C.; Viennet, J.; Cyr, N.; Vanier, J.

    1983-01-01

    The error signal which is used to control the frequency of the quartz crystal oscillator of a passive rubidium cell frequency standard is considered. The value of the slope of this signal, for an interrogation frequency close to the atomic transition frequency is calculated and measured for various phase (or frequency) modulation waveforms, and for several values of the modulation frequency. A theoretical analysis is made using a model which applies to a system in which the optical pumping rate, the relaxation rates and the RF field are homogeneous. Results are given for sine-wave phase modulation, square-wave frequency modulation and square-wave phase modulation. The influence of the modulation frequency on the slope of the error signal is specified. It is shown that the modulation frequency can be chosen as large as twice the non-saturated full-width at half-maximum without a drastic loss of the sensitivity to an offset of the interrogation frequency from center line, provided that the power saturation factor and the amplitude of modulation are properly adjusted.

  12. Time and voltage dependences of nanoscale dielectric constant modulation on indium tin oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liang; Hao, Haoyue; Zhao, Hua

    2017-01-01

    The modulation of indium tin oxide (ITO) films through surface charge accumulation plays an important role in many different applications. In order to elaborately study the modulation, we measured the dielectric constant of the modulated layer through examining the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons. Charges were pumped on the surfaces of ITO films through applying high voltage in appropriate directions. Experiments unveiled that the dielectric constant of the modulated layer had large variation along with the nanoscale charge accumulation. Corresponding numerical results were worked out through combining Drude model and Mayadas-Shatzkes model. Based on the above results, we deduced the time and voltage dependences of accumulated charge density, which revealed a long-time charge accumulation process.

  13. Modulation format dependence of digital nonlinearity compensation performance in optical fibre communication systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tianhua; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Semrau, Daniel; Liga, Gabriele; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I; Bayvel, Polina

    2017-02-20

    The relationship between modulation format and the performance of multi-channel digital back-propagation (MC-DBP) in ideal Nyquist-spaced optical communication systems is investigated. It is found that the nonlinear distortions behave independent of modulation format in the case of full-field DBP, in contrast to the cases of electronic dispersion compensation and partial-bandwidth DBP. It is shown that the minimum number of steps per span required for MC-DBP depends on the chosen modulation format. For any given target information rate, there exists a possible trade-off between modulation format and back-propagated bandwidth, which could be used to reduce the computational complexity requirement of MC-DBP.

  14. Functional differentiation of cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation in a biophysical model of olfactory bulb granule cells

    PubMed Central

    Linster, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory bulb granule cells are modulated by both acetylcholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE), but the effects of these neuromodulators have not been clearly distinguished. We used detailed biophysical simulations of granule cells, both alone and embedded in a microcircuit with mitral cells, to measure and distinguish the effects of ACh and NE on cellular and microcircuit function. Cholinergic and noradrenergic modulatory effects on granule cells were based on data obtained from slice experiments; specifically, ACh reduced the conductance densities of the potassium M current and the calcium-dependent potassium current, whereas NE nonmonotonically regulated the conductance density of an ohmic potassium current. We report that the effects of ACh and NE on granule cell physiology are distinct and functionally complementary to one another. ACh strongly regulates granule cell firing rates and afterpotentials, whereas NE bidirectionally regulates subthreshold membrane potentials. When combined, NE can regulate the ACh-induced expression of afterdepolarizing potentials and persistent firing. In a microcircuit simulation developed to investigate the effects of granule cell neuromodulation on mitral cell firing properties, ACh increased spike synchronization among mitral cells, whereas NE modulated the signal-to-noise ratio. Coapplication of ACh and NE both functionally improved the signal-to-noise ratio and enhanced spike synchronization among mitral cells. In summary, our computational results support distinct and complementary roles for ACh and NE in modulating olfactory bulb circuitry and suggest that NE may play a role in the regulation of cholinergic function. PMID:26334007

  15. Functional differentiation of cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation in a biophysical model of olfactory bulb granule cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoshi; Linster, Christiane; Cleland, Thomas A

    2015-12-01

    Olfactory bulb granule cells are modulated by both acetylcholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE), but the effects of these neuromodulators have not been clearly distinguished. We used detailed biophysical simulations of granule cells, both alone and embedded in a microcircuit with mitral cells, to measure and distinguish the effects of ACh and NE on cellular and microcircuit function. Cholinergic and noradrenergic modulatory effects on granule cells were based on data obtained from slice experiments; specifically, ACh reduced the conductance densities of the potassium M current and the calcium-dependent potassium current, whereas NE nonmonotonically regulated the conductance density of an ohmic potassium current. We report that the effects of ACh and NE on granule cell physiology are distinct and functionally complementary to one another. ACh strongly regulates granule cell firing rates and afterpotentials, whereas NE bidirectionally regulates subthreshold membrane potentials. When combined, NE can regulate the ACh-induced expression of afterdepolarizing potentials and persistent firing. In a microcircuit simulation developed to investigate the effects of granule cell neuromodulation on mitral cell firing properties, ACh increased spike synchronization among mitral cells, whereas NE modulated the signal-to-noise ratio. Coapplication of ACh and NE both functionally improved the signal-to-noise ratio and enhanced spike synchronization among mitral cells. In summary, our computational results support distinct and complementary roles for ACh and NE in modulating olfactory bulb circuitry and suggest that NE may play a role in the regulation of cholinergic function.

  16. Quantitative kinetics analysis of BMP2 uptake into cells and its modulation by BMP antagonists.

    PubMed

    Alborzinia, Hamed; Schmidt-Glenewinkel, Hannah; Ilkavets, Iryna; Breitkopf-Heinlein, Katja; Cheng, Xinlai; Hortschansky, Peter; Dooley, Steven; Wölfl, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the TGFβ family of signaling proteins and play an important role during development and in tissue formation. BMP signaling is a well-studied process, which is initiated through binding of cognate receptors and processed through activation of Smad downstream mediators. A hallmark of BMP signaling is its modulation at the extracellular level through specific antagonists. Although it had been shown that BMP and TGFβ receptors are internalized following activation, little is known about the fate of BMP ligands. We prepared biologically active fluorescently labeled BMP2 and quantitatively analyzed its binding and uptake in cells using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Exogenous BMP2 was rapidly bound to the cell surface and subsequently internalized in a time-dependent manner and accumulated in the cell center. Although binding to the cell surface was limited by binding sites at the beginning, internalization continously increased with time, after a short delay. Using different inhibitors we found that internalization of BMP2 through endosomal particles occurred in a clathrin-dependent pathway. Furthermore, uptake of BMP2 was modulated in strikingly different ways by BMP2 antagonists. Although Noggin and Gremlin increased BMP2 uptake, Chordin blocked BMP2 uptake, which was concentration dependent in both cases. In conclusion, our findings present interesting mechanisms for the modulation of BMP signaling by concentration gradients of BMP ligands and antagonists in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which can provide an explanation of some properties of the BMP regulatory network.

  17. Modulation-Specific and Laminar-Dependent Effects of Acetylcholine on Visual Responses in the Rat Primary Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Soma, Shogo; Shimegi, Satoshi; Suematsu, Naofumi; Tamura, Hiroshi; Sato, Hiromichi

    2013-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is secreted from cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain to regions throughout the cerebral cortex, including the primary visual cortex (V1), and influences neuronal activities across all six layers via a form of diffuse extrasynaptic modulation termed volume transmission. To understand this effect in V1, we performed extracellular multi-point recordings of neuronal responses to drifting sinusoidal grating stimuli from the cortical layers of V1 in anesthetized rats and examined the modulatory effects of topically administered ACh. ACh facilitated or suppressed the visual responses of individual cells with a laminar bias: response suppression prevailed in layers 2/3, whereas response facilitation prevailed in layer 5. ACh effects on the stimulus contrast-response function showed that ACh changes the response gain upward or downward in facilitated or suppressed cells, respectively. Next, ACh effects on the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and the grating-phase information were tested. The grating-phase information was calculated as the F1/F0 ratio, which represents the amount of temporal response modulation at the fundamental frequency (F1) of a drifting grating relative to the mean evoked response (F0). In facilitated cells, ACh improved the S/N ratio, while in suppressed cells it enhanced the F1/F0 ratio without any concurrent reduction in the S/N ratio. These effects were predominantly observed in regular-spiking cells, but not in fast-spiking cells. Electrophysiological and histological findings suggest that ACh promotes the signaling of grating-phase information to higher-order areas by a suppressive effect on supragranular layers and enhances feedback signals with a high S/N ratio to subcortical areas by a facilitatory effect on infragranular layers. Thus, ACh distinctly and finely controls visual information processing in a manner that is specific for the modulation and cell type and is also laminar dependent. PMID:23844199

  18. Cell module and fuel conditioner development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feret, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stack design having a 10 kW power rating for operation at higher than atmospheric pressure based on the existing Mark II design configuration is described. Functional analysis, trade studies and thermodynamic cycle analysis for requirements definition and system operating parameter selection purposes were performed. Fuel cell materials and components, and performance testing and evaluation of the repeating electrode components were characterized. The state of the art manufacturing technology for all fuel cell components and the fabrication of short stacks of various sites were established. A 10 kW PAFC stack design for higher pressure operation utilizing the top down systems engineering aproach was developed.

  19. Optical correlation of images with signal-dependent noise using constrained-modulation filter devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downie, John D.

    1995-07-01

    Images with signal-dependent noise present challenges beyond those of images with additive white or colored signal-independent noise in terms of designing the optimal 4-f correlation filter that maximizes correlation-peak signal-to-noise ratio, or combinations of correlation-peak metrics. Determining the proper design becomes more difficult when the filter is to be implemented on a constrained-modulation spatial light modulator device. The design issues involved for updatable optical filters for images with signal-dependent film-grain noise and speckle noise are examined. It is shown that although design of the optimal linear filter in the Fourier domain is impossible for images with signal-dependent noise, proper nonlinear preprocessing of the images allows the application of previously developed design rules for optimal filters to be implemented on constrained-modulation devices. Thus the nonlinear preprocessing becomes necessary for correlation in optical systems with current spatial light modulator technology. These results are illustrated with computer simulations of images with signal-dependent noise correlated with binary-phase-only filters and ternary-phase-amplitude filters.

  20. Optical Correlation of Images With Signal-Dependent Noise Using Constrained-Modulation Filter Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, John D.

    1995-01-01

    Images with signal-dependent noise present challenges beyond those of images with additive white or colored signal-independent noise in terms of designing the optimal 4-f correlation filter that maximizes correlation-peak signal-to-noise ratio, or combinations of correlation-peak metrics. Determining the proper design becomes more difficult when the filter is to be implemented on a constrained-modulation spatial light modulator device. The design issues involved for updatable optical filters for images with signal-dependent film-grain noise and speckle noise are examined. It is shown that although design of the optimal linear filter in the Fourier domain is impossible for images with signal-dependent noise, proper nonlinear preprocessing of the images allows the application of previously developed design rules for optimal filters to be implemented on constrained-modulation devices. Thus the nonlinear preprocessing becomes necessary for correlation in optical systems with current spatial light modulator technology. These results are illustrated with computer simulations of images with signal-dependent noise correlated with binary-phase-only filters and ternary-phase-amplitude filters.

  1. Selenium supplementation modulates apoptotic processes in thyroid follicular cells.

    PubMed

    Nettore, Immacolata C; De Nisco, Emma; Desiderio, Silvio; Passaro, Carmela; Maione, Luigi; Negri, Mariarosaria; Albano, Luigi; Pivonello, Rosario; Pivonello, Claudia; Portella, Giuseppe; Ungaro, Paola; Colao, Annamaria; Macchia, Paolo E

    2017-03-02

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient modulating several physiopathological processes in the human body. The aim of the study is to characterize the molecular effects determined by Se-supplementation in thyroid follicular cells, using as model the well-differentiated rat thyroid follicular cell line FRTL5. Experiments have been performed to evaluate the effects of Se on cell growth, mortality and proliferation and on modulation of pro- and antiapoptotic pathways. The results indicate that Se-supplementation improves FRTL5 growth rate. Furthermore, Se reduces the proportion of cell death and modulates both proapoptotic (p53 and Bim) and antiapoptotic (NF-kB and Bcl2) mRNA levels. In addition, incubation with high doses of Na-Se might prevent the ER-stress apoptosis induced by tunicamycin, as assessed by membrane integrity maintenance, reduction in caspase 3/7 activities, and reduction in Casp-3 and PARP cleavage. Taken together, these results provide molecular evidences indicating the role of Se supplementation on cell death and apoptosis modulation in thyroid follicular cells. These observations may be useful to understand the effects of this micronutrient on the physiopathology of the thyroid gland. © 2017 The Authors BioFactors published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2017.

  2. The polyamine inhibitor alpha-difluoromethylornithine modulates hippocampus-dependent function after single and combined injuries.

    PubMed

    Rosi, Susanna; Ferguson, Ryan; Fishman, Kelly; Allen, Antino; Raber, Jacob; Fike, John R

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to uncontrolled irradiation in a radiologic terrorism scenario, a natural disaster or a nuclear battlefield, will likely be concomitantly superimposed on other types of injury, such as trauma. In the central nervous system, radiation combined injury (RCI) involving irradiation and traumatic brain injury may have a multifaceted character. This may entail cellular and molecular changes that are associated with cognitive performance, including changes in neurogenesis and the expression of the plasticity-related immediate early gene Arc. Because traumatic stimuli initiate a characteristic early increase in polyamine metabolism, we hypothesized that treatment with the polyamine inhibitor alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) would reduce the adverse effects of single or combined injury on hippocampus structure and function. Hippocampal dependent cognitive impairments were quantified with the Morris water maze and showed that DFMO effectively reversed cognitive impairments after all injuries, particularly traumatic brain injury. Similar results were seen with respect to the expression of Arc protein, but not neurogenesis. Given that polyamines have been found to modulate inflammatory responses in the brain we also assessed the numbers of total and newly born activated microglia, and found reduced numbers of newly born cells. While the mechanisms responsible for the improvement in cognition after DFMO treatment are not yet clear, the present study provides new and compelling data regarding the potential use of DFMO as a potential countermeasure against the adverse effects of single or combined injury.

  3. Pin1-dependent signalling negatively affects GABAergic transmission by modulating neuroligin2/gephyrin interaction

    PubMed Central

    Antonelli, Roberta; Pizzarelli, Rocco; Pedroni, Andrea; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Del Sal, Giannino; Cherubini, Enrico; Zacchi, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The cell adhesion molecule Neuroligin2 (NL2) is localized selectively at GABAergic synapses, where it interacts with the scaffolding protein gephyrin in the post-synaptic density. However, the role of this interaction for formation and plasticity of GABAergic synapses is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous NL2 undergoes proline-directed phosphorylation at its unique S714-P consensus site, leading to the recruitment of the peptidyl-prolyl cis–trans isomerase Pin1. This signalling cascade negatively regulates NL2’s ability to interact with gephyrin at GABAergic post-synaptic sites. As a consequence, enhanced accumulation of NL2, gephyrin and GABAA receptors was detected at GABAergic synapses in the hippocampus of Pin1-knockout mice (Pin1−/−) associated with an increase in amplitude of spontaneous GABAA-mediated post-synaptic currents. Our results suggest that Pin1-dependent signalling represents a mechanism to modulate GABAergic transmission by regulating NL2/gephyrin interaction. PMID:25297980

  4. Fabricating high-concentration GaAs cell photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminar, N.R.; Hamaker, H.C.

    1986-04-01

    This program comprises the design and manufacture of components of a GaAs-cell, passively-cooled concentrator. A Fresnel lens, 5.44-inches square, was used in conjunction with a solid glass, domed-top secondary optical element to concentrate the light on single-junction GaAs cells. The cell had an active area 0.2 inches in diameter and was soldered directly to the copper heatspreader. The heatspreader was bonded with heat-conductive RTV to an aluminum dissipator, which formed the module housing. The module was designed to be attached to a tracker at the center. Obtained were 26% cell efficiency in flash tests and 19.2% combined lens/cell efficiency outdoors. Optical transmission was lower than expected due to higher than expected losses in the secondary. The secondaries were made using a molding technique applicable to mass production.

  5. [Modeling of the effect of modulated electromagnetic radiation on animal cells].

    PubMed

    Gapeev, A B; Chemeris, N K

    2000-01-01

    Frequency-dependent modifications of intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in neutrophils exposures to modulated extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation were analyzed using a special mathematical model for [Ca2+]i oscillations. The model took into account the activation of Ca2+ influx into the cell by cytosolic Ca2+ and Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. The calcium channels of plasma membrane were chosen as a target for the influence of harmonic signal and additive noise in the model. The model simulation showed that in response to modulating signal, the rise in [Ca2+]i, has frequency dependence and phase dependence in relation to the moment of chemical stimulation. The phase-frequency dependence of the effect was observed at a certain sequence of delivery of chemical stimulus and modulating signal to the cell. At intensities of modulating signals exceeding the threshold, a rise in [Ca2+]i, reaching a level of more than 50% of the initial level, was observed at a frequency of about 1 Hz and in the phase range of 0.3-2.5 radians. The effect was found only at high intensities of chemical stimulus. The additive noise introduced into the system modified qualitatively and quantitatively the phase-frequency characteristics of the cell response to the modulating signal. An increase in noise intensity resulted in a displacement of the average frequency of the band of rise in [Ca2+]i, and then the emergence of a set of bands with a greater Q-factors. The analysis of dynamics of the nonlinear system in terms of the stability theory showed that, as the intensity of chemical stimulus increases, the system transits by means of a series of bifurcations from regular driving to chaotic, and then to oscillations, induced by a modulating harmonic signal. The boundary of the transition of oscillations from chaotic to induced ones corresponds to a specific "threshold" of the intensity of chemical stimulus for the significant rise in [Ca2+]i

  6. Ligand-biased and probe-dependent modulation of chemokine receptor CXCR3 signaling by negative allosteric modulators.

    PubMed

    Bernat, Viachaslau; Brox, Regine; Heinrich, Markus R; Auberson, Yves P; Tschammer, Nuska

    2015-03-01

    Over the last decade, functional selectivity (or ligand bias) has evolved from being a peculiar phenomenon to being recognized as an essential feature of synthetic ligands that target G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) is an outstanding platform to study various aspects of biased signaling, because nature itself uses functional selectivity to manipulate receptor signaling. At the same time, CXCR3 is an attractive therapeutic target in the treatment of autoimmune diseases and cancer. Herein we report the discovery of an 8-azaquinazolinone derivative (N-{1-[3-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-4-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-yl]ethyl}-4-(4-fluorobutoxy)-N-[(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)methyl]butanamide, 1 b) that can inhibit CXC chemokine 11 (CXCL11)-dependent G protein activation over β-arrestin recruitment with 187-fold selectivity. This compound also demonstrates probe-dependent activity, that is, it inhibits CXCL11- over CXCL10-mediated G protein activation with 12-fold selectivity. Together with a previously reported biased negative allosteric modulator from our group, the present study provides additional information on the molecular requirements for allosteric modulation of CXCR3.

  7. Cell module and fuel conditioner development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feret, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The efforts performed to develop a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stack design having a 10 kW power rating for operation at higher than atmospheric pressure based on the existing Mark II design configuration are described. The work involves: (1) Performance of pertinent functional analysis, trade studies and thermodynamic cycle analysis for requirements definition and system operating parameter selection purposes, (2) characterization of fuel cell materials and components, and performance testing and evaluation of the repeating electrode components, (3) establishment of the state-of-the-art manufacturing technology for all fuel cell components at Westinghouse and the fabrication of short stacks of various sites, and (4) development of a 10 kW PAFC stack design for higher pressure operation utilizing the top down systems engineering approach.

  8. Task-dependent modulation of medial geniculate body is behaviorally relevant for speech recognition.

    PubMed

    von Kriegstein, Katharina; Patterson, Roy D; Griffiths, T D

    2008-12-09

    Recent work has shown that responses in first-order sensory thalamic nuclei are modulated by cortical areas. However, the functional role of such corticothalamic modulation and its relevance for human perception is still unclear. Here, we show in two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies that the neuronal response in the first-order auditory thalamus, the medial geniculate body (MGB), is increased when rapidly varying spectrotemporal features of speech sounds are processed, as compared to processing slowly varying spectrotemporal features of the same sounds. The strength of this task-dependent modulation is positively correlated with the speech recognition scores of individual subjects. These results show that task-dependent modulation of the MGB serves the processing of specific features of speech sounds and is behaviorally relevant for speech recognition. Our findings suggest that the first-order auditory thalamus is not simply a nonspecific gatekeeper controlled by attention. Together with studies in nonhuman mammals, our findings imply a mechanism in which the first-order auditory thalamus, possibly by corticothalamic modulation, reacts adaptively to features of sensory input.

  9. 77 FR 37877 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... International Trade Administration Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules... determination in the antidumping duty investigation of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not assembled into modules (``solar cells''), from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The...

  10. Interplay between regulatory T cells and PD-1 in modulating T cell exhaustion and viral control during chronic LCMV infection

    PubMed Central

    Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo; Kamphorst, Alice O.; Wieland, Andreas; Araki, Koichi; Iyer, Smita S.; West, Erin E.; O’Mara, Leigh; Yang, Shu; Konieczny, Bogumila T.; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Freeman, Gordon J.

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory T (T reg) cells are critical for preventing autoimmunity mediated by self-reactive T cells, but their role in modulating immune responses during chronic viral infection is not well defined. To address this question and to investigate a role for T reg cells in exhaustion of virus-specific CD8 T cells, we depleted T reg cells in mice chronically infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). T reg cell ablation resulted in 10–100-fold expansion of functional LCMV-specific CD8 T cells. Rescue of exhausted CD8 T cells was dependent on cognate antigen, B7 costimulation, and conventional CD4 T cells. Despite the striking recovery of LCMV-specific CD8 T cell responses, T reg cell depletion failed to diminish viral load. Interestingly, T reg cell ablation triggered up-regulation of the molecule programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1), which upon binding PD-1 on T cells delivers inhibitory signals. Increased PD-L1 expression was observed especially on LCMV-infected cells, and combining T reg cell depletion with PD-L1 blockade resulted in a significant reduction in viral titers, which was more pronounced than that upon PD-L1 blockade alone. These results suggest that T reg cells effectively maintain CD8 T cell exhaustion, but blockade of the PD-1 inhibitory pathway is critical for elimination of infected cells. PMID:25113973

  11. Downregulation of microRNA-637 Increases Risk of Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension by Modulating Expression of Cyclin Dependent Kinase 6 (CDK6) in Pulmonary Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Hai-yan; Jin, Ying-li; Zhang, Wen-qi; Chen, Li-bo

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism by which miR-637 interferes with the expression of CDK6, which contributes to the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Material/Methods We used an online miRNA database to identify CDK6 as a virtual target of miR-637, and validated the hypothesis using luciferase assay. Furthermore, we transfected SMCs with miR-637 mimics and inhibitor, and expression of CDK6 was determined using Western blot and real-time PCR. Results In this study, we identified CDK6 as a target of miR-637 in smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and determined the expression of miR-637 in SMCs from PH patients with COPD and normal controls. We also identified the exact miR-637 binding site in the 3′UTR of CDK6 by using a luciferase reporter system. The mRNA and protein expression levels of CDK6 in SMCs from PH patients with COPD were clearly upregulated compared with the normal controls. Cells exposed to hypoxia also showed notably increased CKD6 mRNA and protein expression levels, and when treated with miR-637 or CDK6 siRNA, this increase in CKD6 expression was clearly attenuated. Additionally, cell viability and cell cycle analysis showed that hypoxia markedly increased viability of SMCs by causing an accumulation in S phase, which was relieved by the introduction of miR-637 or CDK6 siRNA. Conclusions Our study proved that the CDK6 gene is a target of miR-637, and demonstrated the regulatory association between miR-637 and CDK6, suggesting a possible therapeutic target for PH, especially in patients with COPD. PMID:27794186

  12. Genistein modulates the effects of parathyroid hormone in human osteoblastic SaOS-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Fang; Wong, Man-Sau

    2006-06-01

    Genistein and parathyroid hormone (PTH) are anabolic agents that stimulate bone formation through their direct actions in osteoblastic cells. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether genistein modulates the actions of PTH in human osteoblastic SaOS-2 cells in an oestrogen-depleted condition. The present results showed that genistein (10(-8) to 10(-6) m) induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteoprotegrin (OPG) expression in SaOS-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. These effects could be completely abolished by co-treatment with oestrogen antagonist ICI 182780 (7alpha-[9-[(4,4,5,5,5-pentafluoropentyl)sulfonyl]nonyl]-estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17beta-diol). Genistein (at 1 microM) could stimulate the mRNA expression of receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL). As OPG and RANKL are known to modulate osteoclastogenesis, the ability of genistein to modulate OPG and RANKL expression in SaOS-2 cells suggested that it might modulate osteoclastogenesis through its direct actions on osteoblastic cells. PTH (at 10 nM) stimulated ALP activity, induced RANKL mRNA expression and suppressed OPG mRNA expression in SaOS-2 cells, confirming its bi-directional effects on osteoblastic cells. Pre-treatment of SaOS-2 cells with genistein and oestrogen not only enhanced PTH-induced ALP activity, but also attenuated PTH up regulation of RANKL mRNA expression and PTH down regulation of OPG mRNA expression. Taken together, the present study provides the first evidence that genistein could modulate the actions of PTH in human osteoblastic SaOS-2 cells in an oestrogen-depleted condition.

  13. Interaural attention modulates outer hair cell function.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Sridhar; Keil, Andreas; Stratis, Kyle; Osborne, Aaron F; Cerwonka, Colin; Wong, Jennifer; Rieger, Brenda L; Polcz, Valerie; Smith, David W

    2014-12-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that auditory attention tasks may modulate the sensitivity of the cochlea by way of the corticofugal and the medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent pathways. Here, we studied the extent to which a separate efferent tract, the 'uncrossed' MOC, which functionally connects the two ears, mediates inter-aural selective attention. We compared distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) in one ear with binaurally presented primaries, using an intermodal target detection task in which participants were instructed to report the occurrence of brief target events (visual changes, tones). Three tasks were compared under identical physical stimulation: (i) report brief tones in the ear in which DPOAE responses were recorded; (ii) report brief tones presented to the contralateral, non-recorded ear; and (iii) report brief phase shifts of a visual grating at fixation. Effects of attention were observed as parallel shifts in overall DPOAE contour level, with DPOAEs relatively higher in overall level when subjects ignored the auditory stimuli and attended to the visual stimulus, compared with both of the auditory-attending conditions. Importantly, DPOAE levels were statistically lowest when attention was directed to the ipsilateral ear in which the DPOAE recordings were made. These data corroborate notions that top-down mechanisms, via the corticofugal and medial efferent pathways, mediate cochlear responses during intermodal attention. New findings show attending to one ear can significantly alter the physiological response of the contralateral, unattended ear, probably through the uncrossed-medial olivocochlear efferent fibers connecting the two ears.

  14. Synthesis and SAR study of modulators inhibiting tRXRα-dependent AKT activation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Liqun; Chen, Jiebo; Zheng, Jian-Feng; Gao, Weiwei; Zeng, Zhiping; Zhou, Hu; Zhang, Xiao-kun; Huang, Pei-Qiang; Su, Ying

    2013-01-01

    RXRα represents an intriguing and unique target for pharmacologic interventions. We recently showed that Sulindac and a designed analog could bind to RXRα and modulate its biological activity, including inhibition of the interaction of an N-terminally truncated RXRα (tRXRα) with the p85α regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K). Here we report the synthesis, testing and SAR of a series of novel analogs of Sulindac as potential modulators for inhibiting tRXRα-dependent AKT activation. A new compound 30 was identified to have improved biological activity. PMID:23434637

  15. Environmental qualification testing of terrestrial solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The placement of solar cell modules in various climates and locations throughout the world results in different degrees and combinations of environmental stresses. Coupled with a design lifetime goal of 20 years, early detection and correction of module design deficiencies can result in significantly better long-term economics. This paper describes an environmental test research program for developing qualification requirements and procedures for flat-plate solar cell modules. A multiple iterative approach for establishing and evaluating test requirements is discussed as well as the rationale for the selection of levels and durations for the current qualification tests. The status of study efforts involving optical surface soiling, encapsulation delamination, and voltage bias-humidity testing is reviewed.

  16. TRPV6 modulates proliferation of human pancreatic neuroendocrine BON-1 tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Skrzypski, Marek; Kołodziejski, Paweł A.; Mergler, Stefan; Khajavi, Noushafarin; Nowak, Krzysztof W.; Strowski, Mathias Z.

    2016-01-01

    Highly Ca2+ permeable receptor potential channel vanilloid type 6 (TRPV6) modulates a variety of biological functions including calcium-dependent cell growth and apoptosis. So far, the role of TRPV6 in controlling growth of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (NET) cells is unknown. In the present study, we characterize the expression of TRPV6 in pancreatic BON-1 and QGP-1 NET cells. Furthermore, we evaluate the impact of TRPV6 on intracellular calcium, the activity of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) and proliferation of BON-1 cells. TRPV6 expression was assessed by real-time PCR and Western blot. TRPV6 mRNA expression and protein production were down-regulated by siRNA. Changes in intracellular calcium levels were detected by fluorescence calcium imaging (fura-2/AM). NFAT activity was studied by NFAT reporter assay; cell proliferation by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), MTT and propidium iodine staining. TRPV6 mRNA and protein are present in BON-1 and QGP-1 NET-cells. Down-regulation of TRPV6 attenuates BON-1 cell proliferation. TRPV6 down-regulation is associated with decreased Ca2+ response pattern and reduced NFAT activity. In conclusion, TRPV6 is expressed in pancreatic NETs and modulates cell proliferation via Ca2+-dependent mechanism, which is accompanied by NFAT activation. PMID:27450545

  17. TRPV6 modulates proliferation of human pancreatic neuroendocrine BON-1 tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Skrzypski, Marek; Kołodziejski, Paweł A; Mergler, Stefan; Khajavi, Noushafarin; Nowak, Krzysztof W; Strowski, Mathias Z

    2016-08-01

    Highly Ca(2+) permeable receptor potential channel vanilloid type 6 (TRPV6) modulates a variety of biological functions including calcium-dependent cell growth and apoptosis. So far, the role of TRPV6 in controlling growth of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (NET) cells is unknown. In the present study, we characterize the expression of TRPV6 in pancreatic BON-1 and QGP-1 NET cells. Furthermore, we evaluate the impact of TRPV6 on intracellular calcium, the activity of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) and proliferation of BON-1 cells. TRPV6 expression was assessed by real-time PCR and Western blot. TRPV6 mRNA expression and protein production were down-regulated by siRNA. Changes in intracellular calcium levels were detected by fluorescence calcium imaging (fura-2/AM). NFAT activity was studied by NFAT reporter assay; cell proliferation by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), MTT and propidium iodine staining. TRPV6 mRNA and protein are present in BON-1 and QGP-1 NET-cells. Down-regulation of TRPV6 attenuates BON-1 cell proliferation. TRPV6 down-regulation is associated with decreased Ca(2+) response pattern and reduced NFAT activity. In conclusion, TRPV6 is expressed in pancreatic NETs and modulates cell proliferation via Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism, which is accompanied by NFAT activation.

  18. Fatigue degradation and electric recovery in Silicon solar cells embedded in photovoltaic modules

    PubMed Central

    Paggi, Marco; Berardone, Irene; Infuso, Andrea; Corrado, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Cracking in Silicon solar cells is an important factor for the electrical power-loss of photovoltaic modules. Simple geometrical criteria identifying the amount of inactive cell areas depending on the position of cracks with respect to the main electric conductors have been proposed in the literature to predict worst case scenarios. Here we present an experimental study based on the electroluminescence (EL) technique showing that crack propagation in monocrystalline Silicon cells embedded in photovoltaic (PV) modules is a much more complex phenomenon. In spite of the very brittle nature of Silicon, due to the action of the encapsulating polymer and residual thermo-elastic stresses, cracked regions can recover the electric conductivity during mechanical unloading due to crack closure. During cyclic bending, fatigue degradation is reported. This pinpoints the importance of reducing cyclic stresses caused by vibrations due to transportation and use, in order to limit the effect of cracking in Silicon cells. PMID:24675974

  19. Cdk2-dependent phosphorylation of Id2 modulates activity of E2A-related transcription factors.

    PubMed Central

    Hara, E; Hall, M; Peters, G

    1997-01-01

    The helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein Id2 is thought to affect the balance between cell growth and differentiation by negatively regulating the function of basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. Id2 acts by forming heterodimers that are unable to bind to specific (E-box) DNA sequences. Here we show that this activity can be overcome by phosphorylation of a serine residue within a consensus target site for cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks). In vitro, Id2 can be phosphorylated by either cyclin E-Cdk2 or cyclin A-Cdk2 but not by cyclin D-dependent kinases. Analogous phosphorylation occurs in serum-stimulated human diploid fibroblasts at a time in late G1 consistent with the appearance of active cyclin E-Cdk2. The phosphorylation of Id2 in these cells correlates with the restoration of a distinct E-box-dependent DNA-binding complex, suggesting that the levels of this complex are modulated by both the abundance and phosphorylation status of Id2. These data provide a link between cyclin-dependent kinases and bHLH transcription factors that may be critical for the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. PMID:9029153

  20. Glycan-Based Cell Targeting To Modulate Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Johannssen, Timo; Lepenies, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    Glycosylation is an integral post-translational modification present in more than half of all eukaryotic proteins. It affects key protein functions, including folding, stability, and immunogenicity. Glycoengineering approaches, such as the use of bacterial N-glycosylation systems, or expression systems, including yeasts, insect cells, and mammalian cells, have enabled access to defined and homogenous glycoproteins. Given that glycan structures on proteins can be recognized by host lectin receptors, they may facilitate cell-specific targeting and immune modulation. Myeloid C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) expressed by antigen-presenting cells are attractive targets to shape immune responses. Multivalent glycan display on nanoparticles, liposomes, or dendrimers has successfully enabled CLR targeting. In this review, we discuss novel strategies to access defined glycan structures and highlight CLR targeting approaches for immune modulation.

  1. Modulation of prostaglandin biosynthesis in murine mammary adenocarcinoma tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shalinsky, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    In efforts to exploit the differential oxygen levels within the subcompartments of solid neoplasms, this project has focused on modulating prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis under aerobic and hypoxic conditions. Mammary adenocarcinoma tumor cells (Line 4526), either intact or sonicated, were incubated with either 2.0 uM {sup 14}C-arachidonic acid (AA) or 20.0 uM {sup 14}C-PGH{sub 2}, respectively. Following metabolism, products were extracted, separated by thin layer chromatography and analyzed by radiochromatographic scan. PGE{sub 2} was predominantly formed with minimal amounts of PGF{sub 2a} or PGD{sub 2}. Indomethacin and ibuprofen inhibited the PGE{sub 2} formation from AA with an IC{sub 50} value of 6.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} and 9.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}M, respectively. Suspended cells in glass vials were made hypoxic by flushing with N{sub 2} for varying time intervals to study AA metabolism. A time-dependent inhibition of PG biosynthesis was observed under hypoxia, and by 30 min, the PGE{sub 2} synthesis was reduced by 50% which was further inhibited by indomethacin. Misonidazole, a 2-nitroimidazole analogue, partially reversed the inhibition of PGE{sub 2} synthesis under hypoxia by 49% at 100 uM. However, misonidazole did not affect PG biosynthesis under aerobic conditions. The stimulation of PGE{sub 2} biosynthesis by misonidazole under hypoxia was blocked by indomethacin, suggesting that misonidazole can not act independently of the cyclooxygenase.

  2. Age-dependent modulation of the somatosensory network upon eye closure.

    PubMed

    Brodoehl, Stefan; Klingner, Carsten; Witte, Otto W

    2016-02-01

    Eye closure even in complete darkness can improve somatosensory perception by switching the brain to a uni-sensory processing mode. This causes an increased information flow between the thalamus and the somatosensory cortex while decreasing modulation by the visual cortex. Previous work suggests that these modulations are age-dependent and that the benefit in somatosensory performance due to eye closing diminishes with age. The cause of this age-dependency and to what extent somatosensory processing is involved remains unclear. Therefore, we intended to characterize the underlying age-dependent modifications in the interaction and connectivity of different sensory networks caused by eye closure. We performed functional MR-imaging with tactile stimulation of the right hand under the conditions of opened and closed eyes in healthy young and elderly participants. Conditional Granger causality analysis was performed to assess the somatosensory and visual networks, including the thalamus. Independent of age, eye closure improved the information transfer from the thalamus to and within the somatosensory cortex. However, beyond that, we found an age-dependent recruitment strategy. Whereas young participants were characterized by an optimized information flow within the relays of the somatosensory network, elderly participants revealed a stronger modulatory influence of the visual network upon the somatosensory cortex. Our results demonstrate that the modulation of the somatosensory and visual networks by eye closure diminishes with age and that the dominance of the visual system is more pronounced in the aging brain.

  3. Monocyte cell surface glycosaminoglycans positively modulate IL-4-induced differentiation toward dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    den Dekker, Els; Grefte, Sander; Huijs, Tonnie; ten Dam, Gerdy B; Versteeg, Elly M M; van den Berk, Lieke C J; Bladergroen, Bellinda A; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Figdor, Carl G; Torensma, Ruurd

    2008-03-15

    IL-4 induces the differentiation of monocytes toward dendritic cells (DCs). The activity of many cytokines is modulated by glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). In this study, we explored the effect of GAGs on the IL-4-induced differentiation of monocytes toward DCs. IL-4 dose-dependently up-regulated the expression of DC-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), CD80, CD206, and CD1a. Monocytes stained positive with Abs against heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) B (CSB; dermatan sulfate), but not with Abs that recognize CSA, CSC, and CSE. Inhibition of sulfation of monocyte/DC cell surface GAGs by sodium chlorate reduced the reactivity of sulfate-recognizing single-chain Abs. This correlated with hampered IL-4-induced DC differentiation as evidenced by lower expression of DC-SIGN and CD1a and a decreased DC-induced PBL proliferation, suggesting that sulfated monocyte cell surface GAGs support IL-4 activity. Furthermore, removal of cell surface chondroitin sulfates by chondroitinase ABC strongly impaired IL-4-induced STAT6 phosphorylation, whereas removal of HS by heparinase III had only a weak inhibitory effect. IL-4 bound to heparin and CSB, but not to HS, CSA, CSC, CSD, and CSE. Binding of IL-4 required iduronic acid, an N-sulfate group (heparin) and specific O sulfates (CSB and heparin). Together, these data demonstrate that monocyte cell surface chondroitin sulfates play an important role in the IL-4-driven differentiation of monocytes into DCs.

  4. Cell module and fuel conditioner development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The design features and plans for fabrication of Stacks 564 and 800 are described. The results of the OS/IES loop testing of Stack 562, endurance testing of Stack 560 and the post test analysis of Stack 561 are reported. Progress on construction and modification of the fuel cell test facilities and the 10 kW reformer test station is described. Efforts to develop the technical data base for the fuel conditioning system included vendor contacts, packed bed heat transfer tests, development of the BOLTAR computer program, and work on the detailed design of the 10 kW reformer are described.

  5. Cell module and fuel conditioner development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The test results of and post test analysis of Stack 559 are reported. The design features and construction status of Stacks 560, 561, 562 and 563 are described. The measurements of cell materials compressibility are rationalized and summarized and an explanation of their uses is given. Preliminary results of a manifold material/coating survey are given. The results of shift converter catalyst performance tests and reforming catalyst aging tests are reported. State points for full load and part load operation of the fuel conditioning subsystem tabulated. Work on the data base for the fuel conditioner ancillary subsystems is summarized.

  6. Adrenergic and cromolyn sodium modulation of ECL cell histamine secretion.

    PubMed

    Lawton, G P; Tang, L H; Miu, K; Gilligan, C J; Absood, A; Modlin, I M

    1995-01-01

    The histamine secreting enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell is now recognized as the principal regulator of gastric acid secretion. Histamine is not only a primary modulator of acid secretion, but may be of relevance in gastritis and as a mitogen in gastric neoplasia. Study of the ECL cell has been limited since no pure preparation was available. We therefore developed a pure isolated ECL cell preparation with a purity of 90-95% as determined by total histamine content and chromogranin immunofluorescence. Trypan blue exclusion demonstrated > 95% viability. While gastrin and acetylcholine are known modulators of acid secretion, the role of adrenergic neurotransmitters has not been clearly delineated. The purpose of this study was to examine adrenergic modulation of ECL cell histamine release. To further define the inhibitory mechanisms of histamine secretion, we evaluated the mast cell histamine inhibitor sodium cromoglycate. Histamine secretion was determined by radioimmunoassay. Basal secretion was 0.6 +/- 0.2 nmol/10(3) cells. Gastrin stimulated histamine secretion with an EC50 of 3 x 10(-10) M. Octopamine (alpha-adrenergic agonist) (10(-11)-10(-4) M) failed to stimulate histamine secretion. Isoproterenol (beta-adrenergic agonist) stimulated histamine secretion (EC50, 6 x 10(-8) M) and was inhibited by propranolol (IC50 5 x 10(-10) M).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Iron-dependent cell death of hepatocellular carcinoma cells exposed to sorafenib.

    PubMed

    Louandre, Christophe; Ezzoukhry, Zakaria; Godin, Corinne; Barbare, Jean-Claude; Mazière, Jean-Claude; Chauffert, Bruno; Galmiche, Antoine

    2013-10-01

    The multikinase inhibitor sorafenib is currently the treatment of reference for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In our report, we examined the cytotoxic effects of sorafenib on HCC cells. We report that the depletion of the intracellular iron stores achieved by using the iron chelator deferoxamine (DFX) strikingly protects HCC cells from the cytotoxic effects of sorafenib. The protective effect of the depletion of intracellular iron stores could not be explained by an interference with conventional forms of programmed cell death, such as apoptosis or autophagic cell death. We also found that DFX did not prevent sorafenib from reaching its intracellular target kinases. Instead, the depletion of intracellular iron stores prevented sorafenib from inducing oxidative stress in HCC cells. We examined the possibility that sorafenib might exert a cytotoxic effect that resembles ferroptosis, a form of cell death in which iron-dependent oxidative mechanisms play a pivotal role. In agreement with this possibility, we found that pharmacological inhibitors (ferrostatin-1) and genetic procedures (RNA interference against IREB-2) previously reported to modulate ferroptosis, readily block the cytotoxic effects of sorafenib in HCC cells. Collectively, our findings identify ferroptosis as an effective mechanism for the induction of cell death in HCC. Ferroptosis could potentially become a goal for the medical treatment of HCC, thus opening new avenues for the optimization of the use of sorafenib in these tumors.

  8. High-Power, High-Speed Electro-Optic Pockels Cell Modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawthorne, Justin; Battle, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Electro-optic modulators rely on a change in the index of refraction for the optical wave as a function of an applied voltage. The corresponding change in index acts to delay the wavefront in the waveguide. The goal of this work was to develop a high-speed, high-power waveguide- based modulator (phase and amplitude) and investigate its use as a pulse slicer. The key innovation in this effort is the use of potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) waveguides, making the highpower, polarization-based waveguide amplitude modulator possible. Furthermore, because it is fabricated in KTP, the waveguide component will withstand high optical power and have a significantly higher RF modulation figure of merit (FOM) relative to lithium niobate. KTP waveguides support high-power TE and TM modes - a necessary requirement for polarization-based modulation as with a Pockels cell. High-power fiber laser development has greatly outpaced fiber-based modulators in terms of its maturity and specifications. The demand for high-performance nonlinear optical (NLO) devices in terms of power handling, efficiency, bandwidth, and useful wavelength range has driven the development of bulk NLO options, which are limited in their bandwidth, as well as waveguide based LN modulators, which are limited by their low optical damage threshold. Today, commercially available lithium niobate (LN) modulators are used for laser formatting; however, because of photorefractive damage that can reduce transmission and increase requirements on bias control, LN modulators cannot be used with powers over several mW, dependent on wavelength. The high-power, high-speed modulators proposed for development under this effort will enable advancements in several exciting fields including lidarbased remote sensing, atomic interferometry, free-space laser communications, and others.

  9. Fibronectin matrix polymerization regulates smooth muscle cell phenotype through a Rac1 dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Shi, Feng; Long, Xiaochun; Hendershot, Allison; Miano, Joseph M; Sottile, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells are maintained in a differentiated state in the vessel wall, but can be modulated to a synthetic phenotype following injury. Smooth muscle phenotypic modulation is thought to play an important role in the pathology of vascular occlusive diseases. Phenotypically modulated smooth muscle cells exhibit increased proliferative and migratory properties that accompany the downregulation of smooth muscle cell marker proteins. Extracellular matrix proteins, including fibronectin, can regulate the smooth muscle phenotype when used as adhesive substrates. However, cells produce and organize a 3-dimensional fibrillar extracellular matrix, which can affect cell behavior in distinct ways from the protomeric 2-dimensional matrix proteins that are used as adhesive substrates. We previously showed that the deposition/polymerization of fibronectin into the extracellular matrix can regulate the deposition and organization of other extracellular matrix molecules in vitro. Further, our published data show that the presence of a fibronectin polymerization inhibitor results in increased expression of smooth muscle cell differentiation proteins and inhibits vascular remodeling in vivo. In this manuscript, we used an in vitro cell culture system to determine the mechanism by which fibronectin polymerization affects smooth muscle phenotypic modulation. Our data show that fibronectin polymerization decreases the mRNA levels of multiple smooth muscle differentiation genes, and downregulates the levels of smooth muscle α-actin and calponin proteins by a Rac1-dependent mechanism. The expression of smooth muscle genes is transcriptionally regulated by fibronectin polymerization, as evidenced by the increased activity of luciferase reporter constructs in the presence of a fibronectin polymerization inhibitor. Fibronectin polymerization also promotes smooth muscle cell growth, and decreases the levels of actin stress fibers. These data define a Rac1-dependent pathway wherein

  10. Effects of hepatocyte growth factor on glutathione synthesis, growth, and apoptosis is cell density-dependent

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Heping; Magilnick, Nathaniel; Xia Meng; Lu, Shelly C.

    2008-01-15

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent hepatocyte mitogen that exerts opposing effects depending on cell density. Glutathione (GSH) is the main non-protein thiol in mammalian cells that modulates growth and apoptosis. We previously showed that GSH level is inversely related to cell density of hepatocytes and is positively related to growth. Our current work examined whether HGF can modulate GSH synthesis in a cell density-dependent manner and how GSH in turn influence HGF's effects. We found HGF treatment of H4IIE cells increased cell GSH levels only under subconfluent density. The increase in cell GSH under low density was due to increased transcription of GSH synthetic enzymes. This correlated with increased protein levels and nuclear binding activities of c-Jun, c-Fos, p65, p50, Nrf1 and Nrf2 to the promoter region of these genes. HGF acts as a mitogen in H4IIE cells under low cell density and protects against tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha})-induced apoptosis by limiting JNK activation. However, HGF is pro-apoptotic under high cell density and exacerbates TNF{alpha}-induced apoptosis by potentiating JNK activation. The increase in cell GSH under low cell density allows HGF to exert its full mitogenic effect but is not necessary for its anti-apoptotic effect.

  11. Modulation of vascular cell function by bim expression.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Margaret E; Palenski, Tammy L; Jamali, Nasim; Sheibani, Nader; Sorenson, Christine M

    2013-01-01

    Apoptosis of vascular cells, including pericytes and endothelial cells, contributes to disease pathogenesis in which vascular rarefaction plays a central role. Bim is a proapoptotic protein that modulates not only apoptosis but also cellular functions such as migration and extracellular matrix (ECM) protein expression. Endothelial cells and pericytes each make a unique contribution to vascular formation and function although the details require further delineation. Here we set out to determine the cell autonomous impact of Bim expression on retinal endothelial cell and pericyte function using cells prepared from Bim deficient (Bim(-/-)) mice. Bim(-/-) endothelial cells displayed an increased production of ECM proteins, proliferation, migration, adhesion, and VEGF expression but, a decreased eNOS expression and nitric oxide production. In contrast, pericyte proliferation decreased in the absence of Bim while migration, adhesion, and VEGF expression were increased. In addition, we demonstrated that the coculturing of either wild-type or Bim(-/-) endothelial cells with Bim(-/-) pericytes diminished their capillary morphogenesis. Thus, our data further emphasizes the importance of vascular cell autonomous regulatory mechanisms in modulation of vascular function.

  12. New Evidence for Charge-sign-dependent Modulation During the Solar Minimum of 2006 to 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Felice, V.; Munini, R.; Vos, E. E.; Potgieter, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    The PAMELA space experiment, in orbit since 2006, has measured cosmic rays (CRs) through the most recent period of minimum solar activity with the magnetic field polarity as A < 0. During this entire time, galactic electrons and protons have been detected down to 70 MV and 400 MV, respectively, and their differential variation in intensity with time has been monitored with unprecedented accuracy. These observations are used to show how differently electrons and protons responded to the quiet modulation conditions that prevailed from 2006 to 2009. It is well known that particle drifts, as one of four major mechanisms for the solar modulation of CRs, cause charge-sign-dependent solar modulation. Periods of minimum solar activity provide optimal conditions in which to study these drift effects. The observed behavior is compared to the solutions of a three-dimensional model for CRs in the heliosphere, including drifts. The numerical results confirm that the difference in the evolution of electron and proton spectra during the last prolonged solar minimum is attributed to a large extent to particle drifts. We therefore present new evidence of charge-sign-dependent solar modulation, with a perspective on its peculiarities for the observed period from 2006 to 2009.

  13. Inelastic dark matter with spin-dependent couplings to protons and large modulation fractions in DAMA

    SciTech Connect

    Scopel, Stefano; Yoon, Kook-Hyun E-mail: koreasds@naver.com

    2016-02-01

    We discuss a scenario where the DAMA modulation effect is explained by a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) which upscatters inelastically to a heavier state and predominantly couples to the spin of protons. In this scenario constraints from xenon and germanium targets are evaded dynamically, due to the suppression of the WIMP coupling to neutrons, while those from fluorine targets are evaded kinematically, because the minimal WIMP incoming speed required to trigger upscatters off fluorine exceeds the maximal WIMP velocity in the Galaxy, or is very close to it. In this scenario WIMP scatterings off sodium are usually sensitive to the large-speed tail of the WIMP velocity distribution and modulated fractions of the signal close to unity arise in a natural way. On the other hand, a halo-independent analysis with more conservative assumptions about the WIMP velocity distribution allows to extend the viable parameter space to configurations where large modulated fractions are not strictly necessary. We discuss large modulated fractions in the Maxwellian case showing that they imply a departure from the usual cosine time dependence of the expected signal in DAMA. However we explicitly show that the DAMA data is not sensitive to this distortion, both in time and frequency space, even in the extreme case of a 100 % modulated fraction. Moreover the same scenario provides an explanation of the maximum in the energy spectrum of the modulation amplitude detected by DAMA in terms of WIMPs whose minimal incoming speed matches the kinematic threshold for inelastic upscatters. For the elastic case the detection of such maximum suggests an inversion of the modulation phase below the present DAMA energy threshold, while this is not expected for inelastic scattering. This may allow to discriminate between the two scenarios in a future low-threshold analysis of the DAMA data.

  14. Spatially-dependent Dynamic MAPK Modulation by the Nde1-Lis1-Brap Complex Patterns Mammalian CNS

    PubMed Central

    Lanctot, Alison A.; Peng, Chian-Yu; Pawlisz, Ashley S.; Joksimovic, Milan; Feng, Yuanyi

    2013-01-01

    Summary Regulating cell proliferation and differentiation in CNS development requires both extraordinary complexity and precision. Neural progenitors receive graded overlapping signals from midline signaling centers, yet each makes a unique cell fate decision in a spatiotemporally restricted pattern. The Nde1-Lis1 complex regulates individualized cell fate decisions based on the geographical location with respect to the midline. While cells distant from the midline fail to self-renew in the Nde1-Lis1 double mutant CNS, cells embedded in the signaling centers showed marked over-proliferation. A direct interaction between Lis1 and Brap, a MAPK signaling threshold modulator, mediates this differential response to mitogenic signal gradients. Nde1-Lis1 deficiency resulted in a spatially-dependent alteration of MAPK scaffold Ksr and hyper-activation of MAPK. Epistasis analyses supported synergistic Brap and Lis1 functions. These results suggest that a molecular complex composed of Nde1, Lis1, and Brap regulates the dynamic MAPK signaling threshold in a spatially-dependent fashion. PMID:23673330

  15. Cripto regulates skeletal muscle regeneration and modulates satellite cell determination by antagonizing myostatin.

    PubMed

    Guardiola, Ombretta; Lafuste, Peggy; Brunelli, Silvia; Iaconis, Salvatore; Touvier, Thierry; Mourikis, Philippos; De Bock, Katrien; Lonardo, Enza; Andolfi, Gennaro; Bouché, Ann; Liguori, Giovanna L; Shen, Michael M; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim; Cossu, Giulio; Carmeliet, Peter; Minchiotti, Gabriella

    2012-11-20

    Skeletal muscle regeneration mainly depends on satellite cells, a population of resident muscle stem cells. However, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying satellite cell activation is still largely undefined. Here, we show that Cripto, a regulator of early embryogenesis, is a novel regulator of muscle regeneration and satellite cell progression toward the myogenic lineage. Conditional inactivation of cripto in adult satellite cells compromises skeletal muscle regeneration, whereas gain of function of Cripto accelerates regeneration, leading to muscle hypertrophy. Moreover, we provide evidence that Cripto modulates myogenic cell determination and promotes proliferation by antagonizing the TGF-β ligand myostatin. Our data provide unique insights into the molecular and cellular basis of Cripto activity in skeletal muscle regeneration and raise previously undescribed implications for stem cell biology and regenerative medicine.

  16. A Subpopulation of Neuronal M4 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors Plays a Critical Role in Modulating Dopamine-Dependent Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jongrye; Dencker, Ditte; Wortwein, Gitta; Woldbye, David P. D.; Cui, Yinghong; Davis, Albert A.; Levey, Allan I.; Schütz, Günther; Sager, Thomas; Mørk, Arne; Li, Cuiling; Deng, Chu-Xia; Fink-Jensen, Anders; Wess, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) regulates many key functions of the CNS by activating cell surface receptors referred to as muscarinic ACh receptors (M1–M5 mAChRs). Like other mAChR subtypes, the M4 mAChR is widely expressed in different regions of the forebrain. Interestingly, M4 mAChRs are coexpressed with D1 dopamine receptors in a specific subset of striatal projection neurons. To investigate the physiological relevance of this M4 mAChR subpopulation in modulating dopamine-dependent behaviors, we used Cre/loxP technology to generate mutant mice that lack M4 mAChRs only in D1 dopamine receptor-expressing cells. The newly generated mutant mice displayed several striking behavioral phenotypes including enhanced hyperlocomotor activity and increased behavioral sensitization following treatment with psychostimulants. These behavioral changes wereaccompanied by a lack of muscarinic inhibition of D1 dopamine receptor-mediated camp stimulation in the striatum and an increase in dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens. These novel findings demonstrate that a distinct subpopulation of neuronal M4 mAChRs plays a critical role in modulating several important dopamine-dependent behaviors. Since enhanced central dopaminergic neurotransmission is a hallmark of several severe disorders of the CNS, including schizophrenia and drug addiction, our findings have substantial clinical relevance. PMID:20147565

  17. Type-dependent stochastic Ising model describing the dynamics of a non-symmetric feedback module.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Navarrete, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    We study an alternative approach to model the dynamical behaviors of biological feedback loop, that is, a type-dependent spin system, this class of stochastic models was introduced by Fernández et. al [13], and are useful since take account to inherent variability of gene expression. We analyze a non-symmetric feedback module being an extension for the repressilator, the first synthetic biological oscillator, invented by Elowitz and Leibler [7]. We consider a mean-field dynamics for a type-dependent Ising model, and then study the empirical-magnetization vector representing concentration of molecules. We apply a convergence result from stochastic jump processes to deterministic trajectories and present a bifurcation analysis for the associated dynamical system. We show that non-symmetric module under study can exhibit very rich behaviours, including the empirical oscillations described by repressilator.

  18. ARTICULAR CARTILAGE TENSILE INTEGRITY: MODULATION BY MATRIX DEPLETION IS MATURATION-DEPENDENT

    PubMed Central

    Asanbaeva, Anna; Tam, Johnny; Schumacher, Barbara L.; Klisch, Stephen M.; Masuda, Koichi; Sah, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Articular cartilage function depends on the molecular composition and structure of its extracellular matrix (ECM). The collagen network (CN) provides cartilage with tensile integrity, but must also remodel during growth. Such remodeling may depend on matrix molecules interacting with the CN to modulate the tensile behavior of cartilage. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of increasingly selective matrix depletion on tensile properties of immature and mature articular cartilage, and thereby establish a framework for identifying molecules involved in CN remodeling. Depletion of immature cartilage with guanidine, chondroitinase ABC, chondroitinase AC, and Streptomyces hyaluronidase markedly increased tensile integrity, while the integrity of mature cartilage remained unaltered after depletion with guanidine. The enhanced tensile integrity after matrix depletion suggests that certain ECM components of immature matrix serve to inhibit CN interactions and may act as modulators of physiological alterations of cartilage geometry and tensile properties during growth/maturation. PMID:18394422

  19. Distinct T helper cell dependence of memory B-cell proliferation versus plasma cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zabel, Franziska; Fettelschoss, Antonia; Vogel, Monique; Johansen, Pål; Kündig, Thomas M; Bachmann, Martin F

    2017-03-01

    Several memory B-cell subclasses with distinct functions have been described, of which the most effective is the class-switched (CS) memory B-cell population. We have previously shown, using virus-like particles (VLPs), that the proliferative potential of these CS memory B cells is limited and they fail to re-enter germinal centres (GCs). However, VLP-specific memory B cells quickly differentiated into secondary plasma cells (PCs) with the virtue of elevated antibody production compared with primary PCs. Whereas the induction of VLP(+) memory B cells was strongly dependent on T helper cells, we were wondering whether re-stimulation of VLP(+) memory B cells and their differentiation into secondary PCs would also require T helper cells. Global absence of T helper cells led to strongly impaired memory B cell proliferation and PC differentiation. In contrast, lack of interleukin-21 receptor-dependent follicular T helper cells or CD40 ligand signalling strongly affected proliferation of memory B cells, but differentiation into mature secondary PCs exhibiting increased antibody production was essentially normal. This contrasts with primary B-cell responses, where a strong dependence on CD40 ligand but limited importance of interleukin-21 receptor was seen. Hence, T helper cell dependence differs between primary and secondary B-cell responses as well as between memory B-cell proliferation and PC differentiation.

  20. Cell division modulates prion accumulation in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Ghaemmaghami, Sina; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Perkins, Beth; Ullman, Julie; May, Barnaby C H; Cohen, Fred E; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2007-11-13

    The phenotypic effect of prions on host cells is influenced by the physical properties of the prion strain and its level of accumulation. In mammalian cell cultures, prion accumulation is determined by the interplay between de novo prion formation, catabolism, cell division, and horizontal cell-to-cell transmission. Understanding this dynamic enables the analytical modeling of protein-based heritability and infectivity. Here, we quantitatively measured these competing effects in a subline of neuroblastoma (N2a) cells and propose a concordant reaction mechanism to explain the kinetics of prion propagation. Our results show that cell division leads to a predictable reduction in steady-state prion levels but not to complete clearance. Scrapie-infected N2a cells were capable of accumulating different steady-state levels of prions, dictated partly by the rate of cell division. We also show that prions in this subline of N2a cells are transmitted primarily from mother to daughter cells, rather than horizontal cell-to-cell transmission. We quantitatively modeled our kinetic results based on a mechanism that assumes a subpopulation of prions is capable of self-catalysis, and the levels of this subpopulation reach saturation in fully infected cells. Our results suggest that the apparent effectiveness of antiprion compounds in culture may be strongly influenced by the growth phase of the target cells.

  1. Voltage-Dependent Intrinsic Bursting in Olfactory Bulb Golgi Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressler, R. Todd; Rozman, Peter A.; Strowbridge, Ben W.

    2013-01-01

    In the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB), local synaptic circuits modulate the evolving pattern of activity in mitral and tufted cells following olfactory sensory stimulation. GABAergic granule cells, the most numerous interneuron subtype in this brain region, have been extensively studied. However, classic studies using Golgi staining methods…

  2. Differential oxidative modulation of voltage-dependent K+ currents in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Müller, Wolfgang; Bittner, Katrin

    2002-06-01

    Oxidative stress is enhanced by [Ca2+]i-dependent stimulation of phospholipases and mitochondria and has been implicated in immune defense, ischemia, and excitotoxicity. Using whole cell recording from hippocampal neurons, we show that arachidonic acid (AA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) both reduce the transient K+ current I(A) by -54 and -68%, respectively, and shift steady-state inactivation by -10 and -15 mV, respectively. While AA was effective at an extracellular concentration of 1 microM and an intracellular concentration of 1 pM, extracellular H2O2 was equally effective only at a concentration >800 microM (0.0027%). In contrast to AA, H2O2 decreased the slope of activation and increased the slope of inactivation of I(A) and reduced the sustained delayed rectifier current I(K(V)) by 22% and shifted its activation by -9 mV. Intracellular application of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH, 2-5 mM) blocked all effects of AA and the reduction of I(A) by H2O2. In contrast, intracellular GSH enhanced reduction of I(K(V)) by H2O2. Decrease of the slope of activation and increase of the slope of inactivation of I(A) by hydrogen peroxide was blocked and reversed to a decrease, respectively, by intracellular application of GSH. Intracellular GSH did not prevent H2O2 to shift inactivation and activation of I(A) and activation of I(K(V)) to more negative potentials. We conclude, that AA and H2O2 modulate voltage-activated K currents differentially by oxidation of GSH accessible intracellular and GSH inaccessible extracellular K+-channel domains, thereby presumably affecting neuronal information processing and oxidative damage.

  3. Integrated thin film cadmium sulfide solar cell module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickelsen, R. A.; Abbott, D. D.

    1971-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication and tests of flexible integrated thin-film cadmium sulfide solar cells and modules are discussed. The development of low cost and high production rate methods for interconnecting cells into large solar arrays is described. Chromium thin films were applied extensively in the deposited cell structures as a means to: (1) achieve high adherence between the cadmium sulfide films and the vacuum-metallized copper substrates, (2) obtain an ohmic contact to the cadmium sulfide films, and (3) improve the adherence of gold films as grids or contact areas.

  4. The involvement of norepinephrine in pain modulation in the nucleus accumbens of morphine-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Qu, Hui; Zhou, You; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Duo; Yang, Xu; Yang, ChunXiao; Xu, ManYing

    2015-01-12

    Opioids are effective analgesics used clinically for both acute and chronic pain management. However, repeated opioid treatment can induce serious side effects such as nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, respiratory depression, euphoria, dependence, hyperalgesia, and tolerance. The mechanism of noxious information transmission in the central nervous system following dependence is still not clear. Norepinephrine (NE), an important neurotransmitter, participates both in the process of opioid dependence and also pain modulation in the central nervous system. In this study, we examined the role of NE on the evoked discharges of pain-excitation neurons (PENs) and pain-inhibition neurons (PINs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats, following the development of morphine dependence. Our results revealed that NE inhibited the evoked discharges of PENs and attenuated the inhibition of PINs, while phentolamine enhanced the evoked discharges of PENs and facilitated the inhibition of PINs. These results indicate that the inhibitory action of NE on pain modulation acts via alpha adrenoceptors in the NAc of morphine-dependent rats.

  5. Cell adhesion in zebrafish embryos is modulated by March 8.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Ha; Rebbert, Martha L; Ro, Hyunju; Won, Minho; Dawid, Igor B

    2014-01-01

    March 8 is a member of a family of transmembrane E3 ubiquitin ligases that have been studied mostly for their role in the immune system. We find that March 8 is expressed in the zebrafish egg and early embryo, suggesting a role in development. Both knock-down and overexpression of March 8 leads to abnormal development. The phenotype of zebrafish embryos and Xenopus animal explants overexpressing March 8 implicates impairment of cell adhesion as a cause of the effect. In zebrafish embryos and in cultured cells, overexpression of March 8 leads to a reduction in the surface levels of E-cadherin, a major cell-cell adhesion molecule. Experiments in cell culture further show that E-cadherin can be ubiquitinated by March 8. On the basis of these observations we suggest that March 8 functions in the embryo to modulate the strength of cell adhesion by regulating the localization of E-cadherin.

  6. Osthole inhibits histamine-dependent itch via modulating TRPV1 activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Niu-Niu; Shi, Hao; Yu, Guang; Wang, Chang-Ming; Zhu, Chan; Yang, Yan; Yuan, Xiao-Lin; Tang, Min; Wang, Zhong-li; Gegen, Tana; He, Qian; Tang, Kehua; Lan, Lei; Wu, Guan-Yi; Tang, Zong-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Osthole, an active coumarin isolated from Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson, has long been used in China as an antipruritic herbal medicine; however, the antipruitic mechanism of osthole is unknown. We studied the molecular mechanism of osthole in histamine-dependent itch by behavioral test, Ca2+ imaging, and electrophysiological experiments. First, osthole clearly remitted the scratching behaviors of mice induced with histamine, HTMT, and VUF8430. Second, in cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, osthole showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect to histamine. On the same neurons, osthole also decreased the response to capsaicin and histamine. In further tests, the capsaicin-induced inward currents were inhibited by osthole. These results revealed that osthole inhibited histamine-dependent itch by modulating TRPV1 activity. This study will be helpful in understanding how osthole exerts anti-pruritus effects and suggests that osthole may be a useful treatment medicine for histamine-dependent itch. PMID:27160770

  7. β2→1-Fructans Modulate the Immune System In Vivo in a Microbiota-Dependent and -Independent Fashion

    PubMed Central

    Fransen, Floris; Sahasrabudhe, Neha M.; Elderman, Marlies; Bosveld, Margaret; El Aidy, Sahar; Hugenholtz, Floor; Borghuis, Theo; Kousemaker, Ben; Winkel, Simon; van der Gaast-de Jongh, Christa; de Jonge, Marien I.; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Smidt, Hauke; Schols, Henk A.; de Vos, Paul

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown in vitro that only specific dietary fibers contribute to immunity, but studies in vivo are not conclusive. Here, we investigated degree of polymerization (DP) dependent effects of β2→1-fructans on immunity via microbiota-dependent and -independent effects. To this end, conventional or germ-free mice received short- or long-chain β2→1-fructan for 5 days. Immune cell populations in the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), and Peyer’s patches (PPs) were analyzed with flow cytometry, genome-wide gene expression in the ileum was measured with microarray, and gut microbiota composition was analyzed with 16S rRNA sequencing of fecal samples. We found that β2→1-fructans modulated immunity by both microbiota and microbiota-independent effects. Moreover, effects were dependent on the chain-length of the β2→1-fructans type polymer. Both short- and long-chain β2→1-fructans enhanced T-helper 1 cells in PPs, whereas only short-chain β2→1-fructans increased regulatory T cells and CD11b−CD103− dendritic cells (DCs) in the MLN. A common feature after short- and long-chain β2→1-fructan treatment was enhanced 2-alpha-l-fucosyltransferase 2 expression and other IL-22-dependent genes in the ileum of conventional mice. These effects were not associated with shifts in gut microbiota composition, or altered production of short-chain fatty acids. Both short- and long-chain β2→1-fructans also induced immune effects in germ-free animals, demonstrating direct effect independent from the gut microbiota. Also, these effects were dependent on the chain-length of the β2→1-fructans. Short-chain β2→1-fructan induced lower CD80 expression by CD11b−CD103− DCs in PPs, whereas long-chain β2→1-fructan specifically modulated B cell responses in germ-free mice. In conclusion, support of immunity is determined by the chemical structure of β2→1-fructans and is partially microbiota independent. PMID:28261212

  8. β2→1-Fructans Modulate the Immune System In Vivo in a Microbiota-Dependent and -Independent Fashion.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Floris; Sahasrabudhe, Neha M; Elderman, Marlies; Bosveld, Margaret; El Aidy, Sahar; Hugenholtz, Floor; Borghuis, Theo; Kousemaker, Ben; Winkel, Simon; van der Gaast-de Jongh, Christa; de Jonge, Marien I; Boekschoten, Mark V; Smidt, Hauke; Schols, Henk A; de Vos, Paul

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown in vitro that only specific dietary fibers contribute to immunity, but studies in vivo are not conclusive. Here, we investigated degree of polymerization (DP) dependent effects of β2→1-fructans on immunity via microbiota-dependent and -independent effects. To this end, conventional or germ-free mice received short- or long-chain β2→1-fructan for 5 days. Immune cell populations in the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), and Peyer's patches (PPs) were analyzed with flow cytometry, genome-wide gene expression in the ileum was measured with microarray, and gut microbiota composition was analyzed with 16S rRNA sequencing of fecal samples. We found that β2→1-fructans modulated immunity by both microbiota and microbiota-independent effects. Moreover, effects were dependent on the chain-length of the β2→1-fructans type polymer. Both short- and long-chain β2→1-fructans enhanced T-helper 1 cells in PPs, whereas only short-chain β2→1-fructans increased regulatory T cells and CD11b(-)CD103(-) dendritic cells (DCs) in the MLN. A common feature after short- and long-chain β2→1-fructan treatment was enhanced 2-alpha-l-fucosyltransferase 2 expression and other IL-22-dependent genes in the ileum of conventional mice. These effects were not associated with shifts in gut microbiota composition, or altered production of short-chain fatty acids. Both short- and long-chain β2→1-fructans also induced immune effects in germ-free animals, demonstrating direct effect independent from the gut microbiota. Also, these effects were dependent on the chain-length of the β2→1-fructans. Short-chain β2→1-fructan induced lower CD80 expression by CD11b(-)CD103(-) DCs in PPs, whereas long-chain β2→1-fructan specifically modulated B cell responses in germ-free mice. In conclusion, support of immunity is determined by the chemical structure of β2→1-fructans and is partially microbiota independent.

  9. Placental Kisspeptins Differentially Modulate Vital Parameters of Estrogen Receptor-Positive and -Negative Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Rasoulzadeh, Zahra; Ghods, Roya; Kazemi, Tohid; Mirzadegan, Ebrahim; Ghaffari-Tabrizi-Wizsy, Nassim; Rezania, Simin; Kazemnejad, Somaieh; Arefi, Soheila; Ghasemi, Jamileh; Vafaei, Sedigheh; Mahmoudi, Ahmad-Reza; Zarnani, Amir-Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Kisspeptins (KPs) are major regulators of trophoblast and cancer invasion. Thus far, limited and conflicting data are available on KP-mediated modulation of breast cancer (BC) metastasis; mostly based on synthetic KP-10, the most active fragment of KP. Here, we report for the first time comprehensive functional effects of term placental KPs on proliferation, adhesion, Matrigel invasion, motility, MMP activity and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in MDA-MB-231 (estrogen receptor-negative) and MCF-7 (estrogen receptor-positive). KPs were expressed at high level by term placental syncytiotrophoblasts and released in soluble form. Placental explant conditioned medium containing KPs (CM) significantly reduced proliferation of both cell types compared to CM without (w/o) KP (CM-w/o KP) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In MDA-MB-231 cells, placental KPs significantly reduced adhesive properties, while increased MMP9 and MMP2 activity and stimulated invasion. Increased invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 cells after CM treatment was inhibited by KP receptor antagonist, P-234. CM significantly reduced motility of MCF-7 cells at all time points (2-30 hr), while it stimulated motility of MDA-MB-231 cells. These effects were reversed by P-234. Co-treatment with selective ER modulators, Tamoxifen and Raloxifene, inhibited the effect of CM on motility of MCF-7 cells. The level of IL-6 in supernatant of MCF-7 cells treated with CM was higher compared to those treated with CM-w/o KP. Both cell types produced more IL-8 after treatment with CM compared to those treated with CM-w/o KP. Taken together, our observations suggest that placental KPs differentially modulate vital parameters of estrogen receptor-positive and -negative BC cells possibly through modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production.

  10. Placental Kisspeptins Differentially Modulate Vital Parameters of Estrogen Receptor-Positive and -Negative Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rasoulzadeh, Zahra; Ghods, Roya; Kazemi, Tohid; Mirzadegan, Ebrahim; Ghaffari-Tabrizi-Wizsy, Nassim; Rezania, Simin; Kazemnejad, Somaieh; Arefi, Soheila; Ghasemi, Jamileh; Vafaei, Sedigheh; Mahmoudi, Ahmad-Reza; Zarnani, Amir-Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Kisspeptins (KPs) are major regulators of trophoblast and cancer invasion. Thus far, limited and conflicting data are available on KP-mediated modulation of breast cancer (BC) metastasis; mostly based on synthetic KP-10, the most active fragment of KP. Here, we report for the first time comprehensive functional effects of term placental KPs on proliferation, adhesion, Matrigel invasion, motility, MMP activity and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in MDA-MB-231 (estrogen receptor-negative) and MCF-7 (estrogen receptor-positive). KPs were expressed at high level by term placental syncytiotrophoblasts and released in soluble form. Placental explant conditioned medium containing KPs (CM) significantly reduced proliferation of both cell types compared to CM without (w/o) KP (CM-w/o KP) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In MDA-MB-231 cells, placental KPs significantly reduced adhesive properties, while increased MMP9 and MMP2 activity and stimulated invasion. Increased invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 cells after CM treatment was inhibited by KP receptor antagonist, P-234. CM significantly reduced motility of MCF-7 cells at all time points (2–30 hr), while it stimulated motility of MDA-MB-231 cells. These effects were reversed by P-234. Co-treatment with selective ER modulators, Tamoxifen and Raloxifene, inhibited the effect of CM on motility of MCF-7 cells. The level of IL-6 in supernatant of MCF-7 cells treated with CM was higher compared to those treated with CM-w/o KP. Both cell types produced more IL-8 after treatment with CM compared to those treated with CM-w/o KP. Taken together, our observations suggest that placental KPs differentially modulate vital parameters of estrogen receptor-positive and -negative BC cells possibly through modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. PMID:27101408

  11. Contactless Electroluminescence Imaging for Cell and Module Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Steve

    2015-06-14

    Module performance can be characterized by imaging using baseline and periodic images to track defects and degradation. Both thermal images, which can be acquired during sunny operating conditions, and photoluminescence images, which could be acquired at night, can be collected without electrical connection. Electroluminescence (EL) images, which are useful to detect many types of defects such as cracks, interconnect and solder faults, and resistances, have typically required electrical connection to drive current in the cells and modules. Here, a contactless EL imaging technique is proposed, which provides an EL image without the need for electrical connection to drive current through the module. Such EL imaging has the capability to be collected at night without disruption to daytime power generation.

  12. Voltage- and Tension-Dependent Lipid Mobility in the Outer Hair Cell Plasma Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oghalai, John S.; Zhao, Hong-Bo; Kutz, J. Walter; Brownell, William E.

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism responsible for electromotility of outer hair cells in the ear is unknown but is thought to reside within the plasma membrane. Lipid lateral diffusion in the outer hair cell plasma membrane is a sigmoidal function of transmembrane potential and bathing media osmolality. Cell depolarization or hyposmotic challenge shorten the cell and reduce membrane fluidity by half. Changing the membrane tension with amphipathic drugs results in similar reductions. These dynamic changes in membrane fluidity represent the modulation of membrane tension by lipid-protein interactions. The voltage dependence may be associated with the force-generating motors that contribute to the exquisite sensitivity of mammalian hearing.

  13. Modulation of cell spreading and migration by pp125FAK phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, S.; Mahooti-Brooks, N.; Hu, G.; Madri, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    We provide evidence for both matrix-dependent and pp60v-src tyrosine kinase-dependent modulation of cell migration via tyrosine phosphorylation of pp125FAK, a focal adhesion kinase, thought to be involved in integrin-mediated signaling. Enhanced pp125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation and cell spreading was associated with decreased migration. Cells plated on type I collagen were less spread and exhibited lower levels of pp125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation and faster migration rates compared with cells on fibronectin that were well spread, which exhibited enhanced levels of pp125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation and slower migration rates. Inside-out signaling via expression of pp60v-src or its kinase-negative mutant caused a decrease in cell migration by changing the extent of pp125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation to above or below the levels obtained with control cells plated on fibronectin. Hence, pp125FAK tyrosine phosphorylation appears to play a role in the signaling cascade pathway involved in regulation of extracellular matrix-modulated, integrin-mediated cell migration. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7677174

  14. Akting up in the GABA hypothesis of schizophrenia: Akt1 deficiency modulates GABAergic functions and hippocampus-dependent functions

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Wen; Wang, Tsu-Wei; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence implies that both AKT1 and GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunit genes are involved in schizophrenia pathogenesis. Activated Akt promotes GABAergic neuron differentiation and increases GABAAR expression on the plasma membrane. To elucidate the role of Akt1 in modulating GABAergic functions and schizophrenia-related cognitive deficits, a set of 6 in vitro and in vivo experiments was conducted. First, an Akt1/2 inhibitor was applied to evaluate its effect on GABAergic neuron-like cell formation from P19 cells. Inhibiting Akt resulted in a reduction in parvalbumin-positive neuron-like cells. In Akt1−/− and wild-type mice, seizures induced using pentylenetetrazol (a GABAAR antagonist) were measured, and GABAAR expression and GABAergic interneuron abundance in the brain were examined. Female Akt1−/− mice, but not male Akt1−/− mice, exhibited less pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsive activity than their corresponding wild-type controls. Reduced parvalbumin-positive interneuron abundance and GABAAR subunit expression, especially in the hippocampus, were also observed in female Akt1−/− mice compared to female wild-type mice. Neuromorphometric analyses revealed significantly reduced neurite complexity in hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Additionally, female Akt1−/− mice displayed increased hippocampal oscillation power and impaired spatial memory compared to female wild-type mice. Our findings suggest that Akt1 deficiency modulates GABAergic interneurons and GABAAR expression, contributing to hippocampus-dependent cognitive functional impairment. PMID:27615800

  15. Cell membrane modulation as adjuvant in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Zalba, Sara; Ten Hagen, Timo L M

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease involving numerous biological processes, which can exist in parallel, can be complementary, or are engaged when needed and as such can replace each other. This redundancy in possibilities cancer cells have, are fundamental to failure of therapy. However, intrinsic features of tumor cells and tumors as a whole provide also opportunities for therapy. Here we discuss the unique and specific makeup and arrangement of cell membranes of tumor cells and how these may help treatment. Interestingly, knowledge on cell membranes and associated structures is present already for decades, while application of membrane modification and manipulation as part of cancer therapy is lagging. Recent developments of scientific tools concerning lipids and lipid metabolism, opened new and previously unknown aspects of tumor cells and indicate possible differences in lipid composition and membrane function of tumor cells compared to healthy cells. This field, coined Lipidomics, demonstrates the importance of lipid components in cell membrane in several illnesses. Important alterations in cancer, and specially in resistant cancer cells compared to normal cells, opened the door to new therapeutic strategies. Moreover, the ability to modulate membrane components and/or properties has become a reality. Here, developments in cancer-related Lipidomics and strategies to interfere specifically with cancer cell membranes and how these affect cancer treatment are discussed. We hypothesize that combination of lipid or membrane targeted strategies with available care to improve chemotherapy, radiotherapy and immunotherapy will bring the much needed change in treatment in the years to come.

  16. Electrophysiological properties of genetically identified subtypes of layer 5 neocortical pyramidal neurons: Ca2+ dependence and differential modulation by norepinephrine

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Dongxu; Armstrong, William E.

    2015-01-01

    We studied neocortical pyramidal neurons from two lines of bacterial artificial chromosome mice (etv1 and glt; Gene Expression Nervous System Atlas: GENSAT project), each of which expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in a different subpopulation of layer 5 pyramidal neurons. In barrel cortex, etv1 and glt pyramidal cells were previously reported to differ in terms of their laminar distribution, morphology, thalamic inputs, cellular targets, and receptive field size. In this study, we measured the laminar distribution of etv1 and glt cells. On average, glt cells were located more deeply; however, the distributions of etv1 and glt cells extensively overlap in layer 5. To test whether these two cell types differed in electrophysiological properties that influence firing behavior, we prepared acute brain slices from 2–4-wk-old mice, where EGFP-positive cells in somatosensory cortex were identified under epifluorescence and then studied using whole cell current- or voltage-clamp recordings. We studied the details of action potential parameters and repetitive firing, characterized by the larger slow afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) in etv1 neurons and larger medium AHPs (mAHPS) in glt cells, and compared currents underlying the mAHP and slow AHP (sAHP) in etv1 and glt neurons. Etv1 cells exhibited lower dV/dt for spike polarization and repolarization and reduced direct current (DC) gain (lower f-I slope) for repetitive firing than glt cells. Most importantly, we found that 1) differences in the expression of Ca2+-dependent K+ conductances (small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels and sAHP channels) determine major functional differences between etv1 and glt cells, and 2) there is differential modulation of etv1 and glt neurons by norepinephrine. PMID:25568159

  17. New insights in mast cell modulation by palmitoylethanolamide.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, D; Negro, L; Vaia, M; Cinelli, M P; Iuvone, T

    2013-02-01

    Since its discovery palmitoylethanolamide was considered as an endogenous compound able to negatively modulate the inflammatory process. Its effects have been extensively investigated in in vitro, in vivo and in clinical studies. Notwithstanding some discrepancy, nowadays the efficacy of palmitoylethanolamide in controlling mast cell behaviour, which likely accounts for its many anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and analgesic effects, is well recognized. In view of their strategic localization at sites directly interfacing with the external environment, mast cells act as surveillance antennae against different types of injury and can undergo activation, thereby regulating both innate and adaptive immune reactions through the release of several preformed and newly synthesized mediators. Mast cells are now viewed as key players in orchestrating several disorders including both acute and chronic inflammatory processes, and have a role in angiogenesis and hyperalgesia. Since mast cells exert also important physiological, homeostatic functions, the most recent goal for pharmacologists is to control, rather than block, mast cell degranulation in order to modulate the pathological scenario. The aim of the present review is to summarise the evidence regarding the role played by palmitoylethanolamide in the control of mast cell activation, starting from in vitro studies, going through in vivo evidence in animal models of disease sustained by mast cell activation, and finally reviewing recent clinical studies using this molecule.

  18. Hubble Space Telescope solar cell module thermal cycle test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Alexander; Edge, Ted; Willowby, Douglas; Gerlach, Lothar

    1992-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) solar array consists of two identical double roll-out wings designed after the Hughes flexible roll-up solar array (FRUSA) and was developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) to meet specified HST power output requirements at the end of 2 years, with a functional lifetime of 5 years. The requirement that the HST solar array remain functional both mechanically and electrically during its 5-year lifetime meant that the array must withstand 30,000 low Earth orbit (LEO) thermal cycles between approximately +100 and -100 C. In order to evaluate the ability of the array to meet this requirement, an accelerated thermal cycle test in vacuum was conducted at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), using two 128-cell solar array modules which duplicated the flight HST solar array. Several other tests were performed on the modules. The thermal cycle test was interrupted after 2,577 cycles, and a 'cold-roll' test was performed on one of the modules in order to evaluate the ability of the flight array to survive an emergency deployment during the dark (cold) portion of an orbit. A posttest static shadow test was performed on one of the modules in order to analyze temperature gradients across the module. Finally, current in-flight electrical performance data from the actual HST flight solar array will be tested.

  19. The synaptic recruitment of lipid rafts is dependent on CD19-PI3K module and cytoskeleton remodeling molecules.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liling; Auzins, Arturs; Sun, Xiaolin; Xu, Yinsheng; Harnischfeger, Fiona; Lu, Yun; Li, Zhanguo; Chen, Ying-Hua; Zheng, Wenjie; Liu, Wanli

    2015-08-01

    Sphingolipid- and cholesterol-rich lipid raft microdomains are important in the initiation of BCR signaling. Although it is known that lipid rafts promote the coclustering of BCR and Lyn kinase microclusters within the B cell IS, the molecular mechanism of the recruitment of lipid rafts into the B cell IS is not understood completely. Here, we report that the synaptic recruitment of lipid rafts is dependent on the cytoskeleton-remodeling proteins, RhoA and Vav. Such an event is also efficiently regulated by motor proteins, myosin IIA and dynein. Further evidence suggests the synaptic recruitment of lipid rafts is, by principle, an event triggered by BCR signaling molecules and second messenger molecules. BCR-activating coreceptor CD19 potently enhances such an event depending on its cytoplasmic Tyr421 and Tyr482 residues. The enhancing function of the CD19-PI3K module in synaptic recruitment of lipid rafts is also confirmed in human peripheral blood B cells. Thus, these results improve our understanding of the molecular mechanism of the recruitment of lipid raft microdomains in B cell IS.

  20. CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells and Modules Tutorial; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, David S.

    2015-06-13

    This is a tutorial presented at the 42nd IEEE Photovoltaics Specialists Conference to cover the introduction, background, and updates on CdTe cell and module technology, including CdTe cell and module structure and fabrication.

  1. 76 FR 66748 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China; Institution of Antidumping and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China; Institution of Antidumping and... from China of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells and modules, provided for in subheadings...

  2. Acoustic tweezing cytometry for live-cell subcellular modulation of intracellular cytoskeleton contractility

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhenzhen; Sun, Yubing; Di Chen; Tay, Donald; Chen, Weiqiang; Deng, Cheri X.; Fu, Jianping

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical forces are critical to modulate cell spreading, contractility, gene expression, and even stem cell differentiation. Yet, existing tools that can apply controllable subcellular forces to a large number of single cells simultaneously are still limited. Here we report a novel ultrasound tweezing cytometry utilizing ultrasound pulses to actuate functionalized lipid microbubbles covalently attached to single live cells to exert mechanical forces in the pN - nN range. Ultrasonic excitation of microbubbles could elicit a rapid and sustained reactive intracellular cytoskeleton contractile force increase in different adherent mechanosensitive cells. Further, ultrasound-mediated intracellular cytoskeleton contractility enhancement was dose-dependent and required an intact actin cytoskeleton as well as RhoA/ROCK signaling. Our results demonstrated the great potential of ultrasound tweezing cytometry technique using functionalized microbubbles as an actuatable, biocompatible, and multifunctional agent for biomechanical stimulations of cells. PMID:23846290

  3. Cell Shape Dependent Regulation of Nuclear Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Co, Carlos; Ho, Chia-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that actin filaments are essential in how a cell controls its nuclear shape. However, little is known about the relative importance of membrane tension in determining nuclear morphology. In this study, we used adhesive micropatterned substrates to alter the cellular geometry (aspect ratio, size, and shape) that allowed direct membrane tension or without membrane lateral contact with the nucleus and investigate nuclear shape remodeling and orientation on a series of rectangular shapes. Here we showed that at low cell aspect ratios the orientation of the nucleus was regulated by actin filaments while cells with high aspect ratios can maintain nuclear shape and orientation even when actin polymerization was blocked. A model adenocarcinoma cell showed similar behavior in the regulation of nuclear shape in response to changes in cell shape but actin filaments were essential in maintaining cell shape. Our results highlight the two distinct mechanisms to regulate nuclear shape through cell shape control and the difference between fibroblasts and a model cancerous cell in cell adhesion and cell shape control. PMID:26210179

  4. Slit2N Inhibits Transmission of HIV-1 from Dendritic Cells to T-cells by Modulating Novel Cytoskeletal Elements

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Ashutosh; Prasad, Anil; Kuzontkoski, Paula M.; Yu, Jinlong; Groopman, Jerome E.

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells are among the first cells to encounter sexually acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), in the mucosa, and they can transmit HIV-1 to CD4+ T-cells via an infectious synapse. Recent studies reveal that actin-rich membrane extensions establish direct contact between cells at this synapse and facilitate virus transmission. Genesis of these contacts involves signaling through c-Src and Cdc42, which modulate actin polymerization and filopodia formation via the Arp2/3 complex and Diaphanous 2 (Diaph2). We found that Slit2N, a ligand for the Roundabout (Robo) receptors, blocked HIV-1-induced signaling through Arp2/3 and Diaph2, decreased filopodial extensions on dendritic cells, and inhibited cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1 in a Robo1-dependent manner. Employing proteomic analysis, we identified Flightless-1 as a novel, Robo1-interacting protein. Treatment with shRNAs reduced levels of Flightless-1 and demonstrated its role in efficient cell-to-cell transfer of HIV-1. These results suggest a novel strategy to limit viral infection in the host by targeting the Slit/Robo pathway with modulation of cytoskeletal elements previously unrecognized in HIV-1 transmission. PMID:26582347

  5. PILAR is a novel modulator of human T-cell expansion

    PubMed Central

    Huarte, Eduardo; Cubillos-Ruiz, Juan R.; Nesbeth, Yolanda C.; Scarlett, Uciane K.; Martinez, Diana G.; Engle, Xavier A.; Rigby, William F.; Pioli, Patricia A.; Guyre, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Robust T-cell responses without autoimmunity are only possible through a fine balance between activating and inhibitory signals. We have identified a novel modulator of T-cell expansion named proliferation-induced lymphocyte-associated receptor (PILAR). Surface PILAR is markedly up-regulated on CD4 and, to a lesser extent, on CD8 T cells on T-cell receptor engagement. In absence of CD28 costimulation, PILAR signaling through CD161 supports CD3 antibody-dependent and antigen-specificT-cell proliferation by increasing the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-xL and induces secretion of T helper type 1 cytokines. These effects are abrogated by PILAR blockade with specific antibodies, which decrease surface levels of CD28. In contrast, PILAR induces apoptotic death on naive and early activated T cells if CD161 engagement is blocked. PILAR is expressed by approximately 7% to 10% of CD4 T cells in 2 samples of inflammatory synovial fluid, suggesting a potential role in the pathogenesis of joint inflammation. In addition, in the ovarian cancer microenvironment, effector T cells express PILAR, but not CD161, although expression of both can be augmented ex vivo. Our results indicate that PILAR plays a central role in modulating the extent of T-cell expansion. Manipulation of PILAR signaling may be important for treatment of autoimmune diseases and cancer. PMID:18550855

  6. GADD45α modulates curcumin sensitivity through c-Abl- and JNK-dependent signaling pathways in a mismatch repair-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Naick, Hemanth; Jin, Shunqian; Baskaran, R

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer is a critical health concern because of its incidence as the third most prevalent cancer in the world. Currently, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), 6-thioguanine, and certain other genotoxic agents are mainstays of treatment; however, patients often die due to emergence of resistant population. Curcumin, a bioactive compound derived from the dietary turmeric (Curcuma longa) is an effective anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant agent. Previously, we reported that human colorectal cancer cell lines compromised for mismatch repair (MMR) function exhibit heightened sensitivity to curcumin due to sustained curcumin-induced unrepaired DNA damage compared to proficient population counterparts. In this report, we show that the protein levels of gadd45α, whose transcript levels are increased during DNA damage and stress signals, are upregulated following curcumin treatment in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We further observed that cells compromised for Mlh1 function (HCT116 + Ch2) displayed ~twofold increased GADD45α upregulation compared to similarly treated proficient counterparts (HCT116 + Ch3). Similarly, suppression of Mlh1 using ShRNA increased GADD45α upregulation upon curcumin treatment. On the other hand, suppression of GADD45α using SiRNA-blocked curcumin-induced cell death induction in Mlh1-deficient cells. Moreover, inhibition of Abl through ST571 treatment and its downstream effector JNK through SP600125 treatment blocked GADD45α upregulation and cell death triggered by curcumin. Collective results lead us to conclude that GADD45α modulates curcumin sensitivity through activation of c-Abl > JNK signaling in a mismatch repair-dependent manner.

  7. Context-dependent modulation of cutaneous reflex amplitudes during forward and backward leg cycling.

    PubMed

    Zehr, E Paul; Hundza, Sandra R; Balter, Jaclyn E; Loadman, Pamela M

    2009-10-01

    We used amplitude modulation of cutaneous reflexes during leg cycling as a paradigm to investigate neural control mechanisms regulating forward (FWD) and backward (BWD) rhythmic limb movement. Our prediction was a simple reversal of reflex modulation during BWD leg cycling and context-dependent reflex modulation. Cutaneous reflexes were evoked by electrical stimulation delivered to the superficial peroneal (SP) and distal tibial (TIB) nerves at the ankle. EMG recordings were collected from muscles acting at the hip, knee, and ankle. Kinematic data were also collected at these joints. Cutaneous reflexes were analyzed according to the phase of movement in which they were evoked. When functional phases (i.e., flexion or extension) of cycling were matched between FWD and BWD, background EMG and reflex modulation patterns were generally similar. The reflex patterns when compared at similar functional phases presented as a simple reversal suggesting FWD and BWD cycling are regulated by similar neural mechanisms. The general reflex regulation of limb trajectory was maintained between cycling directions in accordance with the task requirements of the movement direction.

  8. Immune modulation by dendritic-cell-based cancer vaccines.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Chaitanya; Kohli, Sakshi; Bapsy, Poonamalle Parthasarathy; Vaid, Ashok Kumar; Jain, Minish; Attili, Venkata Sathya Suresh; Sharan, Bandana

    2017-03-01

    The interplay between host immunity and tumour cells has opened the possibility of targeting tumour cells by modulation of the human immune system. Cancer immunotherapy involves the treatment of a tumour by utilizing the recombinant human immune system components to target the pro-tumour microenvironment or by revitalizing the immune system with the ability to kill tumour cells by priming the immune cells with tumour antigens. In this review, current immunotherapy approaches to cancer with special focus on dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer vaccines are discussed. Some of the DC-based vaccines under clinical trials for various cancer types are highlighted. Establishing tumour immunity involves a plethora of immune components and pathways; hence, combining chemotherapy, radiation therapy and various arms of immunotherapy, after analysing the benefits of individual therapeutic agents, might be beneficial to the patient.

  9. Exciton-stimulated modulation of recombination in solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Karazhanov, S.Z.

    1997-12-01

    This work reports an investigation of the effect of excitons on carrier recombination and solar energy conversion processes. The probabilities of exciton-stimulated modulation of the occupancy of r centers in CdS as well as the binding coefficient of free electrons and holes into excitons are estimated. Carrier recombination and transport theories are presented. The theories are applied to Cu{sub 2}S/CdS solar cells for AM1 illumination at a temperature of 300 K. It has been shown by numerical estimation that exciton-stimulated modulation of the occupancy of deep impurities does give a significant reduction of carrier recombination losses and efficiency improvements for Cu{sub 2}S/CdS solar cells. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Oxidative stress modulation in hepatitis C virus infected cells

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Sepulveda, Sonia A; Bryan-Marrugo, Owen L; Cordova-Fletes, Carlos; Gutierrez-Ruiz, Maria C; Rivas-Estilla, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication is associated with the endoplasmic reticulum, where the virus can induce cellular stress. Oxidative cell damage plays an important role in HCV physiopathology. Oxidative stress is triggered when the concentration of oxygen species in the extracellular or intracellular environment exceeds antioxidant defenses. Cells are protected and modulate oxidative stress through the interplay of intracellular antioxidant agents, mainly glutathione system (GSH) and thioredoxin; and antioxidant enzyme systems such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, GSH peroxidase, and heme oxygenase-1. Also, the use of natural and synthetic antioxidants (vitamin C and E, N-acetylcysteine, glycyrrhizin, polyenylphosphatidyl choline, mitoquinone, quercetin, S-adenosylmethionine and silymarin) has already shown promising results as co-adjuvants in HCV therapy. Despite all the available information, it is not known how different agents with antiviral activity can interfere with the modulation of the cell redox state induced by HCV and decrease viral replication. This review describes an evidence-based consensus on molecular mechanisms involved in HCV replication and their relationship with cell damage induced by oxidative stress generated by the virus itself and cell antiviral machinery. It also describes some molecules that modify the levels of oxidative stress in HCV-infected cells. PMID:26692473

  11. Polarisation response of delay dependent absorption modulation in strong field dressed helium atoms probed near threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, E. R.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, A.; Austin, D. R.; Diveki, Z.; Hutchinson, S. E. E.; Siegel, T.; Ruberti, M.; Averbukh, V.; Miseikis, L.; Strüber, C. S.; Chipperfield, L.; Marangos, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    We present the first measurement of the vectorial response of strongly dressed helium atoms probed by an attosecond pulse train (APT) polarised either parallel or perpendicular to the dressing field polarisation. The transient absorption is probed as a function of delay between the APT and the linearly polarised 800 nm field of peak intensity 1.3× {10}14 {{W}} {{cm}}-2. The APT spans the photon energy range 16-42 eV, covering the first ionisation energy of helium (24.59 eV). With parallel polarised dressing and probing fields, we observe modulations with periods of one half and one quarter of the dressing field period. When the polarisation of the dressing field is altered from parallel to perpendicular with respect to the APT polarisation we observe a large suppression in the modulation depth of the above ionisation threshold absorption. In addition to this we present the intensity dependence of the harmonic modulation depth as a function of delay between the dressing and probe fields, with dressing field peak intensities ranging from 2 × 1012 to 2 × 1014 {{W}} {{cm}}-2. We compare our experimental results with a full-dimensional solution of the single-atom time-dependent (TD) Schrödinger equation obtained using the recently developed abinitio TD B-spline ADC method and find good qualitative agreement for the above threshold harmonics.

  12. Encapsulant Material For Solar Cell Module And Laminated Glass Applications

    DOEpatents

    Hanoka, Jack I.

    2000-09-05

    An encapsulant material includes a layer of metallocene polyethylene disposed between two layers of ionomer. More specifically, the layer of metallocene polyethylene is disposed adjacent a rear surface of the first ionomer layer, and a second layer of ionomer is disposed adjacent a rear surface of the layer of metallocene polyethylene. The encapsulant material can be used in solar cell module and laminated glass applications.

  13. Encapsulant Material For Solar Cell Module And Laminated Glass Applications

    DOEpatents

    Hanoka, Jack I.; Klemchuk, Peter P.

    2001-02-13

    An encapsulant material includes a layer of metallocene polyethylene disposed between two layers of an acid copolymer of polyethylene. More specifically, the layer of metallocene polyethylene is disposed adjacent a rear surface of the first layer of the acid copolymer of polyethylene, and a second layer of the acid copolymer of polyethlene is disposed adjacent a rear surface of the layer of metallocene polyethylene. The encapsulant material can be used in solar cell module and laminated glass applications.

  14. Influence of Smoking Consumption and Nicotine Dependence Degree in Cardiac Autonomic Modulation

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Ana Paula Soares; Ramos, Dionei; de Oliveira, Gabriela Martins; dos Santos, Ana Alice Soares; Freire, Ana Paula Coelho Figueira; It, Juliana Tiyaki; Fernandes, Renato Peretti Prieto; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking consumption alters cardiac autonomic function. Objective Assess the influence of the intensity of smoking and the nicotine dependence degree in cardiac autonomic modulation evaluated through index of heart rate variability (HRV). Methods 83 smokers, of both genders, between 50 and 70 years of age and with normal lung function were divided according to the intensity of smoking consumption (moderate and severe) and the nicotine dependency degree (mild, moderate and severe). The indexes of HRV were analyzed in rest condition, in linear methods in the time domain (TD), the frequency domain (FD) and through the Poincaré plot. For the comparison of smoking consumption, unpaired t test or Mann-Whitney was employed. For the analysis between the nicotine dependency degrees, we used the One-way ANOVA test, followed by Tukey's post test or Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn's test. The significance level was p < 0,05. Results Differences were only found when compared to the different intensities of smoking consumption in the indexes in the FD. LFun (62.89 ± 15.24 vs 75.45 ± 10.28), which corresponds to low frequency spectrum component in normalized units; HFun (37.11 ± 15.24 vs 24.55 ± 10.28), which corresponds to high frequency spectrum component in normalized units and in the LF/HF ratio (2.21 ± 1.47 vs 4.07 ± 2.94). However, in the evaluation of nicotine dependency, significant differences were not observed (p > 0.05). Conclusion Only the intensity of smoking consumption had an influence over the cardiac autonomic modulation of the assessed tobacco smokers. Tobacco smokers with severe intensity of smoking consumption presented a lower autonomic modulation than those with moderate intensity. PMID:27142649

  15. Thickness dependences of solar cell performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sah, C. T.

    1982-01-01

    The significance of including factors such as the base resistivity loss for solar cells thicker than 100 microns and emitter and BSF layer recombination for thin cells in predicting the fill factor and efficiency of solar cells is demonstrated analytically. A model for a solar cell is devised with the inclusion of the dopant impurity concentration profile, variation of the electron and hole mobility with dopant concentration, the concentration and thermal capture and emission rates of the recombination center, device temperature, the AM1 spectra and the Si absorption coefficient. Device equations were solved by means of the transmission line technique. The analytical results were compared with those of low-level theory for cell performance. Significant differences in predictions of the fill factor resulted, and inaccuracies in the low-level approximations are discussed.

  16. 77 FR 4764 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... International Trade Administration Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules... duty investigation of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not assembled into modules... Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's Republic of China: Postponement...

  17. 77 FR 72884 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... COMMISSION Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China Determinations On the basis of the... reason of imports of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells and modules from China, provided for in... silicon photovoltaic cells and modules from China. Chairman Irving A. Williamson and Commissioner Dean...

  18. 76 FR 81914 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... International Trade Administration Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules... photovoltaic cells, whether or not assembled into modules, from the People's Republic of China.\\1\\ Currently... Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's Republic of China: Initiation...

  19. Role of modulation on the effect of microwaves on ornithine decarboxylase activity in L929 cells.

    PubMed

    Penafiel, L M; Litovitz, T; Krause, D; Desta, A; Mullins, J M

    1997-01-01

    The effect of 835 MHz microwaves on the activity of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in L929 murine cell was investigated at an SAR of approximately 2.5 W/kg. The results depended upon the type of modulation employed. AM frequencies of 16 Hz and 60 Hz produced a transient increase in ODC activity that reached a peak at 8 h of exposure and returned to control levels after 24 h of exposure. In this case, ODC was increased by a maximum of 90% relative to control levels. A 40% increase in ODC activity was also observed after 8 h of exposure with a typical signal from a TDMA digital cellular telephone operating in the middle of its transmission frequency range (approximately 840 MHz). This signal was burst modulated at 50 Hz, with approximately 30% duty cycle. By contrast, 8 h exposure with 835 MHz microwaves amplitude modulated with speech produced no significant change in ODC activity. Further investigations, with 8 h of exposure to AM microwaves, as a function of modulation frequency, revealed that the response is frequency dependent, decreasing sharply at 6 Hz an 600 Hz. Exposure with 835 MHz microwaves, frequency modulated with a 60 Hz sinusoid, yielded no significant enhancement in ODC activity for exposure times ranging between 2 and 24 h. Similarly, exposure with a typical signal from an AMPS analog cellular telephone, which uses a form of frequency modulation, produced no significant enhancement in ODC activity. Exposure with 835 MHz continuous wave microwaves produced no effects for exposure times between 2 and 24 h, except for a small but statistically significant enhancement in ODC activity after 6 h of exposure. Comparison of these results suggests that effects are much more robust when the modulation causes low-frequency periodic changes in the amplitude of the microwave carrier.

  20. Method and apparatus for fabricating improved solar cell modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloch, J. T.; Hanger, R. T.; Nichols, F. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for fabricating an improved solar cell module is described. The apparatus includes a supply drum for feeding a flexible strip having etched electrical circuitry deposited on it a supply drum for feeding into overlying engagement with the flexible strip a flexible tape having a pair of exposed tacky surfaces, and a plurality of rams for receiving and depositing a plurality of solar cells in side-by-side relation on an exposed tacky surface of the tape in electrical contacting engagement with the etched circuitry.

  1. Modulation based cells distribution for visible light communication.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yongsheng; Yang, Aiying; Feng, Lihui; Zuo, Lin; Sun, Yu-Nan

    2012-10-22

    Cells distribution for visible light communication can enhance the capacity of the data transmission by the reuse of optical spectrum. In this paper, we adopt three modulation formats as OOK, PPM and PWM for neighboring cells A, B and C respectively. The prototype experiment results demonstrate the error free transmission of 1.0 Mbit/s and 6.25 Mbit/s visible light communication system with our scheme. With the available LED, we can expect that the data rate of a visible light communication system with seamless connectivity can be up to 71.4 Mbit/s.

  2. Cortical Axons, Isolated in Channels, Display Activity-Dependent Signal Modulation as a Result of Targeted Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, Marta K; Radivojević, Miloš; Jäckel, David; Müller, Jan; Hierlemann, Andreas R

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian cortical axons are extremely thin processes that are difficult to study as a result of their small diameter: they are too narrow to patch while intact, and super-resolution microscopy is needed to resolve single axons. We present a method for studying axonal physiology by pairing a high-density microelectrode array with a microfluidic axonal isolation device, and use it to study activity-dependent modulation of axonal signal propagation evoked by stimulation near the soma. Up to three axonal branches from a single neuron, isolated in different channels, were recorded from simultaneously using 10-20 electrodes per channel. The axonal channels amplified spikes such that propagations of individual signals along tens of electrodes could easily be discerned with high signal to noise. Stimulation from 10 up to 160 Hz demonstrated similar qualitative results from all of the cells studied: extracellular action potential characteristics changed drastically in response to stimulation. Spike height decreased, spike width increased, and latency increased, as a result of reduced propagation velocity, as the number of stimulations and the stimulation frequencies increased. Quantitatively, the strength of these changes manifested itself differently in cells at different frequencies of stimulation. Some cells' signal fidelity fell to 80% already at 10 Hz, while others maintained 80% signal fidelity at 80 Hz. Differences in modulation by axonal branches of the same cell were also seen for different stimulation frequencies, starting at 10 Hz. Potassium ion concentration changes altered the behavior of the cells causing propagation failures at lower concentrations and improving signal fidelity at higher concentrations.

  3. Cortical Axons, Isolated in Channels, Display Activity-Dependent Signal Modulation as a Result of Targeted Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowska, Marta K.; Radivojević, Miloš; Jäckel, David; Müller, Jan; Hierlemann, Andreas R.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian cortical axons are extremely thin processes that are difficult to study as a result of their small diameter: they are too narrow to patch while intact, and super-resolution microscopy is needed to resolve single axons. We present a method for studying axonal physiology by pairing a high-density microelectrode array with a microfluidic axonal isolation device, and use it to study activity-dependent modulation of axonal signal propagation evoked by stimulation near the soma. Up to three axonal branches from a single neuron, isolated in different channels, were recorded from simultaneously using 10–20 electrodes per channel. The axonal channels amplified spikes such that propagations of individual signals along tens of electrodes could easily be discerned with high signal to noise. Stimulation from 10 up to 160 Hz demonstrated similar qualitative results from all of the cells studied: extracellular action potential characteristics changed drastically in response to stimulation. Spike height decreased, spike width increased, and latency increased, as a result of reduced propagation velocity, as the number of stimulations and the stimulation frequencies increased. Quantitatively, the strength of these changes manifested itself differently in cells at different frequencies of stimulation. Some cells' signal fidelity fell to 80% already at 10 Hz, while others maintained 80% signal fidelity at 80 Hz. Differences in modulation by axonal branches of the same cell were also seen for different stimulation frequencies, starting at 10 Hz. Potassium ion concentration changes altered the behavior of the cells causing propagation failures at lower concentrations and improving signal fidelity at higher concentrations. PMID:27013945

  4. Stimulus intensity-dependent modulations of hippocampal long-term potentiation by basolateral amygdala priming

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zexuan; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2012-01-01

    There is growing realization that the relationship between memory and stress/emotionality is complicated, and may include both memory enhancing and memory impairing aspects. It has been suggested that the underlying mechanisms involve amygdala modulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, such as long-term potentiation (LTP). We recently reported that while in CA1 basolateral amygdala (BLA) priming impaired theta stimulation induced LTP, it enhanced LTP in the dentate gyrus (DG). However, emotional and stressfull experiences were found to activate synaptic plasticity within the BLA, raising the possibility that BLA modulation of other brain regions may be altered as well, as it may depend on the way the BLA is activated or is responding. In previous studies BLA priming stimulation was relatively weak (1 V, 50 μs pulse duration). In the present study we assessed the effects of two stronger levels of BLA priming stimulation (1 V or 2 V, 100 μs pulse duration) on LTP induction in hippocampal DG and CA1, in anesthetized rats. Results show that 1V-BLA priming stimulation enhanced but 2V-BLA priming stimulation impaired DG LTP; however, both levels of BLA priming stimulation impaired CA1 LTP, suggesting that modulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity by amygdala is dependent on the degree of amygdala activation. These findings suggest that plasticity-induced within the amygdala, by stressful experiences induces a form of metaplasticity that would alter the way the amygdala may modulate memory-related processes in other brain areas, such as the hippocampus. PMID:22586371

  5. Modulation of Sertoli cell secretory function by rat round spermatid protein(s).

    PubMed

    Onoda, M; Djakiew, D

    1990-10-01

    The influence of rat round spermatid protein(s) (RSP) on protein synthesis and secretory function of Sertoli cells was used in the bicameral chamber system. Round spermatids (RS) were purified from 90-day-old rats by centrifugal elutriation. RS were incubated in a supplement-enriched culture medium that lacked exogenous proteins. The RS-conditioned media were dialysed and lyophilized to obtain RSP. Most de novo protein synthesized under basal conditions by Sertoli cells (18-day-old) was secreted into the apical chamber (apical/basal ratio: 3.42). Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, 100 ng/ml) stimulated total protein secretion from Sertoli cells by a factor of 1.54. The RSP (100 micrograms/ml) stimulated total protein secretion from Sertoli cells by a factor of 2.33. The enhancement of total Sertoli cell protein secretion by FSH and RSP additively increased by a factor of 2.82. The combined effect of FSH and RSP on total protein secretion from Sertoli cells was dose dependent and saturated at approximately 200 micrograms/ml of RSP. Polarity of total protein secretion from Sertoli cells (apical/basal ratio: 3.42) was stimulated by RSP predominantly in the apical direction (apical/basal ratio: 8.48). The modulation of radiolabeled Sertoli cell secretory proteins (ceruloplasmin, CP; sulfated glycoprotein-2, SGP-2; testins and transferrin, Tf) by cold (non-labeled) RSP was investigated by immunoprecipitation followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The secretion of CP, SGP-2 and Tf was stimulated in a dose-dependent manner by the addition of RSP up to a saturating concentration of between 200 and 300 micrograms/ml, whereas the secretion of Sertoli cell testins did not reach saturation at 300 micrograms/ml RSP. These results indicate that FSH and RSP independently modulate Sertoli cell protein secretion, and that Sertoli cell secretory proteins may differentially respond to RSP stimulation.

  6. Myosin IIA dependent retrograde flow drives 3D cell migration.

    PubMed

    Shih, Wenting; Yamada, Soichiro

    2010-04-21

    Epithelial cell migration is an essential part of embryogenesis and tissue regeneration, yet their migration is least understood. Using our three-dimensional (3D) motility analysis, migrating epithelial cells formed an atypical polarized cell shape with the nucleus leading the cell front and a contractile cell rear. Migrating epithelial cells exerted traction forces to deform both the anterior and posterior extracellular matrix toward the cell body. The cell leading edge exhibited a myosin II-dependent retrograde flow with the magnitude and direction consistent with surrounding network deformation. Interestingly, on a two-dimensional substrate, myosin IIA-deficient cells migrated faster than wild-type cells, but in a 3D gel, these myosin IIA-deficient cells were unpolarized and immobile. In contrast, the migration rates of myosin IIB-deficient cells were similar to wild-type cells. Therefore, myosin IIA, not myosin IIB, is required for 3D epithelial cell migration.

  7. Voltage-dependent metabolic regulation of Kv2.1 channels in pancreatic beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Masashi; Nakata, Masanori; Yamato, Shiho; Dezaki, Katsuya; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, San-e; Kawakami, Masanobu; Yada, Toshihiko; Kakei, Masafumi

    2010-05-28

    Voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv channels) play a crucial role in formation of action potentials in response to glucose stimulation in pancreatic beta-ells. We previously reported that the Kv channel is regulated by glucose metabolism, particularly by MgATP. We examined whether the regulation of Kv channels is voltage-dependent and mechanistically related with phosphorylation of the channels. In rat pancreatic beta-cells, suppression of glucose metabolism with low glucose concentrations of 2.8mM or less or by metabolic inhibitors decreased the Kv2.1-channel activity at positive membrane potentials, while increased it at potentials negative to -10 mV, suggesting that modulation of Kv channels by glucose metabolism is voltage-dependent. Similarly, in HEK293 cells expressing the recombinant Kv2.1 channels, 0mM but not 10mM MgATP modulated the channel activity in a manner similar to that in beta-cells. Both steady-state activation and inactivation kinetics of the channel were shifted toward the negative potential in association with the voltage-dependent modulation of the channels by cytosolic dialysis of alkaline phosphatase in beta-cells. The modulation of Kv-channel current-voltage relations were also observed during and after glucose-stimulated electrical excitation. These results suggest that the cellular metabolism including MgATP production and/or channel phosphorylation/dephosphorylation underlie the physiological modulation of Kv2.1 channels during glucose-induced insulin secretion.

  8. Goal-dependent modulation of the long-latency stretch response at the shoulder, elbow, and wrist.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Jeffrey; Gribble, Paul L; Pruszynski, J Andrew

    2015-12-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that muscle activity 50-100 ms after a mechanical perturbation (i.e., the long-latency stretch response) can be modulated in a manner that reflects voluntary motor control. These previous studies typically assessed modulation of the long-latency stretch response from individual muscles rather than how this response is concurrently modulated across multiple muscles. Here we investigated such concurrent modulation by having participants execute goal-directed reaches to visual targets after mechanical perturbations of the shoulder, elbow, or wrist while measuring activity from six muscles that articulate these joints. We found that shoulder, elbow, and wrist muscles displayed goal-dependent modulation of the long-latency stretch response, that the relative magnitude of participants' goal-dependent activity was similar across muscles, that the temporal onset of goal-dependent muscle activity was not reliably different across the three joints, and that shoulder muscles displayed goal-dependent activity appropriate for counteracting intersegmental dynamics. We also observed that the long-latency stretch response of wrist muscles displayed goal-dependent modulation after elbow perturbations and that the long-latency stretch response of elbow muscles displayed goal-dependent modulation after wrist perturbations. This pattern likely arises because motion at either joint could bring the hand to the visual target and suggests that the nervous system rapidly exploits such simple kinematic redundancy when processing sensory feedback to support goal-directed actions.

  9. Goal-dependent modulation of the long-latency stretch response at the shoulder, elbow, and wrist

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Paul L.; Pruszynski, J. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that muscle activity 50–100 ms after a mechanical perturbation (i.e., the long-latency stretch response) can be modulated in a manner that reflects voluntary motor control. These previous studies typically assessed modulation of the long-latency stretch response from individual muscles rather than how this response is concurrently modulated across multiple muscles. Here we investigated such concurrent modulation by having participants execute goal-directed reaches to visual targets after mechanical perturbations of the shoulder, elbow, or wrist while measuring activity from six muscles that articulate these joints. We found that shoulder, elbow, and wrist muscles displayed goal-dependent modulation of the long-latency stretch response, that the relative magnitude of participants' goal-dependent activity was similar across muscles, that the temporal onset of goal-dependent muscle activity was not reliably different across the three joints, and that shoulder muscles displayed goal-dependent activity appropriate for counteracting intersegmental dynamics. We also observed that the long-latency stretch response of wrist muscles displayed goal-dependent modulation after elbow perturbations and that the long-latency stretch response of elbow muscles displayed goal-dependent modulation after wrist perturbations. This pattern likely arises because motion at either joint could bring the hand to the visual target and suggests that the nervous system rapidly exploits such simple kinematic redundancy when processing sensory feedback to support goal-directed actions. PMID:26445871

  10. Age-dependent changes in the sphingolipid composition of CD4+ T cell membranes and immune synapses implicate glucosylceramides in age-related T cell dysfunction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sphingolipid (SL4) composition can influence the biophysical properties of cell membranes. Additionally, specific SL modulate signaling pathways involved in proliferation, senescence, and apoptosis. We investigated age-dependent changes in the SL composition of CD4+ T cells, and the impact of these ...

  11. CD6 modulates thymocyte selection and peripheral T cell homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Consuegra-Fernández, Marta; Girard, Laura; Aranda, Fernando; Martínez, Vanesa-Gabriela; Sarukhan, Adelaida; Malissen, Marie

    2016-01-01

    The CD6 glycoprotein is a lymphocyte surface receptor putatively involved in T cell development and activation. CD6 facilitates adhesion between T cells and antigen-presenting cells through its interaction with CD166/ALCAM (activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule), and physically associates with the T cell receptor (TCR) at the center of the immunological synapse. However, its precise role during thymocyte development and peripheral T cell immune responses remains to be defined. Here, we analyze the in vivo consequences of CD6 deficiency. CD6−/− thymi showed a reduction in both CD4+ and CD8+ single-positive subsets, and double-positive thymocytes exhibited increased Ca2+ mobilization to TCR cross-linking in vitro. Bone marrow chimera experiments revealed a T cell–autonomous selective disadvantage of CD6−/− T cells during development. The analysis of TCR-transgenic mice (OT-I and Marilyn) confirmed that abnormal T cell selection events occur in the absence of CD6. CD6−/− mice displayed increased frequencies of antigen-experienced peripheral T cells generated under certain levels of TCR signal strength or co-stimulation, such as effector/memory (CD4+TEM and CD8+TCM) and regulatory (T reg) T cells. The suppressive activity of CD6−/− T reg cells was diminished, and CD6−/− mice presented an exacerbated autoimmune response to collagen. Collectively, these data indicate that CD6 modulates the threshold for thymocyte selection and the generation and/or function of several peripheral T cell subpopulations, including T reg cells. PMID:27377588

  12. Epigenetic modulators promote mesenchymal stem cell phenotype switches.

    PubMed

    Alexanian, Arshak R

    2015-07-01

    Discoveries in recent years have suggested that some tissue specific adult stem cells in mammals might have the ability to differentiate into cell types from different germ layers. This phenomenon has been referred to as stem cell transdifferentiation or plasticity. Despite controversy, the current consensus holds that transdifferentiation does occur in mammals, but only within a limited range. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie the switches in phenotype and development of the methods that will promote such type of conversions can open up endless possibilities for regenerative medicine. Epigenetic control contributes to various processes that lead to cellular plasticity and DNA and histone covalent modifications play a key role in these processes. Recently, we have been able to convert human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) into neural-like cells by exposing cells to epigenetic modifiers and neural inducing factors. The goal of this study was to investigate the stability and plasticity of these transdifferentiated cells. To this end, neurally induced MSCs (NI-hMSCs) were exposed to adipocyte inducing factors. Grown for 24-48 h in fat induction media NI-hMSCs reversed their morphology into fibroblast-like cells and regained their proliferative properties. After 3 weeks approximately 6% of hMSCs differentiated into multilocular or plurivacuolar adipocyte cells that demonstrated by Oil Red O staining. Re-exposure of these cultures or the purified adipocytes to neural induction medium induced the cells to re-differentiate into neuronal-like cells. These data suggest that cell plasticity can be manipulated by the combination of small molecule modulators of chromatin modifying enzymes and specific cell signaling pathways.

  13. Cell proliferation and modulation of interaction of estrogen receptors with coregulators induced by ERα and ERβ agonists.

    PubMed

    Evers, Nynke M; van den Berg, Johannes H J; Wang, Si; Melchers, Diana; Houtman, René; de Haan, Laura H J; Ederveen, Antwan G H; Groten, John P; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate modulation of the interaction of the ERα and ERβ with coregulators in the ligand responses induced by estrogenic compounds. To this end, selective ERα and ERβ agonists were characterized for intrinsic relative potency reflected by EC50 and maximal efficacy towards ERα and ERβ mediated response in ER selective reporter gene assays, and subsequently tested for induction of cell proliferation in T47D-ERβ cells with variable ERα/ERβ ratio, and finally for ligand dependent modulation of the interaction of ERα and ERβ with coregulators using the MARCoNI assay, with 154 unique nuclear receptor coregulator peptides derived from 66 different coregulators. Results obtained reveal an important influence of the ERα/ERβ ratio and receptor selectivity of the compounds tested on induction of cell proliferation. ERα agonists activate cell proliferation whereas ERβ suppresses ERα mediated cell proliferation. The responses in the MARCoNI assay reveal that upon ERα or ERβ activation by a specific agonist, the modulation of the interaction of the ERs with coregulators is very similar indicating only a limited number of differences upon ERα or ERβ activation by a specific ligand. Differences in the modulation of the interaction of the ERs with coregulators between the different agonists were more pronounced. Based on ligand dependent differences in the modulation of the interaction of the ERs with coregulators, the MARCoNI assay was shown to be able to classify the ER agonists discriminating between different agonists for the same receptor, a characteristic not defined by the ER selective reporter gene or proliferation assays. It is concluded that the ultimate effect of the model compounds on proliferation of estrogen responsive cells depends on the intrinsic relative potency of the agonist towards ERα and ERβ and the cellular ERα/ERβ ratio whereas differences in the modulation of the interaction of the ERα and

  14. Somatostatin modulates mast cell-induced responses in murine spinal neurons and satellite cells.

    PubMed

    Van Op den bosch, Joeri; Van Nassauw, Luc; Van Marck, Eric; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre

    2009-08-01

    The course of intestinal inflammatory responses is tightly coordinated by the extensive communication between the immune system and the enteric nervous system, among which the bidirectional mast cell-neuron interaction within the intestinal wall plays a prominent role. Recent research suggests that somatostatin (SOM) is able to inhibit this self-reinforcing network by simultaneously suppressing the inflammatory activities of both neurons and mast cells. Therefore, we assessed the modulatory effects of SOM on both the short-term and long-term effects induced by the main mast cell mediators histamine (HIS) and 5-HT on spinal sensory neurons. Short-term incubation of dorsal root ganglion cultures with HIS and 5-HT induced neuronal CGRP-release and calcium-mediated activation of both neurons and nonneuronal cells, both of which effects were significantly reduced by SOM. In addition, SOM was also able to suppress the increased neuronal expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory peptides induced by long-term exposure to HIS and 5-HT. Immunocytochemical and molecular-biological experiments revealed the possible involvement of somatostatin receptor 1 (SSTR1) and SSTR2A in these profound SOM-dependent effects. These data, combined with the increased expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory peptides and several SSTRs in murine dorsal root ganglia following intestinal inflammation, reveal that intestinal inflammation not only induces the onset of proinflammatory cascades but simultaneously triggers endogenous systems destined to prevent excessive tissue damage. Moreover, these data provide for the first time functional evidence that SOM is able to directly modulate intestinal inflammatory responses by interference with the coordinating mast cell-neuron communication.

  15. Error probability bounds for trellis coded modulation over sequence dependent channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Ikuo; Biglieri, Ezio

    1989-04-01

    A technique for obtaining an upper bound to the error event probability of trellis-coded modulation in sequence-dependent channels is derived. The technique is based on the transfer function of a state diagram which has N + 1 nodes and whose branch labels are N x N error matrices. Some methods for simplifying the computation of bit error probability at the price of a looser bound are proposed. Numerical results show the applicability of the techniques presented here to trellis-coded 16-QAM with two-symbol intersymbol interference.

  16. The Design of a Five-Cell Superconducting RF Module with a PBG Coupler Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Arsenyev, Sergey A; Simakov, Evgenya I

    2012-08-29

    We discuss the problem of incorporating a Photonic Band Gap (PBG) cell into a superconducting accelerating module of 5 cells designed for the operational frequency of 2.1 GHz. The reason for using a PBG cell is to provide a good accelerating mode confinement and good Higher Order Mode (HOM) suppression. PBG cell can potentially be used for placing HOM and fundamental mode couplers. However, because of the naturally higher ratio of the peak magnetic field to the accelerating field in the PBG cell, it should be designed to operate at a lower accelerating gradient than the other cells of the module. This ensures that the probability of quench in the PBG cell would be no higher than in other elliptical cells of the structure.

  17. The design of a five-cell superconducting RF module with a PBG coupler cell

    SciTech Connect

    Arsenyev, Sergey A.; Simakov, Evgenya I.

    2012-12-21

    We discuss the problem of incorporating a Photonic Band Gap (PBG) cell into a superconducting accelerating module of 5 cells designed for the operational frequency of 2.1 GHz. The reason for using a PBG cell is to provide a good accelerating mode confinement and good Higher Order Mode (HOM) suppression. PBG cell can potentially be used for placing HOM and fundamental mode couplers. However, because of the naturally higher ratio of the peak magnetic field to the accelerating field in the PBG cell, it should be designed to operate at a lower accelerating gradient than the other cells of the module. This ensures that the probability of quench in the PBG cell would be no higher than in other elliptical cells of the structure.

  18. Surfactant Protein A integrates activation signal strength to differentially modulate T cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sambuddho; Giamberardino, Charles; Thomas, Joseph; Evans, Kathy; Goto, Hisatsugu; Ledford, Julie G; Hsia, Bethany; Pastva, Amy M; Wright, Jo Rae

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant lipoproteins lower the surface tension at the alveolar:airway interface of the lung and participate in host defense. Previous studies reported that surfactant protein A (SP-A) inhibits lymphocyte proliferation. We hypothesized that SP-A mediated modulation of T cell activation depends upon the strength, duration and type of lymphocyte activating signals. Modulation of T cell signal strength imparted by different activating agents ex and in vivo in different mouse models, and in vitro with human T cells show a strong correlation between strength of signal (SoS) and functional effects of SP-A interactions. T cell proliferation is enhanced in the presence of SP-A at low SoS imparted by exogenous mitogens, specific antibodies, APCs or in homeostatic proliferation. Proliferation is inhibited at higher SoS imparted by different doses of the same T cell mitogens, or indirect stimuli such as LPS. Importantly, reconstitution with exogenous SP-A into the lungs of SP-A-/- mice stimulated with a strong signal also resulted in suppression of T cell proliferation, while elevating baseline proliferation in unstimulated T cells. These signal strength and SP-A dependent effects are mediated by changes in intracellular Ca2+ levels over time, involving extrinsic Ca2+ activated channels late during activation. These effects are intrinsic to the global T cell population, and are manifested in vivo in naïve as well as memory phenotype T cells. Thus, SP-A appears to integrate signal thresholds to control T cell proliferation. PMID:22219327

  19. Cancer Cell Metabolism and the Modulating Effects of Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ching-Fang; Diers, Anne R.; Hogg, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Altered metabolic phenotype has been recognized as a hallmark of tumor cells for many years, but this aspect of the cancer phenotype has come into greater focus in recent years. NOS2 (inducible nitric oxide synthase of iNOS) has been implicated as a component in many aggressive tumor phenotypes, including melanoma, glioblastoma and breast cancer. Nitric oxide has been well established as a modulator of cellular bioenergetics pathways, in many ways similar to the alteration of cellular metabolism observed in aggressive tumors. In this review we attempt to bring these concepts together with the general hypothesis that one function of NOS2 and NO in cancer is to modulate metabolic processes to facilitate increased tumor aggression. There are many mechanisms by which NO can modulate tumor metabolism, including direct inhibition of respiration, alterations in mitochondrial mass, oxidative inhibition of bioenergetic enzymes, and the stimulation of secondary signaling pathways. Here we review metabolic alterations in the context of cancer cells and discuss the role of NO as a potential mediator of these changes. PMID:25464273

  20. Wnt-Dependent Control of Cell Polarity in Cultured Cells.

    PubMed

    Runkle, Kristin B; Witze, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    The secreted ligand Wnt5a regulates cell polarity and polarized cell movement during development by signaling through the poorly defined noncanonical Wnt pathway. Cell polarity regulates most aspects of cell behavior including the organization of apical/basolateral membrane domains of epithelial cells, polarized cell divisions along a directional plane, and front rear polarity during cell migration. These characteristics of cell polarity allow coordinated cell movements required for tissue formation and organogenesis during embryonic development. Genetic model organisms have been used to identify multiple signaling pathways including Wnt5a that are required to establish cell polarity and regulate polarized cell behavior. However, the downstream signaling events that regulate these complex cellular processes are still poorly understood. The methods below describe assays to study Wnt5a-induced cell polarity in cultured cells, which may facilitate our understanding of these complex signaling pathways.

  1. Electrical isolation of component cells in monolithically interconnected modules

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    2001-01-01

    A monolithically interconnected photovoltaic module having cells which are electrically connected which comprises a substrate, a plurality of cells formed over the substrate, each cell including a primary absorber layer having a light receiving surface and a p-region, formed with a p-type dopant, and an n-region formed with an n-type dopant adjacent the p-region to form a single pn-junction, and a cell isolation diode layer having a p-region, formed with a p-type dopant, and an n-region formed with an n-type dopant adjacent the p-region to form a single pn-junction, the diode layer intervening the substrate and the absorber layer wherein the absorber and diode interfacial regions of a same conductivity type orientation, the diode layer having a reverse-breakdown voltage sufficient to prevent inter-cell shunting, and each cell electrically isolated from adjacent cells with a vertical trench trough the pn-junction of the diode layer, interconnects disposed in the trenches contacting the absorber regions of adjacent cells which are doped an opposite conductivity type, and electrical contacts.

  2. IL-17-producing NKT cells depend exclusively on IL-7 for homeostasis and survival.

    PubMed

    Webster, K E; Kim, H-O; Kyparissoudis, K; Corpuz, T M; Pinget, G V; Uldrich, A P; Brink, R; Belz, G T; Cho, J-H; Godfrey, D I; Sprent, J

    2014-09-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like T cells that rapidly recognize pathogens and produce cytokines that shape the ensuing immune response. IL-17-producing NKT cells are enriched in barrier tissues, such as the lung, skin, and peripheral lymph nodes, and the factors that maintain this population in the periphery have not been elucidated. Here we show that NKT17 cells deviate from other NKT cells in their survival requirements. In contrast to conventional NKT cells that are maintained by IL-15, RORγt(+) NKT cells are IL-15 independent and instead rely completely on IL-7. IL-7 initiates a T-cell receptor-independent (TCR-independent) expansion of NKT17 cells, thus supporting their homeostasis. Without IL-7, survival is dramatically impaired, yet residual cells remain lineage committed with no downregulation of RORγt evident. Their preferential response to IL-7 does not reflect enhanced signaling through STAT proteins, but instead is modulated via the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. The ability to compete for IL-7 is dependent on high-density IL-7 receptor expression, which would promote uptake of low levels of IL-7 produced in the non-lymphoid sites of lung and skin. This dependence on IL-7 is also reported for RORγt(+) innate lymphoid cells and CD4(+) Th17 cells, and suggests common survival requirements for functionally similar cells.

  3. Gpr125 modulates Dishevelled distribution and planar cell polarity signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Roszko, Isabelle; Sepich, Diane S; Ni, Mingwei; Hamm, Heidi E; Marlow, Florence L; Solnica-Krezel, Lilianna

    2013-07-01

    During vertebrate gastrulation, Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling orchestrates polarized cell behaviors underlying convergence and extension (C&E) movements to narrow embryonic tissues mediolaterally and lengthen them anteroposteriorly. Here, we have identified Gpr125, an adhesion G protein-coupled receptor, as a novel modulator of the Wnt/PCP signaling system. Excess Gpr125 impaired C&E movements and the underlying cell and molecular polarities. Reduced Gpr125 function exacerbated the C&E and facial branchiomotor neuron (FBMN) migration defects of embryos with reduced Wnt/PCP signaling. At the molecular level, Gpr125 recruited Dishevelled to the cell membrane, a prerequisite for Wnt/PCP activation. Moreover, Gpr125 and Dvl mutually clustered one another to form discrete membrane subdomains, and the Gpr125 intracellular domain directly interacted with Dvl in pull-down assays. Intriguingly, Dvl and Gpr125 were able to recruit a subset of PCP components into membrane subdomains, suggesting that Gpr125 may modulate the composition of Wnt/PCP membrane complexes. Our study reveals a role for Gpr125 in PCP-mediated processes and provides mechanistic insight into Wnt/PCP signaling.

  4. Gpr125 modulates Dishevelled distribution and planar cell polarity signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Roszko, Isabelle; Sepich, Diane S.; Ni, Mingwei; Hamm, Heidi E.; Marlow, Florence L.; Solnica-Krezel, Lilianna

    2013-01-01

    During vertebrate gastrulation, Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling orchestrates polarized cell behaviors underlying convergence and extension (C&E) movements to narrow embryonic tissues mediolaterally and lengthen them anteroposteriorly. Here, we have identified Gpr125, an adhesion G protein-coupled receptor, as a novel modulator of the Wnt/PCP signaling system. Excess Gpr125 impaired C&E movements and the underlying cell and molecular polarities. Reduced Gpr125 function exacerbated the C&E and facial branchiomotor neuron (FBMN) migration defects of embryos with reduced Wnt/PCP signaling. At the molecular level, Gpr125 recruited Dishevelled to the cell membrane, a prerequisite for Wnt/PCP activation. Moreover, Gpr125 and Dvl mutually clustered one another to form discrete membrane subdomains, and the Gpr125 intracellular domain directly interacted with Dvl in pull-down assays. Intriguingly, Dvl and Gpr125 were able to recruit a subset of PCP components into membrane subdomains, suggesting that Gpr125 may modulate the composition of Wnt/PCP membrane complexes. Our study reveals a role for Gpr125 in PCP-mediated processes and provides mechanistic insight into Wnt/PCP signaling. PMID:23821037

  5. Decorin binds myostatin and modulates its activity to muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Takayuki; Kishioka, Yasuhiro; Wakamatsu, Jun-ichi; Hattori, Akihito; Hennebry, Alex; Berry, Carole J.; Sharma, Mridula; Kambadur, Ravi; Nishimura, Takanori . E-mail: nishi@anim.agr.hokudai.ac.jp

    2006-02-10

    Myostatin, a member of TGF-{beta} superfamily of growth factors, acts as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. The mechanism whereby myostatin controls the proliferation and differentiation of myogenic cells is mostly clarified. However, the regulation of myostatin activity to myogenic cells after its secretion in the extracellular matrix (ECM) is still unknown. Decorin, a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, binds TGF-{beta} and regulates its activity in the ECM. Thus, we hypothesized that decorin could also bind to myostatin and participate in modulation of its activity to myogenic cells. In order to test the hypothesis, we investigated the interaction between myostatin and decorin by surface plasmon assay. Decorin interacted with mature myostatin in the presence of concentrations of Zn{sup 2+} greater than 10 {mu}M, but not in the absence of Zn{sup 2+}. Kinetic analysis with a 1:1 binding model resulted in dissociation constants (K {sub D}) of 2.02 x 10{sup -8} M and 9.36 x 10{sup -9} M for decorin and the core protein of decorin, respectively. Removal of the glycosaminoglycan chain by chondroitinase ABC digestion did not affect binding, suggesting that decorin could bind to myostatin with its core protein. Furthermore, we demonstrated that immobilized decorin could rescue the inhibitory effect of myostatin on myoblast proliferation in vitro. These results suggest that decorin could trap myostatin and modulate its activity to myogenic cells in the ECM.

  6. Tim-3 enhances FcεRI-proximal signaling to modulate mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Phong, Binh L; Avery, Lyndsay; Sumpter, Tina L; Gorman, Jacob V; Watkins, Simon C; Colgan, John D; Kane, Lawrence P

    2015-12-14

    T cell (or transmembrane) immunoglobulin and mucin domain protein 3 (Tim-3) has attracted significant attention as a novel immune checkpoint receptor (ICR) on chronically stimulated, often dysfunctional, T cells. Antibodies to Tim-3 can enhance antiviral and antitumor immune responses. Tim-3 is also constitutively expressed by mast cells, NK cells and specific subsets of macrophages and dendritic cells. There is ample evidence for a positive role for Tim-3 in these latter cell types, which is at odds with the model of Tim-3 as an inhibitory molecule on T cells. At this point, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which Tim-3 regulates the function of T cells or other cell types. We have focused on defining the effects of Tim-3 ligation on mast cell activation, as these cells constitutively express Tim-3 and are activated through an ITAM-containing receptor for IgE (FcεRI), using signaling pathways analogous to those in T cells. Using a variety of gain- and loss-of-function approaches, we find that Tim-3 acts at a receptor-proximal point to enhance Lyn kinase-dependent signaling pathways that modulate both immediate-phase degranulation and late-phase cytokine production downstream of FcεRI ligation.

  7. Tim-3 enhances FcεRI-proximal signaling to modulate mast cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Phong, Binh L.; Avery, Lyndsay; Sumpter, Tina L.; Gorman, Jacob V.; Watkins, Simon C.; Colgan, John D.

    2015-01-01

    T cell (or transmembrane) immunoglobulin and mucin domain protein 3 (Tim-3) has attracted significant attention as a novel immune checkpoint receptor (ICR) on chronically stimulated, often dysfunctional, T cells. Antibodies to Tim-3 can enhance antiviral and antitumor immune responses. Tim-3 is also constitutively expressed by mast cells, NK cells and specific subsets of macrophages and dendritic cells. There is ample evidence for a positive role for Tim-3 in these latter cell types, which is at odds with the model of Tim-3 as an inhibitory molecule on T cells. At this point, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which Tim-3 regulates the function of T cells or other cell types. We have focused on defining the effects of Tim-3 ligation on mast cell activation, as these cells constitutively express Tim-3 and are activated through an ITAM-containing receptor for IgE (FcεRI), using signaling pathways analogous to those in T cells. Using a variety of gain- and loss-of-function approaches, we find that Tim-3 acts at a receptor-proximal point to enhance Lyn kinase-dependent signaling pathways that modulate both immediate-phase degranulation and late-phase cytokine production downstream of FcεRI ligation. PMID:26598760

  8. Reinforcement magnitude modulation of rate dependent effects in pigeons and rats.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, Brett C; Pinkston, Jonathan W; Lamb, R J

    2011-08-01

    Response rate can influence the behavioral effects of many drugs. Reinforcement magnitude may also influence drug effects. Further, reinforcement magnitude can influence rate-dependent effects. For example, in an earlier report, we showed that rate-dependent effects of two antidepressants depended on reinforcement magnitude. The ability of reinforcement magnitude to interact with rate-dependency has not been well characterized. It is not known whether our previous results are specific to antidepressants or generalize to other drug classes. Here, we further examine rate-magnitude interactions by studying effects of two stimulants (d-amphetamine [0.32-5.6 mg/kg] and cocaine [0.32-10 mg/kg]) and two sedatives (chlordiazepoxide [1.78-32 mg/kg] and pentobarbital [1.0-17.8 mg/kg]) in pigeons responding under a 3-component multiple fixed-interval (FI) 300-s schedule maintained by 2-, 4-, or 8-s of food access. We also examine the effects of d-amphetamine [0.32-3.2 mg/kg] and pentobarbital [1.8-10 mg/kg] in rats responding under a similar multiple FI300-s schedule maintained by 2- or 10- food pellet (45 mg) delivery. In pigeons, cocaine and, to a lesser extent, chlordiazepoxide exerted rate-dependent effects that were diminished by increasing durations of food access. The relationship was less apparent for pentobarbital, and not present for d-amphetamine. In rats, rate-dependent effects of pentobarbital and d-amphetamine were not modulated by reinforcement magnitude. In conclusion, some drugs appear to exert rate-dependent effect which are diminished when reinforcement magnitude is relatively high. Subsequent analysis of the rate-dependency data suggest the effects of reinforcement magnitude may be due to a diminution of drug-induced increases in low-rate behavior that occurs early in the fixed-interval.

  9. Cell-Specific Modulation of Papovavirus Replication by Tumor Suppressor Protein p53

    PubMed Central

    Lepik, Dina; Ustav, Mart

    2000-01-01

    Small DNA tumor viruses like human papillomaviruses, simian virus 40, and adenoviruses modulate the activity of cellular tumor suppressor proteins p53 and/or pRB. These viruses replicate as nuclear multicopy extrachromosomal elements during the S phase of the cell cycle, and it has been suggested that inactivation of p53 and pRb is necessary for directing the cells to the S phase. Mouse polyomavirus (Py), however, modulates only the pRB protein activity without any obvious interference with the action of p53. We show here that Py replication was not suppressed by the p53 protein indeed in all tested different mouse cell lines. In addition, E1- and E2-dependent papillomavirus origin replication was insensitive to the action of p53 in mouse cells. We show that in hamster (Chinese hamster ovary) or human (osteosarcoma 143) cell lines the replication of both Py and papillomavirus origins was efficiently blocked by p53. The block of Py replication in human and hamster cells is not caused by the downregulation of large T-antigen expression. The deletion analysis of the p53 protein shows that the RPA binding, proline-rich regulatory, DNA-binding, and oligomerization domains are necessary for p53 action in both replication systems. These results indicate that in mouse cells the p53 protein could be inactive for the suppression of papovavirus replication. PMID:10775606

  10. Reciprocal Modulation of IK1–INa Extends Excitability in Cardiac Ventricular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The inwardly rectifying potassium current (IK1) and the fast inward sodium current (INa) are reciprocally modulated in mammalian ventricular myocytes. An increase in the expression of channels responsible for one of these two currents results in a corresponding increase in expression of the other. These currents are critical in the propagation of action potentials (AP) during the normal functioning of the heart. This study identifies a physiological role for IK1–INa reciprocal modulation in ventricular fiber activation thresholds and conduction. Simulations of action potentials in single cells and propagating APs in cardiac fibers were carried out using an existing model of electrical activity in cardiac ventricular myocytes. The conductances, GK1, of the inwardly rectifying potassium current, and GNa, of the fast inward sodium current were modified independently and in tandem to simulate reciprocal modulation. In single cells, independent modulation of GK1 alone resulted in changes in activation thresholds that were qualitatively similar to those for reciprocal GK1–GNa modulation and unlike those due to independent modulation of GNa alone, indicating that GK1 determines the cellular activation threshold. On the other hand, the variations in conduction velocity in cardiac cell fibers were similar for independent GNa modulation and for tandem changes in GK1–GNa, suggesting that GNa is primarily responsible for setting tissue AP conduction velocity. Conduction velocity dependence on GK1–GNa is significantly affected by the intercellular gap junction conductance. While the effects on the passive fiber space constant due to changes in both GK1 and the intercellular gap junction conductance, Ggj, were in line with linear cable theory predictions, both conductances had surprisingly large effects on fiber activation thresholds. Independent modulation of GK1 rendered cardiac fibers inexcitable at higher levels of GK1 whereas tandem GK1–GNa changes allowed fibers

  11. Isosmotic modulation of Ca2+-regulated exocytosis in guinea-pig antral mucous cells: role of cell volume.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, S; Shimamoto, C; Katsu, K i; Imai, Y; Nakahari, T

    1999-04-01

    1. Exocytotic events and changes of cell volume in mucous cells from guinea-pig antrum were examined by video-enhanced optical microscopy. 2. Acetylcholine (ACh) evoked exocytotic events following cell shrinkage, the frequency and extent of which depended on the ACh concentration. ACh actions were mimicked by ionomycin and thapsigargin, and inhibited by Ca2+-free solution and Ca2+ channel blockers (Ni2+, Cd2+ and nifedipine). Application of 100 microM W-7, a calmodulin inhibitor, also inhibited the ACh-induced exocytotic events. These results indicate that ACh actions are mediated by intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in antral mucous cells. 3. The effects of ion channel blockers on exocytotic events and cell shrinkage evoked by ACh were examined. Inhibition of KCl release (quinine, Ba2+, NPPB or KCl solution) suppressed both the exocytotic events and cell shrinkage evoked by ACh. 4. Bumetanide (inhibition of NaCl entry) or Cl--free solution (increasing Cl- release and inhibition of NaCl entry) evoked exocytotic events following cell shrinkage in unstimulated antral mucous cells and caused further cell shrinkage and increases in the frequency of exocytotic events in ACh-stimulated cells. However, Cl--free solution did not evoke exocytotic events in unstimulated cells in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, although cell shrinkage occurred. 5. To examine the effects of cell volume on ACh-evoked exocytosis, the cell volume was altered by increasing the extracellular K+ concentration. The results showed that cell shrinkage increases the frequency of ACh-evoked exocytotic events and cell swelling decreases them. 6. Osmotic shrinkage or swelling caused the frequency of ACh-evoked exocytotic events to increase. This suggests that the effects of cell volume on ACh-evoked exocytosis under anisosmotic conditions may not be the same as those under isosmotic conditions. 7. In antral mucous cells, Ca2+-regulated exocytosis is modulated by cell shrinkage under isosmotic

  12. The Wnt gatekeeper SFRP4 modulates EMT, cell migration and downstream Wnt signalling in serous ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ford, Caroline E; Jary, Eve; Ma, Sean Si Qian; Nixdorf, Sheri; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Viola A; Ward, Robyn L

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant Wnt signalling is implicated in numerous human cancers, and understanding the effects of modulation of pathway members may lead to the development of novel therapeutics. Expression of secreted frizzled related protein 4 (SFRP4), an extracellular modulator of the Wnt signalling pathway, is progressively lost in more aggressive ovarian cancer phenotypes. Here we show that recombinant SFRP4 (rSFRP4) treatment of a serous ovarian cancer cell line results in inhibition of β-catenin dependent Wnt signalling as measured by TOP/FOP Wnt reporter assay and decreased transcription of Wnt target genes, Axin2, CyclinD1 and Myc. In addition, rSFRP4 treatment significantly increased the ability of ovarian cancer cells to adhere to collagen and fibronectin, and decreased their ability to migrate across an inflicted wound. We conclude that these changes in cell behaviour may be mediated via mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET), as rSFRP4 treatment also resulted in increased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin, and reduced expression of Vimentin and Twist. Combined, these results indicate that modulation of a single upstream gatekeeper of Wnt signalling can have effects on downstream Wnt signalling and ovarian cancer cell behaviour, as mediated through epithelial to mesenchymal plasticity (EMP). This raises the possibility that SFRP4 may be used both diagnostically and therapeutically in epithelial ovarian cancer.

  13. Cellular Mechanisms Underlying Behavioral State-Dependent Bidirectional Modulation of Motor Cortex Output

    PubMed Central

    Schiemann, Julia; Puggioni, Paolo; Dacre, Joshua; Pelko, Miha; Domanski, Aleksander; van Rossum, Mark C.W.; Duguid, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Summary Neuronal activity in primary motor cortex (M1) correlates with behavioral state, but the cellular mechanisms underpinning behavioral state-dependent modulation of M1 output remain largely unresolved. Here, we performed in vivo patch-clamp recordings from layer 5B (L5B) pyramidal neurons in awake mice during quiet wakefulness and self-paced, voluntary movement. We show that L5B output neurons display bidirectional (i.e., enhanced or suppressed) firing rate changes during movement, mediated via two opposing subthreshold mechanisms: (1) a global decrease in membrane potential variability that reduced L5B firing rates (L5Bsuppressed neurons), and (2) a coincident noradrenaline-mediated increase in excitatory drive to a subpopulation of L5B neurons (L5Benhanced neurons) that elevated firing rates. Blocking noradrenergic receptors in forelimb M1 abolished the bidirectional modulation of M1 output during movement and selectively impaired contralateral forelimb motor coordination. Together, our results provide a mechanism for how noradrenergic neuromodulation and network-driven input changes bidirectionally modulate M1 output during motor behavior. PMID:25981037

  14. Stimulus-dependent modulation of spontaneous low-frequency oscillations in the rat visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liangming; Liu, Yadong; Gui, Jianjun; Li, Ming; Hu, Dewen

    2014-06-09

    Research on spontaneous low-frequency oscillations is important to reveal underlying regulatory mechanisms in the brain. The mechanism for the stimulus modulation of low-frequency oscillations is not known. Here, we used the intrinsic optical imaging technique to examine stimulus-modulated low-frequency oscillation signals in the rat visual cortex. The stimulation was presented monocularly as a flashing light with different frequencies and intensities. The phases of low-frequency oscillations in different regions tended to be synchronized and the rhythms typically accelerated within a 30-s period after stimulation. These phenomena were confined to visual stimuli with specific flashing frequencies (12.5-17.5 Hz) and intensities (5-10 mA). The acceleration and synchronization induced by the flashing frequency were more marked than those induced by the intensity. These results show that spontaneous low-frequency oscillations can be modulated by parameter-dependent flashing lights and indicate the potential utility of the visual stimulus paradigm in exploring the origin and function of low-frequency oscillations.

  15. On Neuron Membrane Potential Distributions for Voltage and Time Dependent Current Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salig, J. B.; Carpio-Bernido, M. V.; Bernido, C. C.; Bornales, J. B.

    Tracking variations of neuronal membrane potential in response to multiple synaptic inputs remains an important open field of investigation since information about neural network behavior and higher brain functions can be inferred from such studies. Much experimental work has been done, with recent advances in multi-electrode recordings and imaging technology giving exciting results. However, experiments have also raised questions of compatibility with available theoretical models. Here we show how methods of modern infinite dimensional analysis allow closed form expressions for important quantities rich in information such as the conditional probability density (cpd). In particular, we use a Feynman integral approach where fluctuations in the dynamical variable are parametrized with Hida white noise variables. The stochastic process described then gives variations in time of the relative membrane potential defined as the difference between the neuron membrane and firing threshold potentials. We obtain the cpd for several forms of current modulation coefficients reflecting the flow of synaptic currents, and which are analogous to drift coefficients in the configuration space Fokker-Planck equation. In particular, we consider cases of voltage and time dependence for current modulation for periodic and non-periodic oscillatory current modulation described by sinusoidal and Bessel functions.

  16. Generalized spin-dependent WIMP-nucleus interactions and the DAMA modulation effect

    SciTech Connect

    Scopel, Stefano; Yoon, Kook-Hyun; Yoon, Jong-Hyun E-mail: koreasds@naver.com

    2015-07-01

    Guided by non-relativistic Effective Field Theory (EFT) we classify the most general spin-dependent interactions between a fermionic Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) and nuclei, and within this class of models we discuss the viability of an interpretation of the DAMA modulation result in terms of a signal from WIMP elastic scatterings using a halo-independent approach. We find that, although several relativistic EFT's can lead to a spin-dependent cross section, in some cases with an explicit, non-negligible dependence on the WIMP incoming velocity, three main scenarios can be singled out in the non-relativistic limit which approximately encompass them all, and that only differ by their dependence on the transferred momentum. For two of them compatibility between DAMA and other constraints is possible for a WIMP mass below 30 GeV, but only for a WIMP velocity distribution in the halo of our Galaxy which departs from a Maxwellian. This is achieved by combining a suppression of the WIMP effective coupling to neutrons (to evade constraints from xenon and germanium detectors) to an explicit quadratic or quartic dependence of the cross section on the transferred momentum (that leads to a relative enhancement of the expected rate off sodium in DAMA compared to that off fluorine in droplet detectors and bubble chambers). For larger WIMP masses the same scenarios are excluded by scatterings off iodine in COUPP.

  17. Talin Modulation by a Synthetic N-Acylurea Derivative Reduces Angiogenesis in Human Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lim, I-Rang; Joo, Hyung Joon; Jeong, Minseon; Kim, Jong-Ho; Choi, Seung-Cheol; Kim, Chungho; Jung, Jong-Wha; Hong, Soon Jun

    2017-01-01

    Talin is a focal adhesion protein that activates integrins and recruits other focal adhesion proteins. Talin regulates the interactions between integrins and the extracellular matrix, which are critical for endothelial cells during angiogenesis. In this study, we successfully synthesized a novel talin modulator, N-((2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl)carbamoyl)-2-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yloxy)acetamide, referred to as KCH-1521. KCH-1521 was determined to bind talin and modulate downstream signaling molecules of talin. After 24 h of treatment, KCH-1521 changed the cell morphology of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and reduced focal adhesion protein expression including vinculin and paxillin. Talin downstream signaling is regulated via focal adhesion kinase (FAK), kinase B (AKT), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways, however, treatment with KCH-1521 decreased phosphorylation of FAK, AKT, and ERK, leading to reduction of cell proliferation, survival, and angiogenesis. Interestingly, the expression of various angiogenic genes was significantly decreased after treatment with KCH-1521. Also, in vitro tube forming assay revealed that KCH-1521 reduced angiogenic networks in a time-dependent manner. To investigate the reversibility of its effects, KCH-1521 was removed after treatment. HUVECs recovered their morphology through rearrangement of the cytoskeleton and the expression of angiogenic genes was also recovered. By further optimization and in vivo studies of KCH-1521, a novel drug of talin modulation could be used to achieve therapeutic anti-angiogenesis for vascular diseases and cancers. PMID:28117756

  18. Stackable and submergible microbial fuel cell modules for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minsoo; Cha, Jaehwan; Yu, Jaecheul; Kim, Changwon

    2016-08-01

    The stackable and submergible microbial fuel cell (SS-MFC) system was fabricated consisting of three MFC modules (#1, #2 and #3) that were immersed in an anaerobic tank as a 30 L anode compartment. Each module consisted of the anion exchange membrane-membrane electrode assembly (A-MEA) and cation exchange membrane-MEA (C-MEA). Two MEAs shared a cathode compartment in the module and the three modules shared a anode compartment The SS-MFC system was operated with two phase. After batch feeding (phase I), the system was operated under continuous mode (phase II) with different organic concentrations (from 50 to 1000 mg/L) and different hydraulic retention times (HRT; from 3.4 to 7.2 h). The SS-MFC system successfully produced a stable voltage. A-MEA generated a lower power density than the C-MEA because of the former's high activation and resistance loss. C-MEA showed a higher average maximum power density (3.16 W/m(3)) than A-MEA (2.82 W/m(3)) at 70 mL/min (HRT of 7.2 h). The current density increased as the organic concentration was increased from 70 to 1000 mg/L in a manner consistent with Monod kinetics. When the HRT was increased from 3.4 to 7.2 h, the power densities of the C-MEAs increased from 34.3-40.9 to 40.7-45.7 mW/m(2), but those of the A-MEAs decreased from 25.3-48.0 to 27.7-40.9 mW/m(2). Although power generation was affected by HRT, organic concentrations, and separator types, the proposed SS-MFC modules can be applied to existing wastewater treatment plants.

  19. The presence of primary cilia in cancer cells does not predict responsiveness to modulation of smoothened activity.

    PubMed

    Spann, Ashley L; Yuan, Kun; Goliwas, Kayla F; Steg, Adam D; Kaushik, Devanshu D; Kwon, Yeon-Jin; Frost, Andra R

    2015-07-01

    Primary cilia are microtubule-based organelles that regulate smoothened-dependent activation of the GLI transcription factors in canonical hedgehog signaling. In many cancers, primary cilia are markedly decreased or absent. The lack of primary cilia may inhibit or alter canonical hedgehog signaling and, thereby, interfere in the cellular responsiveness to modulators of smoothened activity. Clinical trials of smoothened antagonists for cancer treatment have shown the best response in basal cell carcinomas, with limited response in other solid tumors. To determine whether the presence or absence of primary cilia in cancer cells will predict their responsiveness to modulation of smoothened activity, we compared the ability of an agonist and/or inhibitor of smoothened (SAG and SANT1, respectively) to modulate GLI-mediated transcription, as measured by GLI1 mRNA level or GLI-luciferase reporter activity, in non-cancer cells with primary cilia (ovarian surface epithelial cells and breast fibroblasts), in cancer cells that cannot assemble primary cilia (MCF7, MDA-MB-231 cell lines), and in cancer cells with primary cilia (SKOV3, PANC1 cell lines). As expected, SAG and SANT1 resulted in appropriate modulation of GLI transcriptional activity in ciliated non-cancer cells, and failed to modulate GLI transcriptional activity in cancer cells without primary cilia. However, there was also no modulation of GLI transcriptional activity in either ciliated cancer cell line. SAG treatment of SKOV3 induced localization of smoothened to primary cilia, as assessed by immunofluorescence, even though there was no increase in GLI transcriptional activity, suggesting a defect in activation of SMO in the primary cilia or in steps later in the hedgehog pathway. In contrast to SKOV3, SAG treatment of PANC1 did not cause the localization of smoothened to primary cilia. Our data demonstrate that the presence of primary cilia in the cancer epithelial cells lines tested does not indicate their

  20. Vitamin K Dependent Proteins and the Role of Vitamin K2 in the Modulation of Vascular Calcification: A Review

    PubMed Central

    El Asmar, Margueritta S.; Naoum, Joseph J.; Arbid, Elias J.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular calcification, a cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, is an actively regulated process involving vitamin K dependent proteins (VKDPs) among others. Vitamin K is an essential micronutrient, present in plants and animal fermented products that plays an important role as a cofactor for the post-translational γ-carboxylation of glutamic acid residues in a number of proteins. These VKDPs require carboxylation to become biologically active, and they have been identified as having an active role in vascular cell migration, angiogenesis and vascular calcification. This paper will review the process of vascular calcification and delineate the role that vitamin K2 plays in the modulation of that process, through the activation of VKDPs. One such VKDP is Matrix Gla Protein (MGP), which when activated inhibits osteogenic factors, thereby inhibiting vascular and soft tissue calcification. PMID:24936265

  1. Efficacy of a Meiosis Learning Module Developed for the Virtual Cell Animation Collection.

    PubMed

    Goff, Eric E; Reindl, Katie M; Johnson, Christina; McClean, Phillip; Offerdahl, Erika G; Schroeder, Noah L; White, Alan R

    2017-01-01

    Recent reports calling for change in undergraduate biology education have resulted in the redesign of many introductory biology courses. Reports on one common change to course structure, the active-learning environment, have placed an emphasis on student preparation, noting that the positive outcomes of active learning in the classroom depend greatly on how well the student prepares before class. As a possible preparatory resource, we test the efficacy of a learning module developed for the Virtual Cell Animation Collection. This module presents the concepts of meiosis in an interactive, dynamic environment that has previously been shown to facilitate learning in introductory biology students. Participants (n = 534) were enrolled in an introductory biology course and were presented the concepts of meiosis in one of two treatments: the interactive-learning module or a traditional lecture session. Analysis of student achievement shows that students who viewed the learning module as their only means of conceptual presentation scored significantly higher (d = 0.40, p < 0.001) than students who only attended a traditional lecture on the topic. Our results show the animation-based learning module effectively conveyed meiosis conceptual understanding, which suggests that it may facilitate student learning outside the classroom. Moreover, these results have implications for instructors seeking to expand their arsenal of tools for "flipping" undergraduate biology courses.

  2. Efficacy of a Meiosis Learning Module Developed for the Virtual Cell Animation Collection

    PubMed Central

    Goff, Eric E.; Reindl, Katie M.; Johnson, Christina; McClean, Phillip; Offerdahl, Erika G.; Schroeder, Noah L.; White, Alan R.

    2017-01-01

    Recent reports calling for change in undergraduate biology education have resulted in the redesign of many introductory biology courses. Reports on one common change to course structure, the active-learning environment, have placed an emphasis on student preparation, noting that the positive outcomes of active learning in the classroom depend greatly on how well the student prepares before class. As a possible preparatory resource, we test the efficacy of a learning module developed for the Virtual Cell Animation Collection. This module presents the concepts of meiosis in an interactive, dynamic environment that has previously been shown to facilitate learning in introductory biology students. Participants (n = 534) were enrolled in an introductory biology course and were presented the concepts of meiosis in one of two treatments: the interactive-learning module or a traditional lecture session. Analysis of student achievement shows that students who viewed the learning module as their only means of conceptual presentation scored significantly higher (d = 0.40, p < 0.001) than students who only attended a traditional lecture on the topic. Our results show the animation-based learning module effectively conveyed meiosis conceptual understanding, which suggests that it may facilitate student learning outside the classroom. Moreover, these results have implications for instructors seeking to expand their arsenal of tools for “flipping” undergraduate biology courses. PMID:28188282

  3. Ferroptosis: an iron-dependent form of nonapoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Scott J; Lemberg, Kathryn M; Lamprecht, Michael R; Skouta, Rachid; Zaitsev, Eleina M; Gleason, Caroline E; Patel, Darpan N; Bauer, Andras J; Cantley, Alexandra M; Yang, Wan Seok; Morrison, Barclay; Stockwell, Brent R

    2012-05-25

    Nonapoptotic forms of cell death may facilitate the selective elimination of some tumor cells or be activated in specific pathological states. The oncogenic RAS-selective lethal small molecule erastin triggers a unique iron-dependent form of nonapoptotic cell death that we term ferroptosis. Ferroptosis is dependent upon intracellular iron, but not other metals, and is morphologically, biochemically, and genetically distinct from apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. We identify the small molecule ferrostatin-1 as a potent inhibitor of ferroptosis in cancer cells and glutamate-induced cell death in organotypic rat brain slices, suggesting similarities between these two processes. Indeed, erastin, like glutamate, inhibits cystine uptake by the cystine/glutamate antiporter (system x(c)(-)), creating a void in the antioxidant defenses of the cell and ultimately leading to iron-dependent, oxidative death. Thus, activation of ferroptosis results in the nonapoptotic destruction of certain cancer cells, whereas inhibition of this process may protect organisms from neurodegeneration.

  4. Plasmon-Modulated Excitation-Dependent Fluorescence from Activated CTAB Molecules Strongly Coupled to Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ding, Si-Jing; Nan, Fan; Liu, Xiao-Li; Hao, Zhong-Hua; Zhou, Li; Zeng, Jie; Xu, Hong-Xing; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Qu-Quan

    2017-03-07

    Excitation-dependent fluorophores (EDFs) have been attracted increasing attention owing to their high tunability of emissions and prospective applications ranging from multicolor patterning to bio-imaging. Here, we report tunable fluorescence with quenching dip induced by strong coupling of exciton and plasmon in the hybrid nanostructure of CTAB* EDFs and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The quenching dip in the fluorescence spectrum is tuned by adjusting excitation wavelength as well as plasmon resonance and concentration of AuNPs. The observed excitation-dependent emission spectra with quenching dip are theoretically reproduced and revealed to be induced by resonant energy transfer from multilevel EDFs with wider width channels to plasmonic AuNPs. These findings provide a new approach to prepare EDF molecules and a strategy to modulate fluorescence spectrum via exciton-to-plasmon energy transfer.

  5. Plasmon-Modulated Excitation-Dependent Fluorescence from Activated CTAB Molecules Strongly Coupled to Gold Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Si-Jing; Nan, Fan; Liu, Xiao-Li; Hao, Zhong-Hua; Zhou, Li; Zeng, Jie; Xu, Hong-Xing; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Qu-Quan

    2017-03-01

    Excitation-dependent fluorophores (EDFs) have been attracted increasing attention owing to their high tunability of emissions and prospective applications ranging from multicolor patterning to bio-imaging. Here, we report tunable fluorescence with quenching dip induced by strong coupling of exciton and plasmon in the hybrid nanostructure of CTAB* EDFs and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The quenching dip in the fluorescence spectrum is tuned by adjusting excitation wavelength as well as plasmon resonance and concentration of AuNPs. The observed excitation-dependent emission spectra with quenching dip are theoretically reproduced and revealed to be induced by resonant energy transfer from multilevel EDFs with wider width channels to plasmonic AuNPs. These findings provide a new approach to prepare EDF molecules and a strategy to modulate fluorescence spectrum via exciton-to-plasmon energy transfer.

  6. Plasmon-Modulated Excitation-Dependent Fluorescence from Activated CTAB Molecules Strongly Coupled to Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Si-Jing; Nan, Fan; Liu, Xiao-Li; Hao, Zhong-Hua; Zhou, Li; Zeng, Jie; Xu, Hong-Xing; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Qu-Quan

    2017-01-01

    Excitation-dependent fluorophores (EDFs) have been attracted increasing attention owing to their high tunability of emissions and prospective applications ranging from multicolor patterning to bio-imaging. Here, we report tunable fluorescence with quenching dip induced by strong coupling of exciton and plasmon in the hybrid nanostructure of CTAB* EDFs and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The quenching dip in the fluorescence spectrum is tuned by adjusting excitation wavelength as well as plasmon resonance and concentration of AuNPs. The observed excitation-dependent emission spectra with quenching dip are theoretically reproduced and revealed to be induced by resonant energy transfer from multilevel EDFs with wider width channels to plasmonic AuNPs. These findings provide a new approach to prepare EDF molecules and a strategy to modulate fluorescence spectrum via exciton-to-plasmon energy transfer. PMID:28266619

  7. Focal Adhesion Kinase Modulates Cell Adhesion Strengthening via Integrin Activation

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Kristin E.; Dumbauld, David W.; Burns, Kellie L.; Hanks, Steven K.

    2009-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is an essential nonreceptor tyrosine kinase regulating cell migration, adhesive signaling, and mechanosensing. Using FAK-null cells expressing FAK under an inducible promoter, we demonstrate that FAK regulates the time-dependent generation of adhesive forces. During the early stages of adhesion, FAK expression in FAK-null cells enhances integrin activation to promote integrin binding and, hence, the adhesion strengthening rate. Importantly, FAK expression regulated integrin activation, and talin was required for the FAK-dependent effects. A role for FAK in integrin activation was confirmed in human fibroblasts with knocked-down FAK expression. The FAK autophosphorylation Y397 site was required for the enhancements in adhesion strengthening and integrin-binding responses. This work demonstrates a novel role for FAK in integrin activation and the time-dependent generation of cell–ECM forces. PMID:19297531

  8. Role of modulation on the effect of microwaves on ornithine decarboxylase activity in L929 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Penafiel, L.M.; Litovitz, T.; Krause, D.; Desta, A.; Mullins, J.M.

    1997-05-01

    The effect of 835 MHz microwaves on the activity of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in L929 murine cells was investigated at an SAR of {approximately}2.5 W/kg. The results depended upon the type of modulation employed. AM frequencies of 16 Hz and 60 Hz produced a transient increase in ODC activity that reached a peak at 8 h of exposure and returned to control levels after 24 h of exposure. In this case, ODC was increased by a maximum of 90% relative to control levels. A 40% increase in ODC activity was also observed after 8 h of exposure with a typical signal from a TDMA digital cellular telephone operating in the middle of its transmission frequency range. This signal was burst modulated at 50 Hz, with approximately 30% duty cycle. By contrast, 8 h exposure with 835 MHz microwaves amplitude modulated with speech produced