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Sample records for cell dna replication

  1. Direct Visualization of DNA Replication Dynamics in Zebrafish Cells.

    PubMed

    Kuriya, Kenji; Higashiyama, Eriko; Avşar-Ban, Eriko; Tamaru, Yutaka; Ogata, Shin; Takebayashi, Shin-ichiro; Ogata, Masato; Okumura, Katsuzumi

    2015-12-01

    Spatiotemporal regulation of DNA replication in the S-phase nucleus has been extensively studied in mammalian cells because it is tightly coupled with the regulation of other nuclear processes such as transcription. However, little is known about the replication dynamics in nonmammalian cells. Here, we analyzed the DNA replication processes of zebrafish (Danio rerio) cells through the direct visualization of replicating DNA in the nucleus and on DNA fiber molecules isolated from the nucleus. We found that zebrafish chromosomal DNA at the nuclear interior was replicated first, followed by replication of DNA at the nuclear periphery, which is reminiscent of the spatiotemporal regulation of mammalian DNA replication. However, the relative duration of interior DNA replication in zebrafish cells was longer compared to mammalian cells, possibly reflecting zebrafish-specific genomic organization. The rate of replication fork progression and ori-to-ori distance measured by the DNA combing technique were ∼ 1.4 kb/min and 100 kb, respectively, which are comparable to those in mammalian cells. To our knowledge, this is a first report that measures replication dynamics in zebrafish cells.

  2. The Cell Cycle Timing of Human Papillomavirus DNA Replication.

    PubMed

    Reinson, Tormi; Henno, Liisi; Toots, Mart; Ustav, Mart; Ustav, Mart

    2015-01-01

    Viruses manipulate the cell cycle of the host cell to optimize conditions for more efficient viral genome replication. One strategy utilized by DNA viruses is to replicate their genomes non-concurrently with the host genome; in this case, the viral genome is amplified outside S phase. This phenomenon has also been described for human papillomavirus (HPV) vegetative genome replication, which occurs in G2-arrested cells; however, the precise timing of viral DNA replication during initial and stable replication phases has not been studied. We developed a new method to quantitate newly synthesized DNA levels and used this method in combination with cell cycle synchronization to show that viral DNA replication is initiated during S phase and is extended to G2 during initial amplification but follows the replication pattern of cellular DNA during S phase in the stable maintenance phase. E1 and E2 protein overexpression changes the replication time from S only to both the S and G2 phases in cells that stably maintain viral episomes. These data demonstrate that the active synthesis and replication of the HPV genome are extended into the G2 phase to amplify its copy number and the duration of HPV genome replication is controlled by the level of the viral replication proteins E1 and E2. Using the G2 phase for genome amplification may be an important adaptation that allows exploitation of changing cellular conditions during cell cycle progression. We also describe a new method to quantify newly synthesized viral DNA levels and discuss its benefits for HPV research.

  3. Fidelity of a human cell DNA replication complex.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J D; Kunkel, T A

    1988-01-01

    We have measured the fidelity of bidirectional, semiconservative DNA synthesis by a human DNA replication complex in vitro. Replication was performed by extracts of HeLa cells in the presence of simian virus 40 (SV40) large tumor antigen by using a double-stranded phage M13mp2 DNA template containing the SV40 origin of replication and either of two different target sequences for scoring mutations in the lacZ alpha-complementation gene, which encodes the alpha region (specifying the amino-terminal portion) of beta-galactosidase. Replicative synthesis was substantially more accurate than synthesis by the human DNA polymerase alpha-DNA primase complex purified from HeLa cell extracts by immunoaffinity chromatography, suggesting that additional factors or activities in the extract may increase fidelity during bidirectional replication. However, by using a sensitive opal codon reversion assay, single-base substitution errors were readily detected in the replication products at frequencies significantly higher than estimated spontaneous mutation rates in vivo. These data suggest that additional fidelity factors may be present during chromosomal replication in vivo and/or that the fidelity of replication alone does not account for the low spontaneous mutation rates in eukaryotes. Images PMID:3174620

  4. Impaired DNA replication within progenitor cell pools promotes leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bilousova, Ganna; Marusyk, Andriy; Porter, Christopher C; Cardiff, Robert D; DeGregori, James

    2005-12-01

    Impaired cell cycle progression can be paradoxically associated with increased rates of malignancies. Using retroviral transduction of bone marrow progenitors followed by transplantation into mice, we demonstrate that inhibition of hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation impairs competition, promoting the expansion of progenitors that acquire oncogenic mutations which restore cell cycle progression. Conditions that impair DNA replication dramatically enhance the proliferative advantage provided by the expression of Bcr-Abl or mutant p53, which provide no apparent competitive advantage under conditions of healthy replication. Furthermore, for the Bcr-Abl oncogene the competitive advantage in contexts of impaired DNA replication dramatically increases leukemogenesis. Impaired replication within hematopoietic progenitor cell pools can select for oncogenic events and thereby promote leukemia, demonstrating the importance of replicative competence in the prevention of tumorigenesis. The demonstration that replication-impaired, poorly competitive progenitor cell pools can promote tumorigenesis provides a new rationale for links between tumorigenesis and common human conditions of impaired DNA replication such as dietary folate deficiency, chemotherapeutics targeting dNTP synthesis, and polymorphisms in genes important for DNA metabolism.

  5. Temporal regulation of DNA replication in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells follow a temporal program to duplicate their genomes. Chromosomes are divided into domains with a specific DNA replication timing (RT), not dictated by DNA sequence alone, which is conserved from one cell cycle to the next. Timing of replication correlates with gene density, transcriptional activity, chromatin structure and nuclear position, making it an intriguing epigenetic mark. The differentiation from embryonic stem cells to specialized cell types is accompanied by global changes in the RT program. This review covers our current understanding of the mechanisms that determine RT in mammalian cells, its possible biological significance and how unscheduled alterations of the RT program may predispose to human disease.

  6. The LMO2 oncogene regulates DNA replication in hematopoietic cells

    PubMed Central

    Sincennes, Marie-Claude; Humbert, Magali; Grondin, Benoît; Lisi, Véronique; Veiga, Diogo F. T.; Haman, André; Cazaux, Christophe; Mashtalir, Nazar; Affar, EL Bachir; Verreault, Alain; Hoang, Trang

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic transcription factors are commonly activated in acute leukemias and subvert normal gene expression networks to reprogram hematopoietic progenitors into preleukemic stem cells, as exemplified by LIM-only 2 (LMO2) in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Whether or not these oncoproteins interfere with other DNA-dependent processes is largely unexplored. Here, we show that LMO2 is recruited to DNA replication origins by interaction with three essential replication enzymes: DNA polymerase delta (POLD1), DNA primase (PRIM1), and minichromosome 6 (MCM6). Furthermore, tethering LMO2 to synthetic DNA sequences is sufficient to transform these sequences into origins of replication. We next addressed the importance of LMO2 in erythroid and thymocyte development, two lineages in which cell cycle and differentiation are tightly coordinated. Lowering LMO2 levels in erythroid progenitors delays G1-S progression and arrests erythropoietin-dependent cell growth while favoring terminal differentiation. Conversely, ectopic expression in thymocytes induces DNA replication and drives these cells into cell cycle, causing differentiation blockade. Our results define a novel role for LMO2 in directly promoting DNA synthesis and G1-S progression. PMID:26764384

  7. The LMO2 oncogene regulates DNA replication in hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Sincennes, Marie-Claude; Humbert, Magali; Grondin, Benoît; Lisi, Véronique; Veiga, Diogo F T; Haman, André; Cazaux, Christophe; Mashtalir, Nazar; Affar, El Bachir; Verreault, Alain; Hoang, Trang

    2016-02-02

    Oncogenic transcription factors are commonly activated in acute leukemias and subvert normal gene expression networks to reprogram hematopoietic progenitors into preleukemic stem cells, as exemplified by LIM-only 2 (LMO2) in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Whether or not these oncoproteins interfere with other DNA-dependent processes is largely unexplored. Here, we show that LMO2 is recruited to DNA replication origins by interaction with three essential replication enzymes: DNA polymerase delta (POLD1), DNA primase (PRIM1), and minichromosome 6 (MCM6). Furthermore, tethering LMO2 to synthetic DNA sequences is sufficient to transform these sequences into origins of replication. We next addressed the importance of LMO2 in erythroid and thymocyte development, two lineages in which cell cycle and differentiation are tightly coordinated. Lowering LMO2 levels in erythroid progenitors delays G1-S progression and arrests erythropoietin-dependent cell growth while favoring terminal differentiation. Conversely, ectopic expression in thymocytes induces DNA replication and drives these cells into cell cycle, causing differentiation blockade. Our results define a novel role for LMO2 in directly promoting DNA synthesis and G1-S progression.

  8. DNA breaks early in replication in B cell cancers

    Cancer.gov

    Research by scientists at the NCI has identified a new class of DNA sites in cells that break early in the replication process. They found that these break sites correlate with damage often seen in B cell cancers, such as diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

  9. Links between DNA Replication, Stem Cells and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vassilev, Alex; DePamphilis, Melvin L.

    2017-01-01

    Cancers can be categorized into two groups: those whose frequency increases with age, and those resulting from errors during mammalian development. The first group is linked to DNA replication through the accumulation of genetic mutations that occur during proliferation of developmentally acquired stem cells that give rise to and maintain tissues and organs. These mutations, which result from DNA replication errors as well as environmental insults, fall into two categories; cancer driver mutations that initiate carcinogenesis and genome destabilizing mutations that promote aneuploidy through excess genome duplication and chromatid missegregation. Increased genome instability results in accelerated clonal evolution leading to the appearance of more aggressive clones with increased drug resistance. The second group of cancers, termed germ cell neoplasia, results from the mislocation of pluripotent stem cells during early development. During normal development, pluripotent stem cells that originate in early embryos give rise to all of the cell lineages in the embryo and adult, but when they mislocate to ectopic sites, they produce tumors. Remarkably, pluripotent stem cells, like many cancer cells, depend on the Geminin protein to prevent excess DNA replication from triggering DNA damage-dependent apoptosis. This link between the control of DNA replication during early development and germ cell neoplasia reveals Geminin as a potential chemotherapeutic target in the eradication of cancer progenitor cells. PMID:28125050

  10. Links between DNA Replication, Stem Cells and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vassilev, Alex; DePamphilis, Melvin L

    2017-01-25

    Cancers can be categorized into two groups: those whose frequency increases with age, and those resulting from errors during mammalian development. The first group is linked to DNA replication through the accumulation of genetic mutations that occur during proliferation of developmentally acquired stem cells that give rise to and maintain tissues and organs. These mutations, which result from DNA replication errors as well as environmental insults, fall into two categories; cancer driver mutations that initiate carcinogenesis and genome destabilizing mutations that promote aneuploidy through excess genome duplication and chromatid missegregation. Increased genome instability results in accelerated clonal evolution leading to the appearance of more aggressive clones with increased drug resistance. The second group of cancers, termed germ cell neoplasia, results from the mislocation of pluripotent stem cells during early development. During normal development, pluripotent stem cells that originate in early embryos give rise to all of the cell lineages in the embryo and adult, but when they mislocate to ectopic sites, they produce tumors. Remarkably, pluripotent stem cells, like many cancer cells, depend on the Geminin protein to prevent excess DNA replication from triggering DNA damage-dependent apoptosis. This link between the control of DNA replication during early development and germ cell neoplasia reveals Geminin as a potential chemotherapeutic target in the eradication of cancer progenitor cells.

  11. Mitochondrial DNA replication during differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Facucho-Oliveira, Joao M; Alderson, Jon; Spikings, Emma C; Egginton, Stuart; St John, Justin C

    2007-11-15

    Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), the intracellular process that generates the majority of the ATP of a cell through the electron-transfer chain, is highly dependent on proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). MtDNA replication is regulated by the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and the mitochondrial-specific DNA polymerase gamma, which consists of a catalytic (POLG) and an accessory (POLG2) subunit. Differentiation of pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into specific cell types requires expansion of discrete populations of mitochondria and mtDNA replication to meet the specific metabolic requirements of the cell. We determined by real-time PCR that expression of pluripotent markers is reduced before the upregulation of Polg, Polg2 and Tfam in spontaneously differentiating R1 murine (m)ESCs, along with transient increases in mtDNA copy number. In D3 mESCs, the initial transient increase did not take place. However, precursors of neuronal and cardiomyocyte differentiation were positive for both POLG and TFAM. Similar-stage ESCs also showed active mtDNA replication, identified by 5-bromo-2'-deoxy-uridine labelling, as mtDNA copy number increased. Retinoic-acid-induced differentiation resulted in more consistent patterns of replication and upregulation of Polg, Polg2 and Tfam, whereas siRNA knockdown demonstrated that steady-state expression of POLG is essential for maintaining pluripotency.

  12. Defects in DNA replication hit NK cells and neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Ley, Klaus

    2017-05-01

    Patients who present with unique immunological phenotypes provide an opportunity to better understand defect-driving mutations. In this issue of the JCI, Cottineau and colleagues characterize 5 individuals who exhibited growth restriction, facial deformities, and a history of bacterial and viral infection. Further characterization revealed that these patients were neutropenic and NK cell deficient. These phenotypes were unexpectedly linked to mutations in the gene encoding a subunit of the Go-Ichi-Ni-San (GINS) complex, which is essential for DNA replication prior to cell division. Together, the results of this study lay the groundwork for future studies to explore the role of DNA replication in immune cell generation and function.

  13. Analysis of inhibition of DNA replication in irradiated cells using the SV40 based in vitro assay of DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Iliakis, George; Mladenov, Emil; Wang, Ya; Wang, Hong Yan

    2012-01-01

    The deleterious effects of DNA damage on DNA replication have been demonstrated in many model systems and the mechanisms of the resulting inhibition have been a research focus for at least 40 years. Moreover, recent studies have identified several major components of the S-phase checkpoint, providing a mechanistic background for understanding the basis of inhibition of the initiation and elongation steps of DNA replication after DNA damage. Yet several aspects of the underlying biochemical mechanisms remain unresolved including the characterization of the enzymatic activities involved in checkpoint activation and the coordination of this process with DNA repair. Helpful for the delineation of the mechanism of the S-phase checkpoint is the observation that factors inhibiting DNA replication in vivo can be found in active form in extracts prepared from irradiated cells, when these are tested using the simian virus 40 (SV40) assay for in vitro DNA replication. In this assay, replication of plasmid DNA carrying the minimal origin of SV40 DNA replication is achieved in vitro using cytoplasmic cell extracts and SV40 large tumor antigen (TAg) as the only noncellular protein. Here, we describe protocols developed to measure in vitro DNA replication with the purpose of analyzing its regulation after exposure to DNA damage. The procedures include the preparation of components of the in vitro DNA replication reaction including cytoplasmic extracts from cells that have sustained DNA damage. The assay provides a powerful tool for investigating the effect of distinct agents acting either by inducing lesions in the DNA, or by inhibiting the functions of checkpoint proteins. Nevertheless, the fact that several steps of DNA replication initiation are carried out in this in vitro assay by TAg and not the corresponding cellular factors, might be considered as a limitation of the approach.

  14. Host DNA Damage Response Factors Localize to Merkel Cell Polyomavirus DNA Replication Sites To Support Efficient Viral DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Sabrina H.; Wang, Xin; Li, Jing; Buck, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Accumulating evidence indicates a role for Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) in the development of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), making MCPyV the first polyomavirus to be clearly associated with human cancer. With the high prevalence of MCPyV infection and the increasing amount of MCC diagnosis, there is a need to better understand the virus and its oncogenic potential. In this study, we examined the relationship between the host DNA damage response (DDR) and MCPyV replication. We found that components of the ATM- and ATR-mediated DDR pathways accumulate in MCPyV large T antigen (LT)-positive nuclear foci in cells infected with native MCPyV virions. To further study MCPyV replication, we employed our previously established system, in which recombinant MCPyV episomal DNA is autonomously replicated in cultured cells. Similar to native MCPyV infection, where both MCPyV origin and LT are present, the host DDR machinery colocalized with LT in distinct nuclear foci. Immunofluorescence in situ hybridization and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation analysis showed that these DDR proteins and MCPyV LT in fact colocalized at the actively replicating MCPyV replication complexes, which were absent when a replication-defective LT mutant or an MCPyV-origin mutant was introduced in place of wild-type LT or wild-type viral origin. Inhibition of DDR kinases using chemical inhibitors and ATR/ATM small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown reduced MCPyV DNA replication without significantly affecting LT expression or the host cell cycle. This study demonstrates that these host DDR factors are important for MCPyV DNA replication, providing new insight into the host machinery involved in the MCPyV life cycle. IMPORTANCE MCPyV is the first polyomavirus to be clearly associated with human cancer. However, the MCPyV life cycle and its oncogenic mechanism remain poorly understood. In this report, we show that, in cells infected with native MCPyV virions, components of the ATM- and ATR

  15. Analyzing the dynamics of DNA replication in Mammalian cells using DNA combing.

    PubMed

    Bialic, Marta; Coulon, Vincent; Drac, Marjorie; Gostan, Thierry; Schwob, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    How cells duplicate their chromosomes is a key determinant of cell identity and genome stability. DNA replication can initiate from more than 100,000 sites distributed along mammalian chromosomes, yet a given cell uses only a subset of these origins due to inefficient origin activation and regulation by developmental or environmental cues. An impractical consequence of cell-to-cell variations in origin firing is that population-based techniques do not accurately describe how chromosomes are replicated in single cells. DNA combing is a biophysical DNA fiber stretching method which permits visualization of ongoing DNA synthesis along Mb-sized single-DNA molecules purified from cells that were previously pulse-labeled with thymidine analogues. This allows quantitative measurements of several salient features of chromosome replication dynamics, such as fork velocity, fork asymmetry, inter-origin distances, and global instant fork density. In this chapter we describe how to obtain this information from asynchronous cultures of mammalian cells.

  16. Cell synchronization by inhibitors of DNA replication induces replication stress and DNA damage response: analysis by flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Halicka, H. Dorota; Zhao, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Cell synchronization is often achieved by inhibition of DNA replication. The cells cultured in the presence of such inhibitors as hydroxyurea, aphidicolin or thymidine become arrested at the entrance to S-phase and upon release from the block they synchronously progress through S, G2 and M. We recently reported that exposure of cells to these inhibitors at concentrations commonly used to synchronize cell populations led to phosphorylation of histone H2AX on Ser139 (induction of γH2AX) through activation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related protein kinase (ATR). These findings imply that the induction of DNA replication stress by these inhibitors activates the DNA damage response cell signaling pathways and caution about interpreting data obtained with the use of cells synchronized such way as representing unperturbed cells. The protocol presented in this chapter describes the methodology of assessment of phosphorylation of histone H2AX-Ser139, ATM/ATR substrate on Ser/Thr at SQ/TQ cluster domains as well as ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase in cells treated with inhibitors of DNA replication. Phosphorylation of these proteins is detected in individual cell immunocytochemically with phospho-specific Ab and measured by flow cytometry. Concurrent measurement of cellular DNA content and phosphorylated proteins followed by multiparameter cytometric analysis allows one to correlate extent of their phosphorylation with cell cycle phase. PMID:21755443

  17. Termination of DNA replication is required for cell division in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, N; Rosner, E; Ron, E Z

    1989-01-01

    The correlation between termination of DNA replication and cell division in Escherichia coli was studied under conditions in which DNA replication was slowed down without inducing SOS functions. The experimental system used involved amino acid starvation of synchronized cells in the presence of methionine. The results further support the essential correlation between termination of DNA replication and initiation of division processes. PMID:2644214

  18. Novel DNA damage checkpoint in mitosis: Mitotic DNA damage induces re-replication without cell division in various cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Sun-Yi; Rosen, Eliot M; Jang, Young-Joo

    2012-07-06

    DNA damage induces multiple checkpoint pathways to arrest cell cycle progression until damage is repaired. In our previous reports, when DNA damage occurred in prometaphase, cells were accumulated in 4 N-DNA G1 phase, and mitosis-specific kinases were inactivated in dependent on ATM/Chk1 after a short incubation for repair. We investigated whether or not mitotic DNA damage causes cells to skip-over late mitotic periods under prolonged incubation in a time-lapse study. 4 N-DNA-damaged cells re-replicated without cell division and accumulated in 8 N-DNA content, and the activities of apoptotic factors were increased. The inhibition of DNA replication reduced the 8 N-DNA cell population dramatically. Induction of replication without cell division was not observed upon depletion of Chk1 or ATM. Finally, mitotic DNA damage induces mitotic slippage and that cells enter G1 phase with 4 N-DNA content and then DNA replication is occurred to 8 N-DNA content before completion of mitosis in the ATM/Chk1-dependent manner, followed by caspase-dependent apoptosis during long-term repair.

  19. Replication stalling by catalytically impaired Twinkle induces mitochondrial DNA rearrangements in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Pohjoismäki, Jaakko L O; Goffart, Steffi; Spelbrink, Johannes N

    2011-07-01

    Pathological mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) rearrangements have been proposed to result from repair of double-strand breaks caused by blockage of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication. As mtDNA deletions are seen only in post-mitotic tissues, it has been suggested that they are selected out in actively dividing cells. By electron microscopy we observed rearranged mtDNA molecules in cultured human cells expressing a catalytically impaired helicase. As these molecules were undetectable by PCR, we propose that deleted mtDNA molecules in cultured cells are fragile and sensitive to heating. Further consequences of mtDNA replication stalling are discussed.

  20. Archaeal DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Kelman, Lori M; Kelman, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication is essential for all life forms. Although the process is fundamentally conserved in the three domains of life, bioinformatic, biochemical, structural, and genetic studies have demonstrated that the process and the proteins involved in archaeal DNA replication are more similar to those in eukaryal DNA replication than in bacterial DNA replication, but have some archaeal-specific features. The archaeal replication system, however, is not monolithic, and there are some differences in the replication process between different species. In this review, the current knowledge of the mechanisms governing DNA replication in Archaea is summarized. The general features of the replication process as well as some of the differences are discussed.

  1. Dynamic organization of DNA replication in mammalian cell nuclei: spatially and temporally defined replication of chromosome-specific alpha-satellite DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Five distinct patterns of DNA replication have been identified during S- phase in asynchronous and synchronous cultures of mammalian cells by conventional fluorescence microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and immunoelectron microscopy. During early S-phase, replicating DNA (as identified by 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation) appears to be distributed at sites throughout the nucleoplasm, excluding the nucleolus. In CHO cells, this pattern of replication peaks at 30 min into S-phase and is consistent with the localization of euchromatin. As S-phase continues, replication of euchromatin decreases and the peripheral regions of heterochromatin begin to replicate. This pattern of replication peaks at 2 h into S-phase. At 5 h, perinucleolar chromatin as well as peripheral areas of heterochromatin peak in replication. 7 h into S-phase interconnecting patches of electron-dense chromatin replicate. At the end of S-phase (9 h), replication occurs at a few large regions of electron-dense chromatin. Similar or identical patterns have been identified in a variety of mammalian cell types. The replication of specific chromosomal regions within the context of the BrdU-labeling patterns has been examined on an hourly basis in synchronized HeLa cells. Double labeling of DNA replication sites and chromosome-specific alpha-satellite DNA sequences indicates that the alpha-satellite DNA replicates during mid S-phase (characterized by the third pattern of replication) in a variety of human cell types. Our data demonstrates that specific DNA sequences replicate at spatially and temporally defined points during the cell cycle and supports a spatially dynamic model of DNA replication. PMID:1740468

  2. Geminiviruses: models for plant DNA replication, transcription, and cell cycle regulation.

    PubMed

    Hanley-Bowdoin, L; Settlage, S B; Orozco, B M; Nagar, S; Robertson, D

    2000-01-01

    Geminiviruses have small, single-stranded DNA genomes that replicate through double-stranded intermediates in the nuclei of infected plant cells. Viral double-stranded DNA also assembles into minichromosomes and is transcribed in infected cells. Geminiviruses encode only a few proteins for their replication and transcription and rely on host enzymes for these processes. However, most plant cells, which have exited the cell cycle and undergone differentiation, do not contain the replicative enzymes necessary for viral DNA synthesis. To overcome this barrier, geminiviruses induce the accumulation of DNA replication machinery in mature plant cells, most likely by modifying cell cycle and transcriptional controls. In animals, several DNA viruses depend on host replication and transcription machinery and can alter their hosts to create an environment that facilitates efficient viral replication. Analysis of these viruses and their proteins has contributed significantly to our understanding of DNA replication, transcription, and cell cycle regulation in mammalian cells. Geminiviruses have the same potential for plant systems. Plants offer many advantages for these types of studies, including ease of transformation, well-defined cell populations and developmental programs, and greater tolerance of cell cycle perturbation and polyploidy. Our knowledge of the molecular and cellular events that mediate geminivirus infection has increased significantly during recent years. The goal of this review is to summarize recent research addressing geminivirus DNA replication and its integration with transcriptional and cell cycle regulatory processes.

  3. DNA replication in thermophiles.

    PubMed

    Majerník, A I; Jenkinson, E R; Chong, J P J

    2004-04-01

    DNA replication enzymes in the thermophilic Archaea have previously attracted attention due to their obvious use in methods such as PCR. The proofreading ability of the Pyrococcus furiosus DNA polymerase has resulted in a commercially successful product (Pfu polymerase). One of the many notable features of the Archaea is the fact that their DNA processing enzymes appear on the whole to be more like those found in eukaryotes than bacteria. These proteins also appear to be simpler versions of those found in eukaryotes. For these reasons, archaeal organisms make potentially interesting model systems to explore the molecular mechanisms of processes such as DNA replication, repair and recombination. Why archaeal DNA-manipulation systems were adopted over bacterial systems by eukaryotic cells remains a most interesting question that we suggest may be linked to thermophily.

  4. Deciphering DNA replication dynamics in eukaryotic cell populations in relation with their averaged chromatin conformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldar, A.; Arneodo, A.; Audit, B.; Argoul, F.; Rappailles, A.; Guilbaud, G.; Petryk, N.; Kahli, M.; Hyrien, O.

    2016-03-01

    We propose a non-local model of DNA replication that takes into account the observed uncertainty on the position and time of replication initiation in eukaryote cell populations. By picturing replication initiation as a two-state system and considering all possible transition configurations, and by taking into account the chromatin’s fractal dimension, we derive an analytical expression for the rate of replication initiation. This model predicts with no free parameter the temporal profiles of initiation rate, replication fork density and fraction of replicated DNA, in quantitative agreement with corresponding experimental data from both S. cerevisiae and human cells and provides a quantitative estimate of initiation site redundancy. This study shows that, to a large extent, the program that regulates the dynamics of eukaryotic DNA replication is a collective phenomenon that emerges from the stochastic nature of replication origins initiation.

  5. Chromosome replication status and DNA content at any cell age in a bacterial cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Sánchez, Alfonso

    2015-09-07

    An algorithm is presented to determine the chromosome replication status, the rate of DNA synthesis per fork, and the amount of DNA in chromosome equivalents (G) per chromosome, per cell and per age throughout a bacterial cell cycle. This algorithm is the only attempt to study replication and the G value at any cell age since the general model of the bacterial cell cycle by Cooper and Helmstetter (1968, J. Mol. Biol. 31, 619-644). To help using it, two implementations are provided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A chromatin structure-based model accurately predicts DNA replication timing in human cells.

    PubMed

    Gindin, Yevgeniy; Valenzuela, Manuel S; Aladjem, Mirit I; Meltzer, Paul S; Bilke, Sven

    2014-03-28

    The metazoan genome is replicated in precise cell lineage-specific temporal order. However, the mechanism controlling this orchestrated process is poorly understood as no molecular mechanisms have been identified that actively regulate the firing sequence of genome replication. Here, we develop a mechanistic model of genome replication capable of predicting, with accuracy rivaling experimental repeats, observed empirical replication timing program in humans. In our model, replication is initiated in an uncoordinated (time-stochastic) manner at well-defined sites. The model contains, in addition to the choice of the genomic landmark that localizes initiation, only a single adjustable parameter of direct biological relevance: the number of replication forks. We find that DNase-hypersensitive sites are optimal and independent determinants of DNA replication initiation. We demonstrate that the DNA replication timing program in human cells is a robust emergent phenomenon that, by its very nature, does not require a regulatory mechanism determining a proper replication initiation firing sequence.

  7. Chronic Replication Problems Impact Cell Morphology and Adhesion of DNA Ligase I Defective Cells.

    PubMed

    Cremaschi, Paolo; Oliverio, Matteo; Leva, Valentina; Bione, Silvia; Carriero, Roberta; Mazzucco, Giulia; Palamidessi, Andrea; Scita, Giorgio; Biamonti, Giuseppe; Montecucco, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Moderate DNA damage resulting from metabolic activities or sub-lethal doses of exogenous insults may eventually lead to cancer onset. Human 46BR.1G1 cells bear a mutation in replicative DNA ligase I (LigI) which results in low levels of replication-dependent DNA damage. This replication stress elicits a constitutive phosphorylation of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) checkpoint kinase that fails to arrest cell cycle progression or to activate apoptosis or cell senescence. Stable transfection of wild type LigI, as in 7A3 cells, prevents DNA damage and ATM activation. Here we show that parental 46BR.1G1 and 7A3 cells differ in important features such as cell morphology, adhesion and migration. Comparison of gene expression profiles in the two cell lines detects Bio-Functional categories consistent with the morphological and migration properties of LigI deficient cells. Interestingly, ATM inhibition makes 46BR.1G1 more similar to 7A3 cells for what concerns morphology, adhesion and expression of cell-cell adhesion receptors. These observations extend the influence of the DNA damage response checkpoint pathways and unveil a role for ATM kinase activity in modulating cell biology parameters relevant to cancer progression.

  8. Ethidium bromide as a marker of mtDNA replication in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, Anna Maria; Fusi, Paola; Pastori, Valentina; Amicarelli, Giulia; Pozzi, Chiara; Adlerstein, Daniel; Doglia, Silvia Maria

    2012-04-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in tumor cells was found to play an important role in maintaining the malignant phenotype. Using laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy (LSCFM) in a recent work, we reported a variable fluorescence intensity of ethidium bromide (EB) in mitochondria nucleoids of living carcinoma cells. Since when EB is bound to nucleic acids its fluorescence is intensified; a higher EB fluorescence intensity could reflect a higher DNA accessibility to EB, suggesting a higher mtDNA replication activity. To prove this hypothesis, in the present work we studied, by LSCFM, the EB fluorescence in mitochondria nucleoids of living neuroblastoma cells, a model system in which differentiation affects the level of mtDNA replication. A drastic decrease of fluorescence was observed after differentiation. To correlate EB fluorescence intensity to the mtDNA replication state, we evaluated the mtDNA nascent strands content by ligation-mediated real-time PCR, and we found a halved amount of replicating mtDNA molecules in differentiating cells. A similar result was obtained by BrdU incorporation. These results indicate that the low EB fluorescence of nucleoids in differentiated cells is correlated to a low content of replicating mtDNA, suggesting that EB may be used as a marker of mtDNA replication in living cells.

  9. Regulation of DNA replication licensing.

    PubMed

    Niida, Hiroyuki; Kitagawa, Masatoshi

    2012-12-01

    In eukaryotic cells, DNA replication is tightly regulated to occur only once per cell cycle. DNA licensing is a mechanism to guarantee this aim; that is, licensing of replication initiation is permitted during late M phase to G1 phase. The license is canceled by the start of DNA replication. Once DNA replication begins, the license is never given until the next late M phase. The licensing corresponds to the process of assembling components of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC) on the replication origin DNA. This pre-RC is the target of several different regulation systems to prevent rereplication of DNA during a single cell cycle. In this review, the regulation mechanisms mainly in mammals to control assembling components of the pre-RC will be discussed.

  10. Fidelity of DNA Replication in Normal and Malignant Human Breast Cells.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-08-01

    A vatit"Y Of DNA synthesis and the typt of DNA replica~tion Products " celular prca including DNA rsplicatlon. DNA repsair. R~NA formed in experiments...ftoxyrthonucloside transport systems in mouse Slioms and mouse. pollymorase (a. 5.). arid unteil-IDNA glycimyl**e Utivlid’ 1n culturedneuroblassoma cells by

  11. Initiation of chromosomal DNA replication in eukaryotic cells; contribution of yeast genetics to the elucidation.

    PubMed

    Araki, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Chromosomal DNA replication is a fundamental process in the transmission of genetic information through generations. While the molecular mechanism of DNA replication has been studied for a long time, knowledge regarding this process in eukaryotic cells has advanced rapidly in the past 20 years. Yeast genetics contributed profoundly to this rapid advancement. Reverse genetics and genetic screenings identified all genes encoding replication proteins in budding yeast. Moreover, the genetic interactions that were used in screenings and analyses provided an insight into the molecular mechanism of chromosomal DNA replication. Further studies showed that complicated but sophisticated mechanisms govern chromosomal DNA replication. The retrospective view of the genetic approaches used to elucidate DNA replication in eukaryotes, together with current knowledge, tell us the reasons why some of the genetic screenings are successful, and also provide ideas for future directions.

  12. Involvement of DNA ligase III and ribonuclease H1 in mitochondrial DNA replication in cultured human cells.

    PubMed

    Ruhanen, Heini; Ushakov, Kathy; Yasukawa, Takehiro

    2011-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that coupled leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis operates in mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication, but the factors involved in lagging strand synthesis are largely uncharacterised. We investigated the effect of knockdown of the candidate proteins in cultured human cells under conditions where mtDNA appears to replicate chiefly via coupled leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis to restore the copy number of mtDNA to normal levels after transient mtDNA depletion. DNA ligase III knockdown attenuated the recovery of mtDNA copy number and appeared to cause single strand nicks in replicating mtDNA molecules, suggesting the involvement of DNA ligase III in Okazaki fragment ligation in human mitochondria. Knockdown of ribonuclease (RNase) H1 completely prevented the mtDNA copy number restoration, and replication intermediates with increased single strand nicks were readily observed. On the other hand, knockdown of neither flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) nor DNA2 affected mtDNA replication. These findings imply that RNase H1 is indispensable for the progression of mtDNA synthesis through removing RNA primers from Okazaki fragments. In the nucleus, Okazaki fragments are ligated by DNA ligase I, and the RNase H2 is involved in Okazaki fragment processing. This study thus proposes that the mitochondrial replication system utilises distinct proteins, DNA ligase III and RNase H1, for Okazaki fragment maturation.

  13. Adenovirus DNA replication in vitro is stimulated by RNA from uninfected HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    van der Vliet, P C; van Dam, D; Kwant, M M

    1984-06-04

    Adenovirus DNA replication was studied in a partially reconstituted system consisting of purified viral proteins (DNA-binding protein, precursor terminal protein and Ad DNA polymerase) and a nuclear extract from uninfected HeLa cells. Optimal DNA replication required the presence of a heat-stable, ribonuclease-sensitive fraction from the cytosol of uninfected cells. This fraction stimulated the initiation about 3-fold and the replication of origin fragments 5-10-fold. Sedimentation analysis indicated the presence of a fast-sedimenting and a slow-sedimenting component which complemented each other. At least part of the stimulation was caused by low-molecular-mass RNA.

  14. Multiple regulatory systems coordinate DNA replication with cell growth in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Murray, Heath; Koh, Alan

    2014-10-01

    In many bacteria the rate of DNA replication is linked with cellular physiology to ensure that genome duplication is coordinated with growth. Nutrient-mediated growth rate control of DNA replication initiation has been appreciated for decades, however the mechanism(s) that connects these cell cycle activities has eluded understanding. In order to help address this fundamental question we have investigated regulation of DNA replication in the model organism Bacillus subtilis. Contrary to the prevailing view we find that changes in DnaA protein level are not sufficient to account for nutrient-mediated growth rate control of DNA replication initiation, although this regulation does require both DnaA and the endogenous replication origin. We go on to report connections between DNA replication and several essential cellular activities required for rapid bacterial growth, including respiration, central carbon metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, phospholipid synthesis, and protein synthesis. Unexpectedly, the results indicate that multiple regulatory systems are involved in coordinating DNA replication with cell physiology, with some of the regulatory systems targeting oriC while others act in a oriC-independent manner. We propose that distinct regulatory systems are utilized to control DNA replication in response to diverse physiological and chemical changes.

  15. Multiple Regulatory Systems Coordinate DNA Replication with Cell Growth in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Heath; Koh, Alan

    2014-01-01

    In many bacteria the rate of DNA replication is linked with cellular physiology to ensure that genome duplication is coordinated with growth. Nutrient-mediated growth rate control of DNA replication initiation has been appreciated for decades, however the mechanism(s) that connects these cell cycle activities has eluded understanding. In order to help address this fundamental question we have investigated regulation of DNA replication in the model organism Bacillus subtilis. Contrary to the prevailing view we find that changes in DnaA protein level are not sufficient to account for nutrient-mediated growth rate control of DNA replication initiation, although this regulation does require both DnaA and the endogenous replication origin. We go on to report connections between DNA replication and several essential cellular activities required for rapid bacterial growth, including respiration, central carbon metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, phospholipid synthesis, and protein synthesis. Unexpectedly, the results indicate that multiple regulatory systems are involved in coordinating DNA replication with cell physiology, with some of the regulatory systems targeting oriC while others act in a oriC-independent manner. We propose that distinct regulatory systems are utilized to control DNA replication in response to diverse physiological and chemical changes. PMID:25340815

  16. Ultraviolet-induced cell death is independent of DNA replication in rat kangaroo cells.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, E N; Menck, C F

    1995-05-01

    Rat kangaroo (Potorous tridactylus) cells have an efficient repair system for photoreactivation of lethal lesions induced by 254 nm UV. However, this ability is lost with increasing time after UV, being completely ineffective after 24 h. Critical events leading to UV-induced cell death must occur within this period of time. DNA synthesis was inhibited by the DNA polymerase inhibitor aphidicolin and the loss of the capability to photorepair lethal lesions was maintained as for replicating cells. Similar data were obtained in synchronized cells UV irradiated immediately before S phase. Under the same conditions, the ability to remove cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers by photoreactivation in these cells remained unchanged 24 h after irradiation. These data indicate that the critical events responsible for UV-induced cell death occur in the absence of DNA replication.

  17. Nuclei act as independent and integrated units of replication in a Xenopus cell-free DNA replication system.

    PubMed Central

    Blow, J J; Watson, J V

    1987-01-01

    We have used a novel approach to investigate the control of initiation of replication of sperm nuclei in a Xenopus cell-free extract. Nascent DNA was labelled with biotin by supplementing the extract with biotin-11-dUTP, and isolated nuclei were then probed with fluorescein-conjugated streptavidin. Flow cytometry was used to measure the biotin content of individual nuclei and their total DNA content. This showed that incorporation of the biotinylated precursor increases linearly with DNA content. Haploid sperm nuclei replicate fully to reach the diploid DNA content over 2-6 h in the extract. Synthesis stops once the diploid DNA content is reached. Different nuclei enter S phase at different times over greater than 1.5 h, although they share the same cytoplasmic environment. Nuclei reach their maximum rates of synthesis soon after entry into S phase and some replicate fully in less than 0.5 h, resembling the rates of replication observed in the intact egg. These results indicate that initiations are coordinated within each nucleus such that the nucleus is the fundamental unit of replication in the cell-free system. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:3653079

  18. Next-generation sequencing and DNA replication in human cells: the future has arrived.

    PubMed

    Dellino, Gaetano Ivan; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    Accurate regulation of DNA replication ensures faithful transmission of eukaryotic genomes and maintenance of genomic stability and chromatin organization. However, by itself the replication process is a threat for both DNA and chromatin integrity. This becomes particularly relevant in cancer cells, where activated oncogenes induce replication-stress, including unscheduled initiation, fork stalling and collapse and, ultimately, genomic instability. Studies addressing the relationship between (epi)genome integrity and disease have been hampered by our poor knowledge of the mechanisms regulating where and when eukaryotic replication initiates. Recently developed genome-scale methods for the analysis of DNA replication in mammals will contribute to the identification of missing links between replication, chromatin regulation and genome stability in normal and cancer cells.

  19. Poxvirus DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Poxviruses are large, enveloped viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm and encode proteins for DNA replication and gene expression. Hairpin ends link the two strands of the linear, double-stranded DNA genome. Viral proteins involved in DNA synthesis include a 117-kDa polymerase, a helicase–primase, a uracil DNA glycosylase, a processivity factor, a single-stranded DNA-binding protein, a protein kinase, and a DNA ligase. A viral FEN1 family protein participates in double-strand break repair. The DNA is replicated as long concatemers that are resolved by a viral Holliday junction endonuclease. PMID:23838441

  20. Human PIF1 helicase supports DNA replication and cell growth under oncogenic-stress

    PubMed Central

    Gagou, Mary E.; Ganesh, Anil; Phear, Geraldine; Robinson, Darren; Petermann, Eva; Cox, Angela; Meuth, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Unwinding duplex DNA is a critical processing step during replication, repair and transcription. Pif1 are highly conserved non-processive 5′->3′ DNA helicases with well-established roles in maintenance of yeast genome stability. However, the function of the sole member of Pif1 family in humans remains unclear. Human PIF1 is essential for tumour cell viability, particularly during replication stress, but is dispensable in non-cancerous cells and Pif1 deficient mice. Here we report that suppression of PIF1 function slows replication fork rates and increases arrested forks during normal cycling conditions. Importantly, PIF1-dependent replication impediments impair S-phase progression and reduce proliferation rates of RAS oncogene-transformed fibroblasts, where replication fork slowing is exacerbated, but not parental, non-cancerous cells. Disrupted fork movement upon PIF1-depletion does not enhance double-stranded break formation or DNA damage responses but affects resumption of DNA synthesis after prolonged replication inhibitor exposure, accompanied by diminished new origin firing and mainly S-phase entry. Taken together, we characterised a functional role for human PIF1 in DNA replication that becomes important for cell growth under oncogenic stress. Given that oncogenes induce high levels of replication stress during the early stages of tumorigenesis, this function of PIF1 could become critical during cancer development. PMID:25359767

  1. Inhibition of DNA replication and repair by anthralin or danthron in cultured human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.M.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1982-07-01

    The comparative effects of the tumor promoter anthralin and its analog, danthron, on semiconservative DNA replication and DNA repair synthesis were studied in cultured human cells. Bromodeoxyuridine was used as density label together with /sup 3/H-thymidine to distinguish replication from repair synthesis in isopycnic CsCl gradients. Anthralin at 1.1 microgram inhibited replication in T98G cells by 50%. In cells treated with 0.4 or 1.3 microM anthralin and additive effect was observed on the inhibition of replication by ultraviolet light (254 nm). In cells irradiated with 20 J/m2, 2.3 microM anthralin was required to inhibit repair synthesis by 50%. Thus there was no selective inhibitory effect of anthralin on repair synthesis. Danthron exhibited no detectable effect on either semiconservative replication or repair synthesis at concentrations below about 5.0 microM. Neither compound stimulated repair synthesis in the absence of ultraviolet irradiation. Thus, anthralin and danthron do not appear to react with DNA to form adducts that are subject to excision repair. Although both compounds appear to intercalate into supercoiled DNA in vitro to a limited extent, the degree of unwinding introduced by the respective drugs does not correlate with their relative effects on DNA synthesis in vivo. Therefore the inhibitory effect of anthralin on DNA replication and repair synthesis in T98G cells does not appear to result from the direct interaction of the drug with DNA.

  2. DNA replication in nurse cell polytene chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster otu mutants.

    PubMed

    Koryakov, Dmitry E; Zhimulev, Igor F

    2015-03-01

    Drosophila cell lines are used extensively to study replication timing, yet data about DNA replication in larval and adult tissues are extremely limited. To address this gap, we traced DNA replication in polytene chromosomes from nurse cells of Drosophila melanogaster otu mutants using bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Importantly, nurse cells are of female germline origin, unlike the classical larval salivary glands, that are somatic. In contrast to salivary gland polytene chromosomes, where replication begins simultaneously across all puffs and interbands, replication in nurse cells is first observed at several specific chromosomal regions. For instance, in the chromosome 2L, these include the regions 31B-E and 37E and proximal parts of 34B and 35B, with the rest of the decondensed chromosomal regions joining replication process a little later. We observed that replication timing of pericentric heterochromatin in nurse cells was shifted from late S phase to early and mid stages. Curiously, chromosome 4 may represent a special domain of the genome, as it replicates on its own schedule which is uncoupled from the rest of the chromosomes. Finally, we report that SUUR protein, an established marker of late replication in salivary gland polytene chromosomes, does not always colocalize with late-replicating regions in nurse cells.

  3. Abnormal regulation of DNA replication and increased lethality in ataxia telangiectasia cells exposed to carcinogenic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Jaspers, N.G.; de Wit, J.; Regulski, M.R.; Bootsma, D.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of different carcinogenic agents on the rate of semiconservative DNA replication in normal and ataxia telangiectasis (AT) cells was investigated. The rate of DNA synthesis in all AT cell strains tested was depressed to a significantly lesser extent than in normal cells after exposure to X-rays under oxia or hypoxia or to bleomycin, agents to which AT cells are hypersensitive. In contrast, inhibition of DNA replication in normal human and AT cells was similar after treatment with some DNA-methylating agents or mitomycin C. Colony-forming ability of AT cells treated with these agents was not different from normal cells. Treatment with 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide elicited a variable response in both AT and normal cell strains. In some strains, including those shown to be hypersensitive to the drug by other workers, the inhibition of DNA synthesis was more pronounced than in other cell strains, but no significant difference between AT and normal cells could be detected. The rejoining of DNA strand breaks induced by X-rays, measured by DNA elution techniques, occurred within l2 hr after treatment and could not be correlated with the difference in DNA synthesis inhibition in AT and normal cells. After low doses of X-rays, AT cells rejoined single-strand breaks slightly more slowly than did normal cells. The rate of DNA replication in X-irradiation AT and normal cells was not affected by nicotinamide, an inhibitor of poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) synthesis. These data indicate that the diminished inhibition of DNA replication in carcinogen-treated AT cells (a) is a general characteristic of all AT cell strains, (b) correlates with AT cellular hypersensitivity, (c) is not directly caused by the bulk of the DNA strand breaks produced by carcinogenic agents, and (d) is not based on differences in the induction of poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) synthesis between X-irradiated AT and normal cells.

  4. Sine oculis homeobox homolog 1 promotes DNA replication and cell proliferation in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Zhang, Xiao-Xue; Xi, Bi-Xin; Wan, Dong-Yi; Li, Li; Zhou, Jin; Wang, Wei; Ma, Ding; Wang, Hui; Gao, Qing-Lei

    2014-09-01

    Malignant proliferation is the fundamental trait of tumor cells. The initiation of DNA replication represents a key process for cell proliferation, and has a marked impact on tumorigenesis and progression. Here we report that Sine oculis homeobox homolog 1 (SIX1) functions as a master regulator in DNA replication of cervical cancer cells. The expression of SIX1 was induced by the E7 oncoprotein of human papillomaviruses in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer. The increase of SIX1 expression resulted in the upregulation of multiple genes related to the initiation of DNA replication, including the genes coding for the proteins in minichromosome maintenance complex (MCM2, MCM3, MCM6), DNA polymerase α-primase complex (POLA1, PRIM1, PRIM2), clamp loader (RFC3, RFC4, RFC5), DNA polymerase δ complex (POLD3) and DNA polymerase ε complex (POLE2). In line with this, the increase of SIX1 expression enhanced DNA synthesis, accelerated G1 to S phase progression, and promoted the proliferation of cervical cancer cells and the growth of cervical cancer. Consistently, knockdown of SIX1 could hamper DNA synthesis, slow down G1 to S phase progression, and suppress tumor cell proliferation and tumor growth. Importantly, SIX1 could more efficiently promote anchorage-independent cell growth. These results suggest that the increase of SIX1 expression could promote tumorigenesis, progression and invasive growth of cervical cancer by promoting DNA replication, and that targeting SIX1 may have significant therapeutic value in cervical cancer treatment.

  5. Differentially active origins of DNA replication in tumor versus normal cells.

    PubMed

    Di Paola, Domenic; Price, Gerald B; Zannis-Hadjopoulos, Maria

    2006-05-15

    Previously, a degenerate 36 bp human consensus sequence was identified as a determinant of autonomous replication in eukaryotic cells. Random mutagenesis analyses further identified an internal 20 bp of the 36 bp consensus sequence as sufficient for acting as a core origin element. Here, we have located six versions of the 20 bp consensus sequence (20mer) on human chromosome 19q13 over a region spanning approximately 211 kb and tested them for ectopic and in situ replication activity by transient episomal replication assays and nascent DNA strand abundance analyses, respectively. The six versions of the 20mer alone were capable of supporting autonomous replication of their respective plasmids, unlike random genomic sequence of the same length. Furthermore, comparative analyses of the endogenous replication activity of these 20mers at their respective chromosomal sites, in five tumor/transformed and two normal cell lines, done by in situ chromosomal DNA replication assays, involving preparation of nascent DNA by the lambda exonuclease method and quantification by real-time PCR, showed that these sites coincided with chromosomal origins of DNA replication in all cell lines. Moreover, a 2- to 3-fold higher origin activity in the tumor/transformed cells by comparison to the normal cells was observed, suggesting a higher activation of these origins in tumor/transformed cell lines.

  6. Cell cycle progression requires the CDC-48UFD-1/NPL-4 complex for efficient DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Mouysset, Julien; Deichsel, Alexandra; Moser, Sandra; Hoege, Carsten; Hyman, Anthony A; Gartner, Anton; Hoppe, Thorsten

    2008-09-02

    Since cdc48 mutants were isolated by the first genetic screens for cell division cycle (cdc) mutants in yeast, the requirement of the chaperone-like ATPase Cdc48/p97 during cell division has remained unclear. Here, we discover an unanticipated function for Caenorhabditis elegans CDC-48 in DNA replication linked to cell cycle control. Our analysis of the CDC-48(UFD-1/NPL-4) complex identified a general role in S phase progression of mitotic cells essential for embryonic cell division and germline development of adult worms. These developmental defects result from activation of the DNA replication checkpoint caused by replication stress. Similar to loss of replication licensing factors, DNA content is strongly reduced in worms depleted for CDC-48, UFD-1, and NPL-4. In addition, these worms show decreased DNA synthesis and hypersensitivity toward replication blocking agents. Our findings identified a role for CDC-48(UFD-1/NPL-4) in DNA replication, which is important for cell cycle progression and genome stability.

  7. Chromatin and DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    MacAlpine, David M.; Almouzni, Geneviève

    2013-01-01

    The size of a eukaryotic genome presents a unique challenge to the cell: package and organize the DNA to fit within the confines of the nucleus while at the same time ensuring sufficient dynamics to allow access to specific sequences and features such as genes and regulatory elements. This is achieved via the dynamic nucleoprotein organization of eukaryotic DNA into chromatin. The basic unit of chromatin, the nucleosome, comprises a core particle with 147 bp of DNA wrapped 1.7 times around an octamer of histones. The nucleosome is a highly versatile and modular structure, both in its composition, with the existence of various histone variants, and through the addition of a series of posttranslational modifications on the histones. This versatility allows for both short-term regulatory responses to external signaling, as well as the long-term and multigenerational definition of large functional chromosomal domains within the nucleus, such as the centromere. Chromatin organization and its dynamics participate in essentially all DNA-templated processes, including transcription, replication, recombination, and repair. Here we will focus mainly on nucleosomal organization and describe the pathways and mechanisms that contribute to assembly of this organization and the role of chromatin in regulating the DNA replication program. PMID:23751185

  8. Chromatin and DNA replication.

    PubMed

    MacAlpine, David M; Almouzni, Geneviève

    2013-08-01

    The size of a eukaryotic genome presents a unique challenge to the cell: package and organize the DNA to fit within the confines of the nucleus while at the same time ensuring sufficient dynamics to allow access to specific sequences and features such as genes and regulatory elements. This is achieved via the dynamic nucleoprotein organization of eukaryotic DNA into chromatin. The basic unit of chromatin, the nucleosome, comprises a core particle with 147 bp of DNA wrapped 1.7 times around an octamer of histones. The nucleosome is a highly versatile and modular structure, both in its composition, with the existence of various histone variants, and through the addition of a series of posttranslational modifications on the histones. This versatility allows for both short-term regulatory responses to external signaling, as well as the long-term and multigenerational definition of large functional chromosomal domains within the nucleus, such as the centromere. Chromatin organization and its dynamics participate in essentially all DNA-templated processes, including transcription, replication, recombination, and repair. Here we will focus mainly on nucleosomal organization and describe the pathways and mechanisms that contribute to assembly of this organization and the role of chromatin in regulating the DNA replication program.

  9. Chromatin dynamics during DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Ziv, Raz; Voichek, Yoav; Barkai, Naama

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin is composed of DNA and histones, which provide a unified platform for regulating DNA-related processes, mostly through their post-translational modification. During DNA replication, histone arrangement is perturbed, first to allow progression of DNA polymerase and then during repackaging of the replicated DNA. To study how DNA replication influences the pattern of histone modification, we followed the cell-cycle dynamics of 10 histone marks in budding yeast. We find that histones deposited on newly replicated DNA are modified at different rates: While some marks appear immediately upon replication (e.g., H4K16ac, H3K4me1), others increase with transcription-dependent delays (e.g., H3K4me3, H3K36me3). Notably, H3K9ac was deposited as a wave preceding the replication fork by ∼5–6 kb. This replication-guided H3K9ac was fully dependent on the acetyltransferase Rtt109, while expression-guided H3K9ac was deposited by Gcn5. Further, topoisomerase depletion intensified H3K9ac in front of the replication fork and in sites where RNA polymerase II was trapped, suggesting supercoiling stresses trigger H3K9 acetylation. Our results assign complementary roles for DNA replication and gene expression in defining the pattern of histone modification. PMID:27225843

  10. Modeling DNA Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Recommends the use of a model of DNA made out of Velcro to help students visualize the steps of DNA replication. Includes a materials list, construction directions, and details of the demonstration using the model parts. (DDR)

  11. Modeling DNA Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Recommends the use of a model of DNA made out of Velcro to help students visualize the steps of DNA replication. Includes a materials list, construction directions, and details of the demonstration using the model parts. (DDR)

  12. MMSET is dynamically regulated during cell-cycle progression and promotes normal DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Debra L.; Zhang, Haoxing; Ham, Hyoungjun; Pei, Huadong; Lee, SeungBaek; Kim, JungJin; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Lou, Zhenkun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The timely and precise duplication of cellular DNA is essential for maintaining genome integrity and is thus tightly-regulated. During mitosis and G1, the Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) binds to future replication origins, coordinating with multiple factors to load the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex onto future replication origins as part of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC). The pre-RC machinery, in turn, remains inactive until the subsequent S phase when it is required for replication fork formation, thereby initiating DNA replication. Multiple myeloma SET domain-containing protein (MMSET, a.k.a. WHSC1, NSD2) is a histone methyltransferase that is frequently overexpressed in aggressive cancers and is essential for normal human development. Several studies have suggested a role for MMSET in cell-cycle regulation; however, whether MMSET is itself regulated during cell-cycle progression has not been examined. In this study, we report that MMSET is degraded during S phase in a cullin-ring ligase 4-Cdt2 (CRL4Cdt2) and proteasome-dependent manner. Notably, we also report defects in DNA replication and a decreased association of pre-RC factors with chromatin in MMSET-depleted cells. Taken together, our results suggest a dynamic regulation of MMSET levels throughout the cell cycle, and further characterize the role of MMSET in DNA replication and cell-cycle progression. PMID:26771714

  13. MMSET is dynamically regulated during cell-cycle progression and promotes normal DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Evans, Debra L; Zhang, Haoxing; Ham, Hyoungjun; Pei, Huadong; Lee, SeungBaek; Kim, JungJin; Billadeau, Daniel D; Lou, Zhenkun

    2016-01-01

    The timely and precise duplication of cellular DNA is essential for maintaining genome integrity and is thus tightly-regulated. During mitosis and G1, the Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) binds to future replication origins, coordinating with multiple factors to load the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex onto future replication origins as part of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC). The pre-RC machinery, in turn, remains inactive until the subsequent S phase when it is required for replication fork formation, thereby initiating DNA replication. Multiple myeloma SET domain-containing protein (MMSET, a.k.a. WHSC1, NSD2) is a histone methyltransferase that is frequently overexpressed in aggressive cancers and is essential for normal human development. Several studies have suggested a role for MMSET in cell-cycle regulation; however, whether MMSET is itself regulated during cell-cycle progression has not been examined. In this study, we report that MMSET is degraded during S phase in a cullin-ring ligase 4-Cdt2 (CRL4(Cdt2)) and proteasome-dependent manner. Notably, we also report defects in DNA replication and a decreased association of pre-RC factors with chromatin in MMSET-depleted cells. Taken together, our results suggest a dynamic regulation of MMSET levels throughout the cell cycle, and further characterize the role of MMSET in DNA replication and cell-cycle progression.

  14. Cryptosporidium parvum DNA replication in cell-free culture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Sheoran, A S; Widmer, G

    2009-10-01

    The lack of robust methods for culturing Cryptosporidium parasites remains a major challenge and is hampering efforts to screen for anti-cryptosporidial drugs. In existing culture methods, monolayers of mammalian epithelial cells are inoculated with oocysts. The system supports an initial phase of asexual proliferation of the parasite. For reasons that are not clear, development rapidly declines within 2-3 days. The unexpected report of Cryptosporidium parvum culture in the absence of host cells, and the failure of others to reproduce the method, prompted us to apply quantitative PCR to measure changes in C. parvum DNA levels in cell-free cultures, and parasite-specific antibodies to identify different life cycle stages. Based on this approach, which has not been applied previously to analyze C. parvum growth in cell-free culture, we found that the concentration of C. parvum DNA increased by about 5-fold over 5 days of culture. Immuno-labeling of cultured organisms revealed morphologically distinct stages, only some of which reacted with Cryptosporidium-specific monoclonal antibodies. These observations are indicative of a modest proliferation of C. parvum in cell-free culture.

  15. DNA Replication Fading As Proliferating Cells Advance in Their Commitment to Terminal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Estefanía, Monturus Ma.; Ganier, Olivier; Hernández, Pablo; Schvartzman, Jorge B.; Mechali, Marcel; Krimer, Dora B.

    2012-01-01

    Terminal differentiation is the process by which cycling cells stop proliferating to start new specific functions. It involves dramatic changes in chromatin organization as well as gene expression. In the present report we used cell flow cytometry and genome wide DNA combing to investigate DNA replication during murine erythroleukemia-induced terminal cell differentiation. The results obtained indicated that the rate of replication fork movement slows down and the inter-origin distance becomes shorter during the precommitment and commitment periods before cells stop proliferating and accumulate in G1. We propose this is a general feature caused by the progressive heterochromatinization that characterizes terminal cell differentiation. PMID:22359734

  16. Bromodomain Protein Brd4 Plays a Key Role in Merkel Cell Polyomavirus DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Li, Jing; Schowalter, Rachel M.; Jiao, Jing; Buck, Christopher B.; You, Jianxin

    2012-01-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV or MCPyV) is the first human polyomavirus to be definitively linked to cancer. The mechanisms of MCV-induced oncogenesis and much of MCV biology are largely unexplored. In this study, we demonstrate that bromodomain protein 4 (Brd4) interacts with MCV large T antigen (LT) and plays a critical role in viral DNA replication. Brd4 knockdown inhibits MCV replication, which can be rescued by recombinant Brd4. Brd4 colocalizes with the MCV LT/replication origin complex in the nucleus and recruits replication factor C (RFC) to the viral replication sites. A dominant negative inhibitor of the Brd4-MCV LT interaction can dissociate Brd4 and RFC from the viral replication complex and abrogate MCV replication. Furthermore, obstructing the physiologic interaction between Brd4 and host chromatin with the chemical compound JQ1(+) leads to enhanced MCV DNA replication, demonstrating that the role of Brd4 in MCV replication is distinct from its role in chromatin-associated transcriptional regulation. Our findings demonstrate mechanistic details of the MCV replication machinery; providing novel insight to elucidate the life cycle of this newly discovered oncogenic DNA virus. PMID:23144621

  17. Fowlpox virus host range restriction: gene expression, DNA replication, and morphogenesis in nonpermissive mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Somogyi, P; Frazier, J; Skinner, M A

    1993-11-01

    Fowlpox virus (FPV), type species of the Avipoxvirus genus, causes a slow-spreading pox disease of chickens. Following infection of mammalian cells there is no evidence of productive replication of FPV although cytopathic effects are induced and FPV recombinants have been shown to express foreign genes from vaccinia virus early/late promoters. Here we report results of a study to investigate the expression of FPV genes, the replication of FPV genomic DNA, and any ultrastructural changes in mammalian cells infected by wild-type virus, undertaken as a first step in elucidating the nature of the block (or blocks) to productive replication of FPV in mammalian cells. Early and late gene expression as well as genomic DNA replication was observed in fibroblast-like cell lines of monkey and human origin. Furthermore, viral morphogenesis was observed in monkey cells, with the production mainly of immature particles though smaller numbers of apparently mature virus particles were observed.

  18. SOS-independent coupling between DNA replication and cell division in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Jaffé, A; D'Ari, R; Norris, V

    1986-01-01

    Inhibition of DNA synthesis in Escherichia coli mutants in which the SOS-dependent division inhibitors SfiA and SfiC were unable to operate led to a partial arrest of cell division. This SOS-independent mechanism coupling DNA replication and cell division was characterized with respect to residual division, particle number, and DNA content. Whether DNA replication was blocked in the initiation or the elongation step, numerous normal-sized anucleate cells were produced (not minicells or filaments). Their production was used to evaluate the efficiency of this coupling mechanism, which seems to involve the cell division protein FtsZ (SulB), also known to be the target of the division inhibitors SfiA and SfiC. In the absence of DNA synthesis, the efficiency of coupling was modulated by the cyclic-AMP-cyclic-AMP receptor protein complex, which was required for anucleate cell production. Images PMID:3001034

  19. Cell cycle expression of two replicative DNA polymerases alpha and delta from Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed Central

    Park, H; Francesconi, S; Wang, T S

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the expression of two Schizosaccharomyces pombe replicative DNA polymerases alpha and delta during the cell cycle. The pol alpha+ and pol delta+ genes encoding DNA polymerases alpha and delta were isolated from S. pombe. Both pol alpha+ and pol delta+ genes are single copy genes in haploid cells and are essential for cell viability. In contrast to Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologs, the steady-state transcripts of both S. pombe pol alpha+ and pol delta+ genes were present throughout the cell cycle. Sequence analysis of the pol alpha+ and pol delta+ genes did not reveal the Mlu I motifs in their upstream sequences that are involved in cell cycle-dependent transcription of S. cerevisiae DNA synthesis genes as well as the S. pombe cdc22+ gene at the G1/S boundary. However, five near-match Mlu I motifs were found in the upstream region of the pol alpha+ gene. S. pombe DNA polymerases alpha and delta proteins were also expressed constantly throughout the cell cycle. In addition, the enzymatic activity of the S. pombe DNA polymerase alpha measured by in vitro assay was detected at all stages of the cell cycle. Thus, these S. pombe replicative DNA polymerases, like that of S. pombe cdc17+ gene, are expressed throughout the cell cycle at the transcriptional and protein level. These results indicate that S. pombe has at least two regulatory modes for the expression of genes involved in DNA replication and DNA precursor synthesis. Images PMID:8443413

  20. p53-Mediated Cellular Response to DNA Damage in Cells with Replicative Hepatitis B Virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puisieux, Alain; Ji, Jingwei; Guillot, Celine; Legros, Yann; Soussi, Thierry; Isselbacher, Kurt; Ozturk, Mehmet

    1995-02-01

    Wild-type p53 acts as a tumor suppressor gene by protecting cells from deleterious effects of genotoxic agents through the induction of a G_1/S arrest or apoptosis as a response to DNA damage. Transforming proteins of several oncogenic DNA viruses inactivate tumor suppressor activity of p53 by blocking this cellular response. To test whether hepatitis B virus displays a similar effect, we studied the p53-mediated cellular response to DNA damage in 2215 hepatoma cells with replicative hepatitis B virus. We demonstrate that hepatitis B virus replication does not interfere with known cellular functions of p53 protein.

  1. A Role of hIPI3 in DNA Replication Licensing in Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yining; Amin, Aftab; Qin, Yan; Wang, Ziyi; Jiang, Huadong; Liang, Lu; Shi, Linjing; Liang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    The yeast Ipi3p is required for DNA replication and cell viability in Sacharomyces cerevisiae. It is an essential component of the Rix1 complex (Rix1p/Ipi2p-Ipi1p-Ipi3p) that is required for the processing of 35S pre-rRNA in pre-60S ribosomal particles and for the initiation of DNA replication. The human IPI3 homolog is WDR18 (WD repeat domain 18), which shares significant homology with yIpi3p. Here we report that knockdown of hIPI3 resulted in substantial defects in the chromatin association of the MCM complex, DNA replication, cell cycle progression and cell proliferation. Importantly, hIPI3 silencing did not result in a reduction of the protein level of hCDC6, hMCM7, or the ectopically expressed GFP protein, indicating that protein synthesis was not defective in the same time frame of the DNA replication and cell cycle defects. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of hIPI3 fluctuate in the cell cycle, with the highest levels from M phase to early G1 phase, similar to other pre-replicative (pre-RC) proteins. Moreover, hIPI3 interacts with other replication-initiation proteins, co-localizes with hMCM7 in the nucleus, and is important for the nuclear localization of hMCM7. We also found that hIPI3 preferentially binds to the origins of DNA replication including those at the c-Myc, Lamin-B2 and β-Globin loci. These results indicate that hIPI3 is involved in human DNA replication licensing independent of its role in ribosome biogenesis.

  2. A Role of hIPI3 in DNA Replication Licensing in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yining; Amin, Aftab; Qin, Yan; Wang, Ziyi; Jiang, Huadong; Liang, Lu; Shi, Linjing; Liang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    The yeast Ipi3p is required for DNA replication and cell viability in Sacharomyces cerevisiae. It is an essential component of the Rix1 complex (Rix1p/Ipi2p-Ipi1p-Ipi3p) that is required for the processing of 35S pre-rRNA in pre-60S ribosomal particles and for the initiation of DNA replication. The human IPI3 homolog is WDR18 (WD repeat domain 18), which shares significant homology with yIpi3p. Here we report that knockdown of hIPI3 resulted in substantial defects in the chromatin association of the MCM complex, DNA replication, cell cycle progression and cell proliferation. Importantly, hIPI3 silencing did not result in a reduction of the protein level of hCDC6, hMCM7, or the ectopically expressed GFP protein, indicating that protein synthesis was not defective in the same time frame of the DNA replication and cell cycle defects. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of hIPI3 fluctuate in the cell cycle, with the highest levels from M phase to early G1 phase, similar to other pre-replicative (pre-RC) proteins. Moreover, hIPI3 interacts with other replication-initiation proteins, co-localizes with hMCM7 in the nucleus, and is important for the nuclear localization of hMCM7. We also found that hIPI3 preferentially binds to the origins of DNA replication including those at the c-Myc, Lamin-B2 and β-Globin loci. These results indicate that hIPI3 is involved in human DNA replication licensing independent of its role in ribosome biogenesis. PMID:27057756

  3. Eukaryotic DNA Replication Fork.

    PubMed

    Burgers, Peter M J; Kunkel, Thomas A

    2017-06-20

    This review focuses on the biogenesis and composition of the eukaryotic DNA replication fork, with an emphasis on the enzymes that synthesize DNA and repair discontinuities on the lagging strand of the replication fork. Physical and genetic methodologies aimed at understanding these processes are discussed. The preponderance of evidence supports a model in which DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε) carries out the bulk of leading strand DNA synthesis at an undisturbed replication fork. DNA polymerases α and δ carry out the initiation of Okazaki fragment synthesis and its elongation and maturation, respectively. This review also discusses alternative proposals, including cellular processes during which alternative forks may be utilized, and new biochemical studies with purified proteins that are aimed at reconstituting leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis separately and as an integrated replication fork.

  4. Analysis of spatial correlations between patterns of DNA damage response and DNA replication in nuclei of cells subjected to replication stress or oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Bernas, Tytus; Berniak, Krzysztof; Rybak, Paulina; Zarębski, Mirosław; Zhao, Hong; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Dobrucki, Jerzy W

    2013-10-01

    Sites of DNA replication (EdU incorporation) and DNA damage signaling (γH2AX) induced by camptothecin (Cpt) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) form characteristic patterns of foci in cell nuclei. The overlap between these patterns is a function of the number of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) formed in replication sites. The goal of this study was to optimize a method of quantitative assessment of a degree of correlation between these two patterns. Such a correlation can be used to estimate a probability of inducing damage in sections of replicating DNA. The damage and replication foci are imaged in 3D with confocal microscopy and their respective positions within nuclei are determined with adaptive image segmentation. Using correlation functions spatial proximity of the resultant point patterns is quantified over the range of distances in cells in early-, mid- and late S-phase. As the numbers (and nuclear densities) of γH2AX and replication foci differ significantly in the subsequent substages of S phase, the detected association values were corrected for the expected random overlap between both classes of foci. Thus, the probability of their nonrandom association was estimated. Moreover, self association (clustering) of DNA replication sites in different stages of S-phase of the cell cycle was detected and accounted for. While the analysis revealed a strong correlation between the γH2AX foci and the sites of DNA replication in cells treated with Cpt, only a low correlation was apparent in cells exposed to H2O2. © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  5. DNA replication in protein extracts from human cells requires ORC and Mcm proteins.

    PubMed

    Baltin, Jens; Leist, Sandra; Odronitz, Florian; Wollscheid, Hans-Peter; Baack, Martina; Kapitza, Thomas; Schaarschmidt, Daniel; Knippers, Rolf

    2006-05-05

    We used protein extracts from proliferating human HeLa cells to support plasmid DNA replication in vitro. An extract with soluble nuclear proteins contains the major replicative chain elongation functions, whereas a high salt extract from isolated nuclei contains the proteins for initiation. Among the initiator proteins active in vitro are the origin recognition complex (ORC) and Mcm proteins. Recombinant Orc1 protein stimulates in vitro replication presumably in place of endogenous Orc1 that is known to be present in suboptimal amounts in HeLa cell nuclei. Partially purified endogenous ORC, but not recombinant ORC, is able to rescue immunodepleted nuclear extracts. Plasmid replication in the in vitro replication system is slow and of limited efficiency but robust enough to serve as a basis to investigate the formation of functional pre-replication complexes under biochemically defined conditions.

  6. Repair and replication of DNA in hereditary (bilateral) retinoblastoma cells after X-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Cleaver, J.E.; Char, D.; Charles, W.C.; Rand, N.

    1982-04-01

    Fibroblasts from patients with hereditary retinoblastoma reportedly exhibit increased sensitivity to killing by X-rays. Although some human syndromes with similar or greater hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents (e.g., X-rays, ultraviolet light, and chemical carcinogens), such as xeroderma pigmentosum, are deficient in DNA repair, most do not have such clearly demonstrable defects in repair. Retinoblastoma cells appear to be normal in repairing single-strand breaks and performing repair replication after X-irradiation and also in synthesizing poly(adenosine diphosphoribose). Semiconservative DNA replication in these cells, however, is slightly more resistant than normal after X-irradiation, suggesting that continued replication of damaged parental DNA could contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. This effect is small, however, and may be a consequence rather than a cause of the fundamental enzymatic abnormality in retinoblastoma that causes the tumorigenesis.

  7. A unique epigenetic signature is associated with active DNA replication loci in human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Su, Trent; Ferrari, Roberto; Li, Jing-Yu; Kurdistani, Siavash K

    2014-02-01

    The cellular epigenetic landscape changes as pluripotent stem cells differentiate to somatic cells or when differentiated cells transform to a cancerous state. These epigenetic changes are commonly correlated with differences in gene expression. Whether active DNA replication is also associated with distinct chromatin environments in these developmentally and phenotypically diverse cell types has not been known. Here, we used BrdU-seq to map active DNA replication loci in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), normal primary fibroblasts and a cancer cell line, and correlated these maps to the epigenome. In all cell lines, the majority of BrdU peaks were enriched in euchromatin and at DNA repetitive elements, especially at microsatellite repeats, and coincided with previously determined replication origins. The most prominent BrdU peaks were shared between all cells but a sizable fraction of the peaks were specific to each cell type and associated with cell type-specific genes. Surprisingly, the BrdU peaks that were common to all cell lines were associated with H3K18ac, H3K56ac, and H4K20me1 histone marks only in hESCs but not in normal fibroblasts or cancer cells. Depletion of the histone acetyltransferases for H3K18 and H3K56 dramatically decreased the number and intensity of BrdU peaks in hESCs. Our data reveal a unique epigenetic signature that distinguishes active replication loci in hESCs from normal somatic or malignant cells.

  8. Replication of adenovirus type 4 DNA by a purified fraction from infected cells.

    PubMed Central

    Temperley, S M; Hay, R T

    1991-01-01

    An extract from Adenovirus type 4 infected HeLa cells was fractionated by ion-exchange and DNA affinity chromatography. One fraction, which bound tightly to single stranded DNA, contained predominantly a protein of apparent molecular weight 65,000 and three less abundant proteins. Immunological cross-reactivity with adenovirus type 2 proteins confirmed the presence of preterminal protein and indicated that the abundant species was the virus coded DNA binding protein. This fraction contained an aphidicolin resistant DNA polymerase activity and in the presence of a linearised plasmid containing the adenovirus type 4 origin of DNA replication efficient transfer of dCMP onto preterminal protein, indicative of initiation, was observed. Furthermore, addition of all four deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates and an ATP regenerating system resulted in the elongation of initiated molecules to generate plasmid molecules covalently attached to preterminal protein. Adenovirus type 4 DNA binding protein was extensively purified from crude adenovirus-4 infected HeLa extract by immunoaffinity chromatography using a monoclonal antibody raised against adenovirus type 2 DNA binding protein. A low level of initiation of DNA replication was detected in the fraction depleted of DNA binding protein but activity was restored by addition of purified DNA binding protein. DNA binding protein therefore plays an important role in the initiation of Ad4 DNA replication. Images PMID:1829516

  9. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA): a key factor in DNA replication and cell cycle regulation.

    PubMed

    Strzalka, Wojciech; Ziemienowicz, Alicja

    2011-05-01

    PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) has been found in the nuclei of yeast, plant and animal cells that undergo cell division, suggesting a function in cell cycle regulation and/or DNA replication. It subsequently became clear that PCNA also played a role in other processes involving the cell genome. This review discusses eukaryotic PCNA, with an emphasis on plant PCNA, in terms of the protein structure and its biochemical properties as well as gene structure, organization, expression and function. PCNA exerts a tripartite function by operating as (1) a sliding clamp during DNA synthesis, (2) a polymerase switch factor and (3) a recruitment factor. Most of its functions are mediated by its interactions with various proteins involved in DNA synthesis, repair and recombination as well as in regulation of the cell cycle and chromatid cohesion. Moreover, post-translational modifications of PCNA play a key role in regulation of its functions. Finally, a phylogenetic comparison of PCNA genes suggests that the multi-functionality observed in most species is a product of evolution. Most plant PCNAs exhibit features similar to those found for PCNAs of other eukaryotes. Similarities include: (1) a trimeric ring structure of the PCNA sliding clamp, (2) the involvement of PCNA in DNA replication and repair, (3) the ability to stimulate the activity of DNA polymerase δ and (4) the ability to interact with p21, a regulator of the cell cycle. However, many plant genomes seem to contain the second, probably functional, copy of the PCNA gene, in contrast to PCNA pseudogenes that are found in mammalian genomes.

  10. T-antigen-independent replication of polyomavirus DNA in murine embryonal carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dandolo, L.; Aghion, J.; Blangy, D.

    1984-02-01

    Expression of wild-type polyomavirus (Py) is restricted in murine embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells. The block appears to be located at the level of early transcription. Since no T antigen is produced, the authors investigated the fate of viral DNA upon infection of these cells; they showed that wild-type Py DNA replicates efficiently in all EC cells, probably via a T-antigen-independent mechanism. Furthermore, they studied, at permissive and restrictive temperatures, the replication of tsa (thermosensitive for T antigen) viral DNA of an in vitro-constructed deletion mutant lacking part of the early region coding sequences and of a double mutant carrying both the tsa mutation and the PyEC F9 mutation (allowing expression of early and late viral functions in EC cells). The results imply that replication of wild-type A2 strain Py DNA can occur in EC cells in the absence of a functional T antigen. However, this protein clearly enhances viral DNA replication and is absolutely required in differentiated cells.

  11. Host factor PRPF31 is involved in cccDNA production in HBV-replicating cells.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Wataru; Ogura, Naoki; Watashi, Koichi; Wakita, Takaji

    2017-01-22

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) plays a central role in chronic HBV infection and replication, and is an important factor for HBV surface antigen loss indicating the endpoint of HBV treatment. However, there is a known problem that current anti-HBV drugs, including interferons and nucleos(t)ide analogues, reduce HBV replication but have a little or no effect on reducing cccDNA. Therefore, the development of new therapeutic agents is necessary to eradicate cccDNA. In this study, we identified pre-mRNA processing factor 31 (PRPF31) by siRNA screening as a factor associated with cccDNA. PRPF31 knockdown by siRNA decreased cccDNA formation without serious cytotoxicity. In rescue experiments, expression of siRNA-resistant PRPF31 recovered cccDNA formation. PRPF31 knockdown did not affect HBV core protein and HBV core DNA levels in HBV-replicating cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and immunoprecipitation assays revealed an association between PRPF31 and cccDNA. Furthermore, co-overexpression of PRPF31 and HBx enhanced cccDNA formation in HepAD38 cells. Taken together, the present findings suggest that the interaction between PRPF31 and HBx may be a novel target for anti-HBV treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chromium reduces the in vitro activity and fidelity of DNA replication mediated by the human cell DNA synthesome

    SciTech Connect

    Dai Heqiao; Liu Jianying; Malkas, Linda H.; Catalano, Jennifer; Alagharu, Srilakshmi

    2009-04-15

    Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) is known to be a carcinogenic metal ion, with a complicated mechanism of action. It can be found within our environment in soil and water contaminated by manufacturing processes. Cr(VI) ion is readily taken up by cells, and is recognized to be both genotoxic and cytotoxic; following its reduction to the stable trivalent form of the ion, chromium(Cr(III)), within cells. This form of the ion is known to impede the activity of cellular DNA polymerase and polymerase-mediated DNA replication. Here, we report the effects of chromium on the activity and fidelity of the DNA replication process mediated by the human cell DNA synthesome. The DNA synthesome is a functional multiprotein complex that is fully competent to carry-out each phase of the DNA replication process. The IC{sub 50} of Cr(III) toward the activity of DNA synthesome-associated DNA polymerases {alpha}, {delta} and {epsilon} is 15, 45 and 125 {mu}M, respectively. Cr(III) inhibits synthesome-mediated DNA synthesis (IC{sub 50} = 88 {mu}M), and significantly reduces the fidelity of synthesome-mediated DNA replication. The mutation frequency induced by the different concentrations of Cr(III) ion used in our assays ranges from 2-13 fold higher than that which occurs spontaneously, and the types of mutations include single nucleotide substitutions, insertions, and deletions. Single nucleotide substitutions are the predominant type of mutation, and they occur primarily at GC base-pairs. Cr(III) ion produces a lower number of transition and a higher number of transversion mutations than occur spontaneously. Unlike Cr(III), Cr(VI) ion has little effect on the in vitro DNA synthetic activity and fidelity of the DNA synthesome, but does significantly inhibit DNA synthesis in intact cells. Cell growth and proliferation is also arrested by increasing concentrations of Cr(VI) ion. Our studies provide evidence indicating that the chromium ion induced decrease in the fidelity and activity of

  13. Chromium reduces the in vitro activity and fidelity of DNA replication mediated by the human cell DNA synthesome.

    PubMed

    Dai, Heqiao; Liu, Jianying; Malkas, Linda H; Catalano, Jennifer; Alagharu, Srilakshmi; Hickey, Robert J

    2009-04-15

    Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) is known to be a carcinogenic metal ion, with a complicated mechanism of action. It can be found within our environment in soil and water contaminated by manufacturing processes. Cr(VI) ion is readily taken up by cells, and is recognized to be both genotoxic and cytotoxic; following its reduction to the stable trivalent form of the ion, chromium(Cr(III)), within cells. This form of the ion is known to impede the activity of cellular DNA polymerase and polymerase-mediated DNA replication. Here, we report the effects of chromium on the activity and fidelity of the DNA replication process mediated by the human cell DNA synthesome. The DNA synthesome is a functional multiprotein complex that is fully competent to carry-out each phase of the DNA replication process. The IC(50) of Cr(III) toward the activity of DNA synthesome-associated DNA polymerases alpha, delta and epsilon is 15, 45 and 125 muM, respectively. Cr(III) inhibits synthesome-mediated DNA synthesis (IC(50)=88 muM), and significantly reduces the fidelity of synthesome-mediated DNA replication. The mutation frequency induced by the different concentrations of Cr(III) ion used in our assays ranges from 2-13 fold higher than that which occurs spontaneously, and the types of mutations include single nucleotide substitutions, insertions, and deletions. Single nucleotide substitutions are the predominant type of mutation, and they occur primarily at GC base-pairs. Cr(III) ion produces a lower number of transition and a higher number of transversion mutations than occur spontaneously. Unlike Cr(III), Cr(VI) ion has little effect on the in vitro DNA synthetic activity and fidelity of the DNA synthesome, but does significantly inhibit DNA synthesis in intact cells. Cell growth and proliferation is also arrested by increasing concentrations of Cr(VI) ion. Our studies provide evidence indicating that the chromium ion induced decrease in the fidelity and activity of synthesome mediated DNA

  14. Nucleosome assembly in mammalian cell extracts before and after DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Gruss, C; Gutierrez, C; Burhans, W C; DePamphilis, M L; Koller, T; Sogo, J M

    1990-01-01

    Protein-free DNA in a cytosolic extract supplemented with SV40 large T-antigen (T-Ag), is assembled into chromatin structure when nuclear extract is added. This assembly was monitored by topoisomer formation, micrococcal nuclease digestion and psoralen crosslinking of the DNA. Plasmids containing SV40 sequences (ori- and ori+) were assembled into chromatin with similar efficiencies whether T-Ag was present or not. Approximately 50-80% of the number of nucleosomes in vivo could be assembled in vitro; however, the kinetics of assembly differed on replicated and unreplicated molecules. In replicative intermediates, nucleosomes were observed on both the pre-replicated and post-replicated portions. We conclude that the extent of nucleosome assembly in mammalian cell extracts is not dependent upon DNA replication, in contrast to previous suggestions. However, the highly sensitive psoralen assay revealed that DNA replication appears to facilitate precise folding of DNA in the nucleosome. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:2167837

  15. DNA Damage Signaling Is Required for Replication of Human Bocavirus 1 DNA in Dividing HEK293 Cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xuefeng; Xu, Peng; Zou, Wei; Shen, Weiran; Peng, Jianxin; Liu, Kaiyu; Engelhardt, John F; Yan, Ziying; Qiu, Jianming

    2017-01-01

    Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), an emerging human-pathogenic respiratory virus, is a member of the genus Bocaparvovirus of the Parvoviridae family. In human airway epithelium air-liquid interface (HAE-ALI) cultures, HBoV1 infection initiates a DNA damage response (DDR), activating all three phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases (PI3KKs): ATM, ATR, and DNA-PKcs. In this context, activation of PI3KKs is a requirement for amplification of the HBoV1 genome (X. Deng, Z. Yan, F. Cheng, J. F. Engelhardt, and J. Qiu, PLoS Pathog, 12:e1005399, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005399), and HBoV1 replicates only in terminally differentiated, nondividing cells. This report builds on the previous discovery that the replication of HBoV1 DNA can also occur in dividing HEK293 cells, demonstrating that such replication is likewise dependent on a DDR. Transfection of HEK293 cells with the duplex DNA genome of HBoV1 induces hallmarks of DDR, including phosphorylation of H2AX and RPA32, as well as activation of all three PI3KKs. The large viral nonstructural protein NS1 is sufficient to induce the DDR and the activation of the three PI3KKs. Pharmacological inhibition or knockdown of any one of the PI3KKs significantly decreases both the replication of HBoV1 DNA and the downstream production of progeny virions. The DDR induced by the HBoV1 NS1 protein does not cause obvious damage to cellular DNA or arrest of the cell cycle. Notably, key DNA replication factors and major DNA repair DNA polymerases (polymerase η [Pol η] and polymerase κ [Pol κ]) are recruited to the viral DNA replication centers and facilitate HBoV1 DNA replication. Our study provides the first evidence of the DDR-dependent parvovirus DNA replication that occurs in dividing cells and is independent of cell cycle arrest.

  16. Modeling DNA Replication Intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Broyde, S.; Roy, D.; Shapiro, R.

    1997-06-01

    While there is now available a great deal of information on double stranded DNA from X-ray crystallography, high resolution NMR and computer modeling, very little is known about structures that are representative of the DNA core of replication intermediates. DNA replication occurs at a single strand/double strand junction and bulged out intermediates near the junction can lead to frameshift mutations. The single stranded domains are particularly challenging. Our interest is focused on strategies for modeling the DNA of these types of replication intermediates. Modeling such structures presents special problems in addressing the multiple minimum problem and in treating the electrostatic component of the force field. We are testing a number of search strategies for locating low energy structures of these types and we are also investigating two different distance dependent dielectric functions in the coulombic term of the force field. We are studying both unmodified DNA and DNA damaged by aromatic amines, carcinogens present in the environment in tobacco smoke, barbecued meats and automobile exhaust. The nature of the structure adopted by the carcinogen modified DNA at the replication fork plays a key role in determining whether the carcinogen will cause a mutation during replication that can initiate the carcinogenic process. In the present work results are presented for unmodified DNA.

  17. Control of DNA replication in a transformed lymphoid cell line: coexistence of activator and inhibitor activities.

    PubMed

    Coffman, F D; Fresa, K L; Oglesby, I; Cohen, S

    1991-12-01

    Proliferating lymphocytes contain an intracellular factor, ADR (activator of DNA replication), which can initiate DNA synthesis in isolated quiescent nuclei. Resting lymphocytes lack ADR activity and contain an intracellular inhibitory factor that suppresses DNA synthesis in normal but not transformed nuclei. In this study we describe a MOLT-4 subline that produces both the activator and inhibitory activities which can be separated by ammonium sulfate fractionation. The inhibitor is heat stable and inhibits ADR-mediated DNA replication in a dose-dependent manner. It does not inhibit DNA polymerase alpha activity. The inhibitor must be present at the initiation of DNA replication to be effective, as it loses most of its effectiveness if it is added after replication has begun. The presence of inhibitory activity in proliferating MOLT-4 cells, taken with the previous observation that inhibitor derived from normal resting cells does not affect DNA synthesis by MOLT-4 nuclei, suggests that failure of a down-regulating signal may play an important role in proliferative disorder.

  18. A subset of herpes simplex virus replication genes induces DNA amplification within the host cell genome

    SciTech Connect

    Heilbronn, R.; zur Hausen, H. )

    1989-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) induces DNA amplification of target genes within the host cell chromosome. To characterize the HSV genes that mediate the amplification effect, combinations of cloned DNA fragments covering the entire HSV genome were transiently transfected into simian virus 40 (SV40)-transformed hamster cells. This led to amplification of the integrated SV40 DNA sequences to a degree comparable to that observed after transfection of intact virion DNA. Transfection of combinations of subclones and of human cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter-driven expression constructs for individual open reading frames led to the identification of sic HSV genes which together were necessary and sufficient for the induction of DNA amplification: UL30 (DNA polymerase), UL29 (major DNA-binding protein), UL5, UL8, UL42, and UL52. All of these genes encode proteins necessary for HSV DNA replication. However, an additional gene coding for an HSV origin-binding protein (UL9) was required for origin-dependent HSV DNA replication but was dispensable for SV40 DNA amplification. The results show that a subset of HSV replication genes is sufficient for the induction of DNA amplification. This opens the possibility that HSV expresses functions sufficient for DNA amplification but separate from those responsible for lytic viral growth. HSV infection may thereby induce DNA amplification within the host cell genome without killing the host by lytic viral growth. This may lead to persistence of a cell with a new genetic phenotype, which would have implications for the pathogenicity of the virus in vivo.

  19. Triplex structures induce DNA double strand breaks via replication fork collapse in NER deficient cells

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik Tiwari, Meetu; Adaku, Nneoma; Peart, Natoya; Rogers, Faye A.

    2016-01-01

    Structural alterations in DNA can serve as natural impediments to replication fork stability and progression, resulting in DNA damage and genomic instability. Naturally occurring polypurine mirror repeat sequences in the human genome can create endogenous triplex structures evoking a robust DNA damage response. Failures to recognize or adequately process these genomic lesions can result in loss of genomic integrity. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) proteins have been found to play a prominent role in the recognition and repair of triplex structures. We demonstrate using triplex-forming oligonucleotides that chromosomal triplexes perturb DNA replication fork progression, eventually resulting in fork collapse and the induction of double strand breaks (DSBs). We find that cells deficient in the NER damage recognition proteins, XPA and XPC, accumulate more DSBs in response to chromosomal triplex formation than NER-proficient cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that XPC-deficient cells are particularly prone to replication-associated DSBs in the presence of triplexes. In the absence of XPA or XPC, deleterious consequences of triplex-induced genomic instability may be averted by activating apoptosis via dual phosphorylation of the H2AX protein. Our results reveal that damage recognition by XPC and XPA is critical to maintaining replication fork integrity and preventing replication fork collapse in the presence of triplex structures. PMID:27298253

  20. DNA replication and damage checkpoints and meiotic cell cycle controls in the fission and budding yeasts.

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, H; Nurse, P

    2000-01-01

    The cell cycle checkpoint mechanisms ensure the order of cell cycle events to preserve genomic integrity. Among these, the DNA-replication and DNA-damage checkpoints prevent chromosome segregation when DNA replication is inhibited or DNA is damaged. Recent studies have identified an outline of the regulatory networks for both of these controls, which apparently operate in all eukaryotes. In addition, it appears that these checkpoints have two arrest points, one is just before entry into mitosis and the other is prior to chromosome separation. The former point requires the central cell-cycle regulator Cdc2 kinase, whereas the latter involves several key regulators and substrates of the ubiquitin ligase called the anaphase promoting complex. Linkages between these cell-cycle regulators and several key checkpoint proteins are beginning to emerge. Recent findings on post-translational modifications and protein-protein interactions of the checkpoint proteins provide new insights into the checkpoint responses, although the functional significance of these biochemical properties often remains unclear. We have reviewed the molecular mechanisms acting at the DNA-replication and DNA-damage checkpoints in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and the modifications of these controls during the meiotic cell cycle. We have made comparisons with the controls in fission yeast and other organisms, mainly the distantly related budding yeast. PMID:10861204

  1. Human Mitochondrial DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Ian J.; Reyes, Aurelio

    2012-01-01

    Elucidation of the process of DNA replication in mitochondria is in its infancy. For many years, maintenance of the mitochondrial genome was regarded as greatly simplified compared to the nucleus. Mammalian mitochondria were reported to lack all DNA repair systems, to eschew DNA recombination, and to possess but a single DNA polymerase, polymerase γ. Polγ was said to replicate mitochondrial DNA exclusively via one mechanism, involving only two priming events and a handful of proteins. In this “strand-displacement model,” leading strand DNA synthesis begins at a specific site and advances approximately two-thirds of the way around the molecule before DNA synthesis is initiated on the “lagging” strand. Although the displaced strand was long-held to be coated with protein, RNA has more recently been proposed in its place. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA molecules with all the features of products of conventional bidirectional replication have been documented, suggesting that the process and regulation of replication in mitochondria is complex, as befits a genome that is a core factor in human health and longevity. PMID:23143808

  2. Effects of Friedreich's ataxia GAA repeats on DNA replication in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Chandok, Gurangad S.; Patel, Mayank P.; Mirkin, Sergei M.

    2012-01-01

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is a common hereditary degenerative neuro-muscular disorder caused by expansions of the (GAA)n repeat in the first intron of the frataxin gene. The expanded repeats from parents frequently undergo further significant length changes as they are passed on to progeny. Expanded repeats also show an age-dependent instability in somatic cells, albeit on a smaller scale than during intergenerational transmissions. Here we studied the effects of (GAA)n repeats of varying lengths and orientations on the episomal DNA replication in mammalian cells. We have recently shown that the very first round of the transfected DNA replication occurs in the lack of the mature chromatin, does not depend on the episomal replication origin and initiates at multiple single-stranded regions of plasmid DNA. We now found that expanded GAA repeats severely block this first replication round post plasmid transfection, while the subsequent replication cycles are only mildly affected. The fact that GAA repeats affect various replication modes in a different way might shed light on their differential expansions characteristic for FRDA. PMID:22262734

  3. DNA Replication Origins

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Alan C.; Méchali, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    The onset of genomic DNA synthesis requires precise interactions of specialized initiator proteins with DNA at sites where the replication machinery can be loaded. These sites, defined as replication origins, are found at a few unique locations in all of the prokaryotic chromosomes examined so far. However, replication origins are dispersed among tens of thousands of loci in metazoan chromosomes, thereby raising questions regarding the role of specific nucleotide sequences and chromatin environment in origin selection and the mechanisms used by initiators to recognize replication origins. Close examination of bacterial and archaeal replication origins reveals an array of DNA sequence motifs that position individual initiator protein molecules and promote initiator oligomerization on origin DNA. Conversely, the need for specific recognition sequences in eukaryotic replication origins is relaxed. In fact, the primary rule for origin selection appears to be flexibility, a feature that is modulated either by structural elements or by epigenetic mechanisms at least partly linked to the organization of the genome for gene expression. PMID:23838439

  4. A replicator-specific binding protein essential for site-specific initiation of DNA replication in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya; Huang, Liang; Fu, Haiqing; Smith, Owen K.; Lin, Chii Mei; Utani, Koichi; Rao, Mishal; Reinhold, William C.; Redon, Christophe E.; Ryan, Michael; Kim, RyangGuk; You, Yang; Hanna, Harlington; Boisclair, Yves; Long, Qiaoming; Aladjem, Mirit I.

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian chromosome replication starts from distinct sites; however, the principles governing initiation site selection are unclear because proteins essential for DNA replication do not exhibit sequence-specific DNA binding. Here we identify a replication-initiation determinant (RepID) protein that binds a subset of replication-initiation sites. A large fraction of RepID-binding sites share a common G-rich motif and exhibit elevated replication initiation. RepID is required for initiation of DNA replication from RepID-bound replication origins, including the origin at the human beta-globin (HBB) locus. At HBB, RepID is involved in an interaction between the replication origin (Rep-P) and the locus control region. RepID-depleted murine embryonic fibroblasts exhibit abnormal replication fork progression and fewer replication-initiation events. These observations are consistent with a model, suggesting that RepID facilitates replication initiation at a distinct group of human replication origins. PMID:27272143

  5. A replication-dependent passive mechanism modulates DNA demethylation in mouse primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Rika; Nakayama, Megumi; Naruse, Chie; Okashita, Naoki; Takano, Osamu; Tachibana, Makoto; Asano, Masahide; Saitou, Mitinori; Seki, Yoshiyuki

    2013-07-01

    Germline cells reprogramme extensive epigenetic modifications to ensure the cellular totipotency of subsequent generations and to prevent the accumulation of epimutations. Notably, primordial germ cells (PGCs) erase genome-wide DNA methylation and H3K9 dimethylation marks in a stepwise manner during migration and gonadal periods. In this study, we profiled DNA and histone methylation on transposable elements during PGC development, and examined the role of DNA replication in DNA demethylation in gonadal PGCs. CpGs in short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) B1 and B2 were substantially demethylated in migrating PGCs, whereas CpGs in long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs), such as LINE-1, were resistant to early demethylation. By contrast, CpGs in both LINE-1 and SINEs were rapidly demethylated in gonadal PGCs. Four major modifiers of DNA and histone methylation, Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, Glp and Uhrf1, were actively repressed at distinct stages of PGC development. DNMT1 was localised at replication foci in nascent PGCs, whereas the efficiency of recruitment of DNMT1 into replication foci was severely impaired in gonadal PGCs. Hairpin bisulphite sequencing analysis showed that strand-specific hemi-methylated CpGs on LINE-1 were predominant in gonadal PGCs. Furthermore, DNA demethylation in SINEs and LINE-1 was impaired in Cbx3-deficient PGCs, indicating abnormalities in G1 to S phase progression. We propose that PGCs employ active and passive mechanisms for efficient and widespread erasure of genomic DNA methylation.

  6. Inhibition of Cell Division and DNA Replication Impair Mouse-Naïve Pluripotency Exit.

    PubMed

    Waisman, Ariel; Vazquez Echegaray, Camila; Solari, Claudia; Cosentino, María Soledad; Martyn, Iain; Deglincerti, Alessia; Ozair, Mohammad Zeeshan; Ruzo, Albert; Barañao, Lino; Miriuka, Santiago; Brivanlou, Ali; Guberman, Alejandra

    2017-09-01

    The cell cycle has gained attention as a key determinant for cell fate decisions, but the contribution of DNA replication and mitosis in stem cell differentiation has not been extensively studied. To understand if these processes act as "windows of opportunity" for changes in cell identity, we established synchronized cultures of mouse embryonic stem cells as they exit the ground state of pluripotency. We show that initial transcriptional changes in this transition do not require passage through mitosis and that conversion to primed pluripotency is linked to lineage priming in the G1 phase. Importantly, we demonstrate that impairment of DNA replication severely blocks transcriptional switch to primed pluripotency, even in the absence of p53 activity induced by the DNA damage response. Our data suggest an important role for DNA replication during mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation, which could shed light on why pluripotent cells are only receptive to differentiation signals during G1, that is, before the S phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Regulating DNA Replication in Eukarya

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Khalid; On, Kin Fan; Diffley, John F.X.

    2013-01-01

    DNA replication is tightly controlled in eukaryotic cells to ensure that an exact copy of the genetic material is inherited by both daughter cells. Oscillating waves of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) and anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) activities provide a binary switch that permits the replication of each chromosome exactly once per cell cycle. Work from several organisms has revealed a conserved strategy whereby inactive replication complexes are assembled onto DNA during periods of low CDK and high APC activity but are competent to execute genome duplication only when these activities are reversed. Periods of high CDK and low APC/C serve an essential function by blocking reassembly of replication complexes, thereby preventing rereplication. Higher eukaryotes have evolved additional CDK-independent mechanisms for preventing rereplication. PMID:23838438

  8. DNA polymerase η modulates replication fork progression and DNA damage responses in platinum-treated human cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, Anna M.; Cruet-Hennequart, Séverine; Pasero, Philippe; Carty, Michael P.

    2013-11-01

    Human cells lacking DNA polymerase η (polη) are sensitive to platinum-based cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Using DNA combing to directly investigate the role of polη in bypass of platinum-induced DNA lesions in vivo, we demonstrate that nascent DNA strands are up to 39% shorter in human cells lacking polη than in cells expressing polη. This provides the first direct evidence that polη modulates replication fork progression in vivo following cisplatin and carboplatin treatment. Severe replication inhibition in individual platinum-treated polη-deficient cells correlates with enhanced phosphorylation of the RPA2 subunit of replication protein A on serines 4 and 8, as determined using EdU labelling and immunofluorescence, consistent with formation of DNA strand breaks at arrested forks in the absence of polη. Polη-mediated bypass of platinum-induced DNA lesions may therefore represent one mechanism by which cancer cells can tolerate platinum-based chemotherapy.

  9. Replicating DNA by cell factories: roles of central carbon metabolism and transcription in the control of DNA replication in microbes, and implications for understanding this process in human cells.

    PubMed

    Barańska, Sylwia; Glinkowska, Monika; Herman-Antosiewicz, Anna; Maciąg-Dorszyńska, Monika; Nowicki, Dariusz; Szalewska-Pałasz, Agnieszka; Węgrzyn, Alicja; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2013-05-29

    Precise regulation of DNA replication is necessary to ensure the inheritance of genetic features by daughter cells after each cell division. Therefore, determining how the regulatory processes operate to control DNA replication is crucial to our understanding and application to biotechnological processes. Contrary to early concepts of DNA replication, it appears that this process is operated by large, stationary nucleoprotein complexes, called replication factories, rather than by single enzymes trafficking along template molecules. Recent discoveries indicated that in bacterial cells two processes, central carbon metabolism (CCM) and transcription, significantly and specifically influence the control of DNA replication of various replicons. The impact of these discoveries on our understanding of the regulation of DNA synthesis is discussed in this review. It appears that CCM may influence DNA replication by either action of specific metabolites or moonlighting activities of some enzymes involved in this metabolic pathway. The role of transcription in the control of DNA replication may arise from either topological changes in nucleic acids which accompany RNA synthesis or direct interactions between replication and transcription machineries. Due to intriguing similarities between some prokaryotic and eukaryotic regulatory systems, possible implications of studies on regulation of microbial DNA replication on understanding such a process occurring in human cells are discussed.

  10. Replicating DNA by cell factories: roles of central carbon metabolism and transcription in the control of DNA replication in microbes, and implications for understanding this process in human cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Precise regulation of DNA replication is necessary to ensure the inheritance of genetic features by daughter cells after each cell division. Therefore, determining how the regulatory processes operate to control DNA replication is crucial to our understanding and application to biotechnological processes. Contrary to early concepts of DNA replication, it appears that this process is operated by large, stationary nucleoprotein complexes, called replication factories, rather than by single enzymes trafficking along template molecules. Recent discoveries indicated that in bacterial cells two processes, central carbon metabolism (CCM) and transcription, significantly and specifically influence the control of DNA replication of various replicons. The impact of these discoveries on our understanding of the regulation of DNA synthesis is discussed in this review. It appears that CCM may influence DNA replication by either action of specific metabolites or moonlighting activities of some enzymes involved in this metabolic pathway. The role of transcription in the control of DNA replication may arise from either topological changes in nucleic acids which accompany RNA synthesis or direct interactions between replication and transcription machineries. Due to intriguing similarities between some prokaryotic and eukaryotic regulatory systems, possible implications of studies on regulation of microbial DNA replication on understanding such a process occurring in human cells are discussed. PMID:23714207

  11. RK2 plasmid dynamics in Caulobacter crescentus cells--two modes of DNA replication initiation.

    PubMed

    Wegrzyn, Katarzyna; Witosinska, Monika; Schweiger, Pawel; Bury, Katarzyna; Jenal, Urs; Konieczny, Igor

    2013-06-01

    Undisturbed plasmid dynamics is required for the stable maintenance of plasmid DNA in bacterial cells. In this work, we analysed subcellular localization, DNA synthesis and nucleoprotein complex formation of plasmid RK2 during the cell cycle of Caulobacter crescentus. Our microscopic observations showed asymmetrical distribution of plasmid RK2 foci between the two compartments of Caulobacter predivisional cells, resulting in asymmetrical allocation of plasmids to progeny cells. Moreover, using a quantitative PCR (qPCR) method, we estimated that multiple plasmid particles form a single fluorescent focus and that the number of plasmids per focus is approximately equal in both swarmer and predivisional Caulobacter cells. Analysis of the dynamics of TrfA-oriV complex formation during the Caulobacter cell cycle revealed that TrfA binds oriV primarily during the G1 phase, however, plasmid DNA synthesis occurs during the S and G2 phases of the Caulobacter cell cycle. Both in vitro and in vivo analysis of RK2 replication initiation in C. crescentus cells demonstrated that it is independent of the Caulobacter DnaA protein in the presence of the longer version of TrfA protein, TrfA-44. However, in vivo stability tests of plasmid RK2 derivatives suggested that a DnaA-dependent mode of plasmid replication initiation is also possible.

  12. Programming DNA replication origins and chromosome organization.

    PubMed

    Cayrou, Christelle; Coulombe, Philippe; Méchali, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    During each cell cycle, thousands of DNA replication origins are activated in each cell of a metazoan organism. Although they appear site-specific, their usage and organization are rather plastic. Moreover, no strict sequence specificity has been observed in contrast to bacterial or Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA replication origins. Epigenetic regulation linked to chromatin structure, chromosome organization, and transcription has been suggested to explain how DNA replication origins are selected and recognized by replication initiation factors. In this paper, we review these epigenetic features and discuss how, during the previous mitosis, chromosomal architecture might prepare DNA replication origins for a new cell cycle.

  13. Visualization of mitochondrial DNA replication in individual cells by EdU signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Haines, Kristine M; Feldman, Eva L; Lentz, Stephen I

    2010-11-15

    Mitochondria are key regulators of cellular energy and mitochondrial biogenesis is an essential component of regulating mitochondria numbers in healthy cells. One approach for monitoring mitochondrial biogenesis is to measure the rate of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication. We developed a sensitive technique to label newly synthesized mtDNA in individual cells in order to study mtDNA biogenesis. The technique combines the incorporation of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) with a tyramide signal amplification (TSA) protocol to visualize mtDNA replication within subcellular compartments of neurons. EdU is superior to other thymidine analogs, such as 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU), because the initial click reaction to label EdU does not require the harsh acid treatments or enzyme digests that are required for exposing the BrdU epitope. The milder labeling of EdU allows for direct comparison of its incorporation with other cellular markers. The ability to visualize and quantify mtDNA biogenesis provides an essential tool for investigating the mechanisms used to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis and would provide insight into the pathogenesis associated with drug toxicity, aging, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Our technique is applicable to sensory neurons as well as other cell types. The use of this technique to measure mtDNA biogenesis has significant implications in furthering the understanding of both normal cellular physiology as well as impaired disease states.

  14. Replication of UV-irradiated DNA in human cell extracts: Evidence for mutagenic bypass of pyrimidine dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.C.; Kunkel, T.A. )

    1993-08-15

    The authors have examined the efficiency and fidelity of simian virus 40-origin-dependent replication of UV-irradiated double-stranded DNA in extracts of human cells. Using as a mutational target the [alpha]-complementation domain of the Escherichia coli lacZ gene in bacteriophage M13mp2DNA, replication of undamaged DNA in HeLa cell extracts was highly accurate, whereas replication of DNA irradiated with UV light (280-320 nm) was both less efficient and less accurate. Replication was inhibited by irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. Nonetheless, covalently closed, monomer-length circular products were generated that were resistant to digestion by Dpn I, showing that they resulted from semiconservative replication. These products were incised by T4 endonuclease V, whereas the undamaged replication products were not, suggesting that pyrimidine dimers were bypassed during replication. When replicated, UV-irradiated DNA was used to transfect an E. coli [alpha]-complementation host strain to score mutant M13mp2 plaques, the mutant plaque frequency was substantially higher than that obtained with either unirradiated, replicated DNA, or unreplicated, UV-irradiated DNA. Both the increased mutagenicity and the inhibition of replication associated with UV irradiation were reversed by treatment of the irradiated DNA with photolyase before replication. Sequence analysis of mutants resulting from replication of UV-irradiated DNA demonstrated that most mutants contained C [yields] T transition errors at dipyrimidine sites. A few mutants contained 1-nt frameshift errors or tandem double CC [yields] TT substitutions. The data are consistent with the interpretation that pyrimidine dimers are bypassed during replication by the multiprotein replication apparatus in human cell extracts and that this bypass is mutagenic primarily via misincorporation of dAMP opposite a cytosine (or uracil) in the dimer. 56 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Maintenance of Genome Integrity: How Mammalian Cells Orchestrate Genome Duplication by Coordinating Replicative and Specialized DNA Polymerases.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Ryan; Eckert, Kristin

    2017-01-06

    Precise duplication of the human genome is challenging due to both its size and sequence complexity. DNA polymerase errors made during replication, repair or recombination are central to creating mutations that drive cancer and aging. Here, we address the regulation of human DNA polymerases, specifically how human cells orchestrate DNA polymerases in the face of stress to complete replication and maintain genome stability. DNA polymerases of the B-family are uniquely adept at accurate genome replication, but there are numerous situations in which one or more additional DNA polymerases are required to complete genome replication. Polymerases of the Y-family have been extensively studied in the bypass of DNA lesions; however, recent research has revealed that these polymerases play important roles in normal human physiology. Replication stress is widely cited as contributing to genome instability, and is caused by conditions leading to slowed or stalled DNA replication. Common Fragile Sites epitomize "difficult to replicate" genome regions that are particularly vulnerable to replication stress, and are associated with DNA breakage and structural variation. In this review, we summarize the roles of both the replicative and Y-family polymerases in human cells, and focus on how these activities are regulated during normal and perturbed genome replication.

  16. Analysis of the Mitochondrial DNA and Its Replicative Capacity in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Cagnone, Gael; Vaghjiani, Vijesh; Lee, William; Sun, Claire; Johnson, Jacqueline; Yeung, Ka-Yu; St John, Justin C

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome resides in the mitochondrion of nearly all mammalian cells. It is important for energy production as it encodes 13 of the key subunits of the electron transfer chain, which generates the vast majority of cellular ATP through the process of oxidative phosphorylation. As cells establish pluripotency, they regulate their mtDNA copy number so that they possess few copies but sufficient that they can be replicated to match the differentiated cell-specific requirements for ATP derived through oxidative phosphorylation. However, the failure to strictly regulate this process prevents pluripotent cells from differentiating. We describe a series of protocols that analyze mtDNA copy number, DNA methylation within the nuclear-encoded mtDNA-specific polymerase, and gene expression of the other factors that drive replication of the mitochondrial genome. We demonstrate how to measure ATP-generating capacity through oxygen respiratory capacity and total cellular ATP and lactate levels. Finally, we also describe how to detect mtDNA variants in pluripotent and differentiating cells using next-generation sequencing protocols and how the variants can be confirmed by high-resolution melt analysis.

  17. YAP controls retinal stem cell DNA replication timing and genomic stability

    PubMed Central

    Cabochette, Pauline; Vega-Lopez, Guillermo; Bitard, Juliette; Parain, Karine; Chemouny, Romain; Masson, Christel; Borday, Caroline; Hedderich, Marie; Henningfeld, Kristine A; Locker, Morgane; Bronchain, Odile; Perron, Muriel

    2015-01-01

    The adult frog retina retains a reservoir of active neural stem cells that contribute to continuous eye growth throughout life. We found that Yap, a downstream effector of the Hippo pathway, is specifically expressed in these stem cells. Yap knock-down leads to an accelerated S-phase and an abnormal progression of DNA replication, a phenotype likely mediated by upregulation of c-Myc. This is associated with an increased occurrence of DNA damage and eventually p53-p21 pathway-mediated cell death. Finally, we identified PKNOX1, a transcription factor involved in the maintenance of genomic stability, as a functional and physical interactant of YAP. Altogether, we propose that YAP is required in adult retinal stem cells to regulate the temporal firing of replication origins and quality control of replicated DNA. Our data reinforce the view that specific mechanisms dedicated to S-phase control are at work in stem cells to protect them from genomic instability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08488.001 PMID:26393999

  18. Kinetics of the UV-induced DNA damage response in relation to cell cycle phase. Correlation with DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hong; Traganos, Frank; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    It has been reported that exposure to UV light triggers DNA damage response (DDR) seen as induction of γH2AX not only in S- but also in G1- phase cells. In the present study, in addition to γH2AX, we assessed other markers of DDR, namely phosphorylation of ATM on Ser1981, of ATM/ATR substrate on Ser/Thr at SQ/TQ cluster domains and of the tumor suppressor p53 on Ser15, in human pulmonary carcinoma A549 cells irradiated with 50 J/m2 of UV-B. Phosphorylation of these proteins detected with phospho-specific Abs and measured by laser scanning cytometry in relation the cell cycle phase was found to be selective to S-phase cells. The kinetics of phosphorylation of ATM was strikingly similar to that of ATM/ATR substrate, peaking at 30 min after UV irradiation and followed by rapid dephosphorylation. The peak of H2AX phosphorylation was seen at 2 h and the peak of p53 phosphorylation at 4 h after exposure to UV light. Local high spatial density of these phospho-proteins reported by intensity of maximal pixel of immunofluorescence in the DDR nuclear foci was distinctly more pronounced in the early compared to late portion of S-phase. Exposure of cells to UV following 1 h pulse-labeling of their DNA with 5-ethynyl-2′deoxyuridine (EdU) made it possible to correlate the extent of DNA replication during the pulse with the extent of the UV-induced H2AX phosphorylation within the same cells. This correlation was very strong (R2= 0.98) and the cells that did not incorporate EdU showed no evidence of H2AX phosphorylation. The data are consistent with the mechanism in which stalling of DNA replication forks upon collision with the primary UV-induced DNA lesions and likely formation of double-strand DNA breaks triggers DDR. The prior reports (including our own) on induction of γH2AX in G1 cells by UV may have erroneously identified cells initiating DNA replication following UV exposure as G1 cells due to the fact that their DNA content did not significantly differ from that of G

  19. Tumor Cell Death Mediated by Peptides That Recognize Branched Intermediates of DNA Replication and Repair

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Mamon; Segall, Anca M.

    2013-01-01

    Effective treatments for cancer are still needed, both for cancers that do not respond well to current therapeutics and for cancers that become resistant to available treatments. Herein we investigated the effect of a structure-selective d-amino acid peptide wrwycr that binds replication fork mimics and Holliday Junction (HJs) intermediates of homologous recombination (HR) in vitro, and inhibits their resolution by HJ-processing enzymes. We predicted that treating cells with HJ-binding compounds would lead to accumulation of DNA damage. As cells repair endogenous or exogenous DNA damage, collapsed replication forks and HJ intermediates will accumulate and serve as targets for the HJ-binding peptides. Inhibiting junction resolution will lead to further accumulation of DNA breaks, eventually resulting in amplification of the damage and causing cell death. Both peptide wrwycr and the related wrwyrggrywrw entered cancer cells and reduced cell survival in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Early markers for DNA damage, γH2AX foci and 53BP1 foci, increased with dose and/or time exposure to the peptides. DNA breaks persisted at least 48 h, and both checkpoint proteins Chk1 and Chk2 were activated. The passage of the cells from S to G2/M was blocked even after 72 h. Apoptosis, however, was not induced in either HeLa or PC3 cells. Based on colony-forming assays, about 35% peptide-induced cytotoxicity was irreversible. Finally, sublethal doses of peptide wrwycr (50–100 µM) in conjunction with sublethal doses of several DNA damaging agents (etoposide, doxorubicin, and HU) reduced cell survival at least additively and sometimes synergistically. Taken together, the results suggest that the peptides merit further investigation as proof-of-principle molecules for a new class of anti-cancer therapeutics, in particular in combination with other DNA damaging therapies. PMID:24244353

  20. Tumor cell death mediated by peptides that recognize branched intermediates of DNA replication and repair.

    PubMed

    Dey, Mamon; Patra, Sukanya; Su, Leo Y; Segall, Anca M

    2013-01-01

    Effective treatments for cancer are still needed, both for cancers that do not respond well to current therapeutics and for cancers that become resistant to available treatments. Herein we investigated the effect of a structure-selective d-amino acid peptide wrwycr that binds replication fork mimics and Holliday Junction (HJs) intermediates of homologous recombination (HR) in vitro, and inhibits their resolution by HJ-processing enzymes. We predicted that treating cells with HJ-binding compounds would lead to accumulation of DNA damage. As cells repair endogenous or exogenous DNA damage, collapsed replication forks and HJ intermediates will accumulate and serve as targets for the HJ-binding peptides. Inhibiting junction resolution will lead to further accumulation of DNA breaks, eventually resulting in amplification of the damage and causing cell death. Both peptide wrwycr and the related wrwyrggrywrw entered cancer cells and reduced cell survival in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Early markers for DNA damage, γH2AX foci and 53BP1 foci, increased with dose and/or time exposure to the peptides. DNA breaks persisted at least 48 h, and both checkpoint proteins Chk1 and Chk2 were activated. The passage of the cells from S to G2/M was blocked even after 72 h. Apoptosis, however, was not induced in either HeLa or PC3 cells. Based on colony-forming assays, about 35% peptide-induced cytotoxicity was irreversible. Finally, sublethal doses of peptide wrwycr (50-100 µM) in conjunction with sublethal doses of several DNA damaging agents (etoposide, doxorubicin, and HU) reduced cell survival at least additively and sometimes synergistically. Taken together, the results suggest that the peptides merit further investigation as proof-of-principle molecules for a new class of anti-cancer therapeutics, in particular in combination with other DNA damaging therapies.

  1. Cell-Type Specific Responses to DNA Replication Stress in Early C. elegans Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Holly; Williams, Ashley B.

    2016-01-01

    To better understand how the cellular response to DNA replication stress is regulated during embryonic development, we and others have established the early C. elegans embryo as a model system to study this important problem. As is the case in most eukaryotic cell types, the replication stress response is controlled by the ATR kinase in early worm embryos. In this report we use RNAi to systematically characterize ATR pathway components for roles in promoting cell cycle delay during a replication stress response, and we find that these genetic requirements vary, depending on the source of stress. We also examine how individual cell types within the embryo respond to replication stress, and we find that the strength of the response, as defined by duration of cell cycle delay, varies dramatically within blastomeres of the early embryo. Our studies shed light on how the replication stress response is managed in the context of embryonic development and show that this pathway is subject to developmental regulation. PMID:27727303

  2. Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Expanded Under Ambient Oxygen Concentration Accumulate Oxidative DNA Lesions and Experience Procarcinogenic DNA Replication Stress.

    PubMed

    Bétous, Rémy; Renoud, Marie-Laure; Hoede, Claire; Gonzalez, Ignacio; Jones, Natalie; Longy, Michel; Sensebé, Luc; Cazaux, Christophe; Hoffmann, Jean-Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have led to growing interest in cell-based therapy because they can be easily harvested from an abundant tissue. ADSCs must be expanded in vitro before transplantation. This essential step causes concerns about the safety of adult stem cells in terms of potential transformation. Tumorigenesis is driven in its earliest step by DNA replication stress, which is characterized by the accumulation of stalled DNA replication forks and activation of the DNA damage response. Thus, to evaluate the safety of ADSCs during ex vivo expansion, we monitored DNA replication under atmospheric (21%) or physiologic (1%) oxygen concentration. Here, by combining immunofluorescence and DNA combing, we show that ADSCs cultured under 21% oxygen accumulate endogenous oxidative DNA lesions, which interfere with DNA replication by increasing fork stalling events, thereby leading to incomplete DNA replication and fork collapse. Moreover, we found by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) that culture of ADSCs under atmospheric oxygen concentration leads to misexpression of cell cycle and DNA replication genes, which could contribute to DNA replication stress. Finally, analysis of acquired small nucleotide polymorphism shows that expansion of ADSCs under 21% oxygen induces a mutational bias toward deleterious transversions. Overall, our results suggest that expanding ADSCs at a low oxygen concentration could reduce the risk for DNA replication stress-associated transformation, as occurs in neoplastic tissues. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:68-76.

  3. Maintenance of Genome Integrity: How Mammalian Cells Orchestrate Genome Duplication by Coordinating Replicative and Specialized DNA Polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Ryan; Eckert, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Precise duplication of the human genome is challenging due to both its size and sequence complexity. DNA polymerase errors made during replication, repair or recombination are central to creating mutations that drive cancer and aging. Here, we address the regulation of human DNA polymerases, specifically how human cells orchestrate DNA polymerases in the face of stress to complete replication and maintain genome stability. DNA polymerases of the B-family are uniquely adept at accurate genome replication, but there are numerous situations in which one or more additional DNA polymerases are required to complete genome replication. Polymerases of the Y-family have been extensively studied in the bypass of DNA lesions; however, recent research has revealed that these polymerases play important roles in normal human physiology. Replication stress is widely cited as contributing to genome instability, and is caused by conditions leading to slowed or stalled DNA replication. Common Fragile Sites epitomize “difficult to replicate” genome regions that are particularly vulnerable to replication stress, and are associated with DNA breakage and structural variation. In this review, we summarize the roles of both the replicative and Y-family polymerases in human cells, and focus on how these activities are regulated during normal and perturbed genome replication. PMID:28067843

  4. Kick-starting the cell cycle: From growth-factor stimulation to initiation of DNA replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguda, Baltazar D.

    2001-03-01

    The essential genes, proteins and associated regulatory networks involved in the entry into the mammalian cell cycle are identified, from activation of growth-factor receptors to intracellular signal transduction pathways that impinge on the cell cycle machinery and ultimately on the initiation of DNA replication. Signaling pathways mediated by the oncoproteins Ras and Myc induce the activation of cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK2, and the assembly and firing of pre-replication complexes require a collaboration among E2F, CDK2, and Cdc7 kinase. A proposed core mechanism of the restriction point, the major checkpoint prior to commitment to DNA synthesis, involves cyclin E/CDK2, the phosphatase Cdc25A, and the CDK inhibitor p27Kip1.

  5. RAD51AP1-deficiency in vertebrate cells impairs DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Parplys, Ann C; Kratz, Katja; Speed, Michael C; Leung, Stanley G; Schild, David; Wiese, Claudia

    2014-12-01

    RAD51-associated protein 1 (RAD51AP1) is critical for homologous recombination (HR) by interacting with and stimulating the activities of the RAD51 and DMC1 recombinases. In human somatic cells, knockdown of RAD51AP1 results in increased sensitivity to DNA damaging agents and to impaired HR, but the formation of DNA damage-induced RAD51 foci is unaffected. Here, we generated a genetic model system, based on chicken DT40 cells, to assess the phenotype of fully inactivated RAD51AP1 in vertebrate cells. Targeted inactivation of both RAD51AP1 alleles has no effect on either viability or doubling-time in undamaged cells, but leads to increased levels of cytotoxicity after exposure to cisplatin or to ionizing radiation. Interestingly, ectopic expression of GgRAD51AP1, but not of HsRAD51AP1 is able to fully complement in cell survival assays. Notably, in RAD51AP1-deficient DT40 cells the resolution of DNA damage-induced RAD51 foci is greatly slowed down, while their formation is not impaired. We also identify, for the first time, an important role for RAD51AP1 in counteracting both spontaneous and DNA damage-induced replication stress. In human and in chicken cells, RAD51AP1 is required to maintain wild type speed of replication fork progression, and both RAD51AP1-depleted human cells and RAD51AP1-deficient DT40 cells respond to replication stress by a slow-down of replication fork elongation rates. However, increased firing of replication origins occurs in RAD51AP1-/- DT40 cells, likely to ensure the timely duplication of the entire genome. Taken together, our results may explain why RAD51AP1 commonly is overexpressed in tumor cells and tissues, and we speculate that the disruption of RAD51AP1 function could be a promising approach in targeted tumor therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Expanded Under Ambient Oxygen Concentration Accumulate Oxidative DNA Lesions and Experience Procarcinogenic DNA Replication Stress.

    PubMed

    Bétous, Rémy; Renoud, Marie-Laure; Hoede, Claire; Gonzalez, Ignacio; Jones, Natalie; Longy, Michel; Sensebé, Luc; Cazaux, Christophe; Hoffmann, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-08-24

    : Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have led to growing interest in cell-based therapy because they can be easily harvested from an abundant tissue. ADSCs must be expanded in vitro before transplantation. This essential step causes concerns about the safety of adult stem cells in terms of potential transformation. Tumorigenesis is driven in its earliest step by DNA replication stress, which is characterized by the accumulation of stalled DNA replication forks and activation of the DNA damage response. Thus, to evaluate the safety of ADSCs during ex vivo expansion, we monitored DNA replication under atmospheric (21%) or physiologic (1%) oxygen concentration. Here, by combining immunofluorescence and DNA combing, we show that ADSCs cultured under 21% oxygen accumulate endogenous oxidative DNA lesions, which interfere with DNA replication by increasing fork stalling events, thereby leading to incomplete DNA replication and fork collapse. Moreover, we found by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) that culture of ADSCs under atmospheric oxygen concentration leads to misexpression of cell cycle and DNA replication genes, which could contribute to DNA replication stress. Finally, analysis of acquired small nucleotide polymorphism shows that expansion of ADSCs under 21% oxygen induces a mutational bias toward deleterious transversions. Overall, our results suggest that expanding ADSCs at a low oxygen concentration could reduce the risk for DNA replication stress-associated transformation, as occurs in neoplastic tissues.

  7. DDX5 regulates DNA replication and is required for cell proliferation in a subset of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Anthony; Luo, Weijun; Krasnitz, Alexander; Hicks, James; Powers, R Scott; Stillman, Bruce

    2012-09-01

    Understanding factors required for DNA replication will enrich our knowledge of this important process and potentially identify vulnerabilities that can be exploited in cancer therapy. We applied an assay that measures the stability of maintenance of an episomal plasmid in human tissue culture cells to screen for new DNA replication factors. We identify an important role for DDX5 in G(1)-S-phase progression where it directly regulates DNA replication factor expression by promoting the recruitment of RNA polymerase II to E2F-regulated gene promoters. We find that the DDX5 locus is frequently amplified in breast cancer and that breast cancer-derived cells with amplification of DDX5 are much more sensitive to its depletion than breast cancer cells and a breast epithelial cell line that lacks DDX5 amplification. Our results show a novel role for DDX5 in cancer cell proliferation and suggest DDX5 as a therapeutic target in breast cancer treatment. DDX5 is required for cell proliferation by controlling the transcription of genes expressing DNA replication proteins in cancer cells in which the DDX5 locus is amplified, and this has uncovered a dependence on DDX5 for cell proliferation. Given the high frequency of DDX5 amplification in breast cancer, our results highlight DDX5 as a promising candidate for targeted therapy of breast tumors with DDX5 amplification, and indeed we show that DDX5 inhibition sensitizes a subset of breast cancer cells to trastuzumab.

  8. Functional analysis of the individual enhancer core sequences of polyomavirus: Cell-specific uncoupling of DNA replication from transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, B.A.; Villarreal, L.P.

    1988-05-01

    Polyomavirus (Py) enhancer core elements were compared for their ability to activate Py early transcription and DNA replication in mouse 3T6 cells, lymphoid cell lines, and undifferentiated embryonal carcinoma cells. By examining the pattern of genetic change in a number of cell-specific Py variants, the authors identified subenhancer sequences that may be functionally important for virus replication. Four such distinct enhancer consensus sequences were synthesized and designated as the A core (homologous with adenovirus 5 E1A enhancer), B core (homologous to the simian virus 40 A enhancer core), C core (containing an inverted repeat within the Py B enhancer), and BPV core (homologous to the bovine papillomavirus enhancer). When used to replace the complete Py B enhancer, single copies of all but the BPV element were able to fully activate Py DNA replication after transfection, but this activation was usually cell type specific. In the PCC4 embryonal carcinoma cells, only the A-core sequence was able to activate transcription and DNA replication. The BPV core sequence containing the Py F441 point change was unable to activate DNA replication in the F9 embryonal carcinoma or any other cell line. No single insertion element was dominant nor did these elements display the wild-type enhancer pattern of cell-specific activation of DNA replication. In addition, differential effects were often observed on the activation of transcription versus DNA replication.

  9. Acute inactivation of the replicative helicase in human cells triggers MCM8-9-dependent DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Natsume, Toyoaki; Nishimura, Kohei; Minocherhomji, Sheroy; Bhowmick, Rahul; Hickson, Ian D; Kanemaki, Masato T

    2017-04-15

    DNA replication fork progression can be disrupted at difficult to replicate loci in the human genome, which has the potential to challenge chromosome integrity. This replication fork disruption can lead to the dissociation of the replisome and the formation of DNA damage. To model the events stemming from replisome dissociation during DNA replication perturbation, we used a degron-based system for inducible proteolysis of a subunit of the replicative helicase. We show that MCM2-depleted cells activate a DNA damage response pathway and generate replication-associated DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Remarkably, these cells maintain some DNA synthesis in the absence of MCM2, and this requires the MCM8-9 complex, a paralog of the MCM2-7 replicative helicase. We show that MCM8-9 functions in a homologous recombination-based pathway downstream from RAD51, which is promoted by DSB induction. This RAD51/MCM8-9 axis is distinct from the recently described RAD52-dependent DNA synthesis pathway that operates in early mitosis at common fragile sites. We propose that stalled replication forks can be restarted in S phase via homologous recombination using MCM8-9 as an alternative replicative helicase. © 2017 Natsume et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. Comparative analysis of the molecular mechanisms controlling the initiation of chromosomal DNA replication in yeast and in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Elena; Hasan, Md Mehedi; Alberghina, Lilia; Vanoni, Marco

    2012-01-01

    In eukaryotes DNA replication takes place in the S phase of the cell cycle. It initiates from hundreds to thousands of replication origins in a coordinated manner, in order to efficiently duplicate the genome. The sequence of events leading to the onset of DNA replication is conventionally divided in two interdependent processes: licensing-a process during which replication origins acquire replication competence but are kept inactive- and firing-a process during which licensed origins are activated but not re-licensed. In this review we investigate the evolutionary conservation of the molecular machinery orchestrating DNA replication initiation both in yeast and in mammalian cells, highlighting a remarkable conservation of the general architecture of this central biological mechanism. Many steps are conserved down to molecular details and are performed by orthologous proteins with high sequence conservation, while differences in molecular structure of the performing proteins and their interactions are apparent in other steps. Tight regulation of initiation of DNA replication is achieved through protein phosphorylation, exerted mostly by Cyclin-dependent kinases in order to ensure that each chromosome is fully replicated once, and only once, during each cycle, and to avoid the formation of aberrant DNA structures and incorrect chromosomal duplication, that in mammalian cells are a prerequisite for genome instability and tumorigenesis. We then consider a molecular mathematical model of DNA replication, recently proposed by our group in a collaborative project, as a frame of reference to discuss similarities and differences observed in the regulatory program controlling DNA replication initiation in yeast and in mammalian cells and discuss whether they may be dependent upon different functional constraints. We conclude that a systems biology approach, integrating molecular analysis with modeling and computational investigations, is the best choice to investigate the

  11. Inhibition of uracil DNA glycosylase sensitizes cancer cells to 5-fluorodeoxyuridine through replication fork collapse-induced DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yan; Han, Xiangzi; Qing, Yulan; Condie, Allison G.; Gorityala, Shashank; Yang, Shuming; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Youwei; Gerson, Stanton L.

    2016-01-01

    5-fluorodeoxyuridine (5-FdU, floxuridine) is active against multiple cancers through the inhibition of thymidylate synthase, which consequently introduces uracil and 5-FU incorporation into the genome. Uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) is one of the main enzymes responsible for the removal of uracil and 5-FU. However, how exactly UDG mediates cellular sensitivity to 5-FdU, and if so whether it is through its ability to remove uracil and 5-FU have not been well characterized. In this study, we report that UDG depletion led to incorporation of uracil and 5-FU in DNA following 5-FdU treatment and significantly enhanced 5-FdU's cytotoxicity in cancer cell lines. Co-treatment, but not post-treatment with thymidine prevented cell death of UDG depleted cells by 5-FdU, indicating that the enhanced cytotoxicity is due to the retention of uracil and 5-FU in genomic DNA in the absence of UDG. Furthermore, UDG depleted cells were arrested at late G1 and early S phase by 5-FdU, followed by accumulation of sub-G1 population indicating cell death. Mechanistically, 5-FdU dramatically reduced DNA replication speed in UDG depleted cells. UDG depletion also greatly enhanced DNA damage as shown by γH2AX foci formation. Notably, the increased γH2AX foci formation was not suppressed by caspase inhibitor treatment, suggesting that DNA damage precedes cell death induced by 5-FdU. Together, these data provide novel mechanistic insights into the roles of UDG in DNA replication, damage repair, and cell death in response to 5-FdU and suggest that UDG is a target for improving the anticancer effect of this agent. PMID:27517750

  12. Genome-wide copy number profiling of single cells in S-phase reveals DNA-replication domains.

    PubMed

    Van der Aa, Niels; Cheng, Jiqiu; Mateiu, Ligia; Zamani Esteki, Masoud; Kumar, Parveen; Dimitriadou, Eftychia; Vanneste, Evelyne; Moreau, Yves; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Voet, Thierry

    2013-04-01

    Single-cell genomics is revolutionizing basic genome research and clinical genetic diagnosis. However, none of the current research or clinical methods for single-cell analysis distinguishes between the analysis of a cell in G1-, S- or G2/M-phase of the cell cycle. Here, we demonstrate by means of array comparative genomic hybridization that charting the DNA copy number landscape of a cell in S-phase requires conceptually different approaches to that of a cell in G1- or G2/M-phase. Remarkably, despite single-cell whole-genome amplification artifacts, the log2 intensity ratios of single S-phase cells oscillate according to early and late replication domains, which in turn leads to the detection of significantly more DNA imbalances when compared with a cell in G1- or G2/M-phase. Although these DNA imbalances may, on the one hand, be falsely interpreted as genuine structural aberrations in the S-phase cell's copy number profile and hence lead to misdiagnosis, on the other hand, the ability to detect replication domains genome wide in one cell has important applications in DNA-replication research. Genome-wide cell-type-specific early and late replicating domains have been identified by analyses of DNA from populations of cells, but cell-to-cell differences in DNA replication may be important in genome stability, disease aetiology and various other cellular processes.

  13. Targeting the replisome with transduced monoclonal antibodies triggers lethal DNA replication stress in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Desplancq, Dominique; Freund, Guillaume; Conic, Sascha; Sibler, Annie-Paule; Didier, Pascal; Stoessel, Audrey; Oulad-Abdelghani, Mustapha; Vigneron, Marc; Wagner, Jérôme; Mély, Yves; Chatton, Bruno; Tora, Laszlo; Weiss, Etienne

    2016-03-15

    Although chemical inhibition of the DNA damage response (DDR) in cancer cells triggers cell death, it is not clear if the fork blockade achieved with inhibitors that neutralise proteins of the replisome is sufficient on its own to overcome the DDR. Monoclonal antibodies to PCNA, which block the DNA elongation process in vitro, have been developed. When these antibodies were transduced into cancer cells, they are able to inhibit the incorporation of nucleoside analogues. When co-delivered with anti-PCNA siRNA, the cells were flattened and the size of their nuclei increased by up to 3-fold, prior to cell death. Analysis of these nuclei by super-resolution microscopy revealed the presence of large numbers of phosphorylated histone H2AX foci. A senescence-like phenotype of the transduced cells was also observed upon delivery of the corresponding Fab molecules or following PCNA gene disruption or when the Fab fragment of an antibody that neutralises DNA polymerase alpha was used. Primary melanoma cells and leukaemia cells that are resistant to chemical inhibitors were similarly affected by these antibody treatments. These results demonstrate that transduced antibodies can trigger a lethal DNA replication stress, which kills cancer cells by abolishing the biological activity of several constituents of the replisome.

  14. Genome-wide copy number profiling of single cells in S-phase reveals DNA-replication domains

    PubMed Central

    Van der Aa, Niels; Cheng, Jiqiu; Mateiu, Ligia; Esteki, Masoud Zamani; Kumar, Parveen; Dimitriadou, Eftychia; Vanneste, Evelyne; Moreau, Yves; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Voet, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Single-cell genomics is revolutionizing basic genome research and clinical genetic diagnosis. However, none of the current research or clinical methods for single-cell analysis distinguishes between the analysis of a cell in G1-, S- or G2/M-phase of the cell cycle. Here, we demonstrate by means of array comparative genomic hybridization that charting the DNA copy number landscape of a cell in S-phase requires conceptually different approaches to that of a cell in G1- or G2/M-phase. Remarkably, despite single-cell whole-genome amplification artifacts, the log2 intensity ratios of single S-phase cells oscillate according to early and late replication domains, which in turn leads to the detection of significantly more DNA imbalances when compared with a cell in G1- or G2/M-phase. Although these DNA imbalances may, on the one hand, be falsely interpreted as genuine structural aberrations in the S-phase cell’s copy number profile and hence lead to misdiagnosis, on the other hand, the ability to detect replication domains genome wide in one cell has important applications in DNA-replication research. Genome-wide cell-type-specific early and late replicating domains have been identified by analyses of DNA from populations of cells, but cell-to-cell differences in DNA replication may be important in genome stability, disease aetiology and various other cellular processes. PMID:23295674

  15. Constitutive stable DNA replication in Escherichia coli cells lacking type 1A topoisomerase activity.

    PubMed

    Martel, Makisha; Balleydier, Aurélien; Sauriol, Alexandre; Drolet, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Type 1A topoisomerases (topos) are ubiquitous enzymes involved in supercoiling regulation and in the maintenance of genome stability. Escherichia coli possesses two type 1A enzymes, topo I (topA) and topo III (topB). Cells lacking both enzymes form very long filaments and have severe chromosome segregation and growth defects. We previously found that RNase HI overproduction or a dnaT::aph mutation could significantly correct these phenotypes. This leads us to hypothesize that they were related to unregulated replication originating from R-loops, i.e. constitutive stable DNA replication (cSDR). cSDR, first observed in rnhA (RNase HI) mutants, is characterized by its persistence for several hours following protein synthesis inhibition and by its requirement for primosome components, including DnaT. Here, to visualize and measure cSDR, the incorporation of the nucleotide analog ethynyl deoxyuridine (EdU) during replication in E. coli cells pre-treated with protein synthesis inhibitors, was revealed by "click" labeling with Alexa Fluor(®) 488 in fixed cells, and flow cytometry analysis. cSDR was detected in rnhA mutants, but not in wild-type strains, and the number of cells undergoing cSDR was significantly reduced by the introduction of the dnaT::aph mutation. cSDR was also found in topA, double topA topB but not in topB null cells. This result is consistent with the established function of topo I in the inhibition of R-loop formation. Moreover, our finding that topB rnhA mutants are perfectly viable demonstrates that topo III is not uniquely required during cSDR. Thus, either topo I or III can provide the type 1A topo activity that is specifically required during cSDR to allow chromosome segregation.

  16. DNA replication stress: causes, resolution and disease.

    PubMed

    Mazouzi, Abdelghani; Velimezi, Georgia; Loizou, Joanna I

    2014-11-15

    DNA replication is a fundamental process of the cell that ensures accurate duplication of the genetic information and subsequent transfer to daughter cells. Various pertubations, originating from endogenous or exogenous sources, can interfere with proper progression and completion of the replication process, thus threatening genome integrity. Coordinated regulation of replication and the DNA damage response is therefore fundamental to counteract these challenges and ensure accurate synthesis of the genetic material under conditions of replication stress. In this review, we summarize the main sources of replication stress and the DNA damage signaling pathways that are activated in order to preserve genome integrity during DNA replication. We also discuss the association of replication stress and DNA damage in human disease and future perspectives in the field.

  17. Expression profiling of colorectal cancer cells reveals inhibition of DNA replication licensing by extracellular calcium.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Abhishek; Schulz, Herbert; Manhardt, Teresa; Bilban, Martin; Thakker, Rajesh V; Kallay, Enikö

    2017-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in industrialised societies. Epidemiological studies, animal experiments, and randomized clinical trials have shown that dietary factors can influence all stages of colorectal carcinogenesis, from initiation through promotion to progression. Calcium is one of the factors with a chemoprophylactic effect in colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to understand the molecular mechanisms of the anti-tumorigenic effects of extracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]o) in colon cancer cells. Gene expression microarray analysis of colon cancer cells treated for 1, 4, and 24h with 2mM [Ca(2+)]o identified significant changes in expression of 1571 probe sets (ANOVA, p<10(-5)). The main biological processes affected by [Ca(2+)]o were DNA replication, cell division, and regulation of transcription. All factors involved in DNA replication-licensing were significantly downregulated by [Ca(2+)]o. Furthermore, we show that the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a G protein-coupled receptor is a mediator involved in this process. To test whether these results were physiologically relevant, we fed mice with a standard diet containing low (0.04%), intermediate (0.1%), or high (0.9%) levels of dietary calcium. The main molecules regulating replication licensing were inhibited also in vivo, in the colon of mice fed high calcium diet. We show that among the mechanisms behind the chemopreventive effect of [Ca(2+)]o is inhibition of replication licensing, a process often deregulated in neoplastic transformation. Our data suggest that dietary calcium is effective in preventing replicative stress, one of the main drivers of cancer and this process is mediated by the calcium-sensing receptor. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Impaired DNA replication prompts deletions within palindromic sequences, but does not induce translocations in human cells.

    PubMed

    Kurahashi, Hiroki; Inagaki, Hidehito; Kato, Takema; Hosoba, Eriko; Kogo, Hiroshi; Ohye, Tamae; Tsutsumi, Makiko; Bolor, Hasbaira; Tong, Maoqing; Emanuel, Beverly S

    2009-09-15

    Palindromic regions are unstable and susceptible to deletion in prokaryotes and eukaryotes possibly due to stalled or slow replication. In the human genome, they also appear to become partially or completely deleted, while two palindromic AT-rich repeats (PATRR) contribute to known recurrent constitutional translocations. To explore the mechanism that causes the development of palindrome instabilities in humans, we compared the incidence of de novo translocations and deletions at PATRRs in human cells. Using a highly sensitive PCR assay that can detect single molecules, de novo deletions were detected neither in human somatic cells nor in sperm. However, deletions were detected at low frequency in cultured cell lines. Inhibition of DNA replication by administration of siRNA against the DNA polymerase alpha 1 (POLA1) gene or introduction of POLA inhibitors increased the frequency. This is in contrast to PATRR-mediated translocations that were never detected in similar conditions but were observed frequently in human sperm samples. Further deletions were found to take place during both leading- and lagging-strand synthesis. Our data suggest that stalled or slow replication induces deletions within PATRRs, but that other mechanisms might contribute to PATRR-mediated recurrent translocations in humans.

  19. DNA Replication Origin Interference Increases the Spacing between Initiation Events in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lebofsky, Ronald; Heilig, Roland; Sonnleitner, Max; Weissenbach, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Mammalian DNA replication origins localize to sites that range from base pairs to tens of kilobases. A regular distribution of initiations in individual cell cycles suggests that only a limited number of these numerous potential start sites are converted into activated origins. Origin interference can silence redundant origins; however, it is currently unknown whether interference participates in spacing functional human initiation events. By using a novel hybridization strategy, genomic Morse code, on single combed DNA molecules from primary keratinocytes, we report the initiation sites present on 1.5 Mb of human chromosome 14q11.2. We confirm that initiation zones are widespread in human cells, map to intergenic regions, and contain sequence motifs found at other mammalian initiation zones. Origins used per cell cycle are less abundant than the potential sites of initiation, and their limited use increases the spacing between initiation events. Between-zone interference decreases in proportion to the distance from the active origin, whereas within-zone interference is 100% efficient. These results identify a hierarchical organization of origin activity in human cells. Functional origins govern the probability that nearby origins will fire in the context of multiple potential start sites of DNA replication, and this is mediated by origin interference. PMID:17005913

  20. DNA Replication Timing

    PubMed Central

    Rhind, Nicholas; Gilbert, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of replication within eukaryotic genomes correlate with gene expression, chromatin structure, and genome evolution. Recent advances in genome-scale mapping of replication kinetics have allowed these correlations to be explored in many species, cell types, and growth conditions, and these large data sets have allowed quantitative and computational analyses. One striking new correlation to emerge from these analyses is between replication timing and the three-dimensional structure of chromosomes. This correlation, which is significantly stronger than with any single histone modification or chromosome-binding protein, suggests that replication timing is controlled at the level of chromosomal domains. This conclusion dovetails with parallel work on the heterogeneity of origin firing and the competition between origins for limiting activators to suggest a model in which the stochastic probability of individual origin firing is modulated by chromosomal domain structure to produce patterns of replication. Whether these patterns have inherent biological functions or simply reflect higher-order genome structure is an open question. PMID:23838440

  1. Role of the Polymerase ϵ sub-unit DPB2 in DNA replication, cell cycle regulation and DNA damage response in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Pedroza-Garcia, José Antonio; Domenichini, Séverine; Mazubert, Christelle; Bourge, Mickael; White, Charles; Hudik, Elodie; Bounon, Rémi; Tariq, Zakia; Delannoy, Etienne; Del Olmo, Ivan; Piñeiro, Manuel; Jarillo, Jose Antonio; Bergounioux, Catherine; Benhamed, Moussa; Raynaud, Cécile

    2016-09-06

    Faithful DNA replication maintains genome stability in dividing cells and from one generation to the next. This is particularly important in plants because the whole plant body and reproductive cells originate from meristematic cells that retain their proliferative capacity throughout the life cycle of the organism. DNA replication involves large sets of proteins whose activity is strictly regulated, and is tightly linked to the DNA damage response to detect and respond to replication errors or defects. Central to this interconnection is the replicative polymerase DNA Polymerase ϵ (Pol ϵ) which participates in DNA replication per se, as well as replication stress response in animals and in yeast. Surprisingly, its function has to date been little explored in plants, and notably its relationship with DNA Damage Response (DDR) has not been investigated. Here, we have studied the role of the largest regulatory sub-unit of Arabidopsis DNA Pol ϵ: DPB2, using an over-expression strategy. We demonstrate that excess accumulation of the protein impairs DNA replication and causes endogenous DNA stress. Furthermore, we show that Pol ϵ dysfunction has contrasting outcomes in vegetative and reproductive cells and leads to the activation of distinct DDR pathways in the two cell types. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Role of the Polymerase ϵ sub-unit DPB2 in DNA replication, cell cycle regulation and DNA damage response in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Pedroza-Garcia, José Antonio; Domenichini, Séverine; Mazubert, Christelle; Bourge, Mickael; White, Charles; Hudik, Elodie; Bounon, Rémi; Tariq, Zakia; Delannoy, Etienne; del Olmo, Ivan; Piñeiro, Manuel; Jarillo, Jose Antonio; Bergounioux, Catherine; Benhamed, Moussa; Raynaud, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Faithful DNA replication maintains genome stability in dividing cells and from one generation to the next. This is particularly important in plants because the whole plant body and reproductive cells originate from meristematic cells that retain their proliferative capacity throughout the life cycle of the organism. DNA replication involves large sets of proteins whose activity is strictly regulated, and is tightly linked to the DNA damage response to detect and respond to replication errors or defects. Central to this interconnection is the replicative polymerase DNA Polymerase ϵ (Pol ϵ) which participates in DNA replication per se, as well as replication stress response in animals and in yeast. Surprisingly, its function has to date been little explored in plants, and notably its relationship with DNA Damage Response (DDR) has not been investigated. Here, we have studied the role of the largest regulatory sub-unit of Arabidopsis DNA Pol ϵ: DPB2, using an over-expression strategy. We demonstrate that excess accumulation of the protein impairs DNA replication and causes endogenous DNA stress. Furthermore, we show that Pol ϵ dysfunction has contrasting outcomes in vegetative and reproductive cells and leads to the activation of distinct DDR pathways in the two cell types. PMID:27193996

  3. Replication of alpha and beta globin DNA sequences occurs during early S phase in murine erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed Central

    Epner, E; Rifkind, R A; Marks, P A

    1981-01-01

    Murine erythroleukemia cells (MELC) can be induced to express the characteristics of erythroid differentiation by a variety of agents. Previous studies indicate that an action of inducer, occurring during early S phase, may be critical to the expression of differentiated characteristics such as initiation of accumulation of newly synthesized alpha and beta globin mRNAs. In this investigation, the time of replication of globin genes in MELC was studied. DNA was isolated from synchronous populations of cells obtained by centrifugal elutriation. Newly replicated DNA sequences were prepared from synchronized cells cultured for 1 1/2 hr with 5-bromodeoxyuridine; bromodeoxyuridine-containing DNA was isolated by CsCl gradient centrifugation. By employing cloned probes for hybridization to newly synthesized DNA, it was found that alpha and beta globin gene sequences are replicated early in S phase, while ribosomal RNA gene sequences are replicated to about the same extent in early, middle, and late S phases. PMID:6942415

  4. Butyrate Induced Cell Cycle Arrest in Bovine Cells through Targeting Gene Expression relevance to DNA Replication Apparatus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Using both real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis in bovine kidney epithelial cells, we systematically investigated the gene expression relevance to DNA replication apparatus targeted by butyrate. The real-time PCR and Western blot data generally confirmed the microarray analysis. From the quan...

  5. High-throughput screening for genes that prevent excess DNA replication in human cells and for molecules that inhibit them

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chrissie Y.; Johnson, Ronald L.; Wichterman-Kouznetsova, Jennifer; Guha, Rajarshi; Ferrer, Marc; Tuzmen, Pinar; Martin, Scott E.; Zhu, Wenge; DePamphilis, Melvin L.

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) provides a rapid and comprehensive approach to identifying compounds that target specific biological processes as well as genes that are essential to those processes. Here we describe a HTS assay for small molecules that induce either DNA re-replication or endoreduplication (i.e. excess DNA replication) selectively in cells derived from human cancers. Such molecules will be useful not only to investigate cell division and differentiation, but they may provide a novel approach to cancer chemotherapy. Since induction of DNA re-replication results in apoptosis, compounds that selectively induce DNA re-replication in cancer cells without doing so in normal cells could kill cancers in vivo without preventing normal cell proliferation. Furthermore, the same HTS assay can be adapted to screen siR-NA molecules to identify genes whose products restrict genome duplication to once per cell division. Some of these genes might regulate the formation of terminally differentiated polyploid cells during normal human development, whereas others will prevent DNA re-replication during each cell division. Based on previous studies, we anticipate that one or more of the latter genes will prove to be essential for proliferation of cancer cells but not for normal cells, since many cancer cells are deficient in mechanisms that maintain genome stability. PMID:22503772

  6. Primer removal during mammalian mitochondrial DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Uhler, Jay P; Falkenberg, Maria

    2015-10-01

    The small circular mitochondrial genome in mammalian cells is replicated by a dedicated replisome, defects in which can cause mitochondrial disease in humans. A fundamental step in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and maintenance is the removal of the RNA primers needed for replication initiation. The nucleases RNase H1, FEN1, DNA2, and MGME1 have been implicated in this process. Here we review the role of these nucleases in the light of primer removal pathways in mitochondria, highlight associations with disease, as well as consider the implications for mtDNA replication initiation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Proteome-wide analysis of SUMO2 targets in response to pathological DNA replication stress in human cells.

    PubMed

    Bursomanno, Sara; Beli, Petra; Khan, Asif M; Minocherhomji, Sheroy; Wagner, Sebastian A; Bekker-Jensen, Simon; Mailand, Niels; Choudhary, Chunaram; Hickson, Ian D; Liu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    SUMOylation is a form of post-translational modification involving covalent attachment of SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier) polypeptides to specific lysine residues in the target protein. In human cells, there are four SUMO proteins, SUMO1-4, with SUMO2 and SUMO3 forming a closely related subfamily. SUMO2/3, in contrast to SUMO1, are predominantly involved in the cellular response to certain stresses, including heat shock. Substantial evidence from studies in yeast has shown that SUMOylation plays an important role in the regulation of DNA replication and repair. Here, we report a proteomic analysis of proteins modified by SUMO2 in response to DNA replication stress in S phase in human cells. We have identified a panel of 22 SUMO2 targets with increased SUMOylation during DNA replication stress, many of which play key functions within the DNA replication machinery and/or in the cellular response to DNA damage. Interestingly, POLD3 was found modified most significantly in response to a low dose aphidicolin treatment protocol that promotes common fragile site (CFS) breakage. POLD3 is the human ortholog of POL32 in budding yeast, and has been shown to act during break-induced recombinational repair. We have also shown that deficiency of POLD3 leads to an increase in RPA-bound ssDNA when cells are under replication stress, suggesting that POLD3 plays a role in the cellular response to DNA replication stress. Considering that DNA replication stress is a source of genome instability, and that excessive replication stress is a hallmark of pre-neoplastic and tumor cells, our characterization of SUMO2 targets during a perturbed S-phase should provide a valuable resource for future functional studies in the fields of DNA metabolism and cancer biology.

  8. Regulatory parameters of DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Zannis-Hadjopoulos, M; Price, G B

    1998-01-01

    One of the fundamental characteristics that help define life is the ability to propagate. At the basest level in the act of propagation is replication of the genetic information as the databank and architectural plans for each particular life form. Thus propagation of life requires the replication of the genome--for the purposes of our review, eukaryotic DNA replication. In this critical review, we have chosen to present the issues and supporting experimental evidence in question-and-answer format. Over the past 3 to 4 years, the research domain of eukaryotic DNA replication has developed a new dynamism. This new force in discovery of the fundamental elements and mechanisms for DNA replication in higher eukaryotes has been propelled by accepted methodologies for mapping (identification) of origins of DNA replication, applicable to mammalian DNA replication, and by the discovery of the origin recognition complex (ORC) in yeast, which has served as a model in the search for the mammalian equivalent.

  9. Targeting Thioredoxin Reductase 1 Reduction in Cancer Cells Inhibits Self-Sufficient Growth and DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Min-Hyuk; Xu, Xue-Ming; Carlson, Bradley A.; Patterson, Andrew D.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Hatfield, Dolph L.

    2007-01-01

    Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TR1) is a major redox regulator in mammalian cells. As an important antioxidant selenoprotein, TR1 is thought to participate in cancer prevention, but is also known to be over-expressed in many cancer cells. Numerous cancer drugs inhibit TR1, and this protein has been proposed as a target for cancer therapy. We previously reported that reduction of TR1 levels in cancer cells reversed many malignant characteristics suggesting that deficiency in TR1 function is antitumorigenic. The molecular basis for TR1's role in cancer development, however, is not understood. Herein, we found that, among selenoproteins, TR1 is uniquely overexpressed in cancer cells and its knockdown in a mouse cancer cell line driven by oncogenic k-ras resulted in morphological changes characteristic of parental (normal) cells, without significant effect on cell growth under normal growth conditions. When grown in serum-deficient medium, TR1 deficient cancer cells lose self-sufficiency of growth, manifest a defective progression in their S phase and a decreased expression of DNA polymerase α, an enzyme important in DNA replication. These observations provide evidence that TR1 is critical for self-sufficiency in growth signals of malignant cells, that TR1 acts largely as a pro-cancer protein and it is indeed a primary target in cancer therapy. PMID:17971875

  10. Wild-type p53 is not a negative regulator of simian virus 40 DNA replication in infected monkey cells.

    PubMed Central

    von der Weth, A; Deppert, W

    1993-01-01

    To analyze the proposed growth-inhibitory function of wild-type p53, we compared simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA replication in primary rhesus monkey kidney (PRK) cells, which express wild-type p53, and in the established rhesus monkey kidney cell line LLC-MK2, which expresses a mutated p53 that does not complex with large T antigen. SV40 DNA replication proceeded identically in both cell types during the course of infection. Endogenously expressed wild-type p53 thus does not negatively modulate SV40 DNA replication in vivo. We suggest that inhibition of SV40 DNA replication by wild-type p53 in in vitro replication assays is due to grossly elevated ratios of p53 to large T antigen, thus depleting the replication-competent free large T antigen in the assay mixtures by complex formation. In contrast, the ratio of p53 to large T antigen in in vivo replication is low, leaving the majority of large T antigen in a free, replication-competent state. Images PMID:8380470

  11. DNA repair and replication links to pluripotency and differentiation capacity of pig iPS cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lipu; Fan, Anran; Zhang, Sheng; Wang, Jianyu; Fan, Nana; Liu, Na; Ye, Xiaoying; Fu, Haifeng; Zhou, Zhongcheng; Wang, Yong; Wei, Hong; Liu, Zhonghua; Li, Ziyi; Lai, Liangxue; Wang, Xumin; Liu, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Pigs are proposed to be suitable large animal models for test of the efficacy and safety of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for stem cell therapy, but authentic pig ES/iPS cell lines with germline competence are rarely produced. The pathways or signaling underlying the defective competent pig iPSCs remain poorly understood. By improving induction conditions using various small chemicals, we generated pig iPSCs that exhibited high pluripotency and differentiation capacity that can contribute to chimeras. However, their potency was reduced with increasing passages by teratoma formation test, and correlated with declined expression levels of Rex1, an important marker for naïve state. By RNA-sequencing analysis, genes related to WNT signaling were upregulated and MAPK signaling and TGFβ pathways downregulated in pig iPSCs compared to fibroblasts, but they were abnormally expressed during passages. Notably, pathways involving in DNA repair and replication were upregulated at early passage, but downregulated in iPSCs during prolonged passage in cluster with fibroblasts. Our data suggests that reduced DNA repair and replication capacity links to the instability of pig iPSCs. Targeting these pathways may facilitate generation of truly pluripotent pig iPSCs, with implication in translational studies. PMID:28253351

  12. DnaA and ORC: more than DNA replication initiators.

    PubMed

    Scholefield, Graham; Veening, Jan-Willem; Murray, Heath

    2011-03-01

    Mutations in DNA replication initiator genes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes lead to a pleiotropic array of phenotypes, including defects in chromosome segregation, cytokinesis, cell cycle regulation and gene expression. For years, it was not clear whether these diverse effects were indirect consequences of perturbed DNA replication, or whether they indicated that DNA replication initiator proteins had roles beyond their activity in initiating DNA synthesis. Recent work from a range of organisms has demonstrated that DNA replication initiator proteins play direct roles in many cellular processes, often functioning to coordinate the initiation of DNA replication with essential cell-cycle activities. The aim of this review is to highlight these new findings, focusing on the pathways and mechanisms utilized by DNA replication initiator proteins to carry out a diverse array of cellular functions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. DNA replication stress induces deregulation of the cell cycle events in root meristems of Allium cepa

    PubMed Central

    Żabka, Aneta; Polit, Justyna Teresa; Maszewski, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Prolonged treatment of Allium cepa root meristems with changing concentrations of hydroxyurea (HU) results in either premature chromosome condensation or cell nuclei with an uncommon form of biphasic chromatin organization. The aim of the current study was to assess conditions that compromise cell cycle checkpoints and convert DNA replication stress into an abnormal course of mitosis. Methods Interphase-mitotic (IM) cells showing gradual changes of chromatin condensation were obtained following continuous 72 h treatment of seedlings with 0·75 mm HU (without renewal of the medium). HU-treated root meristems were analysed using histochemical stainings (DNA-DAPI/Feulgen; starch-iodide and DAB staining for H2O2 production), Western blotting [cyclin B-like (CBL) proteins] and immunochemistry (BrdU incorporation, detection of γ-H2AX and H3S10 phosphorylation). Key Results Continuous treatment of onion seedlings with a low concentration of HU results in shorter root meristems, enhanced production of H2O2, γ-phosphorylation of H2AX histones and accumulation of CBL proteins. HU-induced replication stress gives rise to axially elongated cells with half interphase/half mitotic structures (IM-cells) having both decondensed and condensed domains of chromatin. Long-term HU treatment results in cell nuclei resuming S phase with gradients of BrdU labelling. This suggests a polarized distribution of factors needed to re-initiate stalled replication forks. Furthermore, prolonged HU treatment extends both the relative time span and the spatial scale of H3S10 phosphorylation known in plants. Conclusions The minimum cell length and a threshold level of accumulated CBL proteins are both determining factors by which the nucleus attains commitment to induce an asynchronous course of chromosome condensation. Replication stress-induced alterations in an orderly route of the cell cycle events probably reflect a considerable reprogramming of metabolic functions of

  14. New host cell system for regulated simian virus 40 DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Gerard, R D; Gluzman, Y

    1985-01-01

    Transformed monkey cell lines (CMT and BMT) that inducible express simian virus 40 (SV40) T antigen from the metallothionein promoter have been isolated and characterized. Immunoprecipitation of pulse-labeled T antigen demonstrates a 5- to 12-fold increase in the rate of synthesis on addition of heavy-metal inducers to the culture medium. Radioimmunoassay of cell extracts indicates the accumulation of three- to fourfold more total T antigen after 2 days of induction by comparison with uninduced controls. A direct correlation was found between the level of T-antigen synthesis and the extent of SV40 DNA replication in inducible cells. Inducible BMT cells expressing a low basal level of T antigen were efficiently transformed by a vector carrying the neomycin resistance marker and an SV40 origin of replication. These vector sequences were maintained in an episomal form in most G418-resistant cell lines examined and persisted even in the absence of biochemical selection. Extensive rearrangements were observed only if the vector contained bacterial plasmid sequences. Expression of a protein product under the control of the SV40 late promoter in such vectors was increased after heavy-metal-dependent amplification of the template. These results demonstrate the ability of BMT cells to maintain a cloned eucaryotic gene in an amplifiable episomal state. Images PMID:3018509

  15. Regulation of mouse satellite DNA replication time.

    PubMed

    Selig, S; Ariel, M; Goitein, R; Marcus, M; Cedar, H

    1988-02-01

    The satellite DNA sequences located near the centromeric regions of mouse chromosomes replicate very late in S in both fibroblast and lymphocyte cells and are heavily methylated at CpG residues. F9 teratocarcinoma cells, on the other hand, contain satellite sequences which are undermethylated and replicate much earlier in S. DNA methylation probably plays some role in the control of satellite replication time since 5-azacytidine treatment of RAG fibroblasts causes a dramatic temporal shift of replication to mid S. In contrast to similar changes accompanying the inactivation of the X-chromosome, early replication of satellite DNA is not associated with an increase in local chromosomal DNase I sensitivity. Fusion of F9 with mouse lymphocytes caused a dramatic early shift in the timing of the normally late replicating lymphocyte satellite heterochromatin, suggesting that trans-activating factors may be responsible for the regulation of replication timing.

  16. Mechanisms of Post-Replication DNA Repair.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanzhe; Mutter-Rottmayer, Elizabeth; Zlatanou, Anastasia; Vaziri, Cyrus; Yang, Yang

    2017-02-08

    Accurate DNA replication is crucial for cell survival and the maintenance of genome stability. Cells have developed mechanisms to cope with the frequent genotoxic injuries that arise from both endogenous and environmental sources. Lesions encountered during DNA replication are often tolerated by post-replication repair mechanisms that prevent replication fork collapse and avert the formation of DNA double strand breaks. There are two predominant post-replication repair pathways, trans-lesion synthesis (TLS) and template switching (TS). TLS is a DNA damage-tolerant and low-fidelity mode of DNA synthesis that utilizes specialized 'Y-family' DNA polymerases to replicate damaged templates. TS, however, is an error-free 'DNA damage avoidance' mode of DNA synthesis that uses a newly synthesized sister chromatid as a template in lieu of the damaged parent strand. Both TLS and TS pathways are tightly controlled signaling cascades that integrate DNA synthesis with the overall DNA damage response and are thus crucial for genome stability. This review will cover the current knowledge of the primary mediators of post-replication repair and how they are regulated in the cell.

  17. Mechanisms of Post-Replication DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yanzhe; Mutter-Rottmayer, Elizabeth; Zlatanou, Anastasia; Vaziri, Cyrus; Yang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Accurate DNA replication is crucial for cell survival and the maintenance of genome stability. Cells have developed mechanisms to cope with the frequent genotoxic injuries that arise from both endogenous and environmental sources. Lesions encountered during DNA replication are often tolerated by post-replication repair mechanisms that prevent replication fork collapse and avert the formation of DNA double strand breaks. There are two predominant post-replication repair pathways, trans-lesion synthesis (TLS) and template switching (TS). TLS is a DNA damage-tolerant and low-fidelity mode of DNA synthesis that utilizes specialized ‘Y-family’ DNA polymerases to replicate damaged templates. TS, however, is an error-free ‘DNA damage avoidance’ mode of DNA synthesis that uses a newly synthesized sister chromatid as a template in lieu of the damaged parent strand. Both TLS and TS pathways are tightly controlled signaling cascades that integrate DNA synthesis with the overall DNA damage response and are thus crucial for genome stability. This review will cover the current knowledge of the primary mediators of post-replication repair and how they are regulated in the cell. PMID:28208741

  18. Replication of chromosomal and episomal DNA in X-ray-damaged human cells: A cis- or trans-acting mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Cleaver, J.E.; Rose, R.; Mitchell, D.L. )

    1990-12-01

    Episomal plasmids and viruses in mammalian cells present small targets for X-ray-induced DNA damage. At doses up to 100 Gy, DNA strand breaks or endonuclease III-sensitive sites were not discernible in 10.3-kb Epstein-Barr virus-based plasmid DNA or in 4.9-kb defective simian virus 40 DNA. DNA replication in these small molecules, however, was inhibited strongly by X-ray doses of greater than or equal to 20 Gy, decreasing to only 20 to 40% of control values. Inhibition was relieved slightly by growth in caffeine but was increased by growth in 3-aminobenzamide. Inhibition of DNA replication in episomal DNA molecules that are too small to sustain significant damage directly to their DNA may be due to either (a) a trans-acting diffusible factor that transfers the consequences of DNA breakage to episomes and to other replicating molecules, (b) a cis-acting mechanism in which episomes are structurally linked to genomic chromatin, and replication of both episomal and chromosomal replicons is under common control, or (c) radiation damage on other cellular structures unrelated to DNA. The resolution of these cellular mechanisms may shed light on the X-ray-resistant replication in ataxia-telangiectasia and may suggest strategies for molecular characterization of potential trans- or cis-acting factors.

  19. Molecular Mechanisms of DNA Replication Checkpoint Activation

    PubMed Central

    Recolin, Bénédicte; van der Laan, Siem; Tsanov, Nikolay; Maiorano, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    The major challenge of the cell cycle is to deliver an intact, and fully duplicated, genetic material to the daughter cells. To this end, progression of DNA synthesis is monitored by a feedback mechanism known as replication checkpoint that is untimely linked to DNA replication. This signaling pathway ensures coordination of DNA synthesis with cell cycle progression. Failure to activate this checkpoint in response to perturbation of DNA synthesis (replication stress) results in forced cell division leading to chromosome fragmentation, aneuploidy, and genomic instability. In this review, we will describe current knowledge of the molecular determinants of the DNA replication checkpoint in eukaryotic cells and discuss a model of activation of this signaling pathway crucial for maintenance of genomic stability. PMID:24705291

  20. Gene dosage imbalance during DNA replication controls bacterial cell-fate decision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igoshin, Oleg

    Genes encoding proteins in a common regulatory network are frequently located close to one another on the chromosome to facilitate co-regulation or couple gene expression to growth rate. Contrasting with these observations, here we demonstrate a functional role for the arrangement of Bacillus subtilis sporulation network genes on opposite sides of the chromosome. We show that the arrangement of two sporulation network genes, one located close to the origin, the other close to the terminus leads to a transient gene dosage imbalance during chromosome replication. This imbalance is detected by the sporulation network to produce cell-cycle coordinated pulses of the sporulation master regulator Spo0A~P. This pulsed response allows cells to decide between sporulation and continued vegetative growth during each cell-cycle spent in starvation. Furthermore, changes in DNA replication and cell-cycle parameters with decreased growth rate in starvation conditions enable cells to indirectly detect starvation without the need for evaluating specific metabolites. The simplicity of the uncovered coordination mechanism and starvation sensing suggests that it may be widely applicable in a variety of gene regulatory and stress-response settings. This work is supported by National Science Foundation Grants MCB-1244135, EAGER-1450867, MCB-1244423, NIH NIGMS Grant R01 GM088428 and HHMI International Student Fellowship.

  1. Matrix elasticity, replicative senescence and DNA methylation patterns of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, Anne; Joussen, Sylvia; Moser, Kristin; Hampe, Nico; Hersch, Nils; Hemeda, Hatim; Schnitker, Jan; Denecke, Bernd; Lin, Qiong; Pallua, Norbert; Zenke, Martin; Merkel, Rudolf; Hoffmann, Bernd; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2014-08-01

    Matrix elasticity guides differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) but it is unclear if these effects are only transient - while the cells reside on the substrate - or if they reflect persistent lineage commitment. In this study, MSCs were continuously culture-expanded in parallel either on tissue culture plastic (TCP) or on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) gels of different elasticity to compare impact on replicative senescence, in vitro differentiation, gene expression, and DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles. The maximal number of cumulative population doublings was not affected by matrix elasticity. Differentiation towards adipogenic and osteogenic lineage was increased on soft and rigid biomaterials, respectively - but this propensity was no more evident if cells were transferred to TCP. Global gene expression profiles and DNAm profiles revealed relatively few differences in MSCs cultured on soft or rigid matrices. Furthermore, only moderate DNAm changes were observed upon culture on very soft hydrogels of human platelet lysate. Our results support the notion that matrix elasticity influences cellular behavior while the cells reside on the substrate, but it does not have major impact on cell-intrinsic lineage determination, replicative senescence or DNAm patterns.

  2. Optimal Placement of Origins for DNA Replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karschau, Jens; Blow, J. Julian; de Moura, Alessandro P. S.

    2012-02-01

    DNA replication is an essential process in biology and its timing must be robust so that cells can divide properly. Random fluctuations in the formation of replication starting points, called origins, and the subsequent activation of proteins lead to variations in the replication time. We analyze these stochastic properties of DNA and derive the positions of origins corresponding to the minimum replication time. We show that under some conditions the minimization of replication time leads to the grouping of origins, and relate this to experimental data in a number of species showing origin grouping.

  3. Optimal placement of origins for DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Karschau, Jens; Blow, J Julian; de Moura, Alessandro P S

    2012-02-03

    DNA replication is an essential process in biology and its timing must be robust so that cells can divide properly. Random fluctuations in the formation of replication starting points, called origins, and the subsequent activation of proteins lead to variations in the replication time. We analyze these stochastic properties of DNA and derive the positions of origins corresponding to the minimum replication time. We show that under some conditions the minimization of replication time leads to the grouping of origins, and relate this to experimental data in a number of species showing origin grouping.

  4. DNA2 drives processing and restart of reversed replication forks in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Thangavel, Saravanabhavan; Berti, Matteo; Levikova, Maryna; Pinto, Cosimo; Gomathinayagam, Shivasankari; Vujanovic, Marko; Zellweger, Ralph; Moore, Hayley; Lee, Eu Han; Hendrickson, Eric A.; Cejka, Petr; Stewart, Sheila; Lopes, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Accurate processing of stalled or damaged DNA replication forks is paramount to genomic integrity and recent work points to replication fork reversal and restart as a central mechanism to ensuring high-fidelity DNA replication. Here, we identify a novel DNA2- and WRN-dependent mechanism of reversed replication fork processing and restart after prolonged genotoxic stress. The human DNA2 nuclease and WRN ATPase activities functionally interact to degrade reversed replication forks with a 5′-to-3′ polarity and promote replication restart, thus preventing aberrant processing of unresolved replication intermediates. Unexpectedly, EXO1, MRE11, and CtIP are not involved in the same mechanism of reversed fork processing, whereas human RECQ1 limits DNA2 activity by preventing extensive nascent strand degradation. RAD51 depletion antagonizes this mechanism, presumably by preventing reversed fork formation. These studies define a new mechanism for maintaining genome integrity tightly controlled by specific nucleolytic activities and central homologous recombination factors. PMID:25733713

  5. Phage P4 DNA replication in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Díaz Orejas, R; Ziegelin, G; Lurz, R; Lanka, E

    1994-01-01

    Phage P4 DNA is replicated in cell-free extracts of Escherichia coli in the presence of partially purified P4 alpha protein [Krevolin and Calendar (1985), J. Mol. Biol. 182, 507-517]. Using a modified in vitro replication assay, we have further characterized this process. Analysis by agarose gel electrophoresis and autoradiography of in vitro replicated molecules demonstrates that the system yields supercoiled monomeric DNA as the main product. Electron microscopic analysis of in vitro generated intermediates indicates that DNA synthesis initiates in vitro mainly at ori, the origin of replication used in vivo. Replication proceeds from this origin bidirectionally, resulting in theta-type molecules. In contrast to the in vivo situation, no extensive single-stranded regions were found in these intermediates. The initiation proteins of the host, DnaB and DnaG, and the chaperones DnaJ and DnaK are not required for P4 replication, because polyclonal antibodies against those polypeptides do not inhibit the process. The reaction is inhibited by antibodies against the SSB protein, and by ara-CTP, a specific inhibitor of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme. Consistent with previous reports, P4 in vitro replication is independent of transcription by host RNA polymerase. Novobiocin, a DNA gyrase inhibitor, strongly inhibits P4 DNA synthesis, indicating that form I DNA is the required substrate. Images PMID:8029013

  6. Recruitment of ORC or CDC6 to DNA is sufficient to create an artificial origin of replication in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Takeda, David Y; Shibata, Yoshiyuki; Parvin, Jeffrey D; Dutta, Anindya

    2005-12-01

    Origins of replication are expected to recruit initiation proteins like origin recognition complex (ORC) and Cdc6 in eukaryotes and provide a platform for unwinding DNA. Here we test whether localization of initiation proteins onto DNA is sufficient for origin function. Different components of the ORC complex and Cdc6 stimulated prereplicative complex (pre-RC) formation and replication initiation when fused to the GAL4 DNA-binding domain and recruited to plasmid DNA containing a tandem array of GAL4-binding sites. Replication occurred once per cell cycle and was inhibited by Geminin, indicating that the plasmid was properly licensed during the cell cycle. The GAL4 fusion protein recruits other polypeptides of the ORC-Cdc6 complex, and nascent strand abundance was highest near the GAL4-binding sites. Therefore, the artificial origin recapitulates many of the regulatory features of physiological origins and is valuable for studies on replication initiation in mammalian cells. We demonstrated the utility of this system by showing the functional importance of the ATPase domains of human Cdc6 and Orc1 and the dispensability of the N-terminal segments of Orc1 and Orc2 in this assay. Artificial recruitment of a eukaryotic cellular replication initiation factor to a DNA sequence can create a functional origin of replication, providing a robust genetic assay for these factors and a novel approach to generating episomal vectors for gene therapy.

  7. Targeting DNA Replication Stress for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Dai, Qun; Park, Dongkyoo; Deng, Xingming

    2016-01-01

    The human cellular genome is under constant stress from extrinsic and intrinsic factors, which can lead to DNA damage and defective replication. In normal cells, DNA damage response (DDR) mediated by various checkpoints will either activate the DNA repair system or induce cellular apoptosis/senescence, therefore maintaining overall genomic integrity. Cancer cells, however, due to constitutive growth signaling and defective DDR, may exhibit “replication stress” —a phenomenon unique to cancer cells that is described as the perturbation of error-free DNA replication and slow-down of DNA synthesis. Although replication stress has been proven to induce genomic instability and tumorigenesis, recent studies have counterintuitively shown that enhancing replicative stress through further loosening of the remaining checkpoints in cancer cells to induce their catastrophic failure of proliferation may provide an alternative therapeutic approach. In this review, we discuss the rationale to enhance replicative stress in cancer cells, past approaches using traditional radiation and chemotherapy, and emerging approaches targeting the signaling cascades induced by DNA damage. We also summarize current clinical trials exploring these strategies and propose future research directions including the use of combination therapies, and the identification of potential new targets and biomarkers to track and predict treatment responses to targeting DNA replication stress. PMID:27548226

  8. Effects of different thymidine concentrations on DNA replication in pea-root cells synchronized by a protracted 5-fluorodeoxyuridine treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Schvartzman, J.B.; Krimer, D.B.; Van't Hof, J.

    1984-01-01

    Single-cell and DNA fiber autoradiography, cytophotometry and velocity sedimentation in alkaline sucrose gradients were used to analyse DNA replication and nascent replicon maturation in 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (FUdR)-synchronized cells of Pisum sativum. The replicon size was not significantly changed by the protracted FUdR treatment. When the synchronized cells were released from the inhibitor, labeled with (/sup 3/H)TdR for 30 min, and chased in medium containing 1 x 10/sup -6/ M or lower concentrations of cold thymidine, DNA replication stopped after approx. 25% of the genome had replicated, and the nascent strands failed to grow above 9-12 x 10/sup 6/ D single-stranded (ss) DNA. When the cells were chased in medium with 1 x 10/sup -5/ M cold thymidine, the DNA content of the labeled cells steadily increased with time and the size of the nascent molecules grew continuously until replicon size was achieved; then they were accumulated at replicon size until the cells arrived in late S or G2. When the FUdR-synchronized cells were chased in medium containing 1 x 10/sup -4/ M cold thymidine, the size of the nascent strands increased continuously with time, indicating that some neighboring nascent replicons were joined as soon as they completed their replication. These observations led us to postulate that in FUdR-synchronized cells the rates of chain elongation, cell progression through the S phase and nascent replicon maturation are controlled by thymidine availability.

  9. Regulation of Unperturbed DNA Replication by Ubiquitylation.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Sara Priego; Gambus, Agnieszka

    2015-06-25

    Posttranslational modification of proteins by means of attachment of a small globular protein ubiquitin (i.e., ubiquitylation) represents one of the most abundant and versatile mechanisms of protein regulation employed by eukaryotic cells. Ubiquitylation influences almost every cellular process and its key role in coordination of the DNA damage response is well established. In this review we focus, however, on the ways ubiquitylation controls the process of unperturbed DNA replication. We summarise the accumulated knowledge showing the leading role of ubiquitin driven protein degradation in setting up conditions favourable for replication origin licensing and S-phase entry. Importantly, we also present the emerging major role of ubiquitylation in coordination of the active DNA replication process: preventing re-replication, regulating the progression of DNA replication forks, chromatin re-establishment and disassembly of the replisome at the termination of replication forks.

  10. DNA replication stress restricts ribosomal DNA copy number

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Devika; Bradford, William D.; Freeland, Amy; Cady, Gillian; Wang, Jianmin

    2017-01-01

    Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) in budding yeast are encoded by ~100–200 repeats of a 9.1kb sequence arranged in tandem on chromosome XII, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus. Copy number of rDNA repeat units in eukaryotic cells is maintained far in excess of the requirement for ribosome biogenesis. Despite the importance of the repeats for both ribosomal and non-ribosomal functions, it is currently not known how “normal” copy number is determined or maintained. To identify essential genes involved in the maintenance of rDNA copy number, we developed a droplet digital PCR based assay to measure rDNA copy number in yeast and used it to screen a yeast conditional temperature-sensitive mutant collection of essential genes. Our screen revealed that low rDNA copy number is associated with compromised DNA replication. Further, subculturing yeast under two separate conditions of DNA replication stress selected for a contraction of the rDNA array independent of the replication fork blocking protein, Fob1. Interestingly, cells with a contracted array grew better than their counterparts with normal copy number under conditions of DNA replication stress. Our data indicate that DNA replication stresses select for a smaller rDNA array. We speculate that this liberates scarce replication factors for use by the rest of the genome, which in turn helps cells complete DNA replication and continue to propagate. Interestingly, tumors from mini chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2)-deficient mice also show a loss of rDNA repeats. Our data suggest that a reduction in rDNA copy number may indicate a history of DNA replication stress, and that rDNA array size could serve as a diagnostic marker for replication stress. Taken together, these data begin to suggest the selective pressures that combine to yield a “normal” rDNA copy number. PMID:28915237

  11. DNA replication stress restricts ribosomal DNA copy number.

    PubMed

    Salim, Devika; Bradford, William D; Freeland, Amy; Cady, Gillian; Wang, Jianmin; Pruitt, Steven C; Gerton, Jennifer L

    2017-09-15

    Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) in budding yeast are encoded by ~100-200 repeats of a 9.1kb sequence arranged in tandem on chromosome XII, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus. Copy number of rDNA repeat units in eukaryotic cells is maintained far in excess of the requirement for ribosome biogenesis. Despite the importance of the repeats for both ribosomal and non-ribosomal functions, it is currently not known how "normal" copy number is determined or maintained. To identify essential genes involved in the maintenance of rDNA copy number, we developed a droplet digital PCR based assay to measure rDNA copy number in yeast and used it to screen the yeast conditional temperature-sensitive mutant collection of essential genes. Our screen revealed that low rDNA copy number is associated with compromised DNA replication. Further, subculturing yeast under two separate conditions of DNA replication stress selected for a contraction of the rDNA array independent of the replication fork blocking protein, Fob1. Interestingly, cells with a contracted array grew better than their counterparts with normal copy number under conditions of DNA replication stress. Our data indicate that DNA replication stresses select for a smaller rDNA array. We speculate that this liberates scarce replication factors for use by the rest of the genome, which in turn helps cells complete DNA replication and continue to propagate. Interestingly, tumors from mini chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2)-deficient mice also show a loss of rDNA repeats. Our data suggest that a reduction in rDNA copy number may indicate a history of DNA replication stress, and that rDNA array size could serve as a diagnostic marker for replication stress. Taken together, these data begin to suggest the selective pressures that combine to yield a "normal" rDNA copy number.

  12. Mechanisms of DNA replication termination.

    PubMed

    Dewar, James M; Walter, Johannes C

    2017-08-01

    Genome duplication is carried out by pairs of replication forks that assemble at origins of replication and then move in opposite directions. DNA replication ends when converging replication forks meet. During this process, which is known as replication termination, DNA synthesis is completed, the replication machinery is disassembled and daughter molecules are resolved. In this Review, we outline the steps that are likely to be common to replication termination in most organisms, namely, fork convergence, synthesis completion, replisome disassembly and decatenation. We briefly review the mechanism of termination in the bacterium Escherichia coli and in simian virus 40 (SV40) and also focus on recent advances in eukaryotic replication termination. In particular, we discuss the recently discovered E3 ubiquitin ligases that control replisome disassembly in yeast and higher eukaryotes, and how their activity is regulated to avoid genome instability.

  13. Modeling inhomogeneous DNA replication kinetics.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Michel G; Norio, Paolo; Bechhoefer, John

    2012-01-01

    In eukaryotic organisms, DNA replication is initiated at a series of chromosomal locations called origins, where replication forks are assembled proceeding bidirectionally to replicate the genome. The distribution and firing rate of these origins, in conjunction with the velocity at which forks progress, dictate the program of the replication process. Previous attempts at modeling DNA replication in eukaryotes have focused on cases where the firing rate and the velocity of replication forks are homogeneous, or uniform, across the genome. However, it is now known that there are large variations in origin activity along the genome and variations in fork velocities can also take place. Here, we generalize previous approaches to modeling replication, to allow for arbitrary spatial variation of initiation rates and fork velocities. We derive rate equations for left- and right-moving forks and for replication probability over time that can be solved numerically to obtain the mean-field replication program. This method accurately reproduces the results of DNA replication simulation. We also successfully adapted our approach to the inverse problem of fitting measurements of DNA replication performed on single DNA molecules. Since such measurements are performed on specified portion of the genome, the examined DNA molecules may be replicated by forks that originate either within the studied molecule or outside of it. This problem was solved by using an effective flux of incoming replication forks at the model boundaries to represent the origin activity outside the studied region. Using this approach, we show that reliable inferences can be made about the replication of specific portions of the genome even if the amount of data that can be obtained from single-molecule experiments is generally limited.

  14. Recombination-dependent concatemeric viral DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Lo Piano, Ambra; Martínez-Jiménez, María I; Zecchi, Lisa; Ayora, Silvia

    2011-09-01

    The initiation of viral double stranded (ds) DNA replication involves proteins that recruit and load the replisome at the replication origin (ori). Any block in replication fork progression or a programmed barrier may act as a factor for ori-independent remodelling and assembly of a new replisome at the stalled fork. Then replication initiation becomes dependent on recombination proteins, a process called recombination-dependent replication (RDR). RDR, which is recognized as being important for replication restart and stability in all living organisms, plays an essential role in the replication cycle of many dsDNA viruses. The SPP1 virus, which infects Bacillus subtilis cells, serves as a paradigm to understand the links between replication and recombination in circular dsDNA viruses. SPP1-encoded initiator and replisome assembly proteins control the onset of viral replication and direct the recruitment of host-encoded replisomal components at viral oriL. SPP1 uses replication fork reactivation to switch from ori-dependent θ-type (circle-to-circle) replication to σ-type RDR. Replication fork arrest leads to a double strand break that is processed by viral-encoded factors to generate a D-loop into which a new replisome is assembled, leading to σ-type viral replication. SPP1 RDR proteins are compared with similar proteins encoded by other viruses and their possible in vivo roles are discussed.

  15. DNA replication origins, ORC/DNA interaction, and assembly of pre-replication complex in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingya; Kong, Daochun

    2010-07-01

    Chromosomal DNA replication in eukaryotic cells is highly complicated and sophisticatedly regulated. Owing to its large size, a typical eukaryotic genome contains hundreds to tens of thousands of initiation sites called DNA replication origins where DNA synthesis takes place. Multiple initiation sites remove the constraint of a genome size because only a certain amount of DNA can be replicated from a single origin in a limited time. The activation of these multiple origins must be coordinated so that each segment of chromosomal DNA is precisely duplicated only once per cell cycle. Although DNA replication is a vital process for cell growth and its mechanism is highly conserved, recent studies also reveal significant diversity in origin structure, assembly of pre-replication complex (pre-RC) and regulation of replication initiation along evolutionary lines. The DNA replication origins in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe are found to contain a second essential element that is bound by Sap1 protein besides the essential origin recognition complex-binding site. Sap1 is recently demonstrated to be a novel replication initiation protein that plays an essential role in loading the initiation protein Cdc18 to origins and thus directly participates in pre-RC formation. In this review, we summarize the recent advance in understanding how DNA replication origins are organized, how pre-RC is assembled and how DNA replication is initiated and regulated in yeast and metazoans.

  16. Identification of a High-Efficiency Baculovirus DNA Replication Origin That Functions in Insect and Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yueh-Lung; Wu, Carol-P; Huang, Yu-Hui; Huang, Sheng-Ping; Lo, Huei-Ru; Chang, Hao-Shuo; Lin, Pi-Hsiu; Wu, Ming-Cheng; Chang, Chia-Jung

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The p143 gene from Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) has been found to increase the expression of luciferase, which is driven by the polyhedrin gene promoter, in a plasmid with virus coinfection. Further study indicated that this is due to the presence of a replication origin (ori) in the coding region of this gene. Transient DNA replication assays showed that a specific fragment of the p143 coding sequence, p143-3, underwent virus-dependent DNA replication in Spodoptera frugiperda IPLB-Sf-21 (Sf-21) cells. Deletion analysis of the p143-3 fragment showed that subfragment p143-3.2a contained the essential sequence of this putative ori. Sequence analysis of this region revealed a unique distribution of imperfect palindromes with high AT contents. No sequence homology or similarity between p143-3.2a and any other known ori was detected, suggesting that it is a novel baculovirus ori. Further study showed that the p143-3.2a ori can replicate more efficiently in infected Sf-21 cells than baculovirus homologous regions (hrs), the major baculovirus ori, or non-hr oris during virus replication. Previously, hr on its own was unable to replicate in mammalian cells, and for mammalian viral oris, viral proteins are generally required for their proper replication in host cells. However, the p143-3.2a ori was, surprisingly, found to function as an efficient ori in mammalian cells without the need for any viral proteins. We conclude that p143 contains a unique sequence that can function as an ori to enhance gene expression in not only insect cells but also mammalian cells. IMPORTANCE Baculovirus DNA replication relies on both hr and non-hr oris; however, so far very little is known about the latter oris. Here we have identified a new non-hr ori, the p143 ori, which resides in the coding region of p143. By developing a novel DNA replication-enhanced reporter system, we have identified and located the core region required for the p143

  17. Single Cell Analysis of Human RAD18-Dependent DNA Post-Replication Repair by Alkaline Bromodeoxyuridine Comet Assay

    PubMed Central

    Mórocz, Mónika; Gali, Himabindu; Raskó, István; Downes, C. Stephen; Haracska, Lajos

    2013-01-01

    Damage to DNA can block replication progression resulting in gaps in the newly synthesized DNA. Cells utilize a number of post-replication repair (PRR) mechanisms such as the RAD18 controlled translesion synthesis or template switching to overcome the discontinuities formed opposite the DNA lesions and to complete DNA replication. Gaining more insights into the role of PRR genes promotes better understanding of DNA damage tolerance and of how their malfunction can lead to increased genome instability and cancer. However, a simple and efficient method to characterise gene specific PRR deficiencies at a single cell level has not been developed. Here we describe the so named BrdU comet PRR assay to test the contribution of human RAD18 to PRR at a single cell level, by which we kinetically characterized the consequences of the deletion of human RAD18 on the replication of UV-damaged DNA. Moreover, we demonstrate the capability of our method to evaluate PRR at a single cell level in unsynchronized cell population. PMID:23936422

  18. A ruthenium polypyridyl intercalator stalls DNA replication forks, radiosensitizes human cancer cells and is enhanced by Chk1 inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Martin R.; Harun, Siti Norain; Halder, Swagata; Boghozian, Ramon A.; Ramadan, Kristijan; Ahmad, Haslina; Vallis, Katherine A.

    2016-08-01

    Ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes can intercalate DNA with high affinity and prevent cell proliferation; however, the direct impact of ruthenium-based intercalation on cellular DNA replication remains unknown. Here we show the multi-intercalator [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)]2+ (dppz = dipyridophenazine, PIP = 2-(phenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline) immediately stalls replication fork progression in HeLa human cervical cancer cells. In response to this replication blockade, the DNA damage response (DDR) cell signalling network is activated, with checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) activation indicating prolonged replication-associated DNA damage, and cell proliferation is inhibited by G1-S cell-cycle arrest. Co-incubation with a Chk1 inhibitor achieves synergistic apoptosis in cancer cells, with a significant increase in phospho(Ser139) histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) levels and foci indicating increased conversion of stalled replication forks to double-strand breaks (DSBs). Normal human epithelial cells remain unaffected by this concurrent treatment. Furthermore, pre-treatment of HeLa cells with [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)]2+ before external beam ionising radiation results in a supra-additive decrease in cell survival accompanied by increased γ-H2AX expression, indicating the compound functions as a radiosensitizer. Together, these results indicate ruthenium-based intercalation can block replication fork progression and demonstrate how these DNA-binding agents may be combined with DDR inhibitors or ionising radiation to achieve more efficient cancer cell killing.

  19. A ruthenium polypyridyl intercalator stalls DNA replication forks, radiosensitizes human cancer cells and is enhanced by Chk1 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Martin R.; Harun, Siti Norain; Halder, Swagata; Boghozian, Ramon A.; Ramadan, Kristijan; Ahmad, Haslina; Vallis, Katherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes can intercalate DNA with high affinity and prevent cell proliferation; however, the direct impact of ruthenium-based intercalation on cellular DNA replication remains unknown. Here we show the multi-intercalator [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)]2+ (dppz = dipyridophenazine, PIP = 2-(phenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline) immediately stalls replication fork progression in HeLa human cervical cancer cells. In response to this replication blockade, the DNA damage response (DDR) cell signalling network is activated, with checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) activation indicating prolonged replication-associated DNA damage, and cell proliferation is inhibited by G1-S cell-cycle arrest. Co-incubation with a Chk1 inhibitor achieves synergistic apoptosis in cancer cells, with a significant increase in phospho(Ser139) histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) levels and foci indicating increased conversion of stalled replication forks to double-strand breaks (DSBs). Normal human epithelial cells remain unaffected by this concurrent treatment. Furthermore, pre-treatment of HeLa cells with [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)]2+ before external beam ionising radiation results in a supra-additive decrease in cell survival accompanied by increased γ-H2AX expression, indicating the compound functions as a radiosensitizer. Together, these results indicate ruthenium-based intercalation can block replication fork progression and demonstrate how these DNA-binding agents may be combined with DDR inhibitors or ionising radiation to achieve more efficient cancer cell killing. PMID:27558808

  20. Recovery from the DNA Replication Checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Indrajit; Koepp, Deanna M

    2016-10-28

    Checkpoint recovery is integral to a successful checkpoint response. Checkpoint pathways monitor progress during cell division so that in the event of an error, the checkpoint is activated to block the cell cycle and activate repair pathways. Intrinsic to this process is that once repair has been achieved, the checkpoint signaling pathway is inactivated and cell cycle progression resumes. We use the term "checkpoint recovery" to describe the pathways responsible for the inactivation of checkpoint signaling and cell cycle re-entry after the initial stress has been alleviated. The DNA replication or S-phase checkpoint monitors the integrity of DNA synthesis. When replication stress is encountered, replication forks are stalled, and the checkpoint signaling pathway is activated. Central to recovery from the S-phase checkpoint is the restart of stalled replication forks. If checkpoint recovery fails, stalled forks may become unstable and lead to DNA breaks or unusual DNA structures that are difficult to resolve, causing genomic instability. Alternatively, if cell cycle resumption mechanisms become uncoupled from checkpoint inactivation, cells with under-replicated DNA might proceed through the cell cycle, also diminishing genomic stability. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that contribute to inactivation of the S-phase checkpoint signaling pathway and the restart of replication forks during recovery from replication stress.

  1. Recovery from the DNA Replication Checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhury, Indrajit; Koepp, Deanna M.

    2016-01-01

    Checkpoint recovery is integral to a successful checkpoint response. Checkpoint pathways monitor progress during cell division so that in the event of an error, the checkpoint is activated to block the cell cycle and activate repair pathways. Intrinsic to this process is that once repair has been achieved, the checkpoint signaling pathway is inactivated and cell cycle progression resumes. We use the term “checkpoint recovery” to describe the pathways responsible for the inactivation of checkpoint signaling and cell cycle re-entry after the initial stress has been alleviated. The DNA replication or S-phase checkpoint monitors the integrity of DNA synthesis. When replication stress is encountered, replication forks are stalled, and the checkpoint signaling pathway is activated. Central to recovery from the S-phase checkpoint is the restart of stalled replication forks. If checkpoint recovery fails, stalled forks may become unstable and lead to DNA breaks or unusual DNA structures that are difficult to resolve, causing genomic instability. Alternatively, if cell cycle resumption mechanisms become uncoupled from checkpoint inactivation, cells with under-replicated DNA might proceed through the cell cycle, also diminishing genomic stability. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that contribute to inactivation of the S-phase checkpoint signaling pathway and the restart of replication forks during recovery from replication stress. PMID:27801838

  2. Polycomb proteins control proliferation and transformation independently of cell cycle checkpoints by regulating DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Piunti, Andrea; Rossi, Alessandra; Cerutti, Aurora; Albert, Mareike; Jammula, Sriganesh; Scelfo, Andrea; Cedrone, Laura; Fragola, Giulia; Olsson, Linda; Koseki, Haruhiko; Testa, Giuseppe; Casola, Stefano; Helin, Kristian; d'Adda di Fagagna, Fabrizio; Pasini, Diego

    2014-04-14

    The ability of PRC1 and PRC2 to promote proliferation is a main feature that links polycomb (PcG) activity to cancer. PcGs silence the expression of the tumour suppressor locus Ink4a/Arf, whose products positively regulate pRb and p53 functions. Enhanced PcG activity is a frequent feature of human tumours, and PcG inhibition has been proposed as a strategy for cancer treatment. However, the recurrent inactivation of pRb/p53 responses in human cancers raises a question regarding the ability of PcG proteins to affect cellular proliferation independently from this checkpoint. Here we demonstrate that PRCs regulate cellular proliferation and transformation independently of the Ink4a/Arf-pRb-p53 pathway. We provide evidence that PRCs localize at replication forks, and that loss of their function directly affects the progression and symmetry of DNA replication forks. Thus, we have identified a novel activity by which PcGs can regulate cell proliferation independently of major cell cycle restriction checkpoints.

  3. How frog embryos replicate their DNA reliably

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechhoefer, John; Marshall, Brandon

    2007-03-01

    Frog embryos contain three billion base pairs of DNA. In early embryos (cycles 2-12), DNA replication is extremely rapid, about 20 min., and the entire cell cycle lasts only 25 min., meaning that mitosis (cell division) takes place in about 5 min. In this stripped-down cell cycle, there are no efficient checkpoints to prevent the cell from dividing before its DNA has finished replication - a disastrous scenario. Even worse, the many origins of replication are laid down stochastically and are also initiated stochastically throughout the replication process. Despite the very tight time constraints and despite the randomness introduced by origin stochasticity, replication is extremely reliable, with cell division failing no more than once in 10,000 tries. We discuss a recent model of DNA replication that is drawn from condensed-matter theories of 1d nucleation and growth. Using our model, we discuss different strategies of replication: should one initiate all origins as early as possible, or is it better to hold back and initiate some later on? Using concepts from extreme-value statistics, we derive the distribution of replication times given a particular scenario for the initiation of origins. We show that the experimentally observed initiation strategy for frog embryos meets the reliability constraint and is close to the one that requires the fewest resources of a cell.

  4. Interaction of RECQ4 and MCM10 is important for efficient DNA replication origin firing in human cells.

    PubMed

    Kliszczak, Maciej; Sedlackova, Hana; Pitchai, Ganesha P; Streicher, Werner W; Krejci, Lumir; Hickson, Ian D

    2015-12-01

    DNA replication is a highly coordinated process that is initiated at multiple replication origins in eukaryotes. These origins are bound by the origin recognition complex (ORC), which subsequently recruits the Mcm2-7 replicative helicase in a Cdt1/Cdc6-dependent manner. In budding yeast, two essential replication factors, Sld2 and Mcm10, are then important for the activation of replication origins. In humans, the putative Sld2 homolog, RECQ4, interacts with MCM10. Here, we have identified two mutants of human RECQ4 that are deficient in binding to MCM10. We show that these RECQ4 variants are able to complement the lethality of an avian cell RECQ4 deletion mutant, indicating that the essential function of RECQ4 in vertebrates is unlikely to require binding to MCM10. Nevertheless, we show that the RECQ4-MCM10 interaction is important for efficient replication origin firing.

  5. Interaction of RECQ4 and MCM10 is important for efficient DNA replication origin firing in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Kliszczak, Maciej; Sedlackova, Hana; Pitchai, Ganesha P.; Streicher, Werner W.; Krejci, Lumir; Hickson, Ian D.

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication is a highly coordinated process that is initiated at multiple replication origins in eukaryotes. These origins are bound by the origin recognition complex (ORC), which subsequently recruits the Mcm2-7 replicative helicase in a Cdt1/Cdc6-dependent manner. In budding yeast, two essential replication factors, Sld2 and Mcm10, are then important for the activation of replication origins. In humans, the putative Sld2 homolog, RECQ4, interacts with MCM10. Here, we have identified two mutants of human RECQ4 that are deficient in binding to MCM10. We show that these RECQ4 variants are able to complement the lethality of an avian cell RECQ4 deletion mutant, indicating that the essential function of RECQ4 in vertebrates is unlikely to require binding to MCM10. Nevertheless, we show that the RECQ4-MCM10 interaction is important for efficient replication origin firing. PMID:26588054

  6. Regulating DNA Replication in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Maria de la Paz; Costas, Celina; Sequeira-Mendes, Joana; Gutierrez, Crisanto

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal DNA replication in plants has requirements and constraints similar to those in other eukaryotes. However, some aspects are plant-specific. Studies of DNA replication control in plants, which have unique developmental strategies, can offer unparalleled opportunities of comparing regulatory processes with yeast and, particularly, metazoa to identify common trends and basic rules. In addition to the comparative molecular and biochemical studies, genomic studies in plants that started with Arabidopsis thaliana in the year 2000 have now expanded to several dozens of species. This, together with the applicability of genomic approaches and the availability of a large collection of mutants, underscores the enormous potential to study DNA replication control in a whole developing organism. Recent advances in this field with particular focus on the DNA replication proteins, the nature of replication origins and their epigenetic landscape, and the control of endoreplication will be reviewed. PMID:23209151

  7. DNA hypomethylation induces a DNA replication-associated cell cycle arrest to block hepatic outgrowth in uhrf1 mutant zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Vinitha; Chernyavskaya, Yelena; Chen, Xintong; Tan, Poh Seng; Kent, Brandon; Hoshida, Yujin; Sadler, Kirsten C

    2015-02-01

    UHRF1 (ubiquitin-like, containing PHD and RING finger domains, 1) recruits DNMT1 to hemimethylated DNA during replication and is essential for maintaining DNA methylation. uhrf1 mutant zebrafish have global DNA hypomethylation and display embryonic defects, including a small liver, and they die as larvae. We make the surprising finding that, despite their reduced organ size, uhrf1 mutants express high levels of genes controlling S-phase and have many more cells undergoing DNA replication, as measured by BrdU incorporation. In contrast to wild-type hepatocytes, which are continually dividing during hepatic outgrowth and thus dilute the BrdU label, uhrf1 mutant hepatocytes retain BrdU throughout outgrowth, reflecting cell cycle arrest. Pulse-chase-pulse experiments with BrdU and EdU, and DNA content analysis indicate that uhrf1 mutant cells undergo DNA re-replication and that apoptosis is the fate of many of the re-replicating and arrested hepatocytes. Importantly, the DNA re-replication phenotype and hepatic outgrowth failure are preceded by global loss of DNA methylation. Moreover, uhrf1 mutants are phenocopied by mutation of dnmt1, and Dnmt1 knockdown in uhrf1 mutants enhances their small liver phenotype. Together, these data indicate that unscheduled DNA replication and failed cell cycle progression leading to apoptosis are the mechanisms by which DNA hypomethylation prevents organ expansion in uhrf1 mutants. We propose that cell cycle arrest leading to apoptosis is a strategy that restricts propagation of epigenetically damaged cells during embryogenesis.

  8. DNA Virus Replication Compartments

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Melanie; Speiseder, Thomas; Dobner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Viruses employ a variety of strategies to usurp and control cellular activities through the orchestrated recruitment of macromolecules to specific cytoplasmic or nuclear compartments. Formation of such specialized virus-induced cellular microenvironments, which have been termed viroplasms, virus factories, or virus replication centers, complexes, or compartments, depends on molecular interactions between viral and cellular factors that participate in viral genome expression and replication and are in some cases associated with sites of virion assembly. These virus-induced compartments function not only to recruit and concentrate factors required for essential steps of the viral replication cycle but also to control the cellular mechanisms of antiviral defense. In this review, we summarize characteristic features of viral replication compartments from different virus families and discuss similarities in the viral and cellular activities that are associated with their assembly and the functions they facilitate for viral replication. PMID:24257611

  9. Enhanced replication of UV-damaged Simian virus 40 DNA in carcinogen-treated mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Maga, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The replication of UV-damaged Simian virus 40 (SV40) in carcinogen-treated monkey cells has been studied to elucidate the mechanism of carcinogen-enhanced reactivation. Carcinogen enhanced reactivation is the observed increase in UV-irradiated virus survival in host cells treated with low doses of carcinogen compared to UV-irradiated virus survival in untreated hosts. Carcinogen treatment of monkey kidney cells with either N-acetoxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (AAAF) or UV radiation leads to an enhanced capacity to replicate UV-damaged virus during the first round of infection. To further define the mechanism leading to enhanced replication, a detailed biochemical analysis of replication intermediates in carcinogen-treated cells was performed. Several conclusions can be drawn. First enhanced replication can be observed in the first four rounds of replication after UV irradiation of viral templates. The second major finding is that the relaxed circular intermediate model proposed for the replication of UV-damaged templates in untreated cells appears valid for replication of UV-damaged templates in carcinogen-treated cells. Possible mechanisms and the supporting evidence are discussed and future experiments outlined.

  10. Human parvovirus B19 DNA replication induces a DNA damage response that is dispensable for cell cycle arrest at phase G2/M.

    PubMed

    Lou, Sai; Luo, Yong; Cheng, Fang; Huang, Qinfeng; Shen, Weiran; Kleiboeker, Steve; Tisdale, John F; Liu, Zhengwen; Qiu, Jianming

    2012-10-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection is highly restricted to human erythroid progenitor cells, in which it induces a DNA damage response (DDR). The DDR signaling is mainly mediated by the ATR (ataxia telangiectasia-mutated and Rad3-related) pathway, which promotes replication of the viral genome; however, the exact mechanisms employed by B19V to take advantage of the DDR for virus replication remain unclear. In this study, we focused on the initiators of the DDR and the role of the DDR in cell cycle arrest during B19V infection. We examined the role of individual viral proteins, which were delivered by lentiviruses, in triggering a DDR in ex vivo-expanded primary human erythroid progenitor cells and the role of DNA replication of the B19V double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome in a human megakaryoblastoid cell line, UT7/Epo-S1 (S1). All the cells were cultured under hypoxic conditions. The results showed that none of the viral proteins induced phosphorylation of H2AX or replication protein A32 (RPA32), both hallmarks of a DDR. However, replication of the B19V dsDNA genome was capable of inducing the DDR. Moreover, the DDR per se did not arrest the cell cycle at the G(2)/M phase in cells with replicating B19V dsDNA genomes. Instead, the B19V nonstructural 1 (NS1) protein was the key factor in disrupting the cell cycle via a putative transactivation domain operating through a p53-independent pathway. Taken together, the results suggest that the replication of the B19V genome is largely responsible for triggering a DDR, which does not perturb cell cycle progression at G(2)/M significantly, during B19V infection.

  11. The Inherent Asymmetry of DNA Replication.

    PubMed

    Snedeker, Jonathan; Wooten, Matthew; Chen, Xin

    2017-08-11

    Semiconservative DNA replication has provided an elegant solution to the fundamental problem of how life is able to proliferate in a way that allows cells, organisms, and populations to survive and replicate many times over. Somewhat lost, however, in our admiration for this elegant mechanism is an appreciation for the asymmetries that occur in the process of DNA replication. As we discuss in this review, these asymmetries arise as a consequence of the structure of the DNA molecule and the enzymatic mechanism of DNA synthesis. Increasing evidence suggests that asymmetries inDNAreplication are able to play a central role in the processes of adaptation and evolution by shaping the mutagenic landscape of cells. Additionally, in eukaryotes, recent work has demonstrated that the inherent asymmetries in DNA replication may play an important role in the process of chromatin replication. As chromatin plays an essential role in defining cell identity, asymmetries generated during the process of DNA replication may play critical roles in cell fate dicisions related to patterning and development. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology Volume 33 is October 6, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  12. DNA replication origins in archaea.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhenfang; Liu, Jingfang; Yang, Haibo; Xiang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication initiation, which starts at specific chromosomal site (known as replication origins), is the key regulatory stage of chromosome replication. Archaea, the third domain of life, use a single or multiple origin(s) to initiate replication of their circular chromosomes. The basic structure of replication origins is conserved among archaea, typically including an AT-rich unwinding region flanked by several conserved repeats (origin recognition box, ORB) that are located adjacent to a replication initiator gene. Both the ORB sequence and the adjacent initiator gene are considerably diverse among different replication origins, while in silico and genetic analyses have indicated the specificity between the initiator genes and their cognate origins. These replicator-initiator pairings are reminiscent of the oriC-dnaA system in bacteria, and a model for the negative regulation of origin activity by a downstream cluster of ORB elements has been recently proposed in haloarchaea. Moreover, comparative genomic analyses have revealed that the mosaics of replicator-initiator pairings in archaeal chromosomes originated from the integration of extrachromosomal elements. This review summarizes the research progress in understanding of archaeal replication origins with particular focus on the utilization, control and evolution of multiple replication origins in haloarchaea.

  13. DNA Replication in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    DITSE, ZANELE; LAMERS, MEINDERT H.; WARNER, DIGBY F.

    2017-01-01

    Faithful replication and maintenance of the genome are essential to the ability of any organism to survive and propagate. For an obligate pathogen such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis that has to complete successive cycles of transmission, infection, and disease in order to retain a foothold in the human population, this requires that genome replication and maintenance must be accomplished under the metabolic, immune, and antibiotic stresses encountered during passage through variable host environments. Comparative genomic analyses have established that chromosomal mutations enable M. tuberculosis to adapt to these stresses: the emergence of drug-resistant isolates provides direct evidence of this capacity, so too the well-documented genetic diversity among M. tuberculosis lineages across geographic loci, as well as the microvariation within individual patients that is increasingly observed as whole-genome sequencing methodologies are applied to clinical samples and tuberculosis (TB) disease models. However, the precise mutagenic mechanisms responsible for M. tuberculosis evolution and adaptation are poorly understood. Here, we summarize current knowledge of the machinery responsible for DNA replication in M. tuberculosis, and discuss the potential contribution of the expanded complement of mycobacterial DNA polymerases to mutagenesis. We also consider briefly the possible role of DNA replication—in particular, its regulation and coordination with cell division—in the ability of M. tuberculosis to withstand antibacterial stresses, including host immune effectors and antibiotics, through the generation at the population level of a tolerant state, or through the formation of a subpopulation of persister bacilli—both of which might be relevant to the emergence and fixation of genetic drug resistance. PMID:28361736

  14. Spatiotemporal visualization of DNA replication dynamics.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, Marius; Casas-Delucchi, Corella S; Cardoso, M Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The ability of cells to copy their DNA allows them to transmit their genetic information to their progeny. In such, this central biological process preserves the instructions that direct the entire development of a cell. Earlier biochemical analysis in vitro and genetic analysis in yeast laid the basis of our understanding of the highly conserved mechanism of DNA replication. Recent advances on labeling and live-cell microscopy permit now the dissection of this fundamental process in vivo within the context of intact cells. In this chapter, we describe in detail how to perform multiple DNA replication labeling and detection allowing high spatial resolution imaging, as well as how to follow DNA replication in living cells allowing high temporal resolution imaging.

  15. The DNA replication program is altered at the FMR1 locus in fragile X embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Jeannine; Tomishima, Mark J; Zaninovic, Nikica; Colak, Dilek; Yan, Zi; Zhan, Qiansheng; Rosenwaks, Zev; Jaffrey, Samie R; Schildkraut, Carl L

    2014-01-09

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a CGG repeat expansion in the FMR1 gene that appears to occur during oogenesis and during early embryogenesis. One model proposes that repeat instability depends on the replication fork direction through the repeats such that (CNG)n hairpin-like structures form, causing DNA polymerase to stall and slip. Examining DNA replication fork progression on single DNA molecules at the endogenous FMR1 locus revealed that replication forks stall at CGG repeats in human cells. Furthermore, replication profiles of FXS human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) compared to nonaffected hESCs showed that fork direction through the repeats is altered at the FMR1 locus in FXS hESCs, such that predominantly the CCG strand serves as the lagging-strand template. This is due to the absence of replication initiation that would typically occur upstream of FMR1, suggesting that altered replication origin usage combined with fork stalling promotes repeat instability during early embryonic development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. DNA replication origins in archaea

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhenfang; Liu, Jingfang; Yang, Haibo; Xiang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication initiation, which starts at specific chromosomal site (known as replication origins), is the key regulatory stage of chromosome replication. Archaea, the third domain of life, use a single or multiple origin(s) to initiate replication of their circular chromosomes. The basic structure of replication origins is conserved among archaea, typically including an AT-rich unwinding region flanked by several conserved repeats (origin recognition box, ORB) that are located adjacent to a replication initiator gene. Both the ORB sequence and the adjacent initiator gene are considerably diverse among different replication origins, while in silico and genetic analyses have indicated the specificity between the initiator genes and their cognate origins. These replicator–initiator pairings are reminiscent of the oriC-dnaA system in bacteria, and a model for the negative regulation of origin activity by a downstream cluster of ORB elements has been recently proposed in haloarchaea. Moreover, comparative genomic analyses have revealed that the mosaics of replicator-initiator pairings in archaeal chromosomes originated from the integration of extrachromosomal elements. This review summarizes the research progress in understanding of archaeal replication origins with particular focus on the utilization, control and evolution of multiple replication origins in haloarchaea. PMID:24808892

  17. Two classes of single-stranded regions evident in deproteinized preparations of replicating DNA isolated from mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, B.W.; Kavallaris, M.; Catchpoole, D.; Norris, M.D. )

    1991-02-01

    In DNA isolated from proliferating human lymphoblastoid CCRF-CEM cells which had been pulse-labeled by exposure to (3H)thymidine for periods from 30 s to 10 min, single-stranded regions were analyzed by caffeine-gradient elution from benzoylated DEAE-cellulose. Two classes of structural defect were evident. Some replicating DNA exhibited single-stranded regions of approximately 200 nucleotides, while most newly incorporated radioactivity was associated with DNA containing single-stranded regions from 900 to approximately 4000 nucleotides. The distribution of thymidine-derived radioactivity did not suggest sequential or preferential labeling of these DNA fractions as the incorporation time was varied. The findings may be correlated with recent proposals regarding the structural basis of eukaryotic DNA replication.

  18. T cells detect intracellular DNA but fail to induce type I IFN responses: implications for restriction of HIV replication.

    PubMed

    Berg, Randi K; Rahbek, Stine H; Kofod-Olsen, Emil; Holm, Christian K; Melchjorsen, Jesper; Jensen, David G; Hansen, Anne Louise; Jørgensen, Louise B; Ostergaard, Lars; Tolstrup, Martin; Larsen, Carsten S; Paludan, Søren R; Jakobsen, Martin R; Mogensen, Trine H

    2014-01-01

    HIV infects key cell types of the immune system, most notably macrophages and CD4+ T cells. Whereas macrophages represent an important viral reservoir, activated CD4+ T cells are the most permissive cell types supporting high levels of viral replication. In recent years, it has been appreciated that the innate immune system plays an important role in controlling HIV replication, e.g. via interferon (IFN)-inducible restriction factors. Moreover, innate immune responses are involved in driving chronic immune activation and the pathogenesis of progressive immunodeficiency. Several pattern recognition receptors detecting HIV have been reported, including Toll-like receptor 7 and Retinoic-inducible gene-I, which detects viral RNA. Here we report that human primary T cells fail to induce strong IFN responses, despite the fact that this cell type does express key molecules involved in DNA signaling pathways. We demonstrate that the DNA sensor IFI16 migrates to sites of foreign DNA localization in the cytoplasm and recruits the signaling molecules stimulator of IFN genes and Tank-binding kinase, but this does not result in expression of IFN and IFN-stimulated genes. Importantly, we show that cytosolic DNA fails to affect HIV replication. However, exogenous treatment of activated T cells with type I IFN has the capacity to induce expression of IFN-stimulated genes and suppress HIV replication. Our data suggest the existence of an impaired DNA signaling machinery in T cells, which may prevent this cell type from activating cell-autonomous anti-HIV responses. This phenomenon could contribute to the high permissiveness of CD4+ T cells for HIV-1.

  19. Break-Induced DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Ranjith P.; Lovett, Susan T.; Haber, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Recombination-dependent DNA replication, often called break-induced replication (BIR), was initially invoked to explain recombination events in bacteriophage but it has recently been recognized as a fundamentally important mechanism to repair double-strand chromosome breaks in eukaryotes. This mechanism appears to be critically important in the restarting of stalled and broken replication forks and in maintaining the integrity of eroded telomeres. Although BIR helps preserve genome integrity during replication, it also promotes genome instability by the production of loss of heterozygosity and the formation of nonreciprocal translocations, as well as in the generation of complex chromosomal rearrangements. PMID:23881940

  20. A cytoplasmic activator of DNA replication is involved in signal transduction in antigen-specific T cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wong, R L; Clark, R B; Gutowski, J K; Katz, M E; Fresa, K L; Cohen, S

    1990-05-01

    Cytoplasmic extracts prepared from T cell lines undergoing antigen-specific, interleukin-2 (IL-2)-dependent proliferation were tested for their ability to induce DNA synthesis in isolated, quiescent nuclei. A tetanus toxoid (TET)-specific T cell line, established from peripheral blood of a normal human volunteer, was stimulated in the presence of relevant antigen and 1 unit/ml IL-2. Cytoplasmic extracts prepared from these cells were capable of inducing DNA synthesis in isolated, quiescent nuclei. The ability of cytoplasmic extracts to induce DNA synthesis in isolated, quiescent nuclei. The ability of cytoplasmic extracts to induce DNA synthesis in isolated nuclei correlated positively with the degree of proliferation induced in these cells. In contrast, incubation of this T cell line in the absence of antigen failed to induce proliferation and cytoplasmic extracts prepared from these cells induced little to no DNA synthesis in isolated, quiescent nuclei. The factor present in the cytoplasm of T cells stimulated with relevant antigen in the presence of IL-2 is similar, if not identical, to a factor which we have previously demonstrated in cytoplasmic extracts prepared from transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines and from mitogenically stimulated normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This factor, which we have called activator of DNA replication (ADR) is a heat-labile protein, and is inactivated by treatment with protease inhibitors, including aprotinin. The ability of cytoplasmic extracts from T cells undergoing antigen-specific, IL-2-dependent proliferation to induce DNA synthesis in isolated, quiescent nuclei was markedly inhibited in the presence of aprotinin, providing strong evidence that a cytoplasmic activator of DNA replication, ADR, is involved in the signal transduction process for antigen-specific, IL-2-dependent T cell proliferation. ADR may represent a common intracellular mediator of DNA synthesis in activated and transformed lymphocytes.

  1. Archaeology of Eukaryotic DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Makarova, Kira S.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the characterization of the archaeal DNA replication system together with comparative genomic analysis have led to the identification of several previously uncharacterized archaeal proteins involved in replication and currently reveal a nearly complete correspondence between the components of the archaeal and eukaryotic replication machineries. It can be inferred that the archaeal ancestor of eukaryotes and even the last common ancestor of all extant archaea possessed replication machineries that were comparable in complexity to the eukaryotic replication system. The eukaryotic replication system encompasses multiple paralogs of ancestral components such that heteromeric complexes in eukaryotes replace archaeal homomeric complexes, apparently along with subfunctionalization of the eukaryotic complex subunits. In the archaea, parallel, lineage-specific duplications of many genes encoding replication machinery components are detectable as well; most of these archaeal paralogs remain to be functionally characterized. The archaeal replication system shows remarkable plasticity whereby even some essential components such as DNA polymerase and single-stranded DNA-binding protein are displaced by unrelated proteins with analogous activities in some lineages. PMID:23881942

  2. DNA Copy Number Control Through Inhibition of Replication Fork Progression

    PubMed Central

    Nordman, Jared T.; Kozhevnikova, Elena N.; Verrijzer, C. Peter; Pindyurin, Alexey V.; Andreyeva, Evgeniya N.; Shloma, Victor V.; Zhimulev, Igor F.; Orr-Weaver, Terry L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Proper control of DNA replication is essential to ensure faithful transmission of genetic material and to prevent chromosomal aberrations that can drive cancer progression and developmental disorders. DNA replication is regulated primarily at the level of initiation and is under strict cell cycle regulation. Importantly, DNA replication is highly influenced by developmental cues. In Drosophila, specific regions of the genome are repressed for DNA replication during differentiation by the SNF2 domain-containing protein SUUR through an unknown mechanism. We demonstrate that SUUR is recruited to active replication forks and mediates repression of DNA replication by directly inhibiting replication fork progression instead of functioning as a replication fork barrier. Mass-spec identification of SUUR associated proteins identified the replicative helicase member CDC45 as a SUUR-associated protein, supporting a role for SUUR directly at replication forks. Our results reveal that control of eukaryotic DNA copy number can occur through inhibition of replication fork progression. PMID:25437540

  3. Concise Review: Geminin-A Tale of Two Tails: DNA Replication and Transcriptional/Epigenetic Regulation in Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Patmanidi, Alexandra L; Champeris Tsaniras, Spyridon; Karamitros, Dimitris; Kyrousi, Christina; Lygerou, Zoi; Taraviras, Stavros

    2017-02-01

    Molecular mechanisms governing maintenance, commitment, and differentiation of stem cells are largely unexploited. Molecules involved in the regulation of multiple cellular processes are of particular importance for stem cell physiology, as they integrate different signals and coordinate cellular decisions related with self-renewal and fate determination. Geminin has emerged as a critical factor in DNA replication and stem cell differentiation in different stem cell populations. Its inhibitory interaction with Cdt1, a member of the prereplicative complex, ensures the controlled timing of DNA replication and, consequently, genomic stability in actively proliferating cells. In embryonic as well as somatic stem cells, Geminin has been shown to interact with transcription factors and epigenetic regulators to drive gene expression programs and ultimately guide cell fate decisions. An ever-growing number of studies suggests that these interactions of Geminin and proteins regulating transcription are conserved among metazoans. Interactions between Geminin and proteins modifying the epigenome, such as members of the repressive Polycomb group and the SWI/SNF proteins of the permissive Trithorax, have long been established. The complexity of these interactions, however, is only just beginning to unravel, revealing key roles on maintaining stem cell self-renewal and fate specification. In this review, we summarize current knowledge and give new perspectives for the role of Geminin on transcriptional and epigenetic regulation, alongside with its regulatory activity in DNA replication and their implication in the regulation of stem and progenitor cell biology. Stem Cells 2017;35:299-310. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  4. Nucleotide Metabolism and DNA Replication.

    PubMed

    Warner, Digby F; Evans, Joanna C; Mizrahi, Valerie

    2014-10-01

    The development and application of a highly versatile suite of tools for mycobacterial genetics, coupled with widespread use of "omics" approaches to elucidate the structure, function, and regulation of mycobacterial proteins, has led to spectacular advances in our understanding of the metabolism and physiology of mycobacteria. In this article, we provide an update on nucleotide metabolism and DNA replication in mycobacteria, highlighting key findings from the past 10 to 15 years. In the first section, we focus on nucleotide metabolism, ranging from the biosynthesis, salvage, and interconversion of purine and pyrimidine ribonucleotides to the formation of deoxyribonucleotides. The second part of the article is devoted to DNA replication, with a focus on replication initiation and elongation, as well as DNA unwinding. We provide an overview of replication fidelity and mutation rates in mycobacteria and summarize evidence suggesting that DNA replication occurs during states of low metabolic activity, and conclude by suggesting directions for future research to address key outstanding questions. Although this article focuses primarily on observations from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it is interspersed, where appropriate, with insights from, and comparisons with, other mycobacterial species as well as better characterized bacterial models such as Escherichia coli. Finally, a common theme underlying almost all studies of mycobacterial metabolism is the potential to identify and validate functions or pathways that can be exploited for tuberculosis drug discovery. In this context, we have specifically highlighted those processes in mycobacterial DNA replication that might satisfy this critical requirement.

  5. Mouse polyoma virus and adenovirus replication in mouse cells temperature-sensitive in DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sheinin, R; Fabbro, J; Dubsky, M

    1985-01-01

    Mouse adenovirus multiplies, apparently without impediment, in temperature-inactivated ts A1S9, tsC1 and ts2 mouse fibroblasts. Thus, the DNA of mouse adenovirus can replicate in the absence of functional DNA topoisomerase II, a DNA-chain-elongation factor, and a protein required for traverse of the G1/S interface, respectively, encoded in the ts A1S9, tsC1 and ts2 genetic loci. These results are compared with those obtained with polyoma virus.

  6. DNA ligase I, the replicative DNA ligase.

    PubMed

    Howes, Timothy R L; Tomkinson, Alan E

    2012-01-01

    Multiple DNA ligation events are required to join the Okazaki fragments generated during lagging strand DNA synthesis. In eukaryotes, this is primarily carried out by members of the DNA ligase I family. The C-terminal catalytic region of these enzymes is composed of three domains: a DNA binding domain, an adenylation domain and an OB-fold domain. In the absence of DNA, these domains adopt an extended structure but transition into a compact ring structure when they engage a DNA nick, with each of the domains contacting the DNA. The non-catalytic N-terminal region of eukaryotic DNA ligase I is responsible for the specific participation of these enzymes in DNA replication. This proline-rich unstructured region contains the nuclear localization signal and a PCNA interaction motif that is critical for localization to replication foci and efficient joining of Okazaki fragments. DNA ligase I initially engages the PCNA trimer via this interaction motif which is located at the extreme N-terminus of this flexible region. It is likely that this facilitates an additional interaction between the DNA binding domain and the PCNA ring. The similar size and shape of the rings formed by the PCNA trimer and the DNA ligase I catalytic region when it engages a DNA nick suggest that these proteins interact to form a double-ring structure during the joining of Okazaki fragments. DNA ligase I also interacts with replication factor C, the factor that loads the PCNA trimeric ring onto DNA. This interaction, which is regulated by phosphorylation of the non-catalytic N-terminus of DNA ligase I, also appears to be critical for DNA replication.

  7. Microarray analysis of DNA replication timing.

    PubMed

    Karnani, Neerja; Taylor, Christopher M; Dutta, Anindya

    2009-01-01

    Although all of the DNA in an eukaryotic cell replicates during the S-phase of cell cycle, there is a significant difference in the actual time in S-phase when a given chromosomal segment replicates. Methods are described here for generation of high-resolution temporal maps of DNA replication in synchronized human cells. This method does not require amplification of DNA before microarray hybridization and so avoids errors introduced during PCR. A major advantage of using this procedure is that it facilitates finer dissection of replication time in S-phase. Also, it helps delineate chromosomal regions that undergo biallelic or asynchronous replication, which otherwise are difficult to detect at a genome-wide scale by existing methods. The continuous TR50 (time of completion of 50% replication) maps of replication across chromosomal segments identify regions that undergo acute transitions in replication timing. These transition zones can play a significant role in identifying insulators that separate chromosomal domains with different chromatin modifications.

  8. Oncogene v-jun modulates DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Wasylyk, C; Schneikert, J; Wasylyk, B

    1990-07-01

    Cell transformation leads to alterations in both transcription and DNA replication. Activation of transcription by the expression of a number of transforming oncogenes is mediated by the transcription factor AP1 (Herrlich & Ponta, 1989; Imler & Wasylyk, 1989). AP1 is a composite transcription factor, consisting of members of the jun and fos gene-families. c-jun and c-fos are progenitors of oncogenes, suggestion that an important transcriptional event in cell transformation is altered activity of AP1, which may arise either indirectly by oncogene expression or directly by structural modification of AP1. We report here that the v-jun oncogene and its progenitor c-jun, as fusion proteins with the lex-A-repressor DNA binding domain, can activate DNA replication from the Polyoma virus (Py) origin of replication, linked to the lex-A operator. The transcription-activation region of v-jun is required for activation of replication. When excess v-jun is expressed in the cell, replication is inhibited or 'squelched'. These results suggest that one consequence of deregulated jun activity could be altered DNA replication and that there are similarities in the way v-jun activates replication and transcription.

  9. Myosin 16 levels fluctuate during the cell cycle and are downregulated in response to DNA replication stress.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Richard S; Liu, Changdan; Pihkala, Jeanene P S

    2013-06-01

    Myosins comprise a highly conserved superfamily of eukaryotic actin-dependent motor proteins implicated in a large repertoire of functions in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Class XVI myosin, MYO16, reveals expression in most somatic as well as meiotic cells with prominent localization in the nucleus, excepting the nucleolus; however, the role(s) of Myo16 in the nucleus remain unknown. In this report, we investigated Myo16 abundance during transit through the cell cycle. Immunolocalization, immunoblot, flow cytometric and quantitative RT-PCR studies performed in Rat2 cells indicate that Myo16 mRNA and protein abundance are cell cycle regulated: in the unperturbed cell cycle, each rises to peak levels in late G1 and thereon through S-phase and each decays as cells enter M-phase. Notably, RNA interference-induced Myo16 depletion results in altered cell cycle distribution as well as in large-scale cell death. In response to DNA replication stress (impaired replication fork progression as a consequence of DNA damage, lack of sufficient deoxynucleotides, or inhibition of DNA polymerases), Myo16 protein shows substantial loss. Attenuation of replication stress (aphidicolin or hydroxyurea) is followed by a recovery of Myo16 expression and resumption of S-phase progression. Collectively, these observations suggest that Myo16 may play a regulatory role in cell cycle progression.

  10. Transcription profiling during the cell cycle shows that a subset of Polycomb-targeted genes is upregulated during DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Diaz, Javier; Hegre, Siv A.; Anderssen, Endre; Aas, Per A.; Mjelle, Robin; Gilfillan, Gregor D.; Lyle, Robert; Drabløs, Finn; Krokan, Hans E.; Sætrom, Pål

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide gene expression analyses of the human somatic cell cycle have indicated that the set of cycling genes differ between primary and cancer cells. By identifying genes that have cell cycle dependent expression in HaCaT human keratinocytes and comparing these with previously identified cell cycle genes, we have identified three distinct groups of cell cycle genes. First, housekeeping genes enriched for known cell cycle functions; second, cell type-specific genes enriched for HaCaT-specific functions; and third, Polycomb-regulated genes. These Polycomb-regulated genes are specifically upregulated during DNA replication, and consistent with being epigenetically silenced in other cell cycle phases, these genes have lower expression than other cell cycle genes. We also find similar patterns in foreskin fibroblasts, indicating that replication-dependent expression of Polycomb-silenced genes is a prevalent but unrecognized regulatory mechanism. PMID:23325852

  11. The ATP requirements of adenovirus type 5 DNA replication and cellular DNA replication.

    PubMed

    De Jong, P J; Kwant, M M; van Driel, W; Jansz, H S; van der Vliet, P C

    1983-01-15

    Several in vitro DNA replication systems were employed to characterize the ATP dependency of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) DNA replication. Ad5 DNA synthesis in isolated nuclei, representing the elongation of nascent DNA chains, was slightly ATP dependent. Reduction of the ATP concentration from the optimum (8 mM) to the endogenous value (0.16 microM) reduced Ad5 DNA replication only to 70%. No change in the pattern of replication was observed as indicated by the analysis of replicative intermediates using agarose gel electrophoresis. ATP could be replaced by dATP, but not by GTP or other nucleoside triphosphates. By contrast, cellular DNA replication in isolated nuclei from HeLa cells was reduced to 12% by the omission of ATP. These differences could not be explained by different ATP pools or by effects of ATP on dNTP pools. Cellular DNA replication in contrast to viral DNA replication was sensitive to low concentrations of adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate). Inhibition by this ATP analog was competitive with ATP (Ki = 0.4 mM). Adenovirus DNA replication by DNA-free nuclear extracts, representing initiation plus elongation (Challberg and Kelly, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 655-659, 1979), exhibited a nearly absolute requirement for ATP. ATP could be substituted not only by dATP, but also by GTP and dGTP and to a lesser extent by pyrimidine triphosphates. Similar results were found when the formation of a covalent complex between dCTP and the precursor terminal protein was studied. This reaction is essential for the initiation of Ad5 DNA replication. The results indicate that different ATP-requiring functions are employed during the initiation and elongation stages of adenovirus DNA replication.

  12. From structure to mechanism—understanding initiation of DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Riera, Alberto; Barbon, Marta; Noguchi, Yasunori; Reuter, L. Maximilian; Schneider, Sarah; Speck, Christian

    2017-01-01

    DNA replication results in the doubling of the genome prior to cell division. This process requires the assembly of 50 or more protein factors into a replication fork. Here, we review recent structural and biochemical insights that start to explain how specific proteins recognize DNA replication origins, load the replicative helicase on DNA, unwind DNA, synthesize new DNA strands, and reassemble chromatin. We focus on the minichromosome maintenance (MCM2–7) proteins, which form the core of the eukaryotic replication fork, as this complex undergoes major structural rearrangements in order to engage with DNA, regulate its DNA-unwinding activity, and maintain genome stability. PMID:28717046

  13. Regulation of DNA replication and repair proteins through interaction with the front side of proliferating cell nuclear antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Jónsson, Z O; Hindges, R; Hübscher, U

    1998-01-01

    The DNA polymerase accessory factor proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) has been caught in interaction with an ever increasing number of proteins. To characterize the sites and functions of some of these interactions, we constructed four mutants of human PCNA and analysed them in a variety of assays. By targeting loops on the surface of the PCNA trimer and changing three or four residues at a time to alanine, we found that a region including part of the domain-connecting loop of PCNA and loops on one face of the trimer, close to the C-termini, is involved in binding to all of the following proteins: DNA polymerase delta, replication factor C, the flap endonuclease Fen1, the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and DNA ligase I. An inhibition of DNA ligation caused by the interaction of PCNA with DNA ligase I was found, and we show that DNA ligase I and Fen1 can inhibit DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase delta/PCNA. We demonstrate that PCNA must be located below a 5' flap on a forked template to stimulate Fen1 activity, and considering the interacting region on PCNA for Fen1, this suggests an orientation for PCNA during DNA replication with the C-termini facing forwards, in the direction of DNA synthesis. PMID:9545252

  14. Metakaryotic stem cell nuclei use pangenomic dsRNA/DNA intermediates in genome replication and segregation.

    PubMed

    Thilly, William G; Gostjeva, Elena V; Koledova, Vera V; Zukerberg, Lawrence R; Chung, Daniel; Fomina, Janna N; Darroudi, Firouz; Stollar, B David

    2014-01-01

    Bell shaped nuclei of metakaryotic cells double their DNA content during and after symmetric and asymmetric amitotic fissions rather than in the separate, pre-mitotic S-phase of eukaryotic cells. A parsimonious hypothesis was tested that the two anti-parallel strands of each chromatid DNA helix were first segregated as ssDNA-containing complexes into sister nuclei then copied to recreate a dsDNA genome. Metakaryotic nuclei that were treated during amitosis with RNase A and stained with acridine orange or fluorescent antibody to ssDNA revealed large amounts of ssDNA. Without RNase treatment metakaryotic nuclei in amitosis stained strongly with an antibody complex specific to dsRNA/DNA. Images of amitotic figures co-stained with dsRNA/DNA antibody and DAPI indicated that the entire interphase dsDNA genome (B-form helices) was transformed into two dsRNA/DNA genomes (A-form helices) that were segregated in the daughter cell nuclei then retransformed into dsDNA. As this process segregates DNA strands of opposite polarity in sister cells it hypothetically offers a sequential switching mechanism within the diverging stem cell lineages of development.

  15. Metakaryotic stem cell nuclei use pangenomic dsRNA/DNA intermediates in genome replication and segregation

    PubMed Central

    Thilly, William G; Gostjeva, Elena V; Koledova, Vera V; Zukerberg, Lawrence R; Chung, Daniel; Fomina, Janna N; Darroudi, Firouz; Stollar, B David

    2014-01-01

    Bell shaped nuclei of metakaryotic cells double their DNA content during and after symmetric and asymmetric amitotic fissions rather than in the separate, pre-mitotic S-phase of eukaryotic cells. A parsimonious hypothesis was tested that the two anti-parallel strands of each chromatid DNA helix were first segregated as ssDNA-containing complexes into sister nuclei then copied to recreate a dsDNA genome. Metakaryotic nuclei that were treated during amitosis with RNase A and stained with acridine orange or fluorescent antibody to ssDNA revealed large amounts of ssDNA. Without RNase treatment metakaryotic nuclei in amitosis stained strongly with an antibody complex specific to dsRNA/DNA. Images of amitotic figures co-stained with dsRNA/DNA antibody and DAPI indicated that the entire interphase dsDNA genome (B-form helices) was transformed into two dsRNA/DNA genomes (A-form helices) that were segregated in the daughter cell nuclei then retransformed into dsDNA. As this process segregates DNA strands of opposite polarity in sister cells it hypothetically offers a sequential switching mechanism within the diverging stem cell lineages of development. PMID:24418910

  16. Growth factor-dependent initiation of DNA replication in nuclei isolated from an interleukin 3-dependent murine myeloid cell line.

    PubMed

    Munshi, N C; Gabig, T G

    1990-01-01

    To study the proliferative response of hematopoietic cells to growth factors at the molecular level, we developed a cell-free system for growth factor-dependent initiation of genomic DNA replication. Nuclei were isolated from the IL-3-dependent cell line NFS/N1-H7 after a 10-h period of IL-3 deprivation. Cytosolic and membrane-containing subcellular fractions were prepared from proliferating NFS/N1-H7 cells. Nuclei from the nonproliferating cells (+/- IL-3) showed essentially no incorporation of [3H]thymidine during a 16-h incubation with a mixture of unlabeled GTP, ATP, UTP, CTP, dGTP, dATP, dCTP, and [3H]dTTP. When the combination of IL-3, a cytosolic fraction, and a membrane-containing fraction from proliferating cells was added to nuclei from nonproliferating cells, a burst of [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA began after a 12-h lag period, attained a maximal rate at 16 h, and reached a level of 860 pmol thymidine/10(6) nuclei at 24 h (corresponding to replication of approximately 56% total mouse genomic DNA). This DNA synthesis was inhibited approximately 90% by the specific DNA polymerase alpha inhibitor aphidicolin. Deletion of a single cellular component or IL-3 from the system resulted in a marked reduction of DNA replication (-membrane, 80 +/- 4%; -cytosol, 90% +/- 4%; -IL-3, 74 +/- 7% inhibition). This model requires a growth factor (IL-3), a sedimentable cell fraction containing its receptor and possibly additional membrane-associated components, and a cytosolic fraction. It appears to recapitulate the molecular events required for progression from early G1 to S phase of the cell cycle induced by IL-3 binding to its receptor.

  17. Growth factor-dependent initiation of DNA replication in nuclei isolated from an interleukin 3-dependent murine myeloid cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Munshi, N C; Gabig, T G

    1990-01-01

    To study the proliferative response of hematopoietic cells to growth factors at the molecular level, we developed a cell-free system for growth factor-dependent initiation of genomic DNA replication. Nuclei were isolated from the IL-3-dependent cell line NFS/N1-H7 after a 10-h period of IL-3 deprivation. Cytosolic and membrane-containing subcellular fractions were prepared from proliferating NFS/N1-H7 cells. Nuclei from the nonproliferating cells (+/- IL-3) showed essentially no incorporation of [3H]thymidine during a 16-h incubation with a mixture of unlabeled GTP, ATP, UTP, CTP, dGTP, dATP, dCTP, and [3H]dTTP. When the combination of IL-3, a cytosolic fraction, and a membrane-containing fraction from proliferating cells was added to nuclei from nonproliferating cells, a burst of [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA began after a 12-h lag period, attained a maximal rate at 16 h, and reached a level of 860 pmol thymidine/10(6) nuclei at 24 h (corresponding to replication of approximately 56% total mouse genomic DNA). This DNA synthesis was inhibited approximately 90% by the specific DNA polymerase alpha inhibitor aphidicolin. Deletion of a single cellular component or IL-3 from the system resulted in a marked reduction of DNA replication (-membrane, 80 +/- 4%; -cytosol, 90% +/- 4%; -IL-3, 74 +/- 7% inhibition). This model requires a growth factor (IL-3), a sedimentable cell fraction containing its receptor and possibly additional membrane-associated components, and a cytosolic fraction. It appears to recapitulate the molecular events required for progression from early G1 to S phase of the cell cycle induced by IL-3 binding to its receptor. Images PMID:2104881

  18. Butyrate induced cell cycle arrest in bovine cells through targeting gene expression relevant to DNA replication apparatus.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong-jun; Li, Robert W

    2008-03-17

    Using real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis in bovine kidney epithelial cells, we systematically investigated the effects of butyrate on patterns of gene expression relevant to DNA replication apparatus. The real-time PCR and Western blot data generally confirmed previously reported microarray data. Of the five genes tested by quantitative RT-PCR, CDKN1A (p21(waf1)) was up regulated, CDC2/cdk1, MCM6, ORC1L were down regulated, while ORC3L expression remained unchanged following butyrate treatment. Also consistent with RT-PCR results, Western blot analysis confirmed that butyrate up-regulated cyclin-kinase inhibitor p21(waf1) in a does-dependent manner. In contrast, butyrate treatment had no effect on the expression of ERK 1/2 proteins. Also consistent with mRNA results, ORC1 and MCM3 proteins were down-regulated by butyrate treatment, while ORC2 protein remained unchanged. The present results suggest that ORC1, not ORC2 or ORC3, along with MCM proteins play a critical role in regulating the initiation of DNA replication and cell cycle progression in MDBK cells and are targets of butyrate regulation.

  19. Stable DNA replication: interplay between DNA replication, homologous recombination, and transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Kogoma, T

    1997-01-01

    Chromosome replication in Escherichia coli is normally initiated at oriC, the origin of chromosome replication. E. coli cells possess at least three additional initiation systems for chromosome replication that are normally repressed but can be activated under certain specific conditions. These are termed the stable DNA replication systems. Inducible stable DNA replication (iSDR), which is activated by SOS induction, is proposed to be initiated from a D-loop, an early intermediate in homologous recombination. Thus, iSDR is a form of recombination-dependent DNA replication (RDR). Analysis of iSDR and RDR has led to the proposal that homologous recombination and double-strand break repair involve extensive semiconservative DNA replication. RDR is proposed to play crucial roles in homologous recombination, double-strand break repair, restoration of collapsed replication forks, and adaptive mutation. Constitutive stable DNA replication (cSDR) is activated in mhA mutants deficient in RNase HI or in recG mutants deficient in RecG helicase. cSDR is proposed to be initiated from an R-loop that can be formed by the invasion of duplex DNA by an RNA transcript, which most probably is catalyzed by RecA protein. The third form of SDR is nSDR, which can be transiently activated in wild-type cells when rapidly growing cells enter the stationary phase. This article describes the characteristics of these alternative DNA replication forms and reviews evidence that has led to the formulation of the proposed models for SDR initiation mechanisms. The possible interplay between DNA replication, homologous recombination, DNA repair, and transcription is explored. PMID:9184011

  20. DNA replication: failures and inverted fusions.

    PubMed

    Carr, Antony M; Paek, Andrew L; Weinert, Ted

    2011-10-01

    DNA replication normally follows the rules passed down from Watson and Crick: the chromosome duplicates as dictated by its antiparallel strands, base-pairing and leading and lagging strand differences. Real-life replication is more complicated, fraught with perils posed by chromosome damage for one, and by transcription of genes and by other perils that disrupt progress of the DNA replication machinery. Understanding the replication fork, including DNA structures, associated replisome and its regulators, is key to understanding how cells overcome perils and minimize error. Replication fork error leads to genome rearrangements and, potentially, cell death. Interest in the replication fork and its errors has recently gained added interest by the results of deep sequencing studies of human genomes. Several pathologies are associated with sometimes-bizarre genome rearrangements suggestive of elaborate replication fork failures. To try and understand the links between the replication fork, its failure and genome rearrangements, we discuss here phases of fork behavior (stall, collapse, restart and fork failures leading to rearrangements) and analyze two examples of instability from our own studies; one in fission yeast and the other in budding yeast.

  1. Essential Biological Processes of an Emerging Pathogen: DNA Replication, Transcription, and Cell Division in Acinetobacter spp.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Andrew; Brzoska, Anthony J.; Turner, Kylie M.; Withers, Ryan; Harry, Elizabeth J.; Lewis, Peter J.; Dixon, Nicholas E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Within the last 15 years, members of the bacterial genus Acinetobacter have risen from relative obscurity to be among the most important sources of hospital-acquired infections. The driving force for this has been the remarkable ability of these organisms to acquire antibiotic resistance determinants, with some strains now showing resistance to every antibiotic in clinical use. There is an urgent need for new antibacterial compounds to combat the threat imposed by Acinetobacter spp. and other intractable bacterial pathogens. The essential processes of chromosomal DNA replication, transcription, and cell division are attractive targets for the rational design of antimicrobial drugs. The goal of this review is to examine the wealth of genome sequence and gene knockout data now available for Acinetobacter spp., highlighting those aspects of essential systems that are most suitable as drug targets. Acinetobacter spp. show several key differences from other pathogenic gammaproteobacteria, particularly in global stress response pathways. The involvement of these pathways in short- and long-term antibiotic survival suggests that Acinetobacter spp. cope with antibiotic-induced stress differently from other microorganisms. PMID:20508250

  2. Recombinase and translesion DNA polymerase decrease the speed of replication fork progression during the DNA damage response in Escherichia coli cells

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kang Wei; Pham, Tuan Minh; Furukohri, Asako; Maki, Hisaji; Akiyama, Masahiro Tatsumi

    2015-01-01

    The SOS response is a DNA damage response pathway that serves as a general safeguard of genome integrity in bacteria. Extensive studies of the SOS response in Escherichia coli have contributed to establishing the key concepts of cellular responses to DNA damage. However, how the SOS response impacts on the dynamics of DNA replication fork movement remains unknown. We found that inducing the SOS response decreases the mean speed of individual replication forks by 30–50% in E. coli cells, leading to a 20–30% reduction in overall DNA synthesis. dinB and recA belong to a group of genes that are upregulated during the SOS response, and encode the highly conserved proteins DinB (also known as DNA polymerase IV) and RecA, which, respectively, specializes in translesion DNA synthesis and functions as the central recombination protein. Both genes were independently responsible for the SOS-dependent slowdown of replication fork progression. Furthermore, fork speed was reduced when each gene was ectopically expressed in SOS-uninduced cells to the levels at which they are expressed in SOS-induced cells. These results clearly indicate that the increased expression of dinB and recA performs a novel role in restraining the progression of an unperturbed replication fork during the SOS response. PMID:25628359

  3. Recombinase and translesion DNA polymerase decrease the speed of replication fork progression during the DNA damage response in Escherichia coli cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kang Wei; Pham, Tuan Minh; Furukohri, Asako; Maki, Hisaji; Akiyama, Masahiro Tatsumi

    2015-02-18

    The SOS response is a DNA damage response pathway that serves as a general safeguard of genome integrity in bacteria. Extensive studies of the SOS response in Escherichia coli have contributed to establishing the key concepts of cellular responses to DNA damage. However, how the SOS response impacts on the dynamics of DNA replication fork movement remains unknown. We found that inducing the SOS response decreases the mean speed of individual replication forks by 30-50% in E. coli cells, leading to a 20-30% reduction in overall DNA synthesis. dinB and recA belong to a group of genes that are upregulated during the SOS response, and encode the highly conserved proteins DinB (also known as DNA polymerase IV) and RecA, which, respectively, specializes in translesion DNA synthesis and functions as the central recombination protein. Both genes were independently responsible for the SOS-dependent slowdown of replication fork progression. Furthermore, fork speed was reduced when each gene was ectopically expressed in SOS-uninduced cells to the levels at which they are expressed in SOS-induced cells. These results clearly indicate that the increased expression of dinB and recA performs a novel role in restraining the progression of an unperturbed replication fork during the SOS response.

  4. DNA recombination: the replication connection.

    PubMed

    Haber, J E

    1999-07-01

    Chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs) arise after exposure to ionizing radiation or enzymatic cleavage, but especially during the process of DNA replication itself. Homologous recombination plays a critical role in repair of such DSBs. There has been significant progress in our understanding of two processes that occur in DSB repair: gene conversion and recombination-dependent DNA replication. Recent evidence suggests that gene conversion and break-induced replication are related processes that both begin with the establishment of a replication fork in which both leading- and lagging-strand synthesis occur. There has also been much progress in characterization of the biochemical roles of recombination proteins that are highly conserved from yeast to humans.

  5. Episomal High Copy Number Maintenance of Hairpin-capped DNA Bearing a Replication Initiation Region in Human Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Seiyu; Uchida, Masafumi; Shimizu, Noriaki

    2009-01-01

    We previously found that a plasmid bearing a replication initiation region efficiently initiates gene amplification in mammalian cells and that it generates extrachromosomal double minutes and/or chromosomal homogeneously staining regions. During analysis of the underlying mechanism, we serendipitously found that hairpin-capped linear DNA was stably maintained as numerous extrachromosomal tiny episomes for more than a few months in a human cancer cell line. Generation of such episomes depended on the presence of the replication initiation region in the original plasmid. Despite extrachromosomal maintenance, episomal gene expression was epigenetically suppressed. The Southern blot analysis of the DNA of cloned cells revealed that the region around the hairpin end was diversified between the clones. Furthermore, the bisulfite-modified PCR and the sequencing analyses revealed that the palindrome sequence that derived from the original hairpin end or its end-resected structure were well preserved during clonal long term growth. From these data, we propose a model that explains the formation and maintenance of these episomes, in which replication of the hairpin-capped DNA and cruciform formation and its resolution play central roles. Our findings may be relevant for the dissection of mammalian replicator sequences. PMID:19617622

  6. Running on empty: does mitochondrial DNA mutation limit replicative lifespan in yeast?: Mutations that increase the division rate of cells lacking mitochondrial DNA also extend replicative lifespan in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Cory D

    2011-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations escalate with increasing age in higher organisms. However, it has so far been difficult to experimentally determine whether mtDNA mutation merely correlates with age or directly limits lifespan. A recent study shows that budding yeast can also lose functional mtDNA late in life. Interestingly, independent studies of replicative lifespan (RLS) and of mtDNA-deficient cells show that the same mutations can increase both RLS and the division rate of yeast lacking the mitochondrial genome. These exciting, parallel findings imply a potential causal relationship between mtDNA mutation and replicative senescence. Furthermore, these results suggest more efficient methods for discovering genes that determine lifespan.

  7. The histone acetyltransferases CBP and Chameau integrate developmental and DNA replication programs in Drosophila ovarian follicle cells.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Kristopher H; Dixon, Michael; Calvi, Brian R

    2012-10-01

    DNA replication origin activity changes during development. Chromatin modifications are known to influence the genomic location of origins and the time during S phase that they initiate replication in different cells. However, how chromatin regulates origins in concert with cell differentiation remains poorly understood. Here, we use developmental gene amplification in Drosophila ovarian follicle cells as a model to investigate how chromatin modifiers regulate origins in a developmental context. We find that the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) Chameau (Chm) binds to amplicon origins and is partially required for their function. Depletion of Chm had relatively mild effects on origins during gene amplification and genomic replication compared with previous knockdown of its ortholog HBO1 in human cells, which has severe effects on origin function. We show that another HAT, CBP (Nejire), also binds amplicon origins and is partially required for amplification. Knockdown of Chm and CBP together had a more severe effect on nucleosome acetylation and amplicon origin activity than knockdown of either HAT alone, suggesting that these HATs collaborate in origin regulation. In addition to their local function at the origin, we show that Chm and CBP also globally regulate the developmental transition of follicle cells into the amplification stages of oogenesis. Our results reveal a complexity of origin epigenetic regulation by multiple HATs during development and suggest that chromatin modifiers are a nexus that integrates differentiation and DNA replication programs.

  8. Measuring DNA Replication in Hypoxic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Foskolou, Iosifina P; Biasoli, Deborah; Olcina, Monica M; Hammond, Ester M

    2016-01-01

    It is imperative that dividing cells maintain replication fork integrity in order to prevent DNA damage and cell death. The investigation of DNA replication is of high importance as alterations in this process can lead to genomic instability, a known causative factor of tumor development. A simple, sensitive, and informative technique which enables the study of DNA replication, is the DNA fiber assay, an adaptation of which is described in this chapter. The DNA fiber method is a powerful tool, which allows the quantitative and qualitative analysis of DNA replication at the single molecule level. The sequential pulse labeling of live cells with two thymidine analogues and the subsequent detection with specific antibodies and fluorescence imaging allows direct examination of sites of DNA synthesis. In this chapter, we describe how this assay can be performed in conditions of low oxygen levels (hypoxia)-a physiologically relevant stress that occurs in most solid tumors. Moreover, we suggest ways on how to overcome the technical problems that arise while using the hypoxic chambers.

  9. Epstein-Barr-based episomal chromosomes shuttle 100 kb of self-replicating circular human DNA in mouse cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, Z.T.; Fu, H.; Livanos, E.; Wendelburg, B.; Gulino, S.; Vos, J.M.

    1998-08-01

    The authors describe the microcell fusion transfer of 100--200 kb self-replicating circular human minichromosomes from human into mouse cells. This experimental approach is illustrated through the shuttling of the latent 170 kb double-stranded DNA genome from the human herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus, into nonpermissive rodent cells. Using this interspecies transfer strategy, circular episomes carrying 95--105 kb of human DNA were successfully established at low copy number in mouse A9 cells. Selected episomes were stably maintained for 6 months, and unselected episomes were characterized by a 95% episomal retention per cell division. The establishment of a mouse artificial episomal chromosome system should facilitate evolutionary and therapeutic studies of large human DNA in rodent genetic backgrounds.

  10. SCF-FBXO31 E3 Ligase Targets DNA Replication Factor Cdt1 for Proteolysis in the G2 Phase of Cell Cycle to Prevent Re-replication*

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Pegah; Jeffery, Jessie; Al-Ejeh, Fares; Schulz, Renèe B.; Callen, David F.; Kumar, Raman; Khanna, Kum Kum

    2014-01-01

    FBXO31 was originally identified as a putative tumor suppressor gene in breast, ovarian, hepatocellular, and prostate cancers. By screening a set of cell cycle-regulated proteins as potential FBXO31 interaction partners, we have now identified Cdt1 as a novel substrate. Cdt1 DNA replication licensing factor is part of the pre-replication complex and essential for the maintenance of genomic integrity. We show that FBXO31 specifically interacts with Cdt1 and regulates its abundance by ubiquitylation leading to subsequent degradation. We also show that Cdt1 regulation by FBXO31 is limited to the G2 phase of the cell cycle and is independent of the pathways previously described for Cdt1 proteolysis in S and G2 phase. FBXO31 targeting of Cdt1 is mediated through the N terminus of Cdt1, a region previously shown to be responsible for its cell cycle regulation. Finally, we show that Cdt1 stabilization due to FBXO31 depletion results in re-replication. Our data present an additional pathway that contributes to the FBXO31 function as a tumor suppressor. PMID:24828503

  11. Different Modes of Human Papillomavirus DNA Replication during Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Ralf; Hirt, Bernhard; Bechtold, Viviane; Beard, Peter; Raj, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) begins its life cycle by infecting the basal cells of the epithelium. Within these proliferating cells, the viral genomes are replicated, maintained, and passed on to the daughter cells. Using HPV episome-containing cell lines that were derived from naturally infected cervical tissues, we investigated the mode by which the viral DNAs replicate in these cells. We observed that, whereas HPV16 DNA replicated in an ordered once-per-S-phase manner in W12 cells, HPV31 DNA replicated via a random-choice mechanism in CIN612 cells. However, when HPV16 and HPV31 DNAs were separately introduced into an alternate keratinocyte cell line NIKS, they both replicated randomly. This indicates that HPV DNA is inherently capable of replicating by either random-choice or once-per-S-phase mechanisms and that the mode of HPV DNA replication is dependent on the cells that harbor the viral episome. High expression of the viral replication protein E1 in W12 cells converted HPV16 DNA replication to random-choice replication and, as such, it appears that the mode of HPV DNA replication in proliferating cells is dependent on the presence or the increased level of this protein in the host cell. The implications of these observations on maintenance, latency, and persistence are discussed. PMID:16611903

  12. Mechanisms for Initiating Cellular DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Alessandro; Hood, Iris V.; Berger, James M.

    2015-01-01

    The initiation of DNA replication represents a committing step to cell proliferation. Appropriate replication onset depends on multiprotein complexes that help properly distinguish origin regions, generate nascent replication bubbles, and promote replisome formation. This review describes initiation systems employed by bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, with a focus on comparing and contrasting molecular mechanisms among organisms. Although commonalities can be found in the functional domains and strategies used to carry out and regulate initiation, many key participants have markedly different activities and appear to have evolved convergently. Despite significant advances in the field, major questions still persist in understanding how initiation programs are executed at the molecular level. PMID:23746253

  13. DNA replication origin activation in space and time.

    PubMed

    Fragkos, Michalis; Ganier, Olivier; Coulombe, Philippe; Méchali, Marcel

    2015-06-01

    DNA replication begins with the assembly of pre-replication complexes (pre-RCs) at thousands of DNA replication origins during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. At the G1-S-phase transition, pre-RCs are converted into pre-initiation complexes, in which the replicative helicase is activated, leading to DNA unwinding and initiation of DNA synthesis. However, only a subset of origins are activated during any S phase. Recent insights into the mechanisms underlying this choice reveal how flexibility in origin usage and temporal activation are linked to chromosome structure and organization, cell growth and differentiation, and replication stress.

  14. PARP1 inhibition radiosensitizes HNSCC cells deficient in homologous recombination by disabling the DNA replication fork elongation response

    PubMed Central

    Parplys, Ann C.; Seelbach, Jasna I.; Mansour, Wael Y.; Zielinski, Alexandra; Petersen, Cordula; Clauditz, Till S.; Münscher, Adrian; Friedl, Anna A.; Borgmann, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    There is a need to develop new, more efficient therapies for head and neck cancer (HNSCC) patients. It is currently unclear whether defects in DNA repair genes play a role in HNSCCs' resistance to therapy. PARP1 inhibitors (PARPi) were found to be “synthetic lethal” in cancers deficient in BRCA1/2 with impaired homologous recombination. Since tumors rarely have these particular mutations, there is considerable interest in finding alternative determinants of PARPi sensitivity. Effectiveness of combined irradiation and PARPi olaparib was evaluated in ten HNSCC cell lines, subdivided into HR-proficient and HR-deficient cell lines using a GFP-based reporter assay. Both groups were equally sensitive to PARPi alone. Combined treatment revealed stronger synergistic interactions in the HR-deficient group. Because HR is mainly active in S-Phase, replication processes were analyzed. A stronger impact of treatment on replication processes (p = 0.04) and an increased number of radial chromosomes (p = 0.003) were observed in the HR-deficient group. We could show that radiosensitization by inhibition of PARP1 strongly correlates with HR competence in a replication-dependent manner. Our observations indicate that PARP1 inhibitors are promising candidates for enhancing the therapeutic ratio achieved by radiotherapy via disabling DNA replication processes in HR-deficient HNSCCs. PMID:26799421

  15. Recognition site of nuclear factor I, a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein from HeLa cells that stimulates adenovirus DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Leegwater, P A; van Driel, W; van der Vliet, P C

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear factor I is a 47-kd protein, isolated from nuclei of HeLa cells, that binds specifically to the inverted terminal repeat of the adenovirus (Ad) DNA and enhances Ad DNA replication in vitro. We have studied the DNA sequence specificity of nuclear factor I binding using cloned terminal fragments of the Ad2 genome and a set of deletion mutants. Binding of nuclear factor I protects nucleotides 19-42 of Ad2 DNA against DNase I digestion. Filter binding assays show that deletion of the first 23 nucleotides does not impair binding while a deletion of 24 nucleotides reduces binding severely. However, binding studies on Ad12 DNA indicate that nucleotide 24 can be mutated. Fragments containing the first 40 bp are bound normally while the first 38 bp are insufficient to sustain binding. Taken together, these results indicate that the minimal recognition site of nuclear factor I contains 15 or 16 nucleotides, located from nucleotide 25 to nucleotide 39 or 40 of the Ad2 DNA. This site contains two of the four conserved nucleotide sequences in this region. Sequences flanking the minimal recognition site may reduce the binding affinity of nuclear factor I. In accordance with these binding studies, DNA replication of a fragment that carries the sequence of the terminal 40 nucleotides of Ad2 at one molecular end is enhanced by nuclear factor I in an in vitro replication system. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:4040852

  16. Assembly of Slx4 signaling complexes behind DNA replication forks.

    PubMed

    Balint, Attila; Kim, TaeHyung; Gallo, David; Cussiol, Jose Renato; Bastos de Oliveira, Francisco M; Yimit, Askar; Ou, Jiongwen; Nakato, Ryuichiro; Gurevich, Alexey; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Smolka, Marcus B; Zhang, Zhaolei; Brown, Grant W

    2015-08-13

    Obstructions to replication fork progression, referred to collectively as DNA replication stress, challenge genome stability. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cells lacking RTT107 or SLX4 show genome instability and sensitivity to DNA replication stress and are defective in the completion of DNA replication during recovery from replication stress. We demonstrate that Slx4 is recruited to chromatin behind stressed replication forks, in a region that is spatially distinct from that occupied by the replication machinery. Slx4 complex formation is nucleated by Mec1 phosphorylation of histone H2A, which is recognized by the constitutive Slx4 binding partner Rtt107. Slx4 is essential for recruiting the Mec1 activator Dpb11 behind stressed replication forks, and Slx4 complexes are important for full activity of Mec1. We propose that Slx4 complexes promote robust checkpoint signaling by Mec1 by stably recruiting Dpb11 within a discrete domain behind the replication fork, during DNA replication stress.

  17. Assembly of Slx4 signaling complexes behind DNA replication forks

    PubMed Central

    Balint, Attila; Kim, TaeHyung; Gallo, David; Cussiol, Jose Renato; Bastos de Oliveira, Francisco M; Yimit, Askar; Ou, Jiongwen; Nakato, Ryuichiro; Gurevich, Alexey; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Smolka, Marcus B; Zhang, Zhaolei; Brown, Grant W

    2015-01-01

    Obstructions to replication fork progression, referred to collectively as DNA replication stress, challenge genome stability. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cells lacking RTT107 or SLX4 show genome instability and sensitivity to DNA replication stress and are defective in the completion of DNA replication during recovery from replication stress. We demonstrate that Slx4 is recruited to chromatin behind stressed replication forks, in a region that is spatially distinct from that occupied by the replication machinery. Slx4 complex formation is nucleated by Mec1 phosphorylation of histone H2A, which is recognized by the constitutive Slx4 binding partner Rtt107. Slx4 is essential for recruiting the Mec1 activator Dpb11 behind stressed replication forks, and Slx4 complexes are important for full activity of Mec1. We propose that Slx4 complexes promote robust checkpoint signaling by Mec1 by stably recruiting Dpb11 within a discrete domain behind the replication fork, during DNA replication stress. PMID:26113155

  18. Allele-specific analysis of DNA replication origins in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Bartholdy, Boris; Mukhopadhyay, Rituparna; Lajugie, Julien; Aladjem, Mirit I.; Bouhassira, Eric E.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms that control the location and timing of firing of replication origins are poorly understood. Using a novel functional genomic approach based on the analysis of SNPs and indels in phased human genomes, we observe that replication asynchrony is associated with small cumulative variations in the initiation efficiency of multiple origins between the chromosome homologues, rather than with the activation of dormant origins. Allele-specific measurements demonstrate that the presence of G-quadruplex-forming sequences does not correlate with the efficiency of initiation. Sequence analysis reveals that the origins are highly enriched in sequences with profoundly asymmetric G/C and A/T nucleotide distributions and are almost completely depleted of antiparallel triplex-forming sequences. We therefore propose that although G4-forming sequences are abundant in replication origins, an asymmetry in nucleotide distribution, which increases the propensity of origins to unwind and adopt non-B DNA structure, rather than the ability to form G4, is directly associated with origin activity. PMID:25987481

  19. In vitro RNA interference targeting the DNA polymerase gene inhibits orf virus replication in primary ovine fetal turbinate cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gaili; He, Wenqi; Song, Deguang; Li, Jida; Bao, Yingfu; Lu, Rongguang; Bi, Jingying; Zhao, Kui; Gao, Feng

    2014-05-01

    Orf, which is caused by orf virus (ORFV), is distributed worldwide and is endemic in most sheep- and/or goat-raising countries. RNA interference (RNAi) pathways have emerged as important regulators of virus-host cell interactions. In this study, the specific effect of RNAi on the replication of ORFV was explored. The application of RNA interference (RNAi) inhibited the replication of ORFV in cell culture by targeting the ORF025 gene of ORFV, which encodes the viral polymerase. Three small interfering RNA (siRNA) (named siRNA704, siRNA1017 and siRNA1388) were prepared by in vitro transcription. The siRNAs were evaluated for antiviral activity against the ORFV Jilin isolate by the observation of cytopathic effects (CPE), virus titration, and real-time PCR. After 48 h of infection, siRNA704, siRNA1017 and siRNA1388 reduced virus titers by 59- to 199-fold and reduced the level of viral replication by 73-89 %. These results suggest that these three siRNAs can efficiently inhibit ORFV genome replication and infectious virus production. RNAi targeting of the DNA polymerase gene is therefore potentially useful for studying the replication of ORFV and may have potential therapeutic applications.

  20. On the scattering of DNA replication completion times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meilikhov, E. Z.; Farzetdinova, R. M.

    2015-07-01

    Stochasticity of Eukaryotes' DNA replication should not lead to large fluctuations of replication times, which could result in mitotic catastrophes. Fundamental problem that cells face is how to be ensured that entire genome is replicated on time. We develop analytic approach of calculating DNA replication times, that being simplified and approximate, leads, nevertheless, to results practically coincident with those that were obtained by some sophisticated methods. In the framework of that model we consider replication times' scattering and discuss the influence of repair stopping on kinetics of DNA replication. Our main explicit formulae for DNA replication time t r ∝ ( N is the total number of DNA base pairs) is of general character and explains basic features of DNA replication kinetics.

  1. The DNA repair endonuclease Mus81 facilitates fast DNA replication in the absence of exogenous damage

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Haiqing; Martin, Melvenia M.; Regairaz, Marie; Huang, Liang; You, Yang; Lin, Chi-Mei; Ryan, Michael; Kim, RyangGuk; Shimura, Tsutomu; Pommier, Yves; Aladjem, Mirit I.

    2015-01-01

    The Mus81 endonuclease resolves recombination intermediates and mediates cellular responses to exogenous replicative stress. Here, we show that Mus81 also regulates the rate of DNA replication during normal growth by promoting replication fork progression while reducing the frequency of replication initiation events. In the absence of Mus81 endonuclease activity, DNA synthesis is slowed and replication initiation events are more frequent. In addition, Mus81 deficient cells fail to recover from exposure to low doses of replication inhibitors and cell viability is dependent on the XPF endonuclease. Despite an increase in replication initiation frequency, cells lacking Mus81 use the same pool of replication origins as Mus81-expressing cells. Therefore, decelerated DNA replication in Mus81 deficient cells does not initiate from cryptic or latent origins not used during normal growth. These results indicate that Mus81 plays a key role in determining the rate of DNA replication without activating a novel group of replication origins. PMID:25879486

  2. Toxin Kid uncouples DNA replication and cell division to enforce retention of plasmid R1 in Escherichia coli cells.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Belén; Nair, Radhika; Bermejo-Rodríguez, Camino; Preston, Mark A; Agu, Chukwuma A; Wang, Xindan; Bernal, Juan A; Sherratt, David J; de la Cueva-Méndez, Guillermo

    2014-02-18

    Worldwide dissemination of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is facilitated by plasmids that encode postsegregational killing (PSK) systems. These produce a stable toxin (T) and a labile antitoxin (A) conditioning cell survival to plasmid maintenance, because only this ensures neutralization of toxicity. Shortage of antibiotic alternatives and the link of TA pairs to PSK have stimulated the opinion that premature toxin activation could be used to kill these recalcitrant organisms in the clinic. However, validation of TA pairs as therapeutic targets requires unambiguous understanding of their mode of action, consequences for cell viability, and function in plasmids. Conflicting with widespread notions concerning these issues, we had proposed that the TA pair kis-kid (killing suppressor-killing determinant) might function as a plasmid rescue system and not as a PSK system, but this remained to be validated. Here, we aimed to clarify unsettled mechanistic aspects of Kid activation, and of the effects of this for kis-kid-bearing plasmids and their host cells. We confirm that activation of Kid occurs in cells that are about to lose the toxin-encoding plasmid, and we show that this provokes highly selective restriction of protein outputs that inhibits cell division temporarily, avoiding plasmid loss, and stimulates DNA replication, promoting plasmid rescue. Kis and Kid are conserved in plasmids encoding multiple antibiotic resistance genes, including extended spectrum β-lactamases, for which therapeutic options are scarce, and our findings advise against the activation of this TA pair to fight pathogens carrying these extrachromosomal DNAs.

  3. Toxin Kid uncouples DNA replication and cell division to enforce retention of plasmid R1 in Escherichia coli cells

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, Belén; Nair, Radhika; Bermejo-Rodríguez, Camino; Preston, Mark A.; Agu, Chukwuma A.; Wang, Xindan; Bernal, Juan A.; Sherratt, David J.; de la Cueva-Méndez, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide dissemination of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is facilitated by plasmids that encode postsegregational killing (PSK) systems. These produce a stable toxin (T) and a labile antitoxin (A) conditioning cell survival to plasmid maintenance, because only this ensures neutralization of toxicity. Shortage of antibiotic alternatives and the link of TA pairs to PSK have stimulated the opinion that premature toxin activation could be used to kill these recalcitrant organisms in the clinic. However, validation of TA pairs as therapeutic targets requires unambiguous understanding of their mode of action, consequences for cell viability, and function in plasmids. Conflicting with widespread notions concerning these issues, we had proposed that the TA pair kis-kid (killing suppressor-killing determinant) might function as a plasmid rescue system and not as a PSK system, but this remained to be validated. Here, we aimed to clarify unsettled mechanistic aspects of Kid activation, and of the effects of this for kis-kid–bearing plasmids and their host cells. We confirm that activation of Kid occurs in cells that are about to lose the toxin-encoding plasmid, and we show that this provokes highly selective restriction of protein outputs that inhibits cell division temporarily, avoiding plasmid loss, and stimulates DNA replication, promoting plasmid rescue. Kis and Kid are conserved in plasmids encoding multiple antibiotic resistance genes, including extended spectrum β-lactamases, for which therapeutic options are scarce, and our findings advise against the activation of this TA pair to fight pathogens carrying these extrachromosomal DNAs. PMID:24449860

  4. Completion of DNA replication in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wendel, Brian M; Courcelle, Charmain T; Courcelle, Justin

    2014-11-18

    The mechanism by which cells recognize and complete replicated regions at their precise doubling point must be remarkably efficient, occurring thousands of times per cell division along the chromosomes of humans. However, this process remains poorly understood. Here we show that, in Escherichia coli, the completion of replication involves an enzymatic system that effectively counts pairs and limits cellular replication to its doubling point by allowing converging replication forks to transiently continue through the doubling point before the excess, over-replicated regions are incised, resected, and joined. Completion requires RecBCD and involves several proteins associated with repairing double-strand breaks including, ExoI, SbcDC, and RecG. However, unlike double-strand break repair, completion occurs independently of homologous recombination and RecA. In some bacterial viruses, the completion mechanism is specifically targeted for inactivation to allow over-replication to occur during lytic replication. The results suggest that a primary cause of genomic instabilities in many double-strand-break-repair mutants arises from an impaired ability to complete replication, independent from DNA damage.

  5. Thymosin beta-4 knockdown in IEC-6 normal intestinal epithelial cells induces DNA re-replication via downregulating Emi1.

    PubMed

    Chao, Ta-Chung; Chen, Ke-Jay; Tang, Mei-Chuan; Chan, Li-Chuan; Chen, Po-Min; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai; Su, Yeu

    2014-11-01

    Thymosin β4 (Tβ4 ) is a multifunctional protein already used clinically to treat various diseases; however, the promoting effect of this protein on tumor malignancy should not be neglected. Here, we assessed whether Tβ4 alteration influences normal intestinal epithelial cells because Tβ4 is deemed a novel target for treating colorectal cancer (CRC). For this purpose, we examined the consequences of shRNA-mediated knockdown of Tβ4 in IEC-6 normal rat small intestinal cells and found that inhibiting Tβ4 expression significantly suppressed their growth and induced apoptosis in some cells. Flow cytometric analysis further revealed a marked decrease of G0/G1 population but a drastic increase of polyploid ones in these cells. The increase of polyploidy likely resulted from DNA re-replication because not only the de novo DNA synthesis was greatly increased but also the expression levels of Cdc6 (a replication-licensing factor), cyclin A, and phosphorylated-checkpoint kinase 1 were all dramatically elevated. Moreover, marked reductions in both RNA and protein levels of Emi1 (early mitotic inhibitor 1) were also detected in Tβ4 -downregulated IEC-6 cells which might be accounted by the downregulation of E2F1, a transcription factor capable of inducing Emi1 expression, mediated by glycogen synthase-3β (GSK-3β). To our best knowledge, this is the first report showing that inhibiting Tβ4 expression triggers DNA re-replication in normal intestinal epithelial cells, suggesting that this G-actin sequester may play a crucial role in maintaining genome stability in these cells. More importantly, clinical oncologists should take this novel activity into consideration when design CRC therapy based on targeting Tβ4 . © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Replication of nanoscale DNA patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maass, Corinna; Wang, Tong; Sha, Ruojie; Leunissen, Mirjam; Dreyfus, Remi; Seeman, Nadrian; Chaikin, Paul

    2011-03-01

    We present an artificial supramolecular system mimicking self- replication and information transmission strategies in nature, but without the aid of enzymes or equivalent biological mechanisms. Using DNA nanotechnology techniques, we can make DNA tiles with selective interactions based on complementary single-strand connections. A linear tile pattern distinguished by their connector sequences is transmitted to a subsequent generation of copies by connector hybridisation. Longitudinal pattern formation and transverse copy attachment are well separated by different melting temperatures. We have achieved a faithful transmission of the pattern information to the second replication generation. We use AFM imaging to test for pattern fidelity and gel electrophoresis for quantitative yield analysis. supported by a DAAD postdoc grant.

  7. In vitro conversion of MVM parvovirus single-stranded DNA to the replicative form by DNA polymerase alpha from Ehrlich ascites tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Faust, E A; Rankin, C D

    1982-01-01

    A partially purified preparation of DNA polymerase alpha, obtained from the cytosol of Ehrlich ascites tumour cells, has been found to catalyze the conversion of MVM parvovirus, SS DNA (5 kilobases) to RF in vitro. The reaction initiates at a natural 55 base pair hairpin which exists at the 3' terminus of MVM SS DNA. The SS leads to RF conversion is sensitive to aphidicolin, resistant to ddTTP and is promoted by purine ribonucleoside 5' triphosphates, a phenomenon which could not be explained simply by stabilization effects on the in vitro deoxynucleotide precursor pool. In the absence of rNTPs, nascent complementary strands frequently terminate prematurely at a preferred location, between 1300 and 1700 nucleotides from the initiating 3' hairpin terminus. This in vitro system, involving self-primed parvovirus DNA synthesis, provides a convenient assay for those components of the mammalian replicative DNA polymerase complex which are required for the elongation of nascent DNA chains. Images PMID:6812024

  8. CHK1-targeted therapy to deplete DNA replication-stressed, p53-deficient, hyperdiploid colorectal cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Manic, Gwenola; Signore, Michele; Sistigu, Antonella; Russo, Giorgio; Corradi, Francesca; Siteni, Silvia; Musella, Martina; Vitale, Sara; De Angelis, Maria Laura; Pallocca, Matteo; Amoreo, Carla Azzurra; Sperati, Francesca; Di Franco, Simone; Barresi, Sabina; Policicchio, Eleonora; De Luca, Gabriele; De Nicola, Francesca; Mottolese, Marcella; Zeuner, Ann; Fanciulli, Maurizio; Stassi, Giorgio; Maugeri-Saccà, Marcello; Baiocchi, Marta; Tartaglia, Marco; Vitale, Ilio; De Maria, Ruggero

    2017-04-07

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumour formation and spreading, and their targeting is required for tumour eradication. There are limited therapeutic options for advanced colorectal cancer (CRC), particularly for tumours carrying RAS-activating mutations. The aim of this study was to identify novel CSC-targeting strategies. To discover potential therapeutics to be clinically investigated as single agent, we performed a screening with a panel of FDA-approved or investigational drugs on primary CRC cells enriched for CSCs (CRC-SCs) isolated from 27 patients. Candidate predictive biomarkers of efficacy were identified by integrating genomic, reverse-phase protein microarray (RPPA) and cytogenetic analyses, and validated by immunostainings. DNA replication stress (RS) was increased by employing DNA replication-perturbing or polyploidising agents. The drug-library screening led to the identification of LY2606368 as a potent anti-CSC agent acting in vitro and in vivo in tumour cells from a considerable number of patients (∼36%). By inhibiting checkpoint kinase (CHK)1, LY2606368 affected DNA replication in most CRC-SCs, including RAS-mutated ones, forcing them into premature, lethal mitoses. Parallel genomic, RPPA and cytogenetic analyses indicated that CRC-SCs sensitive to LY2606368 displayed signs of ongoing RS response, including the phosphorylation of RPA32 and ataxia telangiectasia mutated serine/threonine kinase (ATM). This was associated with mutation(s) in TP53 and hyperdiploidy, and made these CRC-SCs exquisitely dependent on CHK1 function. Accordingly, experimental increase of RS sensitised resistant CRC-SCs to LY2606368. LY2606368 selectively eliminates replication-stressed, p53-deficient and hyperdiploid CRC-SCs independently of RAS mutational status. These results provide a strong rationale for biomarker-driven clinical trials with LY2606368 in patients with CRC. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  9. Effects of flavonoids on expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation and DNA replication in human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Moskot, Marta; Jakóbkiewicz-Banecka, Joanna; Smolińska, Elwira; Piotrowska, Ewa; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz; Gabig-Cimińska, Magdalena

    2015-09-01

    Flavonoids have been studied as potential agents in medicine for many years. Among them, genistein was found to be active in various biological systems, mainly in prevention of cancer. Our recent work supported the idea that genistein also impacts multiple cellular processes in healthy fibroblasts; however, its effects on cell cycle-related pathways remained to be elucidated. Thus, in this work, high throughput screening with microarrays coupled to real-time quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR analyses was employed to study the changes in expression of key genes associated with cell cycle regulation and/or DNA replication in response to genistein, kaempferol, daidzein, and mixtures of genistein and either kaempferol or daidzein. Among them, genistein was found as the most significantly modulating, in a time- and dose-dependent manner, compound of activity of studied genes, whose products are involved in different phases of the cell cycle and/or in regulatory processes important for DNA replication and cell growth. It considerably reduced the efficiency of expression of genes coding for MCM2-7 and MCM10 helicases, as well as some other proteins involved in the S phase control. In addition, genistein caused cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, which was accompanied by activation of CDKN1A, CDKN1C, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, CDKN2C, and GADD45A genes, as well as down-regulation of several mRNAs specific for this stage, demonstrated by transcriptomic assessments. We believe that studies described in this paper will be helpful in elucidating molecular mechanisms of action of genistein as modulator of cell cycle and inhibitor of DNA replication in humans.

  10. HIV-1 replication in human immune cells is independent of TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) expression.

    PubMed

    Nehls, Julia; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Brack-Werner, Ruth; Floss, Thomas; Schindler, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43) was originally identified as a host cell factor binding to the HIV-1 LTR and thereby suppressing HIV-1 transcription and gene expression (Ou et al., J.Virol. 1995, 69(6):3584). TDP-43 is a global regulator of transcription, can influence RNA metabolism in many different ways and is ubiquitously expressed. Thus, TDP-43 could be a major factor restricting HIV-1 replication at the level of LTR transcription and gene expression. These facts prompted us to revisit the role of TDP-43 for HIV-1 replication. We utilized established HIV-1 cell culture systems as well as primary cell models and performed a comprehensive analysis of TDP-43 function and investigated its putative impact on HIV-1 gene expression. In HIV-1 infected cells TDP-43 was neither degraded nor sequestered from the nucleus. Furthermore, TDP-43 overexpression as well as siRNA mediated knockdown did not affect HIV-1 gene expression and virus production in T cells and macrophages. In summary, our experiments argue against a restricting role of TDP-43 during HIV-1 replication in immune cells.

  11. HIV-1 Replication in Human Immune Cells Is Independent of TAR DNA Binding Protein 43 (TDP-43) Expression

    PubMed Central

    Nehls, Julia; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Brack-Werner, Ruth; Floss, Thomas; Schindler, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43) was originally identified as a host cell factor binding to the HIV-1 LTR and thereby suppressing HIV-1 transcription and gene expression (Ou et al., J.Virol. 1995, 69(6):3584). TDP-43 is a global regulator of transcription, can influence RNA metabolism in many different ways and is ubiquitously expressed. Thus, TDP-43 could be a major factor restricting HIV-1 replication at the level of LTR transcription and gene expression. These facts prompted us to revisit the role of TDP-43 for HIV-1 replication. We utilized established HIV-1 cell culture systems as well as primary cell models and performed a comprehensive analysis of TDP-43 function and investigated its putative impact on HIV-1 gene expression. In HIV-1 infected cells TDP-43 was neither degraded nor sequestered from the nucleus. Furthermore, TDP-43 overexpression as well as siRNA mediated knockdown did not affect HIV-1 gene expression and virus production in T cells and macrophages. In summary, our experiments argue against a restricting role of TDP-43 during HIV-1 replication in immune cells. PMID:25127017

  12. Mechanism of chromosomal DNA replication initiation and replication fork stabilization in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Wu, LiHong; Liu, Yang; Kong, DaoChun

    2014-05-01

    Chromosomal DNA replication is one of the central biological events occurring inside cells. Due to its large size, the replication of genomic DNA in eukaryotes initiates at hundreds to tens of thousands of sites called DNA origins so that the replication could be completed in a limited time. Further, eukaryotic DNA replication is sophisticatedly regulated, and this regulation guarantees that each origin fires once per S phase and each segment of DNA gets duplication also once per cell cycle. The first step of replication initiation is the assembly of pre-replication complex (pre-RC). Since 1973, four proteins, Cdc6/Cdc18, MCM, ORC and Cdt1, have been extensively studied and proved to be pre-RC components. Recently, a novel pre-RC component called Sap1/Girdin was identified. Sap1/Girdin is required for loading Cdc18/Cdc6 to origins for pre-RC assembly in the fission yeast and human cells, respectively. At the transition of G1 to S phase, pre-RC is activated by the two kinases, cyclindependent kinase (CDK) and Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK), and subsequently, RPA, primase-polα, PCNA, topoisomerase, Cdc45, polδ, and polɛ are recruited to DNA origins for creating two bi-directional replication forks and initiating DNA replication. As replication forks move along chromatin DNA, they frequently stall due to the presence of a great number of replication barriers on chromatin DNA, such as secondary DNA structures, protein/DNA complexes, DNA lesions, gene transcription. Stalled forks must require checkpoint regulation for their stabilization. Otherwise, stalled forks will collapse, which results in incomplete DNA replication and genomic instability. This short review gives a concise introduction regarding the current understanding of replication initiation and replication fork stabilization.

  13. Strong inhibition of replicative DNA synthesis in the developing rat cerebral cortex and glioma cells by roscovitine.

    PubMed

    Yakisich, Juan Sebastian; Vita, Marina Fernanda; Siden, Ake; Tasat, Deborah Ruth; Cruz, Mabel

    2010-06-01

    The effects of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors roscovitine and olomoucine on DNA synthesis rate during normal rat brain development were studied by using short time (90 min) incubation. Both purine analogues at 100 microM concentration decreased the DNA synthesis of rat cerebral cortex in an age-dependent manner. The maximum inhibitory effect (approximately 90% for roscovitine, approximately 60% for olomoucine) occurred in rats of 2-13 days postnatal age. In adult rats (> 60 days postnatal age), the effect of both purine analogues was low. Roscovitine even at 200 microM concentration did not inhibit the fraction of DNA synthesis insensitive to hydroxyurea (unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS)). In addition, in the RG2 rat glioma model, roscovitine produced a strong inhibition of DNA synthesis in glioma cells when compared to adult normal tissue. Since in adult rat brain more than 60% of DNA synthesis is related to DNA repair, usually measured as UDS, our results indicate that roscovitine strongly blocks ongoing DNA synthesis connected with replicative processes.

  14. Loss of maintenance DNA methylation results in abnormal DNA origin firing during DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Haruta, Mayumi; Shimada, Midori; Nishiyama, Atsuya; Johmura, Yoshikazu; Le Tallec, Benoît; Debatisse, Michelle; Nakanishi, Makoto

    2016-01-22

    The mammalian maintenance methyltransferase DNMT1 [DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1] mediates the inheritance of the DNA methylation pattern during replication. Previous studies have shown that depletion of DNMT1 causes a severe growth defect and apoptosis in differentiated cells. However, the detailed mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here we show that conditional ablation of Dnmt1 in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) resulted in an aberrant DNA replication program showing an accumulation of late-S phase replication and causing severely defective growth. Furthermore, we found that the catalytic activity and replication focus targeting sequence of DNMT1 are required for a proper DNA replication program. Taken together, our findings suggest that the maintenance of DNA methylation by DNMT1 plays a critical role in proper regulation of DNA replication in mammalian cells.

  15. Loss of maintenance DNA methylation results in abnormal DNA origin firing during DNA replication

    SciTech Connect

    Haruta, Mayumi; Shimada, Midori; Nishiyama, Atsuya; Johmura, Yoshikazu; Le Tallec, Benoît; Debatisse, Michelle; Nakanishi, Makoto

    2016-01-22

    The mammalian maintenance methyltransferase DNMT1 [DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1] mediates the inheritance of the DNA methylation pattern during replication. Previous studies have shown that depletion of DNMT1 causes a severe growth defect and apoptosis in differentiated cells. However, the detailed mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here we show that conditional ablation of Dnmt1 in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) resulted in an aberrant DNA replication program showing an accumulation of late-S phase replication and causing severely defective growth. Furthermore, we found that the catalytic activity and replication focus targeting sequence of DNMT1 are required for a proper DNA replication program. Taken together, our findings suggest that the maintenance of DNA methylation by DNMT1 plays a critical role in proper regulation of DNA replication in mammalian cells. - Highlights: • DNMT1 depletion results in an abnormal DNA replication program. • Aberrant DNA replication is independent of the DNA damage checkpoint in DNMT1cKO. • DNMT1 catalytic activity and RFT domain are required for proper DNA replication. • DNMT1 catalytic activity and RFT domain are required for cell proliferation.

  16. Alterations to the expression level of mitochondrial transcription factor A, TFAM, modify the mode of mitochondrial DNA replication in cultured human cells

    PubMed Central

    Pohjoismäki, Jaakko L. O.; Wanrooij, Sjoerd; Hyvärinen, Anne K.; Goffart, Steffi; Holt, Ian J.; Spelbrink, Johannes N.; Jacobs, Howard T.

    2006-01-01

    Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is an abundant mitochondrial protein of the HMG superfamily, with various putative roles in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) metabolism. In this study we have investigated the effects on mtDNA replication of manipulating TFAM expression in cultured human cells. Mammalian mtDNA replication intermediates (RIs) fall into two classes, whose mechanistic relationship is not properly understood. One class is characterized by extensive RNA incorporation on the lagging strand, whereas the other has the structure of products of conventional, strand-coupled replication. TFAM overexpression increased the overall abundance of RIs and shifted them substantially towards those of the conventional, strand-coupled type. The shift was most pronounced in the rDNA region and at various replication pause sites and was accompanied by a drop in the relative amount of replication-termination intermediates, a substantial reduction in mitochondrial transcripts, mtDNA decatenation and progressive copy number depletion. TFAM overexpression could be partially phenocopied by treatment of cells with dideoxycytidine, suggesting that its effects are partially attributable to a decreased rate of fork progression. TFAM knockdown also resulted in mtDNA depletion, but RIs remained mainly of the ribosubstituted type, although termination intermediates were enhanced. We propose that TFAM influences the mode of mtDNA replication via its combined effects on different aspects of mtDNA metabolism. PMID:17062618

  17. Non-small cell lung cancer exhibits transcript overexpression of genes associated with homologous recombination and DNA replication pathways.

    PubMed

    Saviozzi, Silvia; Ceppi, Paolo; Novello, Silvia; Ghio, Paolo; Lo Iacono, Marco; Borasio, Piero; Cambieri, Alberto; Volante, Marco; Papotti, Mauro; Calogero, Raffaele A; Scagliotti, Giorgio V

    2009-04-15

    Genes involved in DNA repair and replication have been recently investigated as predictive markers of response to chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, few data on the expression of these genes in tumor compared with corresponding normal lung are available. The aim of this study was to evaluate differential mRNA levels of 22 DNA repair genes of five different DNA repair pathways: direct, base excision, nucleotide excision (NER), double-strand break (DSBR), and postreplicative repair. In addition, six genes involved in DNA replication (REP) and three telomere maintenance genes were investigated. Total RNAs extracted from fresh-frozen tumors and corresponding normal tissues of 50 consecutive chemo-naïve resected NSCLC patients were analyzed. Transcript levels were quantified by real-time PCR. A significant overexpression was detected in 20 of 30 (67%) genes, mostly belonging to DSBR pathways, whereas others (XPA, XPC, and UBE2N; 10%) were significantly underexpressed. For 7 of 30 (23%) genes, mostly belonging to NER pathway, no significant difference between paired tumor and normal samples was observed. Transcript overexpression of DSBR and REP genes was significantly higher in poorly differentiated carcinomas and DSBR levels were higher in men compared with women. The transcriptional overexpression of four genes (XRCC5, TOP3B, TYMS, and UNG) showed significant correlation with a shorter patients' outcome at the univariate, whereas only stage of disease appeared as an independent factor affecting prognosis, as assessed by multivariate analysis. In conclusion, genes belonging to DNA repair/replication pathways are overexpressed in NSCLC and are associated with a more aggressive phenotype.

  18. Replication of kinetoplast minicircle DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Sheline, C.T.

    1989-01-01

    These studies describe the isolation and characterization of early minicircle replication intermediates from Crithidia fasciculata, and Leishmania tarentolae, the mitochondrial localization of a type II topoisomerase (TIImt) in C. fasciculata, and the implication of the aforementioned TIImt in minicircle replication in L. tarentolae. Early minicircle replication intermediates from C. fasciculata were identified and characterized using isolated kinetoplasts to incorporate radiolabeled nucleotides into its DNA. The pulse-label in an apparent theta-type intermediate chase into two daughter molecules. A uniquely gapped, ribonucleotide primed, knotted molecule represents the leading strand in the model proposed, and a highly gapped molecule represents the lagging strand. This theta intermediate is repaired in vitro to a doubly nicked catenated dimer which was shown to result from the replication of a single parental molecule. Very similar intermediates were found in the heterogeneous population of minicircles of L. tarentolae. The sites of the Leishmania specific discontinuities were mapped and shown to lie within the universally conserved sequence blocks in identical positions as compared to C. fasciculata and Trypanosoma equiperdum.

  19. Influence of retinoblastoma-related gene silencing on the initiation of DNA replication by African cassava mosaic virus Rep in cells of mature leaves in Nicotiana benthamiana plants.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Gareth; Gu, Mei; Shi, Nongnong; Liu, Yule; Hong, Yiguo

    2011-12-28

    Geminiviruses mainly infect terminally differentiated tissues and cells in plants. They need to reprogramme host cellular machinery for DNA replication. This process is thought to be mediated by inactivation of cell-cycle repressor proteins and by induction of host DNA synthesis protein expression through actions of the geminviral replication initiator protein (Rep). Exploiting a Nicotiana benthamiana pOri2 line, which is transformed with a transgene consisting of a direct repeat of the African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV)-replication origin (Ori) flanking a non-viral DNA region, and virus-induced RNA silencing (VIGS), the impact of host gene expression on replication of the ACMV-derived replicon was investigated. The ACMV Rep trans-replicated the viral episomal replicon in leaves of young but not older pOri2 plants. Upon VIGS-mediated down-regulation of N. benthamiana NbRBR1, the retinoblastoma-related protein gene coding for a negative cell-cycle suppressor, recovered the ability of ACMV Rep for trans DNA replication, whereas the silencing of NbPCNA coding for the sliding clamp of DNA polymerase had no effect. These results suggest that the cellular machinery for DNA replication in differentiated tissues of older leaves cannot be reprogrammed by Rep alone but may need other uncharacterised viral and plant factors. © 2011 Bruce et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  20. Replication fork dynamics and the DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rebecca M; Petermann, Eva

    2012-04-01

    Prevention and repair of DNA damage is essential for maintenance of genomic stability and cell survival. DNA replication during S-phase can be a source of DNA damage if endogenous or exogenous stresses impair the progression of replication forks. It has become increasingly clear that DNA-damage-response pathways do not only respond to the presence of damaged DNA, but also modulate DNA replication dynamics to prevent DNA damage formation during S-phase. Such observations may help explain the developmental defects or cancer predisposition caused by mutations in DNA-damage-response genes. The present review focuses on molecular mechanisms by which DNA-damage-response pathways control and promote replication dynamics in vertebrate cells. In particular, DNA damage pathways contribute to proper replication by regulating replication initiation, stabilizing transiently stalled forks, promoting replication restart and facilitating fork movement on difficult-to-replicate templates. If replication fork progression fails to be rescued, this may lead to DNA damage and genomic instability via nuclease processing of aberrant fork structures or incomplete sister chromatid separation during mitosis.

  1. Simian virus 40 DNA replication correlates with expression of a particular subclass of T antigen in a human glial cell line.

    PubMed

    Deminie, C A; Norkin, L C

    1990-08-01

    Immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization were used to identify simian virus 40 (SV40) large T-antigen expression and viral DNA replication in individual cells of infected semipermissive human cell lines. SV40 infection aborts before T-antigen expression in many cells of each of the human cell lines examined. In all but one of the human cell lines, most of the T-antigen-producing cells replicated viral DNA. However, in the A172 line of human glial cells only a small percentage of the T-antigen-expressing cells replicated viral DNA. Since different structural and functional classes of T antigen can be recognized with anti-T monoclonal antibodies, we examined infected A172 cells with a panel of 10 anti-T monoclonal antibodies to determine whether viral DNA replication might correlate with the expression of a particular epitope of T antigen. One anti-T monoclonal antibody, PAb 100, did specifically recognize that subset of A172 cells which replicated SV40 DNA. The percentage of PAb 100-reactive A172 cells was dramatically increased by the DNA synthesis inhibitors hydroxyurea and aphidicolin. Removal of the hydroxyurea was followed by an increase in the percentage of cells replicating viral DNA corresponding to the increased percentage reactive with PAb 100. The pattern of SV40 infection in A172 cells was not altered by infection with viable viral mutants containing lesions in the small t protein, the agnoprotein, or the enhancer region. Finally, in situ hybridization was used to show that the percentage of human cells expressing T antigen was similar to the percentage transcribing early SV40 mRNA. Thus, the block to T-antigen expression in human cells is at a stage prior to transcription of early SV40 mRNA.

  2. Simian virus 40 DNA replication correlates with expression of a particular subclass of T antigen in a human glial cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Deminie, C A; Norkin, L C

    1990-01-01

    Immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization were used to identify simian virus 40 (SV40) large T-antigen expression and viral DNA replication in individual cells of infected semipermissive human cell lines. SV40 infection aborts before T-antigen expression in many cells of each of the human cell lines examined. In all but one of the human cell lines, most of the T-antigen-producing cells replicated viral DNA. However, in the A172 line of human glial cells only a small percentage of the T-antigen-expressing cells replicated viral DNA. Since different structural and functional classes of T antigen can be recognized with anti-T monoclonal antibodies, we examined infected A172 cells with a panel of 10 anti-T monoclonal antibodies to determine whether viral DNA replication might correlate with the expression of a particular epitope of T antigen. One anti-T monoclonal antibody, PAb 100, did specifically recognize that subset of A172 cells which replicated SV40 DNA. The percentage of PAb 100-reactive A172 cells was dramatically increased by the DNA synthesis inhibitors hydroxyurea and aphidicolin. Removal of the hydroxyurea was followed by an increase in the percentage of cells replicating viral DNA corresponding to the increased percentage reactive with PAb 100. The pattern of SV40 infection in A172 cells was not altered by infection with viable viral mutants containing lesions in the small t protein, the agnoprotein, or the enhancer region. Finally, in situ hybridization was used to show that the percentage of human cells expressing T antigen was similar to the percentage transcribing early SV40 mRNA. Thus, the block to T-antigen expression in human cells is at a stage prior to transcription of early SV40 mRNA. Images PMID:2164596

  3. Telomere elongation involves intra-molecular DNA replication in cells utilizing alternative lengthening of telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Muntoni, Alessandra; Neumann, Axel A.; Hills, Mark; Reddel, Roger R.

    2009-01-01

    Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is a telomere length maintenance mechanism based on recombination, where telomeres use other telomeric DNA as a template for DNA synthesis. About 10% of all human tumors depend on ALT for their continued growth, and understanding its molecular details is critically important for the development of cancer treatments that target this mechanism. We have previously shown that telomeres of ALT-positive human cells can become lengthened via inter-telomeric copying, i.e. by copying the telomere of another chromosome. The possibility that such telomeres could elongate by using other sources of telomeric DNA as copy templates has not been investigated previously. In this study, we have determined whether a telomere can become lengthened by copying its own sequences, without the need for using another telomere as a copy template. To test this, we transduced an ALT cell line with a telomere-targeting construct and obtained clones with a single tagged telomere. We showed that the telomere tag can be amplified without the involvement of other telomeres, indicating that telomere elongation can also occur by intra-telomeric DNA copying. This is the first direct evidence that the ALT mechanism involves more than one method of telomere elongation. PMID:19095716

  4. Origin plasticity during budding yeast DNA replication in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gros, Julien; Devbhandari, Sujan; Remus, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The separation of DNA replication origin licensing and activation in the cell cycle is essential for genome stability across generations in eukaryotic cells. Pre-replicative complexes (pre-RCs) license origins by loading Mcm2-7 complexes in inactive form around DNA. During origin firing in S phase, replisomes assemble around the activated Mcm2-7 DNA helicase. Budding yeast pre-RCs have previously been reconstituted in vitro with purified proteins. Here, we show that reconstituted pre-RCs support replication of plasmid DNA in yeast cell extracts in a reaction that exhibits hallmarks of cellular replication initiation. Plasmid replication in vitro results in the generation of covalently closed circular daughter molecules, indicating that the system recapitulates the initiation, elongation, and termination stages of DNA replication. Unexpectedly, yeast origin DNA is not strictly required for DNA replication in vitro, as heterologous DNA sequences could support replication of plasmid molecules. Our findings support the notion that epigenetic mechanisms are important for determining replication origin sites in budding yeast, highlighting mechanistic principles of replication origin specification that are common among eukaryotes. PMID:24566988

  5. Herpes simplex virus induces the replication of foreign DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Danovich, R.M.; Frenkel, N.

    1988-08-01

    Plasmids containing the simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA replication origin and the large T gene are replicated in Vero monkey cells but not in rabbit skin cells. Efficient replication of the plasmids was observed in rabbit cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. The HSV-induced replication required the large T antigen and the SV40 replication origin. However, it produced concatemeric molecules resembling replicative intermediates of HSV DNA and was sensitive to phosphonoacetate at concentrations known to inhibit the HSV DNA polymerase. Therefore, it involved the HSV DNA polymerase itself or a viral gene product(s) which was expressed following the replication of HSV DNA. Analyses of test plasmids lacking SV40 or HSV DNA sequences showed that, under some conditions. HSV also induced low-level replication of test plasmids containing no known eucaryotic replication origins. Together, these results show that HSV induces a DNA replicative activity which amplifies foreign DNA. The relevance of these findings to the putative transforming potential of HSV is discussed.

  6. SLX4 Prevents GEN1-Dependent DSBs During DNA Replication Arrest Under Pathological Conditions in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Malacaria, Eva; Franchitto, Annapaola; Pichierri, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    SLX4 is a versatile protein serving as docking for multiple structure-specific endonucleases during DNA repair, however, little is known about its function at demised replication forks. Using RNAi or FA-P cells complemented with SLX4 mutants that abrogate interaction with MUS81 or SLX1, we show that SLX4 cooperates with MUS81 to introduce DSBs after replication stress but also counteracts pathological targeting of demised forks by GEN1. Such unexpected function of SLX4 is unrelated to interaction with endonucleases, but concerns the physical presence of the protein. Strikingly, ectopic expression of the Holliday junction-binding protein RuvA inhibits DSBs in SLX4-deficient cells by preventing GEN1 chromatin-association, and rescues proliferation and genome integrity upon replication stress. Altogether, our results indicate that SLX4 is crucial to prevent accidental processing of Holliday junction-like intermediates at demised forks also suggesting that spontaneous genome instability in FA-P cells may derive, at least partially, from unscheduled action of GEN1 in S-phase. PMID:28290553

  7. Plasmid-like replicative intermediates of the Epstein-Barr virus lytic origin of DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Pfüller, R; Hammerschmidt, W

    1996-01-01

    During the lytic phase of herpesviruses, intermediates of viral DNA replication are found as large concatemeric molecules in the infected cells. It is not known, however, what the early events in viral DNA replication that yield these concatemers are. In an attempt to identify these early steps of DNA replication, replicative intermediates derived from the lytic origin of Epstein-Barr virus, oriLyt, were analyzed. As shown by density shift experiments with bromodeoxyuridine, oriLyt replicated semiconservatively soon after induction of the lytic cycle and oriLyt-containing DNA is amplified to yield monomeric plasmid progeny DNA (besides multimeric forms and high-molecular-weight DNA). A new class of plasmid progeny DNA which have far fewer negative supercoils than do plasmids extracted from uninduced cells is present only in cells undergoing the lytic cycle of Epstein-Barr virus. This finding is consistent with plasmid DNAs having fewer nucleosomes before extraction. The newly replicated plasmid DNAs are dependent on a functional oriLyt in cis and support an efficient marker transfer into Escherichia coli as monomeric plasmids. Multimeric forms of presumably circular progeny DNA of oriLyt, as well as detected recombination events, indicate that oriLyt-mediated DNA replication is biphasic: an early theta-like mode is followed by a complex pattern which could result from rolling-circle DNA replication. PMID:8648674

  8. A transcription and translation-coupled DNA replication system using rolling-circle replication.

    PubMed

    Sakatani, Yoshihiro; Ichihashi, Norikazu; Kazuta, Yasuaki; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2015-05-27

    All living organisms have a genome replication system in which genomic DNA is replicated by a DNA polymerase translated from mRNA transcribed from the genome. The artificial reconstitution of this genome replication system is a great challenge in in vitro synthetic biology. In this study, we attempted to construct a transcription- and translation-coupled DNA replication (TTcDR) system using circular genomic DNA encoding phi29 DNA polymerase and a reconstituted transcription and translation system. In this system, phi29 DNA polymerase was translated from the genome and replicated the genome in a rolling-circle manner. When using a traditional translation system composition, almost no DNA replication was observed, because the tRNA and nucleoside triphosphates included in the translation system significantly inhibited DNA replication. To minimize these inhibitory effects, we optimized the composition of the TTcDR system and improved replication by approximately 100-fold. Using our system, genomic DNA was replicated up to 10 times in 12 hours at 30 °C. This system provides a step toward the in vitro construction of an artificial genome replication system, which is a prerequisite for the construction of an artificial cell.

  9. Mimosine, a novel inhibitor of DNA replication, binds to a 50 kDa protein in Chinese hamster cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mosca, P J; Lin, H B; Hamlin, J L

    1995-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that the plant amino acid, mimosine, is an extremely efficacious inhibitor of DNA replication in mammalian cells [P. A. Dijkwel and J. L. Hamlin (1992) Mol. Cell. Biol. 12, 3715-3722; P. J. Mosca et al. (1992) Mol. Cell. Biol. 12, 4375-4383]. Several of its properties further suggested that mimosine might target initiation at origins of replication, which would make it a unique and very useful inhibitor for studying the regulation of DNA synthesis. However, mimosine is known to chelate iron, a cofactor for ribonucleotide reductase. Thus, the possibility arose that mimosine functions in vivo simply by lowering intracellular deoxyribonucleotide pools. In the present study, we show that, in fact, it is possible to override mimosine inhibition in vivo by adding excess iron; however, copper, which is not a substitute for iron in ribonucleotide reductase, is equally effective. Evidence is presented that mimosine functions instead by binding to an intracellular protein. We show that radiolabeled mimosine can be specifically cross-linked to a 50 kDa polypeptide (termed p50) in vitro. Binding to p50 is virtually undetectable in CHO cells selected for resistance to 1 mM mimosine, arguing that p50 is the biologically relevant target. p50 is not associated with the cellular membrane fraction and, hence, is probably not a channel protein. Furthermore, the binding activity does not vary markedly as a function of cell cycle position, arguing that p50 is not a cyclin. Finally, both iron and copper are able to reverse the mimosine-p50 interaction in vitro, probably explaining why both metal ions are able to overcome mimosine's inhibitory effect on DNA synthesis in vivo. Images PMID:7862531

  10. DNA Replication Origins and Fork Progression at Mammalian Telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Higa, Mitsunori; Fujita, Masatoshi; Yoshida, Kazumasa

    2017-01-01

    Telomeres are essential chromosomal regions that prevent critical shortening of linear chromosomes and genomic instability in eukaryotic cells. The bulk of telomeric DNA is replicated by semi-conservative DNA replication in the same way as the rest of the genome. However, recent findings revealed that replication of telomeric repeats is a potential cause of chromosomal instability, because DNA replication through telomeres is challenged by the repetitive telomeric sequences and specific structures that hamper the replication fork. In this review, we summarize current understanding of the mechanisms by which telomeres are faithfully and safely replicated in mammalian cells. Various telomere-associated proteins ensure efficient telomere replication at different steps, such as licensing of replication origins, passage of replication forks, proper fork restart after replication stress, and dissolution of post-replicative structures. In particular, shelterin proteins have central roles in the control of telomere replication. Through physical interactions, accessory proteins are recruited to maintain telomere integrity during DNA replication. Dormant replication origins and/or homology-directed repair may rescue inappropriate fork stalling or collapse that can cause defects in telomere structure and functions. PMID:28350373

  11. Early Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Limits Exposure to HIV-1 Replication and Cell-Associated HIV-1 DNA Levels in Infants

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Margaret; Mick, Eric; Hudson, Richard; Mofenson, Lynne M.; Sullivan, John L.; Somasundaran, Mohan; Luzuriaga, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to measure HIV-1 persistence following combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in infants and children. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) HIV-1 DNA was quantified prior to and after 1 year of cART in 30 children, stratified by time of initiation (early, age <3 months, ET; late, age >3 months-2 years, LT). Pre-therapy PBMC HIV-1 DNA levels correlated with pre-therapy plasma HIV-1 levels (r = 0.59, p<0.001), remaining statistically significant (p = 0.002) after adjustment for prior perinatal antiretroviral exposure and age at cART initiation. PBMC HIV-1 DNA declined significantly after 1 year of cART (Overall: -0.91±0.08 log10 copies per million PBMC, p<0.001; ET: -1.04±0.11 log10 DNA copies per million PBMC, p<0.001; LT: -0.74 ±0.13 log10 DNA copies per million PBMC, p<0.001) but rates of decline did not differ significantly between ET and LT. HIV-1 replication exposure over the first 12 months of cART, estimated as area-under-the-curve (AUC) of circulating plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, was significantly associated with PBMC HIV-1 DNA at one year (r = 0.51, p = 0.004). In 21 children with sustained virologic suppression after 1 year of cART, PBMC HIV-1 DNA levels continued to decline between years 1 and 4 (slope -0.21 log10 DNA copies per million PBMC per year); decline slopes did not differ significantly between ET and LT. PBMC HIV-1 DNA levels at 1 year and 4 years of cART correlated with age at cART initiation (1 year: p = 0.04; 4 years: p = 0.03) and age at virologic control (1 and 4 years, p = 0.02). Altogether, these data indicate that reducing exposure to HIV-1 replication and younger age at cART initiation are associated with lower HIV-1 DNA levels at and after one year of age, supporting the concept that HIV-1 diagnosis and cART initiation in infants should occur as early as possible. PMID:27104621

  12. Extrachromosomal DNA of pea (Pisum sativum) root-tip cells replicates by strand displacement

    SciTech Connect

    Krimer, D.B.; Van't Hof, J.

    1983-04-01

    In cultured pea roots there is extrachromosomal DNA associated with cells that differentiate from the G/sub 2/ phase of the cell cycle that is absent from those that differentiate from the G/sub 1/ phase. The authors examined this extrachromosomal DNA by electron microscopy and found that it consisted of three types: (i) double-stranded linear molecules with single-stranded branches (74%), (ii) double-stranded molecules without branches (26%), and (iii) free single-stranded molecules. The double-stranded molecules with or without branches were similar in length, having a modal length of 10-15 ..mu..m. The free single-stranded molecules were shorter and had a mean length of 3.8 ..mu..m. The length of the branches attached to the duplex molecules was only slightly less than that of the free form. The duplex molecules with branches were interpreted as configurations reflecting an ongoing strand-displacement process that results in free single-stranded molecules. Finally, measurements on duplex molecules with multiple branches suggested that the extrachromosomal DNA may exist in the form of tandemly repeated sequences. 8 references, 8 figures.

  13. DNA-PK is Involved in Repairing a Transient Surge of DNA BreaksInduced by Deceleration of DNA Replication.

    SciTech Connect

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Martin, Melvenia M.; Torres, Michael J.; Gu,Cory; Pluth, Janice M.; DiBernardi, Maria A.; McDonald, Jeffrey S.; Aladjem, Mirit I.

    2006-09-25

    ells that suffer substantial inhibition of DNA replication halt their cell cycle via a checkpoint response mediated by the PI3 kinases ATM and ATR. It is unclear how cells cope with milder replication insults, which are under the threshold for ATM and ATR activation. A third PI3 kinase, DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), is also activated following replication inhibition, but the role DNA-PK might play in response to perturbed replication is unclear, since this kinase does not activate the signaling cascades involved in the S-phase checkpoint. Here we report that mild, transient drug-induced perturbation of DNA replication rapidly induced DNA breaks that promptly disappeared in cells that contained a functional DNA-PK whereas such breaks persisted in cells that were deficient in DNA-PK activity. After the initial transient burst of DNA breaks, cells with a functional DNA-PK did not halt replication and continued to synthesize DNA at a slow pace in the presence of replication inhibitors. In contrast, DNA-PK deficient cells subject to low levels of replication inhibition halted cell cycle progression via an ATR-mediated S-phase checkpoint. The ATM kinase was dispensable for the induction of the initial DNA breaks. These observations suggest that DNA-PK is involved in setting a high threshold for the ATR-Chkl-mediated S-phase checkpoint by promptly repairing DNA breaks that appear immediately following inhibition of DNA replication.

  14. From structure to mechanism-understanding initiation of DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Riera, Alberto; Barbon, Marta; Noguchi, Yasunori; Reuter, L Maximilian; Schneider, Sarah; Speck, Christian

    2017-06-01

    DNA replication results in the doubling of the genome prior to cell division. This process requires the assembly of 50 or more protein factors into a replication fork. Here, we review recent structural and biochemical insights that start to explain how specific proteins recognize DNA replication origins, load the replicative helicase on DNA, unwind DNA, synthesize new DNA strands, and reassemble chromatin. We focus on the minichromosome maintenance (MCM2-7) proteins, which form the core of the eukaryotic replication fork, as this complex undergoes major structural rearrangements in order to engage with DNA, regulate its DNA-unwinding activity, and maintain genome stability. © 2017 Riera et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  15. Eukaryotic DNA replication control: lock and load, then fire.

    PubMed

    Remus, Dirk; Diffley, John F X

    2009-12-01

    The initiation of chromosomal DNA replication involves initiator proteins that recruit and load hexameric DNA helicases at replication origins. This helicase loading step is tightly regulated in bacteria and eukaryotes. In contrast to the situation in bacteria, the eukaryotic helicase is loaded in an inactive form. This extra 'lock and load' mechanism in eukaryotes allows regulation of a second step, helicase activation. The temporal separation of helicase loading and activation is crucial for the coordination of DNA replication with cell growth and extracellular signals, the prevention of re-replication and the control of origin activity in response to replication stress. Initiator proteins in bacteria and eukaryotes are structurally homologous; yet the replicative helicases they load are unrelated. Understanding how these helicases are loaded and how they act during unwinding may have important implications for understanding how DNA replication is regulated in different domains of life.

  16. DNA double-strand breaks caused by replication arrest.

    PubMed Central

    Michel, B; Ehrlich, S D; Uzest, M

    1997-01-01

    We report here that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) form in Escherichia coli upon arrest of replication forks due to a defect in, or the inhibition of, replicative DNA helicases. The formation of DSBs was assessed by the appearance of linear DNA detected by pulse-field gel electrophoresis. Processing of DSBs by recombination repair or linear DNA degradation was abolished by mutations in recBCD genes. Two E. coli replicative helicases were tested, Rep, which is essential in recBC mutants, and DnaB. The proportion of linear DNA increased up to 50% upon shift of rep recBTS recCTS cells to restrictive temperature. No increase in linear DNA was observed in the absence of replicating chromosomes, indicating that the formation of DSBs in rep strains requires replication. Inhibition of the DnaB helicase either by a strong replication terminator or by a dnaBTS mutation led to the formation of linear DNA, showing that blocked replication forks are prone to DSB formation. In wild-type E. coli, linear DNA was detected in the absence of RecBC or of both RecA and RecD. This reveals the existence of a significant amount of spontaneous DSBs. We propose that some of them may also result from the impairment of replication fork progression. PMID:9029161

  17. Dynamic regulation of genes involved in mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription during mouse brown fat cell differentiation and recruitment.

    PubMed

    Murholm, Maria; Dixen, Karen; Qvortrup, Klaus; Hansen, Lillian H L; Amri, Ez-Zoubir; Madsen, Lise; Barbatelli, Giorgio; Quistorff, Bjørn; Hansen, Jacob B

    2009-12-24

    Brown adipocytes are specialised in dissipating energy through adaptive thermogenesis, whereas white adipocytes are specialised in energy storage. These essentially opposite functions are possible for two reasons relating to mitochondria, namely expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and a remarkably higher mitochondrial abundance in brown adipocytes. Here we report a comprehensive characterisation of gene expression linked to mitochondrial DNA replication, transcription and function during white and brown fat cell differentiation in vitro as well as in white and brown fat, brown adipose tissue fractions and in selected adipose tissues during cold exposure. We find a massive induction of the majority of such genes during brown adipocyte differentiation and recruitment, e.g. of the mitochondrial transcription factors A (Tfam) and B2 (Tfb2m), whereas only a subset of the same genes were induced during white adipose conversion. In addition, PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16) was found to be expressed at substantially higher levels in brown compared to white pre-adipocytes and adipocytes. We demonstrate that forced expression of Tfam but not Tfb2m in brown adipocyte precursor cells promotes mitochondrial DNA replication, and that silencing of PRDM16 expression during brown fat cell differentiation blunts mitochondrial biogenesis and expression of brown fat cell markers. Using both in vitro and in vivo model systems of white and brown fat cell differentiation, we report a detailed characterisation of gene expression linked to mitochondrial biogenesis and function. We find significant differences in differentiating white and brown adipocytes, which might explain the notable increase in mitochondrial content observed during brown adipose conversion. In addition, our data support a key role of PRDM16 in triggering brown adipocyte differentiation, including mitochondrial biogenesis and expression of UCP1.

  18. Bleomycin-induced alterations in DNA replication: relationship to DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Dziegielewski, J; Melendy, T; Beerman, T A

    2001-01-23

    Bleomycin (BLM), a well-known DNA scission agent, is assumed to inhibit intracellular DNA replication by damaging the DNA template (cis-acting mechanism), although other DNA damaging compounds can alter DNA replication through modulation of crucial replication factor(s) (trans-acting mechanism). The present study examines the relationship between DNA damage and inhibition of replication caused by BLM in the well-defined simian virus 40 (SV40) intracellular and cell-free in vitro systems. Treatment of SV40-infected BSC-1 cells for 2 h with BLM at 50 microg/mL, induced 0.3 break/viral genome. Under the same treatment conditions, analysis of replication intermediates on two-dimensional gels showed a decrease in both mass of SV40 replication intermediates and replication activity. The mass of SV40 intermediates was decreased to about 30%, whereas replication activity was reduced to less than 5%. These results suggest that BLM inhibits both initiation and elongation phases of SV40 replication. In a cell-free DNA replication system, extracts from BLM-treated cells (50 micro/mL) were able to support SV40 DNA replication by only 50%. In this study, non-drug-treated DNA template was used, implying that BLM can induce a trans-acting effect. Finally, the drug-induced effects on SV40 DNA replication in cell-free and intracellular viral systems were compared to the effects on genomic DNA replication in BSC-1 cells. Overall, the results support the concept that BLM-induced inhibition of DNA replication occurs by both trans- (inhibition of replication of nondamaged template) and cis-acting mechanisms (template damage).

  19. Decreased MCM2-6 in Drosophila S2 Cells Does Not Generate Significant DNA Damage or Cause a Marked Increase in Sensitivity to Replication Interference

    PubMed Central

    Crevel, Isabelle; Crevel, Gilles; Gostan, Thierry; de Renty, Christelle; Coulon, Vincent; Cotterill, Sue

    2011-01-01

    A reduction in the level of some MCM proteins in human cancer cells (MCM5 in U20S cells or MCM3 in Hela cells) causes a rapid increase in the level of DNA damage under normal conditions of cell proliferation and a loss of viability when the cells are subjected to replication interference. Here we show that Drosophila S2 cells do not appear to show the same degree of sensitivity to MCM2-6 reduction. Under normal cell growth conditions a reduction of >95% in the levels of MCM3, 5, and 6 causes no significant short term alteration in the parameters of DNA replication or increase in DNA damage. MCM depleted cells challenged with HU do show a decrease in the density of replication forks compared to cells with normal levels of MCM proteins, but this produces no consistent change in the levels of DNA damage observed. In contrast a comparable reduction of MCM7 levels has marked effects on viability, replication parameters and DNA damage in the absence of HU treatment. PMID:22102875

  20. DNA replication-dependent induction of gene proximity by androgen.

    PubMed

    Coll-Bastus, Nuria; Mao, Xueying; Young, Bryan D; Sheer, Denise; Lu, Yong-Jie

    2015-02-15

    The male hormone androgen, working through the androgen receptor (AR), plays a major role in physiological process and disease development. Previous studies of AR mainly focus on its transcriptional activity. Here, we found that androgen-induced TMPRSS2 and ERG gene proximity is mediated by AR control of DNA replication rather than gene transcription. We demonstrate that, in both AR transactivation-positive and -negative prostate cells, androgen regulates DNA replication and androgen-induced gene proximity relies on both DNA replication-licensing and actual DNA replication activity. Androgen stimulation advances DNA replication timing of certain genomic regions, which may potentially increase gene proximity through sharing the same replication factory at a similar time. Therefore, we have revealed novel mechanisms of AR biological function, which will stimulate new research directions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Repression of DNA replication licensing in quiescence is independent of geminin and may define the cell cycle state of progenitor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsbury, Sarah R.; Loddo, Marco; Fanshawe, Thomas; Obermann, Ellen C.; Prevost, A. Toby; Stoeber, Kai . E-mail: k.stoeber@ucl.ac.uk; Williams, Gareth H.

    2005-09-10

    The DNA replication (or origin) licensing machinery ensures precise duplication of the genome and contributes to the regulation of proliferative capacity in metazoa. Using an in vitro fibroblast model system coupled to a cell-free DNA replication assay, we have studied regulation of the origin licensing pathway during exit from and re-entry into the mitotic cell cycle. We show that in the quiescent state (G0) loss of proliferative capacity is achieved in part through down-regulation of the replication licensing factors Cdc6 and Mcm2-7. The origin licensing repressor geminin is absent in quiescent fibroblasts, suggesting that this powerful inhibitor of the licensing machinery is not required to suppress proliferative capacity in G0. Geminin expression is induced at a late stage in the G0-S transition post pre-RC assembly. Ectopic geminin can block re-acquisition of DNA replication competence during re-entry into the cell cycle, indicating that geminin levels must be tightly down-regulated for escape from G0. Analysis of geminin levels in thyroid shows that geminin expression is suppressed in anatomical compartments/tissues harbouring quiescent cells, confirming our in vitro data. Spatio-temporal control of geminin expression may therefore be of particular relevance for multi-potential stem cells which cycle infrequently. In support of this hypothesis, we have identified a unique population of cells in the putative stem cell niche of intestinal epithelium that are unlicensed and lack geminin expression, a prerequisite for successful re-entry into cycle. Our data argue that the prolonged cell cycle times observed for intestinal stem cells could be due to exit of progenitor cells from cycle into an unlicensed 'out-of-cycle' state, a powerful mechanism by which rapidly proliferating tissues may resist genotoxic insult.

  2. Targeting peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligomers to mitochondria within cells by conjugation to lipophilic cations: implications for mitochondrial DNA replication, expression and disease

    PubMed Central

    Muratovska, Aleksandra; Lightowlers, Robert N.; Taylor, Robert W.; Turnbull, Douglass M.; Smith, Robin A. J.; Wilce, Jacqueline A.; Martin, Stephen W.; Murphy, Michael P.

    2001-01-01

    The selective manipulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and expression within mammalian cells has proven difficult. One promising approach is to use peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligomers, nucleic acid analogues that bind selectively to complementary DNA or RNA sequences inhibiting replication and translation. However, the potential of PNAs is restricted by the difficulties of delivering them to mitochondria within cells. To overcome this problem we conjugated a PNA 11mer to a lipophilic phosphonium cation. Such cations are taken up by mitochondria through the lipid bilayer driven by the membrane potential across the inner membrane. As anticipated, phosphonium–PNA (ph–PNA) conjugates of 3.4–4 kDa were imported into both isolated mitochondria and mitochondria within human cells in culture. This was confirmed by using an ion-selective electrode to measure uptake of the ph–PNA conjugates; by cell fractionation in conjunction with immunoblotting; by confocal microscopy; by immunogold-electron microscopy; and by crosslinking ph–PNA conjugates to mitochondrial matrix proteins. In all cases dissipating the mitochondrial membrane potential with an uncoupler prevented ph–PNA uptake. The ph–PNA conjugate selectively inhibited the in vitro replication of DNA containing the A8344G point mutation that causes the human mtDNA disease ‘myoclonic epilepsy and ragged red fibres’ (MERRF) but not the wild-type sequence that differs at a single nucleotide position. Therefore these modified PNA oligomers retain their selective binding to DNA and the lipophilic cation delivers them to mitochondria within cells. When MERRF cells were incubated with the ph–PNA conjugate the ratio of MERRF to wild-type mtDNA was unaffected, even though the ph–PNA content of the mitochondria was sufficient to inhibit MERRF mtDNA replication in a cell-free system. This unexpected finding suggests that nucleic acid derivatives cannot bind their complementary sequences during mtDNA

  3. Model System for DNA Replication of a Plasmid DNA Containing the Autonomously Replicating Sequence from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimi, Yukio; Matsumoto, Ken

    1993-06-01

    A negatively supercoiled plasmid DNA containing autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) 1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was replicated with the proteins required for simian virus 40 DNA replication. The proteins included simian virus 40 large tumor antigen as a DNA helicase, DNA polymerase α^\\cdotprimase, and the multisubunit human single-stranded DNA-binding protein from HeLa cells; DNA gyrase from Escherichia coli, which relaxes positive but not negative supercoils, was included as a "swivelase." DNA replication started from the ARS region, proceeded bidirectionally with the synthesis of leading and lagging strands, and resulted in the synthesis of up to 10% of the input DNA in 1 h. The addition of HeLa DNA topoisomerase I, which relaxes both positive and negative supercoils, to this system inhibited DNA replication, suggesting that negative supercoiling of the template DNA is required for initiation. These results suggest that DNA replication starts from the ARS region where the DNA duplex is unwound by torsional stress; this unwound region can be recognized by a DNA helicase with the assistance of the multisubunit human single-stranded DNA-binding protein.

  4. Synchronization of DNA array replication kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manturov, Alexey O.; Grigoryev, Anton V.

    2016-04-01

    In the present work we discuss the features of the DNA replication kinetics at the case of multiplicity of simultaneously elongated DNA fragments. The interaction between replicated DNA fragments is carried out by free protons that appears at the every nucleotide attachment at the free end of elongated DNA fragment. So there is feedback between free protons concentration and DNA-polymerase activity that appears as elongation rate dependence. We develop the numerical model based on a cellular automaton, which can simulate the elongation stage (growth of DNA strands) for DNA elongation process with conditions pointed above and we study the possibility of the DNA polymerases movement synchronization. The results obtained numerically can be useful for DNA polymerase movement detection and visualization of the elongation process in the case of massive DNA replication, eg, under PCR condition or for DNA "sequencing by synthesis" sequencing devices evaluation.

  5. DNA interstrand crosslinks induce a potent replication block followed by formation and repair of double strand breaks in intact mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Vare, Daniel; Groth, Petra; Carlsson, Rickard; Johansson, Fredrik; Erixon, Klaus; Jenssen, Dag

    2012-12-01

    DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) are highly toxic lesions that covalently link both strands of DNA and distort the DNA helix. Crosslinking agents have been shown to stall DNA replication and failure to repair ICL lesions before encountered by replication forks may induce severe DNA damage. Most knowledge of the ICL repair process has been revealed from studies in bacteria and cell extracts. However, for mammalian cells the process of ICL repair is still unclear and conflicting data exist. In this study we have explored the fate of psoralen-induced ICLs during replication, by employing intact mammalian cells and novel techniques. By comparative studies distinguishing between effects by monoadducts versus ICLs, we have been able to link the block of replication to the ICLs induction. We found that the replication fork was equally blocked by ICLs in wild-type cells as in cells deficient in ERCC1/XPF and XRCC3. The formation of ICL induced double strand breaks (DSBs), detected by formation of 53PB1 foci, was equally induced in the three cell lines suggesting that these proteins are involved at a later step of the repair process. Furthermore, we found that forks blocked by ICLs were neither bypassed, restarted nor restored for several hours. We propose that this process is different from that taking place following monoadduct induction by UV-light treatment where replication bypass is taking place as an early step. Altogether our findings suggest that restoration of an ICL blocked replication fork, likely initiated by a DSB occurs relatively rapidly at a stalled fork, is followed by restoration, which seems to be a rather slow process in intact mammalian cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Epstein-barr virus shuttle vector for stable episomal replication of cDNA expression libraries in human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Margolskee, R.F.; Kavathas, P.; Berg, P.

    1988-07-01

    Efficient transfection and expression of cDNA libraries in human cells has been achieved with an Epstein-Barr virus-based subcloning vector (EBO-pcD). The plasmid vector contains a resistance marker for hygromcying B to permit selection for transformed cells. The Epstein-Barr virus origin for plasmid replication (oriP) and the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen gene have also been incorporated into the vector to ensure that the plasmids are maintained stably and extrachromosomally. Human lymphoblastodi cells can be stably transformed at high efficiency (10 to 15%) by such plasmids, thereby permitting the ready isolation of 10/sup 6/ to 10/sup 7/ independent transformants. Consequently, entire high-complexity EBO-pcD expression libraries can be introduced into these cells. Furthermore, since EBP-pcD plasmids are maintained as episomes at two to eight copies per cell, intact cDNA clones can be readily isolated from transformants and recovered by propagation in Escherichia coli. By using such vectors, human cells have been stably transformed with EBO-pcD-hprt to express hypoxanthing-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and with EBO-pcD-Leu-2 to express the human T-cell surface marker Leu-2. Reconstruction experiments with mixtures of EBO-pcD plasmids demonstrated that one clone of EBO-pcD-hprt per 10/sup 6/ total clones or one clone of EBO-pcD-Leu-2 per 2 x 10/sup 4/ total clones can be recovered intact from the transformed cells. The ability to directly select for expression of very rare EBO-pcD clones and to then recover these episomes should make it possible to clone certain genes where hybridization and immunological screening methods are not applicable but where a phenotype can be scored or selected in human cell lines.

  7. Single molecule analysis of Trypanosoma brucei DNA replication dynamics.

    PubMed

    Calderano, Simone Guedes; Drosopoulos, William C; Quaresma, Marina Mônaco; Marques, Catarina A; Kosiyatrakul, Settapong; McCulloch, Richard; Schildkraut, Carl L; Elias, Maria Carolina

    2015-03-11

    Eukaryotic genome duplication relies on origins of replication, distributed over multiple chromosomes, to initiate DNA replication. A recent genome-wide analysis of Trypanosoma brucei, the etiological agent of sleeping sickness, localized its replication origins to the boundaries of multigenic transcription units. To better understand genomic replication in this organism, we examined replication by single molecule analysis of replicated DNA. We determined the average speed of replication forks of procyclic and bloodstream form cells and we found that T. brucei DNA replication rate is similar to rates seen in other eukaryotes. We also analyzed the replication dynamics of a central region of chromosome 1 in procyclic forms. We present evidence for replication terminating within the central part of the chromosome and thus emanating from both sides, suggesting a previously unmapped origin toward the 5' extremity of chromosome 1. Also, termination is not at a fixed location in chromosome 1, but is rather variable. Importantly, we found a replication origin located near an ORC1/CDC6 binding site that is detected after replicative stress induced by hydroxyurea treatment, suggesting it may be a dormant origin activated in response to replicative stress. Collectively, our findings support the existence of more replication origins in T. brucei than previously appreciated. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Single molecule analysis of Trypanosoma brucei DNA replication dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Calderano, Simone Guedes; Drosopoulos, William C.; Quaresma, Marina Mônaco; Marques, Catarina A.; Kosiyatrakul, Settapong; McCulloch, Richard; Schildkraut, Carl L.; Elias, Maria Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic genome duplication relies on origins of replication, distributed over multiple chromosomes, to initiate DNA replication. A recent genome-wide analysis of Trypanosoma brucei, the etiological agent of sleeping sickness, localized its replication origins to the boundaries of multigenic transcription units. To better understand genomic replication in this organism, we examined replication by single molecule analysis of replicated DNA. We determined the average speed of replication forks of procyclic and bloodstream form cells and we found that T. brucei DNA replication rate is similar to rates seen in other eukaryotes. We also analyzed the replication dynamics of a central region of chromosome 1 in procyclic forms. We present evidence for replication terminating within the central part of the chromosome and thus emanating from both sides, suggesting a previously unmapped origin toward the 5′ extremity of chromosome 1. Also, termination is not at a fixed location in chromosome 1, but is rather variable. Importantly, we found a replication origin located near an ORC1/CDC6 binding site that is detected after replicative stress induced by hydroxyurea treatment, suggesting it may be a dormant origin activated in response to replicative stress. Collectively, our findings support the existence of more replication origins in T. brucei than previously appreciated. PMID:25690894

  9. Replication intermediates formed during initiation of DNA synthesis in methotrexate-resistant CHOC 400 cells are enriched for sequences derived from a specific, amplified restriction fragment.

    PubMed

    Burhans, W C; Selegue, J E; Heintz, N H

    1986-01-28

    1-beta-D-Arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C) inhibits nuclear DNA replication in Chinese hamster ovary cells by an efficient chain termination mechanism without affecting the rate at which cells traverse G1 and enter S [Heintz, N. H., & Hamlin, J. L. (1983) Biochemistry 22, 3557-3562]. Here we have employed ara-C to enrich for replication intermediates formed during initiation of DNA synthesis in synchronized CHOC 400 cells, a methotrexate-resistant derivative of Chinese hamster ovary cells that contains approximately 1000 copies of an early replicating 150-kb chromosomal domain. This highly amplified domain includes the gene for dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). CHOC 400 cells were collected at the G1/S boundary of the cell cycle with aphidicolin prior to release into S in the presence of both [methyl-3H] thymidine and various concentrations of ara-C. Chromatographic fractionation of restriction endonuclease digests over benzoylated naphthoylated DEAE-cellulose (BND-cellulose) showed that high concentrations of ara-C inhibited the maturation of chromosomal replication intermediates containing ssDNA (replication forks) into dsDNA for up to 60 min. The effect of ara-C on the sequence complexity of replication intermediates formed during early S phase was determined by hybridizing purified intermediates labeled with 32P in vitro to Southern blots of genomic DNA derived from both methotrexate-sensitive and methotrexate-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cells. In the absence of ara-C, 32P-labeled ssDNA BND-cellulose fractions from cultures released into S for 30-60 min hybridized to a spectrum of restriction fragments encompassing 40-50 kb of the amplified DHFR domain.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Dissociation of centrosome replication events from cycles of DNA synthesis and mitotic division in hydroxyurea-arrested Chinese hamster ovary cells

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the mechanisms used by somatic cells to regulate the replication of the centrosome complex. Centrosome doubling was studied in CHO cells by electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy using human autoimmune anticentrosome antiserum, and by Northern blotting using the cDNA encoding portion of the centrosome autoantigen pericentriolar material (PCM)-1. Centrosome doubling could be dissociated from cycles of DNA synthesis and mitotic division by arresting cells at the G1/S boundary of the cell cycle using either hydroxyurea or aphidicolin. Immunofluorescence micros-copy using SPJ human autoimmune anticentrosome antiserum demonstrated that arrested cells were able to undergo numerous rounds of centrosome replication in the absence of cycles of DNA synthesis and mitosis. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that the synthesis and degradation of the mRNA encoding PCM-1 occurred in a cell cycle-dependent fashion in CHO cells with peak levels of PCM-1 mRNA being present in G1 and S phase cells before mRNA amounts dropped to undetectable levels in G2 and M phases. Conversely, cells arrested at the G1/S boundary of the cell cycle maintained PCM-1 mRNA at artificially elevated levels, providing a possible molecular mechanism for explaining the multiple rounds of centrosome replication that occurred in CHO cells during prolonged hydroxyurea-induced arrest. The capacity to replicate centrosomes could be abolished in hydroxyurea-arrested CHO cells by culturing the cells in dialyzed serum. However, the ability to replicate centrosomes and to synthesize PCM-1 mRNA could be re- initiated by adding EGF to the dialyzed serum. This experimental system should be useful for investigating the positive and negative molecular mechanisms used by somatic cells to regulate the replication of centrosomes and for studying and the methods used by somatic cells for coordinating centrosome duplication with other cell cycle progression events. PMID:7790366

  11. Replication of Structured DNA and its implication in epigenetic stability

    PubMed Central

    Cea, Valentina; Cipolla, Lina; Sabbioneda, Simone

    2015-01-01

    DNA replication is an extremely risky process that cells have to endure in order to correctly duplicate and segregate their genome. This task is particularly sensitive to DNA damage and multiple mechanisms have evolved to protect DNA replication as a block to the replication fork could lead to genomic instability and possibly cell death. The DNA in the genome folds, for the most part, into the canonical B-form but in some instances can form complex secondary structures such as G-quadruplexes (G4). These G rich regions are thermodynamically stable and can constitute an obstacle to DNA and RNA metabolism. The human genome contains more than 350,000 sequences potentially capable to form G-quadruplexes and these structures are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as initiation of DNA replication, telomere maintenance and control of gene expression. Only recently, we started to understand how G4 DNA poses a problem to DNA replication and how its successful bypass requires the coordinated activity of ssDNA binding proteins, helicases and specialized DNA polymerases. Their role in the resolution and replication of structured DNA crucially prevents both genetic and epigenetic instability across the genome. PMID:26136769

  12. The sub-cellular localization of Sulfolobus DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Gristwood, Tamzin; Duggin, Iain G; Wagner, Michaela; Albers, Sonja V; Bell, Stephen D

    2012-07-01

    Analyses of the DNA replication-associated proteins of hyperthermophilic archaea have yielded considerable insight into the structure and biochemical function of these evolutionarily conserved factors. However, little is known about the regulation and progression of DNA replication in the context of archaeal cells. In the current work, we describe the generation of strains of Sulfolobus solfataricus and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius that allow the incorporation of nucleoside analogues during DNA replication. We employ this technology, in conjunction with immunolocalization analyses of replisomes, to investigate the sub-cellular localization of nascent DNA and replisomes. Our data reveal a peripheral localization of replisomes in the cell. Furthermore, while the two replication forks emerging from any one of the three replication origins in the Sulfolobus chromosome remain in close proximity, the three origin loci are separated.

  13. DNA replication stress in CHK1-depleted tumour cells triggers premature (S-phase) mitosis through inappropriate activation of Aurora kinase B.

    PubMed

    Zuazua-Villar, P; Rodriguez, R; Gagou, M E; Eyers, P A; Meuth, M

    2014-05-22

    The disruption of DNA replication in cells triggers checkpoint responses that slow-down S-phase progression and protect replication fork integrity. These checkpoints are also determinants of cell fate and can help maintain cell viability or trigger cell death pathways. CHK1 has a pivotal role in such S-phase responses. It helps maintain fork integrity during replication stress and protects cells from several catastrophic fates including premature mitosis, premature chromosome condensation and apoptosis. Here we investigated the role of CHK1 in protecting cancer cells from premature mitosis and apoptosis. We show that premature mitosis (characterized by the induction of histone H3 phosphorylation, aberrant chromatin condensation, and persistent RPA foci in arrested S-phase cells) is induced in p53-deficient tumour cells depleted of CHK1 when DNA synthesis is disrupted. These events are accompanied by an activation of Aurora kinase B in S-phase cells that is essential for histone H3 Ser10 phosphorylation. Histone H3 phosphorylation precedes the induction of apoptosis in p53-/- tumour cell lines but does not appear to be required for this fate as an Aurora kinase inhibitor suppresses phosphorylation of both Aurora B and histone H3 but has little effect on cell death. In contrast, only a small fraction of p53+/+ tumour cells shows this premature mitotic response, although they undergo a more rapid and robust apoptotic response. Taken together, our results suggest a novel role for CHK1 in the control of Aurora B activation during DNA replication stress and support the idea that premature mitosis is a distinct cell fate triggered by the disruption of DNA replication when CHK1 function is suppressed.

  14. DNA replication stress in CHK1-depleted tumour cells triggers premature (S-phase) mitosis through inappropriate activation of Aurora kinase B

    PubMed Central

    Zuazua-Villar, P; Rodriguez, R; Gagou, M E; Eyers, P A; Meuth, M

    2014-01-01

    The disruption of DNA replication in cells triggers checkpoint responses that slow-down S-phase progression and protect replication fork integrity. These checkpoints are also determinants of cell fate and can help maintain cell viability or trigger cell death pathways. CHK1 has a pivotal role in such S-phase responses. It helps maintain fork integrity during replication stress and protects cells from several catastrophic fates including premature mitosis, premature chromosome condensation and apoptosis. Here we investigated the role of CHK1 in protecting cancer cells from premature mitosis and apoptosis. We show that premature mitosis (characterized by the induction of histone H3 phosphorylation, aberrant chromatin condensation, and persistent RPA foci in arrested S-phase cells) is induced in p53-deficient tumour cells depleted of CHK1 when DNA synthesis is disrupted. These events are accompanied by an activation of Aurora kinase B in S-phase cells that is essential for histone H3 Ser10 phosphorylation. Histone H3 phosphorylation precedes the induction of apoptosis in p53−/− tumour cell lines but does not appear to be required for this fate as an Aurora kinase inhibitor suppresses phosphorylation of both Aurora B and histone H3 but has little effect on cell death. In contrast, only a small fraction of p53+/+ tumour cells shows this premature mitotic response, although they undergo a more rapid and robust apoptotic response. Taken together, our results suggest a novel role for CHK1 in the control of Aurora B activation during DNA replication stress and support the idea that premature mitosis is a distinct cell fate triggered by the disruption of DNA replication when CHK1 function is suppressed. PMID:24853431

  15. Diversification of DnaA dependency for DNA replication in cyanobacterial evolution.

    PubMed

    Ohbayashi, Ryudo; Watanabe, Satoru; Ehira, Shigeki; Kanesaki, Yu; Chibazakura, Taku; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi

    2016-05-01

    Regulating DNA replication is essential for all living cells. The DNA replication initiation factor DnaA is highly conserved in prokaryotes and is required for accurate initiation of chromosomal replication at oriC. DnaA-independent free-living bacteria have not been identified. The dnaA gene is absent in plastids and some symbiotic bacteria, although it is not known when or how DnaA-independent mechanisms were acquired. Here, we show that the degree of dependency of DNA replication on DnaA varies among cyanobacterial species. Deletion of the dnaA gene in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 shifted DNA replication from oriC to a different site as a result of the integration of an episomal plasmid. Moreover, viability during the stationary phase was higher in dnaA disruptants than in wild-type cells. Deletion of dnaA did not affect DNA replication or cell growth in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 or Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, indicating that functional dependency on DnaA was already lost in some nonsymbiotic cyanobacterial lineages during diversification. Therefore, we proposed that cyanobacteria acquired DnaA-independent replication mechanisms before symbiosis and such an ancestral cyanobacterium was the sole primary endosymbiont to form a plastid precursor.

  16. Active DNA unwinding dynamics during processive DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Morin, José A.; Cao, Francisco J.; Lázaro, José M.; Arias-Gonzalez, J. Ricardo; Valpuesta, José M.; Carrascosa, José L.; Salas, Margarita; Ibarra, Borja

    2012-01-01

    Duplication of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) requires a fine-tuned coordination between the DNA replication and unwinding reactions. Using optical tweezers, we probed the coupling dynamics between these two activities when they are simultaneously carried out by individual Phi29 DNA polymerase molecules replicating a dsDNA hairpin. We used the wild-type and an unwinding deficient polymerase variant and found that mechanical tension applied on the DNA and the DNA sequence modulate in different ways the replication, unwinding rates, and pause kinetics of each polymerase. However, incorporation of pause kinetics in a model to quantify the unwinding reaction reveals that both polymerases destabilize the fork with the same active mechanism and offers insights into the topological strategies that could be used by the Phi29 DNA polymerase and other DNA replication systems to couple unwinding and replication reactions. PMID:22573817

  17. Active DNA unwinding dynamics during processive DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Morin, José A; Cao, Francisco J; Lázaro, José M; Arias-Gonzalez, J Ricardo; Valpuesta, José M; Carrascosa, José L; Salas, Margarita; Ibarra, Borja

    2012-05-22

    Duplication of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) requires a fine-tuned coordination between the DNA replication and unwinding reactions. Using optical tweezers, we probed the coupling dynamics between these two activities when they are simultaneously carried out by individual Phi29 DNA polymerase molecules replicating a dsDNA hairpin. We used the wild-type and an unwinding deficient polymerase variant and found that mechanical tension applied on the DNA and the DNA sequence modulate in different ways the replication, unwinding rates, and pause kinetics of each polymerase. However, incorporation of pause kinetics in a model to quantify the unwinding reaction reveals that both polymerases destabilize the fork with the same active mechanism and offers insights into the topological strategies that could be used by the Phi29 DNA polymerase and other DNA replication systems to couple unwinding and replication reactions.

  18. Transcription and replication of mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Clayton, D A

    2000-07-01

    The physical isolation of mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) over 30 years ago marked the beginning of studies of its structure, replication and the expression of its genetic content. Such analyses have revealed a number of surprises: novel DNA structural features of the circular genome such as the displacement loop (D-loop); multiple sized and deleted forms of the circular genome; a minimal set of mitochondrially encoded rRNAs and tRNAs needed for translation; a bacteriophage-like, nuclear-encoded mitochondrial RNA polymerase for transcription; and a direct linkage between transcription and the commitment to replication of the leading mtDNA strand that centres on the nuclear encoded mitochondrial transcription factor A. One of the more recent revelations is the existence, near the D-loop, of an atypical, stable RNA-DNA hybrid (or R-loop) at the origin of mammalian leading-strand DNA replication, composed of the parent DNA strands and an RNA transcript. In mammalian mitochondrial systems, all of the proteins known to be involved in DNA replication are encoded in the nucleus. Thus alterations and deficiencies in mtDNA replication must arise from mutations in mtDNA regulatory sequences and nuclear gene defects. Further studies of the relationships between nuclear-encoded proteins and their mtDNA target sequences could result in strategies to manipulate genotypes within cellular mtDNA populations.

  19. Excision and replication of extrachromosomal DNA of pea (Pisum sativum)

    SciTech Connect

    Hof, J.V.; Bjerknes, C.A.; Delihas, N.C.

    1983-02-01

    Experiments with cultured pea roots were conducted to determine (i) whether extrachromosomal DNA was produced by cells in the late S phase or in the G2 phase of the cell cycle, (ii) whether the maturation of nascent DNA replicated by these cells achieved chromosomal size, (iii) when extrachromosomal DNA was removed from the chromosomal duplex, and (iv) the replication of nascent chains by the extrachromosomal DNA after its release from the chromosomal duplex. Autoradiography and cytophotometry of cells of carbohydrate-starved root tips revealed that extrachromosomal DNA was produced by a small fraction of cells accumulated in the late S phase after they had replicated about 80% of their DNA. Velocity sedimentation of nascent chromosomal DNA in alkaline sucrose gradients indicated that the DNA of cells in the late S phase failed to achieve chromosomal size. After reaching sizes of 70 x 10/sup 6/ to 140 x 10/sup 6/ daltons, some of the nascent chromosomal molecules were broken, presumably releasing extrachromosomal DNA several hours later. Sedimentation of selectively extracted extrachromosomal DNA either from dividing cells or from those in the late S phase showed that it replicated two nascent chains, one of 3 x 10/sup 6/ daltons and another of 7 x 10/sup 6/ daltons. Larger molecules of extrachromosomal DNA were detectable after cells were labeled for 24 h. These two observations were compatible with the idea that the extrachromosomal DNA was first replicated as an integral part of the chromosomal duplex, was cut from the duplex, and then, once free of the chromosome, replicated two smaller chains of 3 x 10/sup 6/ and 7 x 10/sup 6/ daltons. 24 references.

  20. Dissimilar effects of β-lapachone- and hydroxyurea-induced DNA replication stress in root meristem cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Zabka, Aneta; Trzaskoma, Paweł; Maszewski, Janusz

    2013-12-01

    Two anticancer drugs, β-lapachone (β-lap, a naphthoquinone) and hydroxyurea (HU, an inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase), differently affect nuclear morphology and cell cycle control mechanisms in root meristem cells of Allium cepa. The 18 h treatment with 100 μM β-lap results in a lowered number of M-phase cells, increased occurrence of mitotic abnormalities, including over-condensation of chromosomes, their enhanced stickiness, formation of anaphase bridges, micronucleation and reduced mitotic spindles. Following prolonged incubations using high doses of β-lap, cell nuclei reveal dark-red fluorescence evenly distributed in chromatin surrounding the unstained regions of nucleoli. Both drugs generate H2O2 and induce DNA double strand breaks, which is correlated with γ-phoshorylation of H2AX histones. However, the extent of H2AX phosphorylation (including the frequency of γ-H2AX foci and the relative number cells creating phospho-H2AX domains) is considerably reduced in root meristem cells treated jointly with the β-lap/HU mixture. Furthermore, various effects of caffeine (an inhibitor of ATM/ATR cell cycle checkpoint kinases) on β-lap- and HU-induced γ-phoshorylation of H2AX histones and the protective activity of HU against β-lap suggest that their genotoxic activities are largely dissimilar. β-Lap treatment results in the induction of apoptosis-like programmed cell death, while HU treatment leads to cell adaptation to replication stress and promotion of abnormal nuclear divisions with biphasic interphase/mitotic states of chromatin condensation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The spatiotemporal program of DNA replication is associated with specific combinations of chromatin marks in human cells.

    PubMed

    Picard, Franck; Cadoret, Jean-Charles; Audit, Benjamin; Arneodo, Alain; Alberti, Adriana; Battail, Christophe; Duret, Laurent; Prioleau, Marie-Noelle

    2014-05-01

    The duplication of mammalian genomes is under the control of a spatiotemporal program that orchestrates the positioning and the timing of firing of replication origins. The molecular mechanisms coordinating the activation of about [Formula: see text] predicted origins remain poorly understood, partly due to the intrinsic rarity of replication bubbles, making it difficult to purify short nascent strands (SNS). The precise identification of origins based on the high-throughput sequencing of SNS constitutes a new methodological challenge. We propose a new statistical method with a controlled resolution, adapted to the detection of replication origins from SNS data. We detected an average of 80,000 replication origins in different cell lines. To evaluate the consistency between different protocols, we compared SNS detections with bubble trapping detections. This comparison demonstrated a good agreement between genome-wide methods, with 65% of SNS-detected origins validated by bubble trapping, and 44% of bubble trapping origins validated by SNS origins, when compared at the same resolution. We investigated the interplay between the spatial and the temporal programs of replication at fine scales. We show that most of the origins detected in regions replicated in early S phase are shared by all the cell lines investigated whereas cell-type-specific origins tend to be replicated in late S phase. We shed a new light on the key role of CpG islands, by showing that 80% of the origins associated with CGIs are constitutive. Our results further show that at least 76% of CGIs are origins of replication. The analysis of associations with chromatin marks at different timing of cell division revealed new potential epigenetic regulators driving the spatiotemporal activity of replication origins. We highlight the potential role of H4K20me1 and H3K27me3, the coupling of which is correlated with increased efficiency of replication origins, clearly identifying those marks as potential

  2. USP7 is a SUMO deubiquitinase essential for DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Lecona, Emilio; Rodriguez-Acebes, Sara; Specks, Julia; Lopez-Contreras, Andres J; Ruppen, Isabel; Murga, Matilde; Muñoz, Javier; Mendez, Juan; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar

    2016-04-01

    Post-translational modification of proteins by ubiquitin (Ub) and Ub-like modifiers regulates DNA replication. We have previously shown that chromatin around replisomes is rich in SUMO and poor in Ub, whereas mature chromatin exhibits an opposite pattern. How this SUMO-rich, Ub-poor environment is maintained at sites of DNA replication in mammalian cells remains unexplored. Here we identify USP7 as a replisome-enriched SUMO deubiquitinase that is essential for DNA replication. By acting on SUMO and SUMOylated proteins, USP7 counteracts their ubiquitination. Inhibition or genetic deletion of USP7 leads to the accumulation of Ub on SUMOylated proteins, which are displaced away from replisomes. Our findings provide a model explaining the differential accumulation of SUMO and Ub at replication forks and identify an essential role of USP7 in DNA replication that should be considered in the development of USP7 inhibitors as anticancer agents.

  3. Analysis of branched DNA replication and recombination intermediates from prokaryotic cells by two-dimensional (2D) native-native agarose gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Nicholas P

    2013-01-01

    Branched DNA molecules are generated by the essential processes of replication and recombination. Owing to their distinctive extended shapes, these intermediates migrate differently from linear double-stranded DNA under certain electrophoretic conditions. However, these branched species exist in the cell at much low abundance than the bulk linear DNA. Consequently, branched molecules cannot be visualized by conventional electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining. Two-dimensional native-native agarose electrophoresis has therefore been developed as a method to facilitate the separation and visualization of branched replication and recombination intermediates. A wide variety of studies have employed this technique to examine branched molecules in eukaryotic, archaeal, and bacterial cells, providing valuable insights into how DNA is duplicated and repaired in all three domains of life.

  4. mTORC1 and -2 Coordinate Transcriptional and Translational Reprogramming in Resistance to DNA Damage and Replicative Stress in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Silvera, Deborah; Ernlund, Amanda; Arju, Rezina; Connolly, Eileen; Volta, Viviana; Wang, Jinhua; Schneider, Robert J

    2017-03-01

    mTOR coordinates growth signals with metabolic pathways and protein synthesis and is hyperactivated in many human cancers. mTOR exists in two complexes: mTORC1, which stimulates protein, lipid, and ribosome biosynthesis, and mTORC2, which regulates cytoskeleton functions. While mTOR is known to be involved in the DNA damage response, little is actually known regarding the functions of mTORC1 compared to mTORC2 in this regard or the respective impacts on transcriptional versus translational regulation. We show that mTORC1 and mTORC2 are both required to enact DNA damage repair and cell survival, resulting in increased cancer cell survival during DNA damage. Together mTORC1 and -2 enact coordinated transcription and translation of protective cell cycle and DNA replication, recombination, and repair genes. This coordinated transcriptional-translational response to DNA damage was not impaired by rapalog inhibition of mTORC1 or independent inhibition of mTORC1 or mTORC2 but was blocked by inhibition of mTORC1/2. Only mTORC1/2 inhibition reversed cancer cell resistance to DNA damage and replicative stress and increased tumor cell killing and tumor control by DNA damage therapies in animal models. When combined with DNA damage, inhibition of mTORC1/2 blocked transcriptional induction more strongly than translation of DNA replication, survival, and DNA damage response mRNAs. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. APOBEC3A damages the cellular genome during DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Green, Abby M; Landry, Sébastien; Budagyan, Konstantin; Avgousti, Daphne C; Shalhout, Sophia; Bhagwat, Ashok S; Weitzman, Matthew D

    2016-01-01

    The human APOBEC3 family of DNA-cytosine deaminases comprises 7 members (A3A-A3H) that act on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The APOBEC3 proteins function within the innate immune system by mutating DNA of viral genomes and retroelements to restrict infection and retrotransposition. Recent evidence suggests that APOBEC3 enzymes can also cause damage to the cellular genome. Mutational patterns consistent with APOBEC3 activity have been identified by bioinformatic analysis of tumor genome sequences. These mutational signatures include clusters of base substitutions that are proposed to occur due to APOBEC3 deamination. It has been suggested that transiently exposed ssDNA segments provide substrate for APOBEC3 deamination leading to mutation signatures within the genome. However, the mechanisms that produce single-stranded substrates for APOBEC3 deamination in mammalian cells have not been demonstrated. We investigated ssDNA at replication forks as a substrate for APOBEC3 deamination. We found that APOBEC3A (A3A) expression leads to DNA damage in replicating cells but this is reduced in quiescent cells. Upon A3A expression, cycling cells activate the DNA replication checkpoint and undergo cell cycle arrest. Additionally, we find that replication stress leaves cells vulnerable to A3A-induced DNA damage. We propose a model to explain A3A-induced damage to the cellular genome in which cytosine deamination at replication forks and other ssDNA substrates results in mutations and DNA breaks. This model highlights the risk of mutagenesis by A3A expression in replicating progenitor cells, and supports the emerging hypothesis that APOBEC3 enzymes contribute to genome instability in human tumors.

  6. APOBEC3A damages the cellular genome during DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Green, Abby M.; Landry, Sébastien; Budagyan, Konstantin; Avgousti, Daphne C.; Shalhout, Sophia; Bhagwat, Ashok S.; Weitzman, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human APOBEC3 family of DNA-cytosine deaminases comprises 7 members (A3A-A3H) that act on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The APOBEC3 proteins function within the innate immune system by mutating DNA of viral genomes and retroelements to restrict infection and retrotransposition. Recent evidence suggests that APOBEC3 enzymes can also cause damage to the cellular genome. Mutational patterns consistent with APOBEC3 activity have been identified by bioinformatic analysis of tumor genome sequences. These mutational signatures include clusters of base substitutions that are proposed to occur due to APOBEC3 deamination. It has been suggested that transiently exposed ssDNA segments provide substrate for APOBEC3 deamination leading to mutation signatures within the genome. However, the mechanisms that produce single-stranded substrates for APOBEC3 deamination in mammalian cells have not been demonstrated. We investigated ssDNA at replication forks as a substrate for APOBEC3 deamination. We found that APOBEC3A (A3A) expression leads to DNA damage in replicating cells but this is reduced in quiescent cells. Upon A3A expression, cycling cells activate the DNA replication checkpoint and undergo cell cycle arrest. Additionally, we find that replication stress leaves cells vulnerable to A3A-induced DNA damage. We propose a model to explain A3A-induced damage to the cellular genome in which cytosine deamination at replication forks and other ssDNA substrates results in mutations and DNA breaks. This model highlights the risk of mutagenesis by A3A expression in replicating progenitor cells, and supports the emerging hypothesis that APOBEC3 enzymes contribute to genome instability in human tumors. PMID:26918916

  7. DNA instability in replicating Huntington's disease lymphoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Cannella, Milena; Maglione, Vittorio; Martino, Tiziana; Ragona, Giuseppe; Frati, Luigi; Li, Guo-Min; Squitieri, Ferdinando

    2009-01-01

    Background The expanded CAG repeat in the Huntington's disease (HD) gene may display tissue-specific variability (e.g. triplet mosaicism) in repeat length, the longest mutations involving mitotic (germ and glial cells) and postmitotic (neurons) cells. What contributes to the triplet mutability underlying the development of HD nevertheless remains unknown. We investigated whether, besides the increased DNA instability documented in postmitotic neurons, possible environmental and genetic mechanisms, related to cell replication, may concur to determine CAG repeat mutability. To test this hypothesis we used, as a model, cultured HD patients' lymphoblasts with various CAG repeat lengths. Results Although most lymphoblastoid cell lines (88%) showed little or no repeat instability even after six or more months culture, in lymphoblasts with large expansion repeats beyond 60 CAG repeats the mutation size and triplet mosaicism always increased during replication, implying that the repeat mutability for highly expanded mutations may quantitatively depend on the triplet expansion size. None of the investigated genetic factors, potentially acting in cis to the mutation, significantly influence the repeat changes. Finally, in our experiments certain drugs controlled triplet expansion in two prone-to-expand HD cell lines carrying large CAG mutations. Conclusion Our data support quantitative evidence that the inherited CAG length of expanded alleles has a major influence on somatic repeat variation. The longest triplet expansions show wide somatic variations and may offer a mechanistic model to study triplet drug-controlled instability and genetic factors influencing it. PMID:19210789

  8. Checkpoint Activation of an Unconventional DNA Replication Program in Tetrahymena

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, Pamela Y.; Lee, Po-Hsuen; Meng, Xiangzhou; Kapler, Geoffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    The intra-S phase checkpoint kinase of metazoa and yeast, ATR/MEC1, protects chromosomes from DNA damage and replication stress by phosphorylating subunits of the replicative helicase, MCM2-7. Here we describe an unprecedented ATR-dependent pathway in Tetrahymena thermophila in which the essential pre-replicative complex proteins, Orc1p, Orc2p and Mcm6p are degraded in hydroxyurea-treated S phase cells. Chromosomes undergo global changes during HU-arrest, including phosphorylation of histone H2A.X, deacetylation of histone H3, and an apparent diminution in DNA content that can be blocked by the deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate. Most remarkably, the cell cycle rapidly resumes upon hydroxyurea removal, and the entire genome is replicated prior to replenishment of ORC and MCMs. While stalled replication forks are elongated under these conditions, DNA fiber imaging revealed that most replicating molecules are produced by new initiation events. Furthermore, the sole origin in the ribosomal DNA minichromosome is inactive and replication appears to initiate near the rRNA promoter. The collective data raise the possibility that replication initiation occurs by an ORC-independent mechanism during the recovery from HU-induced replication stress. PMID:26218270

  9. Mechanisms and regulation of DNA replication initiation in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Parker, Matthew W; Botchan, Michael R; Berger, James M

    2017-04-01

    Cellular DNA replication is initiated through the action of multiprotein complexes that recognize replication start sites in the chromosome (termed origins) and facilitate duplex DNA melting within these regions. In a typical cell cycle, initiation occurs only once per origin and each round of replication is tightly coupled to cell division. To avoid aberrant origin firing and re-replication, eukaryotes tightly regulate two events in the initiation process: loading of the replicative helicase, MCM2-7, onto chromatin by the origin recognition complex (ORC), and subsequent activation of the helicase by its incorporation into a complex known as the CMG. Recent work has begun to reveal the details of an orchestrated and sequential exchange of initiation factors on DNA that give rise to a replication-competent complex, the replisome. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms that underpin eukaryotic DNA replication initiation - from selecting replication start sites to replicative helicase loading and activation - and describe how these events are often distinctly regulated across different eukaryotic model organisms.

  10. Mapping origins of DNA replication in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Gerbi, Susan A

    2005-01-01

    Methods are described here to map an origin of replication in eukaryotes. Replicating DNA is enriched by BND cellulose column chromatography and by lambda-exonuclease digestion; this approach has largely superceded enrichment by BrdU incorporation. The general area in which replication begins can be deciphered by neutral/neutral 2D gel electrophoresis: a restriction fragment containing the replication bubble will form a bubble arc on these gels. A more sensitive method employs PCR analysis of nascent strands that are size-fractionated. Once the general area containing the origin of bidirectional replication has been mapped, a finer level of resolution can be obtained by replication initiation point (RIP) mapping, in which start sites of DNA synthesis are identified at the nucleotide level.

  11. The Causes and Consequences of Topological Stress during DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Keszthelyi, Andrea; Minchell, Nicola E.; Baxter, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The faithful replication of sister chromatids is essential for genomic integrity in every cell division. The replication machinery must overcome numerous difficulties in every round of replication, including DNA topological stress. Topological stress arises due to the double-stranded helical nature of DNA. When the strands are pulled apart for replication to occur, the intertwining of the double helix must also be resolved or topological stress will arise. This intrinsic problem is exacerbated by specific chromosomal contexts encountered during DNA replication. The convergence of two replicons during termination, the presence of stable protein-DNA complexes and active transcription can all lead to topological stresses being imposed upon DNA replication. Here we describe how replication forks respond to topological stress by replication fork rotation and fork reversal. We also discuss the genomic contexts where topological stress is likely to occur in eukaryotes, focusing on the contribution of transcription. Finally, we describe how topological stress, and the ways forks respond to it, may contribute to genomic instability in cells. PMID:28009828

  12. The Causes and Consequences of Topological Stress during DNA Replication.

    PubMed

    Keszthelyi, Andrea; Minchell, Nicola E; Baxter, Jonathan

    2016-12-21

    The faithful replication of sister chromatids is essential for genomic integrity in every cell division. The replication machinery must overcome numerous difficulties in every round of replication, including DNA topological stress. Topological stress arises due to the double-stranded helical nature of DNA. When the strands are pulled apart for replication to occur, the intertwining of the double helix must also be resolved or topological stress will arise. This intrinsic problem is exacerbated by specific chromosomal contexts encountered during DNA replication. The convergence of two replicons during termination, the presence of stable protein-DNA complexes and active transcription can all lead to topological stresses being imposed upon DNA replication. Here we describe how replication forks respond to topological stress by replication fork rotation and fork reversal. We also discuss the genomic contexts where topological stress is likely to occur in eukaryotes, focusing on the contribution of transcription. Finally, we describe how topological stress, and the ways forks respond to it, may contribute to genomic instability in cells.

  13. Initiation and termination of DNA replication during S phase in relation to cyclins D1, E and A, p21WAF1, Cdt1 and the p12 subunit of DNA polymerase δ revealed in individual cells by cytometry.

    PubMed

    Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Sufang; Lee, Marietta Y W T; Lee, Ernest Y C; Zhang, Zhongtao

    2015-05-20

    During our recent studies on mechanism of the regulation of human DNA polymerase δ in preparation for DNA replication or repair, multiparameter imaging cytometry as exemplified by laser scanning cytometry (LSC) has been used to assess changes in expression of the following nuclear proteins associated with initiation of DNA replication: cyclin A, PCNA, Ki-67, p21(WAF1), DNA replication factor Cdt1 and the smallest subunit of DNA polymerase δ, p12. In the present review, rather than focusing on Pol δ, we emphasize the application of LSC in these studies and outline possibilities offered by the concurrent differential analysis of DNA replication in conjunction with expression of the nuclear proteins. A more extensive analysis of the data on a correlation between rates of EdU incorporation, likely reporting DNA replication, and expression of these proteins, is presently provided. New data, specifically on the expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E with respect to EdU incorporation as well as on a relationship between expression of cyclin A vs. p21(WAF1) and Ki-67 vs. Cdt1, are also reported. Of particular interest is the observation that this approach makes it possible to assess the temporal sequence of degradation of cyclin D1, p21(WAF1), Cdt1 and p12, each with respect to initiation of DNA replication and with respect to each other. Also the sequence or reappearance of these proteins in G2 after termination of DNA replication is assessed. The reviewed data provide a more comprehensive presentation of potential markers, whose presence or absence marks the DNA replicating cells. Discussed is also usefulness of these markers as indicators of proliferative activity in cancer tissues that may bear information on tumor progression and have a prognostic value.

  14. Initiation and termination of DNA replication during S phase in relation to cyclins D1, E and A, p21WAF1, Cdt1 and the p12 subunit of DNA polymerase δ revealed in individual cells by cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Sufang; Marietta, Y.W.T. Lee; Ernest, Y.C. Lee; Zhang, Zhongtao

    2015-01-01

    During our recent studies on mechanism of the regulation of human DNA polymerase δ in preparation for DNA replication or repair, multiparameter imaging cytometry as exemplified by laser scanning cytometry (LSC) has been used to assess changes in expression of the following nuclear proteins associated with initiation of DNA replication: cyclin A, PCNA, Ki-67, p21WAF1, DNA replication factor Cdt1 and the smallest subunit of DNA polymerase δ, p12. In the present review, rather than focusing on Pol δ, we emphasize the application of LSC in these studies and outline possibilities offered by the concurrent differential analysis of DNA replication in conjunction with expression of the nuclear proteins. A more extensive analysis of the data on a correlation between rates of EdU incorporation, likely reporting DNA replication, and expression of these proteins, is presently provided. New data, specifically on the expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E with respect to EdU incorporation as well as on a relationship between expression of cyclin A vs. p21WAF1 and Ki-67 vs. Cdt1, are also reported. Of particular interest is the observation that this approach makes it possible to assess the temporal sequence of degradation of cyclin D1, p21WAF1, Cdt1 and p12, each with respect to initiation of DNA replication and with respect to each other. Also the sequence or reappearance of these proteins in G2 after termination of DNA replication is assessed. The reviewed data provide a more comprehensive presentation of potential markers, whose presence or absence marks the DNA replicating cells. Discussed is also usefulness of these markers as indicators of proliferative activity in cancer tissues that may bear information on tumor progression and have a prognostic value. PMID:26059433

  15. Molecular docking of the anticancer bioactive compound proceraside with macromolecules involved in the cell cycle and DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Gurung, A B; Ali, M A; Bhattacharjee, A; AbulFarah, M; Al-Hemaid, F; Abou-Tarboush, F M; Al-Anazi, K M; Al-Anazi, F S M; Lee, J

    2016-05-09

    The bioactive compounds proceraside A, frugoside and calotropin, which were extracted from the root bark of Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton (family Asclepiadaceae), were recently reported to inhibit the growth of inhibition against various human cancer cell lines in vitro. However, their modes of action have not been clearly defined. Therefore, we attempted an in silico approach to gain insights into their binding modes against the following selected molecular targets: CDK-2, CDK-6, topoisomerase I, BCL-2, VEGFR-2, telomere: G-quadruplex, and topoisomerase II. These targets were selected based on their key roles in cancer progression via the regulation of the cell cycle and DNA replication. Molecular-docking analyses revealed that proceraside A was the best docked ligand against all the targets, with the exception of telomere-G: quadruplex. Furthermore, it displayed the lowest binding energies and inhibition constants, and critical hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions with the targets were also revealed. The present study may aid in the identification of possible targets for proceraside A, and might provide a plausible explanation for its proven anti-tumor activities. Moreover, the result of this study may further guide structure-activity relationship studies used to generate more potent target-specific inhibitors.

  16. Werner's syndrome protein is phosphorylated in an ATR/ATM-dependent manner following replication arrest and DNA damage induced during the S phase of the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Pichierri, Pietro; Rosselli, Filippo; Franchitto, Annapaola

    2003-03-13

    Werner's syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive disorder, characterized at the cellular level by genomic instability in the form of variegated translocation mosaicism and extensive deletions. Individuals with WS prematurely develop multiple age-related pathologies and exhibit increased incidence of cancer. WRN, the gene defective in WS, encodes a 160-kDa protein (WRN), which has 3'-5'exonuclease, DNA helicase and DNA-dependent ATPase activities. WRN-defective cells are hypersensitive to certain genotoxic agents that cause replication arrest and/or double-strand breaks at the replication fork, suggesting a pivotal role for WRN in the protection of the integrity of the genoma during the DNA replication process. Here, we show that WRN is phosphorylated through an ATR/ATM dependent pathway in response to replication blockage. However, we provide evidence that WRN phosphorylation is not essential for its subnuclear relocalization after replication arrest. Finally, we show that WRN and ATR colocalize after replication fork arrest, suggesting that WRN and the ATR kinase collaborate to prevent genome instability during the S phase.

  17. Replication-induced DNA damage after PARP inhibition causes G2 delay, and cell line-dependent apoptosis, necrosis and multinucleation

    PubMed Central

    Dale Rein, Idun; Solberg Landsverk, Kirsti; Micci, Francesca; Patzke, Sebastian; Stokke, Trond

    2015-01-01

    PARP inhibitors have been approved for treatment of tumors with mutations in or loss of BRCA1/2. The molecular mechanisms and particularly the cellular phenotypes resulting in synthetic lethality are not well understood and varying clinical responses have been observed. We have investigated the dose- and time-dependency of cell growth, cell death and cell cycle traverse of 4 malignant lymphocyte cell lines treated with the PARP inhibitor Olaparib. PARP inhibition induced a severe growth inhibition in this cell line panel and increased the levels of phosphorylated H2AX-associated DNA damage in S phase. Repair of the remaining replication related damage caused a G2 phase delay before entry into mitosis. The G2 delay, and the growth inhibition, was more pronounced in the absence of functional ATM. Further, Olaparib treated Reh and Granta-519 cells died by apoptosis, while U698 and JVM-2 cells proceeded through mitosis with aberrant chromosomes, skipped cytokinesis, and eventually died by necrosis. The TP53-deficient U698 cells went through several rounds of DNA replication and mitosis without cytokinesis, ending up as multinucleated cells with DNA contents of up to 16c before dying. In summary, we report here for the first time cell cycle-resolved DNA damage induction, and cell line-dependent differences in the mode of cell death caused by PARP inhibition. PMID:26312527

  18. Problem-Based Test: Replication of Mitochondrial DNA during the Cell Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setalo, Gyorgy, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: cell cycle, generation time, S-phase, cell culture synchronization, isotopic pulse-chase labeling, density labeling, equilibrium density-gradient centrifugation, buoyant density, rate-zonal centrifugation, nucleoside, nucleotide, kinase enzymes, polymerization of nucleic acids,…

  19. Problem-Based Test: Replication of Mitochondrial DNA during the Cell Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setalo, Gyorgy, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: cell cycle, generation time, S-phase, cell culture synchronization, isotopic pulse-chase labeling, density labeling, equilibrium density-gradient centrifugation, buoyant density, rate-zonal centrifugation, nucleoside, nucleotide, kinase enzymes, polymerization of nucleic acids,…

  20. Restoration of microRNA-214 expression reduces growth of myeloma cells through positive regulation of P53 and inhibition of DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Misiewicz-Krzeminska, Irena; Sarasquete, María E.; Quwaider, Dalia; Krzeminski, Patryk; Ticona, Fany V.; Paíno, Teresa; Delgado, Manuel; Aires, Andreia; Ocio, Enrique M.; García-Sanz, Ramón; San Miguel, Jesús F.; Gutiérrez, Norma C.

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNA have been demonstrated to be deregulated in multiple myeloma. We have previously reported that miR-214 is down-regulated in multiple myeloma compared to in normal plasma cells. The functional role of miR-214 in myeloma pathogenesis was explored by transfecting myeloma cell lines with synthetic microRNA followed by gene expression profiling. Putative miR-214 targets were validated by luciferase reporter assay. Ectopic expression of miR-214 reduced cell growth and induced apoptosis of myeloma cells. In order to identify the potential direct target genes of miR-214 which could be involved in the biological pathways regulated by this microRNA, gene expression profiling of the H929 myeloma cell line transfected with precursor miR-214 was carried out. Functional analysis revealed significant enrichment for DNA replication, cell cycle phase and DNA binding. miR-214 directly down-regulated the expression of PSMD10, which encodes the oncoprotein gankyrin, and ASF1B, a histone chaperone required for DNA replication, by binding to their 3'-untranslated regions. In addition, gankyrin inhibition induced an increase of P53 mRNA levels and subsequent up-regulation of CDKN1A (p21Waf1/Cip1) and BAX transcripts, which are direct transcriptional targets of p53. In conclusion, MiR-214 functions as a tumor suppressor in myeloma by positive regulation of p53 and inhibition of DNA replication. PMID:23100276

  1. RMI1 Promotes DNA Replication Fork Progression and Recovery from Replication Fork Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jay; O'Donnell, Lara; Durocher, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    RMI1 is a member of an evolutionarily conserved complex composed of BLM and topoisomerase IIIα (TopoIIIα). This complex exhibits strand passage activity in vitro, which is likely important for DNA repair and DNA replication in vivo. The inactivation of RMI1 causes genome instability, including elevated levels of sister chromatid exchange and accelerated tumorigenesis. Using molecular combing to analyze DNA replication at the single-molecule level, we show that RMI1 is required to promote normal replication fork progression. The fork progression defect in RMI1-depleted cells is alleviated in cells lacking BLM, indicating that RMI1 functions downstream of BLM in promoting replication elongation. RMI1 localizes to subnuclear foci with BLM and TopoIIIα in response to replication stress. The proper localization of the complex requires a BLM-TopoIIIα-RMI1 interaction and is essential for RMI1 to promote recovery from replication stress. These findings reveal direct roles of RMI1 in DNA replication and the replication stress response, which could explain the molecular basis for its involvement in suppressing sister chromatid exchange and tumorigenesis. PMID:22645306

  2. Beginning at the end: DNA replication within the telomere

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Using single molecule analysis of replicated DNA (SMARD), Drosopoulos et al. (2015; J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201410061) report that DNA replication initiates at measurable frequency within the telomere of mouse chromosome arm 14q. They demonstrate that resolution of G4 structures on the G-rich template strand of the telomere requires some overlapping functions of BLM and WRN helicase for leading strand synthesis. PMID:26195663

  3. Self-replication of DNA rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junghoon; Lee, Junwye; Hamada, Shogo; Murata, Satoshi; Ha Park, Sung

    2015-06-01

    Biology provides numerous examples of self-replicating machines, but artificially engineering such complex systems remains a formidable challenge. In particular, although simple artificial self-replicating systems including wooden blocks, magnetic systems, modular robots and synthetic molecular systems have been devised, such kinematic self-replicators are rare compared with examples of theoretical cellular self-replication. One of the principal reasons for this is the amount of complexity that arises when you try to incorporate self-replication into a physical medium. In this regard, DNA is a prime candidate material for constructing self-replicating systems due to its ability to self-assemble through molecular recognition. Here, we show that DNA T-motifs, which self-assemble into ring structures, can be designed to self-replicate through toehold-mediated strand displacement reactions. The inherent design of these rings allows the population dynamics of the systems to be controlled. We also analyse the replication scheme within a universal framework of self-replication and derive a quantitative metric of the self-replicability of the rings.

  4. Apoptotic death induced by the cyclophosphamide analogue mafosfamide in human lymphoblastoid cells: Contribution of DNA replication, transcription inhibition and Chk/p53 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, Michael; Roos, Wynand P. Kaina, Bernd

    2008-05-15

    Cyclophosphamide is one of the most often used anticancer drugs. Although DNA interstrand cross-links are considered responsible for its cytotoxicity, the mechanism of initiation and execution of cell death is largely unknown. Using the cyclophosphamide analogue mafosfamide, which does not need metabolic activation, we show that mafosfamide induces apoptosis dose and time dependently in lymphoblastoid cells, with clearly more apoptosis in p53{sup wt} cells. We identified two upstream processes that initiate apoptosis, DNA replication blockage and transcriptional inhibition. In lymphoblastoid cells, wherein DNA replication can be switched off by tetracycline, proliferation is required for inducing apoptosis at low dose mafosfamide. At high dose, transcriptional inhibition also contributes to cell death. The RNA synthesis inhibitor {alpha}-amanitin induced similar to mafosfamide more apoptosis in p53{sup wt} than in p53{sup mt} cells. In combination with mafosfamide, however, {alpha}-amanitin had no additive effect. Mafosfamide caused p53 stabilization by phosphorylation of Ser15, 20 and 37, and activation of ATM/ATR and Chk1/Chk2. Inhibition of ATM/ATR, PI3-kinase and Chk1/Chk2 by CGK733, wortmannin and DBH, respectively, attenuated the apoptotic response in p53{sup wt} but not p53{sup mt} cells. Mafosfamide induced caspase dependent apoptosis and, for low dose treated cells, caspases were preferentially activated in the S-phase, whereas at high dose caspases were activated in all cell cycle stages. These data support the conclusion that at low dose level of mafosfamide, DNA replication blockage is the dominant apoptosis-inducing event, while at high dose, transcriptional inhibition comes into play. The data provide a mechanistic explanation of why cyclophosphamide applied at therapeutic doses preferentially kills replicating tumor cells.

  5. Mechanisms of mutagenesis: DNA replication in the presence of DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Binyan; Xue, Qizhen; Tang, Yong; Cao, Jia; Guengerich, F. Peter; Zhang, Huidong

    2017-01-01

    Environmental mutagens cause DNA damage that disturbs replication and produces mutations, leading to cancer and other diseases. We discuss mechanisms of mutagenesis resulting from DNA damage, from the level of DNA replication by a single polymerase to the complex DNA replisome of some typical model organisms (including bacteriophage T7, T4, Sulfolobus solfataricus, E. coli, yeast and human). For a single DNA polymerase, DNA damage can affect replication in three major ways: reducing replication fidelity, causing frameshift mutations, and blocking replication. For the DNA replisome, protein interactions and the functions of accessory proteins can yield rather different results even with a single DNA polymerase. The mechanism of mutation during replication performed by the DNA replisome is a long-standing question. Using new methods and techniques, the replisomes of certain organisms and human cell extracts can now be investigated with regard to the bypass of DNA damage. In this review, we consider the molecular mechanism of mutagenesis resulting from DNA damage in replication at the levels of single DNA polymerases and complex DNA replisomes, including translesion DNA synthesis. PMID:27234563

  6. Mechanisms of mutagenesis: DNA replication in the presence of DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Binyan; Xue, Qizhen; Tang, Yong; Cao, Jia; Guengerich, F Peter; Zhang, Huidong

    2016-01-01

    Environmental mutagens cause DNA damage that disturbs replication and produces mutations, leading to cancer and other diseases. We discuss mechanisms of mutagenesis resulting from DNA damage, from the level of DNA replication by a single polymerase to the complex DNA replisome of some typical model organisms (including bacteriophage T7, T4, Sulfolobus solfataricus, Escherichia coli, yeast and human). For a single DNA polymerase, DNA damage can affect replication in three major ways: reducing replication fidelity, causing frameshift mutations, and blocking replication. For the DNA replisome, protein interactions and the functions of accessory proteins can yield rather different results even with a single DNA polymerase. The mechanism of mutation during replication performed by the DNA replisome is a long-standing question. Using new methods and techniques, the replisomes of certain organisms and human cell extracts can now be investigated with regard to the bypass of DNA damage. In this review, we consider the molecular mechanism of mutagenesis resulting from DNA damage in replication at the levels of single DNA polymerases and complex DNA replisomes, including translesion DNA synthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhomogeneous DNA replication kinetics is associated with immune system response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechhoefer, John; Gauthier, Michel G.; Norio, Paolo

    2013-03-01

    In eukaryotic organisms, DNA replication is initiated at ``origins,'' launching ``forks'' that spread bidirectionally to replicate the genome. The distribution and firing rate of these origins and the fork progression velocity form the ``replication program.'' Previous models of DNA replication in eukaryotes have assumed firing rates and replication fork velocities to be homogeneous across the genome. But large variations in origin activity and fork velocity do occur. Here, we generalize our replication model to allow for arbitrary spatial variation of initiation rates and fork velocities in a given region of the genome. We derive and solve rate equations for the forks and replication probability, to obtain the mean-field replication program. After testing the model on simulations, we analyze the changes in replication program that occur during B cell development in the mouse. B cells play a major role in the adaptive immune system by producing the antibodies. We show that the process of cell differentiation is associated with a change in replication program, where the zones of high origin initiation rates located in the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus shift their position as the locus prepares to undergo the recombination events responsible for generating antibody specificity. This work was funded by HSFP and NSERC-Canada (MGG and JB) and by NIH-NIGMS grant R01GM080606 (PN).

  8. Regulation of DNA Replication in Early Embryonic Cleavages

    PubMed Central

    Kermi, Chames; Lo Furno, Elena; Maiorano, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Early embryonic cleavages are characterized by short and highly synchronous cell cycles made of alternating S- and M-phases with virtually absent gap phases. In this contracted cell cycle, the duration of DNA synthesis can be extraordinarily short. Depending on the organism, the whole genome of an embryo is replicated at a speed that is between 20 to 60 times faster than that of a somatic cell. Because transcription in the early embryo is repressed, DNA synthesis relies on a large stockpile of maternally supplied proteins stored in the egg representing most, if not all, cellular genes. In addition, in early embryonic cell cycles, both replication and DNA damage checkpoints are inefficient. In this article, we will review current knowledge on how DNA synthesis is regulated in early embryos and discuss possible consequences of replicating chromosomes with little or no quality control. PMID:28106858

  9. MYC and the Control of DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez-Sola, David; Gautier, Jean

    2014-01-01

    The MYC oncogene is a multifunctional protein that is aberrantly expressed in a significant fraction of tumors from diverse tissue origins. Because of its multifunctional nature, it has been difficult to delineate the exact contributions of MYC’s diverse roles to tumorigenesis. Here, we review the normal role of MYC in regulating DNA replication as well as its ability to generate DNA replication stress when overexpressed. Finally, we discuss the possible mechanisms by which replication stress induced by aberrant MYC expression could contribute to genomic instability and cancer. PMID:24890833

  10. Mcm10 regulates DNA replication elongation by stimulating the CMG replicative helicase

    PubMed Central

    Lõoke, Marko; Maloney, Michael F.; Bell, Stephen P.

    2017-01-01

    Activation of the Mcm2–7 replicative DNA helicase is the committed step in eukaryotic DNA replication initiation. Although Mcm2–7 activation requires binding of the helicase-activating proteins Cdc45 and GINS (forming the CMG complex), an additional protein, Mcm10, drives initial origin DNA unwinding by an unknown mechanism. We show that Mcm10 binds a conserved motif located between the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide fold (OB-fold) and A subdomain of Mcm2. Although buried in the interface between these domains in Mcm2–7 structures, mutations predicted to separate the domains and expose this motif restore growth to conditional-lethal MCM10 mutant cells. We found that, in addition to stimulating initial DNA unwinding, Mcm10 stabilizes Cdc45 and GINS association with Mcm2–7 and stimulates replication elongation in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, we identified a lethal allele of MCM10 that stimulates initial DNA unwinding but is defective in replication elongation and CMG binding. Our findings expand the roles of Mcm10 during DNA replication and suggest a new model for Mcm10 function as an activator of the CMG complex throughout DNA replication. PMID:28270517

  11. Diversity of DNA Replication in the Archaea.

    PubMed

    Ausiannikava, Darya; Allers, Thorsten

    2017-01-31

    DNA replication is arguably the most fundamental biological process. On account of their shared evolutionary ancestry, the replication machinery found in archaea is similar to that found in eukaryotes. DNA replication is initiated at origins and is highly conserved in eukaryotes, but our limited understanding of archaea has uncovered a wide diversity of replication initiation mechanisms. Archaeal origins are sequence-based, as in bacteria, but are bound by initiator proteins that share homology with the eukaryotic origin recognition complex subunit Orc1 and helicase loader Cdc6). Unlike bacteria, archaea may have multiple origins per chromosome and multiple Orc1/Cdc6 initiator proteins. There is no consensus on how these archaeal origins are recognised- some are bound by a single Orc1/Cdc6 protein while others require a multi- Orc1/Cdc6 complex. Many archaeal genomes consist of multiple parts-the main chromosome plus several megaplasmids-and in polyploid species these parts are present in multiple copies. This poses a challenge to the regulation of DNA replication. However, one archaeal species (Haloferax volcanii) can survive without replication origins; instead, it uses homologous recombination as an alternative mechanism of initiation. This diversity in DNA replication initiation is all the more remarkable for having been discovered in only three groups of archaea where in vivo studies are possible.

  12. Diversity of DNA Replication in the Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Ausiannikava, Darya; Allers, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    DNA replication is arguably the most fundamental biological process. On account of their shared evolutionary ancestry, the replication machinery found in archaea is similar to that found in eukaryotes. DNA replication is initiated at origins and is highly conserved in eukaryotes, but our limited understanding of archaea has uncovered a wide diversity of replication initiation mechanisms. Archaeal origins are sequence-based, as in bacteria, but are bound by initiator proteins that share homology with the eukaryotic origin recognition complex subunit Orc1 and helicase loader Cdc6). Unlike bacteria, archaea may have multiple origins per chromosome and multiple Orc1/Cdc6 initiator proteins. There is no consensus on how these archaeal origins are recognised—some are bound by a single Orc1/Cdc6 protein while others require a multi- Orc1/Cdc6 complex. Many archaeal genomes consist of multiple parts—the main chromosome plus several megaplasmids—and in polyploid species these parts are present in multiple copies. This poses a challenge to the regulation of DNA replication. However, one archaeal species (Haloferax volcanii) can survive without replication origins; instead, it uses homologous recombination as an alternative mechanism of initiation. This diversity in DNA replication initiation is all the more remarkable for having been discovered in only three groups of archaea where in vivo studies are possible. PMID:28146124

  13. Three RNA cells for ribosomal lineages and three DNA viruses to replicate their genomes: a hypothesis for the origin of cellular domain.

    PubMed

    Forterre, Patrick

    2006-03-07

    The division of the living world into three cellular domains, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya, is now generally accepted. However, there is no consensus about the evolutionary relationships among these domains, because all of the proposed models have a number of more or less severe pitfalls. Another drawback of current models for the universal tree of life is the exclusion of viruses, otherwise a major component of the biosphere. Recently, it was suggested that the transition from RNA to DNA genomes occurred in the viral world, and that cellular DNA and its replication machineries originated via transfers from DNA viruses to RNA cells. Here, I explore the possibility that three such independent transfers were at the origin of Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya, respectively. The reduction of evolutionary rates following the transition from RNA to DNA genomes would have stabilized the three canonical versions of proteins involved in translation, whereas the existence of three different founder DNA viruses explains why each domain has its specific DNA replication apparatus. In that model, plasmids can be viewed as transitional forms between DNA viruses and cellular chromosomes, and the formation of different levels of cellular organization (prokaryote or eukaryote) could be traced back to the nature of the founder DNA viruses and RNA cells.

  14. Three RNA cells for ribosomal lineages and three DNA viruses to replicate their genomes: A hypothesis for the origin of cellular domain

    PubMed Central

    Forterre, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    The division of the living world into three cellular domains, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya, is now generally accepted. However, there is no consensus about the evolutionary relationships among these domains, because all of the proposed models have a number of more or less severe pitfalls. Another drawback of current models for the universal tree of life is the exclusion of viruses, otherwise a major component of the biosphere. Recently, it was suggested that the transition from RNA to DNA genomes occurred in the viral world, and that cellular DNA and its replication machineries originated via transfers from DNA viruses to RNA cells. Here, I explore the possibility that three such independent transfers were at the origin of Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya, respectively. The reduction of evolutionary rates following the transition from RNA to DNA genomes would have stabilized the three canonical versions of proteins involved in translation, whereas the existence of three different founder DNA viruses explains why each domain has its specific DNA replication apparatus. In that model, plasmids can be viewed as transitional forms between DNA viruses and cellular chromosomes, and the formation of different levels of cellular organization (prokaryote or eukaryote) could be traced back to the nature of the founder DNA viruses and RNA cells. PMID:16505372

  15. Requirements for species-specific papovavirus DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, E R; Naujokas, M; Hassell, J A

    1989-01-01

    Replication of papovavirus DNA requires a functional replication origin, a virus-encoded protein, large T antigen, and species-specific permissive factors. How these components interact to initiate and sustain viral DNA replication is not known. Toward that end, we have attempted to identify the viral target(s) of permissive factors. The functionally defined replication origins of polyomavirus and simian virus 40, two papovaviruses that replicate in different species (mice and monkeys, respectively), are composed of two functionally distinct domains: a core domain and an auxiliary domain. The origin cores of the two viruses are remarkably similar in primary structure and have common binding sites for large T antigen. By contrast, their auxiliary domains share few sequences and serve as binding sites for cellular proteins. It seemed plausible, therefore, that if cellular permissive factors interacted with the replication origin, their targets were likely to be in the auxiliary domain. To test this hypothesis we constructed hybrid origins for DNA replication that were composed of the auxiliary domain of one virus and the origin core of the other and assessed their capacity to replicate in a number of mouse and monkey cell lines, which express the large T antigen of one or the other virus. The results of this analysis showed that the auxiliary domains of the viral replication origins could substitute for one another in DNA replication, provided that the viral origin core and its cognate large T antigen were present in a permissive cellular milieu. Surprisingly, the large T antigens of the viruses could not substitute for one another, regardless of the species of origin of the host cell, even though the two large T antigens bind to the same sequence motif in vitro. These results suggest that species-specific permissive factors do not interact with the origin-auxiliary domains but, rather, with either the origin core or the large T antigen or with both components to

  16. Continuous expression and replication of the hepatitis delta virus genome in Hep G2 hepatoblastoma cells transfected with cloned viral DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, P J; Kuo, M Y; Chen, M L; Tu, S J; Chiu, M N; Wu, H L; Hsu, H C; Chen, D S

    1990-01-01

    To establish stable cell clones allowing continuous replication of hepatitis delta virus (HDV), Hep G2, a hepatoblastoma cell line containing no hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA sequences, was transfected with a recombinant plasmid containing a tandem trimer of HDV cDNA (driven by the simian virus 40 late promoter) and a neomycin-resistance gene. After selection with the neomycin analogue G418, at least two of the resistant clones were shown to have intact delta antigen by specific immunoblotting, and the delta antigen was located in the cell nucleus by immunofluorescence. Transfected cloned viral DNAs were found to be integrated into cell chromosomes. Replication of the HDV genome was demonstrated by the presence of not only genomic and antigenomic HDV RNAs but also HDV RNAs in multimeric and circular forms. In addition, a 0.8-kilobase antigenomic RNA containing a poly(A) tail and encoding the delta-antigen open reading frame was documented. Continuous replication and transcription of the HDV genome was thus achieved in these transfected cell lines. The results confirmed that replication of HDV was unassisted by HBV. Stable passage of such cell lines strongly suggests that HDV lacks direct cytopathicity in hepatocytes. These clones should be useful in studying the details of the HDV life cycle and the relationship between HDV and its helper virus, HBV. Images PMID:2164671

  17. p53 inhibits DNA replication in vitro in a DNA-binding-dependent manner

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.D.; Farmer, G.; Prives, C.

    1995-12-01

    This report discusses new findings that the tumor supressor gene product p53 may play a role as a DNA-binding-dependent regulator of DNA replication. The results were obtained using polyomavirus in replication assays. Details regarding effects on cell growth arrest and transcriptional activation are discussed. 61 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Synthesis of parvovirus H-1 replicative form from viral DNA by DNA polymerase gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Kollek, R; Goulian, M

    1981-01-01

    The initial event in the replication cycle of parvovirus H-1 is conversion of the single-stranded linear viral DNA to the double-stranded linear replicative form. We describe here detection of an activity in uninfected cell extracts that carries out this reaction. The activity was purified and identified as DNA polymerase gamma. Images PMID:6947222

  19. Uracil DNA Glycosylase BKRF3 Contributes to Epstein-Barr Virus DNA Replication through Physical Interactions with Proteins in Viral DNA Replication Complex

    PubMed Central

    Su, Mei-Tzu; Liu, I-Hua; Wu, Chia-Wei; Chang, Shu-Ming; Tsai, Ching-Hwa; Yang, Pei-Wen; Chuang, Yu-Chia; Lee, Chung-Pei

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) BKRF3 shares sequence homology with members of the uracil-N-glycosylase (UNG) protein family and has DNA glycosylase activity. Here, we explored how BKRF3 participates in the DNA replication complex and contributes to viral DNA replication. Exogenously expressed Flag-BKRF3 was distributed mostly in the cytoplasm, whereas BKRF3 was translocated into the nucleus and colocalized with the EBV DNA polymerase BALF5 in the replication compartment during EBV lytic replication. The expression level of BKRF3 increased gradually during viral replication, coupled with a decrease of cellular UNG2, suggesting BKRF3 enzyme activity compensates for UNG2 and ensures the fidelity of viral DNA replication. In immunoprecipitation-Western blotting, BKRF3 was coimmunoprecipitated with BALF5, the polymerase processivity factor BMRF1, and the immediate-early transactivator Rta. Coexpression of BMRF1 appeared to facilitate the nuclear targeting of BKRF3 in immunofluorescence staining. Residues 164 to 255 of BKRF3 were required for interaction with Rta and BALF5, whereas residues 81 to 166 of BKRF3 were critical for BMRF1 interaction in glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown experiments. Viral DNA replication was defective in cells harboring BKRF3 knockout EBV bacmids. In complementation assays, the catalytic mutant BKRF3(Q90L,D91N) restored viral DNA replication, whereas the leucine loop mutant BKRF3(H213L) only partially rescued viral DNA replication, coupled with a reduced ability to interact with the viral DNA polymerase and Rta. Our data suggest that BKRF3 plays a critical role in viral DNA synthesis predominantly through its interactions with viral proteins in the DNA replication compartment, while its enzymatic activity may be supplementary for uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) function during virus replication. IMPORTANCE Catalytic activities of both cellular UDG UNG2 and viral UDGs contribute to herpesviral DNA replication. To ensure that the enzyme

  20. Archaeal DNA Replication Origins and Recruitment of the MCM Replicative Helicase.

    PubMed

    Samson, R Y; Bell, S D

    2016-01-01

    DNA replication is fundamental to the propagation of all life on the planet. Remarkably, given the central importance for this process, two distinct core cellular DNA replication machineries have evolved. One is found in the bacterial domain of life and the other is present in Archaea and Eukarya. The archaeal machinery represents a simplified and presumably ancestral form of the eukaryotic DNA replication apparatus. As such, archaeal replication proteins have been studied extensively as models for their eukaryal counterparts. In addition, a number of archaea have been developed as model organisms. Accordingly, there has been a considerable increase in our knowledge of how archaeal chromosomes are replicated. It has become apparent that the majority of archaeal cells replicate their genomes from multiple origins per chromosome. Thus, at both organizational and mechanistic levels, archaeal DNA replication resembles that of eukarya. In this chapter, we will describe recent advances in our understanding of the basis of archaeal origin definition and how the archaeal initiator proteins recruit the replicative helicase to origins. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cohesin organizes chromatin loops at DNA replication factories

    PubMed Central

    Guillou, Emmanuelle; Ibarra, Arkaitz; Coulon, Vincent; Casado-Vela, Juan; Rico, Daniel; Casal, Ignacio; Schwob, Etienne; Losada, Ana; Méndez, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Genomic DNA is packed in chromatin fibers organized in higher-order structures within the interphase nucleus. One level of organization involves the formation of chromatin loops that may provide a favorable environment to processes such as DNA replication, transcription, and repair. However, little is known about the mechanistic basis of this structuration. Here we demonstrate that cohesin participates in the spatial organization of DNA replication factories in human cells. Cohesin is enriched at replication origins and interacts with prereplication complex proteins. Down-regulation of cohesin slows down S-phase progression by limiting the number of active origins and increasing the length of chromatin loops that correspond with replicon units. These results give a new dimension to the role of cohesin in the architectural organization of interphase chromatin, by showing its participation in DNA replication. PMID:21159821

  2. Identification of Small Molecule Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) Inhibitor That Disrupts Interactions with PIP-box Proteins and Inhibits DNA Replication*

    PubMed Central

    Punchihewa, Chandanamali; Inoue, Akira; Hishiki, Asami; Fujikawa, Yoshihiro; Connelly, Michele; Evison, Benjamin; Shao, Youming; Heath, Richard; Kuraoka, Isao; Rodrigues, Patrick; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Kawanishi, Masanobu; Sato, Mamoru; Yagi, Takashi; Fujii, Naoaki

    2012-01-01

    We have discovered that 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine (T3) inhibits binding of a PIP-box sequence peptide to proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein by competing for the same binding site, as evidenced by the co-crystal structure of the PCNA-T3 complex at 2.1 Å resolution. Based on this observation, we have designed a novel, non-peptide small molecule PCNA inhibitor, T2 amino alcohol (T2AA), a T3 derivative that lacks thyroid hormone activity. T2AA inhibited interaction of PCNA/PIP-box peptide with an IC50 of ∼1 μm and also PCNA and full-length p21 protein, the tightest PCNA ligand protein known to date. T2AA abolished interaction of PCNA and DNA polymerase δ in cellular chromatin. De novo DNA synthesis was inhibited by T2AA, and the cells were arrested in S-phase. T2AA inhibited growth of cancer cells with induction of early apoptosis. Concurrently, Chk1 and RPA32 in the chromatin are phosphorylated, suggesting that T2AA causes DNA replication stress by stalling DNA replication forks. T2AA significantly inhibited translesion DNA synthesis on a cisplatin-cross-linked template in cells. When cells were treated with a combination of cisplatin and T2AA, a significant increase in phospho(Ser139)histone H2AX induction and cell growth inhibition was observed. PMID:22383522

  3. Replication fork slowing and stalling are distinct, checkpoint-independent consequences of replicating damaged DNA

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In response to DNA damage during S phase, cells slow DNA replication. This slowing is orchestrated by the intra-S checkpoint and involves inhibition of origin firing and reduction of replication fork speed. Slowing of replication allows for tolerance of DNA damage and suppresses genomic instability. Although the mechanisms of origin inhibition by the intra-S checkpoint are understood, major questions remain about how the checkpoint regulates replication forks: Does the checkpoint regulate the rate of fork progression? Does the checkpoint affect all forks, or only those encountering damage? Does the checkpoint facilitate the replication of polymerase-blocking lesions? To address these questions, we have analyzed the checkpoint in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe using a single-molecule DNA combing assay, which allows us to unambiguously separate the contribution of origin and fork regulation towards replication slowing, and allows us to investigate the behavior of individual forks. Moreover, we have interrogated the role of forks interacting with individual sites of damage by using three damaging agents—MMS, 4NQO and bleomycin—that cause similar levels of replication slowing with very different frequency of DNA lesions. We find that the checkpoint slows replication by inhibiting origin firing, but not by decreasing fork rates. However, the checkpoint appears to facilitate replication of damaged templates, allowing forks to more quickly pass lesions. Finally, using a novel analytic approach, we rigorously identify fork stalling events in our combing data and show that they play a previously unappreciated role in shaping replication kinetics in response to DNA damage. PMID:28806726

  4. On the processivity of DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Fairfield, F R; Newport, J W; Dolejsi, M K; von Hippel, P H

    1983-12-01

    In this paper we describe the nature and importance of processive enzymatic reactions in biological processes. A model is set up to describe the processive synthetic process in DNA replication, and experiments are presented to define and test the model, using the components of the T4 phage-coded five-protein (in vitro) DNA replication system of Alberts. Nossal and coworkers. These experiments are performed either with a homogeneous oligo dT-poly dA primer-template system, or with a natural primer-template system using phage M13 DNA. The results are used to define some molecular aspects of the microscopic "processivity cycle".

  5. Final checkup of neoplastic DNA replication: evidence for failure in decision-making at the mitotic cell cycle checkpoint G(1)/S.

    PubMed

    Prindull, Gregor

    2008-11-01

    Processing of epigenomic transcriptional information by cell cycle phase G(1) and decision-making at checkpoint G(1)/S are the final organizational steps preceding gene replication in transcriptional reorientation programs (i.e., switches from proliferation to cycle arrest and neoplastic transformation). Further analyses of cycle progression will open up new approaches in antineoplastic therapy. The following bibliographic databases were consulted: Central Medical Library Cologne, PubMed (English), the last search was done on April 23,2008 and key words searched were: cell cycle, cell memory, DNA methylation, embryonal/neoplastic stem cells, enzyme-modulated chromatin, G(1)-G(1)/S checkpoint, genomic/epigenomics, genomic viral DNA, histones, telomere/telomerases, transcription factors, neoplastic transformation, senescence. Gene transcription and epigenomic surveillance form a functional entity. In proliferation programs, transcriptional information is mediated by chromatin and DNA methylation, analyzed and processed in G(1) phase, and converged on the parental checkpoint G(1)/S for final decision-making on DNA replication. Genomic reorientation appears to be associated with transcriptional instability, which normally is corrected, possibly during the G(2)/M phase, to new levels of epigenomic equilibria. We speculate that daughter stem cells inherit persistent neoplasm-specific transcriptional instabilities through failure of the parental G(1)/S checkpoint. Foreign, silenced, potentially oncogenic DNA sequences, i.e. regular components of the human genome such as endogenous retroviruses, could conceivably be activated for expression in neoplastic transformation by epigenomic histone deacetylase/acetyl transferase/histone methyltransferase-mixed lineage leukemia deregulations. Failure of cell cycle G(1)/S decision-making for DNA replication is the final and possibly a major cause in neoplastic transformation. Therefore, further analysis of the dynamics of G(1)-G(1

  6. Replicating damaged DNA in eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Nimrat; Siede, Wolfram

    2013-12-01

    DNA damage is one of many possible perturbations that challenge the mechanisms that preserve genetic stability during the copying of the eukaryotic genome in S phase. This short review provides, in the first part, a general introduction to the topic and an overview of checkpoint responses. In the second part, the mechanisms of error-free tolerance in response to fork-arresting DNA damage will be discussed in some detail.

  7. Functions of Ubiquitin and SUMO in DNA Replication and Replication Stress

    PubMed Central

    García-Rodríguez, Néstor; Wong, Ronald P.; Ulrich, Helle D.

    2016-01-01

    Complete and faithful duplication of its entire genetic material is one of the essential prerequisites for a proliferating cell to maintain genome stability. Yet, during replication DNA is particularly vulnerable to insults. On the one hand, lesions in replicating DNA frequently cause a stalling of the replication machinery, as most DNA polymerases cannot cope with defective templates. This situation is aggravated by the fact that strand separation in preparation for DNA synthesis prevents common repair mechanisms relying on strand complementarity, such as base and nucleotide excision repair, from working properly. On the other hand, the replication process itself subjects the DNA to a series of hazardous transformations, ranging from the exposure of single-stranded DNA to topological contortions and the generation of nicks and fragments, which all bear the risk of inducing genomic instability. Dealing with these problems requires rapid and flexible responses, for which posttranslational protein modifications that act independently of protein synthesis are particularly well suited. Hence, it is not surprising that members of the ubiquitin family, particularly ubiquitin itself and SUMO, feature prominently in controlling many of the defensive and restorative measures involved in the protection of DNA during replication. In this review we will discuss the contributions of ubiquitin and SUMO to genome maintenance specifically as they relate to DNA replication. We will consider cases where the modifiers act during regular, i.e., unperturbed stages of replication, such as initiation, fork progression, and termination, but also give an account of their functions in dealing with lesions, replication stalling and fork collapse. PMID:27242895

  8. Functions of Ubiquitin and SUMO in DNA Replication and Replication Stress.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Néstor; Wong, Ronald P; Ulrich, Helle D

    2016-01-01

    Complete and faithful duplication of its entire genetic material is one of the essential prerequisites for a proliferating cell to maintain genome stability. Yet, during replication DNA is particularly vulnerable to insults. On the one hand, lesions in replicating DNA frequently cause a stalling of the replication machinery, as most DNA polymerases cannot cope with defective templates. This situation is aggravated by the fact that strand separation in preparation for DNA synthesis prevents common repair mechanisms relying on strand complementarity, such as base and nucleotide excision repair, from working properly. On the other hand, the replication process itself subjects the DNA to a series of hazardous transformations, ranging from the exposure of single-stranded DNA to topological contortions and the generation of nicks and fragments, which all bear the risk of inducing genomic instability. Dealing with these problems requires rapid and flexible responses, for which posttranslational protein modifications that act independently of protein synthesis are particularly well suited. Hence, it is not surprising that members of the ubiquitin family, particularly ubiquitin itself and SUMO, feature prominently in controlling many of the defensive and restorative measures involved in the protection of DNA during replication. In this review we will discuss the contributions of ubiquitin and SUMO to genome maintenance specifically as they relate to DNA replication. We will consider cases where the modifiers act during regular, i.e., unperturbed stages of replication, such as initiation, fork progression, and termination, but also give an account of their functions in dealing with lesions, replication stalling and fork collapse.

  9. In situ molecular hybridization for detection of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus DNA by using strand-specific probes: identification of target cells for viral replication in cell cultures and in mink kits with virus-induced interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Alexandersen, S; Bloom, M E; Wolfinbarger, J; Race, R E

    1987-01-01

    Strand-specific hybridization probes were utilized in in situ molecular hybridization specifically to localize replicative form DNA of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV). Throughout in vitro infection, duplex replicative form DNA of ADV was located in the cell nuclei. Single-stranded virion DNA and capsid proteins were present in the nuclei early in infection, but were later translocated to the cytoplasm. In neonatal mink, ADV causes acute interstitial pneumonia, and replicative forms of viral DNA were found predominantly in alveolar type II cells of the lung. Viral DNA was also found in other organs, but strand-specific probes made it possible to show that most of this DNA represented virus sequestration. In addition, glomerular immune complexes containing intact virions were detected, suggesting that ADV virions may have a role in the genesis of ADV-induced glomerulonephritis. Images PMID:3037104

  10. Conformational Dynamics in DNA Replication Selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brieba, Luis G.

    2007-11-01

    Replicative DNA polymerases are remarkable molecular machines that carry out DNA synthesis accordingly to the Watson and Crick rules (Guanine pairs with Cytosine and Adenine with Thymidine) with high specificity or fidelity. The biochemical mechanism that dictates polymerase fidelity has its fundaments in the tight active site of replicative polymerases and the shape and size of the Watson-Crick base pairs. Pre-steady state kinetic analysis have shown that during polymerase nucleotide addition, the chemical reaction is not the rate limiting step and it was postulated that DNA polymerases suffer a conformational change from an "open" to a "closed" conformation before chemistry which is also the step responsible for their high fidelity. Crystal structures of replicative DNA polymerases demonstrated that the fingers subdomain suffers a large conformational change during catalysis and that this conformational transition aligns the polymerase active site in a proper conformation for catalysis. Recent studies using single molecule techniques and Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer analysis also shown that at least in the case of T7 DNA polymerase, the closure of the fingers subdomain is in part the rate limiting step associated with the high fidelity of DNA polymerases, although the overall fidelity of the reaction maybe involves an assemble of chemical steps and several conformational changes. Our current knowledge indicates that the mechanisms of enzyme specificity in DNA replication involve several energy landscapes that maybe correlated with conformational changes and active site assemblies.

  11. Expression of the p12 subunit of human DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ), CDK inhibitor p21(WAF1), Cdt1, cyclin A, PCNA and Ki-67 in relation to DNA replication in individual cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Sufang; Xu, Dazhong; Lee, Marietta Ywt; Zhang, Zhongtao; Lee, Ernest Yc; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported that the p12 subunit of human DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ4) is degraded by CRL4(Cdt2) which regulates the licensing factor Cdt1 and p21(WAF1) during the G1 to S transition. Presently, we performed multiparameter laser scanning cytometric analyses of changes in levels of p12, Cdt1 and p21(WAF1), detected immunocytochemically in individual cells, vis-à-vis the initiation and completion of DNA replication. The latter was assessed by pulse-labeling A549 cells with the DNA precursor ethynyl-2'-deoxyribose (EdU). The loss of p12 preceded the initiation of DNA replication and essentially all cells incorporating EdU were p12 negative. Completion of DNA replication and transition to G2 phase coincided with the re-appearance and rapid rise of p12 levels. Similar to p12 a decline of p21(WAF1) and Cdt1 was seen at the end of G1 phase and all DNA replicating cells were p21(WAF1) and Cdt1 negative. The loss of p21(WAF1) preceded that of Cdt1 and p12 and the disappearance of the latter coincided with the onset of DNA replication. Loss of p12 leads to conversion of Pol δ4 to its trimeric form, Pol δ3, so that the results provide strong support to the notion that Pol δ3 is engaged in DNA replication during unperturbed progression through the S phase of cell cycle. Also assessed was a correlation between EdU incorporation, likely reflecting the rate of DNA replication in individual cells, and the level of expression of positive biomarkers of replication cyclin A, PCNA and Ki-67 in these cells. Of interest was the observation of stronger correlation between EdU incorporation and expression of PCNA (r = 0.73) than expression of cyclin A (r = 0.47) or Ki-67 (r = 0.47).

  12. DNA moves sequentially towards the nuclear matrix during DNA replication in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Mulia, Juan Carlos; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando; Martínez, Federico; Aranda-Anzaldo, Armando

    2011-01-19

    In the interphase nucleus of metazoan cells DNA is organized in supercoiled loops anchored to a nuclear matrix (NM). There is varied evidence indicating that DNA replication occurs in replication factories organized upon the NM and that DNA loops may correspond to the actual replicons in vivo. In normal rat liver the hepatocytes are arrested in G0 but they synchronously re-enter the cell cycle after partial-hepatectomy leading to liver regeneration in vivo. We have previously determined in quiescent rat hepatocytes that a 162 kbp genomic region containing members of the albumin gene family is organized into five structural DNA loops. In the present work we tracked down the movement relative to the NM of DNA sequences located at different points within such five structural DNA loops during the S phase and after the return to cellular quiescence during liver regeneration. Our results indicate that looped DNA moves sequentially towards the NM during replication and then returns to its original position in newly quiescent cells, once the liver regeneration has been achieved. Looped DNA moves in a sequential fashion, as if reeled in, towards the NM during DNA replication in vivo thus supporting the notion that the DNA template is pulled progressively towards the replication factories on the NM so as to be replicated. These results provide further evidence that the structural DNA loops correspond to the actual replicons in vivo.

  13. DNA moves sequentially towards the nuclear matrix during DNA replication in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the interphase nucleus of metazoan cells DNA is organized in supercoiled loops anchored to a nuclear matrix (NM). There is varied evidence indicating that DNA replication occurs in replication factories organized upon the NM and that DNA loops may correspond to the actual replicons in vivo. In normal rat liver the hepatocytes are arrested in G0 but they synchronously re-enter the cell cycle after partial-hepatectomy leading to liver regeneration in vivo. We have previously determined in quiescent rat hepatocytes that a 162 kbp genomic region containing members of the albumin gene family is organized into five structural DNA loops. Results In the present work we tracked down the movement relative to the NM of DNA sequences located at different points within such five structural DNA loops during the S phase and after the return to cellular quiescence during liver regeneration. Our results indicate that looped DNA moves sequentially towards the NM during replication and then returns to its original position in newly quiescent cells, once the liver regeneration has been achieved. Conclusions Looped DNA moves in a sequential fashion, as if reeled in, towards the NM during DNA replication in vivo thus supporting the notion that the DNA template is pulled progressively towards the replication factories on the NM so as to be replicated. These results provide further evidence that the structural DNA loops correspond to the actual replicons in vivo. PMID:21244708

  14. DNA replication timing influences gene expression level

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are replicated in a reproducible temporal order; however, the physiological significance is poorly understood. We compared replication timing in divergent yeast species and identified genomic features with conserved replication times. Histone genes were among the earliest replicating loci in all species. We specifically delayed the replication of HTA1-HTB1 and discovered that this halved the expression of these histone genes. Finally, we showed that histone and cell cycle genes in general are exempt from Rtt109-dependent dosage compensation, suggesting the existence of pathways excluding specific loci from dosage compensation mechanisms. Thus, we have uncovered one of the first physiological requirements for regulated replication time and demonstrated a direct link between replication timing and gene expression. PMID:28539386

  15. NtPolI-like1 and NtPolI-like2, bacterial DNA polymerase I homologs isolated from BY-2 cultured tobacco cells, encode DNA polymerases engaged in DNA replication in both plastids and mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yuriko; Sakai, Atsushi; Takechi, Katsuaki; Takio, Susumu; Takusagawa, Mari; Takano, Hiroyoshi

    2007-12-01

    Two cDNAs encoding homologs of bacterial DNA polymerase I were isolated from cultured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells, and the corresponding genes were named NtPolI-like1 and NtPolI-like2. High sequence similarity suggested that they are orthologous genes each derived from respective parental species of N. tabacum, an allotetraploid plant. Each of the NtPolI-like1/2 gene products had a putative transit peptide for plastid localization at the N-terminus, followed by a 3'-5' exonuclease domain in the internal region, and a DNA polymerase domain in the C-terminal region. Among family A DNA polymerases, NtPolI-like proteins formed, together with other plant DNA polymerase I homologs, a phylogenetic group distinct from mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma in animals and fungi, as well as eukaryotic cell nuclear-localized repair enzymes. In contrast to computer predictions, experiments with green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein and Western blotting analysis suggested dual targeting of the gene products to both plastids and mitochondria. The recombinant NtPolI-like2 protein exhibited DNA polymerase activity in vitro. Their biochemical character roughly coincided with those of the 116 kDa DNA polymerases found in the plastid and mitochondrial nuclei (nucleoids) isolated from BY-2 cells. Pre-treatment of the organelle nuclear extracts with anti-NtPolI-like antibody removed most of the DNA polymerase activity. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blotting analyses demonstrated transient activation of NtPolI-like gene expression in the initial phase of cell proliferation, exactly when the 116 kDa DNA polymerases in the isolated organelle nuclei were activated and preferential synthesis of organelle DNAs occurred. Taken together, our results suggest that NtPolI-like1/2 genes encode DNA polymerases engaged in DNA replication in both plastids and mitochondria.

  16. Dynamics of plant DNA replication based on PCNA visualization.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Ryohei; Hirakawa, Takeshi; Hayashi, Seri; Sakamoto, Takuya; Matsunaga, Sachihiro

    2016-07-15

    DNA replication is an essential process for the copying of genomic information in living organisms. Imaging of DNA replication in tissues and organs is mainly performed using fixed cells after incorporation of thymidine analogs. To establish a useful marker line to measure the duration of DNA replication and analyze the dynamics of DNA replication, we focused on the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which functions as a DNA sliding clamp for replicative DNA polymerases and is an essential component of replisomes. In this study we produced an Arabidopsis thaliana line expressing PCNA1 fused with the green fluorescent protein under the control of its own promoter (pAtPCNA1::AtPCNA1-EGFP). The duration of the S phase measured using the expression line was consistent with that measured after incorporation of a thymidine analog. Live cell imaging revealed that three distinct nuclear localization patterns (whole, dotted, and speckled) were sequentially observable. These whole, dotted, and speckled patterns of subnuclear AtPCNA1 signals were indicative of the G1 or G2 phase, early S phase and late S phase, respectively. The results indicate that the pAtPCNA1::AtPCNA1-EGFP line is a useful marker line for visualization of S-phase progression in live plant organs.

  17. Multiple pathways cooperate to facilitate DNA replication fork progression through alkylated DNA.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, María Victoria; Rojas, Vanesa; Tercero, José Antonio

    2008-10-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are especially vulnerable to DNA damage during the S phase of the cell cycle, when chromosomes must be duplicated. The stability of DNA replication forks is critical to achieve faithful chromosome replication and is severely compromised when forks encounter DNA lesions. To maintain genome integrity, replication forks need to be protected by the S-phase checkpoint and DNA insults must be repaired. Different pathways help to repair or tolerate the lesions in the DNA, but their contribution to the progression of replication forks through damaged DNA is not well known. Here we show in budding yeast that, when the DNA template is damaged with the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), base excision repair, homologous recombination and DNA damage tolerance pathways, together with a functional S-phase checkpoint, are essential for the efficient progression of DNA replication forks and the maintenance of cell survival. In the absence of base excision repair, replication forks stall reversibly in cells exposed to MMS. This repair reaction is necessary to eliminate the lesions that impede fork progression and has to be coordinated with recombination and damage tolerance activities to avoid fork collapse and allow forks to resume and complete chromosome replication.

  18. Replication, checkpoint suppression and structure of centromeric DNA.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Francesco; Falbo, Lucia; Costanzo, Vincenzo

    2016-11-01

    Human centromeres contain large amounts of repetitive DNA sequences known as α satellite DNA, which can be difficult to replicate and whose functional role is unclear. Recently, we have characterized protein composition, structural organization and checkpoint response to stalled replication forks of centromeric chromatin reconstituted in Xenopus laevis egg extract. We showed that centromeric DNA has high affinity for SMC2-4 subunits of condensins and for CENP-A, it is enriched for DNA repair factors and suppresses the ATR checkpoint to ensure its efficient replication. We also showed that centromeric chromatin forms condensins enriched and topologically constrained DNA loops, which likely contribute to the overall structure of the centromere. These findings have important implications on how chromosomes are organized and genome stability is maintained in mammalian cells.

  19. An autoradiographic demonstration of nuclear DNA replication by DNA polymerase alpha and of mitochondrial DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Geuskens, M; Hardt, N; Pedrali-Noy, G; Spadari, S

    1981-01-01

    The incorporation of thymidine into the DNA of eukaryotic cells is markedly depressed, but not completely inhibited, by aphidicolin, a highly specific inhibitor of DNA polymerase alpha. An electron microscope autoradiographic analysis of the synthesis of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in vivo in Concanavalin A stimulated rabbit spleen lymphocytes and in Hamster cell cultures, in the absence and in the presence of aphidicolin, revealed that aphidicolin inhibits the nuclear but not the mitochondrial DNA replication. We therefore conclude that DNA polymerase alpha performs the synchronous bidirectional replication of nuclear DNA and that DNA polymerase gamma, the only DNA polymerase present in the mitochondria, performs the "strand displacement" DNA synthesis of these organelles. Images PMID:6262734

  20. Acetylation of Werner syndrome protein (WRN): relationships with DNA damage, DNA replication and DNA metabolic activities.

    PubMed

    Lozada, Enerlyn; Yi, Jingjie; Luo, Jianyuan; Orren, David K

    2014-08-01

    Loss of Werner syndrome protein function causes Werner syndrome, characterized by increased genomic instability, elevated cancer susceptibility and premature aging. Although WRN is subject to acetylation, phosphorylation and sumoylation, the impact of these modifications on WRN's DNA metabolic function remains unclear. Here, we examined in further depth the relationship between WRN acetylation and its role in DNA metabolism, particularly in response to induced DNA damage. Our results demonstrate that endogenous WRN is acetylated somewhat under unperturbed conditions. However, levels of acetylated WRN significantly increase after treatment with certain DNA damaging agents or the replication inhibitor HU. Use of DNA repair-deficient cells or repair pathway inhibitors further increase levels of acetylated WRN, indicating that induced DNA lesions and their persistence are at least partly responsible for increased acetylation. Notably, acetylation of WRN correlates with inhibition of DNA synthesis, suggesting that replication blockage might underlie this effect. Moreover, WRN acetylation modulates its affinity for and activity on certain DNA structures, in a manner that may enhance its relative specificity for physiological substrates. Our results also show that acetylation and deacetylation of endogenous WRN is a dynamic process, with sirtuins and other histone deacetylases contributing to WRN deacetylation. These findings advance our understanding of the dynamics of WRN acetylation under unperturbed conditions and following DNA damage induction, linking this modification not only to DNA damage persistence but also potentially to replication stalling caused by specific DNA lesions. Our results are consistent with proposed metabolic roles for WRN and genomic instability phenotypes associated with WRN deficiency.

  1. Acetylation of Werner syndrome protein (WRN): relationships with DNA damage, DNA replication and DNA metabolic activities

    PubMed Central

    Lozada, Enerlyn; Yi, Jingjie; Luo, Jianyuan; Orren, David K.

    2014-01-01

    Loss of WRN function causes Werner Syndrome, characterized by increased genomic instability, elevated cancer susceptibility and premature aging. Although WRN is subject to acetylation, phosphorylation and sumoylation, the impact of these modifications on WRN’s DNA metabolic function remains unclear. Here, we examined in further depth the relationship between WRN acetylation and its role in DNA metabolism, particularly in response to induced DNA damage. Our results demonstrate that endogenous WRN is acetylated somewhat under unperturbed conditions. However, levels of acetylated WRN significantly increase after treatment with certain DNA damaging agents or the replication inhibitor hydroxyurea. Use of DNA repair-deficient cells or repair pathway inhibitors further increase levels of acetylated WRN, indicating that induced DNA lesions and their persistence are at least partly responsible for increased acetylation. Notably, acetylation of WRN correlates with inhibition of DNA synthesis, suggesting that replication blockage might underlie this effect. Moreover, WRN acetylation modulates its affinity for and activity on certain DNA structures, in a manner that may enhance its relative specificity for physiological substrates. Our results also show that acetylation and deacetylation of endogenous WRN is a dynamic process, with sirtuins and other histone deacetylases contributing to WRN deacetylation. These findings advance our understanding of the dynamics of WRN acetylation under unperturbed conditions and following DNA damage induction, linking this modification not only to DNA damage persistence but also potentially to replication stalling caused by specific DNA lesions. Our results are consistent with proposed metabolic roles for WRN and genomic instability phenotypes associated with WRN deficiency. PMID:24965941

  2. Polycomb proteins remain bound to chromatin and DNA during DNA replication in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Nicole J.; Follmer, Nicole E.; Simon, Matthew D.; Aghia, George; Butler, Jeffrey D.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The transcriptional status of a gene can be maintained through multiple rounds of cell division during development. This epigenetic effect is believed to reflect heritable changes in chromatin folding and histone modifications or variants at target genes, but little is known about how these chromatin features are inherited through cell division. A particular challenge for maintaining transcription states is DNA replication, which disrupts or dilutes chromatin associated proteins and histone modifications. PRC1-class Polycomb Group protein complexes are essential for development, and are thought to heritably silence transcription by altering chromatin folding and histone modifications. It is not known whether these complexes and their effects are maintained during DNA replication or subsequently re-established. We find that when PRC1-class Polycomb complex-bound chromatin or DNA is replicated in vitro, Polycomb complexes remain bound to replicated templates. Retention of Polycomb proteins through DNA replication may contribute to maintenance of transcriptional silencing through cell division. PMID:19303136

  3. DNA replication, development and cancer: a homeotic connection?

    PubMed

    Falaschi, Arturo; Abdurashidova, Gulnara; Biamonti, Giuseppe

    2010-02-01

    The homeotic proteins are transcription factors, highly conserved in metazoan organisms, exerting a pivotal role in development and differentiation. They individually display a loose specificity for the DNA sequence they can bind, but operate mainly in multi-molecular associations that assure their target and function specificity. Homeotic proteins are known to play a role in the positive or negative regulation of cell proliferation. Furthermore, many homeotic proteins are actually proto-oncogenes, since different translocations involving their genes cause tumors, particularly in the hematopoietic system. A one-hybrid screen to detect proteins with affinity for the lamin B2 replication origin identified three homeotic proteins, namely HoxA13, HoxC10 and HoxC13. Recent data demonstrate that the HoxC13 oncoprotein specifically associates with replication foci and binds in vitro and in vivo to several human DNA replication origins. Moreover, Hox proteins interact with geminin, a regulator of cell cycle progression, and control the interaction of this protein with the DNA replication licensing factor Ctd1. Thus, the homeotic proteins, by participating directly in the function of DNA replication origins, may provide a direct link between the accurate regulation of DNA replication required by the morphogenetic program and the deregulation of this process typical of cancer.

  4. Cytomegalovirus Replication in Semen Is Associated with Higher Levels of Proviral HIV DNA and CD4+ T Cell Activation during Antiretroviral Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Massanella, Marta; Richman, Douglas D.; Little, Susan J.; Spina, Celsa A.; Vargas, Milenka V.; Lada, Steven M.; Daar, Eric S.; Dube, Michael P.; Haubrich, Richard H.; Morris, Sheldon R.; Smith, Davey M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Asymptomatic cytomegalovirus (CMV) replication occurs frequently in the genital tract in untreated HIV-infected men and is associated with increased immune activation and HIV disease progression. To determine the connections between CMV-associated immune activation and the size of the viral reservoir, we evaluated the interactions between (i) asymptomatic seminal CMV replication, (ii) levels of T cell activation and proliferation in blood, and (iii) the size and transcriptional activity of the HIV DNA reservoir in blood from 53 HIV-infected men on long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) with suppressed HIV RNA in blood plasma. We found that asymptomatic CMV shedding in semen was associated with significantly higher levels of proliferating and activated CD4+ T cells in blood (P < 0.01). Subjects with detectable CMV in semen had approximately five times higher average levels of HIV DNA in blood CD4+ T cells than subjects with no CMV. There was also a trend for CMV shedders to have increased cellular (multiply spliced) HIV RNA transcription (P = 0.068) compared to participants without CMV, but it is unclear if this transcription pattern is associated with residual HIV replication. In multivariate analysis, the presence of seminal plasma CMV (P = 0.04), detectable 2-long terminal repeat (2-LTR), and lower nadir CD4+ (P < 0.01) were independent predictors of higher levels of proviral HIV DNA in blood. Interventions aimed at reducing seminal CMV and associated immune activation may be important for HIV curative strategies. Future studies of anti-CMV therapeutics will help to establish causality and determine the mechanisms underlying these described associations. IMPORTANCE Almost all individuals infected with HIV are also infected with cytomegalovirus (CMV), and the replication dynamics of the two viruses likely influence each other. This study investigated interactions between asymptomatic CMV replication within the male genital tract, levels of inflammation in

  5. Cytomegalovirus replication in semen is associated with higher levels of proviral HIV DNA and CD4+ T cell activation during antiretroviral treatment.

    PubMed

    Gianella, Sara; Massanella, Marta; Richman, Douglas D; Little, Susan J; Spina, Celsa A; Vargas, Milenka V; Lada, Steven M; Daar, Eric S; Dube, Michael P; Haubrich, Richard H; Morris, Sheldon R; Smith, Davey M

    2014-07-01

    Asymptomatic cytomegalovirus (CMV) replication occurs frequently in the genital tract in untreated HIV-infected men and is associated with increased immune activation and HIV disease progression. To determine the connections between CMV-associated immune activation and the size of the viral reservoir, we evaluated the interactions between (i) asymptomatic seminal CMV replication, (ii) levels of T cell activation and proliferation in blood, and (iii) the size and transcriptional activity of the HIV DNA reservoir in blood from 53 HIV-infected men on long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) with suppressed HIV RNA in blood plasma. We found that asymptomatic CMV shedding in semen was associated with significantly higher levels of proliferating and activated CD4(+) T cells in blood (P < 0.01). Subjects with detectable CMV in semen had approximately five times higher average levels of HIV DNA in blood CD4(+) T cells than subjects with no CMV. There was also a trend for CMV shedders to have increased cellular (multiply spliced) HIV RNA transcription (P = 0.068) compared to participants without CMV, but it is unclear if this transcription pattern is associated with residual HIV replication. In multivariate analysis, the presence of seminal plasma CMV (P = 0.04), detectable 2-long terminal repeat (2-LTR), and lower nadir CD4(+) (P < 0.01) were independent predictors of higher levels of proviral HIV DNA in blood. Interventions aimed at reducing seminal CMV and associated immune activation may be important for HIV curative strategies. Future studies of anti-CMV therapeutics will help to establish causality and determine the mechanisms underlying these described associations. Importance: Almost all individuals infected with HIV are also infected with cytomegalovirus (CMV), and the replication dynamics of the two viruses likely influence each other. This study investigated interactions between asymptomatic CMV replication within the male genital tract, levels of inflammation in

  6. Guanine- 5-carboxylcytosine base pairs mimic mismatches during DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Shibutani, Toshihiro; Ito, Shinsuke; Toda, Mariko; Kanao, Rie; Collins, Leonard B; Shibata, Marika; Urabe, Miho; Koseki, Haruhiko; Masuda, Yuji; Swenberg, James A; Masutani, Chikahide; Hanaoka, Fumio; Iwai, Shigenori; Kuraoka, Isao

    2014-06-09

    The genetic information encoded in genomes must be faithfully replicated and transmitted to daughter cells. The recent discovery of consecutive DNA conversions by TET family proteins of 5-methylcytosine into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-formylcytosine, and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) suggests these modified cytosines act as DNA lesions, which could threaten genome integrity. Here, we have shown that although 5caC pairs with guanine during DNA replication in vitro, G·5caC pairs stimulated DNA polymerase exonuclease activity and were recognized by the mismatch repair (MMR) proteins. Knockdown of thymine DNA glycosylase increased 5caC in genome, affected cell proliferation via MMR, indicating MMR is a novel reader for 5caC. These results suggest the epigenetic modification products of 5caC behave as DNA lesions.

  7. Characterization of a temperature-sensitive mutant of mouse FM3A cells defective in DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Y; Yasuda, H; Miyazawa, H; Hanaoka, F; Yamada, M

    1985-01-01

    The characterization of a temperature-sensitive mutant (tsFT20 strain, dnats) of mouse FM3A cells is reported. After incubation of tsFT20 cells at the nonpermissive temperature (39 degrees C), DNA synthesis ceased with little change in either RNA or protein synthesis. Flow-microfluorometric analysis revealed that the cell cycle of tsFT20 cells grown at 39 degrees C for 16 hr was similar to that of wild-type cells that were synchronized at the G1/S boundary and at S phase by treatment with aphidicolin, a specific inhibitor of DNA polymerase alpha. The DNA polymerase alpha activity of tsFT20 cells measured in crude cell extracts or in purified preparations was inactivated more rapidly at 39 degrees C than the activity of wild-type cells. In the growth revertants of the tsFT20 cell strain, the heat lability of DNA polymerase alpha decreased. These data suggest that tsFT20 is a temperature-sensitive mutant of DNA polymerase alpha or of a factor associated with DNA polymerase alpha that is essential for its activity. PMID:3856858

  8. Eukaryotic Replicative Helicase Subunit Interaction with DNA and Its Role in DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Matthew P.; Wacker, Amanda L.; Bruck, Irina; Kaplan, Daniel L.

    2017-01-01

    The replicative helicase unwinds parental double-stranded DNA at a replication fork to provide single-stranded DNA templates for the replicative polymerases. In eukaryotes, the replicative helicase is composed of the Cdc45 protein, the heterohexameric ring-shaped Mcm2-7 complex, and the tetrameric GINS complex (CMG). The CMG proteins bind directly to DNA, as demonstrated by experiments with purified proteins. The mechanism and function of these DNA-protein interactions are presently being investigated, and a number of important discoveries relating to how the helicase proteins interact with DNA have been reported recently. While some of the protein-DNA interactions directly relate to the unwinding function of the enzyme complex, other protein-DNA interactions may be important for minichromosome maintenance (MCM) loading, origin melting or replication stress. This review describes our current understanding of how the eukaryotic replicative helicase subunits interact with DNA structures in vitro, and proposed models for the in vivo functions of replicative helicase-DNA interactions are also described. PMID:28383499

  9. Eukaryotic Replicative Helicase Subunit Interaction with DNA and Its Role in DNA Replication.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Matthew P; Wacker, Amanda L; Bruck, Irina; Kaplan, Daniel L

    2017-04-06

    The replicative helicase unwinds parental double-stranded DNA at a replication fork to provide single-stranded DNA templates for the replicative polymerases. In eukaryotes, the replicative helicase is composed of the Cdc45 protein, the heterohexameric ring-shaped Mcm2-7 complex, and the tetrameric GINS complex (CMG). The CMG proteins bind directly to DNA, as demonstrated by experiments with purified proteins. The mechanism and function of these DNA-protein interactions are presently being investigated, and a number of important discoveries relating to how the helicase proteins interact with DNA have been reported recently. While some of the protein-DNA interactions directly relate to the unwinding function of the enzyme complex, other protein-DNA interactions may be important for minichromosome maintenance (MCM) loading, origin melting or replication stress. This review describes our current understanding of how the eukaryotic replicative helicase subunits interact with DNA structures in vitro, and proposed models for the in vivo functions of replicative helicase-DNA interactions are also described.

  10. Processing ribonucleotides incorporated during eukaryotic DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jessica S.; Lujan, Scott A.; Kunkel, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    Preface The information encoded in DNA is influenced by the presence of non-canonical nucleotides, the most frequent of which are ribonucleotides. In this review we discuss recent discoveries about ribonucleotide incorporation into DNA during replication by the three major eukaryotic replicases, DNA polymerases α, δ and ε. The presence of ribonucleotides in DNA causes short deletion mutations and may result in the generation of DNA single- and double-strand breaks, leading to genomic instability. We describe how these ribonucleotides are removed from DNA by ribonucleotide excision repair and by topoisomerase 1. We discuss the biological consequences and the physiological roles of ribonucleotides in DNA, and consider how deficiencies in their removal from DNA may be important in the etiology of disease. PMID:27093943

  11. Pea (Pisum sativum) cells arrested in G2 have nascent DNA with breaks between replicons and replication clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Van't Hof, J.

    1980-01-01

    DNA fiber autoradiography and alkaline sucrose sedimentation of DNA of cultured pea-root cells (Pisum sativum) arrested in G2 by carbohydrate starvation demonstrated that nascent DNA molecules of replicon (16 to 27 x 10/sup 6/D) and apparent cluster (approx. 330 x 10/sup 6/D) size were not joined. That the arrested cells were in G2 was confirmed by single-cell autoradiography and cytophotometry. In pea there are about 18 replicons per average cluster, 4.2 x 10/sup 3/ clusters, and 7.7 x 10/sup 4/ replicons per genome.

  12. Role of Chromatin Loops In DNA Replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechhoefer, John; Jun, Suckjoon; Herrick, John; Bensimon, Aaron

    2003-03-01

    In eukaryotic organisms, DNA is packed together with proteins (histones) into a structure known as the 30-nm chromatin fiber, whose behavior can be modeled as a wormlike polymer chain. We have investigated the relationship between the distributions of chromatin loop sizes and DNA replication in Xenopus laevis egg extracts. We find that the loop-size distribution predicted from the worm-like chain model of chromatin agrees well with the reported spatial distribution of replication origins in this system and that loops can explain quantitatively the observed tendency for nearby origins to start synchronously. Thus, in Xenopus egg extracts, the persistence length of chromatin fiber determines the separation between and synchrony of DNA replication origins.

  13. Specific DNA replication mutations affect telomere length in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, A K; Holm, C

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the DNA replication apparatus and the control of telomere length, we examined the effects of several DNA replication mutations on telomere length in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We report that a mutation in the structural gene for the large subunit of DNA replication factor C (cdc44/rfc1) causes striking increases in telomere length. A similar effect is seen with mutations in only one other DNA replication gene: the structural gene for DNA polymerase alpha (cdc17/pol1) (M.J. Carson and L. Hartwell, Cell 42:249-257, 1985). For both genes, the telomere elongation phenotype is allele specific and appears to correlate with the penetrance of the mutations. Furthermore, fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis reveals that those alleles that cause elongation also exhibit a slowing of DNA replication. To determine whether elongation is mediated by telomerase or by slippage of the DNA polymerase, we created cdc17-1 mutants carrying deletions of the gene encoding the RNA component of telomerase (TLC1). cdc17-1 strains that would normally undergo telomere elongation failed to do so in the absence of telomerase activity. This result implies that telomere elongation in cdc17-1 mutants is mediated by the action of telomerase. Since DNA replication involves transfer of the nascent strand from polymerase alpha to replication factor C (T. Tsurimoto and B. Stillman, J. Biol. Chem. 266:1950-1960, 1991; T. Tsurimoto and B. Stillman, J. Biol. Chem. 266:1961-1968, 1991; S. Waga and B. Stillman, Nature [London] 369:207-212, 1994), one possibility is that this step affects the regulation of telomere length. PMID:8756617

  14. Vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus, and carcinogens induce DNA amplification in a human cell line and support replication of a helpervirus dependent parvovirus.

    PubMed

    Schlehofer, J R; Ehrbar, M; zur Hausen, H

    1986-07-15

    The SV40-transformed human kidney cell line, NB-E, amplifies integrated as well as episomal SV40 DNA upon treatment with chemical (DMBA) or physical (uv irradiation) carcinogens ("initiators") as well as after infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 or with vaccinia virus. In addition it is shown that vaccinia virus induces SV40 DNA amplification also in the SV40-transformed Chinese hamster embryo cell line, CO631. These findings demonstrate that human cells similar to Chinese hamster cells amplify integrated DNA sequences after treatment with carcinogens or infection with specific viruses. Furthermore, a poxvirus--vaccinia virus--similar to herpes group viruses induces DNA amplification. As reported for other systems, the vaccinia virus-induced DNA amplification in NB-E cells is inhibited by coinfection with adeno-associated virus (AAV) type 5. This is in line with previous studies on inhibition of carcinogen- or HSV-induced DNA amplification in CO631 cells. The experiments also demonstrate that vaccinia virus, in addition to herpes and adenoviruses acts as a helper virus for replication and structural antigen synthesis of AAV-5 in NB-E cells.

  15. Vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus, and carcinogens induce DNA amplification in a human cell line and support replication of a helpervirus dependent parvovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Schlehofer, J.R.; Ehrbar, M.; zur Hausen, H.

    1986-07-15

    The SV40-transformed human kidney cell line, NB-E, amplifies integrated as well as episomal SV40 DNA upon treatment with chemical (DMBA) or physical (uv irradiation) carcinogens (initiators) as well as after infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 or with vaccinia virus. In addition it is shown that vaccinia virus induces SV40 DNA amplification also in the SV40-transformed Chinese hamster embryo cell line, CO631. These findings demonstrate that human cells similar to Chinese hamster cells amplify integrated DNA sequences after treatment with carcinogens or infection with specific viruses. Furthermore, a poxvirus--vaccinia virus--similar to herpes group viruses induces DNA amplification. As reported for other systems, the vaccinia virus-induced DNA amplification in NB-E cells is inhibited by coinfection with adeno-associated virus (AAV) type 5. This is in line with previous studies on inhibition of carcinogen- or HSV-induced DNA amplification in CO631 cells. The experiments also demonstrate that vaccinia virus, in addition to herpes and adenoviruses acts as a helper virus for replication and structural antigen synthesis of AAV-5 in NB-E cells.

  16. DNA replication in yeast is stochastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng-Hsin Yang, Scott; Rhind, Nicholas; Bechhoefer, John

    2010-03-01

    Largely on the basis of a simple --- perhaps too simple --- analysis of microarray-chip experiments, people have concluded that DNA replication in budding yeast (S. cerevisiae) is a nearly deterministic process, in which the position and activation time of each origin of replication is pre-determined. In this talk, we introduce a more quantitative approach to the analysis of microarray data. Applying our new methods to budding yeast, we show that the microarray data imply a picture of replication where the timing of origin activation is highly stochastic. We then propose a physical model (the ``multiple-initiator model") to account for the observed probability distributions of origin- activation timing.

  17. Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Mitochondrial DNA Replication and PGC-1α Gene Expression in C2C12 Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mak-Soon; Shin, Yoonjin; Moon, Sohee; Kim, Seunghae; Kim, Yangha

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis is a complex process requiring coordinated expression of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) is a key regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, and it controls mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication within diverse tissues, including muscle tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on mtDNA copy number and PGC-1α promoter activity in C2C12 muscle cells. mtDNA copy number and mRNA levels of genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis such as PGC-1α, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) were assayed by quantitative real-time PCR. The PGC-1α promoter from −970 to +412 bp was subcloned into the pGL3-basic vector, which includes a luciferase reporter gene. Both EPA and DHA significantly increased mtDNA copy number, dose and time dependently, and up-regulated mRNA levels of PGC-1α, NRF1, and Tfam. Furthermore, EPA and DHA stimulated PGC-1α promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that EPA and DHA may modulate mitochondrial biogenesis, which was partially associated with increased mtDNA replication and PGC-1α gene expression in C2C12 muscle cells. PMID:28078253

  18. Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Mitochondrial DNA Replication and PGC-1α Gene Expression in C2C12 Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mak-Soon; Shin, Yoonjin; Moon, Sohee; Kim, Seunghae; Kim, Yangha

    2016-12-01

    Mitochondrial biogenesis is a complex process requiring coordinated expression of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) is a key regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, and it controls mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication within diverse tissues, including muscle tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on mtDNA copy number and PGC-1α promoter activity in C2C12 muscle cells. mtDNA copy number and mRNA levels of genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis such as PGC-1α, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) were assayed by quantitative real-time PCR. The PGC-1α promoter from -970 to +412 bp was subcloned into the pGL3-basic vector, which includes a luciferase reporter gene. Both EPA and DHA significantly increased mtDNA copy number, dose and time dependently, and up-regulated mRNA levels of PGC-1α, NRF1, and Tfam. Furthermore, EPA and DHA stimulated PGC-1α promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that EPA and DHA may modulate mitochondrial biogenesis, which was partially associated with increased mtDNA replication and PGC-1α gene expression in C2C12 muscle cells.

  19. Overexpression of the Adenovirus Type 12 (Ad12) pTP or E1A Gene Facilitates Ad12 DNA Replication in Nonpermissive BHK21 Hamster Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hösel, Marianna; Webb, Dennis; Schröer, Jörg; Schmitz, Birgit; Doerfler, Walter

    2001-01-01

    In the adenovirus type 12 (Ad12) hamster cell system, abortive virus infection is one of the factors associated with the highly efficient oncogenesis in newborn Syrian hamsters. We have shown earlier that the replication and efficient late transcription of the Ad12 genome are blocked in Syrian hamster cells. Some of the early Ad12 functions are transcribed in these cells, although at a minimal rate. In the present study, we demonstrate that low expression levels of the E1A and precursor to terminal protein (pTP) genes of Ad12 seem to be responsible for the lack of Ad12 DNA replication in hamster cells. The Ad12 genes for the E1A functions or for pTP were tethered to the strong early promoter of the human cytomegalovirus and transfected into BHK21 cells. Subsequently, these cells were infected with Ad12 virions. In Ad12-infected BHK21 cells, which overexpressed pTP or E1A, full-length Ad12 DNA was de novo synthesized, as documented by metabolic labeling with [3H]thymidine and by zone velocity sedimentation in alkaline sucrose gradients followed by gel electrophoresis of the 3H-labeled DNA and Southern blot hybridization to 32P-labeled Ad12 DNA. Transfection of the cloned E1A region of Ad2 yielded similar results. The newly synthesized Ad12 DNA was covalently linked to pTP. The Ad12 DNA binding protein (DBP) and DNA polymerase (pol) genes were transcribed at levels similar to those in merely Ad12-infected cells. In pTP or E1A gene-transfected and Ad12-infected BHK21 cells, marginal levels of late Ad12 mRNA were detectable. Late Ad12 proteins were, however, not synthesized. Apparently, Ad12 DNA replication in hamster cells is rendered impossible due to insufficient threshold levels of the viral E1A and/or pTP. PMID:11581373

  20. Transposition-mediated DNA re-replication in maize

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianbo; Zuo, Tao; Wang, Dafang; Peterson, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Every DNA segment in a eukaryotic genome normally replicates once and only once per cell cycle to maintain genome stability. We show here that this restriction can be bypassed through alternative transposition, a transposition reaction that utilizes the termini of two separate, nearby transposable elements (TEs). Our results suggest that alternative transposition during S phase can induce re-replication of the TEs and their flanking sequences. The DNA re-replication can spontaneously abort to generate double-strand breaks, which can be repaired to generate Composite Insertions composed of transposon termini flanking segmental duplications of various lengths. These results show how alternative transposition coupled with DNA replication and repair can significantly alter genome structure and may have contributed to rapid genome evolution in maize and possibly other eukaryotes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03724.001 PMID:25406063

  1. ATR-like kinase Mec1 facilitates both chromatin accessibility at DNA replication forks and replication fork progression during replication stress

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Jairo; Tsukiyama, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Faithful DNA replication is essential for normal cell division and differentiation. In eukaryotic cells, DNA replication takes place on chromatin. This poses the critical question as to how DNA replication can progress through chromatin, which is inhibitory to all DNA-dependent processes. Here, we developed a novel genome-wide method to measure chromatin accessibility to micrococcal nuclease (MNase) that is normalized for nucleosome density, the NCAM (normalized chromatin accessibility to MNase) assay. This method enabled us to discover that chromatin accessibility increases specifically at and ahead of DNA replication forks in normal S phase and during replication stress. We further found that Mec1, a key regulatory ATR-like kinase in the S-phase checkpoint, is required for both normal chromatin accessibility around replication forks and replication fork rate during replication stress, revealing novel functions for the kinase in replication stress response. These results suggest a possibility that Mec1 may facilitate DNA replication fork progression during replication stress by increasing chromatin accessibility around replication forks. PMID:23307868

  2. Reactivation of DNA replication in nuclei from terminally differentiated cells: nuclear membrane permeabilization is required for initiation in Xenopus egg extract.

    PubMed

    Leno, G H; Munshi, R

    1997-05-01

    We have used Xenopus egg extract to investigate the requirements for reactivation of DNA replication in nuclei isolated from terminally differentiated chicken erythrocytes. Previous work has shown that reactivation of erythrocyte nuclei in egg extract is accompanied by chromatin decondensation, nuclear envelope reformation, and the accumulation of egg lamin, LIII. However, in those studies, erythrocyte nuclei were prepared by methods that were not designed to maintain the selective permeability of the nuclear membrane, and as such, it is not clear if loss of nuclear membrane integrity played a role in the reactivation process. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if changes in nuclear membrane permeability are required for reactivation of erythrocyte nuclei in egg extract. Nuclei with intact nuclear membranes were prepared from erythrocytes with streptolysin O and permeable nuclei by treatment of intact nuclei with the detergent Nonidet-P40. Like permeable nuclei, most intact nuclei decondensed, imported nuclear protein, and accumulated lamin LIII from the extract. However, unlike permeable nuclei, which replicated extensively in the extract, few intact nuclei initiated replication under the same conditions. These data demonstrate that permeabilization of the nuclear membrane is required for reactivation of DNA replication in terminally differentiated erythrocyte nuclei by egg extract and suggest that loss of nuclear membrane integrity may be a general requirement for replication of quiescent cell nuclei by this system.

  3. How is epigenetic information maintained through DNA replication?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    DNA replication is a highly conserved process that accurately copies the genetic information from one generation to the next. The processes of chromatin disassembly and reassembly during DNA replication also have to be precisely regulated to ensure that the genetic material is compactly packaged to fit into the nucleus while also maintaining the epigenetic information that is carried by the histone proteins bound to the DNA, through cell divisions. Half of the histones that are deposited during replication are from the parental chromatin and carry the parental epigenetic information, while the other half of the histones are newly-synthesized. It has been of growing interest to understand how the parental pattern of epigenetic marks is re-established on the newly-synthesized histones, in a DNA sequence-specific manner, in order to maintain the epigenetic information through cell divisions. In this review we will discuss how histone chaperone proteins precisely coordinate the chromatin assembly process during DNA replication. We also discuss the recent evidence that histone-modifying enzymes, rather than the parental histones, are themselves epigenetic factors that remain associated with the DNA through replication to re-establish the epigenetic information on the newly-assembled chromatin. PMID:24225278

  4. Structural basis for DNA binding by replication initiator Mcm10

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Eric M.; Vaithiyalingam, Sivaraja; Haworth, Justin; Greer, Briana; Bielinsky, Anja-Katrin; Chazin, Walter J.; Eichman, Brandt F.

    2009-06-30

    Mcm10 is an essential eukaryotic DNA replication protein required for assembly and progression of the replication fork. The highly conserved internal domain (Mcm10-ID) has been shown to physically interact with single-stranded (ss) DNA, DNA polymerase alpha, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The crystal structure of Xenopus laevis Mcm10-ID presented here reveals a DNA binding architecture composed of an oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-fold followed in tandem by a variant and highly basic zinc finger. NMR chemical shift perturbation and mutational studies of DNA binding activity in vitro reveal how Mcm10 uses this unique surface to engage ssDNA. Corresponding mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae result in increased sensitivity to replication stress, demonstrating the functional importance of DNA binding by this region of Mcm10 to replication. In addition, mapping Mcm10 mutations known to disrupt PCNA, polymerase alpha, and DNA interactions onto the crystal structure provides insight into how Mcm10 might coordinate protein and DNA binding within the replisome.

  5. Assembling semiconductor nanocomposites using DNA replication technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Heimer, Brandon W.; Crown, Kevin K.; Bachand, George David

    2005-11-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules represent Nature's genetic database, encoding the information necessary for all cellular processes. From a materials engineering perspective, DNA represents a nanoscale scaffold with highly refined structure, stability across a wide range of environmental conditions, and the ability to interact with a range of biomolecules. The ability to mass-manufacture functionalized DNA strands with Angstrom-level resolution through DNA replication technology, however, has not been explored. The long-term goal of the work presented in this report is focused on exploiting DNA and in vitro DNA replication processes to mass-manufacture nanocomposite materials. The specific objectives of this project were to: (1) develop methods for replicating DNA strands that incorporate nucleotides with ''chemical handles'', and (2) demonstrate attachment of nanocrystal quantum dots (nQDs) to functionalized DNA strands. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and primer extension methodologies were used to successfully synthesize amine-, thiol-, and biotin-functionalized DNA molecules. Significant variability in the efficiency of modified nucleotide incorporation was observed, and attributed to the intrinsic properties of the modified nucleotides. Noncovalent attachment of streptavidin-coated nQDs to biotin-modified DNA synthesized using the primer extension method was observed by epifluorescence microscopy. Data regarding covalent attachment of nQDs to amine- and thiol-functionalized DNA was generally inconclusive; alternative characterization tools are necessary to fully evaluate these attachment methods. Full realization of this technology may facilitate new approaches to manufacturing materials at the nanoscale. In addition, composite nQD-DNA materials may serve as novel recognition elements in sensor devices, or be used as diagnostic tools for forensic analyses. This report summarizes the results obtained over the course of this 1-year project.

  6. Signal replication in a DNA nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Oscar; Houmadi, Said; Aimé, Jean-Pierre; Elezgaray, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Logic circuits based on DNA strand displacement reaction are the basic building blocks of future nanorobotic systems. The circuits tethered to DNA origami platforms present several advantages over solution-phase versions where couplings are always diffusion-limited. Here we consider a possible implementation of one of the basic operations needed in the design of these circuits, namely, signal replication. We show that with an appropriate preparation of the initial state, signal replication performs in a reproducible way. We also show the existence of side effects concomitant to the high effective concentrations in tethered circuits, such as slow leaky reactions and cross-activation.

  7. Stress induced by premature chromatin condensation triggers chromosome shattering and chromothripsis at DNA sites still replicating in micronuclei or multinucleate cells when primary nuclei enter mitosis.

    PubMed

    Terzoudi, Georgia I; Karakosta, Maria; Pantelias, Antonio; Hatzi, Vasiliki I; Karachristou, Ioanna; Pantelias, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Combination of next-generation DNA sequencing, single nucleotide polymorphism array analyses and bioinformatics has revealed the striking phenomenon of chromothripsis, described as complex genomic rearrangements acquired in a single catastrophic event affecting one or a few chromosomes. Via an unproven mechanism, it is postulated that mechanical stress causes chromosome shattering into small lengths of DNA, which are then randomly reassembled by DNA repair machinery. Chromothripsis is currently examined as an alternative mechanism of oncogenesis, in contrast to the present paradigm that considers a stepwise development of cancer. While evidence for the mechanism(s) underlying chromosome shattering during cancer development remains elusive, a number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain chromothripsis, including ionizing radiation, DNA replication stress, breakage-fusion-bridge cycles, micronuclei formation and premature chromosome compaction. In the present work, we provide experimental evidence on the mechanistic basis of chromothripsis and on how chromosomes can get locally shattered in a single catastrophic event. Considering the dynamic nature of chromatin nucleoprotein complex, capable of rapid unfolding, disassembling, assembling and refolding, we first show that chromatin condensation at repairing or replicating DNA sites induces the mechanical stress needed for chromosome shattering to ensue. Premature chromosome condensation is then used to visualize the dynamic nature of interphase chromatin and demonstrate that such mechanical stress and chromosome shattering can also occur in chromosomes within micronuclei or asynchronous multinucleate cells when primary nuclei enter mitosis. Following an aberrant mitosis, chromosomes could find themselves in the wrong place at the wrong time so that they may undergo massive DNA breakage and rearrangement in a single catastrophic event. Specifically, our results support the hypothesis that premature chromosome

  8. Highly error-free role of DNA polymerase η in the replicative bypass of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers in mouse and human cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Prakash, Louise; Prakash, Satya

    2009-01-01

    Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) constitute the most frequent UV-induced DNA photoproduct. However, it has remained unclear how human and other mammalian cells mitigate the mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of CPDs emanating from their replicative bypass. Here, we examine in human cells the roles of translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases (Pols) in the replicative bypass of a cis-syn TT dimer carried on the leading or the lagging strand DNA template in a plasmid system we have designed, and we determine in mouse cells the frequencies and mutational spectra generated from TLS occurring specifically opposite CPDs formed at TT, TC, and CC dipyrimidine sites. From these studies we draw the following conclusions: (i) TLS makes a very prominent contribution to CPD bypass on both the DNA strands during replication; (ii) Pols η, κ, and ζ provide alternate pathways for TLS opposite CPDs wherein Pols κ and ζ promote mutagenic TLS opposite CPDs; and (iii) the absence of mutagenic TLS events opposite a cis-syn TT dimer in human cells and opposite CPDs formed at TT, TC, and CC sites in mouse cells that we observe upon the simultaneous knockdown of Pols κ and ζ implicates a highly error-free role of Polη in TLS opposite CPDs in mammalian cells. Such a remarkably high in vivo fidelity of Polη could not have been anticipated in view of its low intrinsic fidelity. These observations have important bearing on how mammalian cells have adapted to avoid the mutagenic and carcinogenic consequences of exposure to sunlight. PMID:19822754

  9. Structural and functional analysis of four non-coding Y RNAs from Chinese hamster cells: identification, molecular dynamics simulations and DNA replication initiation assays.

    PubMed

    de Lima Neto, Quirino Alves; Duarte Junior, Francisco Ferreira; Bueno, Paulo Sérgio Alves; Seixas, Flavio Augusto Vicente; Kowalski, Madzia Pauline; Kheir, Eyemen; Krude, Torsten; Fernandez, Maria Aparecida

    2016-01-05

    The genes coding for Y RNAs are evolutionarily conserved in vertebrates. These non-coding RNAs are essential for the initiation of chromosomal DNA replication in vertebrate cells. However thus far, no information is available about Y RNAs in Chinese hamster cells, which have already been used to detect replication origins and alternative DNA structures around these sites. Here, we report the gene sequences and predicted structural characteristics of the Chinese hamster Y RNAs, and analyze their ability to support the initiation of chromosomal DNA replication in vitro. We identified DNA sequences in the Chinese hamster genome of four Y RNAs (chY1, chY3, chY4 and chY5) with upstream promoter sequences, which are homologous to the four main types of vertebrate Y RNAs. The chY1, chY3 and chY5 genes were highly conserved with their vertebrate counterparts, whilst the chY4 gene showed a relatively high degree of diversification from the other vertebrate Y4 genes. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that chY4 RNA is structurally stable despite its evolutionarily divergent predicted stem structure. Of the four Y RNA genes present in the hamster genome, we found that only the chY1 and chY3 RNA were strongly expressed in the Chinese hamster GMA32 cell line, while expression of the chY4 and chY5 RNA genes was five orders of magnitude lower, suggesting that they may in fact not be expressed. We synthesized all four chY RNAs and showed that any of these four could support the initiation of DNA replication in an established human cell-free system. These data therefore establish that non-coding chY RNAs are stable structures and can substitute for human Y RNAs in a reconstituted cell-free DNA replication initiation system. The pattern of Y RNA expression and functionality is consistent with Y RNAs of other rodents, including mouse and rat.

  10. Epigenetic Instability due to Defective Replication of Structured DNA

    PubMed Central

    Sarkies, Peter; Reams, Charlie; Simpson, Laura J.; Sale, Julian E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The accurate propagation of histone marks during chromosomal replication is proposed to rely on the tight coupling of replication with the recycling of parental histones to the daughter strands. Here, we show in the avian cell line DT40 that REV1, a key regulator of DNA translesion synthesis at the replication fork, is required for the maintenance of repressive chromatin marks and gene silencing in the vicinity of DNA capable of forming G-quadruplex (G4) structures. We demonstrate a previously unappreciated requirement for REV1 in replication of G4 forming sequences and show that transplanting a G4 forming sequence into a silent locus leads to its derepression in REV1-deficient cells. Together, our observations support a model in which failure to maintain processive DNA replication at G4 DNA in REV1-deficient cells leads to uncoupling of DNA synthesis from histone recycling, resulting in localized loss of repressive chromatin through biased incorporation of newly synthesized histones. PMID:21145480

  11. Characterization of a DNA binding protein of bacteriophage PRD1 involved in DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Pakula, T M; Caldentey, J; Serrano, M; Gutierrez, C; Hermoso, J M; Salas, M; Bamford, D H

    1990-01-01

    Escherichia coli phage PRD1 protein P12, involved in PRD1 DNA replication in vivo, has been highly purified from E. coli cells harbouring a gene XII-containing plasmid. Protein P12 binds to single-stranded DNA as shown by gel retardation assays and nuclease protection experiments. Binding of protein P12 to single-stranded DNA increases about 14% the contour length of the DNA as revealed by electron microscopy. Binding to single-stranded DNA seems to be cooperative, and it is not sequence specific. Protein P12 also binds to double-stranded DNA although with an affinity 10 times lower than to single-stranded DNA. Using the in vitro phage phi 29 DNA replication system, it is shown that protein P12 stimulates the overall phi 29 DNA replication. Images PMID:2251117

  12. High-resolution analysis of Mammalian DNA replication units.

    PubMed

    Chagin, Vadim O; Reinhart, Marius; Cardoso, M Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Genomic DNA of a eukaryotic cell is replicated once during the S-phase of the cell cycle to precisely maintain the complete genetic information. In the course of S-phase, semiconservative DNA synthesis is sequentially initiated and performed at thousands of discrete patches of the DNA helix termed replicons. At any given moment of S-phase, multiple replicons are active in parallel in different parts of the genome. In the last decades, tools and methods to visualize DNA synthesis inside cells have been developed. Pulse labeling with nucleotides as well as detecting components of the replication machinery yielded an overall picture of multiple discrete sites of active DNA synthesis termed replication foci (RFi) and forming spatiotemporal patterns within the cell nucleus. Recent advances in fluorescence microscopy and digital imaging in combination with computational image analysis allow a comprehensive quantitative analysis of RFi and provide valuable insights into the organization of the genomic DNA replication process and also of the genome itself. In this chapter, we describe in detail protocols for the visualization and quantification of RFi at different levels of optical and physical resolution.

  13. The effect of penicillin on Chlamydia trachomatis DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Lambden, Paul R; Pickett, Mark A; Clarke, Ian N

    2006-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis L2 was used to infect BGMK cells at an m.o.i. of 1.0, and the developmental cycle was followed by transmission electron microscopy and quantitative PCR (QPCR) for both chromosomal and plasmid DNA. Samples were taken at sequential 6 h time points. Subsequent analysis by QPCR showed that there was an initial slow replication period (0-18 h), followed by a rapid phase (18-36 h) coinciding with exponential division when the DNA doubling time was 4.6 h. Chromosomal DNA was amplified 100-200-fold corresponding to 7-8 generations for the complete developmental cycle. Penicillin (10 and 100 units ml(-1)) was added to cultures at 20 h post-infection (p.i.). This blocked binary fission and also prevented reticulate body (RB) to elementary body transition. However, exposure to penicillin did not prevent chromosomal or plasmid DNA replication. After a short lag period, following the addition of penicillin, chlamydial chromosomal DNA replication resumed at the same rate as in control C. trachomatis-infected cells. C. trachomatis-infected host cells exposed to penicillin did not lyse, but instead harboured large, aberrant RBs in massive inclusions that completely filled the cell cytoplasm. In these RBs, the DNA continued to replicate well beyond the end of the normal developmental cycle. At 60 h p.i. each aberrant RB contained a minimum of 16 chromosomal copies.

  14. In-vitro replication of UV-irradiated DNA by human cell extracts: Evidence that xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XP-V) cells bypass lesions in an abnormal, error-prone manner

    SciTech Connect

    McGregor, W.G.; Nadas, K.; Maher, V.M.; McCormick, J.J.

    1994-12-31

    Despite a normal rate of excision repair, XP-V cells are extremely sensitive to UV mutagenicity and abnormally slow in replicating DNA that contains photoproducts. Furthermore, the kinds of mutations induced by UV{sub 254} in the endogenous HPRT gene differ significantly from those of normal cells. Using a replication fidelity assay developed by Kunkel and coworkers, we are testing the hypothesis that the DNA replication complex in XP-V cells is defective when replicating DNA containing UV damage. We compared the frequency of mutants generated during T-antigen-dependent replication of unirradiated and UV{sub 254}-irradiated DNA by extracts from HeLa and XP-V cells. The mutational target was the E. coli lacZ{alpha} gene inserted in SV40 ori-containing M13mp2 (M13mp2SV). With undamaged DNA, neither extract showed an increase in mutant frequency above what is seen with unreplicated M13mp2SV. The presence of an average of five pyrimidine dimers per phage reduced replication by HeLa extract 35% and increased the mutant frequency 5-fold. With XP-V extract these values were 80% and 24-fold, respectively. The mutants are being sequenced to determine whether the kinds of mutations produced by the two extracts differ.

  15. Plant MCM proteins: role in DNA replication and beyond.

    PubMed

    Tuteja, Narendra; Tran, Ngoc Quang; Dang, Hung Quang; Tuteja, Renu

    2011-12-01

    Mini-chromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins form heterohexameric complex (MCM2-7) to serve as licensing factor for DNA replication to make sure that genomic DNA is replicated completely and accurately once during S phase in a single cell cycle. MCMs were initially identified in yeast for their role in plasmid replication or cell cycle progression. Each of six MCM contains highly conserved sequence called "MCM box", which contains two ATPase consensus Walker A and Walker B motifs. Studies on MCM proteins showed that (a) the replication origins are licensed by stable binding of MCM2-7 to form pre-RC (pre-replicative complex) during G1 phase of the cell cycle, (b) the activation of MCM proteins by CDKs (cyclin-dependent kinases) and DDKs (Dbf4-dependent kinases) and their helicase activity are important for pre-RC to initiate the DNA replication, and (c) the release of MCMs from chromatin renders the origins "unlicensed". DNA replication licensing in plant is, in general, less characterized. The MCMs have been reported from Arabidopsis, maize, tobacco, pea and rice, where they are found to be highly expressed in dividing tissues such as shoot apex and root tips, localized in nucleus and cytosol and play important role in DNA replication, megagametophyte and embryo development. The identification of six MCM coding genes from pea and Arabidopsis suggest six distinct classes of MCM protein in higher plant, and the conserved function right across the eukaryotes. This overview of MCMs contains an emphasis on MCMs from plants and the novel role of MCM6 in abiotic stress tolerance.

  16. SMARCAL1 maintains telomere integrity during DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Poole, Lisa A; Zhao, Runxiang; Glick, Gloria G; Lovejoy, Courtney A; Eischen, Christine M; Cortez, David

    2015-12-01

    The SMARCAL1 (SWI/SNF related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent, regulator of chromatin, subfamily A-like 1) DNA translocase is one of several related enzymes, including ZRANB3 (zinc finger, RAN-binding domain containing 3) and HLTF (helicase-like transcription factor), that are recruited to stalled replication forks to promote repair and restart replication. These enzymes can perform similar biochemical reactions such as fork reversal; however, genetic studies indicate they must have unique cellular activities. Here, we present data showing that SMARCAL1 has an important function at telomeres, which present an endogenous source of replication stress. SMARCAL1-deficient cells accumulate telomere-associated DNA damage and have greatly elevated levels of extrachromosomal telomere DNA (C-circles). Although these telomere phenotypes are often found in tumor cells using the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway for telomere elongation, SMARCAL1 deficiency does not yield other ALT phenotypes such as elevated telomere recombination. The activity of SMARCAL1 at telomeres can be separated from its genome-maintenance activity in bulk chromosomal replication because it does not require interaction with replication protein A. Finally, this telomere-maintenance function is not shared by ZRANB3 or HLTF. Our results provide the first identification, to our knowledge, of an endogenous source of replication stress that requires SMARCAL1 for resolution and define differences between members of this class of replication fork-repair enzymes.

  17. Allyl isothiocyanate induces replication-associated DNA damage response in NSCLC cells and sensitizes to ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Reagan; Bachaboina, Lavanya; Scalici, Jennifer; Rocconi, Rodney P.; Owen, Laurie B.; Piazza, Gary A.

    2015-01-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a constituent of many cruciferous vegetables exhibits significant anticancer activities in many cancer models. Our studies provide novel insights into AITC-induced anticancer mechanisms in human A549 and H1299 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. AITC exposure induced replication stress in NSCLC cells as evidenced by γH2AX and FANCD2 foci, ATM/ATR-mediated checkpoint responses and S and G2/M cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, AITC-induced FANCD2 foci displayed co-localization with BrdU foci, indicating stalled or collapsed replication forks in these cells. Although PITC (phenyl isothiocyanate) exhibited concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects, treatment was less effective compared to AITC. Previously, agents that induce cell cycle arrest in S and G2/M phases were shown to sensitize tumor cells to radiation. Similar to these observations, combination therapy involving AITC followed by radiation treatment exhibited increased DDR and cell killing in NSCLC cells compared to single agent treatment. Combination index (CI) analysis revealed synergistic effects at multiple doses of AITC and radiation, resulting in CI values of less than 0.7 at Fa of 0.5 (50% reduction in survival). Collectively, these studies identify an important anticancer mechanism displayed by AITC, and suggest that the combination of AITC and radiation could be an effective therapy for NSCLC. PMID:25742788

  18. Mutations reducing replication from R-loops suppress the defects of growth, chromosome segregation and DNA supercoiling in cells lacking topoisomerase I and RNase HI activity.

    PubMed

    Usongo, Valentine; Martel, Makisha; Balleydier, Aurélien; Drolet, Marc

    2016-04-01

    R-loop formation occurs when the nascent RNA hybridizes with the template DNA strand behind the RNA polymerase. R-loops affect a wide range of cellular processes and their use as origins of replication was the first function attributed to them. In Escherichia coli, R-loop formation is promoted by the ATP-dependent negative supercoiling activity of gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and is inhibited by topoisomerase (topo) I (topA) relaxing transcription-induced negative supercoiling. RNase HI (rnhA) degrades the RNA moiety of R-loops. The depletion of RNase HI activity in topA null mutants was previously shown to lead to extensive DNA relaxation, due to DNA gyrase inhibition, and to severe growth and chromosome segregation defects that were partially corrected by overproducing topo III (topB). Here, DNA gyrase assays in crude cell extracts showed that the ATP-dependent activity (supercoiling) of gyrase but not its ATP-independent activity (relaxation) was inhibited in topA null cells lacking RNase HI. To characterize the cellular event(s) triggered by the absence of RNase HI, we performed a genetic screen for suppressors of the growth defect of topA rnhA null cells. Suppressors affecting genes in replication (holC2::aph and dnaT18::aph) nucleotide metabolism (dcd49::aph), RNA degradation (rne59::aph) and fimbriae synthesis (fimD22::aph) were found to reduce replication from R-loops and to restore supercoiling, thus pointing to a correlation between R-loop-dependent replication in topA rnhA mutants and the inhibition of gyrase activity and growth. Interestingly, the position of fimD on the E. coli chromosome corresponds to the site of one of the five main putative origins of replication from R-loops in rnhA null cells recently identified by next-generation sequencing, thus suggesting that the fimD22::aph mutation inactivated one of these origins. Furthermore, we show that topo III overproduction is unable to complement the growth defect of topA rnhA null mutants at low

  19. Id3 upregulates BrdU incorporation associated with a DNA damage response, not replication, in human pancreatic β-cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Hee; Hao, Ergeng; Levine, Fred; Itkin-Ansari, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Elucidating mechanisms of cell cycle control in normally quiescent human pancreatic β-cells has the potential to impact regeneration strategies for diabetes. Previously we demonstrated that Id3, a repressor of basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) proteins, was sufficient to induce cell cycle entry in pancreatic duct cells, which are closely related to β-cells developmentally. We hypothesized that Id3 might similarly induce cell cycle entry in primary human β-cells. To test this directly, adult human β-cells were transduced with adenovirus expressing Id3. Consistent with a replicative response, β-cells exhibited BrdU incorporation. Further, Id3 potently repressed expression of the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p57Kip2, a gene which is also silenced in a rare β-cell hyperproliferative disorder in infants. Surprisingly, however, BrdU positive β-cells did not express the proliferation markers Ki67 and pHH3. Instead, BrdU uptake reflected a DNA damage response, as manifested by hydroxyurea incorporation, γH2AX expression and 53BP1 subcellular relocalization. The uncoupling of BrdU uptake from replication raises a cautionary note about interpreting studies relying solely upon BrdU incorporation as evidence of β-cell proliferation. The data also establish that loss of p57Kip2 is not sufficient to induce cell cycle entry in adult β-cells. Moreover, the differential responses to Id3 between duct and β-cells reveal that β-cells possess intrinsic resistance to cell cycle entry not common to all quiescent epithelial cells in the adult human pancreas. The data provide a much needed comparative model for investigating the molecular basis for this resistance in order to develop a strategy for improving replication competence in β-cells. PMID:21964314

  20. Small-molecule inhibitors identify the RAD52-ssDNA interaction as critical for recovery from replication stress and for survival of BRCA2 deficient cells

    PubMed Central

    Hengel, Sarah R; Malacaria, Eva; Folly da Silva Constantino, Laura; Bain, Fletcher E; Diaz, Andrea; Koch, Brandon G; Yu, Liping; Wu, Meng; Pichierri, Pietro; Spies, M Ashley; Spies, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The DNA repair protein RAD52 is an emerging therapeutic target of high importance for BRCA-deficient tumors. Depletion of RAD52 is synthetically lethal with defects in tumor suppressors BRCA1, BRCA2 and PALB2. RAD52 also participates in the recovery of the stalled replication forks. Anticipating that ssDNA binding activity underlies the RAD52 cellular functions, we carried out a high throughput screening campaign to identify compounds that disrupt the RAD52-ssDNA interaction. Lead compounds were confirmed as RAD52 inhibitors in biochemical assays. Computational analysis predicted that these inhibitors bind within the ssDNA-binding groove of the RAD52 oligomeric ring. The nature of the inhibitor-RAD52 complex was validated through an in silico screening campaign, culminating in the discovery of an additional RAD52 inhibitor. Cellular studies with our inhibitors showed that the RAD52-ssDNA interaction enables its function at stalled replication forks, and that the inhibition of RAD52-ssDNA binding acts additively with BRCA2 or MUS81 depletion in cell killing. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14740.001 PMID:27434671

  1. Modeling the Control of DNA Replication in Fission Yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Bela; Tyson, John J.

    1997-08-01

    A central event in the eukaryotic cell cycle is the decision to commence DNA replication (S phase). Strict controls normally operate to prevent repeated rounds of DNA replication without intervening mitoses (``endoreplication'') or initiation of mitosis before DNA is fully replicated (``mitotic catastrophe''). Some of the genetic interactions involved in these controls have recently been identified in yeast. From this evidence we propose a molecular mechanism of ``Start'' control in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Using established principles of biochemical kinetics, we compare the properties of this model in detail with the observed behavior of various mutant strains of fission yeast: wee1- (size control at Start), cdc13Δ and rum1OP (endoreplication), and wee1- rum1Δ (rapid division cycles of diminishing cell size). We discuss essential features of the mechanism that are responsible for characteristic properties of Start control in fission yeast, to expose our proposal to crucial experimental tests.

  2. PTEN Controls the DNA Replication Process through MCM2 in Response to Replicative Stress.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jiawen; Liang, Jing; Li, Jiaju; Li, Yunqiao; Liang, Hui; Zhao, Xuyang; McNutt, Michael A; Yin, Yuxin

    2015-11-17

    PTEN is a tumor suppressor frequently mutated in human cancers. PTEN inhibits the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT cascade, and nuclear PTEN guards the genome by multiple mechanisms. Here, we report that PTEN physically associates with the minichromosome maintenance complex component 2 (MCM2), which is essential for DNA replication. Specifically, PTEN dephosphorylates MCM2 at serine 41 (S41) and restricts replication fork progression under replicative stress. PTEN disruption results in unrestrained fork progression upon replication stalling, which is similar to the phenotype of cells expressing the phosphomimic MCM2 mutant S41D. Moreover, PTEN is necessary for prevention of chromosomal aberrations under replication stress. This study demonstrates that PTEN regulates DNA replication through MCM2 and loss of PTEN function leads to replication defects and genomic instability. We propose that PTEN plays a critical role in maintaining genetic stability through a replication-specific mechanism, and this is a crucial facet of PTEN tumor suppressor activity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Insights into the Initiation of Eukaryotic DNA Replication.

    PubMed

    Bruck, Irina; Perez-Arnaiz, Patricia; Colbert, Max K; Kaplan, Daniel L

    2015-01-01

    The initiation of DNA replication is a highly regulated event in eukaryotic cells to ensure that the entire genome is copied once and only once during S phase. The primary target of cellular regulation of eukaryotic DNA replication initiation is the assembly and activation of the replication fork helicase, the 11-subunit assembly that unwinds DNA at a replication fork. The replication fork helicase, called CMG for Cdc45-Mcm2-7, and GINS, assembles in S phase from the constituent Cdc45, Mcm2-7, and GINS proteins. The assembly and activation of the CMG replication fork helicase during S phase is governed by 2 S-phase specific kinases, CDK and DDK. CDK stimulates the interaction between Sld2, Sld3, and Dpb11, 3 initiation factors that are each required for the initiation of DNA replication. DDK, on the other hand, phosphorylates the Mcm2, Mcm4, and Mcm6 subunits of the Mcm2-7 complex. Sld3 recruits Cdc45 to Mcm2-7 in a manner that depends on DDK, and recent work suggests that Sld3 binds directly to Mcm2-7 and also to single-stranded DNA. Furthermore, recent work demonstrates that Sld3 and its human homolog Treslin substantially stimulate DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2. These data suggest that the initiation factor Sld3/Treslin coordinates the assembly and activation of the eukaryotic replication fork helicase by recruiting Cdc45 to Mcm2-7, stimulating DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2, and binding directly to single-stranded DNA as the origin is melted.

  4. Insights into the Initiation of Eukaryotic DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, Irina; Perez-Arnaiz, Patricia; Colbert, Max K; Kaplan, Daniel L

    2015-01-01

    The initiation of DNA replication is a highly regulated event in eukaryotic cells to ensure that the entire genome is copied once and only once during S phase. The primary target of cellular regulation of eukaryotic DNA replication initiation is the assembly and activation of the replication fork helicase, the 11-subunit assembly that unwinds DNA at a replication fork. The replication fork helicase, called CMG for Cdc45-Mcm2–7, and GINS, assembles in S phase from the constituent Cdc45, Mcm2–7, and GINS proteins. The assembly and activation of the CMG replication fork helicase during S phase is governed by 2 S-phase specific kinases, CDK and DDK. CDK stimulates the interaction between Sld2, Sld3, and Dpb11, 3 initiation factors that are each required for the initiation of DNA replication. DDK, on the other hand, phosphorylates the Mcm2, Mcm4, and Mcm6 subunits of the Mcm2–7 complex. Sld3 recruits Cdc45 to Mcm2–7 in a manner that depends on DDK, and recent work suggests that Sld3 binds directly to Mcm2–7 and also to single-stranded DNA. Furthermore, recent work demonstrates that Sld3 and its human homolog Treslin substantially stimulate DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2. These data suggest that the initiation factor Sld3/Treslin coordinates the assembly and activation of the eukaryotic replication fork helicase by recruiting Cdc45 to Mcm2–7, stimulating DDK phosphorylation of Mcm2, and binding directly to single-stranded DNA as the origin is melted. PMID:26710261

  5. DNA Damage and Genomic Instability Induced by Inappropriate DNA Re-Replication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    ml a that sustained rereplication leads to a dramatic decrease factor. Samples were fixed in 67% ethanol (vol/vol), washed twice with PBS, and...significant decrease in cell viability and a cellular DNA damage response. Strikingly, we have observed DNA damage in the absence of a classical...genome re-replicates. In this reporting period, we have shown that re-replication induces a rapid and significant decrease in cell viability and a

  6. Trapping DNA replication origins from the human genome.

    PubMed

    Eki, Toshihiko; Murakami, Yasufumi; Hanaoka, Fumio

    2013-04-17

    Synthesis of chromosomal DNA is initiated from multiple origins of replication in higher eukaryotes; however, little is known about these origins' structures. We isolated the origin-derived nascent DNAs from a human repair-deficient cell line by blocking the replication forks near the origins using two different origin-trapping methods (i.e., UV- or chemical crosslinker-treatment and cell synchronization in early S phase using DNA replication inhibitors). Single-stranded DNAs (of 0.5-3 kb) that accumulated after such treatments were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). BrdU-labeled DNA was immunopurified after fractionation by alkaline sucrose density gradient centrifugation and cloned by complementary-strand synthesis and PCR amplification. Competitive PCR revealed an increased abundance of DNA derived from known replication origins (c-myc and lamin B2 genes) in the nascent DNA fractions from the UV-treated or crosslinked cells. Nucleotide sequences of 85 and 208 kb were obtained from the two libraries (I and II) prepared from the UV-treated log-phase cells and early S phase arrested cells, respectively. The libraries differed from each other in their G+C composition and replication-related motif contents, suggesting that differences existed between the origin fragments isolated by the two different origin-trapping methods. The replication activities for seven out of 12 putative origin loci from the early-S phase cells were shown by competitive PCR. We mapped 117 (library I) and 172 (library II) putative origin loci to the human genome; approximately 60% and 50% of these loci were assigned to the G-band and intragenic regions, respectively. Analyses of the flanking sequences of the mapped loci suggested that the putative origin loci tended to associate with genes (including conserved sites) and DNase I hypersensitive sites; however, poor correlations were found between such loci and the CpG islands, transcription start sites, and K27-acetylated histone H3 peaks.

  7. DNA replication meets genetic exchange: chromosomal damage and its repair by homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Kuzminov, A

    2001-07-17

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Colloquium on the roles of homologous recombination in DNA replication are summarized. Current findings in experimental systems ranging from bacteriophages to mammalian cell lines substantiate the idea that homologous recombination is a system supporting DNA replication when either the template DNA is damaged or the replication machinery malfunctions. There are several lines of supporting evidence: (i) DNA replication aggravates preexisting DNA damage, which then blocks subsequent replication; (ii) replication forks abandoned by malfunctioning replisomes become prone to breakage; (iii) mutants with malfunctioning replisomes or with elevated levels of DNA damage depend on homologous recombination; and (iv) homologous recombination primes DNA replication in vivo and can restore replication fork structures in vitro. The mechanisms of recombinational repair in bacteriophage T4, Escherichia coli, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are compared. In vitro properties of the eukaryotic recombinases suggest a bigger role for single-strand annealing in the eukaryotic recombinational repair.

  8. DDX59 promotes DNA replication in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    You, Jin; Wang, Xingshun; Wang, Jiuling; Yuan, Baolei; Zhang, Yandong

    2017-01-01

    DEAD box proteins are multifunctional proteins involved in every aspect in RNA metabolism and have essential roles in many cellular activities. Despite their importance, many DEAD box proteins remain uncharacterized. In this report, we found DDX59 overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma. DDX59 knockdown reduced cell proliferation, anchorage-independent cell growth, and caused reduction of tumor formation in immunocompromised mice. In multiple lung cancer cells, we found that DDX59 knockdown inhibits DNA synthesis; wild-type DDX59 but not helicase-defective mutant of DDX59 enhances DNA synthesis. DDX59 knockdown caused reduction of MCM protein levels, decreased the loading of MCM ring protein onto chromatin, and therefore inhibited DNA replication. Our study reveals for the first time that DDX59 has an important role in lung cancer development through promoting DNA replication. PMID:28090355

  9. 3D replicon distributions arise from stochastic initiation and domino-like DNA replication progression.

    PubMed

    Löb, D; Lengert, N; Chagin, V O; Reinhart, M; Casas-Delucchi, C S; Cardoso, M C; Drossel, B

    2016-04-07

    DNA replication dynamics in cells from higher eukaryotes follows very complex but highly efficient mechanisms. However, the principles behind initiation of potential replication origins and emergence of typical patterns of nuclear replication sites remain unclear. Here, we propose a comprehensive model of DNA replication in human cells that is based on stochastic, proximity-induced replication initiation. Critical model features are: spontaneous stochastic firing of individual origins in euchromatin and facultative heterochromatin, inhibition of firing at distances below the size of chromatin loops and a domino-like effect by which replication forks induce firing of nearby origins. The model reproduces the empirical temporal and chromatin-related properties of DNA replication in human cells. We advance the one-dimensional DNA replication model to a spatial model by taking into account chromatin folding in the nucleus, and we are able to reproduce the spatial and temporal characteristics of the replication foci distribution throughout S-phase.

  10. 3D replicon distributions arise from stochastic initiation and domino-like DNA replication progression

    PubMed Central

    Löb, D.; Lengert, N.; Chagin, V. O.; Reinhart, M.; Casas-Delucchi, C. S.; Cardoso, M. C.; Drossel, B.

    2016-01-01

    DNA replication dynamics in cells from higher eukaryotes follows very complex but highly efficient mechanisms. However, the principles behind initiation of potential replication origins and emergence of typical patterns of nuclear replication sites remain unclear. Here, we propose a comprehensive model of DNA replication in human cells that is based on stochastic, proximity-induced replication initiation. Critical model features are: spontaneous stochastic firing of individual origins in euchromatin and facultative heterochromatin, inhibition of firing at distances below the size of chromatin loops and a domino-like effect by which replication forks induce firing of nearby origins. The model reproduces the empirical temporal and chromatin-related properties of DNA replication in human cells. We advance the one-dimensional DNA replication model to a spatial model by taking into account chromatin folding in the nucleus, and we are able to reproduce the spatial and temporal characteristics of the replication foci distribution throughout S-phase. PMID:27052359

  11. Accelerated growth in the absence of DNA replication origins.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Michelle; Malla, Sunir; Blythe, Martin J; Nieduszynski, Conrad A; Allers, Thorsten

    2013-11-28

    DNA replication initiates at defined sites called origins, which serve as binding sites for initiator proteins that recruit the replicative machinery. Origins differ in number and structure across the three domains of life and their properties determine the dynamics of chromosome replication. Bacteria and some archaea replicate from single origins, whereas most archaea and all eukaryotes replicate using multiple origins. Initiation mechanisms that rely on homologous recombination operate in some viruses. Here we show that such mechanisms also operate in archaea. We use deep sequencing to study replication in Haloferax volcanii and identify four chromosomal origins of differing activity. Deletion of individual origins results in perturbed replication dynamics and reduced growth. However, a strain lacking all origins has no apparent defects and grows significantly faster than wild type. Origin-less cells initiate replication at dispersed sites rather than at discrete origins and have an absolute requirement for the recombinase RadA, unlike strains lacking individual origins. Our results demonstrate that homologous recombination alone can efficiently initiate the replication of an entire cellular genome. This raises the question of what purpose replication origins serve and why they have evolved.

  12. Human Cytomegalovirus Induces JC Virus DNA Replication in Human Fibroblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilbronn, Regine; Albrecht, Ingrid; Stephan, Sonja; Burkle, Alexander; Zur Hausen, Harald

    1993-12-01

    JC virus, a human papovavirus, is the causative agent of the demyelinating brain disease progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML). PML is a rare but fatal disease which develops as a complication of severe immunosuppression. Latent JC virus is harbored by many asymptomatic carriers and is transiently reactivated from the latent state upon immunosuppression. JC virus has a very restricted host range, with human glial cells being the only tissue in which it can replicate at reasonable efficiency. Evidence that latent human cytomegalovirus is harbored in the kidney similar to latent JC virus led to the speculation that during episodes of impaired immunocompetence, cytomegalovirus might serve as helper virus for JC virus replication in otherwise nonpermissive cells. We show here that cytomegalovirus infection indeed leads to considerable JC virus DNA replication in cultured human fibroblasts that are nonpermissive for the replication of JC virus alone. Cytomegalovirus-mediated JC virus replication is dependent on the JC virus origin of replication and T antigen. Ganciclovir-induced inhibition of cytomegalovirus replication is associated with a concomitant inhibition of JC virus replication. These results suggest that reactivation of cytomegalovirus during episodes of immunosuppression might lead to activation of latent JC virus, which would enhance the probability of subsequent PML development. Ganciclovir-induced repression of both cytomegalovirus and JC virus replication may form the rational basis for the development of an approach toward treatment or prevention of PML.

  13. DNA replication origins—where do we begin?

    PubMed Central

    Prioleau, Marie-Noëlle; MacAlpine, David M.

    2016-01-01

    For more than three decades, investigators have sought to identify the precise locations where DNA replication initiates in mammalian genomes. The development of molecular and biochemical approaches to identify start sites of DNA replication (origins) based on the presence of defining and characteristic replication intermediates at specific loci led to the identification of only a handful of mammalian replication origins. The limited number of identified origins prevented a comprehensive and exhaustive search for conserved genomic features that were capable of specifying origins of DNA replication. More recently, the adaptation of origin-mapping assays to genome-wide approaches has led to the identification of tens of thousands of replication origins throughout mammalian genomes, providing an unprecedented opportunity to identify both genetic and epigenetic features that define and regulate their distribution and utilization. Here we summarize recent advances in our understanding of how primary sequence, chromatin environment, and nuclear architecture contribute to the dynamic selection and activation of replication origins across diverse cell types and developmental stages. PMID:27542827

  14. Bacterial DNA replication enzymes as targets for antibacterial drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Sanyal, Gautam; Doig, Peter

    2012-04-01

    The bacterial replisome is composed of a large number of enzymes, which work in exquisite coordination to accomplish chromosomal replication. Effective inhibition inside the bacterial cell of any of the 'essential' enzymes of the DNA replication pathway should be detrimental to cell survival. This review covers DNA replication enzymes that have been shown to have a potential for delivering antibacterial compounds or drug candidates including: type II topoisomerases, a clinically validated target family, and DNA ligase, which has yielded inhibitors with in vivo efficacy. A few of the 'replisome' enzymes that are structurally and functionally well characterized and have been subjects of antibacterial discovery efforts are also discussed. Identification of several essential genes in the bacterial replication pathway raised hopes that targeting these gene products would lead to novel antibacterials. However, none of these novel, single gene targets have delivered antibacterial drug candidates into clinical trials. This lack of productivity may be due to the target properties and inhibitor identification approaches employed. For DNA primase, DNA helicase and other replisome targets, with the exception of DNA ligase, the exploitation of structure for lead generation has not been tested to the same extent that it has for DNA gyrase. Utilization of structural information should be considered to augment HTS efforts and initiate fragment-based lead generation. The complex protein-protein interactions involved in regulation of replication may explain why biochemical approaches have been less productive for some replisome targets than more independently functioning targets such as DNA ligase or DNA gyrase. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

  15. Analysis of DNA Replication by Optical Mapping in Nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Joris; Pélofy, Sandrine; Blatché, Charline; Pillaire, Marie-Jeanne; Huet, Sébastien; Chapuis, Catherine; Hoffmann, Jean-Sébastien; Bancaud, Aurélien

    2016-11-01

    DNA replication is essential to maintain genome integrity in S phase of the cell division cycle. Accumulation of stalled replication forks is a major source of genetic instability, and likely constitutes a key driver of tumorigenesis. The mechanisms of regulation of replication fork progression have therefore been extensively investigated, in particular with DNA combing, an optical mapping technique that allows the stretching of single molecules and the mapping of active region for DNA synthesis by fluorescence microscopy. DNA linearization in nanochannels has been successfully used to probe genomic information patterns along single chromosomes, and has been proposed to be a competitive alternative to DNA combing. Yet this conjecture remains to be confirmed experimentally. Here, two complementary techniques are established to detect the genomic distribution of tracks of newly synthesized DNA in human cells by optical mapping in nanochannels. Their respective advantages and limitations are compared, and applied them to detect deregulations of the replication program induced by the antitumor drug hydroxyurea. The developments here thus broaden the field of applications accessible to nanofluidic technologies, and can be used in the future as part for molecular diagnostics in the context of high throughput cancer drug screening.

  16. Relationship between DNA replication and the nuclear matrix.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rosemary H C; Coverley, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    There is an extensive list of primary published work related to the nuclear matrix (NM). Here we review the aspects that are required to understand its relationship with DNA replication, while highlighting some of the difficulties in studying such a structure, and possible differences that arise from the choice of model system. We consider NM attachment regions of DNA and discuss their characteristics and potential function before reviewing data that deal specifically with functional interaction with DNA replication factors. Data have long existed indicating that newly synthesized DNA is associated with a nuclease-resistant NM, allowing the conclusion that the elongation step of DNA synthesis is immobilized within the nucleus. We review in more detail the emerging data that suggest that prereplication complex proteins and origins of replication are transiently recruited to the NM during late G1 and early S-phase. Collectively, these data suggest that the initiation step of the DNA replication process is also immobilized by attachment to the NM. We outline models that discuss the possible spatial relationships and highlight the emerging evidence that suggests there may be important differences between cell types. © 2012 The Authors Genes to Cells © 2012 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Platinum nanoparticles induce damage to DNA and inhibit DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Nejdl, Lukas; Kudr, Jiri; Moulick, Amitava; Hegerova, Dagmar; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Gumulec, Jaromir; Cihalova, Kristyna; Smerkova, Kristyna; Dostalova, Simona; Krizkova, Sona; Novotna, Marie; Kopel, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Sparsely tested group of platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) may have a comparable effect as complex platinum compounds. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of PtNPs in in vitro amplification of DNA fragment of phage λ, on the bacterial cultures (Staphylococcus aureus), human foreskin fibroblasts and erythrocytes. In vitro synthesized PtNPs were characterized by dynamic light scattering (PtNPs size range 4.8–11.7 nm), zeta potential measurements (-15 mV at pH 7.4), X-ray fluorescence, UV/vis spectrophotometry and atomic absorption spectrometry. The PtNPs inhibited the DNA replication and affected the secondary structure of DNA at higher concentrations, which was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing and DNA denaturation experiments. Further, cisplatin (CisPt), as traditional chemotherapy agent, was used in all parallel experiments. Moreover, the encapsulation of PtNPs in liposomes (LipoPtNPs) caused an approximately 2.4x higher of DNA damage in comparison with CisPt, LipoCisPt and PtNPs. The encapsulation of PtNPs in liposomes also increased their antibacterial, cytostatic and cytotoxic effect, which was determined by the method of growth curves on S. aureus and HFF cells. In addition, both the bare and encapsulated PtNPs caused lower oxidative stress (determined by GSH/GSSG ratio) in the human erythrocytes compared to the bare and encapsulated CisPt. CisPt was used in all parallel experiments as traditional chemotherapy agent. PMID:28704436

  18. The programme of DNA replication: beyond genome duplication.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Escoda, Blanca; Wu, Pei-Yun Jenny

    2013-12-01

    The accurate duplication and transmission of genetic information is critical for cell growth and proliferation, and this is ensured in part by the multi-layered regulation of DNA synthesis. One of the key steps in this process is the selection and activation of the sites of replication initiation, or origins, across the genome. Interestingly, origin usage changes during development and in different pathologies, suggesting an integral interplay between the establishment of replication initiation along the chromosomes and cellular function. The present review discusses how the spatiotemporal organization of replication origin activation may play crucial roles in the control of biological events.

  19. Affinity Purification of an Archaeal DNA Replication Protein Network

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhuo; Santangelo, Thomas J.; Čuboňová, Ľubomíra; Reeve, John N.; Kelman, Zvi

    2010-01-01

    Nineteen Thermococcus kodakarensis strains have been constructed, each of which synthesizes a different His6-tagged protein known or predicted to be a component of the archaeal DNA replication machinery. Using the His6-tagged proteins, stable complexes assembled in vivo have been isolated directly from clarified cell lysates and the T. kodakarensis proteins present have been identified by mass spectrometry. Based on the results obtained, a network of interactions among the archaeal replication proteins has been established that confirms previously documented and predicted interactions, provides experimental evidence for previously unrecognized interactions between proteins with known functions and with unknown functions, and establishes a firm experimental foundation for archaeal replication research. The proteins identified and their participation in archaeal DNA replication are discussed and related to their bacterial and eukaryotic counterparts. PMID:20978540

  20. Hsp90 Inhibitor SNX-7081 dysregulates proteins involved with DNA repair and replication and the cell cycle in human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells.

    PubMed

    Che, Yiping; Best, O Giles; Zhong, Ling; Kaufman, Kimberley L; Mactier, Swetlana; Raftery, Mark; Graves, Lee M; Mulligan, Stephen P; Christopherson, Richard I

    2013-04-05

    The proteomic effects of the Hsp90 inhibitor, SNX-7081, have been determined on the p53-mutated B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cell line, MEC1. Following SNX-7081 treatment (500 nM, 24 h), 51 proteins changed abundance by more than 2-fold (p < 0.05); 7 proteins increased while 44 proteins decreased. Proteins identified as differentially abundant by LC-MS/MS were validated by Western blotting (DDB1, PCNA, MCM2, Hsp90, Hsp70, GRP78, PDIA6, HLA-DR). RT-PCR showed that SNX-7081 unexpectedly modulates a number of these proteins in MEC1 cells at the mRNA level (PCNA, MCM2, Nup155, Hsp70, GRP78, PDIA6, and HLA-DR). Pathway analysis determined that 3 of the differentially abundant proteins (cyclin D1, c-Myc and pRb) were functionally related. p53 levels did not change upon SNX-7081 treatment of p53 wild-type Raji cells or p53-mutated MEC1 and U266 cells, indicating that SNX-7081 has a p53-independent mechanism. The decreases in DDB1, MCM2, c-Myc, and PCNA and increases of pRb and cyclin D1 were confirmed in MEC1, U266, Raji, and p53 null HL60 cells by Western blotting. These data suggest that SNX-7081 arrests the cell cycle and inhibits DNA replication and r epair and provides evidence for the mechanism of the observed synergy between Hsp90 inhibitors and drugs that induce DNA strand breaks.

  1. Entropy Involved in Fidelity of DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Gonzalez, J. Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Information has an entropic character which can be analyzed within the framework of the Statistical Theory in molecular systems. R. Landauer and C.H. Bennett showed that a logical copy can be carried out in the limit of no dissipation if the computation is performed sufficiently slowly. Structural and recent single-molecule assays have provided dynamic details of polymerase machinery with insight into information processing. Here, we introduce a rigorous characterization of Shannon Information in biomolecular systems and apply it to DNA replication in the limit of no dissipation. Specifically, we devise an equilibrium pathway in DNA replication to determine the entropy generated in copying the information from a DNA template in the absence of friction. Both the initial state, the free nucleotides randomly distributed in certain concentrations, and the final state, a polymerized strand, are mesoscopic equilibrium states for the nucleotide distribution. We use empirical stacking free energies to calculate the probabilities of incorporation of the nucleotides. The copied strand is, to first order of approximation, a state of independent and non-indentically distributed random variables for which the nucleotide that is incorporated by the polymerase at each step is dictated by the template strand, and to second order of approximation, a state of non-uniformly distributed random variables with nearest-neighbor interactions for which the recognition of secondary structure by the polymerase in the resultant double-stranded polymer determines the entropy of the replicated strand. Two incorporation mechanisms arise naturally and their biological meanings are explained. It is known that replication occurs far from equilibrium and therefore the Shannon entropy here derived represents an upper bound for replication to take place. Likewise, this entropy sets a universal lower bound for the copying fidelity in replication. PMID:22912695

  2. The Role of the Transcriptional Response to DNA Replication Stress.

    PubMed

    Herlihy, Anna E; de Bruin, Robertus A M

    2017-03-02

    During DNA replication many factors can result in DNA replication stress. The DNA replication stress checkpoint prevents the accumulation of replication stress-induced DNA damage and the potential ensuing genome instability. A critical role for post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, in the replication stress checkpoint response has been well established. However, recent work has revealed an important role for transcription in the cellular response to DNA replication stress. In this review, we will provide an overview of current knowledge of the cellular response to DNA replication stress with a specific focus on the DNA replication stress checkpoint transcriptional response and its role in the prevention of replication stress-induced DNA damage.

  3. The Role of the Transcriptional Response to DNA Replication Stress

    PubMed Central

    Herlihy, Anna E.; de Bruin, Robertus A.M.

    2017-01-01

    During DNA replication many factors can result in DNA replication stress. The DNA replication stress checkpoint prevents the accumulation of replication stress-induced DNA damage and the potential ensuing genome instability. A critical role for post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, in the replication stress checkpoint response has been well established. However, recent work has revealed an important role for transcription in the cellular response to DNA replication stress. In this review, we will provide an overview of current knowledge of the cellular response to DNA replication stress with a specific focus on the DNA replication stress checkpoint transcriptional response and its role in the prevention of replication stress-induced DNA damage. PMID:28257104

  4. Replication protein A binds to regulatory elements in yeast DNA repair and DNA metabolism genes.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, K K; Samson, L

    1995-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae responds to DNA damage by arresting cell cycle progression (thereby preventing the replication and segregation of damaged chromosomes) and by inducing the expression of numerous genes, some of which are involved in DNA repair, DNA replication, and DNA metabolism. Induction of the S. cerevisiae 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase repair gene (MAG) by DNA-damaging agents requires one upstream activating sequence (UAS) and two upstream repressing sequences (URS1 and URS2) in the MAG promoter. Sequences similar to the MAG URS elements are present in at least 11 other S. cerevisiae DNA repair and metabolism genes. Replication protein A (Rpa) is known as a single-stranded-DNA-binding protein that is involved in the initiation and elongation steps of DNA replication, nucleotide excision repair, and homologous recombination. We now show that the MAG URS1 and URS2 elements form similar double-stranded, sequence-specific, DNA-protein complexes and that both complexes contain Rpa. Moreover, Rpa appears to bind the MAG URS1-like elements found upstream of 11 other DNA repair and DNA metabolism genes. These results lead us to hypothesize that Rpa may be involved in the regulation of a number of DNA repair and DNA metabolism genes. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7761422

  5. DNA replication stress and cancer: cause or cure?

    PubMed

    Taylor, Elaine M; Lindsay, Howard D

    2016-01-01

    There is an extensive and growing body of evidence that DNA replication stress is a major driver in the development and progression of many cancers, and that these cancers rely heavily on replication stress response pathways for their continued proliferation. This raises the possibility that the pathways that ordinarily protect cells from the accumulation of cancer-causing mutations may actually prove to be effective therapeutic targets for a wide range of malignancies. In this review, we explore the mechanisms by which sustained proliferation can lead to replication stress and genome instability, and discuss how the pattern of mutations observed in human cancers is supportive of this oncogene-induced replication stress model. Finally, we go on to consider the implications of replication stress both as a prognostic indicator and, more encouragingly, as a potential target in cancer treatment.

  6. Alphaherpesvirus DNA replication in dissociated human trigeminal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Cohrs, Randall J; Badani, Hussain; Bos, Nathan; Scianna, Charles; Hoskins, Ian; Baird, Nicholas L; Gilden, Don

    2016-10-01

    Analysis of the frequency and PCR-quantifiable abundance of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) DNA in multiple biological replicates of cells from dissociated randomly distributed human trigeminal ganglia (TG) of four subjects revealed an increase in both parameters and in both viruses during 5 days of culture, with no further change by 10 days. Dissociated TG provides a platform to analyze initiation of latent virus DNA replication within 5 days of culture.

  7. Replication of linear duplex DNA in vitro with bacteriophage T5 DNA polymerase

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimura, R. K.; Das, S. K.; Allison, D. P.; Roop, B. C.

    1980-01-01

    Two sets of experiments are presented that attempt to contribute to understanding the mechanisms of DNA replication. The specific areas discussed are fidelity of DNA replication and initiation of replication of duplex DNA. (ACR)

  8. Mammalian RAD52 Functions in Break-Induced Replication Repair of Collapsed DNA Replication Forks.

    PubMed

    Sotiriou, Sotirios K; Kamileri, Irene; Lugli, Natalia; Evangelou, Konstantinos; Da-Ré, Caterina; Huber, Florian; Padayachy, Laura; Tardy, Sebastien; Nicati, Noemie L; Barriot, Samia; Ochs, Fena; Lukas, Claudia; Lukas, Jiri; Gorgoulis, Vassilis G; Scapozza, Leonardo; Halazonetis, Thanos D

    2016-12-15

    Human cancers are characterized by the presence of oncogene-induced DNA replication stress (DRS), making them dependent on repair pathways such as break-induced replication (BIR) for damaged DNA replication forks. To better understand BIR, we performed a targeted siRNA screen for genes whose depletion inhibited G1 to S phase progression when oncogenic cyclin E was overexpressed. RAD52, a gene dispensable for normal development in mice, was among the top hits. In cells in which fork collapse was induced by oncogenes or chemicals, the Rad52 protein localized to DRS foci. Depletion of Rad52 by siRNA or knockout of the gene by CRISPR/Cas9 compromised restart of collapsed forks and led to DNA damage in cells experiencing DRS. Furthermore, in cancer-prone, heterozygous APC mutant mice, homozygous deletion of the Rad52 gene suppressed tumor growth and prolonged lifespan. We therefore propose that mammalian RAD52 facilitates repair of collapsed DNA replication forks in cancer cells.

  9. Simvastatin suppresses the DNA replication licensing factor MCM7 and inhibits the growth of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zheyong; Li, Wenjie; Liu, Jie; Li, Juan; He, Fang; Jiang, Yina; Yang, Lu; Li, Pingping; Wang, Bo; Wang, Yaochun; Ren, Yu; Yang, Jin; Luo, Zhijun; Vaziri, Cyrus; Liu, Peijun

    2017-01-01

    Acquired tamoxifen resistance (TamR) remains a major challenge in breast cancer endocrine therapy. The mechanism of acquiring tamoxifen resistance remains elusive, and no effective drugs are available. In this investigation, we determined that the expression of the DNA damage marker γH2AX is upregulated under minichromosome maintenance protein 7 (MCM7) knockdown in phospho Ser807/811-retinoblastoma protein (p-Rb) defect cells. In addition, the expression of p-Rb was lower in TamR cells than in parental cells, and the expression of γH2AX was significantly upregulated when MCM7 was knocked down in TamR cells. Simvastatin, an agent for hypercholesterolemia treatment, activated the MCM7/p-RB/γH2AX axis and induced DNA damage in TamR cells, especially when combined with tamoxifen. Finally, in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that simvastatin combined with tamoxifen increased TamR cell apoptosis and inhibited xenograft growth. In conclusion, simvastatin may suppress TamR cell growth by inhibiting MCM7 and Rb and subsequently inducing DNA damage. PMID:28150753

  10. Histone Modification Associated with Initiation of DNA Replication | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Before cells are able to divide, they must first duplicate their chromosomes accurately. DNA replication and packaging of DNA into chromosomes by histone proteins need to be coordinated by the cell to ensure proper transmission of genetic and epigenetic information to the next generation. Mammalian DNA replication begins at specific chromosomal sites, called replication origins, which are located throughout the genome. The replication origins are tightly regulated to start replication only once per cell division so that genomic stability is maintained and cancer development is prevented.

  11. Maintaining Epigenetic Inheritance During DNA Replication in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias, Francisco M.; Cerdán, Pablo D.

    2016-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic stresses alter the pattern of gene expression in plants. Depending on the frequency and duration of stress events, the effects on the transcriptional state of genes are “remembered” temporally or transmitted to daughter cells and, in some instances, even to offspring (transgenerational epigenetic inheritance). This “memory” effect, which can be found even in the absence of the original stress, has an epigenetic basis, through molecular mechanisms that take place at the chromatin and DNA level but do not imply changes in the DNA sequence. Many epigenetic mechanisms have been described and involve covalent modifications on the DNA and histones, such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation and methylation, and RNAi dependent silencing mechanisms. Some of these chromatin modifications need to be stable through cell division in order to be truly epigenetic. During DNA replication, histones are recycled during the formation of the new nucleosomes and this process is tightly regulated. Perturbations to the DNA replication process and/or the recycling of histones lead to epigenetic changes. In this mini-review, we discuss recent evidence aimed at linking DNA replication process to epigenetic inheritance in plants. PMID:26870059

  12. The structure and function of replication protein A in DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Aishwarya; Borgstahl, Gloria E O

    2012-01-01

    In all organisms from bacteria and archaea to eukarya, single-stranded DNA binding proteins play an essential role in most, if not all, nuclear metabolism involving single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Replication protein A (RPA), the major eukaryotic ssDNA binding protein, has two important roles in DNA metabolism: (1) in binding ssDNA to protect it and to keep it unfolded, and (2) in coordinating the assembly and disassembly of numerous proteins and protein complexes during processes such as DNA replication. Since its discovery as a vital player in the process of replication, RPAs roles in recombination and DNA repair quickly became evident. This chapter summarizes the current understanding of RPA's roles in replication by reviewing the available structural data, DNA-binding properties, interactions with various replication proteins, and interactions with DNA repair proteins when DNA replication is stalled.

  13. Autonomous replication of plasmids bearing monkey DNA origin-enriched sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Frappier, L.; Zannis-Hadjopoulos, M.

    1987-10-01

    Twelve clones of origin-enriched sequences (ORS) isolated from early replicating monkey (CV-1) DNA were examined for transient episomal replication in transfected CV-1, COS-7, and HeLa cells. Plasmid DNA was isolated at time intervals after transfection and screened by the Dpn I resistance assay or by the bromodeoxyuridine substitution assay to differentiate between input and replicated DNA. The authors have identified four monkey ORS (ORS3, -8, -9, and -12) that can support plasmid replication in mammalian cells. This replication is carried out in a controlled and semiconservative manner characteristic of mammalian replicons. ORS replication was most efficient in HeLa cells. Electron microscopy showed ORS8 and ORS12 plasmids of the correct size with replication bubbles. Using a unique restriction site in ORS12, we have mapped the replication bubble within the monkey DNA sequence.

  14. Exponential DNA Replication by Laminar Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Dieter; Goddard, Noel L.; Libchaber, Albert

    2003-10-01

    It is shown that laminar thermal convection can drive a chain reaction of DNA replication. The convection is triggered by a constant horizontal temperature gradient, moving molecules along stationary paths between hot and cold regions. This implements the temperature cycling for the classical polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplification is shown to be exponential and reaches 100 000-fold gains within 25min. Besides direct applications, the mechanism might have implications for the molecular evolution of life.

  15. Replication fork progression is paused in two large chromosomal zones flanking the DNA replication origin in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Masahiro Tatsumi; Oshima, Taku; Chumsakul, Onuma; Ishikawa, Shu; Maki, Hisaji

    2016-08-01

    Although the speed of nascent DNA synthesis at individual replication forks is relatively uniform in bacterial cells, the dynamics of replication fork progression on the chromosome are hampered by a variety of natural impediments. Genome replication dynamics can be directly measured from an exponentially growing cell population by sequencing newly synthesized DNA strands that were specifically pulse-labeled with the thymidine analogue 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). However, a short pulse labeling with BrdU is impracticable for bacteria because of poor incorporation of BrdU into the cells, and thus, the genomewide dynamics of bacterial DNA replication remain undetermined. Using a new thymidine-requiring Escherichia coli strain, eCOMB, and high-throughput sequencing, we succeeded in determining the genomewide replication profile in bacterial cells. We also found that fork progression is paused in two ~200-kb chromosomal zones that flank the replication origin in the growing cells. This origin-proximal obstruction to fork progression was overcome by an increased thymidine concentration in the culture medium and enhanced by inhibition of transcription. These indicate that DNA replication near the origin is sensitive to the impediments to fork progression, namely a scarcity of the DNA precursor deoxythymidine triphosphate and probable conflicts between replication and transcription machineries.

  16. Analysis of JC virus DNA replication using a quantitative and high-throughput assay.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jong; Phelan, Paul J; Chhum, Panharith; Bashkenova, Nazym; Yim, Sung; Parker, Robert; Gagnon, David; Gjoerup, Ole; Archambault, Jacques; Bullock, Peter A

    2014-11-01

    Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) is caused by lytic replication of JC virus (JCV) in specific cells of the central nervous system. Like other polyomaviruses, JCV encodes a large T-antigen helicase needed for replication of the viral DNA. Here, we report the development of a luciferase-based, quantitative and high-throughput assay of JCV DNA replication in C33A cells, which, unlike the glial cell lines Hs 683 and U87, accumulate high levels of nuclear T-ag needed for robust replication. Using this assay, we investigated the requirement for different domains of T-ag, and for specific sequences within and flanking the viral origin, in JCV DNA replication. Beyond providing validation of the assay, these studies revealed an important stimulatory role of the transcription factor NF1 in JCV DNA replication. Finally, we show that the assay can be used for inhibitor testing, highlighting its value for the identification of antiviral drugs targeting JCV DNA replication.

  17. Analysis of JC virus DNA replication using a quantitative and high-throughput assay

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Jong; Phelan, Paul J.; Chhum, Panharith; Bashkenova, Nazym; Yim, Sung; Parker, Robert; Gagnon, David; Gjoerup, Ole; Archambault, Jacques; Bullock, Peter A.

    2014-11-15

    Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) is caused by lytic replication of JC virus (JCV) in specific cells of the central nervous system. Like other polyomaviruses, JCV encodes a large T-antigen helicase needed for replication of the viral DNA. Here, we report the development of a luciferase-based, quantitative and high-throughput assay of JCV DNA replication in C33A cells, which, unlike the glial cell lines Hs 683 and U87, accumulate high levels of nuclear T-ag needed for robust replication. Using this assay, we investigated the requirement for different domains of T-ag, and for specific sequences within and flanking the viral origin, in JCV DNA replication. Beyond providing validation of the assay, these studies revealed an important stimulatory role of the transcription factor NF1 in JCV DNA replication. Finally, we show that the assay can be used for inhibitor testing, highlighting its value for the identification of antiviral drugs targeting JCV DNA replication. - Highlights: • Development of a high-throughput screening assay for JCV DNA replication using C33A cells. • Evidence that T-ag fails to accumulate in the nuclei of established glioma cell lines. • Evidence that NF-1 directly promotes JCV DNA replication in C33A cells. • Proof-of-concept that the HTS assay can be used to identify pharmacological inhibitor of JCV DNA replication.

  18. Baculovirus replication: characterization of DNA and proteins synthesized by a nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Lymantria dispar, the gypsy moth, in a homologous cell line

    SciTech Connect

    McClintock, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    A multiple-embedded nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (LdMNPV), is used for biological control. However, LdMNPV has low natural virulence and a long infection cycle in relation to other NPVs. Therefore, the replicative cycle of LdMNPV was investigated using a homologous cell line, IPLB-LD-652Y. Based on analyses of virus growth curves LdMNPV nonoccluded virus and polyhedral inclusion bodies appeared approximately 20 and 50 hr postinfection (p.i.), respectively. LdMNPV polypeptides, identified by autoradiography of (/sup 35/S)-methionine labeled fractions in SDS-PAGE, were synthesized in sequential phases: (1) an early ..cap alpha.. phase of replication (4 polypeptides from 4 to 12 hr p.i.), (2) an intermediate ..beta.. phase (20 polypeptides from 12 to 24 hr p.i.), and a late ..gamma.. phase (4 polypeptides from 24 to 28 hr p.i.). In infected cells at least four polypeptides were post-translational cleaved and/or modified. Pulse-labeling with (/sup 3/H)-mannose, (/sup 3/H)-N-acetyl-glucosamine or (/sup 32/P)-monosodium phosphate revealed several viral polypeptides which were glycosylated and/or phosphorylated. DNA:DNA dot hybridization experiments suggested that LdMNPV DNA synthesis was initiated between 12 to 16 hr p.i., increasing significantly thereafter.

  19. The MluI cell cycle box (MCB) motifs, but not damage-responsive elements (DREs), are responsible for the transcriptional induction of the rhp51+ gene in response to DNA replication stress.

    PubMed

    Sartagul, Wugangerile; Zhou, Xin; Yamada, Yuki; Ma, Ning; Tanaka, Katsunori; Furuyashiki, Tomoyuki; Ma, Yan

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication stress induces the transcriptional activation of rhp51+, a fission yeast recA homolog required for repair of DNA double strand breaks. However, the mechanism by which DNA replication stress activates rhp51+ transcription is not understood. The promoter region of rhp51+ contains two damage-responsive elements (DREs) and two MluI cell cycle box (MCB) motifs. Using luciferase reporter assays, we examined the role of these elements in rhp51+ transcription. The full-length rhp51+ promoter and a promoter fragment containing MCB motifs only, but not a fragment containing DREs, mediated transcriptional activation upon DNA replication stress. Removal of the MCB motifs from the rhp51+ promoter abolished the induction of rhp51+ transcription by DNA replication stress. Consistent with a role for MCB motifs in rhp51+ transcription activation, deletion of the MBF (MCB-binding factor) co-repressors Nrm1 and Yox1 precluded rhp51+ transcriptional induction in response to DNA replication stress. Using cells deficient in checkpoint signaling molecules, we found that the Rad3-Cds1/Chk1 pathway partially mediated rhp51+ transcription in response to DNA replication stress, suggesting the involvement of unidentified checkpoint signaling pathways. Because MBF is critical for G1/S transcription, we examined how the cell cycle affected rhp51+ transcription. The transcription of rhp51+ and cdc18+, an MBF-dependent G1/S gene, peaked simultaneously in synchronized cdc25-22 cells. Furthermore, DNA replication stress maintained transcription of rhp51+ similarly to cdc18+. Collectively, these results suggest that MBF and its regulators mediate rhp51+ transcription in response to DNA replication stress, and underlie rhp51+ transcription at the G1/S transition.

  20. Tumor Suppression by BRCA-1: A Critical Role at DNA Replication Forks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    free extracts derived from Xenopus laevis eggs that support: 1. Semi-conservative, cell-cycle regulated DNA replication; 2. Many facets of the DNA...extracts derived from Xenopus laevis eggs that support: 1. Semi-conservative, cell-cycle regulated DNA replication; 2. Many facets of the DNA damage...assess the consequences of complete loss of BRCA1/BARD1 on fork progression and stalling. BODY Cell-free systems derived from Xenopus eggs can

  1. Blue LED inhibits the growth of Porphyromonas gingivalis by suppressing the expression of genes associated with DNA replication and cell division.

    PubMed

    Chui, Chanthoeun; Hiratsuka, Koichi; Aoki, Akira; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Abiko, Yoshimitsu; Izumi, Yuichi

    2012-12-01

    Blue light has been employed or investigated in both the medical and dental fields. Many studies have so far been reported a bactericidal effect of blue light emitting diodes (LED). However, it is still unclear whether exposure to