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Sample records for cell expressed p53

  1. Glioblastoma cells inhibit astrocytic p53-expression favoring cancer malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Biasoli, D; Sobrinho, M F; da Fonseca, A C C; de Matos, D G; Romão, L; de Moraes Maciel, R; Rehen, S K; Moura-Neto, V; Borges, H L; Lima, F R S

    2014-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment has a dynamic and usually cancer-promoting function during all tumorigenic steps. Glioblastoma (GBM) is a fatal tumor of the central nervous system, in which a substantial number of non-tumoral infiltrated cells can be found. Astrocytes neighboring these tumor cells have a particular reactive phenotype and can enhance GBM malignancy by inducing aberrant cell proliferation and invasion. The tumor suppressor p53 has a potential non-cell autonomous function by modulating the expression of secreted proteins that influence neighbor cells. In this work, we investigated the role of p53 on the crosstalk between GBM cells and astrocytes. We show that extracellular matrix (ECM) from p53+/− astrocytes is richer in laminin and fibronectin, compared with ECM from p53+/+ astrocytes. In addition, ECM from p53+/− astrocytes increases the survival and the expression of mesenchymal markers in GBM cells, which suggests haploinsufficient phenotype of the p53+/– microenvironment. Importantly, conditioned medium from GBM cells blocks the expression of p53 in p53+/+ astrocytes, even when DNA was damaged. These results suggest that GBM cells create a dysfunctional microenvironment based on the impairment of p53 expression that in turns exacerbates tumor endurance. PMID:25329722

  2. Knockdown of p53 suppresses Nanog expression in embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelalim, Essam Mohamed; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •We investigate the role of p53 in ESCs in the absence of DNA damage. •p53 knockdown suppresses ESC proliferation. •p53 knockdown downregulates Nanog expression. •p53 is essential for mouse ESC self-renewal. -- Abstract: Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) express high levels of cytoplasmic p53. Exposure of mouse ESCs to DNA damage leads to activation of p53, inducing Nanog suppression. In contrast to earlier studies, we recently reported that chemical inhibition of p53 suppresses ESC proliferation. Here, we confirm that p53 signaling is involved in the maintenance of mouse ESC self-renewal. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of p53 induced downregulation of p21 and defects in ESC proliferation. Furthermore, p53 knockdown resulted in a significant downregulation in Nanog expression at 24 and 48 h post-transfection. p53 knockdown also caused a reduction in Oct4 expression at 48 h post-transfection. Conversely, exposure of ESCs to DNA damage caused a higher reduction of Nanog expression in control siRNA-treated cells than in p53 siRNA-treated cells. These data show that in the absence of DNA damage, p53 is required for the maintenance of mouse ESC self-renewal by regulating Nanog expression.

  3. p53 directly suppresses BNIP3 expression to protect against hypoxia-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xi; Liu, Xing; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Wuhan

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxia stabilizes the tumour suppressor p53, allowing it to function primarily as a transrepressor; however, the function of p53 during hypoxia remains unclear. In this study, we showed that p53 suppressed BNIP3 expression by directly binding to the p53-response element motif and recruiting corepressor mSin3a to the BNIP3 promoter. The DNA-binding site of p53 must remain intact for the protein to suppress the BNIP3 promoter. In addition, taking advantage of zebrafish as an in vivo model, we confirmed that zebrafish nip3a, a homologous gene of mammalian BNIP3, was indeed induced by hypoxia and p53 mutation/knockdown enhanced nip3a expression under hypoxia resulted in cell death enhancement in p53 mutant embryos. Furthermore, p53 protected against hypoxia-induced cell death mediated by p53 suppression of BNIP3 as illustrated by p53 knockdown/loss assays in both human cell lines and zebrafish model, which is in contrast to the traditional pro-apoptotic role of p53. Our results suggest a novel function of p53 in hypoxia-induced cell death, leading to the development of new treatments for ischaemic heart disease and cerebral stoke. PMID:21792176

  4. Expression of the human tumor suppressor p53 induces cell death in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Abdelmoula-Souissi, Salma; Mabrouk, Imed; Gargouri, Ali; Mokdad-Gargouri, Raja

    2012-02-01

    The human tumor suppressor p53 is known as guardian of genome because of its involvement in many signals related to cell life or death. In this work, we report that human p53 induces cell death in the yeast Pichia pastoris. We showed a growth inhibition effect, which increased with the p53 protein expression level in recombinant Mut(s) (methanol utilization slow) strain of Pichia. However, no effect of p53 was observed in recombinant strain of Mut(+) (methanol utilization plus) phenotype. Interestingly, human p53 induces cell death in recombinant strains Mut(s) with characteristic markers of apoptosis such as DNA fragmentation, exposure of phosphatidylserine, and reactive oxygen species generation. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that human p53 is biologically active in this heterologous context. Thus, we propose that P. pastoris could be a useful tool to better understand the biological function of human p53.

  5. p53 tumour suppressor gene expression in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bartz, C; Ziske, C; Wiedenmann, B; Moelling, K

    1996-01-01

    Neuroendocrine pancreatic tumours grow slower and metastasise later than ductal and acinar carcinomas. The expression of the p53 tumour suppressor gene in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour cells is unknown. Pancreatic neuroendocrine cell lines (n = 5) and human tumour tissues (n = 19) were studied for changed p53 coding sequence, transcription, and translation. Proliferative activity of tumour cells was determined analysing Ki-67 expression. No mutation in the p53 nucleotide sequence of neuroendocrine tumour cell was found. However, an overexpression of p53 could be detected in neuroendocrine pancreatic tumour cell lines at a protein level. As no p53 mutations were seen, it is suggested that post-translational events can also lead to an overexpression of p53. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8675094

  6. Jasmonates induce nonapoptotic death in high-resistance mutant p53-expressing B-lymphoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Fingrut, Orit; Reischer, Dorit; Rotem, Ronit; Goldin, Natalia; Altboum, Irit; Zan-Bar, Israel; Flescher, Eliezer

    2005-01-01

    Mutations in p53, a tumor suppressor gene, occur in more than half of human cancers. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that jasmonates (novel anticancer agents) can induce death in mutated p53-expressing cells. Two clones of B-lymphoma cells were studied, one expressing wild-type (wt) p53 and the other expressing mutated p53. Jasmonic acid and methyl jasmonate (0.25–3 mM) were each equally cytotoxic to both clones, whereas mutant p53-expressing cells were resistant to treatment with the radiomimetic agent neocarzinostatin and the chemotherapeutic agent bleomycin. Neocarzinostatin and bleomycin induced an elevation in the p53 levels in wt p53-expressing cells, whereas methyl jasmonate did not. Methyl jasmonate induced mostly apoptotic death in the wt p53-expressing cells, while no signs of early apoptosis were detected in mutant p53-expressing cells. In contrast, neocarzinostatin and bleomycin induced death only in wt p53-expressing cells, in an apoptotic mode. Methyl jasmonate induced a rapid depletion of ATP in both clones. In both clones, oligomycin (a mitochondrial ATP synthase inhibitor) did not increase ATP depletion induced by methyl jasmonate, whereas inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxyglucose did. High glucose levels protected both clones from methyl jasmonate-induced ATP depletion (and reduced methyl jasmonate-induced cytotoxicity), whereas high levels of pyruvate did not. These results suggest that methyl jasmonate induces ATP depletion mostly by compromising oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. In conclusion, jasmonates can circumvent the resistance of mutant p53-expressing cells towards chemotherapy by inducing a nonapoptotic cell death. PMID:16170329

  7. Gene expression profiling analysis reveals arsenic-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in p53-proficient and p53-deficient cells through differential gene pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Xiaozhong Robinson, Joshua F.; Gribble, Elizabeth; Hong, Sung Woo; Sidhu, Jaspreet S.; Faustman, Elaine M.

    2008-12-15

    Arsenic (As) is a well-known environmental toxicant and carcinogen as well as an effective chemotherapeutic agent. The underlying mechanism of this dual capability, however, is not fully understood. Tumor suppressor gene p53, a pivotal cell cycle checkpoint signaling protein, has been hypothesized to play a possible role in mediating As-induced toxicity and therapeutic efficiency. In this study, we found that arsenite (As{sup 3+}) induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner in both p53{sup +/+} and p53{sup -/-} mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). There was, however, a distinction between genotypes in the apoptotic response, with a more prominent induction of caspase-3 in the p53{sup -/-} cells than in the p53{sup +/+} cells. To examine this difference further, a systems-based genomic analysis was conducted comparing the critical molecular mechanisms between the p53 genotypes in response to As{sup 3+}. A significant alteration in the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response pathway was found in both genotypes. In p53{sup +/+} MEFs, As{sup 3+} induced p53-dependent gene expression alterations in DNA damage and cell cycle regulation genes. However, in the p53{sup -/-} MEFs, As{sup 3+} induced a significant up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes (Noxa) and down-regulation of genes in immune modulation. Our findings demonstrate that As-induced cell death occurs through a p53-independent pathway in p53 deficient cells while apoptosis induction occurs through p53-dependent pathway in normal tissue. This difference in the mechanism of apoptotic responses between the genotypes provides important information regarding the apparent dichotomy of arsenic's dual mechanisms, and potentially leads to further advancement of its utility as a chemotherapeutic agent.

  8. Wild-type p53 controls cell motility and invasion by dual regulation of MET expression

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Chang-Il; Matoso, Andres; Corney, David C.; Flesken-Nikitin, Andrea; Körner, Stefanie; Wang, Wei; Boccaccio, Carla; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S.; Comoglio, Paolo M.; Hermeking, Heiko; Nikitin, Alexander Yu.

    2011-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that p53 mutations are responsible not only for growth of primary tumors but also for their dissemination. However, mechanisms involved in p53-mediated control of cell motility and invasion remain poorly understood. By using the primary ovarian surface epithelium cell culture, we show that conditional inactivation of p53 or expression of its mutant forms results in overexpression of MET receptor tyrosine kinase, a crucial regulator of invasive growth. At the same time, cells acquire increased MET-dependent motility and invasion. Wild-type p53 negatively regulates MET expression by two mechanisms: (i) transactivation of MET-targeting miR-34, and (ii) inhibition of SP1 binding to MET promoter. Both mechanisms are not functional in p53 absence, but mutant p53 proteins retain partial MET promoter suppression. Accordingly, MET overexpression, cell motility, and invasion are particularly high in p53-null cells. These results identify MET as a critical effector of p53 and suggest that inhibition of MET may be an effective antimetastatic approach to treat cancers with p53 mutations. These results also show that the extent of advanced cancer traits, such as invasion, may be determined by alterations in individual components of p53/MET regulatory network. PMID:21831840

  9. Mutant p53 expression in fallopian tube epithelium drives cell migration.

    PubMed

    Quartuccio, Suzanne M; Karthikeyan, Subbulakshmi; Eddie, Sharon L; Lantvit, Daniel D; Ó hAinmhire, Eoghainín; Modi, Dimple A; Wei, Jian-Jun; Burdette, Joanna E

    2015-10-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death among US women. Evidence supports the hypothesis that high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSC) may originate in the distal end of the fallopian tube. Although a heterogeneous disease, 96% of HGSC contain mutations in p53. In addition, the "p53 signature," or overexpression of p53 protein (usually associated with mutation), is a potential precursor lesion of fallopian tube derived HGSC suggesting an essential role for p53 mutation in early serous tumorigenesis. To further clarify p53-mutation dependent effects on cells, murine oviductal epithelial cells (MOE) were stably transfected with a construct encoding for the R273H DNA binding domain mutation in p53, the most common mutation in HGSC. Mutation in p53 was not sufficient to transform MOE cells but did significantly increase cell migration. A similar p53 mutation in murine ovarian surface epithelium (MOSE), another potential progenitor cell for serous cancer, was not sufficient to transform the cells nor change migration suggesting tissue specific effects of p53 mutation. Microarray data confirmed expression changes of pro-migratory genes in p53(R273H) MOE compared to parental cells, which could be reversed by suppressing Slug expression. Combining p53(R273H) with KRAS(G12V) activation caused transformation of MOE into high-grade sarcomatoid carcinoma when xenografted into nude mice. Elucidating the specific role of p53(R273H) in the fallopian tube will improve understanding of changes at the earliest stage of transformation. This information can help develop chemopreventative strategies to prevent the accumulation of additional mutations and reverse progression of the "p53 signature" thereby, improving survival rates. © 2015 UICC.

  10. p53 elevation in human cells halt SV40 infection by inhibiting T-ag expression

    PubMed Central

    Drayman, Nir; Ben-nun-Shaul, Orly; Butin-Israeli, Veronika; Srivastava, Rohit; Rubinstein, Ariel M.; Mock, Caroline S.; Elyada, Ela; Ben-Neriah, Yinon; Lahav, Galit; Oppenheim, Ariella

    2016-01-01

    SV40 large T-antigen (T-ag) has been known for decades to inactivate the tumor suppressor p53 by sequestration and additional mechanisms. Our present study revealed that the struggle between p53 and T-ag begins very early in the infection cycle. We found that p53 is activated early after SV40 infection and defends the host against the infection. Using live cell imaging and single cell analyses we found that p53 dynamics are variable among individual cells, with only a subset of cells activating p53 immediately after SV40 infection. This cell-to-cell variabilty had clear consequences on the outcome of the infection. None of the cells with elevated p53 at the beginning of the infection proceeded to express T-ag, suggesting a p53-dependent decision between abortive and productive infection. In addition, we show that artificial elevation of p53 levels prior to the infection reduces infection efficiency, supporting a role for p53 in defending against SV40. We further found that the p53-mediated host defense mechanism against SV40 is not facilitated by apoptosis nor via interferon-stimulated genes. Instead p53 binds to the viral DNA at the T-ag promoter region, prevents its transcriptional activation by Sp1, and halts the progress of the infection. These findings shed new light on the long studied struggle between SV40 T-ag and p53, as developed during virus-host coevolution. Our studies indicate that the fate of SV40 infection is determined as soon as the viral DNA enters the nucleus, before the onset of viral gene expression. PMID:27462916

  11. Concurrent expression of heme oxygenase-1 and p53 in human retinal pigment epithelial cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang Yull; Jo, Hong Jae; Kim, Kang Mi; Song, Ju Dong; Chung, Hun Taeg; Park, Young Chul

    2008-01-25

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress-responsive protein that is known to regulate cellular functions such as cell proliferation, inflammation, and apoptosis. Here, we investigated the effects of HO activity on the expression of p53 in the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell line ARPE-19. Cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) induced the expression of both HO-1 and p53 without significant toxicity to the cells. In addition, the blockage of HO activity with the iron chelator DFO or with HO-1 siRNA inhibited the CoPP-induced expression of p53. Similarly, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), an inhibitor of HO, suppressed p53 expression in ARPE-19 cells, although ZnPP increased the level of HO-1 protein while inhibiting HO activity. Also, CoPP-induced p53 expression was not affected by the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Based on these results, we conclude that HO activity is involved in the regulation of p53 expression in a ROS-independent mechanism, and also suggest that the expression of p53 in ARPE-19 cells is associated with heme metabolites such as biliverdin/bilirubin, carbon monoxide, and iron produced by the activity of HO.

  12. Major deletions in the gene encoding the p53 tumor antigen cause lack of p53 expression in HL-60 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, D; Rotter, V

    1985-01-01

    The tumor antigen p53 is overproduced in transformed cells of various species, including man. HL-60 is an exceptional human tumor cell line that does not express this protein. Hybridization of polyadenylylated mRNA of these cells with a human p53 cDNA probe (p53-H14), which we cloned, had indicated a total absence of the mature-size (3.0 kilobases) or any aberrant p53 mRNA species. Analysis of the genomic HL-60 DNA indicated that the p53 gene in these cells was significantly altered. Most of the gene was deleted, and the residual p53 sequences of these cells, which show weak homology, mapped to the corresponding 5' region of the p53 gene. In agreement with previously documented results, we found that HL-60 cells have an amplified c-myc gene. We suggest that the deficiency of the p53 protein in HL-60 cells could have been overcome by using an alternative metabolic pathway. The c-myc product is a candidate for such an alternative protein. Images PMID:2858093

  13. Wild-type p53 induces diverse effects in 32D cells expressing different oncogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Soddu, S; Blandino, G; Scardigli, R; Martinelli, R; Rizzo, M G; Crescenzi, M; Sacchi, A

    1996-01-01

    Expression of exogenous wild-type (wt) p53 in different leukemia cell lines can induce growth arrest, apoptotic cell death, or cell differentiation. The hematopoietic cell lines that have been used so far to study wt p53 functions have in common the characteristic of not expressing endogenous p53. However, the mechanisms involved in the transformation of these cells are different, and the cells are at different stages of tumor progression. It can be postulated that each type of neoplastic cell offers a particular environment in which p53 might generate different effects. To test this hypothesis, we introduced individual oncogenes into untransformed, interleukin-3 (IL-3)-dependent myeloid precursor 32D cells to have a single transforming agent at a time. The effects induced by wt p53 overexpression were subsequently evaluated in each oncogene-expressing 32D derivative. We found that in not fully transformed, v-ras-expressing 32D cells, as already shown for the parental 32D cells, overexpression of the wt p53 gene caused no phenotypic changes and no reduction of the proliferative rate as long as the cells were maintained in their normal culture conditions (presence of IL-3 and serum). An accelerated rate of apoptosis was observed after IL-3 withdrawal. In contrast, in transformed, IL-3-independent 32D cells, wt p53 overexpression induced different effects. The v-abl-transformed cells manifested a reduction in growth rate, while the v-src-transformed cells underwent monocytic differentiation. These results show that the phenotype effects of wt p53 action(s) can vary as a function of the cellular environment. PMID:8552075

  14. Che-1 gene silencing induces osteosarcoma cell apoptosis by inhibiting mutant p53 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ming; Wang, Dan Li, Ning

    2016-04-22

    The transcriptional cofactor Che-1 is an RNA polymerase II (Pol II) which is involved in tumorigenesis, such as breast cancer and multiple myeloma. Che-1 can also regulate mutant p53 expression, which plays roles in many types of cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects and specific mechanism of Che-1 in the regulation of osteosarcoma (OS) cell growth. We found that Che-1 is highly expressed in several kinds of OS cells compared with osteoblast hFOB1.19 cells. MTT and flow cytometry assays showed that Che-1 depletion by siRNA markedly suppressed MG-63 and U2OS cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis. The chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay verified the presence of Che-1 on the p53 promoter in MG-63 and U2OS cells carrying mutant p53. Further studies showed that Che-1 depletion inhibited mutant p53 expression. Notably, our study showed that the loss of Che-1 inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis in MG-63 cells by decreasing the level of mutant p53. Therefore, these findings open the possibility that silencing of Che-1 will have therapeutic benefit in OS. - Highlights: • Che-1 is highly expressed in several kinds of OS cells. • Che-1 depletion suppressed MG-63 and U2OS cell growth. • Che-1 is existed in the p53 promoter in MG-63 and U2OS cells. • Che-1 depletion inhibited mutant p53 expression. • Che-1 depletion inhibits cell growth by decreasing the level of mutant p53.

  15. Alpha-particle-induced p53 protein expression in a rat lung epithelial cell strain.

    PubMed

    Hickman, A W; Jaramillo, R J; Lechner, J F; Johnson, N F

    1994-11-15

    Other investigators have shown that both sparsely ionizing and UV radiation cause cell cycle arrest that is associated with increased expression of wild-type p53 protein. The effect of exposure to alpha-particles from 238Pu on the induction of the p53 protein has now been examined in cultured lung epithelial cells derived from male F344 rats. The number of cells having increased levels of p53 protein was determined by flow cytometry after the cells had been stained with a monoclonal antibody to p53. alpha-Particle irradiation caused a dose-dependent increase in p53 protein levels detectable at doses as low as 0.6 cGy, with no evidence of a threshold. An increase in p53 protein also occurred in X-irradiated cells. However, no increase was seen in cells exposed to less than 10 cGy of X-rays, indicating the existence of a relatively higher DNA damage threshold for sparsely ionizing radiation. In addition, more cells exposed to low doses of alpha radiation had increased p53 protein levels than would be predicted based on the number of nuclei expected to be traversed by an alpha-particle, suggesting that alpha-particles cause genetic damage by mechanisms in addition to direct interactions with DNA.

  16. Expression of Ki67 and P53 in primary squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Mohamad Javad; Maghbul, Maryam; Azarpira, Negar; Khademi, Bighan

    2010-01-01

    We studied a series of untreated laryngeal carcinomas in an attempt to determine the relationship between Ki67 and p53 expression and clinicopathological findings. The relationship between expression of these markers in non-tumoral tissue was also evaluated in order to investigate the possible role of immunohistochemistry as a diagnostic aid in evaluating laryngeal biopsies. Samples from 54 patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were analyzed retrospectively. The uninvolved vocal cord was evaluated as a non-tumoral sample. Paraffin sections of tumors were immunohistochemically stained for p53 and Ki67 expression. Overall, p53 expression was found in 35 (64.8%) of the patients. There was a significant correlation among tumoral p53 expression and tumor location, tumor stage and lymph node involvement. Most grade I tumors had a Ki67 labeling index <50% and a labeling index ≥ 50 was found mainly in high-grade tumors. Tumoral Ki67 expression correlated significantly with tumor grade and mitotic count. There was no correlation between Ki67 labeling index and tumor region. In non-tumoral tissue, 95% of high-grade pre-neoplastic lesions revealed a high expression of Ki67. Non-tumoral p53 expression did not correlate with histological findings. p53 and Ki67 expression in tumoral tissue may be a prognostic marker in patients with laryngeal SCC. Evaluation of the proliferative index in biopsy samples of dysplastic laryngeal mucosa is potentially useful for predicting the progression toward carcinoma.

  17. p53-dependent expression of CXCR5 chemokine receptor in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mitkin, Nikita A; Hook, Christina D; Schwartz, Anton M; Biswas, Subir; Kochetkov, Dmitry V; Muratova, Alisa M; Afanasyeva, Marina A; Kravchenko, Julia E; Bhattacharyya, Arindam; Kuprash, Dmitry V

    2015-03-19

    Elevated expression of chemokine receptors in tumors has been reported in many instances and is related to a number of survival advantages for tumor cells including abnormal activation of prosurvival intracellular pathways. In this work we demonstrated an inverse correlation between expression levels of p53 tumor suppressor and CXCR5 chemokine receptor in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. Lentiviral transduction of MCF-7 cells with p53 shRNA led to elevated CXCR5 at both mRNA and protein levels. Functional activity of CXCR5 in p53-knockdown MCF-7 cells was also increased as shown by activation of target gene expression and chemotaxis in response to B-lymphocyte chemoattractant CXCL13. Using deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis of the cxcr5 gene promoter and enhancer elements, we demonstrated that p53 appears to act upon cxcr5 promoter indirectly, by repressing the activity of NFκB transcription factors. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter gene analysis, we further demonstrated that p65/RelA was able to bind the cxcr5 promoter in p53-dependent manner and to directly transactivate it when overexpressed. Through the described mechanism, elevated CXCR5 expression may contribute to abnormal cell survival and migration in breast tumors that lack functional p53.

  18. Expression of survivin and p53 modulates honokiol-induced apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ying-Jiun; Lin, Chien-I; Wang, Chia-Lin; Chao, Jui-I

    2014-11-01

    Honokiol is a small biphenolic compound, which exerts antitumor activities; however, the precise mechanism of honokiol-induced apoptosis in the human colorectal cancer cells remains unclear. Here, we show that survivin and p53 display the opposite role on the regulation of honokiol-induced apoptosis in the human colorectal cancer cells. Honokiol induced the cell death and apoptosis in various colorectal cancer cell lines. Moreover, honokiol elicited the extrinsic death receptor pathway of DR5 and caspase 8 and the intrinsic pathway of caspase 9. The common intrinsic and extrinsic downstream targets of activated caspase 3 and PARP protein cleavage were induced by honokiol. Interestingly, honokiol reduced anti-apoptotic survivin protein and gene expression. Transfection with a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-survivin-expressed vector increased the colorectal cancer cell viability and resisted the honokiol-induced apoptosis. Meantime, honokiol increased total p53 and the phosphorylated p53 proteins at Ser15 and Ser46. The p53-wild type colorectal cancer cells were exhibited greater cytotoxicity, apoptosis and survivin reduction than the p53-null cancer cells after treatment with honokiol. Together, these findings demonstrate that the existence of survivin and p53 can modulate the honokiol-induced apoptosis in the human colorectal cancer cells. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Regulation of Mutant p53 Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumaran, Reshma; Tan, Kah Hin; Miranda, Panimaya Jeffreena; Haupt, Sue; Haupt, Ygal

    2015-01-01

    For several decades, p53 has been detected in cancer biopsies by virtue of its high protein expression level which is considered indicative of mutation. Surprisingly, however, mouse genetic studies revealed that mutant p53 is inherently labile, similar to its wild type (wt) counterpart. Consistently, in response to stress conditions, both wt and mutant p53 accumulate in cells. While wt p53 returns to basal level following recovery from stress, mutant p53 remains stable. In part, this can be explained in mutant p53-expressing cells by the lack of an auto-regulatory loop with Mdm2 and other negative regulators, which are pivotal for wt p53 regulation. Further, additional protective mechanisms are acquired by mutant p53, largely mediated by the co-chaperones and their paralogs, the stress-induced heat shock proteins. Consequently, mutant p53 is accumulated in cancer cells in response to chronic stress and this accumulation is critical for its oncogenic gain of functions (GOF). Building on the extensive knowledge regarding wt p53, the regulation of mutant p53 is unraveling. In this review, we describe the current understanding on the major levels at which mutant p53 is regulated. These include the regulation of p53 protein levels by microRNA and by enzymes controlling p53 proteasomal degradation.

  20. Che-1 gene silencing induces osteosarcoma cell apoptosis by inhibiting mutant p53 expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Wang, Dan; Li, Ning

    2016-04-22

    The transcriptional cofactor Che-1 is an RNA polymerase II (Pol II) which is involved in tumorigenesis, such as breast cancer and multiple myeloma. Che-1 can also regulate mutant p53 expression, which plays roles in many types of cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects and specific mechanism of Che-1 in the regulation of osteosarcoma (OS) cell growth. We found that Che-1 is highly expressed in several kinds of OS cells compared with osteoblast hFOB1.19 cells. MTT and flow cytometry assays showed that Che-1 depletion by siRNA markedly suppressed MG-63 and U2OS cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis. The chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay verified the presence of Che-1 on the p53 promoter in MG-63 and U2OS cells carrying mutant p53. Further studies showed that Che-1 depletion inhibited mutant p53 expression. Notably, our study showed that the loss of Che-1 inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis in MG-63 cells by decreasing the level of mutant p53. Therefore, these findings open the possibility that silencing of Che-1 will have therapeutic benefit in OS.

  1. p53/PUMA expression in human pulmonary fibroblasts mediates cell activation and migration in silicosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Haijun; Dai, Xiaoniu; Fang, Shencun; Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Yingming; Yao, Honghong; Zhang, Xilong; Chao, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytosis of SiO2 into the lung causes an inflammatory cascade that results in fibroblast proliferation and migration, followed by fibrosis. Clinical evidence has indicated that the activation of alveolar macrophages by SiO2 produces rapid and sustained inflammation characterized by the generation of monocyte chemotactic protein 1, which, in turn, induces fibrosis. However, the details of events downstream of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 activity in pulmonary fibroblasts remain unclear. Here, to elucidate the role of p53 in fibrosis induced by silica, both the upstream molecular mechanisms and the functional effects on cell proliferation and migration were investigated. Experiments using primary cultured adult human pulmonary fibroblasts led to the following results: 1) SiO2 treatment resulted in a rapid and sustained increase in p53 and PUMA protein levels; 2) the MAPK and PI3K pathways were involved in the SiO2-induced alteration of p53 and PUMA expression; and 3) RNA interference targeting p53 and PUMA prevented the SiO2-induced increases in fibroblast activation and migration. Our study elucidated a link between SiO2-induced p53/PUMA expression in fibroblasts and cell migration, thereby providing novel insight into the potential use of p53/PUMA in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for silicosis treatment. PMID:26576741

  2. ATF3 activates Stat3 phosphorylation through inhibition of p53 expression in skin cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhen-Feng; Ao, Jun-Hong; Zhang, Jie; Su, You-Ming; Yang, Rong-Ya

    2013-01-01

    ATF3, a member of the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors, has been found to be selectively induced by calcineurin/NFAT inhibition and to enhance keratinocyte tumor formation, although the precise role of ATF3 in human skin cancer and possible mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, clinical analysis of 30 skin cancer patients and 30 normal donors revealed that ATF3 was accumulated in skin cancer tissues. Functional assays demonstrated that ATF3 significantly promoted skin cancer cell proliferation. Mechanically, ATF3 activated Stat3 phosphorylation in skin cancer cell through regulation of p53 expression. Moreover, the promotion effect of ATF3 on skin cancer cell proliferation was dependent on the p53-Stat3 signaling cascade. Together, the results indicate that ATF3 might promote skin cancer cell proliferation and enhance skin keratinocyte tumor development through inhibiting p53 expression and then activating Stat3 phosphorylation.

  3. Effect of Thymoquinone on P53 Gene Expression and Consequence Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Dastjerdi, Mehdi Nikbakht; Mehdiabady, Ebrahim Momeni; Iranpour, Farhad Golshan; Bahramian, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nigella sativa has been a nutritional flavoring factor and natural treatment for many ailments for so many years in medical science. Earlier studies have been reported that thymoquinone (TQ), an active compound of its seed, contains anticancer properties. Previous studies have shown that TQ induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells but it is unclear the role of P53 in the apoptotic pathway. Hereby, this study reports the potency of TQ on expression of tumor suppressor gene P53 and apoptosis induction in breast cancer cell line Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7). Methods: MCF-7 cell line was cultured and treated with TQ, and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was carried out for evaluating the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values after 24 h of treatment. The percentage of apoptotic cells was measured by flow cytometry. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to estimate the messenger RNA expression of P53 in MCF-7 cell line at different times. Results: The IC50 value for the TQ in MCF-7 cells was 25 μM that determined using MTT assay. The flow cytometry and real-time PCR results showed that TQ could induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, and the P53 gene expression was dramatically up-regulated by ascending time, respectively. Hence, there was significant difference in 48 and 72 h. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that TQ could induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through up-regulation of P53 expression in breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) by time-dependent manner. PMID:27141285

  4. Interleukin-13 interferes with activation-induced t-cell apoptosis by repressing p53 expression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Xu, Ling-Zhi; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Gui; Geng, Xiao-Rui; Mo, Li-Hua; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2016-01-01

    The etiology and the underlying mechanism of CD4+ T-cell polarization are unclear. This study sought to investigate the mechanism by which interleukin (IL)-13 prevents the activation-induced apoptosis of CD4+ T cells. Here we report that CD4+ T cells expressed IL-13 receptor α2 in the intestine of sensitized mice. IL-13 suppressed both the activation-induced apoptosis of CD4+ T cells and the expression of p53 and FasL. Exposure to recombinant IL-13 inhibited activation-induced cell death (AICD) along with the expression of p53, caspase 3, and tumor necrosis factor-α in CD4+ T cells. Administration of an anti-IL-13 antibody enhanced the effect of specific immunotherapy on allergic inflammation in the mouse intestine, enforced the expression of p53 in intestinal CD4+ T cells, and enhanced the frequency of CD4+ T-cell apoptosis upon challenge with specific antigens. In summary, blocking IL-13 enhances the therapeutic effect of antigen-specific immunotherapy by regulating apoptosis and thereby enforcing AICD in CD4+ T cells. PMID:26189367

  5. Influenza A Viruses Control Expression of Proviral Human p53 Isoforms p53β and Δ133p53α

    PubMed Central

    Marcel, Virginie; Cartet, Gaëlle; Lane, David P.; Lina, Bruno; Rosa-Calatrava, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have described the role of p53 isoforms, including p53β and Δ133p53α, in the modulation of the activity of full-length p53, which regulates cell fate. In the context of influenza virus infection, an interplay between influenza viruses and p53 has been described, with p53 being involved in the antiviral response. However, the role of physiological p53 isoforms has never been explored in this context. Here, we demonstrate that p53 isoforms play a role in influenza A virus infection by using silencing and transient expression strategies in human lung epithelial cells. In addition, with the help of a panel of different influenza viruses from different subtypes, we also show that infection differentially regulates the expressions of p53β and Δ133p53α. Altogether, our results highlight the role of p53 isoforms in the viral cycle of influenza A viruses, with p53β and Δ133p53α acting as regulators of viral production in a p53-dependent manner. PMID:22647703

  6. DNA intercalator korkormicin A preferentially kills tumor cells expressing wild type p53.

    PubMed

    Kitagaki, Jirouta; Yang, Yili

    2011-10-14

    Korkormicin A belongs to a family of nature-produced cyclic depsipeptides. It has potent antitumor activity against both leukemia cell P388 and carcinoma cell M109. To further explore its potential as a cancer therapeutic, the mechanism of its antitumor activity was investigated. We found that korkormicin A can bind to DNA through intercalation. It also induces p53 phosphorylation, which leads to inhibition of p53 degradation and activation of p53-dependent transcription. Furthermore, korkormicin A preferentially induces apoptosis in transformed cells retaining wild type p53. As it has been shown that p53 usually induces apoptosis in transformed cells, but only growth arrest in untransformed cells, these results indicate that korkormicin A is a potential antitumor agent for cancers with wild type p53. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Cell cycle aberration in ameloblastoma and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor: As evidenced by the expression of p53 and survivin.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Zulfin; Niranjan, K C

    2015-01-01

    p53 and survivin are involved in cell cycle progression and inhibition of apoptosis, respectively. Survivin is a unique protein which functions in progression of cell division and inhibits apoptosis leading to cell proliferation and cell survival. According to the literature, mutation of p53 leads to promotion of survivin function. Thus, the importance of cell cycle aberration and uncontrolled proliferation resulting from mutation of p53 and up-regulation of survivin is discussed. To assess the role of p53 and survivin in ameloblastoma and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT). The percentages of positive tumor cells were considered for statistical evaluation. Nuclear labeling index for p53 and nuclear, cytoplasmic and combined labeling index for survivin was obtained from the stained slides. Immunohistochemical expression of p53 and survivin was done qualitatively and quantitatively in 25 cases each of ameloblastoma and AOT. Mann-Whitney U-test, Wilcoxon signed ranks test and Pearson's correlation test. Quantitatively, p53 and survivin expression was statistically significant in AOT (P = 0.003) and qualitatively, in ameloblastoma (P = 0.004). Survivin expression was significant (P = 0.002) between the study groups unlike that of p53 (P = 0.554). There was no much difference in p53 expression in ameloblastoma and AOT suggestive of cell cycle aberration in both the odontogenic tumors, but significant difference in survivin expression in ameloblastoma and AOT with higher percentage of positive cells in ameloblastoma may be indicative of an aggressive behavior of ameloblastoma.

  8. Senescence Process in Primary Wilms' Tumor Cell Culture Induced by p53 Independent p21 Expression.

    PubMed

    Theerakitthanakul, Korkiat; Khrueathong, Jeerasak; Kruatong, Jirasak; Graidist, Potchanapond; Raungrut, Pritsana; Kayasut, Kanita; Sangkhathat, Surasak

    2016-01-01

    Wilms tumor (WT) is an embryonal tumor occurring in developing kidney tissue. WT cells showing invasive cancer characteristics, also retain renal stem cell behaviours. In-vitro culture of WT is hampered by limited replicative potential. This study aimed to establish a longterm culture of WT cells to enable the study of molecular events to attempt to explain its cellular senescence. Primary cell cultures from fresh WT tumor specimen were established. Of 5 cultures tried, only 1 could be propagated for more than 7 passages. One culture, identified as PSU-SK-1, could be maintained > 35 passages and was then subjected to molecular characterization and evaluation for cancer characteristics. The cells consistently harbored concomitant mutations of CTNNB1 (Ser45Pro) and WT1 (Arg413Stop) thorough the cultivation. On Transwell invasion assays, the cells exhibited migration and invasion at 55% and 27% capability of the lung cancer cells, A549. On gelatin zymography, PSU-SK-1 showed high expression of the matrix metaloproteinase. The cells exhibited continuous proliferation with 24-hour doubling time until passages 28-30 when the growth slowed, showing increased cell size, retention of cells in G1/S proportion and positive β-galactosidase staining. As with those evidence of senescence in advanced cell passages, expression of p21 and cyclin D1 increased when the expression of β-catenin and its downstream protein, TCF, declined. There was also loss-of-expression of p53 in this cell line. In conclusion, cellular senescence was responsible for limited proliferation in the primary culture of WT, which was also associated with increased expression of p21 and was independent of p53 expression. Decreased activation of the Wnt signalling might explain the induction of p21 expression.

  9. Senescence Process in Primary Wilms' Tumor Cell Culture Induced by p53 Independent p21 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Theerakitthanakul, Korkiat; Saetang, Jirakrit; Kruatong, Jirasak; Graidist, Potchanapond; Raungrut, Pritsana; Kayasut, Kanita; Sangkhathat, Surasak

    2016-01-01

    Wilms tumor (WT) is an embryonal tumor occurring in developing kidney tissue. WT cells showing invasive cancer characteristics, also retain renal stem cell behaviours. In-vitro culture of WT is hampered by limited replicative potential. This study aimed to establish a longterm culture of WT cells to enable the study of molecular events to attempt to explain its cellular senescence. Methods: Primary cell cultures from fresh WT tumor specimen were established. Of 5 cultures tried, only 1 could be propagated for more than 7 passages. One culture, identified as PSU-SK-1, could be maintained > 35 passages and was then subjected to molecular characterization and evaluation for cancer characteristics. The cells consistently harbored concomitant mutations of CTNNB1 (Ser45Pro) and WT1 (Arg413Stop) thorough the cultivation. On Transwell invasion assays, the cells exhibited migration and invasion at 55% and 27% capability of the lung cancer cells, A549. On gelatin zymography, PSU-SK-1 showed high expression of the matrix metaloproteinase. The cells exhibited continuous proliferation with 24-hour doubling time until passages 28-30 when the growth slowed, showing increased cell size, retention of cells in G1/S proportion and positive β-galactosidase staining. As with those evidence of senescence in advanced cell passages, expression of p21 and cyclin D1 increased when the expression of β-catenin and its downstream protein, TCF, declined. There was also loss-of-expression of p53 in this cell line. In conclusion, cellular senescence was responsible for limited proliferation in the primary culture of WT, which was also associated with increased expression of p21 and was independent of p53 expression. Decreased activation of the Wnt signalling might explain the induction of p21 expression. PMID:27698927

  10. Construction and expression of a bispecific single-chain antibody that penetrates mutant p53 colon cancer cells and binds p53.

    PubMed

    Weisbart, Richard H; Wakelin, Rika; Chan, Grace; Miller, Carl W; Koeffler, Phillip H

    2004-10-01

    A bispecific, single-chain antibody Fv fragment (Bs-scFv) was constructed from a single-chain Fv fragment of mAb 3E10 that penetrates living cells and localizes in the nucleus, and a single-chain Fv fragment of a non-penetrating antibody, mAb PAb421 that binds the C-terminal of p53. PAb421 binding restores wild-type functions of some p53 mutants, including those of SW480 human colon cancer cells. The Bs-scFv penetrated SW480 cells and was cytotoxic, suggesting an ability to restore activity to mutant p53. COS-7 cells (monkey kidney cells with wild-type p53) served as a control since they are unresponsive to PAb421 due to the presence of SV40 large T antigen that inhibits binding of PAb421 to p53. Bs-scFv penetrated COS-7 cells but was not cytotoxic, thereby eliminating non-specific toxicity of Bs-scFv unrelated to binding p53. A single mutation in CDR1 of PAb421 VH eliminated binding of the Bs-scFv to p53 and abrogated cytotoxicity for SW480 cells without altering cellular penetration, further supporting the requirement of PAb421 binding to p53 for cytotoxicity. Our study demonstrates the use of an antibody that penetrates living cells in the design of a bispecific single chain antibody to target and restore the function of an intracellular protein.

  11. p53-dependent NDRG1 expression induces inhibition of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation but not apoptosis after polyamine depletion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ai-Hong; Rao, Jaladanki N; Zou, Tongtong; Liu, Lan; Marasa, Bernard S; Xiao, Lan; Chen, Jie; Turner, Douglas J; Wang, Jian-Ying

    2007-07-01

    Normal intestinal mucosal growth requires polyamines that regulate expression of various genes involved in cell proliferation, growth arrest, and apoptosis. Our previous studies have shown that polyamine depletion stabilizes p53, resulting in inhibition of intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation, but the exact downstream targets of induced p53 are still unclear. The NDRG1 (N-myc downregulated gene-1) gene encodes a growth-related protein, and its transcription can be induced in response to stress. The current study tests the hypothesis that induced p53 inhibits IEC proliferation by upregulating NDRG1 expression following polyamine depletion. Depletion of cellular polyamines by inhibiting ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) with alpha-difluoromethylornithine not only induced p53 but also increased NDRG1 transcription as indicated by induction of the NDRG1 promoter activity and increased levels of NDRG1 mRNA and protein, all of which were prevented by using specific p53 siRNA and in cells with a targeted deletion of p53. In contrast, increased levels of cellular polyamines by ectopic expression of the ODC gene decreased p53 and repressed expression of NDRG1. Consistently, polyamine depletion-induced activation of the NDRG1-promoter was decreased when p53-binding sites within the NDRG1 proximal promoter region were deleted. Ectopic expression of the wild-type NDRG1 gene inhibited DNA synthesis and decreased final cell numbers regardless of the presence or absence of endogenous p53, whereas silencing NDRG1 promoted cell growth. However, overexpression of NDRG1 failed to directly induce cell death and to alter susceptibility to apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha/cycloheximide. These results indicate that NDRG1 is one of the direct mediators of induced p53 following polyamine depletion and that p53-dependent NDRG1 expression plays a critical role in the negative control of IEC proliferation.

  12. Linking polymorphic p53 response elements with gene expression in airway epithelial cells of smokers and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuting; Pittman, Gary S; Bandele, Omari J; Bischof, Jason J; Liu, Gang; Brothers, John F; Spira, Avrum; Bell, Douglas A

    2014-12-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking exposes airway epithelial cells to thousands of carcinogens, oxidants and DNA-damaging agents, creating a field of molecular injury in the airway and altering gene expression. Studies of cytologically normal bronchial epithelial cells from smokers have identified transcription-based biomarkers that may prove useful in early diagnosis of lung cancer, including a number of p53-regulated genes. The ability of p53 to regulate transcription is critical for tumor suppression, and this suggests that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in functional p53 binding sites (p53 response elements, or p53REs) that affect gene expression could influence susceptibility to cancer. To connect p53RE SNP genotype with gene expression and cancer risk, we identified a set of 204 SNPs in putative p53REs, and performed cis expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis, assessing associations between SNP genotypes and mRNA levels of adjacent genes in bronchial epithelial cells obtained from 44 cigarette smokers. To further test and validate these genotype-expression associations, we searched published eQTL studies from independent populations and determined that 53% (39/74) of the bronchial epithelial eQTLs were observed in at least one of other studies. SNPs in p53REs were also evaluated for effects on p53-DNA binding using a quantitative in vitro protein-DNA binding assay. Last, based on linkage disequilibrium, we found 6 p53RE SNPs associated with gene expression were identified as cancer risk SNPs by either genome-wide association studies or candidate gene studies. We provide an approach for identifying and evaluating potentially functional SNPs that may modulate the airway gene expression response to smoking and may influence susceptibility to cancers.

  13. Abrogation of Gli3 expression suppresses the growth of colon cancer cells via activation of p53

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Han Na; Oh, Sang Cheul; Kim, Jun Suk

    2012-03-10

    p53, the major human tumor suppressor, appears to be related to sonic hedgehog (Shh)-Gli-mediated tumorigenesis. However, the role of p53 in tumor progression by the Shh-Gli signaling pathway is poorly understood. Herein we investigated the critical regulation of Gli3-p53 in tumorigenesis of colon cancer cells and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the mRNA level of Shh and Gli3 in colon tumor tissues was significantly higher than corresponding normal tissues (P < 0.001). The inhibition of Gli3 by treatment with Gli3 siRNA resulted in a clear decrease in cell proliferation and enhanced the level of expression of p53 proteins compared to treatment with control siRNA. The half-life of p53 was dramatically increased by treatment with Gli3 siRNA. In addition, treatment with MG132 blocked MDM2-mediated p53 ubiquitination and degradation, and led to accumulation of p53 in Gli3 siRNA-overexpressing cells. Importantly, ectopic expression of p53 siRNA reduced the ability of Gli3 siRNA to suppress proliferation of those cells compared with the cells treated with Gli3 siRNA alone. Moreover, Gli3 siRNA sensitized colon cancer cells to treatment with anti-cancer agents (5-FU and bevacizumab). Taken together, our studies demonstrate that loss of Gli3 signaling leads to disruption of the MDM2-p53 interaction and strongly potentiate p53-dependent cell growth inhibition in colon cancer cells, indicating a basis for the rational use of Gli3 antagonists as a novel treatment option for colon cancer.

  14. Concordant p53 and mdm-2 protein expression in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma and adjacent lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Carlson, J A; Amin, S; Malfetano, J; Tien, A T; Selkin, B; Hou, J; Goncharuk, V; Wilson, V L; Rohwedder, A; Ambros, R; Ross, J S

    2001-06-01

    To determine if carcinogenic events in vulvar skin precede the onset of morphologic atypia, the authors investigated for derangements in DNA content, cell proliferation, and cell death in vulvar carcinomas and surrounding skin in 140 samples of tumor and surrounding skin collected from 35 consecutive vulvectomy specimen for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) 3. Vulvar non-cancer excisions were used as controls. Investigations consisted of histologic classification and measurement of 9 variables--epidermal thickness (acanthosis and rete ridge length), immunolabeling index (LI) for 3 proteins (p53 protein, Ki-67, and mdm-2), pattern of p53 expression (dispersed vs. compact), DNA content index, and presence of aneuploidy by image analysis and apoptotic rate by Apotag labeling. Significant positive correlations were found for all nine variables studied versus increasing histologic severity in two proposed histologic stepwise models of vulvar carcinogenesis (lichen sclerosus (LS) and VIN 3 undifferentiated associated SCC groups). High p53 LI (>25) and the compact pattern of p53 expression (suspected oncoprotein) significantly correlated with LS and its associated vulvar samples compared with samples not associated with LS (P < or = 0.001). Furthermore, p53 LI, mdm-2 LI, and pattern of p53 expression were concordant between patient matched samples of LS and SCC. In addition, mdm-2 LI significantly correlated with dispersed pattern p53 LI suggesting a response to wild-type p53 protein accumulation. These findings support the hypothesis that neoplastic transformation occurs in sequential steps and compromises proteins involved in the cell cycle control. Concordance of p53 and mdm-2 protein expression in LS and adjacent SCC provides evidence that LS can act as a precursor lesion in the absence of morphologic atypia. Overexpression of mdm-2 with stabilization and inactivation of p53 protein may provide an alternate pathway for vulvar

  15. Chemotherapy-induced Dkk-1 expression by primary human mesenchymal stem cells is p53 dependent.

    PubMed

    Hare, Ian; Evans, Rebecca; Fortney, James; Moses, Blake; Piktel, Debbie; Slone, William; Gibson, Laura F

    2016-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are abundant throughout the body and regulate signaling within tumor microenvironments. Wnt signaling is an extrinsically regulated pathway that has been shown to regulate tumorigenesis in many types of cancer. After evaluating a panel of Wnt activating and inhibiting molecules, we show that primary human MSCs increase the expression of Dkk-1, an inhibitor of Wnt signaling, into the extracellular environment following chemotherapy exposure in a p53-dependent manner. Dkk-1 has been shown to promote tumor growth in several models of malignancy, suggesting that MSC-derived Dkk-1 could counteract the intent of cytotoxic chemotherapy, and that pharmacologic inhibition of Dkk-1 in patients receiving chemotherapy treatment for certain malignancies may be warranted.

  16. Immunohistochemical study of p53 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression in odontogenic keratocyst and periapical cyst.

    PubMed

    Sajeevan, Thara Purath; Saraswathi, Tillai Rajasekaran; Ranganathan, Kannan; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rao, Uma Devi K

    2014-07-01

    p53 protein is a product of p53 gene, which is now classified as a tumor suppressor gene. The gene is a frequent target for mutation, being seen as a common step in the pathogenesis of many human cancers. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is an auxiliary protein of DNA polymerase delta and plays a critical role in initiation of cell proliferation. The aim of this study is to assess and compare the expression of p53 and PCNA in lining epithelium of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) and periapical cyst (PA). A total of 20 cases comprising 10 OKC and 10 PA were included in retrospective study. Three paraffin section of 4 μm were cut, one was used for routine hematoxylin and eosin stain, while the other two were used for immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test. The level of staining and intensity were assessed in all these cases. OKC showed PCNA expression in all cases (100%), whereas in perapical cyst only 60% of cases exhibited PCNA staining. (1) OKC showed p53 expression in 6 cases (60%) whereas in PA only 10% of the cases exhibited p53 staining. Chi-square test showed PCNA staining intensity was more significant than p53 in OKC. (2) The staining intensity of PA using p53, PCNA revealed that PCNA stating intensity was more significant than p53. OKC shows significant proliferative activity than PA using PCNA and p53. PCNA staining was more intense when compared with p53 in both OKC and PA.

  17. CONVERGENCE OF P53 AND TGFβ SIGNALING ON ACTIVATING EXPRESSION OF THE TUMOR SUPPRESSOR GENE MASPIN IN MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shizhen Emily; Narasanna, Archana; Whitell, Corbin W.; Wu, Frederick Y.; Friedman, David B.; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2014-01-01

    Using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis, we identified the tumor suppressor gene maspin as a TGFβ target gene in human mammary epithelial cells. TGFβ upregulates maspin expression both at the RNA and protein levels. This upregulation required Smad2/3 function and intact p53 binding elements in the maspin promoter. DNA affinity immunoblot and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) revealed the presence of both Smads and p53 at the maspin promoter in TGFβ-treated cells, suggesting that both transcription factors cooperate to induce maspin transcription. TGFβ did not activate maspin-luciferase reporter in p53-mutant MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, which exhibit methylation of the endogenous maspin promoter. Expression of ectopic p53, however, restored ligand-induced association of Smad2/3 with a transfected maspin promoter. Stable transfection of maspin inhibited basal and TGFβ-stimulated MDA-MB-231 cell motility. Finally, knockdown of endogenous maspin in p53 wild-type MCF10A/HER2 cells enhanced basal and TGFβ-stimulated motility. Taken together, these data support cooperation between the p53 and TGFβ tumor suppressor pathways in the induction of maspin expression, thus leading to inhibition of cell migration. PMID:17204482

  18. p53 and bcl-2 expression in high-grade B-cell lymphomas: correlation with survival time.

    PubMed Central

    Piris, M. A.; Pezzella, F.; Martinez-Montero, J. C.; Orradre, J. L.; Villuendas, R.; Sanchez-Beato, M.; Cuena, R.; Cruz, M. A.; Martinez, B.; Pezella F [corrected to Pezzella, F. ].

    1994-01-01

    B-cell high-grade lymphomas are heterogeneous in terms of histology, clinical presentation, treatment response and prognosis. As bcl-2 and p53 gene deregulations are frequently involved in several types of lymphoid malignancies, we aimed our investigation at the study of the relation between bcl-2 and p53 expression and survival probability in a group of 119 patients with B-cell high-grade lymphoma. These were obtained from the Virgen de la Salud Hospital, Toledo, Spain (73 cases), John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK (31 cases), and the Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy (15 cases). The relation between bcl-2 protein expression and survival was small, depending on the primary localisation of the tumour (in lymph node of mucosae), and lacked a significant correlation with overall survival. In contrast with this, p53 expression was related to survival probability in our series, this relation being both significant and independent of histological diagnosis. p53-positive patients showed a sudden decrease in life expectancy in the first months after diagnosis. Multivariant regression analysis confirmed that the only parameters significantly related with survival were extranodal origin, which is associated with a better prognosis, and p53 expression, which indicates a poor prognosis. Simultaneous expression of bcl-2 and p53 was associated with a poorer prognosis than p53 alone. This is particularly significant for large B-cell lymphomas presenting in lymph nodes. The cumulative poor effect of both p53 and bcl-2 in large B-cell lymphomas, which is more significant in nodal tumours, could confirm the existence of a multistep genetic deregulation in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. This indicates that the genetic mechanisms controlling apoptosis and their disregulation are critical steps in the progression of lymphomas. PMID:8297731

  19. [Expressions of SMG-1, ATM and P53 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and their clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuejun; Wang, Xiaofeng; Feng, Yongjun; Xie, Minqiang

    2016-01-01

    To detect the expression of SMG-1, ATM and P53 in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and their correlation with the clinicopathological features and outcomes of the patients. Sixty-three specimens of surgically resected LSCC tissues and 30 specimens of adjacent normal tissue were examined for the expressions of ATM, SMG-1 and P53 using immunohistochemistry. The correlation of ATM, SMG-1 and P53 expressions with the clinicopathological factors and their interactions were analyzed. The positive expression rates of SMG-1, ATM and P53 in LSCC were 36.5% (23/63) , 41.3% (26/63) and 57.1% (36/63) respectively, significantly different from those in the adjacent tissue (73.3%, 83.3% and 20.0%, respectively; P<0.05). The expression of SMG-1 in LSCC was positively correlated with the pathological grade and T stage of the tumors (P<0.05), and ATM and P53 were not related to the clinicopathological factors (P>0.05). The 5-year survival rate of patients negative for SMG-1 expression was significantly higher than that of SMG-1-positive patients (P<0.05). The expression of SMG-1 was negatively correlated with that of P53 (r=-0.476, P<0.01). SMG-1, ATM and P53 are closely related to the occurrence of LSCC. SMG-1 expression is an important factor associated with the clinicopathological features and prognosis of LSCC patients, and may play an important role in the development of LSCC by regulating P53 expression.

  20. Delayed expression of apoptosis in X-irradiated human leukemic MOLT-4 cells transfected with mutant p53.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Hisako; Yonekawa, Hiromichi; Shinohara, Kunio

    2003-06-01

    The effects of X-rays on cell survival, apoptosis, and long-term response in the development of cell death as measured by the dye exclusion test were studied in human leukemic MOLT-4 cells (p53 wild-type) stably transfected with a mutant p53 cDNA expression vector. Cell survival, as determined from colony-forming ability, was increased in an expression level dependent manner, but the increase was partial even with the highest-expressing clone (B3). This contrasts with the prior observation that cell death and apoptosis in B3 are completely inhibited at 24 h after irradiation with 1.8 Gy of X-rays. The examination of B3 cells incubated for longer than 24 h after X-irradiation showed a delay in the induction of cell death and apoptosis. Western blot analysis revealed that the time required to reach the highest level of wild-type p53 protein in B3 was longer than the time in MOLT-4 and that the p53 may be stabilized by the phosphorylation at Ser-15. These results suggest that the introduction of mutant p53 into MOLT-4 merely delays the development of apoptosis, during which the cells could repair the damage induced by X-rays, and results in the partial increase in cell survival.

  1. KAI-1 and p53 expression in oral squamous cell carcinomas: Markers of significance in future diagnostics and possibly therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Namrata N; Wadhwan, Vijay; Chaudhary, Minal; Nayyar, Abhishek Singh

    2016-01-01

    Context: KAI-1/CD82 is a tumor suppressor gene with decreased gene expression being associated with increased invasive ability of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). p53 protein functions in the G1-S phase of the cell cycle to allow repair of damaged DNA. In the present study, p53 and KAI-1 expression was investigated using monoclonal antibodies in OSCC. Aims: The aim of this study was to detect KAI-1 and p53 expression in OSCCs and to assess the relation between both in OSCCs. Materials and Methods: The present study included histopathologically diagnosed thirty cases of well- and moderately differentiated OSCCs to study the expression of KAI-1 and p53 antibodies. Statistical Analysis: The results obtained were tabulated and statistically analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis; one-way ANOVA; least square difference method and independent t-test. Results: OSCCs exhibited 41.62% positivity for KAI-1 while p53 positive cells were recorded to an extent of 60.82%. A significant positive correlation was observed between KAI-1 and p53 expression in OSCCs. Conclusions: Although a significant amount of work is still required to uncover the mechanisms of action and regulation of KAI-1 and p53 expression, control of the complex metastatic processes would be of interest in controlling the tumor biology in OSCCs as well as other types of malignancies to enhance prognosis in the affected patients and to help protect against future metastasis in the going to be treated and treated patients. PMID:27721601

  2. p53, c-myc p62 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.

    PubMed Central

    Korkolopoulou, P; Oates, J; Kittas, C; Crocker, J

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the immunohistochemical expression of p53 protein in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) and its relation to that of c-myc p62 oncoprotein and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). METHODS--Paraffin wax embedded tissue from 90 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (72 B cell and 18 T cell) was stained immunohistochemically for p53 protein, c-myc p62 oncoprotein, and PCNA using the monoclonal antibodies DO7, c-myc 1-9 E10, and PC-10, respectively. RESULTS--Of the non-Hodgkin's lymphomas studied, 55 (61%) stained positively for p53 protein. The proportion of positive cases increased from low grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and was higher in tumours of T cell origin. The percentage of positive cells (labelling index or LI) was significantly lower in low grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, but no difference was established between intermediate and high grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In a large proportion of low grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma the LI was below 1%. c-myc p62 immunoreactivity was identified in all cases. A significant positive correlation was established between p53 LI and c-myc p62 LI (rs = 0.453) as well as between p53 LI and PCNA LI (rs = 0.338). CONCLUSIONS--p53 immunoreactivity was present in about half the cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and was related to the grade of malignancy and possibly to the B or T cell origin of the tumour. It was also associated with the proliferation state as expressed by PCNA LI and c-myc p62 expression, indicating that the expression of these three cell cycle-related genes might be interrelated. Images PMID:7907610

  3. Connection between Cell Phone use, p53 Gene Expression in Different Zones of Glioblastoma Multiforme and Survival Prognoses

    PubMed Central

    Akhavan-Sigari, Reza; Baf, Morteza Mazloum Farsi; Ariabod, Vahid; Rohde, Veit; Rahighi, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate p53 gene expression in the central and peripheral zones of glioblastoma multiforme using a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique in patients who use cell phones ≥3 hours a day and determine its relationship to clinicopathological findings and overall survival. Sixty-three patients (38 males and 25 females), diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), underwent tumor resection between 2008 and 2011. Patient ages ranged from 25 to 88 years, with a mean age of 55. The levels of expression of p53 in the central and peripheral zone of the GBM were quantified by RT-PCR. Data on p53 gene expression from the central and peripheral zone, the related malignancy and the clinicopatholagical findings (age, gender, tumor location and size), as well as overall survival, were analyzed. Forty-one out of 63 patients (65%) with the highest level of cell phone use (≥3 hours/day) had higher mutant type p53 expression in the peripheral zone of the glioblastoma; the difference was statistically significant (P=0.034). Results from the present study on the use of mobile phones for ≥3 hours a day show a consistent pattern of increased risk for the mutant type of p53 gene expression in the peripheral zone of the glioblastoma, and that this increase was significantly correlated with shorter overall survival time. The risk was not higher for ipsilateral exposure. We found that the mutant type of p53 gene expression in the peripheral zone of the glioblastoma was increased in 65% of patients using cell phones ≥3 hours a day. PMID:25276320

  4. Expression profiling of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma with perineural invasion implicates the p53 pathway in the process

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Timothy A.; Broit, Natasa; Simmons, Jacinta L.; Pierce, Carly J.; Chawla, Sharad; Lambie, Duncan L. J.; Quagliotto, Gary; Brown, Ian S.; Parsons, Peter G.; Panizza, Benedict J.; Boyle, Glen M.

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most common cancer worldwide and accounts for approximately 30% of all keratinocyte cancers. The vast majority of cutaneous SCCs of the head and neck (cSCCHN) are readily curable with surgery and/or radiotherapy unless high-risk features are present. Perineural invasion (PNI) is recognized as one of these high-risk features. The molecular changes during clinical PNI in cSCCHN have not been previously investigated. In this study, we assessed the global gene expression differences between cSCCHN with or without incidental or clinical PNI. The results of the analysis showed signatures of gene expression representative of activation of p53 in tumors with PNI compared to tumors without, amongst other alterations. Immunohistochemical staining of p53 showed cSCCHN with clinical PNI to be more likely to exhibit a diffuse over-expression pattern, with no tumors showing normal p53 staining. DNA sequencing of cSCCHN samples with clinical PNI showed no difference in mutation number or position with samples without PNI, however a significant difference was observed in regulators of p53 degradation, stability and activity. Our results therefore suggest that cSCCHN with clinical PNI may be more likely to contain alterations in the p53 pathway, compared to cSCCHN without PNI. PMID:27665737

  5. p53-Dependent Activation of microRNA-34a in Response to Etoposide-Induced DNA Damage in Osteosarcoma Cell Lines Not Impaired by Dominant Negative p53 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Novello, Chiara; Pazzaglia, Laura; Conti, Amalia; Quattrini, Irene; Pollino, Serena; Perego, Paola; Picci, Piero; Benassi, Maria Serena

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant bone tumor and prevalently occurs in the second decade of life. Etoposide, a chemotherapeutic agent used in combined treatments of recurrent human OS, belongs to the topoisomerase inhibitor family and causes DNA breakage. In this study we evaluated the cascade of events determined by etoposide-induced DNA damage in OS cell lines with different p53 status focusing on methylation status and expression of miR-34a that modulate tumor cell growth and cell cycle progression. Wild-type p53 U2-OS cells and U2-OS cells expressing dominant-negative form of p53 (U2- OS175) were more sensitive to etoposide than p53-deficient MG63 and Saos-2 cells, showing increased levels of unmethylated miR-34a, reduced expression of CDK4 and cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. In contrast, MG63 and Saos-2 cell lines presented aberrant methylation of miR-34a promoter gene with no miR-34a induction after etoposide treatment, underlining the close connection between p53 expression and miR-34a methylation status. Consistently, in p53siRNA transfected U2-OS cells we observed loss of miR-34a induction after etoposide exposure associated with a partial gain of gene methylation and cell cycle progress towards G2/M phase. Our results suggest that the open and unmethylated conformation of the miR-34a gene may be regulated by p53 able to bind the gene promoter. In conclusion, cell response to etoposide-induced DNA damage was not compromised in cells with dominant-negative p53 expression. PMID:25490093

  6. Effect of Boswellia Thurifera Gum Methanol Extract on Cytotoxicity and P53 Gene Expression in Human Breast Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Yazdanpanahi, Nasrin; Behbahani, Mandana; Yektaeian, Afsaneh

    2014-01-01

    Boswellia has been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of different diseases such as cancer in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the gum methanol extract of Boswellia thurifera on the viability and P53 gene expression of cultured breast cancer cells. The gum methanol extract was obtained in various concentrations using the maceration method. Normal (HEK-293) and cancer (MDA-MB-231) human cells were cultured and treated with various concentrations of the extract. Then MTT assay was used for the study of cytotoxic effect of the extract and real time PCR method was also applied for the investigation of P53 gene expression in cancer cells. The IC50 of the extract against cancer cells was 80 µg/mL and had less cytotoxic effect in normal cells. The effect of the extract was dose dependent. Induction of P53 expression by extract was also significantly more in treated cancer cells than untreated cells. This inductive effect in cells was higher after 12 h treatment than it was after 6 h. The results of the current study show that gum methanol extract of Boswellia thurifera has probably anti-cancer effects and could induce P53 gene transcription and toxicity in the cultured breast cancer cell line. The increase of P53 gene specific mRNA may be a mechanism of gum methanol extract induced cytotoxicity. However, for a definitive conclusion, further studies on other cell lines as well as animal models and subsequent clinical studies are warranted. PMID:25237368

  7. Expression of mouse Fbxw7 isoforms is regulated in a cell cycle- or p53-dependent manner

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Akinobu; Onoyama, Ichiro; Nakayama, Keiichi I. . E-mail: nakayak1@bioreg.kyushu-u.ac.jp

    2006-11-10

    Fbxw7 is the F-box protein component of an SCF-type ubiquitin ligase that contributes to the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of cell cycle activators and oncoproteins. Three isoforms ({alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma}) of Fbxw7 are produced from mRNAs with distinct 5' exons. We have now investigated regulation of Fbxw7 expression in mouse tissues. Fbxw7{alpha} mRNA was present in all tissues examined, whereas Fbxw7{beta} mRNA was detected only in brain and testis, and Fbxw7{gamma} mRNA in heart and skeletal muscle. The amount of Fbxw7{alpha} mRNA was high during quiescence (G phase) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and T cells, but it decreased markedly as these cells entered the cell cycle. The abundance of Fbxw7{alpha} mRNA was unaffected by cell irradiation or p53 status. In contrast, X-irradiation increased the amount of Fbxw7{beta} mRNA in wild-type MEFs but not in those from p53-deficient mice, suggesting that radiation-induced up-regulation of p53 leads to production of Fbxw7{beta} mRNA. Our results thus indicate that expression of Fbxw7 isoforms is differentially regulated in a cell cycle- or p53-dependent manner.

  8. In vivo expression of p53 and Bcl-2 and their role in programmed cell death in premalignant and malignant lung lesions.

    PubMed

    Koty, Patrick P; Zhang, Haifan; Franklin, Wilbur A; Yousem, Samuel A; Landreneau, Rodney; Levitt, Mark L

    2002-02-01

    Forty-four specimens of non-malignant and malignant human lung tissue, taken from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), were examined for the expression of wild-type p53, mutant p53, and bcl-2 and the occurrence of programmed cell death (apoptosis). Wild-type p53 expression peaked in peritumoral and metaplastic samples, whereas mutant p53, bcl-2 and apoptosis were first detected in metaplasia and increased with progression to carcinoma. Bcl-2 positive samples had lower levels of apoptosis than bcl-2 negative samples and was independent of wild-type or mutant p53 expression. These results suggest that the over-expression of wild-type p53 may be an early cellular response to an alteration in normal cellular homeostasis. The ensuing increase in apoptosis appears to be relatively independent of mutant or wild-type p53 expression, but does not occur in cells expressing bcl-2.

  9. Space experiment "Rad Gene"-report 1; p53-Dependent gene expression in human cultured cells exposed to space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Akihisa; Ohnishi, Takeo; Suzuki, Hiromi; Omori, Katsunori; Seki, Masaya; Hashizume, Toko; Shimazu, Toru; Ishioka, Noriaki

    The space environment contains two major biologically significant influences: space radiations and microgravity. A p53 tumor suppressor protein plays a role as a guardian of the genome through the activity of p53-centered signal transduction pathways. The aim of this study was to clarify the biological effects of space radiations, microgravity and a space environment on the gene and protein expression of p53-dependent regulated genes. Space experiments were performed with two human cultured lymphoblastoid cell lines: one cells line (TSCE5) bears a wild-type p53 gene status, and another cells line (WTK1) bears a mutated p53 gene status. Un-der one gravity or microgravity condition, the cells were grown in the cell biology experimental facility (CBEF) of the International Space Station (ISS) for 8 days without experiencing the stress during launching and landing because the cells were frozen during these periods. Ground control samples also were cultured for 8 days in the CBEF on the ground during the same periods as space flight. Gene and protein expression was analyzed by using DNA chip (a 44k whole human genome microarray, Agilent Technologies Inc.) and protein chip (PanoramaTM Ab MicroArray, Sigma-Aldrich Co.), respectively. In addition, we analyzed the gene expression in cultured cells after space flight during 133 days with frozen condition. We report the results and discussion from the viewpoint of the functions of the up-regulated and down-regulated genes after an exposure to space radiations and/or microgravity. The initial goal of this space experiment was completely achieved. It is expected that data from this type of work will be helpful in designing physical protection from the deleterious effects of space radiations during long term stays in space.

  10. Combination of p53-DC vaccine and rAd-p53 gene therapy induced CTLs cytotoxic against p53-deleted human prostate cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Saito, H; Kitagawa, K; Yoneda, T; Fukui, Y; Fujsawa, M; Bautista, D; Shirakawa, T

    2017-07-01

    Recently, the US FDA approved sipuleucel-T, which is composed of autologous DCs stimulated with a recombinant fusion protein of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), as the first immunotherapeutic agent for metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, sipuleucel-T demonstrated only modest efficacy in mCPRC patients. Researchers are now investigating the potential of p53 protein as a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) loaded in DC-based cancer vaccine. Approximately half of all tumors overexpress p53, and up to 20% of prostate cancer cells overexpresses p53. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of combining p53-DC vaccine and rAd-p53 gene therapy, using the p53-overexpressing and non-expressing prostate cancer cells in vitro. We successfully generated the p53-DC vaccine by culturing autologous DCs infected with rAd-p53. This p53-DC vaccine can differentiate CTLs specifically cytotoxic to p53-overexpressing prostate cancer cells. In addition, rAd-p53 infection can induce overexpression of p53 and thus the cytotoxicity of CTLs differentiated by the p53-DC vaccine in p53 non-expressing prostate cancer cells. These findings suggest that this combination therapy using p53-DC vaccine and rAd-p53 gene therapy together may represent a new paradigm for the treatment of mCRPC.

  11. The Relation of HPV Infection and Expression of p53 and p16 Proteins in Esophageal Squamous Cells Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pastrez, Paula Roberta Aguiar; Mariano, Vânia Sammartino; da Costa, Allini Mafra; Silva, Estela Maria; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam; Guimarães, Denise Peixoto; Fava, Gilberto; Neto, Said Abdala Zemi; Nunes, Emily Montosa; Sichero, Laura; Villa, Luisa Lina; Syrjanen, Kari Juhani; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar

    2017-01-01

    GOAL: To investigate the HPV prevalence and characterize the expression of potential molecular surrogate markers of HPV infection in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The prevalence of HPV in individuals with and without esophageal cancer (EC) was determined by using multiplex PCR; p16 and p53 protein levels were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). RESULTS: High-risk HPV (hr-HPV) was found in the same frequency (13.8%) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and in healthy individuals. The p53 expression was positive in 67.5% of tumor tissue, 20.0% of adjacent non-tumoral tissue and 1.8% of normal esophageal tissue. p16 was positive in 11.6% of esophageal cancer cases and 4.7% of adjacent non-tumoral tissue. p16 was undetectable among control group samples. p53 and p16 levels were not significantly associated with the HPV status. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that hr-HPV types are not associated with the development of ESCC and that p53 and p16 protein expression have no relationship with HPV infection in normal or cancerous esophagus. PMID:28529620

  12. Over-expression of p53 mutants in LNCaP cells alters tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Perryman, L.A.; Blair, J.M.; Kingsley, E.A.; Szymanska, B.; Ow, K.T.; Wen, V.W.; MacKenzie, K.L.; Vermeulen, P.B.; Jackson, P.; Russell, P.J. . E-mail: p.russell@unsw.edu.au

    2006-07-07

    This study has investigated the impact of three specific dominant-negative p53 mutants (F134L, M237L, and R273H) on tumorigenesis by LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Mutant p53 proteins were associated with an increased subcutaneous 'take rate' in NOD-SCID mice, and increased production of PSA. Tumors expressing F134L and R273H grew slower than controls, and were associated with decreased necrosis and apoptosis, but not hypoxia. Interestingly, hypoxia levels were increased in tumors expressing M237L. There was less proliferation in F134L-bearing tumors compared to control, but this was not statistically significant. Angiogenesis was decreased in tumors expressing F134L and R273H compared with M237L, or controls. Conditioned medium from F134L tumors inhibited growth of normal human umbilical-vein endothelial cells but not telomerase-immortalized bone marrow endothelial cells. F134L tumor supernatants showed lower levels of VEGF and endostatin compared with supernatants from tumors expressing other mutants. Our results support the possibility that decreased angiogenesis might account for reduced growth rate of tumor cells expressing the F134L p53 mutation.

  13. MARVELD1 inhibited cell proliferation and enhance chemosensitivity via increasing expression of p53 and p16 in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yu, Youtao; Zhang, Yubao; Hu, Jianran; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Shan; Han, Fang; Yue, Lei; Qu, Youpeng; Zhang, Yao; Liang, Hongjian; Nie, Huan; Li, Yu

    2012-04-01

    We have previously found that expression of MARVELD1 was remarkably downregulated in multiple tumor tissues, but unclear in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its function has not been explored yet. In the present study, to uncover the underlying mechanism of MARVELD1 in the pathogenesis and development of HCC, we investigated the expression pattern of MARVELD1 and its effect on tumor proliferation in HCC. The results indicated the frequent downregulation of MARVELD1 in clinic samples and cell lines of HCC resulted from promoter methylation, as well as genetic deletion. Furthermore, treatment of MARVELD1 unexpressing Hep3B2.1-7 and PLC/PRF/5 cells with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2' deoxycytidine restored its expression. Overexpression of MARVELD1 suppressed the proliferation of HCC cells in vitro and in vivo, whereas downregulation of endogenous MARVELD1 by shRNAs significantly enhanced these characters. MARVELD1 overexpression could enhance chemosensitivity of HCC cells to epirubicin and 10-hydroxycamptothecin. Corresponding to these results, the expression of p-ERK1/2 and cyclin D1 were decreased, whereas p16 and p53 were increased in MARVELD1-transfected cells. We also demonstrated that knockdown of MARVELD1 resulted in upregulation of p-ERK1/2 and cyclin D1, and downregulation of p16 and p53. Moreover, the effect of the decreased cell growth rate was significantly reversed when MARVELD1-overexpressing cells were trasfected with p53 or p16 siRNA. Our findings suggest that MARVELD1 is a tumor suppressor by negatively regulating proliferation, tumor growth and chemosensitivity of HCC cells via increasing p53 and p16 in vitro and in vivo. MARVELD1 may be a potential target for HCC therapy. © 2012 Japanese Cancer Association.

  14. 11R-P53 and GM-CSF Expressing Oncolytic Adenovirus Target Cancer Stem Cells with Enhanced Synergistic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Sai-qun; Ye, Zhen-long; Liu, Pin-yi; Huang, Yao; Li, Lin-fang; Liu, Hui; Zhu, Hai-li; Jin, Hua-jun; Qian, Qi-jun

    2017-01-01

    Targeting cancer stem cells with oncolytic virus (OV) holds great potential for thorough elimination of cancer cells. Based on our previous studies, we here established 11R-P53 and mGM-CSF carrying oncolytic adenovirus (OAV) SG655-mGMP and investigated its therapeutic effect on hepatocellular carcinoma stem cells Hep3B-C and teratoma stem cells ECCG5. Firstly, the augmenting effect of 11R in our construct was tested and confirmed by examining the expression of EGFP with Fluorescence and FCM assays after transfecting Hep3B-C and ECCG5 cells with OVA SG7605-EGFP and SG7605-11R-EGFP. Secondly, the expressions of 11R-P53 and GM-CSF in Hep3B-C and ECCG5 cells after transfection with OAV SG655-mGMP were detected by Western blot and Elisa assays, respectively. Thirdly, the enhanced growth inhibitory and augmented apoptosis inducing effects of OAV SG655-mGMP on Hep3B-C and ECCG5 cells were tested with FCM assays by comparing with the control, wild type 5 adenovirus, 11R-P53 carrying OVA in vitro. Lastly, the in vivo therapeutic effect of OAV SG655-mGMP toward ECCG5 cell-formed xenografts was studied by measuring tumor volumes post different treatments with PBS, OAV SG655-11R-P53, OAV SG655-mGM-CSF and OAV SG655-mGMP. Treatment with OAV SG655-mGMP induced significant xenograft growth inhibition, inflammation factor AIF1 expression and immune cells infiltration. Therefore, our OAV SG655-mGMP provides a novel platform to arm OVs to target cancer stem cells. PMID:28243324

  15. Depletion of Securin Induces Senescence After Irradiation and Enhances Radiosensitivity in Human Cancer Cells Regardless of Functional p53 Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Wenshu; Yu Yichu; Lee Yijang; Chen, J.-H.; Hsu, H.-Y.; Chiu, S.-J.

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy is one of the best choices for cancer treatment. However, various tumor cells exhibit resistance to irradiation-induced apoptosis. The development of new strategies to trigger cancer cell death besides apoptosis is necessary. This study investigated the role of securin in radiation-induced apoptosis and senescence in human cancer cells. Methods and Materials: Cell survival was determined using clonogenic assays. Western blot analysis was used to analyze levels of securin, caspase-3, PARP, p53, p21, Rb, gamma-H2AX, and phospho-Chk2. Senescent cells were analyzed using a beta-galactosidase staining assay. A securin-expressed vector (pcDNA-securin) was stably transfected into securin-null HCT116 cells. Securin gene knockdown was performed by small interfering RNA and small hairpin RNA in HCT116 and MDA-MB-231 cells, respectively. Results: Radiation was found to induce apoptosis in securin wild type HCT116 cells but induced senescence in securin-null cells. Restoration of securin reduced senescence and increased cell survival in securin-null HCT116 cells after irradiation. Radiation-induced gamma-H2AX and Chk2 phosphorylation were induced transiently in securin-wild-type cells but exhibited sustained activation in securin-null cells. Securin gene knockdown switches irradiation-induced apoptosis to senescence in both HCT116 p53-null and MDA-MB-231 cells. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that the level of securin expression plays a determining role in the radiosensitivity and fate of cells. Depletion of securin impairs DNA repair after irradiation, increasing DNA damage and promoting senescence in the residual surviving cells regardless of functional p53 expression. The knockdown of securin may contribute to a novel radiotherapy protocol for the treatment of human cancer cells that are resistant to irradiation.

  16. Mitochondrial STAT3 contributes to transformation of Barrett's epithelial cells that express oncogenic Ras in a p53-independent fashion.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunhua; Huo, Xiaofang; Agoston, Agoston T; Zhang, Xi; Theiss, Arianne L; Cheng, Edaire; Zhang, Qiuyang; Zaika, Alexander; Pham, Thai H; Wang, David H; Lobie, Peter E; Odze, Robert D; Spechler, Stuart J; Souza, Rhonda F

    2015-08-01

    Metaplastic epithelial cells of Barrett's esophagus transformed by the combination of p53-knockdown and oncogenic Ras expression are known to activate signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). When phosphorylated at tyrosine 705 (Tyr705), STAT3 functions as a nuclear transcription factor that can contribute to oncogenesis. STAT3 phosphorylated at serine 727 (Ser727) localizes in mitochondria, but little is known about mitochondrial STAT3's contribution to carcinogenesis in Barrett's esophagus, which is the focus of this study. We introduced a constitutively active variant of human STAT3 (STAT3CA) into the following: 1) non-neoplastic Barrett's (BAR-T) cells; 2) BAR-T cells with p53 knockdown; and 3) BAR-T cells that express oncogenic H-Ras(G12V). STAT3CA transformed only the H-Ras(G12V)-expressing BAR-T cells (evidenced by loss of contact inhibition, formation of colonies in soft agar, and generation of tumors in immunodeficient mice), and did so in a p53-independent fashion. The transformed cells had elevated levels of both mitochondrial (Ser727) and nuclear (Tyr705) phospho-STAT3. Introduction of a STAT3CA construct with a mutated tyrosine phosphorylation site into H-Ras(G12V)-expressing Barrett's cells resulted in high levels of mitochondrial phospho-STAT3 (Ser727) with little or no nuclear phospho-STAT3 (Tyr705), and the cells still formed tumors in immunodeficient mice. Thus tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 is not required for tumor formation in Ras-expressing Barrett's cells. We conclude that mitochondrial STAT3 (Ser727) can contribute to oncogenesis in Barrett's cells that express oncogenic Ras. These findings suggest that agents targeting STAT3 might be useful for chemoprevention in patients with Barrett's esophagus.

  17. Regulation of p53 expression and apoptosis by vault RNA2-1-5p in cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lu; Hao, Qi; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Ping; Zou, Binbin; Zhang, Yu-xiang

    2015-01-01

    nc886 or VRNA2-1 has recently been identified as a noncoding RNA instead of a vault RNA or a pre-microRNA. Several studies have reported that pre-miR-886 plays a tumor-suppressive role in a wide range of cancer cells through its activity as a cellular protein kinase RNA-activated (PKR) ligand and repressor. However, by sequencing stem-PCR products, we found that a microRNA originating from this precursor, vault RNA2-1-5p (VTRNA2-1-5p), occurs in cervical cancer cells. The expression levels of the predicted targets of VTRNA2-1-5p are negatively correlated with VTRNA2-1-5p levels by quantitative reversion transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Previous results have shown that VTRNA2-1-5p is overexpressed in human cervical squamous cell carcinomas (CSCCs) compared with adjacent healthy tissues. Inhibition of VTRNA2-1-5p increases Bax protein expression and apoptotic cell death in cervical cancer cells. Our findings suggest that VTRNA2-1-5p has oncogenic activity related to the progression of cervical cancer. Here, we report that VTRNA2-1-5p directly targeted p53 expression and functioned as an oncomir in cervical cancer. VTRNA2-1-5p inhibition decreased cervical cancer cell invasion, proliferation, and tumorigenicity while increasing apoptosis and p53 expression. Interestingly, VTRNA2-1-5p inhibition also increased cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HeLa and SiHa cells. In human clinical cervical cancer specimens, low p53 expression and high VTRNA2-1-5p expression were positively associated. In addition, VTRNA2-1-5p was found to directly target the 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of p53. We propose that VTRNA2-1-5p is a direct regulator of p53 and suggest that it plays an essential role in the apoptosis and proliferation of cervical cancer cells. PMID:26318295

  18. Fisetin Induces Apoptosis Through p53-Mediated Up-Regulation of DR5 Expression in Human Renal Carcinoma Caki Cells.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyoung-Jin; Nam, Ju-Ock; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2017-08-02

    Fisetin is a natural compound found in fruits and vegetables such as strawberries, apples, cucumbers, and onions. Since fisetin can elicit anti-cancer effects, including anti-proliferation and anti-migration, we investigated whether fisetin induced apoptosis in human renal carcinoma (Caki) cells. Fisetin markedly induced sub-G1 population and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), which is a marker of apoptosis, and increased caspase activation. We found that pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) inhibited fisetin-induced apoptosis. In addition, fisetin induced death receptor 5 (DR5) expression at the transcriptional level, and down-regulation of DR5 by siRNA blocked fisetin-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, fisetin induced p53 protein expression through up-regulation of protein stability, whereas down-regulation of p53 by siRNA markedly inhibited fisetin-induced DR5 expression. In contrast, fisetin induced up-regulation of CHOP expression and reactive oxygen species production, which had no effect on fisetin-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our study demonstrates that fisetin induced apoptosis through p53 mediated up-regulation of DR5 expression at the transcriptional level.

  19. p53 and p21waf-1 expression correlates with apoptosis or cell survival in poorly differentiated, but not well-differentiated, retinoblastomas.

    PubMed

    Divan, A; Lawry, J; Dunsmore, I R; Parsons, M A; Royds, J A

    2001-04-01

    In human retinoblastomas, rare genetic mutations of the retinoblastoma gene cause massive cell proliferation, altered differentiation, and tumor formation; but paradoxically, this is accompanied by extensive apoptotic cell loss. We quantified the immunohistochemical distribution of p53, its downstream effector p21 (WAF-1), and apoptotic cells in 50 human retinoblastomas, within three concentric zones of sleeves of tumor cells surrounding blood vessels. In poorly differentiated retinoblastomas, both p53 expression and apoptosis increase toward the outer zone of tumor sleeves, whereas p21 expression occurs primarily within the inner zone. This staining pattern of p53 expression is reversed in well-differentiated tumors, whereas p21 staining and apoptotic cell distributions are unchanged. We detected no p53 mutations in four retinoblastomas and two retinoblastoma cell lines. We postulate that oxygen and cell "survival/growth factors" delivered via blood vessels protect retinoblastoma cells from apoptosis. In poorly differentiated tumors, apoptosis is spatially associated with increased p53 expression and may be p53 mediated, but in well-differentiated tumors, apoptosis does not colocalize with p53 and may be p53 independent. In retinoblastomas, p21 is involved not in cell death by apoptosis but in cell survival. Thus, p53 varies its expression (and by implication its function) with altered differentiation in retinoblastomas.

  20. Low ATM protein expression and depletion of p53 correlates with olaparib sensitivity in gastric cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Eiji; Williamson, Christopher T; Ye, Ruiqiong; Elegbede, Anifat; Peterson, Lars; Lees-Miller, Susan P; Bebb, D Gwyn

    2014-01-01

    Small-molecule inhibitors of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) have shown considerable promise in the treatment of homologous recombination (HR)-defective tumors, such as BRCA1- and BRCA2-deficient breast and ovarian cancers. We previously reported that mantle cell lymphoma cells with deficiency in ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) are sensitive to PARP-1 inhibitors in vitro and in vivo. Here, we report that PARP inhibitors can potentially target ATM deficiency arising in a solid malignancy. We show that ATM protein expression varies between gastric cancer cell lines, with NUGC4 having significantly reduced protein levels. Significant correlation was found between ATM protein expression and sensitivity to the PARP inhibitor olaparib, with NUGC4 being the most sensitive. Moreover, reducing ATM kinase activity using a small-molecule inhibitor (KU55933) or shRNA-mediated depletion of ATM protein enhanced olaparib sensitivity in gastric cancer cell lines with depletion or inactivation of p53. Our results demonstrate that ATM is a potential predictive biomarker for PARP-1 inhibitor activity in gastric cancer harboring disruption of p53, and that combined inhibition of ATM and PARP-1 is a rational strategy for expanding the utility of PARP-1 inhibitors to gastric cancer with p53 disruption.

  1. Low ATM protein expression and depletion of p53 correlates with olaparib sensitivity in gastric cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Eiji; Williamson, Christopher T; Ye, Ruiqiong; Elegbede, Anifat; Peterson, Lars; Lees-Miller, Susan P; Bebb, D Gwyn

    2014-01-01

    Small-molecule inhibitors of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) have shown considerable promise in the treatment of homologous recombination (HR)-defective tumors, such as BRCA1- and BRCA2-deficient breast and ovarian cancers. We previously reported that mantle cell lymphoma cells with deficiency in ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) are sensitive to PARP-1 inhibitors in vitro and in vivo. Here, we report that PARP inhibitors can potentially target ATM deficiency arising in a solid malignancy. We show that ATM protein expression varies between gastric cancer cell lines, with NUGC4 having significantly reduced protein levels. Significant correlation was found between ATM protein expression and sensitivity to the PARP inhibitor olaparib, with NUGC4 being the most sensitive. Moreover, reducing ATM kinase activity using a small-molecule inhibitor (KU55933) or shRNA-mediated depletion of ATM protein enhanced olaparib sensitivity in gastric cancer cell lines with depletion or inactivation of p53. Our results demonstrate that ATM is a potential predictive biomarker for PARP-1 inhibitor activity in gastric cancer harboring disruption of p53, and that combined inhibition of ATM and PARP-1 is a rational strategy for expanding the utility of PARP-1 inhibitors to gastric cancer with p53 disruption. PMID:24841718

  2. Tia1 dependent regulation of mRNA subcellular location and translation controls p53 expression in B cells.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Muñoz, Manuel D; Kiselev, Vladimir Yu; Novère, Nicolas Le; Curk, Tomaz; Ule, Jernej; Turner, Martin

    2017-09-13

    Post-transcriptional regulation of cellular mRNA is essential for protein synthesis. Here we describe the importance of mRNA translational repression and mRNA subcellular location for protein expression during B lymphocyte activation and the DNA damage response. Cytoplasmic RNA granules are formed upon cell activation with mitogens, including stress granules that contain the RNA binding protein Tia1. Tia1 binds to a subset of transcripts involved in cell stress, including p53 mRNA, and controls translational silencing and RNA granule localization. DNA damage promotes mRNA relocation and translation in part due to dissociation of Tia1 from its mRNA targets. Upon DNA damage, p53 mRNA is released from stress granules and associates with polyribosomes to increase protein synthesis in a CAP-independent manner. Global analysis of cellular mRNA abundance and translation indicates that this is an extended ATM-dependent mechanism to increase protein expression of key modulators of the DNA damage response.Sequestering mRNA in cytoplasmic stress granules is a mechanism for translational repression. Here the authors find that p53 mRNA, present in stress granules in activated B lymphocytes, is released upon DNA damage and is translated in a CAP-independent manner.

  3. Lysine methylation represses p53 activity in teratocarcinoma cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiajun; Dou, Zhixun; Sammons, Morgan A.; Levine, Arnold J.; Berger, Shelley L.

    2016-01-01

    TP53 (which encodes the p53 protein) is the most frequently mutated gene among all human cancers, whereas tumors that retain the wild-type TP53 gene often use alternative mechanisms to repress the p53 tumor-suppressive function. Testicular teratocarcinoma cells rarely contain mutations in TP53, yet the transcriptional activity of wild-type p53 is compromised, despite its high expression level. Here we report that in the teratocarcinoma cell line NTera2, p53 is subject to lysine methylation at its carboxyl terminus, which has been shown to repress p53’s transcriptional activity. We show that reduction of the cognate methyltransferases reactivates p53 and promotes differentiation of the NTera2 cells. Furthermore, reconstitution of methylation-deficient p53 mutants into p53-depleted NTera2 cells results in elevated expression of p53 downstream targets and precocious loss of pluripotent gene expression compared with re-expression of wild-type p53. Our results provide evidence that lysine methylation of endogenous wild-type p53 represses its activity in cancer cells and suggest new therapeutic possibilities of targeting testicular teratocarcinoma. PMID:27535933

  4. Loss of p53 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and the correlation with survival: analyses of gene mutations, protein expression, and loss of heterozygosity in Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Egashira, Akinori; Morita, Masaru; Yoshida, Rintaro; Saeki, Hiroshi; Oki, Eiji; Sadanaga, Noriaki; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Tsujitani, Shun-Ichi; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2011-08-01

    A high frequency of p53 protein expression or gene mutation has been reported in the early stages of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and thus loss of p53 function is thought to be very important in esophageal carcinogenesis. However, there is controversy surrounding the correlation between p53 dysfunction and ESCC tumor progression. The complexity arises from the different modalities, such as mutation analysis, immunohistochemistry, and the detection of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the p53 genomic locus. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed p53 gene mutation, p53 protein expression, and LOH at 17p13 in 94 surgically resected Japanese cases of ESCC. The frequency of p53 gene mutation was 60.6%. The rate of positive p53 protein expression was 56.4%. The frequency of LOH at 17p13 was 67.5%. There was a statistically significant correlation between the presence of a gene mutation and LOH, whereas, there was no significant correlation between gene mutation and protein expression. Despite the importance of loss of p53 function in esophageal carcinogenesis, none of the examined parameters, either singly or combined, correlated with overall survival. Taken together, p53 function is a primary target for esophageal carcinogenesis but there is no apparent correlation with the malignant phenotype in ESCC. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. p63 expression confers significantly better survival outcomes in high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and demonstrates p53-like and p53-independent tumor suppressor function

    PubMed Central

    Manyam, Ganiraju C.; Wang, Xiao-xiao; Xia, Yi; Visco, Carlo; Tzankov, Alexandar; Zhang, Li; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Dybkaer, Karen; Chiu, April; Orazi, Attilio; Zu, Youli; Bhagat, Govind; Richards, Kristy L.; Hsi, Eric D.; Choi, William W.L.; van Krieken, J. Han; Huh, Jooryung; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Ferreri, Andrés J.M.; Zhao, Xiaoying; Møller, Michael B.; Parsons, Ben M.; Winter, Jane N.; Piris, Miguel A.; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Young, Ken H.

    2016-01-01

    The role of p53 family member, p63 in oncogenesis is the subject of controversy. Limited research has been done on the clinical implications of p63 expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In this study, we assessed p63 expression in de novo DLBCL samples (n=795) by immunohistochemistry with a pan-p63-monoclonal antibody and correlated it with other clinicopathologic factors and clinical outcomes. p63 expression was observed in 42.5% of DLBCL, did not correlate with p53 levels, but correlated with p21, MDM2, p16INK4A, Ki-67, Bcl-6, IRF4/MUM-1 and CD30 expression, REL gains, and BCL6 translocation. p63 was an independent favorable prognostic factor in DLBCL, which was most significant in patients with International Prognostic Index (IPI) >2, and in activated-B-cell–like DLBCL patients with wide-type TP53. The prognostic impact in germinal-center-B-cell–like DLBCL was not apparent, which was likely due to the association of p63 expression with high-risk IPI, and potential presence of ∆Np63 isoform in TP63 rearranged patients (a mere speculation). Gene expression profiling suggested that p63 has both overlapping and distinct functions compared with p53, and that p63 and mutated p53 antagonize each other. In summary, p63 has p53-like and p53-independent functions and favorable prognostic impact, however this protective effect can be abolished by TP53 mutations. PMID:26878872

  6. Influence of the RNA-binding protein HuR in pVHL-regulated p53 expression in renal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Galbán, Stefanie; Martindale, Jennifer L; Mazan-Mamczarz, Krystyna; López de Silanes, Isabel; Fan, Jinshui; Wang, Wengong; Decker, Jochen; Gorospe, Myriam

    2003-10-01

    A recent analysis of gene expression in renal cell carcinoma cells led to the identification of mRNAs whose translation was dependent on the presence of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene product, pVHL. Here, we investigate the finding that pVHL-expressing RCC cells (VHL(+)) exhibited elevated levels of polysome-associated p53 mRNA and increased p53 protein levels compared with VHL-defective (VHL(-)) cells. Our findings indicate that p53 translation is specifically heightened in VHL(+) cells, given that (i) p53 mRNA abundance in VHL(+) and VHL(-) cells was comparable, (ii) p53 degradation did not significantly influence p53 expression, and (iii) p53 synthesis was markedly induced in VHL(+) cells. Electrophoretic mobility shift and immunoprecipitation assays to detect endogenous and radiolabeled p53 transcripts revealed that the RNA-binding protein HuR, previously shown to regulate mRNA turnover and translation, was capable of binding to the 3' untranslated region of the p53 mRNA in a VHL-dependent fashion. Interestingly, while whole-cell levels of HuR in VHL(+) and VHL(-) cells were comparable, HuR was markedly more abundant in the cytoplasmic and polysome-associated fractions of VHL(+) cells. In keeping with earlier reports, the elevated cytoplasmic HuR in VHL(+) cells was likely due to the reduced AMP-activated kinase activity in these cells. Demonstration that HuR indeed contributed to the increased expression of p53 in VHL(+) cells was obtained through use of RNA interference, which effectively reduced HuR expression and in turn caused marked decreases in p53 translation and p53 abundance. Taken together, our findings support a role for pVHL in elevating p53 expression, implicate HuR in enhancing VHL-mediated p53 translation, and suggest that VHL-mediated p53 upregulation may contribute to pVHL's tumor suppressive functions in renal cell carcinoma.

  7. Antiproliferation and apoptosis induced by tamoxifen in human bile duct carcinoma QBC939 cells via upregulated p53 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Peng; Kang, Jin-He; Li, Hua-Liang; Hu, Su-Xian; Lian, Hui-Hui; Qiu, Ping-Ping; Zhang, Jian; Li, Wen-Gang; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2009-07-24

    Tamoxifen (TAM) is a nonsteroidal antiestrogen that has been used in the treatment of breast cancer for over 30 years. Recently, it was shown that TAM also has efficacy on gastrointestinal neoplasms such as hepatocarcinoma and pancreatic carcinoma, and that the chemopreventive activities of TAM might be due to its abilities to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of tamoxifen on growth and apoptosis in the human bile duct carcinoma (BDC) cell line QBC939 using MTT assay, inverted microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, classic DNA fragmentation agarose gel electrophoresis assay, PI single- and FITC/PI double-staining flow cytometry, and Western blotting. Our data revealed that TAM could significantly inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in QBC939 cells. Increased expression of p53 was observed in TAM-treated cells, indicating that p53 might play an important role in TAM-induced apoptosis in QBC939 cells. These results provide significant insight into the anticarcinogenic action of TAM on BDC.

  8. Expression of P53 protein after exposure to ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, A. M.; Salvador, C.; Ruiz-Trejo, C.; Ostrosky, P.; Brandan, M. E.

    2001-10-01

    One of the most important tumor suppressor genes is p53 gene, which is involved in apoptotic cell death, cell differentiation and cell cycle arrest. The expression of p53 gene can be evaluated by determining the presence of P53 protein in cells using Western Blot assay with a chemiluminescent method. This technique has shown variabilities that are due to biological factors. Film developing process can influence the quality of the p53 bands obtained. We irradiated tumor cell lines and human peripheral lymphocytes with 137Cs and 60Co gamma rays to standardize irradiation conditions, to compare ionizing radiation with actinomycin D and to reduce the observed variability of P53 protein induction levels. We found that increasing radiation doses increase P53 protein induction while it decreases viability. We also conclude that ionizing radiation could serve as a positive control for Western Blot analysis of protein P53. In addition, our results show that the developing process may play an important role in the quality of P53 protein bands and data interpretation.

  9. p53 status is a major determinant of effects of decreasing peroxiredoxin I expression on tumor growth and response of lung cancer cells to treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, M.-F. . E-mail: miaofen@adm.cgmh.org.tw; Chen, W.-C.; Wu, C.-T.; Lin, P.-Y.; Shau Hungyi; Liao, S.-K.; Yang, C.-T.; Lee, K.-D.

    2006-12-01

    Purpose: The potential roles of peroxiredoxin (Prx) I in carcinogenesis and treatment have been explored. Our previous study revealed differences between A549 (functional p53) and H1299 (null p53) Prx I antisense transfectants. The discrepancy might have resulted from the p53 status. In this study, we further investigated the role of Prx I and p53 on lung cancer growth and the response to treatment in vitro and in vivo. Methods: We established stable A549 and H1299 transfectants with Prx I antisense and p53, respectively. We then examined their characteristics in vitro and used nude mice xenografts of these cell lines to compare their capacity for tumor invasion and spontaneous metastasis and their sensitivity to radiotherapy. Results: Increased reactive oxygen species caused by lower Prx I activity induced p53 expression. In lethal stress, the augmentation of reactive oxygen species was partially reversed by blocking p53 in A549 with Prx I antisense. We demonstrated the potential contribution of p53-dependent mechanisms to inhibit lung tumor growth and increase radiosensitization using H1299 transfected with p53 in vitro and in vivo. An increased p53 level attenuated the capacity of the cells for metastasis by decreasing vascular endothelial growth factor and induced radiosensitization by increased apoptosis and cell senescence and by regulating intracellular reactive oxygen species. Conclusion: These results suggest that p53 status has an important role in the tumor-inhibiting and radiosensitizing effects of decreasing Prx I. Both Prx I and p53 may be powerful prognosticators for lung cancer.

  10. Targeting cancer stem cells with p53 modulators

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Ryo; Appella, Ettore; Kopelovich, Levy; DeLeo, Albert B.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) typically over-express aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Thus, ALDHbright tumor cells represent targets for developing novel cancer prevention/treatment interventions. Loss of p53 function is a common genetic event during cancer development wherein small molecular weight compounds (SMWC) that restore p53 function and reverse tumor growth have been identified. Here, we focused on two widely studied p53 SMWC, CP-31398 and PRIMA-1, to target ALDHbright CSC in human breast, endometrial and pancreas carcinoma cell lines expressing mutant or wild type (WT) p53. CP-31398 and PRIMA-1 significantly reduced CSC content and sphere formation by these cell lines in vitro. In addition, these agents were more effective in vitro against CSC compared to cisplatin and gemcitabine, two often-used chemotherapeutic agents. We also tested a combinatorial treatment in methylcholantrene (MCA)-treated mice consisting of p53 SMWC and p53-based vaccines. Yet using survival end-point analysis, no increased efficacy in the presence of either p53 SMWC alone or with vaccine compared to vaccine alone was observed. These results may be due, in part, to the presence of immune cells, such as activated lymphocytes expressing WT p53 at levels comparable to some tumor cells, wherein further increase of p53 expression by p53 SMWC may alter survival of these immune cells and negatively impact an effective immune response. Continuous exposure of mice to MCA may have also interfered with the action of these p53 SMWC, including potential direct interaction with MCA. Nonetheless, the effect of p53 SMWC on CSC and cancer treatment remains of great interest. PMID:27074569

  11. Basal and copper-induced expression of metallothionein isoform 1,2 and 3 genes in epithelial cancer cells: The role of tumor suppressor p53.

    PubMed

    Ostrakhovitch, E A; Song, Y P; Cherian, M G

    2016-05-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a ubiquitous low-molecular weight, cysteine rich proteins with a high affinity for metal ions. The expression and induction of MTs have been associated with protection against DNA damage, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Our past research had shown that p53 is an important factor in metal regulation of MTs. The present study was undertaken to explore further the interrelationship between p53 and MTs. We investigated whether silencing of p53 could affect expression pattern of basal and copper induced metallothioneins. The silencing of wild-type p53 (wt-p53) in epithelial breast cancer MCF7 cells affected the basal level of MT-2A RNA, whereas the levels of MT-1A and MT-1X RNA remained largely unchanged. The expression of MT-3 was undetectable in MCF7 with either functional or silenced p53. MCF7 cells with silenced wt-p53 failed to upregulate MT-2A in response to copper and showed a reduced sensitivity toward copper induced cell apoptotic death. Similarly in MCF7-E6 and MDA-MB-231 cells, the presence of inactive/mutated p53 halted MT-1A and MT-2A gene expression in response to copper. Constitutive expression of MT-3 RNA was detectable in the presence of mutated p53 (mtp53). Transient transfection of MDA-MB-231 cells with wt-p53 enabled copper induced upregulation of both MT-1A and MT-2A but not basal level of MT-2A, MT-1E, MT-1X and MT-3. Inactivation of p53 in HepG2 cells amplified the basal expression of studied MT isoforms, including MT-3, as well as copper-induced mRNA expression of MTs except MT-1H and MT-3. Presented data demonstrate a direct relation between p53 and MT-1A and MT-2A and they also indicate that wt-p53 might be a negative regulator of MT-3 in epithelial cancer cells.

  12. Long non-coding RNA MEG3 inhibits NSCLC cells proliferation and induces apoptosis by affecting p53 expression.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kai-hua; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiang-hua; Sun, Ming; Zhang, Mei-ling; Wu, Wei-qin; Xie, Wei-ping; Hou, Ya-yi

    2013-10-07

    Long non-coding RNAs play an important role in tumorigenesis, hence, identification of cancer-associated lncRNAs and investigation of their biological functions and molecular mechanisms are important for understanding the development and progression of cancer. Recently, the downregulation of lncRNA MEG3 has been observed in various human cancers. However, its role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the expression pattern of MEG3 in NSCLC and to evaluate its biological role and clinical significance in tumor progression. Expression of MEG3 was analyzed in 44 NSCLC tissues and 7 NSCLC cell lines by qRT-PCR. Over-expression approaches were used to investigate the biological functions of MEG3 in NSCLC cells. Bisulfite sequencing was used to investigate DNA methylation on MEG3 expression. The effect of MEG3 on proliferation was evaluated by MTT and colony formation assays, and cell apoptosis was evaluated by Hoechst staining and Flow-cytometric analysis. NSCLC cells transfected with pCDNA-MEG3 were injection into nude mice to study the effect of MEG3 on tumorigenesis in vivo . Protein levels of MEG3 targets were determined by western blot analysis. Differences between groups were tested for significance using Student's t-test (two-tailed). MEG3 expression was decreased in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor tissues compared with normal tissues, and associated with advanced pathologic stage, and tumor size. Moreover, patients with lower levels of MEG3 expression had a relatively poor prognosis. Overexpression of MEG3 decreased NSCLC cells proliferation and induced apoptosis in vitro and impeded tumorigenesis in vivo. MDM2 and p53 protein levels were affected by MEG3 over-expression in vitro. Our findings indicate that MEG3 is significantly down-regulated in NSCLC tissues that could be affected by DNA methylation, and regulates NSCLC cell proliferation and apoptosis, partially via the activition of p53. Thus, MEG3

  13. Association of p53/p21 expression and cigarette smoking with tumor progression and poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Xie, Deyao; Lan, Linhua; Huang, Kate; Chen, Lin; Xu, Cuicui; Wang, Rongrong; Shi, Yang; Wu, Xiaoyi; Wang, Lu; Liu, Yongzhang; Lu, Bin

    2014-12-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 80-85% of all lung cancer cases. Cigarette smoking is the number one risk factor which is attributed to more than four out of five cases of lung cancers. The prognostic impact of cell cycle regulation-associated tumor suppressors including p53 and p21 for NSCLC is still controversial. In the present study, we examined p53 and p21 expression using immunoblotting in tumor and adjacent non-cancerous tissues from NSCLC patients. Moreover, tissue microarrays (TMAs) including 150 specimens was used to examine p53 and p21 expression by immunohistochemical staining (IHC). The association between p53/p21 and various clinicopathological characteristics was evaluated. Kaplan-Meier overall survival was used to analyze the association between p53/p21 expression and prognosis of NSCLC patients, as well as the association of cigarette smoking with p53/p21 expression and prognosis. The results of the immunoblotting showed that expression of p53 and p21 in tumor tissues was significantly higher than that in the matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively). The IHC results showed that 50.67% of the cases had high expression of p21; however, the percentage of patients having high expression of p53 was 31.3%. Univariate and Cox regression models were used to evaluate the factors related to prognosis with p53 and p21 expression. Multivariate analysis indicated that p53 expression was an independent prognostic factor for NSCLC (P=0.005), while p21 could not serve as an independent prognostic factor (P=0.123). In addition, smoking history was closely related to lung cancer risk (P=0.041), but could not be an independent assessment factor (P=0.740). In this study, we further demonstrated the association of p53/p21 expression and cigarette smoking. Our results suggest that cigarette smoking and overexpression of p53 or p21 are associated with poor prognosis. The combination of p53/p21 expression and

  14. Immunohistochemistry and scoring of Ki-67 proliferative index and p53 expression in gastric B cell lymphoma from Northern African population: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Zeggai, Soumia; Tou, Abdelnacer; Sellam, Feriel; Mrabent, Meriem N.; Salah, Rachida

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to clarify the Ki-67 distribution, p53 expression and their relationship with clinico-pathologic features of gastric B cell lymphoma from Northern African population. Methods Twenty paraffin blocks of gastric lymphoma were retrieved from the archival materials of Department of Pathology, Central University Hospital of Sidi Bel Abbes (Western Algeria) from 2007 to 2013. Four µm section specimens were stained by immunohistochemical (IHC) technique with Ki-67 and p53 tumor markers. P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Expression of p53 proteins and the mean proliferative index (PI) were compared between high grade gastric B cell lymphomas (DLBCL) and low grade gastric B cell lymphomas (gastric MALTs). p53 overexpression (P=0.007) and a high proliferation index Ki-67 (P=0.001) were significantly associated with gastric DLBCL. We found also a statistically significant correlation between p53 and Ki-67 (P=0.007) but no obvious relationships were found between Ki-67 PI and p53 expression as well as clinico-pathological features (age, sex, location, macroscopic type). Conclusions The IHC studies of Ki-67 and p53 expression in gastric B cell lymphoma can help in monitoring of patients at risk, and to give suitable treatment and management of patients. PMID:27284480

  15. Hyperglycemia promotes p53-Mdm2 interaction but reduces p53 ubiquitination in RINm5F cells.

    PubMed

    Barzalobre-Gerónimo, R; Raúl, Barzalobre-Gerónimo; Flores-López, L A; Antonio, Flores-López Luis; Baiza-Gutman, L A; Arturo, Baiza-Gutman Luis; Cruz, M; Miguel, Cruz; García-Macedo, R; Rebeca, García-Macedo; Ávalos-Rodríguez, A; Alejandro, Ávalos-Rodríguez; Contreras-Ramos, A; Alejandra, Contreras-Ramos; Díaz-Flores, A; Margarita, Díaz-Flores; Ortega-Camarillo, C; Clara, Ortega-Camarillo

    2015-07-01

    The apoptosis of β cells induced by hyperglycemia has been associated with p53 mobilization to mitochondria and p53 phosphorylation. Murine double minute 2 (Mdm2) induces the degradation of p53 and thereby protects cells from apoptosis. We studied the effect of glucose at high concentration on the ability of Mdm2 to ubiquitinate p53 and promote its degradation. RINm5F cells were grown in RPMI-1640 medium with 5 or 30 mM glucose for varying periods of time. After this treatment, the expression of Mdm2 was measured using real-time PCR. The phosphorylation of Mdm2 at Ser166, p53 at Ser15, and the kinases Akt and ATM were measured by Western blotting. The formation of the p53-Mdm2 complex and p53 ubiquitination was assessed by p53 immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence. Our results showed that high glucose reduced Mdm2 mRNA expression and protein concentration and increased Mdm2 and Akt phosphorylation, albeit with slower kinetics for Akt. It also promoted p53-Mdm2 complex formation, whereas p53 ubiquitination was suppressed. Furthermore, phosphorylation of both p53 Ser15 and ATM was increased in the presence of 30 mM glucose. These data indicate that high concentration glucose decrease the mRNA expression and cytosolic concentration of Mdm2. However, although the increase in glucose promoted the phosphorylation of Mdm2, it also decreased p53 ubiquitination, thus avoiding p53 degradation. In hyperglycemic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, the reduction of pancreatic β cells mass is favored by stabilization of p53 in association with low p53 ubiquitination and reduced expression of Mdm2.

  16. [Effect of lycium bararum polysaccharides on angiotensin II-induced senescence of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and expressions of P53 and P16].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ling; Wang, Xue-ni; Liu, Ze; Wang, Lu-ni; Wu, Jun; Wang, Wei; Feng, Ju-xiang

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the role of lycium bararum polysaccharides (LBP) on angiotensin II (AngII)-induced senescence of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and expressions of P53 and P16 and explore the mechanism of LBP against aging. HUVECs cultured in vitro were stimulated with 1×10(-6) mmol/L AngII to induce cell senescence, which was identified using β-gal staining. Flow cytometry was used for analyzing the cell cycle changes, and the cell viability was assessed using CCK-8 method. Western blotting was employed to detect the expression of P53 and P16 in the exposed cells. Compared with the control cells, the cells positive for β-gal staining was significantly increased in AngII group, and showed cell cycle arrest at G(0)/G(1) phase with decreased S-phase cell percentage and cell viability. The expression levels of P53 and P16 were significantly increased in the cells with AngII exposure (P<0.05). LBP treatment of AngII-exposed cells resulted in decreased β-gal-positive cells with a reduction in G(0)/G(1) phase cells and an increase in S phase cells. LBP treatment also increased the cell viability and significantly decreased the expression levels of P53 and P16 (P<0.05). LBP can delay AngII-induced aging of HUVECs possibly by down-regulating the expression of P53 and P15.

  17. Arecoline-induced phosphorylated p53 and p21(WAF1) protein expression is dependent on ATM/ATR and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase in clone-9 cells.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wen-Wen; Guh, Jinn-Yuh; Tsai, Jung-Fa; Hwang, Chi-Ching; Chiou, Shean-Jaw; Chuang, Lea-Yea

    2009-06-01

    Betel-quid use is associated with liver cancer whereas its constituent arecoline is cytotoxic, genotoxic, and induces p53-dependent p21(WAF1) protein expression in Clone-9 cells (rat hepatocytes). The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)/rad3-related (ATR)-p53-p21(WAF1) and the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways are involved in the DNA damage response and the pathogenesis of cancers. Thus, we studied the role of ATM/ATR and PI3K in arecoline-induced p53 and p21(WAF1) protein expression in Clone-9 cells. We found that arecoline (0.5 mM) activated the ATM/ATR kinase at 30 min. The arecoline-activated ATM/ATR substrate contained p-p53Ser15. Moreover, arecoline only increased the levels of the p-p53Ser6, p-p53Ser15, and p-p53Ser392 phosphorylated p53 isoforms among the known isoforms. ATM shRNA attenuated arecoline-induced p-p53Ser15 and p21(WAF1) at 24 h. Arecoline (0.5 mM) increased phosphorylation levels of p-AktSer473 and p-mTORSer2448 at 30-60 min. Dominant-negative PI3K plasmids attenuated arecoline-induced p21(WAF1), but not p-p53Ser15, at 24 h. Rapamycin attenuated arecoline-induced phosphrylated p-p53Ser15, but not p21(WAF1), at 24 h. ATM shRNA, but not dominant-negative PI3K plasmids, attenuated arecoline-induced p21(WAF1) gene transcription. We conclude that arecoline activates the ATM/ATR-p53-p21(WAF1) and the PI3K/Akt-mTOR-p53 pathways in Clone-9 cells. Arecoline-induced phosphorylated p-p53Ser15 expression is dependent on ATM whereas arecoline-induced p21(WAF1) protein expression is dependent on ATM and PI3K. Moreover, p21(WAF1) gene is transcriptionally induced by arecoline-activated ATM. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. p53 and MDM2 protein expression in actinic cheilitis.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Maria da Conceição Andrade; Ramalho, Luciana Maria Pedreira; Xavier, Flávia Caló Aquino; Moreira, André Luis Gomes; Reis, Sílvia Regina Almeida

    2008-01-01

    Actinic cheilitis is a potentially malignant lip lesion caused by excessive and prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation, which can lead to histomorphological alterations indicative of abnormal cell differentiation. In this pathology, varying degrees of epithelial dysplasia may be found. There are few published studies regarding the p53 and MDM2 proteins in actinic cheilitis. Fifty-eight cases diagnosed with actinic cheilitis were histologically evaluated using Banóczy and Csiba (1976) parameters, and were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis using the streptavidin-biotin method in order to assess p53 and MDM2 protein expression. All studied cases expressed p53 proteins in basal and suprabasal layers. In the basal layer, the nuclei testing positive for p53 were stained intensely, while in the suprabasal layer, cells with slightly stained nuclei were predominant. All cases also tested positive for the MDM2 protein, but with varying degrees of nuclear expression and a predominance of slightly stained cells. A statistically significant correlation between the percentage of p53 and MDM2-positive cells was established, regardless of the degree of epithelial dysplasia. The expression of p53 and MDM2 proteins in actinic cheilitis can be an important indicator in lip carcinogenesis, regardless of the degree of epithelial dysplasia.

  19. Ectopic AP4 expression induces cellular senescence via activation of p53 in long-term confluent retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiping; Wong, Matthew Man-Kin; Zhang, Xiaojian; Chiu, Sung-Kay

    2015-11-15

    When cells are grown to confluence, cell-cell contact inhibition occurs and drives the cells to enter reversible quiescence rather than senescence. Confluent retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells exhibiting contact inhibition was used as a model in this study to examine the role of overexpression of transcription factor AP4, a highly expressed transcription factor in many types of cancer, in these cells during long-term culture. We generated stable inducible RPE cell clones expressing AP4 or AP4 without the DNA binding domain (DN-AP4) and observed that, when cultured for 24 days, RPE cells with a high level of AP4 exhibit a large, flattened morphology and even cease proliferating; these changes were not observed in DN-AP4-expressing cells or non-induced cells. In addition, AP4-expressing cells exhibited senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. We demonstrated that the induced cellular senescence was mediated by enhanced p53 expression and that AP4 regulates the p53 gene by binding directly to two of the three E-boxes present on the promoter of the p53 gene. Moreover, we showed that serum is essential for AP4 in inducing p53-associated cellular senescence. Collectively, we showed that overexpression of AP4 mediates cellular senescence involving in activation of p53 in long-term post-confluent RPE cells.

  20. FBXW7-mutated colorectal cancer cells exhibit aberrant expression of phosphorylated-p53 at Serine-15

    PubMed Central

    Normatova, Makhliyo; Babaei-Jadidi, Roya; Tomlinson, Ian; Nateri, Abdolrahman S.

    2015-01-01

    FBXW7 mutations occur in a variety of human cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC). Elucidating its mechanism of action has become crucial for cancer therapy; however, it is also complicated by the fact that FBXW7 can influence many pathways due to its role as an E3-ubiquitin ligase in proteasome degradation. FBXW7 and TP53 are tumour suppressors intensively implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis. Deletion mutations in these two genes in animal models mark the progression from adenoma to carcinoma. Although still largely unknown, the last defense mechanism against CRC at the molecular level could be through a synergistic effect of the two genes. The underlying mechanism requires further investigation. In our laboratory, we have used a phospho-kinase profiler array to illustrate a potential molecular link between FBXW7 and p53 in CRC cells. In vitro and in vivo assessments demonstrated aberrant induction of phosphorylated p53 at Serine 15 [phospho-p53(Ser15)] in human FBXW7-deficient CRC cells as compared to their FBXW7-wild-type counterparts. FBXW7 loss in HCT116 cells promoted resistance to oxaliplatin. Immunoblotting data further confirmed that reduction of phospho-p53(Ser15) may contribute to the decreased efficacy of therapy in FBXW7-mutated CRC cells. The findings may suggest the applicability of phospho-p53(Ser15) as an indicative marker of FBXW7-mutations. Phospho-p53(Ser15) regulation by FBXW7 E3-ligase activity could provide important clues for understanding FBXW7 behavior in tumour progression and grounds for its clinical applicability thereafter. PMID:25860929

  1. The p53 isoform delta133p53ß regulates cancer cell apoptosis in a RhoB-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Arsic, Nikola; Ho-Pun-Cheung, Alexandre; Evelyne, Crapez; Assenat, Eric; Jarlier, Marta; Anguille, Christelle; Colard, Manon; Pezet, Mikaël

    2017-01-01

    The TP53 gene plays essential roles in cancer. Conventionally, wild type (WT) p53 is thought to prevent cancer development and metastasis formation, while mutant p53 has transforming abilities. However, clinical studies failed to establish p53 mutation status as an unequivocal predictive or prognostic factor of cancer progression. The recent discovery of p53 isoforms that can differentially regulate cell cycle arrest and apoptosis suggests that their expression, rather than p53 mutations, could be a more clinically relevant biomarker in patients with cancer. In this study, we show that the p53 isoform delta133p53ß is involved in regulating the apoptotic response in colorectal cancer cell lines. We first demonstrate delta133p53ß association with the small GTPase RhoB, a well-described anti-apoptotic protein. We then show that, by inhibiting RhoB activity, delta133p53ß protects cells from camptothecin-induced apoptosis. Moreover, we found that high delta133p53 mRNA expression levels are correlated with higher risk of recurrence in a series of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (n = 36). Our findings describe how a WT TP53 isoform can act as an oncogene and add a new layer to the already complex p53 signaling network. PMID:28212429

  2. [Effect of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma combined with Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma on p53 and p21 gene expression of IEC-6 cells].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fang; Jiang, Ze-bo; Zhang, Xian; Hu, Jin-ping; Li, Si-ming; Zhao, Jin; Zeng, Xing

    2015-05-01

    To study the effect of the combined administration of different doses of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma on the proliferation of DFMO-treated intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) and p53, p21 mRNA and protein expressions, in order to define the molecular basis for the effect of the combined administration of different doses of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma on the cell proliferation. The effect of the drugs on the cell division rate and cell cycle of IEC-6 cells was detected by FCM. Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to analyze the effect of the drugs on mRNA of p2l and p53 related to IEC-6 proliferation. Western blot was used to analyze the effect of the drugs on p2l and p53 protein expressions of IEC-6 cells. Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma could increase p53, p21 mRNA and proteins expression in DFMO-treated IEC-6 cells. The combined administration of different ratios of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma could significantly down-regulate Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma's effect on p53, p21 mRNA and proteins expression in DFMO-treated IEC-6 cells and promote the proliferation of IEC-6 cells. The combined administration of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma could down-regulate Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma's effect on DFMO-treated intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6).

  3. Activated p53 with Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Enhances L-Fucose-Mediated Drug Delivery through Induction of Fucosyltransferase 8 Expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Arihara, Yohei; Kikuchi, Shohei; Osuga, Takahiro; Nakamura, Hajime; Kamihara, Yusuke; Hayasaka, Naotaka; Usami, Makoto; Murase, Kazuyuki; Miyanishi, Koji; Kobune, Masayoshi; Kato, Junji

    2016-01-01

    Background The prognosis of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is dismal, underscoring the need for novel effective treatments. The α1,6-fucosyltransferase (fucosyltransferase 8, FUT8) has been reported to accelerate malignant potential in HCC. Our study aimed to investigate the regulation of FUT8 expression by p53 and develop a novel therapeutic strategy for targeting HCC cells using L-fucose-mediated drug delivery. Methods Binding sites for p53 were searched for within the FUT8 promoter region. FUT8 expression was assessed by immunoblotting. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were performed to analyze p53 binding to the FUT8 promoter. The delivery of Cy5.5-encapsulated L-fucose-liposomes (Fuc-Lip-Cy5.5) to a Lens Culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of α-fetoprotein (AFP-L3)-expressing HCC cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. The induction of FUT8 by histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) -inducing acetylated -p53 was evaluated by immunoblotting. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to assess whether the activation of p53 by HDACi affected the uptake of Fuc-Lip-Cy5.5 by HCC cells. The cytotoxicity of an L-fucose-bound liposome carrying sorafenib (Fuc-Lip-sorafenib) with HDACi was assessed in vivo and in vitro. Results The knock down of p53 with siRNA led to decreased FUT8 expression. ChIP assays revealed p53 binds to the FUT8 promoter region. Flow cytometric analyses demonstrated the specific uptake of Fuc-Lip-Cy5.5 into AFP-L3-expressing HCC cells in a p53- and FUT8-dependent manner. HDACi upregulated the uptake of Fuc-Lip-Cy5.5 by HCC cells by increasing FUT8 via acetylated -p53. The addition of a HDACi increased apoptosis induced by Fuc-Lip-sorafenib in HCC cells. Conclusions Our findings reveal that FUT8 is a p53 target gene and suggest that p53 activated by HDACi induces Fuc-Lip-sorafenib uptake by HCC cells, highlighting this pathway as a promising therapeutic intervention for HCC. PMID:27977808

  4. p21WAF1/Cip1 expression is associated with cell differentiation but not with p53 mutations in squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx.

    PubMed

    Nadal, A; Jares, P; Cazorla, M; Fernández, P L; Sanjuan, X; Hernandez, L; Pinyol, M; Aldea, M; Mallofré, C; Muntané, J; Traserra, J; Campo, E; Cardesa, A

    1997-10-01

    p21WAF1/Cip1 is a recently identified gene involved in cell cycle regulation through cyclin-CDK-complex inhibition. The expression of this gene in several cell lines seems to be induced by wild-type, but not mutant, p53. p21WAF1/Cip1 expression has been studied at both mRNA and protein levels in a series of 49 normal mucosae and squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx. A significant association was found between mRNA and protein expression in tumours (P < 0.0001). p21WAF1/Cip1 expression was strongly associated with squamous cell differentiation of carcinomas, because six of seven (86 per cent) undifferentiated carcinomas (grade 4) showed very low levels of p21WAF1/Cip1 expression, whereas 41 out of 42 (98 per cent) carcinomas with squamous cell differentiation (grades 1-3) had normal or high levels of p21WAF1/Cip1 expression (P < 0.0001). In addition, p21WAF1/Cip1 expression was topologically related to the squamous differentiation of tumour cells with a distribution similar to that seen in normal squamous epithelium. No correlation was found between p21WAF1/Cip1 expression and the global S-phase of the carcinomas. p53 mutations (exons 5-9) were found in ten carcinomas with p21WAF1/Cip1 expression, but no p53 mutations were detected in three p21WAF1/Cip1-negative tumours. In conclusion, p21WAF1/Cip1 expression is frequently upregulated in squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx and is associated with tumour cell differentiation. p21WAF1/Cip1 expression in these tumours is independent of p53 gene mutations.

  5. p16INK4a hypermethylation and p53, p16 and MDM2 protein expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Taghavi, Noushin; Biramijamal, Firouzeh; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Khademi, Hooman; Malekzadeh, Reza; Moaven, Omeed; Memar, Bahram; A'rabi, Azadeh; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza

    2010-04-13

    Tumor suppressor genes p53 and p16INK4a and the proto-oncogene MDM2 are considered to be essential G1 cell cycle regulatory genes whose loss of function is associated with ESCC carcinogenesis. We assessed the aberrant methylation of the p16 gene and its impact on p16INK4a protein expression and correlations with p53 and MDM2 protein expressions in patients with ESCC in the Golestan province of northeastern Iran in which ESCC has the highest incidence of cancer, well above the world average. Cancerous tissues and the adjacent normal tissue obtained from 50 ESCC patients were assessed with Methylation-Specific-PCR to examine the methylation status of p16. The expression of p16, p53 and MDM2 proteins was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Abnormal expression of p16 and p53, but not MDM2, was significantly higher in the tumoral tissue. p53 was concomitantly accumulated in ESCC tumor along with MDM2 overexpression and p16 negative expression. Aberrant methylation of the p16INK4a gene was detected in 31/50 (62%) of esophageal tumor samples, while two of the adjacent normal mucosa were methylated (P < 0.001). p16INK4a aberrant methylation was significantly associated with decreased p16 protein expression (P = 0.033), as well as the overexpression of p53 (P = 0.020). p16 hypermethylation is the principal mechanism of p16 protein underexpression and plays an important role in ESCC development. It is associated with p53 protein overexpression and may influence the accumulation of abnormally expressed proteins in p53-MDM2 and p16-Rb pathways, suggesting a possible cross-talk of the involved pathways in ESCC development.

  6. p16INK4a hypermethylation and p53, p16 and MDM2 protein expression in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Tumor suppressor genes p53 and p16INK4a and the proto-oncogene MDM2 are considered to be essential G1 cell cycle regulatory genes whose loss of function is associated with ESCC carcinogenesis. We assessed the aberrant methylation of the p16 gene and its impact on p16INK4a protein expression and correlations with p53 and MDM2 protein expressions in patients with ESCC in the Golestan province of northeastern Iran in which ESCC has the highest incidence of cancer, well above the world average. Methods Cancerous tissues and the adjacent normal tissue obtained from 50 ESCC patients were assessed with Methylation-Specific-PCR to examine the methylation status of p16. The expression of p16, p53 and MDM2 proteins was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Results Abnormal expression of p16 and p53, but not MDM2, was significantly higher in the tumoral tissue. p53 was concomitantly accumulated in ESCC tumor along with MDM2 overexpression and p16 negative expression. Aberrant methylation of the p16INK4a gene was detected in 31/50 (62%) of esophageal tumor samples, while two of the adjacent normal mucosa were methylated (P < 0.001). p16INK4a aberrant methylation was significantly associated with decreased p16 protein expression (P = 0.033), as well as the overexpression of p53 (P = 0.020). Conclusions p16 hypermethylation is the principal mechanism of p16 protein underexpression and plays an important role in ESCC development. It is associated with p53 protein overexpression and may influence the accumulation of abnormally expressed proteins in p53-MDM2 and p16-Rb pathways, suggesting a possible cross-talk of the involved pathways in ESCC development. PMID:20388212

  7. p53 and MDM2 in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Noon, Aidan P.; Vlatković, Nikolina; Polański, Radosław; Maguire, Maria; Shawki, Howida; Parsons, Keith; Boyd, Mark T.

    2010-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common type of kidney cancer and follows an unpredictable disease course. To improve prognostication, a better understanding of critical genes associated with disease progression is required. The objective of this review was to focus attention on 2 such genes, p53 and murine double minute 2 (MDM2), and to provide a comprehensive summary and critical analysis of the literature regarding these genes in RCC. Information was compiled by searching the PubMed database for articles that were published or e-published up to April 1, 2009. Search terms included renal cancer, renal cell carcinoma, p53, and MDM2. Full articles and any supplementary data were examined; and, when appropriate, references were checked for additional material. All studies that described assessment of p53 and/or MDM2 in renal cancer were included. The authors concluded that increased p53 expression, but not p53 mutation, is associated with reduced overall survival/more rapid disease progression in RCC. There also was evidence that MDM2 up-regulation is associated with decreased disease-specific survival. Two features of RCC stood out as unusual and will require further investigation. First, increased p53 expression is tightly linked with increased MDM2 expression; and, second, patients who have tumors that display increased p53 and MDM2 expression may have the poorest overall survival. Because there was no evidence to support the conclusion that p53 mutation is associated with poorer survival, it seemed clear that increased p53 expression in RCC occurs independent of mutation. Further investigation of the mechanisms leading to increased p53/MDM2 expression in RCC may lead to improved prognostication and to the identification of novel therapeutic interventions. PMID:20052733

  8. Low Levels of p53 Protein and Chromatin Silencing of p53 Target Genes Repress Apoptosis in Drosophila Endocycling Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bingqing; Mehrotra, Sonam; Ng, Wei Lun; Calvi, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Apoptotic cell death is an important response to genotoxic stress that prevents oncogenesis. It is known that tissues can differ in their apoptotic response, but molecular mechanisms are little understood. Here, we show that Drosophila polyploid endocycling cells (G/S cycle) repress the apoptotic response to DNA damage through at least two mechanisms. First, the expression of all the Drosophila p53 protein isoforms is strongly repressed at a post-transcriptional step. Second, p53-regulated pro-apoptotic genes are epigenetically silenced in endocycling cells, preventing activation of a paused RNA Pol II by p53-dependent or p53-independent pathways. Over-expression of the p53A isoform did not activate this paused RNA Pol II complex in endocycling cells, but over-expression of the p53B isoform with a longer transactivation domain did, suggesting that dampened p53B protein levels are crucial for apoptotic repression. We also find that the p53A protein isoform is ubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome in endocycling cells. In mitotic cycling cells, p53A was the only isoform expressed to detectable levels, and its mRNA and protein levels increased after irradiation, but there was no evidence for an increase in protein stability. However, our data suggest that p53A protein stability is regulated in unirradiated cells, which likely ensures that apoptosis does not occur in the absence of stress. Without irradiation, both p53A protein and a paused RNA pol II were pre-bound to the promoters of pro-apoptotic genes, preparing mitotic cycling cells for a rapid apoptotic response to genotoxic stress. Together, our results define molecular mechanisms by which different cells in development modulate their apoptotic response, with broader significance for the survival of normal and cancer polyploid cells in mammals. PMID:25211335

  9. Method for lipidomic analysis: p53 expression modulation of sulfatide, ganglioside, and phospholipid composition of U87 MG glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    He, Huan; Conrad, Charles A; Nilsson, Carol L; Ji, Yongjie; Schaub, Tanner M; Marshall, Alan G; Emmett, Mark R

    2007-11-15

    Lipidomics can complement genomics and proteomics by providing new insight into dynamic changes in biomembranes; however, few reports in the literature have explored, on an organism-wide scale, the functional link between nonenzymatic proteins and cellular lipids. Here, we report changes induced by adenovirus-delivered wild-type p53 gene and chemotherapy of U87 MG glioblastoma cells, a treatment known to trigger apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. We compare polar lipid changes in treated cells and control cells by use of a novel, sensitive method that employs lipid extraction, one-step liquid chromatography separation, high-resolution mass analysis, and Kendrick mass defect analysis. Nano-LC FT-ICR MS and quadrupole linear ion trap MS/MS analysis of polar lipids yields hundreds of unique assignments of glyco- and phospholipids at sub-ppm mass accuracy and high resolving power (m/Deltam50% = 200 000 at m/z 400) at 1 s/scan. MS/MS data confirm molecular structures in many instances. Sulfatides are most highly modulated by wild-type p53 treatment. The treatment also leads to an increase in phospholipids such as phosphatidyl inositols, phosphatidyl serines, phosphatidyl glycerols, and phosphatidyl ethanolamines. An increase in hydroxylated phospholipids is especially noteworthy. Also, a decrease in the longer chain gangliosides, GD1 and GM1b, is observed in wild-type p53 (treated) cells.

  10. Prognostic Significance of Bcl-2 and p53 Protein Expressions and Ki67 Proliferative Index in Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bolat Küçükzeybek, Betül; Bener, Sadi; Orgen Çallı, Aylin; Doğruluk Paksoy, Tuğba; Payzin, Bahriye

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a high-grade neoplasm that has heterogeneous properties in clinical, morphological, and immunophenotypic aspects. In the present study the effects of p53, Bcl-2, and Ki67 on prognosis and their relationships with clinical parameters were examined. 
 Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients who had been diagnosed with nodally located DLBCL at İzmir Atatürk Training and Research Hospital between January 1999 and June 2006 were included in the study. The Ann Arbor classification system was used to determine the stage of the patients. The patients were evaluated according to age, sex, stage, B symptoms, extranodal involvement, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level as well as immunohistochemically. P53 protein and Bcl-2 oncoprotein expressions and Ki67 proliferation index were assessed immunohistochemically. Results: High Bcl-2 expression was found in 9 patients (25.7%), high p53 expression was found in 10 patients (28.6%), and high Ki67 was observed in 23 patients (65.7%). There was no significant correlation between p53 expression, Bcl-2 expression, or Ki67 proliferation index and age, sex, stage, B symptoms, extranodal involvement, LDH level, and overall survival (p>0.05). We did not find a relationship among p53 expression, Bcl-2 expression, Ki67 proliferation index, and prognosis (p>0.05). There was no significant relationship between overall survival and age, sex, stage, B symptoms, extranodal involvement, or LDH level (p>0.05). Our results revealed that Bcl-2 and p53 protein expressions and Ki67 proliferation index have no effect on overall survival of patients with DLBCL. Conclusion: The prognostic importance of p53 and Bcl-2 protein expressions and Ki67 proliferation index in DLBCL, which has biological and clinical heterogeneity, can be understood in a large series of studies that have subclasses and immunohistochemical markers with optimal cut-off values. PMID:24385807

  11. p53 facilitates pRb cleavage in IL-3-deprived cells: novel pro-apoptotic activity of p53.

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, E; Oren, M

    1998-01-01

    In the interleukin-3 (IL-3)-dependent lymphoid cell line DA-1, functional p53 is required for efficient apoptosis in response to IL-3 withdrawal. Activation of p53 in these cells, by either DNA damage or p53 overexpression, results in a vital growth arrest in the presence of IL-3 and in accelerated apoptosis in its absence. Thus, IL-3 can control the choice between p53-dependent cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Here we report that the cross-talk between p53 and IL-3 involves joint control of pRb cleavage and degradation. Depletion of IL-3 results in caspase-mediated pRb cleavage, occurring preferentially within cells which express functional p53. Moreover, pRb can be cleaved efficiently by extracts prepared from DA-1 cells but not from their derivatives which lack p53 function. Inactivation of pRb through expression of the human papillomavirus (HPV) E7 oncogene overrides the effect of IL-3 in a p53-dependent manner. Our data suggest a novel role for p53 in the regulation of cell death and a novel mechanism for the cooperation between p53 and survival factor deprivation. Thus, p53 makes cells permissive to pRb cleavage, probably by controlling the potential activity of a pRb-cleaving caspase, whereas IL-3 withdrawal provides signals that turn on this potential activity and lead to the actual cleavage and subsequent degradation of pRb. Elimination of a presumptive anti-apoptotic effect of pRb may then facilitate conversion of p53-mediated growth arrest into apoptosis. PMID:9649429

  12. The expression of p21 is upregulated by forkhead box A1/2 in p53-null H1299 cells.

    PubMed

    An, Joo-Hee; Jang, Sang-Min; Kim, Jung-Woong; Kim, Chul-Hong; Song, Peter I; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2014-11-03

    The expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 is increased in response to various stimuli and stress signals through p53-dependent and independent pathways. We demonstrate in this study that forkhead box A1/2 (FOXA1/2) is a crucial transcription factor in the activation of p21 transcription via direct binding to the p21 promoter in p53-null H1299 lung carcinoma cells. In addition, histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA)-mediated upregulation of p21 expression was repressed by knockdown of FOXA1/2 in H1299 cells. Consequently, these results suggest that FOXA1/2 is required for p53-independent p21 expression.

  13. Differential association of S100A9, an inflammatory marker, and p53, a cell cycle marker, expression with epicardial adipocyte size in patients with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Agra, Rosa María; Fernández-Trasancos, Ángel; Sierra, Juan; González-Juanatey, José Ramón; Eiras, Sonia

    2014-10-01

    S100A9 (calgranulin B) has inflammatory and oxidative stress properties and was found to be associated with atherosclerosis and obesity. One of the proteins that can regulate S100A9 transcription is p53, which is involved in cell cycle, apoptosis and adipogenesis. Thus, it triggers adipocyte enlargement and finally obesity. Because epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume and thickness is related to coronary artery disease (CAD), we studied the gene expression of this pathway in patients with cardiovascular disease and its association with obesity. Adipocytes and stromal cells from EAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from 48 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft and/or valve replacement were obtained after collagenase digestion and differential centrifugation. The expression levels of the involved genes on adipogenesis and cell cycle like fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) 4, retinol-binding protein (RBP)4, p53 and S100A9 were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Adipocyte diameter was measured by optical microscopy. We found that epicardial adipocytes expressed significantly lower levels of adipogenic genes (FABP4 and RBP4) and cell cycle-related genes (S100A9 and p53) than subcutaneous adipocytes. However, in obese patients, upregulation of adipogenic and cell cycle-related genes in subcutaneous and epicardial adipocytes, respectively, was observed. The enlargement of adipocyte size was related to FABP4, S100A9 and p53 expression levels in stromal cells. But only the p53 association was maintained in epicardial stromal cells from obese patients (p=0.003). The expression of p53, but not S100A9, in epicardial stromal cells is related to adipocyte enlargement in obese patients with cardiovascular disease. These findings suggest new mechanisms for understanding the relationship between epicardial fat thickness, obesity and cardiovascular disease.

  14. Prognostic Value of p53 Expression Intensity in Urothelial Cancers.

    PubMed

    Qamar, Samina; Inam, Qazi Adil; Ashraf, Sobia; Khan, M Safdar; Khokhar, M Abbas; Awan, Nukhbatullah

    2017-04-01

    To determine association of immunohistochemical expression intensity of p53 with grade and stage of urothelial cancers. Descriptive cross-sectional analytical study. Pathology Department, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, from January to December 2016. Data of transurethral resection/radical cystesctomy urinary bladder biopsies was collected. Clinical, radiological and cystoscopic findings of patients were noted from patients' charts in the Urology Ward. Biopsies were graded histologically according to WHO 2004 grading system. TNM system was used for pathological staging. On selected slides, immunoshistochemistry for p53 was applied. Nuclear immunoreactivity was considered positive if present in >10% of tumor cells and negative if <10% of tumor cells. Intensity was considered weak (less than 15% cells) and strong (more than 15% cells). Data was analyzed by SPSS version 21. Linear-by-linear association was calculated between p53 expression and stage of urothelial tumors, Chi-Square test was used to see association between grade and intensity of p53. Qualitative variables, like grade and stage of carcinoma along with p53 expression, were calculated in terms of frequencies and percentages. P ≤ 0.05 was taken as significant. Out of the 70 patients, 61 (87%) were males and 9 (13%) females. Out of 25 low grade lesions, 4 (16%) cases were p53 positive; and out of 45 high grade lesions, 41 (91%) cases were p53 positive. There was 33% (2/6 cases) positivity in Tis, 55% (16/29 cases) in T1, 72% in T2 (21/29), and 100% in T3a (5/5 cases) and T3b (1/1 case). Strong intensity of p53 staining was noted to be 5.4% (n=25) of low grade and 94.6% (n=45) of high grade tumors. p53 expression was greater and more frequently strong in higher grade and stage of urothelial carcinoma. It can be used as a prognostic marker in predicting higher grade and stage of bladder cancer.

  15. Expression of the apoptosis inducer gene head involution defective in primordial germ cells of the Drosophila embryo requires eiger, p53, and loki function.

    PubMed

    Maezawa, Takanobu; Arita, Kayo; Shigenobu, Shuji; Kobayashi, Satoru

    2009-05-01

    Nanos (Nos) is an evolutionarily conserved protein essential for the maintenance of primordial germ cells (PGCs). In Drosophila, the PGCs or pole cells express head involution defective (hid), which is required for caspase activation, but its translation is repressed by maternal Nos. In the absence of Nos activity, translation of hid mRNA into protein induces apoptosis in pole cells. However, it remains unclear how hid mRNA is regulated in pole cells. Here, we report that hid expression requires eiger (egr), a tumor necrosis factor ligand (TNF) homologue, which is induced in pole cells by decapentaplegic (dpp). In addition, we demonstrate that p53 and loki (lok), a damage-activated kinase known to be required for p53 phosphorylation, are both required for hid expression in pole cells. Since maternal lok mRNA is enriched in pole cells, it is possible that ubiquitously distributed p53 is activated in pole cells by maternal Lok. We propose that hid expression is activated in a pole cell-specific manner by loki/p53 and dpp/egr during embryogenesis.

  16. Differential expression of p53, p63 and p73 protein and mRNA for DMBA-induced hamster buccal-pouch squamous-cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuk-Kwan; Huse, Shue-Sang; Lin, Li-Min

    2004-01-01

    Abnormalities in the p53 gene are regarded as the most consistent of the genetic abnormalities associated with oral squamous-cell carcinoma. Two related members of the p53 gene family, p73 and p63, have shown remarkable structural similarity to p53, suggesting possible functional and biological interactions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differential expression of p73, p63 and p53 genes for DMBA-induced hamster buccal-pouch squamous-cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis for protein expression and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for mRNA expression were performed for 40 samples of hamster buccal pouches, the total being separated into one experimental group (15-week DMBA-treated; 20 animals) and two control groups (untreated and mineral oil-treated; 10 animals each). Using immunohistochemical techniques, nuclear staining of p53 and p73 proteins was detected in a subset of hamster buccal-pouch tissue specimens treated with DMBA for a period of 15 weeks, whereas p63 proteins were noted for all of the 20 hamster buccal-pouch tissue specimens treated with DMBA for 15 weeks as well as for all of the untreated and mineral oil-treated hamster buccal-pouch tissue specimens. Differential expression of p63, p73 and p53 protein for the experimental group was as follows: p63+/p73+/p53+ (n = 14; 70%); p63+/p73+/p53− (n = 2; 10%); p63+/p73−/p53− (n = 4; 20%) and p63+/p73−/p53− (untreated [n = 10] and mineral oil-treated mucosa [n = 10]; 100% each). Upon RT-PCR, ΔNp63mRNA was detected within all of the 20 hamster buccal-pouch tissue specimens treated with DMBA for 15 weeks, whereas expression of TAp63 was not detected. Furthermore, p73 mRNA was identified for 16 of the hamster buccal-pouch tissue specimens treated with DMBA for 15 weeks, whereas p53 mRNA was noted for 14 15-week DMBA-treated pouches. The proportional (percentage) expression of ΔNp63, p73 and p53 mRNA for the hamster buccal-pouch tissue specimens

  17. The role of p53 in cell metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xing-ding; Qin, Zheng-hong; Wang, Jin

    2010-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene has recently been shown to mediate metabolic changes in cells under physiological and pathological conditions. It has been revealed that p53 regulates energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and amino acid metabolism through balancing glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) as well as the autophagy pathway. p53 is activated by metabolic stress through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. p53 regulates OXPHOS through the transcriptional regulation of fructose-2,6-bisphosophatase, TP53-induced glycolysis regulator (TIGAR) and synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase (SCO2) subunit of complex IV of the electron transport chain. p53 also indirectly influences the energy metabolism through regulating glucose transporter (GLUT) expression, glutaminase 2 (GLS2) and fatty acid synthase (FAS). In addition, p53 regulates autophagy to provide cell metabolites for surviving through damage regulated autophagy modulator (DRAM1). Here we review the recent findings to elucidate the important role of p53 in cell metabolism. PMID:20729871

  18. Deregulated expression of pro-survival and pro-apoptotic p53-dependent genes upon Elongator deficiency in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cornez, Isabelle; Creppe, Catherine; Gillard, Magali; Hennuy, Benoît; Chapelle, Jean-Paul; Dejardin, Emmanuel; Merville, Marie-Paule; Close, Pierre; Chariot, Alain

    2008-06-01

    Elongator, a multi-subunit complex assembled by the IkappaB kinase-associated protein (IKAP)/hELP1 scaffold protein is involved in transcriptional elongation in the nucleus as well as in tRNA modifications in the cytoplasm. However, the biological processes regulated by Elongator in human cells only start to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that IKAP/hELP1 depleted colon cancer-derived cells show enhanced basal expression of some but not all pro-apoptotic p53-dependent genes such as BAX. Moreover, Elongator deficiency causes increased basal and daunomycin-induced expression of the pro-survival serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase (SGK) gene through a p53-dependent pathway. Thus, our data collectively demonstrate that Elongator deficiency triggers the activation of p53-dependent genes harbouring opposite functions with respect to apoptosis.

  19. Apoptosis and p53 expression in rat adjuvant arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Tak, Paul P; Klapwijk, Maartje S; Broersen, Sophie FM; van de Geest, Deliana A; Overbeek, Marieke; Firestein, Gary S

    2000-01-01

    Introduction: RA is a chronic inflammatory disorder that is characterized by inflammation and proliferation of synovial tissue. The amount of DNA fragmentation is significantly increased in rheumatoid synovium. Only low numbers of apoptotic cells are present in rheumatoid synovial tissue, however. The proportion of cells with DNA strand breaks is so great that this disparity suggests impaired apoptosis. Therefore, the development of novel therapeutic strategies that are aimed at inducing apoptosis in rheumatoid synovial tissue is an attractive goal. Although animal models for arthritis only approximate RA, they provide a useful test system for the evaluation of apoptosis-inducing therapies. AA in rats is among the most commonly used animal models for RA. For the interpretation of such studies, it is essential to characterize the extent to which apoptosis occurs during the natural course of the disease. Therefore, we evaluated the number of apoptotic cells and the expression of p53 in various phases of AA. Materials and methods: In order to generate the AA rat model, Lewis rats were immunized with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mineral oil on day 0. Paw swelling usually started around day 10. For the temporal analysis rats were sacrificed on days 0, 5 (prearthritis), 11 (onset of arthritis), 17 (accelerating arthritis), or 23 (chronic arthritis). For the detection of apoptotic cells, the hind paws were harvested on days 0(n=6),5 (n=6), 11 (n=6), 17 (n=6), or 23 (n=4). The right ankle joints were fixed in formalin, decalcified in ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid, embedded in paraffin, and sectioned. The TUNEL method was applied. The percentage of TUNEL-positive cells of the total inflammatory cell infiltrate was noted. For Western blot analysis, hind paws were harvested on days 0 (n=2), 5 (n=3), 11 (n=4), 17 (n=4), or 23 (n=4). In addition, hind paws of normal rats (n=2) were studied. The right ankle joints were snap frozen and pulverized. Synovial tissue was also

  20. Functional repair of p53 mutation in colorectal cancer cells using trans-splicing.

    PubMed

    He, Xingxing; Liao, Jiazhi; Liu, Fang; Yan, Junwei; Yan, Jingjun; Shang, Haitao; Dou, Qian; Chang, Ying; Lin, Jusheng; Song, Yuhu

    2015-02-10

    Mutation in the p53 gene is arguably the most frequent type of gene-specific alterations in human cancers. Current p53-based gene therapy contains the administration of wt-p53 or the suppression of mutant p53 expression in p53-defective cancer cells. . We hypothesized that trans-splicing could be exploited as a tool for the correction of mutant p53 transcripts in p53-mutated human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. In this study, the plasmids encoding p53 pre-trans-splicing molecules (PTM) were transfected into human CRC cells carrying p53 mutation. The plasmids carrying p53-PTM repaired mutant p53 transcripts in p53-mutated CRC cells, which resulted in a reduction in mutant p53 transcripts and an induction of wt-p53 simultaneously. Intratumoral administration of adenovirus vectors carrying p53 trans-splicing cassettes suppressed the growth of tumor xenografts. Repair of mutant p53 transcripts by trans-splicing induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in p53-defective colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated for the first time that trans-splicing was exploited as a strategy for the repair of mutant p53 transcripts, which revealed that trans-splicing would be developed as a new therapeutic approach for human colorectal cancers carrying p53 mutation.

  1. Functional repair of p53 mutation in colorectal cancer cells using trans-splicing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Yan, Junwei; Yan, Jingjun; Shang, Haitao; Dou, Qian; Chang, Ying; Lin, Jusheng; Song, Yuhu

    2015-01-01

    Mutation in the p53 gene is arguably the most frequent type of gene-specific alterations in human cancers. Current p53-based gene therapy contains the administration of wt-p53 or the suppression of mutant p53 expression in p53-defective cancer cells. We hypothesized that trans-splicing could be exploited as a tool for the correction of mutant p53 transcripts in p53-mutated human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. In this study, the plasmids encoding p53 pre-trans-splicing molecules (PTM) were transfected into human CRC cells carrying p53 mutation. The plasmids carrying p53-PTM repaired mutant p53 transcripts in p53-mutated CRC cells, which resulted in a reduction in mutant p53 transcripts and an induction of wt-p53 simultaneously. Intratumoral administration of adenovirus vectors carrying p53 trans-splicing cassettes suppressed the growth of tumor xenografts. Repair of mutant p53 transcripts by trans-splicing induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in p53-defective colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated for the first time that trans-splicing was exploited as a strategy for the repair of mutant p53 transcripts, which revealed that trans-splicing would be developed as a new therapeutic approach for human colorectal cancers carrying p53 mutation. PMID:25576916

  2. Serum starvation and thymidine double blocking achieved efficient cell cycle synchronization and altered the expression of p27, p53, bcl-2 in canine breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jinjin; Sun, Dongdong; Yang, Chao; Wang, Yingxue; Sun, Sichao; Li, Qing; Bao, Jun; Liu, Yun

    2016-04-01

    Cell synchronization is an approach to obtain cell populations of the same stage, which is a prerequisite to studying the regulation of cell cycle progression in vivo. Serum starvation and thymidine double blocking (TdR) are two important practices in studying cell cycle synchronization. However, their effects on canine cancer cells as well as the regulatory mechanisms by these two methods are poorly understood. In this study, we determined the optimum conditions of serum starvation and TdR and their effects on cell cycle synchronization. We further explored the involvement of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in the cell cycle synchronization by investigating the expression of three key genes (p27, p53 and bcl-2). Serum starvation resulted in a reversible cell cycle arrest and synchronously progress through G0/G1. The highest percentage of CHMm cells (87.47%) in G0/G1 stage was obtained after 42 h incubation with 0.5% fetal bovine serum (FBS). TdR double blocking could arrest 98.9% of CHMm cells in G1/S phase (0 h of release), and could arrest 93.74% of CHMm cells in S phase after 4h of release. We also found that the p27, p53, bcl-2 genes were most highly expressed in G0/G1 phase. Our current work revealed that serum starvation and TdR methods could achieve sufficient synchronization of CHMm cells. Moreover, the expression of p27, p53 and bcl-2 genes was related to cyclical movements and apoptosis. Our results will provide a new insight into cell cycle regulation and reprogramming of canine cancer cells induced by serum starvation and TdR blocking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. P53-regulated long non-coding RNA TUG1 affects cell proliferation in human non-small cell lung cancer, partly through epigenetically regulating HOXB7 expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, E-b; Yin, D-d; Sun, M; Kong, R; Liu, X-h; You, L-h; Han, L; Xia, R; Wang, K-m; Yang, J-s; De, W; Shu, Y-q; Wang, Z-x

    2014-05-22

    Recently, a novel class of transcripts, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), is being identified at a rapid pace. These RNAs have critical roles in diverse biological processes, including tumorigenesis. Here we report that taurine-upregulated gene 1 (TUG1), a 7.1-kb lncRNA, recruiting and binding to polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), is generally downregulated in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) tissues. In a cohort of 192 NSCLC patients, the lower expression of TUG1 was associated with a higher TNM stage and tumor size, as well as poorer overall survival (P<0.001). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that TUG1 expression serves as an independent predictor for overall survival (P<0.001). Further experiments revealed that TUG1 expression was induced by p53, and luciferase and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed that TUG1 was a direct transcriptional target of p53. TUG1 knockdown significantly promoted the proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the lncRNA-mediated regulation of the expression of HOX genes in tumorigenesis and development has been recently receiving increased attention. Interestingly, inhibition of TUG1 could upregulate homeobox B7 (HOXB7) expression; ChIP assays demonstrated that the promoter of HOXB7 locus was bound by EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homolog 2), a key component of PRC2, and was H3K27 trimethylated. This TUG1-mediated growth regulation is in part due to specific modulation of HOXB7, thus participating in AKT and MAPK pathways. Together, these results suggest that p53-regulated TUG1 is a growth regulator, which acts in part through control of HOXB7. The p53/TUG1/PRC2/HOXB7 interaction might serve as targets for NSCLC diagnosis and therapy.

  4. Plakoglobin Reduces the in vitro Growth, Migration and Invasion of Ovarian Cancer Cells Expressing N-Cadherin and Mutant p53

    PubMed Central

    Alaee, Mahsa; Danesh, Ghazal; Pasdar, Manijeh

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant expression of cadherins and catenins plays pivotal roles in ovarian cancer development and progression. Plakoglobin (PG, γ-catenin) is a paralog of β-catenin with dual adhesive and signaling functions. While β-catenin has known oncogenic function, PG generally acts as a tumor/metastasis suppressor. We recently showed that PG interacted with p53 and that its growth/metastasis inhibitory function may be mediated by this interaction. Very little is known about the role of PG in ovarian cancer. Here, we investigated the in vitro tumor/metastasis suppressor effects of PG in ovarian cancer cell lines with mutant p53 expression and different cadherin profiles. We showed that the N-cadherin expressing and E-cadherin and PG deficient ES-2 cells were highly migratory and invasive, whereas OV-90 cells that express E-cadherin, PG and very little/no N-cadherin were not. Exogenous expression of PG or E-cadherin or N-cadherin knockdown in ES-2 cells (ES-2-E-cad, ES-2-PG and ES-2-shN-cad) significantly reduced their migration and invasion. Also, PG expression or N-cadherin knockdown significantly decreased ES-2 cells growth. Furthermore, PG interacted with both cadherins and with wild type and mutant p53 in normal ovarian and ES-2-PG cell lines, respectively. PMID:27144941

  5. Expression of cell-cycle proteins p53, p21 (WAF-1), PCNA and Ki-67 in benign, premalignant and malignant skin lesions with implicated HPV involvement.

    PubMed

    Lu, S; Tiekso, J; Hietanen, S; Syrjänen, K; Havu, V K; Syrjänen, S

    1999-07-01

    A series of 120 biopsies from benign (verruca vulgaris and keratoacanthoma), premalignant (actinic keratosis and extragenital Bowen's disease) and malignant (squamous cell carcinoma) skin lesions were studied immunohistochemically for the expression of cell-cycle proteins p53, p21 (WAF-1), PCNA and Ki-67. The presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in these samples had been analysed previously using in situ hybridization (ISH) and PCR. Moderate to intense expression of both PCNA and Ki-67 was present in most of the lesions studied. PCNA staining was extensive in the epidermis underneath the layers where abundant HPV DNA staining was shown in HPV DNA-positive verrucas. In keratoacanthomas, p21 and PCNA expression remained low, despite intense p53 expression. In actinic keratosis, only half of the specimens showed overexpression of p53 associated with moderate or intense expression of PCNA. In extragenital Bowen's lesions, all these cell-cycle markers were overexpressed, but in squamous cell carcinomas, they were heterogeneously expressed and showed no correlation with tumour differentiation. Our results suggest a mechanism by which HPV can reactivate the host genes (leading to cell proliferation) to support its own DNA replication. Also p21 might start keratinocyte differentiation in areas where HPV DNA replication starts. Cell proliferation remained active in actinic keratosis and Bowen's lesions, emphasizing the precancer character of these lesions in contrast with the benign nature of keratoacanthoma and verruca vulgaris.

  6. Combined Expression of c-jun, c-fos, and p53 Improves Estimation of Prognosis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan; Xu, Xin; Xu, Fei; Meng, Yan; Sun, Changsheng; Shi, Lei; Zhao, Eryang

    2016-09-13

    To identify the prognostic value of c-jun, c-fos, and p53 in oral cancer, we examined the impact of immunohistochemical expression of these markers on tumor progression in 157 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We found that c-jun or c-fos was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, and coexpression of c-jun/c-fos, or c-jun/c-fos/p53 were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, poor differentiation and clinical stage. The coexpression of c-jun/c-fos/p53 was identified as independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Simultaneous coexpression of these markers in OSCCs might prove to be a useful indicator for differentiation of low and high-risk patients.

  7. Expression of PCNA, p53, Bax, and Bcl-X in oral poorly differentiated and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma: relationships with prognosis.

    PubMed

    Sampaio-Góes, Fernanda C G; Oliveira, Denise T; Dorta, Regina G; Nonogaki, Suely; Landman, Gilles; Nishimoto, Inês N; Kowalski, Luiz P

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical features and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), p53, Bcl-X, and Bax expression in primary oral basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (PDSCC) matched by stage and site and to assess the possible prognostic significance of these variables. Seventeen cases of oral BSCC were compared with 27 PDSCCs matched by stage and tumor site. In addition, PCNA, p53, Bax, and Bcl-X expression in both carcinomas were evaluated in relation to their clinicopathologic features and prognostic values using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression models. No statistically significant differences were found between the groups (BSCC and PDSCC) in regard to clinical features and immunohistochemical reactivity for antibodies PCNA, p53, and Bcl-X. In comparison with PDSCC, the BSCC group exhibited a higher Bax score (p = .031). The 5-year and 10-year overall survival, cancer-specific survival, and disease-free survival rates demonstrated no significant differences between the BSCC and PDSCC groups, and the PCNA, p53, Bax, and Bcl-X also showed no prognostic value. These results suggest that the clinical and biologic course of BSCC is similar to PDSCC in the oral cavity when clinical stage and site are matched. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Anomalous retinoblastoma protein expression in Sternberg-Reed cells in Hodgkin's disease: a comparative study with p53 and Ki67 expression.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Beato, M.; Martínez-Montero, J. C.; Doussis-Anagnostopoulou, T. A.; Gatter, K. C.; García, J.; García, J. F.; LLoret, E.; Piris, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (Rb) tumour-suppressor protein plays a critical role in cell cycle control. Rb inactivation is a frequent phenomenon in tumours of different cell lineages, in which the absence of Rb protein has been considered to be a marker of Rb disregulation. We used modern immunohistochemical techniques to study the expression of Rb protein in a large series of 130 patients with Hodgkin's disease. Simultaneously, Western blot was used to analyse a more restricted group (12 patients) to confirm the immunohistochemical results and to clarify the phosphorylation status of Rb protein. As the level of Rb expression varied according to cell cycle stage, we also performed immunostaining for Ki67, a protein present in proliferating cells. To make comparison possible, we first characterised the amount and phosphorylation status of Rb protein in reactive lymphoid tissue and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocytes. The presence of p53 in Sternberg-Reed cells was also included in the study, as both proteins (p53 and Rb) have been found to be closely associated in cell cycle control. PHA-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes showed a parallel increase in Rb and cell cycle progression, together with progressive Rb phosphorylation. In reactive lymphoid tissue there was also a clear correlation between Rb expression and the Ki67 proliferation index (R = 0.96, P = 0.038). When analysing Hodgkin's disease samples, a clear difference emerges between cases of nodular lymphocyte predominance, which preserve the relationship between Rb and Ki67 expression (r = 0.8727, P = 0.000), and classical forms of Hodgkin's disease (nodular sclerosis and mixed cellularity), which display a strong deviation from this pattern. Two main anomalies were found: (1) One group of 21/130 cases with partial or total loss of Rb protein expression, which could reflect the existence of genetic alterations, or an altered transcriptional or translational regulation of Rb gene. (2) Another group with

  9. Regulation of Human p53 Activity and Cell Localization by Alternative Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anirban; Stewart, Deborah; Matlashewski, Greg

    2004-01-01

    The development of cancer is a multistep process involving mutations in proto-oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and other genes which control cell proliferation, telomere stability, angiogenesis, and other complex traits. Despite this complexity, the cellular pathways controlled by the p53 tumor suppressor protein are compromised in most, if not all, cancers. In normal cells, p53 controls cell proliferation, senescence, and/or mediates apoptosis in response to stress, cell damage, or ectopic oncogene expression, properties which make p53 the prototype tumor suppressor gene. Defining the mechanisms of regulation of p53 activity in normal and tumor cells has therefore been a major priority in cell biology and cancer research. The present study reveals a novel and potent mechanism of p53 regulation originating through alternative splicing of the human p53 gene resulting in the expression of a novel p53 mRNA. This novel p53 mRNA encodes an N-terminally deleted isoform of p53 termed p47. As demonstrated within, p47 was able to effectively suppress p53-mediated transcriptional activity and impair p53-mediated growth suppression. It was possible to select for p53-null cells expressing p47 alone or coexpressing p53 in the presence of p47 but not cells expressing p53 alone. This showed that p47 itself does not suppress cell viability but could control p53-mediated growth suppression. Interestingly, p47 was monoubiquitinated in an Mdm2-independent manner, and this was associated with its export out of the nucleus. In the presence of p47, there was a reduction in Mdm2-mediated polyubiquitination and degradation of p53, and this was also associated with increased monoubiquitination and nuclear export of p53. The expression of p47 through alternative splicing of the p53 gene thus has a major influence over p53 activity at least in part through controlling p53 ubiquitination and cell localization. PMID:15340061

  10. Wild-type and mutated presenilins 2 trigger p53-dependent apoptosis and down-regulate presenilin 1 expression in HEK293 human cells and in murine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Alves da Costa, Cristine; Paitel, Erwan; Mattson, Mark P.; Amson, Robert; Telerman, Adam; Ancolio, Karine; Checler, Frédéric

    2002-01-01

    Presenilins 1 and 2 are two homologous proteins that, when mutated, account for most early onset Alzheimer's disease. Several lines of evidence suggest that, among various functions, presenilins could modulate cell apoptotic responses. Here we establish that the overexpression of presenilin 2 (PS2) and its mutated form Asn-141-Ile-PS2 alters the viability of human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells as established by combined trypan blue exclusion, sodium 3′-[1-(phenylamino-carbonyl)-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis(4-methoxy-6-nitro)benzene sulfonic acid hydrate assay, and propidium iodide incorporation FACS analyses. The two parent proteins increase the acetyl-DEVD-al-sensitive caspase-3-like activity in both HEK293 cells and Telencephalon specific murine neurons, modulate Bax and bcl-2 expressions, and enhance cytochrome C translocation into the cytosol. We show that overexpression of both wild-type and mutated PS2 increases p53-like immunoreactivity and transcriptional activity. We also establish that wild-type- and mutated PS2-induced caspase activation is reduced by p53 antisense approach and by pifithrin-α, a chemical inhibitor of p53. Furthermore, mouse fibroblasts in which the PS2 gene has been knocked out exhibited strongly reduced p53-transcriptional activity. Finally, we establish that the overexpression of both wild-type and mutated PS2 is accompanied by a drastic reduction of endogenous presenilin 1 (PS1) expression. Interestingly, pifithrin-α diminished endogenous PS2 immunoreactivity, whereas the inhibitor increases PS1 expression. Altogether, our data demonstrate that wild-type and familial Alzheimer's disease-linked PS2 trigger apoptosis and down-regulate PS1 expression through p53-dependent mechanisms. PMID:11904448

  11. Dynamics of p53: A Master Decider of Cell Fate

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qingyin; Beaver, Jill M.; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Zunzhen

    2017-01-01

    Cellular stress-induced temporal alterations—i.e., dynamics—are typically exemplified by the dynamics of p53 that serve as a master to determine cell fate. p53 dynamics were initially identified as the variations of p53 protein levels. However, a growing number of studies have shown that p53 dynamics are also manifested in variations in the activity, spatial location, and posttranslational modifications of p53 proteins, as well as the interplay among all p53 dynamical features. These are essential in determining a specific outcome of cell fate. In this review, we discuss the importance of the multifaceted features of p53 dynamics and their roles in the cell fate decision process, as well as their potential applications in p53-based cancer therapy. The review provides new insights into p53 signaling pathways and their potentials in the development of new strategies in p53-based cancer therapy. PMID:28208785

  12. Restoration of microRNA-214 expression reduces growth of myeloma cells through positive regulation of P53 and inhibition of DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Misiewicz-Krzeminska, Irena; Sarasquete, María E.; Quwaider, Dalia; Krzeminski, Patryk; Ticona, Fany V.; Paíno, Teresa; Delgado, Manuel; Aires, Andreia; Ocio, Enrique M.; García-Sanz, Ramón; San Miguel, Jesús F.; Gutiérrez, Norma C.

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNA have been demonstrated to be deregulated in multiple myeloma. We have previously reported that miR-214 is down-regulated in multiple myeloma compared to in normal plasma cells. The functional role of miR-214 in myeloma pathogenesis was explored by transfecting myeloma cell lines with synthetic microRNA followed by gene expression profiling. Putative miR-214 targets were validated by luciferase reporter assay. Ectopic expression of miR-214 reduced cell growth and induced apoptosis of myeloma cells. In order to identify the potential direct target genes of miR-214 which could be involved in the biological pathways regulated by this microRNA, gene expression profiling of the H929 myeloma cell line transfected with precursor miR-214 was carried out. Functional analysis revealed significant enrichment for DNA replication, cell cycle phase and DNA binding. miR-214 directly down-regulated the expression of PSMD10, which encodes the oncoprotein gankyrin, and ASF1B, a histone chaperone required for DNA replication, by binding to their 3'-untranslated regions. In addition, gankyrin inhibition induced an increase of P53 mRNA levels and subsequent up-regulation of CDKN1A (p21Waf1/Cip1) and BAX transcripts, which are direct transcriptional targets of p53. In conclusion, MiR-214 functions as a tumor suppressor in myeloma by positive regulation of p53 and inhibition of DNA replication. PMID:23100276

  13. Heterozygous p53V172F mutation in cisplatin-resistant human tumor cells promotes MDM4 recruitment and decreases stability and transactivity of p53

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiaolei; Lozano, Guillermina; Siddik, Zahid H.

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin is an important antitumor agent, but its clinical utility is often limited by multifactorial mechanism of resistance. Loss of tumor suppressor p53 function is a major mechanism, affected by either mutation in the DNA binding domain or dysregulation by overexpression of p53 inhibitors MDM2 and MDM4 that destabilize p53 by increasing its proteosomal degradation. In the present study, cisplatin-resistant 2780CP/Cl-16 ovarian tumor cells expressed a heterozygous, temperature-sensitive p53V172F mutation, which reduced p53 half-life by 2- to 3-fold compared to homozygous wild-type p53 in parental A2780 cells. Although reduced p53 stability in 2780CP/Cl-16 cells was associated with moderate cellular overexpression of MDM2 or MDM4 (<1.5-fold), their binding to p53 was substantially enhanced (5- to 8-fold). The analogous cisplatin-resistant 2780CP/Cl-24 cells, which express loss of p53 heterozygosity, retained the p53V172F mutation and high p53-MDM4 binding, but demonstrated lower p53-bound MDM2 that was associated with reduced p53 ubiquitination and enhanced p53 stability. The inference that p53 was unstable as a hetromeric p53wt/p53V172F complex was confirmed in 2780CP/Cl-24 cells transfected with wild-type (wt) p53 or multimer-inhibiting p53L344P mutant, and further supported by normalization of p53 stability in both resistant cell lines grown at the permissive temperature of 32.5°C. Surprisingly, in 2780CP/Cl-16 and 2780CP/Cl-24 models, cisplatin-induced transactivity of p53 was attenuated at 37°C, and this correlated with cisplatin resistance. However, downregulation of MDM2 or MDM4 by siRNA in either resistant cell line induced p53 and restored p21 transactivation at 37°C, as did cisplatin-induced DNA damage at 32.5°C that coincided with reduced p53-MDM4 binding and cisplatin resistance. These results demonstrate that cisplatin-mediated p53V172F mutation regulates p53 stability at the normothermic temperature, but it is the increased recruitment of MDM4

  14. Modification of tumor cell exosome content by transfection with wt-p53 and microRNA-125b expressing plasmid DNA and its effect on macrophage polarization

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, M; Talekar, M; Shah, P; Ouyang, Q; Amiji, M

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are responsible for intercellular communication between tumor cells and others in the tumor microenvironment. These microvesicles promote oncogensis and can support towards metastasis by promoting a pro-tumorogenic environment. Modifying the exosomal content and exosome delivery are emerging novel cancer therapies. However, the clinical translation is limited due to feasibility of isolating and delivery of treated exosomes as well as an associated immune response in patients. In this study, we provide proof-of-concept for a novel treatment approach for manipulating exosomal content by genetic transfection of tumor cells using dual-targeted hyaluronic acid-based nanoparticles. Following transfection with plasmid DNA encoding for wild-type p53 (wt-p53) and microRNA-125b (miR-125b), we evaluate the transgene expression in the SK-LU-1 cells and in the secreted exosomes. Furthermore, along with modulation of wt-p53 and miR-125b expression, we also show that the exosomes (i.e., wt-p53/exo, miR-125b/exo and combination/exo) have a reprogramed global miRNA profile. The miRNAs in the exosomes were mainly related to the activation of genes associated with apoptosis as well as p53 signaling. More importantly, these altered miRNA levels in the exosomes could mediate macrophage repolarization towards a more pro-inflammatory/antitumor M1 phenotype. However, further studies, especially in vivo studies, are warranted to assess the direct influence of such macrophage reprogramming on cancer cells and oncogenesis post-treatment. The current study provides a novel platform enabling the development of therapeutic strategies affecting not only the cancer cells but also the tumor microenvironment by utilizing the ‘bystander effect' through genetic transfer with secreted exosomes. Such modification could also support antitumor environment leading to decreased oncogenesis. PMID:27500388

  15. p53 modulates the AMPK inhibitor compound C induced apoptosis in human skin cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Shi-Wei; Wu, Chun-Ying; Wang, Yen-Ting; Kao, Jun-Kai; Lin, Chi-Chen; Chang, Chia-Che; Mu, Szu-Wei; Chen, Yu-Yu; Chiu, Husan-Wen; Chang, Chuan-Hsun; Liang, Shu-Mei; Chen, Yi-Ju; Huang, Jau-Ling; Shieh, Jeng-Jer

    2013-02-15

    Compound C, a well-known inhibitor of the intracellular energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), has been reported to cause apoptotic cell death in myeloma, breast cancer cells and glioma cells. In this study, we have demonstrated that compound C not only induced autophagy in all tested skin cancer cell lines but also caused more apoptosis in p53 wildtype skin cancer cells than in p53-mutant skin cancer cells. Compound C can induce upregulation, phosphorylation and nuclear translocalization of the p53 protein and upregulate expression of p53 target genes in wildtype p53-expressing skin basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cells. The changes of p53 status were dependent on DNA damage which was caused by compound C induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and associated with activated ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Using the wildtype p53-expressing BCC cells versus stable p53-knockdown BCC sublines, we present evidence that p53-knockdown cancer cells were much less sensitive to compound C treatment with significant G2/M cell cycle arrest and attenuated the compound C-induced apoptosis but not autophagy. The compound C induced G2/M arrest in p53-knockdown BCC cells was associated with the sustained inactive Tyr15 phosphor-Cdc2 expression. Overall, our results established that compound C-induced apoptosis in skin cancer cells was dependent on the cell's p53 status. - Highlights: ► Compound C caused more apoptosis in p53 wildtype than p53-mutant skin cancer cells. ► Compound C can upregulate p53 expression and induce p53 activation. ► Compound C induced p53 effects were dependent on ROS induced DNA damage pathway. ► p53-knockdown attenuated compound C-induced apoptosis but not autophagy. ► Compound C-induced apoptosis in skin cancer cells was dependent on p53 status.

  16. Adaptive Resistance to Immunotherapy Directed Against p53 Can be Overcome by Global Expression of Tumor-Antigens in Dendritic Cells.

    PubMed

    Humar, Matjaz; Azemar, Marc; Maurer, Martina; Groner, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Immunotherapy of cancer utilizes dendritic cells (DCs) for antigen presentation and the induction of tumor-specific immune responses. However, the therapeutic induction of anti-tumor immunity is limited by tumor escape mechanisms. In this study, immortalized dendritic D2SC/1 cells were transduced with a mutated version of the p53 tumor suppressor gene, p53M234I, or p53C132F/E168G, which are overexpressed in MethA fibrosarcoma tumor cells. In addition, D2SC/1 cells were fused with MethA tumor cells to generate a vaccine that potentially expresses a large repertoire of tumor-antigens. Cellular vaccines were transplanted onto Balb/c mice and MethA tumor growth and anti-tumor immune responses were examined in vaccinated animals. D2SC/1-p53M234I and D2SC/1-p53C132F/E168G cells induced strong therapeutic and protective MethA tumor immunity upon transplantation in Balb/c mice. However, in a fraction of immunized mice MethA tumor growth resumed after an extended latency period. Analysis of these tumors indicated loss of p53 expression. Mice, pre-treated with fusion hybrids generated from D2SC/1 and MethA tumor cells, suppressed MethA tumor growth and averted adaptive immune escape. Polyclonal B-cell responses directed against various MethA tumor proteins could be detected in the sera of D2SC/1-MethA inoculated mice. Athymic nude mice and Balb/c mice depleted of CD4(+) or CD8(+) T-cells were not protected against MethA tumor cell growth after immunization with D2SC/1-MethA hybrids. Our results highlight a potential drawback of cancer immunotherapy by demonstrating that the induction of a specific anti-tumor response favors the acquisition of tumor phenotypes promoting immune evasion. In contrast, the application of DC/tumor cell fusion hybrids prevents adaptive immune escape by a T-cell dependent mechanism and provides a simple strategy for personalized anti-cancer treatment without the need of selectively priming the host immune system.

  17. Ovotoxic Effects of Galactose Involve Attenuation of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Bioactivity and Up-Regulation of Granulosa Cell p53 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sayani; Chakraborty, Pratip; Saha, Piyali; Bandyopadhyay, Soma Aditya; Banerjee, Sutapa; Kabir, Syed N.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical evidence suggests an association between galactosaemia and premature ovarian insufficiency (POI); however, the mechanism still remains unresolved. Experimental galactose toxicity in rats produces an array of ovarian dysfunction including ovarian development with deficient follicular reserve and follicular resistance to gonadotrophins that characterize the basic tenets of human POI. The present investigation explores if galactose toxicity in rats attenuates the bioactivity of gonadotrophins or interferes with their receptor competency, and accelerates the rate of follicular atresia. Pregnant rats were fed isocaloric food-pellets supplemented with or without 35% D-galactose from day-3 of gestation and continuing through weaning of the litters. The 35-day old female litters were autopsied. Serum galactose-binding capacity, galactosyltransferase (GalTase) activity, and bioactivity of FSH and LH together with their receptor competency were assessed. Ovarian follicular atresia was evaluated in situ by TUNEL. The in vitro effects of galactose were studied in isolated whole follicles in respect of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and expression of caspase 3, and in isolated granulosa cells in respect of mitochondrial membrane potential, expression of p53, and apoptosis. The rats prenatally exposed to galactose exhibited significantly decreased serum GalTase activity and greater degree of galactose-incorporation capacity of sera proteins. LH biopotency and LH-FSH receptor competency were comparable between the control and study population, but the latter group showed significantly attenuated FSH bioactivity and increased rate of follicular atresia. In culture, galactose increased follicular generation of ROS and expression of caspase 3. In isolated granulosa cells, galactose disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential, stimulated p53 expression, and induced apoptosis in vitro; however co-treatment with either FSH or estradiol significantly prevented

  18. Regulation of Mammary Progenitor Cells by p53 and Parity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    family was shown to be depleted in the m ammary progenitor cells and highly expressed in the m ore differentiated cell types and the let-7c sensor...apoptosis and tumor suppression. Nat. Med. 4, 835-838 (1998). 21. Giono, L. E. & Manfredi, J. J. The p53 tumor suppressor participates in multiple ...Schauble, B., zur, H. A., Esteve, J. & Ohgaki, H. Tumors associated with p53 germline mutations: a synopsis of 91 families . Am. J. Pathol. 150, 1-13 (1997

  19. Repeated PM2.5 exposure inhibits BEAS-2B cell P53 expression through ROS-Akt-DNMT3B pathway-mediated promoter hypermethylation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Tian, Dongdong; He, Jun; Wang, Yimei; Zhang, Lijun; Cui, Lan; Jia, Li; Zhang, Li; Li, Lizhong; Shu, Yulei; Yu, Shouzhong; Zhao, Jun; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Peng, Shuangqing

    2016-04-12

    Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been reported to be closely associated with the increased lung cancer risk in populations, but the mechanisms underlying PM-associated carcinogenesis are not yet clear. Previous studies have indicated that aberrant epigenetic alterations, such as genome-wide DNA hypomethylation and gene-specific DNA hypermethylation contribute to lung carcinogenesis. And silence or mutation of P53 tumor suppressor gene is the most prevalent oncogenic driver in lung cancer development. To explore the effects of PM2.5 on global and P53 promoter methylation changes and the mechanisms involved, we exposed human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to low concentrations of PM2.5 for 10 days. Our results indicated that PM2.5-induced global DNA hypomethylation was accompanied by reduced DNMT1 expression. PM2.5 also induced hypermethylation of P53 promoter and inhibited its expression by increasing DNMT3B protein level. Furthermore, ROS-induced activation of Akt was involved in PM2.5-induced increase in DNMT3B. In conclusion, our results strongly suggest that repeated exposure to PM2.5 induces epigenetic silencing of P53 through ROS-Akt-DNMT3B pathway-mediated promoter hypermethylation, which not only provides a possible explanation for PM-induced lung cancer, but also may help to identify specific interventions to prevent PM-induced lung carcinogenesis.

  20. Repeated PM2.5 exposure inhibits BEAS-2B cell P53 expression through ROS-Akt-DNMT3B pathway-mediated promoter hypermethylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Tian, Dongdong; He, Jun; Wang, Yimei; Zhang, Lijun; Cui, Lan; jia, Li; Zhang, Li; Li, Lizhong; Shu, Yulei; Yu, Shouzhong; Zhao, Jun; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Peng, Shuangqing

    2016-01-01

    Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been reported to be closely associated with the increased lung cancer risk in populations, but the mechanisms underlying PM-associated carcinogenesis are not yet clear. Previous studies have indicated that aberrant epigenetic alterations, such as genome-wide DNA hypomethylation and gene-specific DNA hypermethylation contribute to lung carcinogenesis. And silence or mutation of P53 tumor suppressor gene is the most prevalent oncogenic driver in lung cancer development. To explore the effects of PM2.5 on global and P53 promoter methylation changes and the mechanisms involved, we exposed human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to low concentrations of PM2.5 for 10 days. Our results indicated that PM2.5-induced global DNA hypomethylation was accompanied by reduced DNMT1 expression. PM2.5 also induced hypermethylation of P53 promoter and inhibited its expression by increasing DNMT3B protein level. Furthermore, ROS-induced activation of Akt was involved in PM2.5-induced increase in DNMT3B. In conclusion, our results strongly suggest that repeated exposure to PM2.5 induces epigenetic silencing of P53 through ROS-Akt-DNMT3B pathway-mediated promoter hypermethylation, which not only provides a possible explanation for PM-induced lung cancer, but also may help to identify specific interventions to prevent PM-induced lung carcinogenesis. PMID:26942697

  1. Enhanced radiosensitization of p53 mutant cells by oleamide

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yoon-Jin; Chung, Da Yeon; Lee, Su-Jae; Ja Jhon, Gil; Lee, Yun-Sil . E-mail: yslee@kcch.re.kr

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: Effect of oleamide, an endogenous fatty-acid primary amide, on tumor cells exposed to ionizing radiation (IR) has never before been explored. Methods and Materials: NCI H460, human lung cancer cells, and human astrocytoma cell lines, U87 and U251, were used. The cytotoxicity of oleamide alone or in combination with IR was determined by clonogenic survival assay, and induction of apoptosis was estimated by FACS analysis. Protein expressions were confirmed by Western blotting, and immunofluorescence analysis of Bax by use of confocal microscopy was also performed. The combined effect of IR and oleamide to suppress tumor growth was studied by use of xenografts in the thighs of nude mice. Results: Oleamide in combination with IR had a synergistic effect that decreased clonogenic survival of lung-carcinoma cell lines and also sensitized xenografts in nude mice. Enhanced induction of apoptosis of the cells by the combined treatment was mediated by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, which resulted in the activation of caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3 accompanied by cytochrome c release and Bid cleavage. The synergistic effects of the combined treatment were more enhanced in p53 mutant cells than in p53 wild-type cells. In p53 wild-type cells, both oleamide and radiation induced Bax translocation to mitochondria. On the other hand, in p53 mutant cells, radiation alone slightly induced Bax translocation to mitochondria, whereas oleamide induced a larger translocation. Conclusions: Oleamide may exhibit synergistic radiosensitization in p53 mutant cells through p53-independent Bax translocation to mitochondria.

  2. Gleditsia sinensis thorn extract inhibits human colon cancer cells: the role of ERK1/2, G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest and p53 expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Se-Jung; Park, Keerang; Ha, Sang-Do; Kim, Wun-Jae; Moon, Sung-Kwon

    2010-12-01

    The thorns of Gleditsia sinensis are used as a medicinal herb in China and Korea. However, the mechanisms responsible for the antitumor effects of the water extract of Gleditsia sinensis thorns (WEGS) remain unknown. HCT116 cells treated with the WEGS at a dose of 800 μg/mL (IC₅₀) showed a significant decrease in cell growth and an increase in cell cycle arrest during the G2/M-phase. G2/M-phase arrest was correlated with increased p53 levels and down-regulation of the check-point proteins, cyclinB1, Cdc2 and Cdc25c. In addition, treatment with WEGS induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 MAP kinase and JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinases). Moreover, inhibition of ERK by treatment of cells with the ERK-specific inhibitor PD98059 blocked WEGS-mediated p53 expression. Similarly, blockage of ERK function in the WEGS-treated cells reversed cell-growth inhibition and decreased cell cycle proteins. Finally, in vivo WEGS treatment significantly inhibited the growth of HCT116 tumor cell xenografts in nude mice with no negative side effects, including loss of body weight. These results describe the molecular mechanisms whereby the WEGS might inhibit proliferation of colon cancer both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that WEGS has potential as an anticancer agent for the treatment of malignancies. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Mitochondrial matrix P53 sensitizes cells to oxidative stress☆

    PubMed Central

    Koczor, Christopher A.; Torres, Rebecca A.; Fields, Earl J.; Boyd, Amy; Lewis, William

    2013-01-01

    A mitochondrial matrix-specific p53 construct (termed p53–290) in HepG2 cells was utilized to determine the impact of p53 in the mitochondrial matrix following oxidative stress. H2O2 exposure reduced cellular proliferation similarly in both p53–290 and vector cells, and p53–290 cells demonstrating decreased cell viability at 1 mM H2O2 (~85% viable). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) abundance was decreased in a dose-dependent manner in p53–290 cells while no change was observed in vector cells. Oximetric analysis revealed reduced maximal respiration and reserve capacity in p53–290 cells. Our results demonstrate that mitochondrial matrix p53 sensitizes cells to oxidative stress by reducing mtDNA abundance and mitochondrial function. PMID:23499753

  4. The Telomerase Activity of Selenium-Induced Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Is Associated with Different Levels of c-Myc and p53 Expression.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh Anvar, Leila; Hosseini-Asl, Saeid; Mohammadzadeh-Vardin, Mohammad; Sagha, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Selenium-as a trace element-is nutritionally essential for humans. It prevents cancerous growth by inhibiting the telomerase activity but the mechanism involved in regulation of telomerase activity in normal telomerase-positive cells remains to be elucidated. Here, we find out whether the effect of sodium selenite and selenomethionine on telomerase activity in human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) is associated with different levels of c-Myc and p53 expression. The use of different staining methods including ethidium bromide/acridine orange and DAPI in addition to telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay and real-time PCR indicated that different forms of selenium have opposite impacts on c-Myc and p53 expressions in both hUCMSCs and AGS, a gastric adenocarcinoma cell line, as a positive control. Our findings suggest that the signaling pathways involved in the regulation of telomerase activity in malignant and normal telomerase-positive cell types are somewhat different, at least on the c-Myc and P53 expression levels.

  5. Ligand dependent restoration of human TLR3 signaling and death in p53 mutant cells

    PubMed Central

    Menendez, Daniel; Lowe, Julie M.; Snipe, Joyce; Resnick, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Diversity within the p53 transcriptional network can arise from a matrix of changes that include target response element sequences and p53 expression level variations. We previously found that wild type p53 (WT p53) can regulate expression of most innate immune-related Toll-like-receptor genes (TLRs) in human cells, thereby affecting immune responses. Since many tumor-associated p53 mutants exhibit change-of-spectrum transactivation from various p53 targets, we examined the ability of twenty-five p53 mutants to activate endogenous expression of the TLR gene family in p53 null human cancer cell lines following transfection with p53 mutant expression vectors. While many mutants retained the ability to drive TLR expression at WT levels, others exhibited null, limited, or change-of-spectrum transactivation of TLR genes. Using TLR3 signaling as a model, we show that some cancer-associated p53 mutants amplify cytokine, chemokine and apoptotic responses after stimulation by the cognate ligand poly(I:C). Furthermore, restoration of WT p53 activity for loss-of-function p53 mutants by the p53 reactivating drug RITA restored p53 regulation of TLR3 gene expression and enhanced DNA damage-induced apoptosis via TLR3 signaling. Overall, our findings have many implications for understanding the impact of WT and mutant p53 in immunological responses and cancer therapy. PMID:27533082

  6. DDP-induced cytotoxicity is not influenced by p53 in nine human ovarian cancer cell lines with different p53 status.

    PubMed Central

    De Feudis, P.; Debernardis, D.; Beccaglia, P.; Valenti, M.; Graniela Siré, E.; Arzani, D.; Stanzione, S.; Parodi, S.; D'Incalci, M.; Russo, P.; Broggini, M.

    1997-01-01

    Nine human ovarian cancer cell lines that express wild-type (wt) or mutated (mut) p53 were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity induced by cisplatin (DDP). The concentrations inhibiting the growth by 50% (IC50) were calculated for each cell line, and no differences were found between cells expressing wt p53 and mut p53. Using, for each cell line, the DDP IC50, we found that these concentrations were able to induce an increase in p53 levels in all four wt-p53-expressing cell lines and in one out of five mut-p53-expressing cell lines. WAF1 and GADD45 mRNAs were also increased by DDP treatment, independently of the presence of a wt p53. Bax levels were only marginally affected by DDP, and this was observed in both wt-p53- and mut-p53-expressing cells. DDP-induced apoptosis was evident 72 h after treatment, and the percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis was slightly higher for wt-p53-expressing cells. However, at doses near the IC50, the percentage of apoptotic cells was less than 20% in all the cell lines investigated. We conclude that the presence of wt p53 is not a determinant for the cytotoxicity induced by DDP in human ovarian cancer cell lines. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9275024

  7. Radiation and SN38 treatments modulate the expression of microRNAs, cytokines and chemokines in colon cancer cells in a p53-directed manner

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Surajit; Meng, Wen-Jian; Nandy, Suman Kumar; Ping, Jie; Bisgin, Atil; Helmfors, Linda; Waldmann, Patrik; Sun, Xiao-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant expression of miRNAs, cytokines and chemokines are involved in pathogenesis of colon cancer. However, the expression of p53 mediated miRNAs, cyto- and chemokines after radiation and SN38 treatment in colon cancer remains elusive. Here, human colon cancer cells, HCT116 with wild-type, heterozygous and a functionally null p53, were treated by radiation and SN38. The expression of 384 miRNAs was determined by using the TaqMan® miRNA array, and the expression of cyto- and chemokines was analyzed by Meso-Scale-Discovery instrument. Up- or down-regulations of miRNAs after radiation and SN38 treatments were largely dependent on p53 status of the cells. Cytokines, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, Il-4, IL-10, VEGF, and chemokines, IL-8, MIP-1α were increased, and IFN-γ expression was decreased after radiation, whereas, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, Il-4, IL-10, IL-8 were decreased, and VEGF and MIP-1α were increased after SN38 treatment. Bioinformatic analysis pointed out that the highly up-regulated miRNAs, let-7f-5p, miR-455-3p, miR-98, miR-155-5p and the down-regulated miRNAs, miR-1, miR-127-5p, miR-142-5p, miR-202-5p were associated with colon cancer pathways and correlated with cyto- or chemokine expression. These miRNAs have the potential for use in colon cancer therapy as they are related to p53, pro- or anti-inflammatory cyto- or chemokines after the radiation and SN38 treatment. PMID:26556872

  8. Radiation and SN38 treatments modulate the expression of microRNAs, cytokines and chemokines in colon cancer cells in a p53-directed manner.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Surajit; Meng, Wen-Jian; Nandy, Suman Kumar; Ping, Jie; Bisgin, Atil; Helmfors, Linda; Waldmann, Patrik; Sun, Xiao-Feng

    2015-12-29

    Aberrant expression of miRNAs, cytokines and chemokines are involved in pathogenesis of colon cancer. However, the expression of p53 mediated miRNAs, cyto- and chemokines after radiation and SN38 treatment in colon cancer remains elusive. Here, human colon cancer cells, HCT116 with wild-type, heterozygous and a functionally null p53, were treated by radiation and SN38. The expression of 384 miRNAs was determined by using the TaqMan® miRNA array, and the expression of cyto- and chemokines was analyzed by Meso-Scale-Discovery instrument. Up- or down-regulations of miRNAs after radiation and SN38 treatments were largely dependent on p53 status of the cells. Cytokines, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, Il-4, IL-10, VEGF, and chemokines, IL-8, MIP-1α were increased, and IFN-γ expression was decreased after radiation, whereas, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, Il-4, IL-10, IL-8 were decreased, and VEGF and MIP-1α were increased after SN38 treatment. Bioinformatic analysis pointed out that the highly up-regulated miRNAs, let-7f-5p, miR-455-3p, miR-98, miR-155-5p and the down-regulated miRNAs, miR-1, miR-127-5p, miR-142-5p, miR-202-5p were associated with colon cancer pathways and correlated with cyto- or chemokine expression. These miRNAs have the potential for use in colon cancer therapy as they are related to p53, pro- or anti-inflammatory cyto- or chemokines after the radiation and SN38 treatment.

  9. Hepatic expression of the proliferative marker Ki-67 and p53 protein in HBV or HCV cirrhosis in relation to dysplastic liver cell changes and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Koskinas, J; Petraki, K; Kavantzas, N; Rapti, I; Kountouras, D; Hadziyannis, S

    2005-11-01

    To evaluate hepatic expression of the nuclear proliferative marker Ki-67 and the p53 oncoprotein in hepatitis B virus (HBV)/HCV cirrhosis in relation to dysplastic liver cell changes and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We studied needle liver biopsies from 107 patients with cirrhosis and no HCC (52 HBV, 55 HCV) who had been assessed for protocol studies, and 57 cirrhotic patients with HCC (40 HBV, 17 HCV). We evaluated small and large cell dysplastic changes along with the expression of Ki-67 and p53 by immunohistochemistry. The labelling index (LI) was defined as the proportion (%) of positive-stained nuclei of the 500 measured. Large and small cell dysplastic changes were observed in 12 and 9% of specimens respectively. Only small cell changes were associated with Ki-67 expression. Ki-67 LI was 5.50 +/- 5.7 in cirrhosis (13.90 +/- 3.84 in those with small cell dysplastic changes vs 4.64 +/- 4.98 in those without, P < 0.01), 10.2 +/- 5.95 in cirrhosis with HCC (P < 0.05) and 18.56 +/- 10 in HCC (P < 0.01). Neither the presence of small cell dysplastic changes nor the expression of Ki-67 was related to severity or aetiology of cirrhosis. Expression of p53 was observed in 30% of the non-tumorous and in 53% of the neoplastic tissue obtained from patients with HCC, with no differences between HCV and HBV. Ki-67 and p53 expression was associated with the tumour grade (P < 0.001). Our observations clearly demonstrate the association between the proliferation activity and the morphological changes in the cirrhotic liver from the non-dysplastic to dysplastic lesion to HCC. They also support the hypothesis that p53 alterations are a rather late event in carcinogenesis and related to HCC grade. And finally, they suggest that the final steps of hepatocarcinogenesis are common and independent of the aetiology of the chronic viral infection.

  10. Roscovitine-induced apoptosis of H1299 cells depends on functional status of p53.

    PubMed

    Slovackova, J; Smarda, J; Smardova, J

    2012-01-01

    Roscovitine, an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases, is promising anticancer agent. Its antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects can be mediated by the p53 signaling pathway. To define the role of p53 in roscovitine-induced cell response, we prepared H1299/p53 cell lines inducibly expressing specific variants of p53 (p53wt and hotspot R175H, temperature-dependent P98A, A159V, S215G, Y220C, Y234C mutants). In the presence of roscovitine, each cell line variant behaved in specific way reflecting activity of the p53 protein. Roscovitine decreased production of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 and induced apoptosis. This effect was the most efficient in cells expressing p53wt protein with full activity. The cell expressing partially and conditionally active p53 mutants responded to roscovitine less efficiently. The cells expressing p53 mutants A159V and Y234C were very sensitive to roscovitine but their response was clearly temperature-dependent. The cells expressing P98A, S215G and Y220C p53 mutants exhibited only weak sensitivity to roscovitine and underwent apoptosis in low frequency. In principle, each td p53 mutant responded to roscovitine in distinct way. We showed clearly that the impact of roscovitine on H1299 cells depends on functional status of p53 they produce. This suggests that patients with tumors exhibiting specific p53 variants can benefit from the roscovitine therapy.

  11. p53 isoform Δ113p53/Δ133p53 promotes DNA double-strand break repair to protect cell from death and senescence in response to DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Gong, Lu; Gong, Hongjian; Pan, Xiao; Chang, Changqing; Ou, Zhao; Ye, Shengfan; Yin, Le; Yang, Lina; Tao, Ting; Zhang, Zhenhai; Liu, Cong; Lane, David P; Peng, Jinrong; Chen, Jun

    2015-03-01

    The inhibitory role of p53 in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair seems contradictory to its tumor-suppressing property. The p53 isoform Δ113p53/Δ133p53 is a p53 target gene that antagonizes p53 apoptotic activity. However, information on its functions in DNA damage repair is lacking. Here we report that Δ113p53 expression is strongly induced by γ-irradiation, but not by UV-irradiation or heat shock treatment. Strikingly, Δ113p53 promotes DNA DSB repair pathways, including homologous recombination, non-homologous end joining and single-strand annealing. To study the biological significance of Δ113p53 in promoting DNA DSB repair, we generated a zebrafish Δ113p53(M/M) mutant via the transcription activator-like effector nuclease technique and found that the mutant is more sensitive to γ-irradiation. The human ortholog, Δ133p53, is also only induced by γ-irradiation and functions to promote DNA DSB repair. Δ133p53-knockdown cells were arrested at the G2 phase at the later stage in response to γ-irradiation due to a high level of unrepaired DNA DSBs, which finally led to cell senescence. Furthermore, Δ113p53/Δ133p53 promotes DNA DSB repair via upregulating the transcription of repair genes rad51, lig4 and rad52 by binding to a novel type of p53-responsive element in their promoters. Our results demonstrate that Δ113p53/Δ133p53 is an evolutionally conserved pro-survival factor for DNA damage stress by preventing apoptosis and promoting DNA DSB repair to inhibit cell senescence. Our data also suggest that the induction of Δ133p53 expression in normal cells or tissues provides an important tolerance marker for cancer patients to radiotherapy.

  12. Clinical and pathological correlations of marrow PUMA and P53 expressions in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Bektas, Ozlen; Uner, Aysegul; Buyukasik, Yahya; Uz, Burak; Bozkurt, Sureyya; Eliacik, Eylem; Işik, Ayse; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celalettin; Goker, Hakan; Demiroglu, Haluk; Aksu, Salih; Ozcebe, Osman Ilhami; Sayinalp, Nilgun

    2015-05-01

    p53 is a key regulator of apoptosis. p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) is a critical mediator of p53-dependent and independent apoptosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of p53 and PUMA to the prognosis of MDS. Bone marrow biopsies of MDS patients at the time of diagnosis (n = 76) and at the time of transformation (n = 19) were included in the study group. The expression of p53 and PUMA was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. When compared to the control group, both p53 (p < 0.001) and PUMA (p = 0.012) expression levels were significantly higher in MDS group. In MDS group, there was a moderate positive correlation between p53 and PUMA expressions. PUMA expression was not correlated with event free and overall survival. However, overall survival was significantly lower in cases with p53 expression in more than 50% of the cells. There was an increase in PUMA expression in cases that showed transformation as compared to the initial diagnostic bone marrows but was not statistically significant. The correlation that existed between p53 and PUMA was lost in transformed cases. Our results showed that PUMA and p53 expressions are increased in MDS marrows compared to normal marrows. PUMA expression increases further during transformation while the expression of p53 is not significantly altered which suggests that PUMA alterations might be a late event during the evolution of MDS.

  13. p53 gene product expression in resected non-small cell carcinoma of the lung, with studies of concurrent cytological preparations and microwave antigen retrieval.

    PubMed Central

    Binks, S; Clelland, C A; Ronan, J; Bell, J

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To document the frequency and extent of p53 gene product expression in paraffin sections of resected non-small cell carcinoma of the lung and in cytological preparations of the same tumours; to determine the effect of microwave antigen retrieval on antigen detection. METHODS: Representative paraffin sections of 50 non-small cell carcinomas were stained with an antibody to p53 gene product (DO-7) both with and without prior microwave antigen retrieval. Cytoblocks and cell smears obtained from 19 cases were similarly stained. RESULTS: Using a histochemical scoring system (0-300) which takes into account staining intensity and extent, 78% (n = 39) of microwave pretreated paraffin sections and 52% (n = 26) of non-pretreated sections scored between 5 and 300; p = 0.001; 56% (n = 28) of microwave pretreated sections and only 2% (n = 1) of non-pretreated sections scored between 100 and 300 (p = 0.0001); 75% of direct smears of tumours and 80% of cytoblocks stained similarly to the paraffin sections of the resected specimens. No smears or cytoblocks stained positively when the sections of the resected specimen were negative. CONCLUSIONS: As up to 78% of non-small cell lung carcinomas overexpress p53 gene product, this may prove to be a valuable diagnostic method in biopsy or cytological material when the morphological diagnosis is uncertain. Microwave antigen retrieval is effective on formalin fixed tissue. Images PMID:9215149

  14. BAC transgenic mice provide evidence that p53 expression is highly regulated in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Zhang, G X; Zhou, Y; Zhang, C X; Xie, Y Y; Xiang, C; He, X Y; Zhang, Q; Liu, G

    2015-09-17

    p53 is an important tumor suppressor and stress response mediator. Proper control of p53 level and activity is tightly associated with its function. Posttranslational modifications and the interactions with Mdm2 and Mdm4 are major mechanisms controlling p53 activity and stability. As p53 protein is short-lived and hardly detectable in unstressed situations, less is known on its basal level expression and the corresponding controlling mechanisms in vivo. In addition, it also remains obscure how p53 expression might contribute to its functional regulation. In this study, we established bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic E.coli β-galactosidase Z gene reporter mice to monitor p53 expression in mouse tissues and identify important regulatory elements critical for the expression in vivo. We revealed preferentially high level of p53 reporter expressions in the proliferating, but not the differentiated compartments of the majority of tissues during development and tissue homeostasis. In addition, tumors as well as regenerating tissues in the p53 reporter mice also expressed high level of β-gal. Furthermore, both the enhancer box sequence (CANNTG) in the p53 promoter and the 3' terminal untranslated region element were critical in mediating the high-level expression of the reporter. We also provided evidence that cellular myelocytomatosis oncogene was a critical player regulating p53 mRNA expression in proliferating cells and tissues. Finally, we found robust p53 activation preferentially in the proliferating compartment of mouse tissues upon DNA damage and the proliferating cells exhibited an enhanced p53 response as compared with cells in a quiescent state. Together, these results suggested a highly regulated expression pattern of p53 in the proliferating compartment controlled by both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms, and such regulated p53 expression may impose functional significance upon stress by setting up a precautionary mode in defense

  15. Over-expression of C/EBP-{alpha} induces apoptosis in cultured rat hepatic stellate cells depending on p53 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xueqing; Huang Guangcun; Mei Shuang; Qian Jin; Ji Juling; Zhang Jinsheng

    2009-03-06

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a key role in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. In our previous studies, CCAAT enhancer binding protein-{alpha} (C/EBP-{alpha}) has been shown to be involved in the activation of HSCs and to have a repression effect on hepatic fibrosis in vivo. However, the mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we show that the infection of adenovirus vector expressing C/EBP-{alpha} gene (Ad-C/EBP-{alpha}) could induce HSCs apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner by Annexin V/PI staining, caspase-3 activation assay, and flow cytometry. Also, over-expression of C/EBP-{alpha} resulted in the up-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR-{gamma}) and P53, while P53 expression was regulated by PPAR-{gamma}. In addition, Fas, FasL, DR4, DR5, and TRAIL were studied. The results indicated that the death receptor pathway was mainly involved and regulated by PPAR-{gamma} and p53 in the process of apoptosis triggered by C/EBP-{alpha} in HSCs.

  16. Cytokeratin 13, Cytokeratin 17, Ki-67 and p53 Expression in Upper Layers of Epithelial Dysplasia Surrounding Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Matsuhira, Akiko; Noguchi, Sunaki; Sato, Kazumichi; Tanaka, Yoichi; Yamamoto, Gou; Mishima, Kenji; Katakura, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) improves its prognosis and aids in selecting the appropriate treatment, which may also have a positive effect on quality of life. Early detection, therefore, is an important issue in the treatment of this disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate expression of cytokeratin 13 (CK13), CK17, Ki-67 and p53 as potential markers of tongue SCC. Five areas in 12 specimens were examined: the upper and lower layers of normal epithelium; those of dysplastic epithelial tissue surrounding the cancerous lesion; and the lesion itself. Strong expression of each of the following mRNAs and proteins was observed; CK13 in upper layers of normal epithelium; Ki-67 and p53 in lower layers of normal epithelium; CK13 and CK17 in upper layer of epithelial dysplasia; and CK17, Ki-67, and p53 in lower layer of epithelial dysplasia and cancerous lesions. These results indicate that the characteristic pattern of expression of CK13 and CK17 differs between normal and dysplastic oral epithelium. Oral epithelial dysplasia adjacent to OSCC has high malignant potential, and is similar to early-stage OSCC. This suggests that evaluation of these markers could be a useful secondary procedure for improving detection of early-stage OSCC.

  17. Over-expression of C/EBP-alpha induces apoptosis in cultured rat hepatic stellate cells depending on p53 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueqing; Huang, Guangcun; Mei, Shuang; Qian, Jin; Ji, Juling; Zhang, Jinsheng

    2009-03-06

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a key role in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. In our previous studies, CCAAT enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBP-alpha) has been shown to be involved in the activation of HSCs and to have a repression effect on hepatic fibrosis in vivo. However, the mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we show that the infection of adenovirus vector expressing C/EBP-alpha gene (Ad-C/EBP-alpha) could induce HSCs apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner by Annexin V/PI staining, caspase-3 activation assay, and flow cytometry. Also, over-expression of C/EBP-alpha resulted in the up-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) and P53, while P53 expression was regulated by PPAR-gamma. In addition, Fas, FasL, DR4, DR5, and TRAIL were studied. The results indicated that the death receptor pathway was mainly involved and regulated by PPAR-gamma and p53 in the process of apoptosis triggered by C/EBP-alpha in HSCs.

  18. p53 shapes genome-wide and cell type-specific changes in microRNA expression during the human DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Hiroyoshi; Janky, Rekin's; Nietfeld, Wilfried; Aerts, Stein; Madan Babu, M; Venkitaraman, Ashok R

    2014-01-01

    The human DNA damage response (DDR) triggers profound changes in gene expression, whose nature and regulation remain uncertain. Although certain micro-(mi)RNA species including miR34, miR-18, miR-16 and miR-143 have been implicated in the DDR, there is as yet no comprehensive description of genome-wide changes in the expression of miRNAs triggered by DNA breakage in human cells. We have used next-generation sequencing (NGS), combined with rigorous integrative computational analyses, to describe genome-wide changes in the expression of miRNAs during the human DDR. The changes affect 150 of 1523 miRNAs known in miRBase v18 from 4-24 h after the induction of DNA breakage, in cell-type dependent patterns. The regulatory regions of the most-highly regulated miRNA species are enriched in conserved binding sites for p53. Indeed, genome-wide changes in miRNA expression during the DDR are markedly altered in TP53-/- cells compared to otherwise isogenic controls. The expression levels of certain damage-induced, p53-regulated miRNAs in cancer samples correlate with patient survival. Our work reveals genome-wide and cell type-specific alterations in miRNA expression during the human DDR, which are regulated by the tumor suppressor protein p53. These findings provide a genomic resource to identify new molecules and mechanisms involved in the DDR, and to examine their role in tumor suppression and the clinical outcome of cancer patients.

  19. p53 shapes genome-wide and cell type-specific changes in microRNA expression during the human DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Hiroyoshi; Janky, Rekin’s; Nietfeld, Wilfried; Aerts, Stein; Madan Babu, M; Venkitaraman, Ashok R

    2014-01-01

    The human DNA damage response (DDR) triggers profound changes in gene expression, whose nature and regulation remain uncertain. Although certain micro-(mi)RNA species including miR34, miR-18, miR-16 and miR-143 have been implicated in the DDR, there is as yet no comprehensive description of genome-wide changes in the expression of miRNAs triggered by DNA breakage in human cells. We have used next-generation sequencing (NGS), combined with rigorous integrative computational analyses, to describe genome-wide changes in the expression of miRNAs during the human DDR. The changes affect 150 of 1523 miRNAs known in miRBase v18 from 4–24 h after the induction of DNA breakage, in cell-type dependent patterns. The regulatory regions of the most-highly regulated miRNA species are enriched in conserved binding sites for p53. Indeed, genome-wide changes in miRNA expression during the DDR are markedly altered in TP53-/- cells compared to otherwise isogenic controls. The expression levels of certain damage-induced, p53-regulated miRNAs in cancer samples correlate with patient survival. Our work reveals genome-wide and cell type-specific alterations in miRNA expression during the human DDR, which are regulated by the tumor suppressor protein p53. These findings provide a genomic resource to identify new molecules and mechanisms involved in the DDR, and to examine their role in tumor suppression and the clinical outcome of cancer patients. PMID:25486198

  20. In Vivo p53 Signaling in Breast Epithelial Cells After Oncogenic Stimulus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    cell line, a derivative of the H1299 p53 null lung carcinoma cell line that contains ponasterone-inducible p53, and the isogenic colon carcinoma...induc- ible H1299 cell line in which p53 expression was under the control of the ecdysone promoter and induced by ponasterone A addition (HIp53), and (iii

  1. The Effect of Sodium Valproate on the Glioblastoma U87 Cell Line Tumor Development on the Chicken Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane and on EZH2 and p53 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Kavaliauskaitė, Dovilė; Martinkutė, Justė; Šlekienė, Lina; Balnytė, Ingrida

    2017-01-01

    Literature data support evidences that glioblastoma (GBM) patients experience prolonged survival due to sodium valproate (NaVP) treatment. The study assessed the human GBM cell U87 xenograft studied in the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model evaluating NaVP effect on tumor. Three groups of tumors (each n = 10) were studied: nontreated, treated with 4 mM, and treated with 8 mM of NaVP. The majority of tumors without NaVP treatment during tumor growth destroyed the chorionic epithelium, invaded the mesenchyme, and induced angiogenesis. Incidence of tumor formation on CAM without invasion into the mesenchyme was higher when U87 cells were treated with NaVP; the effect significantly increased with NaVP concentration. Treatment with 8 mM of NaVP did not show clear dynamics of tumor growth during 5 days; at the same time, the angiogenesis failed. With a strong staining of EZH2, p53 in tumors without NaVP treatment was found, and NaVP significantly decreased the expression of EZH2- and p53-positive cells; the effect was significantly higher at its 8 mM concentration. NaVP has a function in blocking the growth, invasion, and angiogenesis of tumor in the CAM model; tumor growth interferes with EZH2 and p53 molecular pathways, supporting the NaVP potential in GBM therapy. PMID:28642877

  2. B-cell posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder isolated to the central nervous system is Epstein-Barr virus positive and lacks p53 and Myc expression by immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Sundin, Andrew; Grzywacz, Bartosz J; Yohe, Sophia; Linden, Michael A; Courville, Elizabeth L

    2017-03-01

    In this retrospective study from one institution, we performed a clinicopathological study of a cohort of patients with posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) confined to the central nervous system. We also identified a comparison cohort of patients with de novo primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the central nervous system. We performed a detailed morphologic review, evaluated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) by in situ hybridization, and interpreted a panel of immunohistochemical stains in a subset of cases including Hans classification markers (CD10, BCL6, MUM1), p53, CD30, Myc, and BCL2. All 17 of the posttransplant and none of 11 de novo cases were EBV positive (P < .005). Morphologic patterns identified in the PTLD cases were monomorphic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma pattern (10 patients) and "T-cell-rich" pattern (7 patients). The monomorphic posttransplant cases were more likely to be Myc negative (P = .015) and CD30 positive (P < .005) than the de novo cases, and showed a similarly low rate of p53 positivity by immunohistochemistry. No prognostic factors for overall survival were identified. Central nervous system PTLD is EBV positive, typically lacks p53 and Myc expression by immunohistochemistry, and can present with numerous background T lymphocytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Activation of p53-dependent responses in tumor cells treated with a PARC-interacting peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Vitali, Roberta; Cesi, Vincenzo; Tanno, Barbara; Ferrari-Amorotti, Giovanna; Dominici, Carlo; Calabretta, Bruno; Raschella, Giuseppe

    2008-04-04

    We tested the activity of a p53 carboxy-terminal peptide containing the PARC-interacting region in cancer cells with wild type cytoplasmic p53. Peptide delivery was achieved by fusing it to the TAT transduction domain (TAT-p53-C-ter peptide). In a two-hybrid assay, the tetramerization domain (TD) of p53 was necessary and sufficient to bind PARC. The TAT-p53-C-ter peptide disrupted the PARC-p53 complex. Peptide treatment caused p53 nuclear relocation, p53-dependent changes in gene expression and enhancement of etoposide-induced apoptosis. These studies suggest that PARC-interacting peptides are promising candidates for the enhancement of p53-dependent apoptosis in tumors with wt cytoplasmic p53.

  4. Comparative effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors on p53 target gene expression, cell cycle and apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Knutson, Andrew Kekapa'a; Welsh, Jennifer; Taylor, Travis; Roy, Somdutta; Wang, Wei-Lin Winnie; Tenniswood, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors are currently being evaluated for their therapeutic potential and have shown considerable promise as adjuvant therapies for a number of cancers. This study compared the effects of 2 hydroxamic acid based inhibitors, CG-1521 and SAHA, on gene expression, cell cycle and cell death in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Both compounds show a dose- and time-dependent effect on cell number (evaluated using crystal violet), however CG-1521 exerts its effects significantly earlier than SAHA, and CG-1521 induces apoptosis (assessed by Apo-BrdU staining and flow cytometry) more rapidly than SAHA. qPCR of cell cycle regulatory and apoptotic genes shows that CG-1521 and SAHA modulate similar cohorts of p53-responsive genes, however, the levels of induction and the timing of the induction differs significantly between the 2 inhibitors. In particular SAHA downregulates cell cycle-associated genes that modulate the G1/S transition (including cyclin D1 and cdc25a) and the G2/M transition [cyclin B1, Plk1, Stk6 (serine-threonine kinase 6, Aurora kinase A) and Kntc2] more significantly than CG-1521. In contrast, CG-1521 significantly induces the expression of several p53 target genes associated with apoptosis including Bnip3/Bnip3L, p21/p21B and Gdf15. The differential levels of gene induction provide molecular evidence of both cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and suggest a molecular mechanism that explains the difference in the biological effects of the 2 histone deacetylase inhibitors.

  5. Endopolyploidy in irradiated p53-deficient tumour cell lines: Persistence of cell division activity in giant cells expressing Aurora B- kinase

    PubMed Central

    Erenpreisa, Jekaterina; Ivanov, Andrei; Wheatley, Sally P; Kosmacek, Elizabeth A; Ianzini, Fiorenza; Anisimov, Alim P; Mackey, Michael; Davis, Paul J; Plakhins, Grigorijs; Illidge, Timothy M

    2008-01-01

    Recent findings including computerized live imaging suggest that polyploidy cells transiently emerging after severe genotoxic stress (and named ‘endopolyploid cells’) may have a role in tumour regrowth after anti-cancer treatment. Until now, mostly the factors enabling metaphase were studied in them. Here we investigate the mitotic activities and the role of Aurora B, in view of potential de-polyploidisation of these cells, because Aurora B- kinase is responsible for coordination and completion of mitosis. We observed that endopolyploid giant cells are formed in irradiated p53 tumours in several ways: (1) by division/fusion of daughter cells creating early multi-nucleated cells; (2) by asynchronous division/fusion of sub-nuclei of these multinucleated cells; (3) by a series of polyploidising mitoses reverting replicative interphase from aborted metaphase and forming giant cells with a single nucleus; (4) by micronucleation of arrested metaphases enclosing genome fragments; or (5) by incomplete division in the multipolar mitoses forming late multi-nucleated giant cells. We also observed that these activities are able to release para-diploid cells, although they do so infrequently. Although after a substantial delay, apoptosis typically occurs in these cells, we also found that roughly 2% of endopolyploid cells evade apoptosis and senescence arrest and continue mitotic activities. In this article we describe that catalytically active aurora B-kinase is expressed in the nuclei of many interphase endopolyploid cells, as well as being present at the centromeres, mitotic spindle and cleavage furrow during their mitotic efforts. The totally micronucleated giant cells (containing subgenomic fragments in multiple micronuclei) represented the only minor fraction, which failed to undergo mitosis and Aurora B was absent from it. These observations suggest that most endopolyploid tumour cells are not reproductively inert and that aurora B may contribute to the establishment

  6. MIB-1 and p53 expression in radiotherapy-resistant T1aN0M0 glottic squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Motamed, M; Banerjee, A R; Bradley, P J; Powe, D

    2001-06-01

    Radiotherapy of T1aN0M0 glottic carcinoma results in a local control rate of 80-94%. This homogenous group, which is the earliest recognisable invasive malignancy in the head and neck region, provides a 'unique model' for studying possible biological markers of radiosensitivity. p53 and MIB-1 were investigated as possible markers of radiosensitivity in such a group. In all, 107 patients with T1aN0M0 glottic squamous cell carcinoma treated with radiotherapy were identified. Cases not responsive to radiotherapy were compared with matched radiosensitive controls by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal primary antibodies to MIB-1 (n = 18; controls = 10) and p53 (n = 6; controls = 11). No significant difference in p53 expression was noted between the two groups (P = 0.73). A greater MIB-1 expression was found in the radiosensitive group but only a trend towards significance was observed (P = 0.06). MIB-1 is a potential marker of radiosensitivity. A larger multicentre study is required for a more definitive answer.

  7. Combined HDAC1 and HDAC2 Depletion Promotes Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival After Injury Through Reduction of p53 Target Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Ueli

    2015-01-01

    Histones deacetylases (HDACs), besides their function as epigenetic regulators, deacetylate and critically regulate the activity of nonhistone targets. In particular, HDACs control partially the proapoptotic activity of p53 by balancing its acetylation state. HDAC inhibitors have revealed neuroprotective properties in different models, but the exact mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. We have generated a conditional knockout mouse model targeting retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to investigate specifically the functional role of HDAC1 and HDAC2 in an acute model of optic nerve injury. Our results demonstrate that combined HDAC1 and HDAC2 ablation promotes survival of axotomized RGCs. Based on global gene expression analyses, we identified the p53-PUMA apoptosis-inducing axis to be strongly activated in axotomized mouse RGCs. Specific HDAC1/2 ablation inhibited this apoptotic pathway by impairing the crucial acetylation status of p53 and reducing PUMA expression, thereby contributing to the ensuing enhanced neuroprotection due to HDAC1/2 depletion. HDAC1/2 inhibition and the affected downstream signaling components emerge as specific targets for developing therapeutic strategies in neuroprotection. PMID:26129908

  8. High expression of fibronectin is associated with poor prognosis, cell proliferation and malignancy via the NF-κB/p53-apoptosis signaling pathway in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Wenzhong; Xiao, Enhua; Ding, Ru; Luo, Ping; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Fibronectin is a glycoprotein of the extracellular matrix, and regulates the processes of self-renewal and cell cycle progression. This study aimed to investigate fibronectin expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) and elucidate the effects of fibronectin on CRC by using a knockdown approach. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expression of fibronectin in 107 CRC patient tissues and gene expression was detected by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and western blot analysis. Based on the above findings, the association among fibronectin expression, clinicopathological features and prognosis was analyzed. Next, fibronectin expression was silenced by small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and the effects of fibronectin siRNA transfection on CRC cells and tumor growth in nude mice were assessed. Expression of genes in the NF-κB/p53-apoptosis signaling pathway were analyzed after fibronectin siRNA transfection both in vitro and in vivo. Based on the results, high expression of fibronectin was observed both in the CRC tissues and CRC cell lines. The expression level was positively correlated with TNM stage (P=0.0025) and distant metastasis (P=0.0013). By Kaplan-Meier analysis, the patients with low fibronectin expression had a longer survival time comparing to those with relatively high expression. Knockdown of fibronectin suppressed SW480 cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In addition, knockdown of fibronectin led to S phase cell cycle arrest. The following study showed that the NF-κB/p53-apoptosis signaling pathway in CRC was affected by fibronectin knockdown. Tumor formation was also depressed by fibronectin siRNA transfection of CRC cells. These results showed the significant role of fibronectin in CRC tissues and cell lines. Therefore, fibronectin may be regarded as a potential target for CRC treatment. PMID:27748871

  9. Adenovirus-mediated wild-type p53 transfer radiosensitizes H1299 cells to subclinical-dose carbon-ion irradiation through the restoration of p53 function.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Zhang, Hong; Duan, Xin; Hao, Jifang; Xie, Yi; Zhou, Qingming; Wang, Yanling; Tian, Yuan; Wang, Tao

    2009-02-01

    To determine whether adenovirus-mediated wild-type p53 transfer after radiotherapy could radiosensitize non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells to subclinical-dose carbon-ion beam (C-beam), H1299 cells were exposed to a C-beam or gamma-ray and then infected with 5 MOI of AdCMV-p53 or GFP (C-beam or gamma-ray with p53 or GFP). Cell cycle was detected by flow cytometric analysis. The apoptosis was examined by a fluorescent microscope with DAPI staining. DNA fragmentation was monitored by the TUNEL assay. P53 mRNA was detected by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The expression of p53, MDM(2), and p21 was monitored by Western blot. Survival fractions were determined by colony-forming assay. The percentages of G(1)-phase cells in C-beam with p53 increased by 8.2%-16.0%, 5.2%-7.0%, and 5.8%-18.9%, respectively, compared with C-beam only, gamma-ray with p53, or p53 only. The accumulation of G(2)-phase cells in C-beam with p53 increased by 5.7%-8.9% and 8.8%-14.8%, compared with those in gamma-ray with p53 or p53 only, respectively. The percentage of apoptosis for C-beam with p53 increased by 7.4%-19.1%, 5.8%-11.7%, and 5.2 %-19.2%, respectively, compared with C-beam only, gamma-ray with p53, or p53 only. The level of p53 mRNA in C-beam with p53 was significantly higher than that in p53 only. The expression level of p53 and p21 in C-beam with p53 was significantly higher than that in both C-beam with GFP and p53 only. The survival fractions for C-beam with p53 were significantly less than those for the other groups (p < 0.05). The data suggested that AdCMV-p53 transfer could more efficiently radiosensitize H1299 cells to subclinical-dose C-beam irradiation through the restoration of p53 function.

  10. Comparison of PTCH1, COX-2, p53, and Ki-67 protein expression in basal cell carcinomas of nodular and superficial subtypes arising on the head and trunk.

    PubMed

    Khalesi, Mohammad; Waterhouse, Mary; Whiteman, David C; Johns, Richard; Rosendahl, Cliff; Hackett, Timothy; Pollak, Thomas; Kimlin, Michael G; Hacker, Elke; Neale, Rachel E

    2016-10-01

    There is some evidence that basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) arising on different anatomic sites and developing to different histological subtypes differ in their pathophysiology. The expression of a number of proteins, including PTCH1, COX-2, p53, and Ki-67, is frequently altered in BCC development. This study sought to determine whether protein expression differs between BCCs at different anatomic sites and of different histological subtypes. Expression of PTCH1, COX-2, p53, and Ki-67 proteins was compared between: (i) BCCs arising on the head (n = 55) and trunk (n = 53), and (ii) nodular (n = 52) and superficial (n = 43) BCCs. The intensity of immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining (low, moderate, strong, very strong) for PTCH1 and COX-2 proteins was measured and the proportions of p53- and Ki-67-positive cells quantified. The proportion of cells expressing Ki-67 was higher in tumor tissue than in non-malignant epidermis, whereas the opposite was found for PTCH1. The IHC staining intensity for PTCH1 was substantially greater in truncal BCCs than in BCCs on the head (odds ratio [OR] 3.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.63-8.96). The intensity of staining for PTCH1 was greater for superficial than for nodular BCCs (OR 3.70, 95% CI 1.53-8.97), and superficial BCCs showed a higher proportion of Ki-67-positive cells (OR 5.57, 95% CI 1.66-18.67). These differences suggest that the pathophysiology of BCC differs between lesions on the head and trunk and between nodular and superficial subtypes, perhaps indicating differences in their etiology. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  11. 1800MHz Microwave Induces p53 and p53-Mediated Caspase-3 Activation Leading to Cell Apoptosis In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Fuqiang; Zhan, Qiuqiang; He, Yiduo; Cui, Jiesheng; He, Sailing; Wang, Guanyu

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have reported that exposure of mammalian cells to microwave radiation may have adverse effects such as induction of cell apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying microwave induced mammalian cell apoptosis are not fully understood. Here, we report a novel mechanism: exposure to 1800MHz microwave radiation induces p53-dependent cell apoptosis through cytochrome c-mediated caspase-3 activation pathway. We first measured intensity of microwave radiation from several electronic devices with an irradiation detector. Mouse NIH/3T3 and human U-87 MG cells were then used as receivers of 1800MHz electromagnetic radiation (EMR) at a power density of 1209 mW/m2. Following EMR exposure, cells were analyzed for viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, DNA damage, p53 expression, and caspase-3 activity. Our analysis revealed that EMR exposure significantly decreased viability of NIH/3T3 and U-87 MG cells, and increased caspase-3 activity. ROS burst was observed at 6 h and 48 h in NIH/3T3 cells, while at 3 h in U-87 MG cells. Hoechst 33258 staining and in situ TUNEL assay detected that EMR exposure increased DNA damage, which was significantly restrained in the presence of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, an antioxidant). Moreover, EMR exposure increased the levels of p53 protein and p53 target gene expression, promoted cytochrome c release from mitochondrion, and increased caspase-3 activity. These events were inhibited by pretreatment with NAC, pifithrin-α (a p53 inhibitor) and caspase inhibitor. Collectively, our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that 1800MHz EMR induces apoptosis-related events such as ROS burst and more oxidative DNA damage, which in turn promote p53-dependent caspase-3 activation through release of cytochrome c from mitochondrion. These findings thus provide new insights into physiological mechanisms underlying microwave-induced cell apoptosis. PMID:27689798

  12. 1800MHz Microwave Induces p53 and p53-Mediated Caspase-3 Activation Leading to Cell Apoptosis In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Xing, Fuqiang; Zhan, Qiuqiang; He, Yiduo; Cui, Jiesheng; He, Sailing; Wang, Guanyu

    Recent studies have reported that exposure of mammalian cells to microwave radiation may have adverse effects such as induction of cell apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying microwave induced mammalian cell apoptosis are not fully understood. Here, we report a novel mechanism: exposure to 1800MHz microwave radiation induces p53-dependent cell apoptosis through cytochrome c-mediated caspase-3 activation pathway. We first measured intensity of microwave radiation from several electronic devices with an irradiation detector. Mouse NIH/3T3 and human U-87 MG cells were then used as receivers of 1800MHz electromagnetic radiation (EMR) at a power density of 1209 mW/m2. Following EMR exposure, cells were analyzed for viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, DNA damage, p53 expression, and caspase-3 activity. Our analysis revealed that EMR exposure significantly decreased viability of NIH/3T3 and U-87 MG cells, and increased caspase-3 activity. ROS burst was observed at 6 h and 48 h in NIH/3T3 cells, while at 3 h in U-87 MG cells. Hoechst 33258 staining and in situ TUNEL assay detected that EMR exposure increased DNA damage, which was significantly restrained in the presence of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, an antioxidant). Moreover, EMR exposure increased the levels of p53 protein and p53 target gene expression, promoted cytochrome c release from mitochondrion, and increased caspase-3 activity. These events were inhibited by pretreatment with NAC, pifithrin-α (a p53 inhibitor) and caspase inhibitor. Collectively, our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that 1800MHz EMR induces apoptosis-related events such as ROS burst and more oxidative DNA damage, which in turn promote p53-dependent caspase-3 activation through release of cytochrome c from mitochondrion. These findings thus provide new insights into physiological mechanisms underlying microwave-induced cell apoptosis.

  13. Expression of prion protein is closely associated with pathological and clinical progression and abnormalities of p53 in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Shi, Qi; Zhang, Nai-Song; Xiao, Kang; Chen, Li-Na; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Ji, Jia-Fu; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2016-02-01

    Prion protein (PrP) is a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane protein that functions as a unique pathogenic agent in transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). In the past decade, overexpression of PrP was observed in a number of human malignant tumors, such as gastric, breast and pancreatic cancer. However, the role of PrP expression in squamous cell carcinoma is rarely documented. To screen PrP expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCCs), the paraffin-embedded specimens of 92 pathologically diagnosed HNSCCs were assessed by PrP-specific immunohistochemistry (IHC). A total of 55.43% (51/92) of the tested carcinoma tissues were PrP-positive. The rate of positivity and the staining intensity of PrP were closely related with the pathological degree of the HNSCCs; a higher rate of PrP expression was noted in the group of poorly differentiated cancers. PrP-positivity rates increased along with the progression of the clinical grade of the carcinomas. Further evaluation of the associations between PrP expression and the data concerning p53 abnormalities and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in these samples as previously described, revealed that PrP-positive staining was more frequently detected in the tissues with p53-positive accumulation and the wild-type TP53 gene. The patients with a proline (Pro) polymorphism in SNP72 of TP53 showed significantly higher PrP-positive rates than those with arginine (Arg). No notable difference in PrP expression was identified between the HPV-positive and HPV-negative group. These data indicate a close association of PrP expression with clinical and histological differentiation of HNSCCs, as well as abnormalities of p53.

  14. Expression of p53, p16, cyclin D1, epidermal growth factor receptor and Notch1 in patients with temporal bone squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Morita, Shinya; Nakamaru, Yuji; Homma, Akihiro; Yasukawa, Shinichiro; Hatakeyama, Hiromitsu; Sakashita, Tomohiro; Kano, Satoshi; Fukuda, Atsushi; Fukuda, Satoshi

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of p53, p16, cyclin D1, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Notch1 in temporal bone squamous cell carcinoma (TBSCC) tissue samples by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and to evaluate the association between these biomarkers and clinicopathological features. We performed a retrospective, single-institution review of 30 TBSCC patients treated with curative intent between April 2006 and March 2015. All tissue samples were obtained from pretreatment biopsy specimens or surgical specimens and using IHC staining. Ten patients were categorized as T1, seven as T2, five as T3 and eight as T4. Nine patients had clinically positive lymph node metastasis. The positive expression of p53 and EGFR was significantly associated with T classification (P = 0.042 and P = 0.0039). EGFR expression was significantly more frequent in patients with positive lymph node metastasis compared with patients without node involvement (P = 0.017). In the analysis of the association between protein expression by IHC staining and prognosis, the positive expression of EGFR and Notch1 was significantly correlated with poor survival outcomes in TBSCC (P = 0.015 and P = 0.025) CONCLUSION: Overexpression of p53 and EGFR may be valuable biomarkers for identifying individuals at high risk of developing tumors in TBSCC. Furthermore, the positive expression of EGFR was significantly associated with poor survival outcome. Anti-EGFR therapy has potential for use as the treatment modality of choice for advanced-stage TBSCC as well as other head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

  15. The long non-coding RNA maternally expressed gene 3 activates p53 and is downregulated in esophageal squamous cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Lv, Desheng; Sun, Run; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Xuefei

    2016-10-24

    Esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) is an aggressive malignancy with poor survival. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in tumorigenesis and cancer progression; hence, lncRNAs are also involved in the development and progression of ESCC. In this study, we used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to investigate expression of lncRNA, maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) in ESCC. Ectopic expression of MEG3 was performed in ESCC cell lines. Proliferation and apoptosis of ESCC cell lines were analyzed after ectopic expression of MEG3. We found MEG3 was significantly downregulated in ESCC tissues compared with normal tissues by qRT-PCR. Low expression of MEG3 was correlated with lymph node metastasis and advanced TNM stages of ESCC patients and indicated shorter survival (HR = 0.471, 95 % CI 0.234-0.950, P = 0.035), which was confirmed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) esophageal cancer dataset. DNA-demethylating agent (5-aza-2-deoxy-cytidine (5-aza-CdR)) treatment significantly increased MEG3 expression level in ESCC cells, and TCGA esophageal cancer dataset also showed that DNA methylation of MEG3 predicted survival. Ectopic expression of MEG3 in ESCC cells inhibited cell proliferation, promoted apoptosis, and suppressed metastasis. Further investigation showed enforced expression of MEG3 activated p53 and its target genes by downregulation of mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2). Overall, our study indicated that MEG3 expression loss is common in ESCC and MEG3 could activate p53 and predict prognosis in ESCC.

  16. Long-term exposure of human gingival fibroblasts to cigarette smoke condensate reduces cell growth by modulating Bax, caspase-3 and p53 expression.

    PubMed

    Alamri, A; Semlali, A; Jacques, É; Alanazi, M; Zakrzewski, A; Chmielewski, W; Rouabhia, M

    2015-08-01

    Smoking cigarettes increases the risk of oral tissue damage leading to periodontal disease. Gingival fibroblasts, the predominant cell type inhabiting gingival connective tissue, play a critical role in remodeling and maintaining gingival structure. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term exposure to cigarette smoke on human gingival fibroblast survival/apoptosis and the molecular pathways involved in these cell responses. Human gingival fibroblasts were extracted from healthy non-smokers and cultured in the presence of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). At the end of each time point, cell growth was evaluated by means of MTT assay. Apoptotic and necrotic gene's expression was investigated by polymerase chain reaction array and by annexin V/propidium iodide staining and cell cycle assays. Western blot was used to investigate Bax and p53 proteins. These tests were supported by caspase 3 activity analyses. High levels of CSC decreased cell growth and deregulated cell cycle progression by increasing the G(0)/G(1) and reducing the S and G(2)/M phases of the gingival fibroblasts. Polymerase chain reaction arrays revealed the activation of several apoptotic genes by CSC, including TNF receptors, caspases, Bax and p53. This was supported by increases in the Bax and p53 protein levels as well as by an elevated activity of caspase-3 in the CSC-exposed cells. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that both Bax and caspase-3 displayed a cytosolic and mitochondrial distribution in the CSC-exposed gingival fibroblasts, compared to controls. The damaging effect of CSC on gingival fibroblast growth was also supported by the decrease in interleukin 6 and 8 secretion by the gingival fibroblasts. These results suggest that CSC may contribute to deregulating fibroblast functions. This can compromise fibroblast-epithelial cell interactions, which ultimately increases the risk of gingival tissue damage and the onset of periodontitis. © 2014 John Wiley

  17. Cell cycle regulation and p53 activation by protein phosphatase 2C alpha.

    PubMed

    Ofek, Paula; Ben-Meir, Daniella; Kariv-Inbal, Zehavit; Oren, Moshe; Lavi, Sara

    2003-04-18

    Protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) dephosphorylates a broad range of substrates, regulating stress response and growth-related pathways in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We now demonstrate that PP2C alpha, a major mammalian isoform, inhibits cell growth and activates the p53 pathway. In 293 cell clones, in which PP2C alpha expression is regulated by a tetracycline-inducible promoter, PP2C alpha overexpression led to G(2)/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Furthermore, PP2C alpha induced the expression of endogenous p53 and the p53-responsive gene p21. Activation of the p53 pathway by PP2C alpha took place both in cells harboring endogenous p53, as well as in p53-null cells transfected with exogenous p53. Induction of PP2C alpha resulted in an increase in the overall levels of p53 protein as well as an augmentation of p53 transcription activity. The dephosphorylation activity of PP2C alpha is essential to the described phenomena, as none of these effects was detected when an enzymatically inactive PP2C alpha mutant was overexpressed. p53 plays an important role in PP2C alpha-directed cell cycle arrest and apoptosis because perturbation of p53 expression in human 293 cells by human papillomavirus E6 led to a significant increase in cell survival. The role of PP2C alpha in p53 activation is discussed.

  18. Development of a novel recombinant adenovirus containing gfp-zeocin fusion expression cassette for conditional replication in p53-deficient human tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Baoli; Joshua, Mallam Nock; Dong, Changyuan; Qi, Yipeng

    2004-05-01

    Two obstacles limiting the efficacy of nearly all cancer gene therapy trails are low gene transduction efficiency and the lack of tumor specificity. Fortunately, a replication-competent, E1B-deficient adenovirus (dl1520) was developed that could overcome these limitations, because it was capable of efficiently and selectively destroying tumor cells lacking functional p53. In an attempt to appraise the efficiency and safety of this approach, a novel recombinant adenovirus, r3/Ad, containing a gfp-zeocin expression cassette was constructed in this work. The study in vitro demonstrated that r3/Ad has the ability to replicate in and lyse only the p53-deficient human tumor cells such as the human glioblastoma cells (U251) and human bladder cells (EJ) but not in the human fibroblast cells (MRC-5) with functional p53. Importantly, this gfp-zeocin fusion gene driven by the bipromoter (CMV and EM-7) could be used as an effective selective marker and reporter in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; and also zeocin as a selective marker could minimize contamination of the recombinant virus by the wt-Ad5. Additionally, it was found that the r3/Ad could be useful for studying the selective replication of E1B-deficient adenovirus in vivo, it could be used as a "guide" to study the ability of the recombinant adenovirus to spread and to infect distant tumor cells in any tumor bearing animal model by GFP as a reporter. This may help determine the safety of using any E1B-deficient adenovirus in cancer gene therapy.

  19. Cisplatin modulates B-cell translocation gene 2 to attenuate cell proliferation of prostate carcinoma cells in both p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Tsui, Ke-Hung; Chung, Li-Chuan; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Feng, Tsui-Hsia; Chen, Wen-Tsung; Chang, Phei-Lang; Chiang, Hou-Yu; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2014-07-01

    Cisplatin is a widely used anti-cancer drug. The B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) is involved in the cell cycle transition regulation. We evaluated the cisplatin effects on prostate cancer cell proliferation and the expressions of BTG2, p53, androgen receptor (AR) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in prostate carcinoma, p53 wild-type LNCaP or p53-null PC-3, cells. Cisplatin treatments attenuated cell prostate cancer cell growth through inducing Go/G1 cell cycle arrest in lower concentration and apoptosis at higher dosage. Cisplatin treatments enhanced p53 and BTG2 expression, repressed AR and PSA expression, and blocked the activation of androgen on the PSA secretion in LNCaP cells. BTG2 knockdown in LNCaP cells attenuated cisplatin-mediated growth inhibition. Cisplatin enhanced BTG2 gene expression dependent on the DNA fragment located within -173 to -82 upstream of BTG2 translation initiation site in prostate cancer cells. Mutation of the p53 response element from GGGCAGAGCCC to GGGCACC or mutation of the NFκB response element from GGAAAGTCC to GGAAAGGAA by site-directed mutagenesis abolished the stimulation of cisplatin on the BTG2 promoter activity in LNCaP or PC-3 cells, respectively. Our results indicated that cisplatin attenuates prostate cancer cell proliferation partly mediated by upregulation of BTG2 through the p53-dependent pathway or p53-independent NFκB pathway.

  20. S(+)-ibuprofen destabilizes MYC/MYCN and AKT, increases p53 expression, and induces unfolded protein response and favorable phenotype in neuroblastoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    IKEGAKI, NAOHIKO; HICKS, SAKEENAH L.; REGAN, PAUL L.; JACOBS, JOSHUA; JUMBO, AMINA S.; LEONHARDT, PAYTON; RAPPAPORT, ERIC F.; TANG, XAO X.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a common pediatric solid tumor that exhibits a striking clinical bipolarity favorable and unfavorable. The survival rate of children with unfavorable neuroblastoma remains low among all childhood cancers. MYCN and MYC play a crucial role in determining the malignancy of unfavorable neuroblastomas, whereas high-level expression of the favorable neuroblastoma genes is associated with a good disease outcome and confers growth suppression of neuroblastoma cells. A small fraction of neuroblastomas harbors TP53 mutations at diagnosis, but a higher proportion of the relapse cases acquire TP53 mutations. In this study, we investigated the effect of S(+)-ibuprofen on neuroblastoma cell lines, focusing on the expression of the MYCN, MYC, AKT, p53 proteins and the favorable neuroblastoma genes in vitro as biomarkers of malignancy. Treatment of neuroblastoma cell lines with S(+)-ibuprofen resulted in a significant growth suppression. This growth effect was accompanied by a marked decrease in the expression of MYC, MYCN, AKT and an increase in p53 expression in neuroblastoma cell lines without TP53 mutation. In addition, S(+)-ibuprofen enhanced the expression of some favorable neuroblastoma genes (EPHB6, CD44) and genes involved in growth suppression and differentiation (EGR1, EPHA2, NRG1 and SEL1L). Gene expression profile and Ingenuity pathway analyses using TP53-mutated SKNAS cells further revealed that S(+)-ibuprofen suppressed molecular pathways associated with cell growth and conversely enhanced those of cell cycle arrest and the unfolded protein response. Collectively, these results suggest that S(+)-ibuprofen or its related compounds may have the potential for therapeutic and/or palliative use for unfavorable neuroblastoma. PMID:24173829

  1. Intermediate progenitors are increased by lengthening of the cell cycle through calcium signaling and p53 expression in human neural progenitors

    PubMed Central

    García-García, Elisa; Pino-Barrio, María José; López-Medina, Laura; Martínez-Serrano, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    During development, neurons can be generated directly from a multipotent progenitor or indirectly through an intermediate progenitor (IP). This last mode of division amplifies the progeny of neurons. The mechanisms governing the generation and behavior of IPs are not well understood. In this work, we demonstrate that the lengthening of the cell cycle enhances the generation of neurons in a human neural progenitor cell system in vitro and also the generation and expansion of IPs. These IPs are insulinoma-associated 1 (Insm1)+/BTG family member 2 (Btg2)−, which suggests an increase in a self-amplifying IP population. Later the cultures express neurogenin 2 (Ngn2) and become neurogenic. The signaling responsible for this cell cycle modulation is investigated. It is found that the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol in response to B cell lymphoma-extra large overexpression or ATP addition lengths the cell cycle and increases the number of IPs and, in turn, the final neuron outcome. Moreover, data suggest that the p53–p21 pathway is responsible for the changes in cell cycle. In agreement with this, increased p53 levels are necessary for a calcium-induced increase in neurons. Our findings contribute to understand how calcium signaling can modulate cell cycle length during neurogenesis. PMID:22323293

  2. p53 Suppresses E2F1-dependent PLK1 expression upon DNA damage by forming p53-E2F1-DNA complex.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhe; Cao, Ji-Xiang; Li, Shu-Yan; An, Guo-Shun; Ni, Ju-Hua; Jia, Hong-Ti

    2013-12-10

    E2F1 is implicated in transcriptional activation of polo-like kinase-1 (PLK1), but yet the mechanism is not fully understood. PLK1 suppression plays an important checkpoint role in response to DNA damage. Suppression of the PLK1 gene by binding of p53 to upstream p53RE2 element in the promoter has been recently revealed. Here we report another mechanism, in which p53 interacts with E2F1 to form p53-E2F1-DNA complex repressing E2F1-dependent PLK1 expression. PLK1 was downregulated in cisplatin exposed HCT116p53(+/+) but not HCT116p53(-/-) cells, indicating p53-suppressed PLK1 upon DNA damage. Co-transfection and reporter enzyme assays revealed that p53 suppressed but E2F1 promoted PLK1 gene activation. 5'-Deletion and substitution mutations showed multiple positive cis-elements residing in the PLK1 promoter, of which at least two E2F1 sites at positions -75/-68 and -40/-32 were required for the full activity of the promoter. Combination of 5'-deletion and substitution mutations with over-expression of p53 showed that suppression of the PLK1 gene by p53 was E2F1-dependent: mutation of the E2F1 site at position -75/-68 partially abrogated suppression activity of p53; mutation of E2F1 site at position -40/-32 released from p53 suppression of PLK1 gene completely. Co-immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that DNA damage promoted p53-E2F1 interaction, thereby creating a p53-E2F1 complex assembly on the PLK1 promoter in vitro. The in vivo formation of p53-E2F1-PLK1 promoter complex upon DNA damage was further evidenced by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and re-ChIP. In addition, we showed that suppression of PLK1 by p53 promoted apoptosis. Our data suggest that p53 may interact with E2F1 to form p53-E2F1-DNA complex suppressing E2F1-dependent PLK1 expression. The model of p53 action on E2F1-activated PLK1 gene may explain at least partly how p53 as a suppressor regulates the downstream effects of E2F1 in cellular stresses including DNA

  3. Expression of p21(WAF1/CIP1/SDI1) and p53 in apoptotic cells in the adrenal cortex and induction by ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed Central

    Didenko, V V; Wang, X; Yang, L; Hornsby, P J

    1996-01-01

    p21(WAF1/CIP1/SDI1), an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases, is expressed at varying levels in human adrenal glands removed during surgery or organ recovery. In glands with p21 mRNA, nuclear p21 immunoreactivity, which was occasionally extensive, colocalized with p53 immunoreactivity and DNA damage, as evidenced by in situ end-labeling. Many cells showed morphological features of apoptosis when observed by fluorescent DNA dye staining and electron microscopy. This pattern was also associated with high levels of cytoplasmic heat shock protein 70. To address the question of the origin of p21 expression in some human adrenal glands, rat adrenal glands were subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 8 h of reperfusion. Cells with nuclear p21 and p53 appeared in the adrenal cortex together with DNA damage detected by in situ end-labeling. Nuclear p21 immunoreactivity was also produced in adrenal tissue fragments incubated at 37 degrees C in vitro. However, in this case, p21 expression was confined to the cut edge of the tissue. In contrast, p21 in human adrenal glands, as in ischemic rat glands, was within the inner regions of the cortex, supporting an origin of the protein in vivo rather than postmortem. The p53/p21 pathway of reaction to cellular injury, potentially leading to apoptosis, may play a role in tissue damage such as that resulting from ischemia/reperfusion. In the human adrenal cortex this process may be a precursor of adrenal failure. PMID:8601638

  4. Differential regulation of the REGγ–proteasome pathway by p53/TGF-β signalling and mutant p53 in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Amjad; Wang, Zhuo; Fu, Junjiang; Ji, Lei; Liu, Jiang; Li, Lei; Wang, Hui; Chen, Jiwu; Caulin, Carlos; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Zhang, Pei; Xiao, Jianru; Zhang, Bianhong; Li, Xiaotao

    2013-01-01

    Proteasome activity is frequently enhanced in cancer to accelerate metastasis and tumorigenesis. REGγ, a proteasome activator known to promote p53/p21/p16 degradation, is often overexpressed in cancer cells. Here we show that p53/TGF-β signalling inhibits the REGγ–20S proteasome pathway by repressing REGγ expression. Smad3 and p53 interact on the REGγ promoter via the p53RE/SBE region. Conversely, mutant p53 binds to the REGγ promoter and recruits p300. Importantly, mutant p53 prevents Smad3/N-CoR complex formation on the REGγ promoter, which enhances the activity of the REGγ–20S proteasome pathway and contributes to mutant p53 gain of function. Depletion of REGγ alters the cellular response to p53/TGF-β signalling in drug resistance, proliferation, cell cycle progression and proteasome activity. Moreover, p53 mutations show a positive correlation with REGγ expression in cancer samples. These findings suggest that targeting REGγ–20S proteasome for cancer therapy may be applicable to human tumours with abnormal p53/Smad protein status. Furthermore, this study demonstrates a link between p53/TGF-β signalling and the REGγ–20S proteasome pathway, and provides insight into the REGγ/p53 feedback loop. PMID:24157709

  5. MIF family members cooperatively inhibit p53 expression and activity.

    PubMed

    Brock, Stephanie E; Rendon, Beatriz E; Xin, Dan; Yaddanapudi, Kavitha; Mitchell, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 is induced by genotoxic stress in both normal and transformed cells and serves to transcriptionally coordinate cell cycle checkpoint control and programmed cell death responses. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an autocrine and paracrine acting cytokine/growth factor that promotes lung adenocarcinoma cell motility, anchorage-independence and neo-angiogenic potential. Several recent studies indicate that the only known homolog of MIF, D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT - also referred to as MIF-2), has functionally redundant activities with MIF and cooperatively promotes MIF-dependent pro-tumorigenic phenotypes. We now report that MIF and D-DT synergistically inhibit steady state p53 phosphorylation, stabilization and transcriptional activity in human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. The combined loss of MIF and D-DT by siRNA leads to dramatically reduced cell cycle progression, anchorage independence, focus formation and increased programmed cell death when compared to individual loss of MIF or D-DT. Importantly, p53 mutant and p53 null lung adenocarcinoma cell lines were only nominally rescued from the cell growth effects of MIF/D-DT combined deficiency suggesting only a minor role for p53 in these transformed cell growth phenotypes. Finally, increased p53 activation was found to be independent of aberrantly activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) that occurs in response to MIF/D-DT-deficiency but is dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) that mediate aberrant AMPK activation in these cells. Combined, these findings suggest that both p53 wildtype and mutant human lung adenocarcinoma tumors rely on MIF family members for maximal cell growth and survival.

  6. Immunohistochemically detectable p53 and mdm-2 oncoprotein expression in colorectal carcinoma: prognostic significance

    PubMed Central

    Öfner, D; Maier, H; Riedmann, B; Holzberger, P; Nogler, M; Tötsch, M; Bankfalvi, A; Winde, G; Böcker, W; Schmid, K W

    1995-01-01

    Aims—To investigate the correlation between the expression of the p53 and mdm-2 oncoproteins and to assess their prognostic value in colorectal cancer. Methods—Using a polyclonal (CM1) and a monoclonal antibody directed against p53 and mdm-2, respectively, these oncoproteins were stained immunohistochemically in 109 colorectal adenocarcinomas. Results—p53 was detected in less than 10% of tumour cells in 11 of 109 adenocarcinomas, in 10-50% of tumour cells, in 17 of 109 adenocarcinomas, and in more than 50% of tumour cells in 32 of 109 adenocarcinomas. Expression of mdm-2 was detected in 22 of 109 (20%) cases investigated, of which 19 showed concomitant p53 expression. In most cases mdm-2 immunoreactivity was strongly associated with a small proportion of p53 positive tumour cells. Both p53 and mdm-2 expression lacked statistical significance when correlated with common staging and grading parameters. Conclusions—Detection of p53 and mdm-2 oncoprotein expression, detected using immunohistochemistry, is of no prognostic value in colorectal cancer. However, the close correlation between mdm-2 immunoreactivity and the proportion of p53 positive cells provides further evidence that the mdm-2 gene product interacts with p53 protein. PMID:16695968

  7. Prognostic value of microvessel density and p53 expression on the locoregional metastasis and survival of the patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marcos Vinícius M; Pereira Gomes, Erika P; Pereira, Camila S; de Souza, Ludmilla R; Barros, Lucas O; Mendes, Danilo C; Guimarães, André L S; De Paula, Alfredo M B

    2013-10-01

    Cancer cells need to develop microvessels in order to grow and to establish metastatic foci. A role for the p53 protein in the regulation of the angiogenic process is suggested. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between immunohistochemical expression of microvessel density (MVD), measured by CD31 staining, and p53 protein with clinicopathologic factors, and survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (n=70). Tumor angiogenesis was estimated by determining MVD in areas with the highest number of stained microvessels (hot spots). Clinicopathologic factors and immunohistochemical data were evaluated by χ statistical test and were submitted to binary logistic regression to analyze the risk of presence of lymph node metastasis. Factors that might predict survival were investigated using Cox proportional hazards tests. Differences were considered statistically significant when P<0.05. The percentage of p53-positive cells showed no association with clinicopathologic parameters and MVD. Patients with locoregional metastasis presented statistically significant higher MVD (P=0.043). Individuals presenting head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in posterior sites (P=0.022; OR=3.644) and higher MVD (P=0.039; OR=3.247) had a significant increase in risk of metastasis occurrence. Multivariate analysis showed that presence of lymph node metastasis was statistically significant for overall survival of head and neck carcinoma patients (P=0.006; OR =2.917). The present data suggest that MVD represents a promising diagnostic tool to identify individuals with increased risk for the development of metastatic disease, which is very indicative of poor prognosis.

  8. Shifting p53-induced senescence to cell death by TIS21(/BTG2/Pc3) gene through posttranslational modification of p53 protein.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ok Ran; Ryu, Min Sook; Lim, In Kyoung

    2016-09-01

    Cellular senescence and apoptosis can be regulated by p53 activity, although the underlying mechanism of the switch between the two events remains largely unknown. Cells exposed to cancer chemotherapy can escape to senescence phenotype rather than undergoing apoptosis. By employing adenoviral transduction of p53 or TIS21 genes, we observed shifting of p53 induced-senescence to apoptosis in EJ bladder cancer cells, which express H-RasV12 and mutant p53; transduction of p53 increased H-RasV12 expression along with senescence phenotypes, whereas coexpression with TIS21 (p53+TIS21) induced cell death rather than senescence. The TIS21-mediated switch of senescence to apoptosis was accompanied by nuclear translocation of p53 protein and its modifications on Ser-15 and Ser-46 phosphorylation and acetylations on Lys-120, -320, -373 and -382 residues. Mechanistically, TIS21(/BTG2) regulated posttranslational modification of p53 via enhancing miR34a and Bax expressions as opposed to inhibiting SIRT1 and Bcl2 expression. At the same time, TIS21 increased APAF-1 and p53AIP1 expressions, but inhibited the interaction of p53 with iASPP. In vitro tumorigenicity was significantly reduced in the p53+TIS21 expresser through inhibiting micro-colony proliferation by TIS21. Effect of TIS21 on the regulation of p53 activity was confirmed by knockdown of TIS21 expression by RNA interference. Therefore, we suggest TIS21 expression as an endogenous cell death inducer at the downstream of p53 gene, which might be useful for intractable cancer chemotherapy.

  9. Development of an adenoviral vector with robust expression driven by p53

    SciTech Connect

    Bajgelman, Marcio C.; Strauss, Bryan E.

    2008-02-05

    Here we introduce a new adenoviral vector where transgene expression is driven by p53. We first developed a synthetic promoter, referred to as PGTx{beta}, containing a p53-responsive element, a minimal promoter and the first intron of the rabbit {beta}-globin gene. Initial assays using plasmid-based vectors indicated that expression was tightly controlled by p53 and was 5-fold stronger than the constitutive CMV immediate early promoter/enhancer. The adenoviral vector, AdPG, was also shown to offer p53-responsive expression in prostate carcinoma cells LNCaP (wt p53), DU-145 (temperature sensitive mutant of p53) and PC3 (p53-null, but engineered to express temperature-sensitive p53 mutants). AdPG served as a sensor of p53 activity in LNCaP cells treated with chemotherapeutic agents. Since p53 can be induced by radiotherapy and chemotherapy, this new vector could be further developed for use in combination with conventional therapies to bring about cooperation between the genetic and pharmacologic treatment modalities.

  10. Mutant p53 accumulates in cycling and proliferating cells in the normal tissues of p53 R172H mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Goh, Amanda M; Xue, Yuezhen; Leushacke, Marc; Li, Ling; Wong, Julin S; Chiam, Poh Cheang; Rahmat, Siti Aishah Binte; Mann, Michael B; Mann, Karen M; Barker, Nick; Lozano, Guillermina; Terzian, Tamara; Lane, David P

    2015-07-20

    The tumour suppressor p53 is regulated primarily at the protein level. In normal tissues its levels are maintained at a very low level by the action of specific E3 ligases and the ubiquitin proteosome pathway. The mutant p53 protein contributes to transformation, metastasis and drug resistance. High levels of mutant p53 can be found in tumours and the accumulation of mutant p53 has previously been reported in pathologically normal cells in human skin. We show for the first time that similarly elevated levels of mutant p53 can be detected in apparently normal cells in a mutant p53 knock-in mouse model. In fact, in the small intestine, mutant p53 spontaneously accumulates in a manner dependent on gene dosage and cell type. Mutant p53 protein is regulated similarly to wild type p53, which can accumulate rapidly after induction by ionising radiation or Mdm2 inhibitors, however, the clearance of mutant p53 protein is much slower than wild type p53. The accumulation of the protein in the murine small intestine is limited to the cycling, crypt base columnar cells and proliferative zone and is lost as the cells differentiate and exit the cell cycle. Loss of Mdm2 results in even higher levels of p53 expression but p53 is still restricted to proliferating cells in the small intestine. Therefore, the small intestine of these p53 mutant mice is an experimental system in which we can dissect the molecular pathways leading to p53 accumulation, which has important implications for cancer prevention and therapy.

  11. Mutant p53 accumulates in cycling and proliferating cells in the normal tissues of p53 R172H mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Leushacke, Marc; Li, Ling; Wong, Julin S.; Chiam, Poh Cheang; Rahmat, Siti Aishah Binte; Mann, Michael B.; Mann, Karen M.; Barker, Nick; Lozano, Guillermina; Terzian, Tamara; Lane, David P.

    2015-01-01

    The tumour suppressor p53 is regulated primarily at the protein level. In normal tissues its levels are maintained at a very low level by the action of specific E3 ligases and the ubiquitin proteosome pathway. The mutant p53 protein contributes to transformation, metastasis and drug resistance. High levels of mutant p53 can be found in tumours and the accumulation of mutant p53 has previously been reported in pathologically normal cells in human skin. We show for the first time that similarly elevated levels of mutant p53 can be detected in apparently normal cells in a mutant p53 knock-in mouse model. In fact, in the small intestine, mutant p53 spontaneously accumulates in a manner dependent on gene dosage and cell type. Mutant p53 protein is regulated similarly to wild type p53, which can accumulate rapidly after induction by ionising radiation or Mdm2 inhibitors, however, the clearance of mutant p53 protein is much slower than wild type p53. The accumulation of the protein in the murine small intestine is limited to the cycling, crypt base columnar cells and proliferative zone and is lost as the cells differentiate and exit the cell cycle. Loss of Mdm2 results in even higher levels of p53 expression but p53 is still restricted to proliferating cells in the small intestine. Therefore, the small intestine of these p53 mutant mice is an experimental system in which we can dissect the molecular pathways leading to p53 accumulation, which has important implications for cancer prevention and therapy. PMID:26255629

  12. IGFBP-rP1 induces p21 expression through a p53-independent pathway, leading to cellular senescence of MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Shuguang; Liu, Chang; Wang, Jianguo; Wang, Fuqing; Xu, Wanling; Cui, Shao; Yuan, Lei; Chen, Xudong; Fan, Wenjuan; Cui, Mingchen; Song, Guohua

    2012-06-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)-related protein 1 (IGFBP-rP1), a member of the IGFBP super family, was identified as a potent tumor suppressor in several carcinomas. IGFBP-rP1 was down-regulated in primary breast cancer tissues and several breast cancer cell lines but overexpressed in senescent human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs), suggesting that IGFBP-rP1 might be a tumor suppressor in breast cancer and the tumor suppressor role of IGFBP-rP1 might be associated with cellular senescence. The aim of the study was to observe the effect of IGFBP-rP1 on cellular senescence and the molecular events mediating this biological effect in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. DNA fragment-encoding IGFBP-rP1 was cloned in-frame N-terminally to EGFP gene to generate IGFBP-rP1-EGFP fusion protein expression plasmid (pEGFP-IGFBP-rP1). The plasmid pEGFP-IGFBP-rP1 was then transfected into MCF-7 cells, and the proliferation, cell cycle distribution, cellular senescence, and cell cycle-related protein expression of MCF-7 cells were examined by trypan blue exclusion, flow cytometry, senescence-associated galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining, and Western blot analysis, respectively. Two shRNA plasmid vectors against p21 or p53 gene were constructed and stably transfected into the MCF-7 cells to determine the involvement of p21 or p53 in cellular senescence induced by IGFBP-rP1. Transfection of IGFBP-rP1 or addition of condition medium (CM) from IGFBP-rP1-transfected cells in MCF-7 cells caused induction of a variety of senescent phenotypes, such as decrease in cell proliferation, increase in G0/G1 cell cycle arrest cells, change in cell morphology, and increase in senescence-associated galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity. IGFBP-rP1-induced growth arrest is associated with enhanced expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and dephosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRB). Cell proliferation block and cellular senescence induction in response to IGFBP-rP1

  13. Liver p53 expression in patients with HCV-related chronic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Loguercio, C; Cuomo, A; Tuccillo, C; Gazzerro, P; Cioffi, M; Molinari, A M; Del Vecchio Blanco, C

    2003-07-01

    Mutated p53 acts as a dominant oncogene and alterations in the p53 gene are described in a large number of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It has been demonstrated that hepatitis C virus (HCV)-core protein regulates transcriptionally cellular genes, as well as cell growth and apoptosis. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether p53 may be expressed also in a precocious stage of HCV-related liver damage. We studied p53 expression by immunoluminometric assay on liver samples from 40 patients (M/F 18/ 22, median age 44 years, range 13-64 years) with biopsy-proven HCV-related chronic hepatitis. We considered the following factors: degree of liver damage, liver iron content and HCV-RNA titre. We also evaluated as possible co-factors alcohol and food intake in the last 3 years. p53 was over-expressed in seven of 40 (17.5%) patients. Liver histology documented the presence of unexpected cirrhosis in two patients among the p53 positive subjects. The p53 positive group had a daily ethanol intake significantly higher in respect to that of the p53 negative group (P < 0.05). Alimentary history documented that patients with a p53 over-expression had a lower intake of total calories, monounsaturated fatty acids, vitamin C and riboflavin. Data indicate that p53 over-expression can occur even in initial stages of HCV-related liver disease.

  14. Immunohistochemical expression of p53 and its clinicopathological correlation with modified Anneroth's histological grading system

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Kajal V; Chalishazar, Monali; Dave, Vishal R; Panja, Pritam; Singh, Manisha; Modi, Tapan G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is an epithelial neoplasm generally beginning as focal overgrowth of altered stem cells near the basement membrane, moving upward and laterally, replacing the normal epithelium. Histopathological grading has been used for many decades in an attempt to predict the clinical behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma. In the present study, Forty biopsies were studied for histological grading and p53 expression. The p53 expression was studied in relation to clinical parameters such as age, sex of patient and site of tumors. Relation between histological grade of malignancy and p53 protein expression was analysed. All cases were classified according to Anneroth's histological malignancy grading system (1987). Materials and Methods: 40 cases of OSCC were assessed for clinical parameters, Anneroth's histological grading and immunohistochemically stained with p53 protien. Statistical Analysis: The results obtained were analyzed using Spearman's Co-relation. Observations and Results: The positive expression of p53 was found in 62% of carcinomas studied. Positivity of p53 showed correlation with histological grade of malignancy and with individual parameters like degree of keratinization, nuclear polymorphism, number of mitoses and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration while showed a negative correlation with pattern of invasion. Conclusion: Our study showed a significant correlation between parameters of tumor cell population, lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and p53 expression. A significant association between high grade of malignancy and p53 overexpression and insignificant correlation of p53 with age, sex of the patient and site of the tumor was found. PMID:27194859

  15. [Effect of recombinant human p53 adenovirus (Ad-p53) combined with EGFR inhibitor gefitinib on the sensitivity of breast cancer MDA-MB-468 cells].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinzhao; Guan, Xiyun; Wang, Leilei; Xie, Li; Liu, Qi; Yu, Zhiyong

    2014-12-01

    To observe the impact of concurrent administration of recombinant human p53 adenovirus (Ad-p53) with EGFR inhibitor gefitinib on breast cancer MDA-MB-468 cells. MDA-MB-468 cells were treated with Ad-p53 and/or gefitinib. The effect of Ad-p53 and gefitinib on the growth of MDA-MB-468 cells was evaluated by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was used to detect the alteration of p53,EGFR, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway and apoptosis-related proteins. Ad-p53 combined with gefitinib was used in vivo to explore their effect on tumor xenograft in nude mice. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the p53 expression in vivo. The MTT assay showed a stronger inhibitory effect of gefitinib on MDA-MB-468 cells infected with Ad-p53 than on the control cells. Cell apoptosis assay revealed that the apoptosis rates of MDA-MB-468 cells in vehicle-treated group, Ad-p53 group, gefitinib group, and combination group were 8.5%, 17.4%, 20.5% and 32.6%, respectively. The apoptosis rate of MDA-MB-468 cells in the combination group was higher than that in other groups (P < 0.05, for all) . Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of p53 was significantly up-regulated in the presence of Ad-p53. The combination of Ad-p53 and gefitinib significantly down-regulated p-Akt (S473)(P < 0.01) and up-regulated caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3 (P < 0.01 for both). Tumor inhibition rates (TIR) in the Ad-p53, gefitinib, and combination groups were 35.7%, 28.7% and 74.4%, respectively. Ad-p53 and gefitinib combination therapy significantly reduced the tumor burden in nude mice (P < 0.05 for all).Immunohistochemistry showed that after intratumoral administration of Ad-p53, wild-type p53 was increased (P < 0.01). p53 expressions in the vehicle-treated, Ad-p53, gefitinib and combination groups were 45.2%, 80.1%, 50.7% and 90.6%, respectively. Wild-type p53 may reverse the sensitivity of MDA-MB-468 cells to gefitinib through

  16. Radiation response and cell cycle regulation of p53 rescued malignant keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Niemantsverdriet, Maarten; Jongmans, Wim; Backendorf, Claude . E-mail: backendo@chem.leidenuniv.nl

    2005-10-15

    Mutations in the tumor suppressor gene p53 were found in more than 90% of all human squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). To study the function of p53 in a keratinocyte background, a tetracycline-controlled p53 transgene was introduced into a human SCC cell line (SCC15), lacking endogenous p53. Conditional expression of wild-type p53 protein upon withdrawal of tetracycline was accompanied with increased expression of p21{sup WAF1/Cip1} resulting in reduced cell proliferation. Flow-cytometric analysis revealed that these cells were transiently arrested in the G1/S phase of the cell cycle. However, when SCC15 cells expressing p53 were exposed to ionizing radiation (IR), a clear shift from a G1/S to a G2/M cell cycle arrest was observed. This effect was greatly depending on the presence of wild-type p53, as it was not observed to the same extent in SCC15 cells lacking p53. Unexpectedly, the p53- and IR-dependent G2/M cell cycle arrest in the keratinocyte background was not depending on increased expression or stabilization of 14-3-3{sigma}, a p53-regulated effector of G2/M progression in colorectal cancer cells. In keratinocytes, 14-3-3{sigma} (stratifin) is involved in terminal differentiation and its cell cycle function in this cell type might diverge from the one it fulfills in other cellular backgrounds.

  17. P53 tumor suppressor gene and protein expression is altered in cell lines derived from spontaneous and alpha-radiation-induced canine lung tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, L.A.; Johnson, N.F.; Lechner, J.F.

    1994-11-01

    Mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene are the most frequently occurring gene alterations in malignant human cancers, including lung cancer. In lung cancer, common point mutations within conserved exons of the p53 gene result in a stabilized form of mutant protein which is detectable in most cases by immunohistochemistry. In addition to point mutations, allelic loss, rearrangements, and deletions of the p53 gene have also been detected in both human and rodent tumors. It has been suggested that for at least some epithelial neoplasms, the loss of expression of wild-type p53 protein may be more important for malignant transformation than the acquisition of activating mutations. Mechanisms responsible for the loss of expression of wild-type protein include gene deletion or rearrangement, nonsense or stop mutations, mutations within introns or upstream regulatory regions of the gene, and accelerated rates of degradation of the protein by DNA viral oncoproteins.

  18. Transgenic mouse with human mutant p53 expression in the prostate epithelium.

    PubMed

    Elgavish, Ada; Wood, Philip A; Pinkert, Carl A; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin; Cartee, Todd; Wilbanks, John; Mentor-Marcel, Roycelynn; Tian, Liqun; Scroggins, Samuel E

    2004-09-15

    Apoptosis is disrupted in prostate tumor cells, conferring a survival advantage. p53 is a nuclear protein believed to regulate cancer progression, in part by inducing apoptosis. To test this possibility in future studies, the objective of the present study was to generate a transgenic mouse model expressing mutant p53 in the prostate (PR). Transgene incorporation was tested using Southern analysis. Expression of mutant p53 protein was examined using immunofluorescence microscopy. Apoptosis in the PR was evaluated using the Tunnel method. A construct, consisting of the rat probasin promoter and a mutant human p53 fragment, was prepared and used to generate transgenic mice. rPB-mutant p53 transgene incorporation, as well as nuclear accumulation of mutant human p53 protein, was demonstrated. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) III and IV were found in PR of 52-week old transgenic mice, whereas no pathological changes were found in the other organs examined. PR ability to undergo apoptosis following castration was reduced in rPB-mutant p53 mice as compared to non transgenic littermates. Transgenic rPB-mutant p53 mice accumulate mutant p53 protein in PR, resulting in neoplastic lesions and reduced apoptotic potential in the PR. Breeding rPB-mutant p53 mice with mice expressing an oncogene in their PR will be useful in examining interactions of multiple genes that result in progression of slow growing prostate tumors expressing oncogenes alone to metastatic cancer. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Recombinant adeno-associated virus expressing a p53-derived apoptotic peptide (37AA) inhibits HCC cells growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyong; Wang, Yufeng; Bai, Yanxia; Shao, Yuan; Bai, Jigang; Ma, Zhenhua; Liu, Qingguang; Wu, Shengli

    2017-02-06

    Recent studies have confirmed that a p53-derived apoptotic peptide (37AA) could act as a tumor suppressor inducing apoptosis in multiple tumor cells through derepressing p73. However, the tumor suppressive effects of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) expressing 37AA on HCC cells are still unknown. In this study, we successfully constructed a recombinant rAAV expressing 37AA. In vitro and in vivo assays showed that transfection of NT4-37AA/rAAV in HCC cells strongly suppressed cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and up-regulated the cellular expression of p73. NT4-37AA/rAAV transfection markedly slowed Huh-7 xenografted tumor growth in murine. Pretreatment of HCC cells with p73 siRNA abrogated these effects of NT4-37AA/rAAV. Furthermore, we found that expression of p73 was upregulated and the formation of P73/iASSP complex was prevented when 37AA was introduced into HCC cells. Taken together, these results indicate that introduction of 37AA into HCC cells with a rAAV vector may lead to the development of broadly applicable agents for the treatment of HCC, and the mechanism may, at least in part, be associated with the upregulation of p73 expression and reduced level of P73/iASSP complex.

  20. Caveolin-1 expression negatively regulates cell cycle progression by inducing G(0)/G(1) arrest via a p53/p21(WAF1/Cip1)-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Galbiati, F; Volonté, D; Liu, J; Capozza, F; Frank, P G; Zhu, L; Pestell, R G; Lisanti, M P

    2001-08-01

    Caveolin-1 is a principal component of caveolae membranes in vivo. Caveolin-1 mRNA and protein expression are lost or reduced during cell transformation by activated oncogenes. Interestingly, the human caveolin-1 gene is localized to a suspected tumor suppressor locus (7q31.1). However, it remains unknown whether caveolin-1 plays any role in regulating cell cycle progression. Here, we directly demonstrate that caveolin-1 expression arrests cells in the G(0)/G(1) phase of the cell cycle. We show that serum starvation induces up-regulation of endogenous caveolin-1 and arrests cells in the G(0)/G(1) phase of the cell cycle. Moreover, targeted down-regulation of caveolin-1 induces cells to exit the G(0)/G(1) phase. Next, we constructed a green fluorescent protein-tagged caveolin-1 (Cav-1-GFP) to examine the effect of caveolin-1 expression on cell cycle regulation. We directly demonstrate that recombinant expression of Cav-1-GFP induces arrest in the G(0)/G(1) phase of the cell cycle. To examine whether caveolin-1 expression is important for modulating cell cycle progression in vivo, we expressed wild-type caveolin-1 as a transgene in mice. Analysis of primary cultures of mouse embryonic fibroblasts from caveolin-1 transgenic mice reveals that caveolin-1 induces 1) cells to exit the S phase of the cell cycle with a concomitant increase in the G(0)/G(1) population, 2) a reduction in cellular proliferation, and 3) a reduction in the DNA replication rate. Finally, we demonstrate that caveolin-1-mediated cell cycle arrest occurs through a p53/p21-dependent pathway. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence that caveolin-1 expression plays a critical role in the modulation of cell cycle progression in vivo.

  1. Caveolin-1 Expression Negatively Regulates Cell Cycle Progression by Inducing G0/G1 Arrest via a p53/p21WAF1/Cip1-dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Galbiati, Ferruccio; Volonte', Daniela; Liu, Jun; Capozza, Franco; Frank, Philippe G.; Zhu, Liang; Pestell, Richard G.; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2001-01-01

    Caveolin-1 is a principal component of caveolae membranes in vivo. Caveolin-1 mRNA and protein expression are lost or reduced during cell transformation by activated oncogenes. Interestingly, the human caveolin-1 gene is localized to a suspected tumor suppressor locus (7q31.1). However, it remains unknown whether caveolin-1 plays any role in regulating cell cycle progression. Here, we directly demonstrate that caveolin-1 expression arrests cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. We show that serum starvation induces up-regulation of endogenous caveolin-1 and arrests cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Moreover, targeted down-regulation of caveolin-1 induces cells to exit the G0/G1 phase. Next, we constructed a green fluorescent protein-tagged caveolin-1 (Cav-1-GFP) to examine the effect of caveolin-1 expression on cell cycle regulation. We directly demonstrate that recombinant expression of Cav-1-GFP induces arrest in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. To examine whether caveolin-1 expression is important for modulating cell cycle progression in vivo, we expressed wild-type caveolin-1 as a transgene in mice. Analysis of primary cultures of mouse embryonic fibroblasts from caveolin-1 transgenic mice reveals that caveolin-1 induces 1) cells to exit the S phase of the cell cycle with a concomitant increase in the G0/G1 population, 2) a reduction in cellular proliferation, and 3) a reduction in the DNA replication rate. Finally, we demonstrate that caveolin-1-mediated cell cycle arrest occurs through a p53/p21-dependent pathway. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence that caveolin-1 expression plays a critical role in the modulation of cell cycle progression in vivo. PMID:11514613

  2. Cellular senescence: ex vivo p53-dependent asymmetric cell kinetics

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    Although senescence is a defining property of euploid mammalian cells, its physiologic basis remains obscure. Previously, cell kinetics properties of normal tissue cells have not been considered in models for senescence. We now provide evidence that senescence is in fact the natural consequence of normal in vivo somatic stem cell kinetics extended in culture. This concept of senescence is based on our discovery that cells engineered to conditionally express the well-recognized tumor suppressor protein and senescence factor, p53, exhibit asymmetric cell kinetics. In vivo, asymmetric cell kinetics are essential for maintenance of somatic stem cells; ex vivo, the same cell kinetics yield senescence as a simple kinetic endpoint. This new “asymmetric cell kinetics model” for senescence suggests novel strategies for the isolation and propagation of somatic tissue stem cells in culture. PMID:12488624

  3. The traditional Chinese medical compound Rocaglamide protects nonmalignant primary cells from DNA damage-induced toxicity by inhibition of p53 expression

    PubMed Central

    Becker, M S; Schmezer, P; Breuer, R; Haas, S F; Essers, M A; Krammer, P H; Li-Weber, M

    2014-01-01

    One of the main obstacles of conventional anticancer therapy is the toxicity of chemotherapeutics to normal tissues. So far, clinical approaches that aim to specifically reduce chemotherapy-mediated toxicities are rare. Recently, a number of studies have demonstrated that herbal extracts derived from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may reduce chemotherapy-induced side effects. Thus, we screened a panel of published cancer-inhibiting TCM compounds for their chemoprotective potential and identified the phytochemical Rocaglamide (Roc-A) as a candidate. We show that Roc-A significantly reduces apoptotic cell death induced by DNA-damaging anticancer drugs in primary human and murine cells. Investigation of the molecular mechanism of Roc-A-mediated protection revealed that Roc-A specifically blocks DNA damage-induced upregulation of the transcription factor p53 by inhibiting its protein synthesis. The essential role of p53 in Roc-A-mediated protection was confirmed by siRNA knockdown of p53 and by comparison of the effects of Roc-A on chemoprotection of splenocytes isolated from wild-type and p53-deficient mice. Importantly, Roc-A did not protect p53-deficient or -mutated cancer cells. Our data suggest that Roc-A may be used as an adjuvant to reduce the side effects of chemotherapy in patients with p53-deficient or -mutated tumors. PMID:24434508

  4. Comparative study of p63 and p53 expression in tissue microarrays of malignant melanomas.

    PubMed

    Brinck, Ulrich; Ruschenburg, Ilka; Di Como, Charles J; Buschmann, Nadine; Betke, Herbert; Stachura, Jerzy; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Korabiowska, Monika

    2002-12-01

    p63 is a known homologue of p53. In contrast to p53, however, p63 mutations are rarely seen in tumours. There have been several reports that p63 plays a regulatory role in the normal differentiation of cells, whereas its role in tumour biology must still be elucidated. The main aim of this study was to compare p63 and p53 expression in tissue microarrays of malignant melanomas and to establish any prognostic significance. p63 expression was found in 2 out of 59 tumours, both pT4. The p63 index did not exceed 30%. p53 expression was found in 27 out of 59 melanomas, with maximal expression in up to 80% of tumour cells. There were no correlations observed between the two markers. Multivariate analysis confirmed the prognostically independent role of p53. This study also confirmed that tissue microarrays can be used effectively for evaluation of the expression of certain tumour markers.

  5. p53, Cip1, and Gadd153 expression following treatment of A549 cells with natural and man-made vitreous fibers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, N F; Jaramillo, R J

    1997-09-01

    DNA damage induced by chemicals and ionizing radiation is associated with the expression of negative regulators of the cell cycle. The arrest of cells in G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle provides time for DNA repair. Asbestos fibers are carcinogenic when inhaled by both humans and animals; however, the mechanism by which the fibers exert their effect is unknown. This work was undertaken to determine whether the expression of DNA damage-inducible genes differs between crocidolite, a fiber positive for lung tumors, and JM 100 glass microfiber, which is negative for lung tumors when inhaled by rats. Temporal and dose-related expressions of p53, Cip1, and Gadd153 proteins were determined in cultured A549 cells treated with either Union Internationale Contre le Cancer crocidolite or JM 100 for 20 hr and cultured in fresh media. Immunolabeled cells were analyzed by flow cytometry, and the increased number of protein-expressing cells was determined by subtracting the expression in unexposed cells from exposed cells. Crocidolite induced the expression of all three proteins with a maximum expression after approximately 18 hr in fresh media. At a similar time point, JM 100 did not markedly induce the three proteins. Crocidolite also induced a dose-dependent increase in the number of cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. These results show that asbestos behaves like ionizing radiation and genotoxic chemicals by inducing proteins associated with DNA damage and cell-cycle arrest. The clear difference in response between crocidolite and JM 100 may help elucidate the mechanism of action of toxic and nontoxic fibers.

  6. p53, Cip1, and Gadd153 expression following treatment of A549 cells with natural and man-made vitreous fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, N F; Jaramillo, R J

    1997-01-01

    DNA damage induced by chemicals and ionizing radiation is associated with the expression of negative regulators of the cell cycle. The arrest of cells in G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle provides time for DNA repair. Asbestos fibers are carcinogenic when inhaled by both humans and animals; however, the mechanism by which the fibers exert their effect is unknown. This work was undertaken to determine whether the expression of DNA damage-inducible genes differs between crocidolite, a fiber positive for lung tumors, and JM 100 glass microfiber, which is negative for lung tumors when inhaled by rats. Temporal and dose-related expressions of p53, Cip1, and Gadd153 proteins were determined in cultured A549 cells treated with either Union Internationale Contre le Cancer crocidolite or JM 100 for 20 hr and cultured in fresh media. Immunolabeled cells were analyzed by flow cytometry, and the increased number of protein-expressing cells was determined by subtracting the expression in unexposed cells from exposed cells. Crocidolite induced the expression of all three proteins with a maximum expression after approximately 18 hr in fresh media. At a similar time point, JM 100 did not markedly induce the three proteins. Crocidolite also induced a dose-dependent increase in the number of cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. These results show that asbestos behaves like ionizing radiation and genotoxic chemicals by inducing proteins associated with DNA damage and cell-cycle arrest. The clear difference in response between crocidolite and JM 100 may help elucidate the mechanism of action of toxic and nontoxic fibers. PMID:9400714

  7. Y14 governs p53 expression and modulates DNA damage sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chia-Chen; Lee, Chi-Chieh; Tseng, Ching-Tzu; Tarn, Woan-Yuh

    2017-01-01

    Y14 is a core component of the exon junction complex (EJC), while it also exerts cellular functions independent of the EJC. Depletion of Y14 causes G2/M arrest, DNA damage and apoptosis. Here we show that knockdown of Y14 induces the expression of an alternative spliced isoform of p53, namely p53β, in human cells. Y14, in the context of the EJC, inhibited aberrant exon inclusion during the splicing of p53 pre-mRNA, and thus prevent p53β expression. The anti-cancer agent camptothecin specifically suppressed p53β induction. Intriguingly, both depletion and overexpression of Y14 increased overall p53 protein levels, suggesting that Y14 governs the quality and quantity control of p53. Moreover, Y14 depletion unexpectedly reduced p21 protein levels, which in conjunction with aberrant p53 expression accordingly increased cell sensitivity to genotoxic agents. This study establishes a direct link between Y14 and p53 expression and suggests a function for Y14 in DNA damage signaling. PMID:28361991

  8. Mutant p53 upregulates alpha-1 antitrypsin expression and promotes invasion in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Shakya, R; Tarulli, G A; Sheng, L; Lokman, N A; Ricciardelli, C; Pishas, K I; Selinger, C I; Kohonen-Corish, M R J; Cooper, W A; Turner, A G; Neilsen, P M; Callen, D F

    2017-04-03

    Missense mutations in the TP53 tumor-suppressor gene inactivate its antitumorigenic properties and endow the incipient cells with newly acquired oncogenic properties that drive invasion and metastasis. Although the oncogenic effect of mutant p53 transcriptome has been widely acknowledged, the global influence of mutant p53 on cancer cell proteome remains to be fully elucidated. Here, we show that mutant p53 drives the release of invasive extracellular factors (the ‘secretome’) that facilitates the invasion of lung cancer cell lines. Proteomic characterization of the secretome from mutant p53-inducible H1299 human non-small cell lung cancer cell line discovered that the mutant p53 drives its oncogenic pathways through modulating the gene expression of numerous targets that are subsequently secreted from the cells. Of these genes, alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) was identified as a critical effector of mutant p53 that drives invasion in vitro and in vivo, together with induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transition markers expression. Mutant p53 upregulated A1AT transcriptionally through the involvement with its family member p63. Conditioned medium containing secreted A1AT enhanced cell invasion, while an A1AT-blocking antibody attenuated the mutant p53-driven migration and invasion. Importantly, high A1AT expression correlated with increased tumor stage, elevated p53 staining and shorter overall survival in lung adenocarcinoma patients. Collectively, these findings suggest that A1AT is an indispensable target of mutant p53 with prognostic and therapeutic potential in mutant p53-expressing tumors. Oncogene advance online publication, 3 April 2017; doi:10.1038/onc.2017.66.

  9. Polypodium leucotomos decreases UV-induced epidermal cell proliferation and enhances p53 expression and plasma antioxidant capacity in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Yanes, Esperanza; Juarranz, Ángeles; Cuevas, Jesús; Gonzalez, Salvador; Mallol, Jordi

    2012-08-01

    A single dose of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induces significant changes in blood and skin of hairless mice. Oral administration of a hydrophilic extract of the fern Polypodium leucotomos (PL, 300 mg/kg during 5 days before UVR and for two additional days after irradiation) modulates some of the effects of UVR. Most significantly, PL administration reduced the number of proliferating cells by 13%, increased the number of p53(+) cells by 63%, enhanced the antioxidant plasma capacity (ORAC) by 30% and reinforced the network of dermal elastic fibres. Western blot analysis of skin antioxidant-related enzymes failed to demonstrate significant changes caused by PL. Thus, the beneficial effect of PL likely owes to its antioxidant and anti-ROS properties rather than its modulation of the expression of endogenous antioxidant systems. These data provide mechanistic clues for its efficacy as a systemic photoprotective agent with antioxidant and anti-photo-ageing properties.

  10. p53, PCNA and Ki-67 expression in oral squamous cell carcinomas: the vagaries of fixation and microwave enhancement of immunocytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Allison, R T; Best, T

    1998-10-01

    Proliferation markers are widely used as indicators of tumour progression and aggression. Fixation and antigen retrieval methods may enhance the immunocytochemical sensitivity of these markers but may also lead to loss of specificity. As these methods are often used quantitatively, standardisation of internal and external methodology is paramount. This study aimed to compare the effects of alcohol and formalin fixation and of microwaving on the immunocytochemical demonstration of p53, PCNA and Ki-67 in oral squamous cell carcinoma using duplicate tissue blocks from 24 cases. Both qualitative and quantitative differences in antigen expression were revealed. Whilst alcohol fixation alone at least maintained and usually increased the strength of positive staining, microwaving alcohol-fixed sections often gave rise to non-specific staining. p53 staining following microwave enhancement of alcohol-fixed tissue showed a significant incidence of conversion of negative results to positive and of positive staining in unexpected tissue components. Alcohol fixation increased the sensitivity of PCNA detection with a far less dramatic loss of specificity. The results emphasise the need for careful standardisation of immunocytochemical methods, particularly when used quantitatively and for inter-laboratory comparisons.

  11. p53 in cell invasion, podosomes, and invadopodia

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Alan S

    2014-01-01

    Cell invasion of the extracellular matrix is prerequisite to cross tissue migration of tumor cells in cancer metastasis, and vascular smooth muscle cells in atherosclerosis. The tumor suppressor p53, better known for its roles in the regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis, has ignited much interest in its function as a suppressor of cell migration and invasion. How p53 and its gain-of-function mutants regulate cell invasion remains a puzzle and a challenge for future studies. In recent years, podosomes and invadopodia have also gained center stage status as veritable apparatus specialized in cell invasion. It is not clear, however, whether p53 regulates cell invasion through podosomes and invadopodia. In this review, evidence supporting a negative role of p53 in podosomes formation in vascular smooth muscle cells will be surveyed, and signaling nodes that may mediate this regulation in other cell types will be explored. PMID:24714032

  12. p53 mutation, but not p53 overexpression, correlates with survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Mineta, H.; Borg, A.; Dictor, M.; Wahlberg, P.; Akervall, J.; Wennerberg, J.

    1998-01-01

    Survival in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) was compared with overexpression and mutation of the p53 gene. Archival tissue from 77 tumours was analysed for protein expression using immunohistochemistry (IHC) with the monoclonal antibody Do-7, and for the presence of mutation in exons 5-8 using single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP), followed by DNA sequencing in SSCP-positive cases. p53 expression was scored as high (>70% nuclei stained) in 25 (32%) tumours, as intermediate (10-70% nuclei stained) in 19 (25%) tumours and as low (<10% nuclei stained) in 33 (43%) tumours. Twelve (18%) tumours exhibited gene mutation (ten missense and two nonsense mutations) and an additional five tumours contained changes that could not result in amino acid substitution or protein truncation. There was no correlation between gene expression and mutation, mutations being equally frequent in tumours with either high (4/25), intermediate (4/19) or low protein expression (4/33). Fifty-eight patients were eligible for survival analysis. There was a strong correlation between p53 mutation and cause-specific survival; median survival among mutated cases was 12.5 months compared with >160 months among non-mutated patients (P < 0.005). There was no correlation between p53 overexpression and survival. The results suggest that p53 mutation status is an important prognostic factor in HNSCC, and that IHC analysis of protein overexpression is an inadequate measure of gene mutation in these tumours. Images Figure 1 PMID:9792155

  13. Arsenic promotes centrosome abnormalities and cell colony formation in p53 compromised human lung cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liao Weiting; Lin Pinpin; Cheng, T.-S.; Yu, H.-S.; Chang, Louis W.

    2007-12-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicated that residents, especially cigarette smokers, in arseniasis areas had significantly higher lung cancer risk than those living in non-arseniasis areas. Thus, an interaction between arsenic and cigarette smoking in lung carcinogenesis was suspected. p53 dysfunction or mutation in lung epithelial cells was frequently observed in cigarette smokers. Our present study was to explore the differential effects by arsenic on H1355 cells (human lung adenocarcinoma cell line with mutation in p53), BEAS-2B (immortalized lung epithelial cell with functional p53) and pifithrin-{alpha}-treated BEAS-2B cells (p53-inhibited cells). These cells were treated with different doses of sodium arsenite (0, 0.1, 1, 5 and 10 {mu}M) for 48 h. A greater reduction in cell viability was observed in the BEAS-2B cells vs. p53 compromised cells (H1355 or p53-inhibited BEAS-2B). Similar observation was also made on 7-day cell survival (growth) study. TUNEL analysis confirmed that there was indeed a significantly reduced arsenite-induced apoptosis found in p53-compromised cells. Centrosomal abnormality has been attributed to eventual chromosomal missegregation, aneuploidy and tumorigenesis. In our present study, reduced p21 and Gadd45a expressions and increased centrosomal abnormality (atopic and multiple centrosomes) were observed in both arsenite-treated H1355 and p53-inhibited BEAS-2B cells as compared with similarly treated BEAS-2B cells. Increased anchorage-independent growth (colony formation) of BEAS-2B cells co-treated with pifithrin-{alpha} and 5 {mu}M sodium arsenite was also observed in soft agar. Our present investigation demonstrated that arsenic would act specifically on p53 compromised cells (either with p53 dysfunction or inhibited) to induce centrosomal abnormality and colony formation. These findings provided strong evidence on the carcinogenic promotional role of arsenic, especially under the condition of p53 dysfunction.

  14. Modulation of p53, c-fos, RARE, cyclin A, and cyclin D1 expression in human leukemia (HL-60) cells exposed to arsenic trioxide

    PubMed Central

    Yedjou, Clement G.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has recently been successfully used to treat all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) resistant relapsing acute promyelocytic leukemia. However, its molecular mechanisms of action are poorly understood. In the present study, we used the human leukemia (HL-60) cell line as a test model to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms of anti-cancer properties of As2O3. We hypothesized that As2O3-induced expression of stress genes and related proteins may play a role in the cellular and molecular events leading to cell cycle modulation in leukemic cells. To test this hypothesis, we performed Western blot analysis to assess the expression of specific cellular response proteins including p53, c-fos, RARE, Cyclin A, and Cyclin D1. Densitometric analysis was performed to determine the relative abundance of these proteins. Western Blot and densitometric analyses demonstrated a strong dose-response relationship with regard to p53 and RARE expression within the dose range of 0-8μg/mL. Expression of c-fos was slightly up-regulated at 2μg/mL, and down-regulated within the dose-range of 4-8 μg/mL. A statistically significant down-regulation of this protein was detected at the 6 and 8 μg/mL dose levels. No statistically significant differences (p>0.05) in Cyclin D1 expression was found between As2O3-treated cells and the control. Cyclin A expression in As2O3-treated HL-60 cells was up-regulated at 6μg/mL, suggesting that it is required for S phase and passage through G2 phase in cell cycle progression. Taken together, these results indicate that As2O3 has the potential to induce cell cycle arrest through activation of the 53-kDa tumor suppressor protein and repression of the c-fos transcription factor. Up-regulation of RARE by As2O3 indicates that its cytotoxicity may be mediated through interaction/binding with the retinoic acid receptor, and subsequent inhibition of growth and differentiation. PMID:19444595

  15. Gene expression in the lung of p53 mutant mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Izzotti, Alberto; Cartiglia, Cristina; Longobardi, Mariagrazia; Bagnasco, Maria; Merello, Andrea; You, Ming; Lubet, Ronald A; De Flora, Silvio

    2004-12-01

    We showed previously that p53 mutations play a role in cigarette smoke-related carcinogenesis not only in humans but also in A/J mice. In fact, (UL53-3 x A/J)F(1) mice, carrying a dominant-negative germ-line p53 mutation, responded to exposure to environmental cigarette smoke more efficiently than their wild-type (wt) littermate controls in terms of molecular alterations, cytogenetic damage, and lung tumor yield. To clarify the mechanisms involved, we analyzed by cDNA array the expression of 1,185 cancer-related genes in the lung of the same mice. Neither environmental cigarette smoke nor the p53 status affected the expression of the p53 gene, but the p53 mutation strikingly increased the basal levels of p53 nuclear protein in the lung. Environmental cigarette smoke increased p53 protein levels in wt mice only. The p53 mutation enhanced the expression of positive cell cycle regulators in sham-exposed mice, which suggests a physiologic protective role of p53. In environmental cigarette smoke-exposed mice, the p53 mutation resulted in a lack of induction of proapoptotic genes and in overexpression of genes involved in cell proliferation, signal transduction, angiogenesis, inflammation, and immune response. Mutant mice and wt mice reacted to environmental cigarette smoke in a similar manner regarding genes involved in metabolism of xenobiotics, multidrug resistance, and protein repair. Irrespective of the p53 status, environmental cigarette smoke poorly affected the expression of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and DNA repair genes. Taken together, these findings may explain the increased susceptibility of p53 mutant mice to smoke-related alterations of intermediate biomarkers and lung carcinogenesis.

  16. p53 isoform Δ133p53 promotes efficiency of induced pluripotent stem cells and ensures genomic integrity during reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Lu; Pan, Xiao; Chen, Haide; Rao, Lingjun; Zeng, Yelin; Hang, Honghui; Peng, Jinrong; Xiao, Lei; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have great potential in regenerative medicine, but this depends on the integrity of their genomes. iPS cells have been found to contain a large number of de novo genetic alterations due to DNA damage response during reprogramming. Thus, to maintain the genetic stability of iPS cells is an important goal in iPS cell technology. DNA damage response can trigger tumor suppressor p53 activation, which ensures genome integrity of reprogramming cells by inducing apoptosis and senescence. p53 isoform Δ133p53 is a p53 target gene and functions to not only antagonize p53 mediated apoptosis, but also promote DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Here we report that Δ133p53 is induced in reprogramming. Knockdown of Δ133p53 results 2-fold decrease in reprogramming efficiency, 4-fold increase in chromosomal aberrations, whereas overexpression of Δ133p53 with 4 Yamanaka factors showes 4-fold increase in reprogamming efficiency and 2-fold decrease in chromosomal aberrations, compared to those in iPS cells induced only with 4 Yamanaka factors. Overexpression of Δ133p53 can inhibit cell apoptosis and promote DNA DSB repair foci formation during reprogramming. Our finding demonstrates that the overexpression of Δ133p53 not only enhances reprogramming efficiency, but also results better genetic quality in iPS cells. PMID:27874035

  17. Calcium and S100B Regulation of p53-Dependent Cell Growth Arrest and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Scotto, Christian; Deloulme, Jean Christophe; Rousseau, Denis; Chambaz, Edmond; Baudier, Jacques

    1998-01-01

    In glial C6 cells constitutively expressing wild-type p53, synthesis of the calcium-binding protein S100B is associated with cell density-dependent inhibition of growth and apoptosis in response to UV irradiation. A functional interaction between S100B and p53 was first demonstrated in p53-negative mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF cells) by sequential transfection with the S100B and the temperature-sensitive p53Val135 genes. We show that in MEF cells expressing a low level of p53Val135, S100B cooperates with p53Val135 in triggering calcium-dependent cell growth arrest and cell death in response to UV irradiation at the nonpermissive temperature (37.5°C). Calcium-dependent growth arrest of MEF cells expressing S100B correlates with specific nuclear accumulation of the wild-type p53Val135 conformational species. S100B modulation of wild-type p53Val135 nuclear translocation and functions was confirmed with the rat embryo fibroblast (REF) cell line clone 6, which is transformed by oncogenic Ha-ras and overexpression of p53Val135. Ectopic expression of S100B in clone 6 cells restores contact inhibition of growth at 37.5°C, which also correlates with nuclear accumulation of the wild-type p53Val135 conformational species. Moreover, a calcium ionophore mediates a reversible G1 arrest in S100B-expressing REF (S100B-REF) cells at 37.5°C that is phenotypically indistinguishable from p53-mediated G1 arrest at the permissive temperature (32°C). S100B-REF cells proceeding from G1 underwent apoptosis in response to UV irradiation. Our data support a model in which calcium signaling and S100B cooperate with the p53 pathways of cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. PMID:9632811

  18. Regulation of hTERT Expression and Function in Newly Immortalized p53(+) Human Mammary Epithelial Cell Lines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Argani P, Marks J, Richardson A, Cooper A, Strausberg R, Riggins GJ, Schnitt S, Gabrielson E, Gelman R, Polyak K: Molecular markers in ductal carcinoma in... Polyak K, Wong JS, Lester SC, Kaelin CM: Ductal Carci- noma in Situ of the Breast. New England Journal of Medicine 2004, 350:1430-1441. 71. Baxter...senescence. Cancer Cell 2006; 10:459-72. 9. Bartkova J, Rezaei N, Liontos M, Karakaidos P, Kletsas D, Issaeva N, Vassiliou LV , Kolettas E, Niforou K

  19. Regulation of hTERT Expression and Function in Newly Immortalized p53(+) Human Mammary Epithelial Cell Lines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Cancer Cell 2006; 10:459-72. 9. Bartkova J, Rezaei N, Liontos M, Karakaidos P, Kletsas D, Issaeva N, Vassiliou LV , Kolettas E, Niforou K, Zoumpourlis...Keshaviah A, Bae YK, Argani P, Marks J, Richardson A, Cooper A, Strausberg R, Riggins GJ, Schnitt S, Gabrielson E, Gelman R, Polyak K: Molecular markers in...3326. 70. Burstein HJ, Polyak K, Wong JS, Lester SC, Kaelin CM: Ductal Carci- noma in Situ of the Breast. New England Journal of Medicine 2004, 350

  20. Oscillations of the p53-Akt Network: Implications on Cell Survival and Death

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Keng Boon; Surana, Uttam; Aguda, Baltazar D.

    2009-01-01

    Intracellular protein levels of p53 and MDM2 have been shown to oscillate in response to ionizing radiation (IR), but the physiological significance of these oscillations remains unclear. The p53-MDM2 negative feedback loop – the putative cause of the oscillations – is embedded in a network involving a mutual antagonism (or positive feedback loop) between p53 and AKT. We have shown earlier that this p53-AKT network predicts an all-or-none switching behavior between a pro-survival cellular state (low p53 and high AKT levels) and a pro-apoptotic state (high p53 and low AKT levels). Here, we show that upon exposure to IR, the p53-AKT network can also reproduce the experimentally observed p53 and MDM2 oscillations. The present work is based on the hypothesis that the physiological significance of the experimentally observed oscillations could be found in their role in regulating the switching behavior of the p53-AKT network between pro-survival and pro-apoptotic states. It is shown here that these oscillations are associated with a significant decrease in the threshold level of IR at which switching from a pro-survival to a pro-apoptotic state occurs. Moreover, oscillations in p53 protein levels induce higher levels of expression of p53-target genes compared to non-oscillatory p53, and thus influence cell-fate decisions between cell cycle arrest/DNA damage repair versus apoptosis. PMID:19197384

  1. p16INK4A, p53, EGFR expression and KRAS mutation status in squamous cell cancers of the anus: correlation with outcomes following chemo-radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Duncan C; Williams, Anthony; Allan, Kimberley; Stokoe, Joanna; Jackson, Tim; Linsdall, Suzanne; Bailey, Charles Mh; Summers, Jeff

    2013-10-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal are associated with infection with Human Papilloma Viruses (HPVs). Chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) gives 70% 3-year relapse-free survival. Improved predictive markers and therapeutic options are required. Tumours from 153 patients treated with radical chemo-radiotherapy (50.4 Gy in 28# with concurrent Mitomycin and 5-Fluorouracil between 2004 and 2009) were retrieved and immunohistochemistry performed for p16(INK4A), p53 and EGFR and correlated with outcome. Primary and relapsed samples were analysed for mutations in KRAS. 137/153 (89.5%) stained moderately or strongly for p16(INK4A). p16(INK4A) correlated strongly with outcome. 37/137 patients demonstrating moderate/strong p16(INK4A) expression relapsed (27.0%), as opposed to 10/16 (62.5%) with absent/weak staining (log rank test p<0.001). p16 and p53 expression were inversely correlated. p16(INK4A) negative tumours were more frequent in men. p16(INK4A) negative patients had significantly worse overall survival (p<0.001). No mutations in KRAS were identified in primary tumours or relapses following treatment. p16(INK4A) is strongly associated with relapse in SCC of the anus and identifies patients with very poor rates of relapse-free and overall survival. Primary and recurrent anal cancer expresses wild type KRAS, unaffected by treatment, supporting trials targeting EGFR in poor risk/recurrent anal cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Genotoxic stress-induced expression of p53 and apoptosis in leukemic clam hemocytes with cytoplasmically sequestered p53.

    PubMed

    Böttger, Stefanie; Jerszyk, Emily; Low, Ben; Walker, Charles

    2008-02-01

    In nature, the soft shell clam, Mya arenaria, develops a fatal blood cancer in which a highly conserved homologue for wild-type human p53 protein is rendered nonfunctional by cytoplasmic sequestration. In untreated leukemic clam hemocytes, p53 is complexed throughout the cytoplasm with overexpressed variants for both clam homologues (full-length variant, 1,200-fold and truncated variant, 620-fold above normal clam hemocytes) of human mortalin, an Hsp70 family protein. In vitro treatment with etoposide only and in vivo treatment with either etoposide or mitoxantrone induces DNA damage, elevates expression (600-fold) and promotes nuclear translocation of p53, and results in apoptosis of leukemic clam hemocytes. Pretreatment with wheat germ agglutinin followed by etoposide treatment induces DNA damage and elevates p53 expression (893-fold) but does not overcome cytoplasmic sequestration of p53 or induce apoptosis. We show that leukemic clam hemocytes have an intact p53 pathway, and that maintenance of this tumor phenotype requires nuclear absence of p53, resulting from its localization in the cytoplasm of leukemic clam hemocytes. The effects of these topoisomerase II poisons may result as mortalin-based cytoplasmic tethering is overwhelmed by de novo expression of p53 protein after DNA damage induced by genotoxic stress. Soft shell clam leukemia provides excellent in vivo and in vitro models for developing genotoxic and nongenotoxic cancer therapies for reactivating p53 transcription in human and other animal cancers displaying mortalin-based cytoplasmic sequestration of the p53 tumor suppressor, such as colorectal cancers and primary and secondary glioblastomas, though not apparently leukemias or lymphomas.

  3. [Regulation of p14(ARF) expression and induction of cell apoptosis with c-myc in a p53-independent pathway].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang-juan; Li, Fu-nian; Jiang, Dan-dan; Wang, Xin-gang; Liu, Xiang-ping; Zhang, Dian-liang; Meng, Chun-hui

    2012-08-14

    To explore the regulation of p14(ARF) expression and induction of cell apoptosis with the mutant and wild-type c-myc genes in a p53-independent pathway of signal transduction. The mutant and wild-type c-myc genes were transfected by lentivirus into HCC1937 to form the stable over-expression cell lines. Uninfected cells and lentivirus-infected ones carrying no c-myc gene acted as blank and infection controls respectively. And c-myc and p14(ARF) mRNA and protein, proliferation and apoptosis in HCC1937 with mutant and wild-type c-myc were detected by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, Western blotting, thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated X-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) respectively. After the lentivirus-mediated gene transfer, c-myc mRNA and protein expression increased in the mutant and wild-type groups. p14(ARF) mRNA and protein increased in the wild-type group and the mutant group and there were significant difference between them with blank and infection controls (mutant groups: 0.560 ± 0.010, 0.154 ± 0.011, wild-type groups: 0.651 ± 0.010, 0.382 ± 0.013, both P < 0.05). The group of mutant and wild-type c-myc could promote the proliferation of cell growth. And c-myc was more effective to induce apoptosis in the wild-type group as compared with the mutant group (7.1% ± 0.7% vs 3.2% ± 0.4%, P < 0.05). In a p53-independent pathway, the over-expression of wild-type c-myc obviously up-regulates the expression of p14(ARF). And cell apoptosis may be induced through the regulation of p14(ARF)-related gene, keep balance of proliferative promotion and apoptosis induction. When there is a loss-of-function of mutant c-myc, tumorigenicity increases via a disturbed balance of proliferative promotion and apoptosis induction.

  4. Enhanced Gadd45 expression and delayed G2/M progression are p53 dependent in zinc-supplemented human bronchial epithelial cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Zinc is an essential nutrient for humans; however, this study demonstrated for the first time that an elevated zinc status, created by culturing cells at optimal plasma zinc concentration attainable by oral zinc supplementation, is cytotoxic for normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. p53 p...

  5. Chrysin abrogates cisplatin-induced oxidative stress, p53 expression, goblet cell disintegration and apoptotic responses in the jejunum of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Khan, Rehan; Khan, Abdul Quaiyoom; Qamar, Wajhul; Lateef, Abdul; Ali, Farrah; Rehman, Muneeb U; Tahir, Mir; Sharma, Swati; Sultana, Sarwat

    2012-11-14

    Cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (CDDP)) is a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of numerous forms of cancer, but it has pronounced adverse effects, namely nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, diarrhoea and nausea. CDDP-induced emesis and diarrhoea are also marked toxicities that may be due to intestinal injury. Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), a natural flavone commonly found in many plants, possesses multiple biological activities, such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of chrysin against CDDP-induced jejunal toxicity. The plausible mechanism of CDDP-induced jejunal toxicity includes oxidative stress, p53 and apoptosis via up-regulating the expression of caspase-6 and -3. Chrysin was administered to Wistar rats orally in maize oil. A single intraperitoneal injection of CDDP was given and the animals were killed after 24 h of CDDP injection. Chrysin ameliorated CDDP-induced lipid peroxidation, increase in xanthine oxidase activity, glutathione depletion, decrease in antioxidant (catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and phase-II detoxifying (glutathione-S-transferase and quinone reductase) enzyme activities. Chrysin attenuated CDDP-induced goblet cell disintegration, enhanced expression of p53 and apoptotic tissue damage. Histological findings further substantiated the protective effects of chrysin against CDDP-induced damage in the jejunum. The results of the present study demonstrate that oxidative stress and apoptosis are closely associated with CDDP-induced toxicity and chrysin shows the protective efficacy against CDDP-induced jejunum toxicity possibly via attenuating the oxidative stress and apoptotic tissue damage.

  6. Mutant p53 Cooperates with Knockdown of Endogenous Wild-Type p53 to Disrupt Tubulogenesis in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanhong; Yan, Wensheng; Chen, Xinbin

    2013-01-01

    Mutation of the p53 gene is the most common genetic alteration in human malignances and associated clinically with tumor progression and metastasis. To determine the effect of mutant p53 on epithelial differentiation, we developed three-dimensional culture (3-D) of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. We found that parental MDCK cells undergo a series of morphological changes and form polarized and growth-arrested cysts with hollow lumen, which resembles branching tubules in vitro. We also found that upon knockdown of endogenous wild-type p53 (p53-KD), MDCK cells still form normal cysts in 3-D culture, indicating that p53-KD alone is not sufficient to disrupt cysts formation. However, we found that ectopic expression of mutant R163H (human equivalent R175H) or R261H (human equivalent R273H) in MDCK cells leads to disruption of cyst polarity and formation of invasive aggregates, which is further compounded by knockdown of endogenous wild-type p53. Consistently, we found that expression of E-cadherin, β-catenin, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) transcription factors (Snail-1, Slug and Twist) is altered by mutant p53, which is also compounded by knockdown of wild-type p53. Moreover, the expression level of c-Met, the hepatocyte growth factor receptor and a key regulator of kidney cell tubulogenesis, is enhanced by combined knockdown of endogenous wild-type p53 and ectopic expression of mutant R163H or R261H but not by each individually. Together, our data suggest that upon inactivating mutation of the p53 gene, mutant p53 acquires its gain of function by altering morphogenesis and promoting cell migration and invasion in part by upregulating EMT and c-Met. PMID:24386484

  7. p53 contributes to T cell homeostasis through the induction of pro-apoptotic SAP.

    PubMed

    Madapura, Harsha S; Salamon, Daniel; Wiman, Klas G; Lain, Sonia; Klein, George; Klein, Eva; Nagy, Noémi

    2012-12-15

    Lack of functional SAP protein, due to gene deletion or mutation, is the cause of X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), characterized by functionally impaired T and NK cells and a high risk of lymphoma development. We have demonstrated earlier that SAP has a pro-apoptotic function in T and B cells. Deficiency of this function might contribute to the pathogenesis of XLP. We have also shown that SAP is a target of p53 in B cell lines. In the present study, we show that activated primary T cells express p53, which induces SAP expression. p53 is functional as a transcription factor in activated T cells and induces the expression of p21, PUMA and MDM2. PARP cleavage in the late phase of activation indicates that T cells expressing high levels of SAP undergo apoptosis. Modifying p53 levels using Nutlin-3, which specifically dissociates the MDM2-p53 interaction, was sufficient to upregulate SAP expression, indicating that SAP is a target of p53 in T cells. We also demonstrated p53's role as a transcription factor for SAP in activated T cells by ChIP assays. Our result suggests that p53 contributes to T cell homeostasis through the induction of the pro-apoptotic SAP. A high level of SAP is necessary for the activation-induced cell death that is pivotal in termination of the T cell response.

  8. p53-dependent and p53-independent anticancer activity of a new indole derivative in human osteosarcoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cappadone, C.; Stefanelli, C.; Malucelli, E.; Zini, M.; Onofrillo, C.; Locatelli, A.; Rambaldi, M.; Sargenti, A.; Merolle, L.; Farruggia, G.; Graziadio, A.; Montanaro, L.; Iotti, S.

    2015-11-13

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant tumor of bone, occurring most frequently in children and adolescents. The mechanism of formation and development of OS have been studied for a long time. Tumor suppressor pathway governed by p53 gene are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. Moreover, loss of wild-type p53 activity is thought to be a major predictor of failure to respond to chemotherapy in various human cancers. In previous studies, we described the activity of a new indole derivative, NSC743420, belonging to the tubulin inhibitors family, capable to induce apoptosis and arrest of the cell cycle in the G2/M phase of various cancer cell lines. However, this molecule has never been tested on OS cell line. Here we address the activity of NSC743420 by examine whether differences in the p53 status could influence its effects on cell proliferation and death of OS cells. In particular, we compared the effect of the tested molecule on p53-wild type and p53-silenced U2OS cells, and on SaOS2 cell line, which is null for p53. Our results demonstrated that NSC743420 reduces OS cell proliferation by p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms. In particular, the molecule induces proliferative arrest that culminate to apoptosis in SaOS2 p53-null cells, while it brings a cytostatic and differentiating effect in U2OS cells, characterized by the cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and increased alkaline phosphatase activity. - Highlights: • The indole derivative NSC743420 induces antitumor effects on osteosarcoma cells. • p53 status could drive the activity of antitumor agents on osteosarcoma cells. • NSC743420 induces cytostatic and differentiating effects on U2OS cells. • NSC743420 causes apoptosis on p53-null SaOS2 cells.

  9. Regulation of ES cell differentiation by functional and conformational modulation of p53.

    PubMed Central

    Sabapathy, K; Klemm, M; Jaenisch, R; Wagner, E F

    1997-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cell lines were used to examine the role of p53 during in vitro differentiation. Undifferentiated ES cells express high levels of p53 exclusively in the wild-type conformation, immunoprecipitable by monoclonal antibody PAb246, and p53 was found to be functionally active as determined by its ability to bind DNA specifically and to activate transcription of target genes. Differentiation in vitro resulted in a decrease in the levels of p53 and in a shift in its conformational status to the mutant form, detectable by monoclonal antibody PAb240, with a concomitant loss of functional activity. The presence of functional p53 in the undifferentiated ES cells renders them hypersensitive to UV irradiation, whereas the differentiated cells were resistant to UV treatment. ES cells lacking p53 exhibit enhanced proliferation in both the undifferentiated and differentiated state, and apoptosis accompanying differentiation was found to be reduced. Furthermore, wild-type ES cells undergoing apoptosis expressed functional p53. Expression of the temperature-sensitive p53val135 mutant in wild-type ES cells resulted in a reduction of apoptosis accompanying differentiation when it adopted a mutant conformation at 39 degrees C. These data demonstrate that functional inactivation of p53 allows differentiating cells to escape from apoptosis, and suggest that the conformational switch could regulate the inactivation process. PMID:9321401

  10. Silymarin modulates doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress, Bcl-xL and p53 expression while preventing apoptotic and necrotic cell death in the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Nirav; Joseph, Cecil; Corcoran, George B.; Ray, Sidhartha D.

    2010-06-01

    The emergence of silymarin (SMN) as a natural remedy for liver diseases, coupled with its entry into NIH clinical trial, signifies its hepatoprotective potential. SMN is noted for its ability to interfere with apoptotic signaling while acting as an antioxidant. This in vivo study was designed to explore the hepatotoxic potential of Doxorubicin (Dox), the well-known cardiotoxin, and in particular whether pre-exposures to SMN can prevent hepatotoxicity by reducing Dox-induced free radical mediated oxidative stress, by modulating expression of apoptotic signaling proteins like Bcl-xL, and by minimizing liver cell death occurring by apoptosis or necrosis. Groups of male ICR mice included Control, Dox alone, SMN alone, and Dox with SMN pre/co-treatment. Control and Dox groups received saline i.p. for 14 days. SMN was administered p.o. for 14 days at 16 mg/kg/day. An approximate LD{sub 50} dose of Dox, 60 mg/kg, was administered i.p. on day 12 to animals receiving saline or SMN. Animals were euthanized 48 h later. Dox alone induced frank liver injury (> 50-fold increase in serum ALT) and oxidative stress (> 20-fold increase in malondialdehyde [MDA]), as well as direct damage to DNA (> 15-fold increase in DNA fragmentation). Coincident genomic damage and oxidative stress influenced genomic stability, reflected in increased PARP activity and p53 expression. Decreases in Bcl-xL protein coupled with enhanced accumulation of cytochrome c in the cytosol accompanied elevated indexes of apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Significantly, SMN exposure reduced Dox hepatotoxicity and associated apoptotic and necrotic cell death. The effects of SMN on Dox were broad, including the ability to modulate changes in both Bcl-xL and p53 expression. In animals treated with SMN, tissue Bcl-xL expression exceeded control values after Dox treatment. Taken together, these results demonstrated that SMN (i) reduced, delayed onset, or prevented toxic effects of Dox which are typically associated

  11. Novel histone deacetylase inhibitor CG200745 induces clonogenic cell death by modulating acetylation of p53 in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Eun-Taex; Park, Moon-Taek; Choi, Bo-Hwa; Ro, Seonggu; Choi, Eun-Kyung; Jeong, Seong-Yun; Park, Heon Joo

    2012-04-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) plays an important role in cancer onset and progression. Therefore, inhibition of HDAC offers potential as an effective cancer treatment regimen. CG200745, (E)-N(1)-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)-N(8)-hydroxy-2-((naphthalene-1-loxy)methyl)oct-2-enediamide, is a novel HDAC inhibitor presently undergoing a phase I clinical trial. Enhancement of p53 acetylation by HDAC inhibitors induces cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis in cancer cells. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of p53 acetylation in the cancer cell death caused by CG200745. CG200745-induced clonogenic cell death was 2-fold greater in RKO cells expressing wild-type p53 than in p53-deficient RC10.1 cells. CG200745 treatment was also cytotoxic to PC-3 human prostate cancer cells, which express wild-type p53. CG200745 increased acetylation of p53 lysine residues K320, K373, and K382. CG200745 induced the accumulation of p53, promoted p53-dependent transactivation, and enhanced the expression of MDM2 and p21(Waf1/Cip1) proteins, which are encoded by p53 target genes. An examination of CG200745 effects on p53 acetylation using cells transfected with various p53 mutants showed that cells expressing p53 K382R mutants were significantly resistant to CG200745-induced clonogenic cell death compared with wild-type p53 cells. Moreover, p53 transactivation in response to CG200745 was suppressed in all cells carrying mutant forms of p53, especially K382R. Taken together, these results suggest that acetylation of p53 at K382 plays an important role in CG200745-induced p53 transactivation and clonogenic cell death.

  12. ATM Expression Predicts Veliparib and Irinotecan Sensitivity in Gastric Cancer by Mediating P53-Independent Regulation of Cell Cycle and Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Subhash, Vinod Vijay; Tan, Shi Hui; Yeo, Mei Shi; Yan, Fui Leng; Peethala, Praveen C; Liem, Natalia; Krishnan, Vaidehi; Yong, Wei Peng

    2016-12-01

    Identification of synthetically lethal cellular targets and synergistic drug combinations is important in cancer chemotherapy as they help to overcome treatment resistance and increase efficacy. The Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) kinase is a nuclear protein that plays a major role in the initiation of DNA repair signaling and cell-cycle check points during DNA damage. Although ATM was shown to be associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer, its implications as a predictive biomarker for cancer chemotherapy remain unexplored. The present study evaluated ATM-induced synthetic lethality and its role in sensitization of gastric cancer cells to PARP and TOP1 inhibitors, veliparib (ABT-888) and irinotecan (CPT-11), respectively. ATM expression was detected in a panel of gastric cell lines, and the IC50 against each inhibitors was determined. The combinatorial effect of ABT-888 and CPT-11 in gastric cancer cells was also determined both in vitro and in vivo ATM deficiency was found to be associated with enhanced sensitivity to ABT-888 and CPT-11 monotherapy, hence suggesting a mechanism of synthetic lethality. Cells with high ATM expression showed reduced sensitivity to monotherapy; however, they showed a higher therapeutic effect with ABT-888 and CPT-11 combinatorial therapy. Furthermore, ATM expression was shown to play a major role in cellular homeostasis by regulating cell-cycle progression and apoptosis in a P53-independent manner. The present study highlights the clinical utility of ATM expression as a predictive marker for sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to PARP and TOP1 inhibition and provides a deeper mechanistic insight into ATM-dependent regulation of cellular processes. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(12); 3087-96. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Immunohistochemical expression of the p53, mdm2, p21/Waf-1, Rb, p16, Ki67, cyclin D1, cyclin A and cyclin B1 proteins and apoptotic index in T-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Kanavaros, P; Bai, M; Stefanaki, K; Poussias, G; Rontogianni, D; Zioga, E; Gorgoulis, V; Agnantis, N J

    2001-04-01

    Fifty-seven cases of T-cell lymphomas (TCL) including 5 lymphoblastic (T-LBL) and 52 peripheral TCL (PTCL) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for the expression of p53, mdm2, p21, Rb, cyclin D1, cyclin A, cyclin B1, and Ki67/MIB1 proteins and 39/52 PTCL were also analyzed for the expression of p16 protein and for the presence of apoptotic cells by the TUNEL method. The aim was to search for abnormal immunoprofiles of p53 and Rb growth control pathways and to determine the proliferative activity and the apoptotic index of TCL. Abnormal overexpression of p53, p21 and mdm2, in comparison to normal lymph nodes, was found in 12/57, 10/57 and 2/57 cases of TCL, respectively. Abnormal loss of Rb and p16 expression was found in 1/57 and 2/39 cases, respectively, whereas abnormal overexpression of cyclin D1 was not detected in any of the 57 cases. Our data revealed entity-related p53/p21/mdm2 phenotypes. Indeed, most nodal and cutaneous CD30+ anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL) showed concomitant overexpression of p53 and p21 proteins (7/8 cases), and mdm2 was overexpressed in 2 p53-positive nodal ALCL. In contrast, overexpression of p53 was found in 3/17 cases of nodal peripheral TCL unspecified (PTCL-UC) and 2/7 non-ALCL cutaneous pleomorphic TCL. Overexpression of p21 protein was detected in 2/3 p53-positive PTCL-UC and in 1/2 p53-positive non-ALCL cutaneous pleomorphic TCL. Finally, all the remaining 25 cases of TCL did not show p53 and p21 overexpression. Overall, the p53+/p21+ phenotype in 10/57 TCL suggests wild-type p53 capable of inducing p21 expression. The highest apoptotic index (AI) was found in ALCL and a positive correlation between apoptotic index and Ki67 index (p<0.001) was detected. Ki67, cyclin A and cyclin B1 expression was found in all 57 TCL and on the basis of the combined use of these 3 variables, 3 groups of proliferative activity could be determined: a) high in ALCL and T-LBL, b) low in mycosis fungoides (MF) and gammadelta hepatosplenic TCL

  14. Fish oil administration mediates apoptosis of Walker 256 tumor cells by modulation of p53, Bcl-2, caspase-7 and caspase-3 protein expression.

    PubMed

    Borghetti, Gina; Yamaguchi, Adriana Aya; Aikawa, Julia; Yamazaki, Ricardo Key; de Brito, Gleisson Alisson Pereira; Fernandes, Luiz Claudio

    2015-08-25

    Several studies have been shown pro-apoptotic effects of fish oil (FO), rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on cancer cells. Nevertheless, few in vivo experiments have provided data of its ability on apoptosis protein expression in tumor tissue. Thus, in this study we investigate the effect of FO supplementation on apoptosis protein expression in Walker 256 tumor bearing rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to three groups: fed with regular chow (W); fed regular chow supplemented with FO (WFO) or coconut fat (WCO) (1 g/kg body weight/daily). After thirty days, all animals were inoculated subcutaneously with Walker 256 tumor cells. Protein expression was done by western blotting in Walker 256 tumor tissue samples. FO decreased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio (p < 0.05) and increased the p53 (p < 0.05), cleaved caspase-7 (p < 0.05) and cleaved caspase-3 (p < 0.05) in Walker 256 tumor tissue. Our data suggest that the pro-apoptotic effect of FO in Walker 256 tumor is related with specifics cleaved caspases.

  15. The repair capacity of lung cancer cell lines A549 and H1299 depends on HMGB1 expression level and the p53 status.

    PubMed

    Yusein-Myashkova, Shazie; Stoykov, Ivan; Gospodinov, Anastas; Ugrinova, Iva; Pasheva, Evdokia

    2016-07-01

    Elucidation of the cellular components responsive to chemotherapeutic agents as cisplatin rationalizes the strategy for anticancer chemotherapy. The removal of the cisplatin/DNA lesions gives the chance to the cancer cells to survive and compromises the chemotherapeutical treatment. Therefore, the cell repair efficiency is substantial for the clinical outcome. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is considered to be involved in the removal of the lesions as it binds with high affinity to cisplatin/DNA adducts. We demonstrated that overexpression of HMGB1 protein inhibited cis-platinated DNA repair in vivo and the effect strongly depended on its C-terminus. We registered increased levels of DNA repair after HMGB1 silencing only in p53 defective H1299 lung cancer cells. Next, introduction of functional p53 resulted in DNA repair inhibition. H1299 cells overexpressing HMGB1 were significantly sensitized to treatment with cisplatin demonstrating the close relation between the role of HMGB1 in repair of cis-platinated DNA and the efficiency of the anticancer drug, the process being modulated by the C-terminus. In A549 cells with functional p53, the repair of cisplatin/DNA adducts is determined by а complex action of HMGB1 and p53 as an increase of DNA repair capacity was registered only after silencing of both proteins.

  16. Mutant p53 stimulates chemoresistance of pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells to gemcitabine.

    PubMed

    Fiorini, Claudia; Cordani, Marco; Padroni, Chiara; Blandino, Giovanni; Di Agostino, Silvia; Donadelli, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide; PDAC is characterized by poor prognosis, resistance to conventional chemotherapy and high mortality rate. TP53 tumor suppressor gene is frequently mutated in PDAC, resulting in the accumulation of mutated protein with potential gain-of-function (GOF) activities, such as genomic instability, hyperproliferation and chemoresistance. The purpose of this study was to assess the relevance of the p53 status on the PDAC cells response to the standard drug gemcitabine. We also examined the potential therapeutic effect of p53-reactivating molecules to restore the mutant p53 function in GEM treated PDAC cells. We showed that gemcitabine stabilized mutant p53 protein in the nuclei and induced chemoresistance, concurrent with the mutant p53-dependent expression of Cdk1 and CCNB1 genes, resulting in a hyperproliferation effect. Despite the adverse activation of mutant p53 by gemcitabine, simultaneous treatment of PDAC cells with gemcitabine and p53-reactivating molecules (CP-31398 and RITA) reduced growth rate and induced apoptosis. This synergistic effect was observed in both wild-type and mutant p53 cell lines and was absent in p53-null cells. The combination drug treatment induced p53 phosphorylation on Ser15, apoptosis and autophagosome formation. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of autophagy further increased apoptosis stimulated by gemcitabine/CP-31398 treatment. Together, our results show that gemcitabine aberrantly stimulates mutant p53 activity in PDAC cells identifying key processes with potential for therapeutic targeting. Our data also support an anti-tumoral strategy based on inhibition of autophagy combined with p53 activation and standard chemotherapy for both wild-type and mutant p53 expressing PDACs.

  17. Restoring expression of wild-type p53 suppresses tumor growth but does not cause tumor regression in mice with a p53 missense mutation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongxing; Suh, Young-Ah; Fuller, Maren Y.; Jackson, James G.; Xiong, Shunbin; Terzian, Tamara; Quintás-Cardama, Alfonso; Bankson, James A.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Lozano, Guillermina

    2011-01-01

    The transcription factor p53 is a tumor suppressor. As such, the P53 gene is frequently altered in human cancers. However, over 80% of the P53 mutations found in human cancers are missense mutations that lead to expression of mutant proteins that not only lack p53 transcriptional activity but exhibit new functions as well. Recent studies show that restoration of p53 expression leads to tumor regression in mice carrying p53 deletions. However, the therapeutic efficacy of restoring p53 expression in tumors containing p53 missense mutations has not been evaluated. Here we demonstrate that restoring wild-type p53 expression halted tumor growth in mice inheriting a p53R172H missense mutation that is equivalent to a P53 missense mutation detected in approximately 6% of human cancers. However, it did not lead to tumor regression, as was observed in mice lacking p53. We further showed that the dominant-negative effect of the mutant p53 encoded by p53R172H dampened the activity of the restored wild-type p53. We therefore conclude that in a mutant p53 background, p53 restoration has the therapeutic potential to suppress tumor progression. Our findings support using p53 restoration as a strategy to treat human cancers with P53 missense mutations and provide direction for optimizing p53 restoration in cancer therapy. PMID:21285512

  18. Restoring expression of wild-type p53 suppresses tumor growth but does not cause tumor regression in mice with a p53 missense mutation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongxing; Suh, Young-Ah; Fuller, Maren Y; Jackson, James G; Xiong, Shunbin; Terzian, Tamara; Quintás-Cardama, Alfonso; Bankson, James A; El-Naggar, Adel K; Lozano, Guillermina

    2011-03-01

    The transcription factor p53 is a tumor suppressor. As such, the P53 gene is frequently altered in human cancers. However, over 80% of the P53 mutations found in human cancers are missense mutations that lead to expression of mutant proteins that not only lack p53 transcriptional activity but exhibit new functions as well. Recent studies show that restoration of p53 expression leads to tumor regression in mice carrying p53 deletions. However, the therapeutic efficacy of restoring p53 expression in tumors containing p53 missense mutations has not been evaluated. Here we demonstrate that restoring wild-type p53 expression halted tumor growth in mice inheriting a p53(R172H) missense mutation that is equivalent to a P53 missense mutation detected in approximately 6% of human cancers. However, it did not lead to tumor regression, as was observed in mice lacking p53. We further showed that the dominant-negative effect of the mutant p53 encoded by p53(R172H) dampened the activity of the restored wild-type p53. We therefore conclude that in a mutant p53 background, p53 restoration has the therapeutic potential to suppress tumor progression. Our findings support using p53 restoration as a strategy to treat human cancers with P53 missense mutations and provide direction for optimizing p53 restoration in cancer therapy.

  19. Cycloheximide suppresses radiation-induced apoptosis in MOLT-4 cells with Arg72 variant of p53 through translational inhibition of p53 accumulation.

    PubMed

    Ito, Azusa; Morita, Akinori; Ohya, Soichiro; Yamamoto, Shinichi; Enomoto, Atsushi; Ikekita, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    The human T-cell leukemia cell line MOLT-4 is highly radiosensitive, and thus it is often used as a model of p53-dependent radiation-induced apoptosis. Two branches of the p53-mediated apoptotic pathway are reported: "transcription-dependent" and "transcription-independent." However, the relative contribution of each in different types of cells is not yet clearly defined. Moreover, recent studies have shown that the codon 72 polymorphic variants of p53 show different sensitivities to apoptosis signals. The Arg72 variant has a more potent apoptosis-inducing activity in mitochondria than the Pro72 variant. Here, we initially investigated the codon 72 polymorphism of p53 in MOLT-4 cells. Analysis of the p53 exon 4 genomic DNA sequence, which includes codon 72, revealed that MOLT-4 cells are homozygous for the allele encoding Arg72. We next investigated the involvement of the transcription-independent function of p53 using an RNA synthesis inhibitor, actinomycin D (ActD), and a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide (CHX), and found that the apoptosis was suppressed by CHX but not by ActD. We also revealed that the suppressive effect of CHX on apoptosis was specifically mediated by p53, using a p53-knockdown MOLT-4 transfectant. Furthermore, the suppressive effect of CHX on apoptosis was highly correlated with the suppression of p53 protein accumulation, and less correlated with the suppression of p53 target genes expression. These results indicated that p53 transactivation is not necessary to induce apoptosis, and that p53 protein accumulation itself is both necessary and sufficient to do so.

  20. Transduction of Recombinant M3-p53-R12 Protein Enhances Human Leukemia Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Tsung Chi; Zhao, Guan- Hao; Chen, Yao Yun; Chien, Chia-Ying; Huang, Chi-Hung; Lin, Kwang Hui; Chen, Shen Liang

    2016-01-01

    Tumor suppressor protein p53 plays important roles in initiating cell cycle arrest and promoting tumor cell apoptosis. Previous studies have shown that p53 is either mutated or defective in approximately 50% of human cancers; therefore restoring normal p53 activity in cancer cells might be an effective anticancer therapeutic approach. Herein, we designed a chimeric p53 protein flanked with the MyoD N-terminal transcriptional activation domain (amino acids 1-62, called M3) and a poly-arginine (R12) cell penetrating signal in its N-and C-termini respectively. This chimeric protein, M3-p53-R12, can be expressed in E. coli and purified using immobilized metal ion chromatography followed by serial refolding dialysis. The purified M3-p53-R12 protein retains DNA-binding activity and gains of cell penetrating ability. Using MTT assay, we demonstrated that M3-p53-R12 inhibited the growth of K562, Jurkat as well as HL-60 leukemia cells carrying mutant p53 genes. Results from FACS analysis also demonstrated that transduction of M3-p53-R12 protein induced cell cycle arrest of these leukemia cells. Of special note, M3-p53-R12 has no apoptotic effect on normal mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and leukocytes, highlighting its differential effects on normal and tumor cells. To sum up, our results reveal that purified recombinant M3-p53-R12 protein has functions of suppressing the leukemia cell lines' proliferation and launching cell apoptosis, suggesting the feasibility of using M3-p53-R12 protein as an anticancer drug. In the future we will test whether this chimeric protein can preferentially trigger the death of malignant cancer cells without affecting normal cells in animals carrying endogenous or xenographic tumors. PMID:27390612

  1. Imiquimod activates p53-dependent apoptosis in a human basal cell carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shi-Wei; Chang, Shu-Hao; Mu, Szu-Wei; Jiang, Hsin-Yi; Wang, Sin-Ting; Kao, Jun-Kai; Huang, Jau-Ling; Wu, Chun-Ying; Chen, Yi-Ju; Shieh, Jeng-Jer

    2016-03-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 controls DNA repair, cell cycle, apoptosis, autophagy and numerous other cellular processes. Imiquimod (IMQ), a synthetic toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 ligand for the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC), eliminates cancer cells by activating cell-mediated immunity and directly inducing apoptosis and autophagy in cancer cells. To evaluate the role of p53 in IMQ-induced cell death in skin cancer cells. The expression, phosphorylation and subcellular localization of p53 were detected by real-time PCR, luciferase reporter assay, cycloheximide chase analysis, immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Using BCC/KMC1 cell line as a model, the upstream signaling of p53 activation was dissected by over-expression of TLR7/8, the addition of ROS scavenger, ATM/ATR inhibitors and pan-caspase inhibitor. The role of p53 in IMQ-induced apoptosis and autophagy was assessed by genetically silencing p53 and evaluated by a DNA content assay, immunoblotting, LC3 puncta detection and acridine orange staining. IMQ induced p53 mRNA expression and protein accumulation, increased Ser15 phosphorylation, promoted nuclear translocation and up-regulated its target genes in skin cancer cells in a TLR7/8-independent manner. In BCC/KMC1 cells, the induction of p53 by IMQ was achieved through increased ROS production to stimulate the ATM/ATR-Chk1/Chk2 axis but was not mediated by inducing DNA damage. The pharmacological inhibition of ATM/ATR significantly suppressed IMQ-induced p53 activation and apoptosis. Silencing of p53 significantly decreased the IMQ-induced caspase cascade activation and apoptosis but enhanced autophagy. Mutant p53 skin cancer cell lines were more resistant to IMQ-induced apoptosis than wildtype p53 skin cancer cell lines. IMQ induced ROS production to stimulate ATM/ATR pathways and contributed to p53-dependent apoptosis in a skin basal cell carcinoma cell line BCC/KMC1. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology

  2. p53-Regulated Networks of Protein, mRNA, miRNA, and lncRNA Expression Revealed by Integrated Pulsed Stable Isotope Labeling With Amino Acids in Cell Culture (pSILAC) and Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) Analyses*

    PubMed Central

    Hünten, Sabine; Kaller, Markus; Drepper, Friedel; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Bonfert, Thomas; Erhard, Florian; Dueck, Anne; Eichner, Norbert; Friedel, Caroline C.; Meister, Gunter; Zimmer, Ralf; Warscheid, Bettina; Hermeking, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    We determined the effect of p53 activation on de novo protein synthesis using quantitative proteomics (pulsed stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture/pSILAC) in the colorectal cancer cell line SW480. This was combined with mRNA and noncoding RNA expression analyses by next generation sequencing (RNA-, miR-Seq). Furthermore, genome-wide DNA binding of p53 was analyzed by chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP-Seq). Thereby, we identified differentially regulated proteins (542 up, 569 down), mRNAs (1258 up, 415 down), miRNAs (111 up, 95 down) and lncRNAs (270 up, 123 down). Changes in protein and mRNA expression levels showed a positive correlation (r = 0.50, p < 0.0001). In total, we detected 133 direct p53 target genes that were differentially expressed and displayed p53 occupancy in the vicinity of their promoter. More transcriptionally induced genes displayed occupied p53 binding sites (4.3% mRNAs, 7.2% miRNAs, 6.3% lncRNAs, 5.9% proteins) than repressed genes (2.4% mRNAs, 3.2% miRNAs, 0.8% lncRNAs, 1.9% proteins), suggesting indirect mechanisms of repression. Around 50% of the down-regulated proteins displayed seed-matching sequences of p53-induced miRNAs in the corresponding 3′-UTRs. Moreover, proteins repressed by p53 significantly overlapped with those previously shown to be repressed by miR-34a. We confirmed up-regulation of the novel direct p53 target genes LINC01021, MDFI, ST14 and miR-486 and showed that ectopic LINC01021 expression inhibits proliferation in SW480 cells. Furthermore, KLF12, HMGB1 and CIT mRNAs were confirmed as direct targets of the p53-induced miR-34a, miR-205 and miR-486–5p, respectively. In line with the loss of p53 function during tumor progression, elevated expression of KLF12, HMGB1 and CIT was detected in advanced stages of cancer. In conclusion, the integration of multiple omics methods allowed the comprehensive identification of direct and indirect effectors of p53 that provide new insights and leads into the

  3. Nitric oxide-induced p53 accumulation and regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by wild-type p53.

    PubMed Central

    Forrester, K; Ambs, S; Lupold, S E; Kapust, R B; Spillare, E A; Weinberg, W C; Felley-Bosco, E; Wang, X W; Geller, D A; Tzeng, E; Billiar, T R; Harris, C C

    1996-01-01

    The tumor suppressor gene product p53 plays an important role in the cellular response to DNA damage from exogenous chemical and physical mutagens. Therefore, we hypothesized that p53 performs a similar role in response to putative endogenous mutagens, such as nitric oxide (NO). We report here that exposure of human cells to NO generated from an NO donor or from overexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) results in p53 protein accumulation. In addition, expression of wild-type (WT) p53 in a variety of human tumor cell lines, as well as murine fibroblasts, results in down-regulation of NOS2 expression through inhibition of the NOS2 promoter. These data are consistent with the hypothesis of a negative feedback loop in which endogenous NO-induced DNA damage results in WT p53 accumulation and provides a novel mechanism by which p53 safeguards against DNA damage through p53-mediated transrepression of NOS2 gene expression, thus reducing the potential for NO-induced DNA damage. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8637893

  4. p53 causes butein-mediated apoptosis of chronic myeloid leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    WOO, SANG-MI; CHOI, YOUN KYNUG; KIM, AH JEONG; CHO, SUNG-GOOK; KO, SEONG-GYU

    2016-01-01

    Progression of chronic myeloid leukemia, marked by the oncogenic Bcr-Abl mutation, is tightly associated with an alteration of the p53 pathway. It is known that butein extracted from various plants represses cancer growth. Although the anticancer effects of butein are widely accepted, the mechanisms by which butein induces apoptosis of chronic myeloid leukemia cells remains to be elucidated. The present study demonstrated that butein-induced apoptosis was mediated by p53. KBM5 chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells expressing wild-type p53 were more sensitive to butein compared with p53-null K562 CML cells in terms of apoptotic cell death. In addition, butein arrested KBM5 cells at S-phase and altered the expression levels of certain cyclins and the p53-downstream targets, MDM2 and p21. In addition, while butein reduced the protein expression of MDM2 in the KBM5 and K562 cells, it resulted in proteasome-independent MDM2 degradation in p53-expressing KBM5 cells, however, not in p53-null K562 cells. Therefore, the present study suggested that p53 causes the butein-mediated apoptosis of leukemic cells. PMID:26676515

  5. rAd-p53 enhances the sensitivity of human gastric cancer cells to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guang-Xia; Zheng, Li-Hong; Liu, Shi-Yu; He, Xiao-Hua

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate potential antitumor effects of rAd-p53 by determining if it enhanced sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to chemotherapy. METHODS: Three gastric cancer cell lines with distinct levels of differentiation were treated with various doses of rAd-p53 alone, oxaliplatin (OXA) alone, or a combination of both. Cell growth was assessed with an 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3,5-diphenytetrazoliumromide assay and the expression levels of p53, Bax and Bcl-2 were determined by immunohistochemistry. The presence of apoptosis and the expression of caspase-3 were determined using flow cytometry. RESULTS: Treatment with rAd-p53 or OXA alone inhibited gastric cancer cell growth in a time- and dose-dependent manner; moreover, significant synergistic effects were observed when these treatments were combined. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that treatment with rAd-p53 alone, OXA alone or combined treatment led to decreased Bcl-2 expression and increased Bax expression in gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, flow cytometry showed that rAd-p53 alone, OXA alone or combination treatment induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cells, which was accompanied by increased expression of caspase-3. CONCLUSION: rAd-p53 enhances the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to chemotherapy by promoting apoptosis. Thus, our results suggest that p53 gene therapy combined with chemotherapy represents a novel avenue for gastric cancer treatment. PMID:22090785

  6. Negative Regulation of Tumor Suppressor p53 Transcription in Breast Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    suppression. The region -96 to -41 contains the NF-kB and c-myc binding sites, and a newly identified UV-inducible element PE21. Mutations to disrupt NF-kB...binding or c-myc binding to the p53 promoter decreased the basal promoter activity without affecting the OM-mediated suppression, whereas mutation at...of the p53 gene contributes to the change in expression of wildtype p53 during the cell cycle and to the elevated expression of mutated p53 in tumor

  7. Loss of p21{sup Sdi1} expression in senescent cells after DNA damage accompanied with increase of miR-93 expression and reduced p53 interaction with p21{sup Sdi1} gene promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Ok Ran; Lim, In Kyoung

    2011-04-08

    Highlights: {yields} Reduced p21 expression in senescent cells treated with DNA damaging agents. {yields} Increase of [{sup 3}H]thymidine and BrdU incorporations in DNA damaged-senescent cells. {yields} Upregulation of miR-93 expression in senescent cells in response to DSB. {yields} Failure of p53 binding to p21 promoter in senescent cells in response to DSB. {yields} Molecular mechanism of increased cancer development in aged than young individuals. -- Abstract: To answer what is a critical event for higher incidence of tumor development in old than young individuals, primary culture of human diploid fibroblasts were employed and DNA damage was induced by doxorubicin or X-ray irradiation. Response to the damage was different between young and old cells; loss of p21{sup sdi1} expression in spite of p53{sup S15} activation in old cells along with [{sup 3}H]thymidine and BrdU incorporation, but not in young cells. The phenomenon was confirmed by other tissue fibroblasts obtained from different donor ages. Induction of miR-93 expression and reduced p53 binding to p21 gene promoter account for loss of p21{sup sdi1} expression in senescent cells after DNA damage, suggesting a mechanism of in vivo carcinogenesis in aged tissue without repair arrest.

  8. P53 mediates amosite asbestos-induced alveolar epithelial cell mitochondria-regulated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Panduri, Vijayalakshmi; Surapureddi, Sailesh; Soberanes, Saul; Weitzman, Sigmund A; Chandel, Navdeep; Kamp, David W

    2006-04-01

    Asbestos causes pulmonary toxicity in part by generating reactive oxygen species that cause DNA damage. We previously showed that the mitochondria-regulated (intrinsic) death pathway mediates alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) DNA damage and apoptosis. Because p53 regulates the DNA damage response in part by inducing intrinsic cell death, we determined whether p53-dependent transcriptional activity mediates asbestos-induced AEC mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. We show that inhibitors of p53-dependent transcriptional activation (pifithrin and type 16-E6 protein) block asbestos-induced AEC mitochondrial membrane potential change (DeltaPsim), caspase 9 activation, and apoptosis. We demonstrate that asbestos activates p53 promoter activity, mRNA levels, protein expression, and Bax and p53 mitochondrial translocation. Further, pifithrin, E6, phytic acid, or rho(0)-A549 cells (cells incapable of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production) block asbestos-induced p53 activation. Finally, we show that asbestos augments p53 expression in cells at the bronchoalveolar duct junctions of rat lungs and that phytic acid prevents this. These data suggest that p53-dependent transcription pathways mediate asbestos-induced AEC mitochondria-regulated apoptosis. This suggests an important interactive effect between p53 and the mitochondria in the pathogenesis of asbestos-induced pulmonary toxicity that may have broader implications for our understanding of pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer.

  9. Aspirin acetylates wild type and mutant p53 in colon cancer cells: identification of aspirin acetylated sites on recombinant p53.

    PubMed

    Ai, Guoqiang; Dachineni, Rakesh; Kumar, D Ramesh; Marimuthu, Srinivasan; Alfonso, Lloyd F; Bhat, G Jayarama

    2016-05-01

    Aspirin's ability to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines is considered to be an important mechanism for its anti-cancer effects. We previously demonstrated that aspirin acetylated the tumor suppressor protein p53 at lysine 382 in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Here, we extended these observations to human colon cancer cells, HCT 116 harboring wild type p53, and HT-29 containing mutant p53. We demonstrate that aspirin induced acetylation of p53 in both cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. Aspirin-acetylated p53 was localized to the nucleus. In both cell lines, aspirin induced p21(CIP1). Aspirin also acetylated recombinant p53 (rp53) in vitro suggesting that it occurs through a non-enzymatic chemical reaction. Mass spectrometry analysis and immunoblotting identified 10 acetylated lysines on rp53, and molecular modeling showed that all lysines targeted by aspirin are surface exposed. Five of these lysines are localized to the DNA-binding domain, four to the nuclear localization signal domain, and one to the C-terminal regulatory domain. Our results suggest that aspirin's anti-cancer effect may involve acetylation and activation of wild type and mutant p53 and induction of target gene expression. This is the first report attempting to characterize p53 acetylation sites targeted by aspirin.

  10. Lung cancer stem cells, p53 mutations and MDM2.

    PubMed

    Gadepalli, Venkat Sundar; Deb, Swati Palit; Deb, Sumitra; Rao, Raj R

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, advances in cancer research have enabled us to understand the different mechanisms that contribute to the aberrant proliferation of normal cells into abnormal cells that result in tumors. In the pursuit to find cures, researchers have primarily focused on various molecular level changes that are unique to cancerous cells. In humans, about 50 % or more cancers have a mutated tumor suppressor p53 gene thereby resulting in accumulation of p53 protein and losing its function to activate the target genes that regulate cell cycle and apoptosis. Extensive research conducted in murine cancer models with activated p53, loss of p53, or p53 missense mutations have facilitated researchers to understand the role of this key protein. Despite the identification of numerous triggers that causes lung cancer specific cure still remain elusive. One of the primary reasons attributed to this is due to the fact that the tumor tissue is heterogeneous and contains numerous sub-populations of cells. Studies have shown that a specific sub-population of cells termed as cancer stem cells (CSCs) drive the recurrence of cancer in response to standard chemotherapy. These CSCs are mutated cells with core properties similar to those of adult stem cells. They reside in a microenvironment within the tumor tissue that supports their growth and make them less susceptible to drug treatment. These cells possess properties of symmetric self-renewal and migration thus driving tumor formation and metastasis. Therefore, research specifically targeting these cells has gained prominence towards developing new therapeutic agents against cancer. This chapter focuses on lung cancer stem cells, p53 mutations noted in these cells, and importance of MDM2 interactions. Further, research approaches for better understanding of molecular mechanisms that drive CSC function and developing appropriate therapies are discussed.

  11. p53 Dependent Centrosome Clustering Prevents Multipolar Mitosis in Tetraploid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Qiyi; Zhao, Xiaoyu; Huang, Yun; Ma, Tieliang; Zhang, Yingyin; Hou, Heli; Cooke, Howard J.; Yang, Da-Qing; Wu, Mian; Shi, Qinghua

    2011-01-01

    Background p53 abnormality and aneuploidy often coexist in human tumors, and tetraploidy is considered as an intermediate between normal diploidy and aneuploidy. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether and how p53 influences the transformation from tetraploidy to aneuploidy. Principal Findings Live cell imaging was performed to determine the fates and mitotic behaviors of several human and mouse tetraploid cells with different p53 status, and centrosome and spindle immunostaining was used to investigate centrosome behaviors. We found that p53 dominant-negative mutation, point mutation, or knockout led to a 2∼ 33-fold increase of multipolar mitosis in N/TERT1, 3T3 and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), while mitotic entry and cell death were not significantly affected. In p53-/- tetraploid MEFs, the ability of centrosome clustering was compromised, while centrosome inactivation was not affected. Suppression of RhoA/ROCK activity by specific inhibitors in p53-/- tetraploid MEFs enhanced centrosome clustering, decreased multipolar mitosis from 38% to 20% and 16% for RhoA and ROCK, respectively, while expression of constitutively active RhoA in p53+/+ tetraploid 3T3 cells increased the frequency of multipolar mitosis from 15% to 35%. Conclusions p53 could not prevent tetraploid cells entering mitosis or induce tetraploid cell death. However, p53 abnormality impaired centrosome clustering and lead to multipolar mitosis in tetraploid cells by modulating the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. PMID:22076149

  12. N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase inhibits p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and coordinates with p53 to determine sensitivity to alkylating agents.

    PubMed

    Song, Shanshan; Xing, Guichun; Yuan, Lin; Wang, Jian; Wang, Shan; Yin, Yuxin; Tian, Chunyan; He, Fuchu; Zhang, Lingqiang

    2012-08-01

    Alkylating agents induce genome-wide base damage, which is repaired mainly by N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase (MPG). An elevated expression of MPG in certain types of tumor cells confers higher sensitivity to alkylation agents because MPG-induced apurinic/apyrimidic (AP) sites trigger more strand breaks. However, the determinant of drug sensitivity or insensitivity still remains unclear. Here, we report that the p53 status coordinates with MPG to play a pivotal role in such process. MPG expression is positive in breast, lung and colon cancers (38.7%, 43.4% and 25.3%, respectively) but negative in all adjacent normal tissues. MPG directly binds to the tumor suppressor p53 and represses p53 activity in unstressed cells. The overexpression of MPG reduced, whereas depletion of MPG increased, the expression levels of pro-arrest gene downstream of p53 including p21, 14-3-3σ and Gadd45 but not proapoptotic ones. The N-terminal region of MPG was specifically required for the interaction with the DNA binding domain of p53. Upon DNA alkylation stress, in p53 wild-type tumor cells, p53 dissociated from MPG and induced cell growth arrest. Then, AP sites were repaired efficiently, which led to insensitivity to alkylating agents. By contrast, in p53-mutated cells, the AP sites were repaired with low efficacy. To our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence to show that a DNA repair enzyme functions as a selective regulator of p53, and these findings provide new insights into the functional linkage between MPG and p53 in cancer therapy.

  13. N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase inhibits p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and coordinates with p53 to determine sensitivity to alkylating agents

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shanshan; Xing, Guichun; Yuan, Lin; Wang, Jian; Wang, Shan; Yin, Yuxin; Tian, Chunyan; He, Fuchu; Zhang, Lingqiang

    2012-01-01

    Alkylating agents induce genome-wide base damage, which is repaired mainly by N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase (MPG). An elevated expression of MPG in certain types of tumor cells confers higher sensitivity to alkylation agents because MPG-induced apurinic/apyrimidic (AP) sites trigger more strand breaks. However, the determinant of drug sensitivity or insensitivity still remains unclear. Here, we report that the p53 status coordinates with MPG to play a pivotal role in such process. MPG expression is positive in breast, lung and colon cancers (38.7%, 43.4% and 25.3%, respectively) but negative in all adjacent normal tissues. MPG directly binds to the tumor suppressor p53 and represses p53 activity in unstressed cells. The overexpression of MPG reduced, whereas depletion of MPG increased, the expression levels of pro-arrest gene downstream of p53 including p21, 14-3-3σ and Gadd45 but not proapoptotic ones. The N-terminal region of MPG was specifically required for the interaction with the DNA binding domain of p53. Upon DNA alkylation stress, in p53 wild-type tumor cells, p53 dissociated from MPG and induced cell growth arrest. Then, AP sites were repaired efficiently, which led to insensitivity to alkylating agents. By contrast, in p53-mutated cells, the AP sites were repaired with low efficacy. To our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence to show that a DNA repair enzyme functions as a selective regulator of p53, and these findings provide new insights into the functional linkage between MPG and p53 in cancer therapy. PMID:22801474

  14. Microenvironment influence on human colon adenocarcinoma phenotypes and matrix metalloproteinase-2, p53 and β-catenin tumor expressions from identical monoclonal cell tumor in the orthotopic model in athymic nude rats.

    PubMed

    Priolli, Denise Gonçalves; Abrantes, Ana Margarida; Neves, Silvia; Gonçalves, Ana Cristina; Lopes, Camila Oliveira; Martinez, Natalia Peres; Cardinalli, Izilda Aparecida; Ribeiro, Ana Bela Sarmento; Botelho, Maria Filomena

    2014-03-01

    The present study aims to identify differences between left and right colon adenocarcinoma arising from identical clonal cell and to find out if microenvironment has any influence on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), p53 and β-catenin tumor expressions. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Rats (RNU) were submitted to cecostomy to obtain the orthotopic model of right colon tumor (n = 10), while for the left colon model (n = 10), a colon diversion and distal mucous fistula in the descending colon was used. Cultivated human colon adenocarcinoma cells (WiDr) were inoculated in stomas submucosa. Histopathological analysis, real-time reverse transcription-PCR for β-catenin, p53 and MMP2, as well as immunohistochemical analysis for p53 and β-catenin expression were conducted. Central tendency, variance analysis and the Livak delta-delta-CT method were used for statistical analysis, adopting a 5% significance level. RESULTS. All tumors from the left colon exhibited infiltrative ulceration, while in the right colon tumor growth was predominantly exophytic (67%). In the left colon, tumor growth was undifferentiated (100%), while it was moderately differentiated in the right colon (83%). In right colon tumors, MMP2, p53, and β-catenin gene expressions were higher than compared to left colon (p = 4.59354E-05, p = 0.0035179, p = 0.00093798, respectively, for MMP2, p53 and β-catenin). β-catenin and p53 results obtained by real-time polymerase chain reaction were confirmed by immunohistochemistry assay (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001, respectively, for β-catenin and p53). CONCLUSION. Left and right human colon adenocarcinomas developed in animal models have distinct phenotypes even when they have the same clonal origin. Microenvironment has influenced p53, β-catenin, and MMP2 expression in animal models of colon cancer.

  15. BRCA1 Expression is an Important Biomarker for Chemosensitivity: Suppression of BRCA1 Increases the Apoptosis via Up-regulation of p53 and p21 During Cisplatin Treatment in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Horiuchi, Akiko; Wang, Cuiju; Kikuchi, Norihiko; Osada, Ryosuke; Nikaido, Toshio; Konishi, Ikuo

    2006-01-01

    BRCA1 is a tumor suppressor which plays a crucial role in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks, and its abnormality is responsible for hereditary ovarian cancer syndrome. It has recently been reported that reduced expression of BRCA1 is also common in sporadic ovarian carcinoma via its promoter hypermethylation, and that ovarian carcinoma patients negative for BRCA1 expression showed favorable prognosis. To address if BRCA1 expression plays a role in the chemotherapeutic response, we analyzed the effect of BRCA1 suppression on the sensitivity to cisplatin and paclitaxel in ovarian cancer cells. Specific siRNA for BRCA1 gene was transfected into 3 ovarian cancer cell lines with various p53 status. Reduced expression of BRCA1 by transfection of BRCA1-siRNA resulted in a 5.3-fold increase in sensitivity to cisplatin in p53-wild A2780 cells, but not in p53-mutated A2780/CDDP and p53-deleted SKOV3 cells. Regarding the sensitivity to paclitaxel, BRCA1 suppression caused no significant changes in all the 3 cell lines. For ionizing radiation sensitivity, BRCA1 suppression also showed a significant higher sensitivity in A2780 cells. Growth curve and cell cycle analyses showed no significant differences between BRCA1-siRNA-transfected A2780 cells and control cells. However, cisplatin treatment under suppression of BRCA1 showed a significantly increased apoptosis along with up-regulation of p53 and p21 in A2780 cells. Accordingly, reduced expression of BRCA1 enhances the cisplatin sensitivity and apoptosis via up-regulation of p53 and p21, but does not affect the paclitaxel sensitivity. Expression of BRCA1 might be an important biomarker for cisplatin resistance in ovarian carcinoma. PMID:19690636

  16. Expression of p53 in preneoplastic and early neoplastic bronchial lesions.

    PubMed

    Martin, B; Verdebout, J-M; Mascaux, C; Paesmans, M; Rouas, G; Verhest, A; Ninane, V; Sculier, J-P

    2002-01-01

    p53 alteration has been reported to be an early event in bronchial carcinogenesis. Our study purpose was to determine the rate of p53 expression in the various preneoplastic and early neoplastic bronchial lesions obtained by biopsy during fluorescence bronchoscopy and to analyse its association with patients characteristics. Various stages of preneoplastic lesions as well as radio-occult lung cancer were studied in biopsies obtained by fluorescence bronchoscopy. We assessed the expression of p53 by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibody clone DO7. The p53 expression was considered as positive if > or = 1% of cells were positive and the level of positivity was expressed in percentage of positive cells. Fourteen patients were included in each category of preneoplastic lesions. At the threshold of 1% of positive cells p53 expression was observed in 28.5% of the patients with a histologically normal epithelium. This number of positive patients increased with the severity of preneoplastic lesions and reached 100% in the mild dysplasia. The mean rates of p53 positive cells for normal epithelium, hyperplasia, metaplasia, mild and severe dysplasia, carcinoma in situ and invasive radio-occult carcinoma were respectively 0.9, 3.4, 9.1, 20.5, 50.2, 34.7 and 42.5%. There was no statistically significant correlation between p53 expression and patient characteristics such as sex, age, smoking habits and indication for fluorescence bronchoscopy. The alteration of p53 expression in patients with high risk of lung cancer was an early event: this abnormality increased with the severity of the lesions, without significant correlation with patient characteristics.

  17. p53MVA therapy in patients with refractory gastrointestinal malignancies elevates p53-specific CD8+ T cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Hardwick, Nicola R; Carrol, Mary; Kaltcheva, Teodora; Qian, Dajun; Lim, Dean; Leong, Lucille; Chu, Peiguo; Kim, Joseph; Chao, Joseph; Fakih, Marwan; Yen, Yun; Espenschied, Jonathan; Ellenhorn, Joshua D I; Diamond, Don J; Chung, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To conduct a Phase I trial of a Modified Vaccinia Ankara vaccine delivering wild type human p53 (p53MVA) in patients with refractory gastrointestinal cancers. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Three patients were vaccinated with 1.0 × 108 pfu p53MVA followed by nine patients at 5.6 × 108 pfu. Toxicity was classified using the NCI Common Toxicity Criteria and clinical responses were assessed by CT scan. Peripheral blood samples were collected pre- and post-immunization for immunophenotyping, monitoring of p53MVA induced immune response and examination of PD-1 checkpoint inhibition in vitro. RESULTS: p53MVA immunization was well tolerated at both doses, with no adverse events above grade 2. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells showing enhanced recognition of a p53 overlapping peptide library were detectable after the first immunization, particularly in the CD8+ T cell compartment (p=0.03). However in most patients this did not expand further with the second and third immunization. The frequency of PD-1+ T cells detectable in patients PBMC was significantly higher than in healthy controls. Furthermore, the frequency of PD-1+ CD8+ T cells showed an inverse correlation with the peak CD8+ p53 response (p=0.02) and antibody blockade of PD-1 in vitro increased the p53 immune responses detected after the second or third immunizations. Induction of strong T cell and antibody responses to the MVA backbone were also apparent. CONCLUSION: p53MVA was well tolerated and induced robust CD8+ T cell responses. Combination of p53MVA with immune checkpoint inhibition could help sustain immune responses and lead to enhanced clinical benefit. PMID:24987057

  18. p53 protein expression in patients with myelodysplasia treated with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pich, Achille; Godio, Laura; Davico Bonino, Laura

    2017-06-01

    Tumor protein 53 mutations adversely affect the prognosis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS); however, few studies have reported on the prognostic significance of the expression of p53 protein in MDS. The current study investigated p53 immunoreactivity (p53-IR) in bone marrow biopsies (BMBs) obtained at diagnosis from 18 patients (6 females and 12 males; mean age, 50.5 years) with MDS that underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT) to determine the associations between clinical and histopathological data and outcome. There were 5 refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (RCMD) and 13 refractory anemia with excess blasts, type 2 (RAEB-2) cases. p53-IR was assessed as the percentage of hematopoietic cells exhibiting intense nuclear staining. The cut off for positivity was 5% of stained cells. A positive p53-IR was detected in 7 patients (38.9%) and was associated with age (P=0.005) and pattern of BM fibrosis (P=0.03). A positive p53-IR was more frequent in females, in highly cellular BMBs and in RAEB-2 cases. Overall survival (OS) was associated with patients' age (P=0.01), hemoglobin level (P=0.04), type of MDS (P=0.05), degree of BM fibrosis (P=0.006) and number of BM blasts (P=0.05). The OS of patients with negative p53-IR tended to be longer compared with that of patients with positive p53-IR, although this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.1). Despite the limitation of the low number of cases, the present results indicate that a positive p53-IR at diagnosis is associated with clinically more aggressive MDS subtypes and adverse histological prognostic factors, such as BM fibrosis. Therefore, the evaluation of p53 expression of BMBs of patients with MDS may be introduced in the histopathological work-up of the disease.

  19. p53 protein expression in patients with myelodysplasia treated with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pich, Achille; Godio, Laura; Davico Bonino, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Tumor protein 53 mutations adversely affect the prognosis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS); however, few studies have reported on the prognostic significance of the expression of p53 protein in MDS. The current study investigated p53 immunoreactivity (p53-IR) in bone marrow biopsies (BMBs) obtained at diagnosis from 18 patients (6 females and 12 males; mean age, 50.5 years) with MDS that underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT) to determine the associations between clinical and histopathological data and outcome. There were 5 refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (RCMD) and 13 refractory anemia with excess blasts, type 2 (RAEB-2) cases. p53-IR was assessed as the percentage of hematopoietic cells exhibiting intense nuclear staining. The cut off for positivity was 5% of stained cells. A positive p53-IR was detected in 7 patients (38.9%) and was associated with age (P=0.005) and pattern of BM fibrosis (P=0.03). A positive p53-IR was more frequent in females, in highly cellular BMBs and in RAEB-2 cases. Overall survival (OS) was associated with patients' age (P=0.01), hemoglobin level (P=0.04), type of MDS (P=0.05), degree of BM fibrosis (P=0.006) and number of BM blasts (P=0.05). The OS of patients with negative p53-IR tended to be longer compared with that of patients with positive p53-IR, although this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.1). Despite the limitation of the low number of cases, the present results indicate that a positive p53-IR at diagnosis is associated with clinically more aggressive MDS subtypes and adverse histological prognostic factors, such as BM fibrosis. Therefore, the evaluation of p53 expression of BMBs of patients with MDS may be introduced in the histopathological work-up of the disease. PMID:28588781

  20. Immunohistochemical expression of protein p53 in neoplasms of the mammary gland in bitches.

    PubMed

    Rodo, A; Malicka, E

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of protein p53 in correlation with other tumor traits: histological type, tumor grade and proliferative activity. Material for the investigation comprised mammary gland tumours collected from dogs, the patients of veterinary clinics, during surgical procedures, and archival samples. Alltogether 21 adenomas, 31 complex carcinomas, 35 simple carcinomas and 12 solid carcinomas were qualified for further investigation. No protein p53 expression was found in adenomas. Cancers show positive reaction in 32.5%. The highest percent of p53 positive neoplasms was observed in solid carcinomas and neoplasms with the highest degree of histological malignancy. The smallest number showing this expression was observed in adenomas and the highest was characteristic for solid carcinomas. Considering the tumour grading, it was found that an increase in neoplasm malignancy was positively correlated with the number of the cells showing the expression of protein p53. The differences were statistically significant. Statistically significant positive correlations were observed between the proliferative activity and protein p53 expression. Higher accumulation of protein p53 in more malignant neoplasms suggests that mutations of protein p53 can be responsible for higher proliferation in neoplasms with advanced progression of malignancy.

  1. TP53 drives invasion through expression of its Δ133p53β variant

    PubMed Central

    Gadea, Gilles; Arsic, Nikola; Fernandes, Kenneth; Diot, Alexandra; Joruiz, Sébastien M; Abdallah, Samer; Meuray, Valerie; Vinot, Stéphanie; Anguille, Christelle; Remenyi, Judit; Khoury, Marie P; Quinlan, Philip R; Purdie, Colin A; Jordan, Lee B; Fuller-Pace, Frances V; de Toledo, Marion; Cren, Maïlys; Thompson, Alastair M

    2016-01-01

    TP53 is conventionally thought to prevent cancer formation and progression to metastasis, while mutant TP53 has transforming activities. However, in the clinic, TP53 mutation status does not accurately predict cancer progression. Here we report, based on clinical analysis corroborated with experimental data, that the p53 isoform Δ133p53β promotes cancer cell invasion, regardless of TP53 mutation status. Δ133p53β increases risk of cancer recurrence and death in breast cancer patients. Furthermore Δ133p53β is critical to define invasiveness in a panel of breast and colon cell lines, expressing WT or mutant TP53. Endogenous mutant Δ133p53β depletion prevents invasiveness without affecting mutant full-length p53 protein expression. Mechanistically WT and mutant Δ133p53β induces EMT. Our findings provide explanations to 2 long-lasting and important clinical conundrums: how WT TP53 can promote cancer cell invasion and reciprocally why mutant TP53 gene does not systematically induce cancer progression. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14734.001 PMID:27630122

  2. Differential programming of p53-deficient embryonic cells during rotenone block

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in chemical toxicities. The present study used an in vitro model to investigate the differential expression of metabolic pathways during cellular stress in p53- efficient embryonic fibroblasts compared to p53-deficient cells. These c...

  3. Differential programming of p53-deficient embryonic cells during rotenone block

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in chemical toxicities. The present study used an in vitro model to investigate the differential expression of metabolic pathways during cellular stress in p53- efficient embryonic fibroblasts compared to p53-deficient cells. These c...

  4. Teroxirone inhibited growth of human non-small cell lung cancer cells by activating p53

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jing-Ping; Lin, Kai-Han; Liu, Chun-Yen; Yu, Ya-Chu; Wu, Pei-Tsun; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Su, Chun-Li; Chen, Kwun-Min; Fang, Kang

    2013-11-15

    In this work, we demonstrated that the growth of human non-small-cell-lung-cancer cells H460 and A549 cells can be inhibited by low concentrations of an epoxide derivative, teroxirone, in both in vitro and in vivo models. The cytotoxicity was mediated by apoptotic cell death through DNA damage. The onset of ultimate apoptosis is dependent on the status of p53. Teroxirone caused transient elevation of p53 that activates downstream p21 and procaspase-3 cleavage. The presence of caspase-3 inhibitor reverted apoptotic phenotype. Furthermore, we showed the cytotoxicity of teroxirone in H1299 cells with stable ectopic expression of p53, but not those of mutant p53. A siRNA-mediated knockdown of p53 expression attenuated drug sensitivity. The in vivo experiments demonstrated that teroxirone suppressed growth of xenograft tumors in nude mice. Being a potential therapeutic agent by restraining cell growth through apoptotic death at low concentrations, teroxirone provides a feasible perspective in reversing tumorigenic phenotype of human lung cancer cells. - Highlights: • Teroxirone repressed tumor cell growth in nude mice of human lung cancer cells. • The apoptotic cell death reverted by caspase-3 inhibitor is related to p53 status. • Teroxirone provides a good candidate for lung cancer treatment.

  5. Assessment of vascular maturation in non-small cell lung cancer using a novel basement membrane component, LH39: correlation with p53 and angiogenic factor expression.

    PubMed

    Kakolyris, S; Giatromanolaki, A; Koukourakis, M; Leigh, I M; Georgoulias, V; Kanavaros, P; Sivridis, E; Gatter, K C; Harris, A L

    1999-11-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new vessels, has been demonstrated to be a potent and independent indicator of prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer patients. The extent of differentiation of the tumor vessels may affect access of peripheral white cells and egress or invasion of tumor cells. This has not been assessed in relation to tumor microvessel density or other variables and may be a marker of vascular remodeling. LH39 is a monoclonal antibody recognizing an epitope located at the lamina lucida of mature small veins and capillaries but not in newly formed vessels. We examined the ratio of mature:immature vessels in 81 non-small cell lung carcinomas and correlated the vascular maturation index (VMI) to different clinicopathological variables including angiogenesis. Mature vessels were defined by staining with antibodies to both LH39 and to CD31, using double immunohistochemistry, whereas immature vessels stained only for CD31. VMI was defined as the percentage fraction of mature vessels (LH39 positive)/total number of vessels (CD31 positive). The median VMI in lung carcinomas was 46% (range, 15-90%). There was a significant inverse correlation between high VMI and low thymidine phosphorylase expression (P = 0.0001), high VMI and nuclear p53 negativity (P = 0.01), high VMI and low angiogenesis (P = 0.0001), as well as between high VMI and absence of nodal involvement (P = 0.01). Low angiogenesis and high VMI were associated with a significantly better outcome (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.02, respectively). These findings show that there is a wide variation in the differentiation of tumor vasculature in lung carcinomas, and VMI gives new information on the degree of active tumor vascular remodeling independently from microvessel quantitation.

  6. p53 Expression in rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis synovial tissue and association with joint damage

    PubMed Central

    Salvador, G; Sanmarti, R; Garcia-Peiro, A; Rodriguez-Cros, J; Munoz-Gomez, J; Canete, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Overexpression and functional mutations of p53 have been found in the synovial tissue (ST) of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but their clinical significance remains unclear. Objective: To analyse p53 expression in the ST of patients with RA and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and its association with joint damage. Methods: Synovial biopsy specimens were obtained by arthroscopy in 45 patients (27 RA, 18 PsA). Radiographs of hands, feet, and the joint undergoing arthroscopy were obtained to evaluate the presence of erosive disease. Synovial cell populations were analysed using CD4, CD8, CD138, CD20, and CD68 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The p53 protein was determined by immunohistology using DO7 mAb in 34 patients (18 RA, 16 PsA). In 11 patients with early RA, the association between p53 and 1 year progression of radiographic damage was analysed using the Larsen-Scott method. Results: The p53 protein was detected in 16/18 (89%) patients with RA and in 9/16 (56%) patients with PsA, but its expression in RA was significantly higher than in PsA. In RA, p53 expression was significantly associated with erosive disease, and its scores were higher in patients with radiological progression. CD68 expression was also associated with erosions and radiological progression in RA. No association was found between either p53 or CD68 and erosive disease in PsA. Conclusions: These results suggest that p53 ST overexpression and association with joint damage is characteristic of RA rather than PsA, and that p53 ST expression might be a prognostic marker of joint damage in RA. PMID:15647425

  7. Ubiquitin-specific protease 2 decreases p53-dependent apoptosis in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tianling; Biskup, Edyta; Gjerdrum, Lise Mette Rahbek; Niazi, Omid; Ødum, Niels; Gniadecki, Robert

    2016-07-26

    Treatment of advanced cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) is challenging because they are resistant to conventional chemotherapy. USP2 has been shown to promote resistance to chemotherapeutic agents in several cancer models.We show here USP2 is expressed in quiescent and activated T-cells and its expression is 50% lower in CTCL cell lines (MyLa2000, SeAx and Hut-78) than in normal T-cells. USP2 is expressed in neoplastic cells in early, plaque-stage mycosis fungoides (MF) and is downregulated in advanced tumor stages. Upon treatment with psoralen with UVA (PUVA) or a p53 activator, nutlin3a, USP2 expression is significantly increased in MyLa2000 (p53wt/wt), but not in SeAx (p53mut) or Hut-78 (p53-/-). USP2 knockdown decreases MyLa2000 cell viability after PUVA by 50% but not Hut-78, suggesting that the function of USP2 in CTCL cells is p53-dependent. Furthermore, USP2 knockdown results in a decreased Mdm2 expression and upregulation of p53. Taken together, our findings suggest that USP2 stabilizes Mdm2 which antagonizes pro-apoptotic activity of p53 and possibly contributes to therapeutic resistance in CTCL.

  8. Ubiquitin-specific protease 2 decreases p53-dependent apoptosis in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Tianling; Biskup, Edyta; Rahbek Gjerdrum, Lise Mette; Niazi, Omid; Ødum, Niels; Gniadecki, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of advanced cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) is challenging because they are resistant to conventional chemotherapy. USP2 has been shown to promote resistance to chemotherapeutic agents in several cancer models. We show here USP2 is expressed in quiescent and activated T-cells and its expression is 50% lower in CTCL cell lines (MyLa2000, SeAx and Hut-78) than in normal T-cells. USP2 is expressed in neoplastic cells in early, plaque-stage mycosis fungoides (MF) and is downregulated in advanced tumor stages. Upon treatment with psoralen with UVA (PUVA) or a p53 activator, nutlin3a, USP2 expression is significantly increased in MyLa2000 (p53wt/wt), but not in SeAx (p53mut) or Hut-78 (p53−/−). USP2 knockdown decreases MyLa2000 cell viability after PUVA by 50% but not Hut-78, suggesting that the function of USP2 in CTCL cells is p53-dependent. Furthermore, USP2 knockdown results in a decreased Mdm2 expression and upregulation of p53. Taken together, our findings suggest that USP2 stabilizes Mdm2 which antagonizes pro-apoptotic activity of p53 and possibly contributes to therapeutic resistance in CTCL. PMID:27351221

  9. Substrate Stiffness Influences Doxorubicin-Induced p53 Activation via ROCK2 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ebata, Takahiro; Mitsui, Yasumasa; Sugimoto, Wataru; Maeda, Miho; Machiyama, Hiroaki; Harada, Ichiro; Sawada, Yasuhiro; Fujita, Hideaki; Hirata, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    The physical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM), such as stiffness, are involved in the determination of the characteristics of cancer cells, including chemotherapy sensitivity. Resistance to chemotherapy is often linked to dysfunction of tumor suppressor p53; however, it remains elusive whether the ECM microenvironment interferes with p53 activation in cancer cells. Here, we show that, in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, extracellular stiffness influences p53 activation induced by the antitumor drug doxorubicin. Cell growth inhibition by doxorubicin was increased in response to ECM rigidity in a p53-dependent manner. The expression of Rho-associated coiled coil-containing protein kinase (ROCK) 2, which induces the activation of myosin II, was significantly higher when cells were cultured on stiffer ECM substrates. Knockdown of ROCK2 expression or pharmacological inhibition of ROCK decreased doxorubicin-induced p53 activation. Our results suggest that a soft ECM causes downregulation of ROCK2 expression, which drives resistance to chemotherapy by repressing p53 activation. PMID:28191463

  10. Characterization and expression pattern of p53 during spermatogenesis in the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Cong-Cong; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2013-02-01

    p53, as a "Guardian of the Genome", plays an important role in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, DNA repair and inhibition of angiogenesis in different tissues including testis. p53 gene and its protein perform many essential roles for mammalian spermatogenesis. To explore its functions during spermatogenesis in Eriocheir sinensis, we have cloned and sequenced the cDNA (1,218 bp) of p53 from the testis by degenerating primer PCR and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends. The protein alignment of p53 shows the conserved DNA binding domain, dimerization site and zinc binding site consisted of the predicted structures. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that p53 was more closer to Marsupenaeus japonicus and Tigriopus japonicus than other examined species. Tissue expression analysis of p53 mRNA showed p53 was distinctly expressed in accessory sexual gland, muscle, gill, heart, hepatopancreas and testis. In situ hybridization revealed that the p53 mRNA was weakly distributed around the nucleus, but stronger in the invaginated acrosomal tubule at the early stage. At the middle stage, p53 mRNA signal was increased than the early stage and the signal displayed dot-like pattern on the surface of cup-like nucleus. The signal on acrosomal cap is stronger than on the acrosomal tubule, despite acrosomal tubule signal was also distinct. At the late stage, the signal was still mainly located in acrosomal cap and acrosomal tubule. Sporadic signal were found surrounding the cup-like nucleus, but they were very weak. In the mature sperm, the signal was dramatically decreased. Even though the signal on cup-like nucleus and acrosomal tubule were distinct, they were weaker than those in middle stage. Based on these results, we concluded that p53 may play an important role in formation of acrosome biogenesis and nuclear shaping during spermiogenesis of E. sinensis.

  11. p53 enables metabolic fitness and self-renewal of nephron progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuwen; Liu, Jiao; Li, Wencheng; Brown, Aaron; Baddoo, Melody; Li, Marilyn; Carroll, Thomas; Oxburgh, Leif; Feng, Yumei; Saifudeen, Zubaida

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to its classic role in restraining cell proliferation, we demonstrate here a divergent function of p53 in the maintenance of self-renewal of the nephron progenitor pool in the embryonic mouse kidney. Nephron endowment is regulated by progenitor availability and differentiation potential. Conditional deletion of p53 in nephron progenitor cells (Six2Cre+;p53fl/fl) induces progressive depletion of Cited1+/Six2+ self-renewing progenitors and loss of cap mesenchyme (CM) integrity. The Six2(p53-null) CM is disorganized, with interspersed stromal cells and an absence of a distinct CM-epithelia and CM-stroma interface. Impaired cell adhesion and epithelialization are indicated by decreased E-cadherin and NCAM expression and by ineffective differentiation in response to Wnt induction. The Six2Cre+;p53fl/fl cap has 30% fewer Six2(GFP+) cells. Apoptotic index is unchanged, whereas proliferation index is significantly reduced in accordance with cell cycle analysis showing disproportionately fewer Six2Cre+;p53fl/fl cells in the S and G2/M phases compared with Six2Cre+;p53+/+ cells. Mutant kidneys are hypoplastic with fewer generations of nascent nephrons. A significant increase in mean arterial pressure is observed in early adulthood in both germline and conditional Six2(p53-null) mice, linking p53-mediated defects in kidney development to hypertension. RNA-Seq analyses of FACS-isolated wild-type and Six2(GFP+) CM cells revealed that the top downregulated genes in Six2Cre+;p53fl/fl CM belong to glucose metabolism and adhesion and/or migration pathways. Mutant cells exhibit a ∼50% decrease in ATP levels and a 30% decrease in levels of reactive oxygen species, indicating energy metabolism dysfunction. In summary, our data indicate a novel role for p53 in enabling the metabolic fitness and self-renewal of nephron progenitors. PMID:25804735

  12. Lack of p53 Affects the Expression of Several Brain Mitochondrial Proteins: Insights from Proteomics into Important Pathways Regulated by p53

    PubMed Central

    Fiorini, Ada; Sultana, Rukhsana; Barone, Eugenio; Cenini, Giovanna; Perluigi, Marzia; Mancuso, Cesare; Cai, Jian; Klein, Jon B.; St. Clair, Daret; Butterfield, D. Allan

    2012-01-01

    The tumor suppressor protein p53 has been described “as the guardian of the genome” for its crucial role in regulating the transcription of numerous genes responsible for cells cycle arrest, senescence, or apoptosis in response to various stress signals. Although p53 promotes longevity by decreasing the risk of cancer through activation of apoptosis or cellular senescence, several findings suggest that an increase of its activity may have deleterious effects leading to selected aspects of the aging phenotype and neurodegenerative diseases. There is the link between p53 and oxidative stress, the latter a crucial factor that contributes to neurodegenerative processes like Alzheimer disease (AD). In the present study, using a proteomics approach, we analyzed the impact of lack of p53 on the expression of several brain mitochondrial proteins involved in different pathways, and how lack of p53 may present a target to restore neuronal impairments. Our investigation on isolated brain mitochondria from p53(−/−) mice also provides a better understanding of the p53-mitochondria relationship and its involvement in the development of many diseases. PMID:23209608

  13. The presence of carbon nanostructures in bakery products induces metabolic stress in human mesenchymal stem cells through CYP1A and p53 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Al-Hadi, Ahmed M; Periasamy, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan; Athinarayanan, Jegan; Alshatwi, Ali A

    2016-01-01

    Ingredients commonly present in processed foods are excellent substrates for chemical reactions during modern thermal cooking or processing, which could possibly result in deteriorative carbonization changes mediated by a variety of thermal reactions. Spontaneous self-assembling complexation or polymerization of partially combusted lipids, proteins, and other food macromolecules with synthetic food additives during high temperature food processing or baking (200-250 °C) would result in the formation of carbon nanostructures (CNs). These unknown nanostructures may produce adverse physiological effects or potential health risks. The present work aimed to identify and characterize the nanostructures from the crusts of bread. Furthermore, a toxicological risk assessment of these nanostructures was conducted using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) as a model for cellular uptake and metabolic oxidative stress, with special reference to induced adipogenesis. CNs isolated from bread crusts were characterized using transmission electron microscopy. The in vitro risk assessment of the CNs was carried out in hMSCs using an MTT assay, cell morphological assessment, a reactive oxygen species assay, a mitochondrial trans-membrane potential assay, cell cycle progression assessment and gene expression analysis. Our results revealed that bread crusts contain CNs, which may form during the bread-making process. The in vitro results indicate that carbon nanostructures have moderately toxic effects in the hMSCs at a high dose (400 μg/mL). The mitochondrial trans-membrane potentials and intracellular ROS levels of the hMSCs were altered at this dose. The levels of the mRNA transcripts of metabolic stress-responsive genes such as CAT, GSR, GSTA4, CYP1A and p53 were significantly altered in response to CNs.

  14. p53 expression predicts progression and poor survival in T1 bladder tumours.

    PubMed

    Llopis, J; Alcaraz, A; Ribal, M J; Solé, M; Ventura, P J; Barranco, M A; Rodriguez, A; Corral, J M; Carretero, P

    2000-06-01

    Histological grade (G) is the only parameter proved to have prognostic value for progression in T1 transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder, although it is considered inaccurate to make clinical decisions on individuals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic relevance of p53 expression in T1 TCC of the bladder. Clinical records of 207 patients with T1 TCC of the bladder were reviewed for clinical parameters reported to influence the evolution of superficial bladder cancer. Among these 207 patients, 40 developed muscle-invasive disease (20 G2 and 20 G3). A retrospective case-control study was then carried out comparing the latter 40 tumours with 40 control tumours matched by grade, sex, age, number and size of the tumours, chemical exposure and presence of carcinoma in situ. p53 immunostaining with monoclonal antibody was performed in these two groups. Histological grade was the only clinical parameter that influenced evolution. p53 expression correlated with tumour progression, since it was observed in 21 out of 24 p53-positive tumours and in only 20 of 56 p53-negative tumours (p<0.0001), showing a specificity of 93. 5% and a sensitivity of 53%. p53 expression correlated as well with patient survival, being 39% in patients with p53-positive tumours and 80% in patients with p53-negative tumours at 60 months (p<0. 0001). p53 protein expression has prognostic value for survival and progression in T1 bladder tumours and can be used for early detection of poor-prognosis T1 bladder tumours.

  15. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields induce apoptosis in p53-wildtype and p53-null HCT116 colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hall, Emily H; Schoenbach, Karl H; Beebe, Stephen J

    2007-09-01

    Non-ionizing radiation produced by nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) is an alternative to ionizing radiation for cancer treatment. NsPEFs are high power, low energy (non-thermal) pulses that, unlike plasma membrane electroporation, modulate intracellular structures and functions. To determine functions for p53 in nsPEF-induced apoptosis, HCT116p53(+/+) and HCT116p53(-/-) colon carcinoma cells were exposed to multiple pulses of 60 kV/cm with either 60 ns or 300 ns durations and analyzed for apoptotic markers. Several apoptosis markers were observed including cell shrinkage and increased percentages of cells positive for cytochrome c, active caspases, fragmented DNA, and Bax, but not Bcl-2. Unlike nsPEF-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells (Beebe et al. 2003a) active caspases were observed before increases in cytochrome c, which occurred in the presence and absence of Bax. Cell shrinkage occurred only in cells with increased levels of Bax or cytochrome c. NsPEFs induced apoptosis equally in HCT116p53(+/+) and HCT116p53(-/-) cells. These results demonstrate that non-ionizing radiation produced by nsPEFs can act as a non-ligand agonist with therapeutic potential to induce apoptosis utilizing mitochondrial-independent mechanisms in HCT116 cells that lead to caspase activation and cell death in the presence or absence of p-53 and Bax.

  16. Cadmium induces p53-dependent apoptosis in human prostate epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Aimola, Pierpaolo; Carmignani, Marco; Volpe, Anna Rita; Di Benedetto, Altomare; Claudio, Luigi; Waalkes, Michael P; van Bokhoven, Adrie; Tokar, Erik J; Claudio, Pier Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium, a widespread toxic pollutant of occupational and environmental concern, is a known human carcinogen. The prostate is a potential target for cadmium carcinogenesis, although the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Furthermore, cadmium may induce cell death by apoptosis in various cell types, and it has been hypothesized that a key factor in cadmium-induced malignant transformation is acquisition of apoptotic resistance. We investigated the in vitro effects produced by cadmium exposure in normal or tumor cells derived from human prostate epithelium, including RWPE-1 and its cadmium-transformed derivative CTPE, the primary adenocarcinoma 22Rv1 and CWR-R1 cells and LNCaP, PC-3 and DU145 metastatic cancer cell lines. Cells were treated for 24 hours with different concentrations of CdCl(2) and apoptosis, cell cycle distribution and expression of tumor suppressor proteins were analyzed. Subsequently, cellular response to cadmium was evaluated after siRNA-mediated p53 silencing in wild type p53-expressing RWPE-1 and LNCaP cells, and after adenoviral p53 overexpression in p53-deficient DU145 and PC-3 cell lines. The cell lines exhibited different sensitivity to cadmium, and 24-hour exposure to different CdCl(2) concentrations induced dose- and cell type-dependent apoptotic response and inhibition of cell proliferation that correlated with accumulation of functional p53 and overexpression of p21 in wild type p53-expressing cell lines. On the other hand, p53 silencing was able to suppress cadmium-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that cadmium can induce p53-dependent apoptosis in human prostate epithelial cells and suggest p53 mutation as a possible contributing factor for the acquisition of apoptotic resistance in cadmium prostatic carcinogenesis.

  17. Cadmium Induces p53-Dependent Apoptosis in Human Prostate Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aimola, Pierpaolo; Carmignani, Marco; Volpe, Anna Rita; Di Benedetto, Altomare; Claudio, Luigi; Waalkes, Michael P.; van Bokhoven, Adrie; Tokar, Erik J.; Claudio, Pier Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium, a widespread toxic pollutant of occupational and environmental concern, is a known human carcinogen. The prostate is a potential target for cadmium carcinogenesis, although the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Furthermore, cadmium may induce cell death by apoptosis in various cell types, and it has been hypothesized that a key factor in cadmium-induced malignant transformation is acquisition of apoptotic resistance. We investigated the in vitro effects produced by cadmium exposure in normal or tumor cells derived from human prostate epithelium, including RWPE-1 and its cadmium-transformed derivative CTPE, the primary adenocarcinoma 22Rv1 and CWR-R1 cells and LNCaP, PC-3 and DU145 metastatic cancer cell lines. Cells were treated for 24 hours with different concentrations of CdCl2 and apoptosis, cell cycle distribution and expression of tumor suppressor proteins were analyzed. Subsequently, cellular response to cadmium was evaluated after siRNA-mediated p53 silencing in wild type p53-expressing RWPE-1 and LNCaP cells, and after adenoviral p53 overexpression in p53-deficient DU145 and PC-3 cell lines. The cell lines exhibited different sensitivity to cadmium, and 24-hour exposure to different CdCl2 concentrations induced dose- and cell type-dependent apoptotic response and inhibition of cell proliferation that correlated with accumulation of functional p53 and overexpression of p21 in wild type p53-expressing cell lines. On the other hand, p53 silencing was able to suppress cadmium-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that cadmium can induce p53-dependent apoptosis in human prostate epithelial cells and suggest p53 mutation as a possible contributing factor for the acquisition of apoptotic resistance in cadmium prostatic carcinogenesis. PMID:22448262

  18. Down-regulation of dihydrofolate reductase inhibits the growth of endothelial EA.hy926 cell through induction of G1 cell cycle arrest via up-regulating p53 and p21(waf1/cip1) expression.

    PubMed

    Fei, Zhewei; Gao, Yong; Qiu, Mingke; Qi, Xianqin; Dai, Yuxin; Wang, Shuqing; Quan, Zhiwei; Liu, Yingbin; Ou, Jingmin

    2016-03-01

    Folic acid supplementation may meliorate cardiovascular disease risk by improving vascular endothelial structure and function. However, the underlying mechanisms are still lack of a global understanding. To be used, folic acid must be converted to 7,8-dihydrofolate by dihydrofolate reductase to generate one-carbon derivatives serving as important cellular cofactors in the synthesis of nucleotides and amino acids required for cell growth. Therefore, this study explored the effect of dihydrofolate reductase knockdown on endothelial EA.hy926 cell growth and the mechanism involved. We found that down-regulation of dihydrofolate reductase inhibited EA.hy926 cell proliferation, and induced G1 phase arrest. Meanwhile, the expression of regulators necessary for G1/S phase transition, such as cyclin-dependent kinases CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6, were remarkably down-regulated; by contrast, the cell cycle inhibitors p21(waf/cip1), p27(Kip1) and p53 were significantly up-regulated after dihydrofolate reductase knockdown. Furthermore, supplementation of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to the dihydrofolate reductase knockdown cells could weaken the inhibitory effect of dihydrofolate reductase knockdown on cell proliferation, simultaneously, inducing the expression of p53 and p21(waf/cip1) falling back moderately. Our findings suggest that attenuating dihydrofolate reductase may cause imbalanced expression of cell cycle regulators, especially up-regulation of p53-p21(waf/cip1) pathway, leading to G1 cell cycle arrest, thereby inhibiting the growth of endothelial EA.hy926 cells.

  19. Effect of topical tretinoin, chemical peeling and dermabrasion on p53 expression in facial skin.

    PubMed

    El-Domyati, Moetaz M; Attia, Sameh K; Saleh, Fatma Y; Ahmad, Hesham M; Gasparro, Frances P; Uitto, Jouni J

    2003-01-01

    The tumour suppressor protein p53 is a phosphoprotein that is activated by DNA damage. It is involved in the decision whether the cells should stop replication and proceed to repair their DNA, or to die by apoptosis. In the present study, we evaluate the effect of some treatment modalities on the expression of p53 in facial skin. Biopsy specimens were obtained from the facial skin of 20 patients before and after treatment using topical tretinoin (11 cases), TCA chemical peeling (5 cases) and dermabrasion (4 cases). Biopsy specimens were also obtained from 12 control subjects representing the same age groups of the patients. Topical tretinoin therapy was found to induce a significant decrease in the expression of p53 up to 6 months of therapy followed by a significant increase after 10 months of therapy. On the contrary, superficial TCA peeling did not induce any statistically significant change in the expression of p53. On the other hand dermabrasion was found to induce a significant decrease in the level of expression of p53 in biopsies obtained after complete re-epithelialization followed by a significant increase. These changes in the expression of p53 may play a role in mediating the effects of such treatment modalities on the epidermis, as well as prevention of actinic neoplasia by adjusting any disturbance in the proliferation/apoptosis balance observed in photoaged facial skin.

  20. [Prognostic and predictive value of koilocytosis, expression of e6 hpv types 16/18, p16ink4a, p53 in locally advanced squamous cell carcinomas of oral cavity and oropharynx, associated with human papillomavirus].

    PubMed

    Riaboshapka, A N

    2014-11-01

    To determine the predictive and prognostic value of koilocytosis, expression of E6 HPV types 16/18, p16INK4a, p53 in patients with locally advanced HPV-associated squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity and oropharynx. In biopsy specimens of squamous cell carcinomas of oral cavity and oropharynx from 60 patients performed koylocytes count, immunohistochemical detection of HPV 16/18 types E6 protein, proteins p16INK4a and p53. Koilocytosis was detected in 50 patients (83.3%); in all 60 patients (100%) were simultaneous expression of p16INK4a and E6 HPV types 16/18; p53 expression was found in 37 patients (61.7%). After combined treatment (induction chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy) stable disease (SD) was detected in 11 patients (18.3%), partial response (PR) - in 25 patients (41.7%), complete response (CR) - in 24 patients (40.0%). There were no cases of disease progression. Treatment effect correlated with expression of p16INK4a (ρ = 0.3, p = 0.024) and expression of p53 (ρ = - 0.3, p = 0.019). Patients with a low expression of p16INK4a (2 points) and high expression of p53 (4 "+") had a high level of SD and had no CR. For all patients, the median of overall survival (OS) was 17 months, 1-year cumulative survival rate was 66.7%, 2-year cumulative survival rate - 35.0%. Median of overall survival was correlated with koilocytosis (ρ=0.5, p<0,001) and expression of E6 HPV types 16/18 (ρ=0.9, p<0.001), p16INK4a (ρ=0.9, p=0.037), p53 (ρ=-0.9; p<0.001). Patients with low expression of p53 (0 and 1 "+") had cumulative 1-year survival rates 87% and 90%, respectively (p<0.001), 2-year survival rates - 52% and 80%, respectively (p=0.015). In the Cox proportional hazards model the significant prognostic factors were prevalence of primary tumor (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3 - 3.5, p=0.003) and p53 expression (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1=1.7, p=0.016). High expression of p16INK4a associated with a high effect of combined treatment, high expression of a p53 - with low effect of

  1. Zn(II)-curc targets p53 in thyroid cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    GARUFI, ALESSIA; D'ORAZI, VALERIO; CRISPINI, ALESSANDRA; D'ORAZI, GABRIELLA

    2015-01-01

    TP53 mutation is a common event in many cancers, including thyroid carcinoma. Defective p53 activity promotes cancer resistance to therapies and a more malignant phenotype, acquiring oncogenic functions. Rescuing the function of mutant p53 (mutp53) protein is an attractive anticancer therapeutic strategy. Zn(II)-curc is a novel small molecule that has been shown to target mutp53 protein in several cancer cells, but its effect in thyroid cancer cells remains unclear. Here, we investigated whether Zn(II)-curc could affect p53 in thyroid cancer cells with both p53 mutation (R273H) and wild-type p53. Zn(II)-curc induced mutp53H273 downregulation and reactivation of wild-type functions, such as binding to canonical target promoters and target gene transactivation. This latter effect was similar to that induced by PRIMA-1. In addition, Zn(II)-curc triggered p53 target gene expression in wild-type p53-carrying cells. In combination treatments, Zn(II)-curc enhanced the antitumor activity of chemotherapeutic drugs, in both mutant and wild-type-carrying cancer cells. Taken together, our data indicate that Zn(II)-curc promotes the reactivation of p53 in thyroid cancer cells, providing in vitro evidence for a potential therapeutic approach in thyroid cancers. PMID:26314369

  2. Clinical effects of p53 overexpression in squamous cell carcinoma of the sinonasal tract

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaowei; Lv, Wei; Qi, Fang; Gao, Zhiqiang; Yang, Hua; Wang, Weiqing; Gao, Yali

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The level of p53 protein expression in sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SNSCC) has been estimated, but the results remain inconsistent and the point of consensus has not been reached. This study was first determined to evaluate the clinical effects of p53 expression in SCC of the sinonasal tract. Methods: According to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement criteria, the potential literature was searched from diverse databases. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the strength of association between p53 expression and SNSCC. Results: Final 17 eligible studies were included in a total of 258 cases and 748 controls. The result of p53 expression was shown to be notably higher in SNSCC than in benign sinonasal papillomas and normal sinonasal mucosa (OR = 26.93, P < 0.001; OR = 39.79, P < 0.001; respectively). Subgroup analyses of ethnicity revealed that p53 expression had significant association with SNSCC in Asian and Caucasian populations in cancer versus benign sinonasal papillomas or normal sinonasal mucosa. The expression of p53 was notably higher in moderately or poorly differentiated SNSCC than in well-differentiated SNSCC (OR = 3.51, P = 0.021), while p53 expression was not associated with histological type. Conclusion: The results suggested that p53 overexpression may be correlated with the carcinogenesis and progression of SNSCC. The p53 gene may become a novel drug target of SNSCC. Additional studies on the correlation of p53 expression with clinicopathological features are needed. PMID:28328848

  3. Proposed megakaryocytic regulon of p53: the genes engaged to control cell cycle and apoptosis during megakaryocytic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Apostolidis, Pani A; Lindsey, Stephan; Miller, William M; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2012-06-15

    During endomitosis, megakaryocytes undergo several rounds of DNA synthesis without division leading to polyploidization. In primary megakaryocytes and in the megakaryocytic cell line CHRF, loss or knock-down of p53 enhances cell cycling and inhibits apoptosis, leading to increased polyploidization. To support the hypothesis that p53 suppresses megakaryocytic polyploidization, we show that stable expression of wild-type p53 in K562 cells (a p53-null cell line) attenuates the cells' ability to undergo polyploidization during megakaryocytic differentiation due to diminished DNA synthesis and greater apoptosis. This suggested that p53's effects during megakaryopoiesis are mediated through cell cycle- and apoptosis-related target genes, possibly by arresting DNA synthesis and promoting apoptosis. To identify candidate genes through which p53 mediates these effects, gene expression was compared between p53 knock-down (p53-KD) and control CHRF cells induced to undergo terminal megakaryocytic differentiation using microarray analysis. Among substantially downregulated p53 targets in p53-KD megakaryocytes were cell cycle regulators CDKN1A (p21) and PLK2, proapoptotic FAS, TNFRSF10B, CASP8, NOTCH1, TP53INP1, TP53I3, DRAM1, ZMAT3 and PHLDA3, DNA-damage-related RRM2B and SESN1, and actin component ACTA2, while antiapoptotic CKS1B, BCL2, GTSE1, and p53 family member TP63 were upregulated in p53-KD cells. Additionally, a number of cell cycle-related, proapoptotic, and cytoskeleton-related genes with known functions in megakaryocytes but not known to carry p53-responsive elements were differentially expressed between p53-KD and control CHRF cells. Our data support a model whereby p53 expression during megakaryopoiesis serves to control polyploidization and the transition from endomitosis to apoptosis by impeding cell cycling and promoting apoptosis. Furthermore, we identify a putative p53 regulon that is proposed to orchestrate these effects.

  4. LYG-202 inhibits the proliferation of human colorectal carcinoma HCT-116 cells through induction of G1/S cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via p53 and p21(WAF1/Cip1) expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Dai, Qinsheng; Lu, Na; Wei, Libin; Ha, Jun; Rong, Jingjing; Mu, Rong; You, Qidong; Li, Zhiyu; Guo, Qinglong

    2011-06-01

    We recently established that LYG-202, a new flavonoid with a piperazine substitution, exerts an anti-tumor effect in vivo and in vitro. In the present study, we demonstrate that LYG-202 induces G1/S phase arrest and apoptosis in human colorectal carcinoma HCT-116 cells. Data showed that the blockade of the cell cycle was associated with increased p21(WAF1/Cip1) and Rb levels and reduced expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, and CDK4. Moreover, PARP cleavage, activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9, and an increased ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 were detected in LYG-202-induced apoptosis. Additionally, activation of p53 resulted in the up-regulation of its downstream targets PUMA and p21(WAF1/Cip1), as well as the down-regulation of its negative regulator MDM2, suggesting that the p53 pathway may play a crucial role in LYG-202-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of p53 attenuated the G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by LYG-202, as the effects of LYG-202 on up-regulation of p21(WAF1/Cip1) and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and pro-caspase-3 were partly inhibited in p53 siRNA transfected cells compared with control siRNA transfected cells. Collectively, these data indicate that LYG-202 exerts its anti-tumor potency by activating the p53-p21 pathway for G1/S cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells.

  5. c-Abl inhibits breast cancer tumorigenesis through reactivation of p53-mediated p21 expression

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Cheryl L.; Gilmore, Hannah L.; Chang, Jenny C.; Keri, Ruth A.; Schiemann, William P.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that constitutive c-Abl activity (CST-Abl) abrogates the tumorigenicity of triple-negative breast cancer cells through the combined actions of two cellular events: downregulated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and upregulated p21Waf1/Cip1 expression. We now find decreased c-Abl expression to be significantly associated with diminished relapse-fee survival in breast cancer patients, particularly those exhibiting invasive and basal phenotypes. Moreover, CST-Abl expression enabled 4T1 cells to persist innocuously in the mammary glands of mice, doing so by exhausting their supply of cancer stem cells. Restoring MMP-9 expression and activity in CST-Abl-expressing 4T1 cells failed to rescue their malignant phenotypes; however, rendering these same cells deficient in p21 expression not only delayed their acquisition of senescent phenotypes, but also partially restored their tumorigenicity in mice. Although 4T1 cells lacked detectable expression of p53, those engineered to express CST-Abl exhibited robust production and secretion of TGF-β1 that engendered the reactivated expression of p53. Mechanistically, TGF-β-mediated p53 expression transpired through the combined actions of Smad1/5/8 and Smad2, leading to the dramatic upregulation of p21 and its stimulation of TNBC senescence. Collectively, we identified a novel c-Abl:p53:p21 signaling axis that functions as a powerful suppressor of mammary tumorigenesis and metastatic progression. PMID:27626309

  6. p53 is important for the anti-proliferative effect of ibuprofen in colon carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, Astrid; Schiffmann, Susanne; Birod, Kerstin; Maier, Thorsten J.; Wobst, Ivonne; Geisslinger, Gerd

    2008-01-25

    S-ibuprofen which inhibits the cyclooxygenase-1/-2 and R-ibuprofen which shows no COX-inhibition at therapeutic concentrations have anti-carcinogenic effects in human colon cancer cells; however, the molecular mechanisms for these effects are still unknown. Using HCT-116 colon carcinoma cell lines, expressing either the wild-type form of p53 (HCT-116 p53{sup wt}) or being p(HCT-116 p53{sup -/-}), we demonstrated that both induction of a cell cycle block and apoptosis after S- and R-ibuprofen treatment is in part dependent on p53. Also in the in vivo nude mice model HCT-116 p53{sup -/-} xenografts were less sensitive for S- and R-ibuprofen treatment than HCT-116 p53{sup wt} cells. Furthermore, results indicate that induction of apoptosis in HCT-116 p53{sup wt} cells after ibuprofen treatment is in part dependent on a signalling pathway including the neutrophin receptor p75{sup NTR}, p53 and Bax.

  7. p53 inhibits the upregulation of sirtuin 1 expression induced by c-Myc.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fang; Liu, Lu; Lei, Yonghong; Tang, Peifu

    2017-10-01

    Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), a conserved NAD(+) dependent deacetylase, is a mediator of life span by calorie restriction. However, Sirt1 may paradoxically increase the risk of cancer. Accordingly, the expression level of Sirt1 is selectively elevated in numerous types of cancer cell; however, the mechanisms underlying the differential regulation remain largely unknown. The present study demonstrated that oncoprotein c-Myc was a direct regulator of Sirt1, which accounts for the upregulation of Sirt1 expression only in the cells without functional p53. In p53 deficient cells, the overexpression of c-Myc increased Sirt1 mRNA and protein expression levels as well as its promoter activity, whereas the inhibitor of c-Myc, 10058-F4, induced decreased Sirt1 basal mRNA and protein expression levels. Deletion/mutation mapping analyses revealed that c-Myc bound to the conserved E-box[-189 to -183 base pair (bp)] of the Sirt1 promoter. In addition, p53 and c-Myc shared at least response element and the presence of p53 may block the binding of c-Myc to the Sirt1 promoter, thus inhibit the c-Myc mediated upregulation of Sirt1 promoter activity. The present study indicated that the expression level of Sirt1 was tightly regulated by oncoprotein c-Myc and tumor suppressor p53, which aids an improved understanding of its expression regulation and tumor promoter role in certain conditions.

  8. Non-Canonical Cell Death Induced by p53

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Atul; Iwakuma, Tomoo

    2016-01-01

    Programmed cell death is a vital biological process for multicellular organisms to maintain cellular homeostasis, which is regulated in a complex manner. Over the past several years, apart from apoptosis, which is the principal mechanism of caspase-dependent cell death, research on non-apoptotic forms of programmed cell death has gained momentum. p53 is a well characterized tumor suppressor that controls cell proliferation and apoptosis and has also been linked to non-apoptotic, non-canonical cell death mechanisms. p53 impacts these non-canonical forms of cell death through transcriptional regulation of its downstream targets, as well as direct interactions with key players involved in these mechanisms, in a cell type- or tissue context-dependent manner. In this review article, we summarize and discuss the involvement of p53 in several non-canonical modes of cell death, including caspase-independent apoptosis (CIA), ferroptosis, necroptosis, autophagic cell death, mitotic catastrophe, paraptosis, and pyroptosis, as well as its role in efferocytosis which is the process of clearing dead or dying cells. PMID:27941671

  9. Non-Canonical Cell Death Induced by p53.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Atul; Iwakuma, Tomoo

    2016-12-09

    Programmed cell death is a vital biological process for multicellular organisms to maintain cellular homeostasis, which is regulated in a complex manner. Over the past several years, apart from apoptosis, which is the principal mechanism of caspase-dependent cell death, research on non-apoptotic forms of programmed cell death has gained momentum. p53 is a well characterized tumor suppressor that controls cell proliferation and apoptosis and has also been linked to non-apoptotic, non-canonical cell death mechanisms. p53 impacts these non-canonical forms of cell death through transcriptional regulation of its downstream targets, as well as direct interactions with key players involved in these mechanisms, in a cell type- or tissue context-dependent manner. In this review article, we summarize and discuss the involvement of p53 in several non-canonical modes of cell death, including caspase-independent apoptosis (CIA), ferroptosis, necroptosis, autophagic cell death, mitotic catastrophe, paraptosis, and pyroptosis, as well as its role in efferocytosis which is the process of clearing dead or dying cells.

  10. [Expression of protein p53 in workers occupationally exposed to benzidine and bladder cancer patients.].

    PubMed

    Shen, Chun-lin; Xiang, Cui-qin; Zhang, Yun-ying; Qin, Yi-qiu; Liu, Cha-qin; Chen, Ji-gang; Zhang, Sheng-nian

    2005-02-01

    To study expression of mutant p53 protein in workers occupationally exposed to benzidine and bladder cancer patients. Mutant p53 protein in serum from the workers occupationally exposed to benzidine and bladder cancer patients were determined with Immuno-PCR, while exfoliated urothelial cells in the urine samples were classified with Papanicolau grading. Positive rate of mutant p53 protein increased with the exposed intensity index in workers occupationally exposed to benzidine. The positive rate of mutant p53 protein in bladder cancer patients (83.3%) was significantly higher than that in the group 1 of exposed intensity index. The average scanning integrals of PCR amplified band in the group of bladder cancer patients and group 2 of exposed intensity index were both higher than that in the group 1 significantly. Workers in the groups of different exposed intensity indices were further stratified according to Papanicolau grades. In the group 2 of exposed intensity index, the average scanning integrals of PCR amplified band in the stratum of Papanicolau grade II and III were significantly higher than that in the strata of Papanicolau grade I. And in the group 3 of exposed intensity index, the positive rate of mutant p53 protein in the strata of Papanicolau grade III was higher than that in the strata of Papanicolau grade I significantly. The increase of exposed intensity may not only result in the positive rate of mutant p53 protein, but also the quantity of mutant p53 protein in serum within the low range of benzidine exposure. Once the exposed intensity was beyond that spectrum, the positive rate of mutant p53 protein in serum and the average scanning integrals of PCR amplified band were no longer enhanced with the increase of exposed intensity. There was tight correlation between Papanicolau grade of exfoliated urothelial cells and the positive rate or the quantity of mutant p53 protein for the higher benzidine exposure intensity.

  11. p53-Dependent suppression of genome instability in germ cells.

    PubMed

    Otozai, Shinji; Ishikawa-Fujiwara, Tomoko; Oda, Shoji; Kamei, Yasuhiro; Ryo, Haruko; Sato, Ayuko; Nomura, Taisei; Mitani, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Tohru; Inohara, Hidenori; Todo, Takeshi

    2014-02-01

    Radiation increases mutation frequencies at tandem repeat loci. Germline mutations in γ-ray-irradiated medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) were studied, focusing on the microsatellite loci. Mismatch-repair genes suppress microsatellite mutation by directly removing altered sequences at the nucleotide level, whereas the p53 gene suppresses genetic alterations by eliminating damaged cells. The contribution of these two defense mechanisms to radiation-induced microsatellite instability was addressed. The spontaneous mutation frequency was significantly higher in msh2(-/-) males than in wild-type fish, whereas there was no difference in the frequency of radiation-induced mutations between msh2(-/-) and wild-type fish. By contrast, irradiated p53(-/-) fish exhibited markedly increased mutation frequencies, whereas their spontaneous mutation frequency was the same as that of wild-type fish. In the spermatogonia of the testis, radiation induced a high level of apoptosis both in wild-type and msh2(-/-) fish, but negligible levels in p53(-/-) fish. The results demonstrate that the msh2 and p53 genes protect genome integrity against spontaneous and radiation-induced mutation by two different pathways: direct removal of mismatches and elimination of damaged cells.

  12. p53 Specifically Binds Triplex DNA In Vitro and in Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brázdová, Marie; Tichý, Vlastimil; Helma, Robert; Bažantová, Pavla; Polášková, Alena; Krejčí, Aneta; Petr, Marek; Navrátilová, Lucie; Tichá, Olga; Nejedlý, Karel; Bennink, Martin L.; Subramaniam, Vinod; Bábková, Zuzana; Martínek, Tomáš; Lexa, Matej; Adámik, Matej

    2016-01-01

    Triplex DNA is implicated in a wide range of biological activities, including regulation of gene expression and genomic instability leading to cancer. The tumor suppressor p53 is a central regulator of cell fate in response to different type of insults. Sequence and structure specific modes of DNA recognition are core attributes of the p53 protein. The focus of this work is the structure-specific binding of p53 to DNA containing triplex-forming sequences in vitro and in cells and the effect on p53-driven transcription. This is the first DNA binding study of full-length p53 and its deletion variants to both intermolecular and intramolecular T.A.T triplexes. We demonstrate that the interaction of p53 with intermolecular T.A.T triplex is comparable to the recognition of CTG-hairpin non-B DNA structure. Using deletion mutants we determined the C-terminal DNA binding domain of p53 to be crucial for triplex recognition. Furthermore, strong p53 recognition of intramolecular T.A.T triplexes (H-DNA), stabilized by negative superhelicity in plasmid DNA, was detected by competition and immunoprecipitation experiments, and visualized by AFM. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed p53 binding T.A.T forming sequence in vivo. Enhanced reporter transactivation by p53 on insertion of triplex forming sequence into plasmid with p53 consensus sequence was observed by luciferase reporter assays. In-silico scan of human regulatory regions for the simultaneous presence of both consensus sequence and T.A.T motifs identified a set of candidate p53 target genes and p53-dependent activation of several of them (ABCG5, ENOX1, INSR, MCC, NFAT5) was confirmed by RT-qPCR. Our results show that T.A.T triplex comprises a new class of p53 binding sites targeted by p53 in a DNA structure-dependent mode in vitro and in cells. The contribution of p53 DNA structure-dependent binding to the regulation of transcription is discussed. PMID:27907175

  13. The absence of Ser389 phosphorylation in p53 affects the basal gene expression level of many p53-dependent genes and alters the biphasic response to UV exposure in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Bruins, Wendy; Bruning, Oskar; Jonker, Martijs J; Zwart, Edwin; van der Hoeven, Tessa V; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Rauwerda, Han; de Vries, Annemieke; Breit, Timo M

    2008-03-01

    Phosphorylation is important in p53-mediated DNA damage responses. After UV irradiation, p53 is phosphorylated specifically at murine residue Ser389. Phosphorylation mutant p53.S389A cells and mice show reduced apoptosis and compromised tumor suppression after UV irradiation. We investigated the underlying cellular processes by time-series analysis of UV-induced gene expression responses in wild-type, p53.S389A, and p53(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The absence of p53.S389 phosphorylation already causes small endogenous gene expression changes for 2,253, mostly p53-dependent, genes. These genes showed basal gene expression levels intermediate to the wild type and p53(-/-), possibly to readjust the p53 network. Overall, the p53.S389A mutation lifts p53-dependent gene repression to a level similar to that of p53(-/-) but has lesser effect on p53-dependently induced genes. In the wild type, the response of 6,058 genes to UV irradiation was strictly biphasic. The early stress response, from 0 to 3 h, results in the activation of processes to prevent the accumulation of DNA damage in cells, whereas the late response, from 12 to 24 h, relates more to reentering the cell cycle. Although the p53.S389A UV gene response was only subtly changed, many cellular processes were significantly affected. The early response was affected the most, and many cellular processes were phase-specifically lost, gained, or altered, e.g., induction of apoptosis, cell division, and DNA repair, respectively. Altogether, p53.S389 phosphorylation seems essential for many p53 target genes and p53-dependent processes.

  14. Immunohistochemical study of cyclooxygenase-2 and p53 expression in skin tumors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Ho; Park, Eun Joo; Seo, Young Ju; Cho, Han Suk; Kim, Chul Woo; Kim, Kwang Joong; Park, Hye Rim

    2006-05-01

    Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been demonstrated in various cancers, including experimentally promoted tumors, gastrointestinal cancers, breast tumors and skin tumors. The mechanism that controls COX-2 expression is not yet clear. Currently, it is reported that COX-2 expression is frequently associated with mutated p53 genes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of COX-2 and p53 in several skin tumors and their correlation. An immunohistochemical method was used to investigate the expression of COX-2 and p53 proteins on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), basal cell carcinomas (BCC), Bowen's disease (BD), actinic keratosis (AK) and porokeratosis. The expression of COX-2 increased in 50% (5/10) of SCC, 80% (8/10) of BCC, 40% (4/10) of BD, 50% (5/10) of AK, and 20% (2/10) of porokeratosis cases. The expression of p53 increased in 90% (9/10) of SCC, 70% (7/10) of BCC, 70% (7/10) of BD, 50% (5/10) of AK, and 40% (4/10) of porokeratosis cases. COX-2 positivity rates of the p53-positive skin tumors were 56%, 100%, 57%, 80% and 25% in SCC, BCC, BD, AK and porokeratosis, respectively. However, the correlation between p53 and COX-2 expression in skin tumors was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Our results indicate that skin COX-2 and p53 may play roles in skin tumors, but that there is no apparent correlation between the two markers.

  15. Novel roles for p53 in the genesis and targeting of tetraploid cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Davaadelger, Batzaya; Shen, Hong; Maki, Carl G

    2014-01-01

    Tetraploid (4N) cells are considered important in cancer because they can display increased tumorigenicity, resistance to conventional therapies, and are believed to be precursors to whole chromosome aneuploidy. It is therefore important to determine how tetraploid cancer cells arise, and how to target them. P53 is a tumor suppressor protein and key regulator of tetraploidy. As part of the "tetraploidy checkpoint", p53 inhibits tetraploid cell proliferation by promoting a G1-arrest in incipient tetraploid cells (referred to as a tetraploid G1 arrest). Nutlin-3a is a preclinical drug that stabilizes p53 by blocking the interaction between p53 and MDM2. In the current study, Nutlin-3a promoted a p53-dependent tetraploid G1 arrest in two diploid clones of the HCT116 colon cancer cell line. Both clones underwent endoreduplication after Nutlin removal, giving rise to stable tetraploid clones that showed increased resistance to ionizing radiation (IR) and cisplatin (CP)-induced apoptosis compared to their diploid precursors. These findings demonstrate that transient p53 activation by Nutlin can promote tetraploid cell formation from diploid precursors, and the resulting tetraploid cells are therapy (IR/CP) resistant. Importantly, the tetraploid clones selected after Nutlin treatment expressed approximately twice as much P53 and MDM2 mRNA as diploid precursors, expressed approximately twice as many p53-MDM2 protein complexes (by co-immunoprecipitation), and were more susceptible to p53-dependent apoptosis and growth arrest induced by Nutlin. Based on these findings, we propose that p53 plays novel roles in both the formation and targeting of tetraploid cells. Specifically, we propose that 1) transient p53 activation can promote a tetraploid-G1 arrest and, as a result, may inadvertently promote formation of therapy-resistant tetraploid cells, and 2) therapy-resistant tetraploid cells, by virtue of having higher P53 gene copy number and expressing twice as many p53-MDM2

  16. PRAME promotes in vitro leukemia cells death by regulating S100A4/p53 signaling.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Rong, L-J; Meng, S-L; Hou, F-L; Zhang, J-H; Pan, G

    2016-01-01

    PRAME (Preferentially Expressed Antigen in Melanoma) is a tumor-associated antigen recognized by immunocytes, and it induces cytotoxic T cell-mediated responses in melanoma. PRAME is expressed in a wide variety of tumors, but in contrast with most other tumor-associated antigens, it is also expressed in leukemias. The physiologic role of PRAME remains elusive. Recently, it has found PRAME could be involved in the regulation of cell death in leukemias, but the mechanism of the function is unclear. Here, we confirm that PRAME induces leukemias cell death by regulation of S100A4/p53 signaling. The pCDNA3-PRAME plasmid and its control were transfected with the KG-1 cells. The pCDNA3-PRAME transfected KG-1 cells were then transiently transfected with S100A4 cDNA or wt-p53 siRNA. The PRAME siRNA and its control were transfected with the K562 cells. The PRAME siRNA transfected K562 cells were then transiently transfected with S100A4 siRNA or pGMp53-Lu. PRAME, S100A4 and P53 were detected by Western blot assay in different time point. Annexin V/propidium iodide and MTT methods were used to detect apoptosis and cell survival rate. KG-1 cells overexpressing the PRAME gene significantly induces apoptosis and decreases proliferation in vitro, followed by down-regulation of S100A4 and up-regulation of p53. Up-regulation of S100A4 by S100A4 transfection inhibits PRAME-induced p53 up-regulation. Furthermore, up-regulation of S100A4 by S100A4 transfection or down-regulation of p53 by p53 siRNA transfection reduces apoptosis and increases proliferation in vitro. Knockdown of PRAME in K562 cells significantly increases proliferation in vitro, followed by up-regulation of S100A4 and down-regulation of p53. The downregulation of S100A4 by S100A4 siRNA transfection increased p53 expression. Furthermore, downregulation of S100A4 by S100A4 siRNA transfection or up-regulation of p53 by p53 transfection decreases proliferation in vitro. Our results suggest that the leukemias expressing

  17. Expression of hepaCAM is downregulated in cancers and induces senescence-like growth arrest via a p53/p21-dependent pathway in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Moh, Mei Chung; Zhang, Ting; Lee, Lay Hoon; Shen, Shali

    2008-12-01

    Previously, we reported the identification of a novel immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule hepaCAM that is frequently downregulated and inhibits cell growth in hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we show that the expression of hepaCAM is suppressed in diverse human cancers. Aiming to evaluate the biological role of hepaCAM in breast cancer, we stably transfected the MCF7 cell line with either wild-type hepaCAM or its mutant hCAM-tailless that lacked the cytoplasmic domain. We found that hepaCAM inhibited colony formation and cell proliferation and arrested cells in the G(2)/M phase. Intriguingly, hepaCAM was capable of inducing cellular senescence as defined by the enlarged cell morphology and increased beta-galactosidase activity. Furthermore, hepaCAM elevated the expression levels of senescence-associated proteins including p53, p21 and p27. In contrast, cell growth inhibition and senescence were less apparent in cells overexpressing hCAM-tailless mutant. To determine if the p53-mediated pathway was involved in hepaCAM-induced senescence, we used the small-interfering RNA system to knock down endogenous p53 expression. In the presence of hepaCAM, downregulation of p53 resulted in a clear reduction of p21, insignificant change in p27 and alleviated senescence. Together, the results suggest that the expression of hepaCAM in MCF7 cells not only inhibits cell growth but also induces cellular senescence through the p53/21 pathway.

  18. Cholecystokinin attenuates radiation-induced lung cancer cell apoptosis by modulating p53 gene transcription

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yi; Su, Chongyu; Yu, Daping; Zhou, Shijie; Song, Xiaoyun; Liu, Shuku; Qin, Ming; Li, Yunsong; Xiao, Ning; Cao, Xiaoqing; Shi, Kang; Cheng, Xu; Liu, Zhidong

    2017-01-01

    The deregulation of p53 in cancer cells is one of the important factors by which cancer cells escape from the immune surveillance. Cholecystokinin (CCK) has strong bioactivity in the regulation of a number of cell activities. This study tests a hypothesis that CCK interferes with p53 expression to affect the apoptotic process in lung cancer (tumor) cells. In this study, tumor-bearing mice and A549 cells (a tumor cell line) were irradiated. The expression of CCK and p53 in tumor cells was assessed with RT-qPCR and Western blotting. The binding of p300 to the promoter of p53 was evaluated by chromatin immunoprecipitation. We observed that, with a given amount and within a given period, small doses/more sessions of irradiation markedly increased the levels of CCK in the sera and tumor cells, which were positively correlated with the tumor growth in mice and negatively correlated with tumor cell apoptosis. CCK increased the levels of histone acetyltransferase p300 and repressed the levels of nuclear factor-kB at the p53 promoter locus in tumor cells, which suppressed the expression of p53. In conclusion, CCK plays an important role in attenuating the radiation-induced lung cancer cell apoptosis. CCK may be a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of lung cancers. PMID:28337291

  19. Altered expression of p53, but not Rb, is involved in canine prostatic carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pagliarone, Simone; Frattone, Luca; Pirocchi, Valeria; Della Salda, Leonardo; Palmieri, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    Abnormalities in the retinoblastoma (Rb) and p53 tumour suppressor gene have been frequently detected in human and canine cancers, but never investigated in canine prostate cancer, considered a good model for the advanced and aggressive androgen-resistant prostate cancer in men. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of Rb and p53 in 6 normal canine prostates, 15 canine prostates with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 10 prostatic carcinomas (PCs). In all normal samples, p53 was expressed in low number of epithelial cells, while a greater number of positive cells were observed in BPH and PC. The mean number of positive cells was statistically significantly higher in PCs than normal and hyperplastic prostates. A cytoplasmic or nucleo-cytoplasmic staining was observed in 5 out of 10 PCs. Rb protein was expressed in high number of normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic cells without a statistically significant differences. Considering that Rb is frequently lost in human prostate cancer, we suggest that Rb is not involved in canine prostatic carcinogenesis. On the other hand, the increased expression of p53 that corresponds to genetic defects in the p53 gene may be associated with the malignant growth of canine prostate cancer, conferring an apoptosis-resistant phenotype.

  20. p53 Restoration in Induction and Maintenance of Senescence: Differential Effects in Premalignant and Malignant Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Harajly, Mohamad; Zalzali, Hasan; Nawaz, Zafar; Ghayad, Sandra E.; Ghamloush, Farah; Basma, Hussein; Zainedin, Samiha; Rabeh, Wissam; Jabbour, Mark; Tawil, Ayman; Badro, Danielle A.; Evan, Gerard I.

    2015-01-01

    The restoration of p53 has been suggested as a therapeutic approach in tumors. However, the timing of p53 restoration in relation to its efficacy during tumor progression still is unclear. We now show that the restoration of p53 in murine premalignant proliferating pineal lesions resulted in cellular senescence, while p53 restoration in invasive pineal tumors did not. The effectiveness of p53 restoration was not dependent on p19Arf expression but showed an inverse correlation with Mdm2 expression. In tumor cells, p53 restoration became effective when paired with either DNA-damaging therapy or with nutlin, an inhibitor of p53-Mdm2 interaction. Interestingly, the inactivation of p53 after senescence resulted in reentry into the cell cycle and rapid tumor progression. The evaluation of a panel of human supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNET) showed low activity of the p53 pathway. Together, these data suggest that the restoration of the p53 pathway has different effects in premalignant versus invasive pineal tumors, and that p53 activation needs to be continually sustained, as reversion from senescence occurs rapidly with aggressive tumor growth when p53 is lost again. Finally, p53 restoration approaches may be worth exploring in sPNET, where the p53 gene is intact but the pathway is inactive in the majority of examined tumors. PMID:26598601

  1. Valproic Acid Induces the Hyperacetylation of P53, Expression of P53 Target Genes, and Markers of the Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway in Midorganogenesis Murine Limbs.

    PubMed

    Paradis, France-Hélène; Hales, Barbara F

    2015-10-01

    In utero exposure to valproic acid (VPA), an anticonvulsant and histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), increases the risk of congenital malformations. Although the mechanisms leading to the teratogenicity of VPA remain unsolved, several HDAC inhibitors increase cell death in cancer cell lines and embryonic tissues. Moreover, P53, the master regulator of apoptosis, is an established HDAC target. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of VPA on P53 signaling and markers of apoptosis during midorganogenesis in vitro limb development. Timed-pregnant CD1 mice (gestation day 12) were euthanized; embryonic forelimbs were excised and cultured in vitro for 3, 6, 12, or 24 hr in the presence or absence of VPA or valpromide (VPD), a non-HDACi analog of VPA. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blots were used to assess the expression of candidate genes and proteins involved in P53 signaling and apoptosis. P53 hyperacetylation and a decrease (Survivin/Birc5 and Bcl2) or an increase (p21/Cdkn1a) in the expression of p53 target genes was observed only in VPA-exposed limbs. VPA exposure also triggered an increase in markers of apoptosis and DNA damage; the concentrations of cleaved caspase 9 and caspase 3, cleaved-poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, and γ-H2AX were increased in VPA-exposed limbs. VPD treatment caused a small but significant increase in cleaved caspase 3. Thus, in vitro exposure to an HDACi such as VPA leads to P53 hyperacetylation, enhances the expression of P53 target genes, and triggers an increase in apoptosis that may contribute to teratogenicity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Δ40p53α suppresses tumor cell proliferation and induces cellular senescence in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Akinobu; Sawada, Yumi; Karnan, Sivasundaram; Wahiduzzaman, Md; Inoue, Tadahisa; Kobayashi, Yuji; Yamamoto, Takaya; Ishii, Norimitsu; Ohashi, Tomohiko; Nakade, Yukiomi; Sato, Ken; Itoh, Kiyoaki; Konishi, Hiroyuki; Hosokawa, Yoshitaka; Yoneda, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Splice variants of certain genes impact on genetic biodiversity in mammals. The tumor suppressor TP53 gene (encoding p53) plays an important role in the regulation of tumorigenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Δ40p53α is a naturally occurring p53 isoform that lacks the N-terminal transactivation domain, yet little is known about the role of Δ40p53α in the development of HCC. Here, we first report on the role of Δ40p53α in HCC cell lines. In the TP53+/Δ40 cell clones, clonogenic activity and cell survival dramatically decreased, whereas the percentage of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal)-positive cells and p21 (also known as WAF1, CIP1 and CDKN1A) expression significantly increased. These observations were clearly attenuated in the TP53+/Δ40 cell clones after Δ40p53α knockdown. In addition, exogenous Δ40p53 expression significantly suppressed cell growth in HCC cells with wild-type TP53, and in those that were mutant or null for TP53. Notably, Δ40p53α-induced tumor suppressor activity was markedly attenuated in cells expressing the hot-spot mutant Δ40p53α-R175H, which lacks the transcription factor activity of p53. Moreover, Δ40p53α expression was associated with increased full-length p53 protein expression. These findings enhance the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of HCC and show that Δ40p53α acts as an important tumor suppressor in HCC cells. PMID:27980070

  3. VHL missense mutations in the p53 binding domain show different effects on p53 signaling and HIFα degradation in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Razafinjatovo, Caroline Fanja; Stiehl, Daniel; Deininger, Eva; Rechsteiner, Markus; Moch, Holger; Schraml, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC) formation is connected to functional loss of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene. Recent data identified its gene product, pVHL, as a multifunctional adaptor protein which interacts with HIFα subunits but also with the tumor suppressor p53. p53 is hardly expressed and rarely mutated in most ccRCC. We showed that low and absent p53 expression correlated with the severity of VHL mutations in 262 analyzed ccRCC tissues. In contrast to nonsense and frameshift mutations which abrogate virtually all pVHL functions, missense mutations may rather influence one or few functions. Therefore, we focused on four VHL missense mutations, which affect the overlapping pVHL binding sites of p53 and Elongin C, by investigating their impact on HIFα degradation, p53 expression and signaling, as well as on cellular behavior using ccRCC cell lines and tissues. TP53 mRNA and its effector targets p21, Bax and Noxa, were altered both in engineered cell lines and in tumor tissues which carried the same missense mutations. Two of these mutations were not able to degrade HIFα whereas the remaining two mutations led to HIFα downregulation, suggesting the latter are p53 binding site-specific. The selected VHL missense mutations further enhanced tumor cell survival, but had no effects on cell proliferation. Whereas Sunitinib was able to efficiently reduce cell proliferation, Camptothecin was additionally able to increase apoptotic activity of the tumor cells. It is concluded that systematic characterization of the VHL mutation status may help optimizing targeted therapy for patients with metastatic ccRCC. PMID:28052007

  4. VHL missense mutations in the p53 binding domain show different effects on p53 signaling and HIFα degradation in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Razafinjatovo, Caroline Fanja; Stiehl, Daniel; Deininger, Eva; Rechsteiner, Markus; Moch, Holger; Schraml, Peter

    2017-02-07

    Clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC) formation is connected to functional loss of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene. Recent data identified its gene product, pVHL, as a multifunctional adaptor protein which interacts with HIFα subunits but also with the tumor suppressor p53. p53 is hardly expressed and rarely mutated in most ccRCC. We showed that low and absent p53 expression correlated with the severity of VHL mutations in 262 analyzed ccRCC tissues. In contrast to nonsense and frameshift mutations which abrogate virtually all pVHL functions, missense mutations may rather influence one or few functions. Therefore, we focused on four VHL missense mutations, which affect the overlapping pVHL binding sites of p53 and Elongin C, by investigating their impact on HIFα degradation, p53 expression and signaling, as well as on cellular behavior using ccRCC cell lines and tissues. TP53 mRNA and its effector targets p21, Bax and Noxa, were altered both in engineered cell lines and in tumor tissues which carried the same missense mutations. Two of these mutations were not able to degrade HIFα whereas the remaining two mutations led to HIFα downregulation, suggesting the latter are p53 binding site-specific. The selected VHL missense mutations further enhanced tumor cell survival, but had no effects on cell proliferation. Whereas Sunitinib was able to efficiently reduce cell proliferation, Camptothecin was additionally able to increase apoptotic activity of the tumor cells. It is concluded that systematic characterization of the VHL mutation status may help optimizing targeted therapy for patients with metastatic ccRCC.

  5. Aciculatin Induces p53-Dependent Apoptosis via MDM2 Depletion in Human Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chin-Yu; Tsai, An-Chi; Chen, Mei-Chuan; Chang, Li-Hsun; Sun, Hui-Lung; Chang, Ya-Ling; Chen, Chien-Chih

    2012-01-01

    Aciculatin, a natural compound extracted from the medicinal herb Chrysopogon aciculatus, shows potent anti-cancer potency. This study is the first to prove that aciculatin induces cell death in human cancer cells and HCT116 mouse xenografts due to G1 arrest and subsequent apoptosis. The primary reason for cell cycle arrest and cell death was p53 accumulation followed by increased p21 level, dephosphorylation of Rb protein, PUMA expression, and induction of apoptotic signals such as cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3, and PARP. We demonstrated that p53 allele-null (−/−) (p53-KO) HCT116 cells were more resistant to aciculatin than cells with wild-type p53 (+/+). The same result was achieved by knocking down p53 with siRNA in p53 wild-type cells, indicating that p53 plays a crucial role in aciculatin-induced apoptosis. Although DNA damage is the most common event leading to p53 activation, we found only weak evidence of DNA damage after aciculatin treatment. Interestingly, the aciculatin-induced downregulation of MDM2, an important negative regulator of p53, contributed to p53 accumulation. The anti-cancer activity and importance of p53 after aciculatin treatment were also confirmed in the HCT116 xenograft models. Collectively, these results indicate that aciculatin treatment induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via inhibition of MDM2 expression, thereby inducing p53 accumulation without significant DNA damage and genome toxicity. PMID:22912688

  6. p53 and p21 determine the sensitivity of noscapine-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Aneja, Ritu; Ghaleb, Amr M; Zhou, Jun; Yang, Vincent W; Joshi, Harish C

    2007-04-15

    We have previously discovered the naturally occurring antitussive alkaloid noscapine as a tubulin-binding agent that attenuates microtubule dynamics and arrests mammalian cells at mitosis via activation of the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase pathway. It is well established that the p53 protein plays a crucial role in the control of tumor cell response to chemotherapeutic agents and DNA-damaging agents; however, the relationship between p53-driven genes and drug sensitivity remains controversial. In this study, we compared chemosensitivity, cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis on noscapine treatment in four cell lines derived from the colorectal carcinoma HCT116 cells: p53(+/+) (p53-wt), p53(-/-) (p53-null), p21(-/-) (p21-null), and BAX(-/-) (BAX-null). Using these isogenic variants, we investigated the roles of p53, BAX, and p21 in the cellular response to treatment with noscapine. Our results show that noscapine treatment increases the expression of p53 over time in cells with wild-type p53 status. This increase in p53 is associated with an increased apoptotic BAX/Bcl-2 ratio consistent with increased sensitivity of these cells to apoptotic stimuli. Conversely, loss of p53 and p21 alleles had a counter effect on both BAX and Bcl-2 expression and the p53-null and p21-null cells were significantly resistant to the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of noscapine. All but the p53-null cells displayed p53 protein accumulation in a time-dependent manner on noscapine treatment. Interestingly, despite increased levels of p53, p21-null cells were resistant to apoptosis, suggesting a proapoptotic role of p21 and implying that p53 is a necessary but not sufficient condition for noscapine-mediated apoptosis.

  7. The p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-{alpha}, suppresses self-renewal of embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelalim, Essam Mohamed; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We determine the role of p53 in ES cells under unstressful conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PFT-{alpha} suppresses ES cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PFT-{alpha} induces ES cell cycle arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PFT-{alpha} downregulates Nanog and cyclin D1. -- Abstract: Recent studies have reported the role of p53 in suppressing the pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) cells after DNA damage and blocking the reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. However, to date no evidence has been presented to support the function of p53 in unstressed ES cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of pifithrin (PFT)-{alpha}, an inhibitor of p53-dependent transcriptional activation, on self-renewal of ES cells. Our results revealed that treatment of ES cells with PFT-{alpha} resulted in the inhibition of ES cell propagation in a dose-dependent manner, as indicated by a marked reduction in the cell number and colony size. Also, PFT-{alpha} caused a cell cycle arrest and significant reduction in DNA synthesis. In addition, inhibition of p53 activity reduced the expression levels of cyclin D1 and Nanog. These findings indicate that p53 pathway in ES cells rather than acting as an inactive gene, is required for ES cell proliferation and self-renewal under unstressful conditions.

  8. Molecular characterization and expression pattern of tumor suppressor protein p53 in mandarin fish, Siniperca chuatsi following virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huizhi; Fu, Xiaozhe; Li, Ningqiu; Lin, Qiang; Liu, Lihui; Wu, Shuqin

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, the tumor suppressor protein p53, which is crucial for cellular defense against tumor development, has also been implicated in host antiviral defense. In the present study, a 1555 bp full-length cDNA of p53 from mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) (Sc-p53) was cloned and characterized. Quantitative real-time PCR assays revealed that Sc-p53 was expressed in all tissues examined, and it was most abundant in the gill and kidney. Recombinant Sc-p53 fused with a His·Tag was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells and a rabbit polyclonal antibody was raised against recombinant Sc-p53. In addition, the regulation of Sc-p53 gene expression after experimental viral infection was determined and characterized. The mRNA and protein expression of Sc-p53 were significantly up-regulated in the Chinese perch brain (CPB) cell line and mandarin fish after infection with infectious kidney and spleen necrosis virus (ISKNV). The results showed a biphasic expression pattern of Sc-p53 protein in CPB. However, a different expression pattern of Sc-p53 in response to S. chuatsi rhabdovirus (SCRV) infection was found. The mRNA expression of Sc-p53 was significantly up-regulated in CPB at 6 h and spleen of mandarin fish at 24 h post-infection. The protein expression of Sc-p53 was significantly up-regulated in CPB at 1 h, remained elevated at 4 h, and then decreased to control level at 8 h post-infection by SCRV. All of these data suggested that Sc-p53 plays a critical role in immune defense and antiviral responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. p53 protein expression and gene mutation in phyllodes tumors of the breast.

    PubMed

    Gatalica, Z; Finkelstein, S; Lucio, E; Tawfik, O; Palazzo, J; Hightower, B; Eyzaguirre, E

    2001-01-01

    The malignant potential of mammary phyllodes tumors is difficult to assess on initial pathologic examination. Studies on the p53 tumor suppressor gene have shown that it has an important role in the development of a variety of malignancies, yet the specific contribution to the pathogenesis and development of the malignant potential of phyllodes tumor is largely unknown. We studied p53 protein expression in 25 cases of phyllodes tumors histologically classified as either malignant (12 cases) or benign (13 cases). Using microdissection approach, we also analyzed the p53 gene sequence in a case that demonstrated progression from benign to malignant phenotype. Nuclear p53 staining was detected in various proportions (1-90%) of neoplastic stromal cells of malignant tumors. No staining was found in benign tumors. Progression from benign to malignant phenotype was associated with a significant increase in the accumulation of p53 (more than 20 times). This was caused by an underlying missense mutation in exon 7, resulting in a change from Arg248 to Trp248 in the malignant component of the tumor. Stromal p53 over-expression was observed only in neoplasms histologically classified as malignant and was associated with an increased proliferation index (MIB-1 staining). These two markers may be used as useful adjuncts in the diagnosis of malignancy in difficult cases or when only a limited sample size is available. Somatic mutation in exon 7 of p53 gene in malignant phyllodes tumor points toward the importance of p53 in the malignant transformation of phyllodes tumors.

  10. P53 Regulation-Association Long Non-Coding RNA (LncRNA PRAL) Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Regulation of P53 in Human Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Su, Pengxiao; Wang, Fengqin; Qi, Bin; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Shaobo

    2017-04-11

    BACKGROUND Lung cancer is among the most common causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, but its tumorigenic mechanisms are largely unknown. Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) have been shown to have significant roles in multiple cancers. Herein, we aimed to elucidate the detailed effects of a newly-discovered LncRNA, termed PRAL, on cell proliferation in lung cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 100 lung cancer patients were subjected to RT-PCR analysis to detect the expressions of PRAL. Western blot analysis was performed to examine P53 protein levels. PRAL plasmid and specific siRNA against P53 was transfected into lung cancer cell lines NCI-H929 and A549. Cell viability assay was conducted in the presence or absence of siP53. RESULTS The transcript level of PRAL in human lung cancer was remarkably decreased in vivo compared with their adjacent non-cancerous counterparts, and the protein levels of P53 were accordingly suppressed. Moreover, the expression of PRAL was also decreased in all of the 5 lung cancer cell lines. Transfection of PRAL plasmid inhibited cell proliferation in NCI-H929 and A549 cells and promoted the transcription of P53; however, knockdown of P53 caused no notable effects on PRAL transcription, but it retarded the inhibitory effects mediated by PRAL. CONCLUSIONS The transcript level of PRAL was decreased in lung cancer in vivo and in vitro. Overexpression of PRAL inhibited cell proliferation by upregulating the expression of P53. Our results indicate that PRAL might be a tumor suppressor in lung cancer and thus provides novel clues for the diagnosis and treatment for lung cancer in clinical practice.

  11. Mutant p53 proteins counteract autophagic mechanism sensitizing cancer cells to mTOR inhibition.

    PubMed

    Cordani, Marco; Oppici, Elisa; Dando, Ilaria; Butturini, Elena; Dalla Pozza, Elisa; Nadal-Serrano, Mercedes; Oliver, Jordi; Roca, Pilar; Mariotto, Sofia; Cellini, Barbara; Blandino, Giovanni; Palmieri, Marta; Di Agostino, Silvia; Donadelli, Massimo

    2016-08-01

    Mutations in TP53 gene play a pivotal role in tumorigenesis and cancer development. Here, we report that gain-of-function mutant p53 proteins inhibit the autophagic pathway favoring antiapoptotic effects as well as proliferation of pancreas and breast cancer cells. We found that mutant p53 significantly counteracts the formation of autophagic vesicles and their fusion with lysosomes throughout the repression of some key autophagy-related proteins and enzymes as BECN1 (and P-BECN1), DRAM1, ATG12, SESN1/2 and P-AMPK with the concomitant stimulation of mTOR signaling. As a paradigm of this mechanism, we show that atg12 gene repression was mediated by the recruitment of the p50 NF-κB/mutant p53 protein complex onto the atg12 promoter. Either mutant p53 or p50 NF-κB depletion downregulates atg12 gene expression. We further correlated the low expression levels of autophagic genes (atg12, becn1, sesn1, and dram1) with a reduced relapse free survival (RFS) and distant metastasis free survival (DMFS) of breast cancer patients carrying TP53 gene mutations conferring a prognostic value to this mutant p53-and autophagy-related signature. Interestingly, the mutant p53-driven mTOR stimulation sensitized cancer cells to the treatment with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus. All these results reveal a novel mechanism through which mutant p53 proteins promote cancer cell proliferation with the concomitant inhibition of autophagy.

  12. Quercetin induces gadd45 expression through a p53-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tatsushi; Maeda, Ayaka; Horinaka, Mano; Shiraishi, Takumi; Nakata, Susumu; Wakada, Miki; Yogosawa, Shingo; Sakai, Toshiyuki

    2005-11-01

    Quercetin, a kind of flavonoid, is found in edible fruits and vegetables and has anti-tumorigenic activity. However, the mechanism of activity has not been elucidated. We show for the first time that gadd45 is a molecular target of quercetin, which inhibits growth of human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Apoptosis was detected in HeLa cells treated with quercetin. At the concentration inducing apoptosis, quercetin also increased gadd45 expression at the mRNA and protein level, however, the 5'-promoter region of the gadd45 gene was not activated by quercetin. Since gadd45 is known to be a downstream gene of the tumor suppressor p53, we examined whether or not quercetin regulates gadd45 induction via a p53 pathway. Quercetin did not activate transcription through p53-binding sites in HeLa cells, although it up-regulated gadd45 in p53-inactivated tumor cells. These results indicate that quercetin induces gadd45 expression in a p53-independent manner.

  13. Combination of galectin inhibitor GCS-100 and BH3 mimetics eliminates both p53 wild type and p53 null AML cells

    PubMed Central

    Ruvolo, Peter P.; Ruvolo, Vivian R.; Benton, Christopher B.; AlRawi, Ahmed; Burks, Jared K.; Schober, Wendy; Rolke, James; Tidmarsh, George; Hail, Numsen; Davis, R. Eric; Andreeff, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Galectin 3 (LGALS3) expression is prognostic for poor survival in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. GCS-100 is a novel galectin inhibitor that may prove useful for AML therapy. In this study, we found GCS-100 induced apoptosis in AML cells. The agent reduced MCL-1 expression suggesting GCS-100 could be more effective when combined with a BH3 mimetic. Indeed, potent synergistic cytotoxicity was achieved when GCS-100 was combined with ABT-737 or ABT-199. Furthermore, the GCS-100/ABT-199 combination was effective against primary AML blast cells from patients with FLT3 ITD mutations, which is another prognostic factor for poor outcome in AML. This activity may involve wild-type p53 as shRNA knockdown of LGALS3 or galectin 1 (LGALS1) sensitized wild-type p53 OCI-AML3 cells to GCS-100/ABT-737-induced apoptosis to a much greater extent than p53 null THP-1 cells. Suppression of LGALS3 by shRNA inhibited MCL-1 expression in OCI-AML3 cells, but not THP-1 cells, suggesting the induced sensitivity to ABT-737 may involve a MCL-1 mediated mechanism. OCI-AML3 cells with LGALS1 shRNA were also sensitized to ABT-737. However, these cells exhibited increased MCL-1 expression, so MCL-1 reduction is apparently not required in this process. A role for p53 appears important as GCS-100 induces p53 expression and shRNA knockdown of p53 protected OCI-AML3 cells from the cytotoxic effects of the GCS-100/ABT-737 treatment combination. Our results suggest that galectins regulate a survival axis in AML cells, which may be targeted via combined inhibition with drugs such as GCS-100 and ABT-199. PMID:26704388

  14. Combination of galectin inhibitor GCS-100 and BH3 mimetics eliminates both p53 wild type and p53 null AML cells.

    PubMed

    Ruvolo, Peter P; Ruvolo, Vivian R; Benton, Christopher B; AlRawi, Ahmed; Burks, Jared K; Schober, Wendy; Rolke, James; Tidmarsh, George; Hail, Numsen; Davis, R Eric; Andreeff, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Galectin 3 (LGALS3) expression is prognostic for poor survival in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. GCS-100 is a novel galectin inhibitor that may prove useful for AML therapy. In this study, we found that GCS-100 induced apoptosis in AML cells. The agent reduced MCL-1 expression suggesting that GCS-100 could be more effective when combined with a BH3 mimetic. Indeed, potent synergistic cytotoxicity was achieved when GCS-100 was combined with ABT-737 or ABT-199. Furthermore, the GCS-100/ABT-199 combination was effective against primary AML blast cells from patients with FLT3 ITD mutations, which is another prognostic factor for poor outcome in AML. This activity may involve wild-type p53 as shRNA knockdown of LGALS3 or galectin 1 (LGALS1) sensitized wild-type p53 OCI-AML3 cells to GCS-100/ABT-737-induced apoptosis to a much greater extent than p53 null THP-1 cells. Suppression of LGALS3 by shRNA inhibited MCL-1 expression in OCI-AML3 cells, but not THP-1 cells, suggesting the induced sensitivity to ABT-737 may involve a MCL-1 mediated mechanism. OCI-AML3 cells with LGALS1 shRNA were also sensitized to ABT-737. However, these cells exhibited increased MCL-1 expression, so MCL-1 reduction is apparently not required in this process. A role for p53 appears important as GCS-100 induces p53 expression and shRNA knockdown of p53 protected OCI-AML3 cells from the cytotoxic effects of the GCS-100/ABT-737 treatment combination. Our results suggest that galectins regulate a survival axis in AML cells, which may be targeted via combined inhibition with drugs such as GCS-100 and ABT-199. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. p53-regulated autophagy is controlled by glycolysis and determines cell fate.

    PubMed

    Duan, Lei; Perez, Ricardo E; Davaadelger, Batzaya; Dedkova, Elena N; Blatter, Lothar A; Maki, Carl G

    2015-09-15

    The tumor suppressor p53 regulates downstream targets that determine cell fate. Canonical p53 functions include inducing apoptosis, growth arrest, and senescence. Non-canonical p53 functions include its ability to promote or inhibit autophagy and its ability to regulate metabolism. The extent to which autophagy and/or metabolic regulation determines cell fate by p53 is unclear. To address this, we compared cells resistant or sensitive to apoptosis by the p53 activator Nutlin-3a. In resistant cells, glycolysis was maintained upon Nutlin-3a treatment, and activated p53 promoted prosurvival autophagy. In contrast, in apoptosis sensitive cells activated p53 increased superoxide levels and inhibited glycolysis through repression of glycolytic pathway genes. Glycolysis inhibition and increased superoxide inhibited autophagy by repressing ATG genes essential for autophagic vesicle maturation. Inhibiting glycolysis increased superoxide and blocked autophagy in apoptosis-resistant cells, causing p62-dependent caspase-8 activation. Finally, treatment with 2-DG or the autophagy inhibitors chloroquine or bafilomycin A1 sensitized resistant cells to Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis. Together, these findings reveal novel links between glycolysis and autophagy that determine apoptosis-sensitivity in response to p53. Specifically, the findings indicate 1) that glycolysis plays an essential role in autophagy by limiting superoxide levels and maintaining expression of ATG genes required for autophagic vesicle maturation, 2) that p53 can promote or inhibit autophagy depending on the status of glycolysis, and 3) that inhibiting protective autophagy can expand the breadth of cells susceptible to Nutlin-3a induced apoptosis.

  16. p53-regulated autophagy is controlled by glycolysis and determines cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Lei; Perez, Ricardo E.; Davaadelger, Batzaya; Dedkova, Elena N.; Blatter, Lothar A.; Maki, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 regulates downstream targets that determine cell fate. Canonical p53 functions include inducing apoptosis, growth arrest, and senescence. Non-canonical p53 functions include its ability to promote or inhibit autophagy and its ability to regulate metabolism. The extent to which autophagy and/or metabolic regulation determines cell fate by p53 is unclear. To address this, we compared cells resistant or sensitive to apoptosis by the p53 activator Nutlin-3a. In resistant cells, glycolysis was maintained upon Nutlin-3a treatment, and activated p53 promoted prosurvival autophagy. In contrast, in apoptosis sensitive cells activated p53 increased superoxide levels and inhibited glycolysis through repression of glycolytic pathway genes. Glycolysis inhibition and increased superoxide inhibited autophagy by repressing ATG genes essential for autophagic vesicle maturation. Inhibiting glycolysis increased superoxide and blocked autophagy in apoptosis-resistant cells, causing p62-dependent caspase-8 activation. Finally, treatment with 2-DG or the autophagy inhibitors chloroquine or bafilomycin A1 sensitized resistant cells to Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis. Together, these findings reveal novel links between glycolysis and autophagy that determine apoptosis-sensitivity in response to p53. Specifically, the findings indicate 1) that glycolysis plays an essential role in autophagy by limiting superoxide levels and maintaining expression of ATG genes required for autophagic vesicle maturation, 2) that p53 can promote or inhibit autophagy depending on the status of glycolysis, and 3) that inhibiting protective autophagy can expand the breadth of cells susceptible to Nutlin-3a induced apoptosis. PMID:26337205

  17. Addiction of lung cancer cells to GOF p53 is promoted by up-regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor through multiple contacts with p53 transactivation domain and promoter

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Catherine A.; Pearsall, Isabella; Singh, Shilpa; Windle, Brad; Deb, Swati P.; Grossman, Steven R.; Yeudall, W. Andrew; Deb, Sumitra

    2016-01-01

    Human lung cancers harboring gain-of-function (GOF) p53 alleles express higher levels of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We demonstrate that a number of GOF p53 alleles directly upregulate EGFR. Knock-down of p53 in lung cancer cells lowers EGFR expression and reduces tumorigenicity and other GOF p53 properties. However, addiction of lung cancer cells to GOF p53 can be compensated by overexpressing EGFR, suggesting that EGFR plays a critical role in addiction. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) using lung cancer cells expressing GOF p53 alleles showed that GOF p53 localized to the EGFR promoter. The sequence where GOF p53 is found to interact by ChIP seq can act as a GOF p53 response element. The presence of GOF p53 on the EGFR promoter increased histone H3 acetylation, indicating a mechanism whereby GOF p53 enhances chromatin opening for improved access to transcription factors (TFs). ChIP and ChIP-re-ChIP with p53, Sp1 and CBP histone acetylase (HAT) antibodies revealed docking of GOF p53 on Sp1, leading to increased binding of Sp1 and CBP to the EGFR promoter. Up-regulation of EGFR can occur via GOF p53 contact at other novel sites in the EGFR promoter even when TAD-I is inactivated; these sites are used by both intact and TAD-I mutated GOF p53 and might reflect redundancy in GOF p53 mechanisms for EGFR transactivation. Thus, the oncogenic action of GOF p53 in lung cancer is highly dependent on transactivation of the EGFR promoter via a novel transcriptional mechanism involving coordinated interactions of TFs, HATs and GOF p53. PMID:26820293

  18. Detection of p53 and Bcl-2 expression in cutaneous hemangioma through the quantum dot technique.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tian; Zhang, Duan-Lian

    2017-05-01

    Hemangioma is one of the most common types of infantile vascular benign tumor. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and tumor protein p53 (p53) in the proliferation and apoptosis of hemangioma cells. A total of 38 paraffin-embedded hemangioma specimens (16 males and 22 females) and another 5 paraffin-embedded healthy surrounding tissue samples, collected between January 2007 and December 2010, were obtained from the Department of Pathology at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University (Wuhan, China). Immunohistochemistry, hematoxylin and eosin staining, and quantum dot double staining were used to detect the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Bcl-2 and p53 in hemangioma and healthy surrounding skin tissue samples. All hemangioma specimens were classified into proliferative or the involuting stage hemangioma according to Mulliken's criteria and their expression of PCNA. The results of the quantum dot double staining were analyzed using a multi-spectral imaging system. One-way analysis of the variance and the Student-Newman-Keuls q test were performed to statistically analyze the data. There were 24 cases of proliferative stage and 14 cases of involuting stage hemangioma among the specimens. Immunohistochemical analysis results indicated a high expression of Bcl-2 and p53 in proliferative stage hemangioma tissue samples, and low expression in involuting stage hemangioma and healthy tissue samples. Statistical analysis of the results from quantum dot double staining demonstrated that the expression of Bcl-2 and p53 in proliferative hemangioma was significantly increased compared with that in involuting stage specimens (P<0.05) and healthy tissue samples (P<0.05). No significant difference in Bcl-2 and p53 expression was identified between the involuting hemangioma and healthy surrounding tissue samples. The higher expression of Bcl-2 and p53 in proliferative hemangioma suggests that Bcl-2 may cause an

  19. TAF6δ Controls Apoptosis and Gene Expression in the Absence of p53

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Emmanuelle; Pellay, François-Xavier; Benecke, Arndt; Bell, Brendan

    2008-01-01

    Background Life and death decisions of metazoan cells hinge on the balance between the expression of pro- versus anti-apoptotic gene products. The general RNA polymerase II transcription factor, TFIID, plays a central role in the regulation of gene expression through its core promoter recognition and co-activator functions. The core TFIID subunit TAF6 acts in vitro as an essential co-activator of transcription for the p53 tumor suppressor protein. We previously identified a splice variant of TAF6, termed TAF6δ that can be induced during apoptosis. Methodology/Principal Findings To elucidate the impact of TAF6δ on cell death and gene expression, we have employed modified antisense oligonucleotides to enforce expression of endogenous TAF6δ. The induction of endogenous TAF6δ triggered apoptosis in tumor cell lines, including cells devoid of p53. Microarray experiments revealed that TAF6δ activates gene expression independently of cellular p53 status. Conclusions Our data define TAF6δ as a pivotal node in a signaling pathway that controls gene expression programs and apoptosis in the absence of p53. PMID:18628956

  20. Activation of p53 by spermine mediates induction of autophagy in HT1080 cells.

    PubMed

    Chae, Yong-Byung; Kim, Moon-Moo

    2014-02-01

    The recent evidences indicate that autophagy is associated with a number of pathological processes including cancer, muscular disorder and neurodegeneration in addition to longevity. The efficacy of spermine was investigated on induction of autophagy through histone deacetylation and p53 activation in human fibrosarcoma cell line, HT1080. In this study, it was discovered that spermine increases the activity of HAT and autophagy. It was also identified that the transcriptional activation of p53 and the activation of p21 promoter by spermine are related to the induction of autophagy in reporter gene assay. Furthermore, western blot analyses demonstrated that spermine modulates the expression of proteins related to autophagy and apoptosis. The expression levels of Ac-histone H3, HDAC1, HAT1, p300 and SIRT1 were increased in HT1080 cells treated with spermine. In addition, the expression levels of protein such as acetyl-p53, p-p53, Bcl-2 and caspase-9 inducing apoptosis were increased in the presence of spermine. Moreover, the levels of Mdm2 and caspase-3 expression were reduced in the cells exposed to spermine compared to blank group. These results suggest that activation of HAT in the presence of spermine promotes the induction of autophagy in HT1080 cells through the enhanced activity of p-p53 and acetyl p53. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Depression of p53-independent Akt survival signals after high-LET radiation in mutated p53 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Takeo; Takahashi, Akihisa; Nakagawa, Yosuke

    Although mutations and deletions in the p53 tumor suppressor gene lead to resistance to low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, high-LET radiation efficiently induces cell lethality and apoptosis regardless of the p53 gene status. Recently, it has been suggested that the induction of p53-independent apoptosis takes place through the activation of Caspase-9 which results in the cleavage of Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). This study was designed to examine if high-LET radiation depresses the activities of serine/threonine protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt) and Akt-related proteins. Human gingival cancer cells (Ca9-22 cells) harboring a mutated p53 (mp53) gene were irradiated with 2 Gy of X-rays or Fe-ion beams. The cellular contents of Akt-related proteins participating in cell survival signals were analyzed with Western blotting analysis 1 h, 2 h, 3 h and 6 h after irradiation. Cell cycle distributions after irradiation were assayed with flow cytometric analysis.Akt-related protein levels were decreased when cells were irradiated with high-LET radiation. High-LET radiation increased G _{2}/M phase arrests and suppressed the progression of the cell cycle much more efficiently when compared to low-LET radiation. These results suggest that high-LET radiation enhances apoptosis through the activation of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9, and depresses cell growth by suppressing Akt-related signals, even in the mp53 cells.

  2. Distinctive patterns of p53 protein expression and microsatellite instability in human colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Nyiraneza, Christine; Jouret-Mourin, Anne; Kartheuser, Alex; Camby, Philippe; Plomteux, Olivier; Detry, Roger; Dahan, Karin; Sempoux, Christine

    2011-12-01

    Although evidence suggests an inverse relationship between microsatellite instability and p53 alterations in colorectal cancer, no study has thoroughly examined the use of p53 immunohistochemistry in phenotyping colorectal cancers. We investigated the value of p53 immunohistochemistry in microsatellite instability-positive colorectal cancers prescreening and attempted to clarify the relationship between DNA mismatch repair system and p53 pathway. In a series of 104 consecutive colorectal cancers, we performed p53 immunohistochemistry, TP53 mutational analysis, DNA mismatch repair system efficiency evaluation (DNA mismatch repair system immunohistochemistry, microsatellite instability status, MLH1/MSH2 germ line, and BRAF, murine double minute 2, and p21 immunohistochemistry. Microsatellite instability high was observed in 25 of 104 colorectal cancers, with DNA mismatch repair system protein loss (24/25) and germ line (8/25) or BRAF mutations (8/25). p53 immunohistochemistry revealed 3 distinct patterns of expression: complete negative immunostaining associated with truncating TP53 mutations (P < .0001), diffuse overexpression associated with missense TP53 mutations (P < .0001), and restricted overexpression characterized by a limited number of homogenously scattered strongly positive tumor cells in 36.5% of colorectal cancers. This latest pattern was associated with wild-type TP53 and microsatellite instability high colorectal cancers (P < .0001) including all Lynch tumors (8/8), but its presence among 22% of DNA mismatch repair system-competent colorectal cancers decreased its positive predictive value (55.2% [95% confidence interval, 45%-65%]). It was also correlated with murine double minute 2 overexpression (P < .0001) and inversely with p21 loss (P = .0002), independently of microsatellite instability status. In conclusion, a restricted pattern of p53 overexpression is preferentially associated with microsatellite instability high phenotype and could

  3. Over-expression of p53/BAK in aseptic loosening after total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Landgraeber, Stefan; Toetsch, Martin; Wedemeyer, Christian; Saxler, Guido; Tsokos, Michael; von Knoch, Fabian; Neuhäuser, Markus; Löer, Franz; von Knoch, Marius

    2006-05-01

    Particle-induced osteolysis is a major cause of aseptic loosening after total joint replacement. The possible induction of apoptosis has not been addressed in great detail. Thus far, it has been shown that ceramic and polyethylene particles can induce apoptosis of macrophages in vitro. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that wears debris generated from total hip arthroplasty could induce cellular damage and apoptosis in vivo. We therefore determined by immunohistochemical methods if increased expression of p53, an important transcription factor, and BAK and Bcl-2, two important regulators of apoptosis, can be found in interface membranes and capsules of hips with aseptically loose implants. Strongly positive immunohistochemical staining for p53 and BAK was found in peri-implant tissues from patients with aseptic hip implant loosening. Differentiation of various cell types showed that macrophages stained positive for p53 in all capsule and interface specimens. p53 was frequently detected in giant cells. Positive staining of BAK in macrophages and giant cells was seen in all specimens. Some positive reactions were observed in fibroblasts, only two of 19 cases stained for p53 and three cases for BAK within synovial cells. Positive macrophages and giant cells were localized around polyethylene particles. While T-lymphocytes showed a regular BAK-staining, the other leukocytes were negative. Statistical analyses showed significant positive correlations (p < 0.001) between the presence of polyethylene and metal debris and the expression of BAK and p53. Polyethylene particles were surrounded by more positive macrophages and giant cells than were metal particles, indicating that polyethylene debris may be a stronger inductor of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis than metal debris. In this study apoptosis of macrophages, giant cells and T-lymphocytes in capsules and interface membranes of patients with aseptic hip implant loosening has been demonstrated in

  4. p53 and mdm2 in mantle cell lymphoma in leukemic phase.

    PubMed

    Solenthaler, Max; Matutes, Estella; Brito-Babapulle, Vasantha; Morilla, Ricardo; Catovsky, Daniel

    2002-11-01

    In mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), abnormalities additional to t(11;14) including those affecting genes involved in the p53 pathway, are important for disease development and progression. This study aimed to assess the frequency, relationship and impact of p53 abnormalities and those of its inhibitor mdm2 in blastoid and non-blastoid MCL in leukemic phase. Isolated blood lymphocytes from 21 patients with MCL in leukemic phase, characterized by the presence of t(11;14), were analyzed by flow cytometry and by fluorescent in situ hybridization in order to investigate whether there is a correlation between overexpression and deletion of p53, overexpression of mdm2 and gain of chromosome 12. Results were also correlated with morphologic subtypes, proliferative activity assessed by expression of Ki67 and clinical outcome. Cells from 2/21 (10%) and 7/21 (33%) patients overexpressed p53 and mdm2, respectively. No single case expressed both proteins. Ten out of 19 (53%) patients had a hemizygous loss of 17p (p53) including the 2 patients (11%) overexpressing p53. Gains of chromosome 12 (mdm2) were found in only 2 cases with expression of mdm2 in one of them. Overall, p53 deletion and/or overexpression of mdm2 was found in 71% of cases. Ten of 19 patients had a blastoid MCL, including all 5 patients who were Ki67 positive, 6 of the 7 patients expressing mdm2 and one of the 2 patients expressing p53. There was no correlation between p53 deletion and morphologic subtypes. All patients with blastoid MCL have died after a median time of 25 months. In MCL in leukemic phase there is a high frequency of p53 deletion and/or overexpression of mdm2. In contrast, over expression of p53 is relatively rare. Overexpression of mdm2 is seen predominantly in blastoid MCL, the latter being characterized by a short median survival, and seems unrelated to a numerical gain of chromosome 12. It does not reflect a high proliferative rate but might indicate an alternative mechanism of inactivating p53

  5. p53 regulates cell cycle and microRNAs to promote differentiation of human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Jain, Abhinav K; Allton, Kendra; Iacovino, Michelina; Mahen, Elisabeth; Milczarek, Robert J; Zwaka, Thomas P; Kyba, Michael; Barton, Michelle Craig

    2012-01-01

    Multiple studies show that tumor suppressor p53 is a barrier to dedifferentiation; whether this is strictly due to repression of proliferation remains a subject of debate. Here, we show that p53 plays an active role in promoting differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and opposing self-renewal by regulation of specific target genes and microRNAs. In contrast to mouse embryonic stem cells, p53 in hESCs is maintained at low levels in the nucleus, albeit in a deacetylated, inactive state. In response to retinoic acid, CBP/p300 acetylates p53 at lysine 373, which leads to dissociation from E3-ubiquitin ligases HDM2 and TRIM24. Stabilized p53 binds CDKN1A to establish a G(1) phase of cell cycle without activation of cell death pathways. In parallel, p53 activates expression of miR-34a and miR-145, which in turn repress stem cell factors OCT4, KLF4, LIN28A, and SOX2 and prevent backsliding to pluripotency. Induction of p53 levels is a key step: RNA-interference-mediated knockdown of p53 delays differentiation, whereas depletion of negative regulators of p53 or ectopic expression of p53 yields spontaneous differentiation of hESCs, independently of retinoic acid. Ectopic expression of p53R175H, a mutated form of p53 that does not bind DNA or regulate transcription, failed to induce differentiation. These studies underscore the importance of a p53-regulated network in determining the human stem cell state.

  6. p53 is an Important Regulator of CCL2 Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Tang, X.; Asano, M.; O’Reilly, A.; Farquhar, A.; Yang, Y.; Amar, S.

    2013-01-01

    The p53 protein is a sequence-specific DNA-binding factor that regulates inflammatory genes such as CCL2/MCP-1 that may play a role in various diseases. A recent study has indicated that the knockdown of human p53 leads to a strong negative regulation of CCL2 induction. We are therefore interested in how p53 regulates CCL2 gene expression. In the following study, our findings indicate that UV-induced p53 accumulation in mouse macrophages significantly decreases LPS-induced CCL2 production, and that p53 binds to CCL2 5’UTR in the region (16-35). We also found that a p53 domain (p53pep170) mimics full length p53 to down-regulate CCL2 promoter activity. Treatment of p53-deficient mouse primary macrophages with synthetic p53pep170 was found to decrease LPS-induced production of CCL2 without association with cellular endogenous p53. CCL2 production induced by lentiCLG in human monocytes or mouse primary macrophages was blocked in the presence of p53pep170. Overall, these results demonstrate that p53 or its derived peptide (p53pep170) is an important regulator of CCL2 gene expression via its binding activity, and acts as a novel model for future studies linking p53 and its short peptide to pave the way to possible pharmaceutical intervention of CCL2-mediated inflammatory and cancer diseases. PMID:22804246

  7. MIF Maintains the Tumorigenic Capacity of Brain Tumor-Initiating Cells by Directly Inhibiting p53.

    PubMed

    Fukaya, Raita; Ohta, Shigeki; Yaguchi, Tomonori; Matsuzaki, Yumi; Sugihara, Eiji; Okano, Hideyuki; Saya, Hideyuki; Kawakami, Yutaka; Kawase, Takeshi; Yoshida, Kazunari; Toda, Masahiro

    2016-05-01

    Tumor-initiating cells thought to drive brain cancer are embedded in a complex heterogeneous histology. In this study, we isolated primary cells from 21 human brain tumor specimens to establish cell lines with high tumorigenic potential and to identify the molecules enabling this capability. The morphology, sphere-forming ability upon expansion, and differentiation potential of all cell lines were indistinguishable in vitro However, testing for tumorigenicity revealed two distinct cell types, brain tumor-initiating cells (BTIC) and non-BTIC. We found that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was highly expressed in BTIC compared with non-BTIC. MIF bound directly to both wild-type and mutant p53 but regulated p53-dependent cell growth by different mechanisms, depending on glioma cell line and p53 status. MIF physically interacted with wild-type p53 in the nucleus and inhibited its transcription-dependent functions. In contrast, MIF bound to mutant p53 in the cytoplasm and abrogated transcription-independent induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, MIF knockdown inhibited BTIC-induced tumor formation in a mouse xenograft model, leading to increased overall survival. Collectively, our findings suggest that MIF regulates BTIC function through direct, intracellular inhibition of p53, shedding light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the tumorigenicity of certain malignant brain cells. Cancer Res; 76(9); 2813-23. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. p53 inhibition by the LANA protein of KSHV protects against cell death.

    PubMed

    Friborg, J; Kong, W; Hottiger, M O; Nabel, G J

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), or human herpesvirus 8, has been implicated in the development of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and several B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases. Most cells in lesions derived from these malignancies are latently infected, and different viral gene products have been identified in association with lytic or latent infection by KSHV. The latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA), encoded by open reading frame 73 of the KSHV genome, is a highly immunogenic protein that is expressed predominantly during viral latency, in most KS spindle cells and in cell lines established from body-cavity-based lymphomas. Antibodies to LANA can be detected in a high percentage of HIV-infected individuals who subsequently develop KS, although its role in disease pathogenesis is not completely understood. p53 is a potent transcriptional regulator of cell growth whose induction leads either to cell-cycle arrest or apoptosis. Loss of p53 function correlates with cell transformation and oncogenesis, and several viral oncoproteins interact with p53 and modulate its biological activity. Here we show that LANA interacts with the tumour suppressor protein p53 and represses its transcriptional activity. This viral gene product further inhibits the ability of p53 to induce cell death. We propose that LANA contributes to viral persistence and oncogenesis in KS through its ability to promote cell survival by altering p53 function.

  9. Transglutaminase 2 Inhibitor KCC009 Induces p53-Independent Radiosensitization in Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huayin, Sheng; Dong, Yao; Chihong, Zhu; Xiaoqian, Qian; Danying, Wan; Jianguo, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background The expression of transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is correlated to DNA damage repair and apoptosis through the p53 pathway. The present study aimed to investigate the potential radiosensitization effect and possible mechanisms of the TG2 inhibitor KCC009 in lung cancer in vitro. Material/Methods A single hit multi-target model was used to plot survival curves and to calculate the sensitizing enhancement ratios in lung cancer wild-type or mutant p53 of H1299 cells. We performed analyses for changes of cell cycling and apoptotic responses of cells; Western blot analysis and real-time SYBR Green PCR assay were used to determine the changes of mRNA/protein expressions; ELISA assay was used for examination of cytochrome c release in cytoplasm. Results Our results showed that KCC009 induced radiosensitization in both H1299/WT-p53 and H1299/M175H-p53 cells. KCC009+IR induced G0/G1 arrest in H1299/WT cells and G2/M arrest in H1299/M175H-p53 cells. KCC009+IR also induced apoptosis in both cell lines. In addition, KCC009+IR decreased the TG2 expression, and increased the p53 expression in H1299/WT cells but not in H1299/M175H-p53 cells. KCC009+IR also increased the expression of p21, Bax, p-caspase-3, and decreased Bcl-2 and CyclinD expression in H1299/WT cells. While KCC009+IR induced phosphorylation of caspase-3 and increase Cyt-C level in the cytoplasm of, and decreased CyclinB, Bcl-2 expression in H1299/M175H-p53 cells, we noticed that Cyt-C level in the nucleus decreased in the H1299/WT cells. Conclusions KCC009, a TG2 inhibitor, exhibits potent radiosensitization effects in human lung cancer cells expressing wild-type or mutant p53 with different mechanisms. PMID:28002389

  10. Transglutaminase 2 Inhibitor KCC009 Induces p53-Independent Radiosensitization in Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Huaying, Sheng; Dong, Yao; Chihong, Zhu; Xiaoqian, Qian; Danying, Wan; Jianguo, Feng

    2016-12-21

    BACKGROUND The expression of transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is correlated to DNA damage repair and apoptosis through the p53 pathway. The present study aimed to investigate the potential radiosensitization effect and possible mechanisms of the TG2 inhibitor KCC009 in lung cancer in vitro. MATERIAL AND METHODS A single hit multi-target model was used to plot survival curves and to calculate the sensitizing enhancement ratios in lung cancer wild-type or mutant p53 of H1299 cells. We performed analyses for changes of cell cycling and apoptotic responses of cells; Western blot analysis and real-time SYBR Green PCR assay were used to determine the changes of mRNA/protein expressions; ELISA assay was used for examination of cytochrome c release in cytoplasm. RESULTS Our results showed that KCC009 induced radiosensitization in both H1299/WT-p53 and H1299/M175H-p53 cells. KCC009+IR induced G0/G1 arrest in H1299/WT cells and G2/M arrest in H1299/M175H-p53 cells. KCC009+IR also induced apoptosis in both cell lines. In addition, KCC009+IR decreased the TG2 expression, and increased the p53 expression in H1299/WT cells but not in H1299/M175H-p53 cells. KCC009+IR also increased the expression of p21, Bax, p-caspase-3, and decreased Bcl-2 and CyclinD expression in H1299/WT cells. While KCC009+IR induced phosphorylation of caspase-3 and increase Cyt-C level in the cytoplasm of, and decreased CyclinB, Bcl-2 expression in H1299/M175H-p53 cells, we noticed that Cyt-C level in the nucleus decreased in the H1299/WT cells. CONCLUSIONS KCC009, a TG2 inhibitor, exhibits potent radiosensitization effects in human lung cancer cells expressing wild-type or mutant p53 with different mechanisms.

  11. Expression of p16 and p53 in Intraepithelial Periocular Sebaceous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bell, W. Robert; Singh, Kamaljeet; Rajan KD, Anand; Eberhart, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Identifying intraepithelial sebaceous carcinoma cells in small periocular biopsies can be difficult, particularly in the conjunctiva. The goal of this study was to evaluate p53 and p16 immunohistochemistry as potential markers of intraepithelial sebaceous carcinoma. Procedures A total of 25 tumors, including 4 recurrent lesions, were stained for p16 and p53, with intensity scored as negative, weak, moderate or strong. Results Expression of p16 was detected in intraepithelial sebaceous carcinoma cells in 24 of the 25 cases (96%), with only 1 case showing weak immunoreactivity. Intraepithelial p53 immunoreactivity was present in 17 of 25 tumors (68%), but was weak in 3 cases. Expression levels remained relatively stable in primary and recurrent tumors, but varied in a few cases between intraepithelial and subepithelial sites. Conclusions Intraepithelial sebaceous carcinomas stained for p53 and p16 demonstrated moderate to strong immunoreactivity in 100% of cases for at least one of these proteins, suggesting that together they are useful markers for determining the extent of tumor spread. Of the two, p16 was immunoreactive in more cases than p53. PMID:27171611

  12. Cellular localization of human p53 expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: effect of NLSI deletion.

    PubMed

    Abdelmoula-Souissi, Salma; Delahodde, Agnès; Bolotin-Fukuhara, Monique; Gargouri, Ali; Mokdad-Gargouri, Raja

    2011-07-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 plays a central role in the regulation of cellular growth and apoptosis. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, over-expression of the human wtp53 leads to growth inhibition and cell death on minimal medium. In the present work, we showed that deletion of the nuclear localization signal (NLSI) of p53 restores the yeast growth. In this heterologous context, the level of p53∆NLSI was low and the protein mainly located in the cytoplasm while the wtp53 was observed in both the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. Interestingly, the wtp53 protein was observed in the mitochondria, whereas the p53∆NLSI protein failed to localize in mitochondria. Moreover, mitochondrial morphology defect and release of cytochrome c in the cytosol were noticed only in the yeast strain expressing the wtp53. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that the human wtp53 is active in S. cerevisiae probably through dependent and independent transcriptional mechanisms leading to cell death. The deletion of the NLSI sequence decreases p53 nuclear translocation as well as its mitochondrial localization and consequently its effect on yeast growth.

  13. Loss of p53 protein during radiation transformation of primary human mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Wazer, D E; Chu, Q; Liu, X L; Gao, Q; Safaii, H; Band, V

    1994-01-01

    The causative factors leading to breast cancer are largely unknown. Increased incidence of breast cancer following diagnostic or therapeutic radiation suggests that radiation may contribute to mammary oncogenesis. This report describes the in vitro neoplastic transformation of a normal human mammary epithelial cell strain, 76N, by fractionated gamma-irradiation at a clinically used dose (30 Gy). The transformed cells (76R-30) were immortal, had reduced growth factor requirements, and produced tumors in nude mice. Remarkably, the 76R-30 cells completely lacked the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Loss of p53 was due to deletion of the gene on one allele and a 26-bp deletion within the third intron on the second allele which resulted in abnormal splicing out of either the third or fourth exon from the mRNA. PCR with a mutation-specific primer showed that intron 3 mutation was present in irradiated cells before selection for immortal phenotype. 76R-30 cells did not exhibit G1 arrest in response to radiation, indicating a loss of p53-mediated function. Expression of the wild-type p53 gene in 76R-30 cells led to their growth inhibition. Thus, loss of p53 protein appears to have contributed to neoplastic transformation of these cells. This unique model should facilitate analyses of molecular mechanisms of radiation-induced breast cancer and allow identification of p53-regulated cellular genes in breast cells. Images PMID:7511207

  14. p53 Dependent Apoptotic Cell Death Induces Embryonic Malformation in Carassius auratus under Chronic Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Subrata; Sawant, Bhawesh T.; Chadha, Narinder K.; Pal, Asim K.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia is a global phenomenon affecting recruitment as well as the embryonic development of aquatic fauna. The present study depicts hypoxia induced disruption of the intrinsic pathway of programmed cell death (PCD), leading to embryonic malformation in the goldfish, Carrasius auratus. Constant hypoxia induced the early expression of pro-apoptotic/tumor suppressor p53 and concomitant expression of the cell death molecule, caspase-3, leading to high level of DNA damage and cell death in hypoxic embryos, as compared to normoxic ones. As a result, the former showed delayed 4 and 64 celled stages and a delay in appearance of epiboly stage. Expression of p53 efficiently switched off expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 during the initial 12 hours post fertilization (hpf) and caused embryonic cell death. However, after 12 hours, simultaneous downregulation of p53 and Caspase-3 and exponential increase of Bcl-2, caused uncontrolled cell proliferation and prevented essential programmed cell death (PCD), ultimately resulting in significant (p<0.05) embryonic malformation up to 144 hpf. Evidences suggest that uncontrolled cell proliferation after 12 hpf may have been due to downregulation of p53 abundance, which in turn has an influence on upregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Therefore, we have been able to show for the first time and propose that hypoxia induced downregulation of p53 beyond 12 hpf, disrupts PCD and leads to failure in normal differentiation, causing malformation in gold fish embryos. PMID:25068954

  15. The state of the p53 and retinoblastoma genes in human cervical carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Scheffner, M.; Muenger, K.; Byrne, J.C.; Howley, P.M. )

    1991-07-01

    Human cervical carcinoma cell lines that were either positive or negative for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA sequences were analyzed for evidence of mutation of the p53 and retinoblastoma genes. Each of five HPV-positive cervical cancer cell lines expressed normal pRB and low levels of wild-type p53 proteins, which are presumed to be altered in function as a consequence of association with HPV E7 and E6 oncoproteins, respectively. In contrast, mutations were identified in the p53 and RB genes expressed in the C-33A and HT-3 cervical cancer cell lines, which lack HPV DNA sequences. Mutations in the p53 genes mapped to codon 273 and codon 245 in the C33-A and HT-3 cell lines, respectively, located in the highly conserved regions of p53, where mutations appear in a variety of human cancers. Mutations in RB occurred at splice junctions, resulting in in-frame deletions, affecting exons 13 and 20 in the HT-3 and C-33A cell lines, respectively. These mutations resulted in aberrant proteins that were not phosphorylated and were unable to complex with the adenovirus E1A oncoprotein. These results support the hypothesis that the inactivation of the normal functions of the tumor-suppressor proteins pRB and p53 are important steps in human cervical carcinogenesis, either by mutation or from complex formation with the HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins.

  16. The Role of p16, p21, p27, p53 and Ki-67 Expression in the Differential Diagnosis of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinomas and Keratoacanthomas: An Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Bedir, Recep; Güçer, Hasan; Şehitoğlu, İbrahim; Yurdakul, Cüneyt; Bağcı, Pelin; Üstüner, Pelin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Distinguishing squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) from keratoacanthoma (KA) by histopathological features may not be sufficient for a differential diagnosis, as KAs may, in some cases, imitate well-differentiated SCCs. Aims: In this study, we investigated whether the expression of the p16, p21, p27, p53 genes and a Ki-67 proliferation index are useful in distinguishing between these two tumors. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the expression of the p16, p21, p27, p53 genes and the Ki-67 proliferation index was investigated in well-differentiated SCC with KA-like features (n=40) and KA (n=30). Results: The results of all of the examined markers, except for p27 (p16, p21, p53, and Ki-67) were found to be significantly different between the SCC and KA samples (p<0.05). Conclusion: In well-differentiated SCC with KA-like features and KA cases where the differential diagnosis is difficult from a histopathological perspective, the use of p16, p21, p53 expression and a Ki-67 proliferation index can be useful for the differential diagnosis of SCCs and KAs. PMID:27403379

  17. CP-31398 inhibits the growth of p53-mutated liver cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    He, Xing-Xing; Zhang, Yu-Nan; Yan, Jun-Wei; Yan, Jing-Jun; Wu, Qian; Song, Yu-Hu

    2016-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 is one of the most frequently mutated genes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Previous studies demonstrated that CP-31398 restored the native conformation of mutant p53 and trans-activated p53 downstream genes in tumor cells. However, the research on the application of CP-31398 to liver cancer has not been reported. Here, we investigated the effects of CP-31398 on the phenotype of HCC cells carrying p53 mutation. The effects of CP-31398 on the characteristic of p53-mutated HCC cells were evaluated through analyzing cell cycle, cell apoptosis, cell proliferation, and the expression of p53 downstream genes. In tumor xenografts developed by PLC/PRF/5 cells, the inhibition of tumor growth by CP-31398 was analyzed through gross morphology, growth curve, and the expression of p53-related genes. Firstly, we demonstrated that CP-31398 inhibited the growth of p53-mutated liver cancer cells in a dose-dependent and p53-dependent manner. Then, further study showed that CP-31398 re-activated wild-type p53 function in p53-mutated HCC cells, which resulted in inhibitive response of cell proliferation and an induction of cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Finally, in vivo data confirmed that CP-31398 blocked the growth of xenografts tumors through transactivation of p53-responsive downstream molecules. Our results demonstrated that CP-31398 induced desired phenotypic change of p53-mutated HCC cells in vitro and in vivo, which revealed that CP-31398 would be developed as a therapeutic candidate for HCC carrying p53 mutation.

  18. The prognostic implication of the expression of EGFR, p53, cyclin D1, Bcl-2 and p16 in primary locally advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma cases: a tissue microarray study.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Monica Charlotte; Vidyasagar, M S; Fernandes, Donald; Guddattu, Vasudev; Mathew, Mary; Shergill, Ankur Kaur; Carnelio, Sunitha; Chandrashekar, Chetana

    2016-12-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinomas comprise a heterogeneous tumor cell population with varied molecular characteristics, which makes prognostication of these tumors a complex and challenging issue. Thus, molecular profiling of these tumors is advantageous for an accurate prognostication and treatment planning. This is a retrospective study on a cohort of primary locally advanced oral squamous cell carcinomas (n = 178) of an Indian rural population. The expression of EGFR, p53, cyclin D1, Bcl-2 and p16 in a cohort of primary locally advanced oral squamous cell carcinomas was evaluated. A potential biomarker that can predict the tumor response to treatment was identified. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor blocks of (n = 178) of histopathologically diagnosed cases of locally advanced oral squamous cell carcinomas were selected. Tissue microarray blocks were constructed with 2 cores of 2 mm diameter from each tumor block. Four-micron-thick sections were cut from these tissue microarray blocks. These tissue microarray sections were immunohistochemically stained for EGFR, p53, Bcl-2, cyclin D1 and p16. In this cohort, EGFR was the most frequently expressed 150/178 (84%) biomarker of the cases. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significant association (p = 0.038) between expression of p53 and a poor prognosis. A Poisson regression analysis showed that tumors that expressed p53 had a two times greater chance of recurrence (unadjusted IRR-95% CI 2.08 (1.03, 4.5), adjusted IRR-2.29 (1.08, 4.8) compared with the tumors that did not express this biomarker. Molecular profiling of oral squamous cell carcinomas will enable us to categorize our patients into more realistic risk groups. With biologically guided tumor characterization, personalized treatment protocols can be designed for individual patients, which will improve the quality of life of these patients.

  19. Functional characterization of a new p53 mutant generated by homozygous deletion in a neuroblastoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Yohko; Ozaki, Toshinori; Niizuma, Hidetaka; Ohira, Miki; Kamijo, Takehiko; Nakagawara, Akira . E-mail: akiranak@chiba-cc.jp

    2007-03-23

    p53 is a key modulator of a variety of cellular stresses. In human neuroblastomas, p53 is rarely mutated and aberrantly expressed in cytoplasm. In this study, we have identified a novel p53 mutant lacking its COOH-terminal region in neuroblastoma SK-N-AS cells. p53 accumulated in response to cisplatin (CDDP) and thereby promoting apoptosis in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells bearing wild-type p53, whereas SK-N-AS cells did not undergo apoptosis. We found another p53 (p53{delta}C) lacking a part of oligomerization domain and nuclear localization signals in SK-N-AS cells. p53{delta}C was expressed largely in cytoplasm and lost the transactivation function. Furthermore, a 3'-part of the p53 locus was homozygously deleted in SK-N-AS cells. Thus, our present findings suggest that p53 plays an important role in the DNA-damage response in certain neuroblastoma cells and it seems to be important to search for p53 mutations outside DNA-binding domain.

  20. Zinc enhances CDKN2A, pRb1 expression and regulates functional apoptosis via upregulation of p53 and p21 expression in human breast cancer MCF-7 cell.

    PubMed

    Al-Saran, Nada; Subash-Babu, Pandurangan; Al-Nouri, Doha M; Alfawaz, Hanan A; Alshatwi, Ali A

    2016-10-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace elements, its deficiency is associated with increased incidence of human breast cancer. We aimed to study the effect of Zn on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells cultured in Zn depleted and Zn adequate medium. We found increased cancer cell growth in zinc depleted condition, further Zn supplementation inhibits the viability of breast cancer MCF-7 cell cultured in Zn deficient condition and the IC25, IC50 value for Zn is 6.2μM, 15μM, respectively after 48h. Zn markedly induced apoptosis through the characteristic apoptotic morphological changes and DNA fragmentation after 48h. In addition, Zn deficient cells significantly triggered intracellular ROS level and develop oxidative stress induced DNA damage; it was confirmed by elevated expression of CYP1A, GPX, GSK3β and TNF-α gene. Zinc depleted MCF-7 cells expressed significantly (p≤0.001) decreased levels of CDKN2A, pRb1, p53 and increased the level of mdm2 expression. Zn supplementation (IC50=15μM), increased significantly CDKN2A, pRB1 & p53 and markedly reduced mdm2 expression; also protein expression levels of CDKN2A and pRb1 was significantly increased. In addition, intrinsic apoptotic pathway related genes such as Bax, caspase-3, 8, 9 & p21 expression was enhanced and finally induced cell apoptosis. In conclusion, physiological level of zinc is important to prevent DNA damage and MCF-7 cell proliferation via regulation of tumor suppressor gene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Knockdown of Merm1/Wbscr22 attenuates sensitivity of H460 non-small cell lung cancer cells to SN-38 and 5-FU without alteration to p53 expression levels.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dongmei; Zheng, Xiaoliang; Tu, Linglan; Jia, Jing; Li, Qin; Cheng, Liyan; Wang, Xiaoju

    2015-01-01

    Merm1/Wbscr22 is a novel metastasis promoter that has been shown to be involved in tumor metastasis, viability and apoptosis. To the best of our knowledge, there are currently no studies suggesting the possible correlation between the expression of Merm1/Wbscr22 in tumor cells and chemosensitivity to antitumor agents. In the present study, two human non-small cell lung cancer cell lines, H1299 and H460, were used to investigate whether Merm1/Wbscr22 affects chemosensitivity to antitumor agents, including cisplatin (CDDP), doxorubicin (ADM), paclitaxel (PTX), mitomycin (MMC), 7-Ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38; the active metabolite of camptothecin) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Merm1/Wbscr22 knockdown cell lines (H1299-shRNA and H460-shRNA) and negative control cell lines (H1299-NC and H460-NC) were established by stable transfection, and the efficiency of Merm1/Wbscr22 knockdown was confirmed by western blotting, immunofluorescence microscopy and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results demonstrated that shRNA-mediated knockdown of Merm1/Wbscr22 did not affect cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. The H460 cells harboring wild type p53 were markedly more sensitive to all six antitumor agents as compared with the p53-null H1299 cells. Downregulation of Merm1/Wbscr22 did not affect H1299 sensitivity to any of the six antitumor agents, whereas attenuated H460 sensitivity to SN-38 and 5-FU, without significant alteration in p53 at both mRNA and protein levels, was identified. The reduced H460 sensitivity to SN-38 was further confirmed in vivo. SN-38 demonstrated significant tumor growth inhibitory activity in both H460 and H460‑NC tumor xenograft models, but only marginally suppressed the H460-shRNA xenograft tumor growth. Furthermore, CDDP (4, 10, 15 µg/ml)-resistant human non-small lung cancer cells A549 (A549-CDDPr-4, 10, 15) expressed significant amounts of Merm1/Wbscr22 protein, as compared with the parental A549 cells. In conclusion, sh

  2. p53 expression in oral lichenoid lesions and oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Arreaza, A; Rivera, H; Correnti, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article was to compare the expression of p53 protein in oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid reaction (OLR). The study population consisted of 65 patients--31 diagnosed with OLP and 34 with OLR. The results showed more p53 positive cases in the OLP group than in the OLR group. However, the difference between the 2 groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.114). The most common immunolocalization was observed at the basal cell layer. Due to the chance of potential future malignancy, follow-up for all cases is recommended.

  3. Inhaled asbestos fibers induce p53 expression in the rat lung.

    PubMed

    Mishra, A; Liu, J Y; Brody, A R; Morris, G F

    1997-04-01

    Humans and rodents exposed to an aerosol of asbestos fibers develop lung injury that can lead to a fibroproliferative response culminating in excessive scarring and impaired lung function. To define the early events that precede asbestos-induced fibrotic lung disease, rats were exposed to an aerosol of chrysotile asbestos fibers for 5 h. At various times after exposure, the lungs of the asbestos-exposed animals were evaluated immunohistochemically for expression of the p53 tumor suppressor protein, a growth regulatory protein. p53 became detectable by immunostaining at the predicted sites of fiber deposition (the bronchiolar-alveolar duct bifurcations) by 24 h after exposure. The number of cells positive for p53 immunostaining increased to a maximal level at 8 days after exposure, decreased by 14 days and returned to a low basal level at the 30-day time point. Control groups of rats that were unexposed or exposed to an aerosol of iron beads were negative for p53 immunostaining throughout the 30-day assessment period. Simultaneous detection of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) at the sites of fiber deposition in the asbestos-exposed animals agrees with our previous finding that p53 binds and regulates the PCNA promoter.

  4. Proteic expression of p53 and cellular proliferation in oral leukoplakias.

    PubMed

    Santos-García, Antonio; Abad-Hernández, M Mar; Fonseca-Sánchez, Emilio; Cruz-Hernández, Juan Jesús; Bullón-Sopelana, Agustín

    2005-01-01

    We intend to know the protein expression of genetic alterations that take place in the early stages in the field cancerization of oral cavity in our means as well as to study the cellular proliferation by means of Ki-67 and the protein product expression of p53 to value if the alterations in the protein products expression of these markers happen in a sequential pathway through the different stages in the field cancerization of oral cavity. A study was made by immunohistochemistry on 53 patients that presented lesions of oral leukoplaquia, assisted by the ENT service at University Hospital of Salamanca, from 1.990 up to 2000. 11 samples of normal epithelium, 15 mild to moderate dysplasias, 15 in situ carcinomas and 12 microinvasive carcinomas are included in the study. we find an increased cellular proliferation and p53 over-expression as we advance in the grade of severity histopathologic of these lesions. The most early alterations are a significant increase of cell proliferation in mild and moderate dysplasias and an increased p53 over-expression. Oral leukoplaquia is a precancerous stage that constitutes a cancerisable lesion due to the genetic alterations that mediate in the evolution of lesion. Routine Immunohistochemical and molecular study of these lesions allow us to know the protein expression of genetic alterations that can help in the early diagnosis and treatment of this pathology, having special relevance the study of Ki-67 in early stages and p53 in advanced lesions.

  5. Dendrosomal nanocurcumin and p53 overexpression synergistically trigger apoptosis in glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarz, Reihaneh; Bakhshinejad, Babak; Babashah, Sadegh; Baghi, Narges; Sadeghizadeh, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Glioblastoma is the most lethal tumor of the central nervous system. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effects of exogenous delivery of p53 and a nanoformulation of curcumin called dendrosomal curcumin (DNC), alone and in combination, on glioblastoma tumor cells. Materials and Methods: MTT assay was exploited to measure the viability of U87-MG cells against DNC treatment. Cells were separately subjected to DNC treatment and transfected with p53-containing vector and then were co-exposed to DNC and p53 overexpression[A GA1][B2]. Annexin-V-FLUOS staining followed by flow cytometry and real-time PCR were applied to examine apoptosis and analyze the expression levels of the genes involved in cell cycle and oncogenesis, respectively. Results: The results of cell viability assay through MTT indicated that DNC inhibits the proliferation of U87-MG cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Apoptosis evaluation revealed that p53 overexpression accompanied by DNC treatment can act in a synergistic manner to significantly enhance the number of apoptotic cells (90%) compared with their application alone (15% and 38% for p53 overexpression and DNC, respectively). Also, real-time PCR data showed that the concomitant exposure of cells to both DNC and p53 overexpression leads to an enhanced expression of GADD45 and a reduced expression of NF-κB and c-Myc. Conclusion: The findings of the current study suggest that our combination strategy, which merges two detached gene (p53) and drug (curcumin) delivery systems into an integrated platform, may represent huge potential as a novel and efficient modality for glioblastoma treatment. PMID:28096969

  6. p53 Enables metabolic fitness and self-renewal of nephron progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuwen; Liu, Jiao; Li, Wencheng; Brown, Aaron; Baddoo, Melody; Li, Marilyn; Carroll, Thomas; Oxburgh, Leif; Feng, Yumei; Saifudeen, Zubaida

    2015-04-01

    Contrary to its classic role in restraining cell proliferation, we demonstrate here a divergent function of p53 in the maintenance of self-renewal of the nephron progenitor pool in the embryonic mouse kidney. Nephron endowment is regulated by progenitor availability and differentiation potential. Conditional deletion of p53 in nephron progenitor cells (Six2Cre(+);p53(fl/fl)) induces progressive depletion of Cited1(+)/Six2(+) self-renewing progenitors and loss of cap mesenchyme (CM) integrity. The Six2(p53-null) CM is disorganized, with interspersed stromal cells and an absence of a distinct CM-epithelia and CM-stroma interface. Impaired cell adhesion and epithelialization are indicated by decreased E-cadherin and NCAM expression and by ineffective differentiation in response to Wnt induction. The Six2Cre(+);p53(fl/fl) cap has 30% fewer Six2(GFP(+)) cells. Apoptotic index is unchanged, whereas proliferation index is significantly reduced in accordance with cell cycle analysis showing disproportionately fewer Six2Cre(+);p53(fl/fl) cells in the S and G2/M phases compared with Six2Cre(+);p53(+/+) cells. Mutant kidneys are hypoplastic with fewer generations of nascent nephrons. A significant increase in mean arterial pressure is observed in early adulthood in both germline and conditional Six2(p53-null) mice, linking p53-mediated defects in kidney development to hypertension. RNA-Seq analyses of FACS-isolated wild-type and Six2(GFP(+)) CM cells revealed that the top downregulated genes in Six2Cre(+);p53(fl/fl) CM belong to glucose metabolism and adhesion and/or migration pathways. Mutant cells exhibit a ∼ 50% decrease in ATP levels and a 30% decrease in levels of reactive oxygen species, indicating energy metabolism dysfunction. In summary, our data indicate a novel role for p53 in enabling the metabolic fitness and self-renewal of nephron progenitors. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Lack of p53 Augments Anti-Tumor Functions in Cytolytic T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Paramita; Kesarwani, Pravin; Soloshchenko, Myroslawa; Al-Hommrani, Mazen; Andrijauskaite, Kristina; Moxley, Kelly; Janakiraman, Harinarayanan; Scheffel, Matthew J.; Helke, Kristi; Armenson, Kent; Palanisamy, Viswanathan; Rubinstein, Mark P.; Mayer, Elizabeth-Garrett; Cole, David J.; Paulos, Chrystal M.; Christina-Voelkel-Johnson; Nishimura, Michael I.; Mehrotra, Shikhar

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive stimulation of T cell receptor (TCR) with cognate antigen results in robust proliferation and expansion of the T cells, and also imprints them with replicative senescence signatures. Our previous studies have shown that life-span and anti-tumor function of T cells can be enhanced by inhibiting reactive oxygen species (ROS) or intervening with ROS dependent JNK activation that leads to its activation induced cell death (AICD). Since tumor suppressor protein p53 is also a redox active transcription factor that regulates cellular ROS generation that triggers downstream factor mediating apoptosis, we determined if p53 levels could influence persistence and function of tumor reactive T cells. Using h3T TCR transgenic mice, with human tyrosinase epitope reactive T cells developed on p53 knock-out (KO) background, we determined its role in regulating anti-tumor T cell function. Our data shows that as compared to h3T cells, h3T-p53 KO T cells exhibited enhanced glycolytic commitment that correlated with increased proliferation, IFN-γ secretion, cytolytic capacity, expression of stemness gene signature and decreased TGF-β signaling. This increased effector function correlated to the improved control of subcutaneously established murine melanoma after adoptive transfer of p53-KO T cells. Pharmacological inhibition of human TCR transduced T cells using a combination of p53 inhibitors also potentiated the T cell effector function and improved persistence. Thus, our data highlights the key role of p53 in regulating the tumor reactive T cell response and that targeting this pathway could have potential translational significance in adoptive T cell therapy. PMID:27466285

  8. Green Tea Polyphenols Induce p53-Dependent and p53-Independent Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells through Two Distinct Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Karishma; Thakur, Vijay S.; Bhaskaran, Natarajan; Nawab, Akbar; Babcook, Melissa A.; Jackson, Mark W.; Gupta, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene p53 is commonly observed in human prostate cancer and is associated with therapeutic resistance. We have previously demonstrated that green tea polyphenols (GTP) induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells irrespective of p53 status. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these observations remain elusive. Here we investigated the mechanisms of GTP-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer LNCaP cells stably-transfected with short hairpin-RNA against p53 (LNCaPshp53) and control vector (LNCaPshV). GTP treatment induced p53 stabilization and activation of downstream targets p21/waf1 and Bax in a dose-dependent manner specifically in LNCaPshV cells. However, GTP-induced FAS upregulation through activation of c-jun-N-terminal kinase resulted in FADD phosphorylation, caspase-8 activation and truncation of BID, leading to apoptosis in both LNCaPshV and LNCaPshp53 cells. In parallel, treatment of cells with GTP resulted in inhibition of survival pathway, mediated by Akt deactivation and loss of BAD phosphorylation more prominently in LNCaPshp53 cells. These distinct routes of cell death converged to a common pathway, leading to loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, cytochrome c release and activation of terminal caspases, resulting in PARP-cleavage. GTP-induced apoptosis was attenuated with JNK inhibitor, SP600125 in both cell lines; whereas PI3K-Akt inhibitor, LY294002 resulted in increased cell death prominently in LNCaPshp53 cells, establishing the role of two distinct pathways of GTP-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, GTP exposure resulted in inhibition of class I HDAC protein, accumulation of acetylated histone-H3 in total cellular chromatin, resulting in increased accessibility of transcription factors to bind with the promoter sequences of p21/waf1 and Bax, regardless of the p53 status of cells, consistent with effects elicited by an HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A. These results demonstrate that GTP induces

  9. Effect of Mir-122 on Human Cholangiocarcinoma Proliferation, Invasion, and Apoptosis Through P53 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cuiping; Zhang, Jinmei; Cao, Xiangang; Yang, Qian; Xia, Dequan

    2016-01-01

    Background Bile duct carcinoma is a common digestive tract tumor with high morbidity and mortality. As a kind of important non-coding RNA, microRNA (miR) plays an important role in post-transcriptional regulation. MiR-122 is the most abundant miR in the liver. Multiple studies have shown that miR-122 level is reduced in a variety of liver tumors and can be used as a specific marker for liver injury. P53 is a classic tumor suppressor gene that can induce tumor cell apoptosis through various pathways. Whether miR-122 affects p53 in bile duct carcinoma still needs investigation. Material/Methods miR inhibitor or mimics was transfected to bile duct carcinoma cells to evaluate its function on proliferation, invasion, apoptosis, and p53 expression. Results MiR-122 overexpression reduced cell invasion and migration ability, and inhibited cell apoptosis and p53 expression. Inhibiting miR-122 caused the opposite results. Conclusions Upregulating miR-122 can suppress bile duct carcinoma cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. MiR-122 could be used as a target for bile duct carcinoma treatment, which provides a new strategy for cholangiocarcinoma patients. PMID:27472451

  10. S100A4 interacts with mutant p53 and affects gastric cancer MKN1 cell autophagy and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Chen, Danqi; Liu, Shanshan; Chen, Lisha; Yu, Aiwen; Fu, Hao; Sun, Xiuju

    2015-12-01

    The acquired p53 mutations are the most common genetic alterations in human cancers. Mutant p53 proteins tend to accumulate, augmenting their oncogenic potential. However, the mechanisms for mutant p53 accumulation are not known. Previous studies have shown that S100A4 interacts with wild‑type p53. The present study marks the first time the effect of S100A4 on mutant p53 levels in gastric cancer MKN1 cells, which harbor mutant p53V143A, and the functional consequences have been investigated. S100A4 interacted with mutant p53V143A in the cells, and S100A4 inhibition decreased mutant p53V143A levels, indicating that S100A4 promoted mutant p53 accumulation through their interaction. We also found that S100A4 inhibition altered the expression of the mutant p53V143A target genes [c-Myc and inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (Id2)]. Moreover, we demonstrated that S100A4 knockdown increased mutant p53-related autophagy and cell differentiation. In conclusion, our data suggest a novel mechanism for mutant p53V143A accumulation and add a new facet to the role of S100A4 in cancer.

  11. Lonidamine induces apoptosis in drug-resistant cells independently of the p53 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Del Bufalo, D; Biroccio, A; Soddu, S; Laudonio, N; D'Angelo, C; Sacchi, A; Zupi, G

    1996-01-01

    Lonidamine, a dichlorinated derivative of indazole-3-carboxylic acid, was shown to play a significant role in reversing or overcoming multidrug resistance. Here, we show that exposure to 50 microg/ml of lonidamine induces apoptosis in adriamycin and nitrosourea-resistant cells (MCF-7 ADR(r) human breast cancer cell line, and LB9 glioblastoma multiform cell line), as demonstrated by sub-G1 peaks in DNA content histograms, condensation of nuclear chromatin, and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Moreover, we find that apoptosis is preceded by accumulation of the cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Interestingly, lonidamine fails to activate the apoptotic program in the corresponding sensitive parental cell lines (ADR-sensitive MCF-7 WT, and nitrosourea-sensitive LI cells) even after long exposure times. The evaluation of bcl-2 protein expression suggests that this different effect of lonidamine treatment in drug-resistant and -sensitive cell lines might not simply be due to dissimilar expression levels of bcl-2 protein. To determine whether the lonidamine-induced apoptosis is mediated by p53 protein, we used cells lacking endogenous p53 and overexpressing either wild-type p53 or dominant-negative p53 mutant. We find that apoptosis by lonidamine is independent of the p53 gene. PMID:8787680

  12. Lack of association between p53 expression and betel nut chewing in oral cancers from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thongsuksai, P; Boonyaphiphat, P

    2001-04-01

    To elucidate whether betel-associated oral squamous cell carcinoma is associated with p53 protein expression, tumor samples from 156 patients with detailed histories of exposures were investigated immunohistochemically using CM1 antibody. The expression of p53 (>10% positive cells) was found in 38.5% of the cases. The frequency of expression in betel chewers alone and betel chewer with tobacco use were 37.9% (11/29) and 25%(9/36), respectively, whereas that in betel chewers with smoking/drinking it was 47.2%(17/36) and in smokers or drinkers without chewing was 42.0% (21/50). However, the differences were not statistically significant. Multivariate analysis also revealed with the no independent association of betel chewing with p53 expression (odds ratio [OR] 1.81, 95% confidence interval 0.50-6.49), whereas alcohol drinking and smokeless tobacco use were significant (OR 7.58, 2.01-28.53 and 0.39, 0.16-0.98, respectively). These results suggested that betel chewing with or without smokeless tobacco use may not induce oral cancers via a p53-dependent pathway. However, since this is an immunohistochemical study, further molecular analysis is needed.

  13. Differential Gene Expression Profiles of Radioresistant Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines Established by Fractionated Irradiation: Tumor Protein p53-Inducible Protein 3 Confers Sensitivity to Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Young Sook; Oh, Jung-Hwa; Yoon, Seokjoo; Kwon, Myung-Sang

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: Despite the widespread use of radiotherapy as a local and regional modality for the treatment of cancer, some non-small-cell lung cancers commonly develop resistance to radiation. We thus sought to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance to radiation. Methods and Materials: We established the radioresistant cell line H460R from radiosensitive parental H460 cells. To identify the radioresistance-related genes, we performed microarray analysis and selected several candidate genes. Results: Clonogenic and MTT assays showed that H460R was 10-fold more resistant to radiation than H460. Microarray analysis indicated that the expression levels of 1,463 genes were altered more than 1.5-fold in H460R compared with parental H460. To evaluate the putative functional role, we selected one interesting gene tumor protein p53-inducible protein 3 (TP53I3), because that this gene was significantly downregulated in radioresistant H460R cells and that it was predicted to link p53-dependent cell death signaling. Interestingly, messenger ribonucleic acid expression of TP53I3 differed in X-ray-irradiated H460 and H460R cells, and overexpression of TP53I3 significantly affected the cellular radiosensitivity of H460R cells. Conclusions: These results show that H460R may be useful in searching for candidate genes that are responsible for radioresistance and elucidating the molecular mechanism of radioresistance.

  14. In vitro effect of radiation, antibody to epidermal growth factor receptor and Docetaxel in human head and neck squamous carcinoma cells with mutant P53 and over-expressed EGFR.

    PubMed

    Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit; Ustun, Hasan; Castro, Juan; Friesland, Signe; Ghaderi, Mehran; Lundgren, Jan; Turesson, Ingela; Lewin, Freddi

    2009-02-01

    Radiotherapy is the most frequently used and cheapest treatment both for curative and palliative purposes in HNSCC. Despite advances in technology and intensive treatments with radiation, only half of the patients are cured. New therapeutic approaches focusing on the molecular mechanism that mediate tumour cell growth or cell death in combination with radiotherapy have been suggested. The effects of radiation, antibody to EGFR and Docetaxel as single treatment or in combinations on HNSCC cells were investigated. The established HNSCC cells with mutant (mt) P53 and over-expressed normal EGFR was used as the in vitro model. Gene expression profile, cell cycle progression and cell death were used as the indication of treatment outcome. With c-DNA microarray of well-characterised functional genes, massive changes in the genes expression of HNSCC were detected. The alterations of gene expression profiles do not have any correlation neither on tumour cell growth nor cell death. HNSCC cells with mt P53 and over-expressed normal EGFR did not response to radiation, anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody and their combination therapy. Effective treatment could be obtained from single therapy with Docetaxel. No additive effects on cell cycle arrest or cell death were seen in the combination of Docetaxel to anti-EGFR antibody, radiation or anti-EGFR antibody + radiation. The c-DNA microarray analysis does not indicate any specific target or treatment effects of HNSCC with mt P53 and over-expressed normal EGFR. Single therapy, target at microtubules might be the most suitable treatment modulation in this tumour type.

  15. Mutant p53 stimulates cell invasion through an interaction with Rad21 in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ji-Hye; Kim, Tae Jin; Lee, Jae Ho; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2017-08-22

    Missense mutations of TP53 are extremely common, and mutant p53 accumulation and gain-of-function play crucial roles in human ovarian cancer. Here, we investigated the role of mutant p53 in cell migration and invasion as well as its underlying molecular mechanisms in human ovarian cancer cells. Overexpression of mutant p53 significantly increased migration and invasion in p53-null SKOV3 cells. In contrast, knockdown of mutant p53 significantly compromised mutant p53-induced cell migration and invasion. Microarray analysis revealed that several migration/invasion-related genes, including S1PR1 (Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1) and THBS1 (Thrombospodin 1), were significantly upregulated in SKOV3 cells that overexpressed mutant p53-R248 (SKOV3(R248)). We found that Rad21 is involved in the transcriptional regulation of the migration/invasion-related genes induced by mutant p53-R248. Knockdown of Rad21 significantly attenuated the mutant p53-R248-induced invasion and the expressions of S1PR1 and THBS1. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that mutant p53 interacts with Rad21 and binds to the Rad21-binding elements in the S1PR1 and THBS1 genes. Finally, downregulation of S1PR1 significantly attenuated the invasion driven by mutant p53-R248. These novel findings reveal that mutant p53-R248 maintains gain-of-function activity to stimulate cell invasion and induces the related gene expressions through an interaction with Rad21 in human ovarian cancer cells.

  16. Zinc induces apoptosis on cervical carcinoma cells by p53-dependent and -independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Bae, Seog Nyeon; Lee, Keun Ho; Kim, Jin Hwi; Lee, Sung Jong; Park, Lae Ok

    2017-02-26

    There is evidence that the mineral zinc is involved in the apoptotic cell death of various carcinoma cells. In this study, we aim to determine whether zinc in the form of CIZAR induces apoptosis in cervical carcinoma cells by increasing intracellular zinc concentration. CaSki and HeLa cervical carcinoma cells and HPV-16 DNA-transformed keratinocyte (CRL2404) were treated with different concentrations of CIZAR. The cell viability test was carried out, the intracellular level of zinc was determined, and apoptosis was confirmed by flow cytometry after propidium iodide (PI) staining and fluorescence microscopy under DAPI staining. The expression of cell-cycle regulators was analyzed by Western blot, including the knock down of p53 and expression of HPV E6 and E7 genes by RT-PCR. Intracellular zinc accumulation induced the down-regulation of E6/E7 proteins through targeting of the specific transcriptional factors in the upstream regulatory region. p53 was induced after CIZAR treatment and p53-dependent apoptosis did not occur after knock down by p53 siRNA. In cervical carcinoma cells, regardless of HPV-infection, CIZAR induces apoptosis by the activation of the p53-independent pathways through the up-regulation of p21waf1, the down-regulation of c-Myc, and by decreasing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. CIZAR induces apoptosis not only through the restoration of p53/Rb-dependent pathways in HPV-positive cells, but also through the activation of p53/Rb-independent pathways and the mitochondrial death-signal pathway in cervical carcinoma cells regardless of HPV-infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 prevents luminal cell commitment in normal mammary glands and tumors by inhibiting p53/Notch1 and breast cancer gene 1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferle, Adam D.; Perou, Charles M.; Van Den Berg, Carla Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with several subtypes carrying unique prognoses. Patients with differentiated luminal tumors experience better outcomes, while effective treatments are unavailable for poorly differentiated tumors, including the basal-like subtype. Mechanisms governing mammary tumor subtype generation could prove critical to developing better treatments. C-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2) is important in mammary tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Using a variety of mouse models, human breast cancer cell lines and tumor expression data, studies herein support that JNK2 inhibits cell differentiation in normal and cancer-derived mammary cells. JNK2 prevents precocious pubertal mammary development and inhibits Notch-dependent expansion of luminal cell populations. Likewise, JNK2 suppresses luminal populations in a p53-competent Polyoma Middle T-antigen tumor model where jnk2 knockout causes p53-dependent upregulation of Notch1 transcription. In a p53 knockout model, JNK2 restricts luminal populations independently of Notch1, by suppressing Brca1 expression and promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition. JNK2 also inhibits estrogen receptor (ER) expression and confers resistance to fulvestrant, an ER inhibitor, while stimulating tumor progression. These data suggest that therapies inhibiting JNK2 in breast cancer may promote tumor differentiation, improve endocrine therapy response, and inhibit metastasis. PMID:25970777

  18. c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 prevents luminal cell commitment in normal mammary glands and tumors by inhibiting p53/Notch1 and breast cancer gene 1 expression.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Michael A; Ebelt, Nancy D; Pfefferle, Adam D; Perou, Charles M; Van Den Berg, Carla Lynn

    2015-05-20

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with several subtypes carrying unique prognoses. Patients with differentiated luminal tumors experience better outcomes, while effective treatments are unavailable for poorly differentiated tumors, including the basal-like subtype. Mechanisms governing mammary tumor subtype generation could prove critical to developing better treatments. C-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2) is important in mammary tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Using a variety of mouse models, human breast cancer cell lines and tumor expression data, studies herein support that JNK2 inhibits cell differentiation in normal and cancer-derived mammary cells. JNK2 prevents precocious pubertal mammary development and inhibits Notch-dependent expansion of luminal cell populations. Likewise, JNK2 suppresses luminal populations in a p53-competent Polyoma Middle T-antigen tumor model where jnk2 knockout causes p53-dependent upregulation of Notch1 transcription. In a p53 knockout model, JNK2 restricts luminal populations independently of Notch1, by suppressing Brca1 expression and promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition. JNK2 also inhibits estrogen receptor (ER) expression and confers resistance to fulvestrant, an ER inhibitor, while stimulating tumor progression. These data suggest that therapies inhibiting JNK2 in breast cancer may promote tumor differentiation, improve endocrine therapy response, and inhibit metastasis.

  19. Polyvinyl pyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles in a human lung cancer cells: time- and dose-dependent influence over p53 and caspase-3 protein expression and epigenetic effects.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Jordi; Lafuente, Daisy; Gómez, Mercedes; García, Tánia; Domingo, José L; Sánchez, Domènec J

    2017-02-01

    The present study was aimed at providing a better understanding of the influence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Cell line A549 was exposed to a range of concentrations of AgNPs, and a time course (up to 72 h) of cell viability was determined. We also determined the time course of gene and protein expression of p53, p21, murine double minute 2 (MDM2) and caspase-3. The expression of all of these proteins was also determined after daily exposure of the cells to 10 µg/mL of AgNPs for 7 days, or after discontinuous exposure by treating the cells every 3 days, for 15 or 30 days. Moreover, epigenetic changes in the acetylation of the histone H3 protein and in global DNA methylation patterns were determined after 72 h of exposure. Results showed that daily exposure to low doses of AgNPs, or a single exposure to high concentrations for 72 h, decreased gene and protein expression of p53, p21, MDM2 and caspase-3 in A549 cells. In contrast, a discontinuous exposure to low doses or a single exposure to low concentrations for 72 h increased the levels of the active forms of p53 and caspase-3, as well as the p21 and MDM2 protein levels. In addition, exposure to high concentrations of AgNPs for 72 h induced higher levels of global DNA methylation and global histone H3 deacetylation in A549 cells. These results provide new information on the toxic action of AgNPs.

  20. HDMX-L is expressed from a functional p53-responsive promoter in the first intron of the HDMX gene and participates in an autoregulatory feedback loop to control p53 activity.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Anna; Teunisse, Amina; Lam, Suzanne; Lodder, Kirsten; Darley, Matthew; Emaduddin, Muhammad; Wolf, Anja; Richter, Julia; de Lange, Job; Verlaan-de Vries, Matty; Lenos, Kristiaan; Böhnke, Anja; Bartel, Frank; Blaydes, Jeremy P; Jochemsen, Aart G

    2010-09-17

    The p53 regulatory network is critically involved in preventing the initiation of cancer. In unstressed cells, p53 is maintained at low levels and is largely inactive, mainly through the action of its two essential negative regulators, HDM2 and HDMX. p53 abundance and activity are up-regulated in response to various stresses, including DNA damage and oncogene activation. Active p53 initiates transcriptional and transcription-independent programs that result in cell cycle arrest, cellular senescence, or apoptosis. p53 also activates transcription of HDM2, which initially leads to the degradation of HDMX, creating a positive feedback loop to obtain maximal activation of p53. Subsequently, when stress-induced post-translational modifications start to decline, HDM2 becomes effective in targeting p53 for degradation, thus attenuating the p53 response. To date, no clear function for HDMX in this critical attenuation phase has been demonstrated experimentally. Like HDM2, the HDMX gene contains a promoter (P2) in its first intron that is potentially inducible by p53. We show that p53 activation in response to a plethora of p53-activating agents induces the transcription of a novel HDMX mRNA transcript from the HDMX-P2 promoter. This mRNA is more efficiently translated than that expressed from the constitutive HDMX-P1 promoter, and it encodes a long form of HDMX protein, HDMX-L. Importantly, we demonstrate that HDMX-L cooperates with HDM2 to promote the ubiquitination of p53 and that p53-induced HDMX transcription from the P2 promoter can play a key role in the attenuation phase of the p53 response, to effectively diminish p53 abundance as cells recover from stress.

  1. Inhibition of Wild-Type p53-Expressing AML by the Novel Small Molecule HDM2 Inhibitor CGM097.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Ellen; Halilovic, Ensar; Cooke, Vesselina G; Nonami, Atsushi; Ren, Tao; Sanda, Takaomi; Simkin, Irene; Yuan, Jing; Antonakos, Brandon; Barys, Louise; Ito, Moriko; Stone, Richard; Galinsky, Ilene; Cowens, Kristen; Nelson, Erik; Sattler, Martin; Jeay, Sebastien; Wuerthner, Jens U; McDonough, Sean M; Wiesmann, Marion; Griffin, James D

    2015-10-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 is a key regulator of apoptosis and functions upstream in the apoptotic cascade by both indirectly and directly regulating Bcl-2 family proteins. In cells expressing wild-type (WT) p53, the HDM2 protein binds to p53 and blocks its activity. Inhibition of HDM2:p53 interaction activates p53 and causes apoptosis or cell-cycle arrest. Here, we investigated the ability of the novel HDM2 inhibitor CGM097 to potently and selectively kill WT p53-expressing AML cells. The antileukemic effects of CGM097 were studied using cell-based proliferation assays (human AML cell lines, primary AML patient cells, and normal bone marrow samples), apoptosis, and cell-cycle assays, ELISA, immunoblotting, and an AML patient-derived in vivo mouse model. CGM097 potently and selectively inhibited the proliferation of human AML cell lines and the majority of primary AML cells expressing WT p53, but not mutant p53, in a target-specific manner. Several patient samples that harbored mutant p53 were comparatively unresponsive to CGM097. Synergy was observed when CGM097 was combined with FLT3 inhibition against oncogenic FLT3-expressing cells cultured both in the absence as well as the presence of cytoprotective stromal-secreted cytokines, as well as when combined with MEK inhibition in cells with activated MAPK signaling. Finally, CGM097 was effective in reducing leukemia burden in vivo. These data suggest that CGM097 is a promising treatment for AML characterized as harboring WT p53 as a single agent, as well as in combination with other therapies targeting oncogene-activated pathways that drive AML.

  2. Effects of prostaglandin E2 on p53 mRNA transcription and p53 mutagenesis during T-cell-independent human B-cell clonal expansion

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Shabirul; Yan, Xiao Jie; Rosen, Lisa; McCormick, Steven; Chiorazzi, Nicholas; Mongini, Patricia K. A.

    2014-01-01

    Within T-cell-dependent germinal centers, p53 gene transcription is repressed by Bcl-6 and is thus less vulnerable to mutation. Malignant lymphomas within inflamed extranodal sites exhibit a relatively high incidence of p53 mutations. The latter might originate from normal B-cell clones manifesting activation-induced cytosine deaminase (AID) and up-regulated p53 following T-cell-independent (TI) stimulation. We here examine p53 gene transcription in such TI clones, with a focus on modulatory effects of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and evaluate progeny for p53 mutations. Resting IgM+IgD+CD27− B cells from human tonsils were labeled with CFSE and stimulated in vitro with complement-coated antigen surrogate, IL-4, and BAFF ± exogenous PGE2 (50 nM) or an analog specific for the EP2 PGE2 receptor. We use flow cytometry to measure p53 and AID protein within variably divided blasts, qRT-PCR of p53 mRNA from cultures with or without actinomycin D to monitor mRNA transcription/stability, and single-cell p53 RT-PCR/sequencing to assess progeny for p53 mutations. We report that EP2 signaling triggers increased p53 gene transcriptional activity in AID+ cycling blasts (P<0.01). Progeny exhibit p53 mutations at a frequency (8.5×10−4) greater than the baseline error rate (<0.8×10−4). We conclude that, devoid of the repressive influences of Bcl-6, dividing B lymphoblasts in inflamed tissues should display heightened p53 transcription and increased risk of p53 mutagenesis.—Haque, S., Yan, X. J., Rosen, L., McCormick, S., Chiorazzi, N., Mongini, P. K. A. Effects of prostaglandin E2 on p53 mRNA transcription and p53 mutagenesis during T-cell-independent human B-cell clonal expansion. PMID:24145719

  3. p53 controls colorectal cancer cell invasion by inhibiting the NF-κB-mediated activation of Fascin

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Haimei; Wang, Chan; Zhou, Jichun; Han, Weidong; Wang, Xian; Fang, Yong; Xu, Yinghua; Li, Da; Chen, Rui; Ma, Junhong; Jing, Zhao; Gu, Xidong; Pan, Hongming; He, Chao

    2015-01-01

    p53 mutation is known to contribute to cancer progression. Fascin is an actin-bundling protein and has been recently identified to promote cancer cell migration and invasion through its role in formation of cellular protrusions such as filopodia and invadopodia. However, the relationship between p53 and Fascin is not understood. Here, we have found a new link between them. In colorectal adenocarcinomas, p53 mutation correlated with high NF-κB, Fascin and low E-cadherin expression. Moreover, this expression profile was shown to contribute to poor overall survival in patients with colorectal cancer. Wild-type p53 could inhibit NF-κB activity that repressed the expression of Fascin and cancer cell invasiveness. In contrast, in p53-deficient primary cultured cells, NF-κB activity was enhanced and then activation of NF-κB increased the expression of Fascin. In further analysis, we showed that NF-κB was a key determinant for p53 deletion-stimulated Fascin expression. Inhibition of NF-κB /p65 expression by pharmacological compound or p65 siRNA suppressed Fascin activity in p53-deficient cells. Moreover, restoration of p53 expression decreased the activation of Fascin through suppression of the NF-κB pathway. Taken together, these data suggest that a negative-feedback loop exists, whereby p53 can suppress colorectal cancer cell invasion by inhibiting the NF-κB-mediated activation of Fascin. PMID:26362504

  4. Loss of LSD1 (lysine-specific demethylase 1) suppresses growth and alters gene expression of human colon cancer cells in a p53- and DNMT1(DNA methyltransferase 1)-independent manner

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Lihua; Hanigan, Christin L.; Wu, Yu; Wang, Wei; Park, Ben Ho; Woster, Patrick M.; Casero, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing of gene expression is important in cancer. Aberrant DNA CpG island hypermethylation and histone modifications are involved in the aberrant silencing of tumour-suppressor genes. LSD1 (lysine-specific demethylase 1) is a H3K4 (histone H3 Lys4) demethylase associated with gene repression and is overexpressed in multiple cancer types. LSD1 has also been implicated in targeting p53 and DNMT1 (DNA methyltransferase 1), with data suggesting that the demethylating activity of LSD1 on these proteins is necessary for their stabilization. To examine the role of LSD1 we generated LSD1 heterozygous (LSD1+/−) and homozygous (LSD1−/−) knockouts in the human colorectal cancer cell line HCT116. The deletion of LSD1 led to a reduced cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Surprisingly, the knockout of LSD1 in HCT116 cells did not result in global increases in its histone substrate H3K4me2 (dimethyl-H3K4) or changes in the stability or function of p53 or DNMT1. However, there was a significant difference in gene expression between cells containing LSD1 and those null for LSD1. The results of the present study suggested that LSD1 is critical in the regulation of cell proliferation, but also indicated that LSD1 is not an absolute requirement for the stabilization of either p53 or DNMT1. PMID:23072722

  5. Loss of LSD1 (lysine-specific demethylase 1) suppresses growth and alters gene expression of human colon cancer cells in a p53- and DNMT1(DNA methyltransferase 1)-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lihua; Hanigan, Christin L; Wu, Yu; Wang, Wei; Park, Ben Ho; Woster, Patrick M; Casero, Robert A

    2013-01-15

    Epigenetic silencing of gene expression is important in cancer. Aberrant DNA CpG island hypermethylation and histone modifications are involved in the aberrant silencing of tumour-suppressor genes. LSD1 (lysine-specific demethylase 1) is a H3K4 (histone H3 Lys4) demethylase associated with gene repression and is overexpressed in multiple cancer types. LSD1 has also been implicated in targeting p53 and DNMT1 (DNA methyltransferase 1), with data suggesting that the demethylating activity of LSD1 on these proteins is necessary for their stabilization. To examine the role of LSD1 we generated LSD1 heterozygous (LSD1+/-) and homozygous (LSD1-/-) knockouts in the human colorectal cancer cell line HCT116. The deletion of LSD1 led to a reduced cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Surprisingly, the knockout of LSD1 in HCT116 cells did not result in global increases in its histone substrate H3K4me2 (dimethyl-H3K4) or changes in the stability or function of p53 or DNMT1. However, there was a significant difference in gene expression between cells containing LSD1 and those null for LSD1. The results of the present study suggested that LSD1 is critical in the regulation of cell proliferation, but also indicated that LSD1 is not an absolute requirement for the stabilization of either p53 or DNMT1.

  6. Inhibitors of histone deacetylase (HDAC) restore the p53 pathway in neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Condorelli, F; Gnemmi, I; Vallario, A; Genazzani, A A; Canonico, P L

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Inhibitors of histone deacetylase (HDAC) are emerging as a promising class of anti-cancer drugs, but a generic deregulation of transcription in neoplastic cells cannot fully explain their therapeutic effects. In this study we evaluated alternative molecular mechanisms by which HDAC inhibitors could affect neuroblastoma viability. Experimental approach: Effects of HDAC inhibitors on survival of the I-type SK-N-BE and the N-type NB SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines were assessed by the MTT assay. Molecular pathways leading to this were examined by western blot, confocal microscopy and cytofluorometry. The mRNA levels of apoptotic mediators were assessed semi-quantitatively by RT-PCR. Tumour-suppressor p53 trans activity was assessed in EMSA experiments. HDAC inhibitors were also studied in cells subjected to plasmid-based p53 interference (p53i). Key results: HDAC inhibitors induced cell death via the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis with recruitment of Bcl-2 family members. Bcl-2 overexpression rendered neuroblastoma cells resistant to HDAC inhibitor treatment. Low concentrations of HDAC inhibitors (0.9 mM) caused a G2 cell-cycle arrest and a marked upregulation of the p21/Waf1/Cip1 protein. HDAC inhibitors also activate the p53 protein via hyper-acetylation and nuclear re-localization, without affecting its protein expression. Accordingly, HDAC inhibitor-induced cell-killing and p21/Waf1/Cip1 upregulation is impaired in p53i-cells. Conclusions and implications: In neuroblastoma cells, HDAC inhibito