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Sample records for cell derived insulin-producing

  1. Generation of insulin-producing cells from gnotobiotic porcine skin-derived stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ji Hoon; Lee, Sung Ho; Heo, Young Tae; Uhm, Sang Jun; Lee, Hoon Taek

    2010-07-09

    A major problem in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus is the limited availability of alternative sources of insulin-producing cells for islet transplantation. In this study, we investigated the effect of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) treatments of gnotobiotic porcine skin-derived stem cells (gSDSCs) on their reprogramming and subsequent differentiation into insulin-producing cells (IPCs). We isolated SDSCs from the ear skin of a gnotobiotic pig. During the proliferation period, the cells expressed stem-cell markers Oct-4, Sox-2, and CD90; nestin expression also increased significantly. The cells could differentiate into IPCs after treatments with activin-A, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and nicotinamide. After 15 days in the differentiation medium, controlled gSDSCs began expressing endocrine progenitor genes and proteins (Ngn3, Neuro-D, PDX-1, NKX2.2, NKX6.1, and insulin). The IPCs showed increased insulin synthesis after glucose stimulation. The results indicate that stem cells derived from the skin of gnotobiotic pigs can differentiate into IPCs under the appropriate conditions in vitro. Our three-stage induction protocol could be applied without genetic modification to source IPCs from stem cells in the skin of patients with diabetes for autologous transplantation.

  2. Generation of insulin-producing cells from gnotobiotic porcine skin-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji Hoon; Lee, Sung Ho; Heo, Young Tae; Uhm, Sang Jun; Lee, Hoon Taek

    2010-07-09

    A major problem in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus is the limited availability of alternative sources of insulin-producing cells for islet transplantation. In this study, we investigated the effect of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) treatments of gnotobiotic porcine skin-derived stem cells (gSDSCs) on their reprogramming and subsequent differentiation into insulin-producing cells (IPCs). We isolated SDSCs from the ear skin of a gnotobiotic pig. During the proliferation period, the cells expressed stem-cell markers Oct-4, Sox-2, and CD90; nestin expression also increased significantly. The cells could differentiate into IPCs after treatments with activin-A, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and nicotinamide. After 15days in the differentiation medium, controlled gSDSCs began expressing endocrine progenitor genes and proteins (Ngn3, Neuro-D, PDX-1, NKX2.2, NKX6.1, and insulin). The IPCs showed increased insulin synthesis after glucose stimulation. The results indicate that stem cells derived from the skin of gnotobiotic pigs can differentiate into IPCs under the appropriate conditions in vitro. Our three-stage induction protocol could be applied without genetic modification to source IPCs from stem cells in the skin of patients with diabetes for autologous transplantation.

  3. Insulin - producing cells derived from stem cells: recent progress and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Santana, A; Enseñat - Waser, R; Arribas, Maria Isabel; Reig, J A; Roche, E

    2006-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is characterized by the selective destruction of pancreatic β-cells caused by an autoimmune attack. Type 2 diabetes is a more complex pathology which, in addition to β-cell loss caused by apoptotic programs, includes β-cell dedifferentiation and peripheric insulin resistance. β-Cells are responsible for insulin production, storage and secretion in accordance to the demanding concentrations of glucose and fatty acids. The absence of insulin results in death and therefore diabetic patients require daily injections of the hormone for survival. However, they cannot avoid the appearance of secondary complications affecting the peripheral nerves as well as the eyes, kidneys and cardiovascular system. These afflictions are caused by the fact that external insulin injection does not mimic the tight control that pancreaticderived insulin secretion exerts on the body’s glycemia. Restoration of damaged β-cells by transplantation from exogenous sources or by endocrine pancreas regeneration would be ideal therapeutic options. In this context, stem cells of both embryonic and adult origin (including β-cell/islet progenitors) offer some interesting alternatives, taking into account the recent data indicating that these cells could be the building blocks from which insulin secreting cells could be generated in vitro under appropriate culture conditions. Although in many cases insulin-producing cells derived from stem cells have been shown to reverse experimentally induced diabetes in animal models, several concerns need to be solved before finding a definite medical application. These refer mainly to the obtainment of a cell population as similar as possible to pancreatic β-cells, and to the problems related with the immune compatibility and tumor formation. This review will summarize the different approaches that have been used to obtain insulin-producing cells from embryonic and adult stem cells, and the main problems that hamper the clinical

  4. Characterization of insulin-producing cells derived from PDX-1-transfected neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hailan; Jiang, Zesheng; Li, Aihui; Gao, Yi

    2012-12-01

    Islet cell transplantation is a promising treatment strategy for type-1 diabetes. However, functional islet cells are hard to obtain for transplantation and are in short supply. Directing the differentiation of stem cells into insulin‑producing cells, which serve as islet cells, would overcome this shortage. Bone marrow contains hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells. The present study used bone marrow cells isolated from rats and neural stem cells (NSCs) that were derived from bone marrow cells in culture. Strong nestin staining was detected in NSCs, but not in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). In vitro transfection of the pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) gene into NSCs generated insulin‑producing cells. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis confirmed that PDX-1-transfected NSCs expressed insulin mRNA and released insulin protein. However, insulin release from PDX-1-transfected NSCs did not respond to the challenge of glucose and glucagon-like peptide-1. These results support the use of bone marrow-derived NSCs as a renewable source of insulin-producing cells for autologous transplantation to treat type-1 diabetes.

  5. Reversal of diabetes with insulin-producing cells derived in vitro from human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Rezania, Alireza; Bruin, Jennifer E; Arora, Payal; Rubin, Allison; Batushansky, Irina; Asadi, Ali; O'Dwyer, Shannon; Quiskamp, Nina; Mojibian, Majid; Albrecht, Tobias; Yang, Yu Hsuan Carol; Johnson, James D; Kieffer, Timothy J

    2014-11-01

    Transplantation of pancreatic progenitors or insulin-secreting cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has been proposed as a therapy for diabetes. We describe a seven-stage protocol that efficiently converts hESCs into insulin-producing cells. Stage (S) 7 cells expressed key markers of mature pancreatic beta cells, including MAFA, and displayed glucose-stimulated insulin secretion similar to that of human islets during static incubations in vitro. Additional characterization using single-cell imaging and dynamic glucose stimulation assays revealed similarities but also notable differences between S7 insulin-secreting cells and primary human beta cells. Nevertheless, S7 cells rapidly reversed diabetes in mice within 40 days, roughly four times faster than pancreatic progenitors. Therefore, although S7 cells are not fully equivalent to mature beta cells, their capacity for glucose-responsive insulin secretion and rapid reversal of diabetes in vivo makes them a promising alternative to pancreatic progenitor cells or cadaveric islets for the treatment of diabetes.

  6. Differentiation of human labia minora dermis-derived fibroblasts into insulin-producing cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bona; Yoon, Byung Sun; Moon, Jai-Hee; Kim, Jonggun; Jun, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Jung Han; Kim, Jun Sung; Baik, Cheong Soon; Kim, Aeree; Whang, Kwang Youn

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that human skin fibroblasts may represent a novel source of therapeutic stem cells. In this study, we report a 3-stage method to induce the differentiation of skin fibroblasts into insulin-producing cells (IPCs). In stage 1, we establish the isolation, expansion and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells from human labia minora dermis-derived fibroblasts (hLMDFs) (stage 1: MSC expansion). hLMDFs express the typical mesenchymal stem cell marker proteins and can differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes or muscle cells. In stage 2, DMEM/F12 serum-free medium with ITS mix (insulin, transferrin, and selenite) is used to induce differentiation of hLMDFs into endoderm-like cells, as determined by the expression of the endoderm markers Sox17, Foxa2, and PDX1 (stage 2: mesenchymal-endoderm transition). In stage 3, cells in the mesenchymal-endoderm transition stage are treated with nicotinamide in order to further differentiate into self-assembled, 3-dimensional islet cell-like clusters that express multiple genes related to pancreatic β-cell development and function (stage 3: IPC). We also found that the transplantation of IPCs can normalize blood glucose levels and rescue glucose homeostasis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. These results indicate that hLMDFs have the capacity to differentiate into functionally competent IPCs and represent a potential cell-based treatment for diabetes mellitus. PMID:22020533

  7. Differentiation of human labia minora dermis-derived fibroblasts into insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bona; Yoon, Byung Sun; Moon, Jai Hee; Kim, Jonggun; Jun, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Jung Han; Kim, Jun Sung; Baik, Cheong Soon; Kim, Aeree; Whang, Kwang Youn; You, Seungkwon

    2012-01-31

    Recent evidence has suggested that human skin fibroblasts may represent a novel source of therapeutic stem cells. In this study, we report a 3-stage method to induce the differentiation of skin fibroblasts into insulin- producing cells (IPCs). In stage 1, we establish the isolation, expansion and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells from human labia minora dermis- derived fibroblasts (hLMDFs) (stage 1: MSC expansion). hLMDFs express the typical mesenchymal stem cell marker proteins and can differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes or muscle cells. In stage 2, DMEM/F12 serum-free medium with ITS mix (insulin, transferrin, and selenite) is used to induce differentiation of hLMDFs into endoderm-like cells, as determined by the expression of the endoderm markers Sox17, Foxa2, and PDX1 (stage 2: mesenchymal-endoderm transition). In stage 3, cells in the mesenchymal- endoderm transition stage are treated with nicotinamide in order to further differentiate into self-assembled, 3-dimensional islet cell-like clusters that express multiple genes related to pancreatic β-cell development and function (stage 3: IPC). We also found that the transplantation of IPCs can normalize blood glucose levels and rescue glucose homeostasis in streptozotocin- induced diabetic mice. These results indicate that hLMDFs have the capacity to differentiate into functionally competent IPCs and represent a potential cell-based treatment for diabetes mellitus.

  8. Role of injured pancreatic extract promotes bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells efficiently differentiate into insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hongbin; Wang, Yunshuai; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Hui; Zhou, Hanxin; Li, Fu-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be successfully induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) by a variety of small molecules and cytokines in vitro. However, problems remain, such as low transdifferentiation efficiency and poor maturity of trans-differentiated cells. The damaged pancreatic cells secreted a large amount of soluble proteins, which were able to promote pancreative islet regeneration and MSCs differentiation. In this study, we utilized the rat injured pancreatic tissue extract to modulate rat bone marrow-derived MSCs differentiation into IPCs by the traditional two-step induction. Our results showed that injured pancreatic tissue extract could effectively promote the trans-differentiation efficiency and maturity of IPCs by the traditional induction. Moreover, IPCs were able to release more insulin in a glucose-dependent manner and ameliorate better the diabetic conditions of streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rats. Our study provides a new strategy to induce an efficient and directional differentiation of MSCs into IPCs.

  9. Mesenchymal stem cells derived in vitro transdifferentiated insulin-producing cells: A new approach to treat type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Dave, Shruti

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is largely related to an innate defect in the immune system culminating in a loss of self-tolerance and destruction of the insulin-producing β-cells. Currently, there is no definitive cure for T1DM. Insulin injection does not mimic the precise regulation of β-cells on glucose homeostasis, leading long term to the development of complications. Stem cell therapy is a promising approach and specifically mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) offer a promising possibility that deserves to be explored further. MSCs are multipotent, nonhematopoietic progenitors. They have been explored as an treatment option in tissue regeneration as well as potential of in vitro transdifferentiation into insulin-secreting cells. Thus, the major therapeutic goals for T1DM have been achieved in this way. The regenerative capabilities of MSCs have been a driving force to initiate studies testing their therapeutic effectiveness; their immunomodulatory properties have been equally exciting; which would appear capable of disabling immune dysregulation that leads to β-cell destruction in T1DM. Furthermore, MSCs can be cultured under specially defined conditions, their transdifferentiation can be directed toward the β-cell phenotype, and the formation of insulin-producing cells (IPCs) can be targeted. To date, the role of MSCs-derived IPC in T1DM-a unique approach with some positive findings-have been unexplored, but it is still in its very early phase. In this study, a new approach of MSCs-derived IPCs, as a potential therapeutic benefit for T1DM in experimental animal models as well as in humans has been summarized.

  10. Three-dimensional differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Khorsandi, Layasadat; Nejad-Dehbashi, Fereshteh; Ahangarpour, Akram; Hashemitabar, Mahmoud

    2015-02-01

    Fibrin glue (FG) is used in a variety of clinical applications and in the laboratory for localized and sustained release of factors potentially important for tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to evaluate FG scaffold effect on differentiation of insulin-producing cells (IPCs) from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). In this experimental study BM-MSCs were cultured and the cells characterized by analysis of cell surface markers using flow cytometry. BM-MSCs were seeded in FG scaffold (3D culture) and then treated with induction media. After induction, the presence of IPCs was demonstrated using gene expression profiles for pancreatic cell differentiation markers (PDX-1, GLUT-2 and insulin) and insulin detection in cytoplasm. Release of insulin by these cells was confirmed by radioimmunoassay. Expression of the islet-associated genes PDX-1, GLUT-2 and Insulin genes in 3D cultured cells was markedly higher than the 2D cultured cells exposure differentiation media. Compared to 2D culture of BM-MSCs-derived IPCs, the insulin release from 3D BM-MSCs-derived IPCs showed a nearly 3 fold (p<0.05) increase when exposed to a high glucose (25 mM) medium. Percentage of insulin positive cells in 3D experimental group showed an approximately 3.5-fold increase in compared to 2D experimental culture cells. The results of this study demonstrated that FG scaffold can enhance the differentiation of IPCs from rats BM-MSCs.

  11. Characteristics of the Early Immune Response Following Transplantation of Mouse ES Cell Derived Insulin-Producing Cell Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Ashleigh S.; Wood, Kathryn J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The fully differentiated progeny of ES cells (ESC) may eventually be used for cell replacement therapy (CRT). However, elements of the innate immune system may contribute to damage or destruction of these tissues when transplanted. Methodology/Principal Findings Herein, we assessed the hitherto ill-defined contribution of the early innate immune response in CRT after transplantation of either ESC derived insulin producing cell clusters (IPCCs) or adult pancreatic islets. Ingress of neutrophil or macrophage cells was noted immediately at the site of IPCC transplantation, but this infiltration was attenuated by day three. Gene profiling identified specific inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that were either absent or sharply reduced by three days after IPCC transplantation. Thus, IPCC transplantation provoked less of an early immune response than pancreatic islet transplantation. Conclusions/Significance Our study offers insights into the characteristics of the immune response of an ESC derived tissue in the incipient stages following transplantation and suggests potential strategies to inhibit cell damage to ensure their long-term perpetuation and functionality in CRT. PMID:20532031

  12. Role of Injured Pancreatic Extract Promotes Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Efficiently Differentiate into Insulin-Producing Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hongbin; Wang, Yunshuai; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Hui; Zhou, Hanxin; Li, Fu-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be successfully induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) by a variety of small molecules and cytokines in vitro. However, problems remain, such as low transdifferentiation efficiency and poor maturity of trans-differentiated cells. The damaged pancreatic cells secreted a large amount of soluble proteins, which were able to promote pancreative islet regeneration and MSCs differentiation. In this study, we utilized the rat injured pancreatic tissue extract to modulate rat bone marrow-derived MSCs differentiation into IPCs by the traditional two-step induction. Our results showed that injured pancreatic tissue extract could effectively promote the trans-differentiation efficiency and maturity of IPCs by the traditional induction. Moreover, IPCs were able to release more insulin in a glucose-dependent manner and ameliorate better the diabetic conditions of streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rats. Our study provides a new strategy to induce an efficient and directional differentiation of MSCs into IPCs. PMID:24058711

  13. Generation of insulin-producing cells from rat mesenchymal stem cells using an aminopyrrole derivative XW4.4.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Jingfeng; Huang, Wei; Yu, Wanwan; Xiong, Wei; Mula, Ramanjaneya V R; Zou, Hongbin; Yu, Yongping

    2014-02-05

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), a multisystem disease with both biochemical and anatomical/structural consequences, is a major health concern worldwide. Pancreatic islet transplantation provides a promising treatment for T1DM. However, the limited availability of islet tissue or new sources of insulin producing cells (IPCs) that are responsive to glucose hinder this promising approach. Though slow, the development of pancreatic beta-cell lines from rodent or human origin has been steadily progressing. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent, culture-expanded, non-hematopoietic cells that are currently being investigated as a novel cellular therapy. The in vitro differentiation potential of IPCs has raised hopes for a treatment of clinical diseases associated with autoimmunity. We screened for small molecules that induce pancreatic differentiation of IPCs. There are some compounds which showed positive effects on the DTZ staining. The aminopyrrole derivative compound XW4.4 which shows the best activity among them was found to induce pancreatic differentiation of rat MSCs (rMSCs). The in vitro studies indicated that treatment of rMSCs with compound XW4.4 resulted in differentiated cells with characteristics of IPCs including islet-like clusters, spherical, grape-like morphology, insulin secretion, positive for dithizone, glucose stimulation and expression of pancreatic endocrine cell marker genes. The data has also suggested that hepatocyte nuclear factor 3β (HNF 3β) may be involved in pancreatic differentiation of rMSCs when treated with XW4.4. Results indicate that XW4.4 induced rMSCs support the efforts to derive functional IPCs and serve as a means to alleviate limitations surrounding islet cell transplantation in the treatment of T1DM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fibrin scaffold enhances function of insulin producing cells differentiated from human umbilical cord matrix-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Seyedi, Fatemeh; Farsinejad, Alireza; Nematollahi-Mahani, Seyed Noureddin

    2017-04-01

    Tissue engineering is a new strategy which proposed to treat numerous human diseases nowadays. Three dimensional (3D) scaffolds fill the gap between two dimensional cell culture (2D) and animal tissues through mimicking the environmental behaviors surrounding the cells. In this study, hUCMs into insulin producing cells in fibrin scaffold were differentiated compare to conventional culture condition. Differentiation rate was estimated by real time PCR, immunocytochemistry (ICC) and the chemiluminesence (CLIA) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Real time PCR's results showed an increasing expression in NKX2.2, PDX1 and INS (producing the hormone insulin) genes in fibrin scaffold. Furthermore ICC analysis exhibited that insulin and pro-insulin proteins were more in fibrin scaffolds. CLIA and EIA on insulin and C peptide secretion indicated that both of groups were sensitive to the glucose challenge test but significant higher response was observed in fibrin scaffold (6.5 fold in 3D, 1.8 fold in 2D culture). It could be concluded that differentiation of hUCM cells into insulin producing cells in fibrin scaffold 3D culture system is much more efficient than 2D conventional culture system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhanced differentiation of human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells into insulin-producing cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mu, Xu-Peng; Ren, Li-Qun; Yan, Hao-Wei; Zhang, Xin-Min; Xu, Tian-Min; Wei, An-Hui; Jiang, Jin-Lan

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the ability of human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs) to differentiate into insulin-producing cells. hAFSCs were induced to differentiate into pancreatic cells by a multistep protocol. The expressions of pancreas-related genes and proteins, including pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1, insulin, and glucose transporter 2, were detected by polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence. Insulin secreted from differentiated cells was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. hAFSCs were successfully isolated from amniotic fluid that expressed the pluripotent markers of embryonic stem cells, such as Oct3/4, and mesenchymal stem cells, such as integrin β-1 and ecto-5'-nucleotidase. Here, we first obtained the hAFSCs that expressed pluripotent marker stage-specific embryonic antigen 1. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1, paired box gene 4 and paired box gene 6 were expressed in the early phase of induction, and then stably expressed in the differentiated cells. The pancreas-related genes, such as insulin, glucokinase, glucose transporter 2 and Nkx6.1, were expressed in the differentiated cells. Immunofluorescence showed that these differentiated cells co-expressed insulin, C-peptide, and pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1. Insulin was released in response to glucose stimulation in a manner similar to that of adult human islets. The present study showed that hAFSCs, under selective culture conditions, could differentiate into islet-like insulin-producing cells, which might be used as a potential source for transplantation in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Elutriated stem cells derived from the adult bone marrow differentiate into insulin-producing cells in vivo and reverse chemical diabetes.

    PubMed

    Iskovich, Svetlana; Goldenberg-Cohen, Nitza; Stein, Jerry; Yaniv, Isaac; Fabian, Ina; Askenasy, Nadir

    2012-01-01

    An ongoing debate surrounds the existence of stem cells in the adult endowed with capacity to differentiate into multiple lineages. We examined the possibility that adult bone marrow cells participate in recovery from chemical diabetes through neogenesis of insulin-producing cells. Small-sized cells negative for lineage markers derived by counterflow centrifugal elutriation from the bone marrow were transplanted into mice made diabetic with streptozotocin and sublethal irradiation. These cells homed efficiently to the injured islets and contributed to tissue revascularization. Islet-homed CD45-negative donor cells identified by sex chromosomes downregulated GFP, expressed PDX-1 and proinsulin, and converted the hormone precursor to insulin. An estimated 7.6% contribution of newly formed insulin-producing cells to islet cellularity increased serum insulin and stabilized glycemic control starting at 5 weeks post-transplant and persisting for 20 weeks. Newly differentiated cells displayed normal diploid genotype and there was no evidence of fusion between the grafted stem cells or their myeloid progeny and injured β-cells. Considering the extensive functional incorporation of insulin-producing donor cells in the injured islets, we conclude that the adult bone marrow contains a subset of small cells endowed with plastic developmental capacity.

  17. Generation of functional insulin-producing cells from neonatal porcine liver-derived cells by PDX1/VP16, BETA2/NeuroD and MafA.

    PubMed

    Ham, Dong-Sik; Shin, Juyoung; Kim, Ji-Won; Park, Heon-Seok; Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Yoon, Kun-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Surrogate β-cells derived from stem cells are needed to cure type 1 diabetes, and neonatal liver cells may be an attractive alternative to stem cells for the generation of β-cells. In this study, we attempted to generate insulin-producing cells from neonatal porcine liver-derived cells using adenoviruses carrying three genes: pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor1 (PDX1)/VP16, BETA2/NeuroD and v-maf musculo aponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA), which are all known to play critical roles in pancreatic development. Isolated neonatal porcine liver-derived cells were sequentially transduced with triple adenoviruses and grown in induction medium containing a high concentration of glucose, epidermal growth factors, nicotinamide and a low concentration of serum following the induction of aggregation for further maturation. We noted that the cells displayed a number of molecular characteristics of pancreatic β-cells, including expressing several transcription factors necessary for β-cell development and function. In addition, these cells synthesized and physiologically secreted insulin. Transplanting these differentiated cells into streptozotocin-induced immunodeficient diabetic mice led to the reversal of hyperglycemia, and more than 18% of the cells in the grafts expressed insulin at 6 weeks after transplantation. These data suggested that neonatal porcine liver-derived cells can be differentiated into functional insulin-producing cells under the culture conditions presented in this report and indicated that neonatal porcine liver-derived cells (NPLCs) might be useful as a potential source of cells for β-cell replacement therapy in efforts to cure type I diabetes.

  18. A feasibility study of an in vitro differentiation potential toward insulin-producing cells by dental tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sawangmake, Chenphop; Nowwarote, Nunthawan; Pavasant, Prasit; Chansiripornchai, Piyarat; Osathanon, Thanaphum

    2014-09-26

    Dental tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells have been proposed as an alternative source for mesenchymal stem cells. Here, we investigated the differentiation ability toward insulin producing cells (IPCs) of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) and human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs). These cells expressed mesenchymal stem cell surface markers and were able to differentiate toward osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. Upon 3 step-IPCs induction, hDPSCs exhibited more colony number than hPDLSCs. The mRNA upregulation of pancreatic endoderm/islet markers was noted. However, the significant increase was noted only for PDX-1, NGN-3, and INSULIN mRNA expression of hDPSCs. The hDPSCs-derived IPCs expressed PRO-INSULIN and released C-PEPTIDE upon glucose stimulation in dose-dependent manner. After IPCs induction, the Notch target, HES-1 and HEY-1, mRNA expression was markedly noted. Notch inhibition during the last induction step or throughout the protocol disturbed the ability of C-PEPTIDE release upon glucose stimulation. The results suggested that hDPSCs had better differentiation potential toward IPCs than hPDLSCs. In addition, the Notch signalling might involve in the differentiation regulation of hDPSCs into IPCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Insulin-Producing Cells: Evidence for Further Maturation In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Gabr, Mahmoud M; Zakaria, Mahmoud M; Refaie, Ayman F; Khater, Sherry M; Ashamallah, Sylvia A; Ismail, Amani M; El-Halawani, Sawsan M; Ghoneim, Mohamed A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide evidence for further in vivo maturation of insulin-producing cells (IPCs) derived from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HBM-MSCs). HBM-MSCs were obtained from three insulin-dependent type 2 diabetic volunteers. Following expansion, cells were differentiated according to a trichostatin-A/GLP protocol. One million cells were transplanted under the renal capsule of 29 diabetic nude mice. Blood glucose, serum human insulin and c-peptide levels, and glucose tolerance curves were determined. Mice were euthanized 1, 2, 4, or 12 weeks after transplantation. IPC-bearing kidneys were immunolabeled, number of IPCs was counted, and expression of relevant genes was determined. At the end of in vitro differentiation, all pancreatic endocrine genes were expressed, albeit at very low values. The percentage of IPCs among transplanted cells was small (≤3%). Diabetic animals became euglycemic 8 ± 3 days after transplantation. Thereafter, the percentage of IPCs reached a mean of ~18% at 4 weeks. Relative gene expression of insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin showed a parallel increase. The ability of the transplanted cells to induce euglycemia was due to their further maturation in the favorable in vivo microenvironment. Elucidation of the exact mechanism(s) involved requires further investigation.

  20. Promoting Long-Term Survival of Insulin-Producing Cell Grafts That Differentiate from Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells to Cure Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuzi; Dai, Hehua; Wan, Ni; Moore, Yolonda; Dai, Zhenhua

    2011-01-01

    Background Insulin-producing cell clusters (IPCCs) have recently been generated in vitro from adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) to circumvent islet shortage. However, it is unknown how long they can survive upon transplantation, whether they are eventually rejected by recipients, and how their long-term survival can be induced to permanently cure type 1 diabetes. IPCC graft survival is critical for their clinical application and this issue must be systematically addressed prior to their in-depth clinical trials. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we found that IPCC grafts that differentiated from murine ASCs in vitro, unlike their freshly isolated islet counterparts, did not survive long-term in syngeneic mice, suggesting that ASC-derived IPCCs have intrinsic survival disadvantage over freshly isolated islets. Indeed, β cells retrieved from IPCC syngrafts underwent faster apoptosis than their islet counterparts. However, blocking both Fas and TNF receptor death pathways inhibited their apoptosis and restored their long-term survival in syngeneic recipients. Furthermore, blocking CD40-CD154 costimulation and Fas/TNF signaling induced long-term IPCC allograft survival in overwhelming majority of recipients. Importantly, Fas-deficient IPCC allografts exhibited certain immune privilege and enjoyed long-term survival in diabetic NOD mice in the presence of CD28/CD40 joint blockade while their islet counterparts failed to do so. Conclusions/Significance Long-term survival of ASC-derived IPCC syngeneic grafts requires blocking Fas and TNF death pathways, whereas blocking both death pathways and CD28/CD40 costimulation is needed for long-term IPCC allograft survival in diabetic NOD mice. Our studies have important clinical implications for treating type 1 diabetes via ASC-derived IPCC transplantation. PMID:22216347

  1. Promoting long-term survival of insulin-producing cell grafts that differentiate from adipose tissue-derived stem cells to cure type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuzi; Dai, Hehua; Wan, Ni; Moore, Yolonda; Dai, Zhenhua

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-producing cell clusters (IPCCs) have recently been generated in vitro from adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) to circumvent islet shortage. However, it is unknown how long they can survive upon transplantation, whether they are eventually rejected by recipients, and how their long-term survival can be induced to permanently cure type 1 diabetes. IPCC graft survival is critical for their clinical application and this issue must be systematically addressed prior to their in-depth clinical trials. Here we found that IPCC grafts that differentiated from murine ASCs in vitro, unlike their freshly isolated islet counterparts, did not survive long-term in syngeneic mice, suggesting that ASC-derived IPCCs have intrinsic survival disadvantage over freshly isolated islets. Indeed, β cells retrieved from IPCC syngrafts underwent faster apoptosis than their islet counterparts. However, blocking both Fas and TNF receptor death pathways inhibited their apoptosis and restored their long-term survival in syngeneic recipients. Furthermore, blocking CD40-CD154 costimulation and Fas/TNF signaling induced long-term IPCC allograft survival in overwhelming majority of recipients. Importantly, Fas-deficient IPCC allografts exhibited certain immune privilege and enjoyed long-term survival in diabetic NOD mice in the presence of CD28/CD40 joint blockade while their islet counterparts failed to do so. Long-term survival of ASC-derived IPCC syngeneic grafts requires blocking Fas and TNF death pathways, whereas blocking both death pathways and CD28/CD40 costimulation is needed for long-term IPCC allograft survival in diabetic NOD mice. Our studies have important clinical implications for treating type 1 diabetes via ASC-derived IPCC transplantation. © 2011 Zhang et al.

  2. Reprogramming of liver cells into insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Meivar-Levy, Irit; Ferber, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    Tissue replacement is a promising direction for the treatment of diabetes, which will become widely available only when islets or insulin-producing cells that will not be rejected by the diabetic recipients are available in unlimited amounts. The present review addresses the research in the field of generating functional insulin-producing cells by transdifferentiation of adult liver cells both in vitro and in vivo. It presents recent knowledge of the mechanisms which underlie the process and assesses the challenges which should be addressed for its efficient implementation as a cell based replacement therapy for diabetics.

  3. Pdx1 and controlled culture conditions induced differentiation of human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells to insulin-producing clusters.

    PubMed

    Chun, So Young; Mack, David L; Moorefield, Emily; Oh, Se Heang; Kwon, Tae Gyun; Pettenati, Mark J; Yoo, James J; Coppi, Paolo De; Atala, Anthony; Soker, Shay

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the differentiation of human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (hAFSCs) into insulin-producing clusters in vitro. Adenovirally-delivered mouse Pdx1 (Ad-Pdx1) induced human Pdx1 expression in hAFSCs and enhanced the coordinated expression of downstream β-cell markers. When Ad-Pdx1-transduced hAFSCs were sequentially treated with activin A, bFGF and nicotinamide and the culture plate surface coated with poly-l-ornithine, the expression of islet-associated human mRNAs for Pdx1, Pax6, Ngn3 and insulin was increased. C-peptide ELISA confirmed that Ad-Pdx1-transduced hAFSCs processed and secreted insulin in a manner consistent with that pathway in pancreatic β-cells. To sustain the β-cell-like phenotype and investigate the effect of three-dimensional (3D) conformation on the differentiation of hAFSCs, Pdx1-transduced cells were encapsulated in alginate and cultured long-term under serum-free conditions. Over 2 weeks, partially differentiated hAFSC clusters increased in size and increased insulin secretion. Taken together, these data demonstrate that ectopic Pdx1 expression initiates pancreatic differentiation in hAFSCs and that a β-cell-like phenotype can be augmented by culture conditions that mimic the stromal components and 3D geometry associated with pancreatic islets.

  4. Improved differentiation of umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells into insulin-producing cells by PDX-1 mRNA transfection.

    PubMed

    Van Pham, Phuc; Thi-My Nguyen, Phuoc; Thai-Quynh Nguyen, Anh; Minh Pham, Vuong; Nguyen-Tu Bui, Anh; Thi-Tung Dang, Loan; Gia Nguyen, Khue; Kim Phan, Ngoc

    2014-06-01

    Numerous studies have sought to identify diabetes mellitus treatment strategies with fewer side effects. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy was previously considered as a promising therapy; however, it requires the cells to be trans-differentiated into cells of the pancreatic-endocrine lineage before transplantation. Previous studies have shown that PDX-1 expression can facilitate MSC differentiation into insulin-producing cells (IPCs), but the methods employed to date use viral or DNA-based tools to express PDX-1, with the associated risks of insertional mutation and immunogenicity. Thus, this study aimed to establish a new method to induce PDX-1 expression in MSCs by mRNA transfection. MSCs were isolated from human umbilical cord blood and expanded in vitro, with stemness confirmed by surface markers and multipotentiality. MSCs were transfected with PDX-1 mRNA by nucleofection and chemically induced to differentiate into IPCs (combinatorial group). This IPC differentiation was then compared with that of untransfected chemically induced cells (inducer group) and uninduced cells (control group). We found that PDX-1 mRNA transfection significantly improved the differentiation of MSCs into IPCs, with 8.3±2.5% IPCs in the combinatorial group, 3.21±2.11% in the inducer group and 0% in the control. Cells in the combinatorial group also strongly expressed several genes related to beta cells (Pdx-1, Ngn3, Nkx6.1 and insulin) and could produce C-peptide in the cytoplasm and insulin in the supernatant, which was dependent on the extracellular glucose concentration. These results indicate that PDX-1 mRNA may offer a promising approach to produce safe IPCs for clinical diabetes mellitus treatment.

  5. [Insulin producing cells as therapy in diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Schnedl, W J; Hohmeier, H E; Newgard, C B

    1996-01-01

    Even with intensive insulin therapy it is impossible to reach physiological blood glucose levels in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Because of the high costs and technical problems involved in islet cell transplantation broad applicability of this therapy seems uncertain. An alternative approach is the development of molecular-engineered insulin-producing clonal cell lines. The main interest is in rodent insulinoma cell lines and neuroendocrine AtT-20ins cells. This paper reviews the current knowledge about glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and the problems that have to be solved before these cells can be used for therapy in diabetes mellitus.

  6. Accumulation of cadmium in insulin-producing β cells.

    PubMed

    El Muayed, Malek; Raja, Meera R; Zhang, Xiaomin; MacRenaris, Keith W; Bhatt, Surabhi; Chen, Xiaojuan; Urbanek, Margrit; O'Halloran, Thomas V; Lowe, William L

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that chronic low level cadmium exposure impairs the function of insulin-producing β cells and may be associated with type-2 diabetes mellitus. Herein, we describe the cadmium content in primary human islets and define the uptake kinetics and effects of environmentally relevant cadmium concentrations in cultured β cells. The average cadmium content in islets from 10 non-diabetic human subjects was 29 ± 7 nmol/g protein (range 7 to 72 nmol/g protein). Exposure of the β-cell line MIN6 to CdCl 2 concentrations between 0.1 and 1.0 µmol/L resulted in a dose- and time-dependent uptake of cadmium over 72 h. This uptake resulted in an induction of metallthionein expression, likely enhancing cellular cadmium accumulation. Furthermore, cadmium accumulation resulted in an inhibition of glucose stimulated insulin secretion in MIN6 cells and primary mouse islets. Our results indicate that this impairment in β-cell function is not due to an increase in cell death or due to an increase in oxidative stress. We conclude that mouse β cells accumulate cadmium in a dose- and time-dependent manner over a prolonged time course at environmentally relevant concentrations. This uptake leads to a functional impairment of β-cell function without significant alterations in cell viability, expression of genes important for β-cell function or increase in oxidative stress.

  7. Hox6 genes modulate in vitro differentiation of mESCs to insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Brian M; Marty-Santos, Leilani; Newman, Micaleah; Lukacs, Derek T; Spence, Jason R; Wellik, Deneen M

    2016-10-01

    The differentiation of glucose-responsive, insulin-producing cells from ESCs in vitro is promising as a cellular therapy for the treatment of diabetes, a devastating and common disease. Pancreatic β-cells are derived from the endoderm in vivo and therefore most current protocols attempt to generate a pure population of first endoderm, then pancreas epithelium, and finally insulin-producing cells. Despite this, differentiation protocols result in mixed populations of cells that are often poorly defined, but also contain mesoderm. Using an in vitro mESC-to-β cell differentiation protocol, we show that expression of region-specific Hox genes is induced. We also show that the loss of function of the Hox6 paralogous group, genes expressed only in the mesenchyme of the pancreas (not epithelium), affect the differentiation of insulin-producing cells in vitro. This work is consistent with the important role for these mesoderm-specific factors in vivo and highlights contribution of supporting mesenchymal cells in in vitro differentiation.

  8. Superficial necrolytic dermatitis in a dog with an insulin-producing pancreatic islet cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Isidoro-Ayza, M; Lloret, A; Bardagí, M; Ferrer, L; Martínez, J

    2014-07-01

    A 10-year-old dog presented with convulsive crisis and symmetrical hyperkeratotic cutaneous lesions affecting the abdomen, inguinal area, eyelids, muzzles, both pinnae, and all the paw pads. Hypoglycemia and hyperinsulinemia were the main biochemical findings. A mass 2 cm in diameter was detected within the left pancreatic lobe by ultrasonography. It was surgically removed and histologically and immunohistochemically diagnosed as an insulin-producing pancreatic islet cell carcinoma. The animal was eventually euthanized due to lack of clinical improvement. At necropsy, metastatic nodules were observed in the pancreatic lymph nodes and liver. Histopathological findings of cutaneous lesions were highly suggestive of superficial necrolytic dermatitis and were interpreted as a paraneoplastic syndrome derived from the islet cell carcinoma. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of superficial necrolytic dermatitis associated with an insulin-producing pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma in dogs.

  9. Differentiation of stem cells into insulin-producing cells under the influence of nanostructural polyoxometalates.

    PubMed

    Bâlici, Ştefana; Şuşman, Sergiu; Rusu, Dan; Nicula, Gheorghe Zsolt; Soriţău, Olga; Rusu, Mariana; Biris, Alexandru S; Matei, Horea

    2016-03-01

    Two polyoxometalates (POMs) with W were synthesized by a two-step, self-assembling method. They were used for stimulation of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into insulin-producing cells. The nanocompounds (tris(vanadyl)-substituted tungsto-antimonate(III) anions [POM1] and tris-butyltin-21-tungsto-9-antimonate(III) anions [POM2]) were characterized by analytical techniques, including ultraviolet-visible, Fourier transform infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. We found that these polyoxotungstates, with 2-4 nm diameters, did not present toxic effects at the tested concentrations. In vitro, POM1 stimulated differentiation of a greater number of dithizone-positive cells (also organized in clusters) than the second nanocompound (POM2). Based on our in vitro studies, we have concluded that both the POMs tested had significant biological activity acting as active stimuli for differentiation of stem cells into insulin-producing cells.

  10. Reprogramming human gallbladder cells into insulin-producing β-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Eric; Wang, Yuhan; Pelz, Carl; Schug, Jonathan; Kaestner, Klaus H.; Grompe, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The gallbladder and cystic duct (GBCs) are parts of the extrahepatic biliary tree and share a common developmental origin with the ventral pancreas. Here, we report on the very first genetic reprogramming of patient-derived human GBCs to β-like cells for potential autologous cell replacement therapy for type 1 diabetes. We developed a robust method for large-scale expansion of human GBCs ex vivo. GBCs were reprogrammed into insulin-producing pancreatic β-like cells by a combined adenoviral-mediated expression of hallmark pancreatic endocrine transcription factors PDX1, MAFA, NEUROG3, and PAX6 and differentiation culture in vitro. The reprogrammed GBCs (rGBCs) strongly induced the production of insulin and pancreatic endocrine genes and these responded to glucose stimulation in vitro. rGBCs also expressed an islet-specific surface marker, which was used to enrich for the most highly reprogrammed cells. More importantly, global mRNA and microRNA expression profiles and protein immunostaining indicated that rGBCs adopted an overall β-like state and these rGBCs engrafted in immunodeficient mice. Furthermore, comparative global expression analyses identified putative regulators of human biliary to β cell fate conversion. In summary, we have developed, for the first time, a reliable and robust genetic reprogramming and culture expansion of primary human GBCs—derived from multiple unrelated donors—into pancreatic β-like cells ex vivo, thus showing that human gallbladder is a potentially rich source of reprogrammable cells for autologous cell therapy in diabetes. PMID:28813430

  11. Expression of a thioredoxin peroxidase in insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Boschero, A C; Stoppiglia, L F; Collares-Buzato, C B; Bosqueiro, J R; Delghingaro-Augusto, V; Leite, A; Carvalho, C P F; Netto, L E S; Carneiro, E M

    2002-12-01

    The presence of thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), also known as thiol specific antioxidant (TSA), was investigated in neonatal and adult rat islets, and in the beta-cell line HIT-T15. Western blotting of extracts from neonatal and adult pancreatic islets and from the tumoral cell line HIT-T15 revealed the presence of a 25 kDa protein that comigrated with purified yeast TPx. Endocrine pancreatic TPx accounted for approximately 0.01% of the total protein content. Treatment with H2O2 for 3 h increased the expression of TPx in HIT-T15 cells. The distribution of TPx throughout the islet cells was confirmed by immunocytochemistry. Since pancreatic beta-cells possess a weak antioxidant enzyme defense system, especially with regard to hydrogen peroxidase-decomposing enzymes, the presence of a TPx analog in islets suggests that this enzyme may play a role in protecting pancreatic cells against reactive oxygen species.

  12. Organotypic pancreatoids with native mesenchyme develop Insulin producing endocrine cells.

    PubMed

    Scavuzzo, Marissa A; Yang, Diane; Borowiak, Malgorzata

    2017-09-07

    Replacement of lost beta cells in patients with diabetes has the potential to alleviate them of their disease, yet current protocols to make beta cells are inadequate for therapy. In vitro screens can reveal the signals necessary for endocrine maturation to improve beta cell production, however the complexities of in vivo development that lead to beta cell formation are lost in two-dimensional systems. Here, we create three-dimensional organotypic pancreatic cultures, named pancreatoids, composed of embryonic day 10.5 murine epithelial progenitors and native mesenchyme. These progenitors assemble in scaffold-free, floating conditions and, with the inclusion of native mesenchyme, develop into pancreatoids expressing markers of different pancreatic lineages including endocrine-like cells. Treatment of pancreatoids with (-)-Indolactam-V or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, two protein kinase C activators, leads to altered morphology which otherwise would be overlooked in two-dimensional systems. Protein kinase C activation also led to fewer Insulin+ cells, decreased Ins1 and Ins2 mRNA levels, and increased Pdx1 and Hes1 mRNA levels with a high number of DBA+ cells. Thus, organotypic pancreatoids provide a useful tool for developmental studies, and can further be used for disease modeling, small molecules and genetic screens, or applied to human pluripotent stem cell differentiation for beta-like cell formation.

  13. Nanomaterial Solutions for the Protection of Insulin Producing Beta Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchison, Nicole Ann

    Islet transplantation is a promising treatment for type 1 diabetes. However, even with the many successes, islet transplantation has yet to reach its full potential. Limited islet sources, loss of cell viability during isolation and culture, and post-transplant graft loss are a few of the issues preventing extensive use of islet transplantation. The application of biomaterial systems to alleviate some of the stresses affecting islet viability has led to improvements in isolation and transplantation outcomes, but problems persist. In this work we approach two distinct issues affecting islet viability; ischemic conditions and immunological attack post-transplant. Ischemic conditions have been linked to a loss of islet graft function and occur during organ preservation, islet isolation and culture, and after islets are transplanted. We show that liposomal delivery of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to beta cells can limit cell death and loss of function in ischemic conditions. We demonstrate that by functionalizing liposomes with the fibronectin-mimetic peptide PR_b, delivery of liposomes to porcine islets and rat beta cells is increased compared to nontargeted controls. Additionally, liposomes are shown to protect by providing both ATP and lipids to the ischemic cells. The delivery of ATP was investigated here but application of PR_b functionalized liposomes could be extended to other interesting cargos as well. The second area of investigation involves encapsulation of islets with silica nanoparticles to create a permselective barrier. Silica nanoparticles are an interesting material for encapsulation given their ability to be fine-tuned and further functionalized. We demonstrate that size-tunable, fluorescent silica nanoparticles can be assembled layer-by-layer on the surface of cells and that silica nanoparticle encapsulated islets are able to secrete insulin in response to a glucose challenge.

  14. Autophagy is essential for the differentiation of porcine PSCs into insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lipeng; Yang, Hong; Cui, Yanhua; Xu, Shuanshuan; Sun, Fen; Tian, Na; Hua, Jinlian; Peng, Sha

    2017-07-01

    Porcine pancreatic stem cells (PSCs) are seed cells with potential use for diabetes treatment. Stem cell differentiation requires strict control of protein turnover and lysosomal digestion of organelles. Autophagy is a highly conserved process that controls the turnover of organelles and proteins within cells and contributes to the balance of cellular components. However, whether autophagy plays roles in PSC differentiation remains unknown. In this study, we successfully induced porcine PSCs into insulin-producing cells and found that autophagy was activated during the second induction stage. Inhibition of autophagy in the second stage resulted in reduced differentiational efficiency and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Moreover, the expression of active β-catenin increased while autophagy was activated but was suppressed when autophagy was inhibited. Therefore, autophagy is essential to the formation of insulin-producing cells, and the effects of autophagy on differentiation may be regulated by canonical Wnt signalling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cellular therapies based on stem cells and their insulin-producing surrogates: a 2015 reality check.

    PubMed

    Giannoukakis, Nick; Trucco, Massimo

    2015-05-01

    Stem cell technology has recently gained a substantial amount of interest as one method to create a potentially limitless supply of transplantable insulin-producing cells to treat, and possibly cure diabetes mellitus. In this review, we summarize the state-of-the art of stem cell technology and list the potential sources of stem cells that have been shown to be useful as insulin-expressing surrogates. We also discuss the milestones that have been reached and those that remain to be addressed to generate bona fide beta cell-similar, insulin-producing surrogates. The caveats, limitations, and realistic expectations are also considered for current and future technology. In spite of the tremendous technical advances realized in the past decade, especially in the field of reprogramming adult somatic cells to become stem cells, the state-of-the art still relies on lengthy and cumbersome in vitro culture methods that yield cell populations that are not particularly glucose-responsive when transplanted into diabetic hosts. Despite the current impediments toward clinical translation, including the potential for immune rejection, the availability of technology to generate patient-specific reprogrammable stem cells has, and will be critical for, important insights into the genetics, epigenetics, biology, and physiology of insulin-producing cells in normal and pathologic states. This knowledge could accelerate the time to reach the desired breakthrough for safe and efficacious beta cell surrogates.

  16. In vitro evaluation of different protocols for the induction of mesenchymal stem cells to insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Seyedi, Fatemeh; Farsinejad, Alireza; Moshrefi, Mojgan; Nematollahi-Mahani, Seyed Noureddin

    2015-09-01

    Stem cells therapy is a new promising approach for diabetes mellitus (DM) treatment, but the insulin secretion rate in differentiated cells is low when compared with pancreas beta cells embedded in Langerhans islets. In this study, we evaluated different protocols of insulin secretion to achieve the most appropriate protocol for in vitro insulin secretion. We differentiated human umbilical cord matrix-derived mesenchymal cells (hUCMs) into insulin-producing cell (IPC) by the aim of three previously reported protocols and a modified protocol. The insulin content was analyzed through gene expression and immunocytochemistry (IHC). Dithizone (DTZ) staining was done for identification of islet-like structures. Insulin and C peptide secretion was measured by chemiluminesence immunoassay (CLIA) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) as well. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) showed efficient expression of insulin genes in all the study groups. IHC analysis showed higher expression of insulin and proinsulin proteins in the modified protocol. DTZ staining exhibited variable islet-like clusters in the different protocols except control. This finding was confirmed by the higher response to glucose challenge test in this group. A modified protocol using an intermediate step that makes the cells vulnerable to nestin production in combination with inducing agent results in the higher differentiation of stem cells into insulin-producing cells and more insulin secretion in vitro.

  17. Improved antioxidative defence protects insulin-producing cells against homocysteine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Scullion, Siobhan M; Hahn, Claudine; Tyka, Karolina; Flatt, Peter R; McClenaghan, Neville H; Lenzen, Sigurd; Gurgul-Convey, Ewa

    2016-08-25

    Homocysteine (HC) is considered to play an important role in the development of metabolic syndrome complications. Insulin-producing cells are prone to HC toxicity and this has been linked to oxidative stress. However, the exact mechanisms remain unknown. Therefore it was the aim of this study to determine the nature of reactive oxygen species responsible for HC toxicity. Chronic exposure of RINm5F and INS1E insulin-producing cells to HC decreased cell viability and glucose-induced insulin secretion in a concentration-dependent manner and led to a significant induction of hydrogen peroxide generation in the cytosolic, but not the mitochondrial compartment of the cell. Cytosolic overexpression of catalase, a hydrogen peroxide detoxifying enzyme, provided a significant protection against viability loss and hydrogen peroxide generation, while mitochondrial overexpression of catalase did not protect against HC toxicity. Overexpression of CuZnSOD, a cytosolic superoxide dismutating enzyme, also protected against HC toxicity. However, the best protection was achieved in the case of a combined overexpression of CuZnSOD and catalase. Incubation of cells in combination with alloxan resulted in a significant increase of HC toxicity and an increase of hydrogen peroxide generation. Overexpression of CuZnSOD or catalase protected against the toxicity of HC plus alloxan, with a superior protection achieved again by combined overexpression. The results indicate that HC induces oxidative stress in insulin-producing cells by stimulation of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide generation in the cytoplasm. The low antioxidative defence status makes the insulin-producing cells very vulnerable to HC toxicity.

  18. Do we really need to differentiate mesenchymal stem cells into insulin-producing cells for attenuation of the autoimmune responses in type 1 diabetes: immunoprophylactic effects of precursors to insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anshu; Rani, Rajni

    2017-07-12

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a multifactorial autoimmune disorder where pancreatic beta cells are lost before the clinical manifestations of the disease. Administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or MSCs differentiated into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) have yielded limited success when used therapeutically. We have evaluated the immunoprophylactic potentials of precursors to insulin-producing cells (pIPCs) and IPCs in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice to ask a basic question: do we need to differentiate MSCs into IPCs or will pIPCs suffice to attenuate autoimmune responses in T1D? Bone marrow-derived MSCs from Balb/c mice were characterized following the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) guidelines. MSCs cultured in high-glucose media for 11 to 13 passages were characterized for the expression of pancreatic lineage genes using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Expression of the PDX1 gene in pIPCs was assessed using Western blot and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Triple-positive MSCs were differentiated into IPCs using a three-step protocol after sorting them for cell surface markers, i.e. CD29, CD44, and SCA-1. Nonobese diabetic mice were administered pIPCs, IPCs, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) into the tail vein at weeks 9 or 10 and followed-up for 29-30 weeks for fasting blood glucose levels. Two consecutive blood sugar levels of more than 250 mg/dl were considered diabetic. MSCs grown in high-glucose media for 11 to 13 passages expressed genes of the pancreatic lineage such as PDX1, beta2, neurogenin, PAX4, Insulin, and glucagon. Furthermore, Western blot and FACS analysis for PDX-1, a transcription factor necessary for beta cell maturation, confirmed that these cells were precursors of insulin-producing cells (pIPCs). NOD mice administered with pIPCs were better protected from developing diabetes with a protective efficacy of 78.4% (p < 0.009); however, administration of IPCs gave protective efficacy of 55% at the end of

  19. Diabetes recovery by age-dependent conversion of pancreatic δ-cells into insulin producers.

    PubMed

    Chera, Simona; Baronnier, Delphine; Ghila, Luiza; Cigliola, Valentina; Jensen, Jan N; Gu, Guoqiang; Furuyama, Kenichiro; Thorel, Fabrizio; Gribble, Fiona M; Reimann, Frank; Herrera, Pedro L

    2014-10-23

    Total or near-total loss of insulin-producing β-cells occurs in type 1 diabetes. Restoration of insulin production in type 1 diabetes is thus a major medical challenge. We previously observed in mice in which β-cells are completely ablated that the pancreas reconstitutes new insulin-producing cells in the absence of autoimmunity. The process involves the contribution of islet non-β-cells; specifically, glucagon-producing α-cells begin producing insulin by a process of reprogramming (transdifferentiation) without proliferation. Here we show the influence of age on β-cell reconstitution from heterologous islet cells after near-total β-cell loss in mice. We found that senescence does not alter α-cell plasticity: α-cells can reprogram to produce insulin from puberty through to adulthood, and also in aged individuals, even a long time after β-cell loss. In contrast, before puberty there is no detectable α-cell conversion, although β-cell reconstitution after injury is more efficient, always leading to diabetes recovery. This process occurs through a newly discovered mechanism: the spontaneous en masse reprogramming of somatostatin-producing δ-cells. The juveniles display 'somatostatin-to-insulin' δ-cell conversion, involving dedifferentiation, proliferation and re-expression of islet developmental regulators. This juvenile adaptability relies, at least in part, upon the combined action of FoxO1 and downstream effectors. Restoration of insulin producing-cells from non-β-cell origins is thus enabled throughout life via δ- or α-cell spontaneous reprogramming. A landscape with multiple intra-islet cell interconversion events is emerging, offering new perspectives for therapy.

  20. Diabetes Recovery By Age-Dependent Conversion of Pancreatic δ-Cells Into Insulin Producers

    PubMed Central

    Chera, Simona; Baronnier, Delphine; Ghila, Luiza; Cigliola, Valentina; Jensen, Jan N.; Gu, Guoqiang; Furuyama, Kenichiro; Thorel, Fabrizio; Gribble, Fiona M.; Reimann, Frank; Herrera, Pedro L.

    2014-01-01

    Total or near-total loss of insulin-producing β-cells is a situation found in diabetes (Type 1, T1D) 1,2. Restoration of insulin production in T1D is thus a major medical challenge. We previously observed in mice in which β-cells are completely ablated that the pancreas reconstitutes new insulin-producing cells in absence of autoimmunity 3. The process involves the contribution of islet non-β-cells; specifically, glucagon-producing α-cells begin producing insulin by a process of reprogramming (transdifferentiation) without proliferation 3. Here we studied the influence of age on β-cell reconstitution from heterologous islet cells after near-total β-cell loss. We found that senescence does not alter α-cell plasticity: α-cells can reprogram to produce insulin from puberty through adulthood, and also in aged individuals, even a long-time after β-cell loss. In contrast, prior to puberty there is no detectable α-cell conversion, although β-cell reconstitution after injury is more efficient, always leading to diabetes recovery; it occurs through a newly discovered mechanism: the spontaneous en masse reprogramming of somatostatin-producing δ-cells. The younglings display “somatostatin-to-insulin” δ-cell conversion, involving de-differentiation, proliferation and re-expression of islet developmental regulators. This juvenile adaptability relies, at least in part, upon combined action of FoxO1 and downstream effectors. Restoration of insulin producing-cells from non-β-cell origins is thus enabled throughout life via δ- or α-cell spontaneous reprogramming. A landscape with multiple intra-islet cell interconversion events is emerging, thus offering new perspectives. PMID:25141178

  1. Differentiation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells into insulin-producing clusters.

    PubMed

    Shaer, Anahita; Azarpira, Negar; Vahdati, Akbar; Karimi, Mohammad Hosein; Shariati, Mehrdad

    2015-02-01

    In diabetes mellitus type 1, beta cells are mostly destroyed; while in diabetes mellitus type 2, beta cells are reduced by 40% to 60%. We hope that soon, stem cells can be used in diabetes therapy via pancreatic beta cell replacement. Induced pluripotent stem cells are a kind of stem cell taken from an adult somatic cell by "stimulating" certain genes. These induced pluripotent stem cells may be a promising source of cell therapy. This study sought to produce isletlike clusters of insulin-producing cells taken from induced pluripotent stem cells. A human-induced pluripotent stem cell line was induced into isletlike clusters via a 4-step protocol, by adding insulin, transferrin, and selenium (ITS), N2, B27, fibroblast growth factor, and nicotinamide. During differentiation, expression of pancreatic β-cell genes was evaluated by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction; the morphologic changes of induced pluripotent stem cells toward isletlike clusters were observed by a light microscope. Dithizone staining was used to stain these isletlike clusters. Insulin produced by these clusters was evaluated by radio immunosorbent assay, and the secretion capacity was analyzed with a glucose challenge test. Differentiation was evaluated by analyzing the morphology, dithizone staining, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and immunocytochemistry. Gene expression of insulin, glucagon, PDX1, NGN3, PAX4, PAX6, NKX6.1, KIR6.2, and GLUT2 were documented by analyzing real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Dithizone-stained cellular clusters were observed after 23 days. The isletlike clusters significantly produced insulin. The isletlike clusters could increase insulin secretion after a glucose challenge test. This work provides a model for studying the differentiation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells to insulin-producing cells.

  2. Reprogramming of Pancreatic Exocrine Cells AR42J Into Insulin-producing Cells Using mRNAs for Pdx1, Ngn3, and MafA Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Koblas, Tomas; Leontovyc, Ivan; Loukotova, Sarka; Kosinova, Lucie; Saudek, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    Direct reprogramming of pancreatic nonendocrine cells into insulin-producing β-cells represents a promising approach for the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes. However, its clinical application is limited by the potential for insertional mutagenesis associated with the viral vectors currently used for cell reprogramming. With the aim of developing a nonintegrative reprogramming strategy for derivation of insulin-producing cells, here, we evaluated a new approach utilizing synthetic messenger RNAs encoding reprogramming transcription factors. Administration of synthetic mRNAs encoding three key transcription regulators of β-cell differentiation—Pdx1, Neurogenin3, and MafA—efficiently reprogrammed the pancreatic exocrine cells into insulin-producing cells. In addition to the insulin genes expression, the synthetic mRNAs also induced the expressions of genes important for proper pancreatic β-cell function, including Sur1, Kir6.2, Pcsk1, and Pcsk2. Pretreating cells with the chromatin-modifying agent 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine further enhanced reprogramming efficiency, increasing the proportion of insulin-producing cells from 3.5 ± 0.9 to 14.3 ± 1.9% (n = 4). Moreover, 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine pretreatment enabled the reprogrammed cells to respond to glucose challenge with increased insulin secretion. In conclusion, our results support that the reprogramming of pancreatic exocrine cells into insulin-producing cells, induced by synthetic mRNAs encoding pancreatic transcription factors, represents a promising approach for cell-based diabetes therapy. PMID:27187823

  3. Connexin-36 contributes to control function of insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Le Gurun, Sabine; Martin, David; Formenton, Andrea; Maechler, Pierre; Caille, Dorothee; Waeber, Gérard; Meda, Paolo; Haefliger, Jacques-Antoine

    2003-09-26

    Connexin-36 (Cx36) is a gap junction protein expressed by the insulin-producing beta-cells. We investigated the contribution of this protein in normal beta-cell function by using a viral gene transfer approach to alter Cx36 content in the insulin-producing line of INS-1E cells and rat pancreatic islets. Transcripts for Cx43, Cx45, and Cx36 were detected by reverse transcriptase-PCR in freshly isolated pancreatic islets, whereas only a transcript for Cx36 was detected in INS-1E cells. After infection with a sense viral vector, which induced de novo Cx36 expression in the Cx-defective HeLa cells we used to control the transgene expression, Western blot, immunofluorescence, and freeze-fracture analysis showed a large increase of Cx36 within INS-1E cell membranes. In contrast, after infection with an antisense vector, Cx36 content was decreased by 80%. Glucose-induced insulin release and insulin content were decreased, whether infected INS-1E cells expressed Cx36 levels that were largely higher or lower than those observed in wild-type control cells. In both cases, basal insulin secretion was unaffected. Comparable observations on basal secretion and insulin content were made in freshly isolated rat pancreatic islets. The data indicate that large changes in Cx36 alter insulin content and, at least in INS-1E cells, also affect glucose-induced insulin release.

  4. Three-dimensional printed polymeric system to encapsulate human mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into islet-like insulin-producing aggregates for diabetes treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sabek, Omaima M; Farina, Marco; Fraga, Daniel W; Afshar, Solmaz; Ballerini, Andrea; Filgueira, Carly S; Thekkedath, Usha R; Grattoni, Alessandro; Gaber, A Osama

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the most prevalent, costly, and debilitating diseases in the world. Pancreas and islet transplants have shown success in re-establishing glucose control and reversing diabetic complications. However, both are limited by donor availability, need for continuous immunosuppression, loss of transplanted tissue due to dispersion, and lack of vascularization. To overcome the limitations of poor islet availability, here, we investigate the potential of bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into islet-like insulin-producing aggregates. Islet-like insulin-producing aggregates, characterized by gene expression, are shown to be similar to pancreatic islets and display positive immunostaining for insulin and glucagon. To address the limits of current encapsulation systems, we developed a novel three-dimensional printed, scalable, and potentially refillable polymeric construct (nanogland) to support islet-like insulin-producing aggregates’ survival and function in the host body. In vitro studies showed that encapsulated islet-like insulin-producing aggregates maintained viability and function, producing steady levels of insulin for at least 4 weeks. Nanogland—islet-like insulin-producing aggregate technology here investigated as a proof of concept holds potential as an effective and innovative approach for diabetes cell therapy. PMID:27152147

  5. Lack of “Hemichannel” Activity in Insulin-Producing Cells

    PubMed Central

    SCEMES, ELIANA; BAVAMIAN, SABINE; CHAROLLAIS, ANNE; SPRAY, DAVID C.; MEDA, PAOLO

    2008-01-01

    Connexins and pannexins have been implicated in the formation of “hemichannels,” which may account for the uptake and release of membrane-impermeant molecules in single cells. The in vivo existence of “hemichannels” and their protein composition is still debated. Investigations on these matters are complicated by the lack of adequate negative controls. In search for such essential controls, the authors have investigated transformed (MIN6 line) and primary insulin-producing cells. Here, the authors report that these cells, which express Cx36 and pannexin1, cannot be shown to display functional “hemichannels,” as evaluated by (1) uptake of the membrane-impermeant tracer ethidium bromide, whether in the presence or absence of extracellular Ca2+, following stimulation of P2X7 receptors, and after exposure to hypotonic medium; and (2) lack of exocytosis-independent release of endogenous ATP. Moreover, electrophysiological recordings indicated the absence of carbenoxolone-sensitive pannexin1 currents evoked by membrane potentials above +30 mV. Thus, insulin-producing cells are expected to provide a useful tool in the further characterization of hemichannel composition, properties, and physiological relevance. PMID:18649186

  6. Insulin-Producing Endocrine Cells Differentiated In Vitro From Human Embryonic Stem Cells Function in Macroencapsulation Devices In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ambruzs, Dana M.; Moorman, Mark A.; Bhoumik, Anindita; Cesario, Rosemary M.; Payne, Janice K.; Kelly, Jonathan R.; Haakmeester, Carl; Srijemac, Robert; Wilson, Alistair Z.; Kerr, Justin; Frazier, Mauro A.; Kroon, Evert J.; D’Amour, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    The PEC-01 cell population, differentiated from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), contains pancreatic progenitors (PPs) that, when loaded into macroencapsulation devices (to produce the VC-01 candidate product) and transplanted into mice, can mature into glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells and other pancreatic endocrine cells involved in glucose metabolism. We modified the protocol for making PEC-01 cells such that 73%–80% of the cell population consisted of PDX1-positive (PDX1+) and NKX6.1+ PPs. The PPs were further differentiated to islet-like cells (ICs) that reproducibly contained 73%–89% endocrine cells, of which approximately 40%–50% expressed insulin. A large fraction of these insulin-positive cells were single hormone-positive and expressed the transcription factors PDX1 and NKX6.1. To preclude a significant contribution of progenitors to the in vivo function of ICs, we used a simple enrichment process to remove remaining PPs, yielding aggregates that contained 93%–98% endocrine cells and 1%–3% progenitors. Enriched ICs, when encapsulated and implanted into mice, functioned similarly to the VC-01 candidate product, demonstrating conclusively that in vitro-produced hESC-derived insulin-producing cells can mature and function in vivo in devices. A scaled version of our suspension culture was used, and the endocrine aggregates could be cryopreserved and retain functionality. Although ICs expressed multiple important β cell genes, the cells contained relatively low levels of several maturity-associated markers. Correlating with this, the time to function of ICs was similar to PEC-01 cells, indicating that ICs required cell-autonomous maturation after delivery in vivo, which would occur concurrently with graft integration into the host. Significance Type 1 diabetes (T1D) affects approximately 1.25 million people in the U.S. alone and is deadly if not managed with insulin injections. This paper describes the production of insulin-producing

  7. In vitro pancreas duodenal homeobox-1 enhances the differentiation of pancreatic ductal epithelial cells into insulin-producing cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Wang, Chun-You; Yu, Feng; Gou, Shan-Miao; Wu, He-Shui; Xiong, Jiong-Xin; Zhou, Feng

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To observe whether pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor-1 enhances the differentiation of pancreatic ductal epithelial cells into insulin-producing cells in vitro. METHODS: Rat pancreatic tissue was submitted to digestion by collagenase, ductal epithelial cells were separated by density gradient centrifugation and then cultured in RPMI1640 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum. After 3-5 passages, the cells were incubated in a six-well plate for 24 h before transfection of recombination plasmid XlHbox8VP16. Lightcycler quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to detect the expression of PDX-1 and insulin mRNA in pancreatic epithelial cells. The expression of PDX-1 and insulin protein was analyzed by Western blotting. Insulin secretion was detected by radioimmunoassay. Insulin-producing cells were detected by dithizone-staining. RESULTS: XlHbox8 mRNA was expressed in pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. PDX-1 and insulin mRNA as well as PDX-1 and insulin protein were significantly increased in the transfected group. The production and insulin secretion of insulin-producing cells differentiated from pancreatic ductal epithelial cells were higher than those of the untransfected cells in vitro with a significant difference (1.32 ± 0.43 vs 3.48 ± 0.81, P < 0.01 at 5.6 mmol/L; 4.86 ± 1.15 vs 10.25 ± 1.32, P < 0.01 at 16.7 mmol/L). CONCLUSION: PDX-1 can differentiate rat pancreatic ductal epithelial cells into insulin-producing cells in vitro. In vitro PDX-1 transfection is a valuable strategy for increasing the source of insulin-producing cells. PMID:17876894

  8. Identification of miRNAs Involved in Reprogramming Acinar Cells into Insulin Producing Cells

    PubMed Central

    Teichenne, Joan; Morró, Meritxell; Casellas, Alba; Jimenez, Veronica; Tellez, Noelia; Leger, Adrien; Bosch, Fatima; Ayuso, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Reprogramming acinar cells into insulin producing cells using adenoviral (Ad)-mediated delivery of Pdx1, Ngn3 and MafA (PNM) is an innovative approach for the treatment of diabetes. Here, we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in this process and in particular, the role of microRNAs. To this end, we performed a comparative study of acinar-to-β cell reprogramming efficiency in the rat acinar cell line AR42J and its subclone B13 after transduction with Ad-PNM. B13 cells were more efficiently reprogrammed than AR42J cells, which was demonstrated by a strong activation of β cell markers (Ins1, Ins2, IAPP, NeuroD1 and Pax4). miRNome panels were used to analyze differentially expressed miRNAs in acinar cells under four experimental conditions (i) non-transduced AR42J cells, (ii) non-transduced B13 cells, (iii) B13 cells transduced with Ad-GFP vectors and (iv) B13 cells transduced with Ad-PNM vectors. A total of 59 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed between non-transduced AR42J and B13 cells. Specifically, the miR-200 family was completely repressed in B13 cells, suggesting that these cells exist in a less differentiated state than AR42J cells and as a consequence they present a greater plasticity. Adenoviral transduction per se induced dedifferentiation of acinar cells and 11 miRNAs were putatively involved in this process, whereas 8 miRNAs were found to be associated with PNM expression. Of note, Ad-PNM reprogrammed B13 cells presented the same levels of miR-137-3p, miR-135a-5p, miR-204-5p and miR-210-3p of those detected in islets, highlighting their role in the process. In conclusion, this study led to the identification of miRNAs that might be of compelling importance to improve acinar-to-β cell conversion for the future treatment of diabetes. PMID:26690959

  9. Identification of miRNAs Involved in Reprogramming Acinar Cells into Insulin Producing Cells.

    PubMed

    Teichenne, Joan; Morró, Meritxell; Casellas, Alba; Jimenez, Veronica; Tellez, Noelia; Leger, Adrien; Bosch, Fatima; Ayuso, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Reprogramming acinar cells into insulin producing cells using adenoviral (Ad)-mediated delivery of Pdx1, Ngn3 and MafA (PNM) is an innovative approach for the treatment of diabetes. Here, we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in this process and in particular, the role of microRNAs. To this end, we performed a comparative study of acinar-to-β cell reprogramming efficiency in the rat acinar cell line AR42J and its subclone B13 after transduction with Ad-PNM. B13 cells were more efficiently reprogrammed than AR42J cells, which was demonstrated by a strong activation of β cell markers (Ins1, Ins2, IAPP, NeuroD1 and Pax4). miRNome panels were used to analyze differentially expressed miRNAs in acinar cells under four experimental conditions (i) non-transduced AR42J cells, (ii) non-transduced B13 cells, (iii) B13 cells transduced with Ad-GFP vectors and (iv) B13 cells transduced with Ad-PNM vectors. A total of 59 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed between non-transduced AR42J and B13 cells. Specifically, the miR-200 family was completely repressed in B13 cells, suggesting that these cells exist in a less differentiated state than AR42J cells and as a consequence they present a greater plasticity. Adenoviral transduction per se induced dedifferentiation of acinar cells and 11 miRNAs were putatively involved in this process, whereas 8 miRNAs were found to be associated with PNM expression. Of note, Ad-PNM reprogrammed B13 cells presented the same levels of miR-137-3p, miR-135a-5p, miR-204-5p and miR-210-3p of those detected in islets, highlighting their role in the process. In conclusion, this study led to the identification of miRNAs that might be of compelling importance to improve acinar-to-β cell conversion for the future treatment of diabetes.

  10. Insight into Insulin Secretion from Transcriptome and Genetic Analysis of Insulin-Producing Cells of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jian; Ni, Julie; Ma, Wenxiu; Shiu, Vanessa; Milla, Luis A.; Park, Sangbin; Spletter, Maria L.; Tang, Sheng; Zhang, Jun; Wei, Xing; Kim, Seung K.; Scott, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-producing cells (IPCs) in the Drosophila brain produce and release insulin-like peptides (ILPs) to the hemolymph. ILPs are crucial for growth and regulation of metabolic activity in flies, functions analogous to those of mammalian insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). To identify components functioning in IPCs to control ILP production, we employed genomic and candidate gene approaches. We used laser microdissection and messenger RNA sequencing to characterize the transcriptome of larval IPCs. IPCs highly express many genes homologous to genes active in insulin-producing β-cells of the mammalian pancreas. The genes in common encode ILPs and proteins that control insulin metabolism, storage, secretion, β-cell proliferation, and some not previously linked to insulin production or β-cell function. Among these novelties is unc-104, a kinesin 3 family gene, which is more highly expressed in IPCs compared to most other neurons. Knockdown of unc-104 in IPCs impaired ILP secretion and reduced peripheral insulin signaling. Unc-104 appears to transport ILPs along axons. As a complementary approach, we tested dominant-negative Rab genes to find Rab proteins required in IPCs for ILP production or secretion. Rab1 was identified as crucial for ILP trafficking in IPCs. Inhibition of Rab1 in IPCs increased circulating sugar levels, delayed development, and lowered weight and body size. Immunofluorescence labeling of Rab1 showed its tight association with ILP2 in the Golgi of IPCs. Unc-104 and Rab1 join other proteins required for ILP transport in IPCs. PMID:24558258

  11. Cold-sensing regulates Drosophila growth through insulin-producing cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiaoran; Gong, Zhefeng

    2015-01-01

    Across phyla, body size is linked to climate. For example, rearing fruit flies at lower temperatures results in bigger body sizes than those observed at higher temperatures. The underlying molecular basis of this effect is poorly understood. Here we provide evidence that the temperature-dependent regulation of Drosophila body size depends on a group of cold-sensing neurons and insulin-producing cells (IPCs). Electrically silencing IPCs completely abolishes the body size increase induced by cold temperature. IPCs are directly innervated by cold-sensing neurons. Stimulation of these cold-sensing neurons activates IPCs, promotes synthesis and secretion of Drosophila insulin-like peptides and induces a larger body size, mimicking the effects of rearing the flies in cold temperature. Taken together, these findings reveal a neuronal circuit that mediates the effects of low temperature on fly growth. PMID:26648410

  12. De Novo Formation of Insulin-Producing “Neo-β Cell Islets” from Intestinal Crypts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Ju; Finkbeiner, Stacy R.; Weinblatt, Daniel; Emmett, Matthew J.; Tameire, Feven; Yousefi, Maryam; Yang, Chenghua; Maehr, Rene; Zhou, Qiao; Shemer, Ruth; Dor, Yuval; Li, Changhong; Spence, Jason R.; Stanger, Ben Z.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The ability to interconvert terminally differentiated cells could serve as a powerful tool for cell-based treatment of degenerative diseases, including diabetes mellitus. To determine which, if any, adult tissues are competent to activate an islet β cell program, we performed an in vivo screen by expressing three β cell “reprogramming factors” in a wide spectrum of tissues. We report that transient intestinal expression of these factors—Pdx1, MafA, and Ngn3 (PMN)—promotes rapid conversion of intestinal crypt cells into endocrine cells, which coalesce into “neoislets” below the crypt base. Neoislet cells express insulin and show ultrastructural features of β cells. Importantly, intestinal neoislets are glucose-responsive and able to ameliorate hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. Moreover, PMN expression in human intestinal “organoids” stimulates the conversion of intestinal epithelial cells into β-like cells. Our results thus demonstrate that the intestine is an accessible and abundant source of functional insulin-producing cells. PMID:24613355

  13. Generation of insulin-producing cells from C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Jian, Ruo-Lei; Mao, Li-Bin; Xu, Yao; Li, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Feng-Po; Luo, Xue-Gang; Zhou, Hao; He, Hong-Peng; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Tong-Cun

    2015-05-10

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to be an attractive source for the generation of transplantable surrogate β cells. A murine embryonic mesenchymal progenitor cell line C3H10T1/2 has been recognized as a model for MSCs, because of its multi-lineage differentiation potential. The purpose of this study was to explore whether C3H/10T1/2 cells have the potential to differentiate into insulin-producing cells (IPCs). Here, we investigated and compared the in vitro differentiation of rat MSCs and C3H10T1/2 cells into IPCs. After the cells underwent IPC differentiation, the expression of differentiation markers were detected by immunocytochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. The insulin secretion was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Furthermore, these differentiated cells were transplanted into streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and their biological functions were tested in vivo. This study reports a 2-stage method to generate IPCs from C3H10T1/2 cells. Under specific induction conditions for 7-8 days, C3H10T1/2 cells formed three-dimensional spheroid bodies (SBs) and secreted insulin, while generation of IPCs derived from rat MSCs required a long time (more than 2 weeks). Furthermore, these IPCs derived from C3H10T1/2 cells were injected into diabetic mice and improves basal glucose, body weight and exhibited normal glucose tolerance test. The present study provided a simple and faithful in vitro model for further investigating the mechanism underlying IPC differentiation of MSCs and cell replacement therapy for diabetes.

  14. From the Cover: Cell-replacement therapy for diabetes: Generating functional insulin-producing tissue from adult human liver cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapir, Tamar; Shternhall, Keren; Meivar-Levy, Irit; Blumenfeld, Tamar; Cohen, Hamutal; Skutelsky, Ehud; Eventov-Friedman, Smadar; Barshack, Iris; Goldberg, Iris; Pri-Chen, Sarah; Ben-Dor, Lya; Polak-Charcon, Sylvie; Karasik, Avraham; Shimon, Ilan; Mor, Eytan; Ferber, Sarah

    2005-05-01

    Shortage in tissue availability from cadaver donors and the need for life-long immunosuppression severely restrict the large-scale application of cell-replacement therapy for diabetic patients. This study suggests the potential use of adult human liver as alternate tissue for autologous beta-cell-replacement therapy. By using pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 (PDX-1) and soluble factors, we induced a comprehensive developmental shift of adult human liver cells into functional insulin-producing cells. PDX-1-treated human liver cells express insulin, store it in defined granules, and secrete the hormone in a glucose-regulated manner. When transplanted under the renal capsule of diabetic, immunodeficient mice, the cells ameliorated hyperglycemia for prolonged periods of time. Inducing developmental redirection of adult liver offers the potential of a cell-replacement therapy for diabetics by allowing the patient to be the donor of his own insulin-producing tissue. pancreas | transdifferentiation

  15. Regulation of miRNA during direct reprogramming of dental pulp cells to insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Tadashige; Ohura, Kiyoshi

    2014-02-07

    To further evaluate the multipotency of dental pulp cells, and to investigate the possible direct reprogramming of these cells, we examined their in vitro induction of direct conversion to an endocrine cell lineage. In vitro induction was carried out using similar conditions to those reported for regulating the differentiation of undifferentiated intestinal cells into endocrine progenitor cells. Specifically, the transcription factors Pdx1 and Neurog3 were transfected into rat dental pulp cells to induce their direct conversion to endocrine lineage cells. The degree of induction was evaluated by detecting insulin-producing cells. Using a miRCURY LNA microRNA Array (Exiqon), the miRNA expression profiles were comprehensively analyzed. At 10 days after induction, insulin-producing cells were detected. Based on the expression profiles, eight miRNA probes showing significant differences at 10 days after induction compared with their pre-induction baseline values were extracted after filtering. Notably, miR-183 was downregulated by less than 40% after induction. Following a target scan of miR-183, we identified 242 conserved targets, including molecules crucial for the development of pancreatic beta-cells such as Foxo1. These findings indicate that dental pulp cells have potential for direct reprogramming to insulin-producing cells. This potential ability for direct reprogramming of dental pulp cells shows promise for clinically relevant tissue engineering materials.

  16. Reprogramming of Mice Primary Hepatocytes into Insulin-Producing Cells by Transfection with Multicistronic Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Haizhao; Chen, Rongping; Yang, Rui; Liu, Yan; Chen, Youping; Chen, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The neogenesis of insulin-producing cells (IPCs) from non-beta-cells has emerged as a potential method for treating diabetes mellitus (DM). Many groups have documented that activation of pancreatic transcription factor(s) in hepatocytes can improve the hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. In the present study, we explored a novel protocol that reprogrammed primary hepatocytes into functional IPCs by using multicistronic vectors carrying pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1 (Pdx1), neurogenin 3 (Ngn3), and v-musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA). These triple-transfected cells activated multiple beta-cell genes, synthesized and stored considerable amounts of insulin, and released the hormone in a glucose-regulated manner in vitro. Furthermore, when transplanted into streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, the cells markedly ameliorated glucose tolerance. Our results indicated that ectopic expression of Pdx1, Ngn3, and MafA facilitated hepatocytes-to-IPCs reprogramming. This approach may offer opportunities for treatment of DM. PMID:25006589

  17. Mitochondrial Respiration in Insulin-Producing β-Cells: General Characteristics and Adaptive Effects of Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Hals, Ingrid K; Bruerberg, Simon Gustafson; Ma, Zuheng; Scholz, Hanne; Björklund, Anneli; Grill, Valdemar

    2015-01-01

    To provide novel insights on mitochondrial respiration in β-cells and the adaptive effects of hypoxia. Insulin-producing INS-1 832/13 cells were exposed to 18 hours of hypoxia followed by 20-22 hours re-oxygenation. Mitochondrial respiration was measured by high-resolution respirometry in both intact and permeabilized cells, in the latter after establishing three functional substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titration (SUIT) protocols. Concomitant measurements included proteins of mitochondrial complexes (Western blotting), ATP and insulin secretion. Intact cells exhibited a high degree of intrinsic uncoupling, comprising about 50% of oxygen consumption in the basal respiratory state. Hypoxia followed by re-oxygenation increased maximal overall respiration. Exploratory experiments in peremabilized cells could not show induction of respiration by malate or pyruvate as reducing substrates, thus glutamate and succinate were used as mitochondrial substrates in SUIT protocols. Permeabilized cells displayed a high capacity for oxidative phosphorylation for both complex I- and II-linked substrates in relation to maximum capacity of electron transfer. Previous hypoxia decreased phosphorylation control of complex I-linked respiration, but not in complex II-linked respiration. Coupling control ratios showed increased coupling efficiency for both complex I- and II-linked substrates in hypoxia-exposed cells. Respiratory rates overall were increased. Also previous hypoxia increased proteins of mitochondrial complexes I and II (Western blotting) in INS-1 cells as well as in rat and human islets. Mitochondrial effects were accompanied by unchanged levels of ATP, increased basal and preserved glucose-induced insulin secretion. Exposure of INS-1 832/13 cells to hypoxia, followed by a re-oxygenation period increases substrate-stimulated respiratory capacity and coupling efficiency. Such effects are accompanied by up-regulation of mitochondrial complexes also in pancreatic islets

  18. Circadian and feeding cues integrate to drive rhythms of physiology in Drosophila insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Barber, Annika F; Erion, Renske; Holmes, Todd C; Sehgal, Amita

    2016-12-01

    Circadian clocks regulate much of behavior and physiology, but the mechanisms by which they do so remain poorly understood. While cyclic gene expression is thought to underlie metabolic rhythms, little is known about cycles in cellular physiology. We found that Drosophila insulin-producing cells (IPCs), which are located in the pars intercerebralis and lack an autonomous circadian clock, are functionally connected to the central circadian clock circuit via DN1 neurons. Insulin mediates circadian output by regulating the rhythmic expression of a metabolic gene (sxe2) in the fat body. Patch clamp electrophysiology reveals that IPCs display circadian clock-regulated daily rhythms in firing event frequency and bursting proportion under light:dark conditions. The activity of IPCs and the rhythmic expression of sxe2 are additionally regulated by feeding, as demonstrated by night feeding-induced changes in IPC firing characteristics and sxe2 levels in the fat body. These findings indicate circuit-level regulation of metabolism by clock cells in Drosophila and support a role for the pars intercerebralis in integrating circadian control of behavior and physiology.

  19. JNK signaling in insulin-producing cells is required for adaptive responses to stress in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Karpac, Jason; Hull-Thompson, Julie; Falleur, Melody; Jasper, Heinrich

    2009-01-01

    Summary Adaptation to environmental challenges is critical for survival of an organism. Repression of Insulin/IGF Signaling (IIS) by stress-responsive Jun-N-terminal Kinase (JNK) signaling is emerging as a conserved mechanism that allows reallocating resources from anabolic to repair processes under stress conditions. JNK activation in Insulin producing cells (IPCs) is sufficient to repress Insulin and Insulin-like peptide (ILP) expression in rats and flies, but the significance of this interaction for adaptive responses to stress is unclear. Here we show that JNK activity in IPCs of flies is required for oxidative stress-induced repression of the Drosophila ILP2. We find that this repression is required for growth adaptation to heat stress as well as adult oxidative stress tolerance, and that induction of stress response genes in the periphery is in part dependent on IPC-specific JNK activity. Endocrine control of IIS by JNK in IPCs is thus critical for systemic adaptation to stress. PMID:19627268

  20. Mitochondrial Respiration in Insulin-Producing β-Cells: General Characteristics and Adaptive Effects of Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zuheng; Scholz, Hanne; Björklund, Anneli; Grill, Valdemar

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide novel insights on mitochondrial respiration in β-cells and the adaptive effects of hypoxia. Methods and Design Insulin-producing INS-1 832/13 cells were exposed to 18 hours of hypoxia followed by 20–22 hours re-oxygenation. Mitochondrial respiration was measured by high-resolution respirometry in both intact and permeabilized cells, in the latter after establishing three functional substrate-uncoupler-inhibitor titration (SUIT) protocols. Concomitant measurements included proteins of mitochondrial complexes (Western blotting), ATP and insulin secretion. Results Intact cells exhibited a high degree of intrinsic uncoupling, comprising about 50% of oxygen consumption in the basal respiratory state. Hypoxia followed by re-oxygenation increased maximal overall respiration. Exploratory experiments in peremabilized cells could not show induction of respiration by malate or pyruvate as reducing substrates, thus glutamate and succinate were used as mitochondrial substrates in SUIT protocols. Permeabilized cells displayed a high capacity for oxidative phosphorylation for both complex I- and II-linked substrates in relation to maximum capacity of electron transfer. Previous hypoxia decreased phosphorylation control of complex I-linked respiration, but not in complex II-linked respiration. Coupling control ratios showed increased coupling efficiency for both complex I- and II-linked substrates in hypoxia-exposed cells. Respiratory rates overall were increased. Also previous hypoxia increased proteins of mitochondrial complexes I and II (Western blotting) in INS-1 cells as well as in rat and human islets. Mitochondrial effects were accompanied by unchanged levels of ATP, increased basal and preserved glucose-induced insulin secretion. Conclusions Exposure of INS-1 832/13 cells to hypoxia, followed by a re-oxygenation period increases substrate-stimulated respiratory capacity and coupling efficiency. Such effects are accompanied by up-regulation of

  1. The reversal of diabetes in rat model using mouse insulin producing cells - a combination approach of tissue engineering and macroencapsulation.

    PubMed

    Muthyala, Sudhakar; Raj, V R Rana; Mohanty, Mira; Mohanan, P V; Nair, Prabha D

    2011-05-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a chronic disorder resulting from the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing cells, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world. In this study a tissue engineering approach was compared with a macroencapsulation approach to reverse type 1 diabetes in a rat model, using mouse pancreatic progenitor cell (PPC)-derived islet-like clusters and mouse islets. For the tissue engineering approach the cells were cultured on gelatin scaffolds cross-linked with EDC in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone in vitro (GPE scaffolds), while for the macroencapsulation approach the cells were encapsulated in polyurethane-polyvinylpyrrolidone semi-interpenetrating networks. In the combination approach the cells cultured on GPE scaffolds were further encapsulated in a polyurethane-polyvinylpyrrolidone capsule. Real time PCR studies and the glucose challenge assay have shown that cells on GPE scaffolds could express and secrete insulin and glucagon in vitro. However, under in vivo conditions the animals treated by the tissue engineering approach died within 15-20 days and showed no reversal of their diabetes, due to infiltration of immune cells such as CD4 and CD8 cells and macrophages. In the macroencapsulation approach the animals showed euglycemia within 25 days, which was maintained for further 20 days, but after that the animals died. Interestingly, in the combination approach the animals showed reversal of hyperglycemia, and remained euglycemic for up to 3 months. The time needed to achieve initial euglycemia was different with different cell types, i.e. the combination approach with mouse islets achieved euglycemia within 15 days, whereas with PPC-derived islet-like clusters euglycemia was achieved within 25 days. This study confirmed that a combination of tissue engineering and macroencapsulation with mouse islets could reverse diabetes and maintain euglycemia in an experimental diabetes rat model for 90 days.

  2. Generation of insulin-producing β-like cells from human iPS cells in a defined and completely xeno-free culture system.

    PubMed

    Shahjalal, Hussain Md; Shiraki, Nobuaki; Sakano, Daisuke; Kikawa, Kazuhide; Ogaki, Soichiro; Baba, Hideo; Kume, Kazuhiko; Kume, Shoen

    2014-10-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells are considered a potential source for the generation of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells because of their differentiation capacity. In this study, we have developed a five-step xeno-free culture system to efficiently differentiate hiPS cells into insulin-producing cells in vitro. We found that a high NOGGIN concentration is crucial for specifically inducing the differentiation first into pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX1)-positive pancreatic progenitors and then into neurogenin 3 (NGN3)-expressing pancreatic endocrine progenitors, while suppressing the differentiation into hepatic or intestinal cells. We also found that a combination of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), exendin-4, and nicotinamide was important for the differentiation into insulin single-positive cells that expressed various pancreatic β-cell markers. Most notably, the differentiated cells contained endogenous C-peptide pools that were released in response to various insulin secretagogues and high levels of glucose. Therefore, our results demonstrate the feasibility of generating hiPS-derived pancreatic β-cells under xeno-free conditions and highlight their potential to treat patients with type 1 diabetes.

  3. HES6 reverses nuclear reprogramming of insulin-producing cells following cell fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, Andrew J.; Abrahamsson, Annelie E.; Tyrberg, Bjoern; Itkin-Ansari, Pamela; Levine, Fred; E-mail: flevine@ucsd.edu

    2007-04-06

    To examine the mechanism by which growth-stimulated pancreatic {beta}-cells dedifferentiate, somatic cell fusions were performed between MIN6, a highly differentiated mouse insulinoma, and {beta}lox5, a cell line derived from human {beta}-cells which progressively dedifferentiated in culture. MIN6/{beta}lox5 somatic cells hybrids underwent silencing of insulin expression and a marked decline in PDX1, NeuroD, and MafA, indicating that {beta}lox5 expresses a dominant transacting factor(s) that represses {beta}-cell differentiation. Expression of Hes1, which inhibits endocrine differentiation was higher in hybrid cells than in parental MIN6 cells. Hes6, a repressor of Hes1, was highly expressed in primary {beta}-cells as well as MIN6, but was repressed in hybrids. Hes6 overexpression using a retroviral vector led to a decrease in Hes1 levels, an increase in {beta}-cell transcription factors and partial restoration of insulin expression. We conclude that the balance of Notch activators and inhibitors may play an important role in maintaining the {beta}-cell differentiated state.

  4. In vitro differentiation of human umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stromal cells to insulin producing clusters

    PubMed Central

    Nekoei, Seideh Masoomeh; Azarpira, Negar; Sadeghi, Ladan; Kamalifar, Sulmaz

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the differentiation of human Wharton’s jelly derived mesenchymal stromal cells (WJ-MSCs) to insulin producing clusters (IPC) this study was conducted. METHODS: The umbilical cords samples were collected from full term caesarian section mothers and the WJ-MSCS were cultured from tissue explants in High glucose-Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (H-DMEM); H-DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and antibiotics. The expression of CD90, CD44, CD105, CD34 and CD133 as well as osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of cells in appropriate medium were also evaluated. The cells were differentiated toward IPC with changing the culture medium and adding the small molecules such as nicotinic acid, epidermal growth factor, and exendin-4 during 3 wk period. The gene expression of PDX1, NGN3, Glut2, insulin was monitored by reveres transcription polymerase chain reaction method. The differentiated clusters were stained with Dithizone (DTZ) which confirms the presence of insulin granules. The insulin challenge test (low and high glucose concentration in Krebs-Ringer HEPES buffer) was also used to evaluate the functional properties of differentiated clusters. RESULTS: WJ-MSCS were positive for mesenchymal surface markers (CD90, CD44, CD105), and negative for CD34 and CD133. The accumulation of lipid vacuoles and deposition of calcium mineral in cells were considered as adipogenic and osteogenic potential of WJ-MSCS. The cells also expressed the transcriptional factors such as Nanog and OCT4. During this three step differentiation, the WJ-MSCS morphology was gradually changed from spindle shaped cells in to epithelioid cells and eventually to three dimensional clusters. The clusters expressed PDX1, NGN3, Glut2, and insulin. The cells became bright red color when stained with DTZ and the insulin secretion was also confirmed. In glucose challenge test a significant increase in insulin secretion from 0.91 ± 0.04 μIu/mL (2.8 mmol/L glucose) to

  5. Reversal of hyperglycemia in mice by using human expandable insulin-producing cells differentiated from fetal liver progenitor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalzman, Michal; Gupta, Sanjeev; Giri, Ranjit K.; Berkovich, Irina; Sappal, Baljit S.; Karnieli, Ohad; Zern, Mark A.; Fleischer, Norman; Efrat, Shimon

    2003-06-01

    Beta-cell replacement is considered to be the most promising approach for treatment of type 1 diabetes. Its application on a large scale is hindered by a shortage of cells for transplantation. Activation of insulin expression, storage, and regulated secretion in stem/progenitor cells offers novel ways to overcome this shortage. We explored whether fetal human progenitor liver cells (FH) could be induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells after expression of the pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1) gene, which is a key regulator of pancreatic development and insulin expression in beta cells. FH cells possess a considerable replication capacity, and this was further extended by introduction of the gene for the catalytic subunit of human telomerase. Immortalized FH cells expressing Pdx1 activated multiple beta-cell genes, produced and stored considerable amounts of insulin, and released insulin in a regulated manner in response to glucose. When transplanted into hyperglycemic immunodeficient mice, the cells restored and maintained euglycemia for prolonged periods. Quantitation of human C-peptide in the mouse serum confirmed that the glycemia was normalized by the transplanted human cells. This approach offers the potential of a novel source of cells for transplantation into patients with type 1 diabetes.

  6. An efficient experimental strategy for mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation and separation of a cytokeratin-19-positive population of insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Naujok, O; Francini, F; Jörns, A; Lenzen, S

    2008-08-01

    Embryonic stem cells are a potential source for insulin-producing cells, but existing differentiation protocols are of limited efficiency. Here, the aim has been to develop a new one, which drives development of embryonic stem cells towards insulin-producing cells rather than to neuronal cell types, and to combine this with a strategy for their separation from insulin-negative cells. The cytokeratin-19 (CK19) promoter was used to control the expression of enhanced yellow fluorescence protein in mouse embryonic stem cells during their differentiation towards insulin-producing cells, using a new optimized four-stage protocol. Two cell populations, CK19(+) and CK19(-) cells, were successfully fluorescence sorted and analysed. The new method reduced neuronal progeny and suppressed differentiation into glucagon- and somatostatin-producing cells. Concomitantly, beta-cell like characteristics of insulin-producing cells were strengthened, as documented by high gene expression of the Glut2 glucose transporter and the transcription factor Pdx1. This novel protocol was combined with a cell-sorting technique. Through the combined procedure, a fraction of glucose-responsive insulin-secreting CK19(+) cells was obtained with 40-fold higher insulin gene expression and 50-fold higher insulin content than CK19(-) cells. CK19(+) cells were immunoreactive for C-peptide and had ultrastructural characteristics of an insulin-secretory cell. Differentiated CK19(+) cells reflect an endocrine precursor cell type of ductal origin, potentially suitable for insulin replacement therapy in diabetes.

  7. Induced ICER I{gamma} down-regulates cyclin A expression and cell proliferation in insulin-producing {beta} cells

    SciTech Connect

    Inada, Akari; Weir, Gordon C.; Bonner-Weir, Susan . E-mail: susan.bonner-weir@joslin.harvard.edu

    2005-04-15

    We have previously found that cyclin A expression is markedly reduced in pancreatic {beta}-cells by cell-specific overexpression of repressor inducible cyclic AMP early repressor (ICER I{gamma}) in transgenic mice. Here we further examined regulatory effects of ICER I{gamma} on cyclin A gene expression using Min6 cells, an insulin-producing cell line. The cyclin A promoter luciferase assay showed that ICER I{gamma} directly repressed cyclin A gene transcription. In addition, upon ICER I{gamma} overexpression, cyclin A mRNA levels markedly decreased, thereby confirming an inhibitory effect of ICER I{gamma} on cyclin A expression. Suppression of cyclin A results in inhibition of BrdU incorporation. Under normal culture conditions endogenous cyclin A is abundant in these cells, whereas ICER is hardly detectable. However, serum starvation of Min6 cells induces ICER I{gamma} expression with a concomitant very low expression level of cyclin A. Cyclin A protein is not expressed unless the cells are in active DNA replication. These results indicate a potentially important anti-proliferative effect of ICER I{gamma} in pancreatic {beta} cells. Since ICER I{gamma} is greatly increased in diabetes as well as in FFA- or high glucose-treated islets, this effect may in part exacerbate diabetes by limiting {beta}-cell proliferation.

  8. Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Insulin Producing Cells by Using A Lentiviral Vector Carrying PDX1

    PubMed Central

    Allahverdi, Amir; Abroun, Saied; Jafarian, Arefeh; Soleimani, Masoud; Taghikhani, Mohammad; Eskandari, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Objective Type I diabetes is an immunologically-mediated devastation of insulin producing cells (IPCs) in the pancreatic islet. Stem cells that produce β-cells are a new promising tool. Adult stem cells such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are self renewing multi potent cells showing capabilities to differentiate into ectodermal, mesodermal and endodermal tissues. Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor 1 (PDX1) is a master regulator gene required for embryonic development of the pancreas and is crucial for normal pancreatic islets activities in adults. Materials and Methods We induced the over-expression of the PDX1 gene in human bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) by Lenti-PDX1 in order to generate IPCs. Next, we examine the ability of the cells by measuring insulin/c-peptide production and INSULIN and PDX1 gene expressions. Results After transduction, MSCs changed their morphology at day 5 and gradually differentiated into IPCs. INSULIN and PDX1 expressions were confirmed by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunostaining. IPC secreted insulin and C-peptide in the media that contained different glucose concentrations. Conclusion MSCs differentiated into IPCs by genetic manipulation. Our result showed that lentiviral vectors could deliver PDX1 gene to MSCs and induce pancreatic differentiation. PMID:26199902

  9. Bone Marrow Homing Enriches Stem Cells Responsible for Neogenesis of Insulin-Producing Cells, While Radiation Decreases Homing Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg-Cohen, Nitza; Iskovich, Svetlana; Askenasy, Nadir

    2015-10-01

    Small-sized adult bone marrow cells isolated by counterflow centrifugal elutriation and depleted of lineage markers (Fr25lin(-)) have the capacity to differentiate into insulin-producing cells and stabilize glycemic control. This study assessed competitive migration of syngeneic stem cells to the bone marrow and islets in a murine model of chemical diabetes. VLA-4 is expressed in ∼ 25% of these cells, whereas CXCR4 is not detected, however, it is transcriptionally upregulated (6-fold). The possibility to enrich stem cells by a bone marrow homing (BM-H) functional assay was assessed in sequential transplants. Fr25lin(-) cells labeled with PKH26 were grafted into primary myeloablated recipients, and mitotically quiescent Fr25lin(-)PKH(bright) cells were sorted from the bone marrow after 2 days. The contribution of bone marrow-homed stem cells was remarkably higher in secondary recipients compared to freshly elutriated cells. The therapeutic efficacy was further increased by omission of irradiation in the secondary recipients, showing a 25-fold enrichment of islet-reconstituting cells by the bone marrow homing assay. Donor cells identified by the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and a genomic marker in sex-mismatched transplants upregulated PDX-1 and produced proinsulin, affirming the capacity of BM-H cells to convert in the injured islets. There was no evidence of transcriptional priming of freshly elutriated subsets to express PDX-1, insulin, and other markers of endocrine progenitors, indicating that the bone marrow harbors stem cells with versatile differentiation capacity. Affinity to the bone marrow can be used to enrich stem cells for pancreatic regeneration, and reciprocally, conditioning reduces the competitive incorporation in the injured islets.

  10. Discovery of gene networks regulating cytokine-induced dysfunction and apoptosis in insulin-producing INS-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Kutlu, Burak; Cardozo, Alessandra K; Darville, Martine I; Kruhøffer, Mogens; Magnusson, Nils; Ørntoft, Torben; Eizirik, Décio L

    2003-11-01

    Locally released cytokines contribute to beta-cell dysfunction and apoptosis in type 1 diabetes. In vitro exposure of insulin-producing INS-1E cells to the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta + interferon (IFN)-gamma leads to a significant increase in apoptosis. To characterize the genetic networks implicated in beta-cell dysfunction and apoptosis and its dependence on nitric oxide (NO) production, we performed a time-course microarray analysis of cytokine-induced genes in insulin-producing INS-1E cells. INS-1E cells were exposed in duplicate to IL-1beta + IFN-gamma for six different time points (1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h) with or without the inducible NO synthase (iNOS) blocker N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMA). The microarray analysis identified 698 genes as cytokine modified (>or=2.5-fold change compared with control) in at least one time point. Based on their temporal pattern of variation, the cytokine-regulated genes were classified into 15 clusters by the k-means method. These genes were further classified into 14 different groups according to their putative function. Changes in the expression of genes related to metabolism, signal transduction, and transcription factors at all time points studied indicate beta-cell attempts to adapt to the effects of continuous cytokine exposure. Notably, several apoptosis-related genes were modified at early time points (2-4 h) preceding iNOS expression. On the other hand, 46% of the genes modified by cytokines after 8-24 h were NO dependent, indicating the important role of this radical for the late effects of cytokines. The present results increase by more than twofold the number of known cytokine-modified genes in insulin-producing cells and yield comprehensive information on the role of NO for these modifications in gene expression. These data provide novel and detailed insights into the gene networks activated in beta-cells facing a prolonged immune assault.

  11. Mechanisms of hepatocyte growth factor-mediated signaling in differentiation of pancreatic ductal epithelial cells into insulin-producing cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xin-Yu; Zhan, Xiao-Rong; Lu, Chong; Liu, Xiao-Min; Wang, Xiao-Chen

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} A hypothesis that the differentiation of PDEC is through MAPKs or PI3K/AKT pathways. {yields} Determine if kinases (ERK1/2, p38, JNK, and AKT) are activated in these pathways. {yields} Determine signal pathway(s) that may effect on HGF-induced differentiation of PDEC. {yields} PI3K-AKT pathway is involved in the differentiation of PDECs induced by HGF. {yields} MEK-ERK pathway effect on the proliferation of PDECs but not the differentiation. -- Abstract: Pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (PDECs) were induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in our previous study, but the mechanism through which this induction occurs is still unknown. HGF is a ligand that activates a tyrosine kinase encoded by the c-Met proto-oncogene. This activation is followed by indirect activation of multiple downstream signal transduction pathways (including MAPKs and the PI3K/AKT signaling pathways) that initiate various biological effects. Therefore, we speculated that the differentiation of PDECs is through either the MAPK signaling pathway or the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. To test this hypothesis, isolated PDECs from adult rats were stimulated by adding HGF to their medium for 28 days. Then, the expression levels of several protein kinases, including MAPKs (ERK1/2, p38, and JNK) and AKT, were determined by Western blotting to determine if specific protein kinases are activated in these pathways. Subsequently, re-isolated from adult rats and cultured PDECs were pre-treated with specific inhibitors of proteins shown to be activated in these signaling pathways; these cells were then induced to differentiate by the addition of HGF. The expression levels of protein kinases were determined by Western blotting, and the differentiation rate of insulin-positive cells was determined by flow cytometry. The change of PDEC differentiation rates were compared between the groups in which cells with or without inhibitors

  12. Physiological effects of manipulating the level of insulin-degrading enzyme in insulin-producing cells of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Joogyung

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) degrades insulin and other peptides, including the Aβ peptide of Alzheimer's disease. However, the mechanism by which IDE acts on its substrates in vivo is unclear, and its role in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease is controversial. Here, we show that in Drosophila knocking down IDE in insulin-producing cells (IPCs) of the brain results in increased body weight and fecundity, decreased circulating sugar levels and reduced lifespan. Moreover, knocking down and overexpressing IDE in IPCs have opposite physiological effects. As misregulated insulin signaling in peripheral tissues is known to cause similar phenotypes, our data suggest a role for Drosophila IDE in determining the level of insulin-like peptides made by IPCs that systemically activate insulin signaling. PMID:21212741

  13. Role of microRNA-21 in the formation of insulin-producing cells from pancreatic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Bai, Chunyu; Li, Xiangchen; Gao, Yuhua; Wang, Kunfu; Fan, Yanan; Zhang, Shuang; Ma, Yuehui; Guan, Weijun

    2016-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate insulin secretion, pancreas development, and beta cell differentiation. In this study, to screen for miRNAs and their targets that function during insulin-producing cells (IPCs) formation, we examined the messenger RNA and microRNA expression profiles of pancreatic progenitor cells (PPCs) and IPCs using microarray and deep sequencing approaches, respectively. Combining our data with that from previous reports, we found that miR-21 and its targets play an important role in the formation of IPCs. However, the function of miR-21 in the formation of IPCs from PPCs is poorly understood. Therefore, we over-expressed or inhibited miR-21 and expressed small interfering RNAs of miR-21 targets in PPCs to investigate their functions in IPCs formation. We found that miR-21 acts as a bidirectional switch in the formation of IPCs by regulating the expression of target and downstream genes (SOX6, RPBJ and HES1). Small interfering RNAs were used to knock down these genes in PPCs to investigate their effects on IPCs formation. Single expression of si-RBPJ, si-SOX6 and si-HES1 in PPCs showed that si-RBPJ was an inhibitor, and that si-SOX6 and si-HES1 were promoters of IPCs formation, although si-HES1 induced formation of IPCs at higher rates than si-SOX6. These results suggest that endogenous miRNAs involved in the formation of IPCs from PPCs should be considered in the development of an effective cell transplant therapy for diabetes.

  14. Regeneration of insulin-producing pancreatic cells using a volatile bioactive compound and human teeth.

    PubMed

    Okada, Mio; Imai, Toshio; Yaegaki, Ken; Ishkitiev, Nikolay; Tanaka, Tomoko

    2014-10-30

    Transplantation of insulin (INS)-secreting cells differentiated in vitro from stem cells promises a safer and easier treatment of severe diabetes mellitus. A volatile bioactive compound, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), promotes cell differentiation; human tooth-pulp stem cells undergo hepatic differentiation. The aim of this study is to develop a novel protocol using H2S to enhance pancreatic differentiation from the CD117(+) cell fraction of human tooth pulp. During the differentiation, the cells were exposed to 0.1 ng ml(-1) H2S. Immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, determination of INS c-peptide content and flow cytometry of pancreatically related markers were carried out. Expression of WNT and the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway were also determined by PCR array. After differentiation, INS, glucagon (GCG), somatostatin (SST) and pancreatic polypeptide (PPY) were positive when examined by immunofluorescence. INS and GCG were also determined flow-cytometrically. Only the cells expressing INS increased after H2S exposure. The number of cells expressing GCG was significantly decreased. Genes involved in canonical WNT and the WNT/calcium pathways were highly expressed after H2S exposure. H2S accelerated INS synthesis and secretion by regenerated INS-producing cells from human teeth. All signaling pathway functions of the PI3K-AKT pathway were extremely activated by H2S exposure. The matured INS-producing cells originating in human teeth were increased by H2S in order to control blood-glucose level.

  15. Laminin 411 acts as a potent inducer of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into insulin-producing cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an incurable metabolic disease constituting a major threat to human health. Insulin-producing cells (IPCs) differentiated from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great promise in the treatment of DM. The development of an efficient IPC induction system is a crucial step for the clinical application of IPCs for DM. Laminin 411 is a key component of the basement membrane and is involved in the regulation of cell differentiation; however, little is known about a role of laminin 411 in the regulation of IPC differentiation from human MSCs. Methods MSCs were isolated from human umbilical cord (UC-MSCs) and expanded in an in vitro culture system. UC-MSCs were then cultured in the IPC induction and differentiation medium in the presence of laminin 411. Flow cytometry, Quantitative realtime PCR, immunofluorescence staining, ELISA, Western blotting and other techniques were applied to determine IPC generation, insulin expression and related mechanisms. To evaluate potential therapeutic efficacy of IPCs induced from UC-MSCs, a type-1 diabetes (T1DM) rat model was generated using streptozotocin. Blood glucose, insulin levels, and survival of rats were monitored periodically following intravenous injection of the tested cells. Results Laminin 411 markedly induced the expression of the genes Foxa2 and Sox17, markers for pancreatic precursor cells, efficiently induced IPC differentiation from MSCs, and up-regulated insulin expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, the expression of the genes known to govern insulin expression including Pdx1 and Ngn3 was markedly induced by laminin 411, which suggests that Pdx1 and Ngn3 signaling pathways are involved in laminin 411 induced-insulin expression machinery. More importantly, administration of laminin 411-induced IPCs rapidly and significantly down-regulated fasting blood glucose levels, significantly reduced the HbA1c concentration and markedly improved the symptoms and survival of

  16. Laminin 411 acts as a potent inducer of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Qu, Huiting; Liu, Xiaoli; Ni, Yihong; Jiang, Yang; Feng, Xiaoli; Xiao, Juan; Guo, Yanan; Kong, Dexiao; Li, Ai; Li, Xiaomei; Zhuang, Xianghua; Wang, Zhilun; Wang, Yongjing; Chang, Yali; Chen, Shihong; Kong, Feng; Zhang, Xuhua; Zhao, Shengtian; Sun, Yi; Xu, Dawei; Wang, Daoqing; Zheng, Chengyun

    2014-05-20

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an incurable metabolic disease constituting a major threat to human health. Insulin-producing cells (IPCs) differentiated from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great promise in the treatment of DM. The development of an efficient IPC induction system is a crucial step for the clinical application of IPCs for DM. Laminin 411 is a key component of the basement membrane and is involved in the regulation of cell differentiation; however, little is known about a role of laminin 411 in the regulation of IPC differentiation from human MSCs. MSCs were isolated from human umbilical cord (UC-MSCs) and expanded in an in vitro culture system. UC-MSCs were then cultured in the IPC induction and differentiation medium in the presence of laminin 411. Flow cytometry, Quantitative realtime PCR, immunofluorescence staining, ELISA, Western blotting and other techniques were applied to determine IPC generation, insulin expression and related mechanisms. To evaluate potential therapeutic efficacy of IPCs induced from UC-MSCs, a type-1 diabetes (T1DM) rat model was generated using streptozotocin. Blood glucose, insulin levels, and survival of rats were monitored periodically following intravenous injection of the tested cells. Laminin 411 markedly induced the expression of the genes Foxa2 and Sox17, markers for pancreatic precursor cells, efficiently induced IPC differentiation from MSCs, and up-regulated insulin expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, the expression of the genes known to govern insulin expression including Pdx1 and Ngn3 was markedly induced by laminin 411, which suggests that Pdx1 and Ngn3 signaling pathways are involved in laminin 411 induced-insulin expression machinery. More importantly, administration of laminin 411-induced IPCs rapidly and significantly down-regulated fasting blood glucose levels, significantly reduced the HbA1c concentration and markedly improved the symptoms and survival of T1DM rats. Our results

  17. Identification of microRNAs regulating Hlxb9 gene expression during the induction of insulin-producing cells.

    PubMed

    Mu, Changzheng; Wang, Tao; Wang, Xiaomei; Tian, He; Liu, Yong

    2016-05-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (bMSCs) with the capacity of self- renewal and multilineage differentiation are promising sources for cell replacement therapy in diabetes. Here, we developed an effective method with activin A, conophylline, and nicotinamide to induce mouse bMSCs to differentiate into insulin-producing cells (IPCs). The homeobox gene Hlxb9 (encoding HB9) is prominently expressed in adult human pancreas, which can also play a key role during the induction of IPCs. To find the microRNAs (miRNAs) regulating Hlxb9 gene expression, we respectively used miRanda and TargetScan to predict and got the intersection, miR-200a and miR-141, further identified by the Dual-Luciferase assay. The results illustrated miR-200a and miR-141 could inhibit the expression of Hlxb9 by binding to its mRNA 3'UTR. Furthermore, the expression of miR-200a and miR-141 was almost reciprocal to that of Hlxb9. Overexpression of miR-200a and miR-141 downregulated the expression of pancreatic progenitor cell markers Hlxb9 and Pdx1. Therefore, miR-200a and miR-141 may directly or indirectly regulate the expression of pancreatic islet transcription factors to control the differentiation of IPCs.

  18. Glucose enhances collectrin protein expression in insulin-producing MIN6 {beta} cells

    SciTech Connect

    Saisho, Kenji; Fukuhara, Atsunori; Yasuda, Tomoko; Sato, Yoshifumi; Fukui, Kenji; Iwahashi, Hiromi; Imagawa, Akihisa; Hatta, Mitsutoki; Shimomura, Iichiro; Yamagata, Kazuya

    2009-11-06

    Collectrin is a novel target gene of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1{alpha} in pancreatic {beta}-cells and controls insulin exocytosis. Although glucose is known to stimulate the expression of genes of the insulin secretory pathway, there is no information on how glucose regulates collectrin expression. We investigated the effects of glucose on the expression of collectrin in MIN6 {beta}-cell line. Glucose, in a dose-dependent manner, increased collectrin protein levels without changing collectrin mRNA levels and protein stability, indicating that glucose stimulation of collectrin protein expression is primarily mediated at a translational level. Although mannose and pyruvate also increased collectrin protein expression level, neither 2-deoxyglucose, mitochondrial fuels leucine and glutamate, sulphonylurea nor Ca{sup 2+} channel blockers, mimicked the effects of glucose. These data indicate the involvement of mitochondrial TCA cycle intermediates, distal to pyruvate, in the regulation of collectrin protein expression in {beta}-cells.

  19. Endothelial Cell Co-culture Mediates Maturation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell to Pancreatic Insulin Producing Cells in a Directed Differentiation Approach

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Maria; Banerjee, Ipsita

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESC) have two main characteristics: they can be indefinitely propagated in vitro in an undifferentiated state and they are pluripotent, thus having the potential to differentiate into multiple lineages. Such properties make ESCs extremely attractive for cell based therapy and regenerative treatment applications 1. However for its full potential to be realized the cells have to be differentiated into mature and functional phenotypes, which is a daunting task. A promising approach in inducing cellular differentiation is to closely mimic the path of organogenesis in the in vitro setting. Pancreatic development is known to occur in specific stages 2, starting with endoderm, which can develop into several organs, including liver and pancreas. Endoderm induction can be achieved by modulation of the nodal pathway through addition of Activin A 3 in combination with several growth factors 4-7. Definitive endoderm cells then undergo pancreatic commitment by inhibition of sonic hedgehog inhibition, which can be achieved in vitro by addition of cyclopamine 8. Pancreatic maturation is mediated by several parallel events including inhibition of notch signaling; aggregation of pancreatic progenitors into 3-dimentional clusters; induction of vascularization; to name a few. By far the most successful in vitro maturation of ESC derived pancreatic progenitor cells have been achieved through inhibition of notch signaling by DAPT supplementation 9. Although successful, this results in low yield of the mature phenotype with reduced functionality. A less studied area is the effect of endothelial cell signaling in pancreatic maturation, which is increasingly being appreciated as an important contributing factor in in-vivo pancreatic islet maturation 10,11. The current study explores such effect of endothelial cell signaling in maturation of human ESC derived pancreatic progenitor cells into insulin producing islet-like cells. We report a multi-stage directed

  20. Pancreatic insulin-producing cells differentiated from human embryonic stem cells correct hyperglycemia in SCID/NOD mice, an animal model of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hua, Xiu-feng; Wang, Yan-wei; Tang, Yu-xiao; Yu, Sheng-qiang; Jin, Shao-hua; Meng, Xiao-mei; Li, Hua-feng; Liu, Fu-jun; Sun, Qiang; Wang, Hai-yan; Li, Jian-yuan

    2014-01-01

    Human pancreatic islet transplantation is a prospective curative treatment for diabetes. However, the lack of donor pancreases greatly limits this approach. One approach to overcome the limited supply of donor pancreases is to generate functional islets from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), a cell line with unlimited proliferative capacity, through rapid directed differentiation. This study investigated whether pancreatic insulin-producing cells (IPCs) differentiated from hESCs could correct hyperglycemia in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID)/non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, an animal model of diabetes. We generated pancreatic IPCs from two hESC lines, YT1 and YT2, using an optimized four-stage differentiation protocol in a chemically defined culture system. Then, about 5-7 × 10(6) differentiated cells were transplanted into the epididymal fat pad of SCID/NOD mice (n = 20). The control group were transplanted with undifferentiated hESCs (n = 6). Graft survival and function were assessed using immunohistochemistry, and measuring serum human C-peptide and blood glucose levels. The pancreatic IPCs were generated by the four-stage differentiation protocol using hESCs. About 17.1% of differentiated cells expressed insulin, as determined by flow cytometry. These cells secreted insulin/C-peptide following glucose stimulation, similarly to adult human islets. Most of these IPCs co-expressed mature β cell-specific markers, including human C-peptide, GLUT2, PDX1, insulin, and glucagon. After implantation into the epididymal fat pad of SCID/NOD mice, the hESC-derived pancreatic IPCs corrected hyperglycemia for ≥ 8 weeks. None of the animals transplanted with pancreatic IPCs developed tumors during the time. The mean survival of recipients was increased by implanted IPCs as compared to implanted undifferentiated hESCs (P<0.0001). The results of this study confirmed that human terminally differentiated pancreatic IPCs derived from hESCs can correct hyperglycemia in

  1. Modulation of Methuselah Expression Targeted to Drosophila Insulin-producing Cells Extends Life and Enhances Oxidative Stress Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Gimenez, Luis E. D.; Ghildyal, Parakashtha; Fischer, Kathleen E.; Hu, Hongxiang; Ja, William W.; Eaton, Benjamin A.; Wu, Yimin; Austad, Steven N.; Ranjan, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquitously reduced signaling via Methuselah (MTH), a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) required for neurosecretion, has previously been reported to extend life and enhance stress resistance in flies. Whether these effects are due to reduced MTH signaling only in specific tissue(s) and through with signaling effects reduced MTH might produce these phenotypes remains unknown. We determined that reduced expression of mth targeted only to the insulin-producing cells (IPCs) of the fly brain was sufficient to extend life and enhance oxidative stress resistance. Paradoxically, we discovered that overexpression of mth targeted to the same cells has similar phenotypic effects to reduced expression due to MTH’s interaction with β-arrestin, which uncouples GPCRs from their G-proteins. We confirmed the functional relationship between MTH and β-arrestin by finding that IPC-targeted overexpression of β-arrestin alone mimics the longevity phenotype of reduced MTH signaling. As reduced MTH signaling also inhibits insulin secretion from the IPCs, the most parsimonious mechanistic explanation for its longevity and stress resistance enhancement might be through reduced insulin/IGF signaling (IIS). However, examination of phenotypic features of long-lived IPC-mth modulated flies as well as several downstream IIS targets implicates enhanced activity of the JNK stress resistance pathway more directly than insulin signaling in the longevity and stress resistance phenotypes. PMID:23121290

  2. Insulin-producing cells regulate the sexual receptivity through the painless TRP channel in Drosophila virgin females.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Takaomi; Watanabe, Kazuki; Ohashi, Hirono; Sato, Shoma; Inami, Show; Shimada, Naoto; Kitamoto, Toshihiro

    2014-01-01

    In a variety of animal species, females hold a leading position in evaluating potential mating partners. The decision of virgin females to accept or reject a courting male is one of the most critical steps for mating success. In the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, however, the molecular and neuronal mechanisms underlying female receptivity are still poorly understood, particularly for virgin females. The Drosophila painless (pain) gene encodes a transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel. We previously demonstrated that mutations in pain significantly enhance the sexual receptivity of virgin females and that pain expression in pain(GAL4) -positive neurons is necessary and sufficient for pain-mediated regulation of the virgin receptivity. Among the pain(GAL4) -positive neurons in the adult female brain, here we have found that insulin-producing cells (IPCs), a neuronal subset in the pars intercerebralis, are essential in virgin females for the regulation of sexual receptivity through Pain TRP channels. IPC-specific knockdown of pain expression or IPC ablation strongly enhanced female sexual receptivity as was observed in pain mutant females. When pain expression or neuronal activity was conditionally suppressed in adult IPCs, female sexual receptivity was similarly enhanced. Furthermore, both pain mutations and the conditional knockdown of pain expression in IPCs depressed female rejection behaviors toward courting males. Taken together, our results indicate that the Pain TRP channel in IPCs plays an important role in controlling the sexual receptivity of Drosophila virgin females by positively regulating female rejection behaviors during courtship.

  3. Knock-down of ZBED6 in insulin-producing cells promotes N-cadherin junctions between beta-cells and neural crest stem cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuan; Xie, Beichen; Qi, Yu; Wallerman, Ola; Vasylovska, Svitlana; Andersson, Leif; Kozlova, Elena Nickolaevna; Welsh, Nils

    2016-01-01

    The role of the novel transcription factor ZBED6 for the adhesion/clustering of insulin-producing mouse MIN6 and βTC6 cells was investigated. Zbed6-silencing in the insulin producing cells resulted in increased three-dimensional cell-cell clustering and decreased adhesion to mouse laminin and human laminin 511. This was paralleled by a weaker focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation at laminin binding sites. Zbed6-silenced cells expressed less E-cadherin and more N-cadherin at cell-to-cell junctions. A strong ZBED6-binding site close to the N-cadherin gene transcription start site was observed. Three-dimensional clustering in Zbed6-silenced cells was prevented by an N-cadherin neutralizing antibody and by N-cadherin knockdown. Co-culture of neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) with Zbed6-silenced cells, but not with control cells, stimulated the outgrowth of NCSC processes. The cell-to-cell junctions between NCSCs and βTC6 cells stained more intensely for N-cadherin when Zbed6-silenced cells were co-cultured with NCSCs. We conclude that ZBED6 decreases the ratio between N- and E-cadherin. A lower N- to E-cadherin ratio may hamper the formation of three-dimensional beta-cell clusters and cell-to-cell junctions with NCSC, and instead promote efficient attachment to a laminin support and monolayer growth. Thus, by controlling beta-cell adhesion and cell-to-cell junctions, ZBED6 might play an important role in beta-cell differentiation, proliferation and survival. PMID:26750727

  4. Unwinding the Novel Genes Involved in the Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells into Insulin-Producing Cells: A Network-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Blessia, T Femlin; Singh, Sachidanand; Vennila, J Jannet

    2017-03-01

    Diabetes is one of the main causes of death in the world. Diabetes is marked by high blood glucose levels and develops when the body doesn't produce enough insulin or is not able to use insulin effectively, or both. Type I diabetes is a chronic sickness caused by lack of insulin due to the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells. Research on permanent cure for diabetes is in progress with several remarkable findings in the past few decades among which stem cell therapy has turned out to be a promising way to cure diabetes. Stem cells have the remarkable potential to differentiate into glucose-responsive beta cells through controlled differentiation protocols. Discovering novel targets that could potentially influence the differentiation to specific cell type will help in disease therapy. The present work focuses on finding novel genes or transcription factors involved in the human embryonic stem cell differentiation into insulin-producing beta cells using network biology approach. The interactome of 321 genes and their associated molecules involved in human embryonic stem cell differentiation into beta cells was constructed, which includes 1937 nodes and 8105 edges with a scale-free topology. Pathway analysis for the hubs obtained through MCODE revealed that four highly interactive hubs were relevant to embryonic stem cell differentiation into insulin-producing cells. Their role in different pathways and stem cell differentiation was studied. Centrality parameters were applied to identify the potential controllers of the differentiation processes: BMP4, SALL4, ZIC1, NTS, RNF2, FOXO1, AKT1 and GATA4. This type of approach gives an insight to identify potential genes/transcription factors which may play influential role in many complex biological processes.

  5. Insulin-Producing Cells in the Drosophila Brain also Express Satiety-Inducing Cholecystokinin-Like Peptide, Drosulfakinin

    PubMed Central

    Söderberg, Jeannette A. E.; Carlsson, Mikael A.; Nässel, Dick R.

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of meal size and assessing the nutritional value of food are two important aspects of feeding behavior. The mechanisms that regulate these two aspects have not been fully elucidated in Drosophila. Diminished signaling with insulin-like peptides Drosophila insulin-like peptides (DILPs) affects food intake in flies, but it is not clear what signal(s) mediates satiety. Here we investigate the role of DILPs and drosulfakinins (DSKs), cholecystokinin-like peptides, as satiety signals in Drosophila. We show that DSKs and DILPs are co-expressed in insulin-producing cells (IPCs) of the brain. Next we analyzed the effects of diminishing DSKs or DILPs employing the Gal4-UAS system by (1) diminishing DSK-levels without directly affecting DILP levels by targeted Dsk-RNAi, either in all DSK-producing cells (DPCs) or only in the IPCs or (2) expressing a hyperpolarizing potassium channel to inactivate either all the DPCs or only the IPCs, affecting release of both peptides. The transgenic flies were assayed for feeding and food choice, resistance to starvation, and for levels of Dilp and Dsk transcripts in brains of fed and starved animals. Diminishment of DSK in the IPCs alone is sufficient to cause defective regulation of food intake and food choice, indicating that DSK functions as a hormonal satiety signal in Drosophila. Quantification of Dsk and Dilp transcript levels reveals that knockdown of either peptide type affects the transcript levels of the other, suggesting a possible feedback regulation between the two signaling pathways. In summary, DSK and DILPs released from the IPCs regulate feeding, food choice and metabolic homeostasis in Drosophila in a coordinated fashion. PMID:22969751

  6. In Vivo Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Insulin Producing Cells on Electrospun Poly-L-Lactide Acid Scaffolds Coated with Matricaria chamomilla L. Oil.

    PubMed

    Fazili, Afsaneh; Gholami, Soghra; Minaie Zangi, Bagher; Seyedjafari, Ehsan; Gholami, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the in vivo differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into insulin producing cells (IPCs) on electrospun poly-L-lactide acid (PLLA) scaffolds coated with Matricaria chammomila L. (chamomile) oil. In this interventional, experimental study adipose MSCs (AMSCs) were isolated from 12 adult male New Zealand white rabbits and characterized by flow cytometry. AMSCs were subsequently differentiated into osteogenic and adipogenic lines. Cells were seeded onto either a PLLA scaffold (control) or PLLA scaffold coated with chamomile oil (experimental). A total of 24 scaffolds were inserted into the pancreatic area of each rabbit and placement was confirmed by ultrasound. After 21 days, immunohistochemistry analysis of insulin-producing like cells on protein levels confirmed insulin expression of insulin producing cells (IPSCs). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) determined the expressions of genes related to pancreatic endocrine development and function. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results confirmed the existence of oil on the surface of the PLLA scaffold. The results showed a new peak at 2854 cm(-1) for the aliphatic CH2 bond. Pdx1 expression was 0.051 ± 0.007 in the experimental group and 0.009 ± 0.002 in the control group. There was significantly increased insulin expression in the scaffold coated with chamomile oil (0.09 ± 0.001) compared to control group (0.063 ± 0.009, P≤0.05). Both groups expressed Ngn3 and Pdx1 specific markers and pancreatic tissue was observed at 21 days post transplantation. The pancreatic region is an optimal site for differentiation of AMSCs to IPCs. Chamomile oil (as an antioxidant agent) can affect cell adhesion to the scaffold and increase cell differentiation. In addition, the oil may lead to increased blood glucose uptake in pathways in the muscles, liver and fatty tissue of a diabetic animal model by some probable molecular mechanisms.

  7. In Vivo Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Insulin Producing Cells on Electrospun Poly-L-Lactide Acid Scaffolds Coated with Matricaria chamomilla L. Oil

    PubMed Central

    Fazili, Afsaneh; Gholami, Soghra; Minaie Zangi, Bagher; Seyedjafari, Ehsan; Gholami, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined the in vivo differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into insulin producing cells (IPCs) on electrospun poly-L-lactide acid (PLLA) scaffolds coated with Matricaria chammomila L. (chamomile) oil. Materials and Methods In this interventional, experimental study adipose MSCs (AMSCs) were isolated from 12 adult male New Zealand white rabbits and characterized by flow cytometry. AMSCs were subsequently differentiated into osteogenic and adipogenic lines. Cells were seeded onto either a PLLA scaffold (control) or PLLA scaffold coated with chamomile oil (experimental). A total of 24 scaffolds were inserted into the pancreatic area of each rabbit and placement was confirmed by ultrasound. After 21 days, immunohistochemistry analysis of insulin-producing like cells on protein levels confirmed insulin expression of insulin producing cells (IPSCs). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) determined the expressions of genes related to pancreatic endocrine development and function. Results Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results confirmed the existence of oil on the surface of the PLLA scaffold. The results showed a new peak at 2854 cm-1 for the aliphatic CH2 bond. Pdx1 expression was 0.051 ± 0.007 in the experimental group and 0.009 ± 0.002 in the control group. There was significantly increased insulin expression in the scaffold coated with chamomile oil (0.09 ± 0.001) compared to control group (0.063 ± 0.009, P≤0.05). Both groups expressed Ngn3 and Pdx1 specific markers and pancreatic tissue was observed at 21 days post transplantation. Conclusion The pancreatic region is an optimal site for differentiation of AMSCs to IPCs. Chamomile oil (as an antioxidant agent) can affect cell adhesion to the scaffold and increase cell differentiation. In addition, the oil may lead to increased blood glucose uptake in pathways in the muscles, liver and fatty tissue of a diabetic animal model by some probable molecular mechanisms

  8. Association of expression levels of pluripotency/stem cell markers with the differentiation outcome of Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells into insulin producing cells.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Dina H; Kamal, Mohamed M; El-Kholy, Abd El-Latif G; El-Mesallamy, Hala O

    2016-08-01

    Recently, there has been much attention towards generation of insulin producing cells (IPCs) from stem cells, especially from Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs). However, generation of mature IPCs remains a challenge. Assessment of generation of IPCs was usually done by examining β-cell markers, however, assessment of pluripotency/stem cell markers drew less attention. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of pluripotency/stem cell markers during differentiation of WJ-MSCs into IPCs and the association of these levels with differentiation outcomes. WJ-MSCs were isolated, characterized then induced to differentiate into IPCs using three different protocols namely A, B and C. Differentiated IPCs were assessed by the expression of pluripotency/stem cell markers, together with β-cell markers using qRT-PCR, and functionally by measuring glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Differentiated cells from protocol A showed lowest expression of pluripotency/stem cell markers and relatively best GSIS. However, protocol B showed concomitant expression of pluripotency/stem cell and β-cell markers with relatively less insulin secretion as compared to protocol A. Protocol C failed to generate glucose-responsive IPCs. In conclusion, sustained expression of pluripotency/stem cell markers could be associated with the incomplete differentiation of WJ-MSCs into IPCs. A novel finding for which further investigations are warranted.

  9. Cytokine toxicity in insulin-producing cells is mediated by nitro-oxidative stress-induced hydroxyl radical formation in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Gurgul-Convey, Ewa; Mehmeti, Ilir; Lortz, Stephan; Lenzen, Sigurd

    2011-08-01

    Although nitric oxide (NO) and oxidative stress both contribute to proinflammatory cytokine toxicity in pancreatic β-cells during type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) development, the interactions between NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cytokine-mediated β-cell death have not been clarified. Exposure of insulin-producing RINm5F cells to IL-1β generated NO, while exposure to a combination of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ, which simulates T1DM conditions, generated both NO and ROS. In theory, two reactions between NO and ROS are possible, one with the superoxide radical yielding peroxynitrite, and the other with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) yielding hydroxyl radicals. Results of the present work exclude peroxynitrite involvement in cytokine toxicity to β-cells because its generation did not correlate with the toxic action of cytokines. On the other hand, we show that H(2)O(2), produced upon exposure of insulin-producing cell clones and primary rat islet cells to cytokines almost exclusively in the mitochondria, reacted in the presence of trace metal (Fe(++)) with NO forming highly toxic hydroxyl radicals, thus explaining the severe toxicity that causes apoptotic β-cell death. Expression of the H(2)O(2)-inactivating enzyme catalase in mitochondria protected against cytokine toxicity by preventing hydroxyl radical formation. We therefore conclude that proinflammatory cytokine-mediated β-cell death is due to nitro-oxidative stress-mediated hydroxyl radical formation in the mitochondria.

  10. Cytokine induction of Fas gene expression in insulin-producing cells requires the transcription factors NF-kappaB and C/EBP.

    PubMed

    Darville, M I; Eizirik, D L

    2001-08-01

    Fas-mediated cell death may play a role in the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta-cells in type 1 diabetes. beta-Cells do not express Fas under physiological conditions, but Fas mRNA and protein are induced in cytokine-exposed mouse and human islets, rendering the beta-cells susceptible to Fas ligand-induced apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular regulation of Fas by cytokines in rat beta-cells and in insulin-producing RINm5F cells. Fas mRNA expression was increased 15-fold in fluorescence-activated cell sorting-purified rat beta-cells exposed to interleukin (IL)-1beta, whereas gamma-interferon had no effect. Transfection experiments of rat Fas promoter-luciferase reporter constructs into purified rat beta-cells and RINm5F insulinoma cells identified an IL-1beta-responsive region between nucleotides -223 and -54. Inactivation of two adjacent NF-kappaB and C/EBP sites in this region abolished IL-1beta-induced Fas promoter activity in RINm5F cells. Binding of NF-kappaB and C/EBP factors to their respective sites was confirmed by gel shift assays. In cotransfection experiments, NF-kappaB p65 transactivated the Fas promoter. NF-kappaB p50 and C/EBPbeta overexpression had no effect by themselves on the Fas promoter activity, but when cotransfected with p65, each factor inhibited transactivation by p65. These results suggest a critical role for NF-kappaB and C/EBP factors in cytokine-regulation of Fas expression in insulin-producing cells.

  11. Two distinct mechanisms mediate the involvement of bone marrow cells in islet remodeling: neogenesis of insulin-producing cells and support of islet recovery.

    PubMed

    Iskovich, Svetlana; Goldenberg-Cohen, Nitza; Sadikov, Tamila; Yaniv, Isaac; Stein, Jerry; Askenasy, Nadir

    2015-01-01

    We have recently reported that small-sized bone marrow cells (BMCs) isolated by counterflow centrifugal elutriation and depleted of lineage markers (Fr25lin(-)) have the capacity to differentiate and contribute to regeneration of injured islets. In this study, we assess some of the characteristics of these cells compared to elutriated hematopoietic progenitors (R/O) and whole BMCs in a murine model of streptozotocin-induced chemical diabetes. The GFP(bright)CD45(+) progeny of whole BMCs and R/O progenitors progressively infiltrate the pancreas with evolution of donor chimerism; are found at islet perimeter, vascular, and ductal walls; and have a modest impact on islet recovery from injury. In contrast, Fr25lin(-) cells incorporate in the islets, convert to GFP(dim)CD45(-)PDX-1(+) phenotypes, produce proinsulin, and secrete insulin with significant contribution to stabilization of glucose homeostasis. The elutriated Fr25lin(-) cells express low levels of CD45 and are negative for SCA-1 and c-kit, as removal of cells expressing these markers did not impair conversion to produce insulin. BMCs mediate two synergistic mechanisms that contribute to islet recovery from injury: support of islet remodeling by hematopoietic cells and neogenesis of insulin-producing cells from stem cells.

  12. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (1–37) converts intestinal epithelial cells into insulin-producing cells

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Taniguchi, Hideki

    2003-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide (GLP) 1 is produced through posttranslational processing of proglucagon and acts as a regulator of various homeostatic events. Among its analogs, however, the function of GLP-1-(1–37), synthesized in small amounts in the pancreas, has been unclear. Here, we find that GLP-1-(1–37) induces insulin production in developing and, to a lesser extent, adult intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo, a process mediated by up-regulation of the Notch-related gene ngn3 and its downstream targets, which are involved in pancreatic endocrine differentiation. These cells became responsive to glucose challenge in vitro and reverse insulin-dependent diabetes after implantation into diabetic mice. Our findings suggest that efficient induction of insulin production in intestinal epithelial cells by GLP-1-(1–37) could represent a new therapeutic approach to diabetes mellitus. PMID:12702762

  13. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of gymnemic acids from Gymnema sylvestre leaves and its effect on insulin-producing RINm-5 F β cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sheoran, Sunita; Panda, Bibhu Prasad; Admane, Prasad S; Panda, Amulya Kumar; Wajid, Saima

    2015-01-01

    Gymnema sylvestre is an important anti-diabetic medicinal plant, hence it is necessary to study the effective extraction of its active medicinal components. To develop an efficient ultrasound-assisted extraction method for anti-diabetic gymnemic acids from Gymnema sylvestre leaves and measure their effect on insulin-producing RINm-5 F β cells. Box-Behnken's design and response surface methodology was applied to the ultrasound-assisted extraction of gymnemic acids from Gymnema sylvestre leaves. Analysis of gymnemic acids was carried out by high-performance thin-layer chromatography by converting total gymnemic acids into gymnemagenin by alkali hydrolysis. Effects of extracts on insulin production were tested on cultured, insulin-producing RINm-5 F β cell lines. The point prediction tool of the design expert software predicted 397.9 mg gymnemic acids per gram of the defatted G. sylvestre leaves using ultrasound-assisted extraction, with ethanol at 60 °C for 30 min. The predicted condition shows 93.34% validity under experimental conditions. The ultrasound-assisted extract caused up to about four times more insulin production from RINm-5 F β cells than extracts obtained from Soxhlet extraction. Response surface methodology was successfully used to improve the extraction of gymnemic acids from G. sylvestre leaves. The ultrasound-assisted extraction process may be a better alternative to prepare such herbal extracts because it saves time and may prevent excess degradation of the target analytes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Inflammatory cytokine signaling in insulin producing beta-cells enhances the colocalization correlation coefficient between L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel and calcium-sensing receptor.

    PubMed

    Parkash, Jai

    2008-08-01

    The immunological processes in type 1 diabetes and metabolic/inflammatory disorder in type 2 diabetes converge on common signaling pathway(s) leading to beta-cell death in these two diseases. The cytokine-mediated beta-cell death seems to be dependent on voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC)-mediated Ca2+ entry. The Ca2+ handling molecular networks control the homeostasis of [Ca2+]i in the beta-cell. The activity and membrane density of VDCC are regulated by several mechanisms including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). CaR is a 123-kDa seven transmembrane extracellular Ca2+ sensing protein that belongs to GPCR family C. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), is a cytokine widely known to activate nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcription in beta-cells. To obtain a better understanding of TNF-alpha-induced molecular interactions between CaR and VDCC, confocal fluorescence measurements were performed on insulin-producing beta-cells exposed to varying concentrations of TNF-alpha and the results are discussed in the light of increased colocalization correlation coefficient. The insulin producing beta-cells were exposed to 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50 ng/ml TNF-alpha for 24 h at 37 degrees . The cells were then immunolabelled with antibodies directed against CaR, VDCC, and NF-kappaB. The confocal fluorescence imaging data showed enhancement in the colocalization correlation coefficient between CaR and VDCC in beta-cells exposed to TNF-alpha thereby indicating increased membrane delimited spatial interactions between these two membrane proteins. TNF-alpha-induced colocalization of VDCC with CaR was inhibited by nimodipine, an inhibitor of L-type VDCC thereby suggesting that VDCC activity is required for spatial interactions with CaR. The 3-D confocal fluorescence imaging data also demonstrated that addition of TNF-alpha to RIN cells led to the translocation of NF-kappaB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Such molecular interactions between CaR and VDCC in tissues

  15. Local renin-angiotensin system regulates the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into insulin-producing cells through angiotensin type 2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Sadik, Nermin Abdel-Hamid; Metwally, Nadia Said; Shaker, Olfat Gamil; Soliman, Mahmoud Sanad; Mohamed, Ahmed Abdelaziz; Abdelmoaty, Mai Mohamed

    2017-06-01

    Differentiation of stem cells into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) suitable for therapeutic transplantation offers a desperately needed approach for the diabetic patients. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms during the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into IPCs assists the successful production of IPCs and provides an important insight into the improvement of the role of MSCs as a therapeutic tool for diabetes mellitus (DM). The present study aimed to investigate the role of local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) on MSCs differentiation into IPCs by measuring the expression of local RAS in MSCs during the differentiation into IPCs and assessing the effect of angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker and angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) blocker on the differentiation process. Our data showed that the differentiation of MSCs into IPCs was associated with an increase in cellular angiotensinogen, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), renin, and AT2R expression and undetectable expression of AT1R. The net effect was an increase in cellular angiotensin II (Ang II) during the differentiation process. AT1R blockade allowed the differentiation of MSCs into IPCs, whereas AT2R blockade alone and blockade of both AT1R and AT2R inhibited the differentiation of MSCs into IPCs. Our data demonstrated an important role of local RAS in the regulation of MSCs differentiation into IPCs and that Ang II mainly orchestrates this role through AT2R activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of insulin-producing beta TC6-F7 cells in microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Zhou, D; Sun, A M; Li, X; Mamujee, S N; Vacek, I; Georgiou, J; Wheeler, M B

    1998-05-01

    In the present study, the insulin secretory capacity of beta TC6-F7 cells in microcapsules was evaluated. The cell mass within capsules was found to expand in a three-dimensional fashion, in contrast to cells seeded on plates that grew as a monolayer. In in vitro studies, both free and encapsulated cells were found to secrete insulin in the absence of glucose, at 13.6 +/- 1.1 and 14.5 +/- 0.9 ng.10(6) cells-1.60 min-1, respectively, with the response rising to a maximum of 26.0 +/- 0.8 and 31 +/- 2.3 ng.10(6) cells-1.60 min-1 in the presence of 16.8 mM glucose. Encapsulated cells were able to produce Ca2+ responses in the presence of KCl (50 mM) and BAY K 8644 (100 microM). In in vivo studies, intraperitoneal transplantation of 3.0 x 10(6) microencapsulated cells into mice (n = 5) with streptozotocin-induced diabetes resulted in the restoration of normoglycemia up to 57 days. Insulin concentrations rose from 0.4 +/- 0.1 ng/ml before the graft administration to 2.2 +/- 0.8 ng/ml after the transplantation in the normoglycemic recipients. An oral glucose challenge in transplant recipients demonstrated a flat glucose response, suggesting extremely high glucose clearance rates. These data demonstrate the potential use of the immunoisolated beta-cell lines for the treatment of diabetes.

  17. JNK1 Deficient Insulin-Producing Cells Are Protected against Interleukin-1β-Induced Apoptosis Associated with Abrogated Myc Expression.

    PubMed

    Prause, Michala; Mayer, Christopher Michael; Brorsson, Caroline; Frederiksen, Klaus Stensgaard; Billestrup, Nils; Størling, Joachim; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The relative contributions of the JNK subtypes in inflammatory β-cell failure and apoptosis are unclear. The JNK protein family consists of JNK1, JNK2, and JNK3 subtypes, encompassing many different isoforms. INS-1 cells express JNK1α1, JNK1α2, JNK1β1, JNK1β2, JNK2α1, JNK2α2, JNK3α1, and JNK3α2 mRNA isoform transcripts translating into 46 and 54 kDa isoform JNK proteins. Utilizing Lentiviral mediated expression of shRNAs against JNK1, JNK2, or JNK3 in insulin-producing INS-1 cells, we investigated the role of individual JNK subtypes in IL-1β-induced β-cell apoptosis. JNK1 knockdown prevented IL-1β-induced INS-1 cell apoptosis associated with decreased 46 kDa isoform JNK protein phosphorylation and attenuated Myc expression. Transient knockdown of Myc also prevented IL-1β-induced apoptosis as well as caspase 3 cleavage. JNK2 shRNA potentiated IL-1β-induced apoptosis and caspase 3 cleavage, whereas JNK3 shRNA did not affect IL-1β-induced β-cell death compared to nonsense shRNA expressing INS-1 cells. In conclusion, JNK1 mediates INS-1 cell death associated with increased Myc expression. These findings underline the importance of differentiated targeting of JNK subtypes in the development of inflammatory β-cell failure and destruction.

  18. Derepression of Polycomb targets during pancreatic organogenesis allows insulin-producing beta-cells to adopt a neural gene activity program

    PubMed Central

    van Arensbergen, Joris; García-Hurtado, Javier; Moran, Ignasi; Maestro, Miguel Angel; Xu, Xiaobo; Van de Casteele, Mark; Skoudy, Anouchka L.; Palassini, Matteo; Heimberg, Harry; Ferrer, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The epigenome changes that underlie cellular differentiation in developing organisms are poorly understood. To gain insights into how pancreatic beta-cells are programmed, we profiled key histone methylations and transcripts in embryonic stem cells, multipotent progenitors of the nascent embryonic pancreas, purified beta-cells, and 10 differentiated tissues. We report that despite their endodermal origin, beta-cells show a transcriptional and active chromatin signature that is most similar to ectoderm-derived neural tissues. In contrast, the beta-cell signature of trimethylated H3K27, a mark of Polycomb-mediated repression, clusters with pancreatic progenitors, acinar cells and liver, consistent with the epigenetic transmission of this mark from endoderm progenitors to their differentiated cellular progeny. We also identified two H3K27 methylation events that arise in the beta-cell lineage after the pancreatic progenitor stage. One is a wave of cell-selective de novo H3K27 trimethylation in non-CpG island genes. Another is the loss of bivalent and H3K27me3-repressed chromatin in a core program of neural developmental regulators that enables a convergence of the gene activity state of beta-cells with that of neural cells. These findings reveal a dynamic regulation of Polycomb repression programs that shape the identity of differentiated beta-cells. PMID:20395405

  19. Transduction of PEP-1-heme oxygenase-1 into insulin-producing INS-1 cells protects them against cytokine-induced cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Su Jin; Kang, Hyung Kyung; Song, Dong Keun; Eum, Won Sik; Park, Jinseu; Choi, Soo Young; Kwon, Hyeok Yil

    2015-06-05

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines play a crucial role in the destruction of pancreatic β-cells, thereby triggering the development of autoimmune diabetes mellitus. We recently developed a cell-permeable fusion protein, PEP-1-heme oxygenase-1 (PEP-1-HO-1) and investigated the anti-inflammatory effects in macrophage cells. In this study, we transduced PEP-1-HO-1 into INS-1 insulinoma cells and examined its protective effect against cytokine-induced cell death. PEP-1-HO-1 was successfully delivered into INS-1 cells in time- and dose-dependent manner and was maintained within the cells for at least 48 h. Pre-treatment with PEP-1-HO-1 increased the survival of INS-1 cells exposed to cytokine mixture (IL-1β, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) in a dose-dependent manner. PEP-1-HO-1 markedly decreased cytokine-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA). These protective effects of PEP-1-HO-1 against cytokines were correlated with the changes in the levels of signaling mediators of inflammation (iNOS and COX-2) and cell apoptosis/survival (Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, PARP, JNK, and Akt). These results showed that the transduced PEP-1-HO-1 efficiently prevented cytokine-induced cell death of INS-1 cells by alleviating oxidative/nitrosative stresses and inflammation. Further, these results suggested that PEP-1-mediated HO-1 transduction may be a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent β-cell destruction in patients with autoimmune diabetes mellitus. - Highlights: • We showed that PEP-1-HO-1 was efficiently delivered into INS-1 cells. • Transduced PEP-1-HO-1 exerted a protective effect against cytokine-induced cell death. • Transduced PEP-1-HO-1 inhibited cytokine-induced ROS and NO accumulation. • PEP-1-HO-1 suppressed cytokine-induced expression of iNOS, COX-2, and Bax. • PEP-1-HO-1 transduction may be an efficient tool to prevent β-cell destruction.

  20. Changes in metabolic markers in insulin-producing β-cells during hypoxia-induced cell death as studied by NMR metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lianji; Kim, Hoe Suk; Kim, Heyonjin; Jin, Xing; Jung, Hye Seung; Park, Kyong Soo; Cho, Kyoung Won; Park, Sunghyouk; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2013-08-02

    This study was designed to investigate changes in the metabolites in the intracellular fluid of the pancreatic β-cell line INS-1 to identify potential early and late biomarkers for predicting hypoxia-induced cell death. INS-1 cells were incubated under normoxic conditions (95% air, 5% CO₂) or hypoxic conditions (1% O₂, 5% CO₂, 95% N₂) for 2, 4, 6, 12, or 24 h. The biological changes indicating the process of cell death were analyzed using the MTT assay, flow cytometry, Western blotting, and immunostaining. Changes in the metabolic profiles from cell lysates were identified using ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H NMR) spectroscopy, and the spectra were analyzed by the multivariate model Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structure-Discriminant Analysis. Cell viability decreased approximately 40% after 12-24 h of hypoxia, coincident with a high level of cleaved caspase-3. A high level of HIF-1α was detected in the 12-24 h hypoxic conditions. The metabolite profiles were altered according to the degree of exposure to hypoxia. A spectral analysis showed significant differences in creatine-containing compounds at the early stage (2-6 h) and taurine-containing compounds at the late stage (12-24 h), with the detection of HIF-1α and cleaved caspase-3 in cells exposed to hypoxia compared to normoxia. Glycerophosphocholine decreased during the early stage hypoxia. The change in taurine- and creatine-containing compounds and choline species could be involved in the β-cell death process as inhibitors or activators of cell death. Our results imply that assessment by ¹H NMR spectroscopy would be a useful tool to predict the cell death process and to identify molecules regulating hypoxia-induced cell death mechanisms.

  1. Generation of Insulin-Producing Cells from the Mouse Liver Using β Cell-Related Gene Transfer Including Mafa and Mafb

    PubMed Central

    Oishi, Hisashi; Tai, Pei-Han; Sekiguchi, Yukari; Koshida, Ryusuke; Jung, Yunshin; Kudo, Takashi; Takahashi, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on the large Maf transcription factors have shown that Mafb and Mafa have respective and distinctive roles in β-cell development and maturation. However, whether this difference in roles is due to the timing of the gene expression (roughly, expression of Mafb before birth and of Mafa after birth) or to the specific function of each gene is unclear. Our aim was to examine the functional differences between these genes that are closely related to β cells by using an in vivo model of β-like cell generation. We monitored insulin gene transcription by measuring bioluminescence emitted from the liver of insulin promoter-luciferase transgenic (MIP-Luc-VU) mice. Adenoviral gene transfers of Pdx1/Neurod/Mafa (PDA) and Pdx1/Neurod/Mafb (PDB) combinations generated intense luminescence from the liver that lasted for more than 1 week and peaked at 3 days after transduction. The peak signal intensities of PDA and PDB were comparable. However, PDA but not PDB transfer resulted in significant bioluminescence on day 10, suggesting that Mafa has a more sustainable role in insulin gene activation than does Mafb. Both PDA and PDB transfers ameliorated the glucose levels in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic model for up to 21 days and 7 days, respectively. Furthermore, PDA transfer induced several gene expressions necessary for glucose sensing and insulin secretion in the liver on day 9. However, a glucose tolerance test and liver perfusion experiment did not show glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from intrahepatic β-like cells. These results demonstrate that bioluminescence imaging in MIP-Luc-VU mice provides a noninvasive means of detecting β-like cells in the liver. They also show that Mafa has a markedly intense and sustained role in β-like cell production in comparison with Mafb. PMID:25397325

  2. Islet formation in mice and men: lessons for the generation of functional insulin-producing β-cells from human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Nair, Gopika; Hebrok, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    The Islets of Langerhans are crucial 'micro-organs' embedded in the glandular exocrine pancreas that regulate nutrient metabolism. They not only synthesize, but also secrete endocrine hormones in a modulated fashion in response to physiologic metabolic demand. These highly sophisticated structures with intricate organization of multiple cell types, namely endocrine, vascular, neuronal and mesenchymal cells, have evolved to perform this task to perfection over time. Not surprisingly, islet architecture and function are dissimilar between humans and typically studied model organisms, such as rodents and zebrafish. Further, recent findings also suggest noteworthy differences in human islet development from that in mouse, including delayed appearance and gradual resolution of key differentiation markers, a single-phase of endocrine differentiation, and prenatal association of developing islets with neurovascular milieu. In light of these findings, it is imperative that a systematic study is undertaken to compare islet development between human and mouse. Illuminating inter-species differences in islet development will likely be critical in furthering our pursuit to generate an unlimited supply of truly functional and fully mature β-cells from human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) sources for therapeutic purposes.

  3. Tripeptide amide L-pyroglutamyl-histidyl-L-prolineamide (L-PHP-thyrotropin-releasing hormone, TRH) promotes insulin-producing cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Luo, LuGuang; Luo, John Z Q; Jackson, Ivor

    2013-02-01

    A very small tripeptide amide L-pyroglutamyl-L-histidyl-L-prolineamide (L-PHP, Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone, TRH), was first identified in the brain hypothalamus area. Further studies found that L-PHP was expressed in pancreas. The biological role of pancreatic L-PHP is still not clear. Growing evidence indicates that L-PHP expression in the pancreas may play a pivotal role for pancreatic development in the early prenatal period. However, the role of L-PHP in adult pancreas still needs to be explored. L-PHP activation of pancreatic β cell Ca2+ flow and stimulation of β-cell insulin synthesis and release suggest that L-PHP involved in glucose metabolism may directly act on the β cell separate from any effects via the central nervous system (CNS). Knockout L-PHP animal models have shown that loss of L-PHP expression causes hyperglycemia, which cannot be reversed by administration of thyroid hormone, suggesting that the absence of L-PHP itself is the cause. L-PHP receptor type-1 has been identified in pancreas which provides a possibility for L-PHP autocrine and paracrine regulation in pancreatic function. During pancreatic damage in adult pancreas, L-PHP may protect beta cell from apoptosis and initiate its regeneration through signal pathways of growth hormone in β cells. L-PHP has recently been discovered to affect a broad array of gene expression in the pancreas including growth factor genes. Signal pathways linked between L-PHP and EGF receptor phosphorylation suggest that L-PHP may be an important factor for adult β-cell regeneration, which could involve adult stem cell differentiation. These effects suggest that L-PHP may benefit pancreatic β cells and diabetic therapy in clinic.

  4. Expression of human uncoupling protein-3 in Drosophila insulin-producing cells increases insulin-like peptide (DILP) levels and shortens lifespan.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Dickon M; Toivonen, Janne M; Giannakou, Maria; Partridge, Linda; Brand, Martin D

    2009-05-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) can dissipate mitochondrial protonmotive force by increasing the proton conductance of the inner membrane and through this effect could decrease ROS production, ameliorate oxidative stress and extend lifespan. We investigated whether ubiquitous, pan-neuronal or neurosecretory cell-specific expression of human UCP3 (hUCP3) in adult Drosophila melanogaster affected lifespan. Low, ubiquitous expression of hUCP3 at levels found in rodent skeletal muscle mitochondria did not affect proton conductance in mitochondria isolated from whole flies, but high pan-neuronal expression of hUCP3 increased the proton conductance of mitochondria isolated from fly heads. Expression of hUCP3 at moderate levels in adult neurons led to a marginal lifespan-extension in males. However, high expression of hUCP3 in neuronal tissue shortened lifespan. The life-shortening effect was replicated when hUCP3 was expressed specifically in median neurosecretory cells (mNSC), which express three of the Drosophila insulin-like peptides (DILPs). Expression of hUCP3 in the mNSC did not alter expression of dilp2, dilp3 or dilp5 mRNA, but led to increased amounts of DILP2 in fly heads. These data suggest that lowering mitochondrial coupling by high expression of hUCP3 alters mNSC function in a way that appears to increase DILP-levels in fly heads and lead to a concomitant decrease in lifespan.

  5. Ablation of insulin-producing cells prevents obesity but not premature mortality caused by a high-sugar diet in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Al Saud, Sara Naif; Summerfield, Adam C; Alic, Nazif

    2015-02-07

    Ageing can be modulated by genetic as well as nutritional interventions. In female Drosophila melanogaster, lifespan is maximized at intermediate concentrations of sucrose as the carbohydrate source, and yeast as the protein source. Dampening the signal through the insulin/IGF signalling (IIS) pathway, by genetic ablation of median neurosecretory cells (mNSCs) that produce insulin-like peptides, extends lifespan and counteracts the detrimental effects of excess yeast. However, how IIS reduction impacts health on a high-sugar diet remains unclear. We find that, while the ablation of the mNSCs can extend lifespan and delay the age-related decline in the health of the neuromuscular system irrespective of the amount of dietary sugar, it cannot rescue the lifespan-shortening effects of excess sugar. On the other hand, ablation of mNSCs can prevent adult obesity resulting from excess sugar, and this effect appears independent from the canonical effector of IIS, dfoxo. Our study indicates that while treatments that reduce IIS have anti-ageing effects irrespective of dietary sugar, additional interventions may be required to achieve full benefits in humans, where excessive sugar consumption is a growing problem. At the same time, pathways regulated by IIS may be suitable targets for treatment of obesity.

  6. Enzymes for Pancreatic Islet Isolation Impact Chemokine-Production and Polarization of Insulin-Producing β-Cells with Reduced Functional Survival of Immunoisolated Rat Islet-Allografts as a Consequence

    PubMed Central

    de Vos, Paul; Smink, Alexandra M.; Paredes, Genaro; Lakey, Jonathan R. T.; Kuipers, Jeroen; Giepmans, Ben N. G.; de Haan, Bart J.; Faas, Marijke M.

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether normal variations in enzyme-activities of collagenases applied for rat-islet isolation impact longevity of encapsulated islet grafts. Also we studied the functional and immunological properties of rat islets isolated with different enzyme preparations to determine whether this impacts these parameters. Rat-islets were isolated from the pancreas with two different collagenases with commonly accepted collagenase, neutral protease, and clostripain activities. Islets had a similar and acceptable glucose-induced insulin-release profile but a profound statistical significant difference in production of the chemokines IP-10 and Gro-α. The islets were studied with nanotomy which is an EM-based technology for unbiased study of ultrastructural features of islets such as cell-cell contacts, endocrine-cell condition, ER stress, mitochondrial conditions, and cell polarization. The islet-batch with higher chemokine-production had a lower amount of polarized insulin-producing β-cells. All islets had more intercellular spaces and less interconnected areas with tight cell-cell junctions when compared to islets in the pancreas. Islet-graft function was studied by implanting encapsulated and free islet grafts in rat recipients. Alginate-based encapsulated grafts isolated with the enzyme-lot inducing higher chemokine production and lower polarization survived for a two-fold shorter period of time. The lower survival-time of the encapsulated grafts was correlated with a higher influx of inflammatory cells at 7 days after implantation. Islets from the same two batches transplanted as free unencapsulated-graft, did not show any difference in survival or function in vivo. Lack of insight in factors contributing to the current lab-to-lab variation in longevity of encapsulated islet-grafts is considered to be a threat for clinical application. Our data suggest that seemingly minor variations in activity of enzymes applied for islet

  7. Activation of Reg gene, a gene for insulin-producing β-cell regeneration: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase binds Reg promoter and regulates the transcription by autopoly(ADP-ribosyl)ation

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Takako; Takasawa, Shin; Nata, Koji; Kobayashi, Seiichi; Abe, Michiaki; Shervani, Nausheen J.; Ikeda, Takayuki; Nakagawa, Kei; Unno, Michiaki; Matsuno, Seiki; Okamoto, Hiroshi

    2001-01-01

    The regeneration of pancreatic islet β cells is important for the prevention and cure of diabetes mellitus. We have demonstrated that the administration of poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase/polymerase (PARP) inhibitors such as nicotinamide to 90% depancreatized rats induces islet regeneration. From the regenerating islet-derived cDNA library, we have isolated Reg (regenerating gene) and demonstrated that Reg protein induces β-cell replication via the Reg receptor and ameliorates experimental diabetes. However, the mechanism by which Reg gene is activated in β cells has been elusive. In this study, we found that the combined addition of IL-6 and dexamethasone induced the expression of Reg gene in β cells and that PARP inhibitors enhanced the expression. Reporter gene assays revealed that the −81 ≈ −70 region (TGCCCCTCCCAT) of the Reg gene promoter is a cis-element for the expression of Reg gene. Gel mobility shift assays showed that the active transcriptional DNA/protein complex was formed by the stimulation with IL-6 and dexamethasone. Surprisingly, PARP bound to the cis-element and was involved in the active transcriptional DNA/protein complex. The DNA/protein complex formation was inhibited depending on the autopoly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of PARP in the complex. Thus, PARP inhibitors enhance the DNA/protein complex formation for Reg gene transcription and stabilize the complex by inhibiting the autopoly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of PARP. PMID:11134536

  8. Islet Endothelial Cells Derived From Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Jain, Neha; Lee, Eun Jung

    2016-01-01

    The islet endothelium comprises a specialized population of islet endothelial cells (IECs) expressing unique markers such as nephrin and α-1 antitrypsin (AAT) that are not found in endothelial cells in surrounding tissues. However, due to difficulties in isolating and maintaining a pure population of these cells, the information on these islet-specific cells is currently very limited. Interestingly, we have identified a large subpopulation of endothelial cells exhibiting IEC phenotype, while deriving insulin-producing cells from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). These cells were identified by the uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and were successfully isolated and subsequently expanded in endothelial cell culture medium. Further analysis demonstrated that the mouse embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial cells (mESC-ECs) not only express classical endothelial markers, such as platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM1), thrombomodulin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) but also IEC-specific markers such as nephrin and AAT. Moreover, mESC-ECs secrete basement membrane proteins such as collagen type IV, laminin, and fibronectin in culture and form tubular networks on a layer of Matrigel, demonstrating angiogenic activity. Further, mESC-ECs not only express eNOS, but also its eNOS expression is glucose dependent, which is another characteristic phenotype of IECs. With the ability to obtain highly purified IECs derived from pluripotent stem cells, it is possible to closely examine the function of these cells and their interaction with pancreatic β-cells during development and maturation in vitro. Further characterization of tissue-specific endothelial cell properties may enhance our ability to formulate new therapeutic angiogenic approaches for diabetes.

  9. Maturation of Stem Cell-Derived Beta-cells Guided by the Expression of Urocortin 3

    PubMed Central

    van der Meulen, Talitha; Huising, Mark O.

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a devastating disease precipitated by an autoimmune response directed at the insulin-producing beta-cells of the pancreas for which no cure exists. Stem cell-derived beta-cells show great promise for a cure as they have the potential to supply unlimited numbers of cells that could be derived from a patient's own cells, thus eliminating the need for immunosuppression. Current in vitro protocols for the differentiation of stem cell-derived beta-cells can successfully generate pancreatic endoderm cells. In diabetic rodents, such cells can differentiate further along the beta-cell lineage until they are eventually capable of restoring normoglycemia. While these observations demonstrate that stem cell-derived pancreatic endoderm has the potential to differentiate into mature, glucose-responsive beta-cells, the signals that direct differentiation and maturation from pancreatic endoderm onwards remain poorly understood. In this review, we analyze the sequence of events that culminates in the formation of beta-cells during embryonic development. and summarize how current protocols to generate beta-cells have sought to capitalize on this ontogenic template. We place particular emphasis on the current challenges and opportunities which occur in the later stages of beta-cell differentiation and maturation of transplantable stem cell-derived beta-cells. Another focus is on the question how the use of recently identified maturation markers such as urocortin 3 can be instrumental in guiding these efforts. PMID:25148370

  10. Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into insulin, somatostatin, and glucagon expressing cells

    SciTech Connect

    Timper, Katharina; Seboek, Dalma; Eberhardt, Michael; Linscheid, Philippe; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Keller, Ulrich; Mueller, Beat; Zulewski, Henryk . E-mail: henryk.zulewski@unibas.ch

    2006-03-24

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from mouse bone marrow were shown to adopt a pancreatic endocrine phenotype in vitro and to reverse diabetes in an animal model. MSC from human bone marrow and adipose tissue represent very similar cell populations with comparable phenotypes. Adipose tissue is abundant and easily accessible and could thus also harbor cells with the potential to differentiate in insulin producing cells. We isolated human adipose tissue-derived MSC from four healthy donors. During the proliferation period, the cells expressed the stem cell markers nestin, ABCG2, SCF, Thy-1 as well as the pancreatic endocrine transcription factor Isl-1. The cells were induced to differentiate into a pancreatic endocrine phenotype by defined culture conditions within 3 days. Using quantitative PCR a down-regulation of ABCG2 and up-regulation of pancreatic developmental transcription factors Isl-1, Ipf-1, and Ngn3 were observed together with induction of the islet hormones insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin.

  11. Glucose responsive insulin production from human embryonic germ (EG) cell derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Gregory O.; Yochem, Robert L.; Axelman, Joyce; Sheets, Timothy P.; Kaczorowski, David J.; Shamblott, Michael J. . E-mail: mshambl1@jhmi.edu

    2007-05-11

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus subjects millions to a daily burden of disease management, life threatening hypoglycemia and long-term complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, heart disease, and stroke. Cell transplantation therapies providing a glucose-regulated supply of insulin have been implemented clinically, but are limited by safety, efficacy and supply considerations. Stem cells promise a plentiful and flexible source of cells for transplantation therapies. Here, we show that cells derived from human embryonic germ (EG) cells express markers of definitive endoderm, pancreatic and {beta}-cell development, glucose sensing, and production of mature insulin. These cells integrate functions necessary for glucose responsive regulation of preproinsulin mRNA and expression of insulin C-peptide in vitro. Following transplantation into mice, cells become insulin and C-peptide immunoreactive and produce plasma C-peptide in response to glucose. These findings suggest that EG cell derivatives may eventually serve as a source of insulin producing cells for the treatment of diabetes.

  12. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells can secrete insulin in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Boroujeni, Zahra Niki; Aleyasin, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells, leading to decreased insulin production. Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into insulin-producing cells offers novel ways of diabetes treatment. MSCs can be isolated from the human umbilical cord tissue and differentiate into insulin-secreting cells. Human umbilical cord-derived stem cells (hUDSCs) were obtained after birth, selected by plastic adhesion, and characterized by flow cytometric analysis. hUDSCs were transduced with nonintegrated lentivirus harboring PDX1 (nonintegrated LV-PDX1) and was cultured in differentiation medium in 21 days. Pancreatic duodenum homeobox protein-1 (PDX1) is a transcription factor in pancreatic development. Significant expressions of PDX1, neurogenin3 (Ngn3), glucagon, glucose transporter2 (Glut2), and somatostatin were detected by quantitative RT-PCR (P < 0.05). PDX1 and insulin proteins were shown by immunocytochemistry analysis. Insulin secretion of hUDSCs(PDX1+) in the high-glucose medium was 1.8 μU/mL. They were used for treatment of diabetic rats and could decrease the blood glucose level from 400 mg/dL to a normal level in 4 days. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that hUDSCs are able to differentiate into insulin-producing cells by transduction with nonintegrated LV-PDX1. These hUDSCs(PDX1+) have the potential to be used as a viable resource in cell-based gene therapy of type 1 diabetes.

  13. Autologous Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived β-Like Cells for Diabetes Cellular Therapy.

    PubMed

    Millman, Jeffrey R; Pagliuca, Felicia W

    2017-05-01

    Development of stem cell technologies for cell replacement therapy has progressed rapidly in recent years. Diabetes has long been seen as one of the first applications for stem cell-derived cells because of the loss of only a single cell type-the insulin-producing β-cell. Recent reports have detailed strategies that overcome prior hurdles to generate functional β-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells in vitro, including from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Even with this accomplishment, addressing immunological barriers to transplantation remains a major challenge for the field. The development of clinically relevant hiPSC derivation methods from patients and demonstration that these cells can be differentiated into β-like cells presents a new opportunity to treat diabetes without immunosuppression or immunoprotective encapsulation or with only targeted protection from autoimmunity. This review focuses on the current status in generating and transplanting autologous β-cells for diabetes cell therapy, highlighting the unique advantages and challenges of this approach. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  14. Tissue-Specific Stem Cells Obtained by Reprogramming of Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) Mouse-Derived Pancreatic Cells Confer Insulin Production in Response to Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Saitoh, Issei; Sato, Masahiro; Soda, Miki; Inada, Emi; Iwase, Yoko; Murakami, Tomoya; Ohshima, Hayato; Hayasaki, Haruaki; Noguchi, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes occurs due to the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells in islets. Transplantation of islets is a promising option for the treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes that experience hypoglycemic unawareness despite maximal care, but the present shortage of donor islets hampers such transplantation. Transplantation of insulin-producing cells derived from the patients themselves would be one of the most promising approaches to cure type 1 diabetes. Previously, we demonstrated that insulin-producing cells could be produced by transfecting murine pancreatic cells with Yamanaka’s reprogramming factors. Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice are naturally occurring mutant mice defective in insulin production due to autoimmune ablation of pancreatic β-cells. In this study, we showed that glucose-sensitive insulin-producing cells are successfully generated by transfecting primary pancreatic cells from NOD mice (aged 6 months old) with a plasmid harboring the cDNAs for Oct-3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. Transfection was repeated 4 times in a 2 day-interval. Sixty-five days after final transfection, cobblestone-like colonies appeared. They proliferated in vitro and expressed pluripotency-related genes as well as Pdx1, a transcription factor specific to tissue-specific stem cells for the β-cell lineage. Transplantation of these cells into nude mice failed to produce teratoma unlike induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Induction of these cells to the pancreatic β-cell lineage demonstrated their capability to produce insulin in response to glucose. These findings suggest that functional pancreatic β-cells can be produced from patients with type 1 diabetes. We call these resultant cells as “induced tissue-specific stem cells from the pancreas” (iTS-P) that could be valuable sources of safe and effective materials for cell-based therapy in type 1 diabetes. PMID:27662374

  15. Benzimidazole derivatives protect against cytokine-induced apoptosis in pancreatic β-Cells.

    PubMed

    Zawawi, Nik Khairunissa Nik Abdullah; Rajput, Sajid Ali; Taha, Muhammad; Ahmat, Norizan; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Abdullah, Noraishah; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2015-10-15

    Apoptotic cell death is the cause of the loss of insulin-producing β-cells in all forms of diabetes mellitus. The identification of small molecules capable of protecting cytokine-induced apoptosis could form the basis of useful therapeutic interventions. Here in, we present the discovery and synthesis of new benzimidazole derivatives, capable of rescuing pancreatic β-cells from cytokine-induced apoptosis. Three hydrazone derivatives of benzimidazole significantly increased the cellular ATP levels, reduced caspase-3 activity, reduced nitrite production and increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the presence of proinflammatory cytokines. These findings suggest that these compounds may protect β-cells from the harmful effects of cytokines and may serve as candidates for therapeutic intervention for diabetes.

  16. Pancreatic Endoderm-Derived From Diabetic Patient-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Generates Glucose-Responsive Insulin-Secreting Cells.

    PubMed

    Rajaei, Bahareh; Shamsara, Mehdi; Amirabad, Leila Mohammadi; Massumi, Mohammad; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-10-01

    Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can potentially serve as an invaluable source for cell replacement therapy and allow the creation of patient- and disease-specific stem cells without the controversial use of embryos and avoids any immunological incompatibility. The generation of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells from pluripotent stem cells in vitro provides an unprecedented cell source for personal drug discovery and cell transplantation therapy in diabetes. A new five-step protocol was introduced in this study, effectively induced hiPSCs to differentiate into glucose-responsive insulin-producing cells. This process mimics in vivo pancreatic organogenesis by directing cells through stages resembling definitive endoderm, primitive gut-tube endoderm, posterior foregut, pancreatic endoderm, and endocrine precursor. Each stage of differentiation were characterized by stage-specific markers. The produced cells exhibited many properties of functional β-cells, including expression of critical β-cells transcription factors, the potency to secrete C-peptide in response to high levels of glucose and the presence of mature endocrine secretory granules. This high efficient differentiation protocol, established in this study, yielded 79.18% insulin-secreting cells which were responsive to glucose five times higher than the basal level. These hiPSCs-derived glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells might provide a promising approach for the treatment of type I diabetes mellitus. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2616-2625, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Combinatorial Treatment of Bone Marrow Stem Cells and Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1 Improves Glycemia and Insulin Production in Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, H.; Zhang, Y.C.; Wolfe, S.; Valencia, V.; Qian, K.; Shen, L.; Tang, Y.L.; Hsu, W.H.; Atkinson, M.A.; Phillips, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    Transdifferentiation of stem cells into insulin-producing cells for the treatment of diabetes have shown promising but inconsistent results. We examined the potential for attracting bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) to the pancreas using a chemokine, stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1). SDF-1 treatment markedly increased the number of GFP labeled BMSCs in the pancreas, but surprisingly, the majority was observed in liver. The liver cells had typical pancreatic endocrine cell gene expression including insulin I, insulin II, PDX-1, somatostatin and glucagon. Combined treatment with SDF-1 and BMSC transplant reduced hyperglycemia and prolonged the long-term survival of diabetic mice, and a sub group had complete normoglycemia (<150 mg/dl), restored blood insulin levels, and normal glucose tolerance. Our results suggest that SDF-1 could potentially be used to improve the homing of stem cells and β-cell regeneration. The mechanism appears to involve an increase in insulin producing cells mainly in the liver. PMID:21801807

  18. Discovery of a Benzamide Derivative That Protects Pancreatic β-Cells against Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hongliang; Li, Yu; Arora, Daleep; Xu, Depeng; Lim, Hui-Ying; Wang, Weidong

    2017-07-27

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated pancreatic insulin-producing β-cell dysfunction and death are critical elements in the onset and progression of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Here, through cell-based high throughput screening we identified benzamide derivatives as a novel class of β-cell protective agents against ER stress-induced dysfunction and death. Through structure-activity relationship optimization, a 3-(N-piperidinyl)methylbenzamide derivative 13d markedly protects β-cells against ER stress-induced dysfunction and death with near 100% maximum rescue activity and an EC50 of 0.032 μM. Compound 13d alleviates ER stress in β-cells by suppressing ER stress-mediated activation of all three branches of unfolded protein response (UPR) and apoptotic genes. Finally, we show that 13d significantly lowers blood glucose levels and increases concomitant β-cell survival and number in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse model. Identification of β-cell-protective small molecules against ER stress provides a new promising modality for the treatment of diabetes.

  19. [Exosomes derived from dendritic cells].

    PubMed

    Amigorena, S

    2001-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are potent antigen presenting cells and the only ones capable of inducing primary cytotoxic immune responses both in vivo and vitro. DCs secrete a 60-80 nm membrane vesicle population of endocytic origin, called exosomes. The protein composition of exosomes was analyzed using a systematic proteomic approach. Besides MHC and costimulatory molecules, exosomes bear several adhesion proteins, probably involved in their specific targeting. Exosomes also accumulate several cytosolic factors, most likely involved in exoxome's biogenesis in late endosomes. Like DCs, exosomes induce potent anti tumor immune responses in vivo. Indeed, a single injection of DC-derived exosomes sensitized with tumor peptides induced the eradication of established mouse tumors. Tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes were found in the spleen of exosome treated mice, and depletion of CD8+ T cells in vivo inhibited the anti tumor effect of exosomes. These results strongly support the implementation of human DC-derived exosomes for cancer immunotherapy.

  20. Potential of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and skeletal muscle-derived satellite cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer mediated transgenesis in Arbas Cashmere goats.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yu; Wu, Haiqing; Ma, Yuzhen; Yuan, Jianlong; Liang, Hao; Liu, Dongjun

    2014-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer is used to generate genetic models for research and new, genetically modified livestock varieties. Goat fetal fibroblast cells (gFFCs) are the predominant nuclear donors in Cashmere goat transgenic cloning, but have disadvantages. We evaluated the potential of goat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (gADSCs) and goat skeletal muscle-derived satellite cells (gMDSCs) for somatic cell nuclear transfer, evaluating their proliferation, pluripotency, transfection efficiency and capacity to support full term development of embryos after additive gene transfer or homologous recombination. gADSCs and gMDSCs were isolated by enzyme digestion and differentiated into neurocytes, myotube cells and insulin-producing cells. Neuron-specific enolase, fast muscle myosin and insulin expression were determined by immunohistochemistry. Following somatic cell nuclear transfer with donor cells derived from gADSCs, gMDSCs and gFFCs, transfection and cloning efficiencies were compared. Red fluorescent protein levels were determined by quantitative PCR and western blotting. 5-Methylcytosine, H4K5, H4K12 and H3K18 were determined immunohistochemically. gADSCs and gMDSCs were maintained in culture for up to 65 passages, whereas gFFCs could be passaged barely more than 15 times. gADSCs and gMDSCs had higher fluorescent colony forming efficiency and greater convergence (20%) and cleavage (10%) rates than gFFCs, and exhibited differing H4K5 histone modification patterns after somatic cell nuclear transfer and in vitro cultivation. After transfection with a pDsRed2-1 expression plasmid, the integrated exogenous genes did not influence the pluripotency of gADSCs-pDsRed2-1 or gMDSCs-pDsRed2-1. DsRed2 mRNA expression by cloned embryos derived from gADSCs-pDsRed2-1 or gMDSCs-pDsRed2-1 was more than twice that of gFFCs-pDsRed2-1 embryos (P<0.01). Pregnancy rates of gADSCs-pDsRed2-1 and gMDSCs-pDsRed2-1 recipients were higher than those of gFFCs-pDsRed2-1 recipients (P

  1. Mechanism of insulin production in canine bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Takemitsu, Hiroshi; Zhao, Dongwei; Ishikawa, Shingo; Michishita, Masaki; Arai, Toshiro; Yamamoto, Ichiro

    2013-08-01

    Insulin is a critical hormone in the regulation of blood glucose levels and is produced exclusively by pancreatic islet beta-cells. Insulin deficiency due to reduced pancreatic islet beta-cell number underlies the progression of diabetes mellitus, prompting efforts to develop beta-cell replacement therapies. However, precise information on beta-cell replacement and differentiation in canines is limited. In this study, we established insulin-producing cells from bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells transiently expressing canine pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1), beta cell transactivator 2 (Beta2) and V-maf avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (Mafa) using a gene transfer technique. Real-time PCR analysis revealed an increase in insulin mRNA expression of transfected cells. And ELISA revealed that insulin protein expressed was detected in cytoplasmic fraction. Insulin immunostaining analysis was performed and observed in cytoplasmic fraction. These results suggest that co-transfection of Pdx1, Beta2 and Mafa induce insulin production in canine BMSCs. Our findings provide a clue to basic research into the mechanisms underlying insulin production in the canines.

  2. Economic 3D-printing approach for transplantation of human stem cell-derived β-like cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Jiwon; Millman, Jeffrey R

    2016-12-01

    Transplantation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) differentiated into insulin-producing β cells is a regenerative medicine approach being investigated for diabetes cell replacement therapy. This report presents a multifaceted transplantation strategy that combines differentiation into stem cell-derived β (SC-β) cells with 3D printing. By modulating the parameters of a low-cost 3D printer, we created a macroporous device composed of polylactic acid (PLA) that houses SC-β cell clusters within a degradable fibrin gel. Using finite element modeling of cellular oxygen diffusion-consumption and an in vitro culture system that allows for culture of devices at physiological oxygen levels, we identified cluster sizes that avoid severe hypoxia within 3D-printed devices and developed a microwell-based technique for resizing clusters within this range. Upon transplantation into mice, SC-β cell-embedded 3D-printed devices function for 12 weeks, are retrievable, and maintain structural integrity. Here, we demonstrate a novel 3D-printing approach that advances the use of differentiated hPSC for regenerative medicine applications and serves as a platform for future transplantation strategies.

  3. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Dinesh; Gravekamp, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    While conventional anticancer therapies, including surgical resection, radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy, are relatively efficient at eliminating primary tumors, these treatment modalities are largely ineffective against metastases. At least in part, this reflects the rather inefficient delivery of conventional anticancer agents to metastatic lesions. We have recently demonstrated that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) can be used as cellular missiles to selectively deliver a radioisotope-coupled attenuated variant of Listeria monocytogenes to both primary and metastatic neoplastic lesions in mice with pancreatic cancer. This novel immunotherapeutic intervention robustly inhibited tumor growth while promoting a dramatic decrease in the number of metastases. PMID:24427545

  4. Periosteum derived stem cells for regenerative medicine proposals: Boosting current knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Ferretti, Concetta; Mattioli-Belmonte, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Periosteum is a thin fibrous layer that covers most bones. It resides in a dynamic mechanically loaded environment and provides a niche for pluripotent cells and a source for molecular factors that modulate cell behaviour. Elucidating periosteum regenerative potential has become a hot topic in orthopaedics. This review discusses the state of the art of osteochondral tissue engineering rested on periosteum derived progenitor cells (PDPCs) and suggests upcoming research directions. Periosteal cells isolation, characterization and migration in the site of injury, as well as their differentiation, are analysed. Moreover, the role of cell mechanosensing and its contribution to matrix organization, bone microarchitecture and bone stenght is examined. In this regard the role of periostin and its upregulation under mechanical stress in order to preserve PDPC survival and bone tissue integrity is contemplated. The review also summarized the role of the periosteum in the field of dentistry and maxillofacial reconstruction. The involvement of microRNAs in osteoblast differentiation and in endogenous tissue repair is explored as well. Finally the novel concept of a guided bone regeneration based on the use of periosteum itself as a smart material and the realization of constructs able to mimic the extracellular matrix features is talked out. Additionally, since periosteum can differentiate into insulin producing cells it could be a suitable source in allogenic transplantations. That innovative applications would take advantage from investigations aimed to assess PDPC immune privilege. PMID:25126377

  5. Trophic effects of adipose derived stem cells on Langerhans islets viability--Review.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Isa; Crescenzi, Alessandra; Chaib, Elezar; D'Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro

    2015-07-01

    Langerhans islets transplantation has been proposed to provide an endogenous source of insulin in Type I diabetes. However, the hypoxic stress and the receptor's immune reaction suffered by the implants cause them to fail in sustaining the insulin production along the time. Experimental studies have shown that adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) can secrete cytokines that activate free radical scavengers, antioxidants and chaperone heat/shock proteins leading to reduction of apoptosis in damaged tissues. Therefore, using the PubMed database, we reviewed the experimental studies that investigated the trophic effects of ADSCs on Langerhans islets viability, in vitro and in vivo, from 2009 to 2014. We excluded articles that investigated the effects of other types of mesenchymal stem cells on β-cell survival as well articles that worked in the differentiation of ADSCs into insulin producing cells. The analysis of the experiments revealed that exposure of islets to ADSCs in vitro, even for a short period of time, can enhance islet cell viability and function. In vivo studies also corroborated the trophic effects of ADSCs leading to the improvement of islet function and reduction of the number of the islets required for controlling the receptor's glucose levels. This review can contribute to guide future experiments looking for a long term diabetes treatment employing ADSC trophic effects for the enhancement of transplanted Langerhans islet viability and functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells are increased in frequency but not maximally suppressive in peripheral blood of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Whitfield-Larry, Fatima; Felton, Jamie; Buse, John; Su, Maureen A

    2014-07-01

    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1D) results from the destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas by autoreactive T cells. Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a recently identified immune cell subset that down-regulate T cells. Whether defects in MDSC numbers or function may contribute to T1D pathogenesis is not known. We report here that MDSCs are unexpectedly enriched in peripheral blood of both mice and patients with autoimmune diabetes. Peripheral blood MDSCs from T1D patients suppressed T cell proliferation in a contact-dependent manner; however, suppressive function could be enhanced with in vitro cytokine induction. These findings suggest that native T1D MDSCs are not maximally suppressive and that strategies to promote MDSC suppressive function may be effective in preventing or treating T1D. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Insulin-secreting cells from human eyelid-derived stem cells alleviate type I diabetes in immunocompetent mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun Mi; Kim, Jiyoung; Park, Seah; Kim, Jinyoung; Kim, Haekwon; Kim, Kyung Sik; Lee, Eun Jig; Seo, Sung Ig; Kang, Sung Goo; Lee, Jong-Eun; Lim, Hyunjung

    2009-08-01

    Various attempts have been made to develop stem cell-based therapy to alleviate type I diabetes using animal models. However, it has been a question whether human insulin produced from explanted cells is solely responsible for the normoglycemia of diabetic animals. In this study, we isolated neural crest-like stem cells from the human eyelid fat and examined their therapeutic potentials for diabetes. The human eyelid adipose-derived stem cells (HEACs) displayed characteristics of neural crest cells. Using a two-step culture condition combined with nicotinamide, activin, and/or GLP-1, we differentiated HEACs into insulin-secreting cells and examined in vivo effects of differentiated cells by transplantation experiments. Following differentiation in vitro, HEACs released insulin and c-peptide in a glucose-dependent manner. Upon their transplantation under kidney capsules of streptozotocin-treated immunocompetent mice, we observed normalization of hyperglycemia in 10 of 20 recipient mice until sacrifice after 2 months. Only the human, but not the mouse, insulin and c-peptide were detected in the blood of recipient mice. Removal of the kidneys transplanted with HEACs resulted in a sharp increase of blood glucose level. Removed kidney tissues showed distinct expression of various human genes including insulin, and colocalization of the human insulin and the human nuclear protein in many cells. However, they showed diminished or null expression of some immune-related genes. In conclusion, human insulin alone produced from eyelid-derived stem cells following differentiation into insulin-secreting cells and transplantation could normalize type I diabetes in mice.

  8. Monocyte-Derived Suppressor Cells in Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ochando, Jordi; Conde, Patricia; Bronte, Vincenzo

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are cells of myeloid origin with enhanced suppressive function. They are negative regulators of the immune responses and comprise a heterogeneous mixture of immunosuppressive cells of monocytic (M-MDSC) and granulocytic (G-MDSC) origin. A more recent nomenclature proposes the term "suppressive monocyte derived cells" (suppressive MCs) to define CSF1/CSF2-dependent mouse suppressor cells that develop from common monocyte progenitors (cMoPs) after birth. Here, we review the literature about monocytic-derived cells with demonstrated suppressor function in vitro and in vivo within the context of solid organ transplantation.

  9. Patient-Derived Antibody Targets Tumor Cells

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog on an antibody derived from patients that killed tumor cells in cell lines of several cancer types and slowed tumor growth in mouse models of brain and lung cancer without evidence of side effects.

  10. Proteomics Applications in Dental Derived Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Tian, Weidong; Song, Jinlin

    2017-07-01

    At present, the existence of a variety of dental derived stem cells has been documented. These cells displayed promising clinical application potential not only for teeth and its surrounding tissue regeneration, but also for other tissues, such as nerve and bone regeneration. Proteomics is an unbiased, global informatics tool that provides information on all protein expression levels as well as post-translational modification in cells or tissues and is applicable to dental derived stem cells research. Over the last decade, considerable progress has been made to study the global proteome, secrotome, and membrane proteome of dental derived stem cells. Here, we present an overview of the proteomics studies in the context of stem cell research. Particular attention is given to dental derived stem cell types as well as current challenges and opportunities. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1602-1610, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Tolerance induction and reversal of diabetes in mice transplanted with human embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic endoderm.

    PubMed

    Szot, Gregory L; Yadav, Mahesh; Lang, Jiena; Kroon, Evert; Kerr, Justin; Kadoya, Kuniko; Brandon, Eugene P; Baetge, Emmanuel E; Bour-Jordan, Hélène; Bluestone, Jeffrey A

    2015-02-05

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease caused by T cell-mediated destruction of insulin-producing β cells in the islets of Langerhans. In most cases, reversal of disease would require strategies combining islet cell replacement with immunotherapy that are currently available only for the most severely affected patients. Here, we demonstrate that immunotherapies that target T cell costimulatory pathways block the rejection of xenogeneic human embryonic-stem-cell-derived pancreatic endoderm (hESC-PE) in mice. The therapy allowed for long-term development of hESC-PE into islet-like structures capable of producing human insulin and maintaining normoglycemia. Moreover, short-term costimulation blockade led to robust immune tolerance that could be transferred independently of regulatory T cells. Importantly, costimulation blockade prevented the rejection of allogeneic hESC-PE by human PBMCs in a humanized model in vivo. These results support the clinical development of hESC-derived therapy, combined with tolerogenic treatments, as a sustainable alternative strategy for patients with T1D.

  12. Treatment of type 1 diabetes with adipose tissue-derived stem cells expressing pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1.

    PubMed

    Lin, Guiting; Wang, Guifang; Liu, Gang; Yang, Li-Jun; Chang, Lung-Ji; Lue, Tom F; Lin, Ching-Shwun

    2009-12-01

    Due to the limited supply of donor pancreas, it is imperative that we identify alternative cell sources that can be used to treat diabetes mellitus (DM). Multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSC) can be abundantly and safely isolated for autologous transplantation and therefore are an ideal candidate. Here, we report the derivation of insulin-producing cells from human or rat ADSC by transduction with the pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1) gene. RT-PCR analyses showed that native ADSC expressed insulin, glucagon, and NeuroD genes that were up-regulated following Pdx1 transduction. ELISA analyses showed that the transduced cells secreted increasing amount of insulin in response to increasing concentration of glucose. Transplantation of these cells under the renal capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats resulted in lowered blood glucose, higher glucose tolerance, smoother fur, and less cataract. Histological examination showed that the transplanted cells formed tissue-like structures and expressed insulin. Thus, ADSC-expressing Pdx1 appear to be suitable for treatment of DM.

  13. Derivation and characterization of a pig embryonic stem cell-derived exocrine pancreatic cell line

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The establishment and initial characterization of a pig embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic cell line, PICM-31, and a colony-cloned derivative cell line, PICM-31A, is described. The cell lines were propagated for several months at split ratios of 1:3 or 1:5 at each passage on STO feeder cells af...

  14. Transplantation of betatrophin-expressing adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells induces β-cell proliferation in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liang-Liang; Liu, Tian-Jin; Li, Limei; Tang, Wei; Zou, Jun-Jie; Chen, Xiang-Fang; Zheng, Jiao-Yang; Jiang, Bei-Ge; Shi, Yong-Quan

    2017-04-01

    Recent progress in regenerative medicine has suggested that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy is a novel potential cure for diabetes. Betatrophin is a newly identified hormone that can increase the production and expansion of insulin-secreting β-cells when administered to mice. In this study, we evaluated the effect of betatrophin overexpression by human adipose-derived MSCs (ADMSCs) by in vitro experiments, as well as following their transplantation into a mice with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. The overexpression of betatrophin did not affect the ADMSCs in terms of proliferation, differentiation and morphology. However, the co-culture of human islets with ADMSCs overexpressing betatrophin (ADMSCs-BET) induced islet proliferation, β-cell specific transcription factor expression, and the islet production of insulin under the stimulation of glucose or KCl and Arg. In addition, ADMSCs-BET enhanced the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of the co-cultured islets compared with ADMSCs cultured alone. In mice with STZ-induced diabetes, the transplantation of ADMSCs-BET ameliorated the hyperglycemia and weight loss associated with STZ-induced diabetes; ADMSCs-BET also significantly enhanced the ratio of β-cells per islet compared to the transplantation of ADMSCs alone. Thus, our study demonstrates a novel strategy for inducing β-cell regeneration. ADMSCs-BET may replace insulin injections by increasing the number of endogenous insulin-producing cells in patients with diabetes. This combined strategy of ADMSC transplantation and gene therapy may prove to be a useful therapy for the treatment of diabetes.

  15. Transplantation of betatrophin-expressing adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells induces β-cell proliferation in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liang-Liang; Liu, Tian-Jin; Li, Limei; Tang, Wei; Zou, Jun-Jie; Chen, Xiang-Fang; Zheng, Jiao-Yang; Jiang, Bei-Ge; Shi, Yong-Quan

    2017-01-01

    Recent progress in regenerative medicine has suggested that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy is a novel potential cure for diabetes. Betatrophin is a newly identified hormone that can increase the production and expansion of insulin-secreting β-cells when administered to mice. In this study, we evaluated the effect of betatrophin overexpression by human adipose-derived MSCs (ADMSCs) by in vitro experiments, as well as following their transplantation into a mice with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. The overexpression of betatrophin did not affect the ADMSCs in terms of proliferation, differentiation and morphology. However, the co-culture of human islets with ADMSCs overexpressing betatrophin (ADMSCs-BET) induced islet proliferation, β-cell specific transcription factor expression, and the islet production of insulin under the stimulation of glucose or KCl and Arg. In addition, ADMSCs-BET enhanced the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of the co-cultured islets compared with ADMSCs cultured alone. In mice with STZ-induced diabetes, the transplantation of ADMSCs-BET ameliorated the hyperglycemia and weight loss associated with STZ-induced diabetes; ADMSCs-BET also significantly enhanced the ratio of β-cells per islet compared to the transplantation of ADMSCs alone. Thus, our study demonstrates a novel strategy for inducing β-cell regeneration. ADMSCs-BET may replace insulin injections by increasing the number of endogenous insulin-producing cells in patients with diabetes. This combined strategy of ADMSC transplantation and gene therapy may prove to be a useful therapy for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:28290605

  16. Bone marrow-derived lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Krause, Diane S

    2008-08-15

    Bone marrow-derived cells can take on the phenotype of epithelial cells and express epithelial-specific genes in multiple organs. Here, we focus on recent data on the appearance of marrow-derived epithelial cells in the adult lung. These findings have garnered significant skepticism because in most cases marrow-derived epithelial cells are very rare, the marrow cell of origin is not known, the techniques for detection have needed improvement, and there seem to be multiple mechanisms by which this occurs. Recent studies have focused on these concerns. Once these important concerns are addressed, further studies on the function(s) of these cells will need to be performed to determine whether this engraftment has any clinical significance-either beneficial or detrimental.

  17. Myeloid derived suppressor cells in transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lees, Jason R; Azimzadeh, Agnes M; Bromberg, Jonathan S

    2011-10-01

    Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous population of hematopoietic derived cell precursors that can suppress immune responses in a variety of inflammatory settings. Here we review recent studies detailing expansion of phenotypically and functionally disparate MDSC. Findings related to MDSC accumulation, activation, and mechanisms utilized in immune suppression are presented. Further, we discuss recent reports that suggest MDSC are expanded during transplantation and that modulation of MDSC can participate in preventing graft rejection.

  18. Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells: Fuel the Fire.

    PubMed

    Achyut, B R; Arbab, Ali S

    2014-08-01

    Low oxygen tension, hypoxia, is a characteristic of many tumors and associated with the poor prognosis. Hypoxia invites bone marrow derived cells (BMDCs) from bone marrow to the site of tumor. These recruited CXCR4+ BMDCs provide favorable environment for the tumor growth by acquiring pro-angiogenic phenotype such as CD45+VEGFR2+ Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPC), or CD45+Tie2+ myeloid cells. CD11b+CD13+ myeloid population of the BMDCs modulate tumor progression. These myeloid populations retain immunosuppressive characteristics, for example, myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and regulates immune- suppression by inhibiting cytotoxic T cell function. In addition, MDSCs were observed at the premetastatic niche of the distant organs in other tumors. Protumorigenic and prometastatic role of the myeloid cells provides a basis for therapeutic targeting of immunosuppression and thus inhibiting tumor development and metastasis.

  19. History of myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

    PubMed

    Talmadge, James E; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I

    2013-10-01

    Tumour-induced granulocytic hyperplasia is associated with tumour vasculogenesis and escape from immunity via T cell suppression. Initially, these myeloid cells were identified as granulocytes or monocytes; however, recent studies have revealed that this hyperplasia is associated with populations of multipotent progenitor cells that have been identified as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). The study of MDSCs has provided a wealth of information regarding tumour pathobiology, has extended our understanding of neoplastic progression and has modified our approaches to immune adjuvant therapy. In this Timeline article, we discuss the history of MDSCs, their influence on tumour progression and metastasis, and the crosstalk between tumour cells, MDSCs and the host macroenvironment.

  20. Islet-like organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells efficiently function in the glucose responsiveness in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngjin; Kim, Hyeongseok; Ko, Ung Hyun; Oh, Youjin; Lim, Ajin; Sohn, Jong-Woo; Shin, Jennifer H.; Kim, Hail; Han, Yong-Mahn

    2016-01-01

    Insulin secretion is elaborately modulated in pancreatic ß cells within islets of three-dimensional (3D) structures. Using human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) to develop islet-like structures with insulin-producing ß cells for the treatment of diabetes is challenging. Here, we report that pancreatic islet-like clusters derived from hESCs are functionally capable of glucose-responsive insulin secretion as well as therapeutic effects. Pancreatic hormone-expressing endocrine cells (ECs) were differentiated from hESCs using a step-wise protocol. The hESC-derived ECs expressed pancreatic endocrine hormones, such as insulin, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide. Notably, dissociated ECs autonomously aggregated to form islet-like, 3D structures of consistent sizes (100–150 μm in diameter). These EC clusters (ECCs) enhanced insulin secretion in response to glucose stimulus and potassium channel inhibition in vitro. Furthermore, ß cell-deficient mice transplanted with ECCs survived for more than 40 d while retaining a normal blood glucose level to some extent. The expression of pancreatic endocrine hormones was observed in tissues transplanted with ECCs. In addition, ECCs could be generated from human induced pluripotent stem cells. These results suggest that hPSC-derived, islet-like clusters may be alternative therapeutic cell sources for treating diabetes. PMID:27731367

  1. Trophoblast lineage cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ying; Wang, Kai; Chandramouli, Gadisetti V.R.; Knott, Jason G.; Leach, Richard

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •Epithelial-like phenotype of trophoblast lineage cells derived from human iPS cells. •Trophoblast lineage cells derived from human iPS cells exhibit trophoblast function. •Trophoblasts from iPS cells provides a proof-of-concept in regenerative medicine. -- Abstract: Background: During implantation, the blastocyst trophectoderm attaches to the endometrial epithelium and continues to differentiate into all trophoblast subtypes, which are the major components of a placenta. Aberrant trophoblast proliferation and differentiation are associated with placental diseases. However, due to ethical and practical issues, there is almost no available cell or tissue source to study the molecular mechanism of human trophoblast differentiation, which further becomes a barrier to the study of the pathogenesis of trophoblast-associated diseases of pregnancy. In this study, our goal was to generate a proof-of-concept model for deriving trophoblast lineage cells from induced pluripotency stem (iPS) cells from human fibroblasts. In future studies the generation of trophoblast lineage cells from iPS cells established from patient’s placenta will be extremely useful for studying the pathogenesis of individual trophoblast-associated diseases and for drug testing. Methods and results: Combining iPS cell technology with BMP4 induction, we derived trophoblast lineage cells from human iPS cells. The gene expression profile of these trophoblast lineage cells was distinct from fibroblasts and iPS cells. These cells expressed markers of human trophoblasts. Furthermore, when these cells were differentiated they exhibited invasive capacity and placental hormone secretive capacity, suggesting extravillous trophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts. Conclusion: Trophoblast lineage cells can be successfully derived from human iPS cells, which provide a proof-of-concept tool to recapitulate pathogenesis of patient placental trophoblasts in vitro.

  2. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells in gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Kaminska, Bozena

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of early myeloid progenitors and precursors at different stages of differentiation into granulocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Blockade of their differentiation into mature myeloid cells in cancer results in an expansion of this population. High-grade gliomas are the most common malignant tumours of the central nervous system (CNS), with a poor prognosis despite intensive radiation and chemotherapy. Histopathological and flow cytometry analyses of human and rodent experimental gliomas revealed the extensive heterogeneity of immune cells infiltrating gliomas and their microenvironment. Immune cell infiltrates consist of: resident (microglia) and peripheral macrophages, granulocytes, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and T lymphocytes. Intratumoural density of glioma-associated MDSCs correlates positively with the histological grade of gliomas and patient’s survival. MDSCs have the ability to attract T regulatory lymphocytes to the tumour, but block the activation of tumour-reactive CD4+ T helper cells and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. Immunomodulatory mechanisms employed by malignant gliomas pose an appalling challenge to brain tumour immunotherapy. In this mini-review we describe phenotypic and functional characteristics of MDSCs in humans and rodents, and their occurrence and potential roles in glioma progression. While understanding the complexity of immune cell interactions in the glioma microenvironment is far from being accomplished, there is significant progress that may lead to the development of immunotherapy for gliomas. PMID:28373814

  3. Stemness is Derived from Thyroid Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Risheng; Bonnefond, Simon; Morshed, Syed A.; Latif, Rauf; Davies, Terry F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: One hypothesis for thyroid cancer development is its derivation from thyroid cancer stem cells (CSCs). Such cells could arise via different paths including from mutated resident stem cells within the thyroid gland or via epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) from malignant cells since EMT is known to confer stem-like characteristics. Furthermore, EMT is a critical process for epithelial tumor progression, local invasion, and metastasis formation. In addition, stemness provides cells with therapeutic resistance and is the likely cause of tumor recurrence. However, the relevance of EMT and stemness in thyroid cancer progression has not been extensively studied. Methods: To examine the status of stemness in thyroid papillary cancer, we employed a murine model of thyroid papillary carcinoma and examined the expression of stemness and EMT using qPCR and histochemistry in mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E)/TPO-Cre). This construct is only activated at the time of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) expression in differentiating thyroid cells and cannot be activated by undifferentiated stem cells, which do not express TPO. Results: There was decreased expression of thyroid-specific genes such as Tg and NIS and increased expression of stemness markers, such as Oct4, Rex1, CD15, and Sox2 in the thyroid carcinoma tissue from 6-week-old BRAFV600E mice indicating the dedifferentiated status of the cells and the fact that stemness was derived in this model from differentiated thyroid cells. The decreased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and increased EMT regulators including Snail, Slug, and TGF-β1 and TGF-β3, and the mesenchymal marker vimentin demonstrated the simultaneous progression of EMT and the CSC-like phenotype. Stemness was also found in a cancer thyroid cell line (named Marca cells) derived from one of the murine tumors. In this cell line, we also found that overexpression of Snail caused up-regulation of

  4. V-Maf Musculoaponeurotic Fibrosarcoma Oncogene Homolog A Synthetic Modified mRNA Drives Reprogramming of Human Pancreatic Duct-Derived Cells Into Insulin-Secreting Cells.

    PubMed

    Corritore, Elisa; Lee, Yong-Syu; Pasquale, Valentina; Liberati, Daniela; Hsu, Mei-Ju; Lombard, Catherine Anne; Van Der Smissen, Patrick; Vetere, Amedeo; Bonner-Weir, Susan; Piemonti, Lorenzo; Sokal, Etienne; Lysy, Philippe A

    2016-11-01

    : β-Cell replacement therapy represents the most promising approach to restore β-cell mass and glucose homeostasis in patients with type 1 diabetes. Safety and ethical issues associated with pluripotent stem cells stimulated the search for adult progenitor cells with endocrine differentiation capacities. We have already described a model for expansion and differentiation of human pancreatic duct-derived cells (HDDCs) into insulin-producing cells. Here we show an innovative and robust in vitro system for large-scale production of β-like cells from HDDCs using a nonintegrative RNA-based reprogramming technique. Synthetic modified RNAs for pancreatic transcription factors (pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1, neurogenin3, and V-Maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A [MAFA]) were manufactured and daily transfected in HDDCs without strongly affecting immune response and cell viability. MAFA overexpression was efficient and sufficient to induce β-cell differentiation of HDDCs, which acquired a broad repertoire of mature β-cell markers while downregulating characteristic epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers. Within 7 days, MAFA-reprogrammed HDDC populations contained 37% insulin-positive cells and a proportion of endocrine cells expressing somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide. Ultrastructure analysis of differentiated HDDCs showed both immature and mature insulin granules with light-backscattering properties. Furthermore, in vitro HDDC-derived β cells (called β-HDDCs) secreted human insulin and C-peptide in response to glucose, KCl, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and tolbutamide stimulation. Transplantation of β-HDDCs into diabetic SCID-beige mice confirmed their functional glucose-responsive insulin secretion and their capacity to mitigate hyperglycemia. Our data describe a new, reliable, and fast procedure in adult human pancreatic cells to generate clinically relevant amounts of new β cells with potential to reverse diabetes. β-Cell

  5. Human embryonic stem cells derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Masahito; Amato, Paula; Sparman, Michelle; Gutierrez, Nuria Marti; Tippner-Hedges, Rebecca; Ma, Hong; Kang, Eunju; Fulati, Alimujiang; Lee, Hyo-Sang; Sritanaudomchai, Hathaitip; Masterson, Keith; Larson, Janine; Eaton, Deborah; Sadler-Fredd, Karen; Battaglia, David; Lee, David; Wu, Diana; Jensen, Jeffrey; Patton, Phillip; Gokhale, Sumita; Stouffer, Richard L; Wolf, Don; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2013-06-06

    Reprogramming somatic cells into pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been envisioned as an approach for generating patient-matched nuclear transfer (NT)-ESCs for studies of disease mechanisms and for developing specific therapies. Past attempts to produce human NT-ESCs have failed secondary to early embryonic arrest of SCNT embryos. Here, we identified premature exit from meiosis in human oocytes and suboptimal activation as key factors that are responsible for these outcomes. Optimized SCNT approaches designed to circumvent these limitations allowed derivation of human NT-ESCs. When applied to premium quality human oocytes, NT-ESC lines were derived from as few as two oocytes. NT-ESCs displayed normal diploid karyotypes and inherited their nuclear genome exclusively from parental somatic cells. Gene expression and differentiation profiles in human NT-ESCs were similar to embryo-derived ESCs, suggesting efficient reprogramming of somatic cells to a pluripotent state.

  6. Redifferentiation of expanded human islet β cells by inhibition of ARX

    PubMed Central

    Friedman-Mazursky, Orr; Elkon, Ran; Efrat, Shimon

    2016-01-01

    Ex-vivo expansion of adult human islet β cells has been evaluated for generation of abundant insulin-producing cells for transplantation; however, lineage-tracing has demonstrated that this process results in β-cell dedifferentiation. Redifferentiation of β-cell-derived (BCD) cells can be achieved using a combination of soluble factors termed Redifferentiation Cocktail (RC); however, this treatment leads to redifferentiation of only a fraction of BCD cells. This study aimed at improving redifferentiation efficiency by affecting the balance of islet progenitor-cell transcription factors activated by RC treatment. Specifically, RC treatment induces the transcription factors PAX4 and ARX, which play key roles in directing pancreas endocrine progenitor cells into the β/δ or α/PP developmental pathways, respectively. Misactivation of ARX in RC-treated BCD cells may inhibit their redifferentiation into β cells. Blocking ARX expression by shRNA elevated insulin mRNA levels 12.8-fold, and more than doubled the number of insulin-positive BCD cells. ARX inhibition in expanded α-cell-derived cells treated with RC did not cause their transdifferentiation into insulin-producing cells. The combination of RC and ARX shRNA treatment may facilitate the generation of abundant insulin-producing cells for transplantation into patients with type 1 diabetes. PMID:26856418

  7. Redifferentiation of expanded human islet β cells by inhibition of ARX.

    PubMed

    Friedman-Mazursky, Orr; Elkon, Ran; Efrat, Shimon

    2016-02-09

    Ex-vivo expansion of adult human islet β cells has been evaluated for generation of abundant insulin-producing cells for transplantation; however, lineage-tracing has demonstrated that this process results in β-cell dedifferentiation. Redifferentiation of β-cell-derived (BCD) cells can be achieved using a combination of soluble factors termed Redifferentiation Cocktail (RC); however, this treatment leads to redifferentiation of only a fraction of BCD cells. This study aimed at improving redifferentiation efficiency by affecting the balance of islet progenitor-cell transcription factors activated by RC treatment. Specifically, RC treatment induces the transcription factors PAX4 and ARX, which play key roles in directing pancreas endocrine progenitor cells into the β/δ or α/PP developmental pathways, respectively. Misactivation of ARX in RC-treated BCD cells may inhibit their redifferentiation into β cells. Blocking ARX expression by shRNA elevated insulin mRNA levels 12.8-fold, and more than doubled the number of insulin-positive BCD cells. ARX inhibition in expanded α-cell-derived cells treated with RC did not cause their transdifferentiation into insulin-producing cells. The combination of RC and ARX shRNA treatment may facilitate the generation of abundant insulin-producing cells for transplantation into patients with type 1 diabetes.

  8. A novel two-chain IGF-II-derived peptide from purified β-cell granules.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Christina M; Phillips, Anthony R J; Cooper, Garth J S

    2010-10-01

    Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is a potent mitogen that regulates prenatal growth and development in both humans and rodents. Its role in post-natal life is less clear although immunohistochemical studies have observed IGF-II-like immunoreactivity (IGF-II-LI) associated with insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. Here we isolated secretory granules from a β-cell line, βTC6-F7, and characterized the nature of the IGF-II-LI located therein. Secretory granules were isolated from cultured mouse βTC6-F7 cells by ultracentrifugation. Granule protein content was separated by reversed-phase HPLC, and assayed for IGF-II (radioimmunoassay) prior to identification by gas-phase NH(2)-terminal sequencing and MALDI-TOF MS. Effects of glucose incorporation into muscle glycogen were determined by incubating with isolated rat soleus muscle strips. βTC6-F7 cells contained 60 ± 8 pmol of IGF-II-LI per 10⁶ cells compared to 340 ± 44 pmol insulin-LI per 10⁶ cells. IGF-II immunoreactive fractions were found to contain an IGF-II-like molecule with a molecular mass of 6847.6 Da. The protein was found to be a two-chain insulin-like product of Igf2 that corresponds to mouse des(37-40)IGF-II, which we termed 'vesiculin'. This molecule was also detectable in βTC6-F7 cells by intact-cell mass spectrometry. Mouse vesiculin evoked concentration-dependent stimulation of muscle glycogen synthesis ex vivo with an EC(50) value of 131 nM ± 1.35. Vesiculin, des(37-40)IGF-II, is a novel two-chain insulin-like hormone and the major "IGF-II-like" peptide found in purified mouse βTC6-F7 secretory granules. It stimulated ex vivo muscle glycogen synthesis with an efficacy greater than or equal to the intrinsic potency of IGF-II when compared to insulin derived from the same species. Copyright © 2010 Growth Hormone Research Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Endothelial cells derived from human embryonic stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levenberg, Shulamit; Golub, Justin S.; Amit, Michal; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph; Langer, Robert

    2002-04-01

    Human embryonic stem cells have the potential to differentiate into various cell types and, thus, may be useful as a source of cells for transplantation or tissue engineering. We describe here the differentiation steps of human embryonic stem cells into endothelial cells forming vascular-like structures. The human embryonic-derived endothelial cells were isolated by using platelet endothelial cell-adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM1) antibodies, their behavior was characterized in vitro and in vivo, and their potential in tissue engineering was examined. We show that the isolated embryonic PECAM1+ cells, grown in culture, display characteristics similar to vessel endothelium. The cells express endothelial cell markers in a pattern similar to human umbilical vein endothelial cells, their junctions are correctly organized, and they have high metabolism of acetylated low-density lipoprotein. In addition, the cells are able to differentiate and form tube-like structures when cultured on matrigel. In vivo, when transplanted into SCID mice, the cells appeared to form microvessels containing mouse blood cells. With further studies, these cells could provide a source of human endothelial cells that could be beneficial for potential applications such as engineering new blood vessels, endothelial cell transplantation into the heart for myocardial regeneration, and induction of angiogenesis for treatment of regional ischemia.

  10. Cell-derived microparticles and the lung.

    PubMed

    Nieri, Dario; Neri, Tommaso; Petrini, Silvia; Vagaggini, Barbara; Paggiaro, Pierluigi; Celi, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Cell-derived microparticles are small (0.1-1 μm) vesicles shed by most eukaryotic cells upon activation or during apoptosis. Microparticles carry on their surface, and enclose within their cytoplasm, molecules derived from the parental cell, including proteins, DNA, RNA, microRNA and phospholipids. Microparticles are now considered functional units that represent a disseminated storage pool of bioactive effectors and participate both in the maintenance of homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of diseases. The mechanisms involved in microparticle generation include intracellular calcium mobilisation, cytoskeleton rearrangement, kinase phosphorylation and activation of the nuclear factor-κB. The role of microparticles in blood coagulation and inflammation, including airway inflammation, is well established in in vitro and animal models. The role of microparticles in human pulmonary diseases, both as pathogenic determinants and biomarkers, is being actively investigated. Microparticles of endothelial origin, suggestive of apoptosis, have been demonstrated in the peripheral blood of patients with emphysema, lending support to the hypothesis that endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease and represent a link with cardiovascular comorbidities. Microparticles also have potential roles in patients with asthma, diffuse parenchymal lung disease, thromboembolism, lung cancer and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  11. Viable transgenic goats derived from skin cells.

    PubMed

    Behboodi, Esmail; Memili, Erdogan; Melican, David T; Destrempes, Margaret M; Overton, Susan A; Williams, Jennifer L; Flanagan, Peter A; Butler, Robin E; Liem, Hetty; Chen, Li How; Meade, Harry M; Gavin, William G; Echelard, Yann

    2004-06-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate the possibility of expanding transgenic goat herds by means of somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) using transgenic goat cells as nucleus donors. Skin cells from adult, transgenic goats were first synchronized at quiescent stage (G0) by serum starvation and then induced to exit G0 and proceed into G1. Oocytes collected from superovulated donors were enucleated, karyoplast-cytoplast couplets were constructed, and then fused and activated simultaneously by a single electrical pulse. Fused couplets were either co-cultured with oviductal cells in TCM-199 medium (in vitro culture) or transferred to intermediate recipient goat oviducts (in vivo culture) until final transfer. The resulting morulae and blastocysts were transferred to the final recipients. Pregnancies were confirmed by ultrasonography 25-30 days after embryo transfer. In vitro cultured NT embryos developed to morulae and blastocyst stages but did not produce any pregnancies while 30% (6/20) of the in vivo derived morulae and blastocysts produced pregnancies. Two of these pregnancies were resorbed early in gestation. Of the four recipients that maintained pregnancies to term, two delivered dead fetuses 2-3 days after their due dates, and two recipients gave birth to healthy kids at term. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis confirmed that both kids were transgenic and had integration sites consistent with those observed in the adult cell line.

  12. Derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells from pig somatic cells

    PubMed Central

    Ezashi, Toshihiko; Telugu, Bhanu Prakash V. L.; Alexenko, Andrei P.; Sachdev, Shrikesh; Sinha, Sunilima; Roberts, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    For reasons that are unclear the production of embryonic stem cells from ungulates has proved elusive. Here, we describe induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) derived from porcine fetal fibroblasts by lentiviral transduction of 4 human (h) genes, hOCT4, hSOX2, hKLF4, and hc-MYC, the combination commonly used to create iPSC in mouse and human. Cells were cultured on irradiated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) and in medium supplemented with knockout serum replacement and FGF2. Compact colonies of alkaline phosphatase-positive cells emerged after ≈22 days, providing an overall reprogramming efficiency of ≈0.1%. The cells expressed porcine OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2 and had high telomerase activity, but also continued to express the 4 human transgenes. Unlike human ESC, the porcine iPSC (piPSC) were positive for SSEA-1, but negative for SSEA-3 and -4. Transcriptional profiling on Affymetrix (porcine) microarrays and real time RT-PCR supported the conclusion that reprogramming to pluripotency was complete. One cell line, ID6, had a normal karyotype, a cell doubling time of ≈17 h, and has been maintained through >220 doublings. The ID6 line formed embryoid bodies, expressing genes representing all 3 germ layers when cultured under differentiating conditions, and teratomas containing tissues of ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm origin in nude mice. We conclude that porcine somatic cells can be reprogrammed to form piPSC. Such cell lines derived from individual animals could provide a means for testing the safety and efficacy of stem cell-derived tissue grafts when returned to the same pigs at a later age. PMID:19541600

  13. Derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells from pig somatic cells.

    PubMed

    Ezashi, Toshihiko; Telugu, Bhanu Prakash V L; Alexenko, Andrei P; Sachdev, Shrikesh; Sinha, Sunilima; Roberts, R Michael

    2009-07-07

    For reasons that are unclear the production of embryonic stem cells from ungulates has proved elusive. Here, we describe induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) derived from porcine fetal fibroblasts by lentiviral transduction of 4 human (h) genes, hOCT4, hSOX2, hKLF4, and hc-MYC, the combination commonly used to create iPSC in mouse and human. Cells were cultured on irradiated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) and in medium supplemented with knockout serum replacement and FGF2. Compact colonies of alkaline phosphatase-positive cells emerged after approximately 22 days, providing an overall reprogramming efficiency of approximately 0.1%. The cells expressed porcine OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2 and had high telomerase activity, but also continued to express the 4 human transgenes. Unlike human ESC, the porcine iPSC (piPSC) were positive for SSEA-1, but negative for SSEA-3 and -4. Transcriptional profiling on Affymetrix (porcine) microarrays and real time RT-PCR supported the conclusion that reprogramming to pluripotency was complete. One cell line, ID6, had a normal karyotype, a cell doubling time of approximately 17 h, and has been maintained through >220 doublings. The ID6 line formed embryoid bodies, expressing genes representing all 3 germ layers when cultured under differentiating conditions, and teratomas containing tissues of ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm origin in nude mice. We conclude that porcine somatic cells can be reprogrammed to form piPSC. Such cell lines derived from individual animals could provide a means for testing the safety and efficacy of stem cell-derived tissue grafts when returned to the same pigs at a later age.

  14. Myeloid derived suppressor cells in human diseases

    PubMed Central

    Greten, Tim F.; Manns, Michael P.; Korangy, Firouzeh

    2012-01-01

    Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have been described as a heterogeneous cell population with potent immune suppressor function in mice. Limited data are available on MDSC in human diseases. Interpretation of these data is complicated by the fact that different markers have been used to analyze human MDSC subtypes in various clinical settings. Human MDSC are CD11b+, CD33+, HLA-DRneg/low and can be divided into granulocytic CD14− and monocytic CD14+ subtypes. Interleukin 4Rα, VEGFR, CD15 and CD66b have been suggested to be more specific markers for human MDSC, however these markers can only be found on some MDSC subsets. Until today the best marker for human MDSC remains their suppressor function, which can be either direct or indirect through the induction of regulatory T cells. Immune suppressor activity has been associated with high arginase 1 and iNOS activity as well as ROS production by MDSC. Not only in murine models, but even more importantly in patients with cancer, different drugs have been shown to either reverse the immune suppressor function of MDSC or directly target these cells. Systemic treatment with all-trans-retinoic acid has been shown to mature human MDSC and reverse their immune suppressor function. Alternatively, MDSC can be targeted by treatment with the multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib. In this review will provide a comprehensive summary of the recent literature on human MDSC. PMID:21237299

  15. Systemic T Cells Immunosuppression of Glioma Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes Is Mediated by Monocytic Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Domenis, Rossana; Cesselli, Daniela; Toffoletto, Barbara; Bourkoula, Evgenia; Caponnetto, Federica; Manini, Ivana; Beltrami, Antonio Paolo; Ius, Tamara; Skrap, Miran; Di Loreto, Carla

    2017-01-01

    A major contributing factor to glioma development and progression is its ability to evade the immune system. Nano-meter sized vesicles, exosomes, secreted by glioma-stem cells (GSC) can act as mediators of intercellular communication to promote tumor immune escape. Here, we investigated the immunomodulatory properties of GCS-derived exosomes on different peripheral immune cell populations. Healthy donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with anti-CD3, anti-CD28 and IL-2, were treated with GSC-derived exosomes. Phenotypic characterization, cell proliferation, Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion and intracellular cytokine production were analysed by distinguishing among effector T cells, regulatory T cells and monocytes. In unfractionated PBMCs, GSC-derived exosomes inhibited T cell activation (CD25 and CD69 expression), proliferation and Th1 cytokine production, and did not affect cell viability or regulatory T-cell suppression ability. Furthermore, exosomes were able to enhance proliferation of purified CD4+ T cells. In PBMCs culture, glioma-derived exosomes directly promoted IL-10 and arginase-1 production and downregulation of HLA-DR by unstimulated CD14+ monocytic cells, that displayed an immunophenotype resembling that of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (Mo-MDSCs). Importantly, the removal of CD14+ monocytic cell fraction from PBMCs restored T-cell proliferation. The same results were observed with exosomes purified from plasma of glioblastoma patients. Our results indicate that glioma-derived exosomes suppress T-cell immune response by acting on monocyte maturation rather than on direct interaction with T cells. Selective targeting of Mo-MDSC to treat glioma should be considered with regard to how immune cells allow the acquirement of effector functions and therefore counteracting tumor progression. PMID:28107450

  16. Systemic T Cells Immunosuppression of Glioma Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes Is Mediated by Monocytic Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells.

    PubMed

    Domenis, Rossana; Cesselli, Daniela; Toffoletto, Barbara; Bourkoula, Evgenia; Caponnetto, Federica; Manini, Ivana; Beltrami, Antonio Paolo; Ius, Tamara; Skrap, Miran; Di Loreto, Carla; Gri, Giorgia

    2017-01-01

    A major contributing factor to glioma development and progression is its ability to evade the immune system. Nano-meter sized vesicles, exosomes, secreted by glioma-stem cells (GSC) can act as mediators of intercellular communication to promote tumor immune escape. Here, we investigated the immunomodulatory properties of GCS-derived exosomes on different peripheral immune cell populations. Healthy donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with anti-CD3, anti-CD28 and IL-2, were treated with GSC-derived exosomes. Phenotypic characterization, cell proliferation, Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion and intracellular cytokine production were analysed by distinguishing among effector T cells, regulatory T cells and monocytes. In unfractionated PBMCs, GSC-derived exosomes inhibited T cell activation (CD25 and CD69 expression), proliferation and Th1 cytokine production, and did not affect cell viability or regulatory T-cell suppression ability. Furthermore, exosomes were able to enhance proliferation of purified CD4+ T cells. In PBMCs culture, glioma-derived exosomes directly promoted IL-10 and arginase-1 production and downregulation of HLA-DR by unstimulated CD14+ monocytic cells, that displayed an immunophenotype resembling that of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (Mo-MDSCs). Importantly, the removal of CD14+ monocytic cell fraction from PBMCs restored T-cell proliferation. The same results were observed with exosomes purified from plasma of glioblastoma patients. Our results indicate that glioma-derived exosomes suppress T-cell immune response by acting on monocyte maturation rather than on direct interaction with T cells. Selective targeting of Mo-MDSC to treat glioma should be considered with regard to how immune cells allow the acquirement of effector functions and therefore counteracting tumor progression.

  17. Enriched retinal ganglion cells derived from human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Katherine P.; Hung, Sandy S. C.; Sharov, Alexei; Lo, Camden Y.; Needham, Karina; Lidgerwood, Grace E.; Jackson, Stacey; Crombie, Duncan E.; Nayagam, Bryony A.; Cook, Anthony L.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Pébay, Alice; Wong, Raymond C. B.

    2016-01-01

    Optic neuropathies are characterised by a loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) that lead to vision impairment. Development of cell therapy requires a better understanding of the signals that direct stem cells into RGCs. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) represent an unlimited cellular source for generation of human RGCs in vitro. In this study, we present a 45-day protocol that utilises magnetic activated cell sorting to generate enriched population of RGCs via stepwise retinal differentiation using hESCs. We performed an extensive characterization of these stem cell-derived RGCs by examining the gene and protein expressions of a panel of neural/RGC markers. Furthermore, whole transcriptome analysis demonstrated similarity of the hESC-derived RGCs to human adult RGCs. The enriched hESC-RGCs possess long axons, functional electrophysiological profiles and axonal transport of mitochondria, suggestive of maturity. In summary, this RGC differentiation protocol can generate an enriched population of functional RGCs from hESCs, allowing future studies on disease modeling of optic neuropathies and development of cell therapies. PMID:27506453

  18. Sarcoma derived from cultured mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tolar, Jakub; Nauta, Alma J; Osborn, Mark J; Panoskaltsis Mortari, Angela; McElmurry, Ron T; Bell, Scott; Xia, Lily; Zhou, Ning; Riddle, Megan; Schroeder, Tania M; Westendorf, Jennifer J; McIvor, R Scott; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Szuhai, Karoly; Oseth, Leann; Hirsch, Betsy; Yant, Stephen R; Kay, Mark A; Peister, Alexandra; Prockop, Darwin J; Fibbe, Willem E; Blazar, Bruce R

    2007-02-01

    To study the biodistribution of MSCs, we labeled adult murine C57BL/6 MSCs with firefly luciferase and DsRed2 fluorescent protein using nonviral Sleeping Beauty transposons and coinfused labeled MSCs with bone marrow into irradiated allogeneic recipients. Using in vivo whole-body imaging, luciferase signals were shown to be increased between weeks 3 and 12. Unexpectedly, some mice with the highest luciferase signals died and all surviving mice developed foci of sarcoma in their lungs. Two mice also developed sarcomas in their extremities. Common cytogenetic abnormalities were identified in tumor cells isolated from different animals. Original MSC cultures not labeled with transposons, as well as independently isolated cultured MSCs, were found to be cytogenetically abnormal. Moreover, primary MSCs derived from the bone marrow of both BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice showed cytogenetic aberrations after several passages in vitro, showing that transformation was not a strain-specific nor rare event. Clonal evolution was observed in vivo, suggesting that the critical transformation event(s) occurred before infusion. Mapping of the transposition insertion sites did not identify an obvious transposon-related genetic abnormality, and p53 was not overexpressed. Infusion of MSC-derived sarcoma cells resulted in malignant lesions in secondary recipients. This new sarcoma cell line, S1, is unique in having a cytogenetic profile similar to human sarcoma and contains bioluminescent and fluorescent genes, making it useful for investigations of cellular biodistribution and tumor response to therapy in vivo. More importantly, our study indicates that sarcoma can evolve from MSC cultures.

  19. iPS cell derived neuronal cells for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Heilker, Ralf; Traub, Stefanie; Reinhardt, Peter; Schöler, Hans R; Sterneckert, Jared

    2014-10-01

    Owing to the inherent disconnect between drug pharmacology in heterologous cellular models and drug efficacy in vivo, the quest for more predictive in vitro systems is one of the most urgent challenges of modern drug discovery. An improved pharmacological in vitro profiling would employ primary samples of the proper drug-targeted human tissue or the bona fide human disease-relevant cells. With the advent of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology the facilitated access to a variety of disease-relevant target cells is now held out in prospect. In this review, we focus on the use of human iPS cell derived neurons for high throughput pharmaceutical drug screening, employing detection technologies that are sufficiently sensitive to measure signaling in cells with physiological target protein expression levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Osteogenesis of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Grottkau, Brian E.; Lin, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Current treatment options for skeletal repair, including immobilization, rigid fixation, alloplastic materials and bone grafts, have significant limitations. Bone tissue engineering offers a promising method for the repair of bone deficieny caused by fractures, bone loss and tumors. The use of adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) has received attention because of the self-renewal ability, high proliferative capacity and potential of osteogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo studies of bone regeneration. Although cell therapies using ASCs are widely promising in various clinical fields, no large human clinical trials exist for bone tissue engineering. The aim of this review is to introduce how they are harvested, examine the characterization of ASCs, to review the mechanisms of osteogenic differentiation, to analyze the effect of mechanical and chemical stimuli on ASC osteodifferentiation, to summarize the current knowledge about usage of ASC in vivo studies and clinical trials, and finally to conclude with a general summary of the field and comments on its future direction. PMID:26273498

  1. Detection of Bone Marrow Derived Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kassmer, Susannah H.; Krause, Diane S.

    2010-01-01

    Studies on the ability of bone marrow derived cells to adopt the morphology and protein expression of epithelial cells in vivo have expanded rapidly over the last decade, and hundreds of publications report that bone marrow derived cells can become epithelial cells of multiple organs including lung, liver, GI tract, skin, pancreas and others. In this review, we critically evaluate the literature related to engraftment of bone marrow derived cells as epithelial cells in the lung. Over 40 manuscripts focused on whether bone marrow cells can differentiate into lung epithelial cells have been published, nearly all of which claim to identify marrow derived epithelial cells. A few investigations have concluded that no such cells are present and that the phenomenon of marrow derived epithelial cells is based on detection artifacts. Here we discuss the problems that exist in published papers identifying marrow derived epithelial cells, and propose standards for detection methods that provide the most definitive data. Identification of BM derived epithelial cells requires reliable and sensitive techniques for their detection, which must include cell identification based on the presence of an epithelial marker and the absence of blood cell markers as well as a marker for donor BM origin. In order for these studies to be rigorous, they must also use approaches to rule out cell overlap by microscopy or single cell isolation. Once these stringent criteria for identification of marrow derived epithelial cells are used universally, then the field can move forward to address the critical questions regarding which bone marrow derived cells are responsible for engraftment as epithelial cells, the mechanisms by which this occurs, whether these cells play a role in normal tissue repair, and whether specific cell subsets can be used for therapeutic benefit. PMID:20447442

  2. Myeloid-derived cells are key targets of tumor immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Echeverz, José; Aranda, Fernando; Berraondo, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Tumors are composed of heterogeneous cell populations recruited by cancer cells to promote growth and metastasis. Among cells comprising the tumor stroma, myeloid-derived cells play pleiotropic roles in supporting tumorigenesis at distinct stages of tumor development. The tumor-infiltrating myeloid cell contingent is composed of mast cells, neutrophils, dendritic cells, macrophages, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Such cells are capable of evading the hostile tumor environment typically prone to immune cell destruction and can even promote angiogenesis, chronic inflammation, and invasion. This paper briefly summarizes the different myeloid-derived subsets that promote tumor development and the strategies that have been used to counteract the protumorigenic activity of these cells. These strategies include myeloid cell depletion, reduction of recruitment, and inactivation or remodeling of cell phenotype. Combining drugs designed to target tumor myeloid cells with immunotherapies that effectively trigger antitumor adaptive immune responses holds great promise in the development of novel cancer treatments. PMID:25050208

  3. Human Stem Cell Derived Cardiomyocytes: An Alternative ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Chemical spills and associated deaths in the US has increased 2.6-fold and 16-fold from 1983 to 2012, respectfully. In addition, the number of chemicals to which humans are exposed to in the environment has increased almost 10-fold from 2001 to 2013 within the US. Internationally, a WHO report on the global composite impact of chemicals on health reported that 16% of the total burden of cardiovascular disease was attributed to environmental chemical exposure with 2.5 million deaths per year. Clearly, the cardiovascular system, at all its various developmental and life stages, represents a critical target organ system that can be adversely affected by existing and emerging chemicals (e.g., engineered nanomaterials) in a variety of environmental media. The ability to assess chemical cardiac risk and safety is critically needed but extremely challenging due to the number and categories of chemicals in commerce, as indicated. This presentation\\session will evaluate the use of adult human stem cell derived cardiomyocytes, and existing platforms, as an alternative model to evaluate environmental chemical cardiac toxicity as well as provide key information for the development of predictive adverse outcomes pathways associated with environmental chemical exposures. (This abstract does not represent EPA policy) Rapid and translatable chemical safety screening models for cardiotoxicity current status for informing regulatory decisions, a workshop sponsored by the Society

  4. Derivation and spontaneous differentiation of human embryonic stem cells*

    PubMed Central

    Amit, Michal; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Embryonic stem (ES) cells are unique cells derived from the inner cell mass of the mammalian blastocyst. These cells are immortal and pluripotent, retain their developmental potential after prolonged culture, and can be continuously cultured in an undifferentiated state. Many in vitro differentiation systems have been developed for mouse ES cells, including reproducible methods for mouse ES cell differentiation into haematopoietic and neural precursors, cardiomyocytes, insulin-secreting cells, endothelial cells and various other cell types. The derivation of new human ES cell lines provides the opportunity to develop unique models for developmental research and for cell therapies. In this review we consider the derivation and spontaneous differentiation of human ES cells. PMID:12033726

  5. Identification of 1,2,3-triazole derivatives that protect pancreatic β cells against endoplasmmic reticulum stress-mediated dysfunction and death through the inhibition of C/EBP-homologous protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Hongliang; Arora, Daleep; Li, Yu; Setiadi, Hendra; Xu, Depeng; Lim, Hui-Ying; Wang, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    The C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) acts as a mediator of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced pancreatic insulin-producing β cell death, a key element in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Chemicals that inhibit the expression of CHOP might therefore protect β cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis and prevent or ameliorate diabetes. Here, we used high-throughput screening to identify a series of 1,2,3-triazole amide derivatives that inhibit ER stress-induced CHOP-luciferase reporter activity. Our SAR studies indicate that compounds with an N,1-diphenyl-5-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxamide backbone potently protect β cell against ER stress. Several representative compounds inhibit ER stress-induced up-regulation of CHOP mRNA and protein, without affecting the basal level of CHOP expression. We further show that a 1,2,3-triazole derivative 4e protects β cell function and survival against ER stress in a CHOP-dependent fashion, as it is inactive in CHOP-deficient β cells. Finally, we show that 4e significantly lowers blood glucose levels and increases concomitant β cell survival and number in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse model. Identification of small molecule inhibitors of CHOP expression that prevent ER stress-induced β cell dysfunction and death may provide a new modality for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:27157393

  6. Amnion-derived stem cells: in quest of clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Miki, Toshio

    2011-05-19

    In the promising field of regenerative medicine, human perinatal stem cells are of great interest as potential stem cells with clinical applications. Perinatal stem cells could be isolated from normally discarded human placentae, which are an ideal cell source in terms of availability, the fewer number of ethical concerns, less DNA damage, and so on. Numerous studies have demonstrated that some of the placenta-derived cells possess stem cell characteristics like pluripotent differentiation ability, particularly in amniotic epithelial (AE) cells. Term human amniotic epithelium contains a relatively large number of stem cell marker-positive cells as an adult stem cell source. In this review, we introduce a model theory of why so many AE cells possess stem cell characteristics. We also describe previous work concerning the therapeutic applications and discuss the pluripotency of the AE cells and potential pitfalls for amnion-derived stem cell research.

  7. Amnion-derived stem cells: in quest of clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the promising field of regenerative medicine, human perinatal stem cells are of great interest as potential stem cells with clinical applications. Perinatal stem cells could be isolated from normally discarded human placentae, which are an ideal cell source in terms of availability, the fewer number of ethical concerns, less DNA damage, and so on. Numerous studies have demonstrated that some of the placenta-derived cells possess stem cell characteristics like pluripotent differentiation ability, particularly in amniotic epithelial (AE) cells. Term human amniotic epithelium contains a relatively large number of stem cell marker-positive cells as an adult stem cell source. In this review, we introduce a model theory of why so many AE cells possess stem cell characteristics. We also describe previous work concerning the therapeutic applications and discuss the pluripotency of the AE cells and potential pitfalls for amnion-derived stem cell research. PMID:21596003

  8. Graphene and its derivatives for cell biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mei; Yao, Jun; Duan, Yixiang

    2013-01-07

    Every few years, a novel material with salient and often unique properties emerges and attracts both academic and industrial interest from the scientific community. The latest blockbuster is graphene, an increasingly important nanomaterial with atomically thin sheets of carbon, which has become a shining star and has shown great promise in the field of material science and nanotechnology. In recent years, it has changed from being the exclusive domain of physicists to the new passion of chemists and biologists. Graphene and its derivatives are now at the forefront of nearly every rapidly developing field of science and engineering, including biochemistry, biomedicine and certain cutting-edge interdisciplines that have intense popularity. The aim of this review is, firstly, to provide readers with a comprehensive, systematic and in-depth prospective of graphene's band structure and properties, and secondly, to concentrate on the recent progress in producing graphene-based nanomaterials, including mechanical exfoliation, chemical vapor deposition, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, chemical reduction of graphene oxide, total organic synthesis, electrochemical synthesis and other fabrication strategies widely accepted by research scientists. At the same time, important definitions related to graphene are also introduced. The focus of this Tutorial Review is to emphasize the current situation and significance of using this new kind of two-dimensional material in the hot and emerging fields that are closely related to human life quality, for instance, cell biochemistry, bioimaging along with other frontier areas. Finally, the latest developments and possible impact that affect the heart of the whole scientific community have been discussed. In addition, the future trends along with potential challenges of this rapidly rising layered carbon have been pointed out in this paper.

  9. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Roney, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    While much is understood about dendritic cells and their role in the immune system, the study of these cells is critical to gain a more complete understanding of their function. Dendritic cell isolation from mouse body tissues can be difficult and the number of cells isolated small. This protocol describes the growth of large number of dendritic cells from the culture of mouse bone marrow cells. The dendritic cells grown in culture facilitate experiments that may require large number of dendritic cells without great expense or use of large number of mice.

  10. Comprehensive proteomic characterization of stem cell-derived extracellular matrices.

    PubMed

    Ragelle, Héloïse; Naba, Alexandra; Larson, Benjamin L; Zhou, Fangheng; Prijić, Miralem; Whittaker, Charles A; Del Rosario, Amanda; Langer, Robert; Hynes, Richard O; Anderson, Daniel G

    2017-06-01

    In the stem-cell niche, the extracellular matrix (ECM) serves as a structural support that additionally provides stem cells with signals that contribute to the regulation of stem-cell function, via reciprocal interactions between cells and components of the ECM. Recently, cell-derived ECMs have emerged as in vitro cell culture substrates to better recapitulate the native stem-cell microenvironment outside the body. Significant changes in cell number, morphology and function have been observed when mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were cultured on ECM substrates as compared to standard tissue-culture polystyrene (TCPS). As select ECM components are known to regulate specific stem-cell functions, a robust characterization of cell-derived ECM proteomic composition is critical to better comprehend the role of the ECM in directing cellular processes. Here, we characterized and compared the protein composition of ECM produced in vitro by bone marrow-derived MSC, adipose-derived MSC and neonatal fibroblasts from different donors, employing quantitative proteomic methods. Each cell-derived ECM displayed a specific and unique matrisome signature, yet they all shared a common set of proteins. We evaluated the biological response of cells cultured on the different matrices and compared them to cells on standard TCPS. The matrices lead to differential survival and gene-expression profiles among the cell types and as compared to TCPS, indicating that the cell-derived ECMs influence each cell type in a different manner. This general approach to understanding the protein composition of different tissue-specific and cell-derived ECM will inform the rational design of defined systems and biomaterials that recapitulate critical ECM signals for stem-cell culture and tissue engineering.

  11. CRISPR-targeted genome editing of mesenchymal stem cell-derived therapies for type 1 diabetes: a path to clinical success?

    PubMed

    Gerace, Dario; Martiniello-Wilks, Rosetta; Nassif, Najah Therese; Lal, Sara; Steptoe, Raymond; Simpson, Ann Margaret

    2017-03-09

    Due to their ease of isolation, differentiation capabilities, and immunomodulatory properties, the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been assessed in numerous pre-clinical and clinical settings. Currently, whole pancreas or islet transplantation is the only cure for people with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and, due to the autoimmune nature of the disease, MSCs have been utilised either natively or transdifferentiated into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) as an alternative treatment. However, the initial success in pre-clinical animal models has not translated into successful clinical outcomes. Thus, this review will summarise the current state of MSC-derived therapies for the treatment of T1D in both the pre-clinical and clinical setting, in particular their use as an immunomodulatory therapy and targets for the generation of IPCs via gene modification. In this review, we highlight the limitations of current clinical trials of MSCs for the treatment of T1D, and suggest the novel clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) gene-editing technology and improved clinical trial design as strategies to translate pre-clinical success to the clinical setting.

  12. Transcriptional regulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells

    PubMed Central

    Condamine, Thomas; Mastio, Jérôme; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I.

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells are a heterogeneous group of pathologically activated immature cells that play a major role in the negative regulation of the immune response in cancer, autoimmunity, many chronic infections, and inflammatory conditions, as well as in the regulation of tumor angiogenesis, tumor cell invasion, and metastases. Accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells is governed by a network of transcriptional regulators that could be combined into 2 partially overlapping groups: factors promoting myelopoiesis and preventing differentiation of mature myeloid cells and factors promoting pathologic activation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. In this review, we discuss the specific nature of these factors and their impact on myeloid-derived suppressor cell development. PMID:26337512

  13. Engineering musculoskeletal tissues with human embryonic germ cell derivatives.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Shyni; Hwang, Nathaniel S; Ferran, Angela; Hillel, Alexander; Theprungsirikul, Parnduangjai; Canver, Adam C; Zhang, Zijun; Gearhart, John; Elisseeff, Jennifer

    2010-04-01

    The cells derived from differentiating embryoid bodies of human embryonic germ (hEG) cells express a broad spectrum of gene markers and have been induced toward ecto- and endodermal lineages. We describe here in vitro and in vivo differentiation of hEG-derived cells (LVEC line) toward mesenchymal tissues. The LVEC cells express many surface marker proteins characteristic of mesenchymal stem cells and differentiated into cartilage, bone, and fat. Homogenous hyaline cartilage was generated from cells after 63 population doublings. In vivo results demonstrate cell survival, differentiation, and tissue formation. The high proliferative capacity of hEG-derived cells and their ability to differentiate and form three-dimensional mesenchymal tissues without teratoma formation underscores their significant potential for regenerative medicine. The adopted coculture system also provides new insights into how a microenvironment comprised of extracellular and cellular components may be harnessed to generate hierarchically complex tissues from pluripotent cells.

  14. The Effect of Antiseptics on Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong-Sung; Ott, Veronica; Boecker, Arne Hendrick; Stromps, Jan-Philipp; Paul, Nora Emilie; Alharbi, Ziyad; Cakmak, Ercan; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Bucala, Richard; Pallua, Norbert

    2017-03-01

    Although chemical antiseptics are the most basic measure to control wound infection and frequently come into contact with subcutaneous adipose tissue, no studies have evaluated their toxicity on adipose tissue and its cell fractions. In the present study, the effects of five different antiseptics on adipose-derived stem cells were evaluated. Human adipose-derived stem cells were harvested from healthy donors. Adipose-derived stem cell viability was measured after treatment with different concentrations of antiseptics over 5 days. Furthermore, the effect on the proliferation, adipogenic differentiation, and apoptosis/necrosis of adipose-derived stem cells was analyzed. Finally, the mRNA expression of the stem cell markers CD29, CD34, CD73, CD90, and CD105 was detected. Octenisept and Betaisodona significantly reduced cell proliferation and differentiation and led to considerable adipose-derived stem cell necrosis. Octenisept decreased stem cell viability at the lowest concentrations tested, and all stem cell markers were down-regulated by Octeniseptr and Betaisodona. Lavasept and Prontosan both led to reduced stem cell viability, proliferation, and differentiation, and increased apoptosis/necrosis, although the effects were less pronounced compared with Octenisept and Betaisodona. Adipose-derived stem cells survived treatment with mafenide acetate even at high concentrations, and mafenide acetate showed minimal negative effects on their proliferation, adipogenic differentiation, cell death, and stem cell marker expression. Mafenide acetate may be regarded as a feasible antiseptic for the treatment of wounds with exposed adipose tissue because of its low adipose-derived stem cell toxicity. Lavasept and Prontosan are possible alternatives to mafenide acetate. Octenisept and Betaisodona, by contrast, may be used only in highly diluted solutions. Therapeutic, V.

  15. Multiple Effects of Berberine Derivatives on Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guamán Ortiz, Luis Miguel; Dutto, Ilaria; Arcamone, Andrea G.; Buzzetti, Franco

    2014-01-01

    The pharmacological use of the plant alkaloid berberine is based on its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties; recently, anticancer activity has been attributed to this compound. To exploit this interesting feature, we synthesized three berberine derivatives, namely, NAX012, NAX014, and NAX018, and we tested their effects on two human colon carcinoma cell lines, that is, HCT116 and SW613-B3, which are characterized by wt and mutated p53, respectively. We observed that cell proliferation is more affected by cell treatment with the derivatives than with the lead compound; moreover, the derivatives proved to induce cell cycle arrest and cell death through apoptosis, thus suggesting that they could be promising anticancer drugs. Finally, we detected typical signs of autophagy in cells treated with berberine derivatives. PMID:25045712

  16. Adipose-derived stem cells for periodontal tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tobita, Morikuni; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells can effectively regenerate destroyed periodontal tissue. Because periodontal tissues are complex, mesenchymal stem cells that can differentiate into many tissue types would aid periodontal tissue regeneration. Indeed, periodontal tissue regeneration using mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue or bone marrow has been performed in experimental animal models, such as rat, canine, swine, and monkey. We have shown that rat periodontal tissue can be regenerated with adipose-derived stem cells. Adipose tissue contains a large number of stromal cells and is relatively easy to obtain in large quantities, and thus constitutes a very convenient stromal cell source. In this chapter, we introduce a rat periodontal tissue regeneration model using adipose-derived stem cells.

  17. Red blood cell-derived microparticles: An overview.

    PubMed

    Westerman, Maxwell; Porter, John B

    2016-07-01

    The red blood cell (RBC) is historically the original parent cell of microparticles (MPs). In this overview, we describe the discovery and the early history of red cell-derived microparticles (RMPs) and present an overview of the evolution of RMP. We report the formation, characteristics, effects of RMP and factors which may affect RMP evaluation. The review examines RMP derived from both normal and pathologic RBC. The pathologic RBC studies include sickle cell anemia (SCA), sickle cell trait (STr), thalassemia intermedia (TI), hereditary spherocytosis (HS), hereditary elliptocytosis (HE), hereditary stomatocytosis (HSt) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Human Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudifar, Nastaran; Doran, Pauline M

    2015-01-01

    Human adult mesenchymal stem cells are present in fat tissue, which can be obtained using surgical procedures such as liposuction. The multilineage capacity of mesenchymal stem cells makes them very valuable for cell-based medical therapies. In this chapter, we describe how to isolate mesenchymal stem cells from human adult fat tissue, propagate the cells in culture, and cryopreserve the cells for tissue engineering applications. Flow cytometry methods are also described for identification and characterization of adipose-derived stem cells and for cell sorting.

  19. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells: a double-edged sword?

    PubMed Central

    Pastuła, Agnieszka; Marcinkiewicz, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells are important cell population with an immunoregulatory potential in both adaptive and innate immunity. Their immunosuppressive activity is widely accepted. However, emerging evidence suggests that this heterogeneous cell population can be, under some circumstances, immunostimulatory rather than suppressive. This finding can shed a new light on antitumour immunity which is believed to be impaired in immunosuppressive environments. PMID:21314739

  20. Lost in translation: pluripotent stem cell-derived hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, Mania; Liebhaber, Steffi; Klusmann, Jan-Henning; Lachmann, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) such as embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells represent a promising cell type to gain novel insights into human biology. Understanding the differentiation process of PSCs in vitro may allow for the identification of cell extrinsic/intrinsic factors, driving the specification process toward all cell types of the three germ layers, which may be similar to the human in vivo scenario. This would not only lay the ground for an improved understanding of human embryonic development but would also contribute toward the generation of novel cell types used in cell replacement therapies. In this line, especially the developmental process of mesodermal cells toward the hematopoietic lineage is of great interest. Therefore, this review highlights recent progress in the field of hematopoietic specification of pluripotent stem cell sources. In addition, we would like to shed light on emerging factors controlling primitive and definitive hematopoietic development and to highlight recent approaches to improve the differentiation potential of PSC sources toward hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. While the generation of fully defined hematopoietic stem cells from PSCs remains challenging in vitro, we here underline the instructive role of cell extrinsic factors such as cytokines for the generation of PSC-derived mature hematopoietic cells. Thus, we have comprehensively examined the role of cytokines for the derivation of mature hematopoietic cell types such as macrophages, granulocytes, megakaryocytes, erythrocytes, dendritic cells, and cells of the B- and T-cell lineage. PMID:26174486

  1. Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles and Immune-Modulation.

    PubMed

    Burrello, Jacopo; Monticone, Silvia; Gai, Chiara; Gomez, Yonathan; Kholia, Sharad; Camussi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Extra-cellular vesicles (EVs) are bilayer membrane structures enriched with proteins, nucleic acids, and other active molecules and have been implicated in many physiological and pathological processes over the past decade. Recently, evidence suggests EVs to play a more dichotomic role in the regulation of the immune system, whereby an immune response may be enhanced or supressed by EVs depending on their cell of origin and its functional state. EVs derived from antigen (Ag)-presenting cells for instance, have been involved in both innate and acquired (or adaptive) immune responses, as Ag carriers or presenters, or as vehicles for delivering active signaling molecules. On the other hand, tumor and stem cell derived EVs have been identified to exert an inhibitory effect on immune responses by carrying immuno-modulatory effectors, such as transcriptional factors, non-coding RNA (Species), and cytokines. In addition, stem cell-derived EVs have also been reported to impair dendritic cell maturation and to regulate the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of B cells. They have been shown to control natural killer cell activity and to suppress the innate immune response (IIR). Studies reporting the role of EVs on T lymphocyte modulation are controversial. Discrepancy in literature may be due to stem cell culture conditions, methods of EV purification, EV molecular content, and functional state of both parental and target cells. However, mesenchymal stem cell-derived EVs were shown to play a more suppressive role by shifting T cells from an activated to a T regulatory phenotype. In this review, we will discuss how stem cell-derived EVs may contribute toward the modulation of the immune response. Collectively, stem cell-derived EVs mainly exhibit an inhibitory effect on the immune system.

  2. Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles and Immune-Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Burrello, Jacopo; Monticone, Silvia; Gai, Chiara; Gomez, Yonathan; Kholia, Sharad; Camussi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Extra-cellular vesicles (EVs) are bilayer membrane structures enriched with proteins, nucleic acids, and other active molecules and have been implicated in many physiological and pathological processes over the past decade. Recently, evidence suggests EVs to play a more dichotomic role in the regulation of the immune system, whereby an immune response may be enhanced or supressed by EVs depending on their cell of origin and its functional state. EVs derived from antigen (Ag)-presenting cells for instance, have been involved in both innate and acquired (or adaptive) immune responses, as Ag carriers or presenters, or as vehicles for delivering active signaling molecules. On the other hand, tumor and stem cell derived EVs have been identified to exert an inhibitory effect on immune responses by carrying immuno-modulatory effectors, such as transcriptional factors, non-coding RNA (Species), and cytokines. In addition, stem cell-derived EVs have also been reported to impair dendritic cell maturation and to regulate the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of B cells. They have been shown to control natural killer cell activity and to suppress the innate immune response (IIR). Studies reporting the role of EVs on T lymphocyte modulation are controversial. Discrepancy in literature may be due to stem cell culture conditions, methods of EV purification, EV molecular content, and functional state of both parental and target cells. However, mesenchymal stem cell-derived EVs were shown to play a more suppressive role by shifting T cells from an activated to a T regulatory phenotype. In this review, we will discuss how stem cell-derived EVs may contribute toward the modulation of the immune response. Collectively, stem cell-derived EVs mainly exhibit an inhibitory effect on the immune system. PMID:27597941

  3. Neuroendocrine Cells of the Prostate Derive from the Neural Crest*

    PubMed Central

    Szczyrba, Jaroslaw; Wagner, Mathias; Wandernoth, Petra M.; Aumüller, Gerhard; Wennemuth, Gunther

    2017-01-01

    The histogenesis of prostatic neuroendocrine cells is controversial: a stem cell hypothesis with a urogenital sinus-derived progeny of all prostatic epithelial cells is opposed by a dual origin hypothesis, favoring the derivation of neuroendocrine cells from the neural crest, with the secretory and basal cells being of urogenital sinus origin. A computer-assisted 3D reconstruction was used to analyze the distribution of chromogranin A immunoreactive cells in serial sections of human fetal prostate specimens (gestation weeks 18 and 25). Immunohistochemical double labeling studies with YFP and serotonin antisera combined with electron microscopy were carried out on double-transgenic Wnt1-Cre/ROSA26-YFP mice showing stable YFP expression in all neural crest-derived cell populations despite loss of Wnt1 expression. 3D reconstruction of the distribution pattern of neuroendocrine cells in the human fetal prostate indicates a migration of paraganglionic cells passing the stroma and reaching the prostate ducts. Double-transgenic mice showed 55% double labeling of periurethral neuroendocrine cells expressing both serotonin and YFP, whereas single serotonin labeling was observed in 36% and exclusive YFP labeling in 9%. The results favor the assumption of a major fraction of neural crest-derived neuroendocrine cells in both the human and murine prostates. PMID:28003366

  4. Characterization of a novel functional protein in the pancreatic islet: islet homeostasis protein regulation of glucagon synthesis in α cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seh-Hoon; Darwiche, Houda; Cho, Jae-Hyoung; Shupe, Thomas; Petersen, Bryon E

    2012-01-01

    We have identified a novel protein in bone marrow-derived insulin-producing cells. Here we characterize this protein, hereby named islet homeostasis protein (IHoP), in the pancreatic islet. Detection of IHoP mRNA and protein was performed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, immunocytochemistry, and in situ hybridization. Islet homeostasis protein functions were utilizing proliferation, insulin secretion by in vitro assays, and following small interfering RNA protocols for suppression of IHoP. We found that IHoP did not homolog with known pancreatic hormones. Islet homeostasis protein expression was seen in both bone marrow-derived insulin-producing cells and isolated pancreatic islets. Immunohistochemistry on pancreatic islet revealed that IHoP localized to the glucagon-synthesizing α cells. Inhibition of IHoP by small interfering RNA resulted in the loss of glucagon expression, which induced low blood glucose levels (63-85 mg/dL). Subsequently, cellular apoptosis was observed throughout the islet, including the insulin-producing β cells. Islets of preonset diabetic patients showed normal expression of IHoP and glucagon; however, IHoP was lost upon onset of the disease. These data suggest that IHoP could be a new functional protein in the islet and may play a role in islet homeostasis.

  5. Balancing Ethical Pros and Cons of Stem Cell Derived Gametes.

    PubMed

    Segers, Seppe; Mertes, Heidi; de Wert, Guido; Dondorp, Wybo; Pennings, Guido

    2017-07-01

    In this review we aim to provide an overview of the most important ethical pros and cons of stem cell derived gametes (SCD-gametes), as a contribution to the debate about reproductive tissue engineering. Derivation of gametes from stem cells holds promising applications both for research and for clinical use in assisted reproduction. We explore the ethical issues connected to gametes derived from embryonic stem cells (both patient specific and non-patient specific) as well as those related to gametes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. The technology of SCD-gametes raises moral concerns of how reproductive autonomy relates to issues of embryo destruction, safety, access, and applications beyond clinical infertility.

  6. Hemidesmosomal linker proteins regulate cell motility, invasion and tumorigenicity in oral squamous cell carcinoma derived cells.

    PubMed

    Rajeev Chaudhari, Pratik; Emlit Charles, Silvania; D'Souza, Zinia Charlotte; Murlidhar Vaidya, Milind

    2017-08-31

    BPAG1e and Plectin are hemidesmosomal linker proteins which anchor intermediate filament proteins to the cell surface through β4 integrin. Recent reports indicate that these proteins play a role in various cellular processes apart from their known anchoring function. However, the available literature is inconsistent. Further, the previous study from our laboratory suggested that Keratin8/18 pair promotes cell motility and tumor progression by deregulating β4 integrin signaling in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) derived cells. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that linker proteins may have a role in neoplastic progression of OSCC. Downregulation of hemidesmosomal linker proteins in OSCC derived cells resulted in reduced cell migration accompanied by alterations in actin organization. Further, decreased MMP9 activity led to reduced cell invasion in linker proteins knockdown cells. Moreover, loss of these proteins resulted in reduced tumorigenic potential. SWATH analysis demonstrated upregulation of N-Myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) in linker proteins downregulated cells as compared to vector control cells. Further, the defects in phenotype upon linker proteins ablation were rescued upon loss of NDRG1 in linker proteins knockdown background. These data together indicate that hemidesmosomal linker proteins regulate cell motility, invasion and tumorigenicity possibly through NDRG1 in OSCC derived cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Electromechanical integration of cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kehat, Izhak; Khimovich, Leonid; Caspi, Oren; Gepstein, Amira; Shofti, Rona; Arbel, Gil; Huber, Irit; Satin, Jonathan; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph; Gepstein, Lior

    2004-10-01

    Cell therapy is emerging as a promising strategy for myocardial repair. This approach is hampered, however, by the lack of sources for human cardiac tissue and by the absence of direct evidence for functional integration of donor cells into host tissues. Here we investigate whether cells derived from human embryonic stem (hES) cells can restore myocardial electromechanical properties. Cardiomyocyte cell grafts were generated from hES cells in vitro using the embryoid body differentiating system. This tissue formed structural and electromechanical connections with cultured rat cardiomyocytes. In vivo integration was shown in a large-animal model of slow heart rate. The transplanted hES cell-derived cardiomyocytes paced the hearts of swine with complete atrioventricular block, as assessed by detailed three-dimensional electrophysiological mapping and histopathological examination. These results demonstrate the potential of hES-cell cardiomyocytes to act as a rate-responsive biological pacemaker and for future myocardial regeneration strategies.

  8. Monocyte Heterogeneity: Consequences for Monocyte-Derived Immune Cells.

    PubMed

    Sprangers, Sara; de Vries, Teun J; Everts, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Blood monocytes are precursors of dendritic cells, macrophages, and osteoclasts. They are a heterogeneous cell population with differences in size, phenotype, and function. Although monocytes maintain several tissue-specific populations of immune cells in homeostasis, their contribution to populations of dendritic cells, macrophages, and osteoclasts is significantly increased in inflammation. Identification of a growing number of functionally different subsets of cells within populations of monocyte-derived immune cells has recently put monocyte heterogeneity into sharp focus. Here, we summarize recent findings in monocyte heterogeneity and their differentiation into dendritic cells, macrophages, and osteoclasts. We also discuss these advances in the context of the formation of functionally different monocyte-derived subsets of dendritic cells, macrophages, and osteoclasts.

  9. Structural Phenotyping of Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Pasqualini, Francesco Silvio; Sheehy, Sean Paul; Agarwal, Ashutosh; Aratyn-Schaus, Yvonne; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2015-01-01

    Summary Structural phenotyping based on classical image feature detection has been adopted to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind genetically or pharmacologically induced changes in cell morphology. Here, we developed a set of 11 metrics to capture the increasing sarcomere organization that occurs intracellularly during striated muscle cell development. To test our metrics, we analyzed the localization of the contractile protein α-actinin in a variety of primary and stem-cell derived cardiomyocytes. Further, we combined these metrics with data mining algorithms to unbiasedly score the phenotypic maturity of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. PMID:25733020

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Pluripotent Human Spermatogonial Stem Cell-Derived Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kossack, Nina; Meneses, Juanito; Shefi, Shai; Nguyen, Ha Nam; Chavez, Shawn; Nicholas, Cory; Gromoll, Joerg; Turek, Paul J; Reijo-Pera, Renee A

    2009-01-01

    Several reports have documented the derivation of pluripotent cells (multipotent germline stem cells) from spermatogonial stem cells obtained from the adult mouse testis. These spermatogonia-derived stem cells express embryonic stem cell markers and differentiate to the three primary germ layers, as well as the germline. Data indicate that derivation may involve reprogramming of endogenous spermatogonia in culture. Here, we report the derivation of human multipotent germline stem cells (hMGSCs) from a testis biopsy. The cells express distinct markers of pluripotency, form embryoid bodies that contain derivatives of all three germ layers, maintain a normal XY karyotype, are hypomethylated at the H19 locus, and express high levels of telomerase. Teratoma assays indicate the presence of human cells 8 weeks post-transplantation but limited teratoma formation. Thus, these data suggest the potential to derive pluripotent cells from human testis biopsies but indicate a need for novel strategies to optimize hMGSC culture conditions and reprogramming. PMID:18927477

  11. Schizophrenia patient-derived olfactory neurosphere-derived cells do not respond to extracellular reelin

    PubMed Central

    Tee, Jing Yang; Sutharsan, Ratneswary; Fan, Yongjun; Mackay-Sim, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Reelin expression is reduced in various regions in the post-mortem brain of schizophrenia patients but the exact role of reelin function in the neurobiology of schizophrenia remains elusive. Absence of reelin in knockout mouse causes inverted lamination of the neocortex due to aberrant neuronal migration. The aim of this study was to utilize patient-derived olfactory neurosphere-derived (ONS) cells to investigate whether extracellular reelin alters cell motility in schizophrenia patient-derived cells. ONS cells from nine patients were compared with cells from nine matched healthy controls. Automated high-throughput imaging and analysis were used to track motility of individual living cells on reelin-coated surfaces produced from reelin secreted into the medium by HEK293FT cells transfected with the full-length reelin plasmid pCrl. Automated assays were used to quantify intracellular cytoskeleton composition, cell morphology, and focal adhesions. Expression of reelin and components of the reelin signaling pathway were measured by western blot and flow cytometry. Reelin inhibited the motility of control cells but not patient cells, and increased the number and size of focal adhesions in control cells but not patient cells. Patient and control cells expressed similar levels of the reelin receptors and the reelin signaling protein, Dab1, but patient cells expressed less reelin. Patient cells were smaller than control cells and had less actin and acetylated α-tubulin, components of the cytoskeleton. These findings are the first direct evidence that cellular responses to reelin are impaired in schizophrenia and are consistent with the role of reelin in cytoarchitectural deficits observed in schizophrenia patient brains. PMID:27602387

  12. Successful differentiation to T cells, but unsuccessful B-cell generation, from B-cell-derived induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wada, Haruka; Kojo, Satoshi; Kusama, Chie; Okamoto, Naoki; Sato, Yorino; Ishizuka, Bunpei; Seino, Ken-ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Forced expression of certain transcription factors in somatic cells results in generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, which differentiate into various cell types. We investigated T-cell and B-cell lineage differentiation from iPS cells in vitro. To evaluate the impact of iPS cell source, murine splenic B-cell-derived iPS (B-iPS) cells were generated after retroviral transduction of four transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc). B-iPS cells were identical to embryonic stem (ES) cells and mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF)-derived iPS cells in morphology, ES cell marker expression as well as teratoma and chimera mouse formation. Both B-iPS and MEF-derived iPS cells differentiated into lymphocytes in OP9 co-culture systems. Both efficiently differentiated into T-cell lineage that produced IFN-γ on T-cell receptor stimulation. However, iPS cells including B-iPS cells were relatively resistant to B-cell lineage differentiation. One of the reasons of the failure of B-cell lineage differentiation seemed due to a defect of Pax5 expression in the differentiated cells. Therefore, current in vitro differentiation systems using iPS cells are sufficient for inducing T-cell but not B-cell lineage.

  13. Derivation of embryonic stem cells from Brown Norway rats blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoyang; Lv, Zhuo; Liu, Lei; Wang, Liu; Tong, Man; Zhou, Qi

    2010-07-01

    Knockout Brown Norway (BN) rat could be a useful disease model for human disorders, however, a failure to derive embryonic stem (ES) cells disturbs the further development of the model. In this study, we reported a case of successful derivation of the BN rat ES cells with the derivation efficiency comparable to that of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The BN rat ES cells expressed the key transcription factors, and were able to form embryonic bodies (EBs) when being differentiated in vitro. After injecting the BN rat ES cells into the SD rat blastocysts, high-contribution chimeric rats were generated and could survive to their adulthood. Our success in generating pluripotent rat ES cells will benefit the generation of the knockout rats in the future.

  14. Cells Derived from Young Bone Marrow Alleviate Renal Aging

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hai-Chun; Rossini, Michele; Ma, Li-Jun; Zuo, Yiqin; Ma, Ji

    2011-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived stem cells may modulate renal injury, but the effects may depend on the age of the stem cells. Here we investigated whether bone marrow from young mice attenuates renal aging in old mice. We radiated female 12-mo-old 129SvJ mice and reconstituted them with bone marrow cells (BMC) from either 8-wk-old (young-to-old) or 12-mo-old (old-to-old) male mice. Transfer of young BMC resulted in markedly decreased deposition of collagen IV in the mesangium and less β-galactosidase staining, an indicator of cell senescence. These changes paralleled reduced expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), PDGF-B (PDGF-B), the transdifferentiation marker fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1), and senescence-associated p16 and p21. Tubulointerstitial and glomerular cells derived from the transplanted BMC did not show β-galactosidase activity, but after 6 mo, there were more FSP-1-expressing bone marrow-derived cells in old-to-old mice compared with young-to-old mice. Young-to-old mice also exhibited higher expression of the anti-aging gene Klotho and less phosphorylation of IGF-1 receptor β. Taken together, these data suggest that young bone marrow-derived cells can alleviate renal aging in old mice. Direct parenchymal reconstitution by stem cells, paracrine effects from adjacent cells, and circulating anti-aging molecules may mediate the aging of the kidney. PMID:21965376

  15. Cells derived from young bone marrow alleviate renal aging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hai-Chun; Rossini, Michele; Ma, Li-Jun; Zuo, Yiqin; Ma, Ji; Fogo, Agnes B

    2011-11-01

    Bone marrow-derived stem cells may modulate renal injury, but the effects may depend on the age of the stem cells. Here we investigated whether bone marrow from young mice attenuates renal aging in old mice. We radiated female 12-mo-old 129SvJ mice and reconstituted them with bone marrow cells (BMC) from either 8-wk-old (young-to-old) or 12-mo-old (old-to-old) male mice. Transfer of young BMC resulted in markedly decreased deposition of collagen IV in the mesangium and less β-galactosidase staining, an indicator of cell senescence. These changes paralleled reduced expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), PDGF-B (PDGF-B), the transdifferentiation marker fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1), and senescence-associated p16 and p21. Tubulointerstitial and glomerular cells derived from the transplanted BMC did not show β-galactosidase activity, but after 6 mo, there were more FSP-1-expressing bone marrow-derived cells in old-to-old mice compared with young-to-old mice. Young-to-old mice also exhibited higher expression of the anti-aging gene Klotho and less phosphorylation of IGF-1 receptor β. Taken together, these data suggest that young bone marrow-derived cells can alleviate renal aging in old mice. Direct parenchymal reconstitution by stem cells, paracrine effects from adjacent cells, and circulating anti-aging molecules may mediate the aging of the kidney.

  16. Cardiac Repair by Embryonic Stem-Derived cells

    PubMed Central

    Rubart, M.

    2008-01-01

    Cell transplantation approaches offer the potential to promote regenerative growth of diseased hearts. It is well established that donor cardiomyocytes stably engraft into recipient hearts when injected directly into the myocardial wall. Moreover, the transplanted donor cardiomyocytes participate in a functional syncytium with the host myocardium. Thus, transplantation of donor cardiomyocytes resulted in at least partial restoration of lost muscle mass. It is also well established that embryonic stem (ES) cells differentiate into cells of ecto-, endo-, and mesodermal lineages when cultured under appropriate conditions in vitro. Robust cardiomyogenic differentiation was frequently observed in spontaneously differentiating ES cultures. Cellular, molecular and physiologic analyses indicated that ES-derived cells were bona fide cardiomyocytes, with in vitro characteristics typical for cells obtained from early stages of cardiac development. Thus, ES-derived cardiomyocytes constitute a viable source of donor cells for cell transplantation therapies. PMID:16370325

  17. Bone marrow-derived stem cells initiate pancreatic regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hess, David; Li, Li; Martin, Matthew; Sakano, Seiji; Hill, David; Strutt, Brenda; Thyssen, Sandra; Gray, Douglas A; Bhatia, Mickie

    2003-07-01

    We show that transplantation of adult bone marrow-derived cells expressing c-kit reduces hyperglycemia in mice with streptozotocin-induced pancreatic damage. Although quantitative analysis of the pancreas revealed a low frequency of donor insulin-positive cells, these cells were not present at the onset of blood glucose reduction. Instead, the majority of transplanted cells were localized to ductal and islet structures, and their presence was accompanied by a proliferation of recipient pancreatic cells that resulted in insulin production. The capacity of transplanted bone marrow-derived stem cells to initiate endogenous pancreatic tissue regeneration represents a previously unrecognized means by which these cells can contribute to the restoration of organ function.

  18. Nonhematopoietic cells are the primary source of bone marrow-derived lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kassmer, Susannah H; Bruscia, Emanuela M; Zhang, Ping-Xia; Krause, Diane S

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that bone marrow (BM)-derived cells differentiate into nonhematopoietic cells of multiple tissues. To date, it remains unknown which population(s) of BM cells are primarily responsible for this engraftment. To test the hypothesis that nonhematopoietic stem cells in the BM are the primary source of marrow-derived lung epithelial cells, either wild-type hematopoietic or nonhematopoietic BM cells were transplanted into irradiated surfactant-protein-C (SPC)-null mice. Donor-derived, SPC-positive type 2 pneumocytes were predominantly detected in the lungs of mice receiving purified nonhematopoietic cells and were absent from mice receiving purified hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. We conclude that cells contained in the nonhematopoietic fraction of the BM are the primary source of marrow-derived lung epithelial cells. These nonhematopoietic cells may represent a primitive stem cell population residing in adult BM.

  19. Nonhematopoietic Cells are the Primary Source of Bone Marrow-Derived Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kassmer, Susannah H.; Bruscia, Emanuela M.; Zhang, Ping-Xia; Krause, Diane S.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that bone marrow (BM)-derived cells differentiate into nonhematopoietic cells of multiple tissues. To date, it remains unknown which population(s) of BM cells are primarily responsible for this engraftment. To test the hypothesis that nonhematopoietic stem cells in the BM are the primary source of marrow-derived lung epithelial cells, either wild-type hematopoietic or nonhematopoietic BM cells were transplanted into irradiated surfactant-protein-C (SPC)-null mice. Donor-derived, SPC-positive type 2 pneumocytes were predominantly detected in the lungs of mice receiving purified nonhematopoietic cells and were absent from mice receiving purified hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. We conclude that cells contained in the nonhematopoietic fraction of the BM are the primary source of marrow-derived lung epithelial cells. These nonhematopoietic cells may represent a primitive stem cell population residing in adult BM. PMID:22162244

  20. Mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat cells exhibit multilineage potential.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Taro; Kano, Koichiro; Kondo, Daisuke; Fukuda, Noboru; Iribe, Yuji; Tanaka, Nobuaki; Matsubara, Yoshiyuki; Sakuma, Takahiro; Satomi, Aya; Otaki, Munenori; Ryu, Jyunnosuke; Mugishima, Hideo

    2008-04-01

    When mature adipocytes are subjected to an in vitro dedifferentiation strategy referred to as ceiling culture, these mature adipocytes can revert to a more primitive phenotype and gain cell proliferative ability. We refer to these cells as dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. In the present study, we examined the multilineage differentiation potential of DFAT cells. DFAT cells obtained from adipose tissues of 18 donors exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology and sustained high proliferative activity. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that DFAT cells comprised a highly homogeneous cell population compared with that of adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs), although the cell-surface antigen profile of DFAT cells was very similar to that of ASCs. DFAT cells lost expression of mature adipocytes marker genes but retained or gained expression of mesenchymal lineage-committed marker genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), RUNX2, and SOX9. In vitro differentiation analysis revealed that DFAT cells could differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts under appropriate culture conditions. DFAT cells also formed osteoid matrix when implanted subcutaneously into nude mice. In addition, clonally expanded porcine DFAT cells showed the ability to differentiate into multiple mesenchymal cell lineages. These results indicate that DFAT cells represent a type of multipotent progenitor cell. The accessibility and ease of culture of DFAT cells support their potential application for cell-based therapies.

  1. Glial cell derived neurotrophic factor induces spermatogonial stem cell marker genes in chicken mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Boozarpour, Sohrab; Matin, Maryam M; Momeni-Moghaddam, Madjid; Dehghani, Hesam; Mahdavi-Shahri, Naser; Sisakhtnezhad, Sajjad; Heirani-Tabasi, Asieh; Irfan-Maqsood, Muhammad; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza

    2016-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known with the potential of multi-lineage differentiation. Advances in differentiation technology have also resulted in the conversion of MSCs to other kinds of stem cells. MSCs are considered as a suitable source of cells for biotechnology purposes because they are abundant, easily accessible and well characterized cells. Nowadays small molecules are introduced as novel and efficient factors to differentiate stem cells. In this work, we examined the potential of glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) for differentiating chicken MSCs toward spermatogonial stem cells. MSCs were isolated and characterized from chicken and cultured under treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (RA) or glial cell derived neurotrophic factor. Expression analysis of specific genes after 7days of RA treatment, as examined by RT-PCR, proved positive for some germ cell markers such as CVH, STRA8, PLZF and some genes involved in spermatogonial stem cell maintenance like BCL6b and c-KIT. On the other hand, GDNF could additionally induce expression of POU5F1, and NANOG as well as other genes which were induced after RA treatment. These data illustrated that GDNF is relatively more effective in diverting chicken MSCs towards Spermatogonial stem cell -like cells in chickens and suggests GDNF as a new agent to obtain transgenic poultry, nevertheless, exploitability of these cells should be verified by more experiments.

  2. Participation of adult bone marrow-derived stem cells in pancreatic regeneration: neogenesis versus endogenesis.

    PubMed

    Iskovich, Svetlana; Kaminitz, Ayelet; Yafe, Michal Pearl; Mizrahi, Keren; Stein, Jerry; Yaniv, Isaac; Askenasy, Nadir

    2007-12-01

    Regenerative medicine opens new avenues and promises towards more effective therapies for autoimmune disorders. Current therapeutic strategies for type I diabetes focus on three major directions, with distinct advantages and disadvantages: arrest of autoimmunity, islet transplantation and generation of neoislets. There is mounting evidence that candidate stem cells residing in the hematopoietic compartments participate in regeneration of pancreatic islets following chemical and autoimmune injury in vivo. The apparent major mechanisms include immunomodulation, revascularization, support of endogenous beta-cell regeneration and differentiation into insulin-producing cells. Review of the current evidence suggests that some divergent observations depend primarily on the experimental design, which both limits and accentuates developmental events. The flood of publications reporting negative results appears to reflect primarily suboptimal experimental conditions for differentiation of putative stem cells, rather than limited developmental plasticity. Stem cells modulate the course of autoimmune diabetes through multiple mechanisms, including de novo generation of units capable to sense, produce and secrete insulin. Therefore, the charged debate over controversies surrounding developmental plasticity should not impede attempts to design curative therapies for this disease.

  3. Quality Metrics for Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sheehy, Sean P.; Pasqualini, Francesco; Grosberg, Anna; Park, Sung Jin; Aratyn-Schaus, Yvonne; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2014-01-01

    Summary Advances in stem cell manufacturing methods have made it possible to produce stem cell-derived cardiac myocytes at industrial scales for in vitro muscle physiology research purposes. Although FDA-mandated quality assurance metrics address safety issues in the manufacture of stem cell-based products, no standardized guidelines currently exist for the evaluation of stem cell-derived myocyte functionality. As a result, it is unclear whether the various stem cell-derived myocyte cell lines on the market perform similarly, or whether any of them accurately recapitulate the characteristics of native cardiac myocytes. We propose a multiparametric quality assessment rubric in which genetic, structural, electrophysiological, and contractile measurements are coupled with comparison against values for these measurements that are representative of the ventricular myocyte phenotype. We demonstrated this procedure using commercially available, mass-produced murine embryonic stem cell- and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived myocytes compared with a neonatal mouse ventricular myocyte target phenotype in coupled in vitro assays. PMID:24672752

  4. Epithelium-derived chemokines induce airway smooth muscle cell migration.

    PubMed

    Takeda, N; Sumi, Y; Préfontaine, D; Al Abri, J; Al Heialy, N; Al-Ramli, W; Michoud, M-C; Martin, J G; Hamid, Q

    2009-07-01

    The remodelling of airway smooth muscle (ASM) associated with asthma severity may involve the migration of ASM cells towards the epithelium. However, little is known about the mechanisms of cell migration and the effect of epithelial-derived mediators on this process. The main objective of the current study is to assess the effects of epithelial-derived chemokines on ASM cell migration. Normal human ASM cells were incubated with supernatants from cells of the bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B and normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. To induce chemokine production, epithelial cells were treated with TNF-alpha. Chemokine expression by epithelial cells was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR, ELISA and membrane antibody array. To identify the role of individual chemokines in ASM cell migration, we performed migration assays with a modified Boyden chamber using specific neutralizing antibodies to block chemokine effects. Supernatants from BEAS-2B cells treated with TNF-alpha increased ASM cell migration; migration was increased 1.6 and 2.5-fold by supernatant from BEAS-2B cells treated with 10 and 100 ng/mL TNF-alpha, respectively. Protein levels in supernatants and mRNA expression by BEAS-2B cells of regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) and IL-8 were significantly increased by 100 ng/mL TNF-alpha treatment. The incubation of supernatant with antibodies to RANTES or IL-8 significantly reduced ASM cell migration, and the combined antibodies further inhibited the cell migration. The migratory effects of supernatants and inhibiting effects of RANTES and/or IL-8 were confirmed also using NHBE cells. The results show that chemokines from airway epithelial cells cause ASM cell migration and might potentially play a role in the process of airway remodelling in asthma.

  5. Stem cell-derived vascular endothelial cells and their potential application in regenerative medicine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although a 'vascular stem cell' population has not been identified or generated, vascular endothelial and mural cells (smooth muscle cells and pericytes) can be derived from currently known pluripotent stem cell sources, including human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. We rev...

  6. Precise multipass Herriott cell design: Derivation of controlling design equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Gregory S.; Moyer, Elisabeth J.

    2007-03-01

    Multipass Herriott cells are often designed using the thin lens approximation, which results in approximate dimensions or imperfect patterns due to both spherical aberration and the finite width of the optic. We derive the design equations for exact solutions to the Herriott cell problem. We also show that Herriott cells using spherical mirrors cannot be designed such that multiple concentric beam patterns all meet their reentrant condition. We derive a solution for elliptical mirrors that allows this condition to be met simultaneously for many beams.

  7. Muscle-derived hematopoietic stem cells are hematopoietic in origin

    PubMed Central

    McKinney-Freeman, Shannon L.; Jackson, Kathyjo A.; Camargo, Fernando D.; Ferrari, Giuliana; Mavilio, Fulvio; Goodell, Margaret A.

    2002-01-01

    It has recently been shown that mononuclear cells from murine skeletal muscle contain the potential to repopulate all major peripheral blood lineages in lethally irradiated mice, but the origin of this activity is unknown. We have fractionated muscle cells on the basis of hematopoietic markers to show that the active population exclusively expresses the hematopoietic stem cell antigens Sca-1 and CD45. Muscle cells obtained from 6- to 8-week-old C57BL/6-CD45.1 mice and enriched for cells expressing Sca-1 and CD45 were able to generate hematopoietic but not myogenic colonies in vitro and repopulated multiple hematopoietic lineages of lethally irradiated C57BL/6-CD45.2 mice. These data show that muscle-derived hematopoietic stem cells are likely derived from the hematopoietic system and are a result not of transdifferentiation of myogenic stem cells but instead of the presence of substantial numbers of hematopoietic stem cells in the muscle. Although CD45-negative cells were highly myogenic in vitro and in vivo, CD45-positive muscle-derived cells displayed only very limited myogenic activity and only in vivo. PMID:11830662

  8. Dedifferentiated adipocyte-derived progeny cells (DFAT cells)

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shengjuan; Zan, Linsen; Hausman, Gary J; Rasmussen, Theodore P; Bergen, Werner G; Dodson, Michael V

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of mature adipocytes have shown that they possess a reprogramming ability in vitro, which is associated with dedifferentiation. The subsequent dedifferentiated fat cells (DFAT cells) are multipotent and can differentiate into adipocytes and other cell types as well. Mature adipocytes can be easily obtained by biopsy, and the cloned progeny cells are homogeneous in vitro. Therefore, DFAT cells (a new type of stem cell) may provide an excellent source of cells for tissue regeneration, engineering and disease treatment. The dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes, the multipotent capacity of DFAT cells and comparisons and contrasts with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) are discussed in this review. PMID:23991357

  9. Challenges for the Therapeutic use of Pluripotent Stem Derived Cells.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Magda; Hovatta, Outi

    2012-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) are an attractive cell source for regenerative medicine. These cells can be expanded to vast numbers and can be differentiated to many desired pluripotent stem cells (PSC) derived therapeutic cells. Cell replacement bears promises, but also challenges. The introduction of exogenous cells in a recipient must address several different topics; its safety, the exclusion of tumor formation, the immunological response and possible rejection, the cells cleanliness and their biological quality, and quantity representing the functionality of the PSC derived therapeutic cells. Tumor formation requires the removal of any PSC remaining after differentiation. Immunological rejection can be addressed with immunomodulation of the cells and the recipient. Cleanliness can be optimized using good manufacturing practice quality systems. At last, the functionality of the cells must be tested in in vitro and in animal models. After addressing these challenges, precise strategies are developed to monitor the status of the cells at different times and in case of undesired results, corresponding counteracting strategies must exist before any clinical attempt.

  10. Derivation and application of pluripotent stem cells for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaqiang; Zhou, Qi

    2016-06-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are cells that can differentiate into any type of cells in the body, therefore have valuable promise in regenerative medicine of cell replacement therapies and tissue/organ engineering. PSCs can be derived either from early embryos or directly from somatic cells by epigenetic reprogramming that result in customized cells from patients. Here we summarize the methods of deriving PSCs, the various types of PSCs generated with different status, and their versatile applications in both clinical and embryonic development studies. We also discuss an intriguing potential application of PSCs in constructing tissues/organs in large animals by interspecies chimerism. All these emerging findings are likely to contribute to the breakthroughs in biological research and the prosperous prospects of regenerative medicine.

  11. REPROGRAMMING PATIENT-DERIVED CELLS TO STUDY THE EPILEPIES

    PubMed Central

    Parent, Jack M.; Anderson, Stewart A.

    2015-01-01

    The epilepsies and related disorders of brain circuitry present significant challenges for using human cells to study disease mechanisms and develop new therapies. Some of these obstacles are being overcome with the use of induced pluripotent stem cell techniques to obtain patient-derived neural cells for in vitro studies and as a source of cell based treatments. The field is evolving rapidly with the addition of genome editing approaches and expanding protocols for generating different neural cell types and three-dimensional tissues, but the application to neurological disorders and particularly to the epilepsies is in its infancy. We discuss the progress made to date, the unique advantages and limitations of using patient-derived cells to study or treat epilepsy, and critical future directions for the field. PMID:25710838

  12. Natural Killer Cells Differentiate Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells and Modulate Their Adipogenic Potential.

    PubMed

    Rezzadeh, Kameron S; Hokugo, Akishige; Jewett, Anahid; Kozlowska, Anna; Segovia, Luis Andres; Zuk, Patricia; Jarrahy, Reza

    2015-09-01

    Natural killer cells are thought to represent more than 30 percent of all lymphocytes within the stromal vascular fraction of lipoaspirates. However, their physiologic interaction with adipocytes and their precursors has never been specifically examined. The authors hypothesized that natural killer cells, by means of cytokine secretion, are capable of promoting the differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells. Human natural killer cells purified from healthy donors' peripheral blood mononuclear cells were activated with a combination of interleukin-2 and anti-CD16 monoclonal antibody; natural killer cell supernatant was collected. Adipose-derived stem cells isolated from raw human lipoaspirates from healthy patients were treated with growth media, growth media with natural killer cell supernatant, adipogenic media, and adipogenic media with natural killer cells supernatant. Flow cytometric analysis was performed on cells using antibodies against B7H1, CD36, CD44, CD34, CD29, and MHC-1. Adipogenic-related gene expression (PPAR-γ, LPL, GPD-1, and aP2) was assessed. Oil Red O staining was performed as a functional assay of adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis. Adipose-derived stem cells maintained in growth media with natural killer cell supernatant lost markers of "stemness," including CD44, CD34, and CD29; and expressed markers of differentiation, including B7H1 and MHC-1. Adipose-derived stem cells treated with natural killer cell supernatant accumulated small amounts of lipid after 10 days of natural killer cell supernatant treatment. Adipose-derived stem cells treated with natural killer cell supernatant showed altered expression of adipogenesis-associated genes compared with cells maintained in growth media. Adipose-derived stem cells maintained in adipogenic media with natural killer cell supernatant accumulated less lipid than those cells in adipogenic media alone. The authors demonstrate that, through secreted factors, natural killer cells are capable

  13. Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Ost, Michael; Singh, Anurag; Peschel, Andreas; Mehling, Roman; Rieber, Nikolaus; Hartl, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) comprise monocytic and granulocytic innate immune cells with the capability of suppressing T- and NK-cell responses. While the role of MDSCs has been studied in depth in malignant diseases, the understanding of their regulation and function in infectious disease conditions has just begun to evolve. Here we summarize and discuss the current view how MDSCs participate in bacterial infections and how this knowledge could be exploited for potential future therapeutics. PMID:27066459

  14. OVCAR-3 Spheroid-Derived Cells Display Distinct Metabolic Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Vermeersch, Kathleen A.; Wang, Lijuan; Mezencev, Roman; McDonald, John F.; Styczynski, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recently, multicellular spheroids were isolated from a well-established epithelial ovarian cancer cell line, OVCAR-3, and were propagated in vitro. These spheroid-derived cells displayed numerous hallmarks of cancer stem cells, which are chemo- and radioresistant cells thought to be a significant cause of cancer recurrence and resultant mortality. Gene set enrichment analysis of expression data from the OVCAR-3 cells and the spheroid-derived putative cancer stem cells identified several metabolic pathways enriched in differentially expressed genes. Before this, there had been little previous knowledge or investigation of systems-scale metabolic differences between cancer cells and cancer stem cells, and no knowledge of such differences in ovarian cancer stem cells. Methods To determine if there were substantial metabolic changes corresponding with these transcriptional differences, we used two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry to measure the metabolite profiles of the two cell lines. Results These two cell lines exhibited significant metabolic differences in both intracellular and extracellular metabolite measurements. Principal components analysis, an unsupervised dimensional reduction technique, showed complete separation between the two cell types based on their metabolite profiles. Pathway analysis of intracellular metabolomics data revealed close overlap with metabolic pathways identified from gene expression data, with four out of six pathways found enriched in gene-level analysis also enriched in metabolite-level analysis. Some of those pathways contained multiple metabolites that were individually statistically significantly different between the two cell lines, with one of the most broadly and consistently different pathways, arginine and proline metabolism, suggesting an interesting hypothesis about cancerous and stem-like metabolic phenotypes in this pair of cell lines. Conclusions Overall, we demonstrate for the

  15. Efficient generation of canine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Isotani, Mayu; Katsuma, Kensuke; Tamura, Kyoichi; Yamada, Misato; Yagihara, Hiroko; Azakami, Daigo; Ono, Kenichiro; Washizu, Tsukimi; Bonkobara, Makoto

    2006-08-01

    Because of their unsurpassed potency in presenting antigens to naive T cells, dendritic cells are considered to be an important candidate in the development of immunotherapeutic strategies. Despite the high potential of dendritic cell-based immunotherapy, as a so-called dendritic cell vaccination, few clinical approaches using dendritic cell vaccination have been performed in the dog because of very limited information regarding the generation of canine dendritic cells and their functional properties. We therefore established a protocol for the efficient generation of dendritic cells from canine bone marrow cells using recombinant feline granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and canine interleukin-4. Dendritic cells were generated efficiently: a yield of 1-9 x 10(6) cells per approximately 0.5 ml of canine bone marrow aspiration was achieved. These dendritic cells showed features shared with mouse and human dendritic cells: dendrite morphology, expression of surface markers MHC class II and CD11c, and up-regulation of molecules related to antigen presentation (MHC class II, B7-1, and B7-2) by activation with lipopolysaccharide. Moreover, the dendritic cells demonstrated phagocytic activity, processing activity of pinocytosed proteins, and activation of allogeneic T cells far more potent than that by macrophages. Our findings suggest that the bone marrow-derived dendritic cells are functional for the capturing and processing of antigens and the initiation of T cell responses.

  16. Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Cardiac Cells for Myocardial Repair.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wuqiang; Gao, Ling; Zhang, Jianyi

    2017-02-03

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) must be fully differentiated into specific cell types before administration, but conventional protocols for differentiating hiPSCs into cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs), endothelial cells (hiPSC-ECs), and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are often limited by low yield, purity, and/or poor phenotypic stability. Here, we present novel protocols for generating hiPSC-CMs, -ECs, and -SMCs that are substantially more efficient than conventional methods, as well as a method for combining cell injection with a cytokine-containing patch created over the site of administration. The patch improves both the retention of the injected cells, by sealing the needle track to prevent the cells from being squeezed out of the myocardium, and cell survival, by releasing insulin-like growth factor (IGF) over an extended period. In a swine model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, the rate of engraftment was more than two-fold greater when the cells were administered with the cytokine-containing patch comparing to the cells without patch, and treatment with both the cells and the patch, but not with the cells alone, was associated with significant improvements in cardiac function and infarct size.

  17. Role of adipose-derived stem cells in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Waqar Ul; Greiser, Udo; Wang, Wenxin

    2014-01-01

    Impaired wound healing remains a challenge to date and causes debilitating effects with tremendous suffering. Recent advances in tissue engineering approaches in the area of cell therapy have provided promising treatment options to meet the challenges of impaired skin wound healing such as diabetic foot ulcers. Over the last few years, stem cell therapy has emerged as a novel therapeutic approach for various diseases including wound repair and tissue regeneration. Several different types of stem cells have been studied in both preclinical and clinical settings such as bone marrow-derived stem cells, adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), circulating angiogenic cells (e.g., endothelial progenitor cells), human dermal fibroblasts, and keratinocytes for wound healing. Adipose tissue is an abundant source of mesenchymal stem cells, which have shown an improved outcome in wound healing studies. ASCs are pluripotent stem cells with the ability to differentiate into different lineages and to secrete paracrine factors initiating tissue regeneration process. The abundant supply of fat tissue, ease of isolation, extensive proliferative capacities ex vivo, and their ability to secrete pro-angiogenic growth factors make them an ideal cell type to use in therapies for the treatment of nonhealing wounds. In this review, we look at the pathogenesis of chronic wounds, role of stem cells in wound healing, and more specifically look at the role of ASCs, their mechanism of action and their safety profile in wound repair and tissue regeneration.

  18. Skin Tissue Engineering: Application of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zimoch, Jakub; Biedermann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Perception of the adipose tissue has changed dramatically over the last few decades. Identification of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) ultimately transformed paradigm of this tissue from a passive energy depot into a promising stem cell source with properties of self-renewal and multipotential differentiation. As compared to bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs), ASCs are more easily accessible and their isolation yields higher amount of stem cells. Therefore, the ASCs are of high interest for stem cell-based therapies and skin tissue engineering. Currently, freshly isolated stromal vascular fraction (SVF), which may be used directly without any expansion, was also assessed to be highly effective in treating skin radiation injuries, burns, or nonhealing wounds such as diabetic ulcers. In this paper, we review the characteristics of SVF and ASCs and the efficacy of their treatment for skin injuries and disorders. PMID:28337463

  19. Large Scale Production of Stem Cells and Their Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweigerdt, Robert

    Stem cells have been envisioned to become an unlimited cell source for regenerative medicine. Notably, the interest in stem cells lies beyond direct therapeutic applications. They might also provide a previously unavailable source of valuable human cell types for screening platforms, which might facilitate the development of more efficient and safer drugs. The heterogeneity of stem cell types as well as the numerous areas of application suggests that differential processes are mandatory for their in vitro culture. Many of the envisioned applications would require the production of a high number of stem cells and their derivatives in scalable, well-defined and potentially clinical compliant manner under current good manufacturing practice (cGMP). In this review we provide an overview on recent strategies to develop bioprocesses for the expansion, differentiation and enrichment of stem cells and their progenies, presenting examples for adult and embryonic stem cells alike.

  20. Comparison of seven cell lines derived from human gastric carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Motoyama, T; Hojo, H; Watanabe, H

    1986-01-01

    In an attempt to elucidate various histological features of gastric cancers, seven human gastric adenocarcinomas were studied in vitro and in nude mice. Growth pattern of each cultured cell line in vitro corresponded well to the histological type of parent tumor. The cell lines, MKN7, MKN74, and MKN28 derived from differentiated carcinomas showed morphological characteristics of intestinal differentiation in cell polarity and microvilli with core-filaments in vitro as well as in nude mice. However, they gradually diminished the characteristics in course of time. The cell lines, MKN 45 and OKAJIMA, derived from undifferentiated carcinomas, had natures of not only ordinary gastric mucosa but also intestinal metaplastic mucosa. They seem to have multipotentiality for differentiation, and preserved well the natures for long periods of culture. The KWS-I cell line composed of undifferentiated cells in vitro displayed the potential for differentiation in nude mice. However, the differentiation of KATO-III cells derived from a signet-ring cell carcinoma was suppressed in nude mice. The common abnormality of chromosome was not found, and the growth rate in vitro was not dependent on the histological type of parent tumor.

  1. Electrophysiological Properties of Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Risner-Janiczek, Jessica R.; Ungless, Mark A.; Li, Meng

    2011-01-01

    In vitro generation of functional neurons from embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem cells offers exciting opportunities for dissecting gene function, disease modelling, and therapeutic drug screening. To realize the potential of stem cells in these biomedical applications, a complete understanding of the cell models of interest is required. While rapid advances have been made in developing the technologies for directed induction of defined neuronal subtypes, most published works focus on the molecular characterization of the derived neural cultures. To characterize the functional properties of these neural cultures, we utilized an ES cell model that gave rise to neurons expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and conducted targeted whole-cell electrophysiological recordings from ES cell-derived neurons. Current-clamp recordings revealed that most neurons could fire single overshooting action potentials; in some cases multiple action potentials could be evoked by depolarization, or occurred spontaneously. Voltage-clamp recordings revealed that neurons exhibited neuronal-like currents, including an outward current typical of a delayed rectifier potassium conductance and a fast-activating, fast-inactivating inward current, typical of a sodium conductance. Taken together, these results indicate that ES cell-derived GFP+ neurons in culture display functional neuronal properties even at early stages of differentiation. PMID:21887381

  2. Bone marrow-derived progenitor cells in pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Naozumi; Jin, Hong; Liu, Tianju; Chensue, Stephen W; Phan, Sem H

    2004-01-01

    The origin of fibroblasts in pulmonary fibrosis is assumed to be intrapulmonary, but their extrapulmonary origin and especially derivation from bone marrow (BM) progenitor cells has not been ruled out. To examine this possibility directly, adult mice were durably engrafted with BM isolated from transgenic mice expressing enhanced GFP. Induction of pulmonary fibrosis in such chimera mice by endotracheal bleomycin (BLM) injection caused large numbers of GFP(+) cells to appear in active fibrotic lesions, while only a few GFP(+) cells could be identified in control lungs. Flow-cytometric analysis of lung cells confirmed the BLM-induced increase in GFP(+) cells in chimera mice and revealed a significant increase in GFP(+) cells that also express type I collagen. GFP(+) lung fibroblasts isolated from chimera mice expressed collagen and telomerase reverse transcriptase but not alpha-smooth muscle actin. Treatment of isolated GFP(+) fibroblasts with TGF-beta failed to induce myofibroblast differentiation. Cultured lung fibroblasts expressed the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR7 and responded chemotactically to their cognate ligands, stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha and secondary lymphoid chemokine, respectively. Thus the collagen-producing lung fibroblasts in pulmonary fibrosis can also be derived from BM progenitor cells.

  3. Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Neural-crest Derived Bone Marrow.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nan; Chen, Mo; Yang, Guodong; Xiang, Lusai; He, Ling; Hei, Thomas K; Chotkowski, Gregory; Tarnow, Dennis P; Finkel, Myron; Ding, Lei; Zhou, Yanheng; Mao, Jeremy J

    2016-12-21

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the endosteum of mesoderm-derived appendicular bones have been extensively studied. Neural crest-derived bones differ from appendicular bones in developmental origin, mode of bone formation and pathological bone resorption. Whether neural crest-derived bones harbor HSCs is elusive. Here, we discovered HSC-like cells in postnatal murine mandible, and benchmarked them with donor-matched, mesoderm-derived femur/tibia HSCs, including clonogenic assay and long-term culture. Mandibular CD34 negative, LSK cells proliferated similarly to appendicular HSCs, and differentiated into all hematopoietic lineages. Mandibular HSCs showed a consistent deficiency in lymphoid differentiation, including significantly fewer CD229 + fractions, PreProB, ProB, PreB and B220 + slgM cells. Remarkably, mandibular HSCs reconstituted irradiated hematopoietic bone marrow in vivo, just as appendicular HSCs. Genomic profiling of osteoblasts from mandibular and femur/tibia bone marrow revealed deficiencies in several HSC niche regulators among mandibular osteoblasts including Cxcl12. Neural crest derived bone harbors HSCs that function similarly to appendicular HSCs but are deficient in the lymphoid lineage. Thus, lymphoid deficiency of mandibular HSCs may be accounted by putative niche regulating genes. HSCs in craniofacial bones have functional implications in homeostasis, osteoclastogenesis, immune functions, tumor metastasis and infections such as osteonecrosis of the jaw.

  4. Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Neural-crest Derived Bone Marrow

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan; Chen, Mo; Yang, Guodong; Xiang, Lusai; He, Ling; Hei, Thomas K.; Chotkowski, Gregory; Tarnow, Dennis P.; Finkel, Myron; Ding, Lei; Zhou, Yanheng; Mao, Jeremy J.

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the endosteum of mesoderm-derived appendicular bones have been extensively studied. Neural crest-derived bones differ from appendicular bones in developmental origin, mode of bone formation and pathological bone resorption. Whether neural crest-derived bones harbor HSCs is elusive. Here, we discovered HSC-like cells in postnatal murine mandible, and benchmarked them with donor-matched, mesoderm-derived femur/tibia HSCs, including clonogenic assay and long-term culture. Mandibular CD34 negative, LSK cells proliferated similarly to appendicular HSCs, and differentiated into all hematopoietic lineages. Mandibular HSCs showed a consistent deficiency in lymphoid differentiation, including significantly fewer CD229 + fractions, PreProB, ProB, PreB and B220 + slgM cells. Remarkably, mandibular HSCs reconstituted irradiated hematopoietic bone marrow in vivo, just as appendicular HSCs. Genomic profiling of osteoblasts from mandibular and femur/tibia bone marrow revealed deficiencies in several HSC niche regulators among mandibular osteoblasts including Cxcl12. Neural crest derived bone harbors HSCs that function similarly to appendicular HSCs but are deficient in the lymphoid lineage. Thus, lymphoid deficiency of mandibular HSCs may be accounted by putative niche regulating genes. HSCs in craniofacial bones have functional implications in homeostasis, osteoclastogenesis, immune functions, tumor metastasis and infections such as osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:28000662

  5. Cartilage repair using human embryonic stem cell-derived chondroprogenitors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Aixin; Kapacee, Zoher; Peng, Jiang; Lu, Shibi; Lucas, Robert J; Hardingham, Timothy E; Kimber, Susan J

    2014-11-01

    In initial work, we developed a 14-day culture protocol under potential GMP, chemically defined conditions to generate chondroprogenitors from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). The present study was undertaken to investigate the cartilage repair capacity of these cells. The chondrogenic protocol was optimized and validated with gene expression profiling. The protocol was also applied successfully to two lines of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Chondrogenic cells derived from hESCs were encapsulated in fibrin gel and implanted in osteochondral defects in the patella groove of nude rats, and cartilage repair was evaluated by histomorphology and immunocytochemistry. Genes associated with chondrogenesis were upregulated during the protocol, and pluripotency-related genes were downregulated. Aggregation of chondrogenic cells was accompanied by high expression of SOX9 and strong staining with Safranin O. Culture with PluriSln1 was lethal for hESCs but was tolerated by hESC chondrogenic cells, and no OCT4-positive cells were detected in hESC chondrogenic cells. iPSCs were also shown to generate chondroprogenitors in this protocol. Repaired tissue in the defect area implanted with hESC-derived chondrogenic cells was stained for collagen II with little collagen I, but negligible collagen II was observed in the fibrin-only controls. Viable human cells were detected in the repair tissue at 12 weeks. The results show that chondrogenic cells derived from hESCs, using a chemically defined culture system, when implanted in focal defects were able to promote cartilage repair. This is a first step in evaluating these cells for clinical application for the treatment of cartilage lesions.

  6. Cartilage Repair Using Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Chondroprogenitors

    PubMed Central

    Kapacee, Zoher; Peng, Jiang; Lu, Shibi; Lucas, Robert J.; Hardingham, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    In initial work, we developed a 14-day culture protocol under potential GMP, chemically defined conditions to generate chondroprogenitors from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). The present study was undertaken to investigate the cartilage repair capacity of these cells. The chondrogenic protocol was optimized and validated with gene expression profiling. The protocol was also applied successfully to two lines of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Chondrogenic cells derived from hESCs were encapsulated in fibrin gel and implanted in osteochondral defects in the patella groove of nude rats, and cartilage repair was evaluated by histomorphology and immunocytochemistry. Genes associated with chondrogenesis were upregulated during the protocol, and pluripotency-related genes were downregulated. Aggregation of chondrogenic cells was accompanied by high expression of SOX9 and strong staining with Safranin O. Culture with PluriSln1 was lethal for hESCs but was tolerated by hESC chondrogenic cells, and no OCT4-positive cells were detected in hESC chondrogenic cells. iPSCs were also shown to generate chondroprogenitors in this protocol. Repaired tissue in the defect area implanted with hESC-derived chondrogenic cells was stained for collagen II with little collagen I, but negligible collagen II was observed in the fibrin-only controls. Viable human cells were detected in the repair tissue at 12 weeks. The results show that chondrogenic cells derived from hESCs, using a chemically defined culture system, when implanted in focal defects were able to promote cartilage repair. This is a first step in evaluating these cells for clinical application for the treatment of cartilage lesions. PMID:25273540

  7. Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Frese, Laura; Dijkman, Petra E; Hoerstrup, Simon P

    2016-07-01

    In regenerative medicine, adult stem cells are the most promising cell types for cell-based therapies. As a new source for multipotent stem cells, human adipose tissue has been introduced. These so called adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are considered to be ideal for application in regenerative therapies. Their main advantage over mesenchymal stem cells derived from other sources, e.g. from bone marrow, is that they can be easily and repeatable harvested using minimally invasive techniques with low morbidity. ADSCs are multipotent and can differentiate into various cell types of the tri-germ lineages, including e.g. osteocytes, adipocytes, neural cells, vascular endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, pancreatic β-cells, and hepatocytes. Interestingly, ADSCs are characterized by immunosuppressive properties and low immunogenicity. Their secretion of trophic factors enforces the therapeutic and regenerative outcome in a wide range of applications. Taken together, these particular attributes of ADSCs make them highly relevant for clinical applications. Consequently, the therapeutic potential of ADSCs is enormous. Therefore, this review will provide a brief overview of the possible therapeutic applications of ADSCs with regard to their differentiation potential into the tri-germ lineages. Moreover, the relevant advancements made in the field, regulatory aspects as well as other challenges and obstacles will be highlighted.

  8. Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Frese, Laura; Dijkman, Petra E.; Hoerstrup, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    In regenerative medicine, adult stem cells are the most promising cell types for cell-based therapies. As a new source for multipotent stem cells, human adipose tissue has been introduced. These so called adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are considered to be ideal for application in regenerative therapies. Their main advantage over mesenchymal stem cells derived from other sources, e.g. from bone marrow, is that they can be easily and repeatable harvested using minimally invasive techniques with low morbidity. ADSCs are multipotent and can differentiate into various cell types of the tri-germ lineages, including e.g. osteocytes, adipocytes, neural cells, vascular endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, pancreatic β-cells, and hepatocytes. Interestingly, ADSCs are characterized by immunosuppressive properties and low immunogenicity. Their secretion of trophic factors enforces the therapeutic and regenerative outcome in a wide range of applications. Taken together, these particular attributes of ADSCs make them highly relevant for clinical applications. Consequently, the therapeutic potential of ADSCs is enormous. Therefore, this review will provide a brief overview of the possible therapeutic applications of ADSCs with regard to their differentiation potential into the tri-germ lineages. Moreover, the relevant advancements made in the field, regulatory aspects as well as other challenges and obstacles will be highlighted. PMID:27721702

  9. Therapeutic targeting of myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

    PubMed

    Ugel, Stefano; Delpozzo, Federica; Desantis, Giacomo; Papalini, Francesca; Simonato, Francesca; Sonda, Nada; Zilio, Serena; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2009-08-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) represent a subset of myeloid cells that expand under pathological conditions, such as cancer development, acute and chronic infections, trauma, bone marrow transplantations, and some autoimmune diseases. MDSCs mediate a negative regulation of the immune response by affecting different T lymphocyte subsets. Potential mechanisms, which underlie this inhibitory activity range from those requiring direct cell-to-cell contact with others, more indirect, and mediated by the modification of the microenvironment. Pharmacological inhibition of MDSC suppressive pathways is a promising strategy to overcome disease-induced immune defects, which might be a key step in enhancing the effectiveness of immune-based therapies.

  10. Therapeutic potential of lung epithelial progenitor cells derived from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wetsel, Rick A; Wang, Dachun; Calame, Daniel G

    2011-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from preimplantation blastocysts and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells generated from somatic cell sources are pluripotent and capable of indefinite expansion in vitro. They provide a possible unlimited source of cells that could be differentiated into lung progenitor cells for potential clinical use in pulmonary regenerative medicine. Because of inherent difficulties in deriving endodermal cells from undifferentiated cell cultures, applications using lung epithelial cells derived from ES and iPS cells have lagged behind similar efforts devoted to other tissues, such as the heart and spinal cord. However, during the past several years, significant advances in culture, differentiation, and purification protocols, as well as in bioengineering methodologies, have fueled enthusiasm for the development of stem cell-based lung therapeutics. This article provides an overview of recent research achievements and discusses future technical challenges that must be met before the promise of stem cell applications for lung disease can be realized.

  11. Adipose-derived stem cells and periodontal tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Tobita, Morikuni; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Innovative developments in the multidisciplinary field of tissue engineering have yielded various implementation strategies and the possibility of functional tissue regeneration. Technologic advances in the combination of stem cells, biomaterials, and growth factors have created unique opportunities to fabricate tissues in vivo and in vitro. The therapeutic potential of human multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are harvested from bone marrow and adipose tissue, has generated increasing interest in a wide variety of biomedical disciplines. These cells can differentiate into a variety of tissue types, including bone, cartilage, fat, and nerve tissue. Adipose-derived stem cells have some advantages compared with other sources of stem cells, most notably that a large number of cells can be easily and quickly isolated from adipose tissue. In current clinical therapy for periodontal tissue regeneration, several methods have been developed and applied either alone or in combination, such as enamel matrix proteins, guided tissue regeneration, autologous/allogeneic/xenogeneic bone grafts, and growth factors. However, there are various limitations and shortcomings for periodontal tissue regeneration using current methods. Recently, periodontal tissue regeneration using MSCs has been examined in some animal models. This method has potential in the regeneration of functional periodontal tissues because the various secreted growth factors from MSCs might not only promote the regeneration of periodontal tissue but also encourage neovascularization of the damaged tissues. Adipose-derived stem cells are especially effective for neovascularization compared with other MSC sources. In this review, the possibility and potential of adipose-derived stem cells for regenerative medicine are introduced. Of particular interest, periodontal tissue regeneration with adipose-derived stem cells is discussed.

  12. Tumorigenicity studies for human pluripotent stem cell-derived products.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Takuya; Yasuda, Satoshi; Sato, Yoji

    2013-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), i.e. human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells, are able to self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell types. Because of these abilities, numerous attempts have been made to utilize hPSCs in regenerative medicine/cell therapy. hPSCs are, however, also tumorigenic, that is, they can give rise to the progressive growth of tumor nodules in immunologically unresponsive animals. Therefore, assessing and managing the tumorigenicity of all final products is essential in order to prevent ectopic tissue formation, tumor development, and/or malignant transformation elicited by residual pluripotent stem cells after implantation. No detailed guideline for the tumorigenicity testing of hPSC-derived products has yet been issued for regenerative medicine/cell therapy, despite the urgent necessity. Here, we describe the current situations and issues related to the tumorigenicity testing of hPSC-derived products and we review the advantages and disadvantages of several types of tumorigenicity-associated tests. We also refer to important considerations in the execution and design of specific studies to monitor the tumorigenicity of hPSC-derived products.

  13. Bone marrow–derived progenitor cells in pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Naozumi; Jin, Hong; Liu, Tianju; Chensue, Stephen W.; Phan, Sem H.

    2004-01-01

    The origin of fibroblasts in pulmonary fibrosis is assumed to be intrapulmonary, but their extrapulmonary origin and especially derivation from bone marrow (BM) progenitor cells has not been ruled out. To examine this possibility directly, adult mice were durably engrafted with BM isolated from transgenic mice expressing enhanced GFP. Induction of pulmonary fibrosis in such chimera mice by endotracheal bleomycin (BLM) injection caused large numbers of GFP+ cells to appear in active fibrotic lesions, while only a few GFP+ cells could be identified in control lungs. Flow-cytometric analysis of lung cells confirmed the BLM-induced increase in GFP+ cells in chimera mice and revealed a significant increase in GFP+ cells that also express type I collagen. GFP+ lung fibroblasts isolated from chimera mice expressed collagen and telomerase reverse transcriptase but not α-smooth muscle actin. Treatment of isolated GFP+ fibroblasts with TGF-β failed to induce myofibroblast differentiation. Cultured lung fibroblasts expressed the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR7 and responded chemotactically to their cognate ligands, stromal cell–derived factor-1α and secondary lymphoid chemokine, respectively. Thus the collagen-producing lung fibroblasts in pulmonary fibrosis can also be derived from BM progenitor cells. PMID:14722616

  14. Negligible immunogenicity of terminally differentiated cells derived from induced pluripotent or embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Araki, Ryoko; Uda, Masahiro; Hoki, Yuko; Sunayama, Misato; Nakamura, Miki; Ando, Shunsuke; Sugiura, Mayumi; Ideno, Hisashi; Shimada, Akemi; Nifuji, Akira; Abe, Masumi

    2013-02-07

    The advantages of using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) instead of embryonic stem (ES) cells in regenerative medicine centre around circumventing concerns about the ethics of using ES cells and the likelihood of immune rejection of ES-cell-derived tissues. However, partial reprogramming and genetic instabilities in iPSCs could elicit immune responses in transplant recipients even when iPSC-derived differentiated cells are transplanted. iPSCs are first differentiated into specific types of cells in vitro for subsequent transplantation. Although model transplantation experiments have been conducted using various iPSC-derived differentiated tissues and immune rejections have not been observed, careful investigation of the immunogenicity of iPSC-derived tissue is becoming increasingly critical, especially as this has not been the focus of most studies done so far. A recent study reported immunogenicity of iPSC- but not ES-cell-derived teratomas and implicated several causative genes. Nevertheless, some controversy has arisen regarding these findings. Here we examine the immunogenicity of differentiated skin and bone marrow tissues derived from mouse iPSCs. To ensure optimal comparison of iPSCs and ES cells, we established ten integration-free iPSC and seven ES-cell lines using an inbred mouse strain, C57BL/6. We observed no differences in the rate of success of transplantation when skin and bone marrow cells derived from iPSCs were compared with ES-cell-derived tissues. Moreover, we observed limited or no immune responses, including T-cell infiltration, for tissues derived from either iPSCs or ES cells, and no increase in the expression of the immunogenicity-causing Zg16 and Hormad1 genes in regressing skin and teratoma tissues. Our findings suggest limited immunogenicity of transplanted cells differentiated from iPSCs and ES cells.

  15. Curcumin Modulates Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Cell-Derived Exosomal Function

    PubMed Central

    Osterman, Carlos J. Diaz; Lynch, James C.; Leaf, Patrick; Gonda, Amber; Ferguson Bennit, Heather R.; Griffiths, Duncan; Wall, Nathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has the highest mortality rates of all cancer types. One potential explanation for the aggressiveness of this disease is that cancer cells have been found to communicate with one another using membrane-bound vesicles known as exosomes. These exosomes carry pro-survival molecules and increase the proliferation, survival, and metastatic potential of recipient cells, suggesting that tumor-derived exosomes are powerful drivers of tumor progression. Thus, to successfully address and eradicate pancreatic cancer, it is imperative to develop therapeutic strategies that neutralize cancer cells and exosomes simultaneously. Curcumin, a turmeric root derivative, has been shown to have potent anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo. Recent studies have suggested that exosomal curcumin exerts anti-inflammatory properties on recipient cells. However, curcumin’s effects on exosomal pro-tumor function have yet to be determined. We hypothesize that curcumin will alter the pro-survival role of exosomes from pancreatic cancer cells toward a pro-death role, resulting in reduced cell viability of recipient pancreatic cancer cells. The main objective of this study was to determine the functional alterations of exosomes released by pancreatic cancer cells exposed to curcumin compared to exosomes from untreated pancreatic cancer cells. We demonstrate, using an in vitro cell culture model involving pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2, that curcumin is incorporated into exosomes isolated from curcumin-treated pancreatic cancer cells as observed by spectral studies and fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, curcumin is delivered to recipient pancreatic cancer cells via exosomes, promoting cytotoxicity as demonstrated by Hoffman modulation contrast microscopy as well as AlamarBlue and Trypan blue exclusion assays. Collectively, these data suggest that the efficacy of curcumin may be enhanced in pancreatic cancer cells through

  16. Monocyte cell membrane-derived nanoghosts for targeted cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, S.; Gnanasammandhan, M. K.; Xie, C.; Huang, K.; Cui, M. Y.; Chan, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    Core-shell type `nanoghosts' were synthesized with a drug-loaded biodegradable PLGA core and a monocyte cell membrane-derived shell. The nanoghosts were monodisperse with an average size <200 nm, and showed good serum stability for 120 h. Doxorubicin-loaded nanoghosts showed greater cellular uptake and cytotoxicity compared to non-coated nanoparticle controls in metastatic MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines.Core-shell type `nanoghosts' were synthesized with a drug-loaded biodegradable PLGA core and a monocyte cell membrane-derived shell. The nanoghosts were monodisperse with an average size <200 nm, and showed good serum stability for 120 h. Doxorubicin-loaded nanoghosts showed greater cellular uptake and cytotoxicity compared to non-coated nanoparticle controls in metastatic MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07588b

  17. [Stem cell derived therapy for cutaneous radiation exposure].

    PubMed

    Rezvani, M

    2013-12-01

    Radiation injury to skin results in a variety of deterministic effects including inflammatory reactions and cell depletion leading to distinct clinical symptoms following a defined time pattern. Therapeutic approaches are still limited, a complete restitution of affected areas is so far impossible. In the last few years increasing experimental knowledge about acquisition and administration of autologous stem cells also in the field of radiation injuries has been obtained. Evidence reviewed in this article shows that the beneficial effects of stem cell transplantation are not necessarily due to the replacement of damaged cells by transplanted cells but most probably due in the most part to a paracrine effect. Transplanted cells secrete bioactive factors that initiate the stimulation of the host stem cells to regenerate the damaged tissues. Transplanted stem cells produce trophic factors which aid the systemic healing of the victims. Furthermore, administration of stem cell secretomes in the form of conditioned media containing microvesicles or exosomes can be as effective as administering the stem cells. This hypothesis is supported by findings that cell-free derivatives from hMSCs were useful for wound healing purposes and could circumvent the need for intact cells. Furthermore, the beneficial effect of MSC injection on reperfusion and tissue damage in a mouse model of hind limb ischemia could be attributed to paracrine mechanisms with local release of arteriogenic cytokines. Further evaluation of the paracrine potential of autologous stem cells may open new means for treatment of acute as well as chronic sequelae of cutaneous radiation injuries.

  18. Amniotic fluid-derived stem cells in regenerative medicine research.

    PubMed

    Joo, Sunyoung; Ko, In Kap; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J; Lee, Sang Jin

    2012-02-01

    The stem cells isolated from amniotic fluid present an exciting possible contribution to the field of regenerative medicine and amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS) cells have significant potential for research and therapeutic applications. AFS cells are multipotent, showing the ability to differentiate into cell types from all three embryonic germ layers. They express both embryonic and adult stem cell markers, expand extensively without feeder cells, double in 36 h, and are not tumorigenic. The AFS cells can be maintained for over 250 population doublings and preserve their telomere length and a normal karyotype. They differentiate easily into specific cell lineages and do not require human embryo tissue for their isolation, thus avoiding the current controversies associated with the use of human embryonic stem (ES) cells. The discovery of the AFS cells has been recent, and a great deal of work remains to be performed on the characterization and use of these cells. This review describes the various differentiated lineages that AFS cells can form and the future of these promising new stem cells in regenerative medicine research.

  19. A mass spectrometric-derived cell surface protein atlas.

    PubMed

    Bausch-Fluck, Damaris; Hofmann, Andreas; Bock, Thomas; Frei, Andreas P; Cerciello, Ferdinando; Jacobs, Andrea; Moest, Hansjoerg; Omasits, Ulrich; Gundry, Rebekah L; Yoon, Charles; Schiess, Ralph; Schmidt, Alexander; Mirkowska, Paulina; Härtlová, Anetta; Van Eyk, Jennifer E; Bourquin, Jean-Pierre; Aebersold, Ruedi; Boheler, Kenneth R; Zandstra, Peter; Wollscheid, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Cell surface proteins are major targets of biomedical research due to their utility as cellular markers and their extracellular accessibility for pharmacological intervention. However, information about the cell surface protein repertoire (the surfaceome) of individual cells is only sparsely available. Here, we applied the Cell Surface Capture (CSC) technology to 41 human and 31 mouse cell types to generate a mass-spectrometry derived Cell Surface Protein Atlas (CSPA) providing cellular surfaceome snapshots at high resolution. The CSPA is presented in form of an easy-to-navigate interactive database, a downloadable data matrix and with tools for targeted surfaceome rediscovery (http://wlab.ethz.ch/cspa). The cellular surfaceome snapshots of different cell types, including cancer cells, resulted in a combined dataset of 1492 human and 1296 mouse cell surface glycoproteins, providing experimental evidence for their cell surface expression on different cell types, including 136 G-protein coupled receptors and 75 membrane receptor tyrosine-protein kinases. Integrated analysis of the CSPA reveals that the concerted biological function of individual cell types is mainly guided by quantitative rather than qualitative surfaceome differences. The CSPA will be useful for the evaluation of drug targets, for the improved classification of cell types and for a better understanding of the surfaceome and its concerted biological functions in complex signaling microenvironments.

  20. A Mass Spectrometric-Derived Cell Surface Protein Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Bausch-Fluck, Damaris; Hofmann, Andreas; Bock, Thomas; Frei, Andreas P.; Cerciello, Ferdinando; Jacobs, Andrea; Moest, Hansjoerg; Omasits, Ulrich; Gundry, Rebekah L.; Yoon, Charles; Schiess, Ralph; Schmidt, Alexander; Mirkowska, Paulina; Härtlová, Anetta; Van Eyk, Jennifer E.; Bourquin, Jean-Pierre; Aebersold, Ruedi; Boheler, Kenneth R.; Zandstra, Peter; Wollscheid, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Cell surface proteins are major targets of biomedical research due to their utility as cellular markers and their extracellular accessibility for pharmacological intervention. However, information about the cell surface protein repertoire (the surfaceome) of individual cells is only sparsely available. Here, we applied the Cell Surface Capture (CSC) technology to 41 human and 31 mouse cell types to generate a mass-spectrometry derived Cell Surface Protein Atlas (CSPA) providing cellular surfaceome snapshots at high resolution. The CSPA is presented in form of an easy-to-navigate interactive database, a downloadable data matrix and with tools for targeted surfaceome rediscovery (http://wlab.ethz.ch/cspa). The cellular surfaceome snapshots of different cell types, including cancer cells, resulted in a combined dataset of 1492 human and 1296 mouse cell surface glycoproteins, providing experimental evidence for their cell surface expression on different cell types, including 136 G-protein coupled receptors and 75 membrane receptor tyrosine-protein kinases. Integrated analysis of the CSPA reveals that the concerted biological function of individual cell types is mainly guided by quantitative rather than qualitative surfaceome differences. The CSPA will be useful for the evaluation of drug targets, for the improved classification of cell types and for a better understanding of the surfaceome and its concerted biological functions in complex signaling microenvironments. PMID:25894527

  1. PRIMARY MARROW DERIVED STROMAL CELLS: ISOLATION AND MANIPULATION

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Aravind; Torok-Storb, Beverly; Pillai, Manoj M

    2013-01-01

    Marrow Stromal Cells (MSCs) are relatively rare cells difficult to visualize in marrow biopsies or detect in aspirated marrow. Under specific conditions MSC can be expanded in vitro and the population can give rise to several mesenchymal lineages. “MSC” also refers to mesenchymal stem cells which implies that all cells in the population are multipotent. It is generally agreed that while there may be a few multipotent stem cells in an MSC population the majority are not stem cells. In either case MSC do not produce hematopoietic cells. Although MSCs have been isolated and characterized from several tissues, bone marrow is their most common source for research and clinical use. Primary MSC populations can be derived from bone marrow mononuclear cells with relative ease, but it is important to recognize the cellular heterogeneity within a culture and how this may vary from donor to donor. In this chapter, we will describe methodology to derive primary MSCs from bone marrow screens, an otherwise discarded byproduct of bone marrow harvests used for clinical transplantation. We will also describe some useful techniques to characterize and manipulate MSCs – both primary and immortalized cell lines. PMID:23959984

  2. Primary marrow-derived stromal cells: isolation and manipulation.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Aravind; Torok-Storb, Beverly; Pillai, Manoj M

    2013-01-01

    Marrow stromal cells (MSCs) are relatively rare cells difficult to visualize in marrow biopsies or detect in aspirated marrow. Under specific conditions MSC can be expanded in vitro and the population can give rise to several mesenchymal lineages. "MSC" also refers to mesenchymal stem cells which implies that all cells in the population are multipotent. It is generally agreed that while there may be a few multipotent stem cells in an MSC population the majority are not stem cells. In either case MSCs do not produce hematopoietic cells. Although MSCs have been isolated and characterized from several tissues, bone marrow is their most common source for research and clinical use. Primary MSC populations can be derived from bone marrow mononuclear cells with relative ease, but it is important to recognize the cellular heterogeneity within a culture and how this may vary from donor to donor. In this chapter, we describe methodology to derive primary MSCs from bone marrow screens, an otherwise discarded by-product of bone marrow harvests used for clinical transplantation. We also describe some useful techniques to characterize and manipulate MSCs-both primary and immortalized cell lines.

  3. Coelomic epithelium-derived cells in visceral morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Laura; Carmona, Rita; Cañete, Ana; Cano, Elena; Muñoz-Chápuli, Ramón

    2016-03-01

    Coelomic cavities of vertebrates are lined by a mesothelium which develops from the lateral plate mesoderm. During development, the coelomic epithelium is a highly active cell layer, which locally is able to supply mesenchymal cells that contribute to the mesodermal elements of many organs and provide signals which are necessary for their development. The relevance of this process of mesenchymal cell supply to the developing organs is becoming clearer because genetic lineage tracing techniques have been developed in recent years. Body wall, heart, liver, lungs, gonads, and gastrointestinal tract are populated by cells derived from the coelomic epithelium which contribute to their connective and vascular tissues, and sometimes to specialized cell types such as the stellate cells of the liver, the Cajal interstitial cells of the gut or the Sertoli cells of the testicle. In this review we collect information about the contribution of coelomic epithelium derived cells to visceral development, their developmental fates and signaling functions. The common features displayed by all these processes suggest that the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of the embryonic coelomic epithelium is an underestimated but key event of vertebrate development, and probably it is shared by all the coelomate metazoans.

  4. Bone marrow-derived cells are present in Mooren's ulcer.

    PubMed

    Ye, Juan; Chen, Jian; Kim, Jae Chan; Yao, Ke

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether bone marrow-derived cells are present in Mooren's ulcer and involved in its destructive and regenerative disease course, tissue specimens were collected from 3 eyes of 3 patients with Mooren's ulcer that underwent lamellar keratectomy. Three normal donor limbal corneoscleras served as controls. Immunohistochemical staining patterns were analyzed by using the following antibodies: CD34 (a marker of hematopoietic progenitor cells and endothelium), c-kit (a marker of hematopoietic and stromal progenitor cells) and STRO-1 (a differentiation antigen present on bone marrow fibroblast cells and on various nonhematopoietic progenitor cells). Strong positive CD34, c-kit and STRO-1 cells were revealed in Mooren's ulcer specimens, especially in the superficial stroma. A few weakly expressed CD34 stromal cells were seen in normal limbal cornea, but no immunoreactivity for c-kit and STRO-1 was found. Bone marrow-derived cells are present in Mooren's ulcer and contribute to its destructive and regeneration process by synergizing with other factors. Specific therapeutic strategies that target the role of these cells in Mooren's ulcer are anticipated.

  5. Towards Personalized Regenerative Cell Therapy: Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Bolund, Lars; Luo, Yonglun

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells with the capacity of self-renewal and multilineage differentiation, and can be isolated from several adult tissues. However, isolating MSCs from adult tissues for cell therapy is hampered by the invasive procedure, the rarity of the cells and their attenuated proliferation capacity when cultivated and expanded in vitro. Human MSCs derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-MSCs) have now evolved as a promising alternative cell source for MSCs and regenerative medicine. Several groups, including ours, have reported successful derivation of functional iPSC-MSCs and applied these cells in MSC-based therapeutic testing. Still, the current experience and understanding of iPSC-MSCs with respect to production methods, safety and efficacy are primitive. In this review, we highlight the methodological progress in iPSC-MSC research, describing the importance of choosing the right sources of iPSCs, iPSC reprogramming methods, iPSC culture systems, embryoid body intermediates, pathway inhibitors, basal medium, serum, growth factors and culture surface coating. We also highlight some progress in the application of iPSC-MSCs in direct cell therapy, tissue engineering and gene therapy.

  6. The similarity between human embryonic stem cell-derived epithelial cells and ameloblast-lineage cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Li-Wei; Linthicum, Logan; DenBesten, Pamela K; Zhang, Yan

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to compare epithelial cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to human ameloblast-lineage cells (ALCs), as a way to determine their potential use as a cell source for ameloblast regeneration. Induced by various concentrations of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), retinoic acid (RA) and lithium chloride (LiCl) for 7 days, hESCs adopted cobble-stone epithelial phenotype (hESC-derived epithelial cells (ES-ECs)) and expressed cytokeratin 14. Compared with ALCs and oral epithelial cells (OE), ES-ECs expressed amelogenesis-associated genes similar to ALCs. ES-ECs were compared with human fetal skin epithelium, human fetal oral buccal mucosal epithelial cells and human ALCs for their expression pattern of cytokeratins as well. ALCs had relatively high expression levels of cytokeratin 76, which was also found to be upregulated in ES-ECs. Based on the present study, with the similarity of gene expression with ALCs, ES-ECs are a promising potential cell source for regeneration, which are not available in erupted human teeth for regeneration of enamel.

  7. Therapeutic Potential of Lung Epithelial Progenitor Cells Derived from Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wetsel, Rick A.; Wang, Dachun; Calame, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from preimplantation blastocysts and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells generated from somatic cell sources are pluripotent and capable of indefinite expansion in vitro. They provide a possible unlimited source of cells that could be differentiated into lung progenitor cells for potential clinical use in pulmonary regenerative medicine. Because of inherent difficulties in deriving endodermal cells from undifferentiated cell cultures, applications using lung epithelial cells derived from ES and iPS cells have lagged behind similar efforts devoted to other tissues, such as the heart and spinal cord. However, during the past several years, significant advances in culture, differentiation, and purification protocols, as well as in bioengineering methodologies, have fueled enthusiasm for the development of stem cell–based lung therapeutics. This article provides an overview of recent research achievements and discusses future technical challenges that must be met before the promise of stem cell applications for lung disease can be realized. PMID:21226612

  8. Fas signal promotes lung cancer growth by recruiting myeloid-derived suppressor cells via cancer cell-derived PGE2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongliang; Liu, Qiuyan; Zhang, Minggang; Yu, Yizhi; Liu, Xia; Cao, Xuetao

    2009-03-15

    Fas/FasL system has been extensively investigated with respect to its capacity to induce cellular apoptosis. However, accumulated evidences show that Fas signaling also exhibits nonapoptotic functions, such as induction of cell proliferation and differentiation. Lung cancer is one of cancer's refractory to the immunotherapy, however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully understood. In this study, we show that Fas overexpression does not affect in vitro growth of 3LL cells, but promotes lung cancer growth in vivo. However, such tumor-promoting effect is not observed in FasL-deficient (gld) mice, and also not observed in the immune competent mice once inoculation with domain-negative Fas-overexpressing 3LL cells, suggesting the critical role of Fas signal in the promotion of lung cancer growth in vivo. More accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells is found in tumors formed by inoculation with Fas-overexpressing 3LL cells, but not domain-negative Fas-overexpressing 3LL cells. Accordingly, Fas-ligated 3LL lung cancer cells can chemoattract more MDSC but not regulatory T cells in vitro. Furthermore, Fas ligation induces 3LL lung cancer cells to produce proinflammatory factor PGE(2) by activating p38 pathway, and in turn, 3LL cells-derived PGE(2) contribute to the Fas ligation-induced MDSC chemoattraction. Furthermore, in vivo administration of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor can significantly reduce MDSC accumulation in the Fas-overexpressing tumor. Therefore, our results demonstrate that Fas signal can promote lung cancer growth by recruiting MDSC via cancer cell-derived PGE(2), thus providing new mechanistic explanation for the role of inflammation in cancer progression and immune escape.

  9. The stemness of neural crest cells and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kunisada, Takahiro; Tezulka, Ken-Ichi; Aoki, Hitomi; Motohashi, Tsutomu

    2014-09-01

    Neural crest cells (NCCs) are unique to vertebrates and emerge from the border of the neural plate and subsequently migrate extensively throughout the embryo after which they differentiate into many types of cells. This multipotency is the main reason why NCCs are regarded as a versatile tool for stem cell biology and have been gathering attention for their potential use in stem cell based therapy. Multiple sets of networks comprised of signaling molecules and transcription factors regulate every developmental phase of NCCs, including maintenance of their multipotency. Pluripotent stem cell lines, such as embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, facilitate the induction of NCCs in combination with sophisticated culture systems used for neural stem cells, although at present, clinical experiments for NCC-based cell therapy need to be improved. Unexpectedly, the multipotency of NCCs is maintained after they reach the target tissues as tissue neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) that may contribute to the establishment of NCC-derived multipotential stem cells. In addition, under specific culture conditions, fate-restricted unipotent descendants of NCCs, such as melanoblasts, show multipotency to differentiate into melanocytes, neurons, and glia cells. These properties contribute to the additional versatility of NCCs for therapeutic application and to better understand NCC development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Vascular Progenitor Cells Capable of Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Katherine L; Obrtlikova, Petra; Alvarez, Diego F; King, Judy A; Keirstead, Susan A; Allred, Jeremy R; Kaufman, Dan S

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Previous studies have demonstrated development of endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) as separate cell lineages derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We demonstrate CD34+ cells isolated from differentiated hESCs function as vascular progenitor cells capable of producing both ECs and SMCs. These studies better define the developmental origin and reveal the relationship between these two cell types, as well as provide a more complete biological characterization. MATERIALS AND METHODS hESCs are co-cultured on M2-10B4 stromal cells or Wnt1 expressing M2-10B4 for 13–15 days to generate a CD34+ cell population. These cells are isolated using a magnetic antibody separation kit and cultured on fibronectin coated dishes in EC medium. To induce SMC differentiation, culture medium is changed and a morphological and phenotypic change occurs within 24–48 hours. RESULTS CD34+ vascular progenitor cells give rise to ECs and SMCs. The two populations express respective cell specific transcripts and proteins, exhibit intracellular calcium in response to various agonists, and form robust tube-like structures when co-cultured in Matrigel. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cultured under SMC conditions do not exhibit a change in phenotype or genotype. Wnt1 overexpressing stromal cells produced an increased number of progenitor cells. CONCLUSIONS The ability to generate large numbers of ECs and SMCs from a single vascular progenitor cell population is promising for therapeutic use to treat a variety of diseased and ischemic conditions. The step-wise differentiation outlined here is an efficient, reproducible method with potential for large scale cultures suitable for clinical applications. PMID:20067819

  11. Human macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), a novel chemoattractant for monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells, and natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Godiska, R; Chantry, D; Raport, C J; Sozzani, S; Allavena, P; Leviten, D; Mantovani, A; Gray, P W

    1997-05-05

    A cDNA encoding a novel human chemokine was isolated by random sequencing of cDNA clones from human monocyte-derived macrophages. This protein has been termed macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) because it appears to be synthesized specifically by cells of the macrophage lineage. MDC has the four-cysteine motif and other highly conserved residues characteristic of CC chemokines, but it shares <35% identity with any of the known chemokines. Recombinant MDC was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells and purified by heparin-Sepharose chromatography. NH2-terminal sequencing and mass spectrophotometry were used to verify the NH2 terminus and molecular mass of recombinant MDC (8,081 dalton). In microchamber migration assays, monocyte-derived dendritic cells and IL-2-activated natural killer cells migrated to MDC in a dose-dependent manner, with a maximal chemotactic response at 1 ng/ml. Freshly isolated monocytes also migrated toward MDC, but with a peak response at 100 ng/ml MDC. Northern analyses indicated MDC is highly expressed in macrophages and in monocyte-derived dendritic cells, but not in monocytes, natural killer cells, or several cell lines of epithelial, endothelial, or fibroblast origin. High expression was also detected in normal thymus and less expression in lung and spleen. Unlike most other CC chemokines, MDC is encoded on human chromosome 16. MDC is thus a unique member of the CC chemokine family that may play a fundamental role in the function of dendritic cells, natural killer cells, and monocytes.

  12. Bone marrow-derived pancreatic stellate cells in rats.

    PubMed

    Sparmann, Gisela; Kruse, Marie-Luise; Hofmeister-Mielke, Nicole; Koczan, Dirk; Jaster, Robert; Liebe, Stefan; Wolff, Daniel; Emmrich, Jörg

    2010-03-01

    Origin and fate of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) before, during and after pancreatic injury are a matter of debate. The crucial role of PSCs in the pathogenesis of pancreatic fibrosis is generally accepted. However, the turnover of the cells remains obscure. The present study addressed the issue of a potential bone marrow (BM) origin of PSCs. We used a model of stable hematopoietic chimerism by grafting enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP)-expressing BM cells after irradiation of acceptor rats. Chimerism was detected by FACS analysis of eGFP-positive cells in the peripheral blood. Dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC) was used to induce acute pancreatic inflammation with subsequent recovery over 4 weeks. Investigations have been focused on isolated cells to detect the resting PSC population. The incidence of eGFP-positive PSC obtained from the pancreas of chimeric rats was approximately 7% in healthy pancreatic tissue and increased significantly to a mean of 18% in the restored pancreas 4 weeks after DBTC-induced acute inflammation. Our results suggest that BM-derived progenitor cells represent a source of renewable stellate cells in the pancreas. Increased numbers of resting PSCs after regeneration point toward enhanced recruitment of BM-derived cells to the pancreas and/or re-acquisition of a quiescent state after inflammation-induced activation.

  13. Human embryonic stem cells: Derivation, culture, and differentiation: A review

    PubMed Central

    Vazin, Tandis; Freed, William J.

    2010-01-01

    The greatest therapeutic promise of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) is to generate specialized cells to replace damaged tissue in patients suffering from various degenerative diseases. However, the signaling mechanisms involved in lineage restriction of ESC to adopt various cellular phenotypes are still under investigation. Furthermore, for progression of hESC-based therapies towards clinical applications, appropriate culture conditions must be developed to generate genetically stable homogenous populations of cells, to hinder possible adverse effects following transplantation. Other critical challenges that must be addressed for successful cell implantation include problems related to survival and functional efficacy of the grafted cells. This review initially describes the derivation of hESC and focuses on recent advances in generation, characterization, and maintenance of these cells. We also give an overview of original and emerging differentiation strategies used to convert hESC to different cell types. Finally, we will discuss transplantation studies of hESC-derived cells with respect to safety and functional recovery. PMID:20714081

  14. Analysis of side population cells derived from dental pulp tissue.

    PubMed

    Kenmotsu, M; Matsuzaka, K; Kokubu, E; Azuma, T; Inoue, T

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the characteristics of side population (SP) cells derived from the dental pulp of young and aged rats. Maxillary and mandibular incisors were extracted from 5-week-old (young) rats and 60- to 80-week-old (aged) rats. Coronal pulp tissue was removed mechanically, and single-cell suspensions were prepared using collagenase and dispase. Cells were stained with Hoechst 33342 and sorted with an fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). Isolated SP and main population (MP) cells were analysed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemical localization and cell cycle determination. Two-way analysis of variance and the multiple comparison Scheffè test were used for statistical analysis (P<0.05). Approximately 0.40% of pulp cells in young rats and 0.11% in aged rats comprised SP cells. SP cells expressed a higher mRNA level of ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2), but lower mRNA levels of nestin, alkaline phosphatase, p16 and p57 than MP cells in both age groups. Immunohistochemical observation revealed ABCG2-positive cells localized in the cell-rich zone and nestin in the odontoblastic layer in both groups. Furthermore, the majority of both young and aged SP and MP cells were in growth arrest of the G(0) /G(1) phase. The FACS analysis revealed a decrease in the proportion of SP cells with age, whilst p16 mRNA expression indicated an increase in cell senescence. The cell cycles of SP and MP cells from both young and aged dental pulp were generally in the G0/G1 phase. © 2010 International Endodontic Journal.

  15. Derivation and experimental comparison of cell-division probability densities.

    PubMed

    Leander, R; Allen, E J; Garbett, S P; Tyson, D R; Quaranta, V

    2014-10-21

    Experiments have shown that, even in a homogeneous population of cells, the distribution of division times is highly variable. In addition, a homogeneous population of cells will exhibit a heterogeneous response to drug therapy. We present a simple stochastic model of the cell cycle as a multistep stochastic process. The model, which is based on our conception of the cell cycle checkpoint, is used to derive an analytical expression for the distribution of cell cycle times. We demonstrate that this distribution provides an accurate representation of cell cycle time variability and show how the model relates drug-induced changes in basic biological parameters to variability in response to drug treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cultivation and characterization of canine skin-derived mast cells.

    PubMed

    Kawarai, Shinpei; Masuda, Kenichi; Ohmori, Keitaro; Matsuura, Shinobu; Yasuda, Nobutaka; Nagata, Masahiko; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2010-02-01

    It is essential to develop a technique to culture purified skin-derived mast cells (SMCs) to facilitate immunological research on allergic diseases in dogs. This study was performed to develop an efficient culture system for canine SMCs and to characterize the cells in comparison to canine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). Enzymatically digested skin biopsy samples were cultivated in serum-free AIM-V medium supplemented with recombinant canine stem cell factor. Three to five weeks after the initiation of culture, mast cells were collected by a magnetic activated cell separation system using anti-c-Kit antibody. The collected cells were composed of a uniform population showing morphological characteristics of mast cells with a round or oval nucleus and abundant toluidine blue-positive metachromatic granules in the cytoplasm. The results of flow cytometric analysis for the presence of cell membrane c-Kit and Fc epsilon receptor I (FcepsilonRI) indicated that approximately 90% of the cells were mast cells. The cytoplasmic granules were positive for both tryptase and chymase. Apparent dose-dependent degranulation was induced by antibody-mediated cross-linking of immunoglobulin E (IgE) bound to the cells. These cytological and immunological characteristics observed in SMCs were mostly similar to those observed in BMMCs; however, IgE-mediated degranulation was significantly lower in SMCs than BMMCs. The culture system for canine SMCs developed in this study would be useful in understanding the pathophysiology and developing anti-allergic therapeutics in canine allergic dermatitis.

  17. Methods for derivation of multipotent neural crest cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Avery, John; Dalton, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Summary Multipotent, neural crest cells (NCCs) produce a wide-range of cell types during embryonic development. This includes melanocytes, peripheral neurons, smooth muscle cells, osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. The protocol described here allows for highly-efficient differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to a neural crest fate within 15 days. This is accomplished under feeder-free conditions, using chemically defined medium supplemented with two small molecule inhibitors that block glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling. This technology is well-suited as a platform to understand in greater detail the pathogenesis of human disease associated with impaired neural crest development/migration. PMID:25986498

  18. Regulation of cell adhesion and migration by cell-derived matrices.

    PubMed

    Kutys, Matthew L; Doyle, Andrew D; Yamada, Kenneth M

    2013-10-01

    Three-dimensional in vitro extracellular matrix models provide a physiological alternative to regular two-dimensional cell culture, though they lack the full diversity of molecular composition and physical properties of whole-animal systems. Cell-derived matrices are extracellular matrices that are the product of matrix secretion and assembly by cells cultured at high density in vitro. After the removal of the cells that produced the matrix, an assembled matrix scaffold is left that closely mimics native stromal fiber organization and molecular content. Cell-derived matrices have been shown to impart in vivo-like responses to cells cultured in these matrices. In this review, we focus on mechanisms through which the distinct molecular and topographical composition of cell-derived matrices directs cellular behavior, specifically through regulation of cell-matrix adhesions and subsequent contributions to the process of cell migration. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Tumor-Induced Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, Francesco; Bronte, Vincenzo; Ugel, Stefano

    2016-06-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) represent a heterogeneous, immune-suppressive leukocyte population that develops systemically and infiltrates tumors. MDSCs can restrain the immune response through different mechanisms including essential metabolite consumption, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production, as well as display of inhibitory surface molecules that alter T-cell trafficking and viability. Moreover, MDSCs play a role in tumor progression, acting directly on tumor cells and promoting cancer stemness, angiogenesis, stroma deposition, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and metastasis formation. Many biological and pharmaceutical drugs affect MDSC expansion and functions in preclinical tumor models and patients, often reversing host immune dysfunctions and allowing a more effective tumor immunotherapy.

  20. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells: natural regulators for transplant tolerance.

    PubMed

    Boros, Peter; Ochando, Jordi C; Chen, Shu-Hsia; Bromberg, Jonathan S

    2010-11-01

    Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) contribute to the negative regulation of immune response in cancer patients. This review summarizes results on important issues related to MDSC biology, including expansion and activation of MDSC, phenotype, and subsets as well pathways and different mechanisms by which these cells exert their suppressive effect. Recent observations suggesting that MDSC may have roles in transplant tolerance are presented. Although therapeutic targeting and destruction of MDCS is of primary interest in cancer patients, in transplantation it will instead be necessary to induce, expand, and activate these cells; thus current possibilities for in vitro generation of MDSC are also discussed.

  1. Human embryonic stem cell derivation and directed differentiation.

    PubMed

    Trounson, A

    2005-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are produced from normal, chromosomally aneuploid and mutant human embryos, which are available from in vitro fertilisation (IVF) for infertility or preimplantation diagnosis. These hESC lines are an important resource for functional genomics, drug screening and eventually cell and gene therapy. The methods for deriving hESCs are well established and repeatable, and are relatively successful, with a ratio of 1:10 to 1:2 hESC lines established to embryos used. hESCs can be formed from morula and blastocyst-stage embryos and from isolated inner cell mass cell (ICM) clusters. The hESCs can be formed and maintained on mouse or human somatic cells in serum-free conditions, and for several passages in cell-free cultures. The hESCs can be transfected with DNA constructs. Their gene expression profiles are being described and immunological characteristics determined. They may be grown indefinitely in culture while maintaining their original karyotype but this must be confirmed from time to time. hESCs spontaneously differentiate in the absence of the appropriate cell feeder layer, when overgrown in culture and when isolated from the ESC colony. All three major embryonic lineages are produced in differentiating attachment cultures and in unattached embryoid bodies. Cell progenitors of interest can be identified by markers, expression of reporter genes and characteristic morphology, and the culture thereafter enriched for further culture to more mature cell types. The most advanced directed differentiation pathways have been developed for neural cells and cardiac muscle cells, but many other cell types including haematopoietic progenitors, endothelial cells, lung alveoli, keratinocytes, pigmented retinal epithelium, neural crest cells and motor neurones, hepatic progenitors and cells that have some markers of gut tissue and pancreatic cells have been produced. The prospects for regenerative medicine are significant and there is much

  2. Aquaporin expression and function in human pluripotent stem cell-derived retinal pigmented epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Juuti-Uusitalo, Kati; Delporte, Christine; Grégoire, Francoise; Perret, Jason; Huhtala, Heini; Savolainen, Virpi; Nymark, Soile; Hyttinen, Jari; Uusitalo, Hannu; Willermain, Francois; Skottman, Heli

    2013-05-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs), a family of transmembrane water channel proteins, are essential for allowing passive water transport through retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells. Even though human native RPE cells and immortalized human RPEs have been shown to express AQPs, the expression of AQPs during the differentiation in stem cell-derived RPE remains to be elucidated. In human embryonic (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs)-derived RPE cells, the expression of several AQPs was determined by quantitative real-time PCR and the localization of AQP1 was assessed with confocal microscopy. The functionality of AQP water channels was determined by cell volume assay in hESC-derived RPE cells. AQP1, AQP3, AQP4, AQP5, AQP6, AQP7, AQP10, AQP11, and AQP12 were expressed in hESC- and hiPSC-derived RPE cells. Furthermore, the expression of AQP1 and AQP11 genes were significantly upregulated during the maturation of both hESC and iPSC into RPE. Confocal microscopy shows the expression of AQP1 at the apical plasma membrane of polarized cobblestone hESC- and hiPSC-derived RPE cells. Lastly, aquaporin inhibitors significantly reduced AQP functionality in hESC-RPE cells. hESC-RPE and hiPSC-RPE cells express several AQP genes, which are functional in mature hESC-derived RPE cells. The localization of AQP1 on the apical plasma membrane in mature RPE cells derived from both hESC and hiPSC suggests its functionality. These data propose that hESC- and hiPSC-derived RPE cells, grown and differentiated under serum-free conditions, resemble their native counterpart in the human eye.

  3. Differentiation of Donor-Derived Cells Into Microglia After Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kazuya; Kakuda, Yumiko; Munemoto, Saori; Yamazaki, Hirohito; Nozaki, Ichiro; Yamada, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have indicated that microglia originate from immature progenitors in the yolk sac. After birth, microglial populations are maintained under normal conditions via self-renewal without the need to recruit monocyte-derived microglial precursors. Peripheral cell invasion of the brain parenchyma can only occur with disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Here, we report an autopsy case of an umbilical cord blood transplant recipient in whom cells derived from the donor blood differentiated into ramified microglia in the recipient brain parenchyma. Although the blood-brain barrier and glia limitans seemed to prevent invasion of these donor-derived cells, most of the invading donor-derived ramified cells were maintained in the cerebral cortex. This result suggests that invasion of donor-derived cells occurs through the pial membrane. PMID:26226134

  4. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mice by reprogramming of a mature NKT cell.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yue; Dashtsoodol, Nyambayar; Watarai, Hiroshi; Koseki, Haruhiko; Quan, Chengshi; Taniguchi, Masaru

    2014-10-01

    NKT cells are characterized by their expression of an NKT-cell-specific invariant antigen-receptor α chain encoded by Vα14Jα18 gene segments. These NKT cells bridge the innate and acquired immune systems to mediate effective and augmented responses; however, the limited number of NKT cells in vivo hampers their analysis. Here, two lines of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mice (NKT-iPSC-derived mice) were generated by reprogramming of mature NKT cells, where one harbors both rearranged Vα14Jα18 and Vβ7 genes and the other carries rearranged Vα14Jα18 on both alleles but germline Vβ loci. The analysis of NKT-iPSC-derived mice showed a significant increase in NKT cell numbers with relatively normal frequencies of functional subsets, but significantly enhanced in some cases, and acquired functional NKT cell maturation in peripheral lymphoid organs. NKT-iPSC-derived mice also showed normal development of other immune cells except for the absence of γδT cells and disturbed development of conventional CD4 αβT cells. These results suggest that the NKT-iPSC-derived mice are a better model for NKT cell development and function study rather than transgenic mouse models reported previously and also that the presence of a pre-rearranged Vα14Jα18 in the natural chromosomal context favors the developmental fate of NKT cells.

  5. Myeloid-derived suppressor cell heterogeneity in human cancers.

    PubMed

    Solito, Samantha; Marigo, Ilaria; Pinton, Laura; Damuzzo, Vera; Mandruzzato, Susanna; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2014-06-01

    The dynamic interplay between cancer and host immune system often affects the process of myelopoiesis. As a consequence, tumor-derived factors sustain the accumulation and functional differentiation of myeloid cells, including myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which can interfere with T cell-mediated responses. Since both the phenotype and mechanisms of action of MDSCs appear to be tumor-dependent, it is important not only to determine the presence of all MDSC subsets in each cancer patient, but also which MDSC subsets have clinical relevance in each tumor environment. In this review, we describe the differences between MDSC populations expanded within different tumor contexts and evaluate the prognostic significance of MDSC expansion in peripheral blood and within tumor masses of neoplastic patients.

  6. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Crohn's Rectovaginal Fistula

    PubMed Central

    García-Olmo, D.; Herreros, D.; De-La-Quintana, P.; Guadalajara, H.; Trébol, J.; Georgiev-Hristov, T.; García-Arranz, M.

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic options for recto-vaginal fistula in the setting of Crohn's disease are limited and many data are available in the literature. The manuscript describes the history of a patient who has been the pioneer of our Clinical Trials in treating this disease in fistulizing Crohn's disease environment. We believe it is the first time that a patient with this disease has been treated by adipose-derived stem cells in allogeneic form. The conclusion of our study with Mary is that the use of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue is secure, either in autologous or allogeneic form. Furthermore, we have proved that if we use multi-dose and multiple applications on a patient, it does not produce any adverse effect, which confirms us the safety of using these cells in patients at least in the fistulizing Crohn's disease environment. PMID:20224798

  7. Polydatin Inhibits Formation of Macrophage-Derived Foam Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Min; Liu, Meixia; Guo, Gang; Zhang, Wengao; Liu, Longtao

    2015-01-01

    Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati, a Chinese herbal medicine, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for a long time. Polydatin, one of the major active ingredients in Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati, has been recently shown to possess extensive cardiovascular pharmacological activities. In present study, we examined the effects of Polydatin on the formation of peritoneal macrophage-derived foam cells in Apolipoprotein E gene knockout mice (ApoE−/−) and explored the potential underlying mechanisms. Peritoneal macrophages were collected from ApoE−/− mice and cultured in vitro. These cells sequentially were divided into four groups: Control group, Model group, Lovastatin group, and Polydatin group. Our results demonstrated that Polydatin significantly inhibits the formation of foam cells derived from peritoneal macrophages. Further studies indicated that Polydatin regulates the metabolism of intracellular lipid and possesses anti-inflammatory effects, which may be regulated through the PPAR-γ signaling pathways. PMID:26557864

  8. Complexity and Challenges in Defining Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Damuzzo, Vera; Pinton, Laura; Desantis, Giacomo; Solito, Samantha; Marigo, Ilaria; Bronte, Vincenzo; Mandruzzato, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Study of myeloid cells endowed with suppressive activity is an active field of research which has particular importance in cancer, in view of the negative regulatory capacity of these cells to the host's immune response. The expansion of these cells, called myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), has been documented in many models of tumor-bearing mice and in patients with tumors of various origin, and their presence is associated with disease progression and reduced survival. For this reason, monitoring this type of cell expansion is of clinical importance, and flow cytometry is the technique of choice for their identification. Over the years, it has been demonstrated that MDSCs comprise a group of immature myeloid cells belonging both to monocytic and granulocytic lineages, with several stages of differentiation; their occurrence depends on tumor-derived soluble factors, which guide their expansion and determine their block of differentiation. Because of their heterogeneous composition, accurate phenotyping of these cells requires a multicolor approach, so that the expansion of all MDSC subsets can be appreciated. This review article focuses on identifying MDSCs and discusses problems associated with phenotyping circulating and tumor-associated MDSCs in humans and in mouse models. © 2014 The Authors Cytometry Part B: Clinical Cytometry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25504825

  9. Clinical applications of blood-derived and marrow-derived stem cells for nonmalignant diseases.

    PubMed

    Burt, Richard K; Loh, Yvonne; Pearce, William; Beohar, Nirat; Barr, Walter G; Craig, Robert; Wen, Yanting; Rapp, Jonathan A; Kessler, John

    2008-02-27

    Stem cell therapy is rapidly developing and has generated excitement and promise as well as confusion and at times contradictory results in the lay and scientific literature. Many types of stem cells show great promise, but clinical application has lagged due to ethical concerns or difficulties in harvesting or safely and efficiently expanding sufficient quantities. In contrast, clinical indications for blood-derived (from peripheral or umbilical cord blood) and bone marrow-derived stem cells, which can be easily and safely harvested, are rapidly increasing. To summarize new, nonmalignant, nonhematologic clinical indications for use of blood- and bone marrow-derived stem cells. Search of multiple electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index), US Food and Drug Administration [FDA] Drug Site, and National Institutes of Health Web site to identify studies published from January 1997 to December 2007 on use of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in autoimmune, cardiac, or vascular diseases. The search was augmented by hand searching of reference lists in clinical trials, review articles, proceedings booklets, FDA reports, and contact with study authors and device and pharmaceutical companies. Of 926 reports identified, 323 were examined for feasibility and toxicity, including those with small numbers of patients, interim or substudy reports, and reports on multiple diseases, treatment of relapse, toxicity, mechanism of action, or stem cell mobilization. Another 69 were evaluated for outcomes. For autoimmune diseases, 26 reports representing 854 patients reported treatment-related mortality of less than 1% (2/220 patients) for nonmyeloablative, less than 2% (3/197) for dose-reduced myeloablative, and 13% (13/100) for intense myeloablative regimens, ie, those including total body irradiation or high-dose busulfan. While all trials performed during the inflammatory stage of autoimmune disease suggested that transplantation of HSCs may have a potent disease

  10. Paracrine Engineering of Human Explant-Derived Cardiac Stem Cells to Over-Express Stromal-Cell Derived Factor 1α Enhances Myocardial Repair.

    PubMed

    Tilokee, Everad L; Latham, Nicholas; Jackson, Robyn; Mayfield, Audrey E; Ye, Bin; Mount, Seth; Lam, Buu-Khanh; Suuronen, Erik J; Ruel, Marc; Stewart, Duncan J; Davis, Darryl R

    2016-07-01

    First generation cardiac stem cell products provide indirect cardiac repair but variably produce key cardioprotective cytokines, such as stromal-cell derived factor 1α, which opens the prospect of maximizing up-front paracrine-mediated repair. The mesenchymal subpopulation within explant derived human cardiac stem cells underwent lentiviral mediated gene transfer of stromal-cell derived factor 1α. Unlike previous unsuccessful attempts to increase efficacy by boosting the paracrine signature of cardiac stem cells, cytokine profiling revealed that stromal-cell derived factor 1α over-expression prevented lv-mediated "loss of cytokines" through autocrine stimulation of CXCR4+ cardiac stem cells. Stromal-cell derived factor 1α enhanced angiogenesis and stem cell recruitment while priming cardiac stem cells to readily adopt a cardiac identity. As compared to injection with unmodified cardiac stem cells, transplant of stromal-cell derived factor 1α enhanced cells into immunodeficient mice improved myocardial function and angiogenesis while reducing scarring. Increases in myocardial stromal-cell derived factor 1α content paralleled reductions in myocyte apoptosis but did not influence long-term engraftment or the fate of transplanted cells. Transplantation of stromal-cell derived factor 1α transduced cardiac stem cells increased the generation of new myocytes, recruitment of bone marrow cells, new myocyte/vessel formation and the salvage of reversibly damaged myocardium to enhance cardiac repair after experimental infarction. Stem Cells 2016;34:1826-1835. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  11. Alternative generation of CNS neural stem cells and PNS derivatives from neural crest-derived peripheral stem cells.

    PubMed

    Weber, Marlen; Apostolova, Galina; Widera, Darius; Mittelbronn, Michel; Dechant, Georg; Kaltschmidt, Barbara; Rohrer, Hermann

    2015-02-01

    Neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) from the embryonic peripheral nervous system (PNS) can be reprogrammed in neurosphere (NS) culture to rNCSCs that produce central nervous system (CNS) progeny, including myelinating oligodendrocytes. Using global gene expression analysis we now demonstrate that rNCSCs completely lose their previous PNS characteristics and acquire the identity of neural stem cells derived from embryonic spinal cord. Reprogramming proceeds rapidly and results in a homogenous population of Olig2-, Sox3-, and Lex-positive CNS stem cells. Low-level expression of pluripotency inducing genes Oct4, Nanog, and Klf4 argues against a transient pluripotent state during reprogramming. The acquisition of CNS properties is prevented in the presence of BMP4 (BMP NCSCs) as shown by marker gene expression and the potential to produce PNS neurons and glia. In addition, genes characteristic for mesenchymal and perivascular progenitors are expressed, which suggests that BMP NCSCs are directed toward a pericyte progenitor/mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) fate. Adult NCSCs from mouse palate, an easily accessible source of adult NCSCs, display strikingly similar properties. They do not generate cells with CNS characteristics but lose the neural crest markers Sox10 and p75 and produce MSC-like cells. These findings show that embryonic NCSCs acquire a full CNS identity in NS culture. In contrast, MSC-like cells are generated from BMP NCSCs and pNCSCs, which reveals that postmigratory NCSCs are a source for MSC-like cells up to the adult stage.

  12. Signaling role of oligogalacturonides derived during cell wall degradation

    PubMed Central

    Vallarino, José G.; Osorio, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    In addition to the role of the cell wall as a physical barrier against pathogens, some of its constituents, such as pectin-derived oligogalacturonides (OGAs) are essential components to trigger signaling pathways that induce rapid defense responses. Many pathogens directly penetrate the cell wall to access water and nutrients of the plant protoplast, and a rigid cell wall can fend off pathogen attack by forming an impenetrable physical barrier. Thus, cell wall integrity sensing is one mechanism by which plants may detect pathogen attack. Moreover, when the plant-pathogen interaction occurred, OGAs released during cell wall modification can trigger plant defense (e.g., production of reactive oxygen species, production of anti-microbial metabolites and synthesis of pathogenesis-related proteins). This review documents and discusses studies suggesting that OGAs play a dual signaling role during pathogen attack by inducing defense responses and plant architecture adjustment. PMID:22918501

  13. Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells for Myocardial Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Hyung Joon; Kim, Jong-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, stem cell therapy has been extensively studied for clinical application for heart diseases. Among various stem cells, adipose tissue-derived stem cell (ADSC) is still an attractive stem cell resource due to its abundance and easy accessibility. In vitro studies showed the multipotent differentiation potentials of ADSC, even differentiation into cardiomyocytes. Many pre-clinical animal studies have also demonstrated promising therapeutic results of ADSC. Furthermore, there were several clinical trials showing the positive results in acute myocardial infarction using ADSC. The present article covers the brief introduction, the suggested therapeutic mechanisms, application methods including cell dose and delivery, and human clinical trials of ADSC for myocardial regeneration. PMID:28382066

  14. Rhodacyanine derivative selectively targets cancer cells and overcomes tamoxifen resistance.

    PubMed

    Koren, John; Miyata, Yoshinari; Kiray, Janine; O'Leary, John C; Nguyen, Lana; Guo, Jianping; Blair, Laura J; Li, Xiaokai; Li, Xiokai; Jinwal, Umesh K; Cheng, Jin Q; Gestwicki, Jason E; Dickey, Chad A

    2012-01-01

    MKT-077, a rhodacyanine dye, was shown to produce cancer specific cell death. However, complications prevented the use of this compound beyond clinical trials. Here we describe YM-1, a derivative of MKT-077. We found that YM-1 was more cytotoxic and localized differently than MKT-077. YM-1 demonstrated this cytotoxicity across multiple cancer cell lines. This toxicity was limited to cancer cell lines; immortalized cell models were unaffected. Brief applications of YM-1 were found to be non-toxic. Brief treatment with YM-1 restored tamoxifen sensitivity to a refractory tamoxifen-resistant MCF7 cell model. This effect is potentially due to altered estrogen receptor alpha phosphorylation, an outcome precipitated by selective reductions in Akt levels (Akt/PKB). Thus, modifications to the rhodocyanine scaffold could potentially be made to improve efficacy and pharmacokinetic properties. Moreover, the impact on tamoxifen sensitivity could be a new utility for this compound family.

  15. [Derivation of germ cells from mouse embryonic stem cells in culture].

    PubMed

    Fuhrmann, G

    2005-10-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cells derive from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst and give rise to the three primitive embryonic layers, which later will form all the different tissue types of an adult. Embryonic stem cells are thus defined as totipotent cells. In vitro, these cells can give rise to all the somatic cells. Different laboratories have now shown that cultured embryonic stem cells can also differentiate into germline cells. By using the transcription factor Oct-4 as a tool for the visualization of germ cells, it has been shown the derivation of oocytes from mouse embryonic stem cells. These works should contribute to various areas, including therapeutic cloning which associates nuclear transfer and selective production of a specific cell type.

  16. Restoration of WNT4 inhibits cell growth in leukemia-derived cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background WNT signaling pathways are significantly altered during cancer development. Vertebrates possess two classes of WNT signaling pathways: the “canonical” WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway, and the “non-canonical” pathways including WNT/Ca2+ and WNT/Planar cell polarity [PCP] signaling. WNT4 influences hematopoietic progenitor cell expansion and survival; however, WNT4 function in cancer development and the resulting implications for oncogenesis are poorly understood. The aim of this study was twofold: first, to determine the expression of WNT4 in mature peripheral blood cells and diverse leukemia-derived cells including cell lines from hematopoietic neoplasms and cells from patients with leukemia; second, to identify the effect of this ligand on the proliferation and apoptosis of the blast-derived cell lines BJAB, Jurkat, CEM, K562, and HL60. Methods We determined WNT4 expression by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and T- and B-lymphocytes from healthy individuals, as well as from five leukemia-derived cell lines and blasts derived from patients with leukemia. To analyze the effect of WNT4 on cell proliferation, PBMCs and cell lines were exposed to a commercially available WNT4 recombinant human protein. Furthermore, WNT4 expression was restored in BJAB cells using an inducible lentiviral expression system. Cell viability and proliferation were measured by the addition of WST-1 to cell cultures and counting cells; in addition, the progression of the cell cycle and the amount of apoptosis were analyzed in the absence or presence of WNT4. Finally, the expression of WNT-pathway target genes was measured by qRT-PCR. Results WNT4 expression was severely reduced in leukemia-derived cell lines and blasts derived from patients with leukemia. The exposure of cell lines to WNT4 recombinant protein significantly inhibited cell proliferation; inducing WNT4 expression in BJAB

  17. Derivation of Patient Specific Pluripotent Stem Cells Using Clinically Discarded Cumulus Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jie; Lin, Chen-Ju; Wang, Sheng-Wen; Cheng, An-Sheng; Lu, Jean; Lu, Chung-Hao; Sung, Li-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are powerful tools for basic and translational research, as well as regenerative medicine. In routine human in vitro fertilization (IVF) practices, cumulus cells (CCs) are discarded, representing a potential source of biological materials for regenerative medicine. In this study, we derived patient-specific iPSCs using CCs from human infertility clinics for the first time. The human cumulus cell derived iPSCs (hc-iPSCs) were characterized for growth, karyotype, expression of pluripotency genes, and were subjected to embryoid bodies (EBs) and teratoma assays to evaluate their differentiation capacity. Hc-iPSCs display typical iPSC characteristics, and are capable of differentiating into all germ layers in vitro and in vivo. We further show that putative primordial germ cell like cells (PGCLCs) can be derived using hc-iPSCs. Our data demonstrate the feasibility of deriving patient-specific pluripotent stem cells using CCs. PMID:27802323

  18. Myocardial regeneration potential of adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xiaowen; Alt, Eckhard

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving tremendous attention from basic scientists and clinicians and hold great promise for myocardial regeneration. {yields} For practical reasons, human adipose tissue-derived stem cells are attractive stem cells for future clinical application in repairing damaged myocardium. {yields} This review summarizes the characteristics of cultured and freshly isolated stem cells obtained from adipose tissue, their myocardial regeneration potential and the, underlying mechanisms, and safety issues. -- Abstract: Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving attention from basic scientists and clinicians as they hold promise for myocardial regeneration. For practical reasons, adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are attractive cells for clinical application in repairing damaged myocardium based on the following advantages: abundant adipose tissue in most patients and easy accessibility with minimally invasive lipoaspiration procedure. Several recent studies have demonstrated that both cultured and freshly isolated ASCs could improve cardiac function in animal model of myocardial infarction. The mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of ASCs on myocardial regeneration are not fully understood. Growing evidence indicates that transplantation of ASCs improve cardiac function via the differentiation into cardiomyocytes and vascular cells, and through paracrine pathways. Paracrine factors secreted by injected ASCs enhance angiogenesis, reduce cell apoptosis rates, and promote neuron sprouts in damaged myocardium. In addition, Injection of ASCs increases electrical stability of the injured heart. Furthermore, there are no reported cases of arrhythmia or tumorigenesis in any studies regarding myocardial regeneration with ASCs. This review summarizes the characteristics of both cultured and freshly isolated stem cells obtained from adipose tissue, their myocardial regeneration potential, and the

  19. Origins of the breast milk-derived cells; an endeavor to find the cell sources.

    PubMed

    Sani, Mahsa; Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba; Salmannejad, Mahin; Aleahmad, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi, Sepideh; Jahanshahi, Samira; Talaei-Khozani, Tahereh

    2015-05-01

    Fresh human breast milk consists of a heterogeneous population of cells that may offer a non-invasive source of cells for therapeutic proposes. The aims of this study were to characterize the breast milk-derived cells cultured in vitro. To do this, the cells from human breast milk were cultured and the expression of the CD markers along with the embryonic stem cell markers, endothelial and luminal mammary epithelial cell markers was evaluated by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. The presence of fetal microchimerism among the isolated cells was also determined by the presence of SRY gene. They were also differentiated into adipocytes and osteoblasts. The results showed that a remarkable number of cells expressed the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers such as CD90, CD44, CD271, and CD146. A subpopulation of the human breast milk-derived cells (HBMDC) also expressed the embryonic stem cell markers, such as TRA 60-1, Oct4, Nanog and Sox2 but not SSEA1 or 4. The frequencies of the cells which expressed the endothelial, hematopoietic cell markers were negligible. SRY gene was not detected in the breast milk isolated cells. A subpopulation of the cells also expressed cytokeratin 18, the marker of luminal mammary epithelial cells. These cells showed the capability to differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts. In conclusion, these finding highlighted the presence of cells with various sources in the breast milk. Different stem cells including MSCs or embryonic stem cell-like cell along with the exfoliated cells from luminal epithelial cells were found among the isolated cells. The breast milk-derived stem cells might be considered as a non-invasive source of the stem cells for therapeutic purpose.

  20. Histamine release from human buffy coat-derived mast cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian Song; Lau, Hang Yung Alaster

    2007-04-01

    Mast cells are unique immune cells that release a spectrum of chemical mediators contributing to the inflammatory symptoms of allergic disorders. Although mast cell biology has been extensively studied in the rodents, research on human mast cells is hampered by the lack of a convenient preparation source. This problem has now been addressed by culturing human mast cells from CD34(+) progenitors. We have recently discovered that human buffy coat preparations from local blood banks are an abundant and convenient source of progenitors for culturing mature mast cells which express functional high affinity IgE receptors and contain histamine and tryptase in their granules. In the current study, we further characterize these buffy coat-derived mast cells by studying their responses to common mast cell secretagogues and stabilizers. Mature human mast cells were obtained by culturing isolated progenitors in methylcellulose containing stem cell factor (SCF), IL-3 and IL-6 for 6 weeks and subsequently in liquid medium containing SCF and IL-6 for another 6 to 8 weeks. Following sensitisation with human IgE, these cells released histamine dose-dependently upon activation by anti-IgE and calcium ionophores while compound 48/80 and substance P were relatively ineffective. When the effects of anti-asthmatic agents on anti-IgE-induced mediator release from these cells were compared, only the beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists and phosphodiesterase inhibitors produced dose-dependent inhibition but not cromolyn or nedocromil. In total, mast cells cultured from human buffy coat progenitors shared similar functional properties of MC(T) subtype of mast cells found predominantly in human lung parenchyma and intestinal mucosa.

  1. BMP4 can generate primordial germ cells from bone-marrow-derived pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Reza; Zarnani, Amir Hassan; Soleimani, Masoud; Abdolvahabi, Mir Abbas; Nayernia, Karim; Ragerdi Kashani, Iraj

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of germ cell derivation from embryonic and somatic stem cells provides an in vitro model for the study of germ cell development, associated epigenetic modification and mammalian gametogenesis. More importantly, in vitro derived gametes also represent a potential strategy for treating infertility. In mammals, male and female gametes, oocyte and sperm, are derived from a specific cell population, PGCs (primordial germ cells) that segregate early in embryogenesis. We have isolated pluripotent SSEA-1+ (stage-specific embryonic antigen-1+) cells from mice bone marrow using a MACS (magnetic-activated cell sorting) system. SSEA-1+ cells were directly separated from the suspension of MMCs (murine mononuclear cells) harvested from bone marrow of 2-4-week-old mice. Flow-cytometry assay immediately after sorting and culturing under undifferentiated condition showed 55±7% and 87±4% purity respectively. RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) analysis after differentiation of SSEA-1+ cells into derivations of three germ layers showed the pluripotency properties of isolated cells. SSEA-1+ cells were induced to differentiate along germ cell lineage by adding BMP4 (bone morphogenic factor-4) to the medium. Regarding the expression of germ cell markers (PGCs, male and female germ cell lineage), it was found that adding exogenous BMP4 to culture medium could differentiate pluripotent SSEA-1+ cells isolated from an adult tissue into gamete precursors, PGCs. Differentiated cells expressed specific molecular markers of PGCs, including Oct4, fragilis, Stella and Mvh (mouse vasa homologue). Therefore BMP4 is insufficient to induce SSEA-1+ cells derived from PGCs to develop further into late germ cells in vitro.

  2. Tissues Derived From Reprogrammed Wharton's Jelly Stem Cells of the Umbilical Cord Provide an Ideal Platform to Study the Effects of Glucose, Zika Virus, and Other Agents on the Fetus.

    PubMed

    Fong, Chui-Yee; Biswas, Arijit; Stunkel, Walter; Chong, Yap-Seng; Bongso, Ariff

    2017-03-01

    The infants of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. It has been difficult to study the direct effects of maternal hyperglycemia on the fetus because of inaccessibility of fetal tissues. The development of tissues that simulate the function of fetal organs using stem cell technology provides an unprecedented opportunity to study this disorder. Stem cells in the Wharton's jelly of the umbilical cord (hWJSCs), possess unique properties that are different from other stem cells. They are primitive, present in large numbers, non-tumorigenic, hypoimmunogenic, tumoricidal, and carry a genetic signature that represents the fetus. They are multipotent but their differentiation into functional pancreatic and cardiovascular tissues has been challenging. We have been able to reprogram hWJSCs from normal and GDM cords into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from which a variety of functional fetal tissues including insulin-producing and cardiovascular tissues could be derived. Such tissues from reprogrammed hWJSCs of normal and GDM cords that physiologically and genetically mimic the fetus of the diabetic or non-diabetic mother are an ideal platform to study the effects of glucose, the Zika virus, and other harmful agents on the fetus. The immature stemness phenotype of hWJSCs, easy accessibility, availability in large numbers without the need for propagation, and lower risk of accumulation of epigenetic mutations make them the most attractive candidate over other umbilical cord cell types for reprogramming. Additionally, some of their beneficial genes may be retained in memory in the iPSCs derived from them. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 437-441, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Antigen presentation by monocytes and monocyte-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Gwendalyn J; Jakubzick, Claudia; Qu, Chunfeng

    2008-02-01

    Monocytes are circulating mononuclear phagocytes with a fundamental capacity to differentiate into macrophages. This differentiation can, in the presence of the right environmental cues, be re-directed instead to dendritic cells (DCs). Recent advances have been made in understanding the role of monocytes and their derivatives in presenting antigen to drive immune responses, and we review this topic herein. We briefly discuss the heterogeneity of monocytes in the blood and subsequently raise the possibility that one of the major monocyte phenotypes in the blood corresponds with a population of 'blood DCs' previously proposed to drive T-independent antibody reactions in the spleen. Then we evaluate the role of monocytes in T-dependent immunity, considering their role in acquiring antigens for presentation before exiting the bloodstream and their ability to differentiate into macrophages versus antigen-presenting DCs. Finally, we review recent literature on the role of monocyte-derived cells in cross-presentation and discuss the possibility that monocyte-derived cells participate critically in processing antigen for cross-priming, even if they do not present that antigen to T cells themselves.

  4. Adipose lineage specification of bone marrow-derived myeloid cells

    PubMed Central

    Majka, Susan M.; Miller, Heidi L.; Sullivan, Timothy; Erickson, Paul F.; Kong, Raymond; Weiser-Evans, Mary; Nemenoff, Raphael; Moldovan, Radu; Morandi, Shelley A.; Davis, James A.; Klemm, Dwight J.

    2012-01-01

    We have reported the production of white adipocytes in adipose tissue from hematopoietic progenitors arising from bone marrow. However, technical challenges have hindered detection of this adipocyte population by certain other laboratories. These disparate results highlight the need for sensitive and definitive techniques to identify bone marrow progenitor (BMP)-derived adipocytes. In these studies we exploited new models and methods to enhance detection of this adipocyte population. Here we showed that confocal microscopy with spectrum acquisition could effectively identify green fluorescent protein (GFP) positive BMP-derived adipocytes by matching their fluorescence spectrum to that of native GFP. Likewise, imaging flow cytometry made it possible to visualize intact unilocular and multilocular GFP-positive BMP-derived adipocytes and distinguished them from non-fluorescent adipocytes and cell debris in the cytometer flow stream. We also devised a strategy to detect marker genes in flow-enriched adipocytes from which stromal cells were excluded. This technique also proved to be an efficient means for detecting genetically labeled adipocytes and should be applicable to models in which marker gene expression is low or absent. Finally, in vivo imaging of mice transplanted with BM from adipocyte-targeted luciferase donors showed a time-dependent increase in luciferase activity, with the bulk of luciferase activity confined to adipocytes rather than stromal cells. These results confirmed and extended our previous reports and provided proof-of-principle for sensitive techniques and models for detection and study of these unique cells. PMID:23700536

  5. Fullerene derivatives as electron acceptors for organic photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Mi, Dongbo; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hee Un; Xu, Fei; Hwang, Do-Hoon

    2014-02-01

    Energy is currently one of the most important problems humankind faces. Depletion of traditional energy sources such as coal and oil results in the need to develop new ways to create, transport, and store electricity. In this regard, the sun, which can be considered as a giant nuclear fusion reactor, represents the most powerful source of energy available in our solar system. For photovoltaic cells to gain widespread acceptance as a source of clean and renewable energy, the cost per watt of solar energy must be decreased. Organic photovoltaic cells, developed in the past two decades, have potential as alternatives to traditional inorganic semiconductor photovoltaic cells, which suffer from high environmental pollution and energy consumption during production. Organic photovoltaic cells are composed of a blended film of a conjugated-polymer donor and a soluble fullerene-derivative acceptor sandwiched between a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)-coated indium tin oxide positive electrode and a low-work-function metal negative electrode. Considerable research efforts aim at designing and synthesizing novel fullerene derivatives as electron acceptors with up-raised lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy, better light-harvesting properties, higher electron mobility, and better miscibility with the polymer donor for improving the power conversion efficiency of the organic photovoltaic cells. In this paper, we systematically review novel fullerene acceptors synthesized through chemical modification for enhancing the photovoltaic performance by increasing open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, and fill factor, which determine the performance of organic photovoltaic cells.

  6. Immunological Applications of Stem Cells in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Voltarelli, Julio; Zavazava, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Current approaches aiming to cure type 1 diabetes (T1D) have made a negligible number of patients insulin-independent. In this review, we revisit the role of stem cell (SC)-based applications in curing T1D. The optimal therapeutic approach for T1D should ideally preserve the remaining β-cells, restore β-cell function, and protect the replaced insulin-producing cells from autoimmunity. SCs possess immunological and regenerative properties that could be harnessed to improve the treatment of T1D; indeed, SCs may reestablish peripheral tolerance toward β-cells through reshaping of the immune response and inhibition of autoreactive T-cell function. Furthermore, SC-derived insulin-producing cells are capable of engrafting and reversing hyperglycemia in mice. Bone marrow mesenchymal SCs display a hypoimmunogenic phenotype as well as a broad range of immunomodulatory capabilities, they have been shown to cure newly diabetic nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, and they are currently undergoing evaluation in two clinical trials. Cord blood SCs have been shown to facilitate the generation of regulatory T cells, thereby reverting hyperglycemia in NOD mice. T1D patients treated with cord blood SCs also did not show any adverse reaction in the absence of major effects on glycometabolic control. Although hematopoietic SCs rarely revert hyperglycemia in NOD mice, they exhibit profound immunomodulatory properties in humans; newly hyperglycemic T1D patients have been successfully reverted to normoglycemia with autologous nonmyeloablative hematopoietic SC transplantation. Finally, embryonic SCs also offer exciting prospects because they are able to generate glucose-responsive insulin-producing cells. Easy enthusiasm should be mitigated mainly because of the potential oncogenicity of SCs. PMID:21862682

  7. Applicability of tooth derived stem cells in neural regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Parisi, Ludovica; Manfredi, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Within the nervous system, regeneration is limited, and this is due to the small amount of neural stem cells, the inhibitory origin of the stem cell niche and often to the development of a scar which constitutes a mechanical barrier for the regeneration. Regarding these aspects, many efforts have been done in the research of a cell component that combined with scaffolds and growth factors could be suitable for nervous regeneration in regenerative medicine approaches. Autologous mesenchymal stem cells represent nowadays the ideal candidate for this aim, thank to their multipotency and to their amount inside adult tissues. However, issues in their harvesting, through the use of invasive techniques, and problems involved in their ageing, require the research of new autologous sources. To this purpose, the recent discovery of a stem cells component in teeth, and which derive from neural crest cells, has came to the light the possibility of using dental stem cells in nervous system regeneration. In this work, in order to give guidelines on the use of dental stem cells for neural regeneration, we briefly introduce the concepts of regeneration and regenerative medicine, we then focus the attention on odontogenesis, which involves the formation and the presence of a stem component in different parts of teeth, and finally we describe some experimental approaches which are exploiting dental stem cells for neural studies. PMID:28123398

  8. Functional signature of human islet-derived precursor cells compared to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Limbert, Catarina; Ebert, Regina; Schilling, Tatjana; Path, Gunter; Benisch, Peggy; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Seufert, Jochen; Jakob, Franz

    2010-05-01

    Pancreatic islet beta-cell replenishment can be driven by epithelial cells from exocrine pancreas via epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the reverse process MET, while specified pancreatic mesenchymal cells control islet cell development and maintenance. The role of human islet-derived precursor cells (hIPCs) in regeneration and support of endocrine islets is under investigation. Here, we analyzed hIPCs as to their immunophenotype, multilineage differentiation capacity, and gene profiling, in comparison to human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs). hIPCs and hBM-MSCs display a common mesenchymal character and express lineage-specific marker genes upon induction toward pancreatic endocrine and mesenchymal pathways of differentiation. hIPCs can go further along endocrine pathways while lacking some core mesenchymal differentiation attributes. Significance analysis of microarray (SAM) from 5 hBM-MSC and 3 hIPC donors mirrored such differences. Candidate gene cluster analysis disclosed differential expression of key lineage regulators, indicated a HoxA gene-associated positional memory in hIPCs and hBM-MSCs, and showed as well a clear transition state from mesenchyme to epithelium or vice versa in hIPCs. Our findings raise new research platforms to further clarify the potential of hIPCs to undergo complete MET thus contributing to islet cell replenishment, maintenance, and function.

  9. Comparative study of adipose-derived stem cells and bone marrow-derived stem cells in similar microenvironmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Guneta, Vipra; Tan, Nguan Soon; Chan, Soon Kiat Jeremy; Tanavde, Vivek; Lim, Thiam Chye; Wong, Thien Chong Marcus; Choong, Cleo

    2016-11-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which were first isolated from the bone marrow, are now being extracted from various other tissues in the body, including the adipose tissue. The current study presents systematic evidence of how the adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Bm-MSCs) behave when cultured in specific pro-adipogenic microenvironments. The cells were first characterized and identified as MSCs in terms of their morphology, phenotypic expression, self-renewal capabilities and multi-lineage potential. Subsequently, the proliferation and gene expression profiles of the cell populations cultured on two-dimensional (2D) adipose tissue extracellular matrix (ECM)-coated tissue culture plastic (TCP) and in three-dimensional (3D) AlgiMatrix® microenvironments were analyzed. Overall, it was found that adipogenesis was triggered in both cell populations due to the presence of adipose tissue ECM. However, in 3D microenvironments, ASCs and Bm-MSCs were predisposed to the adipogenic and osteogenic lineages respectively. Overall, findings from this study will contribute to ongoing efforts in adipose tissue engineering as well as provide new insights into the role of the ECM and cues provided by the immediate microenvironment for stem cell differentiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Adipose Tissue Derived Stem Cells Promote Prostate Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Prantl, Lukas; Muehlberg, Fabian; Navone, Nora M.; Song, Yao-Hua; Vykoukal, Jody; Logothetis, Christopher J.; Alt, Eckhard U.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recent evidence indicates that cancer stem cells play an important role in tumor initiation and maintenance. Additionally, the effect of tissue-resident stem cells located in the surrounding healthy tissue on tumor progression has been demonstrated. While most knowledge has been derived from studies of breast cancer cells, little is known regarding the influence of tissue resident stem cells on the tumor biology of prostate cancer. METHODS Twenty male athymic Swiss nu/nu mice (age: 6–8 weeks) were randomized into two treatment groups: 1) subcutaneous injection of 106 MDA PCa 118b human prostate cancer cells into the upper back or 2) subcutaneous injection of 106 MDA PCa 118b cells mixed directly with 105 GFP-labeled human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASCs). Tumor growth and volumes over the ensuing 3 weeks were assessed using calipers and micro-computed tomography. Immunohistochemistry was performed to identify engrafted hASCs in tumor sections. RESULTS At 3 weeks after injection, the mean tumor volume in the MDA PCa 118b/hASC co-injection group (1019.95 ± 73.49 mm3) was significantly higher than that in the MDA PCa 118b-only group (308.70 ± 21.06 mm3). Engrafted hASCs exhibited the nuclear marker of proliferation Ki67 and expressed markers for endothelial differentiation, indicating their engraftment in tumor vessels. CONCLUSION Our study revealed for the first time that ASCs subcutaneously co-injected with prostate cancer cells engraft and promote tumor progression. Further evaluation of the cross-talk between tumor and local tissue-resident stem cells may lead to new strategies for prostate cancer therapy. PMID:20564322

  11. Amniotic fluid-derived stem cells as a cell source for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Márcia T; Lee, Sang Jin; Gomes, Manuela E; Reis, Rui L; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J

    2012-12-01

    In tissue engineering, stem cells have become an ideal cell source that can differentiate into most human cell types. Among the stem cells, bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) have been widely studied, and there is strong evidence that these cells can be differentiated into cells of the osteogenic lineage. Thus, BMSCs have become the gold standard for studies of tissue engineering in orthopedics. However, novel stem cell sources, such as amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSCs) have been identified, and these have important and unique features that may lead to novel and successful applications toward the regeneration of bone tissue. This study was designed to originally compare the osteogenic potential of both BMSCs and AFSCs under distinct culture environments to determine whether the osteogenic differentiation process of both types of stem cells is related to the origin of the cells. Osteogenic differentiation was carried out in both two and three dimensions using a tissue culture plate and by means of seeding the cells onto microfibrous starch and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) scaffolds (a blend of starch and polycaprolactone), respectively. BMSCs and AFSCs were successfully differentiated into the osteogenic cell type, as cells derived from them produced a mineralized extracellular matrix. Nevertheless, the two types of cells presented different expression patterns of bone-related markers as well as different timing of differentiation, indicating that both cell origin and the culture environment have a significant impact on the differentiation into the osteogenic phenotype in AFSCs and BMSCs.

  12. Clonal amniotic fluid-derived stem cells express characteristics of both mesenchymal and neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Song; Hwang, Shiaw-Min; Tsai, Yieh-Loong; Cheng, Fu-Chou; Lee, Jia-Ling; Chang, Yu-Jen

    2006-03-01

    Recent evidence has shown that amniotic fluid may be a novel source of fetal stem cells for therapeutic transplantation. We previously developed a two-stage culture protocol to isolate a population of amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSCs) from second-trimester amniocentesis. AFMSCs maintain the capacity to differentiate into multiple mesenchymal lineages and neuron-like cells. It is unclear whether amniotic fluid contains heterogeneous populations of stem cells or a subpopulation of primitive stem cells that are similar to marrow stromal cells showing the behavior of neural progenitors. In this study, we showed a subpopulation of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AF-SCs) at the single-cell level by limiting dilution. We found that NANOG- and POU5F1 (also known as OCT4)-expressing cells still existed in the expanded single cell-derived AF-SCs. Aside from the common mesenchymal characteristics, these clonal AF-SCs also exhibit multiple phenotypes of neural-derived cells such as NES, TUBB3, NEFH, NEUNA60, GALC, and GFAP expressions both before and after neural induction. Most importantly, HPLC analysis showed the evidence of dopamine release in the extract of dopaminergic-induced clonal AF-SCs. The results of this study suggest that besides being an easily accessible and expandable source of fetal stem cells, amniotic fluid will provide a promising source of neural progenitor cells that may be used in future cellular therapies for neurodegenerative diseases and nervous system injuries.

  13. Hair regeneration using adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Su-Eon; Sung, Jong-Hyuk

    2016-03-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been used in tissue repair and regeneration. Recently, it was reported that ASC transplantation promotes hair growth in animal experiments, and a conditioned medium of ASCs (ASC-CM) induced the proliferation of hair-compositing cells in vitro. However, ASCs and their conditioned medium have shown limited effectiveness in clinical settings. ASC preconditioning is one strategy that can be used to enhance the efficacy of ASCs and ASC-CM. Therefore, we highlighted the functional role of ASCs in hair cycle progression and also the advantages and disadvantages of their application in hair regeneration. In addition, we introduced novel ASC preconditioning methods to enhance hair regeneration using ASC stimulators, such as vitamin C, platelet-derived growth factor, hypoxia, and ultraviolet B.

  14. Inferring time derivatives including cell growth rates using Gaussian processes

    PubMed Central

    Swain, Peter S.; Stevenson, Keiran; Leary, Allen; Montano-Gutierrez, Luis F.; Clark, Ivan B.N.; Vogel, Jackie; Pilizota, Teuta

    2016-01-01

    Often the time derivative of a measured variable is of as much interest as the variable itself. For a growing population of biological cells, for example, the population's growth rate is typically more important than its size. Here we introduce a non-parametric method to infer first and second time derivatives as a function of time from time-series data. Our approach is based on Gaussian processes and applies to a wide range of data. In tests, the method is at least as accurate as others, but has several advantages: it estimates errors both in the inference and in any summary statistics, such as lag times, and allows interpolation with the corresponding error estimation. As illustrations, we infer growth rates of microbial cells, the rate of assembly of an amyloid fibril and both the speed and acceleration of two separating spindle pole bodies. Our algorithm should thus be broadly applicable. PMID:27941811

  15. Inferring time derivatives including cell growth rates using Gaussian processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, Peter S.; Stevenson, Keiran; Leary, Allen; Montano-Gutierrez, Luis F.; Clark, Ivan B. N.; Vogel, Jackie; Pilizota, Teuta

    2016-12-01

    Often the time derivative of a measured variable is of as much interest as the variable itself. For a growing population of biological cells, for example, the population's growth rate is typically more important than its size. Here we introduce a non-parametric method to infer first and second time derivatives as a function of time from time-series data. Our approach is based on Gaussian processes and applies to a wide range of data. In tests, the method is at least as accurate as others, but has several advantages: it estimates errors both in the inference and in any summary statistics, such as lag times, and allows interpolation with the corresponding error estimation. As illustrations, we infer growth rates of microbial cells, the rate of assembly of an amyloid fibril and both the speed and acceleration of two separating spindle pole bodies. Our algorithm should thus be broadly applicable.

  16. Human and mouse adipose-derived cells support feeder-independent induction of pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Sugii, Shigeki; Kida, Yasuyuki; Kawamura, Teruhisa; Suzuki, Jotaro; Vassena, Rita; Yin, Yun-Qiang; Lutz, Margaret K.; Berggren, W. Travis; Izpisúa Belmonte, Juan Carlos; Evans, Ronald M.

    2010-01-01

    Although adipose tissue is an expandable and readily attainable source of proliferating, multipotent stem cells, its potential for use in regenerative medicine has not been extensively explored. Here we report that adult human and mouse adipose-derived stem cells can be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells with substantially higher efficiencies than those reported for human and mouse fibroblasts. Unexpectedly, both human and mouse iPS cells can be obtained in feeder-free conditions. We discovered that adipose-derived stem cells intrinsically express high levels of pluripotency factors such as basic FGF, TGFβ, fibronectin, and vitronectin and can serve as feeders for both autologous and heterologous pluripotent cells. These results demonstrate a great potential for adipose-derived cells in regenerative therapeutics and as a model for studying the molecular mechanisms of feeder-free iPS generation and maintenance. PMID:20133714

  17. Skin-derived stem cells as a source of primordial germ cell- and oocyte-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Wei; Cheng, Shun-Feng; Dyce, Paul W; De Felici, Massimo; Shen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The skin is a unique organ that contains a variety of stem cells for the maintenance of skin homeostasis and the repair of skin tissues following injury and disease. Skin-derived stem cells (SDSCs) constitute a heterogeneous population of stem cells generated in vitro from dermis, which can be cultured as spherical aggregates of cells in suspension culture. Under certain in vitro or in vivo conditions, SDSCs show multipotency and can generate a variety of neural, mesodermal, and endodermal cell types such as neurons, glia, fibroblasts, adipocytes, muscle cells, chondroblasts, osteoblats, and islet β-cell-like cells. SDSCs are likely derived from multipotent stem cells located in the hair follicles that are, in turn, derived from embryonic migratory neural crest or mesoderm cells. During the past decade, a wave of reports have shown that germ cells can be generated from various types of stem cells. It has been shown that SDSCs are able to produce primordial germ cell-like cells in vitro, and even oocyte-like cells (OLCs). Whether these germ cell-like cells (GCLCs) can give rise to viable progeny remains, however, unknown. In this review, we will discuss the origin and characteristics of SDSCs from which the GCLC are derived, the possible mechanisms of this differentiation process, and finally the prospective biomedical applications of the SDSC-derived GCLCs. PMID:27831564

  18. Harvesting Technique Affects Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Yield

    PubMed Central

    Iyyanki, Tejaswi; Hubenak, Justin; Liu, Jun; Chang, Edward I.; Beahm, Elisabeth K.; Zhang, Qixu

    2015-01-01

    Background The success of an autologous fat graft depends in part on its total stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). However, variations in the yields of ASCs and SVF cells as a result of different harvesting techniques and donor sites are poorly understood. Objective To investigate the effects of adipose tissue harvesting technique and donor site on the yield of ASCs and SVF cells. Methods Subcutaneous fat tissues from the abdomen, flank, or axilla were harvested from patients of various ages by mechanical liposuction, direct surgical excision, or Coleman's technique with or without centrifugation. Cells were isolated and then analyzed with flow cytometry to determine the yields of total SVF cells and ASCs (CD11b−, CD45−, CD34+, CD90+, D7-FIB+). Differences in ASC and total SVF yields were assessed with one-way analysis of variance. Differentiation experiments were performed to confirm the multilineage potential of cultured SVF cells. Results Compared with Coleman's technique without centrifugation, direct excision yielded significantly more ASCs (P < .001) and total SVF cells (P = .007); liposuction yielded significantly fewer ASCs (P < .001) and total SVF cells (P < .05); and Coleman's technique with centrifugation yielded significantly more total SVF cells (P < .005), but not ASCs. The total number of SVF cells in fat harvested from the abdomen was significantly larger than the number in fat harvested from the flank or axilla (P < .05). Cultured SVF cells differentiated to adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. Conclusions Adipose tissue harvested from the abdomen through direct excision or Coleman's technique with centrifugation was found to yield the most SVF cells and ASCs. PMID:25791999

  19. Muse Cells Derived from Dermal Tissues Can Differentiate into Melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ting; Zhang, Ru-Zhi; Yang, Yu-Hua; Liu, Qi; Li, Di; Pan, Xiao-Ru

    2017-02-07

    The objective of the authors has been to obtain multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring cells (Muse cells) from primary cultures of dermal fibroblasts, identify their pluripotency, and detect their ability to differentiate into melanocytes. The distribution of SSEA-3-positive cells in human scalp skin was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and the distribution of Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, and SSEA-3-positive cells was determined by immunofluorescence staining. The expression levels of Sox2, Oct4, hKlf4, and Nanog mRNAs and proteins in Muse cells were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses and Western blots, respectively. These Muse cells differentiated into melanocytes in differentiation medium. The SSEA-3-positive cells were scattered in the basement membrane zone and the dermis, with comparatively more in the sebaceous glands, vascular and sweat glands, as well as the outer root sheath of hair follicles, the dermal papillae, and the hair bulbs. Muse cells, which have the ability to self-renew, were obtained from scalp dermal fibroblasts by flow cytometry sorting with an anti-SSEA-3 antibody. The results of RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence staining showed that the expression levels of Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, and Klf4 mRNAs and proteins in Muse cells were significantly different from their parental dermal fibroblasts. Muse cells differentiated into melanocytes when cultured in melanocyte differentiation medium, and the Muse cell-derived melanocytes expressed the melanocyte-specific marker HMB45. Muse cells could be obtained by flow cytometry from primary cultures of scalp dermal fibroblasts, which possessed the ability of pluripotency and self-renewal, and could differentiate into melanocytes in vitro.

  20. Tumor microenvironment derived exosomes pleiotropically modulate cancer cell metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongyun; Yang, Lifeng; Baddour, Joelle; Achreja, Abhinav; Bernard, Vincent; Moss, Tyler; Marini, Juan C; Tudawe, Thavisha; Seviour, Elena G; San Lucas, F Anthony; Alvarez, Hector; Gupta, Sonal; Maiti, Sourindra N; Cooper, Laurence; Peehl, Donna; Ram, Prahlad T; Maitra, Anirban; Nagrath, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a major cellular component of tumor microenvironment in most solid cancers. Altered cellular metabolism is a hallmark of cancer, and much of the published literature has focused on neoplastic cell-autonomous processes for these adaptations. We demonstrate that exosomes secreted by patient-derived CAFs can strikingly reprogram the metabolic machinery following their uptake by cancer cells. We find that CAF-derived exosomes (CDEs) inhibit mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, thereby increasing glycolysis and glutamine-dependent reductive carboxylation in cancer cells. Through 13C-labeled isotope labeling experiments we elucidate that exosomes supply amino acids to nutrient-deprived cancer cells in a mechanism similar to macropinocytosis, albeit without the previously described dependence on oncogenic-Kras signaling. Using intra-exosomal metabolomics, we provide compelling evidence that CDEs contain intact metabolites, including amino acids, lipids, and TCA-cycle intermediates that are avidly utilized by cancer cells for central carbon metabolism and promoting tumor growth under nutrient deprivation or nutrient stressed conditions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10250.001 PMID:26920219

  1. Endothelin-1 supports clonal derivation and expansion of cardiovascular progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Soh, Boon-Seng; Ng, Shi-Yan; Wu, Hao; Buac, Kristina; Park, Joo-Hye C; Lian, Xiaojun; Xu, Jiejia; Foo, Kylie S; Felldin, Ulrika; He, Xiaobing; Nichane, Massimo; Yang, Henry; Bu, Lei; Li, Ronald A; Lim, Bing; Chien, Kenneth R

    2016-03-08

    Coronary arteriogenesis is a central step in cardiogenesis, requiring coordinated generation and integration of endothelial cell and vascular smooth muscle cells. At present, it is unclear whether the cell fate programme of cardiac progenitors to generate complex muscular or vascular structures is entirely cell autonomous. Here we demonstrate the intrinsic ability of vascular progenitors to develop and self-organize into cardiac tissues by clonally isolating and expanding second heart field cardiovascular progenitors using WNT3A and endothelin-1 (EDN1) human recombinant proteins. Progenitor clones undergo long-term expansion and differentiate primarily into endothelial and smooth muscle cell lineages in vitro, and contribute extensively to coronary-like vessels in vivo, forming a functional human-mouse chimeric circulatory system. Our study identifies EDN1 as a key factor towards the generation and clonal derivation of ISL1(+) vascular intermediates, and demonstrates the intrinsic cell-autonomous nature of these progenitors to differentiate and self-organize into functional vasculatures in vivo.

  2. Senescent stromal-derived osteopontin promotes preneoplastic cell growth.

    PubMed

    Pazolli, Ermira; Luo, Xianmin; Brehm, Sarah; Carbery, Kelly; Chung, Jun-Jae; Prior, Julie L; Doherty, Jason; Demehri, Shadmehr; Salavaggione, Lorena; Piwnica-Worms, David; Stewart, Sheila A

    2009-02-01

    Alterations in the tissue microenvironment collaborate with cell autonomous genetic changes to contribute to neoplastic progression. The importance of the microenvironment in neoplastic progression is underscored by studies showing that fibroblasts isolated from a tumor stimulate the growth of preneoplastic and neoplastic cells in xenograft models. Similarly, senescent fibroblasts promote preneoplastic cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Because senescent cells accumulate with age, their presence is hypothesized to facilitate preneoplastic cell growth and tumor formation in older individuals. To identify senescent stromal factors directly responsible for stimulating preneoplastic cell growth, we carried out whole-genome transcriptional profiling and compared senescent fibroblasts with their younger counterparts. We identified osteopontin (OPN) as one of the most highly elevated transcripts in senescent fibroblasts. Importantly, reduction of OPN protein levels by RNA interference did not affect senescence induction in fibroblasts; however, it dramatically reduced the growth-promoting activities of senescent fibroblasts in vitro and in vivo, showing that OPN is necessary for paracrine stimulation of preneoplastic cell growth. In addition, we found that recombinant OPN was sufficient to stimulate preneoplastic cell growth. Finally, we show that OPN is expressed in senescent stroma within preneoplastic lesions that arise following 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatment of mice, suggesting that stromal-derived OPN-mediated signaling events affect neoplastic progression.

  3. Senescent Stromal-Derived Osteopontin Promotes Preneoplastic Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Pazolli, Ermira; Luo, Xianmin; Brehm, Sarah; Carbery, Kelly; Chung, Jun-Jae; Prior, Julie L.; Doherty, Jason; Demehri, Shadmehr; Salavaggione, Lorena; Piwnica-Worms, David; Stewart, Sheila A.

    2008-01-01

    Alterations in the tissue microenvironment collaborate with cell autonomous genetic changes to contribute to neoplastic progression. The importance of the microenvironment in neoplastic progression is underscored by studies demonstrating that fibroblasts isolated from a tumor stimulate the growth of preneoplastic and neoplastic cells in xenograft models. Similarly, senescent fibroblasts promote preneoplastic cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Because senescent cells accumulate with age, their presence is hypothesized to facilitate preneoplastic cell growth and tumor formation in older individuals. To identify senescent stromal factors directly responsible for stimulating preneoplastic cell growth, we carried out whole genome transcriptional profiling and compared senescent fibroblasts to their younger counterparts. We identified osteopontin (OPN) as one of the most highly elevated transcripts in senescent fibroblasts. Importantly, reduction of OPN protein levels by RNAi did not impact senescence induction in fibroblasts; however, it dramatically reduced the growth-promoting activities of senescent fibroblasts in vitro and in vivo, demonstrating that OPN is necessary for paracrine stimulation of preneoplastic cell growth. In addition, we found that recombinant OPN was sufficient to stimulate preneoplastic cell growth. Finally, we demonstrate that OPN is expressed in senescent stroma within preneoplastic lesions that arise following DMBA/TPA treatment of mice, suggesting that stromal-derived OPN-mediated signaling events impact neoplastic progression. PMID:19155301

  4. Evaluating biotoxicity with fibroblasts derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoying; Li, Shenglin; Cao, Tong; Fu, Xin; Yu, Guangyan

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the use of differentiated fibroblasts from human embryonic stem cells as a cellular model for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity screening. The EBf-H9 cells were derived from human embryonic stem cells (H9) via embryonic body (EB) and treated with Sodium fluoride (NaF) and Formaldehyde (FA). Proliferation, specific gene and protein expression and karyotype of cells were analyzed by MTT assay, RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry and karyotype analysis, respectively. Cytotoxicity was detected by MTT assay and flow cytometry, and genotoxicity was studied by micronucleus test (MNT), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and comet assay. EBf-H9s were spindle-shaped with a diploid karyotype. They expressed the fibroblast markers prolyl 4-hydroxylase β and vimentin but did not express Oct-4 and Sox-2, and decreased expression of Nanog. The proliferation of EBf-H9 and murine L929 cells was inhibited by sodium fluoride (NaF) and formaldehyde (FA), and the cell cycle was arrested in different phases with the treatments. In genotoxicity assays with NaF and FA, positive responses were detected in human EBf-H9s comparable to those in the murine L929 cell line. EBf-H9 may be a suitable new cell source for toxicity research on biomaterials and other agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Organ-derived dendritic cells have differential effects on alloreactive T cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Theo D; Terwey, Theis H; Zakrzewski, Johannes L; Suh, David; Kochman, Adam A; Chen, Megan E; King, Chris G; Borsotti, Chiara; Grubin, Jeremy; Smith, Odette M; Heller, Glenn; Liu, Chen; Murphy, George F; Alpdogan, Onder; van den Brink, Marcel R M

    2008-03-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are considered critical for the induction of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). In addition to their priming function, dendritic cells have been shown to induce organ-tropism through induction of specific homing molecules on T cells. Using adoptive transfer of CFSE-labeled cells, we first demonstrated that alloreactive T cells differentially up-regulate specific homing molecules in vivo. Host-type dendritic cells from the GVHD target organs liver and spleen or skin- and gut-draining lymph nodes effectively primed naive allogeneic T cells in vitro with the exception of liver-derived dendritic cells, which showed less stimulatory capacity. Gut-derived dendritic cells induced alloreactive donor T cells with a gut-homing phenotype that caused increased GVHD mortality and morbidity compared with T cells stimulated with dendritic cells from spleen, liver, and peripheral lymph nodes in an MHC-mismatched murine BMT model. However, in vivo analysis demonstrated that the in vitro imprinting of homing molecules on alloreactive T cells was only transient. In conclusion, organ-derived dendritic cells can efficiently induce specific homing molecules on alloreactive T cells. A gut-homing phenotype correlates with increased GVHD mortality and morbidity after murine BMT, underlining the importance of the gut in the pathophysiology of GVHD.

  6. iPS-cell derived dendritic cells and macrophages for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Senju, Satoru

    2016-08-01

    Antibody-based anti-cancer immunotherapy was recently recognized as one of the truly effective therapies for cancer patients. Antibodies against cell surface cancer antigens, such as CD20, and also those against immune-inhibitory molecules called "immune checkpoint blockers", such as CTLA4 or PD1, have emerged. Large-scale clinical trials have confirmed that, in some cases, antibody-based drugs are superior to conventional chemotherapeutic agents. These antibody-based drugs are now being manufactured employing a mass-production system by pharmaceutical companies. Anti-cancer therapy by immune cells, i.e. cell-based immunotherapy, is expected to be more effective than antibody therapy, because immune cells can recognize, infiltrate, and act in cancer tissues more directly than antibodies. In order to achieve cell-based anti-cancer immunotherapy, it is necessary to develop manufacturing systems for mass-production of immune cells. Our group has been studying immunotherapy with myeloid cells derived from ES cells or iPS cells. These pluripotent stem cells can be readily propagated under constant culture conditions, with expansion into a large quantity. We consider these stem cells to be the most suitable cellular source for mass-production of immune cells. This review introduces our studies on anti-cancer therapy with iPS cell-derived dendritic cells and iPS cell-derived macrophages.

  7. Derivation of novel human ground state naive pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gafni, Ohad; Weinberger, Leehee; Mansour, Abed AlFatah; Manor, Yair S; Chomsky, Elad; Ben-Yosef, Dalit; Kalma, Yael; Viukov, Sergey; Maza, Itay; Zviran, Asaf; Rais, Yoach; Shipony, Zohar; Mukamel, Zohar; Krupalnik, Vladislav; Zerbib, Mirie; Geula, Shay; Caspi, Inbal; Schneir, Dan; Shwartz, Tamar; Gilad, Shlomit; Amann-Zalcenstein, Daniela; Benjamin, Sima; Amit, Ido; Tanay, Amos; Massarwa, Rada; Novershtern, Noa; Hanna, Jacob H

    2013-12-12

    Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and can be preserved in vitro in a naive inner-cell-mass-like configuration by providing exogenous stimulation with leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and small molecule inhibition of ERK1/ERK2 and GSK3β signalling (termed 2i/LIF conditions). Hallmarks of naive pluripotency include driving Oct4 (also known as Pou5f1) transcription by its distal enhancer, retaining a pre-inactivation X chromosome state, and global reduction in DNA methylation and in H3K27me3 repressive chromatin mark deposition on developmental regulatory gene promoters. Upon withdrawal of 2i/LIF, naive mouse ES cells can drift towards a primed pluripotent state resembling that of the post-implantation epiblast. Although human ES cells share several molecular features with naive mouse ES cells, they also share a variety of epigenetic properties with primed murine epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). These include predominant use of the proximal enhancer element to maintain OCT4 expression, pronounced tendency for X chromosome inactivation in most female human ES cells, increase in DNA methylation and prominent deposition of H3K27me3 and bivalent domain acquisition on lineage regulatory genes. The feasibility of establishing human ground state naive pluripotency in vitro with equivalent molecular and functional features to those characterized in mouse ES cells remains to be defined. Here we establish defined conditions that facilitate the derivation of genetically unmodified human naive pluripotent stem cells from already established primed human ES cells, from somatic cells through induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell reprogramming or directly from blastocysts. The novel naive pluripotent cells validated herein retain molecular characteristics and functional properties that are highly similar to mouse naive ES cells, and distinct from conventional primed human pluripotent cells. This includes competence in the generation

  8. Stem cell-derived cell-sheets for connective tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Neo, Puay Yong; Teh, Thomas Kok Hiong; Tay, Alex Sheng Ru; Asuncion, Maria Christine Tankeh; Png, Si Ning; Toh, Siew Lok; Goh, James Cho-Hong

    2016-11-01

    Cell-sheet technology involves the recovery of cells with its secreted ECM and cell-cell junctions intact, and thereby harvesting them in a single contiguous layer. Temperature changes coupled with a thermoresponsive polymer grafted culture plate surface are typically used to induce detachment of this cell-matrix layer by controlling the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity properties of the culture surface. This review article details the genesis and development of this technique as a critical tissue-engineering tool, with a comprehensive discussion on connective tissue applications. This includes applications in the myocardial, vascular, cartilage, bone, tendon/ligament, and periodontal areas among others discussed. In particular, further focus will be given to the use of stem cells-derived cell-sheets, such as those involving bone marrow-derived and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, some of the associated challenges faced by approaches using stem cells-derived cell-sheets will also be discussed. Finally, recent advances pertaining to technologies forming, detaching, and manipulating cell-sheets will be covered in view of the potential impact they will have on shaping the way cell-sheet technology will be utilized in the future as a tissue-engineering technique.

  9. Drug Discovery via Human-Derived Stem Cell Organoids

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fangkun; Huang, Jing; Ning, Bo; Liu, Zhixiong; Chen, Shen; Zhao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Patient-derived cell lines and animal models have proven invaluable for the understanding of human intestinal diseases and for drug development although both inherently comprise disadvantages and caveats. Many genetically determined intestinal diseases occur in specific tissue microenvironments that are not adequately modeled by monolayer cell culture. Likewise, animal models incompletely recapitulate the complex pathologies of intestinal diseases of humans and fall short in predicting the effects of candidate drugs. Patient-derived stem cell organoids are new and effective models for the development of novel targeted therapies. With the use of intestinal organoids from patients with inherited diseases, the potency and toxicity of drug candidates can be evaluated better. Moreover, owing to the novel clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein-9 genome-editing technologies, researchers can use organoids to precisely modulate human genetic status and identify pathogenesis-related genes of intestinal diseases. Therefore, here we discuss how patient-derived organoids should be grown and how advanced genome-editing tools may be applied to research on modeling of cancer and infectious diseases. We also highlight practical applications of organoids ranging from basic studies to drug screening and precision medicine. PMID:27713700

  10. Micropost arrays for measuring stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte contractility

    PubMed Central

    Beussman, Kevin M.; Rodriguez, Marita L.; Leonard, Andrea; Taparia, Nikita; Thompson, Curtis R.; Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes have the potential to be used to study heart disease and maturation, screen drug treatments, and restore heart function. Here, we discuss the procedures involved in using micropost arrays to measure the contractile forces generated by stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Cardiomyocyte contractility is needed for the heart to pump blood, so measuring the contractile forces of cardiomyocytes is a straightforward way to assess their function. Microfabrication and soft lithography techniques are utilized to create identical arrays of flexible, silicone microposts from a common master. Micropost arrays are functionalized with extracellular matrix protein to allow cardiomyocytes to adhere to the tips of the microposts. Live imaging is used to capture videos of the deflection of microposts caused by the contraction of the cardiomyocytes. Image analysis code provides an accurate means to quantify these deflections. The contractile forces produced by a beating cardiomyocyte are calculated by modeling the microposts as cantilever beams. We have used this assay to assess techniques for improving the maturation and contractile function of stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. PMID:26344757

  11. Drug Discovery via Human-Derived Stem Cell Organoids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangkun; Huang, Jing; Ning, Bo; Liu, Zhixiong; Chen, Shen; Zhao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Patient-derived cell lines and animal models have proven invaluable for the understanding of human intestinal diseases and for drug development although both inherently comprise disadvantages and caveats. Many genetically determined intestinal diseases occur in specific tissue microenvironments that are not adequately modeled by monolayer cell culture. Likewise, animal models incompletely recapitulate the complex pathologies of intestinal diseases of humans and fall short in predicting the effects of candidate drugs. Patient-derived stem cell organoids are new and effective models for the development of novel targeted therapies. With the use of intestinal organoids from patients with inherited diseases, the potency and toxicity of drug candidates can be evaluated better. Moreover, owing to the novel clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein-9 genome-editing technologies, researchers can use organoids to precisely modulate human genetic status and identify pathogenesis-related genes of intestinal diseases. Therefore, here we discuss how patient-derived organoids should be grown and how advanced genome-editing tools may be applied to research on modeling of cancer and infectious diseases. We also highlight practical applications of organoids ranging from basic studies to drug screening and precision medicine.

  12. Intracellular fate of Francisella tularensis within arthropod-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Santic, Marina; Akimana, Christine; Asare, Rexford; Kouokam, Joseph C; Atay, Safinur; Kwaik, Yousef Abu

    2009-06-01

    Since transmission of Francisella tularensis into the mammalian host occurs via arthropod vectors such as ticks, mosquitoes, horseflies and deerflies, recent studies have established Drosophila melanogaster as an arthropod vector model system. Nothing is known about the intracellular fate of F. tularensis within arthropod-derived cells, and the role of this host-parasite adaptation in the evolution of this pathogen to infect mammals. In this report, we explored intracellular trafficking of F. tularensis ssp. novicida in D. melanogaster-derived S2 cells. First, we show that similar to the F. tularensis ssp. holarctica-derived LVS strain, F. tularensis ssp. novicida is highly infectious, replicates exponentially within S2 cells and within adult flies, and is fatal to adult fruit flies in a dose-dependent manner, while the iglC, iglD and mglA mutants are defective. Using electron and fluorescence microscopy-based phagosome integrity assays, we show that the wild-type strain escapes into the cytosol of S2 cells within 30-60 min post infection and by 6 h, 90% were cytosolic. In contrast, approximately 40-50% of the iglC and iglD mutants escape into the cytosol by 6 h while the other subpopulation becomes enclosed within multilamellar vesicles (MLVs). Pre-treatment of S2 cells with the autophagy inhibitor methyl adenine blocks formation of the MLVs and all the vacuolar subpopulation of the iglC and iglD mutant bacteria become enclosed within single membrane-surrounded vacuoles. Endocytic trafficking studies of F. tularensis within S2 cells show transient colocalization of the bacterial phagosome with D. melanogaster LAMP2-GFP fusion but not with lysosomes pre-loaded with fluorescent dextran. Our data show that MLVs harbouring the iglC mutant acquire Lamp2 and dextran while MLVs harbouring the iglD mutant exclude these late endosomal and lysosomal markers. Our data indicate crucial differences in the role of the pathogenicity island-encoded proteins in modulating

  13. Stem cell applications in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Hirofumi

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a devastating disease and the World Health Organization (WHO) expects that the number of diabetic patients will increase to 300 million by the year 2025. Patients with diabetes experience decreased insulin secretion that is linked to a significant reduction in the number of islet cells. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by the selective destruction of pancreatic β cells caused by an autoimmune attack. Type 2 diabetes is a more complex pathology that, in addition to β cell loss caused by apoptotic programs, includes β cell de-differentiation and peripheric insulin resistance. The success achieved over the last few years with islet transplantation suggests that diabetes can be cured by the replenishment of deficient β cells. These observations are proof of the concept and have intensified interest in treating diabetes or other diseases not only by cell transplantation but also by stem cells. An increasing body of evidence indicates that, in addition to embryonic stem cells, several potential adult stem/progenitor cells derived from the pancreas, liver, spleen, and bone marrow could differentiate into insulin-producing cells in vitro or in vivo. However, significant controversy currently exists in this field. Pharmacological approaches aimed at stimulating the in vivo/ex vivo regeneration of β cells have been proposed as a way of augmenting islet cell mass. Overexpression of embryonic transcription factors in stem cells could efficiently induce their differentiation into insulin-expressing cells. A new technology, known as protein transduction, facilitates the differentiation of stem cells into insulin-producing cells. Recent progress in the search for new sources of β cells has opened up several possibilities for the development of new treatments for diabetes.

  14. Characterization of nonlymphoid cells derived from rat peripheral lymph

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, CW; MacPherson, GG; Steer, HW

    1983-01-01

    Mesenteric lymphadenectomy in rats is followed by union of peripheral and central lymphatics, allowing the collection of intestine-derived peripheral lymph cells via the thoracic duct for several days. These cells include a proportion of nonlymphoid cells (NLC) that show irregular and heterogeneous surface morphology including long pseudopodia and veils. They stain variably for nonspecific esterase and acid phosphatase and are ATPase-positive. Their nuclei are irregular and some contain cytoplasmic inclusions, some of which show peroxidase activity and/or contain DNA. NLC have a range of densitites generally lower than that of lymphocytes. Freshly collected NLC express the leukocyte-common antigen (defined by monoclonal antibody MRC Ox 1) and Ia antigens (I-A and I-E subregion products defined by monoclonal antibodies) but they show a relative lack of other surface markers normally found on rat B or T lymphocytes (W3/13, W3/25, MRC Ox 12 (sIg), MRC Ox 19) or rat macrophages (FcR, C’R, mannose R, W3/25). In general NLC are only weakly adherent to glass or plastic. Although a subpopulation of NLC appear to have had a phagocytic past, freshly collected NLC fail to phagocytose a variety of test particles in vitro. NLC also appear incapable of pinocytosis in vitro. This heterogeneity may represent distinct subpopulations of NLC or different stages in the development of a single cell lineage. Direct cannulation of mesenteric lacteals shows that the majority of NLC are derived from the small intestine and their precursors appear to be present both in lamina propria and Peyer's patches. Kinetic studies, following irradiation or intravenous tritiated thymidine, show that the majority of NLC turn over rapidly in the intestine with a modal time of 3-5 d. Studies with bone marrow chimeras show that they are derived from a rapidly dividing precursor present in normal bone marrow. NLC occur at very low frequencies in normal thoracic duct lymph at all times following

  15. Are human dental papilla-derived stem cell and human brain-derived neural stem cell transplantations suitable for treatment of Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyung Ho; Min, Joongkee; Shin, Nari; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Jin-Mo; Hwang, Yu-Shik; Suh, Jun-Kyo Francis; Hwang, Onyou; Jeon, Sang Ryong

    2013-05-05

    Transplantation of neural stem cells has been reported as a possible approach for replacing impaired dopaminergic neurons. In this study, we tested the efficacy of early-stage human dental papilla-derived stem cells and human brain-derived neural stem cells in rat models of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinson's disease. Rats received a unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into right medial forebrain bundle, followed 3 weeks later by injections of PBS, early-stage human dental papilla-derived stem cells, or human brain-derived neural stem cells into the ipsilateral striatum. All of the rats in the human dental papilla-derived stem cell group died from tumor formation at around 2 weeks following cell transplantation. Postmortem examinations revealed homogeneous malignant tumors in the striatum of the human dental papilla-derived stem cell group. Stepping tests revealed that human brain-derived neural stem cell transplantation did not improve motor dysfunction. In apomorphine-induced rotation tests, neither the human brain-derived neural stem cell group nor the control groups (PBS injection) demonstrated significant changes. Glucose metabolism in the lesioned side of striatum was reduced by human brain-derived neural stem cell transplantation. [(18)F]-FP-CIT PET scans in the striatum did not demonstrate a significant increase in the human brain-derived neural stem cell group. Tyrosine hydroxylase (dopaminergic neuronal marker) staining and G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2 (A9 dopaminergic neuronal marker) were positive in the lesioned side of striatum in the human brain-derived neural stem cell group. The use of early-stage human dental papilla-derived stem cells confirmed its tendency to form tumors. Human brain-derived neural stem cells could be partially differentiated into dopaminergic neurons, but they did not secrete dopamine.

  16. Human amnion-derived cells as a reliable source of stem cells.

    PubMed

    Saito, S; Lin, Y-C; Murayama, Y; Hashimoto, K; Yokoyama, K K

    2012-12-01

    Human amnion-derived cells possess great potential for the repair of human neural disorders, and recent studies have broadened the spectrum for applications because they exhibit the characteristics of multipotent stem cells. These cells express embryonic stem cell markers such as Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, SSEA-3, SSEA-4 and Rex1, and can differentiate into multiple primary germ layers both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, induced pluripotent stem cells have been generated from amnion-derived cells by virus-mediated delivery of three or four pluripotency-relating transcription factors or by the introduction of only one transcription factor with electroporation. Because human amnion-derived cells are readily available, less likely to contain genetic aberrations and can be reprogrammed earlier and more efficiently than differentiated cells, they can be ideal resources as the donor pluripotent stem cells for therapeutic purposes. We discuss here the highlights of recent studies and potential applications of human amnion-derived multipotent stem cells to stem cell biology as well as to regenerative medicine in the field of aging, heart disease, diabetes and neural disorders.

  17. Expansion and Characterization of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Osteoblast-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Arpornmaeklong, Premjit; Wang, Zhuo; Pressler, Michael J.; Brown, Shelley E.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the potential to serve as a repository of cells for the replacement of damaged or diseased tissues and organs. However, to use hESCs in clinically relevant scenarios, a large number of cells are likely to be required. The aim of this study was to demonstrate an alternative cell culture method to increase the quantity of osteoblast-like cells directly derived from hESCs (hESCs-OS). Undifferentiated hESCs were directly cultivated and serially passaged in osteogenic medium (hESC-OS), and exhibited similar expression patterns of osteoblast-related genes to osteoblast-like cells derived from mesenchymal stem cells derived from hESCs (hESCs-MSCs-OS) and human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs-OS). In comparison to hESCs-MSCs-OS, the hESCs-OS required a shorter expansion time to generate a homogenous population of osteoblast-like cells that did not contain contaminating undifferentiated hESCs. Identification of human specific nuclear antigen (HuNu) in the newly formed bone in calvarial defects verified the role of the transplanted hESCs-OS as active bone forming cells in vivo. Taken together, this study suggests that osteoblast-like cells directly derived from hESCs have the potential to serve as an alternative source of osteoprogenitors for bone tissue engineering strategies. PMID:20698777

  18. Research Advancements in Porcine Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Dinesh; Shivakumar, Sharath Belame; Subbarao, Raghavendra Baregundi; Rho, Gyu-Jin

    2016-01-01

    In the present era of stem cell biology, various animals such as Mouse, Bovine, Rabbit and Porcine have been tested for the efficiency of their mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) before their actual use for stem cell based application in humans. Among them pigs have many similarities to humans in the form of organ size, physiology and their functioning, therefore they have been considered as a valuable model system for in vitro studies and preclinical assessments. Easy assessability, few ethical issues, successful MSC isolation from different origins like bone marrow, skin, umbilical cord blood, Wharton’s jelly, endometrium, amniotic fluid and peripheral blood make porcine a good model for stem cell therapy. Porcine derived MSCs (pMSCs) have shown greater in vitro differentiation and transdifferention potential towards mesenchymal lineages and specialized lineages such as cardiomyocytes, neurons, hepatocytes and pancreatic beta cells. Immunomodulatory and low immunogenic profiles as shown by autologous and heterologous MSCs proves them safe and appropriate models for xenotransplantation purposes. Furthermore, tissue engineered stem cell constructs can be of immense importance in relation to various osteochondral defects which are difficult to treat otherwise. Using pMSCs successful treatment of various disorders like Parkinson’s disease, cardiac ischemia, hepatic failure, has been reported by many studies. Here, in this review we highlight current research findings in the area of porcine mesenchymal stem cells dealing with their isolation methods, differentiation ability, transplantation applications and their therapeutic potential towards various diseases. PMID:26201864

  19. Human iPSC-Derived Endothelial Cell Sprouting Assay in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Activation of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) by growth factors initiates a cascade of events in vivo consisting of EC tip cell selection, sprout formation, EC stalk cell proliferation, and ultimately vascular stabilization by support cells. Although EC functional assays can recapitulate one or more aspects of angiogenesis in vitro, they are often limited by a lack of definition to the substratum and lack of dependence on key angiogenic signaling axes. Here, we designed and characterized a chemically-defined model of endothelial sprouting behavior in vitro using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells (iPSC-ECs). Thiol-ene photopolymerization was used to rapidly encapsulate iPSC-ECs at high density in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel spheres and subsequently to rapidly encapsulate iPSC-EC-containing hydrogel spheres in a cell-free over-layer. The hydrogel sprouting array here maintained pro-angiogenic phenotype of iPSC-ECs and supported growth factor-dependent proliferation and sprouting behavior. The sprouting model responded appropriately to several reference pharmacological angiogenesis inhibitors, which suggests the functional role of vascular endothelial growth factor, NF-κB, matrix metalloproteinase-2/9, protein kinase activity, and β-tubulin in endothelial sprouting. A blinded screen of 38 putative vascular disrupting compounds (pVDCs) from the US Environmental Protection Agency’s ToxCast library identified five compounds th

  20. Arteries are formed by vein-derived endothelial tip cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cong; Hasan, Sana S; Schmidt, Inga; Rocha, Susana F; Pitulescu, Mara E; Bussmann, Jeroen; Meyen, Dana; Raz, Erez; Adams, Ralf H; Siekmann, Arndt F

    2014-12-15

    Tissue vascularization entails the formation of a blood vessel plexus, which remodels into arteries and veins. Here we show, by using time-lapse imaging of zebrafish fin regeneration and genetic lineage tracing of endothelial cells in the mouse retina, that vein-derived endothelial tip cells contribute to emerging arteries. Our movies uncover that arterial-fated tip cells change migration direction and migrate backwards within the expanding vascular plexus. This behaviour critically depends on chemokine receptor cxcr4a function. We show that the relevant Cxcr4a ligand Cxcl12a selectively accumulates in newly forming bone tissue even when ubiquitously overexpressed, pointing towards a tissue-intrinsic mode of chemokine gradient formation. Furthermore, we find that cxcr4a mutant cells can contribute to developing arteries when in association with wild-type cells, suggesting collective migration of endothelial cells. Together, our findings reveal specific cell migratory behaviours in the developing blood vessel plexus and uncover a conserved mode of artery formation.

  1. Stemness Signature of Equine Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zahedi, Morteza; Parham, Abbas; Dehghani, Hesam; Mehrjerdi, Hossein Kazemi

    2017-01-01

    Background Application of competent cells such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treatment of musculoskeletal disorders in equine athletes is increasingly needed. Moreover, similarities of horse and human in size, load and types of joint injuries, make horse as a good model for MSCs therapy studies. This study was designed to isolate and characterize stemness signature of equine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). Methods BM of three mares was aspirated and the mononuclear cells (MNCs) were isolated using density gradient. The primary MNCs were cultured and analyzed after tree passages (P3) for growth characteristics, differentiation potentials, and the expression of genes including CD29, CD34, CD44, CD90, CD105, MHC-I, MHC-II and pluripotency related genes (Nanog, Oct-4, Sox-2, SSEA-1, -3, -4) using RT-PCR or immunocytochemistry techniques. Results The isolated cells in P3 were adherent and fibroblast-like in shape with doubling times of 78.15 h. Their clonogenic capacity was 8.67±4% and they were able to differentiate to osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages. Cells showed expression of CD29, CD44, CD90, MHC-I and Sox-2 while no expression for CD34, MHC-II, CD105, and pluripotency stemness markers was detected. Conclusions In conclusion, data showed that isolated cells have the basic and minimal criteria for MSCs, however, expressing only one pluripotency gene (sox-2). PMID:28222255

  2. Arteries are formed by vein-derived endothelial tip cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Cong; Hasan, Sana S.; Schmidt, Inga; Rocha, Susana F.; Pitulescu, Mara E.; Bussmann, Jeroen; Meyen, Dana; Raz, Erez; Adams, Ralf H.; Siekmann, Arndt F.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue vascularization entails the formation of a blood vessel plexus, which remodels into arteries and veins. Here we show, by using time-lapse imaging of zebrafish fin regeneration and genetic lineage tracing of endothelial cells in the mouse retina, that vein-derived endothelial tip cells contribute to emerging arteries. Our movies uncover that arterial-fated tip cells change migration direction and migrate backwards within the expanding vascular plexus. This behaviour critically depends on chemokine receptor cxcr4a function. We show that the relevant Cxcr4a ligand Cxcl12a selectively accumulates in newly forming bone tissue even when ubiquitously overexpressed, pointing towards a tissue-intrinsic mode of chemokine gradient formation. Furthermore, we find that cxcr4a mutant cells can contribute to developing arteries when in association with wild-type cells, suggesting collective migration of endothelial cells. Together, our findings reveal specific cell migratory behaviours in the developing blood vessel plexus and uncover a conserved mode of artery formation. PMID:25502622

  3. Skin appendage-derived stem cells: cell biology and potential for wound repair.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiangfan; Yao, Bin; Han, Yutong; Huang, Sha; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells residing in the epidermis and skin appendages are imperative for skin homeostasis and regeneration. These stem cells also participate in the repair of the epidermis after injuries, inducing restoration of tissue integrity and function of damaged tissue. Unlike epidermis-derived stem cells, comprehensive knowledge about skin appendage-derived stem cells remains limited. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of skin appendage-derived stem cells, including their fundamental characteristics, their preferentially expressed biomarkers, and their potential contribution involved in wound repair. Finally, we will also discuss current strategies, future applications, and limitations of these stem cells, attempting to provide some perspectives on optimizing the available therapy in cutaneous repair and regeneration.

  4. Human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells retain stem cell properties after expansion in myosphere culture

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Yan; Li, Yuan; Chen, Chao; Stoelzel, Katharina; Kaufmann, Andreas M.

    2011-04-15

    Human skeletal muscle contains an accessible adult stem-cell compartment in which differentiated myofibers are maintained and replaced by a self-renewing stem cell pool. Previously, studies using mouse models have established a critical role for resident stem cells in skeletal muscle, but little is known about this paradigm in human muscle. Here, we report the reproducible isolation of a population of cells from human skeletal muscle that is able to proliferate for extended periods of time as floating clusters of rounded cells, termed 'myospheres' or myosphere-derived progenitor cells (MDPCs). The phenotypic characteristics and functional properties of these cells were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Our results showed that these cells are clonogenic, express skeletal progenitor cell markers Pax7, ALDH1, Myod, and Desmin and the stem cell markers Nanog, Sox2, and Oct3/4 significantly elevated over controls. They could be maintained proliferatively active in vitro for more than 20 weeks and passaged at least 18 times, despite an average donor-age of 63 years. Individual clones (4.2%) derived from single cells were successfully expanded showing clonogenic potential and sustained proliferation of a subpopulation in the myospheres. Myosphere-derived cells were capable of spontaneous differentiation into myotubes in differentiation media and into other mesodermal cell lineages in induction media. We demonstrate here that direct culture and expansion of stem cells from human skeletal muscle is straightforward and reproducible with the appropriate technique. These cells may provide a viable resource of adult stem cells for future therapies of disease affecting skeletal muscle or mesenchymal lineage derived cell types.

  5. Isolation of Mature (Peritoneum-Derived) Mast Cells and Immature (Bone Marrow-Derived) Mast Cell Precursors from Mice

    PubMed Central

    Meurer, Steffen K.; Neß, Melanie; Weiskirchen, Sabine; Kim, Philipp; Tag, Carmen G.; Kauffmann, Marlies; Huber, Michael; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are a versatile cell type playing key roles in tissue morphogenesis and host defence against bacteria and parasites. Furthermore, they can enhance immunological danger signals and are implicated in inflammatory disorders like fibrosis. This granulated cell type originates from the myeloid lineage and has similarities to basophilic granulocytes, both containing large quantities of histamine and heparin. Immature murine mast cells mature in their destination tissue and adopt either the connective tissue (CTMC) or mucosal (MMC) type. Some effector functions are executed by activation/degranulation of MCs which lead to secretion of a typical set of MC proteases (MCPT) and of the preformed or newly synthesized mediators from its granules into the local microenvironment. Due to the potential accumulation of mutations in key signalling pathway components of corresponding MC cell-lines, primary cultured MCs are an attractive mean to study general features of MC biology and aspects of MC functions relevant to human disease. Here, we describe a simple protocol for the simultaneous isolation of mature CTMC-like murine MCs from the peritoneum (PMCs) and immature MC precursors from the bone marrow (BM). The latter are differentiated in vitro to yield BM-derived MCs (BMMC). These cells display the typical morphological and phenotypic features of MCs, express the typical MC surface markers, and can be propagated and kept in culture for several weeks. The provided protocol allows simple amplification of large quantities of homogenous, non-transformed MCs from the peritoneum and bone marrow-derived mast cells for cell- and tissue-based biomedical research. PMID:27337047

  6. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 promotes human adipose tissue-derived stem cell survival and chronic wound healing

    PubMed Central

    LI, QIANG; GUO, YANPING; CHEN, FEIFEI; LIU, JING; JIN, PEISHENG

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) hold great potential for the stem cell-based therapy of cutaneous wound healing. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) activates CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)4+ and CXCR7+ cells and plays an important role in wound healing. Increasing evidence suggests a critical role for SDF-1 in cell apoptosis and the survival of mesenchymal stem cells. However, the function of SDF-1 in the apoptosis and wound healing ability of ADSCs is not well understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of SDF-1 on the apoptosis and therapeutic effect of ADSCs in cutaneous chronic wounds in vitro and in vivos. By flow cytometric analysis, it was found that hypoxia and serum free promoted the apoptosis of ADSCs. When pretreated with SDF-1, the apoptosis of ADSCs induced by hypoxia and serum depletion was partly recovered. Furthermore, in vivo experiments established that the post-implantation cell survival and chronic wound healing ability of ADSCs were increased following pretreatment with SDF-1 in a diabetic mouse model of chronic wound healing. To explore the potential mechanism underlying the effect of SDF-1 on ADSC apoptosis, western blot analysis was employed and the results indicate that SDF-1 may protect against cell apoptosis in hypoxic and serum-free conditions through activation of the caspase signaling pathway in ADSCs. This study provides evidence that SDF-1 pretreatment can increase the therapeutic effect of ADSCs in cutaneous chronic wounds in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27347016

  7. Angiogenic activity mediates bone repair from human pluripotent stem cell-derived osteogenic cells

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Li; Chen, Qingshan; Quanbeck, Zachary; Bechtold, Joan E.; Kaufman, Dan S.

    2016-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells provide a standardized resource for bone repair. However, criteria to determine which exogenous cells best heal orthopedic injuries remain poorly defined. We evaluated osteogenic progenitor cells derived from both human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Phenotypic and genotypic analyses demonstrated that these hESCs/hiPSCs are similar in their osteogenic differentiation efficiency and they generate osteogenic cells comparable to osteogenic cells derived from mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs). However, expression of angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor in these osteogenic progenitor cells are markedly different, suggesting distinct pro-angiogenic potential of these stem cell derivatives. Studies to repair a femur non-union fracture demonstrate only osteogenic progenitor cells with higher pro-angiogenic potential significantly enhance bone repair in vivo. Together, these studies highlight a key role of pro-angiogenic potential of transplanted osteogenic cells for effective cell-mediated bone repair. PMID:26980556

  8. Effect of phensuccinal on pancreatic beta-cells in rats with neonatally induced streptozotocin diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Gorbenko, N I; Poltorak, V V; Gladkikh, A I; Ivanova, O V

    2001-07-01

    The effect of phensuccinal, a low-toxic succinic acid derivative, on the function of pancreatic beta-cells in the evolution of absolute insulin insufficiency was studied in rats with neonatally induced streptozotocin diabetes mellitus. Phensuccinal (25 mg/kg body weight) prevented disorders in the secretory response of beta-cells to glucose load at all stages of the study (2, 5, and 14 days after diabetes induction). This effect was realized via stimulation of the regenerative processes in the insulin-producing system of the pancreas and activation of the antioxidant system in diabetic animals.

  9. Myeloid-derived suppressor cell heterogeneity and subset definition.

    PubMed

    Peranzoni, Elisa; Zilio, Serena; Marigo, Ilaria; Dolcetti, Luigi; Zanovello, Paola; Mandruzzato, Susanna; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2010-04-01

    Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are defined in mice on the basis of CD11b and Gr-1 marker expression and the functional ability to inhibit T lymphocyte activation. Nevertheless the term 'heterogeneous' remains the first, informal feature commonly attributed to this population. It is clear that CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells are part of a myeloid macropopulation, which comprises at least two subsets of polymorphonuclear and monocytic cells with different immunosuppressive properties. While recent literature shows substantial agreement on the immunoregulatory property of the monocytic MDSC subset, there is still contrasting evidence on the role of the granulocytic fraction. Moreover, this dichotomy holds true for human MDSCs. We attempt here to summarize conflicting findings in the field and provide some possible, unifying explanations.

  10. Bones of contention: marrow-derived cells in myocardial regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Mark A; Murry, Charles E

    2008-06-01

    Almost 7 years have passed since the initial publication reporting that bone marrow cells regenerate infarcted myocardium. The subsequent years produced hundreds of investigations that ran the gamut of findings from validation to disproof. Undeterred by the concurrent debate, clinical trials ensued to test the safety and efficacy of bone marrow-derived cell population for autologous therapy in clinical treatment of myocardial disease. In the following conversational exchange, two scientists with distinct perspectives weigh the pros and cons of pursuing bone marrow stem cell therapy and look toward finding a consensus of where the future lies for regenerative medicine and the heart. The conclusion is that the two camps may not be as far apart as it may seem from the rancor in literature and at meetings, and the potential of one day achieving regenerative therapy is indeed a vision that both parties enthusiastically share.

  11. Functional Characterization of Human Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Authors Glenn E.; Obejero-Paz, Carlos A.; Bruening-Wright, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac toxicity is a leading contributor to late-stage attrition in the drug discovery process and to withdrawal of approved from the market. In vitro assays that enable earlier and more accurate testing for cardiac risk provide early stage predictive indicators that aid in mitigating risk. Human cardiomyocytes, the most relevant subjects for early stage testing, are severely limited in supply. But human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (SC-hCM) are readily available from commercial sources and are increasingly used in academic research, drug discovery and safety pharmacology. As a result, SC-hCM electrophysiology has become a valuable tool to assess cardiac risk associated with drugs. This unit describes techniques for recording individual currents carried by sodium, calcium and potassium ions, as well as single cell action potentials, and impedance recordings from contracting syncytia of thousands of interconnected cells. PMID:25152802

  12. Modeling Cystic Fibrosis Using Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Human Pancreatic Ductal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Senem; Zhou, Ting; Robinson, Christopher L; Tsai, Su-Yi; Crespo, Miguel; Amin, Sadaf; Lin, Xiangyi; Hon, Jane; Evans, Todd; Chen, Shuibing

    2016-05-01

    We established an efficient strategy to direct human pluripotent stem cells, including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) line derived from patients with cystic fibrosis, to differentiate into pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (PDECs). After purification, more than 98% of hESC-derived PDECs expressed functional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. In addition, iPSC lines were derived from a patient with CF carrying compound frameshift and mRNA splicing mutations and were differentiated to PDECs. PDECs derived from Weill Cornell cystic fibrosis (WCCF)-iPSCs showed defective expression of mature CFTR protein and impaired chloride ion channel activity, recapitulating functional defects of patients with CF at the cellular level. These studies provide a new methodology to derive pure PDECs expressing CFTR and establish a "disease in a dish" platform to identify drug candidates to rescue the pancreatic defects of patients with CF. An efficient strategy was established to direct human pluripotent stem cells, including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and an induced pluripotent stem cell line derived from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF-iPSCs), to differentiate into pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (PDECs). After purification, more than 98% of hESC-PDECs derived from CF-iPSCs showed defective expression of mature cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein and impaired chloride ion channel activity, recapitulating functional pancreatic defects of patients with CF at the cellular level. These studies provide a new methodology for deriving pure PDECs expressing CFTR, and they establish a "disease-in-a-dish" platform for identifying drug candidates to rescue the pancreatic defects of these patients. ©AlphaMed Press.

  13. Stem cell-derived astrocytes: are they physiologically credible?

    PubMed

    Hill, Eric; Nagel, David; Parri, Rheinallt; Coleman, Michael

    2016-11-15

    Astrocytes are now increasingly acknowledged as having fundamental and sophisticated roles in brain function and dysfunction. Unravelling the complex mechanisms that underlie human brain astrocyte-neuron interactions is therefore an essential step on the way to understanding how the brain operates. Insights into astrocyte function to date have almost exclusively been derived from studies conducted using murine or rodent models. Whilst these have led to significant discoveries, preliminary work with human astrocytes has revealed a hitherto unknown range of astrocyte types with potentially greater functional complexity and increased neuronal interaction with respect to animal astrocytes. It is becoming apparent, therefore, that many important functions of astrocytes will only be discovered by direct physiological interrogation of human astrocytes. Recent advancements in the field of stem cell biology have provided a source of human-based models. These will provide a platform to facilitate our understanding of normal astrocyte functions as well as their role in CNS pathology. A number of recent studies have demonstrated that stem cell-derived astrocytes exhibit a range of properties, suggesting that they may be functionally equivalent to their in vivo counterparts. Further validation against in vivo models will ultimately confirm the future utility of these stem cell-based approaches in fulfilling the need for human-based cellular models for basic and clinical research. In this review we discuss the roles of astrocytes in the brain and highlight the extent to which human stem cell-derived astrocytes have demonstrated functional activities that are equivalent to those observed in vivo. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  14. Neural crest cell-derived VEGF promotes embryonic jaw extension

    PubMed Central

    Wiszniak, Sophie; Mackenzie, Francesca E.; Anderson, Peter; Kabbara, Samuela; Ruhrberg, Christiana; Schwarz, Quenten

    2015-01-01

    Jaw morphogenesis depends on the growth of Meckel’s cartilage during embryogenesis. However, the cell types and signals that promote chondrocyte proliferation for Meckel’s cartilage growth are poorly defined. Here we show that neural crest cells (NCCs) and their derivatives provide an essential source of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to enhance jaw vascularization and stabilize the major mandibular artery. We further show in two independent mouse models that blood vessels promote Meckel’s cartilage extension. Coculture experiments of arterial tissue with NCCs or chondrocytes demonstrated that NCC-derived VEGF promotes blood vessel growth and that blood vessels secrete factors to instruct chondrocyte proliferation. Computed tomography and X-ray scans of patients with hemifacial microsomia also showed that jaw hypoplasia correlates with mandibular artery dysgenesis. We conclude that cranial NCCs and their derivatives provide an essential source of VEGF to support blood vessel growth in the developing jaw, which in turn is essential for normal chondrocyte proliferation, and therefore jaw extension. PMID:25922531

  15. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells in neural regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Da-Chuan; Chan, Tzu-Min; Harn, Horng-Jyh; Chiou, Tzyy-Wen; Chen, Hsin-Shui; Lin, Zung-Sheng; Lin, Shinn-Zong

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have two essential characteristics with regard to regenerative medicine: the convenient and efficient generation of large numbers of multipotent cells and in vitro proliferation without a loss of stemness. The implementation of clinical trials has prompted widespread concern regarding safety issues and has shifted research toward the therapeutic efficacy of stem cells in dealing with neural degeneration in cases such as stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, cavernous nerve injury, and traumatic brain injury. Most existing studies have reported that cell therapies may be able to replenish lost cells and promote neuronal regeneration, protect neuronal survival, and play a role in overcoming permanent paralysis and loss of sensation and the recovery of neurological function. The mechanisms involved in determining therapeutic capacity remain largely unknown; however, this concept can still be classified in a methodical manner by citing current evidence. Possible mechanisms include the following: 1) the promotion of angiogenesis, 2) the induction of neuronal differentiation and neurogenesis, 3) reductions in reactive gliosis, 4) the inhibition of apoptosis, 5) the expression of neurotrophic factors, 6) immunomodulatory function, and 7) facilitating neuronal integration. In this study, several human clinical trials using ADSCs for neuronal disorders were investigated. It is suggested that ADSCs are one of the choices among various stem cells for translating into clinical application in the near future.

  16. Identification and characterization of pig adipose-derived progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang; Bai, Chunyu; Zheng, Dong; Gao, Yuhua; Fan, Yanan; Li, Lu; Guan, Weijun; Ma, Yuehui

    2016-10-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are multipotent, and can be differentiated into many cell types in vitro. In this study, tissues from pigs were chosen to identify and characterize ADSCs. Primary ADSCs were sub-cultured to passage 28. The surface markers of ADSCs: CD29, CD71, CD73, CD90, and CD166 were detected by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays and the markers CD29, CD44, CD105, and vimentin were detected by immunofluorescence. Growth curves and the capacity of clone-forming were performed to test the proliferation of ADSCs. Karyotype analysis showed that ADSCs cultured in vitro were genetically stable. To assess the differentiation capacity of the ADSCs, cells were induced to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, epithelial cells, neural cells, and hepatocyte-like cells. The results suggest that ADSCs from pigs showed similar biological characteristics with those separated from other species, and their multi-lineage differentiation shows potential as an application for cellular therapy in an animal model.

  17. Innervation of Cochlear Hair Cells by Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neurons In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Gunewardene, Niliksha; Crombie, Duncan; Dottori, Mirella; Nayagam, Bryony A

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may serve as an autologous source of replacement neurons in the injured cochlea, if they can be successfully differentiated and reconnected with residual elements in the damaged auditory system. Here, we explored the potential of hiPSC-derived neurons to innervate early postnatal hair cells, using established in vitro assays. We compared two hiPSC lines against a well-characterized hESC line. After ten days' coculture in vitro, hiPSC-derived neural processes contacted inner and outer hair cells in whole cochlear explant cultures. Neural processes from hiPSC-derived neurons also made contact with hair cells in denervated sensory epithelia explants and expressed synapsin at these points of contact. Interestingly, hiPSC-derived neurons cocultured with hair cells at an early stage of differentiation formed synapses with a higher number of hair cells, compared to hiPSC-derived neurons cocultured at a later stage of differentiation. Notable differences in the innervation potentials of the hiPSC-derived neurons were also observed and variations existed between the hiPSC lines in their innervation efficiencies. Collectively, these data illustrate the promise of hiPSCs for auditory neuron replacement and highlight the need to develop methods to mitigate variabilities observed amongst hiPSC lines, in order to achieve reliable clinical improvements for patients.

  18. Innervation of Cochlear Hair Cells by Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neurons In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gunewardene, Niliksha; Crombie, Duncan; Dottori, Mirella; Nayagam, Bryony A.

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may serve as an autologous source of replacement neurons in the injured cochlea, if they can be successfully differentiated and reconnected with residual elements in the damaged auditory system. Here, we explored the potential of hiPSC-derived neurons to innervate early postnatal hair cells, using established in vitro assays. We compared two hiPSC lines against a well-characterized hESC line. After ten days' coculture in vitro, hiPSC-derived neural processes contacted inner and outer hair cells in whole cochlear explant cultures. Neural processes from hiPSC-derived neurons also made contact with hair cells in denervated sensory epithelia explants and expressed synapsin at these points of contact. Interestingly, hiPSC-derived neurons cocultured with hair cells at an early stage of differentiation formed synapses with a higher number of hair cells, compared to hiPSC-derived neurons cocultured at a later stage of differentiation. Notable differences in the innervation potentials of the hiPSC-derived neurons were also observed and variations existed between the hiPSC lines in their innervation efficiencies. Collectively, these data illustrate the promise of hiPSCs for auditory neuron replacement and highlight the need to develop methods to mitigate variabilities observed amongst hiPSC lines, in order to achieve reliable clinical improvements for patients. PMID:26966437

  19. Pigment epithelium-derived factor protects cone photoreceptor-derived 661W cells from light damage through Akt activation.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Matthew; Woo, Grace; Al-Ubaidi, Muayyad R; Becerra, S Patricia; Subramanian, Preeti

    2014-01-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) can delay and prevent the death of photoreceptors in vivo. We investigated the survival activity of PEDF on cone photoreceptor-derived 661W cells in culture, the presence of PEDF receptor (PEDF-R) in these cells and the activation of prosurvival Akt. Cell death was induced by light exposure in the presence of 9-cis retinal. Cell viability assays showed that PEDF increased the number of 661W cells exposed to these conditions. Western blots showed that PEDF-treated 661W cells had a higher ratio of phosphorylated Akt to total Akt than untreated cells. The PEDF receptor PEDF-R was immunodetected in the plasma membrane fractions of 661W cells. The results demonstrated that PEDF can protect 661W cells against light-induced cell death and suggest that the binding of PEDF to cell surface PEDF-R triggers a prosurvival signaling pathway.

  20. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote cell proliferation and invasion of epithelial ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Yijing; Tang, Huijuan; Guo, Yan; Guo, Jing; Huang, Bangxing; Fang, Fang; Cai, Jing Wang, Zehua

    2015-09-10

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) is an important component of tumor microenvironment. However, whether ADSCs have a hand in ovarian cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of human ADSCs derived from the omentum of normal donors on human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Direct and indirect co-culture models including ADSCs and human EOC cell lines were established and the effects of ADSCs on EOC cell proliferation were evaluated by EdU incorporation and flow cytometry. Transwell migration assays and detection of MMPs were performed to assess the invasion activity of EOC cells in vitro. Mouse models were established by intraperitoneal injection of EOC cells with or without concomitant ADSCs to investigate the role of ADSCs in tumor progression in vivo. We found that ADSCs significantly promoted proliferation and invasion of EOC cells in both direct and indirect co-culture assays. In addition, after co-culture with ADSCs, EOC cells secreted higher levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and inhibition of MMP2 and MMP9 partially relieved the tumor-promoting effects of ADSCs in vitro. In mouse xenograft models, we confirmed that ADSCs promoted EOC growth and metastasis and elevated the expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Our findings indicate that omental ADSCs play a promotive role during ovarian cancer progression. - Highlights: • Omental adipose derived stem cells enhanced growth and invasion properties of ovarian cancer cells. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted the growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer in mice models. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted MMPs expression and secretion of ovarian cancer cells. • Elevated MMPs mediated the tumor promoting effects of ADSCs.

  1. Chondrogenic differentiation of human embryonic germ cell derived cells in hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Shyni; Theprungsirikul, Paranduangji; Ferran, Angela; Hwang, Nathaniel; Canver, Adam; Elisseeff, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Human embryonic germ (hEG) cells have the potential to self-renew over long periods of time and differentiate into various lineages. Cells derived from embryoid bodies of hEG cells express a broad spectrum of gene markers and have been induced towards cells of ecto-dermal and recently endo-dermal and mesenchymal lineages. LVEC cells express a number of surface marker proteins characteristic of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), indicating the potential of these cells to differentiate into mesenchymal tissues. Here we demonstrate the homogenous differentiation of LVEC cells into hyaline cartilage. Three dimensional tissue formation is achieved by encapsulating cells in synthetic hydrogels followed by incubation in chondrocyte-conditioned culture medium. Homogenous hyaline cartilage was produced, even after 63 population doublings (13 passages). The high proliferative capacity of these cells without teratoma formation, homogenous differentiation, and three-dimensional cartilage tissue formation suggests the significant potential of LVEC cells for cartilage tissue engineering applications.

  2. Clinical and preclinical translation of cell-based therapies using adipose tissue-derived cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Adipose tissue is now recognized as an accessible, abundant, and reliable site for the isolation of adult stem cells suitable for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of preclinical data relating to the isolation, characterization, cryopreservation, differentiation, and transplantation of freshly isolated stromal vascular fraction cells and adherent, culture-expanded, adipose-derived stromal/stem cells in vitro and in animal models. This body of work has provided evidence supporting clinical translational applications of adipose-derived cells in safety and efficacy trials. The present article reviews the case reports and phase I-III clinical evidence using autologous adipose-derived cells that have been published, to date, in the fields of gastroenterology, neurology, orthopedics, reconstructive surgery, and related clinical disciplines. Future directions and challenges facing the field are discussed and evaluated. PMID:20587076

  3. Neuronal-like cell differentiation of non-adherent bone marrow cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuxin; Zhang, Jinghan; Ben, Xiaoming

    2013-08-05

    Non-adherent bone marrow cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells from C57BL/6J mice were separated and cultured using the "pour-off" method. Non-adherent bone marrow cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells developed colony-forming unit-fibroblasts, and could be expanded by supplementation with epidermal growth factor. Immunocytochemistry showed that the non-adherent bone marrow cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells exposed to basic fibroblast growth factor/epidermal growth factor/nerve growth factor expressed the neuron specific markers, neurofilament-200 and NeuN, in vitro. Non-adherent bone marrow cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells from β-galactosidase transgenic mice were also transplanted into focal ischemic brain (right corpus striatum) of C57BL/6J mice. At 8 weeks, cells positive for LacZ and β-galactosidase staining were observed in the ischemic tissues, and cells co-labeled with both β-galactosidase and NeuN were seen by double immunohistochemical staining. These findings suggest that the non-adherent bone marrow cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells could differentiate into neuronal-like cells in vitro and in vivo.

  4. Entamoeba histolytica induces cell death of HT29 colonic epithelial cells via NOX1-derived ROS.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeong Ah; Kim, Ju Young; Lee, Young Ah; Min, Arim; Bahk, Young Yil; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2013-02-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, which causes amoebic colitis and occasionally liver abscess in humans, is able to induce host cell death. However, signaling mechanisms of colon cell death induced by E. histolytica are not fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the signaling role of NOX in cell death of HT29 colonic epithelial cells induced by E. histolytica. Incubation of HT29 cells with amoebic trophozoites resulted in DNA fragmentation that is a hallmark of apoptotic cell death. In addition, E. histolytica generate intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a contact-dependent manner. Inhibition of intracellular ROS level with treatment with DPI, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidases (NOXs), decreased Entamoeba-induced ROS generation and cell death in HT29 cells. However, pan-caspase inhibitor did not affect E. histolytica-induced HT29 cell death. In HT29 cells, catalytic subunit NOX1 and regulatory subunit Rac1 for NOX1 activation were highly expressed. We next investigated whether NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1)-derived ROS is closely associated with HT29 cell death induced by E. histolytica. Suppression of Rac1 by siRNA significantly inhibited Entamoeba-induced cell death. Moreover, knockdown of NOX1 by siRNA, effectively inhibited E. histolytica-triggered DNA fragmentation in HT29 cells. These results suggest that NOX1-derived ROS is required for apoptotic cell death in HT29 colon epithelial cells induced by E. histolytica.

  5. Derivation of Neural Precursor Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells for DNA Methylomic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Roubal, Ivan; Park, Sun Joo; Kim, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells are self-renewing pluripotent cells with competency to differentiate into all three-germ lineages. Many studies have demonstrated the importance of genetic and epigenetic molecular mechanisms in the maintenance of self-renewal and pluripotency. Stem cells are under unique molecular and cellular regulations different from somatic cells. Proper regulation should be ensured to maintain their unique self-renewal and undifferentiated characteristics. Understanding key mechanisms in stem cell biology will be important for the successful application of stem cells for regenerative therapeutic medicine. More importantly practical use of stem cells will require our knowledge on how to properly direct and differentiate stem cells into the necessary type of cells. Embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells have been used as study models to unveil molecular and cellular mechanisms in various signaling pathways. They are especially beneficial to developmental studies where in vivo molecular/cellular study models are not available. We have derived neural stem cells from human embryonic stem cells as a model to study the effect of teratogen in neural development. We have tested commercial neural differentiation system and successfully derived neural precursor cells exhibiting key molecular features of neural stem cells, which will be useful for experimental application.

  6. Glioma-Derived ADAM10 Induces Regulatory B Cells to Suppress CD8+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-sheng; Luo, Lun; Huang, Zhen-chao; Guo, Ying

    2014-01-01

    CD8+ T cells play an important role in the anti-tumor activities of the body. The dysfunction of CD8+ T cells in glioma is unclear. This study aims to elucidate the glioma cell-derived ADAM10 (A Disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10) in the suppression of CD8+ effector T cells by the induction of regulatory B cells. In this study, glioma cells were isolated from surgically removed glioma tissue and stimulated by Phorbol myristate acetage (PMA) in the culture. The levels of ADAM10 in the culture were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immune cells were assessed by flow cytometry. The results showed that the isolated glioma cells express ADAM10, which was markedly up regulated after stimulated with PMA. The glioma-derived ADAM10 induced activated B cells to differentiate into regulatory B cells, the later suppressed CD8+ T cell proliferation as well as the induced regulatory T cells, which also showed the immune suppressor effect on CD8+ effector T cell proliferation. In conclusion, glioma cells produce ADAM10 to induce Bregs; the latter suppresses CD8+ T cells and induces Tregs. PMID:25127032

  7. Reversible Commitment to Differentiation by Human Multipotent Stromal Cells (MSCs) in Single-Cell Derived Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Ylöstalo, Joni; Bazhanov, Nikolay; Prockop, Darwin J

    2008-01-01

    Objective Human multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) readily form single-cell derived colonies when plated at clonal densities. However, the colonies are heterogeneous since the cells from a colony form new colonies that vary in size and differentiation potential when re-plated at clonal densities. The experiments here tested the hypothesis that the cells in the inner regions of colonies are partially differentiated but the differentiation is reversible. Materials and Methods Cells were separately isolated from the dense inner regions (IN) and less dense outer regions (OUT) of single-cell derived colonies. The cells were then compared by assays of their transcriptomes and proteins, and for clonogenicity and differentiation. Results The IN cells expressed fewer cell-cycle genes and higher levels of genes for extracellular matrix than the OUT cells. When transferred to differentiation medium, differentiation of the colonies occurred primarily in the IN regions. However, the IN cells were indistinguishable from OUT cells when re-plated at clonal densities and assayed for rates of propagation and clonogenicity. Also, the colonies formed by IN cells were similar to colonies formed by OUT cells in that they had distinct IN and OUT regions. Cultures of IN and OUT cells remained indistinguishable through multiple passages (30-75 population doublings), and both cells formed colonies that were looser and less dense as they were expanded. Conclusions The results demonstrated that the cells in the inner region of single-derived colonies are partially differentiated but the differentiation can be reversed by re-plating the cells at clonal densities. PMID:18619725

  8. Drafting the proteome landscape of myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

    PubMed

    Gato, María; Blanco-Luquin, Idoia; Zudaire, Maribel; de Morentin, Xabier Martínez; Perez-Valderrama, Estela; Zabaleta, Aintzane; Kochan, Grazyna; Escors, David; Fernandez-Irigoyen, Joaquín; Santamaría, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of cells that are defined by their myeloid origin, immature state, and ability to potently suppress T-cell responses. They regulate immune responses and the population significantly increases in the tumor microenvironment of patients with glioma and other malignant tumors. For their study, MDSCs are usually isolated from the spleen or directly of tumors from a large number of tumor-bearing mice although promising ex vivo differentiated MDSC production systems have been recently developed. During the last years, proteomics has emerged as a powerful approach to analyze MDSCs proteomes using shotgun-based mass spectrometry (MS), providing functional information about cellular homeostasis and metabolic state at a global level. Here, we will revise recent proteome profiling studies performed in MDSCs from different origins. Moreover, we will perform an integrative functional analysis of the protein compilation derived from these large-scale proteomic studies in order to obtain a comprehensive view of MDSCs biology. Finally, we will also discuss the potential application of high-throughput proteomic approaches to study global proteome dynamics and post-translational modifications (PTMs) during the differentiation process of MDSCs that will greatly boost the identification of novel MDSC-specific therapeutic targets to apply in cancer immunotherapy.

  9. Cancer immunotherapy using dendritic cell-derived exosomes.

    PubMed

    Amigorena, S

    2000-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen presenting cells and the only ones capable of inducing primary cytotoxic immune responses. We found that DCs secrete a population of membrane vesicles, called exosomes. Exosomes are 60-80 nm vesicles of endocytic origin. The protein composition of exosomes was subjected to a systematic proteomic analysis. Besides MHC and co-stimulatory molecules, exosomes bear several adhesion proteins, most likely involved in their specific subjected to targeting. We also found that exosomes accumulate several cytosolic factors, probably involved in their endosomal biogenesis. Like DCs, exosomes induced immune responses in vivo. Indeed, a single injection of DC-derived exosomes sensitized with tumor peptides induced potent anti tumor immune responses in mice and the eradication of established tumors. Tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes were found in the spleen of exosome-treated mice, and the anti tumor effect of exosomes was sensitive to in vivo depletion of CD8+ T cells. These results show that exosomes induce potent anti tumor effects in vivo, and strongly support the implementation of human DC-derived exosomes for cancer immunotherapy.

  10. Neuronal Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Using Exosomes Derived from Differentiating Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Yuji S.; Xu, Qiaobing

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes deliver functional proteins and genetic materials to neighboring cells, and have potential applications for tissue regeneration. One possible mechanism of exosome-promoted tissue regeneration is through the delivery of microRNA (miRNA). In this study, we hypothesized that exosomes derived from neuronal progenitor cells contain miRNAs that promote neuronal differentiation. We treated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) daily with exosomes derived from PC12 cells, a neuronal cell line, for 1 week. After the treatment with PC12-derived exosomes, MSCs developed neuron-like morphology, and gene and protein expressions of neuronal markers were upregulated. Microarray analysis showed that the expression of miR-125b, which is known to play a role in neuronal differentiation of stem cells, was much higher in PC12-derived exosomes than in exosomes from B16-F10 melanoma cells. These results suggest that the delivery of miRNAs contained in PC12-derived exosomes is a possible mechanism explaining the neuronal differentiation of MSC. PMID:26248331

  11. Farnesylthiosalicylic acid sensitizes hepatocarcinoma cells to artemisinin derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liping; Pang, Yilin; Qin, Guiqi; Xi, Gaina; Wu, Shengnan; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Tongsheng

    2017-01-01

    Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and artesunate (ARS), two artemisinin derivatives, have efficacious anticancer activities against human hepatocarcinoma (HCC) cells. This study aims to study the anticancer action of the combination treatment of DHA/ARS and farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS), a Ras inhibitor, in HCC cells (Huh-7 and HepG2 cell lines). FTS pretreatment significantly enhanced DHA/ARS-induced phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, Bak/Bax activation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytochrome c release, and caspase-8 and -9 activations, characteristics of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis. Pretreatment with Z-IETD-FMK (caspase-8 inhibitor) potently prevented the cytotoxicity of the combination treatment of DHA/ARS and FTS, and pretreatment with Z-VAD-FMK (pan-caspase inhibitor) significantly inhibited the loss of ΔΨm induced by DHA/ARS treatment or the combination treatment of DHA/ARS and FTS in HCC cells. Furthermore, silencing Bak/Bax modestly but significantly inhibited the cytotoxicity of the combination treatment of DHA/ARS and FTS. Interestingly, pretreatment with an antioxidant N-Acetyle-Cysteine (NAC) significantly prevented the cytotoxicity of the combination treatment of DHA and FTS instead of the combination treatment of ARS and FTS, suggesting that reactive oxygen species (ROS) played a key role in the anticancer action of the combination treatment of DHA and FTS. Similar to FTS, DHA/ARS also significantly prevented Ras activation. Collectively, our data demonstrate that FTS potently sensitizes Huh-7 and HepG2 cells to artemisinin derivatives via accelerating the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. PMID:28182780

  12. Stem cell-derived systems in toxicology assessment.

    PubMed

    Suter-Dick, Laura; Alves, Paula M; Blaauboer, Bas J; Bremm, Klaus-Dieter; Brito, Catarina; Coecke, Sandra; Flick, Burkhard; Fowler, Paul; Hescheler, Jürgen; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus; Jennings, Paul; Kelm, Jens M; Manou, Irene; Mistry, Pratibha; Moretto, Angelo; Roth, Adrian; Stedman, Donald; van de Water, Bob; Beilmann, Mario

    2015-06-01

    Industrial sectors perform toxicological assessments of their potential products to ensure human safety and to fulfill regulatory requirements. These assessments often involve animal testing, but ethical, cost, and time concerns, together with a ban on it in specific sectors, make appropriate in vitro systems indispensable in toxicology. In this study, we summarize the outcome of an EPAA (European Partnership of Alternatives to Animal Testing)-organized workshop on the use of stem cell-derived (SCD) systems in toxicology, with a focus on industrial applications. SCD systems, in particular, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived, provide physiological cell culture systems of easy access and amenable to a variety of assays. They also present the opportunity to apply the vast repository of existing nonclinical data for the understanding of in vitro to in vivo translation. SCD systems from several toxicologically relevant tissues exist; they generally recapitulate many aspects of physiology and respond to toxicological and pharmacological interventions. However, focused research is necessary to accelerate implementation of SCD systems in an industrial setting and subsequent use of such systems by regulatory authorities. Research is required into the phenotypic characterization of the systems, since methods and protocols for generating terminally differentiated SCD cells are still lacking. Organotypical 3D culture systems in bioreactors and microscale tissue engineering technologies should be fostered, as they promote and maintain differentiation and support coculture systems. They need further development and validation for their successful implementation in toxicity testing in industry. Analytical measures also need to be implemented to enable compound exposure and metabolism measurements for in vitro to in vivo extrapolation. The future of SCD toxicological tests will combine advanced cell culture technologies and biokinetic measurements to support regulatory and

  13. Differentiation of human menstrual blood-derived endometrial mesenchymal stem cells into oocyte-like cells.

    PubMed

    Lai, Dongmei; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Qiuwan; Chen, Yifei; Xiang, Charlie

    2016-11-01

    Human endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (EnSCs) derived from menstrual blood are a unique stem cell source. Evidence suggests that EnSCs exhibit a multi-lineage potential and have attracted extensive attention in regenerative medicine. However, the potential of EnSCs to differentiate into germline cells in vitro remains unclear. In this study, EnSCs were induced to differentiate into germ cells in a differentiation medium supplemented with 20% human follicular fluid. Our results demonstrated that EnSCs derived from human menstrual blood form oocyte-like cells and express germ cell markers. The induced cell aggregates contained not only oocyte-like structures but also cells expressing follicle stimulating hormone receptor and luteotropic hormone receptor, and produced estrogen and progesterone regulated by gonodatropin, suggesting that granulosa-like and theca-like cells were also induced. We further found that granulosa cells promote the development of oocyte-like cells and activate the induction of blastocyst-like structures derived from EnSCs. In conclusion, EnSCs may potentially represent an in vitro system for the investigation of human folliculogenesis.

  14. Human adipose-derived stem cells stimulate neuroregeneration.

    PubMed

    Masgutov, Ruslan F; Masgutova, Galina A; Zhuravleva, Margarita N; Salafutdinov, Ilnur I; Mukhametshina, Regina T; Mukhamedshina, Yana O; Lima, Luciana M; Reis, Helton J; Kiyasov, Andrey P; Palotás, András; Rizvanov, Albert A

    2016-08-01

    Traumatic brain injuries and degenerative neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's dementia, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and many others are characterized by loss of brain cells and supporting structures. Restoring microanatomy and function using stem cells is a promising therapeutic approach. Among the many various sources, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are one of the most easily harvested alternatives, they multiply rapidly, and they demonstrate low immunogenicity with an ability to differentiate into several cell types. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of xenotransplanted human ADSCs on post-traumatic regeneration of rat sciatic nerve. Peripheral reconstruction following complete sciatic transection and autonerve grafting was complemented by intra-operative injection of hADSCs into the proximal and distal stumps. The injury caused gliosis and apoptosis of sensory neurons in the lumbar 5 (L5) ganglia in the control rodents; however, animals treated with hADSCs demonstrated a smaller amount of cellular loss. Formation of amputation neuroma, which hinders axonal repair, was less prominent in the experimental group, and immunohistochemical analysis of myelin basic protein showed good myelination 65 days after surgery. At this point, control groups still exhibited high levels of microglia/macrophage-specific marker Iba-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, the mark of an ongoing inflammation and incomplete axonal growth 2 months after the injury. This report demonstrates that hADSCs promote neuronal survival in the spinal ganglion, fuel axonal repair and stimulate the regeneration of peripheral nerves.

  15. Large-scale generation of cell-derived nanovesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, W.; Kim, J.; Yoon, J.; Jeong, D.; Cho, S.; Jeong, H.; Yoon, Y. J.; Kim, S. C.; Gho, Y. S.; Park, J.

    2014-09-01

    Exosomes are enclosed compartments that are released from cells and that can transport biological contents for the purpose of intercellular communications. Research into exosomes is hindered by their rarity. In this article, we introduce a device that uses centrifugal force and a filter with micro-sized pores to generate a large quantity of cell-derived nanovesicles. The device has a simple polycarbonate structure to hold the filter, and operates in a common centrifuge. Nanovesicles are similar in size and membrane structure to exosomes. Nanovesicles contain intracellular RNAs ranging from microRNA to mRNA, intracellular proteins, and plasma membrane proteins. The quantity of nanovesicles produced using the device is 250 times the quantity of naturally secreted exosomes. Also, the quantity of intracellular contents in nanovesicles is twice that in exosomes. Nanovesicles generated from murine embryonic stem cells can transfer RNAs to target cells. Therefore, this novel device and the nanovesicles that it generates are expected to be used in exosome-related research, and can be applied in various applications such as drug delivery and cell-based therapy.

  16. Large-scale generation of cell-derived nanovesicles.

    PubMed

    Jo, W; Kim, J; Yoon, J; Jeong, D; Cho, S; Jeong, H; Yoon, Y J; Kim, S C; Gho, Y S; Park, J

    2014-10-21

    Exosomes are enclosed compartments that are released from cells and that can transport biological contents for the purpose of intercellular communications. Research into exosomes is hindered by their rarity. In this article, we introduce a device that uses centrifugal force and a filter with micro-sized pores to generate a large quantity of cell-derived nanovesicles. The device has a simple polycarbonate structure to hold the filter, and operates in a common centrifuge. Nanovesicles are similar in size and membrane structure to exosomes. Nanovesicles contain intracellular RNAs ranging from microRNA to mRNA, intracellular proteins, and plasma membrane proteins. The quantity of nanovesicles produced using the device is 250 times the quantity of naturally secreted exosomes. Also, the quantity of intracellular contents in nanovesicles is twice that in exosomes. Nanovesicles generated from murine embryonic stem cells can transfer RNAs to target cells. Therefore, this novel device and the nanovesicles that it generates are expected to be used in exosome-related research, and can be applied in various applications such as drug delivery and cell-based therapy.

  17. Evaluation of cyanobacteria cell count detection derived from ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Inland waters across the United States (US) are at potential risk for increased outbreaks of toxic cyanobacteria (Cyano) harmful algal bloom (HAB) events resulting from elevated water temperatures and extreme hydrologic events attributable to climate change and increased nutrient loadings associated with intensive agricultural practices. Current monitoring efforts are limited in scope due to resource limitations, analytical complexity, and data integration efforts. The goals of this study were to validate a new ocean color algorithm for satellite imagery that could potentially be used to monitor CyanoHAB events in near real-time to provide a compressive monitoring capability for freshwater lakes (>100 ha). The algorithm incorporated narrow spectral bands specific to the European Space Agency’s (ESA’s) MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) instrument that were optimally oriented at phytoplankton pigment absorption features including phycocyanin at 620 nm. A validation of derived Cyano cell counts was performed using available in situ data assembled from existing monitoring programs across eight states in the eastern US over a 39-month period (2009–2012). Results indicated that MERIS provided robust estimates for Low (10,000–109,000 cells/mL) and Very High (>1,000,000 cells/mL) cell enumeration ranges (approximately 90% and 83%, respectively). However, the results for two intermediate ranges (110,000–299,000 and 300,000–1,000,000 cells/mL)

  18. Mobilised bone marrow-derived cells accelerate wound healing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Sun, Yu; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Ji, Shi-Zhao; Han, Shu; Xia, Zhao-Fan

    2013-08-01

    Massive skin defects caused by severe burn and trauma are a clinical challenge to surgeons. Timely and effective wound closure is often hindered by the lack of skin donor site. Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) have been shown to 'differentiate' into multiple tissue cells. In this study we focused on the direct manipulation of endogenous BMDCs, avoiding the immunocompatibility issues and complicated cell isolation, purification, identification and amplification procedures in vitro on wound repair. We found that mobilisation of the BMDCs into the circulation significantly increased the amount of BMDCs at the injury site which in turn accelerated healing of large open wound. We used a chimeric green fluorescent protein (GFP) mouse model to track BMDCs and to investigate their role in full-thickness skin excisional wounds. We have shown that bone marrow mobilisation by granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) exerted multiple beneficial effects on skin repair, both by increasing the engraftment of BMDCs into the skin to differentiate into multiple skin cell types and by upregulating essential cytokine mRNAs critical to wound repair. The potential trophic effects of G-CSF on bone marrow stem cells to accelerate wound healing could have a significant clinical impact.

  19. Skin-derived TSLP systemically expands regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Leichner, Theresa M; Satake, Atsushi; Harrison, Victor Sanoe; Tanaka, Yukinori; Archambault, Angela S; Kim, Brian S; Siracusa, Mark C; Leonard, Warren J; Naji, Ali; Wu, Gregory F; Artis, David; Kambayashi, Taku

    2017-05-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a subset of CD4(+) T cells with suppressive function and are critical for limiting inappropriate activation of T cells. Hence, the expansion of Tregs is an attractive strategy for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Here, we demonstrate that the skin possesses the remarkable capacity to systemically expand Treg numbers by producing thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) in response to vitamin D receptor stimulation. An ∼2-fold increase in the proportion and absolute number of Tregs was observed in mice treated topically but not systemically with the Vitamin D3 analog MC903. This expansion of Tregs was dependent on TSLP receptor signaling but not on VDR signaling in hematopoietic cells. However, TSLP receptor expression by Tregs was not required for their proliferation. Rather, skin-derived TSLP promoted Treg expansion through dendritic cells. Importantly, treatment of skin with MC903 significantly lowered the incidence of autoimmune diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice and attenuated disease score in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Together, these data demonstrate that the skin has the remarkable potential to control systemic immune responses and that Vitamin D-mediated stimulation of skin could serve as a novel strategy to therapeutically modulate the systemic immune system for the treatment of autoimmunity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. T Cell-Derived Lymphotoxin Regulates Liver Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    TUMANOV, ALEXEI V.; KOROLEVA, EKATERINA P.; CHRISTIANSEN, PETER A.; KHAN, MEHTAB A.; RUDDY, MATTHEW J.; BURNETTE, BYRON; PAPA, SALVATORE; FRANZOSO, GUIDO; NEDOSPASOV, SERGEI A.; FU, YANG-XIN; ANDERS, ROBERT A.

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims The ability of the liver to regenerate hepatic mass is essential to withstanding liver injury. The process of liver regeneration is tightly regulated by distinct signaling cascades involving components of the innate immune system, cytokines, and growth factors. However, the role of the adaptive immune system in regulation of liver regeneration is not well-defined. The role of adaptive immune system in liver regeneration was investigated in lymphocyte-deficient mice and in conditional lymphotoxin-deficient mice. Methods A model of liver regeneration after 70% partial hepatectomy was used, followed by examination of liver pathology, survival, DNA synthesis, and cytokine expression. Results We found that mice deficient in T cells show a reduced capacity for liver regeneration following partial hepatectomy. Furthermore, surface lymphotoxin, provided by T cells, is critical for liver regeneration. Mice specifically deficient in T-cell lymphotoxin had increased liver damage and a reduced capacity to initiate DNA synthesis after partial hepatectomy. Transfer of splenocytes from wild-type but not lymphotoxin-deficient mice improved liver regeneration in T cell-deficient mice. We found that an agonistic antibody against the lymphotoxin β receptor was able to facilitate liver regeneration by reducing liver injury, increasing interleukin-6 production, hepatocyte DNA synthesis, and survival of lymphocyte-deficient (Rag) mice after partial hepatectomy. Conclusions The adaptive immune system directly regulates liver regeneration via a T cell-derived lymphotoxin axis, and pharmacological stimulation of lymphotoxin β receptor might represent a novel therapeutic approach to improve liver regeneration. PMID:18952083

  1. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells: therapeutic modulation in cancer.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Ryan A

    2012-01-01

    Improved understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of adaptive immunity has been realized over the past few decades, leading to the development of novel immunotherapeutic strategies capable of promoting host anti-tumor immunity. In order to achieve clinically meaningful results, further understanding of the mechanisms by which tumors suppress host immunity, and the development of therapeutic strategies which overcome tumor-associated immune suppression, will be necessary. Myeloid-derived cells with potent immunosuppressive properties are ubiquitous in human cancers. Improved mechanistic understanding of factors promoting their development, activation and mechanisms of immune suppression are being translated into novel therapeutic approaches, and will be summarized herein.

  2. Effects of Erythropoietin in Murine-Induced Pluripotent Cell-Derived Panneural Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Offen, Nils; Flemming, Johannes; Kamawal, Hares; Ahmad, Ruhel; Wolber, Wanja; Geis, Christian; Zaehres, Holm; Schöler, Hans R; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Müller, Albrecht M; Sirén, Anna-Leena

    2013-01-01

    Induced cell fate changes by reprogramming of somatic cells offers an efficient strategy to generate autologous pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from any adult cell type. The potential of iPS cells to differentiate into various cell types is well established, however the efficiency to produce functional neurons from iPS cells remains modest. Here, we generated panneural progenitor cells (pNPCs) from mouse iPS cells and investigated the effect of the neurotrophic growth factor erythropoietin (EPO) on their survival, proliferation and neurodifferentiation. Under neural differentiation conditions, iPS-derived pNPCs gave rise to microtubule-associated protein-2 positive neuronlike cells (34% to 43%) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor positive oligodendrocytelike cells (21% to 25%) while less than 1% of the cells expressed the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein. Neuronlike cells generated action potentials and developed active presynaptic terminals. The pNPCs expressed EPO receptor (EPOR) mRNA and displayed functional EPOR signaling. In proliferating cultures, EPO (0.1–3 U/mL) slightly improved pNPC survival but reduced cell proliferation and neurosphere formation in a concentration-dependent manner. In differentiating cultures EPO facilitated neurodifferentiation as assessed by the increased number of β-III-tubulin positive neurons. Our results show that EPO inhibits iPS pNPC self-renewal and promotes neurogenesis. PMID:24408113

  3. Tumour cell-derived exosomes endow mesenchymal stromal cells with tumour-promotion capabilities.

    PubMed

    Lin, L Y; Du, L M; Cao, K; Huang, Y; Yu, P F; Zhang, L Y; Li, F Y; Wang, Y; Shi, Y F

    2016-11-17

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a major component of the tumour microenvironment. A plethora of elegant studies focusing on tumour-derived MSCs have shown that they, unlike normal MSCs in other tissue, exhibit a strong ability to promote tumour progression. However, the mechanisms underlying the conversion of normal MSCs into tumour-associated MSCs are unknown. We report here a critical role of tumour cell-derived exosomes in endowing bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) with a tumour-favourable phenotype. Tumour cell-derived exosomes affected neither the growth factor production nor the immunosuppressive property of MSCs; rather, they endowed MSCs with a strong ability to promote macrophage infiltration into B16-F0 melanoma or EL-4 lymphoma. Ablation of macrophages by clodronate liposome administration reversed the tumour-promoting effect of MSCs educated by tumour cell-derived exosomes (TE-MSCs) on the tumour growth. By comparing the chemokine profile of BM-MSCs with that of TE-MSCs, we found that TE-MSCs produced a large amount of CCR2 ligands, CCL2 and CCL7, which are responsible for macrophage recruitment. CCR2-specific inhibitor was found to block the tumour-promoting effect of TE-MSCs. Thus, our investigations demonstrated that tumour cell-derived exosomes confer BM-MSCs the ability to enhance tumour growth. Therefore, we uncovered a novel mechanism underlying the conversion of normal MSCs to tumour-associated MSCs.

  4. Myeloid-derived suppressor cell impact on endogenous and adoptively transferred T cells.

    PubMed

    Arina, Ainhoa; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2015-04-01

    Novel models of autochthonous tumorigenesis and adoptive T cell therapy (ATT) are providing new clues regarding the pro-tumorigenic and immunosuppressive effects of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), and their interaction with T cells. New findings are shifting the perception of the main level at which MDSC act, from direct cell-to-cell suppression to others, such as limiting T cell infiltration. Adoptively transferred, high-avidity T cells recognizing peptides with high-affinity for MHC-I eliminated large tumors. However, low-avidity T cells or low-affinity peptides resulted in failure to eradicate tumors. Manipulation of intratumoral myeloid cells improved the outcome of otherwise unsuccessful ATT. Therefore, therapeutic intervention directed at the tumor stroma might be required when using suboptimal T cells for ATT.

  5. Human embryonic stem cell-derived mesoderm-like epithelium transitions to mesenchymal progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Nolan L; Robbins, Kelly R; Dhara, Sujoy K; West, Franklin D; Stice, Steven L

    2009-08-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) have the potential to produce all of the cells in the body. They are able to self-renew indefinitely, potentially making them a source for large-scale production of therapeutic cell lines. Here, we developed a monolayer differentiation culture that induces hESC (WA09 and BG01) to form epithelial sheets with mesodermal gene expression patterns (BMP4, RUNX1, and GATA4). These E-cadherin+ CD90low cells then undergo apparent epithelial-mesenchymal transition for the derivation of mesenchymal progenitor cells (hESC-derived mesenchymal cells [hES-MC]) that by flow cytometry are negative for hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, and CD133) and endothelial (CD31 and CD146) markers, but positive for markers associated with mesenchymal stem cells (CD73, CD90, CD105, and CD166). To determine their functionality, we tested their capacity to produce the three lineages associated with mesenchymal stem cells and found they could form osteogenic and chondrogenic, but not adipogenic lineages. The derived hES-MC were able to remodel and contract collagen I lattice constructs to an equivalent degree as keloid fibroblasts and were induced to express alpha-smooth muscle actin when exposed to transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, but not platelet derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B). These data suggest that the derived hES-MC are multipotent cells with potential uses in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine and for providing a highly reproducible cell source for adult-like progenitor cells.

  6. Analysis of oocyte-like cells differentiated from porcine fetal skin-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Dyce, Paul W; Shen, Wei; Huynh, Evanna; Shao, Hua; Villagómez, Daniel A F; Kidder, Gerald M; King, W Allan; Li, Julang

    2011-05-01

    We previously reported the differentiation of cells derived from porcine female fetal skin into cells resembling germ cells and oocytes. A subpopulation of these cells expressed germ cell markers and formed aggregates resembling cumulus-oocyte complexes. Some of these aggregates extruded large oocyte-like cells (OLCs) that expressed markers consistent with those of oocytes. The objective of the current study was to further characterize OLCs differentiated from porcine skin-derived stem cells. Reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot revealed the expression of connexin37 and connexin43, both of which are characteristic of ovarian follicles. The expression of meiosis markers DMC1 and synaptonemal complex protein, but not STRA8 and REC8, was detected in the OLC cultures. Immunofluorescence with an antibody against synaptonemal complex protein on chromosome spreads revealed a very small subpopulation of stained OLCs that had a similar pattern to leptotene, zytotene, or pachytene nuclei during prophase I of meiosis. Sodium bisulfite sequencing of the differentially methylated region of H19 indicated that this region is almost completely demethylated in OLCs, similar to in vivo-derived oocytes. We also investigated the differentiation potential of male skin-derived stem cells in the same differentiation medium. Large cells with oocyte morphology were generated in the male stem cell differentiation cultures. These OLCs expressed oocyte genes such as octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4), growth differentiation factor-9b (GDF9B), deleted in azoospermia-like (DAZL), VASA, zona pellucida B (ZPB), and zona pellucida C (ZPC). It was concluded that skin-derived stem cells from both male and female porcine fetuses are capable of entering an oocyte differentiation pathway, but the culture system currently in place is inadequate to support the complete development of competent oocytes.

  7. Biomaterials directed in vivo osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal cells derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Nathaniel S; Varghese, Shyni; Lee, H Janice; Zhang, Zijun; Elisseeff, Jennifer

    2013-08-01

    Spontaneous differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is generally inefficient and leads to a heterogeneous population of differentiated and undifferentiated cells, limiting the potential use of hESCs for cell-based therapy and studies of specific differentiation programs. Here, we demonstrate biomaterial-dependent commitment of a mesenchymal cell population derived from hESCs toward the osteogenic lineage in vivo. In skeletal development, bone formation from condensing mesenchymal cells involves two distinct pathways: endochondral and intramembraneous bone formation. In this study, we demonstrate that the hESC-derived mesenchymal cells differentiate and regenerate in vivo bone tissues through two different pathways depending upon the local cues present in a scaffold microenvironment. Hydroxyapatite (HA) was incorporated into biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/poly(l-lactic acid) (PLGA/PLLA) scaffolds to enhance bone formation. The HA microenvironment stabilized the β-catenin and upregulated Runx2, resulting in faster bone formation through intramembraneous ossification. hESC-derived mesenchymal cells seeded on the PLGA/PLLA scaffold without HA, however, showed minimal levels Runx2, and differentiated via endochondral ossification, as evidenced by formation of cartilaginous tissue, followed by calcification and increased blood vessel invasion. These results indicate that the ossification mechanisms of the hESC-derived mesenchymal stem cells can be regulated by the scaffold-mediated microenvironments, and bone tissue can be formed.

  8. Myeloid derived suppressor cells enhance IgE-mediated mast cell responses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We previously demonstrated that enhanced development of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) in ADAM10 transgenic mice yielded resistance to infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection, and that co-culturing MDSC with IgE-activated mast cells enhanced cytokine production. In the current...

  9. Derivation of autism spectrum disorder-specific induced pluripotent stem cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    DeRosa, Brooke A; Van Baaren, Jessica M; Dubey, Gaurav K; Lee, Joycelyn M; Cuccaro, Michael L; Vance, Jeffery M; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Dykxhoorn, Derek M

    2012-05-10

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold tremendous potential both as a biological tool to uncover the pathophysiology of disease by creating relevant cell models and as a source of stem cells for cell-based therapeutic applications. Typically, iPSCs have been derived by the transgenic overexpression of transcription factors associated with progenitor cell or stem cell function in fibroblasts derived from skin biopsies. However, the need for skin punch biopsies to derive fibroblasts for reprogramming can present a barrier to study participation among certain populations of individuals, including children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In addition, the acquisition of skin punch biopsies in non-clinic settings presents a challenge. One potential mechanism to avoid these limitations would be the use of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as the source of the cells for reprogramming. In this article we describe, for the first time, the derivation of iPSC lines from PBMCs isolated from the whole blood of autistic children, and their subsequent differentiation in GABAergic neurons.

  10. Glioma gene therapy using induced pluripotent stem cell derived neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Esther Xingwei; Lam, Dang Hoang; Wu, Chunxiao; Yang, Jing; Tham, Chee Kian; Ng, Wai Hoe; Wang, Shu

    2011-10-03

    Using neural stem cells (NSCs) with tumor tropic migratory capacity to deliver therapeutic genes is an attractive strategy in eliminating metastatic or disseminated tumors. While different methods have been developed to isolate or generate NSCs, it has not been assessed whether induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, a type of pluripotent stem cells that hold great potential for regenerative medicine, can be used as a source for derivation of NSCs with tumor tropism. In this study, we used a conventional lentivirus transduction method to derive iPS cells from primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts and then generated NSCs from the iPS cells. To investigate whether the iPS cell derived NSCs can be used in the treatment of disseminated brain tumors, the cells were transduced with a baculoviral vector containing the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase suicide gene and injected into the cerebral hemisphere contralateral to a tumor inoculation site in a mouse intracranial human glioma xenograft model. We observed that NSCs expressing the suicide gene were, in the presence of ganciclovir, effective in inhibiting the growth of the glioma xenografts and prolonging survival of tumor-bearing mice. Our findings provide evidence for the feasibility of using iPS cell derived NSCs as cellular vehicles for targeted anticancer gene therapy.

  11. Ventrally emigrating neural tube (VENT) cells: a second neural tube-derived cell population.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Douglas P; Machnicki, Michal; Ali, Mohammed M; Zhang, Zhanying; Sohal, Gurkirpal S

    2004-08-01

    Two embryological fates for cells of the neural tube are well established. Cells from the dorsal part of the developing neural tube emigrate and become neural crest cells, which in turn contribute to the development of the peripheral nervous system and a variety of non-neural structures. Other neural tube cells form the neurons and glial cells of the central nervous system (CNS). This has led to the neural crest being treated as the sole neural tube-derived emigrating cell population, with the remaining neural tube cells assumed to be restricted to forming the CNS. However, this restriction has not been tested fully. Our investigations of chick, quail and duck embryos utilizing a variety of different labelling techniques (DiI, LacZ, GFP and quail chimera) demonstrate the existence of a second neural tube-derived emigrating cell population. These cells originate from the ventral part of the cranial neural tube, emigrate at the exit/entry site of the cranial nerves, migrate in association with the nerves and populate their target tissues. On the basis of its site of origin and route of migration we have named this cell population the ventrally emigrating neural tube (VENT) cells. VENT cells also differ from neural crest cells in that they emigrate considerably after the emigration of neural crest cells, and lack expression of the neural crest cell antigen HNK-1. VENT cells are multipotent, differentiating into cell types belonging to all four basic tissues in the body: the nerve, muscle, connective and epithelium. Thus, the neural tube provides at least two cell populations--neural crest and VENT cells--that contribute to the development of the peripheral nervous system and various non-neural structures. This review describes the origin of the idea of VENT cells, and discusses evidence for their existence and subsequent fates.

  12. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells: linking inflammation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Ostrand-Rosenberg, Suzanne; Sinha, Pratima

    2009-04-15

    Many cancer immunotherapies developed in experimental animals have been tested in clinical trials. Although some have shown modest clinical effects, most have not been effective. Recent studies have identified myeloid-origin cells that are potent suppressors of tumor immunity and therefore a significant impediment to cancer immunotherapy. "Myeloid-derived suppressor cells" (MDSC) accumulate in the blood, lymph nodes, and bone marrow and at tumor sites in most patients and experimental animals with cancer and inhibit both adaptive and innate immunity. MDSC are induced by tumor-secreted and host-secreted factors, many of which are proinflammatory molecules. The induction of MDSC by proinflammatory mediators led to the hypothesis that inflammation promotes the accumulation of MDSC that down-regulate immune surveillance and antitumor immunity, thereby facilitating tumor growth. This article reviews the characterization and suppressive mechanisms used by MDSC to block tumor immunity and describes the mechanisms by which inflammation promotes tumor progression through the induction of MDSC.

  13. Efficient derivation of microglia-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Muffat, Julien; Li, Yun; Yuan, Bingbing; Mitalipova, Maisam; Omer, Attya; Corcoran, Sean; Bakiasi, Grisilda; Tsai, Li-Huei; Aubourg, Patrick; Ransohoff, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Microglia, the only lifelong resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), are highly specialized macrophages which have been recognized to play a crucial role in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD). However, in contrast to other cell types of the human CNS, bona fide microglia have not yet been derived from cultured human pluripotent stem cells. Here we establish a robust and efficient protocol for the rapid production of microglia-like cells from human embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells that uses defined serum-free culture conditions. These in vitro pluripotent stem cell-derived microglia-like cells (termed pMGLs) faithfully recapitulate the expected ontogeny and characteristics of their in vivo counterparts and resemble primary fetal human and mouse microglia. We generated these cells from multiple disease-specific cell lines, and find that pMGLs derived from MeCP2 mutant hES cells are smaller than their isogenic controls. We further describe a culture platform to study integration and live behavior of pMGLs in organotypic 3D-cultures. This modular differentiation system allows the study of microglia in highly defined conditions, as they mature in response to developmentally relevant cues, and provides a framework to study the long-term interactions of microglia residing in a tissue-like environment. PMID:27668937

  14. Susceptibility of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neural Cells to Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shih-Cheng; Shen, Ching-I; Lin, Ho; Chen, Chun-Jung; Chang, Chia-Yu; Chen, Sheng-Mei; Lee, Hsiu-Chin; Lai, Ping-Shan; Su, Hong-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can be efficiently directed to become immature neuroepithelial precursor cells (NPCs) and functional mature neural cells, including neurotransmitter-secreting neurons and glial cells. Investigating the susceptibility of these hESCs-derived neural cells to neurotrophic viruses, such as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), provides insight into the viral cell tropism in the infected human brain. We demonstrate that hESC-derived NPCs are highly vulnerable to JEV infection at a low multiplicity of infection (MOI). In addition, glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP)-expressing glial cells are also susceptible to JEV infection. In contrast, only a few mature neurons were infected at MOI 10 or higher on the third day post-infection. In addition, functional neurotransmitter-secreting neurons are also resistant to JEV infection at high MOI. Moreover, we discover that vimentin intermediate filament, reported as a putative neurovirulent JEV receptor, is highly expressed in NPCs and glial cells, but not mature neurons. These results indicate that the expression of vimentin in neural cells correlates to the cell tropism of JEV. Finally, we further demonstrate that membranous vimentin is necessary for the susceptibility of hESC-derived NPCs to JEV infection. PMID:25517725

  15. Humanin Derivatives Inhibit Necrotic Cell Death in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Aviv; Lerner-Yardeni, Jenny; Meridor, David; Kasher, Roni; Nathan, Ilana; Parola, Abraham H

    2015-01-01

    Humanin and its derivatives are peptides known for their protective antiapoptotic effects against Alzheimer’s disease. Herein, we identify a novel function of the humanin-derivative AGA(C8R)-HNG17 (namely, protection against cellular necrosis). Necrosis is one of the main modes of cell death, which was until recently considered an unmoderated process. However, recent findings suggest the opposite. We have found that AGA(C8R)-HNG17 confers protection against necrosis in the neuronal cell lines PC-12 and NSC-34, where necrosis is induced in a glucose-free medium by either chemohypoxia or by a shift from apoptosis to necrosis. Our studies in traumatic brain injury models in mice, where necrosis is the main mode of neuronal cell death, have shown that AGA(C8R)-HNG17 has a protective effect. This result is demonstrated by a decrease in a neuronal severity score and by a reduction in brain edema, as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An insight into the peptide’s antinecrotic mechanism was attained through measurements of cellular ATP levels in PC-12 cells under necrotic conditions, showing that the peptide mitigates a necrosis-associated decrease in ATP levels. Further, we demonstrate the peptide’s direct enhancement of the activity of ATP synthase activity, isolated from rat-liver mitochondria, suggesting that AGA(C8R)-HNG17 targets the mitochondria and regulates cellular ATP levels. Thus, AGA(C8R)-HNG17 has potential use for the development of drug therapies for necrosis-related diseases, for example, traumatic brain injury, stroke, myocardial infarction, and other conditions for which no efficient drug-based treatment is currently available. Finally, this study provides new insight into the mechanisms underlying the antinecrotic mode of action of AGA(C8R)-HNG17. PMID:26062019

  16. [Thiamine and its derivatives in the regulation of cell metabolism].

    PubMed

    Tylicki, Adam; Siemieniuk, Magdalena

    2011-07-06

    For over 70 years thiamine (vitamin B1) has aroused the interest of biologists, biochemists and medical doctors because of its multilateral participation in key biochemical and physiological processes. The thiamine molecule is composed of pyrimidine and thiazole rings which are linked by a methylene bridge. It is synthesized by microorganisms, fungi and plants, whereas animals and humans have to obtain it from food. There are several known forms of vitamin B1 inside cells: free thiamine, three phosphate esters (mono-, di-, and triphosphate), and the recently found adenosine thiamine triphosphate. Thiamine has a dual, coenzymatic and non-coenzymatic role. First of all, it is a precursor of thiamin diphosphate, which is a coenzyme for over 20 characterized enzymes which are involved in cell bioenergetic processes leading to the synthesis of ATP. Moreover, these enzymes take part in the biosynthesis of pentose (required for the synthesis of nucleotides), amino acids and other organic compounds of cell metabolism. On the other hand, recent discoveries show the non-coenzymatic role of thiamine derivatives in the process of regulation of gene expression (riboswitches in microorganisms and plants), the stress response, and perhaps so far unknown signal transduction pathways associated with adverse environmental conditions, or transduction of nerve signals with participation of thiamine triphosphate and adenosine thiamine triphosphate. From the clinical point of view thiamine deficiency is related to beri-beri, Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and other pathologies of the nervous system, and it is successfully applied in medical practice. On the other hand, identifying new synthetic analogues of thiamine which could be used as cytostatics, herbicides or agents preventing deficiency of vitamin B1 is currently the major goal of the research. In this paper we present the current state of knowledge of thiamine and its derivatives, indicating

  17. Studies on the Synthesis of Derivatives of Marine-Derived Bostrycin and Their Structure-Activity Relationship against Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Zhong, Lili; Long, Yuhua; Li, Jia; Wu, Jueheng; Liu, Lan; Chen, Shengping; Lin, Yongcheng; Li, Mengfeng; Zhu, Xun; She, Zhigang

    2012-01-01

    A series of new derivatives (5–29) of marine-derived bostrycin (1) were synthesized. The in vitro cytotoxic activities of all compounds were evaluated against MCF-7, MDA-MB-435, A549, HepG2, HCT-116 and MCF-10A cells using the MTT method. The compounds 7, 8, 22, 23, 25, 28 and 29 of the total showed comparable activity to epirubicin, the positive control, against the tested cancer cell lines. However, these compounds also exhibited cytotoxicity towards MCF-10A cells. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) of bostrycin derivatives was also discussed based on the obtained experimental data. PMID:22690152

  18. Complete Meiosis from Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Germ Cells In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Quan; Wang, Mei; Yuan, Yan; Wang, Xuepeng; Fu, Rui; Wan, Haifeng; Xie, Mingming; Liu, Mingxi; Guo, Xuejiang; Zheng, Ying; Feng, Guihai; Shi, Qinghua; Zhao, Xiao-Yang; Sha, Jiahao; Zhou, Qi

    2016-03-03

    In vitro generation of functional gametes is a promising approach for treating infertility, although faithful replication of meiosis has proven to be a substantial obstacle to deriving haploid gamete cells in culture. Here we report complete in vitro meiosis from embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived primordial germ cells (PGCLCs). Co-culture of PGCLCs with neonatal testicular somatic cells and sequential exposure to morphogens and sex hormones reproduced key hallmarks of meiosis, including erasure of genetic imprinting, chromosomal synapsis and recombination, and correct nuclear DNA and chromosomal content in the resulting haploid cells. Intracytoplasmic injection of the resulting spermatid-like cells into oocytes produced viable and fertile offspring, showing that this robust stepwise approach can functionally recapitulate male gametogenesis in vitro. These findings provide a platform for investigating meiotic mechanisms and the potential generation of human haploid spermatids in vitro.

  19. Phenotypic and functional properties of feline dedifferentiated fat cells and adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kono, Shota; Kazama, Tomohiko; Kano, Koichiro; Harada, Kayoko; Uechi, Masami; Matsumoto, Taro

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells show multilineage differentiation potential similar to that observed in mesenchymal stem cells. Since DFAT cells can be prepared from a small quantity of adipose tissue, they could facilitate cell-based therapies in small companion animals such as cats. The present study examined whether multipotent DFAT cells can be generated from feline adipose tissue, and the properties of DFAT cells were compared with those of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). DFAT cells and ASCs were prepared from the floating mature adipocyte fraction and the stromal vascular fraction, respectively, of collagenase-digested feline omental adipose tissue. Both cell types were evaluated for growth kinetics, colony-forming unit fibroblast (CFU-F) frequency, immunophenotypic properties, and multilineage differentiation potential. DFAT cells and ASCs could be generated from approximately 1g of adipose tissue and were grown and subcultured on laminin-coated dishes. The frequency of CFU-Fs in DFAT cells (35.8%) was significantly higher than that in ASCs (20.8%) at passage 1 (P1). DFAT cells and ASCs displayed similar immunophenotypes (CD44(+), CD90(+), CD105(+), CD14(-), CD34(-) and CD45(-)). Alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive cells were readily detected in ASCs (15.2±7.2%) but were rare in DFAT cells (2.2±3.2%) at P1. Both cell types exhibited adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, and smooth muscle cell differentiation potential in vitro. In conclusion, feline DFAT cells exhibited similar properties to ASCs but displayed higher CFU-F frequency and greater homogeneity. DFAT cells, like ASCs, may be an attractive source for cell-based therapies in cats.

  20. Potential differentiation of islet-like cells from pregnant cow-derived placental stem cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shao-Yu; Chou, Chien-Wen; Kuo, Yu-Hsuan; Shen, Perng-Chih; Shaw, S W Steven

    2017-06-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that destroys islet cells and results in insufficient insulin secretion by pancreatic β-cells. Islet transplantation from donors is an approach used for treating patients with diabetes; however, this therapy is difficult to implement because of the lack of donors. Nevertheless, several stem cells have the potential to differentiate from islet-like cells and enable insulin secretion for treating diabetes in animal models. For example, placenta is considered a waste material and can be harvested noninvasively during delivery without ethical or moral concerns. To date, the differentiation of islet-like cells from cow-derived placental stem cells (CPSCs) has yet to be demonstrated. The investigation of potential differentiation of islet-like cells from CPSCs was conducted by supplementation with nicotinamide, exendin-4, glucose, and poly-d-lysine and was detected through reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, dithizone staining, and immunocytochemical methods. Our results indicated that CPSCs are established and express mesenchymal stem cell surface antigen markers, such as CD73, CD166, β-integrin, and Oct-4, but not hematopoietic stem cell surface antigen markers, such as CD45. After induction, the CPSCs successfully differentiated into islet-like cells. The CPSC-derived islet-like cells expressed islet cell development-related genes, such as insulin, glucagon, pax-4, Nkx6.1, pax-6, and Fox. Moreover, CPSC-derived islet-like cells can be stained with zinc ions, which are widely distributed in the islet cells and enable insulin secretion. Altogether, islet-like cells have the potential to be differentiated from CPSCs without gene manipulation, and can be used in diabetic animal models in the future for preclinical and drug testing trial investigations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Fullerene derivatives as electron donor for organic photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang, Taojun; Wang, Xiao-Feng E-mail: ziruo@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp; Sano, Takeshi; Kido, Junji; Hong, Ziruo E-mail: ziruo@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp; Yang, Yang

    2013-11-11

    We demonstrated the performance of unconventional, all-fullerene-based, planar heterojunction (PHJ) organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells using fullerene derivatives indene-C{sub 60} bisadduct (ICBA) and phenyl C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester as the electron donors with fullerene C{sub 70} as the electron acceptor. Two different charge generation processes, including charge generation in the fullerene bulk and exciton dissociation at the donor-acceptor interface, have been found to exist in such all-fullerene-based PHJ cells and the contribution to the total photocurrent from each process is strongly dependent on the thickness of fullerene donor. The optimized 5 nm ICBA/40 nm C{sub 70} PHJ cell gives clear external quantum efficiency responses for the long-wavelength photons corresponding to the dissociation of strongly bound Frenkel excitons, which is hardly observed in fullerene-based single layer reference devices. This approach using fullerene as a donor material provides further possibilities for developing high performance OPV cells.

  2. Epigenomic Reprogramming of Adult Cardiomyocyte-Derived Cardiac Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Zhong, Jiang F; Qiu, Hongyu; Robb MacLellan, W.; Marbán, Eduardo; Wang, Charles

    2015-01-01

    It has been believed that mammalian adult cardiomyocytes (ACMs) are terminally-differentiated and are unable to proliferate. Recently, using a bi-transgenic ACM fate mapping mouse model and an in vitro culture system, we demonstrated that adult mouse cardiomyocytes were able to dedifferentiate into cardiac progenitor-like cells (CPCs). However, little is known about the molecular basis of their intrinsic cellular plasticity. Here we integrate single-cell transcriptome and whole-genome DNA methylation analyses to unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying the dedifferentiation and cell cycle reentry of mouse ACMs. Compared to parental cardiomyocytes, dedifferentiated mouse cardiomyocyte-derived CPCs (mCPCs) display epigenomic reprogramming with many differentially-methylated regions, both hypermethylated and hypomethylated, across the entire genome. Correlated well with the methylome, our transcriptomic data showed that the genes encoding cardiac structure and function proteins are remarkably down-regulated in mCPCs, while those for cell cycle, proliferation, and stemness are significantly up-regulated. In addition, implantation of mCPCs into infarcted mouse myocardium improves cardiac function with augmented left ventricular ejection fraction. Our study demonstrates that the cellular plasticity of mammalian cardiomyocytes is the result of a well-orchestrated epigenomic reprogramming and a subsequent global transcriptomic alteration. PMID:26657817

  3. Ligament-Derived Stem Cells: Identification, Characterisation, and Therapeutic Application

    PubMed Central

    Clegg, Peter David; Comerford, Eithne Josephine; Canty-Laird, Elizabeth Gail

    2017-01-01

    Ligament is prone to injury and degeneration and has poor healing potential and, with currently ineffective treatment strategies, stem cell therapies may provide an exciting new treatment option. Ligament-derived stem cell (LDSC) populations have been isolated from a number of different ligament types with the majority of studies focussing on periodontal ligament. To date, only a few studies have investigated LDSC populations in other types of ligament, for example, intra-articular ligaments; however, this now appears to be a developing field. This literature review aims to summarise the current information on nondental LDSCs including in vitro characteristics of LDSCs and their therapeutic potential. The stem cell niche has been shown to be vital for stem cell survival and function in a number of different physiological systems; therefore, the LDSC niche may have an impact on LDSC phenotype. The role of the LDSC niche on LDSC viability and function will be discussed as well as the therapeutic potential of LDSC niche modulation. PMID:28386284

  4. Adult Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Attachment to Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Prichard, Heather L; Reichert, William M; Klitzman, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Attachment of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) to biomaterials prior to implantation is a possible strategy for mediating inflammation and wound healing. In this study, the ASC percent coverage was measured on common medical grade biosensor materials subjected to different surface treatments. Cell coverage on silicone elastomer (poly dimethylsiloxane) was below 20% for all surface treatments. Polyimide (Kapton), polyurethane (Pellethane) and tissue culture polystyrene all exhibited >50% coverage for surfaces treated with fibronectin (Fn), fibronectin plus avidin/biotin (dual ligand), and oxygen plasma plus fibronectin treatments (Fn O2). The fibronectin treatment performed as well or better on polyimide, polyurethane, and tissue culture polystyrene compared to the dual ligand and fibronectin oxygen plasma treated surfaces. Cell detachment with increasing shear stresses was <25% for each attachment method on both polyimide and polyurethane. The effects of attachment methods on the basic cell functions of proliferation, metabolism, ATP concentration, and caspase-3 activity were analyzed yielding proliferation profiles that were very similar among all of the materials. No significant differences in metabolism, intracellular ATP, or intracellular caspase-3 activity were observed for any of the attachment methods on either polyimide or polyurethane. PMID:17074385

  5. Identification of Stem Leydig Cells Derived from Pig Testicular Interstitium

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shuai; Zhang, Pengfei; Dong, Wuzi; Zeng, Wenxian

    2017-01-01

    Stem Leydig cells (SLCs), located in the testicular interstitial compartment in the mammalian testes, are capable of differentiating to testosterone-synthesizing Leydig cells (LCs), thus providing a new strategy for treating testosterone deficiency. However, no previous reports have identified and cultured SLCs derived from the pig. The aim of the current study was to isolate, identify, and culture SLCs from pigs. Haematoxylin and eosin staining and immunochemical analysis showed that SLCs were present and that PDGFRα was mainly expressed in the pig testicular interstitium, indicating that PDGFRα was a marker for SLCs in the neonatal pig. In addition, reverse transcription-PCR results showed that SLC markers were expressed in primary isolated LCs, indicating that they were putative SLCs. The putative SLCs were subsequently cultured with a testicular fluid of piglets (pTF) medium. Clones formed after 7 days and the cells expressed PDGFRα. However, no clones grew in the absence of pTF, but the cells expressed CYP17A1, indicating that pTF could sustain the features of porcine SLCs. To summarize, we isolated porcine SLCs and identified their basic characteristics. Taken together, these results may help lay the foundation for research in the clinical application of porcine SLCs. PMID:28243257

  6. Human embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal cells form spontaneously active neuronal networks in vitro.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Teemu J; Ylä-Outinen, Laura; Tanskanen, Jarno M A; Lappalainen, Riikka S; Skottman, Heli; Suuronen, Riitta; Mikkonen, Jarno E; Hyttinen, Jari A K; Narkilahti, Susanna

    2009-07-01

    The production of functional human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived neuronal cells is critical for the application of hESCs in treating neurodegenerative disorders. To study the potential functionality of hESC-derived neurons, we cultured and monitored the development of hESC-derived neuronal networks on microelectrode arrays. Immunocytochemical studies revealed that these networks were positive for the neuronal marker proteins beta-tubulin(III) and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2). The hESC-derived neuronal networks were spontaneously active and exhibited a multitude of electrical impulse firing patterns. Synchronous bursts of electrical activity similar to those reported for hippocampal neurons and rodent embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal networks were recorded from the differentiated cultures until up to 4 months. The dependence of the observed neuronal network activity on sodium ion channels was examined using tetrodotoxin (TTX). Antagonists for the glutamate receptors NMDA [D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid] and AMPA/kainate [6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione], and for GABAA receptors [(-)-bicuculline methiodide] modulated the spontaneous electrical activity, indicating that pharmacologically susceptible neuronal networks with functional synapses had been generated. The findings indicate that hESC-derived neuronal cells can generate spontaneously active networks with synchronous communication in vitro, and are therefore suitable for use in developmental and drug screening studies, as well as for regenerative medicine.

  7. Generation of cloned mice and nuclear transfer embryonic stem cell lines from urine-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Eiji; Torikai, Kohei; Wakayama, Sayaka; Nagatomo, Hiroaki; Ohinata, Yasuhide; Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2016-04-01

    Cloning animals by nuclear transfer provides the opportunity to preserve endangered mammalian species. However, there are risks associated with the collection of donor cells from the body such as accidental injury to or death of the animal. Here, we report the production of cloned mice from urine-derived cells collected noninvasively. Most of the urine-derived cells survived and were available as donors for nuclear transfer without any pretreatment. After nuclear transfer, 38-77% of the reconstructed embryos developed to the morula/blastocyst, in which the cell numbers in the inner cell mass and trophectoderm were similar to those of controls. Male and female cloned mice were delivered from cloned embryos transferred to recipient females, and these cloned animals grew to adulthood and delivered pups naturally when mated with each other. The results suggest that these cloned mice had normal fertility. In additional experiments, 26 nuclear transfer embryonic stem cell lines were established from 108 cloned blastocysts derived from four mouse strains including inbreds and F1 hybrids with relatively high success rates. Thus, cells derived from urine, which can be collected noninvasively, may be used in the rescue of endangered mammalian species by using nuclear transfer without causing injury to the animal.

  8. Generation of cloned mice and nuclear transfer embryonic stem cell lines from urine-derived cells

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Eiji; Torikai, Kohei; Wakayama, Sayaka; Nagatomo, Hiroaki; Ohinata, Yasuhide; Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Cloning animals by nuclear transfer provides the opportunity to preserve endangered mammalian species. However, there are risks associated with the collection of donor cells from the body such as accidental injury to or death of the animal. Here, we report the production of cloned mice from urine-derived cells collected noninvasively. Most of the urine-derived cells survived and were available as donors for nuclear transfer without any pretreatment. After nuclear transfer, 38–77% of the reconstructed embryos developed to the morula/blastocyst, in which the cell numbers in the inner cell mass and trophectoderm were similar to those of controls. Male and female cloned mice were delivered from cloned embryos transferred to recipient females, and these cloned animals grew to adulthood and delivered pups naturally when mated with each other. The results suggest that these cloned mice had normal fertility. In additional experiments, 26 nuclear transfer embryonic stem cell lines were established from 108 cloned blastocysts derived from four mouse strains including inbreds and F1 hybrids with relatively high success rates. Thus, cells derived from urine, which can be collected noninvasively, may be used in the rescue of endangered mammalian species by using nuclear transfer without causing injury to the animal. PMID:27033801

  9. Brain-derived and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor fusion protein immobilization to laminin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baoxin; Yuan, Junjie; Xu, Jiafeng; Chen, Xinwei; Ying, Xinjiang; Dong, Pin

    2017-01-01

    Damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve often causes hoarseness, dyspnea, dysphagia, and sometimes asphyxia due to vocal cord paralysis which result in a reduction of quality of life. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) play critical roles in peripheral nerve regeneration. However, methods for efficiently delivering these molecules are lacking, which limits their use in clinical applications. The present study reports an effective strategy for targeting BDNF and GDNF to laminin by fusing the N-terminal domains of these molecules with agrin (NtA). More specifically, laminin-binding efficacy was assessed and sustained release assays of the delivery of BDNF or GDNF fused with NtA (LBD-BDNF or LBD-GDNF) to laminin were conducted in vitro. In addition, the bioactivity of LBD-BDNF and LBD-GDNF on laminin in vitro was investigated. LBD-BDNF and LBD-GDNF were each able to specifically bind to laminin and maintain their activity in vitro. Moreover, neurotrophic factors with NtA retained higher concentrations and bioactivity levels compared with those without NtA. The ratio of LBD-BDNF and LBD-GDNF that produced optimal effects was 4:6. BDNF and GDNF fused with NtA were effective in specifically binding to laminin. As laminin is a major component of the extracellular matrix, LBD-BDNF and LBD-GDNF may prove useful in the repair of peripheral nerve injuries. PMID:28123487

  10. Transgene Reactivation in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derivatives and Reversion to Pluripotency of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Galat, Yekaterina; Perepitchka, Mariana; Jennings, Lawrence J.; Iannaccone, Philip M.; Hendrix, Mary J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have enormous potential in regenerative medicine and disease modeling. It is now felt that clinical trials should be performed with iPSCs derived with nonintegrative constructs. Numerous studies, however, including those describing disease models, are still being published using cells derived from iPSCs generated with integrative constructs. Our experimental work presents the first evidence of spontaneous transgene reactivation in vitro in several cellular types. Our results show that the transgenes were predominantly silent in parent iPSCs, but in mesenchymal and endothelial iPSC derivatives, the transgenes experienced random upregulation of Nanog and c-Myc. Additionally, we provide evidence of spontaneous secondary reprogramming and reversion to pluripotency in mesenchymal stem cells derived from iPSCs. These findings strongly suggest that the studies, which use cellular products derived from iPSCs generated with retro- or lentiviruses, should be evaluated with consideration of the possibility of transgene reactivation. The in vitro model described here provides insight into the earliest events of culture transformation and suggests the hypothesis that reversion to pluripotency may be responsible for the development of tumors in cell replacement experiments. The main goal of this work, however, is to communicate the possibility of transgene reactivation in retro- or lenti-iPSC derivatives and the associated loss of cellular fidelity in vitro, which may impact the outcomes of disease modeling and related experimentation. PMID:27193052

  11. Induction of myeloid-derived suppressor cells by tumor exosomes.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xiaoyu; Poliakov, Anton; Liu, Cunren; Liu, Yuelong; Deng, Zhong-bin; Wang, Jianhua; Cheng, Ziqiang; Shah, Spandan V; Wang, Gui-Jun; Zhang, Liming; Grizzle, William E; Mobley, Jim; Zhang, Huang-Ge

    2009-06-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) promote tumor progression. The mechanisms of MDSC development during tumor growth remain unknown. Tumor exosomes (T-exosomes) have been implicated to play a role in immune regulation, however the role of exosomes in the induction of MDSCs is unclear. Our previous work demonstrated that exosomes isolated from tumor cells are taken up by bone marrow myeloid cells. Here, we extend those findings showing that exosomes isolated from T-exosomes switch the differentiation pathway of these myeloid cells to the MDSC pathway (CD11b(+)Gr-1(+)). The resulting cells exhibit MDSC phenotypic and functional characteristics including promotion of tumor growth. Furthermore, we demonstrated that in vivo MDSC mediated promotion of tumor progression is dependent on T-exosome prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and TGF-beta molecules. T-exosomes can induce the accumulation of MDSCs expressing Cox2, IL-6, VEGF, and arginase-1. Antibodies against exosomal PGE2 and TGF-beta block the activity of these exosomes on MDSC induction and therefore attenuate MDSC-mediated tumor-promoting ability. Exosomal PGE2 and TGF-beta are enriched in T-exosomes when compared with exosomes isolated from the supernatants of cultured tumor cells (C-exosomes). The tumor microenvironment has an effect on the potency of T-exosome mediated induction of MDSCs by regulating the sorting and the amount of exosomal PGE2 and TGF-beta available. Together, these findings lend themselves to developing specific targetable therapeutic strategies to reduce or eliminate MDSC-induced immunosuppression and hence enhance host antitumor immunotherapy efficacy.

  12. Pericytes derived from adipose-derived stem cells protect against retinal vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Mendel, Thomas A; Clabough, Erin B D; Kao, David S; Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N; Durham, Jennifer T; Zotter, Brendan C; Seaman, Scott A; Cronk, Stephen M; Rakoczy, Elizabeth P; Katz, Adam J; Herman, Ira M; Peirce, Shayn M; Yates, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Retinal vasculopathies, including diabetic retinopathy (DR), threaten the vision of over 100 million people. Retinal pericytes are critical for microvascular control, supporting retinal endothelial cells via direct contact and paracrine mechanisms. With pericyte death or loss, endothelial dysfunction ensues, resulting in hypoxic insult, pathologic angiogenesis, and ultimately blindness. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) differentiate into pericytes, suggesting they may be useful as a protective and regenerative cellular therapy for retinal vascular disease. In this study, we examine the ability of ASCs to differentiate into pericytes that can stabilize retinal vessels in multiple pre-clinical models of retinal vasculopathy. We found that ASCs express pericyte-specific markers in vitro. When injected intravitreally into the murine eye subjected to oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), ASCs were capable of migrating to and integrating with the retinal vasculature. Integrated ASCs maintained marker expression and pericyte-like morphology in vivo for at least 2 months. ASCs injected after OIR vessel destabilization and ablation enhanced vessel regrowth (16% reduction in avascular area). ASCs injected intravitreally before OIR vessel destabilization prevented retinal capillary dropout (53% reduction). Treatment of ASCs with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) enhanced hASC pericyte function, in a manner similar to native retinal pericytes, with increased marker expression of smooth muscle actin, cellular contractility, endothelial stabilization, and microvascular protection in OIR. Finally, injected ASCs prevented capillary loss in the diabetic retinopathic Akimba mouse (79% reduction 2 months after injection). ASC-derived pericytes can integrate with retinal vasculature, adopting both pericyte morphology and marker expression, and provide functional vascular protection in multiple murine models of retinal vasculopathy. The pericyte phenotype demonstrated by ASCs is

  13. Pericytes Derived from Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Protect against Retinal Vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Mendel, Thomas A.; Clabough, Erin B. D.; Kao, David S.; Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N.; Durham, Jennifer T.; Zotter, Brendan C.; Seaman, Scott A.; Cronk, Stephen M.; Rakoczy, Elizabeth P.; Katz, Adam J.; Herman, Ira M.; Peirce, Shayn M.; Yates, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Retinal vasculopathies, including diabetic retinopathy (DR), threaten the vision of over 100 million people. Retinal pericytes are critical for microvascular control, supporting retinal endothelial cells via direct contact and paracrine mechanisms. With pericyte death or loss, endothelial dysfunction ensues, resulting in hypoxic insult, pathologic angiogenesis, and ultimately blindness. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) differentiate into pericytes, suggesting they may be useful as a protective and regenerative cellular therapy for retinal vascular disease. In this study, we examine the ability of ASCs to differentiate into pericytes that can stabilize retinal vessels in multiple pre-clinical models of retinal vasculopathy. Methodology/Principal Findings We found that ASCs express pericyte-specific markers in vitro. When injected intravitreally into the murine eye subjected to oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), ASCs were capable of migrating to and integrating with the retinal vasculature. Integrated ASCs maintained marker expression and pericyte-like morphology in vivo for at least 2 months. ASCs injected after OIR vessel destabilization and ablation enhanced vessel regrowth (16% reduction in avascular area). ASCs injected intravitreally before OIR vessel destabilization prevented retinal capillary dropout (53% reduction). Treatment of ASCs with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) enhanced hASC pericyte function, in a manner similar to native retinal pericytes, with increased marker expression of smooth muscle actin, cellular contractility, endothelial stabilization, and microvascular protection in OIR. Finally, injected ASCs prevented capillary loss in the diabetic retinopathic Akimba mouse (79% reduction 2 months after injection). Conclusions/Significance ASC-derived pericytes can integrate with retinal vasculature, adopting both pericyte morphology and marker expression, and provide functional vascular protection in multiple murine models of

  14. Mistletoe lectin modulates intestinal epithelial cell-derived cytokines and B cell IgA secretion.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Su-Yun; Park, Won-Bong

    2009-03-01

    A galactose- and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-specific lectin (Viscum album L. var. coloratum agglutinin, VCA), which is known for its anti-cancer activity, was isolated from Korean mistletoe. In this study, IEC-6 rat intestinal epithelial cells and IM-9 human B-cells were cultured to determine the effect of VCA on cytokine and immunoglobulin (Ig) secretion. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated IEC-6 cells, VCA significantly shifted the interleukin (IL)-2, IL-5, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion toward a more immunostimulatory response. Since intestinal epithelial cell-derived secretions may be capable of affecting local B cell Ig production in a variety of ways, we mimicked this condition by deriving a 2-day culture supernatant from IEC-6 cell line which was treated VCA in the presence or absence of LPS, and adding these supernatants to cultures of IM-9 human B cells. As a result, IgA secretion was significantly enhanced at in the presence of VCA at 10(-8)-10(-4) microg/mL. This study suggests that cytokines derived from IEC by VCA may create an environment which may contribute to the enhancement of IgA secretion seen in mucosal tissues. Overall, the induction of cytokines in intestinal epithelial cells, and IgA in B cells by Korean mistletoe lectin could indicate an enhanced immunosurveillance to prevent intestinal infections or other intestinal pathologies.

  15. Efficient derivation of microglia-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Muffat, Julien; Li, Yun; Yuan, Bingbing; Mitalipova, Maisam; Omer, Attya; Corcoran, Sean; Bakiasi, Grisilda; Tsai, Li-Huei; Aubourg, Patrick; Ransohoff, Richard M; Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2016-11-01

    Microglia, the only lifelong resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), are highly specialized macrophages that have been recognized to have a crucial role in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD). However, in contrast to other cell types of the human CNS, bona fide microglia have not yet been derived from cultured human pluripotent stem cells. Here we establish a robust and efficient protocol for the rapid production of microglia-like cells from human (h) embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells that uses defined serum-free culture conditions. These in vitro pluripotent stem cell-derived microglia-like cells (termed pMGLs) faithfully recapitulate the expected ontogeny and characteristics of their in vivo counterparts, and they resemble primary fetal human and mouse microglia. We generated these cells from multiple disease-specific cell lines and find that pMGLs derived from an hES model of Rett syndrome are smaller than their isogenic controls. We further describe a platform to study the integration and live behavior of pMGLs in organotypic 3D cultures. This modular differentiation system allows for the study of microglia in highly defined conditions as they mature in response to developmentally relevant cues, and it provides a framework in which to study the long-term interactions of microglia residing in a tissue-like environment.

  16. Endothelial cell-derived microparticles induce plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation: potential implications in inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Angelot, Fanny; Seillès, Estelle; Biichlé, Sabeha; Berda, Yael; Gaugler, Béatrice; Plumas, Joel; Chaperot, Laurence; Dignat-George, Françoise; Tiberghien, Pierre; Saas, Philippe; Garnache-Ottou, Francine

    2009-01-01

    Background Increased circulating endothelial microparticles, resulting from vascular endothelium dysfunction, and plasmacytoid dendritic cell activation are both encountered in common inflammatory disorders. The aim of our study was to determine whether interactions between endothelial microparticles and plasmacytoid dendritic cells could contribute to such pathologies. Design and Methods Microparticles generated from endothelial cell lines, platelets or activated T cells were incubated with human plasmacytoid dendritic cells sorted from healthy donor blood or with monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Dendritic cell maturation was evaluated by flow cytometry, cytokine secretion as well as naive T-cell activation and polarization. Labeled microparticles were also used to study cellular interactions. Results Endothelial microparticles induced plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation. In contrast, conventional dendritic cells were resistant to endothelial microparticle-induced maturation. In addition to upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules, endothelial microparticle-matured plasmacytoid dendritic cells secreted inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 6 and 8, but no interferon-α) and also induced allogeneic naive CD4+ T cells to proliferate and to produce type 1 cytokines such as interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α. Endothelial microparticle endocytosis by plasmacytoid dendritic cells appeared to be required for plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation. Importantly, the ability of endothelial microparticles to induce plasmacytoid dendritic cells to mature was specific as microparticles derived from activated T cells or platelets (the major source of circulating microparticules in healthy subjects) did not induce such plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation. Conclusions Our data show that endothelial microparticles specifically induce plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation and production of inflammatory cytokines. This novel activation pathway may be implicated in

  17. Genistein suppresses smooth muscle cell-derived foam cell formation through tyrosine kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jinghan; Xu, Yi; Zhao, Tingting; Sun, Lina; Yang, Meimei; Liu, Tingjiao; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Liming

    2015-08-07

    Genistein, as a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been shown to possess anti-atherosclerotic effects. Since the smooth muscle cell-derived foam cells are key components of atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of genistein on foam cell transformation from vascular smooth muscle cells and possible mechanisms contributing to these effects. Vascular smooth muscle cells exposed to ox-LDL developed into foam cell, as demonstrated by Oil Red O staining and cholesterol content analysis. Ox-LDL induced phenotype transformation of smooth muscle cells, decreased expression of α-actin and increased expression of CD68 (a specific marker for monocytes, can also function as a subtype of scavenger receptors). The expression of scavenger receptors CD36 and LOX-1 was measured, and their role in foam cell formation in the presence of genistein, daidzein (a structurally similar analogue of genistein) and herbimycin A (a commonly tyrosine kinase inhibitor). The results showed that foam cell formation was markedly reduced by genistein and herbimycin A, as well as the expression of CD68, CD36 and LOX-1. However, daidzein had no such effect. In addition, genistein-induced down-regulation of CD68, CD36 and LOX-1 could be reversed by sodium orthovanadate (a membrane-permeable protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor). The results showed that ox-LDL induce smooth muscle cell-derived foam cell formation and transform the phenotype of smooth muscle cell. While tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein could suppress smooth muscle cell-derived foam cell formation through inhibiting the protein expressions of CD68, CD36 and LOX-1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Generation of Neural Crest-Like Cells From Human Periodontal Ligament Cell-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Tomokiyo, Atsushi; Hynes, Kim; Ng, Jia; Menicanin, Danijela; Camp, Esther; Arthur, Agnes; Gronthos, Stan; Mark Bartold, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Neural crest cells (NCC) hold great promise for tissue engineering, however the inability to easily obtain large numbers of NCC is a major factor limiting their use in studies of regenerative medicine. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) are emerging as a novel candidate that could provide an unlimited source of NCC. In the present study, we examined the potential of neural crest tissue-derived periodontal ligament (PDL) iPSC to differentiate into neural crest-like cells (NCLC) relative to iPSC generated from a non-neural crest derived tissue, foreskin fibroblasts (FF). We detected high HNK1 expression during the differentiation of PDL and FF iPSC into NCLC as a marker for enriching for a population of cells with NCC characteristics. We isolated PDL iPSC- and FF iPSC-derived NCLC, which highly expressed HNK1. A high proportion of the HNK1-positive cell populations generated, expressed the MSC markers, whilst very few cells expressed the pluripotency markers or the hematopoietic markers. The PDL and FF HNK1-positive populations gave rise to smooth muscle, neural, glial, osteoblastic and adipocytic like cells and exhibited higher expression of smooth muscle, neural, and glial cell-associated markers than the PDL and FF HNK1-negative populations. Interestingly, the HNK1-positive cells derived from the PDL-iPSC exhibited a greater ability to differentiate into smooth muscle, neural, glial cells and adipocytes, than the HNK1-positive cells derived from the FF-iPSC. Our work suggests that HNK1-enriched NCLC from neural crest tissue-derived iPSC more closely resemble the phenotypic and functional hallmarks of NCC compared to the HNK1-low population and non-neural crest iPSC-derived NCLC. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 402-416, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Human natural killer cells promote cross-presentation of tumor cell-derived antigens by dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Deauvieau, Florence; Ollion, Vincent; Doffin, Anne-Claire; Achard, Carole; Fonteneau, Jean-François; Verronese, Estelle; Durand, Isabelle; Ghittoni, Raffaella; Marvel, Jacqueline; Dezutter-Dambuyant, Colette; Walzer, Thierry; Vie, Henri; Perrot, Ivan; Goutagny, Nadège; Caux, Christophe; Valladeau-Guilemond, Jenny

    2015-03-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) cross-present antigen (Ag) to initiate T-cell immunity against most infections and tumors. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate cytolytic lymphocytes that have emerged as key modulators of multiple DC functions. Here, we show that human NK cells promote cross-presentation of tumor cell-derived Ag by DC leading to Ag-specific CD8(+) T-cell activation. Surprisingly, cytotoxic function of NK cells was not required. Instead, we highlight a critical and nonredundant role for IFN-γ and TNF-α production by NK cells to enhance cross-presentation by DC using two different Ag models. Importantly, we observed that NK cells promote cell-associated Ag cross-presentation selectively by monocytes-derived DC (Mo-DC) and CD34-derived CD11b(neg) CD141(high) DC subsets but not by myeloid CD11b(+) DC. Moreover, we demonstrate that triggering NK cell activation by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs)-coated tumor cells leads to efficient DC cross-presentation, supporting the concept that NK cells can contribute to therapeutic mAbs efficiency by inducing downstream adaptive immunity. Taken together, our findings point toward a novel role of human NK cells bridging innate and adaptive immunity through selective induction of cell-associated Ag cross-presentation by CD141(high) DC, a process that could be exploited to better harness Ag-specific cellular immunity in immunotherapy. © 2014 UICC.

  20. Adoptive transfer of effector CD8+ T cells derived from central memory cells establishes persistent T cell memory in primates.

    PubMed

    Berger, Carolina; Jensen, Michael C; Lansdorp, Peter M; Gough, Mike; Elliott, Carole; Riddell, Stanley R

    2008-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T cells that have been expanded ex vivo is being actively pursued to treat infections and malignancy in humans. The T cell populations that are available for adoptive immunotherapy include both effector memory and central memory cells, and these differ in phenotype, function, and homing. The efficacy of adoptive immunotherapy requires that transferred T cells persist in vivo, but identifying T cells that can reproducibly survive in vivo after they have been numerically expanded by in vitro culture has proven difficult. Here we show that in macaques, antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell clones derived from central memory T cells, but not effector memory T cells, persisted long-term in vivo, reacquired phenotypic and functional properties of memory T cells, and occupied memory T cell niches. These results demonstrate that clonally derived CD8+ T cells isolated from central memory T cells are distinct from those derived from effector memory T cells and retain an intrinsic capacity that enables them to survive after adoptive transfer and revert to the memory cell pool. These results could have significant implications for the selection of T cells to expand or to engineer for adoptive immunotherapy of human infections or malignancy.

  1. Importance of cell-cell contact in the therapeutic benefits of cardiosphere-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yucai; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Cheng, Ke; Wu, Zhijun; Liang, Wenbin; Malliaras, Konstantinos; Sun, Baiming; Liu, Weixin; Shen, Deliang; Cheol Cho, Hee; Li, Taosheng; Lu, Lin; Lu, Guoping; Marbán, Eduardo

    2014-09-01

    Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) effect therapeutic regeneration after myocardial infarction (MI) both in animal models and in humans. Here, we test the hypothesis that cell-cell contact plays a role in mediating the observed therapeutic benefits of CDCs, above and beyond conventional paracrine effects. Human CDCs or vehicle were injected into immunodeficient (SCID) mouse hearts during acute MI. CDC transplantation augmented the proportion of cycling (Ki67(+) ) cardiomyocytes and improved ventricular function. CDC-conditioned media only modestly augmented the percentage of Ki67(+) cardiomyocytes (>control but

  2. Molecular Characterization of Dendritic Cell-Derived Exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Théry, Clotilde; Regnault, Armelle; Garin, Jérôme; Wolfers, Joseph; Zitvogel, Laurence; Ricciardi-Castagnoli, Paola; Raposo, Graça; Amigorena, Sebastian

    1999-01-01

    Exosomes are membrane vesicles secreted by hematopoietic cells upon fusion of late multivesicular endosomes with the plasma membrane. Dendritic cell (DC)-derived exosomes induce potent antitumor immune responses in mice, resulting in the regression of established tumors (Zitvogel, L., A. Regnault, A. Lozier, J. Wolfers, C. Flament, D. Tenza, P. Ricciardi-Castagnoli, G. Raposo, and S. Amigorena. 1998. Nat. Med. 4:594–600). To unravel the molecular basis of exosome-induced immune stimulation, we now analyze the regulation of their production during DC maturation and characterize extensively their protein composition by peptide mass mapping. Exosomes contain several cytosolic proteins (including annexin II, heat shock cognate protein hsc73, and heteromeric G protein Gi2α), as well as different integral or peripherally associated membrane proteins (major histocompatiblity complex class II, Mac-1 integrin, CD9, milk fat globule-EGF-factor VIII [MFG-E8]). MFG-E8, the major exosomal component, binds integrins expressed by DCs and macrophages, suggesting that it may be involved in exosome targeting to these professional antigen-presenting cells. Another exosome component is hsc73, a cytosolic heat shock protein (hsp) also present in DC endocytic compartments. hsc73 was shown to induce antitumor immune responses in vivo, and therefore could be involved in the exosome's potent antitumor effects. Finally, exosome production is downregulated upon DC maturation, indicating that in vivo, exosomes are produced by immature DCs in peripheral tissues. Thus, DC-derived exosomes accumulate a defined subset of cellular proteins reflecting their endosomal biogenesis and accounting for their biological function. PMID:10545503

  3. Phenotype and Function of CD209+ Bovine Blood Dendritic Cells, Monocyte-Derived-Dendritic Cells and Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Bannantine, John P.; Mack, Victoria; Fry, Lindsay M.; Davis, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenic comparisons of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) of humans and mice demonstrate phenotypic divergence of dendritic cell (DC) subsets that play similar roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Although differing in phenotype, DC can be classified into four groups according to ontogeny and function: conventional DC (cDC1 and cDC2), plasmacytoid DC (pDC), and monocyte derived DC (MoDC). DC of Artiodactyla (pigs and ruminants) can also be sub-classified using this system, allowing direct functional and phenotypic comparison of MoDC and other DC subsets trafficking in blood (bDC). Because of the high volume of blood collections required to study DC, cattle offer the best opportunity to further our understanding of bDC and MoDC function in an outbred large animal species. As reported here, phenotyping DC using a monoclonal antibody (mAb) to CD209 revealed CD209 is expressed on the major myeloid population of DC present in blood and MoDC, providing a phenotypic link between these two subsets. Additionally, the present study demonstrates that CD209 is also expressed on monocyte derived macrophages (MoΦ). Functional analysis revealed each of these populations can take up and process antigens (Ags), present them to CD4 and CD8 T cells, and elicit a T-cell recall response. Thus, bDC, MoDC, and MoΦ pulsed with pathogens or candidate vaccine antigens can be used to study factors that modulate DC-driven T-cell priming and differentiation ex vivo. PMID:27764236

  4. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into nerve-like cells in vitro after transfection with brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qianxu; Cheng, Guangui; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhan, Shujie; Xiong, Binbin; Zhao, Xiaoming

    2015-03-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into a variety of adult cells. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is briefly active during differentiation and induces mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into nerve cells. In this study, we cloned human BDNF to generate a recombinant pcDNA3.1(-)-BDNF vector and transfected the vector into bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. We selected these cells with Geneticin-418 to obtain BDNF-BMSCs, which were induced with retinoic acid to obtain induced BDNF-BMSCs. The transfected cells displayed the typical morphology and surface antigen profile of fibroblasts and were observed to express clusters of differentiation 29, 44, and 90 (observed in matrix and stromal cells), but not clusters of differentiation 31, 34, and 45 (observed in red blood cells and endothelial cells), via flow cytometry. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed that transfected bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells secreted more BDNF than non-transfected bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Immunocytochemistry and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that non-induced BDNF-BMSCs maintained a higher proliferative capacity and expressed higher amounts of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nestin, neuron-specific enolase, and glial fibrillary acid protein than non-transfected bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. An additional increase was observed in the induced BDNF-BMSCs compared to the non-induced BDNF-BMSCs. This expression profile is characteristic of neurocytes. Our data demonstrate that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells transfected with the BDNF gene can differentiate into nerve-like cells in vitro, which may enable the generation of sufficient quantities of nerve-like cells for treatment of neuronal diseases.

  5. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Factors Restore Function to Human Frataxin-Deficient Cells.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Kevin; Dey, Rimi; Cook, Amelia; Scolding, Neil; Wilkins, Alastair

    2017-08-01

    Friedreich's ataxia is an inherited neurological disorder characterised by mitochondrial dysfunction and increased susceptibility to oxidative stress. At present, no therapy has been shown to reduce disease progression. Strategies being trialled to treat Friedreich's ataxia include drugs that improve mitochondrial function and reduce oxidative injury. In addition, stem cells have been investigated as a potential therapeutic approach. We have used siRNA-induced knockdown of frataxin in SH-SY5Y cells as an in vitro cellular model for Friedreich's ataxia. Knockdown of frataxin protein expression to levels detected in patients with the disorder was achieved, leading to decreased cellular viability, increased susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress, dysregulation of key anti-oxidant molecules and deficiencies in both cell proliferation and differentiation. Bone marrow stem cells are being investigated extensively as potential treatments for a wide range of neurological disorders, including Friedreich's ataxia. The potential neuroprotective effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were therefore studied using our frataxin-deficient cell model. Soluble factors secreted by mesenchymal stem cells protected against cellular changes induced by frataxin deficiency, leading to restoration in frataxin levels and anti-oxidant defences, improved survival against oxidative stress and stimulated both cell proliferation and differentiation down the Schwann cell lineage. The demonstration that mesenchymal stem cell-derived factors can restore cellular homeostasis and function to frataxin-deficient cells further suggests that they may have potential therapeutic benefits for patients with Friedreich's ataxia.

  6. Evaluation of adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Frisbie, David D; Kisiday, John D; Kawcak, Chris E; Werpy, Natasha M; McIlwraith, C Wayne

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was the assessment of clinical, biochemical, and histologic effects of intraarticular administered adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis was induced arthroscopically in the middle carpal joint of all horses, the contralateral joint being sham-operated. All horses received treatment on Day 14. Eight horses received placebo treatment and eight horses received adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction in their osteoarthritis-affected joint. The final eight horses were treated the in osteoarthritis-affected joint with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Evaluations included clinical, radiographic, synovial fluid analysis, gross, histologic, histochemical, and biochemical evaluations. No adverse treatment-related events were observed. The model induced a significant change in all but two parameters, no significant treatment effects were demonstrated, with the exception of improvement in synovial fluid effusion PGE2 levels with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells when compared to placebo. A greater improvement was seen with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells when compared to adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction and placebo treatment. Overall, the findings of this study were not significant enough to recommend the use of stem cells for the treatment of osteoarthritis represented in this model.

  7. Autologous Induced Stem-Cell-Derived Retinal Cells for Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Mandai, Michiko; Watanabe, Akira; Kurimoto, Yasuo; Hirami, Yasuhiko; Morinaga, Chikako; Daimon, Takashi; Fujihara, Masashi; Akimaru, Hiroshi; Sakai, Noriko; Shibata, Yumiko; Terada, Motoki; Nomiya, Yui; Tanishima, Shigeki; Nakamura, Masahiro; Kamao, Hiroyuki; Sugita, Sunao; Onishi, Akishi; Ito, Tomoko; Fujita, Kanako; Kawamata, Shin; Go, Masahiro J; Shinohara, Chikara; Hata, Ken-Ichiro; Sawada, Masanori; Yamamoto, Midori; Ohta, Sachiko; Ohara, Yasuo; Yoshida, Kenichi; Kuwahara, Junko; Kitano, Yuko; Amano, Naoki; Umekage, Masafumi; Kitaoka, Fumiyo; Tanaka, Azusa; Okada, Chihiro; Takasu, Naoko; Ogawa, Seishi; Yamanaka, Shinya; Takahashi, Masayo

    2017-03-16

    We assessed the feasibility of transplanting a sheet of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in a patient with neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The iPSCs were generated from skin fibroblasts obtained from two patients with advanced neovascular age-related macular degeneration and were differentiated into RPE cells. The RPE cells and the iPSCs from which they were derived were subject to extensive testing. A surgery that included the removal of the neovascular membrane and transplantation of the autologous iPSC-derived RPE cell sheet under the retina was performed in one of the patients. At 1 year after surgery, the transplanted sheet remained intact, best corrected visual acuity had not improved or worsened, and cystoid macular edema was present. (Funded by Highway Program for Realization of Regenerative Medicine and others; University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry [UMIN-CTR] number, UMIN000011929 .).

  8. Cell culture-derived influenza vaccines from Vero cells: a new horizon for vaccine production.

    PubMed

    Montomoli, Emanuele; Khadang, Baharak; Piccirella, Simona; Trombetta, Claudia; Mennitto, Elisa; Manini, Ilaria; Stanzani, Valerio; Lapini, Giulia

    2012-05-01

    In the 20th century, three influenza pandemics killed approximately 100 million people. The traditional method of influenza vaccine manufacturing is based on using chicken eggs. However, the necessity of the availability of millions of fertile eggs in the event of a pandemic has led research to focus on the development of cell culture-derived vaccines, which offer shorter lead-in times and greater flexibility of production. So far, the cell substrates being evaluated and in use include Vero, Madin-Darby canine kidney, PER.C6 and insect cells. However, Vero cells are the most widely accepted among others. This review introduces briefly the concepts of advanced cell culture-derived influenza vaccine production and highlights the advantages of these vaccines in terms of efficiency, speed and immunogenicity based on the clinical data obtained from different studies.

  9. Late outgrowth endothelial cells resemble mature endothelial cells and are not derived from bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Tura, Olga; Skinner, Elizabeth M; Barclay, G Robin; Samuel, Kay; Gallagher, Ronald C J; Brittan, Mairi; Hadoke, Patrick W F; Newby, David E; Turner, Marc L; Mills, Nicholas L

    2013-02-01

    A decade of research has sought to identify circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) in order to harness their potential for cardiovascular regeneration. Endothelial outgrowth cells (EOC) most closely fulfil the criteria for an EPC, but their origin remains obscure. Our aim was to identify the source and precursor of EOC and to assess their regenerative potential compared to mature endothelial cells. EOC are readily isolated from umbilical cord blood (6/6 donors) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (4/6 donors) but not from bone marrow (0/6) or peripheral blood following mobilization with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (0/6 donors). Enrichment and depletion of blood mononuclear cells demonstrated that EOC are confined to the CD34(+)CD133(-)CD146(+) cell fraction. EOC derived from blood mononuclear cells are indistinguishable from mature human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) by morphology, surface antigen expression, immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, proliferation, and functional assessments. In a subcutaneous sponge model of angiogenesis, both EOC and HUVEC contribute to de novo blood vessel formation giving rise to a similar number of vessels (7.0 ± 2.7 vs. 6.6 ± 3.7 vessels, respectively, n = 9). Bone marrow-derived outgrowth cells isolated under the same conditions expressed mesenchymal markers rather than endothelial cell markers and did not contribute to blood vessels in vivo. In this article, we confirm that EOC arise from CD34(+)CD133(-)CD146(+) mononuclear cells and are similar, if not identical, to mature endothelial cells. Our findings suggest that EOC do not arise from bone marrow and challenge the concept of a bone marrow-derived circulating precursor for endothelial cells. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

  10. Efficient engineering of vascularized ectopic bone from human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Domev, Hagit; Amit, Michal; Laevsky, Ilana; Dar, Ayelet; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph

    2012-11-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) can be derived from various adult and fetal tissues. However, the quality of tissues for the isolation of adult and fetal hMSCs is donor dependent with a nonreproducible yield. In addition, tissue engineering and cell therapy require large-scale production of a pure population of lineage-restricted stem cells that can be easily induced to differentiate into a specific cell type. Therefore, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can provide an alternative, plentiful source for generation of reproducible hMSCs. We have developed efficient differentiation protocols for derivation of hMSCs from hESCs, including coculture with murine OP9 stromal cells and feeder layer-free system. Our protocols have resulted in the generation of up to 49% of hMSCs, which expressed CD105, CD90, CD29, and CD44. The hMSCs exhibited high adipogenic, chondrocytic, and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. The latter correlated with osteocalcin secretion and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production by the differentiating hMSCs. hMSC-derived osteoblasts further differentiated and formed ectopic bone in vivo, and induced the formation of blood vessels in Matrigel implants. Our protocol enables generation of a purified population of hESC-derived MSCs, with the potential of differentiating into several mesodermal lineages, and particularly into vasculogenesis-inducing osteoblasts, which can contribute to the development of bone repair protocols.

  11. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor induced the differentiation of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells into vascular endothelial-like cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruyu; Lu, Ying; Li, Ju; Wang, Jia; Liu, Caixia; Gao, Fang; Sun, Dong

    2016-02-01

    Amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSCs) are a novel source of stem cells that are isolated and cultured from second trimester amniocentesis. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) acts as a tissue morphogen and regulates stem cell proliferation and differentiation. This study investigated the effect of an adenovirus-mediated GDNF gene, which was engineered into AFSCs, on the cells' biological properties and whether GDNF in combination with AFSCs can be directionally differentiated into vascular endothelial-like cells in vitro. AFSCs were isolated and cultured using the plastic adherence method in vitro and identified by the transcription factor Oct-4, which is the primary marker of pluripotent stem cells. AFSCs were efficiently transfected by a GFP-labeled plasmid system of an adenovirus vector carrying the GDNF gene (Ad-GDNF-GFP). Transfected AFSCs stably expressed GDNF. Transfected AFSCs were cultured in endothelial growth medium-2 containing vascular endothelial growth factor. After 1 week, AFSCs were positive for von Willebrand factor (vWF) and CD31, which are markers of endothelial cells, and the recombinant GDNF group was significantly higher than undifferentiated controls and the GFP only group. These results demonstrated that AFSCs differentiated into vascular endothelial-like cells in vitro, and recombinant GDNF promoted differentiation. The differentiation-induced AFSCs may be used as seed cells to provide a new manner of cell and gene therapies for transplantation into the vascular injury site to promote angiogenesis.

  12. [Isolation and gene modification of amniotic fluid derived progenitor cells].

    PubMed

    Yang, Chenmin; Fan, Shuyue; Tang, Huixiang; Gong, Zhijuan; Gong, Xiuli; Ren, Zhaorui; Zeng, Fanyi

    2014-03-01

    We established methods to isolate human amniotic fluid-derived progenitor cells (hAFPCs), and analyze the ability of hAFPCs to secrete human coagulation factor IX (hFIX) after gene modification. The hAFPCs were manually isolated by selection for attachment to gelatin coated culture dish. hFIX cDNA was transfected into hAPFCs by using a lentiviral vector. The hFIX protein concentration and activity produced from hAFPCs were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and clotting assay. The isolated spindle-shaped cells showed fibroblastoid morphology after three culture passages. The doubling time in culture was 39.05 hours. Immunocytochemistry staining of the fibroblast-like cells from amniotic fluid detected expression of stem cell markers such as SSEA4 and TRA1-60. Quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated the expression of NANOG, OCT4 and SOX2 mRNAs. Transfected hAFPCs could produce and secrete hFIX into the culture medium. The observed concentration of secreted hFIX was 20.37% +/- 2.77% two days after passage, with clotting activity of 16.42% +/- 1.78%. The amount of hFIX:Ag reached a plateau of 50.35% +/- 5.42%, with clotting activity 45.34% +/- 4.67%. In conclusion, this study established method to isolate and culture amniotic fluid progenitor cells. Transfected hAFPCs can produce hFIX at stable levels in vitro, and clotting activity increases with higher hFIX concentration. Genetically engineered hAFPC are a potential method for prenatal treatment of hemophilia B.

  13. Prospect of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Crest Stem Cells in Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qian; Lu, Qiqi; Gao, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) represent a transient and multipotent cell population that contributes to numerous anatomical structures such as peripheral nervous system, teeth, and cornea. NCSC maldevelopment is related to various human diseases including pigmentation abnormalities, disorders affecting autonomic nervous system, and malformations of teeth, eyes, and hearts. As human pluripotent stem cells including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can serve as an unlimited cell source to generate NCSCs, hESC/hiPSC-derived NCSCs can be a valuable tool to study the underlying mechanisms of NCSC-associated diseases, which paves the way for future therapies for these abnormalities. In addition, hESC/hiPSC-derived NCSCs with the capability of differentiating to various cell types are highly promising for clinical organ repair and regeneration. In this review, we first discuss NCSC generation methods from human pluripotent stem cells and differentiation mechanism of NCSCs. Then we focus on the clinical application potential of hESC/hiPSC-derived NCSCs on peripheral nerve injuries, corneal blindness, tooth regeneration, pathological melanogenesis, Hirschsprung disease, and cardiac repair and regeneration. PMID:28090209

  14. Long Term Liver Engraftment of Functional Hepatocytes Obtained from Germline Cell-Derived Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fagoonee, Sharmila; Famulari, Elvira Smeralda; Silengo, Lorenzo; Tolosano, Emanuela; Altruda, Fiorella

    2015-01-01

    One of the major hurdles in liver gene and cell therapy is availability of ex vivo-expanded hepatocytes. Pluripotent stem cells are an attractive alternative. Here, we show that hepatocyte precursors can be isolated from male germline cell-derived pluripotent stem cells (GPSCs) using the hepatoblast marker, Liv2, and induced to differentiate into hepatocytes in vitro. These cells expressed hepatic-specific genes and were functional as demonstrated by their ability to secrete albumin and produce urea. When transplanted in the liver parenchyma of partially hepatectomised mice, Liv2-sorted cells showed regional and heterogeneous engraftment in the injected lobe. Moreover, approximately 50% of Y chromosome-positive, GPSC-derived cells were found in the female livers, in the region of engraftment, even one month after cell injection. This is the first study showing that Liv2-sorted GPSCs-derived hepatocytes can undergo long lasting engraftment in the mouse liver. Thus, GPSCs might offer promise for regenerative medicine. PMID:26323094

  15. Research progress in muscle-derived stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify global research trends of muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) using a bibliometric analysis of the Web of Science, Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the Clinical Trials registry database (ClinicalTrials.gov). DATA RETRIEVAL: We performed a bibliometric analysis of data retrievals for MDSCs from 2002 to 2011 using the Web of Science, NIH, and ClinicalTrials.gov. SELECTION CRITERIA: Inclusion criteria: (1) Web of Science: (a) peer-reviewed articles on MDSCs that were published and indexed in the Web of Science. (b) Type of articles: original research articles, reviews, meeting abstracts, proceedings papers, book chapters, editorial material and news items. (c) Year of publication: 2002–2011. (d) Citation databases: Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCI-E), 1899–present; Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S), 1991–present; Book Citation Index-Science (BKCI-S), 2005–present. (2) NIH: (a) Projects on MDSCs supported by the NIH. (b) Fiscal year: 1988–present. (3) ClinicalTrials.gov: All clinical trials relating to MDSCs were searched in this database. Exclusion criteria: (1) Web of Science: (a) Articles that required manual searching or telephone access. (b) We excluded documents that were not published in the public domain. (c) We excluded a number of corrected papers from the total number of articles. (d) We excluded articles from the following databases: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), 1898–present; Arts & Humanities Citation Index (A&HCI), 1975–present; Conference Proceedings Citation Index – Social Science & Humanities (CPCI-SSH), 1991–present; Book Citation Index – Social Sciences & Humanities (BKCI-SSH), 2005–present; Current Chemical Reactions (CCR-EXPANDED), 1985–present; Index Chemicus (IC), 1993–present. (2) NIH: (a) We excluded publications related to MDSCs that were supported by the NIH. (b) We limited the keyword search to studies