Science.gov

Sample records for cell fate choices

  1. Genetic Circuit Architectures Underlying Cell Fate Choices for Immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinner, Aaron

    2009-03-01

    Antigen stimulated B cells follow an unusual developmental trajectory that transiently passes through a germinal center state, which promotes receptor affinity maturation and immunoglobulin class switching, before terminally differentiating into antibody secreting plasma cells. It was found that graded expression of the transcription factor IRF-4 regulates cell fate, but the relationship between antigen receptor signaling, the network of interactions with IRF-4, and cell fate was not known. This talk describes models that link ligand-receptor avidity with cell fate. The models have been validated experimentally by directly varying the levels and kinetics of IRF-4 accumulation. Furthermore, signaling through the antigen receptor is demonstrated to control the expression of IRF-4 and in turn the frequency of B cells that undergo class switching before differentiating into plasma cells. These findings provide an explanation for experiments that measure B cell numbers in transgenic mice. The architecture of our regulatory circuit provides a general mechanism for quantitative variations in a signal to be translated into a binary cell-fate choice involving transient expression of one of the two developmental fates. In collaboration with Aryeh Warmflash, Ying Li, Roger Sciammas, and Harinder Singh, The University of Chicago.

  2. Systems biology approaches to understanding stem cell fate choice.

    PubMed

    Peltier, J; Schaffer, D V

    2010-01-01

    Stem cells have the capability to self-renew and maintain their undifferentiated state or to differentiate into one or more specialised cell types. Stem cell expansion and manipulation ex vivo is a promising approach for engineering cell replacement therapies, and endogenous stem cells represent potential drugable targets for tissue repair. Before we can harness stem cells' therapeutic potential, we must first understand the intracellular mechanisms controlling their fate choices. These mechanisms involve complex signal transduction and gene regulation networks that feature, for example, intricate feed-forward loops, feedback loops and cross-talk between multiple signalling pathways. Systems biology applies computational and experimental approaches to investigate the emergent behaviour of collections of molecules and strives to explain how these numerous components interact to regulate molecular, cellular and organismal behaviour. Here we review systems biology, and in particular computational, efforts to understand the intracellular mechanisms of stem cell fate choice. We first discuss deterministic and stochastic models that synthesise molecular knowledge into mathematical formalism, enable simulation of important system behaviours and stimulate further experimentation. In addition, statistical analyses such as Bayesian networks and principal components analysis (PCA)/partial least squares (PLS) regression can distill large datasets into more readily managed networks and principal components that provide insights into the critical aspects and components of regulatory networks. Collectively, integrating modelling with experimentation has strong potential for enabling a deeper understanding of stem cell fate choice and thereby aiding the development of therapies to harness stem cells' therapeutic potential.

  3. Pluripotency circuit members mediate germ layer fate choice of embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Matt; Liu, Siyuan John; Zou, Ling-Nan; Smith, Zack; Meissner, Alexander; Ramanathan, Sharad

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cell fate decisions are fundamental for development, but we do not know how cells select between alternate fates. Here, we asked how mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells leave the pluripotent state and choose between germ layer fates. By analyzing the dynamics of the transcriptional circuit that maintains the pluripotent state during lineage choice, we found that the proteins that maintain ES cell identity also orchestrate germ layer fate selection. Core pluripotency factors, Oct4 and Sox2, each suppress differentiation into a single germ layer fate. Differentiation signals continuously and asymmetrically modulate Oct4 and Sox2 protein levels, altering their binding pattern in the genome, and leading to cell fate choice. The same factors that maintain pluripotency, thus, also integrate external signals and control lineage selection. Our study provides a framework for understanding how complex transcription factor networks control cell fate decisions in progenitor cells. PMID:21663792

  4. Signal transduction pathways, intrinsic regulators, and the control of cell fate choice

    PubMed Central

    Fossett, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Background Information regarding changes in organismal status is transmitted to the stem cell regulatory machinery by a limited number of signal transduction pathways. Consequently, these pathways derive their functional specificity through interactions with stem cell intrinsic master regulators, notably transcription factors. Identifying the molecular underpinnings of these interactions is critical to understanding stem cell function. Scope of review This review focuses on studies in Drosophila that identify the gene regulatory basis for interactions between three different signal transduction pathways and an intrinsic master transcriptional regulator in the context of hematopoietic stem-like cell fate choice. Specifically, the interface between the GATA:FOG regulatory complex and the JAK/STAT, BMP, and Hedgehog pathways is examined. Major conclusions The GATA:FOG complex coordinates information transmitted by at least three different signal transduction pathways as a means to control stem-like cell fate choice. This illustrates emerging principles concerning regulation of stem cell function and describes a gene regulatory link between changes in organismal status and stem cell response. General significance The Drosophila model system offers a powerful approach to identify the molecular basis of how stem cells receive, interpret, and then respond to changes in organismal status. PMID:22705942

  5. Roles of Notch1 Signaling in Regulating Satellite Cell Fates Choices and Postnatal Skeletal Myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shan, Tizhong; Xu, Ziye; Wu, Weiche; Liu, Jiaqi; Wang, Yizhen

    2016-12-12

    Adult skeletal muscle stem cells, also called satellite cells, are indispensable for the growth, maintenance, and regeneration of the postnatal skeletal muscle. Satellite cells, predominantly quiescent in mature resting muscles, are activated after skeletal muscle injury or degeneration. Notch1 signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that plays crucial roles in satellite cells homeostasis and postnatal skeletal myogenesis and regeneration. Activation of Notch1 signaling promotes the muscle satellite cells quiescence and proliferation, but inhibits differentiation of muscle satellite cells. Notably, the new roles of Notch1 signaling during late-stage of skeletal myogenesis including in post-differentiation myocytes and post-fusion myotubes have been recently reported. Here, we mainly review and discuss the regulatory roles of Notch1 in regulating satellite cell fates choices and skeletal myogenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Single-cell analysis of mixed-lineage states leading to a binary cell fate choice.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Andre; Venkatasubramanian, Meenakshi; Chaudhri, Viren K; Aronow, Bruce J; Salomonis, Nathan; Singh, Harinder; Grimes, H Leighton

    2016-09-29

    Delineating hierarchical cellular states, including rare intermediates and the networks of regulatory genes that orchestrate cell-type specification, are continuing challenges for developmental biology. Single-cell RNA sequencing is greatly accelerating such research, given its power to provide comprehensive descriptions of genomic states and their presumptive regulators. Haematopoietic multipotential progenitor cells, as well as bipotential intermediates, manifest mixed-lineage patterns of gene expression at a single-cell level. Such mixed-lineage states may reflect the molecular priming of different developmental potentials by co-expressed alternative-lineage determinants, namely transcription factors. Although a bistable gene regulatory network has been proposed to regulate the specification of either neutrophils or macrophages, the nature of the transition states manifested in vivo, and the underlying dynamics of the cell-fate determinants, have remained elusive. Here we use single-cell RNA sequencing coupled with a new analytic tool, iterative clustering and guide-gene selection, and clonogenic assays to delineate hierarchical genomic and regulatory states that culminate in neutrophil or macrophage specification in mice. We show that this analysis captured prevalent mixed-lineage intermediates that manifested concurrent expression of haematopoietic stem cell/progenitor and myeloid progenitor cell genes. It also revealed rare metastable intermediates that had collapsed the haematopoietic stem cell/progenitor gene expression programme, instead expressing low levels of the myeloid determinants, Irf8 and Gfi1 (refs 9, 10, 11, 12, 13). Genetic perturbations and chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing revealed Irf8 and Gfi1 as key components of counteracting myeloid-gene-regulatory networks. Combined loss of these two determinants 'trapped' the metastable intermediate. We propose that mixed-lineage states are obligatory during cell-fate specification

  7. lin-28 controls the succession of cell fate choices via two distinct activities.

    PubMed

    Vadla, Bhaskar; Kemper, Kevin; Alaimo, Jennifer; Heine, Christian; Moss, Eric G

    2012-01-01

    lin-28 is a conserved regulator of cell fate succession in animals. In Caenorhabditis elegans, it is a component of the heterochronic gene pathway that governs larval developmental timing, while its vertebrate homologs promote pluripotency and control differentiation in diverse tissues. The RNA binding protein encoded by lin-28 can directly inhibit let-7 microRNA processing by a novel mechanism that is conserved from worms to humans. We found that C. elegans LIN-28 protein can interact with four distinct let-7 family pre-microRNAs, but in vivo inhibits the premature accumulation of only let-7. Surprisingly, however, lin-28 does not require let-7 or its relatives for its characteristic promotion of second larval stage cell fates. In other words, we find that the premature accumulation of mature let-7 does not account for lin-28's precocious phenotype. To explain let-7's role in lin-28 activity, we provide evidence that lin-28 acts in two steps: first, the let-7-independent positive regulation of hbl-1 through its 3'UTR to control L2 stage-specific cell fates; and second, a let-7-dependent step that controls subsequent fates via repression of lin-41. Our evidence also indicates that let-7 functions one stage earlier in C. elegans development than previously thought. Importantly, lin-28's two-step mechanism resembles that of the heterochronic gene lin-14, and the overlap of their activities suggests a clockwork mechanism for developmental timing. Furthermore, this model explains the previous observation that mammalian Lin28 has two genetically separable activities. Thus, lin-28's two-step mechanism may be an essential feature of its evolutionarily conserved role in cell fate succession.

  8. p107 is a crucial regulator for determining the adipocyte lineage fate choices of stem cells.

    PubMed

    De Sousa, Martina; Porras, Deanna P; Perry, Christopher G R; Seale, Patrick; Scimè, Anthony

    2014-05-01

    Thermogenic (beige and brown) adipocytes protect animals against obesity and metabolic disease. However, little is known about the mechanisms that commit stem cells toward different adipocyte lineages. We show here that p107 is a master regulator of adipocyte lineage fates, its suppression required for commitment of stem cells to the brown-type fate. p107 is strictly expressed in the stem cell compartment of white adipose tissue depots and completely absent in brown adipose tissue. Remarkably, p107-deficient stem cells uniformly give rise to brown-type adipocytes in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, brown fat programming of mesenchymal stem cells by PRDM-BF1-RIZ1 homologous domain containing 16 (Prdm16) was associated with a dramatic reduction of p107 levels. Indeed, Prdm16 directly suppressed p107 transcription via promoter binding. Notably, the sustained expression of p107 blocked the ability of Prdm16 to induce brown fat genes. These findings demonstrate that p107 expression in stem cells commits cells to the white versus brown adipose lineage. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  9. Glial versus melanocyte cell fate choice: Schwann cell precursors as a cellular origin of melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Adameyko, Igor; Lallemend, Francois

    2010-09-01

    Melanocytes and Schwann cells are derived from the multipotent population of neural crest cells. Although both cell types were thought to be generated through completely distinct pathways and molecular processes, a recent study has revealed that these different cell types are intimately interconnected far beyond previously postulated limits in that they share a common post-neural crest progenitor, i.e. the Schwann cell precursor. This finding raises interesting questions about the lineage relationships of hitherto unrelated cell types such as melanocytes and Schwann cells, and may provide clinical insights into mechanisms of pigmentation disorders and for cancer involving Schwann cells and melanocytes.

  10. Muscle Cell Fate Choice Requires the T-Box Transcription Factor Midline in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ram P.; Dobi, Krista C.; Baylies, Mary K.; Abmayr, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila Midline (Mid) is an ortholog of vertebrate Tbx20, which plays roles in the developing heart, migrating cranial motor neurons, and endothelial cells. Mid functions in cell-fate specification and differentiation of tissues that include the ectoderm, cardioblasts, neuroblasts, and egg chambers; however, a role in the somatic musculature has not been described. We identified mid in genetic and molecular screens for factors contributing to somatic muscle morphogenesis. Mid is expressed in founder cells (FCs) for several muscle fibers, and functions cooperatively with the T-box protein H15 in lateral oblique muscle 1 and the segment border muscle. Mid is particularly important for the specification and development of the lateral transverse (LT) muscles LT3 and LT4, which arise by asymmetric division of a single muscle progenitor. Mid is expressed in this progenitor and its two sibling FCs, but is maintained only in the LT4 FC. Both muscles were frequently missing in mid mutant embryos, and LT4-associated expression of the transcription factor Krüppel (Kr) was lost. When present, LT4 adopted an LT3-like morphology. Coordinately, mid misexpression caused LT3 to adopt an LT4-like morphology and was associated with ectopic Kr expression. From these data, we concluded that mid functions first in the progenitor to direct development of LT3 and LT4, and later in the FCs to influence whichever of these differentiation profiles is selected. Mid is the first T-box factor shown to influence LT3 and LT4 muscle identity and, along with the T-box protein Optomotor-blind-related-gene 1 (Org-1), is representative of a new class of transcription factors in muscle specification. PMID:25614583

  11. The Paired-box protein PAX-3 regulates the choice between lateral and ventral epidermal cell fates in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kenneth W; Joshi, Pradeep; Dymond, Jessica S; Gorrepati, Lakshmi; Smith, Harold E; Krause, Michael W; Eisenmann, David M

    2016-04-15

    The development of the single cell layer skin or hypodermis of Caenorhabditis elegans is an excellent model for understanding cell fate specification and differentiation. Early in C. elegans embryogenesis, six rows of hypodermal cells adopt dorsal, lateral or ventral fates that go on to display distinct behaviors during larval life. Several transcription factors are known that function in specifying these major hypodermal cell fates, but our knowledge of the specification of these cell types is sparse, particularly in the case of the ventral hypodermal cells, which become Vulval Precursor Cells and form the vulval opening in response to extracellular signals. Previously, the gene pvl-4 was identified in a screen for mutants with defects in vulval development. We found by whole genome sequencing that pvl-4 is the Paired-box gene pax-3, which encodes the sole PAX-3 transcription factor homolog in C. elegans. pax-3 mutants show embryonic and larval lethality, and body morphology abnormalities indicative of hypodermal cell defects. We report that pax-3 is expressed in ventral P cells and their descendants during embryogenesis and early larval stages, and that in pax-3 reduction-of-function animals the ventral P cells undergo a cell fate transformation and express several markers of the lateral seam cell fate. Furthermore, forced expression of pax-3 in the lateral hypodermal cells causes them to lose expression of seam cell markers. We propose that pax-3 functions in the ventral hypodermal cells to prevent these cells from adopting the lateral seam cell fate. pax-3 represents the first gene required for specification solely of the ventral hypodermal fate in C. elegans providing insights into cell type diversification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Paired-box protein PAX-3 regulates the choice between lateral and ventral epidermal cell fates in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Kenneth W.; Joshi, Pradeep; Dymond, Jessica S.; Gorrepati, Lakshmi; Smith, Harold; Krause, Michael; Eisenmann, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The development of the single cell layer skin or hypodermis of Caenorhabditis elegans is an excellent model for understanding cell fate specification and differentiation. Early in C. elegans embryogenesis, six rows of hypodermal cells adopt dorsal, lateral or ventral fates that go on to display distinct behaviors during larval life. Several transcription factors are known that function in specifying these major hypodermal cell fates, but our knowledge of the specification of these cell types is sparse, particularly in the case of the ventral hypodermal cells, which become Vulval Precursor Cells and form the vulval opening in response to extracellular signals. Previously, the gene pvl-4 was identified in a screen for mutants with defects in vulval development. We found by whole genome sequencing that pvl-4 is the Paired-box gene pax-3, which encodes the sole PAX-3 transcription factor homolog in C. elegans. pax-3 mutants show embryonic and larval lethality, and body morphology abnormalities indicative of hypodermal cell defects. We report that pax-3 is expressed in ventral P cells and their descendants during embryogenesis and early larval stages, and that in pax-3 reduction-of-function animals the ventral P cells undergo a cell fate transformation and express several markers of the lateral seam cell fate. Furthermore, forced expression of pax-3 in the lateral hypodermal cells causes them to lose expression of seam cell markers. We propose that pax-3 functions in the ventral hypodermal cells to prevent these cells from adopting the lateral seam cell fate. pax-3 represents the first gene required for specification solely of the ventral hypodermal fate in C. elegans providing insights into cell type diversification. PMID:26953187

  13. Real-time imaging of bHLH transcription factors reveals their dynamic control in the multipotency and fate choice of neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Imayoshi, Itaru; Ishidate, Fumiyoshi; Kageyama, Ryoichiro

    2015-01-01

    The basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors Ascl1/Mash1, Hes1, and Olig2 regulate the fate choice of neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, respectively; however, these factors are coexpressed in self-renewing multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs) even before cell fate determination. This fact raises the possibility that these fate determination factors are differentially expressed between self-renewing and differentiating NSCs with unique expression dynamics. Real-time imaging analysis utilizing fluorescent proteins is a powerful strategy for monitoring expression dynamics. Fusion with fluorescent reporters makes it possible to analyze the dynamic behavior of specific proteins in living cells. However, it is technically challenging to conduct long-term imaging of proteins, particularly those with low expression levels, because a high-sensitivity and low-noise imaging system is required, and very often bleaching of fluorescent proteins and cell toxicity by prolonged laser exposure are problematic. Furthermore, to analyze the functional roles of the dynamic expression of cellular proteins, it is essential to image reporter fusion proteins that are expressed at comparable levels to their endogenous expression. In this review, we introduce our recent reports about the dynamic control of bHLH transcription factors in multipotency and fate choice of NSCs, focusing on real-time imaging of fluorescent reporters fused with bHLH transcription factors. Our imaging results indicate that bHLH transcription factors are expressed in an oscillatory manner by NSCs, and that one of them becomes dominant during fate choice. We propose that the multipotent state of NSCs correlates with the oscillatory expression of several bHLH transcription factors, whereas the differentiated state correlates with the sustained expression of a single bHLH transcription factor.

  14. Mechanism of cell fate choice between neural and mesodermal development during early embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Tatsuya

    2013-06-01

    During early embryogenesis, Sox2 expression distinguishes the neural plate from other embryonic domains, suggesting that the mechanism underlying the activation of the Sox2 gene is highly relevant to the development of this tissue. At the earliest stages of neural plate development, the Sox2 enhancer N1 regulates Sox2 expression in the extending posterior end of the neural plate. The N1 enhancer is initially activated in the axial stem cells, bipotential precursors of both neural and mesodermal lineages, therefore the activation does not immediately lead to Sox2 expression. A population of axial stem cells that remains in the superficial layer starts expressing Sox2, whereas another population that migrates through the primitive streak loses the N1 activity and becomes mesoderm. Multiple signaling cascades and transcription factors, including Wnt, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Tbx6, are responsible for the regulation of Sox2 expression in axial stem cells to guide the development of the posterior neural plate and paraxial mesoderm.

  15. The making of a lymphocyte: the choice among disparate cell fates and the IKAROS enigma.

    PubMed

    Georgopoulos, Katia

    2017-03-01

    Lymphocyte differentiation is set to produce myriad immune effector cells with the ability to respond to multitudinous foreign substances. The uniqueness of this developmental system lies in not only the great diversity of cellular functions that it can generate but also the ability of its differentiation intermediates and mature effector cells to expand upon demand, thereby providing lifelong immunity. Surprisingly, the goals of this developmental system are met by a relatively small group of DNA-binding transcription factors that work in concert to control the timing and magnitude of gene expression and fulfill the demands for cellular specialization, expansion, and maintenance. The cellular and molecular mechanisms through which these lineage-promoting transcription factors operate have been a focus of basic research in immunology. The mechanisms of development discerned in this effort are guiding clinical research on disorders with an immune cell base. Here, I focus on IKAROS, one of the earliest regulators of lymphoid lineage identity and a guardian of lymphocyte homeostasis.

  16. Stochasticity and Cell Fate

    PubMed Central

    Losick, Richard; Desplan, Claude

    2008-01-01

    Summary Fundamental to living cells is the capacity to differentiate into subtypes with specialized attributes. Understanding the way cells acquire their fates is a major challenge in developmental biology. How cells adopt a particular fate is usually thought of as being deterministic, and in the large majority of cases it is. That is, cells acquire their fate by virtue of their lineage or their proximity to an inductive signal from another cell. In some cases, however, and in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans, cells choose one or another pathway of differentiation stochastically without apparent regard to environment or history. Stochasticity has important mechanistic requirements as we discuss. We will also speculate on why stochasticity is advantageous, and even critical in some circumstances, to the individual, the colony, or the species. PMID:18388284

  17. Rb regulates fate choice and lineage commitment in vivo.

    PubMed

    Calo, Eliezer; Quintero-Estades, Jose A; Danielian, Paul S; Nedelcu, Simona; Berman, Seth D; Lees, Jacqueline A

    2010-08-26

    Mutation of the retinoblastoma gene (RB1) tumour suppressor occurs in one-third of all human tumours and is particularly associated with retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma. Numerous functions have been ascribed to the product of the human RB1 gene, the retinoblastoma protein (pRb). The best known is pRb's ability to promote cell-cycle exit through inhibition of the E2F transcription factors and the transcriptional repression of genes encoding cell-cycle regulators. In addition, pRb has been shown in vitro to regulate several transcription factors that are master differentiation inducers. Depending on the differentiation factor and cellular context, pRb can either suppress or promote their transcriptional activity. For example, pRb binds to Runx2 and potentiates its ability to promote osteogenic differentiation in vitro. In contrast, pRb acts with E2F to suppress peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma subunit (PPAR-gamma), the master activator of adipogenesis. Because osteoblasts and adipocytes can both arise from mesenchymal stem cells, these observations suggest that pRb might play a role in the choice between these two fates. However, so far, there is no evidence for this in vivo. Here we use mouse models to address this hypothesis in mesenchymal tissue development and tumorigenesis. Our data show that Rb status plays a key role in establishing fate choice between bone and brown adipose tissue in vivo.

  18. Rb regulates fate choice and lineage commitment in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Calo, Eliezer; Quintero-Estades, Jose A.; Danielian, Paul S.; Nedelcu, Simona; Berman, Seth D.; Lees, Jacqueline A.

    2010-01-01

    Mutation of the RB-1 tumour suppressor occurs in one third of all human tumours and is particularly associated with retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma1. Numerous functions have been ascribed to the product of the human RB-1 gene, pRB. The best known is pRB’s ability to promote cell cycle exit through inhibition of the E2F transcription factors and the transcriptional repression of genes encoding cell cycle regulators1. In addition, pRB has been shown in vitro to regulate several transcription factors that are master differentiation inducers2. Depending on the differentiation factor and cellular context, pRB can either suppress or promote their transcriptional activity. For example, pRB binds to Runx2 and potentiates its ability to promote osteogenic differentiation program in vitro3. In contrast, pRB acts together with E2F to suppress PPARγ, the master activator of adipogenesis4,5. Since osteoblasts and adipocytes can both arise from mesenchymal stem cells, these observations suggest that pRB might play a role in the choice between these two fates. However, to date, there is no evidence for this in vivo. Here we use mouse models to address this hypothesis in the context of mesenchymal tissue development and tumorigenesis. Our data show that Rb status plays a key role in establishing fate choice between bone and brown adipose tissue in vivo. PMID:20686481

  19. Stochastic Cell Fate Progression in Embryonic Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Ling-Nan; Doyle, Adele; Jang, Sumin; Ramanathan, Sharad

    2013-03-01

    Studies on the directed differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells suggest that some early developmental decisions may be stochastic in nature. To identify the sources of this stochasticity, we analyzed the heterogeneous expression of key transcription factors in single ES cells as they adopt distinct germ layer fates. We find that under sufficiently stringent signaling conditions, the choice of lineage is unambiguous. ES cells flow into differentiated fates via diverging paths, defined by sequences of transitional states that exhibit characteristic co-expression of multiple transcription factors. These transitional states have distinct responses to morphogenic stimuli; by sequential exposure to multiple signaling conditions, ES cells are steered towards specific fates. However, the rate at which cells travel down a developmental path is stochastic: cells exposed to the same signaling condition for the same amount of time can populate different states along the same path. The heterogeneity of cell states seen in our experiments therefore does not reflect the stochastic selection of germ layer fates, but the stochastic rate of progression along a chosen developmental path. Supported in part by the Jane Coffin Childs Fund

  20. BTG interacts with retinoblastoma to control cell fate in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Conte, Daniele; MacWilliams, Harry K; Ceccarelli, Adriano

    2010-03-12

    In the genesis of many tissues, a phase of cell proliferation is followed by cell cycle exit and terminal differentiation. The latter two processes overlap: genes involved in the cessation of growth may also be important in triggering differentiation. Though conceptually distinct, they are often causally related and functional interactions between the cell cycle machinery and cell fate control networks are fundamental to coordinate growth and differentiation. A switch from proliferation to differentiation may also be important in the life cycle of single-celled organisms, and genes which arose as regulators of microbial differentiation may be conserved in higher organisms. Studies in microorganisms may thus contribute to understanding the molecular links between cell cycle machinery and the determination of cell fate choice networks. Here we show that in the amoebozoan D. discoideum, an ortholog of the metazoan antiproliferative gene btg controls cell fate, and that this function is dependent on the presence of a second tumor suppressor ortholog, the retinoblastoma-like gene product. Specifically, we find that btg-overexpressing cells preferentially adopt a stalk cell (and, more particularly, an Anterior-Like Cell) fate. No btg-dependent preference for ALC fate is observed in cells in which the retinoblastoma-like gene has been genetically inactivated. Dictyostelium btg is the only example of non-metazoan member of the BTG family characterized so far, suggesting that a genetic interaction between btg and Rb predated the divergence between dictyostelids and metazoa. While the requirement for retinoblastoma function for BTG antiproliferative activity in metazoans is known, an interaction of these genes in the control of cell fate has not been previously documented. Involvement of a single pathway in the control of mutually exclusive processes may have relevant implication in the evolution of multicellularity.

  1. Cell Fate Decision Making through Oriented Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to dictate cell fate decisions is critical during animal development. Moreover, faithful execution of this process ensures proper tissue homeostasis throughout adulthood, whereas defects in the molecular machinery involved may contribute to disease. Evolutionarily conserved protein complexes control cell fate decisions across diverse tissues. Maintaining proper daughter cell inheritance patterns of these determinants during mitosis is therefore a fundamental step of the cell fate decision-making process. In this review, we will discuss two key aspects of this fate determinant segregation activity, cortical cell polarity and mitotic spindle orientation, and how they operate together to produce oriented cell divisions that ultimately influence daughter cell fate. Our focus will be directed at the principal underlying molecular mechanisms and the specific cell fate decisions they have been shown to control. PMID:26844213

  2. The cell-cycle state of stem cells determines cell fate propensity.

    PubMed

    Pauklin, Siim; Vallier, Ludovic

    2013-09-26

    Self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells are fundamentally associated with cell-cycle progression to enable tissue specification, organ homeostasis, and potentially tumorigenesis. However, technical challenges have impaired the study of the molecular interactions coordinating cell fate choice and cell-cycle progression. Here, we bypass these limitations by using the FUCCI reporter system in human pluripotent stem cells and show that their capacity of differentiation varies during the progression of their cell cycle. These mechanisms are governed by the cell-cycle regulators cyclin D1-3 that control differentiation signals such as the TGF-β-Smad2/3 pathway. Conversely, cell-cycle manipulation using a small molecule directs differentiation of hPSCs and provides an approach to generate cell types with a clinical interest. Our results demonstrate that cell fate decisions are tightly associated with the cell-cycle machinery and reveal insights in the mechanisms synchronizing differentiation and proliferation in developing tissues.

  3. Asymmetric cell division during T cell development controls downstream fate

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Kim; Shimoni, Raz; Charnley, Mirren; Ludford-Menting, Mandy J.; Hawkins, Edwin D.; Ramsbottom, Kelly; Oliaro, Jane; Izon, David; Ting, Stephen B.; Reynolds, Joseph; Lythe, Grant; Molina-Paris, Carmen; Melichar, Heather; Robey, Ellen; Humbert, Patrick O.; Gu, Min

    2015-01-01

    During mammalian T cell development, the requirement for expansion of many individual T cell clones, rather than merely expansion of the entire T cell population, suggests a possible role for asymmetric cell division (ACD). We show that ACD of developing T cells controls cell fate through differential inheritance of cell fate determinants Numb and α-Adaptin. ACD occurs specifically during the β-selection stage of T cell development, and subsequent divisions are predominantly symmetric. ACD is controlled by interaction with stromal cells and chemokine receptor signaling and uses a conserved network of polarity regulators. The disruption of polarity by deletion of the polarity regulator, Scribble, or the altered inheritance of fate determinants impacts subsequent fate decisions to influence the numbers of DN4 cells arising after the β-selection checkpoint. These findings indicate that ACD enables the thymic microenvironment to orchestrate fate decisions related to differentiation and self-renewal. PMID:26370500

  4. Asymmetric cell division during T cell development controls downstream fate.

    PubMed

    Pham, Kim; Shimoni, Raz; Charnley, Mirren; Ludford-Menting, Mandy J; Hawkins, Edwin D; Ramsbottom, Kelly; Oliaro, Jane; Izon, David; Ting, Stephen B; Reynolds, Joseph; Lythe, Grant; Molina-Paris, Carmen; Melichar, Heather; Robey, Ellen; Humbert, Patrick O; Gu, Min; Russell, Sarah M

    2015-09-14

    During mammalian T cell development, the requirement for expansion of many individual T cell clones, rather than merely expansion of the entire T cell population, suggests a possible role for asymmetric cell division (ACD). We show that ACD of developing T cells controls cell fate through differential inheritance of cell fate determinants Numb and α-Adaptin. ACD occurs specifically during the β-selection stage of T cell development, and subsequent divisions are predominantly symmetric. ACD is controlled by interaction with stromal cells and chemokine receptor signaling and uses a conserved network of polarity regulators. The disruption of polarity by deletion of the polarity regulator, Scribble, or the altered inheritance of fate determinants impacts subsequent fate decisions to influence the numbers of DN4 cells arising after the β-selection checkpoint. These findings indicate that ACD enables the thymic microenvironment to orchestrate fate decisions related to differentiation and self-renewal. © 2015 Pham et al.

  5. Binary cell fate decisions and fate transformation in the Drosophila larval eye.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Abhishek Kumar; Tsachaki, Maria; Rister, Jens; Ng, June; Celik, Arzu; Sprecher, Simon G

    2013-01-01

    The functionality of sensory neurons is defined by the expression of specific sensory receptor genes. During the development of the Drosophila larval eye, photoreceptor neurons (PRs) make a binary choice to express either the blue-sensitive Rhodopsin 5 (Rh5) or the green-sensitive Rhodopsin 6 (Rh6). Later during metamorphosis, ecdysone signaling induces a cell fate and sensory receptor switch: Rh5-PRs are re-programmed to express Rh6 and become the eyelet, a small group of extraretinal PRs involved in circadian entrainment. However, the genetic and molecular mechanisms of how the binary cell fate decisions are made and switched remain poorly understood. We show that interplay of two transcription factors Senseless (Sens) and Hazy control cell fate decisions, terminal differentiation of the larval eye and its transformation into eyelet. During initial differentiation, a pulse of Sens expression in primary precursors regulates their differentiation into Rh5-PRs and repression of an alternative Rh6-cell fate. Later, during the transformation of the larval eye into the adult eyelet, Sens serves as an anti-apoptotic factor in Rh5-PRs, which helps in promoting survival of Rh5-PRs during metamorphosis and is subsequently required for Rh6 expression. Comparably, during PR differentiation Hazy functions in initiation and maintenance of rhodopsin expression. Hazy represses Sens specifically in the Rh6-PRs, allowing them to die during metamorphosis. Our findings show that the same transcription factors regulate diverse aspects of larval and adult PR development at different stages and in a context-dependent manner.

  6. Binary Cell Fate Decisions and Fate Transformation in the Drosophila Larval Eye

    PubMed Central

    Rister, Jens; Ng, June; Celik, Arzu; Sprecher, Simon G.

    2013-01-01

    The functionality of sensory neurons is defined by the expression of specific sensory receptor genes. During the development of the Drosophila larval eye, photoreceptor neurons (PRs) make a binary choice to express either the blue-sensitive Rhodopsin 5 (Rh5) or the green-sensitive Rhodopsin 6 (Rh6). Later during metamorphosis, ecdysone signaling induces a cell fate and sensory receptor switch: Rh5-PRs are re-programmed to express Rh6 and become the eyelet, a small group of extraretinal PRs involved in circadian entrainment. However, the genetic and molecular mechanisms of how the binary cell fate decisions are made and switched remain poorly understood. We show that interplay of two transcription factors Senseless (Sens) and Hazy control cell fate decisions, terminal differentiation of the larval eye and its transformation into eyelet. During initial differentiation, a pulse of Sens expression in primary precursors regulates their differentiation into Rh5-PRs and repression of an alternative Rh6-cell fate. Later, during the transformation of the larval eye into the adult eyelet, Sens serves as an anti-apoptotic factor in Rh5-PRs, which helps in promoting survival of Rh5-PRs during metamorphosis and is subsequently required for Rh6 expression. Comparably, during PR differentiation Hazy functions in initiation and maintenance of rhodopsin expression. Hazy represses Sens specifically in the Rh6-PRs, allowing them to die during metamorphosis. Our findings show that the same transcription factors regulate diverse aspects of larval and adult PR development at different stages and in a context-dependent manner. PMID:24385925

  7. MATH5 controls the acquisition of multiple retinal cell fates

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Math5-null mutation results in the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and in a concurrent increase of amacrine and cone cells. However, it remains unclear whether there is a cell fate switch of Math5-lineage cells in the absence of Math5 and whether MATH5 cell-autonomously regulates the differentiation of the above retinal neurons. Here, we performed a lineage analysis of Math5-expressing cells in developing mouse retinas using a conditional GFP reporter (Z/EG) activated by a Math5-Cre knock-in allele. We show that during normal retinogenesis, Math5-lineage cells mostly develop into RGCs, horizontal cells, cone photoreceptors, rod photoreceptors, and amacrine cells. Interestingly, amacrine cells of Math5-lineage cells are predominately of GABAergic, cholinergic, and A2 subtypes, indicating that Math5 plays a role in amacrine subtype specification. In the absence of Math5, more Math5-lineage cells undergo cell fate conversion from RGCs to the above retinal cell subtypes, and occasionally to cone-bipolar cells and Müller cells. This change in cell fate choices is accompanied by an up-regulation of NEUROD1, RXRγ and BHLHB5, the transcription factors essential for the differentiation of retinal cells other than RGCs. Additionally, loss of Math5 causes the failure of early progenitors to exit cell cycle and leads to a significant increase of Math5-lineage cells remaining in cell cycle. Collectively, these data suggest that Math5 regulates the generation of multiple retinal cell types via different mechanisms during retinogenesis. PMID:21087508

  8. Specification of germ cell fate in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Saitou, Mitinori; Payer, Bernhard; Lange, Ulrike C; Erhardt, Sylvia; Barton, Sheila C; Surani, M Azim

    2003-01-01

    An early fundamental event during development is the segregation of germ cells from somatic cells. In many organisms, this is accomplished by the inheritance of preformed germ plasm, which apparently imposes transcriptional repression to prevent somatic cell fate. However, in mammals, pluripotent epiblast cells acquire germ cell fate in response to signalling molecules. We have used single cell analysis to study how epiblast cells acquire germ cell competence and undergo specification. Germ cell competent cells express Fragilis and initially progress towards a somatic mesodermal fate. However, a subset of these cells, the future primordial germ cells (PGCs), then shows rapid upregulation of Fragilis with concomitant transcriptional repression of a number of genes, including Hox and Smad genes. This repression may be a key event associated with germ cell specification. Furthermore, PGCs express Stella and other genes, such as Oct-4 that are associated with pluripotency. While these molecules are also detected in mature oocytes as maternally inherited factors, their early role is to regulate development and maintain pluripotency, and they do not serve the role of classical germline determinants. PMID:14511483

  9. Reliable binary cell-fate decisions based on oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeuty, B.; Kaneko, K.

    2014-02-01

    Biological systems have often to perform binary decisions under highly dynamic and noisy environments, such as during cell-fate determination. These decisions can be implemented by two main bifurcation mechanisms based on the transitions from either monostability or oscillation to bistability. We compare these two mechanisms by using stochastic models with time-varying fields and by establishing asymptotic formulas for the choice probabilities. Different scaling laws for decision sensitivity with respect to noise strength and signal timescale are obtained, supporting a role for oscillatory dynamics in performing noise-robust and temporally tunable binary decision-making. This result provides a rationale for recent experimental evidences showing that oscillatory expression of proteins often precedes binary cell-fate decisions.

  10. Specifying and protecting germ cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Strome, Susan; Updike, Dustin

    2015-01-01

    Germ cells are the special cells in the body that undergo meiosis to generate gametes and subsequently entire new organisms after fertilization, a process that continues generation after generation. Recent studies have expanded our understanding of the factors and mechanisms that specify germ cell fate, including the partitioning of maternally supplied ‘germ plasm’, inheritance of epigenetic memory and expression of transcription factors crucial for primordial germ cell (PGC) development. Even after PGCs are specified, germline fate is labile and thus requires protective mechanisms, such as global transcriptional repression, chromatin state alteration and translation of only germline-appropriate transcripts. Findings from diverse species continue to provide insights into the shared and divergent needs of these special reproductive cells. PMID:26122616

  11. Fateful Choices: Healthy Youth for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hechinger, Fred M.

    This book on the choices faced by adolescents regarding health behavior draws from recent publications of the Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development as well as from other recent reports. The book contains eight chapters. Chapter One discusses the risks that adolescents face today, including lack of attention from adults, poverty, suicide, drug…

  12. Stochastic Mechanisms of Cell Fate Specification that Yield Random or Robust Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Robert J.; Desplan, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Although cell fate specification is tightly controlled to yield highly reproducible results and avoid extreme variation, developmental programs often incorporate stochastic mechanisms to diversify cell types. Stochastic specification phenomena are observed in a wide range of species and an assorted set of developmental contexts. In bacteria, stochastic mechanisms are utilized to generate transient subpopulations capable of surviving adverse environmental conditions. In vertebrate, insect, and worm nervous systems, stochastic fate choices are used to increase the repertoire of sensory and motor neuron subtypes. Random fate choices are also integrated into developmental programs controlling organogenesis. Although stochastic decisions can be maintained to produce a mosaic of fates within a population of cells, they can also be compensated for or directed to yield robust and reproducible outcomes. PMID:20590453

  13. Cell Fate Decision as High-Dimensional Critical State Transition.

    PubMed

    Mojtahedi, Mitra; Skupin, Alexander; Zhou, Joseph; Castaño, Ivan G; Leong-Quong, Rebecca Y Y; Chang, Hannah; Trachana, Kalliopi; Giuliani, Alessandro; Huang, Sui

    2016-12-01

    Cell fate choice and commitment of multipotent progenitor cells to a differentiated lineage requires broad changes of their gene expression profile. But how progenitor cells overcome the stability of their gene expression configuration (attractor) to exit the attractor in one direction remains elusive. Here we show that commitment of blood progenitor cells to the erythroid or myeloid lineage is preceded by the destabilization of their high-dimensional attractor state, such that differentiating cells undergo a critical state transition. Single-cell resolution analysis of gene expression in populations of differentiating cells affords a new quantitative index for predicting critical transitions in a high-dimensional state space based on decrease of correlation between cells and concomitant increase of correlation between genes as cells approach a tipping point. The detection of "rebellious cells" that enter the fate opposite to the one intended corroborates the model of preceding destabilization of a progenitor attractor. Thus, early warning signals associated with critical transitions can be detected in statistical ensembles of high-dimensional systems, offering a formal theory-based approach for analyzing single-cell molecular profiles that goes beyond current computational pattern recognition, does not require knowledge of specific pathways, and could be used to predict impending major shifts in development and disease.

  14. On hematopoietic stem cell fate.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Donald

    2007-06-01

    Multipotential hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) maintain blood-cell formation throughout life. Here, Metcalf considers the origin and heterogeneity of HSCs, their ability to self-generate, and their commitment to the various hematopoietic lineages.

  15. Cell Fate Decision as High-Dimensional Critical State Transition

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Joseph; Castaño, Ivan G.; Leong-Quong, Rebecca Y. Y.; Chang, Hannah; Trachana, Kalliopi; Giuliani, Alessandro; Huang, Sui

    2016-01-01

    Cell fate choice and commitment of multipotent progenitor cells to a differentiated lineage requires broad changes of their gene expression profile. But how progenitor cells overcome the stability of their gene expression configuration (attractor) to exit the attractor in one direction remains elusive. Here we show that commitment of blood progenitor cells to the erythroid or myeloid lineage is preceded by the destabilization of their high-dimensional attractor state, such that differentiating cells undergo a critical state transition. Single-cell resolution analysis of gene expression in populations of differentiating cells affords a new quantitative index for predicting critical transitions in a high-dimensional state space based on decrease of correlation between cells and concomitant increase of correlation between genes as cells approach a tipping point. The detection of “rebellious cells” that enter the fate opposite to the one intended corroborates the model of preceding destabilization of a progenitor attractor. Thus, early warning signals associated with critical transitions can be detected in statistical ensembles of high-dimensional systems, offering a formal theory-based approach for analyzing single-cell molecular profiles that goes beyond current computational pattern recognition, does not require knowledge of specific pathways, and could be used to predict impending major shifts in development and disease. PMID:28027308

  16. Connecting Mitochondria, Metabolism, and Stem Cell Fate.

    PubMed

    Wanet, Anaïs; Arnould, Thierry; Najimi, Mustapha; Renard, Patricia

    2015-09-01

    As sites of cellular respiration and energy production, mitochondria play a central role in cell metabolism. Cell differentiation is associated with an increase in mitochondrial content and activity and with a metabolic shift toward increased oxidative phosphorylation activity. The opposite occurs during reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells. Studies have provided evidence of mitochondrial and metabolic changes during the differentiation of both embryonic and somatic (or adult) stem cells (SSCs), such as hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and tissue-specific progenitor cells. We thus propose to consider those mitochondrial and metabolic changes as hallmarks of differentiation processes. We review how mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, and function are directly involved in embryonic and SSC differentiation and how metabolic and sensing pathways connect mitochondria and metabolism with cell fate and pluripotency. Understanding the basis of the crosstalk between mitochondria and cell fate is of critical importance, given the promising application of stem cells in regenerative medicine. In addition to the development of novel strategies to improve the in vitro lineage-directed differentiation of stem cells, understanding the molecular basis of this interplay could lead to the identification of novel targets to improve the treatment of degenerative diseases.

  17. Connecting Mitochondria, Metabolism, and Stem Cell Fate

    PubMed Central

    Wanet, Anaïs; Arnould, Thierry; Najimi, Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    As sites of cellular respiration and energy production, mitochondria play a central role in cell metabolism. Cell differentiation is associated with an increase in mitochondrial content and activity and with a metabolic shift toward increased oxidative phosphorylation activity. The opposite occurs during reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells. Studies have provided evidence of mitochondrial and metabolic changes during the differentiation of both embryonic and somatic (or adult) stem cells (SSCs), such as hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and tissue-specific progenitor cells. We thus propose to consider those mitochondrial and metabolic changes as hallmarks of differentiation processes. We review how mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, and function are directly involved in embryonic and SSC differentiation and how metabolic and sensing pathways connect mitochondria and metabolism with cell fate and pluripotency. Understanding the basis of the crosstalk between mitochondria and cell fate is of critical importance, given the promising application of stem cells in regenerative medicine. In addition to the development of novel strategies to improve the in vitro lineage-directed differentiation of stem cells, understanding the molecular basis of this interplay could lead to the identification of novel targets to improve the treatment of degenerative diseases. PMID:26134242

  18. Lineage fate and intense debate: myths, models and mechanisms of CD4- versus CD8-lineage choice.

    PubMed

    Singer, Alfred; Adoro, Stanley; Park, Jung-Hyun

    2008-10-01

    Following successful gene rearrangement at alphabeta T-cell receptor (TCR) loci, developing thymocytes express both CD4 and CD8 co-receptors and undergo a life-or-death selection event, which is known as positive selection, to identify cells that express TCRs with potentially useful ligand specificities. Positively selected thymocytes must then differentiate into either CD4(+) helper T cells or CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells, a crucial decision known as CD4/CD8-lineage choice. In this Review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the cellular and molecular events involved in lineage-fate decision and discuss them in the context of the major models of CD4/CD8-lineage choice.

  19. Oxygen and Cell Fate Decisions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-27

    embryonic cells such as OCT-4 and Rex -1 by RT-PCR (D’Ippolito et al. 2006; Grayson et al. 2006), as well as cell- surface marker SSEA-4 by fl uorescence...diaphysis. An in vitro and in vivo study in rats and rabbits . J. Bone Joint Surg., 53:719–28. Brighton, C.T. and Heppenstall, R.B. 1971b. Oxygen tension of

  20. Cell fate regulation in early mammalian development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oron, Efrat; Ivanova, Natalia

    2012-08-01

    Preimplantation development in mammals encompasses a period from fertilization to implantation and results in formation of a blastocyst composed of three distinct cell lineages: epiblast, trophectoderm and primitive endoderm. The epiblast gives rise to the organism, while the trophectoderm and the primitive endoderm contribute to extraembryonic tissues that support embryo development after implantation. In many vertebrates, such as frog or fish, maternally supplied lineage determinants are partitioned within the egg. Cell cleavage that follows fertilization results in polarization of these factors between the individual blastomeres, which become restricted in their developmental fate. In contrast, the mouse oocyte and zygote lack clear polarity and, until the eight-cell stage, individual blastomeres retain the potential to form all lineages. How are cell lineages specified in the absence of a maternally supplied blueprint? This is a fundamental question in the field of developmental biology. The answer to this question lies in understanding the cell-cell interactions and gene networks involved in embryonic development prior to implantation and using this knowledge to create testable models of the developmental processes that govern cell fates. We provide an overview of classic and contemporary models of early lineage development in the mouse and discuss the emerging body of work that highlights similarities and differences between blastocyst development in the mouse and other mammalian species.

  1. Lysophosphatidylcholine Drives Neuroblast Cell Fate.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Luciana; Domizi, Pablo; Marcucci, Hebe; Montaner, Aneley; Krapf, Dario; Salvador, Gabriela; Banchio, Claudia

    2016-11-01

    Neuronal differentiation plays a key role during embryogenesis. However, based on the capacity of neuronal stem cells to either generate or regenerate neurons and because differentiation stops aberrant neuroblasts proliferation, neuronal differentiation is crucial during neuropathological conditions. Although phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) has been proposed as an important molecule for neurite growth and neuronal regeneration, the identity of the molecular target has remained elusive. This study originally describes that lysophosphatidylcholine (LPtdCho), either exogenously supplied or generated by the imbalance of PtdCho metabolism through the enzymatic action of cytosolic phospholipase A2, acts as a neurotrophic-like factor. We demonstrated that LPtdCho induces neuronal differentiation by activation of the small G protein Ras followed by the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway. Accordingly, LPtdCho redirects neuroblasts gene expression leading to the generation of functional mature neurons expressing βIII-tubulin and having increased acetylcholinesterase activity and membrane biosynthesis required for neuritogenesis. These findings provide mechanistic details of the role of cytidine-5-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) and PtdCho as neuroprotectors. Furthermore, as LPtdCho recapitulates the effect of the therapeutic agent retinoic acid, these results open new avenues for drug discovery for the treatment of neuropathological conditions.

  2. Slit/Robo signaling regulates cell fate decisions in the intestinal stem cell lineage of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Biteau, Benoît; Jasper, Heinrich

    2014-06-26

    In order to maintain tissue homeostasis, cell fate decisions within stem cell lineages have to respond to the needs of the tissue. This coordination of lineage choices with regenerative demand remains poorly characterized. Here, we identify a signal from enteroendocrine cells (EEs) that controls lineage specification in the Drosophila intestine. We find that EEs secrete Slit, a ligand for the Robo2 receptor in intestinal stem cells (ISCs) that limits ISC commitment to the endocrine lineage, establishing negative feedback control of EE regeneration. Furthermore, we show that this lineage decision is made within ISCs and requires induction of the transcription factor Prospero in ISCs. Our work identifies a function for the conserved Slit/Robo pathway in the regulation of adult stem cells, establishing negative feedback control of ISC lineage specification as a critical strategy to preserve tissue homeostasis. Our results further amend the current understanding of cell fate commitment within the Drosophila ISC lineage.

  3. Cell fate transitions during stomatal development.

    PubMed

    Serna, Laura

    2009-08-01

    Stomata, the most influential components in gas exchange with the atmosphere, represent a revealing system for studying cell fate determination. Studies in Arabidopsis thaliana have demonstrated that many of the components, functioning in a signaling cascade, guide numerous cell fate transitions that occur during stomatal development. The signaling cascade is initiated at the cell surface through the activation of the membrane receptors TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM) and/or ERECTA (ER) family members by the secretory peptide EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR1 (EPF1) and/or a substrate processed proteolytically by the subtilase STOMATAL DENSITY AND DISTRIBUTION1 (SDD1) and transduced through cytoplasmic MAP kinases (YODA (YDA), MKK4/MKK5, and MPK3/MPK6) towards the nucleus. In the nucleus, these MAP kinases regulate the activity of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins SPEECHLESS (SPCH), MUTE, and FAMA, which act in concert with the bHLH-Leu zipper protein SCREAM (SCRM) (and/or its closely related paralog, SCREAM2). This article reviews current insights into the role of this signaling cascade during stomatal development.

  4. Riboflavin in development and cell fate.

    PubMed

    Powers, Hilary J; Corfe, B M; Nakano, E

    2012-01-01

    Riboflavin (7,8-dimethyl-10-ribitylisoalloxazine; vitamin B2) is a water-soluble vitamin, cofactor derivatives of which (FAD, FMN) act as electron acceptors in the oxidative metabolism of carbohydrate, amino acids and fatty acids and which in the reduced state can donate electrons to complex II of the electron transport chain. This means that riboflavin is essential for energy generation in the aerobic cell, through oxidative phosphorylation. The classic effects of riboflavin deficiency on growth and development have generally been explained in terms of these functions. However, research also suggests that riboflavin may have specific functions associated with cell fate determination, which would have implications for growth and development. In particular, riboflavin depletion interferes with the normal progression of the cell cycle, probably through effects on the expression of regulatory genes, exerted at both the transcriptional and proteomic level.

  5. Neural crest stem cell multipotency requires Foxd3 to maintain neural potential and repress mesenchymal fates

    PubMed Central

    Mundell, Nathan A.; Labosky, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    Neural crest (NC) progenitors generate a wide array of cell types, yet molecules controlling NC multipotency and self-renewal and factors mediating cell-intrinsic distinctions between multipotent versus fate-restricted progenitors are poorly understood. Our earlier work demonstrated that Foxd3 is required for maintenance of NC progenitors in the embryo. Here, we show that Foxd3 mediates a fate restriction choice for multipotent NC progenitors with loss of Foxd3 biasing NC toward a mesenchymal fate. Neural derivatives of NC were lost in Foxd3 mutant mouse embryos, whereas abnormally fated NC-derived vascular smooth muscle cells were ectopically located in the aorta. Cranial NC defects were associated with precocious differentiation towards osteoblast and chondrocyte cell fates, and individual mutant NC from different anteroposterior regions underwent fate changes, losing neural and increasing myofibroblast potential. Our results demonstrate that neural potential can be separated from NC multipotency by the action of a single gene, and establish novel parallels between NC and other progenitor populations that depend on this functionally conserved stem cell protein to regulate self-renewal and multipotency. PMID:21228004

  6. EMT and MET as paradigms for cell fate switching.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiekai; Han, Qingkai; Pei, Duanqing

    2012-04-01

    Cell fate determination is a major unsolved problem in cell and developmental biology. The discovery of reprogramming by pluripotent factors offers a rational system to investigate the molecular mechanisms associated with cell fate decisions. The idea that reprogramming of fibroblasts starts with a mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) suggests that the process is perhaps a reversal of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) found frequently during early embryogenesis. As such, we believe that investigations into MET-EMT may yield detailed molecular insights into cell fate decisions, not only for the switching between epithelial and mesenchymal cells, but also other cell types.

  7. DNA asymmetry and cell fate regulation in stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yennek, Siham; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

    2013-01-01

    The semi-conservative nature of DNA replication has suggested that identical DNA molecules within chromatids are inherited by daughter cells after cell division. Numerous reports of non-random DNA segregation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes suggest that this is not always the case, and that epigenetic marks on chromatids, if not the individual DNA strands themselves, could have distinct signatures. Their selective distribution to daughter cells provides a novel mechanism for gene and cell fate regulation by segregating chromatids asymmetrically. Here we highlight some examples and potential mechanisms that can regulate this process. We propose that cellular asymmetry is inherently present during each cell division, and that it provides an opportunity during each cell cycle for moderating cell fates.

  8. Reprogramming cell fate: a changing story.

    PubMed

    Chin, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Direct reprogramming of adult, lineage-determined cells from one cell fate to another has long been an elusive goal in developmental biology. Recent studies have demonstrated that forced expression of lineage-specific transcription factors in various differentiated cell types can promote the adoption of different lineages. These seminal findings have the potential to revolutionize the field of regenerative medicine by providing replacement cells for various degenerative disorders. Current reprogramming protocols, however, are inefficient in that relatively few cells in a given population can be made to undergo reprogramming and the completeness and extent of reprogramming that occurs has been questioned. At present, the fundamental molecular mechanisms involved are still being elucidated. Although the potential clinical applications are extensive, these issues will need to be addressed before direct reprogramming may be used clinically. This review will give an overview of pioneering studies in the field, will describe what is known about direct reprogramming to specific lineage types, will summarize what is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in reprogramming and will discuss challenges for the future.

  9. Underlying principles of cell fate determination during G1 phase of the mammalian cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Pfeuty, Benjamin; David-Pfeuty, Thérèse; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2008-10-01

    Upon their exit from mitosis, mammalian cells enter a G(1) phase during which they acutely sense all sorts of environmental stimuli. On the basis of these signals that they first need to decipher and integrate, they decide whether to undergo division, differentiation, senescence or apoptosis. We questioned whether, despite the complexity of the G(1) regulatory network, simple organizing principles might be identified that could explain how specific input signals are converted into appropriate cell fates. For this purpose, we formulated a mathematical model of the G(1) regulatory network using a simplified description of activities linked to signal transduction, cell growth, cell division and cell death. Bifurcation analysis of the model revealed the existence of multistability between several attractor states corresponding to G(0)-arrest, G(1)-arrest, S-phase entry and apoptosis cell fates. We further unravelled interlinked feedback and feedforward loops within the G(1) regulatory network that drive the signal-dependent transition between G(0) arrest and the other cell fates. Initially, exit from G(0) and progression in early G(1) entail growth factor-dependent activation of an upstream positive feedback loop that activates the cell-growth machinery. Once ribosome synthesis is restored in G(1), a competition develops between a downstream positive feedback loop, which, upon activation, triggers S phase entry, and stress-activated pathways that promote G(1) arrest. If S phase entry prevails over G(1) arrest, cells are sensitized to apoptosis due to stress-induced activation of pro-apoptotic pathways or repression of pro-survival pathways. Thus, the choice between the four possible cell fates in the G(1) phase relies on the flexibly interlinked growth-activatory and division-activatory modules, certain components of which have antagonistic effects on pathways involved in driving apoptosis and G(1) arrest. The final outcome ultimately depends on the context

  10. Cell fate control in the developing central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Guérout, Nicolas; Li, Xiaofei; Barnabé-Heider, Fanie

    2014-02-01

    The principal neural cell types forming the mature central nervous system (CNS) are now understood to be diverse. This cellular subtype diversity originates to a large extent from the specification of the earlier proliferating progenitor populations during development. Here, we review the processes governing the differentiation of a common neuroepithelial cell progenitor pool into mature neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and adult stem cells. We focus on studies performed in mice and involving two distinct CNS structures: the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex. Understanding the origin, specification and developmental regulators of neural cells will ultimately impact comprehension and treatments of neurological disorders and diseases. - Highlights: • Similar mechanisms regulate cell fate in different CNS cell types and structures. • Cell fate regulators operate in a spatial–temporal manner. • Different neural cell types rely on the generation of a diversity of progenitor cells. • Cell fate decision is dictated by the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic signals.

  11. Ductular reaction-on-a-chip: Microfluidic co-cultures to study stem cell fate selection during liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Amranul; Gheibi, Pantea; Stybayeva, Gulnaz; Gao, Yandong; Torok, Natalie; Revzin, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Liver injury modulates local microenvironment, triggering production of signals that instruct stem cell fate choices. In this study, we employed a microfluidic co-culture system to recreate important interactions in the liver stem cell niche, those between adult hepatocytes and liver progenitor cells (LPCs). We demonstrate that pluripotent stem cell-derived LPCs choose hepatic fate when cultured next to healthy hepatocytes but begin biliary differentiation program when co-cultured with injured hepatocytes. We connect this fate selection to skewing in production of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 caused by injury. Significantly, biliary fate selection of LPCs was not observed in the absence of hepatocytes nor did it happen in the presence of TGF-β inhibitors. Our study demonstrates that microfluidic culture systems may offer an interesting new tool for dissecting cellular interactions leading to aberrant stem cell differentiation during injury. PMID:27796316

  12. Dynamical crossover in a stochastic model of cell fate decision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Kawaguchi, Kyogo; Sagawa, Takahiro

    2017-07-01

    We study the asymptotic behaviors of stochastic cell fate decision between proliferation and differentiation. We propose a model of a self-replicating Langevin system, where cells choose their fate (i.e., proliferation or differentiation) depending on local cell density. Based on this model, we propose a scenario for multicellular organisms to maintain the density of cells (i.e., homeostasis) through finite-ranged cell-cell interactions. Furthermore, we numerically show that the distribution of the number of descendant cells changes over time, thus unifying the previously proposed two models regarding homeostasis: the critical birth death process and the voter model. Our results provide a general platform for the study of stochastic cell fate decision in terms of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics.

  13. Epigenetic memory and cell fate reprogramming in plants.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Kenneth D; Roudier, François

    2017-02-01

    Plants have a high intrinsic capacity to regenerate from adult tissues, with the ability to reprogram adult cell fates. In contrast, epigenetic mechanisms have the potential to stabilize cell identity and maintain tissue organization. The question is whether epigenetic memory creates a barrier to reprogramming that needs to be erased or circumvented in plant regeneration. Early evidence suggests that, while chromatin dynamics impact gene expression in the meristem, a lasting constraint on cell fate is not established until late stages of plant cell differentiation. It is not yet clear whether the plasticity of plant cells arises from the ability of cells to erase identity memory or to deploy cells that may exhibit cellular specialization but still lack an epigenetic restriction on cell fate alteration.

  14. Epigenetic memory and cell fate reprogramming in plants

    PubMed Central

    Roudier, François

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Plants have a high intrinsic capacity to regenerate from adult tissues, with the ability to reprogram adult cell fates. In contrast, epigenetic mechanisms have the potential to stabilize cell identity and maintain tissue organization. The question is whether epigenetic memory creates a barrier to reprogramming that needs to be erased or circumvented in plant regeneration. Early evidence suggests that, while chromatin dynamics impact gene expression in the meristem, a lasting constraint on cell fate is not established until late stages of plant cell differentiation. It is not yet clear whether the plasticity of plant cells arises from the ability of cells to erase identity memory or to deploy cells that may exhibit cellular specialization but still lack an epigenetic restriction on cell fate alteration. PMID:28316791

  15. Identifying gene expression modules that define human cell fates.

    PubMed

    Germanguz, I; Listgarten, J; Cinkornpumin, J; Solomon, A; Gaeta, X; Lowry, W E

    2016-05-01

    Using a compendium of cell-state-specific gene expression data, we identified genes that uniquely define cell states, including those thought to represent various developmental stages. Our analysis sheds light on human cell fate through the identification of core genes that are altered over several developmental milestones, and across regional specification. Here we present cell-type specific gene expression data for 17 distinct cell states and demonstrate that these modules of genes can in fact define cell fate. Lastly, we introduce a web-based database to disseminate the results. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cell biological regulation of division fate in vertebrate neuroepithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Willardsen, Minde I; Link, Brian A

    2011-08-01

    The developing nervous system derives from neuroepithelial progenitor cells that divide to generate all of the mature neuronal types. For the proper complement of cell types to form, the progenitors must produce postmitotic cells, yet also replenish the progenitor pool. Progenitor divisions can be classified into three general types: symmetric proliferative (producing two progenitors), asymmetric neurogenic (producing one progenitor and one postmitotic cell), and symmetric neurogenic (producing two postmitotic cells). The appropriate ratios for these modes of cell division require intrinsic polarity, which is one of the characteristics that define neuroepithelial progenitor cells. The type of division an individual progenitor undergoes can be influenced by cellular features, or behaviors, which are heterogeneous within the population of progenitors. Here we review three key cellular parameters, asymmetric inheritance, cell cycle kinetics, and interkinetic nuclear migration, and the possible mechanisms for how these features influence progenitor fates.

  17. Decision for cell fate: deubiquitinating enzymes in cell cycle checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Lim, Key-Hwan; Song, Myoung-Hyun; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    All organs consisting of single cells are consistently maintaining homeostasis in response to stimuli such as free oxygen, DNA damage, inflammation, and microorganisms. The cell cycle of all mammalian cells is regulated by protein expression in the right phase to respond to proliferation and apoptosis signals. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins by several protein-editing enzymes are associated with cell cycle regulation by their enzymatic functions. Ubiquitination, one of the PTMs, is also strongly related to cell cycle regulation by protein degradation or signal transduction. The importance of deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), which have a reversible function for ubiquitination, has recently suggested that the function of DUBs is also important for determining the fate of proteins during cell cycle processing. This article reviews and summarizes the diverse roles of DUBs, including DNA damage, cell cycle processing, and regulation of histone proteins, and also suggests the possibility for therapeutic targets.

  18. Prospero and Pax2 combinatorially control neural cell fate decisions by modulating Ras- and Notch-dependent signaling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The concept of an equivalence group, a cluster of cells with equal potential to adopt the same specific fate, has served as a useful paradigm to understand neural cell type specification. In the Drosophila eye, a set of five cells, called the 'R7 equivalence group', generates a single photoreceptor neuron and four lens-secreting epithelial cells. This choice between neuronal versus non-neuronal cell fates rests on differential requirements for, and cross-talk between, Notch/Delta- and Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent signaling pathways. However, many questions remain unanswered related to how downstream events of these two signaling pathways mediate distinct cell fate decisions. Results Here, we demonstrate that two direct downstream targets of Ras and Notch signaling, the transcription factors Prospero and dPax2, are essential regulators of neuronal versus non-neuronal cell fate decisions in the R7 equivalence group. Prospero controls high activated MAPK levels required for neuronal fate, whereas dPax2 represses Delta expression to prevent neuronal fate. Importantly, activity from both factors is required for proper cell fate decisions to occur. Conclusions These data demonstrate that Ras and Notch signaling are integrated during cell fate decisions within the R7 equivalence group through the combinatorial and opposing activities of Pros and dPax2. Our study provides one of the first examples of how the differential expression and synergistic roles of two independent transcription factors determine cell fate within an equivalence group. Since the integration of Ras and Notch signaling is associated with many developmental and cancer models, these findings should provide new insights into how cell specificity is achieved by ubiquitously used signaling pathways in diverse biological contexts. PMID:21539742

  19. Transcriptional control of cell fate in the stomatal lineage

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Abigail R.; Bergmann, Dominique C.

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis stomatal lineage is a microcosm of development; it undergoes selection of precursor cells, asymmetric and stem cell-like divisions, cell commitment and finally, acquisition of terminal cell fates. Recent transcriptomic approaches revealed major shifts in gene expression accompanying each fate transition, and mechanistic analysis of key bHLH transcription factors, along with mathematical modeling, has begun to unravel how these major shifts are coordinated. In addition, stomatal initiation is proving to be a tractable model for defining the genetic and epigenetic basis of stable cell identities and for understanding the integration of environmental responses into developmental programs. PMID:26550955

  20. The Yin and Yang of chromatin dynamics in adult stem cell fate selection

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Rene C.; Fuchs, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Adult organisms rely on tissue stem cells for maintenance and repair. During homeostasis, the concerted action of local niche signals and epigenetic regulators establish stable gene expression patterns to ensure that stem cells are not lost over time. However, stem cells also provide host tissues with a remarkable plasticity to respond to perturbations. How adult stem cells choose and acquire new fates is unknown, but the genome-wide mapping of epigenetic landscapes suggests a critical role for chromatin remodeling in these processes. Here, we explore the emerging role of chromatin modifiers and pioneer transcription factors in adult stem cell fate decisions and plasticity, which ensure that selective lineage choices are only made when environmentally cued. PMID:26689127

  1. Cell fate determination by ubiquitin-dependent regulation of translation

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Achim; Iwasaki, Shintaro; McGourty, Colleen; Medina-Ruiz, Sofia; Teerikorpi, Nia; Fedrigo, Indro; Ingolia, Nicholas T.; Rape, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Metazoan development depends on accurate execution of differentiation programs that allow pluripotent stem cells to adopt specific fates 1. Differentiation requires changes to chromatin architecture and transcriptional networks, yet whether other regulatory events support cell fate determination is less well understood. Here, we have identified the vertebrate-specific ubiquitin ligase CUL3KBTBD8 as an essential regulator of neural crest specification. CUL3KBTBD8 monoubiquitylates NOLC1 and its paralog TCOF1, whose mutation underlies the neurocristopathy Treacher Collins Syndrome 2,3. Ubiquitylation drives formation of a TCOF1-NOLC1 platform that connects RNA polymerase I with ribosome modification enzymes and remodels the translational program of differentiating cells in favor of neural crest specification. We conclude that ubiquitin-dependent regulation of translation is an important feature of cell fate determination. PMID:26399832

  2. Multiscale microenvironmental perturbation of pluripotent stem cell fate and self-organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabata, Yoji; Lutolf, Matthias P.

    2017-03-01

    The combination of microfluidics with engineered three-dimensional (3D) matrices can bring new insights into the fate regulation of stem cells and their self-organization into organoids. Although there has been progress in 3D stem cell culturing, most existing in vitro methodologies do not allow for mimicking of the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of stimuli that drive morphogenetic processes in vivo. To address this, we present a perfusion-free microchip concept for the in vitro 3D perturbation of stem cell fate. Stem cells are encapsulated in a hydrogel compartment that is flanked by open reservoirs for the diffusion-driven generation of biomolecule gradients. Juxtaposing additional compartments bearing supportive cells enables investigating the influence of long range cell-cell communication. We explore the utility of the microchips in manipulating early fate choices and self-organizing characteristics of 3D-cultured mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) under neural differentiation conditions and exposure to gradients of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). mESCs respond to LIF gradients in a spatially dependent manner. At higher LIF concentrations, multicellular colonies maintain pluripotency in contrast, at lower concentrations, mESCs develop into apicobasally polarized epithelial cysts. This versatile system can help to systematically explore the role of multifactorial microenvironments in promoting self-patterning of various stem cell types.

  3. Multiscale microenvironmental perturbation of pluripotent stem cell fate and self-organization

    PubMed Central

    Tabata, Yoji; Lutolf, Matthias P.

    2017-01-01

    The combination of microfluidics with engineered three-dimensional (3D) matrices can bring new insights into the fate regulation of stem cells and their self-organization into organoids. Although there has been progress in 3D stem cell culturing, most existing in vitro methodologies do not allow for mimicking of the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of stimuli that drive morphogenetic processes in vivo. To address this, we present a perfusion-free microchip concept for the in vitro 3D perturbation of stem cell fate. Stem cells are encapsulated in a hydrogel compartment that is flanked by open reservoirs for the diffusion-driven generation of biomolecule gradients. Juxtaposing additional compartments bearing supportive cells enables investigating the influence of long range cell-cell communication. We explore the utility of the microchips in manipulating early fate choices and self-organizing characteristics of 3D-cultured mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) under neural differentiation conditions and exposure to gradients of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). mESCs respond to LIF gradients in a spatially dependent manner. At higher LIF concentrations, multicellular colonies maintain pluripotency in contrast, at lower concentrations, mESCs develop into apicobasally polarized epithelial cysts. This versatile system can help to systematically explore the role of multifactorial microenvironments in promoting self-patterning of various stem cell types. PMID:28303935

  4. Linking the Cell Cycle to Cell Fate Decisions.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Stephen

    2015-10-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) retain the ability to differentiate into a wide range of cell types while undergoing self-renewal. They also exhibit an unusual mode of cell cycle regulation, reflected by a cell cycle structure where G1 and G2 phases are truncated. When individual PSCs are exposed to specification cues, they activate developmental programs and remodel the cell cycle so that the length of G1 and overall cell division times increase. The response of individual stem cells to pro-differentiation signals is strikingly heterogeneous, resulting in asynchronous differentiation. Recent evidence indicates that this phenomenon is due to cell cycle-dependent mechanisms that restrict the initial activation of developmental genes to the G1 phase. This suggests a broad biological mechanism where multipotent cells are 'primed' to initiate cell fate decisions during their transition through G1. Here, I discuss mechanisms underpinning the commitment towards the differentiated state and its relation to the cell cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hormone signaling requirements for the conversion of non-mammary mouse cells to mammary cell fate(s) in vivo.

    PubMed

    Boulanger, Corinne A; Rosenfield, Sonia M; George, Andrea L; Smith, Gilbert H

    2015-06-01

    Mammotropic hormones and growth factors play a very important role in mammary growth and differentiation. Here, hormones including Estrogen, Progesterone, Prolactin, their cognate receptors, and the growth factor Amphiregulin, are tested with respect to their roles in signaling non-mammary cells from the mouse to redirect to mammary epithelial cell fate(s). This was done in the context of glandular regeneration in pubertal athymic female mice. Our previous studies demonstrated that mammary stem cell niches are recapitulated during gland regeneration in vivo. During this process, cells of exogenous origin cooperate with mammary epithelial cells to form mammary stem cell niches and thus respond to normal developmental signals. In all cases tested with the possible exception of estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α), hormone signaling is dispensable for non-mammary cells to undertake mammary epithelial cell fate(s), proliferate, and contribute progeny to chimeric mammary outgrowths. Importantly, redirected non-mammary cell progeny, regardless of their source, have the ability to self-renew and contribute offspring to secondary mammary outgrowths derived from transplanted chimeric mammary fragments; thus suggesting that some of these cells are capable of mammary stem cell/progenitor functions.

  6. Dynamics of p53: A Master Decider of Cell Fate

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qingyin; Beaver, Jill M.; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Zunzhen

    2017-01-01

    Cellular stress-induced temporal alterations—i.e., dynamics—are typically exemplified by the dynamics of p53 that serve as a master to determine cell fate. p53 dynamics were initially identified as the variations of p53 protein levels. However, a growing number of studies have shown that p53 dynamics are also manifested in variations in the activity, spatial location, and posttranslational modifications of p53 proteins, as well as the interplay among all p53 dynamical features. These are essential in determining a specific outcome of cell fate. In this review, we discuss the importance of the multifaceted features of p53 dynamics and their roles in the cell fate decision process, as well as their potential applications in p53-based cancer therapy. The review provides new insights into p53 signaling pathways and their potentials in the development of new strategies in p53-based cancer therapy. PMID:28208785

  7. Diversity of fate outcomes in cell pairs under lateral inhibition.

    PubMed

    Guisoni, Nara; Martinez-Corral, Rosa; Garcia Ojalvo, Jordi; de Navascués, Joaquín

    2017-02-07

    Cell fate determination by lateral inhibition via Notch/Delta signalling has been extensively studied. Most formalised models consider Notch/Delta interactions in fields of cells, with parameters that typically lead to symmetry breaking of signalling states between neighbouring cells, commonly resulting in salt-and-pepper fate patterns. Here we consider the case of signalling between isolated cell pairs, and find that the bifurcation properties of a standard mathematical model of lateral inhibition can lead to stable symmetric signalling states. We apply this model to the adult intestinal stem cell (ISC) of Drosophila, whose fate is stochastic but dependent on the Notch/Delta pathway. We observe a correlation between signalling state in cell pairs and their contact area. We interpret this behaviour in terms of the properties of our model in the presence of population variability in contact areas, which affects the effective signalling threshold of individual cells. Our results suggest that the dynamics of Notch/Delta signalling can contribute to explain stochasticity in stem cell fate decisions, and that the standard model for lateral inhibition can account for a wider range of developmental outcomes than previously considered.

  8. FY08 LDRD Final Report Stem Cell Fate Decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Hiddessen, A

    2009-03-02

    A detailed understanding of the biological control of fate decisions of stem and progenitor cells is needed to harness their full power for tissue repair and/or regeneration. Currently, internal and external factors that regulate stem cell fate are not fully understood. We aim to engineer biocompatible tools to facilitate the measurement and comparison of the roles and significance of immobilized factors such as extracellular matrix and signaling peptides, synergistic and opposing soluble factors and signals, and cell-to-cell communication, in stem cell fate decisions. Our approach is based on the development of cell microarrays to capture viable stem/progenitor cells individually or in small clusters onto substrate-bound signals (e.g. proteins), combined with conventional antibody and customized subcellular markers made in-house, to facilitate tracking of cell behavior during exposure to relevant signals. Below we describe our efforts, including methods to manipulate a model epithelial stem cell system using a custom subcellular reporter to track and measure cell signaling, arrays with surface chemistry that support viable cells and enable controlled presentation of immobilized signals to cells on the array and fluorescence-based measurement of cell response, and successful on-array tests via conventional immunofluorescence assays that indicate correct cell polarity, localization of junctional proteins, and phenotype, properties which are essential to measuring true cell responses.

  9. 'Open minded' cells: how cells can change fate.

    PubMed

    Costa, Silvia; Shaw, Peter

    2007-03-01

    It has long intrigued researchers why some but not all organisms can regenerate missing body parts. Plants are remarkable in that they can regenerate the entire organism from a small piece of tissue, or even a single cell. Epigenetic mechanisms that control chromatin organization are now known to regulate the cellular plasticity and reprogramming necessary for regeneration. Interestingly, although animals and plants have evolved different strategies and mechanisms to control developmental processes, they have maintained many similarities in the way they regulate chromatin organization. Given that plants can rapidly switch fate, we propose that an understanding of the mechanisms regulating this process in plant cells could provide a new perspective on cellular dedifferentiation in animals.

  10. Direct reprogramming and biomaterials for controlling cell fate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunsol; Tae, Giyoong

    2016-01-01

    Direct reprogramming which changes the fate of matured cell is a very useful technique with a great interest recently. This approach can eliminate the drawbacks of direct usage of stem cells and allow the patient specific treatment in regenerative medicine. Overexpression of diverse factors such as general reprogramming factors or lineage specific transcription factors can change the fate of already differentiated cells. On the other hand, biomaterials can provide physical and topographical cues or biochemical cues on cells, which can dictate or significantly affect the differentiation of stem cells. The role of biomaterials on direct reprogramming has not been elucidated much, but will be potentially significant to improve the efficiency or specificity of direct reprogramming. In this review, the strategies for general direct reprogramming and biomaterials-guided stem cell differentiation are summarized with the addition of the up-to-date progress on biomaterials for direct reprogramming.

  11. Polarity and asymmetric cell division in the control of lymphocyte fate decisions and function.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Mohammed; Russell, Sarah M

    2016-04-01

    Polarity is important in several lymphocyte processes including lymphocyte migration, formation of the immunological synapse, and asymmetric cell division (ACD). While lymphocyte migration and immunological synapse formation are relatively well understood, the role of lymphocyte ACD is less clear. Recent advances in measuring polarity enable more robust analyses of asymmetric cell division. Use of these new methods has produced crucial quantification of ACD at precise phases of lymphocyte development and activation. These developments are leading to a better understanding of the drivers of fate choice during lymphocyte activation and provide a context within which to explain the effects of ACD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemicals as the Sole Transformers of Cell Fate

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Forced expression of lineage-specific transcription factors in somatic cells can result in the generation of different cell types in a process named direct reprogramming, bypassing the pluripotent state. However, the introduction of transgenes limits the therapeutic applications of the produced cells. Numerous small-molecules have been introduced in the field of stem cell biology capable of governing self-renewal, reprogramming, transdifferentiation and regeneration. These chemical compounds are versatile tools for cell fate conversion toward desired outcomes. Cell fate conversion using small-molecules alone (chemical reprogramming) has superiority over arduous traditional genetic techniques in several aspects. For instance, rapid, transient, and reversible effects in activation and inhibition of functions of specific proteins are of the profits of small-molecules. They are cost-effective, have a long half-life, diversity on structure and function, and allow for temporal and flexible regulation of signaling pathways. Additionally, their effects could be adjusted by fine-tuning concentrations and combinations of different small-molecules. Therefore, chemicals are powerful tools in cell fate conversion and study of stem cell and chemical biology in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, transgene-free and chemical-only transdifferentiation approaches provide alternative strategies for the generation of various cell types, disease modeling, drug screening, and regenerative medicine. The current review gives an overview of the recent findings concerning transdifferentiation by only small-molecules without the use of transgenes. PMID:27426081

  13. Asymmetric cell division in T lymphocyte fate diversification

    PubMed Central

    Arsenio, Janilyn; Metz, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Immunological protection against microbial pathogens is dependent on robust generation of functionally diverse T lymphocyte subsets. Upon microbial infection, naïve CD4+ or CD8+ T lymphocytes can give rise to effector- and memory-fated progeny that together mediate a potent immune response. Recent advances in single-cell immunological and genomic profiling technologies have helped elucidate early and late diversification mechanisms that enable the generation of heterogeneity from single T lymphocytes. We discuss these findings here and argue that one such mechanism, asymmetric cell division, creates an early divergence in T lymphocyte fates by giving rise to daughter cells with a propensity towards the terminally differentiated effector or self-renewing memory lineages, with cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic cues from the microenvironment driving the final maturation steps. PMID:26474675

  14. Specification of haematopoietic stem cell fate via modulation of mitochondrial activity

    PubMed Central

    Vannini, Nicola; Girotra, Mukul; Naveiras, Olaia; Nikitin, Gennady; Campos, Vasco; Giger, Sonja; Roch, Aline; Auwerx, Johan; Lutolf, Matthias P.

    2016-01-01

    Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) differ from their committed progeny by relying primarily on anaerobic glycolysis rather than mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for energy production. However, whether this change in the metabolic program is the cause or the consequence of the unique function of HSCs remains unknown. Here we show that enforced modulation of energy metabolism impacts HSC self-renewal. Lowering the mitochondrial activity of HSCs by chemically uncoupling the electron transport chain drives self-renewal under culture conditions that normally induce rapid differentiation. We demonstrate that this metabolic specification of HSC fate occurs through the reversible decrease of mitochondrial mass by autophagy. Our data thus reveal a causal relationship between mitochondrial metabolism and fate choice of HSCs and also provide a valuable tool to expand HSCs outside of their native bone marrow niches. PMID:27731316

  15. Regulation of spindle orientation and neural stem cell fate in the Drosophila optic lobe

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Boris; Boone, Jason Q; Stevens, Naomi R; Brand, Andrea H; Doe, Chris Q

    2007-01-01

    Background The choice of a stem cell to divide symmetrically or asymmetrically has profound consequences for development and disease. Unregulated symmetric division promotes tumor formation, whereas inappropriate asymmetric division affects organ morphogenesis. Despite its importance, little is known about how spindle positioning is regulated. In some tissues cell fate appears to dictate the type of cell division, whereas in other tissues it is thought that stochastic variation in spindle position dictates subsequent sibling cell fate. Results Here we investigate the relationship between neural progenitor identity and spindle positioning in the Drosophila optic lobe. We use molecular markers and live imaging to show that there are two populations of progenitors in the optic lobe: symmetrically dividing neuroepithelial cells and asymmetrically dividing neuroblasts. We use genetically marked single cell clones to show that neuroepithelial cells give rise to neuroblasts. To determine if a change in spindle orientation can trigger a neuroepithelial to neuroblast transition, we force neuroepithelial cells to divide along their apical/basal axis by misexpressing Inscuteable. We find that this does not induce neuroblasts, nor does it promote premature neuronal differentiation. Conclusion We show that symmetrically dividing neuroepithelial cells give rise to asymmetrically dividing neuroblasts in the optic lobe, and that regulation of spindle orientation and division symmetry is a consequence of cell type specification, rather than a mechanism for generating cell type diversity. PMID:17207270

  16. Regulation of spindle orientation and neural stem cell fate in the Drosophila optic lobe.

    PubMed

    Egger, Boris; Boone, Jason Q; Stevens, Naomi R; Brand, Andrea H; Doe, Chris Q

    2007-01-05

    The choice of a stem cell to divide symmetrically or asymmetrically has profound consequences for development and disease. Unregulated symmetric division promotes tumor formation, whereas inappropriate asymmetric division affects organ morphogenesis. Despite its importance, little is known about how spindle positioning is regulated. In some tissues cell fate appears to dictate the type of cell division, whereas in other tissues it is thought that stochastic variation in spindle position dictates subsequent sibling cell fate. Here we investigate the relationship between neural progenitor identity and spindle positioning in the Drosophila optic lobe. We use molecular markers and live imaging to show that there are two populations of progenitors in the optic lobe: symmetrically dividing neuroepithelial cells and asymmetrically dividing neuroblasts. We use genetically marked single cell clones to show that neuroepithelial cells give rise to neuroblasts. To determine if a change in spindle orientation can trigger a neuroepithelial to neuroblast transition, we force neuroepithelial cells to divide along their apical/basal axis by misexpressing Inscuteable. We find that this does not induce neuroblasts, nor does it promote premature neuronal differentiation. We show that symmetrically dividing neuroepithelial cells give rise to asymmetrically dividing neuroblasts in the optic lobe, and that regulation of spindle orientation and division symmetry is a consequence of cell type specification, rather than a mechanism for generating cell type diversity.

  17. Progenitor Cell Fate Decisions in Mammary Tumorigenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Double-strand break repair is mediated by two major repair pathways, homologous recombination (HR) or nonhomologous end joining ( NHEJ ). In mammalian...cells more than 90% of double-strand breaks are repaired by NHEJ . Impairment of these pathways is associated with cell cycle arrest, cell death

  18. Mechanics regulates fate decisions of human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yubing; Villa-Diaz, Luis G; Lam, Raymond H W; Chen, Weiqiang; Krebsbach, Paul H; Fu, Jianping

    2012-01-01

    Research on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has attracted much attention given their great potential for tissue regenerative therapy and fundamental developmental biology studies. Yet, there is still limited understanding of how mechanical signals in the local cellular microenvironment of hESCs regulate their fate decisions. Here, we applied a microfabricated micromechanical platform to investigate the mechanoresponsive behaviors of hESCs. We demonstrated that hESCs are mechanosensitive, and they could increase their cytoskeleton contractility with matrix rigidity. Furthermore, rigid substrates supported maintenance of pluripotency of hESCs. Matrix mechanics-mediated cytoskeleton contractility might be functionally correlated with E-cadherin expressions in cell-cell contacts and thus involved in fate decisions of hESCs. Our results highlighted the important functional link between matrix rigidity, cellular mechanics, and pluripotency of hESCs and provided a novel approach to characterize and understand mechanotransduction and its involvement in hESC function.

  19. Mechanics Regulates Fate Decisions of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yubing; Villa-Diaz, Luis G.; Lam, Raymond H. W.; Chen, Weiqiang; Krebsbach, Paul H.; Fu, Jianping

    2012-01-01

    Research on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has attracted much attention given their great potential for tissue regenerative therapy and fundamental developmental biology studies. Yet, there is still limited understanding of how mechanical signals in the local cellular microenvironment of hESCs regulate their fate decisions. Here, we applied a microfabricated micromechanical platform to investigate the mechanoresponsive behaviors of hESCs. We demonstrated that hESCs are mechanosensitive, and they could increase their cytoskeleton contractility with matrix rigidity. Furthermore, rigid substrates supported maintenance of pluripotency of hESCs. Matrix mechanics-mediated cytoskeleton contractility might be functionally correlated with E-cadherin expressions in cell-cell contacts and thus involved in fate decisions of hESCs. Our results highlighted the important functional link between matrix rigidity, cellular mechanics, and pluripotency of hESCs and provided a novel approach to characterize and understand mechanotransduction and its involvement in hESC function. PMID:22615930

  20. Polylox barcoding reveals haematopoietic stem cell fates realized in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pei, Weike; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Rössler, Jens; Wang, Xi; Postrach, Daniel; Busch, Katrin; Rode, Immanuel; Klapproth, Kay; Dietlein, Nikolaus; Quedenau, Claudia; Chen, Wei; Sauer, Sascha; Wolf, Stephan; Höfer, Thomas; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer

    2017-08-24

    Developmental deconvolution of complex organs and tissues at the level of individual cells remains challenging. Non-invasive genetic fate mapping has been widely used, but the low number of distinct fluorescent marker proteins limits its resolution. Much higher numbers of cell markers have been generated using viral integration sites, viral barcodes, and strategies based on transposons and CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing; however, temporal and tissue-specific induction of barcodes in situ has not been achieved. Here we report the development of an artificial DNA recombination locus (termed Polylox) that enables broadly applicable endogenous barcoding based on the Cre-loxP recombination system. Polylox recombination in situ reaches a practical diversity of several hundred thousand barcodes, allowing tagging of single cells. We have used this experimental system, combined with fate mapping, to assess haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) fates in vivo. Classical models of haematopoietic lineage specification assume a tree with few major branches. More recently, driven in part by the development of more efficient single-cell assays and improved transplantation efficiencies, different models have been proposed, in which unilineage priming may occur in mice and humans at the level of HSCs. We have introduced barcodes into HSC progenitors in embryonic mice, and found that the adult HSC compartment is a mosaic of embryo-derived HSC clones, some of which are unexpectedly large. Most HSC clones gave rise to multilineage or oligolineage fates, arguing against unilineage priming, and suggesting coherent usage of the potential of cells in a clone. The spreading of barcodes, both after induction in embryos and in adult mice, revealed a basic split between common myeloid-erythroid development and common lymphocyte development, supporting the long-held but contested view of a tree-like haematopoietic structure.

  1. Mesenchymal cell fate and phenotypes in the pathogenesis of emphysema.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Jeffrey C; Martinez, Fernando J; Thannickal, Victor J

    2009-06-01

    Emphysema is characterized by the destruction of alveolar parenchymal tissue and the concordant loss of lung epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and interstitial mesenchymal cells. Key features in the pathobiology of emphysema include inflammation, alveolar epithelial cell injury/apoptosis, and excessive activation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteases. Mesenchymal cells are versatile connective tissue cells that are critical effectors of wound-repair. The excessive loss of connective tissue and the destruction of alveolar septae in emphysema suggest that the mesenchymal cell reparative response to epithelial injury is impaired. Yet, the mechanisms regulating mesenchymal cell (dys)function in emphysema remain poorly understood. We propose that mesenchymal cell fate, modulated by transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1) and the balance of ECM proteases and antiproteases, is a critical determinant of the emphysema phenotype. We examine emphysema in the context of wound-repair responses, with a focus on the regulation of mesenchymal cell fate and phenotype. We discuss the emerging evidence supporting that genetic factors, inflammation and environmental factors, including cigarette smoke itself, collectively impair mesenchymal cell survival and function, thus contributing to the pathogenesis of emphysema.

  2. Competent steps in determination of cell fate.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R

    1999-06-01

    Competence is an active state that defines the way in which cells respond to an inductive signal. A challenge of developmental biology is to explain not just the nature of the signalling molecules that promote cell specification or differentiation, but also how cells acquire competence to respond to these signals and what that reflects in molecular terms. A recent paper by Carmena et al. has revealed how several signalling mechanisms are used sequentially and in specific combinations to specify two mesodermal lineages in Drosophila.

  3. Foxp1/4 control epithelial cell fate during lung development and regeneration through regulation of anterior gradient 2.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanru; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Yuzhen; Lu, Min Min; DeMayo, Francesco J; Dekker, Joseph D; Tucker, Philip W; Morrisey, Edward E

    2012-07-01

    The molecular pathways regulating cell lineage determination and regeneration in epithelial tissues are poorly understood. The secretory epithelium of the lung is required for production of mucus to help protect the lung against environmental insults, including pathogens and pollution, that can lead to debilitating diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We show that the transcription factors Foxp1 and Foxp4 act cooperatively to regulate lung secretory epithelial cell fate and regeneration by directly restricting the goblet cell lineage program. Loss of Foxp1/4 in the developing lung and in postnatal secretory epithelium leads to ectopic activation of the goblet cell fate program, in part, through de-repression of the protein disulfide isomerase anterior gradient 2 (Agr2). Forced expression of Agr2 is sufficient to promote the goblet cell fate in the developing airway epithelium. Finally, in a model of lung secretory cell injury and regeneration, we show that loss of Foxp1/4 leads to catastrophic loss of airway epithelial regeneration due to default differentiation of secretory cells into the goblet cell lineage. These data demonstrate the importance of Foxp1/4 in restricting cell fate choices during development and regeneration, thereby providing the proper balance of functional epithelial lineages in the lung.

  4. fringe and Notch specify polar cell fate during Drosophila oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Grammont, M; Irvine, K D

    2001-06-01

    fringe encodes a glycosyltransferase that modulates the ability of the Notch receptor to be activated by its ligands. We describe studies of fringe function during early stages of Drosophila oogenesis. Animals mutant for hypomorphic alleles of fringe contain follicles with an incorrect number of germline cells, which are separated by abnormally long and disorganized stalks. Analysis of clones of somatic cells mutant for a null allele of fringe localizes the requirement for fringe in follicle formation to the polar cells, and demonstrates that fringe is required for polar cell fate. Clones of cells mutant for Notch also lack polar cells and the requirement for Notch in follicle formation appears to map to the polar cells. Ectopic expression of fringe or of an activated form of Notch can generate an extra polar cell. Our results indicate that fringe plays a key role in positioning Notch activation during early oogenesis, and establish a function for the polar cells in separating germline cysts into individual follicles.

  5. Morphogenesis and Cell Fate Determination within the Adaxial Cell Equivalence Group of the Zebrafish Myotome

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Chi, Mai E.; Bryson-Richardson, Robert; Sonntag, Carmen; Hall, Thomas E.; Gibson, Abigail; Sztal, Tamar; Chua, Wendy; Schilling, Thomas F.; Currie, Peter D.

    2012-01-01

    One of the central questions of developmental biology is how cells of equivalent potential—an equivalence group—come to adopt specific cellular fates. In this study we have used a combination of live imaging, single cell lineage analyses, and perturbation of specific signaling pathways to dissect the specification of the adaxial cells of the zebrafish embryo. We show that the adaxial cells are myogenic precursors that form a cell fate equivalence group of approximately 20 cells that consequently give rise to two distinct sub-types of muscle fibers: the superficial slow muscle fibers (SSFs) and muscle pioneer cells (MPs), distinguished by specific gene expression and cell behaviors. Using a combination of live imaging, retrospective and indicative fate mapping, and genetic studies, we show that MP and SSF precursors segregate at the beginning of segmentation and that they arise from distinct regions along the anterior-posterior (AP) and dorsal-ventral (DV) axes of the adaxial cell compartment. FGF signaling restricts MP cell fate in the anterior-most adaxial cells in each somite, while BMP signaling restricts this fate to the middle of the DV axis. Thus our results reveal that the synergistic actions of HH, FGF, and BMP signaling independently create a three-dimensional (3D) signaling milieu that coordinates cell fate within the adaxial cell equivalence group. PMID:23133395

  6. Delayed transition to new cell fates during cellular reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xianrui; Lyons, Deirdre C; Socolar, Joshua E S; McClay, David R

    2014-07-15

    In many embryos specification toward one cell fate can be diverted to a different cell fate through a reprogramming process. Understanding how that process works will reveal insights into the developmental regulatory logic that emerged from evolution. In the sea urchin embryo, cells at gastrulation were found to reprogram and replace missing cell types after surgical dissections of the embryo. Non-skeletogenic mesoderm (NSM) cells reprogrammed to replace missing skeletogenic mesoderm cells and animal caps reprogrammed to replace all endomesoderm. In both cases evidence of reprogramming onset was first observed at the early gastrula stage, even if the cells to be replaced were removed earlier in development. Once started however, the reprogramming occurred with compressed gene expression dynamics. The NSM did not require early contact with the skeletogenic cells to reprogram, but the animal cap cells gained the ability to reprogram early in gastrulation only after extended contact with the vegetal halves prior to that time. If the entire vegetal half was removed at early gastrula, the animal caps reprogrammed and replaced the vegetal half endomesoderm. If the animal caps carried morpholinos to either hox11/13b or foxA (endomesoderm specification genes), the isolated animal caps failed to reprogram. Together these data reveal that the emergence of a reprogramming capability occurs at early gastrulation in the sea urchin embryo and requires activation of early specification components of the target tissues.

  7. Mesenchymal stem cells prime proliferating adult neural progenitors toward an oligodendrocyte fate.

    PubMed

    Steffenhagen, Carolin; Dechant, Franz-Xaver; Oberbauer, Eleni; Furtner, Tanja; Weidner, Norbert; Küry, Patrick; Aigner, Ludwig; Rivera, Francisco J

    2012-07-20

    Oligodendrogenesis encompasses lineage specification of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and differentiation into oligodendrocytes that ultimately culminates in the myelination of central nervous system axons. Each individual process must be tightly regulated by extracellular and cell-intrinsic mechanisms, whose identities are barely understood. We had previously demonstrated that soluble factors derived from rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) induce oligodendrogenesis in differentiating adult NPCs under differentiation conditions. However, since lineage specification predominantly occurs in proliferating progenitors and not necessarily during early differentiation, we investigated if soluble factors derived from MSCs are able to prime NPCs to the oligodendroglial fate already under proliferation conditions. Therefore, we analyzed the effects of a 3 weeks stimulation of adult NPCs under proliferation conditions with conditioned media derived from MSCs (MSC-CM) in terms of cell morphology, proliferation, cell-specific marker expression profile, response to growth factor withdrawal (GFW), cell-lineage restriction, and expression of glial fate determinants. While MSC-CM did not affect the proliferation rate of NPCs, it boosted the formation of 2', 3'-cyclic-nucleotide-3'-phosphodieesterase (CNPase)- and myelin basic protein-expressing oligodendrocytes after GFW, even when cells were exposed to an astrogenic milieu. Moreover, it reinforced the proper development of oligodendrocytes, since it ensured a sustained expression of the functional marker CNPase. Finally, the presence of MSC-CM reduced the anti-oligodendrogenic determinant Id2 in proliferating NPCs, thus increasing the relative proportion of the pro-oligodendrogenic factor Olig2 expression. In summary, MSCs prime proliferating progenitors and, thus, reinforce cell fate choice and accelerate differentiation toward the oligodendrocyte lineage. The present findings underscore the potential use of MSCs in cell

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of transplanted stem cell fate in stroke.

    PubMed

    Aghayan, Hamid Reza; Soleimani, Masoud; Goodarzi, Parisa; Norouzi-Javidan, Abbas; Emami-Razavi, Seyed Hasan; Larijani, Bagher; Arjmand, Babak

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, scientific findings in the field of regeneration of nervous system have revealed the possibility of stem cell based therapies for damaged brain tissue related disorders like stroke. Furthermore, to achieve desirable outcomes from cellular therapies, one needs to monitor the migration, engraftment, viability, and also functional fate of transplanted stem cells. Magnetic resonance imaging is an extremely versatile technique for this purpose, which has been broadly used to study stroke and assessment of therapeutic role of stem cells. In this review we searched in PubMed search engine by using following keywords; "Stem Cells", "Cell Tracking", "Stroke", "Stem Cell Transplantation", "Nanoparticles", and "Magnetic Resonance Imaging" as entry terms and based on the mentioned key words, the search period was set from 1976 to 2012. The main purpose of this article is describing various advantages of molecular and magnetic resonance imaging of stem cells, with focus on translation of stem cell research to clinical research.

  9. Induction of epidermal cell fate in Arabidopsis shoots.

    PubMed

    Takada, Shinobu; Takada, Nozomi; Yoshida, Ayaka

    2013-11-01

    Land plants have evolved a cuticle-bearing epidermis to protect themselves from environmental stress and pathogen attack. Despite its important role, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating shoot epidermal cell identity. In a recent study, we found that the Arabidopsis thaliana ATML1 gene is possibly a master regulator of shoot epidermal cell fate. We revealed that ATML1 has the ability to confer shoot epidermis-related traits to non-epidermal cells of the seedlings. These data are consistent with the previous loss-of-function mutant analyses, which implied a positive role of ATML1 in epidermal cell differentiation. Importantly, ectopic epidermal cells induced in ATML1-overexpressing lines provide a novel tool to assess the intrinsic properties of epidermal cells and to study epistatic interactions among genes involved in epidermal/mesophyll differentiation. Using this system, we obtained data revealing that ATML1 negatively influenced mesophyll cell fate. In addition, we provided a working model of how division planes in epidermal cells are determined.

  10. Numb is not a critical regulator of Notch-mediated cell fate decisions in the developing chick inner ear

    PubMed Central

    Eddison, Mark; Weber, Sara J.; Ariza-McNaughton, Linda; Lewis, Julian; Daudet, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway controls differentiation of hair cells and supporting cells in the vertebrate inner ear. Here, we have investigated whether Numb, a known regulator of Notch activity in Drosophila, is involved in this process in the embryonic chick. The chicken homolog of Numb is expressed throughout the otocyst at early stages of development and is concentrated at the basal pole of the cells. It is asymmetrically allocated at some cell divisions, as in Drosophila, suggesting that it could act as a determinant inherited by one of the two daughter cells and favoring adoption of a hair-cell fate. To test the implication of Numb in hair cell fate decisions and the regulation of Notch signaling, we used different methods to overexpress Numb at different stages of inner ear development. We found that sustained or late Numb overexpression does not promote hair cell differentiation, and Numb does not prevent the reception of Notch signaling. Surprisingly, none of the Numb-overexpressing cells differentiated into hair cells, suggesting that high levels of Numb protein could interfere with intracellular processes essential for hair cell survival. However, when Numb was overexpressed early and more transiently during ear development, no effect on hair cell formation was seen. These results suggest that in the inner ear at least, Numb does not significantly repress Notch activity and that its asymmetric distribution in dividing precursor cells does not govern the choice between hair cell and supporting cell fates. PMID:25814931

  11. Fate of micelles and quantum dots in cells.

    PubMed

    Maysinger, Dusica; Lovrić, Jasmina; Eisenberg, Adi; Savić, Radoslav

    2007-03-01

    Micelles and quantum dots have been used as experimental drug delivery systems and imaging tools both in vitro and in vivo. Investigations of their fate at the subcellular level require different surface-core modifications. Among the most common modifications are those with fluorescent probes, dense-core metals or radionucleids. Cellular fate of several fluorescent probes incorporated into poly(caprolactone)-b-copolymer micelles (PCL-b-PEO) was followed by confocal microscopy, and colloidal gold incorporated in poly 4-vinyl pyridine-PEO micelles were developed to explore micelle fate by electron microscopy. More recently, we have examined quantum dots (QDs) as the next-generation-labels for cells and nanoparticulate drug carriers amenable both to confocal and electron microscopic analyses. Effects of QDs at the cellular and subcellular levels and their integrity were studied. Results from different studies suggest that size, charge and surface manipulations of QDs may play a role in their subcellular distribution. Examples of pharmacological agents incorporated into block copolymer micelles, administered or attached to QD surfaces show how the final biological outcome (e.g. cell death, proliferation or differentiation) depends on physical properties of these nanoparticles.

  12. The fate of cells in skin: from clonal analysis to cell kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Allon M.; Doupe, David P.; Winton, Douglas J.; Jones, Phil H.; Simons, Benjamin D.

    2007-03-01

    Biologists are keen to understand the mechanisms of development and maintenance of tissues in mammals. As well as its intrinsic scientific interest, an understanding of the kinetics of cell division has important implications for mechanisms of aging and cancer development. Analysis of cell populations (clones) resulting from progenitor cells provides indirect access to the laws governing cell division and fate. Yet, until recently, the quality of clonal fate data acquired in vivo has inhibited reliable quantitative analysis. By addressing a recent, detailed, and extensive experimental study of mammalian skin, we develop a general theoretical framework which shows that the wide range of clonal fate data are consistent with a remarkably simple cell kinetic model. As well as overturning the accepted paradigm for skin maintenance, the analysis introduces a general framework for analysing clone fate data in future experiments. We now have a robust platform to study the effect of drug treatments and the influence of cell mutations on the epidermis.

  13. Wnt signaling and the control of human stem cell fate.

    PubMed

    Van Camp, J K; Beckers, S; Zegers, D; Van Hul, W

    2014-04-01

    Wnt signaling determines major developmental processes in the embryonic state and regulates maintenance, self-renewal and differentiation of adult mammalian tissue stem cells. Both β-catenin dependent and independent Wnt pathways exist, and both affect stem cell fate in developing and adult tissues. In this review, we debate the response to Wnt signal activation in embryonic stem cells and human, adult stem cells of mesenchymal, hematopoetic, intestinal, gastric, epidermal, mammary and neural lineages, and discuss the need for Wnt signaling in these cell types. Due to the vital actions of Wnt signaling in developmental and maintenance processes, deregulation of the pathway can culminate into a broad spectrum of developmental and genetic diseases, including cancer. The way in which Wnt signals can feed tumors and maintain cancer stem stells is discussed as well. Manipulation of Wnt signals both in vivo and in vitro thus carries potential for therapeutic approaches such as tissue engineering for regenerative medicine and anti-cancer treatment. Although many questions remain regarding the complete Wnt signal cell-type specific response and interplay of Wnt signaling with pathways such as BMP, Hedgehog and Notch, we hereby provide an overview of current knowledge on Wnt signaling and its control over human stem cell fate.

  14. Extracellular-matrix tethering regulates stem-cell fate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trappmann, Britta; Gautrot, Julien E.; Connelly, John T.; Strange, Daniel G. T.; Li, Yuan; Oyen, Michelle L.; Cohen Stuart, Martien A.; Boehm, Heike; Li, Bojun; Vogel, Viola; Spatz, Joachim P.; Watt, Fiona M.; Huck, Wilhelm T. S.

    2012-07-01

    To investigate how substrate properties influence stem-cell fate, we cultured single human epidermal stem cells on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel surfaces, 0.1 kPa-2.3 MPa in stiffness, with a covalently attached collagen coating. Cell spreading and differentiation were unaffected by polydimethylsiloxane stiffness. However, cells on polyacrylamide of low elastic modulus (0.5 kPa) could not form stable focal adhesions and differentiated as a result of decreased activation of the extracellular-signal-related kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway. The differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells was also unaffected by PDMS stiffness but regulated by the elastic modulus of PAAm. Dextran penetration measurements indicated that polyacrylamide substrates of low elastic modulus were more porous than stiff substrates, suggesting that the collagen anchoring points would be further apart. We then changed collagen crosslink concentration and used hydrogel-nanoparticle substrates to vary anchoring distance at constant substrate stiffness. Lower collagen anchoring density resulted in increased differentiation. We conclude that stem cells exert a mechanical force on collagen fibres and gauge the feedback to make cell-fate decisions.

  15. Fate restriction and multipotency in retinal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Centanin, Lázaro; Hoeckendorf, Burkhard; Wittbrodt, Joachim

    2011-12-02

    Stem cells have the capacity to both self-renew and generate postmitotic cells. Long-term tracking of individual clones in their natural environment constitutes the ultimate way to validate postembryonic stem cells. We identify retinal stem cells (RSCs) using the spatiotemporal organization of the fish retina and follow the complete offspring of a single cell during the postnatal life. RSCs generate two tissues of the adult fish retina, the neural retina (NR) and the retinal-pigmented epithelium (RPE). Despite their common embryonic origin and tight coordination during continuous organ growth, we prove that NR and RPE are maintained by dedicated RSCs that contribute in a fate-restricted manner to either one or the other tissue. We show that in the NR, RSCs are multipotent and generate all neuron types and glia. The clonal origin of these different cell types from a multipotent NSC has far-reaching implications for cell type and tissue homeostasis.

  16. Germline stem cells are critical for sexual fate decision of germ cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Egg or sperm? The mechanism of sexual fate decision in germ cells has been a long‐standing issue in biology. A recent analysis identified foxl3 as a gene that determines the sexual fate decision of germ cells in the teleost fish, medaka. foxl3/Foxl3 acts in female germline stem cells to repress commitment into male fate (spermatogenesis), indicating that the presence of mitotic germ cells in the female is critical for continuous sexual fate decision of germ cells in medaka gonads. Interestingly, foxl3 is found in most vertebrate genomes except for mammals. This provides the interesting possibility that the sexual fate of germ cells in mammals is determined in a different way compared to foxl3‐possessing vertebrates. Considering the fact that germline stem cells are the cells where foxl3 begins to express and sexual fate decision initiates and mammalian ovary does not have typical germline stem cells, the mechanism in mammals may have been co‐evolved with germline stem cell loss in mammalian ovary. PMID:27699806

  17. Yap and Taz regulate retinal pigment epithelial cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Miesfeld, Joel B.; Gestri, Gaia; Clark, Brian S.; Flinn, Michael A.; Poole, Richard J.; Bader, Jason R.; Besharse, Joseph C.; Wilson, Stephen W.; Link, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    The optic vesicle comprises a pool of bi-potential progenitor cells from which the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and neural retina fates segregate during ocular morphogenesis. Several transcription factors and signaling pathways have been shown to be important for RPE maintenance and differentiation, but an understanding of the initial fate specification and determination of this ocular cell type is lacking. We show that Yap/Taz-Tead activity is necessary and sufficient for optic vesicle progenitors to adopt RPE identity in zebrafish. A Tead-responsive transgene is expressed within the domain of the optic cup from which RPE arises, and Yap immunoreactivity localizes to the nuclei of prospective RPE cells. yap (yap1) mutants lack a subset of RPE cells and/or exhibit coloboma. Loss of RPE in yap mutants is exacerbated in combination with taz (wwtr1) mutant alleles such that, when Yap and Taz are both absent, optic vesicle progenitor cells completely lose their ability to form RPE. The mechanism of Yap-dependent RPE cell type determination is reliant on both nuclear localization of Yap and interaction with a Tead co-factor. In contrast to loss of Yap and Taz, overexpression of either protein within optic vesicle progenitors leads to ectopic pigmentation in a dosage-dependent manner. Overall, this study identifies Yap and Taz as key early regulators of RPE genesis and provides a mechanistic framework for understanding the congenital ocular defects of Sveinsson's chorioretinal atrophy and congenital retinal coloboma. PMID:26209646

  18. SIT and TRIM determine T cell fate in the thymus.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, Uwe; Schraven, Burkhart; Simeoni, Luca

    2008-11-01

    Thymic selection is a tightly regulated developmental process essential for establishing central tolerance. The intensity of TCR-mediated signaling is a key factor for determining cell fate in the thymus. It is widely accepted that low-intensity signals result in positive selection, whereas high-intensity signals induce negative selection. Transmembrane adaptor proteins have been demonstrated to be important regulators of T cell activation. However, little is known about their role during T cell development. Herein, we show that SIT (SHP2 Src homology domain containing tyrosine phosphatase 2-interacting transmembrane adaptor protein) and TRIM (TCR-interacting molecule), two structurally related transmembrane adaptors, cooperatively regulate TCR signaling potential, thereby influencing the outcome of thymic selection. Indeed, loss of both SIT and TRIM resulted in the up-regulation of CD5, CD69, and TCRbeta, strong MAPK activation, and, consequently, enhanced positive selection. Moreover, by crossing SIT/TRIM double-deficient mice onto transgenic mice bearing TCRs with different avidity/affinity, we found profound alterations in T cell development. Indeed, in female HY TCR transgenic mice, positive selection was completely converted into negative selection resulting in small thymi devoided of double-positive thymocytes. More strikingly, in a nonselecting background, SIT/TRIM double-deficient single-positive T cells developed, were functional, and populated the periphery. In summary, we demonstrated that SIT and TRIM regulate cell fate of developing thymocytes, thus identifying them as essential regulators of central tolerance.

  19. CD4 T cells: fates, functions, and faults

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    In 1986, Mosmann and Coffman identified 2 subsets of activated CD4 T cells, Th1 and Th2 cells, which differed from each other in their pattern of cytokine production and their functions. Our understanding of the importance of the distinct differentiated forms of CD4 T cells and of the mechanisms through which they achieve their differentiated state has greatly expanded over the past 2 decades. Today at least 4 distinct CD4 T-cell subsets have been shown to exist, Th1, Th2, Th17, and iTreg cells. Here we summarize much of what is known about the 4 subsets, including the history of their discovery, their unique cytokine products and related functions, their distinctive expression of cell surface receptors and their characteristic transcription factors, the regulation of their fate determination, and the consequences of their abnormal activation. PMID:18725574

  20. Extracellular Signals for Guiding Mesenchymal Stem Cells Osteogenic Fate.

    PubMed

    Sima, Livia Elena

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the spatiotemporal dynamics of stem cell fate regulation is important for both fundamental biology and for directing the generation of a specific phenotype during the fabrication of tissue engineering materials. Recent findings revealed aspects of extracellular signals transduction by mesenchymal stem cells that are further integrated to modulate their lineage specification. This review focuses on recent developments in the field of nanobiomaterials design and fabrication for use in research and therapy of bone tissue. Also, new methods of assessment of stem cell multipotency or differentiated phenotype developed for clinical quality control applications are described. Materials engineered for understanding fundamental mechanisms of stem cell interaction with substrates are highlighted as key studies to drive advances in bone implants design. The use of polymers with defined biomechanical and topographical features to mimic the extracellular matrix biochemistry or biophysical cues is discussed. Bioengineered scaffolds able to induce osteogenic fate of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in the absence of differentiation factors are successful models for potential development of implant biomaterials with enhanced osseointegration capacity and decreased soft tissue encapsulation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Intracellular GTP level determines cell's fate toward differentiation and apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Meshkini, Azadeh; Yazdanparast, Razieh Nouri, Kazem

    2011-06-15

    Since the adequate supply of guanine nucleotides is vital for cellular activities, limitation of their syntheses would certainly result in modulation of cellular fate toward differentiation and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to set a correlation between the intracellular level of GTP and the induction of relevant signaling pathways involved in the cell's fate toward life or death. In that regard, we measured the GTP level among human leukemia K562 cells exposed to mycophenolic acid (MPA) or 3-hydrogenkwadaphnin (3-HK) as two potent inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitors. Our results supported the maturation of the cells when the intracellular GTP level was reduced by almost 30-40%. Under these conditions, 3-HK and/or MPA caused up-regulation of PKC{alpha} and PI3K/AKT pathways. Furthermore, co-treatment of cells with hypoxanthine plus 3-HK or MPA, which caused a reduction of about 60% in the intracellular GTP levels, led to apoptosis and activation of mitochondrial pathways through inverse regulation of Bcl-2/Bax expression and activation of caspase-3. Moreover, our results demonstrated that attenuation of GTP by almost 60% augmented the intracellular ROS and nuclear localization of p21 and subsequently led to cell death. These results suggest that two different threshold levels of GTP are needed for induction of differentiation and/or ROS-associated apoptosis. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted

  2. Notch signaling acts before cell division to promote asymmetric cleavage and cell fate of neural precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Krishna Moorthi

    2014-10-21

    Asymmetric cell divisions in the central nervous system generate neurons of diverse fates. In Drosophila melanogaster, the protein Numb localizes asymmetrically to dividing neural precursor cells such that only one daughter cell inherits Numb. Numb inhibits Notch signaling in this daughter cell, resulting in a different cell fate from the Notch-induced fate in the other-Numb-negative-daughter cell. Precursor cells undergo asymmetric cytokinesis generating daughter cells of different sizes. I found that inactivation of Notch in fly embryonic neural precursor cells disrupted the asymmetric positioning of the cleavage furrow and produced daughter cells of the same size and fate. Moreover, inactivation of Notch at different times altered the degree of asymmetric Numb localization, such that earlier inactivation of Notch caused symmetric distribution of Numb and later inactivation produced incomplete asymmetric localization of Numb. The extent of asymmetrically localized Numb positively correlated with the degree of asymmetric cytokinesis and the size disparity in daughter cells. Loss of Numb or expression of constitutively active Notch led to premature specification of the precursor cells into the fate of one of the daughter cells. Thus, in addition to its role in the specification of daughter cell fate after division, Notch controls Numb localization in the precursor cells to determine the size and fate of daughter cells. Numb also inhibits Notch signaling in precursor cells to prevent Notch-induced differentiation of the precursor cell, forming an autoregulatory loop.

  3. Nuclear envelope and genome interactions in cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Talamas, Jessica A.; Capelson, Maya

    2015-01-01

    The eukaryotic cell nucleus houses an organism’s genome and is the location within the cell where all signaling induced and development-driven gene expression programs are ultimately specified. The genome is enclosed and separated from the cytoplasm by the nuclear envelope (NE), a double-lipid membrane bilayer, which contains a large variety of trans-membrane and associated protein complexes. In recent years, research regarding multiple aspects of the cell nucleus points to a highly dynamic and coordinated concert of efforts between chromatin and the NE in regulation of gene expression. Details of how this concert is orchestrated and how it directs cell differentiation and disease are coming to light at a rapid pace. Here we review existing and emerging concepts of how interactions between the genome and the NE may contribute to tissue specific gene expression programs to determine cell fate. PMID:25852741

  4. Axial Protocadherin (AXPC) regulates cell fate during notochordal morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Michael D.; Gumbiner, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    The separation and specification of mesoderm into the notochord and somites involves members of the non-clustered δ-protocadherins. Axial (AXPC) and paraxial (PAPC) protocadherins are expressed in the early dorsal mesoderm and later become refined to the developing notochordal and somitic mesoderm respectively. The role of PAPC in this process has been studied extensively, but the role of AXPC is poorly understood. Partial knockdown of AXPC causes a specific bent axis phenotype, while more severe knockdown results in the loss of notochord formation. The inability of these embryos to develop a notochord is not due to a cell-sorting event via changes in cell adhesion during gastrulation, but rather this defect is manifested through the loss of axial mesoderm specification, but not general mesoderm induction. The results presented here show that AXPC functions in notochord morphogenesis by directing cell fate decisions rather than cell-cell adhesion. PMID:21960065

  5. Origin and fate of the regenerating cells of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Eymael, Jennifer; Smeets, Bart

    2016-11-05

    The kidney has the capacity to regenerate itself provided that the damage is limited and the structure of the kidney remains intact. Nevertheless, in disease conditions this potential may be compromised, leading to progression to chronic kidney disease. For development of new therapeutic strategies it is a prerequisite to understand the origin and regulation of the kidney regenerating cells and the processes that underlie maladaptive repair. Because of the complexity of the kidney consisting of a high number of different cell types, it is a complex task to unravel the origin and fate of cells responsible for regeneration. This review summarises the recent and most important advances in identifying regenerating cell populations of the kidney, and highlights the existing controversies.

  6. Dentin conditioning codetermines cell fate in regenerative endodontics.

    PubMed

    Galler, Kerstin M; D'Souza, Rena N; Federlin, Marianne; Cavender, Adriana C; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D; Hecker, Stephanie; Schmalz, Gottfried

    2011-11-01

    Recent successes in dental pulp engineering indicate that regenerative treatment strategies in endodontics are feasible. Clinically, revascularization procedures render completion of root formation in immature teeth. The generation of a pulp-like tissue after seeding of dental pulp stem cells into dentin discs or cylinders and transplantation in vivo is possible. In this experimental setup, which mimics the situation in the root canal, the pretreatment of dentin might influence cellular behavior at the cell-dentin interface. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate whether dentin conditioning can determine cell fate. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were seeded into a growth factor-laden peptide hydrogel, transferred into dentin cylinders, and transplanted subcutaneously into immunocompromised mice. Before cell seeding, dentin cylinders were either pretreated with sodium hypochloride (NaOCl) or conditioned with EDTA. The constructs were explanted after 6 weeks and subjected to histological and immunohistochemical analysis. In dentin treated with NaOCl, resorption lacunae were found at the cell-dentin interface created by multinucleated cells with clastic activity. After conditioning with EDTA, DPSCs adjacent to the dentin formed an intimate association with the surface, differentiated into odontoblasts-like cells that expressed dentin sialoprotein, and extended cellular processes into the dentinal tubules. A vascularized soft connective tissue similar to dental pulp was observed inside the dentin cylinder. Dentin conditioning considerably influences DPSC fate when seeded in close proximity to dentin. This information might be critical for optimized strategic planning for future regenerative endodontic treatment. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cell fate regulation governed by a repurposed bacterial histidine kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Childers, W. Seth; Xu, Qingping; Mann, Thomas H.; Mathews, Irimpan I.; Blair, Jimmy A.; Deacon, Ashley M.; Shapiro, Lucy; Stock, Ann M.

    2014-10-28

    One of the simplest organisms to divide asymmetrically is the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. The DivL pseudo-histidine kinase, positioned at one cell pole, regulates cell-fate by controlling the activation of the global transcription factor CtrA via an interaction with the response regulator (RR) DivK. DivL uniquely contains a tyrosine at the histidine phosphorylation site, and can achieve these regulatory functions in vivo without kinase activity. Determination of the DivL crystal structure and biochemical analysis of wild-type and site-specific DivL mutants revealed that the DivL PAS domains regulate binding specificity for DivK~P over DivK, which is modulated by an allosteric intramolecular interaction between adjacent domains. We discovered that DivL's catalytic domains have been repurposed as a phosphospecific RR input sensor, thereby reversing the flow of information observed in conventional histidine kinase (HK)-RR systems and coupling a complex network of signaling proteins for cell-fate regulation.

  8. Cell fate regulation governed by a repurposed bacterial histidine kinase

    DOE PAGES

    Childers, W. Seth; Xu, Qingping; Mann, Thomas H.; ...

    2014-10-28

    One of the simplest organisms to divide asymmetrically is the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. The DivL pseudo-histidine kinase, positioned at one cell pole, regulates cell-fate by controlling the activation of the global transcription factor CtrA via an interaction with the response regulator (RR) DivK. DivL uniquely contains a tyrosine at the histidine phosphorylation site, and can achieve these regulatory functions in vivo without kinase activity. Determination of the DivL crystal structure and biochemical analysis of wild-type and site-specific DivL mutants revealed that the DivL PAS domains regulate binding specificity for DivK~P over DivK, which is modulated by an allosteric intramolecular interactionmore » between adjacent domains. We discovered that DivL's catalytic domains have been repurposed as a phosphospecific RR input sensor, thereby reversing the flow of information observed in conventional histidine kinase (HK)-RR systems and coupling a complex network of signaling proteins for cell-fate regulation.« less

  9. Notch regulation of myogenic versus endothelial fates of cells that migrate from the somite to the limb

    PubMed Central

    Mayeuf-Louchart, Alicia; Lagha, Mounia; Danckaert, Anne; Rocancourt, Didier; Relaix, Frederic; Vincent, Stéphane D.; Buckingham, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Multipotent Pax3-positive (Pax3+) cells in the somites give rise to skeletal muscle and to cells of the vasculature. We had previously proposed that this cell-fate choice depends on the equilibrium between Pax3 and Foxc2 expression. In this study, we report that the Notch pathway promotes vascular versus skeletal muscle cell fates. Overactivating the Notch pathway specifically in Pax3+ progenitors, via a conditional Pax3NICD allele, results in an increase of the number of smooth muscle and endothelial cells contributing to the aorta. At limb level, Pax3+ cells in the somite give rise to skeletal muscles and to a subpopulation of endothelial cells in blood vessels of the limb. We now demonstrate that in addition to the inhibitory role of Notch signaling on skeletal muscle cell differentiation, the Notch pathway affects the Pax3:Foxc2 balance and promotes the endothelial versus myogenic cell fate, before migration to the limb, in multipotent Pax3+ cells in the somite of the mouse embryo. PMID:24927569

  10. Spatially patterned matrix elasticity directs stem cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun; DelRio, Frank W.; Ma, Hao; Killaars, Anouk R.; Basta, Lena P.; Kyburz, Kyle A.; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing appreciation for the functional role of matrix mechanics in regulating stem cell self-renewal and differentiation processes. However, it is largely unknown how subcellular, spatial mechanical variations in the local extracellular environment mediate intracellular signal transduction and direct cell fate. Here, the effect of spatial distribution, magnitude, and organization of subcellular matrix mechanical properties on human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSCs) function was investigated. Exploiting a photodegradation reaction, a hydrogel cell culture substrate was fabricated with regions of spatially varied and distinct mechanical properties, which were subsequently mapped and quantified by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The variations in the underlying matrix mechanics were found to regulate cellular adhesion and transcriptional events. Highly spread, elongated morphologies and higher Yes-associated protein (YAP) activation were observed in hMSCs seeded on hydrogels with higher concentrations of stiff regions in a dose-dependent manner. However, when the spatial organization of the mechanically stiff regions was altered from a regular to randomized pattern, lower levels of YAP activation with smaller and more rounded cell morphologies were induced in hMSCs. We infer from these results that irregular, disorganized variations in matrix mechanics, compared with regular patterns, appear to disrupt actin organization, and lead to different cell fates; this was verified by observations of lower alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and higher expression of CD105, a stem cell marker, in hMSCs in random versus regular patterns of mechanical properties. Collectively, this material platform has allowed innovative experiments to elucidate a novel spatial mechanical dosing mechanism that correlates to both the magnitude and organization of spatial stiffness. PMID:27436901

  11. Spatially patterned matrix elasticity directs stem cell fate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chun; DelRio, Frank W.; Ma, Hao; Killaars, Anouk R.; Basta, Lena P.; Kyburz, Kyle A.; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2016-08-01

    There is a growing appreciation for the functional role of matrix mechanics in regulating stem cell self-renewal and differentiation processes. However, it is largely unknown how subcellular, spatial mechanical variations in the local extracellular environment mediate intracellular signal transduction and direct cell fate. Here, the effect of spatial distribution, magnitude, and organization of subcellular matrix mechanical properties on human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSCs) function was investigated. Exploiting a photodegradation reaction, a hydrogel cell culture substrate was fabricated with regions of spatially varied and distinct mechanical properties, which were subsequently mapped and quantified by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The variations in the underlying matrix mechanics were found to regulate cellular adhesion and transcriptional events. Highly spread, elongated morphologies and higher Yes-associated protein (YAP) activation were observed in hMSCs seeded on hydrogels with higher concentrations of stiff regions in a dose-dependent manner. However, when the spatial organization of the mechanically stiff regions was altered from a regular to randomized pattern, lower levels of YAP activation with smaller and more rounded cell morphologies were induced in hMSCs. We infer from these results that irregular, disorganized variations in matrix mechanics, compared with regular patterns, appear to disrupt actin organization, and lead to different cell fates; this was verified by observations of lower alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and higher expression of CD105, a stem cell marker, in hMSCs in random versus regular patterns of mechanical properties. Collectively, this material platform has allowed innovative experiments to elucidate a novel spatial mechanical dosing mechanism that correlates to both the magnitude and organization of spatial stiffness.

  12. Reprogramming cell fate with a genome-scale library of artificial transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Eguchi, Asuka; Wleklinski, Matthew J.; Spurgat, Mackenzie C.; Heiderscheit, Evan A.; Kropornicka, Anna S.; Vu, Catherine K.; Bhimsaria, Devesh; Swanson, Scott A.; Stewart, Ron; Ramanathan, Parameswaran; Kamp, Timothy J.; Slukvin, Igor; Thomson, James A.; Dutton, James R.; Ansari, Aseem Z.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial transcription factors (ATFs) are precision-tailored molecules designed to bind DNA and regulate transcription in a preprogrammed manner. Libraries of ATFs enable the high-throughput screening of gene networks that trigger cell fate decisions or phenotypic changes. We developed a genome-scale library of ATFs that display an engineered interaction domain (ID) to enable cooperative assembly and synergistic gene expression at targeted sites. We used this ATF library to screen for key regulators of the pluripotency network and discovered three combinations of ATFs capable of inducing pluripotency without exogenous expression of Oct4 (POU domain, class 5, TF 1). Cognate site identification, global transcriptional profiling, and identification of ATF binding sites reveal that the ATFs do not directly target Oct4; instead, they target distinct nodes that converge to stimulate the endogenous pluripotency network. This forward genetic approach enables cell type conversions without a priori knowledge of potential key regulators and reveals unanticipated gene network dynamics that drive cell fate choices. PMID:27930301

  13. Cell Fate Reprogramming by Control of Intracellular Network Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Zañudo, Jorge G. T.; Albert, Réka

    2015-01-01

    Identifying control strategies for biological networks is paramount for practical applications that involve reprogramming a cell’s fate, such as disease therapeutics and stem cell reprogramming. Here we develop a novel network control framework that integrates the structural and functional information available for intracellular networks to predict control targets. Formulated in a logical dynamic scheme, our approach drives any initial state to the target state with 100% effectiveness and needs to be applied only transiently for the network to reach and stay in the desired state. We illustrate our method’s potential to find intervention targets for cancer treatment and cell differentiation by applying it to a leukemia signaling network and to the network controlling the differentiation of helper T cells. We find that the predicted control targets are effective in a broad dynamic framework. Moreover, several of the predicted interventions are supported by experiments. PMID:25849586

  14. Pre-Meiotic Anther Development: Cell Fate Specification and Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Walbot, Virginia; Egger, Rachel L

    2016-04-29

    Research into anther ontogeny has been an active and developing field, transitioning from a strictly lineage-based view of cellular differentiation events to a more complex understanding of cell fate specification. Here we describe the modern interpretation of pre-meiotic anther development, from the earliest cell specifications within the anther lobes through SPL/NZZ-, MSP1-, and MEL1-dependent pathways as well as the initial setup of the abaxial and adaxial axes and outgrowth of the anther lobes. We then continue with a look at the known information regarding further differentiation of the somatic layers of the anther (the epidermis, endothecium, middle layer, and tapetum), with an emphasis on male-sterile mutants identified as defective in somatic cell specification. We also describe the differences in developmental stages among species and use this information to discuss molecular studies that have analyzed transcriptome, proteome, and small-RNA information in the anther.

  15. Engineering Cell Fate for Tissue Regeneration by In Vivo Transdifferentiation.

    PubMed

    de Lázaro, I; Kostarelos, K

    2016-02-01

    Changes in cell identity occur in adult mammalian organisms but are rare and often linked to disease. Research in the last few decades has thrown light on how to manipulate cell fate, but the conversion of a particular cell type into another within a living organism (also termed in vivo transdifferentiation) has only been recently achieved in a limited number of tissues. Although the therapeutic promise of this strategy for tissue regeneration and repair is exciting, important efficacy and safety concerns will need to be addressed before it becomes a reality in the clinical practice. Here, we review the most relevant in vivo transdifferentiation studies in adult mammalian animal models, offering a critical assessment of this potentially powerful strategy for regenerative medicine.

  16. Mapping the Pairwise Choices Leading from Pluripotency to Human Bone, Heart, and Other Mesoderm Cell Types.

    PubMed

    Loh, Kyle M; Chen, Angela; Koh, Pang Wei; Deng, Tianda Z; Sinha, Rahul; Tsai, Jonathan M; Barkal, Amira A; Shen, Kimberle Y; Jain, Rajan; Morganti, Rachel M; Shyh-Chang, Ng; Fernhoff, Nathaniel B; George, Benson M; Wernig, Gerlinde; Salomon, Rachel E A; Chen, Zhenghao; Vogel, Hannes; Epstein, Jonathan A; Kundaje, Anshul; Talbot, William S; Beachy, Philip A; Ang, Lay Teng; Weissman, Irving L

    2016-07-14

    Stem-cell differentiation to desired lineages requires navigating alternating developmental paths that often lead to unwanted cell types. Hence, comprehensive developmental roadmaps are crucial to channel stem-cell differentiation toward desired fates. To this end, here, we map bifurcating lineage choices leading from pluripotency to 12 human mesodermal lineages, including bone, muscle, and heart. We defined the extrinsic signals controlling each binary lineage decision, enabling us to logically block differentiation toward unwanted fates and rapidly steer pluripotent stem cells toward 80%-99% pure human mesodermal lineages at most branchpoints. This strategy enabled the generation of human bone and heart progenitors that could engraft in respective in vivo models. Mapping stepwise chromatin and single-cell gene expression changes in mesoderm development uncovered somite segmentation, a previously unobservable human embryonic event transiently marked by HOPX expression. Collectively, this roadmap enables navigation of mesodermal development to produce transplantable human tissue progenitors and uncover developmental processes. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  17. Yap and Taz regulate retinal pigment epithelial cell fate.

    PubMed

    Miesfeld, Joel B; Gestri, Gaia; Clark, Brian S; Flinn, Michael A; Poole, Richard J; Bader, Jason R; Besharse, Joseph C; Wilson, Stephen W; Link, Brian A

    2015-09-01

    The optic vesicle comprises a pool of bi-potential progenitor cells from which the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and neural retina fates segregate during ocular morphogenesis. Several transcription factors and signaling pathways have been shown to be important for RPE maintenance and differentiation, but an understanding of the initial fate specification and determination of this ocular cell type is lacking. We show that Yap/Taz-Tead activity is necessary and sufficient for optic vesicle progenitors to adopt RPE identity in zebrafish. A Tead-responsive transgene is expressed within the domain of the optic cup from which RPE arises, and Yap immunoreactivity localizes to the nuclei of prospective RPE cells. yap (yap1) mutants lack a subset of RPE cells and/or exhibit coloboma. Loss of RPE in yap mutants is exacerbated in combination with taz (wwtr1) mutant alleles such that, when Yap and Taz are both absent, optic vesicle progenitor cells completely lose their ability to form RPE. The mechanism of Yap-dependent RPE cell type determination is reliant on both nuclear localization of Yap and interaction with a Tead co-factor. In contrast to loss of Yap and Taz, overexpression of either protein within optic vesicle progenitors leads to ectopic pigmentation in a dosage-dependent manner. Overall, this study identifies Yap and Taz as key early regulators of RPE genesis and provides a mechanistic framework for understanding the congenital ocular defects of Sveinsson's chorioretinal atrophy and congenital retinal coloboma. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Dynamic transcriptional signature and cell fate analysis reveals plasticity of individual neural plate border cells.

    PubMed

    Roellig, Daniela; Tan-Cabugao, Johanna; Esaian, Sevan; Bronner, Marianne E

    2017-03-29

    The 'neural plate border' of vertebrate embryos contains precursors of neural crest and placode cells, both defining vertebrate characteristics. How these lineages segregate from neural and epidermal fates has been a matter of debate. We address this by performing a fine-scale quantitative temporal analysis of transcription factor expression in the neural plate border of chick embryos. The results reveal significant overlap of transcription factors characteristic of multiple lineages in individual border cells from gastrula through neurula stages. Cell fate analysis using a Sox2 (neural) enhancer reveals that cells that are initially Sox2+ cells can contribute not only to neural tube but also to neural crest and epidermis. Moreover, modulating levels of Sox2 or Pax7 alters the apportionment of neural tube versus neural crest fates. Our results resolve a long-standing question and suggest that many individual border cells maintain ability to contribute to multiple ectodermal lineages until or beyond neural tube closure.

  19. To Accept One's Fate or Be Its Master: Culture, Control, and Workplace Choice.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Charis; Ishii, Keiko; Miyamoto, Yuri; Ma, Xiaoming; Hitokoto, Hidefumi

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing three student (Study 1) and non-student samples (Study 2), we examined cultural differences in workplace choice for North Americans, Germans, and Japanese. We focused on the desire for control as a potential mediator (i.e., the underlying mechanism) to explain cultural differences in this important life decision. Given culturally divergent embodiments of independent vs. interdependent models of agency, we expected and found that, compared to North Americans and Germans, Japanese were more likely to prefer a workplace with a payment system that maintains social order rather than one that rewards individual achievement. Furthermore, we found that Japanese tend to give greater consideration to family opinions in their choice of workplace. As predicted, desire for control (i.e., the motivation to have control over various events) was stronger for North Americans and Germans than Japanese, and explained cultural differences in choice of workplace.

  20. To Accept One’s Fate or Be Its Master: Culture, Control, and Workplace Choice

    PubMed Central

    Eisen, Charis; Ishii, Keiko; Miyamoto, Yuri; Ma, Xiaoming; Hitokoto, Hidefumi

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing three student (Study 1) and non-student samples (Study 2), we examined cultural differences in workplace choice for North Americans, Germans, and Japanese. We focused on the desire for control as a potential mediator (i.e., the underlying mechanism) to explain cultural differences in this important life decision. Given culturally divergent embodiments of independent vs. interdependent models of agency, we expected and found that, compared to North Americans and Germans, Japanese were more likely to prefer a workplace with a payment system that maintains social order rather than one that rewards individual achievement. Furthermore, we found that Japanese tend to give greater consideration to family opinions in their choice of workplace. As predicted, desire for control (i.e., the motivation to have control over various events) was stronger for North Americans and Germans than Japanese, and explained cultural differences in choice of workplace. PMID:27445904

  1. Following the Fate of Bacterial Cells Experiencing Sudden Chromosome Loss

    PubMed Central

    Elbaz, Maya

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chromosomal DNA is a constant source of information, essential for any given cell to respond and adapt to changing conditions. Here, we investigated the fate of exponentially growing bacterial cells experiencing a sudden and rapid loss of their entire chromosome. Utilizing Bacillus subtilis cells harboring an inducible copy of the endogenous toxin yqcG, which encodes an endonuclease, we induced the formation of a population of cells that lost their genetic information simultaneously. Surprisingly, these DNA-less cells, termed DLCs, did not lyse immediately and exhibited normal cellular morphology for a period of at least 5 h after DNA loss. This cellular integrity was manifested by their capacity to maintain an intact membrane and membrane potential and cell wall architecture similar to those of wild-type cells. Unlike growing cells that exhibit a dynamic profile of macromolecules, DLCs displayed steady protein and RNA reservoirs. Remarkably, following DLCs by time lapse microscopy revealed that they succeeded in synthesizing proteins, elongating, and dividing, apparently forming de novo Z rings at the midcell position. Taken together, the persistence of key cellular events in DLCs indicates that the information to carry out lengthy processes is harbored within the remaining molecular components. PMID:25922388

  2. Tracing the fate of limbal epithelial progenitor cells in the murine cornea.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, N; Bobba, S; Raviraj, V; Delic, N C; Slapetova, I; Nicovich, P R; Halliday, G M; Wakefield, D; Whan, R; Lyons, J G

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell (SC) division, deployment, and differentiation are processes that contribute to corneal epithelial renewal. Until now studying the destiny of these cells in a living mammal has not been possible. However, the advent of inducible multicolor genetic tagging and powerful imaging technologies has rendered this achievable in the translucent and readily accessible murine cornea. K14CreER(T2)-Confetti mice that harbor two copies of the Brainbow 2.1 cassette, yielding up to 10 colors from the stochastic recombination of fluorescent proteins, were used to monitor K-14(+) progenitor cell dynamics within the corneal epithelium in live animals. Multicolored columns of cells emerged from the basal limbal epithelium as they expanded and migrated linearly at a rate of 10.8 µm/day toward the central cornea. Moreover, the permanent expression of fluorophores, passed on from progenitor to progeny, assisted in discriminating individual clones as spectrally distinct streaks containing more than 1,000 cells within the illuminated area. The centripetal clonal expansion is suggestive that a single progenitor cell is responsible for maintaining a narrow corridor of corneal epithelial cells. Our data are in agreement with the limbus as the repository for SC as opposed to SC being distributed throughout the central cornea. This is the first report describing stem/progenitor cell fate determination in the murine cornea using multicolor genetic tracing. This model represents a powerful new resource to monitor SC kinetics and fate choice under homeostatic conditions, and may assist in assessing clonal evolution during corneal development, aging, wound-healing, disease, and following transplantation.

  3. Following the fate of bacterial cells experiencing sudden chromosome loss.

    PubMed

    Elbaz, Maya; Ben-Yehuda, Sigal

    2015-04-28

    Chromosomal DNA is a constant source of information, essential for any given cell to respond and adapt to changing conditions. Here, we investigated the fate of exponentially growing bacterial cells experiencing a sudden and rapid loss of their entire chromosome. Utilizing Bacillus subtilis cells harboring an inducible copy of the endogenous toxin yqcG, which encodes an endonuclease, we induced the formation of a population of cells that lost their genetic information simultaneously. Surprisingly, these DNA-less cells, termed DLCs, did not lyse immediately and exhibited normal cellular morphology for a period of at least 5 h after DNA loss. This cellular integrity was manifested by their capacity to maintain an intact membrane and membrane potential and cell wall architecture similar to those of wild-type cells. Unlike growing cells that exhibit a dynamic profile of macromolecules, DLCs displayed steady protein and RNA reservoirs. Remarkably, following DLCs by time lapse microscopy revealed that they succeeded in synthesizing proteins, elongating, and dividing, apparently forming de novo Z rings at the midcell position. Taken together, the persistence of key cellular events in DLCs indicates that the information to carry out lengthy processes is harbored within the remaining molecular components. Perturbing bacterial growth by the use of antibiotics targeting replication, transcription, or translation has been a subject of study for many years; however, the consequences of a more dramatic event, in which the entire bacterial chromosome is lost, have not been described. Here, we followed the fate of bacterial cells encountering an abrupt loss of their entire genome. Surprisingly, the cells preserved an intact envelope and functioning macromolecules. Furthermore, cells lacking their genome could still elongate and divide hours after the loss of DNA. Our data suggest that the information stored in the transient reservoir of macromolecules is sufficient to carry out

  4. Leveling Waddington: the emergence of direct programming and the loss of cell fate hierarchies.

    PubMed

    Ladewig, Julia; Koch, Philipp; Brüstle, Oliver

    2013-04-01

    For decades, Waddington's concept of the 'epigenetic landscape' has served as an educative hierarchical model to illustrate the progressive restriction of cell differentiation potential during normal development. While still being highly valuable in the context of normal development, the Waddington model falls short of accommodating recent breakthroughs in cell programming. The advent of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and advances in direct cell fate conversion (also known as transdifferentiation) suggest that somatic and pluripotent cell fates can be interconverted without transiting through distinct hierarchies. We propose a non-hierarchical 'epigenetic disc' model to explain such cell fate transitions, which provides an alternative landscape for modelling cell programming and reprogramming.

  5. Power-Law Modeling of Cancer Cell Fates Driven by Signaling Data to Reveal Drug Effects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Wu, Min; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Zheng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular signals are captured and transmitted by signaling proteins inside a cell. An important type of cellular responses to the signals is the cell fate decision, e.g., apoptosis. However, the underlying mechanisms of cell fate regulation are still unclear, thus comprehensive and detailed kinetic models are not yet available. Alternatively, data-driven models are promising to bridge signaling data with the phenotypic measurements of cell fates. The traditional linear model for data-driven modeling of signaling pathways has its limitations because it assumes that the a cell fate is proportional to the activities of signaling proteins, which is unlikely in the complex biological systems. Therefore, we propose a power-law model to relate the activities of all the measured signaling proteins to the probabilities of cell fates. In our experiments, we compared our nonlinear power-law model with the linear model on three cancer datasets with phosphoproteomics and cell fate measurements, which demonstrated that the nonlinear model has superior performance on cell fates prediction. By in silico simulation of virtual protein knock-down, the proposed model is able to reveal drug effects which can complement traditional approaches such as binding affinity analysis. Moreover, our model is able to capture cell line specific information to distinguish one cell line from another in cell fate prediction. Our results show that the power-law data-driven model is able to perform better in cell fate prediction and provide more insights into the signaling pathways for cancer cell fates than the linear model.

  6. Power-Law Modeling of Cancer Cell Fates Driven by Signaling Data to Reveal Drug Effects

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Wu, Min; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Zheng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular signals are captured and transmitted by signaling proteins inside a cell. An important type of cellular responses to the signals is the cell fate decision, e.g., apoptosis. However, the underlying mechanisms of cell fate regulation are still unclear, thus comprehensive and detailed kinetic models are not yet available. Alternatively, data-driven models are promising to bridge signaling data with the phenotypic measurements of cell fates. The traditional linear model for data-driven modeling of signaling pathways has its limitations because it assumes that the a cell fate is proportional to the activities of signaling proteins, which is unlikely in the complex biological systems. Therefore, we propose a power-law model to relate the activities of all the measured signaling proteins to the probabilities of cell fates. In our experiments, we compared our nonlinear power-law model with the linear model on three cancer datasets with phosphoproteomics and cell fate measurements, which demonstrated that the nonlinear model has superior performance on cell fates prediction. By in silico simulation of virtual protein knock-down, the proposed model is able to reveal drug effects which can complement traditional approaches such as binding affinity analysis. Moreover, our model is able to capture cell line specific information to distinguish one cell line from another in cell fate prediction. Our results show that the power-law data-driven model is able to perform better in cell fate prediction and provide more insights into the signaling pathways for cancer cell fates than the linear model. PMID:27764199

  7. Multifactorial Optimizations for Directing Endothelial Fate from Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Madfis, Nicole; Wong, Lian; Zamora, Jose; White, Nicholas; Reyes, Samuel; Burns, Andrew B.; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are attractive in vitro models of vascular development, therapeutic angiogenesis, and tissue engineering. However, distinct ESC and iPS cell lines respond differentially to the same microenvironmental factors. Developing improved/optimized differentiation methodologies tailored/applicable in a number of distinct iPS and ESC lines remains a challenge in the field. Currently published methods for deriving endothelial cells (EC) robustly generate high numbers of endothlelial progenitor cells (EPC) within a week, but their maturation to definitive EC is much more difficult, taking up to 2 months and requiring additional purification. Therefore, we set out to examine combinations/levels of putative EC induction factors—utilizing our stage-specific chemically-defined derivation methodology in 4 ESC lines including: kinetics, cell seeding density, matrix signaling, as well as medium treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The results indicate that temporal development in both early and late stages is the most significant factor generating the desired cells. The generation of early Flk-1+/KDR+ vascular progenitor cells (VPC) from pluripotent ESC is directed predominantly by high cell seeding density and matrix signaling from fibronectin, while VEGF supplementation was NOT statistically significant in more than one cell line, especially with fibronectin matrix which sequesters autocrine VEGF production by the differentiating stem cells. Although some groups have shown that the GSK3-kinase inhibitor (CHIR) can facilitate EPC fate, it hindered the generation of KDR+ cells in our preoptimized medium formulations. The methods summarized here significantly increased the production of mature vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin+ EC, with up to 93% and 57% purity from mouse and human ESC, respectively, before VE-cadherin+ EC purification. PMID:27907001

  8. The linear interplay of intrinsic and extrinsic noises ensures a high accuracy of cell fate selection in budding yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongkai; Yi, Ming; Zou, Xiufen

    2014-07-01

    To gain insights into the mechanisms of cell fate decision in a noisy environment, the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic noises on cell fate are explored at the single cell level. Specifically, we theoretically define the impulse of Cln1/2 as an indication of cell fates. The strong dependence between the impulse of Cln1/2 and cell fates is exhibited. Based on the simulation results, we illustrate that increasing intrinsic fluctuations causes the parallel shift of the separation ratio of Whi5P but that increasing extrinsic fluctuations leads to the mixture of different cell fates. Our quantitative study also suggests that the strengths of intrinsic and extrinsic noises around an approximate linear model can ensure a high accuracy of cell fate selection. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that the selection of cell fates is an entropy-decreasing process. In addition, we reveal that cell fates are significantly correlated with the range of entropy decreases.

  9. Senescence and apoptosis: dueling or complementary cell fates?

    PubMed Central

    Childs, Bennett G; Baker, Darren J; Kirkland, James L; Campisi, Judith; van Deursen, Jan M

    2014-01-01

    In response to a variety of stresses, mammalian cells undergo a persistent proliferative arrest known as cellular senescence. Many senescence-inducing stressors are potentially oncogenic, strengthening the notion that senescence evolved alongside apoptosis to suppress tumorigenesis. In contrast to apoptosis, senescent cells are stably viable and have the potential to influence neighboring cells through secreted soluble factors, which are collectively known as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). However, the SASP has been associated with structural and functional tissue and organ deterioration and may even have tumor-promoting effects, raising the interesting evolutionary question of why apoptosis failed to outcompete senescence as a superior cell fate option. Here, we discuss the advantages that the senescence program may have over apoptosis as a tumor protective mechanism, as well as non-neoplastic functions that may have contributed to its evolution. We also review emerging evidence for the idea that senescent cells are present transiently early in life and are largely beneficial for development, regeneration and homeostasis, and only in advanced age do senescent cells accumulate to an organism’s detriment. PMID:25312810

  10. Synthetic memory circuits for tracking human cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Burrill, Devin R.; Inniss, Mara C.; Boyle, Patrick M.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2012-01-01

    A variety of biological phenomena, from disease progression to stem cell differentiation, are typified by a prolonged cellular response to a transient environmental cue. While biologically relevant, heterogeneity in these long-term responses is difficult to assess at the population level, necessitating the development of biological tools to track cell fate within subpopulations. Here we present a novel synthetic biology approach for identifying and tracking mammalian cell subpopulations. We constructed three genomically integrated circuits that use bistable autoregulatory transcriptional feedback to retain memory of exposure to brief stimuli. These “memory devices” are used to isolate and track the progeny of cells that responded differentially to doxycycline, hypoxia, or DNA-damaging agents. Following hypoxic or ultraviolet radiation exposure, strongly responding cells activate the memory device and exhibit changes in gene expression, growth rates, and viability for multiple generations after the initial stimulus. Taken together, these results indicate that a heritable memory of hypoxia and DNA damage exists in subpopulations that differ in long-term cell behavior. PMID:22751502

  11. Engineering the human pluripotent stem cell microenvironment to direct cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Hazeltine, Laurie B.; Selekman, Joshua A.; Palecek, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including both embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, offer a potential cell source for research, drug screening, and regenerative medicine applications due to their unique ability to self-renew or differentiate to any somatic cell type. Before the full potential of hPSCs can be realized, robust protocols must be developed to direct their fate. Cell fate decisions are based on components of the surrounding microenvironment, including soluble factors, substrate or extracellular matrix, cell-cell interactions, mechanical forces, and 2D or 3D architecture. Depending on their spatio-temporal context, these components can signal hPSCs to either self-renew or differentiate to cell types of the ectoderm, mesoderm, or endoderm. Researchers working at the interface of engineering and biology have identified various factors which can affect hPSC fate, often based on lessons from embryonic development, and they have utilized this information to design in vitro niches which can reproducibly direct hPSC fate. This review highlights culture systems that have been engineered to promote self-renewal or differentiation of hPSCs, with a focus on studies that have elucidated the contributions of specific microenvironmental cues in the context of those culture systems. We propose the use of microsystems technologies for high-throughput screening of spatial-temporal presentation of cues, as this has been demonstrated to be a powerful approach for differentiating hPSCs to desired cell types. PMID:23510904

  12. Engineering the human pluripotent stem cell microenvironment to direct cell fate.

    PubMed

    Hazeltine, Laurie B; Selekman, Joshua A; Palecek, Sean P

    2013-11-15

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including both embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, offer a potential cell source for research, drug screening, and regenerative medicine applications due to their unique ability to self-renew or differentiate to any somatic cell type. Before the full potential of hPSCs can be realized, robust protocols must be developed to direct their fate. Cell fate decisions are based on components of the surrounding microenvironment, including soluble factors, substrate or extracellular matrix, cell-cell interactions, mechanical forces, and 2D or 3D architecture. Depending on their spatio-temporal context, these components can signal hPSCs to either self-renew or differentiate to cell types of the ectoderm, mesoderm, or endoderm. Researchers working at the interface of engineering and biology have identified various factors which can affect hPSC fate, often based on lessons from embryonic development, and they have utilized this information to design in vitro niches which can reproducibly direct hPSC fate. This review highlights culture systems that have been engineered to promote self-renewal or differentiation of hPSCs, with a focus on studies that have elucidated the contributions of specific microenvironmental cues in the context of those culture systems. We propose the use of microsystem technologies for high-throughput screening of spatial-temporal presentation of cues, as this has been demonstrated to be a powerful approach for differentiating hPSCs to desired cell types.

  13. Sox10 contributes to the balance of fate choice in dorsal root ganglion progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Madelaine, Romain; Busolin, Giorgia; Nikaido, Masataka; Colanesi, Sarah; Camargo-Sosa, Karen; Toppo, Stefano; Blader, Patrick; Tiso, Natascia; Kelsh, Robert N.

    2017-01-01

    The development of functional peripheral ganglia requires a balance of specification of both neuronal and glial components. In the developing dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), these components form from partially-restricted bipotent neuroglial precursors derived from the neural crest. Work in mouse and chick has identified several factors, including Delta/Notch signaling, required for specification of a balance of these components. We have previously shown in zebrafish that the Sry-related HMG domain transcription factor, Sox10, plays an unexpected, but crucial, role in sensory neuron fate specification in vivo. In the same study we described a novel Sox10 mutant allele, sox10baz1, in which sensory neuron numbers are elevated above those of wild-types. Here we investigate the origin of this neurogenic phenotype. We demonstrate that the supernumerary neurons are sensory neurons, and that enteric and sympathetic neurons are almost absent just as in classical sox10 null alleles; peripheral glial development is also severely abrogated in a manner similar to other sox10 mutant alleles. Examination of proliferation and apoptosis in the developing DRG reveals very low levels of both processes in wild-type and sox10baz1, excluding changes in the balance of these as an explanation for the overproduction of sensory neurons. Using chemical inhibition of Delta-Notch-Notch signaling we demonstrate that in embryonic zebrafish, as in mouse and chick, lateral inhibition during the phase of trunk DRG development is required to achieve a balance between glial and neuronal numbers. Importantly, however, we show that this mechanism is insufficient to explain quantitative aspects of the baz1 phenotype. The Sox10(baz1) protein shows a single amino acid substitution in the DNA binding HMG domain; structural analysis indicates that this change is likely to result in reduced flexibility in the HMG domain, consistent with sequence-specific modification of Sox10 binding to DNA. Unlike other Sox10

  14. Asymmetric cell division in plants: mechanisms of symmetry breaking and cell fate determination.

    PubMed

    Pillitteri, Lynn Jo; Guo, Xiaoyu; Dong, Juan

    2016-11-01

    Asymmetric cell division is a fundamental mechanism that generates cell diversity while maintaining self-renewing stem cell populations in multicellular organisms. Both intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms underpin symmetry breaking and differential daughter cell fate determination in animals and plants. The emerging picture suggests that plants deal with the problem of symmetry breaking using unique cell polarity proteins, mobile transcription factors, and cell wall components to influence asymmetric divisions and cell fate. There is a clear role for altered auxin distribution and signaling in distinguishing two daughter cells and an emerging role for epigenetic modifications through chromatin remodelers and DNA methylation in plant cell differentiation. The importance of asymmetric cell division in determining final plant form provides the impetus for its study in the areas of both basic and applied science.

  15. MicroRNAs in embryonic stem cell function and fate

    PubMed Central

    Tiscornia, Gustavo; Izpisúa Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Since their discovery in the early 1990s, microRNAs (miRs) have gone from initially being considered an oddity to being recognized as a level of gene expression regulation that is integral to the normal function of cells and organisms. They are implicated in many if not all biological processes in animals, from apoptosis and cell signaling to organogenesis and development. Our understanding of cell regulatory states, as determined primarily by transcription factor (TF) profiles, is incomplete without consideration of the corresponding miR profile. The miR complement of a cell provides robust and redundant control over the output of hundreds of possible targets for each miR. miRs are common components of regulatory pathways, and in some cases can constitute on–off switches that regulate crucial fate decisions. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge about the biogenesis and regulation of miRs and describe their involvement in the pathways that regulate cell division, pluripotency, and reprogramming to the pluripotent state. PMID:21159814

  16. Time-variant clustering model for understanding cell fate decisions

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Cao, Xiaoyi; Biase, Fernando H.; Yu, Pengfei; Zhong, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Both spatial characteristics and temporal features are often the subjects of concern in physical, social, and biological studies. This work tackles the clustering problems for time course data in which the cluster number and clustering structure change with respect to time, dubbed time-variant clustering. We developed a hierarchical model that simultaneously clusters the objects at every time point and describes the relationships of the clusters between time points. The hidden layer of this model is a generalized form of branching processes. A reversible-jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo method was implemented for model inference, and a feature selection procedure was developed. We applied this method to explore an open question in preimplantation embryonic development. Our analyses using single-cell gene expression data suggested that the earliest cell fate decision could start at the 4-cell stage in mice, earlier than the commonly thought 8- to 16-cell stage. These results together with independent experimental data from single-cell RNA-seq provided support against a prevailing hypothesis in mammalian development. PMID:25339442

  17. Bone marrow cells adopt the cardiomyogenic fate in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rota, Marcello; Kajstura, Jan; Hosoda, Toru; Bearzi, Claudia; Vitale, Serena; Esposito, Grazia; Iaffaldano, Grazia; Padin-Iruegas, M. Elena; Gonzalez, Arantxa; Rizzi, Roberto; Small, Narissa; Muraski, John; Alvarez, Roberto; Chen, Xiongwen; Urbanek, Konrad; Bolli, Roberto; Houser, Steven R.; Leri, Annarosa; Sussman, Mark A.; Anversa, Piero

    2007-01-01

    The possibility that adult bone marrow cells (BMCs) retain a remarkable degree of developmental plasticity and acquire the cardiomyocyte lineage after infarction has been challenged, and the notion of BMC transdifferentiation has been questioned. The center of the controversy is the lack of unequivocal evidence in favor of myocardial regeneration by the injection of BMCs in the infarcted heart. Because of the interest in cell-based therapy for heart failure, several approaches including gene reporter assay, genetic tagging, cell genotyping, PCR-based detection of donor genes, and direct immunofluorescence with quantum dots were used to prove or disprove BMC transdifferentiation. Our results indicate that BMCs engraft, survive, and grow within the spared myocardium after infarction by forming junctional complexes with resident myocytes. BMCs and myocytes express at their interface connexin 43 and N-cadherin, and this interaction may be critical for BMCs to adopt the cardiomyogenic fate. With time, a large number of myocytes and coronary vessels are generated. Myocytes show a diploid DNA content and carry, at most, two sex chromosomes. Old and new myocytes show synchronicity in calcium transients, providing strong evidence in favor of the functional coupling of these two cell populations. Thus, BMCs transdifferentiate and acquire the cardiomyogenic and vascular phenotypes restoring the infarcted heart. Together, our studies reveal that locally delivered BMCs generate de novo myocardium composed of integrated cardiomyocytes and coronary vessels. This process occurs independently of cell fusion and ameliorates structurally and functionally the outcome of the heart after infarction. PMID:17965233

  18. Bone marrow cells adopt the cardiomyogenic fate in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rota, Marcello; Kajstura, Jan; Hosoda, Toru; Bearzi, Claudia; Vitale, Serena; Esposito, Grazia; Iaffaldano, Grazia; Padin-Iruegas, M Elena; Gonzalez, Arantxa; Rizzi, Roberto; Small, Narissa; Muraski, John; Alvarez, Roberto; Chen, Xiongwen; Urbanek, Konrad; Bolli, Roberto; Houser, Steven R; Leri, Annarosa; Sussman, Mark A; Anversa, Piero

    2007-11-06

    The possibility that adult bone marrow cells (BMCs) retain a remarkable degree of developmental plasticity and acquire the cardiomyocyte lineage after infarction has been challenged, and the notion of BMC transdifferentiation has been questioned. The center of the controversy is the lack of unequivocal evidence in favor of myocardial regeneration by the injection of BMCs in the infarcted heart. Because of the interest in cell-based therapy for heart failure, several approaches including gene reporter assay, genetic tagging, cell genotyping, PCR-based detection of donor genes, and direct immunofluorescence with quantum dots were used to prove or disprove BMC transdifferentiation. Our results indicate that BMCs engraft, survive, and grow within the spared myocardium after infarction by forming junctional complexes with resident myocytes. BMCs and myocytes express at their interface connexin 43 and N-cadherin, and this interaction may be critical for BMCs to adopt the cardiomyogenic fate. With time, a large number of myocytes and coronary vessels are generated. Myocytes show a diploid DNA content and carry, at most, two sex chromosomes. Old and new myocytes show synchronicity in calcium transients, providing strong evidence in favor of the functional coupling of these two cell populations. Thus, BMCs transdifferentiate and acquire the cardiomyogenic and vascular phenotypes restoring the infarcted heart. Together, our studies reveal that locally delivered BMCs generate de novo myocardium composed of integrated cardiomyocytes and coronary vessels. This process occurs independently of cell fusion and ameliorates structurally and functionally the outcome of the heart after infarction.

  19. Perturbation of single hematopoietic stem cell fates in artificial niches†

    PubMed Central

    Havenstrite, Karen; Koleckar, Kassie

    2010-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are capable of extensive self-renewal in vivo and are successfully employed clinically to treat hematopoietic malignancies, yet are in limited supply as in culture this self-renewal capacity is lost. Using an approach at the interface of stem cell biology and bioengineering, here we describe a novel platform of hydrogel microwell arrays for assessing the effects of either secreted or tethered proteins characteristic of the in vivo microenvironment, or niche, on HSC fate in vitro. Time-lapse microscopic analyses of single cells were crucial to overcoming inevitable heterogeneity of FACS-enriched HSCs. A reduction in proliferation kinetics or an increase in asynchronous division of single HSCs in microwells in response to specific proteins (Wnt3a and N-Cadherin) correlated well with subsequent serial long-term blood reconstitution in mice in vivo. Single cells that divided once in the presence of a given protein were capable of in vivo reconstitution, providing evidence of self-renewal divisions of HSCs in vitro. These results validate the hydrogel microwell platform as a broadly applicable paradigm for dissecting the regulatory role of specific signals within a complex stem cell niche. PMID:20023792

  20. Nanomaterials for regulating cancer and stem cell fate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Birju P.

    The realm of nanomedicine has grown exponentially over the past few decades. However, there are several obstacles that need to be overcome, prior to the wide-spread clinical applications of these nanoparticles, such as (i) developing well-defined nanoparticles of varying size, morphology and composition to enable various clinical applications; (ii) overcome various physiological barriers encountered in order to deliver the therapeutics to the target location; and (iii) real-time monitoring of the nano-therapeutics within the human body for tracking their uptake, localization and effect. Hence, this dissertation focuses on developing multimodal nanotechnology-based approaches to overcome the above-mentioned challenges and thus enable regulation of cancer and stem cell fate. The initial part of this dissertation describes the development of multimodal magnetic core-shell nanoparticles (MCNPs), comprised of a highly magnetic core surrounded by a thin gold shell, thus combining magnetic and plasmonic properties. These nanoparticles were utilized for mainly two applications: (i) Magnetically-facilitated delivery of siRNA and plasmid DNA for effective stem cell differentiation and imaging and (ii) Combined hyperthermia and targeted delivery of a mitochondria-targeting peptide for enhancing apoptosis in cancer cells. The following part of this dissertation presents the generation of a multi-functional cyclodextrin-conjugated polymeric delivery platform (known as DexAMs), for co-delivery of anticancer drugs and siRNAs in a target-specific manner to brain tumor cells. This combined delivery of chemotherapeutics and siRNA resulted in a synergistic effect on the apoptosis of brain tumor cells, as compared to the individual treatments. The final part of this thesis presents development of stimuli-responsive uorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based mesoporous silica nanoparticles for real-time monitoring of drug release in cells. The stimuli-responsive behavior of

  1. Delta1 expression, cell cycle exit, and commitment to a specific secretory fate coincide within a few hours in the mouse intestinal stem cell system.

    PubMed

    Stamataki, Despina; Holder, Maxine; Hodgetts, Christine; Jeffery, Rosemary; Nye, Emma; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Winton, Douglas J; Lewis, Julian

    2011-01-01

    The stem cells of the small intestine are multipotent: they give rise, via transit-amplifying cell divisions, to large numbers of columnar absorptive cells mixed with much smaller numbers of three different classes of secretory cells--mucus-secreting goblet cells, hormone-secreting enteroendocrine cells, and bactericide-secreting Paneth cells. Notch signaling is known to control commitment to a secretory fate, but why are the secretory cells such a small fraction of the population, and how does the diversity of secretory cell types arise? Using the mouse as our model organism, we find that secretory cells, and only secretory cells, pass through a phase of strong expression of the Notch ligand Delta1 (Dll1). Onset of this Dll1 expression coincides with a block to further cell division and is followed in much less than a cell cycle time by expression of Neurog3--a marker of enteroendocrine fate--or Gfi1--a marker of goblet or Paneth cell fate. By conditional knock-out of Dll1, we confirm that Delta-Notch signaling controls secretory commitment through lateral inhibition. We infer that cells stop dividing as they become committed to a secretory fate, while their neighbors continue dividing, explaining the final excess of absorptive over secretory cells. Our data rule out schemes in which cells first become committed to be secretory, and then diversify through subsequent cell divisions. A simple mathematical model shows how, instead, Notch signaling may simultaneously govern the commitment to be secretory and the choice between alternative modes of secretory differentiation.

  2. Stomatal development: a plant's perspective on cell polarity, cell fate transitions and intercellular communication

    PubMed Central

    Lau, On Sun; Bergmann, Dominique C.

    2012-01-01

    The plant stomatal lineage manifests features common to many developmental contexts: precursor cells are chosen from an initially equivalent field of cells, undergo asymmetric and self-renewing divisions, communicate among themselves and respond to information from a distance. As we review here, the experimental accessibility of these epidermal lineages, particularly in Arabidopsis, has made stomata a conceptual and technical framework for the study of cell fate, stem cells, and cell polarity in plants. PMID:22991435

  3. Stomatal development: a plant's perspective on cell polarity, cell fate transitions and intercellular communication.

    PubMed

    Lau, On Sun; Bergmann, Dominique C

    2012-10-01

    The plant stomatal lineage manifests features common to many developmental contexts: precursor cells are chosen from an initially equivalent field of cells, undergo asymmetric and self-renewing divisions, communicate among themselves and respond to information from a distance. As we review here, the experimental accessibility of these epidermal lineages, particularly in Arabidopsis, has made stomata a conceptual and technical framework for the study of cell fate, stem cells, and cell polarity in plants.

  4. Cell fate reprogramming by control of intracellular network dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanudo, Jorge G. T.; Albert, Reka

    Identifying control strategies for biological networks is paramount for practical applications that involve reprogramming a cell's fate, such as disease therapeutics and stem cell reprogramming. Although the topic of controlling the dynamics of a system has a long history in control theory, most of this work is not directly applicable to intracellular networks. Here we present a network control method that integrates the structural and functional information available for intracellular networks to predict control targets. Formulated in a logical dynamic scheme, our control method takes advantage of certain function-dependent network components and their relation to steady states in order to identify control targets, which are guaranteed to drive any initial state to the target state with 100% effectiveness and need to be applied only transiently for the system to reach and stay in the desired state. We illustrate our method's potential to find intervention targets for cancer treatment and cell differentiation by applying it to a leukemia signaling network and to the network controlling the differentiation of T cells. We find that the predicted control targets are effective in a broad dynamic framework. Moreover, several of the predicted interventions are supported by experiments. This work was supported by NSF Grant PHY 1205840.

  5. Generation of bivalent chromatin domains during cell fate decisions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In self-renewing, pluripotent cells, bivalent chromatin modification is thought to silence (H3K27me3) lineage control genes while 'poising' (H3K4me3) them for subsequent activation during differentiation, implying an important role for epigenetic modification in directing cell fate decisions. However, rather than representing an equivalently balanced epigenetic mark, the patterns and levels of histone modifications at bivalent genes can vary widely and the criteria for identifying this chromatin signature are poorly defined. Results Here, we initially show how chromatin status alters during lineage commitment and differentiation at a single well characterised bivalent locus. In addition we have determined how chromatin modifications at this locus change with gene expression in both ensemble and single cell analyses. We also show, on a global scale, how mRNA expression may be reflected in the ratio of H3K4me3/H3K27me3. Conclusions While truly 'poised' bivalently modified genes may exist, the original hypothesis that all bivalent genes are epigenetically premarked for subsequent expression might be oversimplistic. In fact, from the data presented in the present work, it is equally possible that many genes that appear to be bivalent in pluripotent and multipotent cells may simply be stochastically expressed at low levels in the process of multilineage priming. Although both situations could be considered to be forms of 'poising', the underlying mechanisms and the associated implications are clearly different. PMID:21645363

  6. Mechanical memory and dosing influence stem cell fate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chun; Tibbitt, Mark W.; Basta, Lena; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2014-06-01

    We investigated whether stem cells remember past physical signals and whether these can be exploited to dose cells mechanically. We found that the activation of the Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding domain (TAZ) as well as the pre-osteogenic transcription factor RUNX2 in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured on soft poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels (Young’s modulus E ~ 2 kPa) depended on previous culture time on stiff tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS; E ~ 3 GPa). In addition, mechanical dosing of hMSCs cultured on initially stiff (E ~ 10 kPa) and then soft (E ~ 2 kPa) phototunable PEG hydrogels resulted in either reversible or—above a threshold mechanical dose—irreversible activation of YAP/TAZ and RUNX2. We also found that increased mechanical dosing on supraphysiologically stiff TCPS biases hMSCs towards osteogenic differentiation. We conclude that stem cells possess mechanical memory—with YAP/TAZ acting as an intracellular mechanical rheostat—that stores information from past physical environments and influences the cells’ fate.

  7. Stimulating Fracture Healing in Ischemic Environments: Does Oxygen Direct Stem Cell Fate during Fracture Healing?

    PubMed Central

    Miclau, Katherine R.; Brazina, Sloane A.; Bahney, Chelsea S.; Hankenson, Kurt D.; Hunt, Thomas K.; Marcucio, Ralph S.; Miclau, Theodore

    2017-01-01

    Bone fractures represent an enormous societal and economic burden as one of the most prevalent causes of disability worldwide. Each year, nearly 15 million people are affected by fractures in the United States alone. Data indicate that the blood supply is critical for fracture healing; as data indicate that concomitant bone and vascular injury are major risk factors for non-union. However, the various role(s) that the vasculature plays remains speculative. Fracture stabilization dictates stem cell fate choices during repair. In stabilized fractures stem cells differentiate directly into osteoblasts and heal the injury by intramembranous ossification. In contrast, in non-stable fractures stem cells differentiate into chondrocytes and the bone heals through endochondral ossification, where a cartilage template transforms into bone as the chondrocytes transform into osteoblasts. One suggested role of the vasculature has been to participate in the stem cell fate decisions due to delivery of oxygen. In stable fractures, the blood vessels are thought to remain intact and promote osteogenesis, while in non-stable fractures, continual disruption of the vasculature creates hypoxia that favors formation of cartilage, which is avascular. However, recent data suggests that non-stable fractures are more vascularized than stable fractures, that oxygen does not appear associated with differentiation of stem cells into chondrocytes and osteoblasts, that cartilage is not hypoxic, and that oxygen, not sustained hypoxia, is required for angiogenesis. These unexpected results, which contrast other published studies, are indicative of the need to better understand the complex, spatio-temporal regulation of vascularization and oxygenation in fracture healing. This work has also revealed that oxygen, along with the promotion of angiogenesis, may be novel adjuvants that can stimulate healing in select patient populations. PMID:28523266

  8. Fate and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in stormwater bioretention cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeFevre, Gregory Hallett

    This dissertation describes the investigation of the fate of hydrocarbons in stormwater bioretention areas and those mechanisms that affect hydrocarbon fate in such systems. Seventy-five samples from 58 bioretention areas were collected and analyzed to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) residual and biodegradation functional genes. TPH residual in bioretention areas was greater than background sites but low overall (<3 µg/kg), and well below either the TPH concentration of concern or the expected concentration, assuming no losses. Bioretention areas with deep-root vegetation contained significantly greater quantites of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and two functional genes involved in hydrocarbon biodegradation. Field soils were capable of mineralizing naphthalene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) when incubated in the laboratory. In an additional laboratory investigation, a column study was initiated to comprehensively determine naphthalene fate in a simulated bioretention cell using a 14C-labeled tracer. Sorption to soil was the greatest sink of naphthalene in the columns, although biodegradation and vegetative uptake were also important loss mechanisms. Little leaching occurred following the first flush, and volatilization was insignificant. Significant enrichment of naphthalene degrading bacteria occurred over the course of the experiment as a result of naphthalene exposure. This was evident from enhanced naphthalene biodegradation kinetics (measured via batch tests), significant increases in naphthalene dioxygenase gene quantities, and a significant correlation observed between naphthalene residual and biodegradation functional genes. Vegetated columns outperformed the unplanted control column in terms of total naphthalene removal and biodegradation kinetics. As a result of these experiments, a final study focused on why planted systems outperform unplanted systems was conducted. Plant root exudates were harvested from hydroponic setups for three

  9. Mitophagy-driven mitochondrial rejuvenation regulates stem cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Van den Haute, Chris; Cufí, Sílvia; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Lopez-Bonet, Eugeni; Rodriguez-Gallego, Esther; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Joven, Jorge; Baekelandt, Veerle; Menendez, Javier A.

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding on how selective mitochondrial autophagy, or mitophagy, can sustain the archetypal properties of stem cells is incomplete. PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) plays a key role in the maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and function and in the selective degradation of damaged mitochondria by mitophagy. Here, using embryonic fibroblasts from PINK1 gene-knockout (KO) mice, we evaluated whether mitophagy is a causal mechanism for the control of cell-fate plasticity and maintenance of pluripotency. Loss of PINK1-dependent mitophagy was sufficient to dramatically decrease the speed and efficiency of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) reprogramming. Mitophagy-deficient iPSC colonies, which were characterized by a mixture of mature and immature mitochondria, seemed unstable, with a strong tendency to spontaneously differentiate and form heterogeneous populations of cells. Although mitophagy-deficient iPSC colonies normally expressed pluripotent markers, functional monitoring of cellular bioenergetics revealed an attenuated glycolysis in mitophagy-deficient iPSC cells. Targeted metabolomics showed a notable alteration in numerous glycolysis- and TCA-related metabolites in mitophagy-deficient iPSC cells, including a significant decrease in the intracellular levels of α-ketoglutarate -a key suppressor of the differentiation path in stem cells. Mitophagy-deficient iPSC colonies exhibited a notably reduced teratoma-initiating capacity, but fully retained their pluripotency and multi-germ layer differentiation capacity in vivo. PINK1-dependent mitophagy pathway is an important mitochondrial switch that determines the efficiency and quality of somatic reprogramming. Mitophagy-driven mitochondrial rejuvenation might contribute to the ability of iPSCs to suppress differentiation by directing bioenergetic transition and metabolome remodeling traits. These findings provide new insights into how mitophagy might influence the stem cell decisions to retain

  10. The apical complex couples cell fate and cell survival to cerebral cortical development

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seonhee; Lehtinen, Maria K.; Sessa, Alessandro; Zappaterra, Mauro; Cho, Seo-Hee; Gonzalez, Dilenny; Boggan, Brigid; Austin, Christina A.; Wijnholds, Jan; Gambello, Michael J.; Malicki, Jarema; LaMantia, Anthony S.; Broccoli, Vania; Walsh, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    Cortical development depends upon tightly controlled cell fate and cell survival decisions that generate a functional neuronal population, but the coordination of these two processes is poorly understood. Here we show that conditional removal of a key apical complex protein, Pals1, causes premature withdrawal from the cell cycle, inducing excessive generation of early-born postmitotic neurons followed by surprisingly massive and rapid cell death, leading to the abrogation of virtually the entire cortical structure. Pals1 loss shows exquisite dosage sensitivity, so that heterozygote mutants show an intermediate phenotype on cell fate and cell death. Loss of Pals1 blocks essential cell survival signals, including the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, while mTORC1 activation partially rescues Pals1 deficiency. These data highlight unexpected roles of the apical complex protein Pals1 in cell survival through interactions with mTOR signaling. PMID:20399730

  11. IGFBP-3: a cell fate pivot in cancer and disease.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michael A; Firth, Sue M

    2014-10-01

    One of the hallmarks in the advancement of cancer cells is an ability to overcome and acquire resistance to adverse conditions. There has been a large amount of cancer research on IGFBP-3 as a pro-apoptotic molecule in vitro. These pro-apoptotic properties, however, do not correlate with several studies linking high IGFBP-3 levels in breast cancer tissue to rapid growth and poor prognosis. Evidence is emerging that IGFBP-3 also exhibits pro-survival and growth-promoting properties in vitro. How IGFBP-3 pivots cell fate to either death or survival, it seems, comes down to a complex interplay between cells' microenvironments and the presence of cellular IGFBP-3 binding partners and growth factor receptors. The cytoprotective actions of IGFBP-3 are not restricted to cancer but are also observed in other disease states, such as retinopathy and brain ischaemia. Here we review the literature on this paradoxical nature of IGFBP-3, its pro-apoptotic and growth-inhibitory actions versus its cytoprotective and growth-potentiating properties, and discuss the implications of targeting IGFBP-3 for treatment of disease.

  12. Arginine Methylation by PRMT1 Regulates Muscle Stem Cell Fate.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Roméo Sébastien; Vogel, Gillian; Li, Xing; Yu, Zhenbao; Li, Shawn; Richard, Stéphane

    2017-02-01

    Quiescent muscle stem cells (MSCs) become activated in response to skeletal muscle injury to initiate regeneration. Activated MSCs proliferate and differentiate to repair damaged fibers or self-renew to maintain the pool and ensure future regeneration. The balance between self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation is a tightly regulated process controlled by a genetic cascade involving determinant transcription factors such as Pax7, Myf5, MyoD, and MyoG. Recently, there have been several reports about the role of arginine methylation as a requirement for epigenetically mediated control of muscle regeneration. Here we report that the protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is expressed in MSCs and that conditional ablation of PRMT1 in MSCs using Pax7(CreERT2) causes impairment of muscle regeneration. Importantly, PRMT1-deficient MSCs have enhanced cell proliferation after injury but are unable to terminate the myogenic differentiation program, leading to regeneration failure. We identify the coactivator of Six1, Eya1, as a substrate of PRMT1. We show that PRMT1 methylates Eya1 in vitro and that loss of PRMT1 function in vivo prevents Eya1 methylation. Moreover, we observe that PRMT1-deficient MSCs have reduced expression of Eya1/Six1 target MyoD due to disruption of Eya1 recruitment at the MyoD promoter and subsequent Eya1-mediated coactivation. These findings suggest that arginine methylation by PRMT1 regulates muscle stem cell fate through the Eya1/Six1/MyoD axis.

  13. Notch signal strength controls cell fate in the haemogenic endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Gama-Norton, Leonor; Ferrando, Eva; Ruiz-Herguido, Cristina; Liu, Zenhy; Guiu, Jordi; Islam, Abul B. M. M. K.; Lee, Sung-Uk; Yan, Minhong; Guidos, Cynthia J.; López-Bigas, Nuria; Maeda, Takahiro; Espinosa, Lluis; Kopan, Raphael; Bigas, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition of the arterial and haemogenic endothelium fates concurrently occur in the aorta–gonad–mesonephros (AGM) region prior to haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) generation. The arterial programme depends on Dll4 and the haemogenic endothelium/HSC on Jag1-mediated Notch1 signalling. How Notch1 distinguishes and executes these different programmes in response to particular ligands is poorly understood. By using two Notch1 activation trap mouse models with different sensitivity, here we show that arterial endothelial cells and HSCs originate from distinct precursors, characterized by different Notch1 signal strengths. Microarray analysis on AGM subpopulations demonstrates that the Jag1 ligand stimulates low Notch strength, inhibits the endothelial programme and is permissive for HSC specification. In the absence of Jag1, endothelial cells experience high Dll4-induced Notch activity and select the endothelial programme, thus precluding HSC formation. Interference with the Dll4 signal by ligand-specific blocking antibodies is sufficient to inhibit the endothelial programme and favour specification of the haematopoietic lineage. PMID:26465397

  14. Parathyroid Hormone Directs Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Cell Fate.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yi; Hanai, Jun-Ichi; Le, Phuong T; Bi, Ruiye; Maridas, David; DeMambro, Victoria; Figueroa, Carolina A; Kir, Serkan; Zhou, Xuedong; Mannstadt, Michael; Baron, Roland; Bronson, Roderick T; Horowitz, Mark C; Wu, Joy Y; Bilezikian, John P; Dempster, David W; Rosen, Clifford J; Lanske, Beate

    2017-03-07

    Intermittent PTH administration builds bone mass and prevents fractures, but its mechanism of action is unclear. We genetically deleted the PTH/PTHrP receptor (PTH1R) in mesenchymal stem cells using Prx1Cre and found low bone formation, increased bone resorption, and high bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT). Bone marrow adipocytes traced to Prx1 and expressed classic adipogenic markers and high receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (Rankl) expression. RANKL levels were also elevated in bone marrow supernatant and serum, but undetectable in other adipose depots. By cell sorting, Pref1(+)RANKL(+) marrow progenitors were twice as great in mutant versus control marrow. Intermittent PTH administration to control mice reduced BMAT significantly. A similar finding was noted in male osteoporotic patients. Thus, marrow adipocytes exhibit osteogenic and adipogenic characteristics, are uniquely responsive to PTH, and secrete RANKL. These studies reveal an important mechanism for PTH's therapeutic action through its ability to direct mesenchymal cell fate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. New imaging probes to track cell fate: reporter genes in stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Jurgielewicz, Piotr; Harmsen, Stefan; Wei, Elizabeth; Bachmann, Michael H; Ting, Richard; Aras, Omer

    2017-07-03

    Cell fate is a concept used to describe the differentiation and development of a cell in its organismal context over time. It is important in the field of regenerative medicine, where stem cell therapy holds much promise but is limited by our ability to assess its efficacy, which is mainly due to the inability to monitor what happens to the cells upon engraftment to the damaged tissue. Currently, several imaging modalities can be used to track cells in the clinical setting; however, they do not satisfy many of the criteria necessary to accurately assess several aspects of cell fate. In recent years, reporter genes have become a popular option for tracking transplanted cells, via various imaging modalities in small mammalian animal models. This review article examines the reporter gene strategies used in imaging modalities such as MRI, SPECT/PET, Optoacoustic and Bioluminescence Imaging. Strengths and limitations of the use of reporter genes in each modality are discussed.

  16. Endothelial cells direct mesenchymal stem cells toward a smooth muscle cell fate.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cho-Hao; Lilly, Brenda

    2014-11-01

    Under defined conditions, mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into unique cell types, making them attractive candidates for cell-based disease therapies. Ischemic diseases would greatly benefit from treatments that include the formation of new blood vessels from mesenchymal stem cells. However, blood vessels are complex structures composed of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, and their assembly and function in a diseased environment is reliant upon joining with the pre-existing vasculature. Although endothelial cell/smooth muscle cell interactions are well known, how endothelial cells may influence mesenchymal stem cells and facilitate their differentiation has not been defined. Therefore, we sought to explore how endothelial cells might drive mesenchymal stem cells toward a smooth muscle fate. Our data show that cocultured endothelial cells induce smooth muscle cell differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells. Endothelial cells can promote a contractile phenotype, reduce proliferation, and enhance collagen synthesis and secretion. Our data show that Notch signaling is essential for endothelial cell-dependent differentiation, and this differentiation pathway is largely independent of growth factor signaling mechanisms.

  17. Cell–cell interaction networks regulate blood stem and progenitor cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Kirouac, Daniel C; Madlambayan, Gerard J; Yu, Mei; Sykes, Edward A; Ito, Caryn; Zandstra, Peter W

    2009-01-01

    Communication networks between cells and tissues are necessary for homeostasis in multicellular organisms. Intercellular (between cell) communication networks are particularly relevant in stem cell biology, as stem cell fate decisions (self-renewal, proliferation, lineage specification) are tightly regulated based on physiological demand. We have developed a novel mathematical model of blood stem cell development incorporating cell-level kinetic parameters as functions of secreted molecule-mediated intercellular networks. By relation to quantitative cellular assays, our model is capable of predictively simulating many disparate features of both normal and malignant hematopoiesis, relating internal parameters and microenvironmental variables to measurable cell fate outcomes. Through integrated in silico and experimental analyses, we show that blood stem and progenitor cell fate is regulated by cell–cell feedback, and can be controlled non-cell autonomously by dynamically perturbing intercellular signalling. We extend this concept by demonstrating that variability in the secretion rates of the intercellular regulators is sufficient to explain heterogeneity in culture outputs, and that loss of responsiveness to cell–cell feedback signalling is both necessary and sufficient to induce leukemic transformation in silico. PMID:19638974

  18. Small molecules, big roles -- the chemical manipulation of stem cell fate and somatic cell reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Wenlin; Laurent, Timothy; Ding, Sheng

    2012-12-01

    Despite the great potential of stem cells for basic research and clinical applications, obstacles - such as their scarce availability and difficulty in controlling their fate - need to be addressed to fully realize their potential. Recent achievements of cellular reprogramming have enabled the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) or other lineage-committed cells from more accessible and abundant somatic cell types by defined genetic factors. However, serious concerns remain about the efficiency and safety of current genetic approaches to cell reprogramming and traditional culture systems that are used for stem cell maintenance. As a complementary approach, small molecules that target specific signaling pathways, epigenetic processes and other cellular processes offer powerful tools for manipulating cell fate to a desired outcome. A growing number of small molecules have been identified to maintain the self-renewal potential of stem cells, to induce lineage differentiation and to facilitate reprogramming by increasing the efficiency of reprogramming or by replacing genetic reprogramming factors. Furthermore, mechanistic investigations of the effects of these chemicals also provide new biological insights. Here, we examine recent achievements in the maintenance of stem cells, including pluripotent and lineage-specific stem cells, and in the control of cell fate conversions, including iPSC reprogramming, conversion of primed to naïve pluripotency, and transdifferentiation, with an emphasis on manipulation with small molecules.

  19. Multiple signalling pathways establish cell fate and cell number in Drosophila malpighian tubules.

    PubMed

    Wan, S; Cato, A M; Skaer, H

    2000-01-01

    A unique cell, the tip mother cell, arises in the primordium of each Drosophila Malpighian tubule by lateral inhibition within a cluster of achaete-expressing cells. This cell maintains achaete expression and divides to produce daughters of equivalent potential, of which only one, the tip cell, adopts the primary fate and continues to express achaete, while in the other, the sibling cell, achaete expression is lost (M. Hoch et al., 1994, Development 120, 3439-3450). In this paper we chart the mechanisms by which achaete expression is differentially maintained in the tip cell lineage to stabilise cell fate. First, wingless is required to maintain the expression of achaete in the tubule primordium so that wingless mutants lack tip cells. Conversely, increasing wingless expression results in the persistence of achaete expression in the cell cluster. Second, Notch signalling is restricted by the asymmetric segregation of Numb, as the tip mother cell divides, so that achaete expression is maintained only in the tip cell. In embryos mutant for Notch tip cells segregate at the expense of sibling cells, whereas in numb neither daughter cell adopts the tip cell fate resulting in tubules with two sibling cells. Conversely, when numb is overexpressed two tip cells segregate and tubules have no sibling cells. Analysis of cell proliferation in the developing tubules of embryos lacking Wingless after the critical period for tip cell allocation reveals an additional requirement for wingless for the promotion of cell division. In contrast, alteration in the expression of numb has no effect on the final tubule cell number.

  20. Fate choice of post-natal mesoderm progenitors: skeletal versus cardiac muscle plasticity.

    PubMed

    Costamagna, Domiziana; Quattrocelli, Mattia; Duelen, Robin; Sahakyan, Vardine; Perini, Ilaria; Palazzolo, Giacomo; Sampaolesi, Maurilio

    2014-02-01

    Regenerative medicine for skeletal and cardiac muscles still constitutes a fascinating and ambitious frontier. In this perspective, understanding the possibilities of intrinsic cell plasticity, present in post-natal muscles, is vital to define and improve novel therapeutic strategies for acute and chronic diseases. In addition, many somatic stem cells are now crossing the boundaries of basic/translational research to enter the first clinical trials. However, it is still an open question whether a lineage switch between skeletal and cardiac adult myogenesis is possible. Therefore, this review focuses on resident somatic stem cells of post-natal skeletal and cardiac muscles and their plastic potential toward the two lineages. Furthermore, examples of myogenic lineage switch in adult stem cells are also reported and discussed.

  1. Echinacea purpurea extracts modulate murine dendritic cell fate and function.

    PubMed

    Benson, Jenna M; Pokorny, Amanda J; Rhule, Ava; Wenner, Cynthia A; Kandhi, Vamsikrishna; Cech, Nadja B; Shepherd, David M

    2010-05-01

    Echinacea is a top-selling herbal remedy that purportedly acts as an immunostimulant. However, the specific immunomodulatory effects of Echinacea remain to be elucidated. We focused on defining the effects of Echinacea purpurea extracts in dendritic cells (DCs), which generate innate and adaptive immune responses. We hypothesized that E. purpurea extracts would enhance murine bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC) activation leading to increased immune responses. The fate and function of DCs from C57Bl/6 mice was evaluated following 48h exposure to E. purpurea root and leaf extracts. Flow cytometry revealed that the polysaccharide-rich root extract increased the expression of MHC class II, CD86, and CD54 surface biomarkers whereas the alkylamide-rich leaf extract inhibited expression of these molecules. Production of IL-6 and TNF-alpha increased in a concentration-dependent manner with exposure to the root, but not leaf, extract. In contrast, the leaf but not root extract inhibited the enzymatic activity of cyclooxygenase-2. While both extracts decreased the uptake of ovalbumin by BMDCs, the leaf but not root extract inhibited the antigen-specific activation of naïve CD4(+) T cells from OT II/Thy1.1 mice. Collectively, these results suggest that E. purpurea can be immunostimulatory, immunosuppressive, and/or anti-inflammatory depending on the portion of the plant and extraction method. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Echinacea pupurea extracts modulate murine dendritic cell fate and function

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Jenna M.; Pokorny, Amanda J.; Rhule, Ava; Wenner, Cynthia A.; Kandhi, Vamsikrishna; Cech, Nadja B.; Shepherd, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Echinacea is a top-selling herbal remedy that purportedly acts as an immunostimulant. However, the specific immunomodulatory effects of Echinacea remain to be elucidated. We focused on defining the effects of Echinacea purpurea extracts in dendritic cells (DCs), which generate innate and adaptive immune responses. We hypothesized that E. purpurea extracts would enhance murine bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC) activation leading to increased immune responses. The fate and function of DCs from C57Bl/6 mice was evaluated following 48 h exposure to E. purpurea root and leaf extracts. Flow cytometry revealed that the polysaccharide-rich root extract increased the expression of MHC class II, CD86, and CD54 surface biomarkers whereas the alkylamide-rich leaf extract inhibited expression of these molecules. Production of IL-6 and TNF-α increased in a concentration-dependent manner with exposure to the root, but not leaf, extract. In contrast, the leaf but not root extract inhibited the enzymatic activity of cyclooxygenase-2. While both extracts decreased the uptake of ovalbumin by BMDCs, the leaf but not root extract inhibited the antigen-specific activation of naïve CD4+ T cells from OT II/Thy1.1 mice. Collectively, these results suggest that E. purpurea can be immunostimulatory, immunosuppressive, and/or anti-inflammatory depending on the portion of the plant and extraction method. PMID:20149833

  3. The WTX Tumor Suppressor Regulates Mesenchymal Progenitor Cell Fate Specification

    PubMed Central

    Lotinun, Sutada; Akhavanfard, Sara; Coffman, Erik J.; Cook, Edward B.; Stoykova, Svetlana; Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Schoonmaker, Jesse A.; Burger, Alexa; Kim, Woo Jae; Kronenberg, Henry M.; Baron, Roland; Haber, Daniel A.; Bardeesy, Nabeel

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY WTX is an X-linked tumor suppressor targeted by somatic mutations in Wilms tumor, a pediatric kidney cancer, and by germline inactivation in osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis, a bone overgrowth syndrome. Here, we show that Wtx deletion in mice causes neonatal lethality, somatic overgrowth, and malformation of multiple mesenchyme-derived tissues, including bone, fat, kidney, heart, and spleen. Inactivation of Wtx at different developmental stages and in primary mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) reveals that bone mass increase and adipose tissue deficiency are due to altered lineage fate decisions coupled with delayed terminal differentiation. Specification defects in MPCs result from aberrant β-catenin activation, whereas alternative pathways contribute to the subsequently delayed differentiation of lineage-restricted cells. Thus, Wtx is a regulator of MPC commitment and differentiation with stage-specific functions in inhibiting canonical Wnt signaling. Furthermore, the constellation of anomalies in Wtx null mice suggests that this tumor suppressor broadly regulates MPCs in multiple tissues. PMID:21571217

  4. Myf5 haploinsufficiency reveals distinct cell fate potentials for adult skeletal muscle stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gayraud-Morel, Barbara; Chrétien, Fabrice; Jory, Aurélie; Sambasivan, Ramkumar; Negroni, Elisa; Flamant, Patricia; Soubigou, Guillaume; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Di Santo, James; Cumano, Ana; Mouly, Vincent; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim

    2012-04-01

    Skeletal muscle stem cell fate in adult mice is regulated by crucial transcription factors, including the determination genes Myf5 and Myod. The precise role of Myf5 in regulating quiescent muscle stem cells has remained elusive. Here we show that most, but not all, quiescent satellite cells express Myf5 protein, but at varying levels, and that resident Myf5 heterozygous muscle stem cells are more primed for myogenic commitment compared with wild-type satellite cells. Paradoxically however, heterotypic transplantation of Myf5 heterozygous cells into regenerating muscles results in higher self-renewal capacity compared with wild-type stem cells, whereas myofibre regenerative capacity is not altered. By contrast, Pax7 haploinsufficiency does not show major modifications by transcriptome analysis. These observations provide a mechanism linking Myf5 levels to muscle stem cell heterogeneity and fate by exposing two distinct and opposing phenotypes associated with Myf5 haploinsufficiency. These findings have important implications for how stem cell fates can be modulated by crucial transcription factors while generating a pool of responsive heterogeneous cells.

  5. EBI2 augments Tfh cell fate by promoting interaction with IL2-quenching dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianhua; Lu, Erick; Yi, Tangsheng; Cyster, Jason G.

    2016-01-01

    T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are a CD4 T cell subset that is important for supporting plasma cell and germinal center (GC) responses1,2. The initial induction of Tfh cell properties occurs within the first few days following activation by antigen recognition on dendritic cells (DCs), though how DCs promote this cell-fate decision is not fully understood1,2. Moreover, although Tfh cells are uniquely defined by expression of the follicle-homing receptor CXCR51,2, the guidance receptor promoting the earlier localization of activated T cells at the B cell follicle–T zone interface has been unclear3–5. Here we show that the G-protein coupled receptor EBI2 (GPR183) and its ligand 7α,25-dihydroxycholesterol (7α,25-OHC) mediate positioning of activated CD4 T cells at the follicle–T zone interface. In this location they interact with activated DCs and are exposed to Tfh cell-promoting ICOS ligand. IL2 is a cytokine that has multiple influences on T cell fate, including negative regulation of Tfh cell differentiation6–10. We demonstrate that activated DCs in the outer T zone further augment Tfh cell differentiation by producing membrane and soluble forms of CD25, the IL2 receptor α chain, and quenching T cell-derived IL2. Mice lacking EBI2 in T cells or CD25 in DCs have reduced Tfh cells and mount defective T cell-dependent plasma cell and GC responses. These findings demonstrate that distinct niches within the lymphoid organ T zone support distinct cell fate decisions, and they establish a function for DC-derived CD25 in controlling IL2 availability and T cell differentiation. PMID:27147029

  6. Neurogenin 3 Expressing Cells in the Human Exocrine Pancreas Have the Capacity for Endocrine Cell Fate

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Danielle L.; O’Driscoll, Marci; Sheets, Timothy P.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Oberholzer, Jose; McGarrigle, James J.; Shamblott, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenin 3 (NGN3) is necessary and sufficient for endocrine differentiation during pancreatic development and is expressed by a population of progenitor cells that give rise exclusively to hormone-secreting cells within islets. NGN3 protein can be detected in the adult rodent pancreas only following certain types of injury, when it is transiently expressed by exocrine cells undergoing reprogramming to an endocrine cell fate. Here, NGN3 protein can be detected in 2% of acinar and duct cells in living biopsies of histologically normal adult human pancreata and 10% in cadaveric biopsies of organ donor pancreata. The percentage and total number of NGN3+ cells increase during culture without evidence of proliferation or selective cell death. Isolation of highly purified and viable NGN3+ cell populations can be achieved based on coexpression of the cell surface glycoprotein CD133. Transcriptome and targeted expression analyses of isolated CD133+ / NGN3+ cells indicate that they are distinct from surrounding exocrine tissue with respect to expression phenotype and Notch signaling activity, but retain high level mRNA expression of genes indicative of acinar and duct cell function. NGN3+ cells have an mRNA expression profile that resembles that of mouse early endocrine progenitor cells. During in vitro differentiation, NGN3+ cells express genes in a pattern characteristic of endocrine development and result in cells that resemble beta cells on the basis of coexpression of insulin C-peptide, chromogranin A and pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1. NGN3 expression in the adult human exocrine pancreas marks a dedifferentiating cell population with the capacity to take on an endocrine cell fate. These cells represent a potential source for the treatment of diabetes either through ex vivo manipulation, or in vivo by targeting mechanisms controlling their population size and endocrine cell fate commitment. PMID:26288179

  7. T Cell Fate at the Single-Cell Level.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Veit R; Schumacher, Ton N M; Busch, Dirk H

    2016-05-20

    T cell responses display two key characteristics. First, a small population of epitope-specific naive T cells expands by several orders of magnitude. Second, the T cells within this proliferating population take on diverse functional and phenotypic properties that determine their ability to exert effector functions and contribute to T cell memory. Recent technological advances in lineage tracing allow us for the first time to study these processes in vivo at single-cell resolution. Here, we summarize resulting data demonstrating that although epitope-specific T cell responses are reproducibly similar at the population level, expansion potential and diversification patterns of the offspring derived from individual T cells are highly variable during both primary and recall immune responses. In spite of this stochastic response variation, individual memory T cells can serve as adult stem cells that provide robust regeneration of an epitope-specific tissue through population averaging. We discuss the relevance of these findings for T cell memory formation and clinical immunotherapy.

  8. Multipotent versus differentiated cell fate selection in the developing Drosophila airways

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Ryo; Hosono, Chie; Samakovlis, Christos; Saigo, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Developmental potentials of cells are tightly controlled at multiple levels. The embryonic Drosophila airway tree is roughly subdivided into two types of cells with distinct developmental potentials: a proximally located group of multipotent adult precursor cells (P-fate) and a distally located population of more differentiated cells (D-fate). We show that the GATA-family transcription factor (TF) Grain promotes the P-fate and the POU-homeobox TF Ventral veinless (Vvl/Drifter/U-turned) stimulates the D-fate. Hedgehog and receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling cooperate with Vvl to drive the D-fate at the expense of the P-fate while negative regulators of either of these signaling pathways ensure P-fate specification. Local concentrations of Decapentaplegic/BMP, Wingless/Wnt, and Hedgehog signals differentially regulate the expression of D-factors and P-factors to transform an equipotent primordial field into a concentric pattern of radially different morphogenetic potentials, which gradually gives rise to the distal-proximal organization of distinct cell types in the mature airway. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09646.001 PMID:26633813

  9. Control of stem cell fate by engineering their micro and nanoenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Michelle F; Butler, Peter E; Seifalian, Alexander M; Kalaskar, Deepak M

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are capable of long-term self-renewal and differentiation into specialised cell types, making them an ideal candidate for a cell source for regenerative medicine. The control of stem cell fate has become a major area of interest in the field of regenerative medicine and therapeutic intervention. Conventional methods of chemically inducing stem cells into specific lineages is being challenged by the advances in biomaterial technology, with evidence highlighting that material properties are capable of driving stem cell fate. Materials are being designed to mimic the clues stem cells receive in their in vivo stem cell niche including topographical and chemical instructions. Nanotopographical clues that mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) in vivo have shown to regulate stem cell differentiation. The delivery of ECM components on biomaterials in the form of short peptides sequences has also proved successful in directing stem cell lineage. Growth factors responsible for controlling stem cell fate in vivo have also been delivered via biomaterials to provide clues to determine stem cell differentiation. An alternative approach to guide stem cells fate is to provide genetic clues including delivering DNA plasmids and small interfering RNAs via scaffolds. This review, aims to provide an overview of the topographical, chemical and molecular clues that biomaterials can provide to guide stem cell fate. The promising features and challenges of such approaches will be highlighted, to provide directions for future advancements in this exciting area of stem cell translation for regenerative medicine. PMID:25621104

  10. Nanoscale Assemblies of Small Molecules Control the Fate of Cells.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junfeng; Xu, Bing

    2015-10-01

    Being driven by non-covalent interactions, the formation of functional assemblies (or aggregates) of small molecules at nanoscale is a more common process in water than one would think. While most efforts on self-assembly in cellular environment concentrate on the assemblies of proteins (e.g., microtubules or amyloid fibers), nanoscale assemblies of small molecules are emerging functional entities that exhibit important biological function in cellular environments. This review describes the increasing efforts on the exploration of nanoscale assemblies of small molecules that largely originate from the serendipitous observations in research fields other than nanoscience and technology. Specifically, we describe that nanoscale assemblies of small molecules exhibit unique biological functions in extracellular and intracellular environment, thus inducing various cellular responses, like causing cell death or promoting cell proliferation. We first survey certain common feature of nanoscale molecular assemblies, then discuss several specific examples, such as, nanoscale assemblies of small peptides accumulated in the cells for selectively inhibiting cancer cells via promiscuous interactions with proteins, and nanoscale assemblies of a glycoconjugate for promoting the proliferation of stem cells or for suppressing immune responses. Subsequently, we emphasize the spatiotemporal control of nanoscale assemblies for controlling the cell fate, particularly illustrate a paradigm-shifting approach-enzyme-instructed self-assembly (EISA), that is, the integration of enzymatic reaction and self-assembly-for generating nanoscale assemblies from innocuous monomers for selectively inhibiting cancer cells. Moreover, we introduce a convenient assay for proteomic study of the proteins that interact with nanoscale assemblies of small molecules in cellular environment. Furthermore, we introduce the use of ligand-receptor interaction to catalyze the formation of nanoscale assemblies. By

  11. T cell fate and clonality inference from single cell transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    Proserpio, Valentina; Clare, Simon; Speak, Anneliese O.; Dougan, Gordon; Teichmann, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    The enormous sequence diversity within T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires allows specific TCR sequences to be used as lineage markers for T cells that derive from a common progenitor. We have developed a computational method, called TraCeR, to reconstruct full-length, paired TCR sequences from T lymphocyte single-cell RNA-seq by combining existing assembly and alignment programs with “combinatorial recombinome” sequences comprising all possible TCR combinations. We validate this method to quantify its accuracy and sensitivity. Inferred TCR sequences reveal clonal relationships between T cells whilst the cells’ complete transcriptional landscapes can be quantified from the remaining RNA-seq data. This provides a powerful tool to link T cell specificity with functional response and we demonstrate this by determining the distribution of members of expanded T cell clonotypes in a mouse Salmonella infection model. Members of the same clonotype span early activated CD4+ T cells, as well as mature effector and memory cells. PMID:26950746

  12. Arginine Methylation by PRMT1 Regulates Muscle Stem Cell Fate

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Roméo Sébastien; Vogel, Gillian; Li, Xing; Yu, Zhenbao; Li, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Quiescent muscle stem cells (MSCs) become activated in response to skeletal muscle injury to initiate regeneration. Activated MSCs proliferate and differentiate to repair damaged fibers or self-renew to maintain the pool and ensure future regeneration. The balance between self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation is a tightly regulated process controlled by a genetic cascade involving determinant transcription factors such as Pax7, Myf5, MyoD, and MyoG. Recently, there have been several reports about the role of arginine methylation as a requirement for epigenetically mediated control of muscle regeneration. Here we report that the protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is expressed in MSCs and that conditional ablation of PRMT1 in MSCs using Pax7CreERT2 causes impairment of muscle regeneration. Importantly, PRMT1-deficient MSCs have enhanced cell proliferation after injury but are unable to terminate the myogenic differentiation program, leading to regeneration failure. We identify the coactivator of Six1, Eya1, as a substrate of PRMT1. We show that PRMT1 methylates Eya1 in vitro and that loss of PRMT1 function in vivo prevents Eya1 methylation. Moreover, we observe that PRMT1-deficient MSCs have reduced expression of Eya1/Six1 target MyoD due to disruption of Eya1 recruitment at the MyoD promoter and subsequent Eya1-mediated coactivation. These findings suggest that arginine methylation by PRMT1 regulates muscle stem cell fate through the Eya1/Six1/MyoD axis. PMID:27849571

  13. Intracellular fate of Francisella tularensis within arthropod-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Santic, Marina; Akimana, Christine; Asare, Rexford; Kouokam, Joseph C; Atay, Safinur; Kwaik, Yousef Abu

    2009-06-01

    Since transmission of Francisella tularensis into the mammalian host occurs via arthropod vectors such as ticks, mosquitoes, horseflies and deerflies, recent studies have established Drosophila melanogaster as an arthropod vector model system. Nothing is known about the intracellular fate of F. tularensis within arthropod-derived cells, and the role of this host-parasite adaptation in the evolution of this pathogen to infect mammals. In this report, we explored intracellular trafficking of F. tularensis ssp. novicida in D. melanogaster-derived S2 cells. First, we show that similar to the F. tularensis ssp. holarctica-derived LVS strain, F. tularensis ssp. novicida is highly infectious, replicates exponentially within S2 cells and within adult flies, and is fatal to adult fruit flies in a dose-dependent manner, while the iglC, iglD and mglA mutants are defective. Using electron and fluorescence microscopy-based phagosome integrity assays, we show that the wild-type strain escapes into the cytosol of S2 cells within 30-60 min post infection and by 6 h, 90% were cytosolic. In contrast, approximately 40-50% of the iglC and iglD mutants escape into the cytosol by 6 h while the other subpopulation becomes enclosed within multilamellar vesicles (MLVs). Pre-treatment of S2 cells with the autophagy inhibitor methyl adenine blocks formation of the MLVs and all the vacuolar subpopulation of the iglC and iglD mutant bacteria become enclosed within single membrane-surrounded vacuoles. Endocytic trafficking studies of F. tularensis within S2 cells show transient colocalization of the bacterial phagosome with D. melanogaster LAMP2-GFP fusion but not with lysosomes pre-loaded with fluorescent dextran. Our data show that MLVs harbouring the iglC mutant acquire Lamp2 and dextran while MLVs harbouring the iglD mutant exclude these late endosomal and lysosomal markers. Our data indicate crucial differences in the role of the pathogenicity island-encoded proteins in modulating

  14. “The role of T cell receptor signaling thresholds in guiding T cell fate decisions”

    PubMed Central

    Zikherman, Julie; Au-Yeung, Byron

    2015-01-01

    Canonical T cell receptor signal transduction has been extensively studied and dissected in cell lines and primary lymphocytes. However, a static depiction of this signaling cascade fails to capture the complex and dynamic process by which individual T cells discriminate TCR:peptide-MHC affinity, then integrate signals over time to drive discrete cellular behaviors such as thymic selection, proliferation, and cytokine production. Recent technological advances have made it possible to study complex lymphocyte behavior on a single cell level and are revealing how T cells interpret information about affinity and abundance of antigen in order to make life-and-death cell fate decisions individually and collectively. PMID:25660212

  15. Msx2 alters the timing of retinal ganglion cells fate commitment and differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Shao-Yun; Wang, Jian-Tao

    2010-05-14

    Timing of cell fate commitment determines distinct retinal cell types, which is believed to be controlled by a tightly coordinated regulatory program of proliferation, cell cycle exit and differentiation. Although homeobox protein Msx2 could induce apoptosis of optic vesicle, it is unclear whether Msx2 regulates differentiation and cell fate commitment of retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In this study, we show that overexpression of Msx2 transiently suppressed the expression of Cyclin D1 and blocked cell proliferation. Meanwhile, overexpression of Msx2 delayed the expression of RGC-specific differentiation markers (Math5 and Brn3b), which showed that Msx2 could affect the timing of RGCs fate commitment and differentiation by delaying the timing of cell cycle exit of retinal progenitors. These results indicate Msx2 possesses dual regulatory functions in controlling cell cycle progression of retinal RPCs and timing of RGCs differentiation.

  16. Dynamic transcriptional signature and cell fate analysis reveals plasticity of individual neural plate border cells

    PubMed Central

    Roellig, Daniela; Tan-Cabugao, Johanna; Esaian, Sevan; Bronner, Marianne E

    2017-01-01

    The ‘neural plate border’ of vertebrate embryos contains precursors of neural crest and placode cells, both defining vertebrate characteristics. How these lineages segregate from neural and epidermal fates has been a matter of debate. We address this by performing a fine-scale quantitative temporal analysis of transcription factor expression in the neural plate border of chick embryos. The results reveal significant overlap of transcription factors characteristic of multiple lineages in individual border cells from gastrula through neurula stages. Cell fate analysis using a Sox2 (neural) enhancer reveals that cells that are initially Sox2+ cells can contribute not only to neural tube but also to neural crest and epidermis. Moreover, modulating levels of Sox2 or Pax7 alters the apportionment of neural tube versus neural crest fates. Our results resolve a long-standing question and suggest that many individual border cells maintain ability to contribute to multiple ectodermal lineages until or beyond neural tube closure. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21620.001 PMID:28355135

  17. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor controls cell-fate decisions in B cells.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Bharat; Chaudhry, Ashutosh; Yewdell, William T; Angeletti, Davide; Yen, Wei-Feng; Wheatley, Adam K; Bradfield, Christopher A; McDermott, Adrian B; Yewdell, Jonathan W; Rudensky, Alexander Y; Chaudhuri, Jayanta

    2017-01-01

    Generation of cellular heterogeneity is an essential feature of the adaptive immune system. This is best exemplified during humoral immune response when an expanding B cell clone assumes multiple cell fates, including class-switched B cells, antibody-secreting plasma cells, and memory B cells. Although each cell type is essential for immunity, their generation must be exquisitely controlled because a class-switched B cell cannot revert back to the parent isotype, and a terminally differentiated plasma cell cannot contribute to the memory pool. In this study, we show that an environmental sensor, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is highly induced upon B cell activation and serves a critical role in regulating activation-induced cell fate outcomes. We find that AhR negatively regulates class-switch recombination ex vivo by altering activation-induced cytidine deaminase expression. We further demonstrate that AhR suppresses class switching in vivo after influenza virus infection and immunization with model antigens. In addition, by regulating Blimp-1 expression via Bach2, AhR represses differentiation of B cells into plasmablasts ex vivo and antibody-secreting plasma cells in vivo. These experiments suggest that AhR serves as a molecular rheostat in B cells to brake the effector response, possibly to facilitate optimal recall responses. Thus, AhR might represent a novel molecular target for manipulation of B cell responses during vaccination.

  18. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor controls cell-fate decisions in B cells

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Bharat; Yen, Wei-Feng; Wheatley, Adam K.; Bradfield, Christopher A.; McDermott, Adrian B.; Yewdell, Jonathan W.; Rudensky, Alexander Y.

    2017-01-01

    Generation of cellular heterogeneity is an essential feature of the adaptive immune system. This is best exemplified during humoral immune response when an expanding B cell clone assumes multiple cell fates, including class-switched B cells, antibody-secreting plasma cells, and memory B cells. Although each cell type is essential for immunity, their generation must be exquisitely controlled because a class-switched B cell cannot revert back to the parent isotype, and a terminally differentiated plasma cell cannot contribute to the memory pool. In this study, we show that an environmental sensor, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is highly induced upon B cell activation and serves a critical role in regulating activation-induced cell fate outcomes. We find that AhR negatively regulates class-switch recombination ex vivo by altering activation-induced cytidine deaminase expression. We further demonstrate that AhR suppresses class switching in vivo after influenza virus infection and immunization with model antigens. In addition, by regulating Blimp-1 expression via Bach2, AhR represses differentiation of B cells into plasmablasts ex vivo and antibody-secreting plasma cells in vivo. These experiments suggest that AhR serves as a molecular rheostat in B cells to brake the effector response, possibly to facilitate optimal recall responses. Thus, AhR might represent a novel molecular target for manipulation of B cell responses during vaccination. PMID:28011866

  19. Notch signaling alters sensory or neuronal cell fate specification of inner ear stem cells.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sang-Jun; Fujioka, Masato; Kim, Shi-Chan; Edge, Albert S B

    2011-06-08

    Multipotent progenitor cells in the otic placode give rise to the specialized cell types of the inner ear, including neurons, supporting cells, and hair cells. The mechanisms governing acquisition of specific fates by the cells that form the cochleovestibular organs remain poorly characterized. Here we show that whereas blocking Notch signaling with a γ-secretase inhibitor increased the conversion of inner ear stem cells to hair cells by a mechanism that involved the upregulation of bHLH transcription factor, Math1 (mouse Atoh1), differentiation to a neuronal lineage was increased by expression of the Notch intracellular domain. The shift to a neuronal lineage could be attributed in part to continued cell proliferation in cells that did not undergo sensory cell differentiation due to the high Notch signaling, but also involved upregulation of Ngn1. The Notch intracellular domain influenced Ngn1 indirectly by upregulation of Sox2, a transcription factor expressed in many neural progenitor cells, and directly by an interaction with an RBP-J binding site in the Ngn1 promoter/enhancer. The induction of Ngn1 was blocked partially by mutation of the RBP-J site and nearly completely when the mutation was combined with inhibition of Sox2 expression. Thus, Notch signaling had a significant role in the fate specification of neurons and hair cells from inner ear stem cells, and decisions about cell fate were mediated in part by a differential effect of combinatorial signaling by Notch and Sox2 on the expression of bHLH transcription factors.

  20. NOTCH SIGNALING ALTERS SENSORY OR NEURONAL CELL FATE SPECIFICATION OF INNER EAR STEM CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Sang-Jun; Fujioka, Masato; Kim, Shi-Chan; Edge, Albert S.B.

    2011-01-01

    Multipotent progenitor cells in the otic placode give rise to the specialized cell types of the inner ear, including neurons, supporting cells and hair cells. The mechanisms governing acquisition of specific fates by the cells that form the cochleovestibular organs remain poorly characterized. Here we show that whereas blocking Notch signaling with a γ-secretase inhibitor increased the conversion of inner ear stem cells to hair cells by a mechanism that involved the upregulation of bHLH transcription factor, Math1 (mouse Atoh1), differentiation to a neuronal lineage was increased by expression of the Notch intracellular domain. The shift to a neuronal lineage could be attributed in part to the continued cell proliferation in cells that did not undergo sensory cell differentiation due to the high Notch signaling, but also involved upregulation of Ngn1. The Notch intracellular domain influenced Ngn1 indirectly by upregulation of Sox2, a transcription factor expressed in many neural progenitor cells, and directly by an interaction with an RBP-J binding site in the Ngn1 promoter/enhancer. The induction of Ngn1 was blocked partially by mutation of the RBP-J site and nearly completely when the mutation was combined with inhibition of Sox2 expression. Thus Notch signaling had a significant role in the fate specification of neurons and hair cells from inner ear stem cells, and decisions about cell fate were mediated in part by a differential effect of combinatorial signaling by Notch and Sox2 on the expression of bHLH transcription factors. PMID:21653840

  1. Converting cell fates: generating hematopoietic stem cells de novo via transcription factor reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Michael G; Lemischka, Ihor R; Moore, Kateri

    2016-04-01

    Even though all paradigms of stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine emerged from the study of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), the inability to generate these cells de novo or expand them in vitro persists. Initial efforts to obtain these cells began with the use of embryonic stem cell (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technologies, but these strategies have yet to yield fully functional cells. Subsequently, more recent approaches involve transcription factor (TF) overexpression to reprogram PSCs and various somatic cells. The induction of pluripotency with just four TFs by Yamanaka informs our ability to convert cell fates and demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing terminally differentiated cells to generate cells with multilineage potential. In this review, we discuss the recent efforts undertaken using TF-based reprogramming strategies to convert several cell types into HSCs. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Blastomeres show differential fate changes in 8-cell Xenopus laevis embryos that are rotated 90 degrees before first cleavage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, S.; Johnson, K. E.; Wang, H. Z.

    1998-01-01

    To study the mechanisms of dorsal axis specification, the alteration in dorsal cell fate of cleavage stage blastomeres in axis-respecified Xenopus laevis embryos was investigated. Fertilized eggs were rotated 90 degrees with the sperm entry point up or down with respect to the gravitational field. At the 8-cell stage, blastomeres were injected with the lineage tracers, Texas Red- or FITC-Dextran Amines. The distribution of the labeled progeny was mapped at the tail-bud stages (stages 35-38) and compared with the fate map of an 8-cell embryo raised in a normal orientation. As in the normal embryos, each blastomere in the rotated embryos has a characteristic and predictable cell fate. After 90 degrees rotation the blastomeres in the 8-cell stage embryo roughly switched their position by 90 degrees, but the fate of the blastomeres did not simply show a 90 degrees switch appropriate for their new location. Four types of fate change were observed: (i) the normal fate of the blastomere is conserved with little change; (ii) the normal fate is completely changed and a new fate is adopted according to the blastomere's new position: (iii) the normal fate is completely changed, but the new fate is not appropriate for its new position; and (4) the blastomere partially changed its fate and the new fate is a combination of its original fate and a fate appropriate to its new location. According to the changed fates, the blastomeres that adopt dorsal fates were identified in rotated embryos. This identification of dorsal blastomeres provides basic important information for further study of dorsal signaling in Xenopus embryos.

  3. Blastomeres show differential fate changes in 8-cell Xenopus laevis embryos that are rotated 90 degrees before first cleavage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, S.; Johnson, K. E.; Wang, H. Z.

    1998-01-01

    To study the mechanisms of dorsal axis specification, the alteration in dorsal cell fate of cleavage stage blastomeres in axis-respecified Xenopus laevis embryos was investigated. Fertilized eggs were rotated 90 degrees with the sperm entry point up or down with respect to the gravitational field. At the 8-cell stage, blastomeres were injected with the lineage tracers, Texas Red- or FITC-Dextran Amines. The distribution of the labeled progeny was mapped at the tail-bud stages (stages 35-38) and compared with the fate map of an 8-cell embryo raised in a normal orientation. As in the normal embryos, each blastomere in the rotated embryos has a characteristic and predictable cell fate. After 90 degrees rotation the blastomeres in the 8-cell stage embryo roughly switched their position by 90 degrees, but the fate of the blastomeres did not simply show a 90 degrees switch appropriate for their new location. Four types of fate change were observed: (i) the normal fate of the blastomere is conserved with little change; (ii) the normal fate is completely changed and a new fate is adopted according to the blastomere's new position: (iii) the normal fate is completely changed, but the new fate is not appropriate for its new position; and (4) the blastomere partially changed its fate and the new fate is a combination of its original fate and a fate appropriate to its new location. According to the changed fates, the blastomeres that adopt dorsal fates were identified in rotated embryos. This identification of dorsal blastomeres provides basic important information for further study of dorsal signaling in Xenopus embryos.

  4. Single-cell analyses to reveal hematopoietic stem cell fate decisions.

    PubMed

    Lunger, Ilaria; Fawaz, Malak; Rieger, Michael A

    2017-08-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the best studied adult stem cells with enormous clinical value. Most of our knowledge about their biology relies on assays at the single HSC level. However, only the recent advances in developing new single cell technologies allowed the elucidation of the complex regulation of HSC fate decision control. This Review will focus on current attempts to investigate individual HSCs at molecular and functional levels. The advantages of these technologies leading to groundbreaking insights into hematopoiesis will be highlighted, and the challenges facing these technologies will be discussed. The importance of combining molecular and functional assays to enlighten regulatory networks of HSC fate decision control, ideally at high temporal resolution, becomes apparent for future studies. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  5. Extracellular Regulation of the Mitotic Spindle and Fate Determinants Driving Asymmetric Cell Division.

    PubMed

    Smith, Prestina; Azzam, Mark; Hinck, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    Stem cells use mode of cell division, symmetric (SCD) versus asymmetric (ACD), to balance expansion with self-renewal and the generation of daughter cells with different cell fates. Studies in model organisms have identified intrinsic mechanisms that govern this process, which involves partitioning molecular components between daughter cells, frequently through the regulation of the mitotic spindle. Research performed in vertebrate tissues is revealing both conservation of these intrinsic mechanisms and crucial roles for extrinsic cues in regulating the frequency of these divisions. Morphogens and positional cues, including planar cell polarity proteins and guidance molecules, regulate key signaling pathways required to organize cell/ECM contacts and spindle pole dynamics. Noncanonical WNT7A/VANGL2 signaling governs asymmetric cell division and the acquisition of cell fates through spindle pole orientation in satellite stem cells of regenerating muscle fibers. During cortical neurogenesis, the same pathway regulates glial cell fate determination by regulating spindle size, independent of its orientation. Sonic hedgehog (SHH) stimulates the symmetric expansion of cortical stem and cerebellar progenitor cells and contributes to cell fate acquisition in collaboration with Notch and Wnt signaling pathways. SLIT2 also contributes to stem cell homeostasis by restricting ACD frequency through the regulation of spindle orientation. The capacity to influence stem cells makes these secreted factors excellent targets for therapeutic strategies designed to enhance cell populations in degenerative disease or restrict cell proliferation in different types of cancers.

  6. Oriented divisions, fate decisions

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Scott E.; Fuchs, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    During development, the establishment of proper tissue architecture depends upon the coordinated control of cell divisions not only in space and time, but also direction. Execution of an oriented cell division requires establishment of an axis of polarity and alignment of the mitotic spindle along this axis. Frequently, the cleavage plane also segregates fate determinants, either unequally or equally between daughter cells, the outcome of which is either an asymmetric or symmetric division, respectively. The last few years have witnessed tremendous growth in understanding both the extrinsic and intrinsic cues that position the mitotic spindle, the varied mechanisms in which the spindle orientation machinery is controlled in diverse organisms and organ systems, and the manner in which the division axis influences the signaling pathways that direct cell fate choices. PMID:24021274

  7. Memory of cell shape biases stochastic fate decision-making despite mitotic rounding

    PubMed Central

    Akanuma, Takashi; Chen, Cong; Sato, Tetsuo; Merks, Roeland M. H.; Sato, Thomas N.

    2016-01-01

    Cell shape influences function, and the current model suggests that such shape effect is transient. However, cells dynamically change their shapes, thus, the critical question is whether shape information remains influential on future cell function even after the original shape is lost. We address this question by integrating experimental and computational approaches. Quantitative live imaging of asymmetric cell-fate decision-making and their live shape manipulation demonstrates that cellular eccentricity of progenitor cell indeed biases stochastic fate decisions of daughter cells despite mitotic rounding. Modelling and simulation indicates that polarized localization of Delta protein instructs by the progenitor eccentricity is an origin of the bias. Simulation with varying parameters predicts that diffusion rate and abundance of Delta molecules quantitatively influence the bias. These predictions are experimentally validated by physical and genetic methods, showing that cells exploit a mechanism reported herein to influence their future fates based on their past shape despite dynamic shape changes. PMID:27349214

  8. Asymmetric Localization and Distribution of Factors Determining Cell Fate During Early Development of Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Sindelka, Radek; Sidova, Monika; Abaffy, Pavel; Kubista, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Asymmetric division is a property of eukaryotic cells that is fundamental to the formation of higher life forms. Despite its importance, the mechanism behind it remains elusive. Asymmetry in the cell is induced by polarization of cell fate determinants that become unevenly distributed among progeny cells. So far dozens of determinants have been identified. Xenopus laevis is an ideal system to study asymmetric cell division during early development, because of the huge size of its oocytes and early-stage blastomeres. Here, we present the current knowledge about localization and distribution of cell fate determinants along the three body axes: animal-vegetal, dorsal-ventral, and left-right. Uneven distribution of cell fate determinants during early development specifies the formation of the embryonic body plan.

  9. Metabolism and the Control of Cell Fate Decisions and Stem Cell Renewal

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Kyoko; Ito, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    Although the stem cells of various tissues remain in the quiescent state to maintain their undifferentiated state, they also undergo cell divisions as required, and if necessary, even a single stem cell is able to provide for lifelong tissue homeostasis. Stem cell populations are precisely controlled by the balance between their symmetric and asymmetric divisions, with their division patterns determined by whether the daughter cells involved retain their self-renewal capacities. Recent studies have reported that metabolic pathways and the distribution of mitochondria are regulators of the division balance of stem cells and that metabolic defects can shift division balance toward symmetric commitment, which leads to stem cell exhaustion. It has also been observed that in asymmetric division, old mitochondria, which are central metabolic organelles, are segregated to the daughter cell fated to cell differentiation, whereas in symmetric division, young and old mitochondria are equally distributed between both daughter cells. Thus, metabolism and mitochondrial biology play important roles in stem cell fate decisions. As these decisions directly affect tissue homeostasis, understanding their regulatory mechanisms in the context of cellular metabolism is critical. PMID:27482603

  10. Mouse Atonal Homolog 1 Directs Intestinal Progenitors to Secretory Cell Rather than Absorptive Cell Fate

    PubMed Central

    VanDussen, Kelli L.; Samuelson, Linda C.

    2010-01-01

    The Notch-regulated transcription factor mouse atonal homolog 1 (Math1) is required for the development of intestinal secretory cells, as demonstrated by the loss of goblet, endocrine and Paneth cell types in null mice. However, it was unknown whether Math1 is sufficient to induce the program of secretory cell differentiation. To examine the function of Math1 in the differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells, intestinal morphology and epithelial and mesenchymal cell fate were examined by histological staining and marker gene expression in transgenic mice expressing a villin-regulated Math1 transgene. Late prenatal transgenic founders exhibited a gross cellular transformation into a secretory epithelium. The expansion of secretory cells coupled with the almost complete loss of absorptive enterocytes suggested reprogramming of a bipotential progenitor cell. Moreover, Math1 expression inhibited epithelial cell proliferation, as demonstrated by a marked reduction in Ki67 positive cells and blunted villi. Unexpectedly, the transgenic mesenchyme was greatly expanded with increased proliferation. Several mesenchymal cell types were amplified, including smooth muscle and neurons, with maintenance of basic radial patterning. Since transgenic Math1 expression was restricted to the epithelium, these findings suggest that epithelial-mesenchymal signaling is altered by the cellular changes induced by Math1. Thus, Math1 is a key effector directing multipotential precursors to adopt secretory and not absorptive cell fate. PMID:20691176

  11. Choose your destiny: Make a cell fate decision with COUP-TFII.

    PubMed

    Wu, San-Pin; Yu, Cheng-Tai; Tsai, Sophia Y; Tsai, Ming-Jer

    2016-03-01

    Cell fate specification is a critical process to generate cells with a wide range of characteristics from stem and progenitor cells. Emerging evidence demonstrates that the orphan nuclear receptor COUP-TFII serves as a key regulator in determining the cell identity during embryonic development. The present review summarizes our current knowledge on molecular mechanisms by which COUP-TFII employs to define the cell fates, with special emphasis on cardiovascular and renal systems. These novel insights pave the road for future studies of regenerative medicine.

  12. Prostaglandin E2 Regulates Liver versus Pancreas Cell Fate Decisions and Endodermal Outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Nissim, Sahar; Sherwood, Richard I.; Wucherpfennig, Julia; Saunders, Diane; Harris, James M.; Esain, Virginie; Carroll, Kelli J.; Frechette, Gregory M.; Kim, Andrew J.; Hwang, Katie L.; Cutting, Claire C.; Elledge, Susanna; North, Trista E.; Goessling, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The liver and pancreas arise from common endodermal progenitors. How these distinct cell fates are specified is poorly understood. Here, we describe prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as a regulator of endodermal fate specification during development. Modulating PGE2 activity has opposing effects on liver-versus-pancreas specification in zebrafish embryos as well as mouse endodermal progenitors. The PGE2 synthetic enzyme cox2a and receptor ep2a are patterned such that cells closest to PGE2 synthesis acquire a liver fate whereas more distant cells acquire a pancreas fate. PGE2 interacts with the bmp2b pathway to regulate fate specification. At later stages of development, PGE2 acting via the ep4a receptor promotes outgrowth of both the liver and pancreas. PGE2 remains important for adult organ growth, as it modulates liver regeneration. This work provides in vivo evidence that PGE2 may act as a morphogen to regulate cell fate decisions and outgrowth of the embryonic endodermal anlagen. PMID:24530296

  13. Cell Fate and Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jimi, Eijiro

    2016-01-01

    Osteoblasts and bone marrow adipocytes originate from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and there appears to be a reciprocal relationship between adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis. Alterations in the balance between adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis in BMMSCs wherein adipogenesis is increased relative to osteoblastogenesis are associated with decreased bone quality and quantity. Several proteins have been reported to regulate this reciprocal relationship but the exact nature of the signals regulating the balance between osteoblast and adipocyte formation within the bone marrow space remains to be determined. In this review, we focus on the role of Transducin-Like Enhancer of Split 3 (TLE3), which was recently reported to regulate the balance between osteoblast and adipocyte formation from BMMSCs. We also discuss evidence implicating canonical Wnt signalling, which plays important roles in both adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis, in regulating TLE3 expression. Currently, there is demand for new effective therapies that target the stimulation of osteoblast differentiation to enhance bone formation. We speculate that reducing TLE3 expression or activity in BMMSCs could be a useful approach towards increasing osteoblast numbers and reducing adipogenesis in the bone marrow environment. PMID:27298623

  14. Engineering of a synthetic quadrastable gene network to approach Waddington landscape and cell fate determination

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fuqing; Su, Ri-Qi; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Wang, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    The process of cell fate determination has been depicted intuitively as cells travelling and resting on a rugged landscape, which has been probed by various theoretical studies. However, few studies have experimentally demonstrated how underlying gene regulatory networks shape the landscape and hence orchestrate cellular decision-making in the presence of both signal and noise. Here we tested different topologies and verified a synthetic gene circuit with mutual inhibition and auto-activations to be quadrastable, which enables direct study of quadruple cell fate determination on an engineered landscape. We show that cells indeed gravitate towards local minima and signal inductions dictate cell fates through modulating the shape of the multistable landscape. Experiments, guided by model predictions, reveal that sequential inductions generate distinct cell fates by changing landscape in sequence and hence navigating cells to different final states. This work provides a synthetic biology framework to approach cell fate determination and suggests a landscape-based explanation of fixed induction sequences for targeted differentiation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23702.001 PMID:28397688

  15. Engineering of a synthetic quadrastable gene network to approach Waddington landscape and cell fate determination.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fuqing; Su, Ri-Qi; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Wang, Xiao

    2017-04-11

    The process of cell fate determination has been depicted intuitively as cells travelling and resting on a rugged landscape, which has been probed by various theoretical studies. However, few studies have experimentally demonstrated how underlying gene regulatory networks shape the landscape and hence orchestrate cellular decision-making in the presence of both signal and noise. Here we tested different topologies and verified a synthetic gene circuit with mutual inhibition and auto-activations to be quadrastable, which enables direct study of quadruple cell fate determination on an engineered landscape. We show that cells indeed gravitate towards local minima and signal inductions dictate cell fates through modulating the shape of the multistable landscape. Experiments, guided by model predictions, reveal that sequential inductions generate distinct cell fates by changing landscape in sequence and hence navigating cells to different final states. This work provides a synthetic biology framework to approach cell fate determination and suggests a landscape-based explanation of fixed induction sequences for targeted differentiation.

  16. Choice.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Jay

    2008-09-01

    Understanding how and why analysands make the choices they do is central to both the clinical and the theoretical projects of psychoanalysis. And yet we know very little about the process of choice or about the relationship between choices and motives. A striking parallel is to be found between the ways choice is narrated in ancient Greek texts and the experience of analysts as they observe patients making choices in everyday clinical work. Pursuing this convergence of classical and contemporary sensibilities will illuminate crucial elements of the various meanings of choice, and of the way that these meanings change over the course of psychoanalytic treatment.

  17. Harnessing nanotopography and integrin-matrix interactions to influence stem cell fate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalby, Matthew J.; Gadegaard, Nikolaj; Oreffo, Richard O. C.

    2014-06-01

    Stem cells respond to nanoscale surface features, with changes in cell growth and differentiation mediated by alterations in cell adhesion. The interaction of nanotopographical features with integrin receptors in the cells' focal adhesions alters how the cells adhere to materials surfaces, and defines cell fate through changes in both cell biochemistry and cell morphology. In this Review, we discuss how cell adhesions interact with nanotopography, and we provide insight as to how materials scientists can exploit these interactions to direct stem cell fate and to understand how the behaviour of stem cells in their niche can be controlled. We expect knowledge gained from the study of cell-nanotopography interactions to accelerate the development of next-generation stem cell culture materials and implant interfaces, and to fuel discovery of stem cell therapeutics to support regenerative therapies.

  18. Harnessing nanotopography and integrin-matrix interactions to influence stem cell fate.

    PubMed

    Dalby, Matthew J; Gadegaard, Nikolaj; Oreffo, Richard O C

    2014-06-01

    Stem cells respond to nanoscale surface features, with changes in cell growth and differentiation mediated by alterations in cell adhesion. The interaction of nanotopographical features with integrin receptors in the cells' focal adhesions alters how the cells adhere to materials surfaces, and defines cell fate through changes in both cell biochemistry and cell morphology. In this Review, we discuss how cell adhesions interact with nanotopography, and we provide insight as to how materials scientists can exploit these interactions to direct stem cell fate and to understand how the behaviour of stem cells in their niche can be controlled. We expect knowledge gained from the study of cell-nanotopography interactions to accelerate the development of next-generation stem cell culture materials and implant interfaces, and to fuel discovery of stem cell therapeutics to support regenerative therapies.

  19. Role of Geminin in cell fate determination of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs).

    PubMed

    Yasunaga, Shin'ichiro; Ohno, Yoshinori; Shirasu, Naoto; Zhang, Bo; Suzuki-Takedachi, Kyoko; Ohtsubo, Motoaki; Takihara, Yoshihiro

    2016-09-01

    Geminin exerts two distinct molecular roles. Geminin negatively regulates DNA replication licensing through the direct interaction with Cdt1 to prevent re-replication in proliferating cells. Geminin also regulates chromatin remodeling through the direct interaction with Brahma/Brg1 to maintain undifferentiated states of stem cells. We previously uncovered that Polycomb-group complex 1 and Hoxb4/Hoxa9, well-known intrinsic factors that are essential for maintaining the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) activity, alternatively act as ubiquitin-proteasome systems for Geminin protein to reduce the protein expression level, and sustain the HSC activity. Thus, Geminin is presumed to play an important role in determining cell fate, i.e., turning on and off cellular quiescence and proliferation/differentiation, in HSCs. We recently generated recombinant cell-penetrating Geminin (CP-Geminin), enabling rapid incorporation and withdraw of Geminin protein in cells. CP-Geminin may be useful in regulating the cell cycle and chromatin configuration. In this article, we summarize current information on the molecular functions of Geminin and the regulatory system for Geminin protein expression, and argue for the molecular role of Geminin in cell fate determination of HSCs, and future perspective of a new technology for manipulating the activities of HSCs and cancer stem cells (CSCs).

  20. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Fate: Applying Biomaterials for Control of Stem Cell Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Hilary J.; Sahoo, Jugal Kishore; Ulijn, Rein V.; Dalby, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    The materials pipeline for biomaterials and tissue engineering applications is under continuous development. Specifically, there is great interest in the use of designed materials in the stem cell arena as materials can be used to manipulate the cells providing control of behavior. This is important as the ability to “engineer” complexity and subsequent in vitro growth of tissues and organs is a key objective for tissue engineers. This review will describe the nature of the materials strategies, both static and dynamic, and their influence specifically on mesenchymal stem cell fate. PMID:27242999

  1. Noninvasive Assessment of Cell Fate and Biology in Transplanted Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Federico; Rodriguez-Porcel, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Recently, molecular imaging has become a conditio sine qua non for cell-based regenerative medicine. Developments in molecular imaging techniques, such as reporter gene technology, have increasingly enabled the noninvasive assessment of the fate and biology of cells after cardiovascular applications. In this context, bioluminescence imaging is the most commonly used imaging modality in small animal models of preclinical studies. Here, we present a detailed protocol of a reporter gene imaging approach for monitoring the viability and biology of Mesenchymal Stem Cells transplanted in a mouse model of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury.

  2. Regulation of monocyte cell fate by blood vessels mediated by Notch signalling

    PubMed Central

    Gamrekelashvili, Jaba; Giagnorio, Roberto; Jussofie, Jasmin; Soehnlein, Oliver; Duchene, Johan; Briseño, Carlos G.; Ramasamy, Saravana K.; Krishnasamy, Kashyap; Limbourg, Anne; Kapanadze, Tamar; Ishifune, Chieko; Hinkel, Rabea; Radtke, Freddy; Strobl, Lothar J.; Zimber-Strobl, Ursula; Napp, L. Christian; Bauersachs, Johann; Haller, Hermann; Yasutomo, Koji; Kupatt, Christian; Murphy, Kenneth M.; Adams, Ralf H.; Weber, Christian; Limbourg, Florian P.

    2016-01-01

    A population of monocytes, known as Ly6Clo monocytes, patrol blood vessels by crawling along the vascular endothelium. Here we show that endothelial cells control their origin through Notch signalling. Using combinations of conditional genetic deletion strategies and cell-fate tracking experiments we show that Notch2 regulates conversion of Ly6Chi monocytes into Ly6Clo monocytes in vivo and in vitro, thereby regulating monocyte cell fate under steady-state conditions. This process is controlled by Notch ligand delta-like 1 (Dll1) expressed by a population of endothelial cells that constitute distinct vascular niches in the bone marrow and spleen in vivo, while culture on recombinant DLL1 induces monocyte conversion in vitro. Thus, blood vessels regulate monocyte conversion, a form of committed myeloid cell fate regulation. PMID:27576369

  3. Remembering one's identity: the epigenetic basis of stem cell fate decisions.

    PubMed

    Sen, George L

    2011-07-01

    Stem cells serve a vital role in multicellular organisms by constantly replenishing tissue with their differentiated progeny during normal homeostasis or damage. How these cells maintain their identities throughout the life of an organism is an area of intense research. In this review, we explore recent emerging evidence that stem cell fate decisions are based on their epigenome and specific epigenetic factors.

  4. Doublesex and mab-3–related transcription factor 5 promotes midbrain dopaminergic identity in pluripotent stem cells by enforcing a ventral-medial progenitor fate

    PubMed Central

    Gennet, Nicole; Gale, Emily; Nan, Xinsheng; Farley, Emma; Takacs, Katalin; Oberwallner, Barbara; Chambers, David; Li, Meng

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the control of cell-fate choices during embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation is crucial for harnessing strategies for efficient production of desired cell types for pharmaceutical drug screening and cell transplantation. Here we report the identification of the zinc finger-like doublesex and mab-3–related transcription factor 5 (Dmrt5) as a marker for mammalian ventral-medial mesencephalic neuroepithelium that give rise to dopamine neurons. Gain- and loss-of-function studies in ESC demonstrate that Dmrt5 is critically involved in the specification of ventral-medial neural progenitor cell fate and the subsequent generation of dopamine neurons expressing essential midbrain characteristics. Genome-wide analysis of Dmrt5-mediated transcriptome changes and expression profiling of ventral-medial and ventral-lateral mesencephalic neuroepithelium revealed suppressive and inductive regulatory roles for Dmrt5 in the transcription program associated with the ventral-medial neural progenitor fates. Together, these data identify Dmrt5 as an important player in ventral mesencephalic neural fate specification. PMID:21576465

  5. SMAD4-mediated WNT signaling controls the fate of cranial neural crest cells during tooth morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingyuan; Huang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Xun; Mayo, Julie; Bringas, Pablo; Jiang, Rulang; Wang, Songling; Chai, Yang

    2011-01-01

    TGFβ/BMP signaling regulates the fate of multipotential cranial neural crest (CNC) cells during tooth and jawbone formation as these cells differentiate into odontoblasts and osteoblasts, respectively. The functional significance of SMAD4, the common mediator of TGFβ/BMP signaling, in regulating the fate of CNC cells remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of SMAD4 in regulating the fate of CNC-derived dental mesenchymal cells through tissue-specific inactivation of Smad4. Ablation of Smad4 results in defects in odontoblast differentiation and dentin formation. Moreover, ectopic bone-like structures replaced normal dentin in the teeth of Osr2-IresCre;Smad4fl/fl mice. Despite the lack of dentin, enamel formation appeared unaffected in Osr2-IresCre;Smad4fl/fl mice, challenging the paradigm that the initiation of enamel development depends on normal dentin formation. At the molecular level, loss of Smad4 results in downregulation of the WNT pathway inhibitors Dkk1 and Sfrp1 and in the upregulation of canonical WNT signaling, including increased β-catenin activity. More importantly, inhibition of the upregulated canonical WNT pathway in Osr2-IresCre;Smad4fl/fl dental mesenchyme in vitro partially rescued the CNC cell fate change. Taken together, our study demonstrates that SMAD4 plays a crucial role in regulating the interplay between TGFβ/BMP and WNT signaling to ensure the proper CNC cell fate decision during organogenesis. PMID:21490069

  6. Prolonged Mitosis of Neural Progenitors Alters Cell Fate in the Developing Brain.

    PubMed

    Pilaz, Louis-Jan; McMahon, John J; Miller, Emily E; Lennox, Ashley L; Suzuki, Aussie; Salmon, Edward; Silver, Debra L

    2016-01-06

    Embryonic neocortical development depends on balanced production of progenitors and neurons. Genetic mutations disrupting progenitor mitosis frequently impair neurogenesis; however, the link between altered mitosis and cell fate remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that prolonged mitosis of radial glial progenitors directly alters neuronal fate specification and progeny viability. Live imaging of progenitors from a neurogenesis mutant, Magoh(+/-), reveals that mitotic delay significantly correlates with preferential production of neurons instead of progenitors, as well as apoptotic progeny. Independently, two pharmacological approaches reveal a causal relationship between mitotic delay and progeny fate. As mitotic duration increases, progenitors produce substantially more apoptotic progeny or neurons. We show that apoptosis, but not differentiation, is p53 dependent, demonstrating that these are distinct outcomes of mitotic delay. Together our findings reveal that prolonged mitosis is sufficient to alter fates of radial glia progeny and define a new paradigm to understand how mitosis perturbations underlie brain size disorders such as microcephaly.

  7. Stem cell decisions: A twist of fate or a niche market?

    PubMed Central

    Januschke, Jens; Näthke, Inke

    2014-01-01

    Establishing and maintaining cell fate in the right place at the right time is a key requirement for normal tissue maintenance. Stem cells are at the core of this process. Understanding how stem cells balance self-renewal and production of differentiating cells is key for understanding the defects that underpin many diseases. Both, external cues from the environment and cell intrinsic mechanisms can control the outcome of stem cell division. The role of the orientation of stem cell division has emerged as an important mechanism for specifying cell fate decisions. Although, the alignment of cell divisions can dependent on spatial cues from the environment, maintaining stemness is not always linked to positioning of stem cells in a particular microenvironment or `niche'. Alternate mechanisms that could contribute to cellular memory include differential segregation of centrosomes in asymmetrically dividing cells. PMID:24613913

  8. Stem cell decisions: a twist of fate or a niche market?

    PubMed

    Januschke, Jens; Näthke, Inke

    2014-10-01

    Establishing and maintaining cell fate in the right place at the right time is a key requirement for normal tissue maintenance. Stem cells are at the core of this process. Understanding how stem cells balance self-renewal and production of differentiating cells is key for understanding the defects that underpin many diseases. Both, external cues from the environment and cell intrinsic mechanisms can control the outcome of stem cell division. The role of the orientation of stem cell division has emerged as an important mechanism for specifying cell fate decisions. Although, the alignment of cell divisions can dependent on spatial cues from the environment, maintaining stemness is not always linked to positioning of stem cells in a particular microenvironment or `niche'. Alternate mechanisms that could contribute to cellular memory include differential segregation of centrosomes in asymmetrically dividing cells.

  9. The control of EGF signaling and cell fate in the Drosophila abdomen.

    PubMed

    Gebelein, Brian

    2008-01-01

    How cells integrate both patterning and signaling information to select between distinct cell fates is a fundamental problem in developmental biology. In this short review, I focus on recent findings of how the Hox and senseless patterning genes regulate epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling and cell fate within the Drosophila abdomen. In Li-Kroeger et al., we described how a Hox and Senseless transcription factor competition functions as a molecular switch on a cis-regulatory element in the rhomboid (rho) gene to control EGF signaling within the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Here, I discuss an additional implication of these findings: that rho contains at least two cis-regulatory elements to control EGF secretion from the PNS, each to induce a different cell fate.

  10. Mammalian aPKC/Par polarity complex mediated regulation of epithelial division orientation and cell fate

    SciTech Connect

    Vorhagen, Susanne; Niessen, Carien M.

    2014-11-01

    Oriented cell division is a key regulator of tissue architecture and crucial for morphogenesis and homeostasis. Balanced regulation of proliferation and differentiation is an essential property of tissues not only to drive morphogenesis but also to maintain and restore homeostasis. In many tissues orientation of cell division is coupled to the regulation of differentiation producing daughters with similar (symmetric cell division, SCD) or differential fate (asymmetric cell division, ACD). This allows the organism to generate cell lineage diversity from a small pool of stem and progenitor cells. Division orientation and/or the ratio of ACD/SCD need to be tightly controlled. Loss of orientation or an altered ratio can promote overgrowth, alter tissue architecture and induce aberrant differentiation, and have been linked to morphogenetic diseases, cancer and aging. A key requirement for oriented division is the presence of a polarity axis, which can be established through cell intrinsic and/or extrinsic signals. Polarity proteins translate such internal and external cues to drive polarization. In this review we will focus on the role of the polarity complex aPKC/Par3/Par6 in the regulation of division orientation and cell fate in different mammalian epithelia. We will compare the conserved function of this complex in mitotic spindle orientation and distribution of cell fate determinants and highlight common and differential mechanisms in which this complex is used by tissues to adapt division orientation and cell fate to the specific properties of the epithelium.

  11. Mammalian aPKC/Par polarity complex mediated regulation of epithelial division orientation and cell fate.

    PubMed

    Vorhagen, Susanne; Niessen, Carien M

    2014-11-01

    Oriented cell division is a key regulator of tissue architecture and crucial for morphogenesis and homeostasis. Balanced regulation of proliferation and differentiation is an essential property of tissues not only to drive morphogenesis but also to maintain and restore homeostasis. In many tissues orientation of cell division is coupled to the regulation of differentiation producing daughters with similar (symmetric cell division, SCD) or differential fate (asymmetric cell division, ACD). This allows the organism to generate cell lineage diversity from a small pool of stem and progenitor cells. Division orientation and/or the ratio of ACD/SCD need to be tightly controlled. Loss of orientation or an altered ratio can promote overgrowth, alter tissue architecture and induce aberrant differentiation, and have been linked to morphogenetic diseases, cancer and aging. A key requirement for oriented division is the presence of a polarity axis, which can be established through cell intrinsic and/or extrinsic signals. Polarity proteins translate such internal and external cues to drive polarization. In this review we will focus on the role of the polarity complex aPKC/Par3/Par6 in the regulation of division orientation and cell fate in different mammalian epithelia. We will compare the conserved function of this complex in mitotic spindle orientation and distribution of cell fate determinants and highlight common and differential mechanisms in which this complex is used by tissues to adapt division orientation and cell fate to the specific properties of the epithelium.

  12. Deep sequencing as a probe of normal stem cell fate and preneoplasia in human epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Benjamin D.

    2016-01-01

    Using deep sequencing technology, methods based on the sporadic acquisition of somatic DNA mutations in human tissues have been used to trace the clonal evolution of progenitor cells in diseased states. However, the potential of these approaches to explore cell fate behavior of normal tissues and the initiation of preneoplasia remain underexploited. Focusing on the results of a recent deep sequencing study of eyelid epidermis, we show that the quantitative analysis of mutant clone size provides a general method to resolve the pattern of normal stem cell fate and to detect and characterize the mutational signature of rare field transformations in human tissues, with implications for the early detection of preneoplasia. PMID:26699486

  13. Deep sequencing as a probe of normal stem cell fate and preneoplasia in human epidermis.

    PubMed

    Simons, Benjamin D

    2016-01-05

    Using deep sequencing technology, methods based on the sporadic acquisition of somatic DNA mutations in human tissues have been used to trace the clonal evolution of progenitor cells in diseased states. However, the potential of these approaches to explore cell fate behavior of normal tissues and the initiation of preneoplasia remain underexploited. Focusing on the results of a recent deep sequencing study of eyelid epidermis, we show that the quantitative analysis of mutant clone size provides a general method to resolve the pattern of normal stem cell fate and to detect and characterize the mutational signature of rare field transformations in human tissues, with implications for the early detection of preneoplasia.

  14. Suppression of PPAR transactivation switches cell fate of bone marrow stem cells from adipocytes into osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Takada, Ichiro; Suzawa, Miyuki; Matsumoto, Kunihiro; Kato, Shigeaki

    2007-11-01

    Osteoblasts and adipocytes differentiate from common pleiotropic mesenchymal stem cells under transcriptional controls by numerous factors and multiple intracellular signalings. However, cellular signaling factors that determine cell fates of mensenchymal stem cells in bone marrow remain to be largely uncovered, though peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) is well established as a prime inducer of adipogenesis. Here, we describe two signaling pathways that induce the cell fate decision into osteoblasts from adipocytes. One signaling is a TAK1/TAB1/NIK cascade activated by TNF-alpha and IL-1, and the activated NF-kappaB blocked the DNA binding of PPAR-gamma, attenuating the activated PPAR-mediated adipogenesis. The second signaling is the noncanonical Wnt pathway through CaMKII-TAK1/TAB2-NLK. Activated NLK by a noncanonical Wnt ligand (Wnt-5a) transrepresses PPAR transactivation through a histone methyltransferase, SETDB1. Wnt-5a induces phosphorylation of NLK, leading to the formation of a corepressor complex that inactivates PPAR function through histone H3-K9 methylation. Thus, two signaling pathways lead to an osteoblastic cell lineage decision from mesenchymal stem cells through two distinct modes of PPAR transrepression.

  15. aPKCλ controls epidermal homeostasis and stem cell fate through regulation of division orientation

    PubMed Central

    Niessen, Michaela T.; Scott, Jeanie; Zielinski, Julia G.; Vorhagen, Susanne; Sotiropoulou, Panagiota A.; Blanpain, Cédric

    2013-01-01

    The atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) is a key regulator of polarity and cell fate in lower organisms. However, whether mammalian aPKCs control stem cells and fate in vivo is not known. Here we show that loss of aPKCλ in a self-renewing epithelium, the epidermis, disturbed tissue homeostasis, differentiation, and stem cell dynamics, causing progressive changes in this tissue. This was accompanied by a gradual loss of quiescent hair follicle bulge stem cells and a temporary increase in proliferating progenitors. Lineage tracing analysis showed that loss of aPKCλ altered the fate of lower bulge/hair germ stem cells. This ultimately led to loss of proliferative potential, stem cell exhaustion, alopecia, and premature aging. Inactivation of aPKCλ produced more asymmetric divisions in different compartments, including the bulge. Thus, aPKCλ is crucial for homeostasis of self-renewing stratifying epithelia, and for the regulation of cell fate, differentiation, and maintenance of epidermal bulge stem cells likely through its role in balancing symmetric and asymmetric division. PMID:24019538

  16. Human Induced Pluripotent Cell-Derived Sensory Neurons for Fate Commitment of Bone Marrow-Derived Schwann Cells: Implications for Remyelination Therapy.

    PubMed

    Cai, Sa; Han, Lei; Ao, Qiang; Chan, Ying-Shing; Shum, Daisy Kwok-Yan

    2016-09-14

    : Strategies that exploit induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to derive neurons have relied on cocktails of cytokines and growth factors to bias cell-signaling events in the course of fate choice. These are often costly and inefficient, involving multiple steps. In this study, we took an alternative approach and selected 5 small-molecule inhibitors of key signaling pathways in an 8-day program to induce differentiation of human iPSCs into sensory neurons, reaching ≥80% yield in terms of marker proteins. Continuing culture in maintenance medium resulted in neuronal networks immunopositive for synaptic vesicle markers and vesicular glutamate transporters suggestive of excitatory neurotransmission. Subpopulations of the derived neurons were electrically excitable, showing tetrodotoxin-sensitive action potentials in patch-clamp experiments. Coculture of the derived neurons with rat Schwann cells under myelinating conditions resulted in upregulated levels of neuronal neuregulin 1 type III in conjunction with the phosphorylated receptors ErbB2 and ErbB3, consistent with amenability of the neuritic network to myelination. As surrogates of embryonic dorsal root ganglia neurons, the derived sensory neurons provided contact-dependent cues to commit bone marrow-derived Schwann cell-like cells to the Schwann cell fate. Our rapid and efficient induction protocol promises not only controlled differentiation of human iPSCs into sensory neurons, but also utility in the translation to a protocol whereby human bone marrow-derived Schwann cells become available for autologous transplantation and remyelination therapy.

  17. Toying with fate: Redirecting the differentiation of adrenocortical progenitor cells into gonadal-like tissue.

    PubMed

    Röhrig, Theresa; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Ziegler, Ricarda; Cochran, Rebecca S; Schrade, Anja; Schillebeeckx, Maximiliaan; Mitra, Robi D; Heikinheimo, Markku; Wilson, David B

    2015-06-15

    Cell fate decisions are integral to zonation and remodeling of the adrenal cortex. Animal models exhibiting ectopic differentiation of gonadal-like cells in the adrenal cortex can shed light on the molecular mechanisms regulating steroidogenic cell fate. In one such model, prepubertal gonadectomy (GDX) of mice triggers the formation of adrenocortical neoplasms that resemble luteinized ovarian stroma. Transcriptomic analysis and genome-wide DNA methylation mapping have identified genetic and epigenetic markers of GDX-induced adrenocortical neoplasia. Members of the GATA transcription factor family have emerged as key regulators of cell fate in this model. Expression of Gata4 is pivotal for the accumulation of gonadal-like cells in the adrenal glands of gonadectomized mice, whereas expression of Gata6 limits the spontaneous and GDX-induced differentiation of gonadal-like cells in the adrenal cortex. Additionally, Gata6 is essential for proper development of the adrenal X-zone, a layer analogous to the fetal zone of the human adrenal cortex. The relevance of these observations to developmental signaling pathways in the adrenal cortex, to other animal models of altered adrenocortical cell fate, and to human diseases is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Toying with fate: Redirecting the differentiation of adrenocortical progenitor cells into gonadal-like tissue

    PubMed Central

    Röhrig, Theresa; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Ziegler, Ricarda; Cochran, Rebecca S.; Schrade, Anja; Schillebeeckx, Maximiliaan; Mitra, Robi D.; Heikinheimo, Markku; Wilson, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Cell fate decisions are integral to zonation and remodeling of the adrenal cortex. Animal models exhibiting ectopic differentiation of gonadal-like cells in the adrenal cortex can shed light on the molecular mechanisms regulating steroidogenic cell fate. In one such model, prepubertal gonadectomy (GDX) of mice triggers the formation of adrenocortical neoplasms that resemble luteinized ovarian stroma. Transcriptomic analysis and genome-wide DNA methylation mapping have identified genetic and epi-genetic markers of GDX-induced adrenocortical neoplasia. Members of the GATA transcription factor family have emerged as key regulators of cell fate in this model. Expression of Gata4 is pivotal for the accumulation of gonadal-like cells in the adrenal glands of gonadectomized mice, whereas expression of Gata6 limits the spontaneous and GDX-induced differentiation of gonadal-like cells in the adrenal cortex. Additionally, Gata6 is essential for proper development of the adrenal X-zone, a layer analogous to the fetal zone of the human adrenal cortex. The relevance of these observations to developmental signaling pathways in the adrenal cortex, to other animal models of altered adrenocortical cell fate, and to human diseases is discussed. PMID:25498963

  19. Cell Fate Specification Based on Tristability in the Inner Cell Mass of Mouse Blastocysts

    PubMed Central

    De Mot, Laurane; Gonze, Didier; Bessonnard, Sylvain; Chazaud, Claire; Goldbeter, Albert; Dupont, Geneviève

    2016-01-01

    During development, interactions between transcription factors control the specification of different cell fates. The regulatory networks of genetic interactions often exhibit multiple stable steady states; such multistability provides a common dynamical basis for differentiation. During early murine embryogenesis, cells from the inner cell mass (ICM) can be specified in epiblast (Epi) or primitive endoderm (PrE). Besides the intracellular gene regulatory network, specification is also controlled by intercellular interactions involving Erk signaling through extracellular Fgf4. We previously proposed a model that describes the gene regulatory network and its interaction with Erk signaling in ICM cells. The model displays tristability in a range of Fgf4 concentrations and accounts for the self-organized specification process observed in vivo. Here, we further investigate the origin of tristability in the model and analyze in more detail the specification process by resorting to a simplified two-cell model. We also carry out simulations of a population of 25 cells under various experimental conditions to compare their outcome with that of mutant embryos or of embryos submitted to exogenous treatments that interfere with Fgf signaling. The results are analyzed by means of bifurcation diagrams. Finally, the model predicts that heterogeneities in extracellular Fgf4 concentration play a primary role in the spatial arrangement of the Epi/PrE cells in a salt-and-pepper pattern. If, instead of heterogeneities in extracellular Fgf4 concentration, internal fluctuations in the levels of expression of the transcription factors are considered as a source of randomness, simulations predict the occurrence of unrealistic switches between the Epi and the PrE cell fates, as well as the evolution of some cells toward one of these states without passing through the previous ICM state, in contrast to what is observed in vivo. PMID:26840735

  20. An Atlas of Network Topologies Reveals Design Principles for Caenorhabditis elegans Vulval Precursor Cell Fate Patterning.

    PubMed

    Ping, Xianfeng; Tang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    The vulval precursor cell (VPC) fate patterning in Caenorhabditis elegans is a classic model experimental system for cell fate determination and patterning in development. Despite its apparent simplicity (six neighboring cells arranged in one dimension) and many experimental and computational efforts, the patterning strategy and mechanism remain controversial due to incomplete knowledge of the complex biology. Here, we carry out a comprehensive computational analysis and obtain a reservoir of all possible network topologies that are capable of VPC fate patterning under the simulation of various biological environments and regulatory rules. We identify three patterning strategies: sequential induction, morphogen gradient and lateral antagonism, depending on the features of the signal secreted from the anchor cell. The strategy of lateral antagonism, which has not been reported in previous studies of VPC patterning, employs a mutual inhibition of the 2° cell fate in neighboring cells. Robust topologies are built upon minimal topologies with basic patterning strategies and have more flexible and redundant implementations of modular functions. By simulated mutation, we find that all three strategies can reproduce experimental error patterns of mutants. We show that the topology derived by mapping currently known biochemical pathways to our model matches one of our identified functional topologies. Furthermore, our robustness analysis predicts a possible missing link related to the lateral antagonism strategy. Overall, we provide a theoretical atlas of all possible functional networks in varying environments, which may guide novel discoveries of the biological interactions in vulval development of Caenorhabditis elegans and related species.

  1. The fog-3 gene and regulation of cell fate in the germ line of Caenorhabditis elegans

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R.; Kimble, J.

    1995-02-01

    In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, germ cells normally adopt one of three fates: mitosis, spermatogenesis or oogenesis. We have identified and characterized the gene fog-3, which is required for germ cells to differentiate as sperm rather than as oocytes. Analysis of double mutants suggests that fog-3 is absolutely required for spermatogenesis and acts at the end of the regulatory hierarchy controlling sex determination for the germ line. By contrast, mutations in fog-3 do not alter the sexual identity of other tissues. We also have characterized the null phenotype of fog-1, another gene required for spermatogenesis; we demonstrate that it too controls the sexual identity of germ cells but not of other tissues. Finally, we have studied the same interaction of these two fog genes with gld-1, a gene required for germ cells to undergo oogenesis rather than mitosis. On the basis of these results, we propose that germ-cell fate might be controlled by a set of inhibitory interactions among genes that specify one of three fates: mitosis, spermatogenesis or oogenesis. Such a regulatory network would link the adoption of one germ-cell fate to the suppression of the other two. 68 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Logic programming to predict cell fate patterns and retrodict genotypes in organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hall, Benjamin A; Jackson, Ethan; Hajnal, Alex; Fisher, Jasmin

    2014-09-06

    Caenorhabditis elegans vulval development is a paradigm system for understanding cell differentiation in the process of organogenesis. Through temporal and spatial controls, the fate pattern of six cells is determined by the competition of the LET-23 and the Notch signalling pathways. Modelling cell fate determination in vulval development using state-based models, coupled with formal analysis techniques, has been established as a powerful approach in predicting the outcome of combinations of mutations. However, computing the outcomes of complex and highly concurrent models can become prohibitive. Here, we show how logic programs derived from state machines describing the differentiation of C. elegans vulval precursor cells can increase the speed of prediction by four orders of magnitude relative to previous approaches. Moreover, this increase in speed allows us to infer, or 'retrodict', compatible genomes from cell fate patterns. We exploit this technique to predict highly variable cell fate patterns resulting from dig-1 reduced-function mutations and let-23 mosaics. In addition to the new insights offered, we propose our technique as a platform for aiding the design and analysis of experimental data.

  3. Logic programming to predict cell fate patterns and retrodict genotypes in organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Benjamin A.; Jackson, Ethan; Hajnal, Alex; Fisher, Jasmin

    2014-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans vulval development is a paradigm system for understanding cell differentiation in the process of organogenesis. Through temporal and spatial controls, the fate pattern of six cells is determined by the competition of the LET-23 and the Notch signalling pathways. Modelling cell fate determination in vulval development using state-based models, coupled with formal analysis techniques, has been established as a powerful approach in predicting the outcome of combinations of mutations. However, computing the outcomes of complex and highly concurrent models can become prohibitive. Here, we show how logic programs derived from state machines describing the differentiation of C. elegans vulval precursor cells can increase the speed of prediction by four orders of magnitude relative to previous approaches. Moreover, this increase in speed allows us to infer, or ‘retrodict’, compatible genomes from cell fate patterns. We exploit this technique to predict highly variable cell fate patterns resulting from dig-1 reduced-function mutations and let-23 mosaics. In addition to the new insights offered, we propose our technique as a platform for aiding the design and analysis of experimental data. PMID:24966232

  4. An Atlas of Network Topologies Reveals Design Principles for Caenorhabditis elegans Vulval Precursor Cell Fate Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Xianfeng; Tang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    The vulval precursor cell (VPC) fate patterning in Caenorhabditis elegans is a classic model experimental system for cell fate determination and patterning in development. Despite its apparent simplicity (six neighboring cells arranged in one dimension) and many experimental and computational efforts, the patterning strategy and mechanism remain controversial due to incomplete knowledge of the complex biology. Here, we carry out a comprehensive computational analysis and obtain a reservoir of all possible network topologies that are capable of VPC fate patterning under the simulation of various biological environments and regulatory rules. We identify three patterning strategies: sequential induction, morphogen gradient and lateral antagonism, depending on the features of the signal secreted from the anchor cell. The strategy of lateral antagonism, which has not been reported in previous studies of VPC patterning, employs a mutual inhibition of the 2° cell fate in neighboring cells. Robust topologies are built upon minimal topologies with basic patterning strategies and have more flexible and redundant implementations of modular functions. By simulated mutation, we find that all three strategies can reproduce experimental error patterns of mutants. We show that the topology derived by mapping currently known biochemical pathways to our model matches one of our identified functional topologies. Furthermore, our robustness analysis predicts a possible missing link related to the lateral antagonism strategy. Overall, we provide a theoretical atlas of all possible functional networks in varying environments, which may guide novel discoveries of the biological interactions in vulval development of Caenorhabditis elegans and related species. PMID:26114587

  5. The Fog-3 Gene and Regulation of Cell Fate in the Germ Line of Caenorhabditis Elegans

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, R. E.; Kimble, J.

    1995-01-01

    In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, germ cells normally adopt one of three fates: mitosis, spermatogenesis or oogenesis. We have identified and characterized the gene fog-3, which is required for germ cells to differentiate as sperm rather than as oocytes. Analysis of double mutants suggests that fog-3 is absolutely required for spermatogenesis and acts at the end of the regulatory hierarchy controlling sex determination for the germ line. By contrast, mutations in fog-3 do not alter the sexual identity of other tissues. We also have characterized the null phenotype of fog-1, another gene required for spermatogenesis; we demonstrate that it too controls the sexual identity of germ cells but not of other tissues. Finally, we have studied the interaction of these two fog genes with gld-1, a gene required for germ cells to undergo oogenesis rather than mitosis. On the basis of these results, we propose that germ-cell fate might be controlled by a set of inhibitory interactions among genes that specify one of three fates: mitosis, spermatogenesis or oogenesis. Such a regulatory network would link the adoption of one germ-cell fate to the suppression of the other two. PMID:7713418

  6. Regulation of Stem Cell Fate by ROS-mediated Alteration of Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Jung Min; Lee, Hyun Jik; Jung, Young Hyun; Lee, Ki Hoon; Kim, Dah Ihm; Kim, Jeong Yeon; Ko, So Hee; Choi, Gee Euhn; Chai, Ing Ing; Song, Eun Ju; Oh, Ji Young; Lee, Sei-Jung; Han, Ho Jae

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells have attracted much attention due to their distinct features that support infinite self-renewal and differentiation into the cellular derivatives of three lineages. Recent studies have suggested that many stem cells both embryonic and adult stem cells reside in a specialized niche defined by hypoxic condition. In this respect, distinguishing functional differences arising from the oxygen concentration is important in understanding the nature of stem cells and in controlling stem cell fate for therapeutic purposes. ROS act as cellular signaling molecules involved in the propagation of signaling and the translation of environmental cues into cellular responses to maintain cellular homeostasis, which is mediated by the coordination of various cellular processes, and to adapt cellular activity to available bioenergetic sources. Thus, in this review, we describe the physiological role of ROS in stem cell fate and its effect on the metabolic regulation of stem cells. PMID:26019752

  7. The roles and regulation of Sertoli cells in fate determinations of spermatogonial stem cells and spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hai, Yanan; Hou, Jingmei; Liu, Yun; Liu, Yang; Yang, Hao; Li, Zheng; He, Zuping

    2014-05-01

    Spermatogenesis is a complex process by which spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) self-renew and differentiate into spermatozoa under the elaborate coordination of testicular microenvironment, namely, niche. Sertoli cells, which locate around male germ cells, are the most critical component of the niche. Significant progress has recently been made by peers and us on uncovering the effects of Sertoli cells on regulating fate determinations of SSCs. Here we addressed the roles and regulation of Sertoli cells in normal and abnormal spermatogenesis. Specifically, we summarized the biological characteristics of Sertoli cells, and we emphasized the roles of Sertoli cells in mediating the self-renewal, differentiation, apoptosis, de-differentiation, and trans-differentiation of SSCs. The association between abnormal function of Sertoli cells and impaired spermatogenesis was discussed. Finally, we highlighted several issues to be addressed for further investigation on the effects and mechanisms of Sertoli cells in spermatogenesis. Since Sertoli cells are the key supportive cells for SSCs and they are very receptive to modification, a better understanding of the roles and regulation of Sertoli cells in SSC biology and spermatogenesis would make it feasible to identify novel targets for gene therapy of male infertility as well as seek more efficient and safer strategies for male contraception.

  8. Tributyltin affects adipogenic cell fate commitment in mesenchymal stem cells by a PPARγ independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Biemann, Ronald; Fischer, Bernd; Blüher, Matthias; Navarrete Santos, Anne

    2014-05-05

    The food contaminant tributyltin (TBT) is an endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) promoting adipogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Although prenatal TBT exposure has been shown to induce obesity, the underlying mechanisms and the role of the transcription factor PPARγ are not clarified yet. At different stages of adipogenesis, multipotent murine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), C3H10T1/2, were exposed to TBT and analyzed for adipogenic differentiation, PPARγ promoter activation and PPARγ1, PPARγ2, Pref-1 and SOX9 expression. Depending on the exposure window, TBT promoted subsequent adipogenesis independently and dependently from PPARγ. In undifferentiated MSC, TBT exposure induced a transcriptional PPARγ-independent repression of Pref-1 and SOX9, which are both suppressors of adipogenic cell fate commitment. During hormonal induction TBT additionally enhanced adipogenic differentiation by PPARγ signaling. The impact of TBT on early cell fate development documents a novel mechanistic insight in the development of adipocytes derived from MSC and its susceptibility to EDC.

  9. The ETS domain transcriptional repressor Anterior open inhibits MAP kinase and Wingless signaling to couple tracheal cell fate with branch identity.

    PubMed

    Caviglia, Sara; Luschnig, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    Cells at the tips of budding branches in the Drosophila tracheal system generate two morphologically different types of seamless tubes. Terminal cells (TCs) form branched lumenized extensions that mediate gas exchange at target tissues, whereas fusion cells (FCs) form ring-like connections between adjacent tracheal metameres. Each tracheal branch contains a specific set of TCs, FCs, or both, but the mechanisms that select between the two tip cell types in a branch-specific fashion are not clear. Here, we show that the ETS domain transcriptional repressor anterior open (aop) is dispensable for directed tracheal cell migration, but plays a key role in tracheal tip cell fate specification. Whereas aop globally inhibits TC and FC specification, MAPK signaling overcomes this inhibition by triggering degradation of Aop in tip cells. Loss of aop function causes excessive FC and TC specification, indicating that without Aop-mediated inhibition, all tracheal cells are competent to adopt a specialized fate. We demonstrate that Aop plays a dual role by inhibiting both MAPK and Wingless signaling, which induce TC and FC fate, respectively. In addition, the branch-specific choice between the two seamless tube types depends on the tracheal branch identity gene spalt major, which is sufficient to inhibit TC specification. Thus, a single repressor, Aop, integrates two different signals to couple tip cell fate selection with branch identity. The switch from a branching towards an anastomosing tip cell type may have evolved with the acquisition of a main tube that connects separate tracheal primordia to generate a tubular network.

  10. Nanotopographical Surfaces for Stem Cell Fate Control: Engineering Mechanobiology from the Bottom

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weiqiang; Shao, Yue; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Gang; Fu, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Summary During embryogenesis and tissue maintenance and repair in an adult organism, a myriad of stem cells are regulated by their surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) enriched with tissue/organ-specific nanoscale topographical cues to adopt different fates and functions. Attributed to their capability of self-renewal and differentiation into most types of somatic cells, stem cells also hold tremendous promise for regenerative medicine and drug screening. However, a major challenge remains as to achieve fate control of stem cells in vitro with high specificity and yield. Recent exciting advances in nanotechnology and materials science have enabled versatile, robust, and large-scale stem cell engineering in vitro through developments of synthetic nanotopographical surfaces mimicking topological features of stem cell niches. In addition to generating new insights for stem cell biology and embryonic development, this effort opens up unlimited opportunities for innovations in stem cell-based applications. This review is therefore to provide a summary of recent progress along this research direction, with perspectives focusing on emerging methods for generating nanotopographical surfaces and their applications in stem cell research. Furthermore, we provide a review of classical as well as emerging cellular mechano-sensing and -transduction mechanisms underlying stem cell nanotopography sensitivity and also give some hypotheses in regard to how a multitude of signaling events in cellular mechanotransduction may converge and be integrated into core pathways controlling stem cell fate in response to extracellular nanotopography. PMID:25883674

  11. A high-content assay for identifying small molecules that reprogram C. elegans germ cell fate.

    PubMed

    Benson, Joshua A; Cummings, Erin E; O'Reilly, Linda P; Lee, Myon-Hee; Pak, Stephen C

    2014-08-01

    Recent breakthrough discoveries have shown that committed cell fates can be reprogrammed by genetic, chemical and environmental manipulations. The germline of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans provides a tractable system for studying cell fate reprogramming within the context of a whole organism. To explore the possibility of using C. elegans in high-throughput screens (HTS), we developed a high-throughput workflow for testing compounds that modulate cell fate reprogramming. We utilized puf-8; lip-1 mutants that have enhanced MPK-1 (an ERK homolog)/MAP kinase (MAPK) signaling. Wild-type C. elegans hermaphrodites produce both sperm and oocytes, and are thus self-fertile. However, puf-8; lip-1 mutants produce only sperm and are sterile. Notably, compounds that pharmacologically down-regulate MPK-1 (an ERK homolog)/MAP kinase (MAPK) signaling are able to reprogram germ cell fate and restore fertility to these animals. puf-8; lip-1 mutants provide numerous challenges for HTS. First, they are sterile as homozygotes and must be maintained as heterozygotes using a balancer chromosome. Second, homozygous animals for experimentation must be physically separated from the rest of the population. Third, a high quality, high-content assay has not been developed to measure compound effects on germ cell fate reprogramming. Here we describe a semi-automated high-throughput workflow that enables effective sorting of homozygous puf-8; lip-1 mutants into 384-well plates using the COPAS™ BIOSORT. In addition, we have developed an image-based assay for rapidly measuring germ cell reprogramming by measuring the number of viable progeny in wells. The methods presented in this report enable the use of puf-8; lip-1 mutants in HTS campaigns for chemical modulators of germ cell reprogramming within the context of a whole organism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Xenopus Bsx links daily cell cycle rhythms and pineal photoreceptor fate.

    PubMed

    D'Autilia, Silvia; Broccoli, Vania; Barsacchi, Giuseppina; Andreazzoli, Massimiliano

    2010-04-06

    In the developing central nervous system, the cell cycle clock plays a crucial role in determining cell fate specification. A second clock, the circadian oscillator, generates daily rhythms of cell cycle progression. Although these two clocks interact, the mechanisms linking circadian cell cycle progression and cell fate determination are still poorly understood. A convenient system to address this issue is the pineal organ of lower vertebrates, which contains only two neuronal types, photoreceptors and projection neurons. In particular, photoreceptors constitute the core of the pineal circadian system, being able to transduce daily light inputs into the rhythmical production of melatonin. However, the genetic program leading to photoreceptor fate largely remains to be deciphered. Here, we report a previously undescribed function for the homeobox gene Bsx in controlling pineal proliferation and photoreceptor fate in Xenopus. We show that Xenopus Bsx (Xbsx) is expressed rhythmically in postmitotic photoreceptor precursors, reaching a peak during the night, with a cycle that is complementary to the daily rhythms of S-phase entry displayed by pineal cells. Xbsx knockdown results in increased night levels of pineal proliferation, whereas activation of a GR-Xbsx protein flattens the daily rhythms of S-phase entry to the lowest level. Furthermore, evidence is presented that Xbsx is necessary and sufficient to promote a photoreceptor fate. Altogether, these data indicate that Xbsx plays a dual role in contributing to shape the profile of the circadian cell cycle progression and in the specification of pineal photoreceptors, thus acting as a unique link between these two events.

  13. Molecular circuitry of stem cell fate in skeletal muscle regeneration, ageing, and disease

    PubMed Central

    Almada, Albert E.; Wagers, Amy J.

    2016-01-01

    Satellite cells are adult myogenic stem cells that function to repair damaged muscle. The enduring capacity for muscle regeneration requires efficient satellite cell expansion after injury, differentiation to produce myoblasts that can reconstitute damaged fibers, and self-renewal to replenish the muscle stem cell pool for subsequent rounds of injury and repair. Emerging studies indicate that misregulations of satellite cell fate and function contribute to age-associated muscle dysfunction and influence the severity of muscle diseases, including Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). It has also become apparent that satellite cell fate during muscle regeneration, aging, and in the context of DMD is governed by an intricate network of intrinsic and extrinsic regulators. Targeted manipulation of this network may offer unique opportunities for muscle regenerative medicine. PMID:26956195

  14. Concise Review: Control of Cell Fate Through Cell Cycle and Pluripotency Networks.

    PubMed

    Boward, Ben; Wu, Tianming; Dalton, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) proliferate rapidly with a characteristic cell cycle structure consisting of short G1- and G2-gap phases. This applies broadly to PSCs of peri-implantation stage embryos, cultures of embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and embryonal carcinoma cells. During the early stages of PSC differentiation however, cell division times increase as a consequence of cell cycle remodeling. Most notably, this is indicated by elongation of the G1-phase. Observations linking changes in the cell cycle with exit from pluripotency have raised questions about the role of cell cycle control in maintenance of the pluripotent state. Until recently however, this has been a difficult question to address because of limitations associated with experimental tools. Recent studies now show that pluripotency and cell cycle regulatory networks are intertwined and that cell cycle control mechanisms are an integral, mechanistic part of the PSC state. Studies in embryonal carcinoma, some 30 years ago, first suggested that pluripotent cells initiate differentiation when in the G1-phase. More recently, a molecular "priming" mechanism has been proposed to explain these observations in human embryonic stem cells. Complexity in this area has been increased by the realization that pluripotent cells exist in multiple developmental states and that in addition to each having their own characteristic gene expression and epigenetic signatures, they potentially have alternate modes of cell cycle regulation. This review will summarize current knowledge in these areas and will highlight important aspects of interconnections between the cell cycle, self-renewal, pluripotency, and cell fate decisions. Stem Cells 2016;34:1427-1436. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  15. Transparent things: cell fates and cell movements during early embryogenesis of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Solnica-Krezel, L; Stemple, D L; Driever, W

    1995-11-01

    Development of an animal embryo involves the coordination of cell divisions, a variety of inductive interactions and extensive cellular rearrangements. One of the biggest challenges in developmental biology is to explain the relationships between these processes and the mechanisms that regulate them. Teleost embryos provide an ideal subject for the study of these issues. Their optical lucidity combined with modern techniques for the marking and observation of individual living cells allow high resolution investigations of specific morphogenetic movements and the construction of detailed fate maps. In this review we describe the patterns of cell divisions, cellular movements and other morphogenetic events during zebrafish early development and discuss how these events relate to the formation of restricted lineages.

  16. Changes in rRNA transcription influence proliferation and cell fate within a stem cell lineage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiao; Shalaby, Nevine A; Buszczak, Michael

    2014-01-17

    Ribosome biogenesis drives cell growth and proliferation, but mechanisms that modulate this process within specific lineages remain poorly understood. Here, we identify a Drosophila RNA polymerase I (Pol I) regulatory complex composed of Under-developed (Udd), TAF1B, and a TAF1C-like factor. Disruption of udd or TAF1B results in reduced ovarian germline stem cell (GSC) proliferation. Female GSCs display high levels of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription, and Udd becomes enriched in GSCs relative to their differentiating daughters. Increasing Pol I transcription delays differentiation, whereas reducing rRNA production induces both morphological changes that accompany multicellular cyst formation and specific decreased expression of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway component Mad. These findings demonstrate that modulating rRNA synthesis fosters changes in the cell fate, growth, and proliferation of female Drosophila GSCs and their daughters.

  17. Antigen availability determines CD8+ T cell-dendritic cell interaction kinetics and memory fate decisions

    PubMed Central

    Henrickson, Sarah E.; Stutte, Susanne; Quigley, Michael; Alexe, Gabriela; Iannacone, Matteo; Flynn, Michael P.; Omid, Shaida; Jesneck, Jonathan L.; Imam, Sabrina; Mempel, Thorsten R.; Mazo, Irina B.; Haining, William N.; von Andrian, Ulrich H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary T cells are activated by antigen (Ag) bearing dendritic cells (DCs) in lymph nodes in 3 phases. The duration of the initial phase of transient, serial DC-T cell interactions is inversely correlated with Ag dose. The second phase, characterized by stable DC-T cell contacts, is believed to be necessary for full-fledged T cell activation. Here we have shown that this is not the case. CD8+ T cells interacting with DCs presenting low-dose, short-lived Ag did not transition to phase 2, while higher Ag dose yielded phase 2 transition. Both antigenic constellations promoted T cell proliferation and effector differentiation, but yielded different transcriptome signatures at 12h and 24h. T cells that experienced phase 2 developed long-lived memory, whereas conditions without stable contacts yielded immunological amnesia. Thus, T cells make fate decisions within hours after Ag exposure resulting in long-term memory or abortive effector responses, correlating with T cell-DCs interaction kinetics. PMID:24054328

  18. Engineering Cell Instructive Materials To Control Cell Fate and Functions through Material Cues and Surface Patterning.

    PubMed

    Ventre, Maurizio; Netti, Paolo A

    2016-06-22

    Mastering the interaction between cells and extracellular environment is a fundamental prerequisite in order to engineer functional biomaterial interfaces able to instruct cells with specific commands. Such advanced biomaterials might find relevant application in prosthesis design, tissue engineering, diagnostics and stem cell biology. Because of the highly complex, dynamic, and multifaceted context, a thorough understanding of the cell-material crosstalk has not been achieved yet; however, a variety of material features including biological cues, topography, and mechanical properties have been proved to impact the strength and the nature of the cell-material interaction, eventually affecting cell fate and functions. Although the nature of these three signals may appear very different, they are equated by their participation in the same material-cytoskeleton crosstalk pathway as they regulate cell adhesion events. In this work we present recent and relevant findings on the material-induced cell responses, with a particular emphasis on how the presentation of biochemical/biophysical signals modulates cell behavior. Finally, we summarize and discuss the literature data to draw out unifying elements concerning cell recognition of and reaction to signals displayed by material surfaces.

  19. "Choice" and destiny: the substrate composition and mechanical stability of settlement structures can mediate coral recruit fate in post-bleached reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Shreya; Rathod, Pooja; Alcoverro, Teresa; Arthur, Rohan

    2016-03-01

    Increasingly frequent and intense ocean warming events seriously test the buffer and recovery capacities of tropical coral reefs. Post-disturbance, available settlement structures on a reef (often dead coral skeletons) vary considerably in their mechanical stability and substrate composition, critically influencing coral recruit settlement choice and fate. In the wake of a coral mass mortality in the Lakshadweep archipelago, we examine (1) the relative availability of recruit settlement structures (from stable to unstable: reef platform, dead massive coral, consolidated rubble, dead corymbose coral, dead tabular coral, and unconsolidated rubble) in 12 recovering reefs across three atolls in the archipelago, (2) the substrate composition [crustose coralline algae (CCA), mixed turf, macroalgae] of these structural forms, and (3) whether the choice and fate of young coral are mediated by the substrate and stability of different structural forms. For this, we measured the abundance and distribution of recruit (<1 cm), juvenile (1-5 cm), and young adult (5-10) corals of 24 common coral genera. Four years after the mass mortality, reefs differed considerably in composition of settlement structures. The structures themselves varied significantly in substrate cover with dead tables largely covered in CCA [60 ± 6.05 % (SE)] and dead corymbose coral dominated by mixed turf (61.83 ± 3.8 %). The youngest visible recruits (<1 cm) clearly preferred CCA-rich structures such as dead massives and tables. However, older size classes were rarely found on unstable structures (strongly "avoiding" tables, Ivlev's electivity index, E = -0.5). Our results indicate that while substrate cover might mediate coral choice, the mechanical stability of settlement structures is critical in determining post-settlement coral survival. The composition and availability of settlement structures on a reef may serve as a characteristic signature of its recovery potential, aiding in assessments of reef

  20. Sumoylated NHR-25/NR5A Regulates Cell Fate during C. elegans Vulval Development

    PubMed Central

    Bernal, Teresita; Ashrafi, Kaveh; Asahina, Masako; Yamamoto, Keith R.

    2013-01-01

    Individual metazoan transcription factors (TFs) regulate distinct sets of genes depending on cell type and developmental or physiological context. The precise mechanisms by which regulatory information from ligands, genomic sequence elements, co-factors, and post-translational modifications are integrated by TFs remain challenging questions. Here, we examine how a single regulatory input, sumoylation, differentially modulates the activity of a conserved C. elegans nuclear hormone receptor, NHR-25, in different cell types. Through a combination of yeast two-hybrid analysis and in vitro biochemistry we identified the single C. elegans SUMO (SMO-1) as an NHR-25 interacting protein, and showed that NHR-25 is sumoylated on at least four lysines. Some of the sumoylation acceptor sites are in common with those of the NHR-25 mammalian orthologs SF-1 and LRH-1, demonstrating that sumoylation has been strongly conserved within the NR5A family. We showed that NHR-25 bound canonical SF-1 binding sequences to regulate transcription, and that NHR-25 activity was enhanced in vivo upon loss of sumoylation. Knockdown of smo-1 mimicked NHR-25 overexpression with respect to maintenance of the 3° cell fate in vulval precursor cells (VPCs) during development. Importantly, however, overexpression of unsumoylatable alleles of NHR-25 revealed that NHR-25 sumoylation is critical for maintaining 3° cell fate. Moreover, SUMO also conferred formation of a developmental time-dependent NHR-25 concentration gradient across the VPCs. That is, accumulation of GFP-tagged NHR-25 was uniform across VPCs at the beginning of development, but as cells began dividing, a smo-1-dependent NHR-25 gradient formed with highest levels in 1° fated VPCs, intermediate levels in 2° fated VPCs, and low levels in 3° fated VPCs. We conclude that sumoylation operates at multiple levels to affect NHR-25 activity in a highly coordinated spatial and temporal manner. PMID:24348269

  1. Human mammary progenitor cell fate decisions are products of interactions with combinatorial microenvironments

    SciTech Connect

    LaBarge, Mark A; Nelson, Celeste M; Villadsen, Rene; Fridriksdottir, Agla; Ruth, Jason R; Stampfer, Martha R; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

    2008-09-19

    In adult tissues, multi-potent progenitor cells are some of the most primitive members of the developmental hierarchies that maintain homeostasis. That progenitors and their more mature progeny share identical genomes, suggests that fate decisions are directed by interactions with extrinsic soluble factors, ECM, and other cells, as well as physical properties of the ECM. To understand regulation of fate decisions, therefore, would require a means of understanding carefully choreographed combinatorial interactions. Here we used microenvironment protein microarrays to functionally identify combinations of cell-extrinsic mammary gland proteins and ECM molecules that imposed specific cell fates on bipotent human mammary progenitor cells. Micropatterned cell culture surfaces were fabricated to distinguish between the instructive effects of cell-cell versus cell-ECM interactions, as well as constellations of signaling molecules; and these were used in conjunction with physiologically relevant 3 dimensional human breast cultures. Both immortalized and primary human breast progenitors were analyzed. We report on the functional ability of those proteins of the mammary gland that maintain quiescence, maintain the progenitor state, and guide progenitor differentiation towards myoepithelial and luminal lineages.

  2. Gcn5 determines the fate of Drosophila germline stem cells through degradation of Cyclin A.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianqi; Wang, Qi; Li, Wenqing; Mao, Feiyu; Yue, Shanshan; Liu, Sun; Liu, Xiaona; Xiao, Shan; Xia, Laixin

    2017-02-10

    The fluctuating CDK-CYCLIN complex plays a general role in cell-cycle control. Many types of stem cells use unique features of the cell cycle to facilitate asymmetric division. However, the manner in which these features are established remains poorly understood. The cell cycle of Drosophila female germline stem cells (GSCs) is characterized by short G1 and very long G2 phases, making it an excellent model for the study of cell cycle control in stem cell fate determination. Using a Drosophila female GSCs model, we found Gcn5, the first discovered histone acetyltransferase, to maintain germline stem cells in Drosophila ovaries. Results showed that Gcn5 is dispensable for the transcriptional silencing of bam, but interacts with Cyclin A to facilitate proper turnover in GSCs. Results also showed that Gcn5 promotes Cyclin A ubiquitination, which is dependent on its acetylating activity. Finally, results showed that knockdown of Cyclin A rescued the GSC-loss phenotype caused by lack of Gcn5. Collectively, these findings support the conclusion that Gcn5 acts through acetylation to facilitate Cyclin A ubiquitination and proper turnover, thereby determining the fate of GSCs.-Liu, T., Wang, Q., Li, W., Mao, F., Yue, S., Liu, S., Liu, X., Xiao, S., Xia, L. Gcn5 determines the fate of Drosophila germline stem cells through degradation of Cyclin A.

  3. Drosophila Condensin II subunit Chromosome-associated protein D3 regulates cell fate determination through non-cell-autonomous signaling

    PubMed Central

    Klebanow, Lindsey R.; Peshel, Emanuela C.; Schuster, Andrew T.; De, Kuntal; Sarvepalli, Kavitha; Lemieux, Madeleine E.; Lenoir, Jessica J.; Moore, Adrian W.; McDonald, Jocelyn A.

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of the Drosophila melanogaster adult wing is heavily influenced by the expression of proteins that dictate cell fate decisions between intervein and vein during development. dSRF (Blistered) expression in specific regions of the larval wing disc promotes intervein cell fate, whereas EGFR activity promotes vein cell fate. Here, we report that the chromatin-organizing protein CAP-D3 acts to dampen dSRF levels at the anterior/posterior boundary in the larval wing disc, promoting differentiation of cells into the anterior crossvein. CAP-D3 represses KNOT expression in cells immediately adjacent to the anterior/posterior boundary, thus blocking KNOT-mediated repression of EGFR activity and preventing cell death. Maintenance of EGFR activity in these cells depresses dSRF levels in the neighboring anterior crossvein progenitor cells, allowing them to differentiate into vein cells. These findings uncover a novel transcriptional regulatory network influencing Drosophila wing vein development, and are the first to identify a Condensin II subunit as an important regulator of EGFR activity and cell fate determination in vivo. PMID:27317808

  4. Drosophila Condensin II subunit Chromosome-associated protein D3 regulates cell fate determination through non-cell-autonomous signaling.

    PubMed

    Klebanow, Lindsey R; Peshel, Emanuela C; Schuster, Andrew T; De, Kuntal; Sarvepalli, Kavitha; Lemieux, Madeleine E; Lenoir, Jessica J; Moore, Adrian W; McDonald, Jocelyn A; Longworth, Michelle S

    2016-08-01

    The pattern of the Drosophila melanogaster adult wing is heavily influenced by the expression of proteins that dictate cell fate decisions between intervein and vein during development. dSRF (Blistered) expression in specific regions of the larval wing disc promotes intervein cell fate, whereas EGFR activity promotes vein cell fate. Here, we report that the chromatin-organizing protein CAP-D3 acts to dampen dSRF levels at the anterior/posterior boundary in the larval wing disc, promoting differentiation of cells into the anterior crossvein. CAP-D3 represses KNOT expression in cells immediately adjacent to the anterior/posterior boundary, thus blocking KNOT-mediated repression of EGFR activity and preventing cell death. Maintenance of EGFR activity in these cells depresses dSRF levels in the neighboring anterior crossvein progenitor cells, allowing them to differentiate into vein cells. These findings uncover a novel transcriptional regulatory network influencing Drosophila wing vein development, and are the first to identify a Condensin II subunit as an important regulator of EGFR activity and cell fate determination in vivo. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Hematopoietic stem cell fate decisions are regulated by Wnt antagonists: comparisons and current controversies.

    PubMed

    Cain, Corey J; Manilay, Jennifer O

    2013-01-01

    Wingless and int (Wnt) proteins are secreted proteins that are important for regulating hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and differentiation in the bone marrow microenvironment in mice. The mechanisms by which Wnt signaling regulates these hematopoietic cell fate decisions are not fully understood. Secreted Wnt antagonists, which are expressed in bone and bone marrow stromal cells, either bind to Wnt ligands directly or block Wnt receptors and co-receptors to halt Wnt-mediated signal transduction in both osteolineage and hematopoietic cell types. Secreted frizzled related proteins-1 and -2, Wnt inhibitory factor-1, Dickkopf-1, and Sclerostin are Wnt antagonists that influence hematopoietic cell fate decisions in the bone marrow niche. In this review, we compare and contrast the roles of these Wnt antagonists and their effects on hematopoietic development in mice, and also discuss the clinical significance of targeting Wnt antagonists within the context of hematopoietic disease.

  6. Transcriptional control of stem cell fate by E2Fs and pocket proteins

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Lisa M.; Blais, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    E2F transcription factors and their regulatory partners, the pocket proteins (PPs), have emerged as essential regulators of stem cell fate control in a number of lineages. In mammals, this role extends from both pluripotent stem cells to those encompassing all embryonic germ layers, as well as extra-embryonic lineages. E2F/PP-mediated regulation of stem cell decisions is highly evolutionarily conserved, and is likely a pivotal biological mechanism underlying stem cell homeostasis. This has immense implications for organismal development, tissue maintenance, and regeneration. In this article, we discuss the roles of E2F factors and PPs in stem cell populations, focusing on mammalian systems. We discuss emerging findings that position the E2F and PP families as widespread and dynamic epigenetic regulators of cell fate decisions. Additionally, we focus on the ever expanding landscape of E2F/PP target genes, and explore the possibility that E2Fs are not simply regulators of general ‘multi-purpose’ cell fate genes but can execute tissue- and cell type-specific gene regulatory programs. PMID:25972892

  7. Quantifying intrinsic and extrinsic control of single-cell fates in cancer and stem/progenitor cell pedigrees with competing risks analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cornwell, J. A.; Hallett, R. M.; der Mauer, S. Auf; Motazedian, A.; Schroeder, T.; Draper, J. S.; Harvey, R. P.; Nordon, R. E.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular control of cell fate and behaviour is a central theme in biology. Inherent heterogeneity within cell populations requires that control of cell fate is studied at the single-cell level. Time-lapse imaging and single-cell tracking are powerful technologies for acquiring cell lifetime data, allowing quantification of how cell-intrinsic and extrinsic factors control single-cell fates over time. However, cell lifetime data contain complex features. Competing cell fates, censoring, and the possible inter-dependence of competing fates, currently present challenges to modelling cell lifetime data. Thus far such features are largely ignored, resulting in loss of data and introducing a source of bias. Here we show that competing risks and concordance statistics, previously applied to clinical data and the study of genetic influences on life events in twins, respectively, can be used to quantify intrinsic and extrinsic control of single-cell fates. Using these statistics we demonstrate that 1) breast cancer cell fate after chemotherapy is dependent on p53 genotype; 2) granulocyte macrophage progenitors and their differentiated progeny have concordant fates; and 3) cytokines promote self-renewal of cardiac mesenchymal stem cells by symmetric divisions. Therefore, competing risks and concordance statistics provide a robust and unbiased approach for evaluating hypotheses at the single-cell level. PMID:27250534

  8. The endoplasmic reticulum is partitioned asymmetrically during mitosis before cell fate selection in proneuronal cells in the early Drosophila embryo

    PubMed Central

    Eritano, Anthony S.; Altamirano, Arturo; Beyeler, Sarah; Gaytan, Norma; Velasquez, Mark; Riggs, Blake

    2017-01-01

    Asymmetric cell division is the primary mechanism to generate cellular diversity, and it relies on the correct partitioning of cell fate determinants. However, the mechanism by which these determinants are delivered and positioned is poorly understood, and the upstream signal to initiate asymmetric cell division is unknown. Here we report that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is asymmetrically partitioned during mitosis in epithelial cells just before delamination and selection of a proneural cell fate in the early Drosophila embryo. At the start of gastrulation, the ER divides asymmetrically into a population of asynchronously dividing cells at the anterior end of the embryo. We found that this asymmetric division of the ER depends on the highly conserved ER membrane protein Jagunal (Jagn). RNA inhibition of jagn just before the start of gastrulation disrupts this asymmetric division of the ER. In addition, jagn-deficient embryos display defects in apical-basal spindle orientation in delaminated embryonic neuroblasts. Our results describe a model in which an organelle is partitioned asymmetrically in an otherwise symmetrically dividing cell population just upstream of cell fate determination and updates previous models of spindle-based selection of cell fate during mitosis. PMID:28381427

  9. Relationship between nanotopographical alignment and stem cell fate with live imaging and shape analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Peter; Galenano-Niño, Jorge Luis; Graney, Pamela; Razal, Joselito M.; Minett, Andrew I.; Ribas, João; Ovalle-Robles, Raquel; Biro, Maté; Zreiqat, Hala

    2016-12-01

    The topography of a biomaterial regulates cellular interactions and determine stem cell fate. A complete understanding of how topographical properties affect cell behavior will allow the rational design of material surfaces that elicit specified biological functions once placed in the body. To this end, we fabricate substrates with aligned or randomly organized fibrous nanostructured topographies. Culturing adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), we explore the dynamic relationship between the alignment of topography, cell shape and cell differentiation to osteogenic and myogenic lineages. We show aligned topographies differentiate cells towards a satellite cell muscle progenitor state - a distinct cell myogenic lineage responsible for postnatal growth and repair of muscle. We analyze cell shape between the different topographies, using fluorescent time-lapse imaging over 21 days. In contrast to previous work, this allows the direct measurement of cell shape at a given time rather than defining the morphology of the underlying topography and neglecting cell shape. We report quantitative metrics of the time-based morphological behaviors of cell shape in response to differing topographies. This analysis offers insights into the relationship between topography, cell shape and cell differentiation. Cells differentiating towards a myogenic fate on aligned topographies adopt a characteristic elongated shape as well as the alignment of cells.

  10. Relationship between nanotopographical alignment and stem cell fate with live imaging and shape analysis

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Peter; Galenano-Niño, Jorge Luis; Graney, Pamela; Razal, Joselito M.; Minett, Andrew I.; Ribas, João; Ovalle-Robles, Raquel; Biro, Maté; Zreiqat, Hala

    2016-01-01

    The topography of a biomaterial regulates cellular interactions and determine stem cell fate. A complete understanding of how topographical properties affect cell behavior will allow the rational design of material surfaces that elicit specified biological functions once placed in the body. To this end, we fabricate substrates with aligned or randomly organized fibrous nanostructured topographies. Culturing adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), we explore the dynamic relationship between the alignment of topography, cell shape and cell differentiation to osteogenic and myogenic lineages. We show aligned topographies differentiate cells towards a satellite cell muscle progenitor state - a distinct cell myogenic lineage responsible for postnatal growth and repair of muscle. We analyze cell shape between the different topographies, using fluorescent time-lapse imaging over 21 days. In contrast to previous work, this allows the direct measurement of cell shape at a given time rather than defining the morphology of the underlying topography and neglecting cell shape. We report quantitative metrics of the time-based morphological behaviors of cell shape in response to differing topographies. This analysis offers insights into the relationship between topography, cell shape and cell differentiation. Cells differentiating towards a myogenic fate on aligned topographies adopt a characteristic elongated shape as well as the alignment of cells. PMID:27910868

  11. Hodgkin's lymphoma: the role of cell surface receptors in regulation of tumor cell fate.

    PubMed

    Yurchenko, M; Sidorenko, S P

    2010-12-01

    The hallmark of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) are mononucleated Hodgkin's cells and multinucleated Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells, which usually account for only about 1% of cells in the tumor tissue. The majority of HRS cells in classical HL are derived from germinal centre B cells that have acquired disadvantageous Ig variable chain gene mutations and escaped from apoptosis. Due to reprogramming of gene expression, these lymphoma cells have lost the expression of most B-cell specific genes and acquired expression of multiple genes that are typical for other hematopoietic cells. HRS cells attract various cells of immune system into lymphoma tissue resulting in an inflammatory microenvironment. Moreover, HRS cells are dependent on microenvironment, especially on survival signals from other cells. Despite the loss of BCR - the master-regulator of B cell fate, HRS cells express a number of receptors that regulate tumor cell survival. The rescue of HRS cells from apoptosis is a key event in HL pathogenesis. These cells express at least six receptors that belong to TNF receptor family: CD30, CD40, CD95, TACI, BCMA and RANK, co-stimulatory receptors CD80 and CD86, and E-selectins ligand CD15. Due to the mutations in genes encoding proteins of CD95-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway, it is not functional in HRS cells. Ligands of TNF family receptors on cells in HL microenvironment contribute to the activation of canonical and non-canonical NF-κB signaling pathways and survival program of HRS cells. Moreover, in HRS cells a number of multiple mutations in negative NF-κB regulators, and also gains and amplifications of positive regulators, cooperate in deregulating these pathways. All TNF receptors may be linked to the activation of prosurvival gene expression programs via Akt and ERK pathways. HRS cells also express CD150 receptor with specific ITSM motifs in the cytoplasmic tail. Ligation of this receptor on HRS cells induced activation of Akt and ERK pathways, and moreover

  12. Computational cell fate modelling for discovery of rewiring in apoptotic network for enhanced cancer drug sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing cancer research has shown that malignant tumour cells have highly disrupted signalling transduction pathways. In cancer cells, signalling pathways are altered to satisfy the demands of continuous proliferation and survival. The changes in signalling pathways supporting uncontrolled cell growth, termed as rewiring, can lead to dysregulation of cell fates e.g. apoptosis. Hence comparative analysis of normal and oncogenic signal transduction pathways may provide insights into mechanisms of cancer drug-resistance and facilitate the discovery of novel and effective anti-cancer therapies. Here we propose a hybrid modelling approach based on ordinary differential equation (ODE) and machine learning to map network rewiring in the apoptotic pathways that may be responsible for the increase of drug sensitivity of tumour cells in triple-negative breast cancer. Our method employs Genetic Algorithm to search for the most likely network topologies by iteratively generating simulated protein phosphorylation data using ODEs and the rewired network and then fitting the simulated data with real data of cancer signalling and cell fate. Most of our predictions are consistent with experimental evidence from literature. Combining the strengths of knowledge-driven and data-driven approaches, our hybrid model can help uncover molecular mechanisms of cancer cell fate at systems level. PMID:25707537

  13. Surface Atomic Structure Directs the Fate of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lingqing; Cheng, Kui; Zhou, Ying; Yu, Mengfei; Gong, Jiaxing; Lin, Yihan; Luo, Qi; Wang, Qi; Weng, Wenjian; Wang, Huiming

    2017-05-10

    Stem cells in contact with materials are able to sense their surface features, integrate extracellular matrix (ECM) protein cues through a signal transduction pathway, and ultimately direct cell fate decisions. However, discovering the interdisciplinary mechanisms of how stem cells respond to inherent material surface features still remains a challenge due to the complex, multicomponent signaling milieu present in the ECM environment. Here, we demonstrate that the fate of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) can be regulated by the inherent physical cue of the material surface down to atomic-scale features. hMSCs on a TiO-terminated SrTiO3 {110} substrate tend to differentiate into specific lineage cells (osteoblast, chondrocyte, adipocyte), whereas on a TiO2-terminated SrTiO3 {100} substrate they are prone to maintain pluripotency. The experimental observations and molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the distinct conformations of the initially adsorbed serum albumin and fibronectin proteins activate the integrin-focal adhesion cytoskeleton actin transduction pathway and, subsequently, direct the gene and protein expressions of hMSCs. Moreover, we demonstrate that the initial protein adsorption behaviors are dependent on the distinct hydroxyl groups originating from different surface atomic structures as well as the work functions. This work, therefore, provides new insights into the fundamental understanding of cell-material interactions and will have a profound impact on further designing materials to direct the stem cell fate.

  14. TOO MANY MOUTHS promotes cell fate progression in stomatal development of Arabidopsis stems.

    PubMed

    Bhave, Neela S; Veley, Kira M; Nadeau, Jeanette A; Lucas, Jessica R; Bhave, Sanjay L; Sack, Fred D

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM), which encodes a receptor-like protein, cause stomatal patterning defects in Arabidopsis leaves but eliminate stomatal formation in stems. Stomatal development in wild-type and tmm stems was analyzed to define TMM function. Epidermal cells in young tmm stems underwent many asymmetric divisions characteristic of entry into the stomatal pathway. The resulting precursor cells, meristemoids, appropriately expressed cell fate markers such as pTMM:GFP. However, instead of progressing developmentally by forming a guard mother cell, the meristemoids arrested, dedifferentiated, and enlarged. Thus asymmetric divisions are necessary but not sufficient for stomatal formation in stems, and TMM promotes the fate and developmental progression of early precursor cells. Comparable developmental and mature stomatal phenotypes were also found in tmm hypocotyls and in the proximal flower stalk. TMM is also a positive regulator of meristemoid division in leaves suggesting that TMM generally promotes meristemoid activity. Our results are consistent with a model in which TMM interacts with other proteins to modulate precursor cell fate and progression in an organ and domain-specific manner. Finally, the consistent presence of a small number of dedifferentiated meristemoids in mature wild-type stems suggests that precursor cell arrest is a normal feature of Arabidopsis stem development.

  15. Stem Cell Fate Determination during Development and Regeneration of Ectodermal Organs

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Rojo, Lucía; Granchi, Zoraide; Graf, Daniel; Mitsiadis, Thimios A.

    2012-01-01

    The development of ectoderm-derived appendages results in a large variety of highly specialized organs such as hair follicles, mammary glands, salivary glands, and teeth. Despite varying in number, shape, and function, all these ectodermal organs develop through continuous and reciprocal epithelial–mesenchymal interactions, sharing common morphological and molecular features especially during their embryonic development. Diseases such as ectodermal dysplasias can affect simultaneously these organs, suggesting that they may arise from common multipotent precursors residing in the embryonic ectoderm. During embryogenesis, these putative ectodermal stem cells may adopt different fates and consequently be able to generate a variety of tissue-specific stem cells, which are the sources for the various cell lineages that form the diverse organs. The specification of those common epithelial precursors, as well as their further lineage commitment to tissue-specific stem cells, might be controlled by specific signals. It has been well documented that Notch, Wnt, bone morphogenetic protein, and fibroblast growth factor signaling pathways regulate cell fate decisions during the various stages of ectodermal organ development. However, the in vivo spatial and temporal dynamics of these signaling pathways are not yet well understood. Improving the current knowledge on the mechanisms involved in stem cell fate determination during organogenesis and homeostasis of ectodermal organs is crucial to develop effective stem cell-based therapies in order to regenerate or replace pathological and damaged tissues. PMID:22539926

  16. Computational cell fate modelling for discovery of rewiring in apoptotic network for enhanced cancer drug sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Shital K; Bhowmick, Sourav S; Chua, Huey; Zhang, Fan; Zheng, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing cancer research has shown that malignant tumour cells have highly disrupted signalling transduction pathways. In cancer cells, signalling pathways are altered to satisfy the demands of continuous proliferation and survival. The changes in signalling pathways supporting uncontrolled cell growth, termed as rewiring, can lead to dysregulation of cell fates e.g. apoptosis. Hence comparative analysis of normal and oncogenic signal transduction pathways may provide insights into mechanisms of cancer drug-resistance and facilitate the discovery of novel and effective anti-cancer therapies. Here we propose a hybrid modelling approach based on ordinary differential equation (ODE) and machine learning to map network rewiring in the apoptotic pathways that may be responsible for the increase of drug sensitivity of tumour cells in triple-negative breast cancer. Our method employs Genetic Algorithm to search for the most likely network topologies by iteratively generating simulated protein phosphorylation data using ODEs and the rewired network and then fitting the simulated data with real data of cancer signalling and cell fate. Most of our predictions are consistent with experimental evidence from literature. Combining the strengths of knowledge-driven and data-driven approaches, our hybrid model can help uncover molecular mechanisms of cancer cell fate at systems level.

  17. T-cell stimuli independently sum to regulate an inherited clonal division fate

    PubMed Central

    Marchingo, J. M.; Prevedello, G.; Kan, A.; Heinzel, S.; Hodgkin, P. D.; Duffy, K. R.

    2016-01-01

    In the presence of antigen and costimulation, T cells undergo a characteristic response of expansion, cessation and contraction. Previous studies have revealed that population-level reproducibility is a consequence of multiple clones exhibiting considerable disparity in burst size, highlighting the requirement for single-cell information in understanding T-cell fate regulation. Here we show that individual T-cell clones resulting from controlled stimulation in vitro are strongly lineage imprinted with highly correlated expansion fates. Progeny from clonal families cease dividing in the same or adjacent generations, with inter-clonal variation producing burst-size diversity. The effects of costimulatory signals on individual clones sum together with stochastic independence; therefore, the net effect across multiple clones produces consistent, but heterogeneous population responses. These data demonstrate that substantial clonal heterogeneity arises through differences in experience of clonal progenitors, either through stochastic antigen interaction or by differences in initial receptor sensitivities. PMID:27869196

  18. Morphogen and community effects determine cell fates in response to BMP4 signaling in human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Nemashkalo, Anastasiia; Ruzo, Albert; Heemskerk, Idse; Warmflash, Aryeh

    2017-09-01

    Paracrine signals maintain developmental states and create cell fate patterns in vivo and influence differentiation outcomes in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in vitro Systematic investigation of morphogen signaling is hampered by the difficulty of disentangling endogenous signaling from experimentally applied ligands. Here, we grow hESCs in micropatterned colonies of 1-8 cells ('µColonies') to quantitatively investigate paracrine signaling and the response to external stimuli. We examine BMP4-mediated differentiation in µColonies and standard culture conditions and find that in µColonies, above a threshold concentration, BMP4 gives rise to only a single cell fate, contrary to its role as a morphogen in other developmental systems. Under standard culture conditions BMP4 acts as a morphogen but this requires secondary signals and particular cell densities. We find that a 'community effect' enforces a common fate within µColonies, both in the state of pluripotency and when cells are differentiated, and that this effect allows a more precise response to external signals. Using live cell imaging to correlate signaling histories with cell fates, we demonstrate that interactions between neighbors result in sustained, homogenous signaling necessary for differentiation. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Robust In Vitro Induction of Human Germ Cell Fate from Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kotaro; Yokobayashi, Shihori; Nakamura, Tomonori; Okamoto, Ikuhiro; Yabuta, Yukihiro; Kurimoto, Kazuki; Ohta, Hiroshi; Moritoki, Yoshinobu; Iwatani, Chizuru; Tsuchiya, Hideaki; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Mori, Takahide; Woltjen, Knut; Nakagawa, Masato; Yamamoto, Takuya; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Yamanaka, Shinya; Saitou, Mitinori

    2015-08-06

    Mechanisms underlying human germ cell development are unclear, partly due to difficulties in studying human embryos and lack of suitable experimental systems. Here, we show that human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) differentiate into incipient mesoderm-like cells (iMeLCs), which robustly generate human primordial germ cell-like cells (hPGCLCs) that can be purified using the surface markers EpCAM and INTEGRINα6. The transcriptomes of hPGCLCs and primordial germ cells (PGCs) isolated from non-human primates are similar, and although specification of hPGCLCs and mouse PGCs rely on similar signaling pathways, hPGCLC specification transcriptionally activates germline fate without transiently inducing eminent somatic programs. This includes genes important for naive pluripotency and repression of key epigenetic modifiers, concomitant with epigenetic reprogramming. Accordingly, BLIMP1, which represses somatic programs in mice, activates and stabilizes a germline transcriptional circuit and represses a default neuronal differentiation program. Together, these findings provide a foundation for understanding and reconstituting human germ cell development in vitro.

  20. Multidimensional nanomaterials for the control of stem cell fate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chueng, Sy-Tsong Dean; Yang, Letao; Zhang, Yixiao; Lee, Ki-Bum

    2016-09-01

    Current stem cell therapy suffers low efficiency in giving rise to differentiated cell lineages, which can replace the original damaged cells. Nanomaterials, on the other hand, provide unique physical size, surface chemistry, conductivity, and topographical microenvironment to regulate stem cell differentiation through multidimensional approaches to facilitate gene delivery, cell-cell, and cell-ECM interactions. In this review, nanomaterials are demonstrated to work both alone and synergistically to guide selective stem cell differentiation. From three different nanotechnology families, three approaches are shown: (1) soluble microenvironmental factors; (2) insoluble physical microenvironment; and (3) nano-topographical features. As regenerative medicine is heavily invested in effective stem cell therapy, this review is inspired to generate discussions in the potential clinical applications of multi-dimensional nanomaterials.

  1. Self-Organizing Global Gene Expression Regulated through Criticality: Mechanism of the Cell-Fate Change

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Masa; Giuliani, Alessandro; Hashimoto, Midori; Erenpreisa, Jekaterina; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    Background A fundamental issue in bioscience is to understand the mechanism that underlies the dynamic control of genome-wide expression through the complex temporal-spatial self-organization of the genome to regulate the change in cell fate. We address this issue by elucidating a physically motivated mechanism of self-organization. Principal Findings Building upon transcriptome experimental data for seven distinct cell fates, including early embryonic development, we demonstrate that self-organized criticality (SOC) plays an essential role in the dynamic control of global gene expression regulation at both the population and single-cell levels. The novel findings are as follows: i) Mechanism of cell-fate changes: A sandpile-type critical transition self-organizes overall expression into a few transcription response domains (critical states). A cell-fate change occurs by means of a dissipative pulse-like global perturbation in self-organization through the erasure of initial-state critical behaviors (criticality). Most notably, the reprogramming of early embryo cells destroys the zygote SOC control to initiate self-organization in the new embryonal genome, which passes through a stochastic overall expression pattern. ii) Mechanism of perturbation of SOC controls: Global perturbations in self-organization involve the temporal regulation of critical states. Quantitative evaluation of this perturbation in terminal cell fates reveals that dynamic interactions between critical states determine the critical-state coherent regulation. The occurrence of a temporal change in criticality perturbs this between-states interaction, which directly affects the entire genomic system. Surprisingly, a sub-critical state, corresponding to an ensemble of genes that shows only marginal changes in expression and consequently are considered to be devoid of any interest, plays an essential role in generating a global perturbation in self-organization directed toward the cell-fate change

  2. Prospero distinguishes sibling cell fate without asymmetric localization in the Drosophila adult external sense organ lineage.

    PubMed

    Manning, L; Doe, C Q

    1999-05-01

    The adult external sense organ precursor (SOP) lineage is a model system for studying asymmetric cell division. Adult SOPs divide asymmetrically to produce IIa and IIb daughter cells; IIa generates the external socket (tormogen) and hair (trichogen) cells, while IIb generates the internal neuron and sheath (thecogen) cells. Here we investigate the expression and function of prospero in the adult SOP lineage. Although Prospero is asymmetrically localized in embryonic SOP lineage, this is not observed in the adult SOP lineage: Prospero is first detected in the IIb nucleus and, during IIb division, it is cytoplasmic and inherited by both neuron and sheath cells. Subsequently, Prospero is downregulated in the neuron but maintained in the sheath cell. Loss of prospero function leads to 'double bristle' sense organs (reflecting a IIb-to-IIa transformation) or 'single bristle' sense organs with abnormal neuronal differentiation (reflecting defective IIb development). Conversely, ectopic prospero expression results in duplicate neurons and sheath cells and a complete absence of hair/socket cells (reflecting a IIa-to-IIb transformation). We conclude that (1) despite the absence of asymmetric protein localization, prospero expression is restricted to the IIb cell but not its IIa sibling, (2) prospero promotes IIb cell fate and inhibits IIa cell fate, and (3) prospero is required for proper axon and dendrite morphology of the neuron derived from the IIb cell. Thus, prospero plays a fundamental role in establishing binary IIa/IIb sibling cell fates without being asymmetrically localized during SOP division. Finally, in contrast to previous studies, we find that the IIb cell divides prior to the IIa cell in the SOP lineage.

  3. N-myc alters the fate of preneoplastic cells in a mouse model of medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Jessica D.; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Brun, Sonja N.; Yang, Zeng-Jie; Dutton, John W.; Wang, Fan; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Studying the early stages of cancer can provide important insight into the molecular basis of the disease. We identified a preneoplastic stage in the patched (ptc) mutant mouse, a model for the brain tumor medulloblastoma. Preneoplastic cells (PNCs) are found in most ptc mutants during early adulthood, but only 15% of these animals develop tumors. Although PNCs are found in mice that develop tumors, the ability of PNCs to give rise to tumors has never been demonstrated directly, and the fate of cells that do not form tumors remains unknown. Using genetic fate mapping and orthotopic transplantation, we provide definitive evidence that PNCs give rise to tumors, and show that the predominant fate of PNCs that do not form tumors is differentiation. Moreover, we show that N-myc, a gene commonly amplified in medulloblastoma, can dramatically alter the fate of PNCs, preventing differentiation and driving progression to tumors. Importantly, N-myc allows PNCs to grow independently of hedgehog signaling, making the resulting tumors resistant to hedgehog antagonists. These studies provide the first direct evidence that PNCs can give rise to tumors, and demonstrate that identification of genetic changes that promote tumor progression is critical for designing effective therapies for cancer. PMID:19171780

  4. Developmental biology: cell fate in the mammary gland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Most breast cancers have their origin in the luminal epithelial cells of the mammary gland. Defining how a master regulator controls the development of this cell lineage could provide important hints about why this should be. ...

  5. Distinction between color photoreceptor cell fates is controlled by Prospero in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Cook, Tiffany; Pichaud, Franck; Sonneville, Remi; Papatsenko, Dmitri; Desplan, Claude

    2003-06-01

    The Drosophila compound eye consists of approximately 750 independently functioning ommatidia, each containing two photoreceptor subpopulations. The outer photoreceptors participate in motion detection, while the inner photoreceptors contribute to color vision. Although the inner photoreceptors, R7 and R8, terminally differentiate into functionally related cells, they differ in their molecular and morphological makeup. Our data indicates that several aspects of R7 versus R8 cell fate determination are regulated by the transcription factor Prospero (Pros). pros is specifically expressed in R7 cells, and R7 cells mutant for pros derepress R8 rhodopsins, lose R7 rhodopsins and acquire an R8-like morphology. This suggests that R7 inner photoreceptor cell fate is acquired from a default R8-like fate that is regulated, in part, via the direct transcriptional repression of R8 rhodopsins in R7 cells. Furthermore, this study provides transcriptional targets for pros that may lend insight into its role in regulating neuronal development in flies and vertebrates.

  6. Protein-driven RNA nanostructured devices that function in vitro and control mammalian cell fate.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Tomonori; Fujita, Yoshihiko; Ohno, Hirohisa; Suzuki, Yuki; Hayashi, Karin; Komatsu, Kaoru R; Kawasaki, Shunsuke; Hidaka, Kumi; Yonehara, Shin; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Endo, Masayuki; Saito, Hirohide

    2017-09-14

    Nucleic acid nanotechnology has great potential for future therapeutic applications. However, the construction of nanostructured devices that control cell fate by detecting and amplifying protein signals has remained a challenge. Here we design and build protein-driven RNA-nanostructured devices that actuate in vitro by RNA-binding-protein-inducible conformational change and regulate mammalian cell fate by RNA-protein interaction-mediated protein assembly. The conformation and function of the RNA nanostructures are dynamically controlled by RNA-binding protein signals. The protein-responsive RNA nanodevices are constructed inside cells using RNA-only delivery, which may provide a safe tool for building functional RNA-protein nanostructures. Moreover, the designed RNA scaffolds that control the assembly and oligomerization of apoptosis-regulatory proteins on a nanometre scale selectively kill target cells via specific RNA-protein interactions. These findings suggest that synthetic RNA nanodevices could function as molecular robots that detect signals and localize target proteins, induce RNA conformational changes, and programme mammalian cellular behaviour.Nucleic acid nanotechnology has great potential for future therapeutic applications. Here the authors build protein-driven RNA nanostructures that can function within mammalian cells and regulate the cell fate.

  7. The Chromatin Modifier MSK1/2 Suppresses Endocrine Cell Fates during Mouse Pancreatic Development

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Neha; Park, Jeehye; Zoghbi, Huda Y.; Arthur, J. Simon C.; Zaret, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Type I diabetes is caused by loss of insulin-secreting beta cells. To identify novel, pharmacologically-targetable histone-modifying proteins that enhance beta cell production from pancreatic progenitors, we performed a screen for histone modifications induced by signal transduction pathways at key pancreatic genes. The screen led us to investigate the temporal dynamics of ser-28 phosphorylated histone H3 (H3S28ph) and its upstream kinases, MSK1 and MSK2 (MSK1/2). H3S28ph and MSK1/2 were enriched at the key endocrine and acinar promoters in E12.5 multipotent pancreatic progenitors. Pharmacological inhibition of MSK1/2 in embryonic pancreatic explants promoted the specification of endocrine fates, including the beta-cell lineage, while depleting acinar fates. Germline knockout of both Msk isoforms caused enhancement of alpha cells and a reduction in acinar differentiation, while monoallelic loss of Msk1 promoted beta cell mass. Our screen of chromatin state dynamics can be applied to other developmental contexts to reveal new pathways and approaches to modulate cell fates. PMID:27973548

  8. The Fate of ZnO Nanoparticles Administered to Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Benjamin; Fakra, Sirine C.; Xia, Tian; Pokhrel, Suman; Mädler, Lutz; Nel, André E.

    2014-01-01

    A particular challenge for nanotoxicology is the evaluation of the biological fate and toxicity of nanomaterials that dissolve in aqueous fluids. Zinc oxide nanomaterials are of particular concern because dissolution leads to release of the toxic divalent zinc ion. Although dissolved zinc ions have been implicated in ZnO cytotoxicity, direct identification of the chemical form of zinc taken up by cells exposed to ZnO nanoparticles, and its intracellular fate, has not yet been achieved. We combined high resolution X-ray spectromicroscopy and high elemental sensitivity X-ray microprobe analyses to determine the fate of ZnO and less soluble iron-doped ZnO nanoparticles following exposure to cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells, BEAS-2B. We complemented two-dimensional X-ray imaging methods with atomic force microscopy of cell surfaces to distinguish between nanoparticles that were transported inside the cells from those that adhered to the cell exterior. The data suggest cellular uptake of ZnO nanoparticles is a mechanism of zinc accumulation in cells. Following uptake, ZnO nanoparticles dissolved completely generating intracellular Zn2+ complexed by molecular ligands. These results corroborate a model for ZnO nanoparticle toxicity that is based on nanoparticle uptake followed by intracellular dissolution. PMID:22646753

  9. Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Microarray for High-Throughput Studies of Stem Cell Fate

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Tiago G.; Kwon, Seok-Joon; Bale, Shyam Sundhar; Lee, Moo-Yeal; Diogo, Maria Margarida; Clark, Douglas S.; Cabral, Joaquim M.S.

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a novel three-dimensional (3D) cellular microarray platform to enable the rapid and efficient tracking of stem cell fate and quantification of specific stem cell markers. This platform consists of a miniaturized 3D cell culture array on a functionalized glass slide for spatially addressable high-throughput screening. A microarray spotter was used to deposit cells onto a modified glass surface to yield an array consisting of cells encapsulated in alginate gel spots with volumes as low as 60 nL. A method based on an immunofluorescence technique scaled down to function on a cellular microarray was also used to quantify specific cell marker protein levels in situ. Our results revealed that this platform is suitable for studying the expansion of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells as they retain their pluripotent and undifferentiated state. We also examined neural commitment of mouse ES cells on the microarray and observed the generation of neuroectodermal precursor cells characterized by expression of the neural marker Sox-1, whose levels were also measured in situ using a GFP reporter system. In addition, the high-throughput capacity of the platform was tested using a dual-slide system that allowed rapid screening of the effects of tretinoin and fibroblast growth factor-4 (FGF-4) on the pluripotency of mouse ES cells. This high-throughput platform is a powerful new tool for investigating cellular mechanisms involved in stem cell expansion and differentiation and provides the basis for rapid identification of signals and conditions that can be used to direct cellular responses. PMID:20069558

  10. Coordinated repression and activation of two transcriptional programs stabilizes cell fate during myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ciglar, Lucia; Girardot, Charles; Wilczyński, Bartek; Braun, Martina; Furlong, Eileen E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular models of cell fate specification typically focus on the activation of specific lineage programs. However, the concurrent repression of unwanted transcriptional networks is also essential to stabilize certain cellular identities, as shown in a number of diverse systems and phyla. Here, we demonstrate that this dual requirement also holds true in the context of Drosophila myogenesis. By integrating genetics and genomics, we identified a new role for the pleiotropic transcriptional repressor Tramtrack69 in myoblast specification. Drosophila muscles are formed through the fusion of two discrete cell types: founder cells (FCs) and fusion-competent myoblasts (FCMs). When tramtrack69 is removed, FCMs appear to adopt an alternative muscle FC-like fate. Conversely, ectopic expression of this repressor phenocopies muscle defects seen in loss-of-function lame duck mutants, a transcription factor specific to FCMs. This occurs through Tramtrack69-mediated repression in FCMs, whereas Lame duck activates a largely distinct transcriptional program in the same cells. Lineage-specific factors are therefore not sufficient to maintain FCM identity. Instead, their identity appears more plastic, requiring the combination of instructive repressive and activating programs to stabilize cell fate. PMID:24961800

  11. Notch signaling during cell fate determination in the inner ear

    PubMed Central

    Kiernan, Amy

    2013-01-01

    In the inner ear, Notch signaling has been proposed to specify the sensory regions, as well as regulate the differentiation of hair cells and supporting cell within those regions. In addition, Notch plays an important role in otic neurogenesis, by determining which cells differentiate as neurons, sensory cells and non-sensory cells. Here, I review the evidence for the complex and myriad roles Notch participates in during inner ear development. A particular challenge for those studying ear development and Notch is to decipher how activation of a single pathway can lead to different outcomes within the ear, which may include changes in the intrinsic properties of the cell, Notch modulation, and potential non-canonical pathways. PMID:23578865

  12. Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Determines the Vasculogenic Fate of Postnatal Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaocheng; Nör, Felipe; Oh, Min; Cucco, Carolina; Shi, Songtao; Nör, Jacques E

    2016-06-01

    Vasculogenesis is the process of de novo blood vessel formation observed primarily during embryonic development. Emerging evidence suggest that postnatal mesenchymal stem cells are capable of recapitulating vasculogenesis when these cells are engaged in tissue regeneration. However, the mechanisms underlining the vasculogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells remain unclear. Here, we used stem cells from human permanent teeth (dental pulp stem cells [DPSC]) or deciduous teeth (stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth [SHED]) as models of postnatal primary human mesenchymal stem cells to understand mechanisms regulating their vasculogenic fate. GFP-tagged mesenchymal stem cells seeded in human tooth slice/scaffolds and transplanted into immunodeficient mice differentiate into human blood vessels that anastomize with the mouse vasculature. In vitro, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induced the vasculogenic differentiation of DPSC and SHED via potent activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Further, activation of Wnt signaling is sufficient to induce the vasculogenic differentiation of postnatal mesenchymal stem cells, while Wnt inhibition blocked this process. Notably, β-catenin-silenced DPSC no longer differentiate into endothelial cells in vitro, and showed impaired vasculogenesis in vivo. Collectively, these data demonstrate that VEGF signaling through the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway defines the vasculogenic fate of postnatal mesenchymal stem cells. Stem Cells 2016;34:1576-1587. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  13. Evolution of a system sensitive to stochastic noise: P3.p cell fate in Caenorhabditis.

    PubMed

    Pénigault, Jean-Baptiste; Félix, Marie-Anne

    2011-09-15

    The C. elegans cell lineage is overall invariant. One rare instance of variability concerns P3.p, the most anterior vulva precursor cell, which may either fuse with the epidermis without dividing, or remain competent to form vulval tissue and divide. Here we examine the evolutionary properties of this stochastic variation in P3.p fate. In the Caenorhabditis genus, high P3.p competence is ancestral and reduction in P3.p competence and division frequency occurred in C. sp. 14 and in a clade of nine species. Within this clade, the frequency of P3.p division further varies within and among species, being intermediate in C. elegans and low in C. briggsae. P3.p fate frequency is sensitive to random mutation accumulation, suggesting that this trait may evolve rapidly because of its sensitivity to mutational impact. P3.p fate depends on LIN-39/Hox5 expression and we find that the peak of LIN-39/Hox5 protein level is displaced posteriorly in C. briggsae compared to C. elegans. However, P3.p fate specification is most sensitive to the dose of EGL-20 and CWN-1, two Wnts that are secreted in a long-range gradient from the posterior end of C. elegans larvae (accompanying article). A half-dose of either of these Wnts is sufficient to affect division frequency in C. elegans N2 to levels similar to those in C. briggsae. Symmetrically, we show that an increase in Wnt dose rescues anterior competence in C. briggsae. We propose that evolutionary variation in the concentration or interpretation of the long-range Wnt gradient may be involved in the rapid evolution of P3.p fate in Caenorhabditis.

  14. Differential levels of Neurod establish zebrafish endocrine pancreas cell fates

    PubMed Central

    Dalgin, Gökhan; Prince, Victoria E.

    2015-01-01

    During development a network of transcription factors functions to differentiate foregut cells into pancreatic endocrine cells. Differentiation of appropriate numbers of each hormone-expressing endocrine cell type is essential for the normal development of the pancreas and ultimately for effective maintenance of blood glucose levels. A fuller understanding of the details of endocrine cell differentiation may contribute to development of cell replacement therapies to treat diabetes. In this study, by using morpholino and gRNA/Cas9 mediated knockdown we establish that differential levels of the basic-helix loop helix (bHLH) transcription factor Neurod are required for the differentiation of distinct endocrine cell types in developing zebrafish. While Neurod plays a role in the differentiation of all endocrine cells, we find that differentiation of glucagon-expressing alpha cells is disrupted by a minor reduction in Neurod levels, whereas differentiation of insulin-expressing beta cells is less sensitive to Neurod depletion. The endocrine cells that arise during embryonic stages to produce the primary islet, and those that arise subsequently during larval stages from the intra-pancreatic duct (IPD) to ultimately contribute to the secondary islets, show similar dependence on differential Neurod levels. Intriguingly, Neurod-deficiency triggers premature formation of endocrine precursors from the IPD during early larval stages. However, the Neurod-deficient endocrine precursors fail to differentiate appropriately, and the larvae are unable to maintain normal glucose levels. In summary, differential levels of Neurod are required to generate endocrine pancreas subtypes from precursors during both embryonic and larval stages, and Neurod function is in turn critical to endocrine function. PMID:25797153

  15. Tips, Stalks, Tubes: Notch-Mediated Cell Fate Determination and Mechanisms of Tubulogenesis during Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jennifer J.; Tattersall, Ian W.; Kitajewski, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the process of developing vascular sprouts from existing blood vessels. Luminal endothelial cells convert into “tip” cells that contribute to the development of a multicellular stalk, which then undergoes lumen formation. In this review, we consider a variety of cellular and molecular pathways that mediate these transitions. We focus first on Notch signaling in cell fate determination as a mechanism to define tip and stalk cells. We next discuss the current models of lumen formation and describe new players in this process, such as chloride intracellular channel proteins. Finally, we consider the possible medical therapeutic benefits of understanding these processes and acknowledge potential obstacles in drug development. PMID:22355796

  16. FGF/MAPK signaling sets the switching threshold of a bistable circuit controlling cell fate decisions in embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Schröter, Christian; Rué, Pau; Mackenzie, Jonathan Peter; Martinez Arias, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular transcriptional regulators and extracellular signaling pathways together regulate the allocation of cell fates during development, but how their molecular activities are integrated to establish the correct proportions of cells with particular fates is not known. Here we study this question in the context of the decision between the epiblast (Epi) and the primitive endoderm (PrE) fate that occurs in the mammalian preimplantation embryo. Using an embryonic stem cell (ESC) model, we discover two successive functions of FGF/MAPK signaling in this decision. First, the pathway needs to be inhibited to make the PrE-like gene expression program accessible for activation by GATA transcription factors in ESCs. In a second step, MAPK signaling levels determine the threshold concentration of GATA factors required for PrE-like differentiation, and thereby control the proportion of cells differentiating along this lineage. Our findings can be explained by a simple mutual repression circuit modulated by FGF/MAPK signaling. This might be a general network architecture to integrate the activity of signal transduction pathways and transcriptional regulators, and serve to balance proportions of cell fates in several contexts. PMID:26511924

  17. Neural stem cell sex dimorphism in aromatase (CYP19) expression: a basis for differential neural fate

    PubMed Central

    Waldron, Jay; McCourty, Althea; Lecanu, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation and pharmacologic activation of endogenous neurogenesis are two approaches that trigger a great deal of interest as brain repair strategies. However, the success rate of clinical attempts using stem cells to restore neurologic functions altered either after traumatic brain injury or as a consequence of neurodegenerative disease remains rather disappointing. This suggests that factors affecting the fate of grafted NSCs are largely understudied and remain to be characterized. We recently reported that aging differentially affects the neurogenic properties of male and female NSCs. Although the sex steroids androgens and estrogens participate in the regulation of neurogenesis, to our knowledge, research on how gender-based differences affect the capacity of NSCs to differentiate and condition their neural fate is lacking. In the present study, we explored further the role of cell sex as a determining factor of the neural fate followed by differentiating NSCs and its relationship with a potential differential expression of aromatase (CYP19), the testosterone-metabolizing enzyme. Results Using NSCs isolated from the subventricular zone of three-month-old male and female Long-Evans rats and maintained as neurospheres, we showed that differentiation triggered by retinoic acid resulted in a neural phenotype that depends on cell sex. Differentiated male NSCs mainly expressed markers of neuronal fate, including βIII-tubulin, microtubule associated protein 2, growth-associated protein 43, and doublecortin. In contrast, female NSCs essentially expressed the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein. Quantification of the expression of aromatase showed a very low level of expression in undifferentiated female NSCs, whereas aromatase expression in male NSCs was 14-fold greater than the female level. Conclusion Our results confirm our previous data that the neural phenotype acquired by differentiating NSCs largely depends on

  18. Matrix mechanics and fluid shear stress control stem cells fate in three dimensional microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guobao; Lv, Yonggang; Guo, Pan; Lin, Chongwen; Zhang, Xiaomei; Yang, Li; Xu, Zhiling

    2013-07-01

    Stem cells have the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into multiple mature cell types during early life and growth. Stem cells adhesion, proliferation, migration and differentiation are affected by biochemical, mechanical and physical surface properties of the surrounding matrix in which stem cells reside and stem cells can sensitively feel and respond to the microenvironment of this matrix. More and more researches have proven that three dimensional (3D) culture can reduce the gap between cell culture and physiological environment where cells always live in vivo. This review summarized recent findings on the studies of matrix mechanics that control stem cells (primarily mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)) fate in 3D environment, including matrix stiffness and extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness. Considering the exchange of oxygen and nutrients in 3D culture, the effect of fluid shear stress (FSS) on fate decision of stem cells was also discussed in detail. Further, the difference of MSCs response to matrix stiffness between two dimensional (2D) and 3D conditions was compared. Finally, the mechanism of mechanotransduction of stem cells activated by matrix mechanics and FSS in 3D culture was briefly pointed out.

  19. Laminins affect T cell trafficking and allograft fate.

    PubMed

    Warren, Kristi J; Iwami, Daiki; Harris, Donald G; Bromberg, Jonathan S; Burrell, Bryna E

    2014-05-01

    Lymph nodes (LNs) are integral sites for the generation of immune tolerance, migration of CD4⁺ T cells, and induction of Tregs. Despite the importance of LNs in regulation of inflammatory responses, the LN-specific factors that regulate T cell migration and the precise LN structural domains in which differentiation occurs remain undefined. Using intravital and fluorescent microscopy, we found that alloreactive T cells traffic distinctly into the tolerant LN and colocalize in exclusive regions with alloantigen-presenting cells, a process required for Treg induction. Extracellular matrix proteins, including those of the laminin family, formed regions within the LN that were permissive for colocalization of alloantigen-presenting cells, alloreactive T cells, and Tregs. We identified unique expression patterns of laminin proteins in high endothelial venule basement membranes and the cortical ridge that correlated with alloantigen-specific immunity or immune tolerance. The ratio of laminin α4 to laminin α5 was greater in domains within tolerant LNs, compared with immune LNs, and blocking laminin α4 function or inducing laminin α5 overexpression disrupted T cell and DC localization and transmigration through tolerant LNs. Furthermore, reducing α4 laminin circumvented tolerance induction and induced cardiac allograft inflammation and rejection in murine models. This work identifies laminins as potential targets for immune modulation.

  20. Functionalized scaffolds to control dental pulp stem cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Piva, Evandro; Silva, Adriana F.; Nör, Jacques E.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging understanding about interactions between stem cells, scaffolds and morphogenic factors has accelerated translational research in the field of dental pulp tissue engineering. Dental pulp stem cells constitute a sub-population of cells endowed with self-renewal and multipotency. Dental pulp stem cells seeded in biodegradable scaffolds and exposed to dentin-derived morphogenic signals give rise to a pulp-like tissue capable of generating new dentin. Notably, dentin-derived proteins are sufficient to induce dental pulp stem cell differentiation into odontoblasts. Ongoing work is focused on developing ways of mobilizing dentin-derived proteins and disinfecting the root canal of necrotic teeth without compromising the morphogenic potential of these signaling molecules. On the other hand, dentin by itself does not appear to be capable of inducing endothelial differentiation of dental pulp stem cells, despite the well known presence of angiogenic factors in dentin. This is particularly relevant in the context of dental pulp tissue engineering in full root canals, where access to blood supply is limited to the apical foramina. To address this challenge, scientists are looking at ways to use the scaffold as a controlled release device for angiogenic factors. The aim of this manuscript is to present and discuss current strategies to functionalize injectable scaffolds and customize them for dental pulp tissue engineering. The long-term goal of this work is to develop stem cell-based therapies that enable the engineering of functional dental pulps capable of generating new tubular dentin in humans. PMID:24698691

  1. Laminins affect T cell trafficking and allograft fate

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Kristi J.; Iwami, Daiki; Harris, Donald G.; Bromberg, Jonathan S.; Burrell, Bryna E.

    2014-01-01

    Lymph nodes (LNs) are integral sites for the generation of immune tolerance, migration of CD4+ T cells, and induction of Tregs. Despite the importance of LNs in regulation of inflammatory responses, the LN-specific factors that regulate T cell migration and the precise LN structural domains in which differentiation occurs remain undefined. Using intravital and fluorescent microscopy, we found that alloreactive T cells traffic distinctly into the tolerant LN and colocalize in exclusive regions with alloantigen-presenting cells, a process required for Treg induction. Extracellular matrix proteins, including those of the laminin family, formed regions within the LN that were permissive for colocalization of alloantigen-presenting cells, alloreactive T cells, and Tregs. We identified unique expression patterns of laminin proteins in high endothelial venule basement membranes and the cortical ridge that correlated with alloantigen-specific immunity or immune tolerance. The ratio of laminin α4 to laminin α5 was greater in domains within tolerant LNs, compared with immune LNs, and blocking laminin α4 function or inducing laminin α5 overexpression disrupted T cell and DC localization and transmigration through tolerant LNs. Furthermore, reducing α4 laminin circumvented tolerance induction and induced cardiac allograft inflammation and rejection in murine models. This work identifies laminins as potential targets for immune modulation. PMID:24691446

  2. Uptake and fate of ganglioside GD3 in human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Schnabl, Kareena L; Larcelet, Marjorie; Thomson, Alan B R; Clandinin, Michael T

    2009-07-01

    Ganglioside GD3 is a glycosphingolipid found in colostrum, developing tissues, and tumors and is known to regulate cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and inflammation. Feeding a GD3-enriched diet to rats increases GD3 in intestinal lipid rafts and blood. The mechanism, efficiency, and fate of ganglioside absorption by human enterocytes have not been investigated. A model to study GD3 uptake by human intestinal cells was developed to test the hypothesis that enterocyte GD3 uptake is time and concentration dependent, with uptake efficiency and fate influenced by route of delivery. Caco-2 cells were exposed to GD3 on the apical or basolateral membrane (BLM) side for 6, 24, and 48 h. GD3 uptake, retention, transfer, and metabolism was determined. GD3 uptake across the apical and BLM was time and concentration dependent and reached a plateau. GD3 uptake across the BLM was more efficient than apical delivery. Apical GD3 was metabolized with some cell retention and transfer, whereas basolateral GD3 was mostly metabolized. This study demonstrates efficient GD3 uptake by enterocytes and suggests that the route of delivery influences ganglioside uptake and fate.

  3. Concentration Sensing by the Moving Nucleus in Cell Fate Determination: A Computational Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Varun; Dickinson, Richard B.; Lele, Tanmay P.

    2016-01-01

    During development of the vertebrate neuroepithelium, the nucleus in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) moves from the apex toward the base and returns to the apex (called interkinetic nuclear migration) at which point the cell divides. The fate of the resulting daughter cells is thought to depend on the sampling by the moving nucleus of a spatial concentration profile of the cytoplasmic Notch intracellular domain (NICD). However, the nucleus executes complex stochastic motions including random waiting and back and forth motions, which can expose the nucleus to randomly varying levels of cytoplasmic NICD. How nuclear position can determine daughter cell fate despite the stochastic nature of nuclear migration is not clear. Here we derived a mathematical model for reaction, diffusion, and nuclear accumulation of NICD in NPCs during interkinetic nuclear migration (INM). Using experimentally measured trajectory-dependent probabilities of nuclear turning, nuclear waiting times and average nuclear speeds in NPCs in the developing zebrafish retina, we performed stochastic simulations to compute the nuclear trajectory-dependent probabilities of NPC differentiation. Comparison with experimentally measured nuclear NICD concentrations and trajectory-dependent probabilities of differentiation allowed estimation of the NICD cytoplasmic gradient. Spatially polarized production of NICD, rapid NICD cytoplasmic consumption and the time-averaging effect of nuclear import/export kinetics are sufficient to explain the experimentally observed differentiation probabilities. Our computational studies lend quantitative support to the feasibility of the nuclear concentration-sensing mechanism for NPC fate determination in zebrafish retina. PMID:26872214

  4. Concentration Sensing by the Moving Nucleus in Cell Fate Determination: A Computational Analysis.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Varun; Dickinson, Richard B; Lele, Tanmay P

    2016-01-01

    During development of the vertebrate neuroepithelium, the nucleus in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) moves from the apex toward the base and returns to the apex (called interkinetic nuclear migration) at which point the cell divides. The fate of the resulting daughter cells is thought to depend on the sampling by the moving nucleus of a spatial concentration profile of the cytoplasmic Notch intracellular domain (NICD). However, the nucleus executes complex stochastic motions including random waiting and back and forth motions, which can expose the nucleus to randomly varying levels of cytoplasmic NICD. How nuclear position can determine daughter cell fate despite the stochastic nature of nuclear migration is not clear. Here we derived a mathematical model for reaction, diffusion, and nuclear accumulation of NICD in NPCs during interkinetic nuclear migration (INM). Using experimentally measured trajectory-dependent probabilities of nuclear turning, nuclear waiting times and average nuclear speeds in NPCs in the developing zebrafish retina, we performed stochastic simulations to compute the nuclear trajectory-dependent probabilities of NPC differentiation. Comparison with experimentally measured nuclear NICD concentrations and trajectory-dependent probabilities of differentiation allowed estimation of the NICD cytoplasmic gradient. Spatially polarized production of NICD, rapid NICD cytoplasmic consumption and the time-averaging effect of nuclear import/export kinetics are sufficient to explain the experimentally observed differentiation probabilities. Our computational studies lend quantitative support to the feasibility of the nuclear concentration-sensing mechanism for NPC fate determination in zebrafish retina.

  5. Retinoic acid, meiosis and germ cell fate in mammals.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter

    2007-10-01

    Although mammalian sex is determined genetically, the sex-specific development of germ cells as sperm or oocytes is initiated by cues provided by the gonadal environment. During embryogenesis, germ cells in an ovary enter meiosis, thereby committing to oogenesis. By contrast, germ cells in a testicular environment do not enter meiosis until puberty. Recent findings indicate that the key to this sex-specific timing of meiosis entry is the presence or absence of the signaling molecule retinoic acid. Although this knowledge clarifies a long-standing mystery in reproductive biology, it also poses many new questions, which we discuss in this review.

  6. Transcription factor-induced enhancer modulations during cell fate conversions.

    PubMed

    van Oevelen, C; Kallin, E M; Graf, T

    2013-10-01

    The activity of transcription factors (TFs) has empowered the reprogramming of differentiated cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and alternative lineages. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underpinning these processes has expanded our understanding of how novel gene expression programs become activated while old ones are silenced. How TFs modify chromatin and activate requisite enzymes during these processes has recently been discussed in several excellent reviews. Here we discuss the questions of how ectopically expressed TFs access chromatin to modulate enhancers and establish a novel transcriptome during cell reprogramming, lineage conversions and differentiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Human Induced Pluripotent Cell-Derived Sensory Neurons for Fate Commitment of Bone Marrow-Derived Schwann Cells: Implications for Remyelination Therapy.

    PubMed

    Cai, Sa; Han, Lei; Ao, Qiang; Chan, Ying-Shing; Shum, Daisy Kwok-Yan

    2017-02-01

    Strategies that exploit induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to derive neurons have relied on cocktails of cytokines and growth factors to bias cell-signaling events in the course of fate choice. These are often costly and inefficient, involving multiple steps. In this study, we took an alternative approach and selected 5 small-molecule inhibitors of key signaling pathways in an 8-day program to induce differentiation of human iPSCs into sensory neurons, reaching ≥80% yield in terms of marker proteins. Continuing culture in maintenance medium resulted in neuronal networks immunopositive for synaptic vesicle markers and vesicular glutamate transporters suggestive of excitatory neurotransmission. Subpopulations of the derived neurons were electrically excitable, showing tetrodotoxin-sensitive action potentials in patch-clamp experiments. Coculture of the derived neurons with rat Schwann cells under myelinating conditions resulted in upregulated levels of neuronal neuregulin 1 type III in conjunction with the phosphorylated receptors ErbB2 and ErbB3, consistent with amenability of the neuritic network to myelination. As surrogates of embryonic dorsal root ganglia neurons, the derived sensory neurons provided contact-dependent cues to commit bone marrow-derived Schwann cell-like cells to the Schwann cell fate. Our rapid and efficient induction protocol promises not only controlled differentiation of human iPSCs into sensory neurons, but also utility in the translation to a protocol whereby human bone marrow-derived Schwann cells become available for autologous transplantation and remyelination therapy. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:369-381.

  8. Cap-independent translation by DAP5 controls cell fate decisions in human embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoffe, Yael; David, Maya; Kalaora, Rinat; Povodovski, Lital; Friedlander, Gilgi; Feldmesser, Ester; Ainbinder, Elena; Saada, Ann; Bialik, Shani; Kimchi, Adi

    2016-01-01

    Multiple transcriptional and epigenetic changes drive differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). This study unveils an additional level of gene expression regulation involving noncanonical, cap-independent translation of a select group of mRNAs. This is driven by death-associated protein 5 (DAP5/eIF4G2/NAT1), a translation initiation factor mediating IRES-dependent translation. We found that the DAP5 knockdown from human ESCs (hESCs) resulted in persistence of pluripotent gene expression, delayed induction of differentiation-associated genes in different cell lineages, and defective embryoid body formation. The latter involved improper cellular organization, lack of cavitation, and enhanced mislocalized apoptosis. RNA sequencing of polysome-associated mRNAs identified candidates with reduced translation efficiency in DAP5-depleted hESCs. These were enriched in mitochondrial proteins involved in oxidative respiration, a pathway essential for differentiation, the significance of which was confirmed by the aberrant mitochondrial morphology and decreased oxidative respiratory activity in DAP5 knockdown cells. Further analysis identified the chromatin modifier HMGN3 as a cap-independent DAP5 translation target whose knockdown resulted in defective differentiation. Thus, DAP5-mediated translation of a specific set of proteins is critical for the transition from pluripotency to differentiation, highlighting the importance of cap-independent translation in stem cell fate decisions. PMID:27664238

  9. Tissue landscape alters adjacent cell fates during Drosophila egg development

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Lathiena; Weideman, Ann Marie; Peercy, Bradford; Starz-Gaiano, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular signaling molecules control many biological processes, but the influence of tissue architecture on the local concentrations of these factors is unclear. Here we examine this issue in the Drosophila egg chamber, where two anterior cells secrete Unpaired (Upd) to activate Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) signaling in the epithelium. High STAT signaling promotes cell motility. Genetic analysis shows that all cells near the Upd source can respond. However, using upright imaging, we show surprising asymmetries in STAT activation patterns, suggesting that some cells experience different Upd levels than predicted by their location. We develop a three-dimensional mathematical model to characterize the spatio-temporal distribution of the activator. Simulations show that irregular tissue domains can produce asymmetric distributions of Upd, consistent with results in vivo. Mutant analysis substantiates this idea. We conclude that cellular landscape can heavily influence the effect of diffusible activators and should be more widely considered. PMID:26082073

  10. Transcription factors regulating B cell fate in the germinal centre.

    PubMed

    Recaldin, T; Fear, D J

    2016-01-01

    Diversification of the antibody repertoire is essential for the normal operation of the vertebrate adaptive immune system. Following antigen encounter, B cells are activated, proliferate rapidly and undergo two diversification events; somatic hypermutation (followed by selection), which enhances the affinity of the antibody for its cognate antigen, and class-switch recombination, which alters the effector functions of the antibody to adapt the response to the challenge faced. B cells must then differentiate into antibody-secreting plasma cells or long-lived memory B cells. These activities take place in specialized immunological environments called germinal centres, usually located in the secondary lymphoid organs. To complete the germinal centre activities successfully, a B cell adopts a transcriptional programme that allows it to migrate to specific sites within the germinal centre, proliferate, modify its DNA recombination and repair pathways, alter its apoptotic potential and finally undergo terminal differentiation. To co-ordinate these processes, B cells employ a number of 'master regulator' transcription factors which mediate wholesale transcriptomic changes. These master transcription factors are mutually antagonistic and form a complex regulatory network to maintain distinct gene expression programs. Within this network, multiple points of positive and negative feedback ensure the expression of the 'master regulators', augmented by a number of 'secondary' factors that reinforce these networks and sense the progress of the immune response. In this review we will discuss the different activities B cells must undertake to mount a successful T cell-dependent immune response and describe how a regulatory network of transcription factors controls these processes.

  11. Zeb2 Regulates Cell Fate at the Exit from Epiblast State in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Stryjewska, Agata; Dries, Ruben; Pieters, Tim; Verstappen, Griet; Conidi, Andrea; Coddens, Kathleen; Francis, Annick; Umans, Lieve; van IJcken, Wilfred F J; Berx, Geert; van Grunsven, Leo A; Grosveld, Frank G; Goossens, Steven; Haigh, Jody J; Huylebroeck, Danny

    2017-03-01

    In human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) the transcription factor Zeb2 regulates neuroectoderm versus mesendoderm formation, but it is unclear how Zeb2 affects the global transcriptional regulatory network in these cell-fate decisions. We generated Zeb2 knockout (KO) mouse ESCs, subjected them as embryoid bodies (EBs) to neural and general differentiation and carried out temporal RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) and reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) analysis in neural differentiation. This shows that Zeb2 acts preferentially as a transcriptional repressor associated with developmental progression and that Zeb2 KO ESCs can exit from their naïve state. However, most cells in these EBs stall in an early epiblast-like state and are impaired in both neural and mesendodermal differentiation. Genes involved in pluripotency, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and DNA-(de)methylation, including Tet1, are deregulated in the absence of Zeb2. The observed elevated Tet1 levels in the mutant cells and the knowledge of previously mapped Tet1-binding sites correlate with loss-of-methylation in neural-stimulating conditions, however, after the cells initially acquired the correct DNA-methyl marks. Interestingly, cells from such Zeb2 KO EBs maintain the ability to re-adapt to 2i + LIF conditions even after prolonged differentiation, while knockdown of Tet1 partially rescues their impaired differentiation. Hence, in addition to its role in EMT, Zeb2 is critical in ESCs for exit from the epiblast state, and links the pluripotency network and DNA-methylation with irreversible commitment to differentiation. Stem Cells 2017;35:611-625. © 2016 The Authors Stem Cells published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  12. Programming cell fate on bio-functionalized silicon.

    PubMed

    Premnath, Priyatha; Tan, Bo; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan

    2015-04-01

    Controlling the growth of cells on the surface of silicon without an additive layer or topographical modification is unexplored. This research article delineates the discovery of unique properties of a bio-functionalized silicon substrate, programmed to repel or control cells, generated by ultrafast femtosecond pulse interaction with silicon. Remarkably, bio-functionalization in any shape or size without change in topology or morphology is observed indicating only sub-surface phase transformations. Material characterization reveals the presence of a unique mixture of phases of SiO2 and Si. Consequently, these variations in phase alter the physicochemical characteristics on the surface of silicon resulting in its bio-functionalization. The culture of mouse embryonic fibroblasts shows unique adhesion characteristics on these bio-functionalized silicon surfaces that include cell controlling, cell trapping, and cell shaping. Furthermore, the directionality of fibroblasts is restrained parallel to bio-functionalized zones as evidenced by changes in cytoskeleton. The controlling of proliferation, migration and adhesion of cells is attributed to unique phase bio-functionalization. This method presents considerable promise in a myriad of applications such as tissue engineering, MEMS, and lab-on-a-chip devices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Temporal Transcriptional Profiling of Somatic and Germ Cells Reveals Biased Lineage Priming of Sexual Fate in the Fetal Mouse Gonad

    PubMed Central

    Jameson, Samantha A.; Natarajan, Anirudh; Cool, Jonah; DeFalco, Tony; Maatouk, Danielle M.; Mork, Lindsey; Munger, Steven C.; Capel, Blanche

    2012-01-01

    The divergence of distinct cell populations from multipotent progenitors is poorly understood, particularly in vivo. The gonad is an ideal place to study this process, because it originates as a bipotential primordium where multiple distinct lineages acquire sex-specific fates as the organ differentiates as a testis or an ovary. To gain a more detailed understanding of the process of gonadal differentiation at the level of the individual cell populations, we conducted microarrays on sorted cells from XX and XY mouse gonads at three time points spanning the period when the gonadal cells transition from sexually undifferentiated progenitors to their respective sex-specific fates. We analyzed supporting cells, interstitial/stromal cells, germ cells, and endothelial cells. This work identified genes specifically depleted and enriched in each lineage as it underwent sex-specific differentiation. We determined that the sexually undifferentiated germ cell and supporting cell progenitors showed lineage priming. We found that germ cell progenitors were primed with a bias toward the male fate. In contrast, supporting cells were primed with a female bias, indicative of the robust repression program involved in the commitment to XY supporting cell fate. This study provides a molecular explanation reconciling the female default and balanced models of sex determination and represents a rich resource for the field. More importantly, it yields new insights into the mechanisms by which different cell types in a single organ adopt their respective fates. PMID:22438826

  14. Mitotic retention of gene expression patterns by the cell fate-determining transcription factor Runx2

    PubMed Central

    Young, Daniel W.; Hassan, Mohammad Q.; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Galindo, Mario; Javed, Amjad; Zaidi, Sayyed K.; Furcinitti, Paul; Lapointe, David; Montecino, Martin; Lian, Jane B.; Stein, Janet L.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Stein, Gary S.

    2007-01-01

    During cell division, cessation of transcription is coupled with mitotic chromosome condensation. A fundamental biological question is how gene expression patterns are retained during mitosis to ensure the phenotype of progeny cells. We suggest that cell fate-determining transcription factors provide an epigenetic mechanism for the retention of gene expression patterns during cell division. Runx proteins are lineage-specific transcription factors that are essential for hematopoietic, neuronal, gastrointestinal, and osteogenic cell fates. Here we show that Runx2 protein is stable during cell division and remains associated with chromosomes during mitosis through sequence-specific DNA binding. Using siRNA-mediated silencing, mitotic cell synchronization, and expression profiling, we identify Runx2-regulated genes that are modulated postmitotically. Novel target genes involved in cell growth and differentiation were validated by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Importantly, we find that during mitosis, when transcription is shut down, Runx2 selectively occupies target gene promoters, and Runx2 deficiency alters mitotic histone modifications. We conclude that Runx proteins have an active role in retaining phenotype during cell division to support lineage-specific control of gene expression in progeny cells. PMID:17360627

  15. Fate of cerium dioxide nanoparticles in endothelial cells: exocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobel, Claudia; Oehring, Hartmut; Herrmann, Rudolf; Förster, Martin; Reller, Armin; Hilger, Ingrid

    2015-05-01

    Although cytotoxicity and endocytosis of nanoparticles have been the subject of numerous studies, investigations regarding exocytosis as an important mechanism to reduce intracellular nanoparticle accumulation are rather rare and there is a distinct lack of knowledge. The current study investigated the behavior of human microvascular endothelial cells to exocytose cerium dioxide (CeO2) nanoparticles (18.8 nm) by utilization of specific inhibitors [brefeldin A; nocodazole; methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβcD)] and different analytical methods (flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry). Overall, it was found that endothelial cells were able to release CeO2 nanoparticles via exocytosis after the migration of nanoparticle containing endosomes toward the plasma membrane. The exocytosis process occurred mainly by fusion of vesicular membranes with plasma membrane resulting in the discharge of vesicular content to extracellular environment. Nevertheless, it seems to be likely that nanoparticles present in the cytosol could leave the cells in a direct manner. MβcD treatment led to the strongest inhibition of the nanoparticle exocytosis indicating a significant role of the plasma membrane cholesterol content in the exocytosis process. Brefeldin A (inhibitor of Golgi-to-cell-surface-transport) caused a higher inhibitory effect on exocytosis than nocodazole (inhibitor of microtubules). Thus, the transfer from distal Golgi compartments to the cell surface influenced the exocytosis process of the CeO2 nanoparticles more than the microtubule-associated transport. In conclusion, endothelial cells, which came in contact with nanoparticles, e.g., after intravenously applied nano-based drugs, can regulate their intracellular nanoparticle amount, which is necessary to avoid adverse nanoparticle effects on cells.

  16. microRNAs: key triggers of neuronal cell fate.

    PubMed

    Meza-Sosa, Karla F; Pedraza-Alva, Gustavo; Pérez-Martínez, Leonor

    2014-01-01

    Development of the central nervous system (CNS) requires a precisely coordinated series of events. During embryonic development, different intra- and extracellular signals stimulate neural stem cells to become neural progenitors, which eventually irreversibly exit from the cell cycle to begin the first stage of neurogenesis. However, before this event occurs, the self-renewal and proliferative capacities of neural stem cells and neural progenitors must be tightly regulated. Accordingly, the participation of various evolutionary conserved microRNAs is key in distinct central nervous system (CNS) developmental processes of many organisms including human, mouse, chicken, frog, and zebrafish. microRNAs specifically recognize and regulate the expression of target mRNAs by sequence complementarity within the mRNAs 3' untranslated region and importantly, a single microRNA can have several target mRNAs to regulate a process; likewise, a unique mRNA can be targeted by more than one microRNA. Thus, by regulating different target genes, microRNAs let-7, microRNA-124, and microRNA-9 have been shown to promote the differentiation of neural stem cells and neural progenitors into specific neural cell types while microRNA-134, microRNA-25 and microRNA-137 have been characterized as microRNAs that induce the proliferation of neural stem cells and neural progenitors. Here we review the mechanisms of action of these two sets of microRNAs and their functional implications during the transition from neural stem cells and neural progenitors to fully differentiated neurons. The genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that regulate the expression of these microRNAs as well as the role of the recently described natural RNA circles which act as natural microRNA sponges regulating post-transcriptional microRNA expression and function during the early stages of neurogenesis is also discussed.

  17. microRNAs: key triggers of neuronal cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Meza-Sosa, Karla F.; Pedraza-Alva, Gustavo; Pérez-Martínez, Leonor

    2014-01-01

    Development of the central nervous system (CNS) requires a precisely coordinated series of events. During embryonic development, different intra- and extracellular signals stimulate neural stem cells to become neural progenitors, which eventually irreversibly exit from the cell cycle to begin the first stage of neurogenesis. However, before this event occurs, the self-renewal and proliferative capacities of neural stem cells and neural progenitors must be tightly regulated. Accordingly, the participation of various evolutionary conserved microRNAs is key in distinct central nervous system (CNS) developmental processes of many organisms including human, mouse, chicken, frog, and zebrafish. microRNAs specifically recognize and regulate the expression of target mRNAs by sequence complementarity within the mRNAs 3′ untranslated region and importantly, a single microRNA can have several target mRNAs to regulate a process; likewise, a unique mRNA can be targeted by more than one microRNA. Thus, by regulating different target genes, microRNAs let-7, microRNA-124, and microRNA-9 have been shown to promote the differentiation of neural stem cells and neural progenitors into specific neural cell types while microRNA-134, microRNA-25 and microRNA-137 have been characterized as microRNAs that induce the proliferation of neural stem cells and neural progenitors. Here we review the mechanisms of action of these two sets of microRNAs and their functional implications during the transition from neural stem cells and neural progenitors to fully differentiated neurons. The genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that regulate the expression of these microRNAs as well as the role of the recently described natural RNA circles which act as natural microRNA sponges regulating post-transcriptional microRNA expression and function during the early stages of neurogenesis is also discussed. PMID:25009466

  18. Putting it all on pigmentation: Heuristics of a bold and stochastic cell fate decision.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jianhua; Lee, Robin E C

    2015-10-06

    Gradients of transmembrane potential coordinate cell-fate decisions and patterning during embryogenesis and wound-healing. Bioelectrical signaling may also be more important for adult pathologies than currently recognized. In this issue of Science Signaling, Lobikin et al. describe a role for bioelectric signals during the development of Xenopus leavis embryos to instruct an organism-level response reminiscent of neoplastic progression in melanoma.

  19. Dendritic cell fate is determined by BCL11A

    PubMed Central

    Ippolito, Gregory C.; Dekker, Joseph D.; Wang, Yui-Hsi; Lee, Bum-Kyu; Shaffer, Arthur L.; Lin, Jian; Wall, Jason K.; Lee, Baeck-Seung; Staudt, Louis M.; Liu, Yong-Jun; Iyer, Vishwanath R.; Tucker, Haley O.

    2014-01-01

    The plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) is vital to the coordinated action of innate and adaptive immunity. pDC development has not been unequivocally traced, nor has its transcriptional regulatory network been fully clarified. Here we confirm an essential requirement for the BCL11A transcription factor in fetal pDC development, and demonstrate this lineage-specific requirement in the adult organism. Furthermore, we identify BCL11A gene targets and provide a molecular mechanism for its action in pDC commitment. Embryonic germ-line deletion of Bcl11a revealed an absolute cellular, molecular, and functional absence of pDCs in fetal mice. In adults, deletion of Bcl11a in hematopoietic stem cells resulted in perturbed yet continued generation of progenitors, loss of downstream pDC and B-cell lineages, and persisting myeloid, conventional dendritic, and T-cell lineages. Challenge with virus resulted in a marked reduction of antiviral response in conditionally deleted adults. Genome-wide analyses of BCL11A DNA binding and expression revealed that BCL11A regulates transcription of E2-2 and other pDC differentiation modulators, including ID2 and MTG16. Our results identify BCL11A as an essential, lineage-specific factor that regulates pDC development, supporting a model wherein differentiation into pDCs represents a primed “default” pathway for common dendritic cell progenitors. PMID:24591644

  20. Intracellular fates of cell-penetrating block copolypeptide vesicles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Victor Z; Li, Zhibo; Deming, Timothy J; Kamei, Daniel T

    2011-01-10

    The block copolypeptide poly(l-homoarginine)(60)-b-poly(l-leucine)(20) (R(60)L(20)) was previously found to self-assemble into versatile vesicles with controllable size and encapsulate hydrophilic cargo. These R(60)L(20) vesicles also demonstrated the ability to cross the cell membrane and transport encapsulated cargo into different cell lines. To assess the potential for using the R(60)L(20) vesicles as drug delivery vehicles further, we have investigated their endocytosis and intracellular trafficking behavior. Using drugs that inhibit different endocytosis pathways, we identified macropinocytosis to be a major process by which the R(60)L(20) vesicles enter HeLa cells. Subsequent immunostaining experiments demonstrated that the vesicles entered the early endosomes but not the lysosomes, suggesting that they recycle back to the cell surface. Overall, our studies indicate that the R(60)L(20) vesicles are able to enter cells intact with their cargos, and although some manage to escape from early endosomes, most are trapped within these intracellular compartments.

  1. Role of bioinspired polymers in determination of pluripotent stem cell fate.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Sheena; Eroshenko, Nikolai; Rao, Raj R

    2009-07-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells, including embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, hold enormous potential for the treatment of many diseases, owing to their ability to generate cell types useful for therapeutic applications. Currently, many stem cell culture propagation and differentiation systems incorporate animal-derived components for promoting self-renewal and differentiation. However, use of these components is labor intensive, carries the risk of xenogeneic contamination and yields compromised experimental results that are difficult to duplicate. From a biomaterials perspective, the generation of an animal- and cell-free biomimetic microenvironment that provides the appropriate physical and chemical cues for stem cell self-renewal or differentiation into specialized cell types would be ideal. This review presents the use of natural and synthetic polymers that support propagation and differentiation of stem cells, in an attempt to obtain a clear understanding of the factors responsible for the determination of stem cell fate.

  2. Role of bioinspired polymers in determination of pluripotent stem cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Sheena; Eroshenko, Nikolai; Rao, Raj R

    2009-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells, including embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, hold enormous potential for the treatment of many diseases, owing to their ability to generate cell types useful for therapeutic applications. Currently, many stem cell culture propagation and differentiation systems incorporate animal-derived components for promoting self-renewal and differentiation. However, use of these components is labor intensive, carries the risk of xenogeneic contamination and yields compromised experimental results that are difficult to duplicate. From a biomaterials perspective, the generation of an animal- and cell-free biomimetic microenvironment that provides the appropriate physical and chemical cues for stem cell self-renewal or differentiation into specialized cell types would be ideal. This review presents the use of natural and synthetic polymers that support propagation and differentiation of stem cells, in an attempt to obtain a clear understanding of the factors responsible for the determination of stem cell fate. PMID:19580405

  3. Energy metabolism and energy-sensing pathways in mammalian embryonic and adult stem cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Rafalski, Victoria A.; Mancini, Elena; Brunet, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Summary Metabolism is influenced by age, food intake, and conditions such as diabetes and obesity. How do physiological or pathological metabolic changes influence stem cells, which are crucial for tissue homeostasis? This Commentary reviews recent evidence that stem cells have different metabolic demands than differentiated cells, and that the molecular mechanisms that control stem cell self-renewal and differentiation are functionally connected to the metabolic state of the cell and the surrounding stem cell niche. Furthermore, we present how energy-sensing signaling molecules and metabolism regulators are implicated in the regulation of stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Finally, we discuss the emerging literature on the metabolism of induced pluripotent stem cells and how manipulating metabolic pathways might aid cellular reprogramming. Determining how energy metabolism regulates stem cell fate should shed light on the decline in tissue regeneration that occurs during aging and facilitate the development of therapies for degenerative or metabolic diseases. PMID:23420198

  4. Epigenetic regulation of neural stem cell fate during corticogenesis.

    PubMed

    MuhChyi, Chai; Juliandi, Berry; Matsuda, Taito; Nakashima, Kinichi

    2013-10-01

    The cerebral cortex comprises over three quarters of the brain, and serves as structural basis for the sophisticated perceptual and cognitive functions. It develops from common multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs) that line the neural tube. Development of the NSCs encompasses sequential phases of progenitor expansion, neurogenesis, and gliogenesis along with the progression of developmental stages. Interestingly, NSCs steadfastly march through all of these phases and give rise to specific neural cell types in a temporally defined and highly predictable manner. Herein, we delineate the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that dictate the progression and tempo of NSC differentiation during cerebral cortex development, and how epigenetic modifications contribute to the dynamic properties of NSCs.

  5. Computational properties of mitochondria in T cell activation and fate

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Geneviève

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we review how mitochondrial Ca2+ transport (mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and Na+/Ca2+ exchange) is involved in T cell biology, including activation and differentiation through shaping cellular Ca2+ signals. Based on recent observations, we propose that the Ca2+ crosstalk between mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm may form a proportional–integral–derivative (PID) controller. This PID mechanism (which is well known in engineering) could be responsible for computing cellular decisions. In addition, we point out the importance of analogue and digital signal processing in T cell life and implication of mitochondrial Ca2+ transport in this process. PMID:27852805

  6. Fate of naphthalene in laboratory-scale bioretention cells: implications for sustainable stormwater management.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Gregory H; Novak, Paige J; Hozalski, Raymond M

    2012-01-17

    Bioretention cells are increasingly popular in low-impact development as a means to sustainably mitigate the environmental problems associated with stormwater runoff. Yet, much remains to be known regarding the removal and ultimate fate of pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons in bioretention cells. In this work, laboratory-scale bioretention cells were constructed inside sealed glass columns. The columns were periodically spiked with (14)C-naphthalene over a 5-month period and the fate of this representative hydrocarbon and the influence of vegetation on naphthalene fate was studied. Three column setups were used: one planted with a legume (Purple Prairie Clover, Dalea purpureum), one planted with grass (Blue-Joint Grass, Calamagrostis canadensis), and one unplanted (i.e., control). Overall naphthalene removal efficiency was 93% for the planted columns and 78% for the control column. Adsorption to soil was the dominant naphthalene removal mechanism (56-73% of added naphthalene), although mineralization (12-18%) and plant uptake (2-23%) were also important. Volatilization was negligible (<0.04%). Significant enrichment of naphthalene-degrading bacteria occurred due to contaminant exposure and plant growth as evidenced by increased biodegradation activity and increased naphthalene dioxygenase gene concentrations in the bioretention media. This research suggests that bioretention is a viable solution for sustainable petroleum hydrocarbon removal from stormwater, and that vegetation can enhance overall performance and stimulate biodegradation.

  7. Marrow-inspired matrix cues rapidly affect early fate decisions of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ji Sun; Harley, Brendan A. C.

    2017-01-01

    Hematopoiesis is the physiological process where hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) continuously generate the body’s complement of blood and immune cells within unique regions of the bone marrow termed niches. Although previous investigations have revealed gradients in cellular and extracellular matrix (ECM) content across the marrow, and matrix elasticity and ligand type are believed to be strong regulators of stem cell fate, the impact of biophysical signals on HSC response is poorly understood. Using marrow-inspired ECM ligand–coated polyacrylamide substrates that present defined stiffness and matrix ligand cues, we demonstrate that the interplay between integrin engagement and myosin II activation processes affects the morphology, proliferation, and myeloid lineage specification of primary murine HSCs within 24 hours ex vivo. Notably, the impact of discrete biophysical signals on HSC fate decisions appears to be correlated to known microenvironmental transitions across the marrow. The combination of fibronectin and marrow matrix-associated stiffness was sufficient to maintain hematopoietic progenitor populations, whereas collagen and laminin enhanced proliferation and myeloid differentiation, respectively. Inhibiting myosin II–mediated contraction or adhesion to fibronectin via specific integrins (α5β1 and ανβ3) selectively abrogated the impact of the matrix environment on HSC fate decisions. Together, these findings indicate that adhesive interactions and matrix biophysical properties are critical design considerations in the development of biomaterials to direct HSC behavior in vitro. PMID:28070554

  8. BMP signaling orchestrates a transcriptional network to control the fate of mesenchymal stem cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jifan; Jing, Junjun; Li, Jingyuan; Zhao, Hu; Punj, Vasu; Zhang, Tingwei; Xu, Jian; Chai, Yang

    2017-07-15

    Signaling pathways are used reiteratively in different developmental processes yet produce distinct cell fates through specific downstream transcription factors. In this study, we used tooth root development as a model with which to investigate how the BMP signaling pathway regulates transcriptional complexes to direct the fate determination of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We first identified the MSC population supporting mouse molar root growth as Gli1(+) cells. Using a Gli1-driven Cre-mediated recombination system, our results provide the first in vivo evidence that BMP signaling activity is required for the odontogenic differentiation of MSCs. Specifically, we identified the transcription factors Pax9, Klf4, Satb2 and Lhx8 as being downstream of BMP signaling and expressed in a spatially restricted pattern that is potentially involved in determining distinct cellular identities within the dental mesenchyme. Finally, we found that overactivation of one key transcription factor, Klf4, which is associated with the odontogenic region, promotes odontogenic differentiation of MSCs. Collectively, our results demonstrate the functional significance of BMP signaling in regulating MSC fate during root development and shed light on how BMP signaling can achieve functional specificity in regulating diverse organ development. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. From mechanical stimulation to biological pathways in the regulation of stem cell fate.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nirali; Morsi, Yosry; Manasseh, Richard

    2014-06-01

    Mechanical stimuli are important in directing the fate of stem cells; the effects of mechanical stimuli reported in recent research are reviewed here. Stem cells normally undergo two fundamental processes: proliferation, in which their numbers multiply, and differentiation, in which they transform into the specialized cells needed by the adult organism. Mechanical stimuli are well known to affect both processes of proliferation and differentiation, although the complete pathways relating specific mechanical stimuli to stem cell fate remain to be elucidated. We identified two broad classes of research findings and organized them according to the type of mechanical stress (compressive, tensile or shear) of the stimulus. Firstly, mechanical stress of any type activates stretch-activated channels (SACs) on the cell membrane. Activation of SACs leads to cytoskeletal remodelling and to the expression of genes that regulate the basic growth, survival or apoptosis of the cells and thus regulates proliferation. Secondly, mechanical stress on cells that are physically attached to an extracellular matrix (ECM) initiates remodelling of cell membrane structures called integrins. This second process is highly dependent on the type of mechanical stress applied and result into various biological responses. A further process, the Wnt pathway, is also implicated: crosstalk between the integrin and Wnt pathways regulates the switch from proliferation to differentiation and finally regulates the type of differentiation. Therefore, the stem cell differentiation process involves different signalling molecules and their pathways and most likely depends upon the applied mechanical stimulation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Cellular and Extracellular Programming of Cell Fate through Engineered Intracrine-, Paracrine-, and Endocrine-like Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Debanjan; Ankrum, James A.; Teo, Grace S. L.; Carman, Christopher V.; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    A cell’s fate is tightly controlled by its microenvironment. Key factors contributing to this microenvironment include physical contacts with the extracellular matrix and neighboring cells, in addition to soluble factors produced locally or distally. Alterations to these cues can drive homeostatic processes, such as tissue regeneration/wound healing, or may lead to pathologic tissue dysfunction. In vitro models of cell and tissue microenvironments are desirable for enhanced understanding of the biology and ultimately for improved treatment. However, mechanisms to exert specific control over cellular microenvironments remains a significant challenge. Genetic modification has been used but is limited to products that can be manufactured by cells and release kinetics of therapeutics cannot easily be controlled. Herein we describe a non-genetic approach to engineer cells with an intracellular depot of phenotype altering agent/s that can be used for altering cell fate via intracrine-, paracrine-, and endocrine-like mechanisms. Specifically, we show that human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be engineered with poly lactide-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) particles containing dexamethasone, which acts on cytoplasmic receptors. The controlled release properties of these particles allowed for sustained intracellular and extracellular delivery of agent to promote differentiation of particle carrying cells, as well as neighboring cells and distant cells that do not contain particles. PMID:21262537

  11. CDH2 and CDH11 as Regulators of Stem Cell Fate Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Alimperti, Stella; Andreadis, Stelios T.

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the mechanical and biochemical signals originating from cell-cell adhesion are critical for stem cell lineage specification. In this review, we focus on the role of cadherin mediated signaling in development and stem cell differentiation, with emphasis on two well-known cadherins, cadherin-2 (CDH2) (N-cadherin) and cadherin-11 (CDH11) (OB-cadherin). We summarize the existing knowledge regarding the role of CDH2 and CDH11 during development and differentiation in vivo and in vitro. We also discuss engineering strategies to control stem cell fate decisions by fine-tuning the extent of cell-cell adhesion through surface chemistry and microtopology. These studies may be greatly facilitated by novel strategies that enable monitoring of stem cell specification in real time. We expect that better understanding of how intercellular adhesion signaling affects lineage specification may impact biomaterial and scaffold design to control stem cell fate decisions in three-dimensional context with potential implications for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:25771201

  12. Spatiotemporal control of cell fate and cardiac differentiation.

    PubMed

    Davis, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    Congestive heart failure is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide [1]. Although not the only cause of congestive heart failure, loss of myocardium due to obstructive coronary artery disease is a major contributor to this condition [2,3]. The loss of myocardium is mainly regional and, therefore, localized therapy holds the most promise. In recent years, many clinical studies have been initiated to deliver localized therapy in the form of various cell types for reconstitution of the myocardium [4-6]. However, there is much debate on the optimal cell type, whether or not stem cells can differentiate into functional myocardium and the long-term effects of these non-myocytes. In addition to exogenous cell delivery, paracrine effects arising from delivery of angiogenic factors and other biochemical agents suggest that the myocardium retains the ability to remodel and heal [7,8]. Understandably, there has been tremendous focus on both growth factor- and gene therapy-based therapeutics. While a source of great promise, direct growth factor delivery to the myocardium will most likely be inefficient as several studies have noted that many of these small proteins are carried away in the highly vascularized cardiac tissue [9,10]. Gene therapy, while providing an excellent analytical tool, has not met with enthusiasm clinically, mostly due to the inability to quantify delivery and nonspecific targeting in vivo. This body of work supports two crucial conclusions: (1) appropriate biological cues that act locally on the myocardium can improve functional outcomes, and (2) spatiotemporal control over the delivery and presentation of these cues remains challenging and inefficient. The current body of work on cardiac drug delivery and stem cell therapy support two crucial conclusions: (1) appropriate biological cues that act locally on the myocardium can improve functional outcomes, and (2) spatiotemporal control over the delivery and

  13. Somatic embryogenesis - Stress-induced remodeling of plant cell fate.

    PubMed

    Fehér, Attila

    2015-04-01

    Plants as sessile organisms have remarkable developmental plasticity ensuring heir continuous adaptation to the environment. An extreme example is somatic embryogenesis, the initiation of autonomous embryo development in somatic cells in response to exogenous and/or endogenous signals. In this review I briefly overview the various pathways that can lead to embryo development in plants in addition to the fertilization of the egg cell and highlight the importance of the interaction of stress- and hormone-regulated pathways during the induction of somatic embryogenesis. Somatic embryogenesis can be initiated in planta or in vitro, directly or indirectly, and the requirement for dedifferentiation as well as the way to achieve developmental totipotency in the various systems is discussed in light of our present knowledge. The initiation of all forms of the stress/hormone-induced in vitro as well as the genetically provoked in planta somatic embryogenesis requires extensive and coordinated genetic reprogramming that has to take place at the chromatin level, as the embryogenic program is under strong epigenetic repression in vegetative plant cells. Our present knowledge on chromatin-based mechanisms potentially involved in the somatic-to-embryogenic developmental transition is summarized emphasizing the potential role of the chromatin to integrate stress, hormonal, and developmental pathways leading to the activation of the embryogenic program. The role of stress-related chromatin reorganization in the genetic instability of in vitro cultures is also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Stress as a fundamental theme in cell plasticity.

  14. Unraveling the warp and weft of B cell fate.

    PubMed

    Stadanlick, Jason E; Cancro, Michael P

    2006-09-01

    Two recent Immunity articles (Enzler et al., 2006; Sasaki et al., 2006) probe the roles of Nuclear Factor kappa-B (NF-kappaB) pathways in survival and differentiation mediated by B cell activation factor of the TNF family (BAFF).

  15. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Unfolded Protein Response, and Cancer Cell Fate

    PubMed Central

    Corazzari, Marco; Gagliardi, Mara; Fimia, Gian Maria; Piacentini, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Perturbation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis results in a stress condition termed “ER stress” determining the activation of a finely regulated program defined as unfolded protein response (UPR) and whose primary aim is to restore this organelle’s physiological activity. Several physiological and pathological stimuli deregulate normal ER activity causing UPR activation, such as hypoxia, glucose shortage, genome instability, and cytotoxic compounds administration. Some of these stimuli are frequently observed during uncontrolled proliferation of transformed cells, resulting in tumor core formation and stage progression. Therefore, it is not surprising that ER stress is usually induced during solid tumor development and stage progression, becoming an hallmark of such malignancies. Several UPR components are in fact deregulated in different tumor types, and accumulating data indicate their active involvement in tumor development/progression. However, although the UPR program is primarily a pro-survival process, sustained and/or prolonged stress may result in cell death induction. Therefore, understanding the mechanism(s) regulating the cell survival/death decision under ER stress condition may be crucial in order to specifically target tumor cells and possibly circumvent or overcome tumor resistance to therapies. In this review, we discuss the role played by the UPR program in tumor initiation, progression and resistance to therapy, highlighting the recent advances that have improved our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the survival/death switch. PMID:28491820

  16. The role of metabolic reprogramming in T cell fate and function

    PubMed Central

    Patsoukis, Nikolaos; Bardhan, Kankana; Weaver, Jessica; Herbel, Christoph; Seth, Pankaj; Li, Lequn; Boussiotis, Vassiliki A.

    2016-01-01

    T lymphocytes undergo extensive changes in their metabolic properties during their transition through various differentiation states, from naïve to effector to memory or regulatory roles. The cause and effect relationship between metabolism and differentiation is a field of intense investigation. Many recent studies demonstrate the dependency of T cell functional outcomes on metabolic pathways and the possibility of metabolic intervention to modify these functions. In this review, we describe the basic metabolic features of T cells and new findings on how these correlate with various differentiation fates and functions. We also highlight the latest information regarding the main factors that affect T cell metabolic reprogramming. PMID:28356677

  17. Cell lineage and fate map of the primary somatoblast of the polychaete annelid Capitella teleta.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Néva P; Seaver, Elaine C

    2010-11-01

    Like most polychaete annelids, Capitella teleta (formerly Capitella sp. I) exhibits a highly stereotypic program of early development known as spiral cleavage. Animals with spiral cleavage have diverse body plans, and homologous embryonic cells can be readily identified among distantly related animals. Spiralian embryos are particularly amenable to studies of fate-mapping, and larval fates of identified cells are conserved among diverse taxa. One cell of particular importance in spiralian development is 2d, or the primary somatoblast, which generates ectoderm of the body posterior to the prototroch. We are interested in the evolution of the primary somatoblast, and thus far, the 2d sublineage has only been analyzed in a few species. In Capitella teleta, 2d generates ectoderm of the segmented trunk and post-segmental pygidium. In this study, development of the 2d lineage was characterized in detail through intracellular injections of DiI, and time-lapse as well as confocal microscopy to analyze cleavage patterns and the fates of larval cells. Analysis of cleavage patterns reveals that the first bilateral division in the 2d sublineage occurs with the division of 2d¹¹², the same 2d daughter cell that first divides bilaterally in the polychaete Platynereis dumerilii. Larval fates of blastomeres 2d¹, 2d², 2d¹¹, 2d¹², 2d¹¹², 2d¹¹²¹, and 2d¹¹²² were determined. All cells show stereotypic descendant clones that are consistent with segregation within sublineages. In the first few divisions of the 2d sublineage, larval-specific structures (neurotroch and telotroch) and pygidial ectoderm are segregated from segmental ectoderm and ventral nerve cord. The daughters of the first bilateral division, 2d¹¹²¹ and 2d¹¹²², generate the right and left halves of the segmental ectoderm and ventral nerve cord respectively, although the clones are consistently asymmetric across the dorsal midline. The pattern of cleavage divisions and the fates of the 2d

  18. Rbpj cell autonomous regulation of retinal ganglion cell and cone photoreceptor fates in the mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Riesenberg, Amy N; Liu, Zhenyi; Kopan, Raphael; Brown, Nadean L

    2009-10-14

    Vertebrate retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) are pluripotent, but pass through competence states that progressively restrict their developmental potential (Cepko et al., 1996; Livesey and Cepko, 2001; Cayouette et al., 2006). In the rodent eye, seven retinal cell classes differentiate in overlapping waves, with RGCs, cone photoreceptors, horizontals, and amacrines forming predominantly before birth, and rod photoreceptors, bipolars, and Müller glia differentiating postnatally. Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors regulate each retinal cell type (for review, see Livesey and Cepko, 2001). Here, we conditionally deleted the transcription factor Rbpj, a critical integrator of multiple Notch signals (Jarriault et al., 1995; Honjo, 1996; Kato et al., 1997; Han et al., 2002), during prenatal mouse retinal neurogenesis. Removal of Rbpj caused reduced proliferation, premature neuronal differentiation, apoptosis, and profound mispatterning. To determine the cell autonomous requirements for Rbpj during RGC and cone formation, we marked Cre-generated retinal lineages with GFP expression, which showed that Rbpj autonomously promotes RPC mitotic activity, and suppresses RGC and cone fates. In addition, the progressive loss of Rbpj-/- RPCs resulted in a diminished progenitor pool available for rod photoreceptor formation. This circumstance, along with the overproduction of Rbpj-/- cones, revealed that photoreceptor development is under homeostatic regulation. Finally, to understand how the Notch pathway regulates the simultaneous formation of multiple cell types, we compared the RGC and cone phenotypes of Rbpj to Notch1 (Jadhav et al., 2006b; Yaron et al., 2006), Notch3, and Hes1 mutants. We found particular combinations of Notch pathway genes regulate the development of each retinal cell type.

  19. Synthetic RNA Controllers for Programming Mammalian Cell Fate and Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-04

    CD. 2014. Protein-responsive ribozyme switches in eukaryotic cells. Nuc Acids Res. 42: 12306-21. 3. Bloom RJ, Winkler SM, Smolke CD. 2015. Synthetic...tailoring of RNA device activity. Nuc Acids Res. 40: e154. 2. Kennedy AB, Liang JC, Smolke CD. 2013. A versatile cis-blocking and trans-activation...strategy for ribozyme characterization. Nuc Acids Res. 41: e41. 3. Wei KY, Chen YY, Smolke CD. 2013. A yeast-based rapid prototype platform for gene

  20. Fate of deposited cells in an aerobic binary bacterial biofilm

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, M.K.

    1989-01-01

    A biofilm is a matrix of microbial cells and their extracellular products that is associated with a solid surface. Previous studies on biofilm development have employed only dissolved compounds as growth limiting substrates, without the influence of microbial species invading from the bulk liquid. The goal of this research project was to quantify the kinetics of processes governing suspended biomass turnover in biofilm systems, and the accompanying effects of suspended cell deposition on biofilm population dynamics. Experiments were conducted with two species of bacteria, Pseudomonas putida ATCC 11172 grown on glucose, and Hyphomicrobium ZV620 grown on methanol. Cryptic growth and particulate hydrolysis studies were evaluated, using combinations of these two bacteria, by measuring the uptake of radiolabelled cell lysis products, under batch conditions. Biofilms studies were performed to investigate bacterial deposition, continual biofilm removal by shear induced erosion, and biofilm ecology. Biofilms were developed in a flow cell reactor, under laminar flow conditions. Bacterial species were differentiated by radioactively labelling each species with their carbon substrate. A mathematical model was developed to predict the biofilm ecology of mixed cultures. The equations developed predict biofilm accumulation, as well as substrate and oxygen consumption. Results indicate that cryptic growth will occur for bacteria growing on their own species soluble lysis products and in some cases, bacteria growing on the soluble lysis products of other species. Particulate hydrolysis only occurred for Pseudomonas putida growing on Pseudomonas putida lysis products, but the lack of particulate hydrolysis occurring in the other studies may have been due to the short experimental period.

  1. A potential regulatory network underlying distinct fate commitment of myogenic and adipogenic cells in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wenjuan; He, Ting; Qin, Chunfu; Qiu, Kai; Zhang, Xin; Luo, Yanhong; Li, Defa; Yin, Jingdong

    2017-01-01

    Mechanism controlling myo-adipogenic balance in skeletal muscle is of great significance for human skeletal muscle dysfunction and myopathies as well as livestock meat quality. In the present study, two cell subpopulations with particular potency of adipogenic or myogenic differentiation were isolated from neonatal porcine longissimus dorsi using the preplate method to detect mechanisms underlying distinct fate commitment of myogenic and adipogenic cells in skeletal muscle. Both cells share a common surface expression profile of CD29+CD31−CD34−CD90+CD105+, verifying their mesenchymal origin. A total of 448 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (FDR < 0.05 and |log2 FC| ≥ 1) between two distinct cells were identified via RNA-seq, including 358 up-regulated and 90 down-regulated genes in myogenic cells compared with adipogenic cells. The results of functional annotation and enrichment showed that 42 DEGs were implicated in cell differentiation, among them PDGFRα, ITGA3, ITGB6, MLCK and MLC acted as hubs between environment information processing and cellular process, indicating that the interaction of the two categories exerts an important role in distinct fate commitment of myogenic and adipogenic cells. Particularly, we are first to show that up-regulation of intracellular Ca2+-MLCK and Rho-DMPK, and subsequently elevated MLC, may contribute to the distinct commitment of myogenic and adipogenic lineages via mediating cytoskeleton dynamics. PMID:28276486

  2. Cell fate-specific regulation of EGF receptor trafficking during Caenorhabditis elegans vulval development.

    PubMed

    Stetak, Attila; Hoier, Erika Fröhli; Croce, Assunta; Cassata, Giuseppe; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Hajnal, Alex

    2006-06-07

    By controlling the subcellular localization of growth factor receptors, cells can modulate the activity of intracellular signal transduction pathways. During Caenorhabditis elegans vulval development, a ternary complex consisting of the LIN-7, LIN-2 and LIN-10 PDZ domain proteins localizes the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to the basolateral compartment of the vulval precursor cells (VPCs) to allow efficient receptor activation by the inductive EGF signal from the anchor cell. We have identified EGFR substrate protein-8 (EPS-8) as a novel component of the EGFR localization complex that links receptor trafficking to cell fate specification. EPS-8 expression is upregulated in the primary VPCs, where it creates a positive feedback loop in the EGFR/RAS/MAPK pathway. The membrane-associated guanylate kinase LIN-2 recruits EPS-8 into the receptor localization complex to retain the EGFR on the basolateral plasma membrane, and thus allow maximal receptor activation in the primary cell lineage. Low levels of EPS-8 in the neighboring secondary VPCs result in the rapid degradation of the EGFR, allowing these cells to adopt the secondary cell fate. Extracellular signals thus regulate EGFR trafficking in a cell type-specific manner to control pattern formation during organogenesis.

  3. Cell fate-specific regulation of EGF receptor trafficking during Caenorhabditis elegans vulval development

    PubMed Central

    Stetak, Attila; Hoier, Erika Fröhli; Croce, Assunta; Cassata, Giuseppe; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Hajnal, Alex

    2006-01-01

    By controlling the subcellular localization of growth factor receptors, cells can modulate the activity of intracellular signal transduction pathways. During Caenorhabditis elegans vulval development, a ternary complex consisting of the LIN-7, LIN-2 and LIN-10 PDZ domain proteins localizes the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to the basolateral compartment of the vulval precursor cells (VPCs) to allow efficient receptor activation by the inductive EGF signal from the anchor cell. We have identified EGFR substrate protein-8 (EPS-8) as a novel component of the EGFR localization complex that links receptor trafficking to cell fate specification. EPS-8 expression is upregulated in the primary VPCs, where it creates a positive feedback loop in the EGFR/RAS/MAPK pathway. The membrane-associated guanylate kinase LIN-2 recruits EPS-8 into the receptor localization complex to retain the EGFR on the basolateral plasma membrane, and thus allow maximal receptor activation in the primary cell lineage. Low levels of EPS-8 in the neighboring secondary VPCs result in the rapid degradation of the EGFR, allowing these cells to adopt the secondary cell fate. Extracellular signals thus regulate EGFR trafficking in a cell type-specific manner to control pattern formation during organogenesis. PMID:16688213

  4. A potential regulatory network underlying distinct fate commitment of myogenic and adipogenic cells in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenjuan; He, Ting; Qin, Chunfu; Qiu, Kai; Zhang, Xin; Luo, Yanhong; Li, Defa; Yin, Jingdong

    2017-03-09

    Mechanism controlling myo-adipogenic balance in skeletal muscle is of great significance for human skeletal muscle dysfunction and myopathies as well as livestock meat quality. In the present study, two cell subpopulations with particular potency of adipogenic or myogenic differentiation were isolated from neonatal porcine longissimus dorsi using the preplate method to detect mechanisms underlying distinct fate commitment of myogenic and adipogenic cells in skeletal muscle. Both cells share a common surface expression profile of CD29(+)CD31(-)CD34(-)CD90(+)CD105(+), verifying their mesenchymal origin. A total of 448 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (FDR < 0.05 and |log2 FC| ≥ 1) between two distinct cells were identified via RNA-seq, including 358 up-regulated and 90 down-regulated genes in myogenic cells compared with adipogenic cells. The results of functional annotation and enrichment showed that 42 DEGs were implicated in cell differentiation, among them PDGFRα, ITGA3, ITGB6, MLCK and MLC acted as hubs between environment information processing and cellular process, indicating that the interaction of the two categories exerts an important role in distinct fate commitment of myogenic and adipogenic cells. Particularly, we are first to show that up-regulation of intracellular Ca(2+)-MLCK and Rho-DMPK, and subsequently elevated MLC, may contribute to the distinct commitment of myogenic and adipogenic lineages via mediating cytoskeleton dynamics.

  5. Skeletal cell fate decisions within periosteum and bone marrow during bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Colnot, Céline

    2009-02-01

    Bone repair requires the mobilization of adult skeletal stem cells/progenitors to allow deposition of cartilage and bone at the injury site. These stem cells/progenitors are believed to come from multiple sources including the bone marrow and the periosteum. The goal of this study was to establish the cellular contributions of bone marrow and periosteum to bone healing in vivo and to assess the effect of the tissue environment on cell differentiation within bone marrow and periosteum. Results show that periosteal injuries heal by endochondral ossification, whereas bone marrow injuries heal by intramembranous ossification, indicating that distinct cellular responses occur within these tissues during repair. [corrected] Next, lineage analyses were used to track the fate of cells derived from periosteum, bone marrow, and endosteum, a subcompartment of the bone marrow. Skeletal progenitor cells were found to be recruited locally and concurrently from periosteum and/or bone marrow/endosteum during bone repair. Periosteum and bone marrow/endosteum both gave rise to osteoblasts, whereas the periosteum was the major source of chondrocytes. Finally, results show that intrinsic and environmental signals modulate cell fate decisions within these tissues. In conclusion, this study sheds light into the origins of skeletal stem cells/progenitors during bone regeneration and indicates that periosteum, endosteum, and bone marrow contain pools of stem cells/progenitors with distinct osteogenic and chondrogenic potentials that vary with the tissue environment.

  6. Cell fate decisions emerge as phages cooperate or compete inside their host

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, Jimmy T.; Székely, Tamás; Shao, Qiuyan; Balázsi, Gábor; Zeng, Lanying

    2017-01-01

    The system of the bacterium Escherichia coli and its virus, bacteriophage lambda, is paradigmatic for gene regulation in cell-fate development, yet insight about its mechanisms and complexities are limited due to insufficient resolution of study. Here we develop a 4-colour fluorescence reporter system at the single-virus level, combined with computational models to unravel both the interactions between phages and how individual phages determine cellular fates. We find that phages cooperate during lysogenization, compete among each other during lysis, and that confusion between the two pathways occasionally occurs. Additionally, we observe that phage DNAs have fluctuating cellular arrival times and vie for resources to replicate, enabling the interplay during different developmental paths, where each phage genome may make an individual decision. These varied strategies could separate the selection for replication-optimizing beneficial mutations during lysis from sequence diversification during lysogeny, allowing rapid adaptation of phage populations for various environments. PMID:28165024

  7. Cell Type-specific Alternative Splicing Governs Cell Fate in the Developing Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaochang; Chen, Ming Hui; Wu, Xuebing; Kodani, Andrew; Fan, Jean; Doan, Ryan; Ozawa, Manabu; Ma, Jacqueline; Yoshida, Nobuaki; Reiter, Jeremy F.; Black, Douglas L.; Kharchenko, Peter V.; Sharp, Phillip A.; Walsh, Christopher A.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Alternative splicing is prevalent in the mammalian brain. To interrogate the functional role of alternative splicing in neural development, we analyzed purified neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and neurons from developing cerebral cortices, revealing hundreds of differentially spliced exons that preferentially alter key protein domains—especially in cytoskeletal proteins—and can harbor disease-causing mutations. We show that Ptbp1 and Rbfox proteins antagonistically govern the NPC-to-neuron transition by regulating neuron-specific exons. While Ptbp1 maintains apical progenitors partly through suppressing a poison exon of Flna in NPCs, Rbfox proteins promote neuronal differentiation by switching Ninein from a centrosomal splice form in NPCs to a non-centrosomal isoform in neurons. We further uncover an intronic human mutation within a PTBP1 binding site that disrupts normal skipping of the FLNA poison exon in NPCs and causes a brain-specific malformation. Our study indicates that dynamic control of alternative splicing governs cell fate in cerebral cortical development. PMID:27565344

  8. Fate study of water-borne gram positive vegetative bacterial cells with Raman microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guicheteau, Jason; Tripathi, Ashish; Minter, Jennifer; Wilcox, Phillip; Christesen, Steven

    2010-04-01

    We present an initial bacterial fate study of Gram positive vegetative cells suspended in water and stored at ambient room temperature via Raman spectroscopy monitoring. Two types of cells were considered for this study: vegetative cells of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis which contain the polyhydroxybutyric acid (PHBA) as an energy storage compound and Bacillus subtlilis cells which do not. The cells were cultured specifically for this project. Immediately following the culturing phase, the bacteria were extracted, cleaned and at the onset of the study were suspended in de-ionized water and stored at room temperature. Aliquots of suspensions were deposited onto aluminum slides at different times and allowed to dry for Raman analysis. Spectra from multiple regions of each dried spot and each deposit time were acquired along with the bright-field and fluorescence images. Results were examined to investigate the effect of suspension time on the spectral signatures as well as the fate behavior of the three types of cells investigated. The cells were monitored daily for over a 14 period during which time the onset of starvation induced sporulation was observed.

  9. Effector, Memory, and Dysfunctional CD8(+) T Cell Fates in the Antitumor Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Reiser, John; Banerjee, Arnob

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive immune system plays a pivotal role in the host's ability to mount an effective, antigen-specific immune response against tumors. CD8(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) mediate tumor rejection through recognition of tumor antigens and direct killing of transformed cells. In growing tumors, TILs are often functionally impaired as a result of interaction with, or signals from, transformed cells and the tumor microenvironment. These interactions and signals can lead to transcriptional, functional, and phenotypic changes in TILs that diminish the host's ability to eradicate the tumor. In addition to effector and memory CD8(+) T cells, populations described as exhausted, anergic, senescent, and regulatory CD8(+) T cells have been observed in clinical and basic studies of antitumor immune responses. In the context of antitumor immunity, these CD8(+) T cell subsets remain poorly characterized in terms of fate-specific biomarkers and transcription factor profiles. Here we discuss the current characterization of CD8(+) T cell fates in antitumor immune responses and discuss recent insights into how signals in the tumor microenvironment influence TIL transcriptional networks to promote CD8(+) T cell dysfunction.

  10. Ah, sweet mystery of death! Galectins and control of cell fate.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Joseph D; Baum, Linda G

    2002-10-01

    Control of cell death is critical in eukaryotic development, immune system homeostasis, and control of tumorigenesis. The galectin family of lectins is implicated in all of these processes. Other families of molecules function as death receptors or death effectors, but galectins are uniquely capable of acting both extracellularly and intracellularly to control cell death. Extracellularly, galectins cross-link glycan ligands to transduce signals that lead directly to death or that influence other signals regulating cell fate. Intracellular expression of galectins can modulate other signals controlling cell viability. Individual galectins can act on multiple cell types, and multiple galectins can act on the same cell. Understanding how galectins regulate cell viability and function will broaden our knowledge of the roles of galectins in basic biological processes and facilitate development of therapeutic applications for galectins in autoimmunity, transplant-related disease, and cancer.

  11. Asymmetric cell division in the Drosophila bristle lineage: from the polarization of sensory organ precursor cells to Notch-mediated binary fate decision.

    PubMed

    Schweisguth, François

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetric cell division (ACD) is a simple and evolutionary conserved process whereby a mother divides to generate two daughter cells with distinct developmental potentials. This process can generate cell fate diversity during development. Fate asymmetry may result from the unequal segregation of molecules and/or organelles between the two daughter cells. Here, I will review how fate asymmetry is regulated in the sensory bristle lineage in Drosophila and focus on the molecular mechanisms underlying ACD of the sensory organ precursor cells (SOPs). For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  12. Internalization of multiple cells during C. elegans gastrulation depends on common cytoskeletal mechanisms but different cell polarity and cell fate regulators

    PubMed Central

    Harrell, Jessica R.; Goldstein, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the links between developmental patterning mechanisms and force-producing cytoskeletal mechanisms is a central goal in studies of morphogenesis. Gastrulation is the first morphogenetic event in the development of many organisms. Gastrulation involves the internalization of surface cells, often driven by the contraction of actomyosin networks that are deployed with spatial precision -- both in specific cells and in a polarized manner within each cell. These cytoskeletal mechanisms rely on different cell fate and cell polarity regulators in different organisms. C. elegans gastrulation presents an opportunity to examine the extent to which diverse mechanisms may be used by dozens of cells that are internalized at distinct times within a single organism. We identified 66 cells that are internalized in C. elegans gastrulation, many of which were not known previously to gastrulate. To gain mechanistic insights into how these cells internalize, we genetically manipulated cell fate, cell polarity and cytoskeletal regulators and determined the effects on cell internalization. We found that cells of distinct lineages depend on common actomyosin-based mechanisms to gastrulate, but different cell fate regulators, and, surprisingly, different cell polarity regulators. We conclude that diverse cell fate and cell polarity regulators control common mechanisms of morphogenesis in C. elegans. The results highlight the variety of developmental patterning mechanisms that can be associated with common cytoskeletal mechanisms in the morphogenesis of an animal embryo. PMID:20875815

  13. Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells Protect the Immature Brain in Rats and Modulate Cell Fate.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Martin; Oppliger, Byron; Joerger-Messerli, Marianne; Reinhart, Ursula; Barnea, Eytan; Paidas, Michael; Kramer, Boris W; Surbek, Daniel V; Schoeberlein, Andreina

    2017-02-15

    The development of a mammalian brain is a complex and long-lasting process. Not surprisingly, preterm birth is the leading cause of death in newborns and children. Advances in perinatal care reduced mortality, but morbidity still represents a major burden. New therapeutic approaches are thus desperately needed. Given that mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) emerged as a promising candidate for cell therapy, we transplanted MSCs derived from the Wharton's Jelly (WJ-MSCs) to reduce the burden of immature brain injury in a murine animal model. WJ-MSCs transplantation resulted in protective activity characterized by reduced myelin loss and astroglial activation. WJ-MSCs improved locomotor behavior as well. To address the underlying mechanisms, we tested the key regulators of responses to DNA-damaging agents, such as cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase/calcium-dependent protein kinase (PKA/PKC), cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated/ATM- and Rad3-related (ATM/ATR) substrates, protein kinase B (Akt), and 14-3-3 binding protein partners. We characterized WJ-MSCs using a specific profiler polymerase chain reaction array. We provide evidence that WJ-MSCs target pivotal regulators of the cell fate such as CDK/14-3-3/Akt signaling. We identified leukemia inhibitory factor as a potential candidate of WJ-MSCs' induced modifications as well. We hypothesize that WJ-MSCs may exert adaptive responses depending on the type of injury they are facing, making them prominent candidates for cell therapy in perinatal injuries.

  14. [Genetic transformation and fate of heterological DNA in bacterial cells].

    PubMed

    Piechowska, Mirosława

    2015-01-01

    Secretion of a metabolite enabling Streptococci to undergo genetic transformation was discovered. The metabolite combined with an optimization process were applied to increase the transformation yield about 20-fold. It was observed that large amounts of DNA exert a bactericidal effect, indicating the ability of at least 70% of cells to uptake the polymer. While studying the molecular mechanism of transformation of Bacillus subtilis it was shown that the uptaken DNA forms complexes with bacterial proteins, which hinders determination of its structure. A method was found to dissociate these complexes which enabled to determine the single-stranded structure of the uptaken DNA. Donor DNA fragments incorporated into the host DNA were of about 10 Da. Non-transforming DNA can be uptaken similarly but does not undergo incorporation into the host DNA. The selectivity of Bacillus subtilis receptors was determined towards DNA of phages containing modified bases: uracil, putrescinyl-thymine and its acetylated derivative, 5'-hydroxymethylcytosine and its glycosylated derivative and also towards double-stranded RNA of f2 phage. All these modifications were tolerated by the cellular receptors, with the exception of glycosylation and the 2'-OH group in RNA.

  15. The binding, transport and fate of aluminium in biological cells.

    PubMed

    Exley, Christopher; Mold, Matthew J

    2015-04-01

    Aluminium is the most abundant metal in the Earth's crust and yet, paradoxically, it has no known biological function. Aluminium is biochemically reactive, it is simply that it is not required for any essential process in extant biota. There is evidence neither of element-specific nor evolutionarily conserved aluminium biochemistry. This means that there are no ligands or chaperones which are specific to its transport, there are no transporters or channels to selectively facilitate its passage across membranes, there are no intracellular storage proteins to aid its cellular homeostasis and there are no pathways which evolved to enable the metabolism and excretion of aluminium. Of course, aluminium is found in every compartment of every cell of every organism, from virus through to Man. Herein we have investigated each of the 'silent' pathways and metabolic events which together constitute a form of aluminium homeostasis in biota, identifying and evaluating as far as is possible what is known and, equally importantly, what is unknown about its uptake, transport, storage and excretion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Stencil Micropatterning for Spatial Control of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Fate Heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jun; Sahni, Geetika; Toh, Yi-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have the intrinsic ability to differentiate and self-organize into distinct tissue patterns, although this requires the presentation of spatial environmental cues, i.e., biochemical and mechanical gradients. Cell micropatterning technologies potentially offer the means to spatially control stem cell microenvironments and organize the resultant differentiation fates. Here, we describe stencil micropatterning as a simple and robust method to generate hPSC micropatterns for controlling hPSC differentiation patterns. hPSC micropatterns are specified by the geometries of the cell stencil through-holes, which physically confine the locations where the underlying extracellular matrix and hPSCs can access and attach to the substrate. This confers the unique capability of stencil micropatterning to work with a variety of culture substrates and extracellular matrices for optimal hPSC culture. We present the detailed steps of stencil micropatterning to successfully generate hPSC micropatterns, which can be used to investigate how spatial polarization of cell adhesion results in cell fate heterogeneity.

  17. A BMP pathway regulates cell fate allocation along the sea urchin animal-vegetal embryonic axis.

    PubMed

    Angerer, L M; Oleksyn, D W; Logan, C Y; McClay, D R; Dale, L; Angerer, R C

    2000-03-01

    To examine whether a BMP signaling pathway functions in specification of cell fates in sea urchin embryos, we have cloned sea urchin BMP2/4, analyzed its expression in time and space in developing embryos and assayed the developmental consequences of changing its concentration through mRNA injection experiments. These studies show that BMP4 mRNAs accumulate transiently during blastula stages, beginning around the 200-cell stage, 14 hours postfertilization. Soon after the hatching blastula stage, BMP2/4 transcripts can be detected in presumptive ectoderm, where they are enriched on the oral side. Injection of BMP2/4 mRNA at the one-cell stage causes a dose-dependent suppression of commitment of cells to vegetal fates and ectoderm differentiates almost exclusively as a squamous epithelial tissue. In contrast, NOGGIN, an antagonist of BMP2/4, enhances differentiation of endoderm, a vegetal tissue, and promotes differentiation of cells characteristic of the ciliated band, which contains neurogenic ectoderm. These findings support a model in which the balance of BMP2/4 signals produced by animal cell progeny and opposing vegetalizing signals sent during cleavage stages regulate the position of the ectoderm/ endoderm boundary. In addition, BMP2/4 levels influence the decision within ectoderm between epidermal and nonepidermal differentiation.

  18. Continuous expression of the transcription factor E2-2 maintains the cell fate of mature plasmacytoid dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Hiyaa S.; Cisse, Babacar; Bunin, Anna; Lewis, Kanako L.; Reizis, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Summary The interferon-producing plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) share common progenitors with antigen-presenting classical dendritic cells (cDCs), yet they possess distinct morphology and molecular features resembling those of lymphocytes. It is unclear whether the unique cell fate of pDCs is actively maintained in the steady state. We report that the deletion of transcription factor E2-2 from mature peripheral pDCs caused their spontaneous differentiation into cells with cDC properties. This included the loss of pDC markers, increase in MHC class II expression and T cell priming capacity, acquisition of dendritic morphology and induction of cDC signature genes. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed direct binding of E2-2 to key pDC-specific and lymphoid genes, as well as to certain genes enriched in cDCs. Thus, E2-2 actively maintains the cell fate of mature pDCs and opposes the “default” cDC fate, in part through direct regulation of lineage-specific gene expression programs. PMID:21145760

  19. GATA3 induces human T-cell commitment by restraining Notch activity and repressing NK-cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Van de Walle, Inge; Dolens, Anne-Catherine; Durinck, Kaat; De Mulder, Katrien; Van Loocke, Wouter; Damle, Sagar; Waegemans, Els; De Medts, Jelle; Velghe, Imke; De Smedt, Magda; Vandekerckhove, Bart; Kerre, Tessa; Plum, Jean; Leclercq, Georges; Rothenberg, Ellen V.; Van Vlierberghe, Pieter; Speleman, Frank; Taghon, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The gradual reprogramming of haematopoietic precursors into the T-cell fate is characterized by at least two sequential developmental stages. Following Notch1-dependent T-cell lineage specification during which the first T-cell lineage genes are expressed and myeloid and dendritic cell potential is lost, T-cell specific transcription factors subsequently induce T-cell commitment by repressing residual natural killer (NK)-cell potential. How these processes are regulated in human is poorly understood, especially since efficient T-cell lineage commitment requires a reduction in Notch signalling activity following T-cell specification. Here, we show that GATA3, in contrast to TCF1, controls human T-cell lineage commitment through direct regulation of three distinct processes: repression of NK-cell fate, upregulation of T-cell lineage genes to promote further differentiation and restraint of Notch activity. Repression of the Notch1 target gene DTX1 hereby is essential to prevent NK-cell differentiation. Thus, GATA3-mediated positive and negative feedback mechanisms control human T-cell lineage commitment. PMID:27048872

  20. Sr-substituted bone cements direct mesenchymal stem cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts fate

    PubMed Central

    Panseri, Silvia; Dapporto, Massimiliano; Tampieri, Anna; Sprio, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Strontium-substituted apatitic bone cements enriched with sodium alginate were developed as a potential modulator of bone cells fate. The biological impact of the bone cement were investigated in vitro through the study of the effect of the nanostructured apatitic composition and the doping of strontium on mesenchymal stem cells, pre-osteoblasts and osteoclasts behaviours. Up to 14 days of culture the bone cells viability, proliferation, morphology and gene expression profiles were evaluated. The results showed that different concentrations of strontium were able to evoke a cell-specific response, in fact an inductive effect on mesenchymal stem cells differentiation and pre-osteoblasts proliferation and an inhibitory effect on osteoclasts activity were observed. Moreover, the apatitic structure of the cements provided a biomimetic environment suitable for bone cells growth. Therefore, the combination of biological features of this bone cement makes it as promising biomaterials for tissue regeneration. PMID:28196118

  1. Extracellular matrix of secondary lymphoid organs impacts on B-cell fate and survival

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Nathalie; Ruegg, Markus A.; Sonnenberg, Arnoud; Georges-Labouesse, Elisabeth; Winkler, Thomas H.; Kearney, John F.; Cardell, Susanna; Sorokin, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    We describe a unique extracellular matrix (ECM) niche in the spleen, the marginal zone (MZ), characterized by the basement membrane glycoproteins, laminin α5 and agrin, that promotes formation of a specialized population of MZ B lymphocytes that respond rapidly to blood-borne antigens. Mice with reduced laminin α5 expression show reduced MZ B cells and increased numbers of newly formed (NF) transitional B cells that migrate from the bone marrow, without changes in other immune or stromal cell compartments. Transient integrin α6β1-mediated interaction of NF B cells with laminin α5 in the MZ supports the MZ B-cell population, their long-term survival, and antibody response. Data suggest that the unique 3D structure and biochemical composition of the ECM of lymphoid organs impacts on immune cell fate. PMID:23847204

  2. Concise review: harmonies played by microRNAs in cell fate reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Sharif; Asgari, Sassan; Baharvand, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    It is now well-established that somatic cells can be reprogrammed to alternative cell fates by ectopic coexpression of defined factors. Reprogramming technology has uncovered a huge plasticity besides gene regulatory networks (GRNs) of differentiated cell states. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are an integral part of GRNs, have recently emerged as a powerful reprogramming toolbox. They regulate numerous genes, thereby modulating virtually all cellular processes, including somatic cell reprogramming. Not only can miRNAs provide novel opportunities for interrogating mechanisms of induced pluripotency and direct lineage reprogramming but they also offer hope for the efficient creation of safe cell sources for regenerative medicine. In reviewing landmark roles of miRNAs in cell reprogramming, we offer suggestions for evolution of the reprogramming field.

  3. Multiple doublesex-related genes specify critical cell fates in a C. elegans male neural circuit.

    PubMed

    Siehr, Meagan S; Koo, Pamela K; Sherlekar, Amrita L; Bian, Xuelin; Bunkers, Meredith R; Miller, Renee M; Portman, Douglas S; Lints, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    In most animal species, males and females exhibit differences in behavior and morphology that relate to their respective roles in reproduction. DM (Doublesex/MAB-3) domain transcription factors are phylogenetically conserved regulators of sexual development. They are thought to establish sexual traits by sex-specifically modifying the activity of general developmental programs. However, there are few examples where the details of these interactions are known, particularly in the nervous system. In this study, we show that two C. elegans DM domain genes, dmd-3 and mab-23, regulate sensory and muscle cell development in a male neural circuit required for mating. Using genetic approaches, we show that in the circuit sensory neurons, dmd-3 and mab-23 establish the correct pattern of dopaminergic (DA) and cholinergic (ACh) fate. We find that the ETS-domain transcription factor gene ast-1, a non-sex-specific, phylogenetically conserved activator of dopamine biosynthesis gene transcription, is broadly expressed in the circuit sensory neuron population. However, dmd-3 and mab-23 repress its activity in most cells, promoting ACh fate instead. A subset of neurons, preferentially exposed to a TGF-beta ligand, escape this repression because signal transduction pathway activity in these cells blocks dmd-3/mab-23 function, allowing DA fate to be established. Through optogenetic and pharmacological approaches, we show that the sensory and muscle cell characteristics controlled by dmd-3 and mab-23 are crucial for circuit function. In the C. elegans male, DM domain genes dmd-3 and mab-23 regulate expression of cell sub-type characteristics that are critical for mating success. In particular, these factors limit the number of DA neurons in the male nervous system by sex-specifically regulating a phylogenetically conserved dopamine biosynthesis gene transcription factor. Homologous interactions between vertebrate counterparts could regulate sex differences in neuron sub

  4. Multiple doublesex-Related Genes Specify Critical Cell Fates in a C. elegans Male Neural Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Xuelin; Bunkers, Meredith R.; Miller, Renee M.; Portman, Douglas S.; Lints, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    Background In most animal species, males and females exhibit differences in behavior and morphology that relate to their respective roles in reproduction. DM (Doublesex/MAB-3) domain transcription factors are phylogenetically conserved regulators of sexual development. They are thought to establish sexual traits by sex-specifically modifying the activity of general developmental programs. However, there are few examples where the details of these interactions are known, particularly in the nervous system. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we show that two C. elegans DM domain genes, dmd-3 and mab-23, regulate sensory and muscle cell development in a male neural circuit required for mating. Using genetic approaches, we show that in the circuit sensory neurons, dmd-3 and mab-23 establish the correct pattern of dopaminergic (DA) and cholinergic (ACh) fate. We find that the ETS-domain transcription factor gene ast-1, a non-sex-specific, phylogenetically conserved activator of dopamine biosynthesis gene transcription, is broadly expressed in the circuit sensory neuron population. However, dmd-3 and mab-23 repress its activity in most cells, promoting ACh fate instead. A subset of neurons, preferentially exposed to a TGF-beta ligand, escape this repression because signal transduction pathway activity in these cells blocks dmd-3/mab-23 function, allowing DA fate to be established. Through optogenetic and pharmacological approaches, we show that the sensory and muscle cell characteristics controlled by dmd-3 and mab-23 are crucial for circuit function. Conclusions/Significance In the C. elegans male, DM domain genes dmd-3 and mab-23 regulate expression of cell sub-type characteristics that are critical for mating success. In particular, these factors limit the number of DA neurons in the male nervous system by sex-specifically regulating a phylogenetically conserved dopamine biosynthesis gene transcription factor. Homologous interactions between vertebrate

  5. Long-term fate of neural precursor cells following transplantation into developing and adult CNS.

    PubMed

    Lepore, A C; Neuhuber, B; Connors, T M; Han, S S W; Liu, Y; Daniels, M P; Rao, M S; Fischer, I

    2006-05-12

    Successful strategies for transplantation of neural precursor cells for replacement of lost or dysfunctional CNS cells require long-term survival of grafted cells and integration with the host system, potentially for the life of the recipient. It is also important to demonstrate that transplants do not result in adverse outcomes. Few studies have examined the long-term properties of transplanted neural precursor cells in the CNS, particularly in non-neurogenic regions of the adult. The aim of the present study was to extensively characterize the fate of defined populations of neural precursor cells following transplantation into the developing and adult CNS (brain and spinal cord) for up to 15 months, including integration of graft-derived neurons with the host. Specifically, we employed neuronal-restricted precursors and glial-restricted precursors, which represent neural precursor cells with lineage restrictions for neuronal and glial fate, respectively. Transplanted cells were prepared from embryonic day-13.5 fetal spinal cord of transgenic donor rats that express the marker gene human placental alkaline phosphatase to achieve stable and reliable graft tracking. We found that in both developing and adult CNS grafted cells showed long-term survival, morphological maturation, extensive distribution and differentiation into all mature CNS cell types (neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes). Graft-derived neurons also formed synapses, as identified by electron microscopy, suggesting that transplanted neural precursor cells integrated with adult CNS. Furthermore, grafts did not result in any apparent deleterious outcomes. We did not detect tumor formation, cells did not localize to unwanted locations and no pronounced immune response was present at the graft sites. The long-term stability of neuronal-restricted precursors and glial-restricted precursors and the lack of adverse effects suggest that transplantation of lineage-restricted neural precursor cells can

  6. Genetic Regulation of Fate Decisions in Therapeutic T Cells to Enhance Tumor Protection and Memory Formation.

    PubMed

    Veliça, Pedro; Zech, Mathias; Henson, Sian; Holler, Angelika; Manzo, Teresa; Pike, Rebecca; Santos E Sousa, Pedro; Zhang, Lei; Heinz, Niels; Schiedlmeier, Bernhard; Pule, Martin; Stauss, Hans; Chakraverty, Ronjon

    2015-07-01

    A key challenge in the field of T-cell immunotherapy for cancer is creating a suitable platform for promoting differentiation of effector cells while at the same time enabling self-renewal needed for long-term memory. Although transfer of less differentiated memory T cells increases efficacy through greater expansion and persistence in vivo, the capacity of such cells to sustain effector functions within immunosuppressive tumor microenvironments may still be limiting. We have therefore directly compared the impact of effector versus memory differentiation of therapeutic T cells in tumor-bearing mice by introducing molecular switches that regulate cell fate decisions via mTOR. Ectopic expression of RAS homolog enriched in brain (RHEB) increased mTORC1 signaling, promoted a switch to aerobic glycolysis, and increased expansion of effector T cells. By rapidly infiltrating tumors, RHEB-transduced T cells significantly reduced the emergence of immunoedited escape variants. In contrast, expression of proline-rich Akt substrate of 40 kDa (PRAS40) inhibited mTORC1, promoted quiescence, and blocked tumor infiltration. Fate mapping studies following transient expression of PRAS40 demonstrated that mTORC1(low) T cells made no contribution to initial tumor control but instead survived to become memory cells proficient in generating recall immunity. Our data support the design of translational strategies for generating heterogeneous T-cell immunity against cancer, with the appropriate balance between promoting effector differentiation and self-renewal. Unlike pharmacologic inhibitors, the genetic approach described here allows for upregulation as well as inhibition of the mTORC1 pathway and is highly selective for the therapeutic T cells without affecting systemic mTORC1 functions. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. In Vivo Fate Imaging of Intracerebral Stem Cell Grafts in Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Nelles, Melanie; Beyrau, Andreas; Hoehn, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    We generated transgenic human neural stem cells (hNSCs) stably expressing the reporter genes Luciferase for bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and GFP for fluorescence imaging, for multimodal imaging investigations. These transgenic hNSCs were further labeled with a clinically approved perfluoropolyether to perform parallel 19F MRI studies. In vitro validation demonstrated normal cell proliferation and differentiation of the transgenic and additionally labeled hNSCs, closely the same as the wild type cell line, making them suitable for in vivo application. Labeled and unlabeled transgenic hNSCs were implanted into the striatum of mouse brain. The time profile of their cell fate after intracerebral grafting was monitored during nine days following implantation with our multimodal imaging approach, assessing both functional and anatomical condition. The 19F MRI demarcated the graft location and permitted to estimate the cell number in the graft. BLI showed a pronounce cell loss during this monitoring period, indicated by the decrease of the viability signal. The in vivo obtained cell fate results were further validated and confirmed by immunohistochemistry. We could show that the surviving cells of the graft continued to differentiate into early neurons, while the severe cell loss could be explained by an inflammatory reaction to the graft, showing the graft being surrounded by activated microglia and macrophages. These results are different from earlier cell survival studies of our group where we had implanted the identical cells into the same mouse strain but in the cortex and not in the striatum. The cortical transplanted cells did not show any loss in viability but only pronounced and continuous neuronal differentiation. PMID:26641453

  8. Intestinal Neurogenin 3 Directs Differentiation of a Bipotential Secretory Progenitor to Endocrine Cell Rather than Goblet Cell Fate

    PubMed Central

    López-Díaz, Lymari; Jain, Renu N.; Keeley, Theresa M.; VanDussen, Kelli L.; Brunkan, Cynthia S.; Gumucio, Deborah L.; Samuelson, Linda C.

    2009-01-01

    Neurogenin 3 is essential for enteroendocrine cell development; however, it is unknown whether this transcription factor is sufficient to induce an endocrine program in the intestine or how it affects the development of other epithelial cells originating from common progenitors. In this study, the mouse villin promoter was used to drive Neurogenin 3 expression throughout the developing epithelium to measure the affect on cell fate. Although the general morphology of the intestine was unchanged, transgenic founder embryos displayed increased numbers of cells expressing the pan-endocrine marker chromogranin A. Accordingly, expression of several hormones and pro-endocrine transcription factors were increased in the transgenics suggesting that Neurogenin 3 stimulated a program of terminal enteroendocrine cell development. To test whether increased endocrine cell differentiation affected the development of other secretory cell lineages, we quantified goblet cells, the only other secretory cell formed in embryonic intestine. The Neurogenin 3-expressing transgenics had decreased numbers of goblet cells in correspondence to the increase in endocrine cells, with no change in the total secretory cell numbers. Thus, our data suggest that Neurogenin 3 can redirect the differentiation of bipotential secretory progenitors to endocrine rather than goblet cell fate. PMID:17706959

  9. Sex determination. foxl3 is a germ cell-intrinsic factor involved in sperm-egg fate decision in medaka.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Toshiya; Sato, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Watakabe, Ikuko; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Suyama, Mikita; Kobayashi, Satoru; Tanaka, Minoru

    2015-07-17

    Sex determination is an essential step in the commitment of a germ cell to a sperm or egg. However, the intrinsic factors that determine the sexual fate of vertebrate germ cells are unknown. Here, we show that foxl3, which is expressed in germ cells but not somatic cells in the gonad, is involved in sperm-egg fate decision in medaka fish. Adult XX medaka with disrupted foxl3 developed functional sperm in the expanded germinal epithelium of a histologically functional ovary. In chimeric medaka, mutant germ cells initiated spermatogenesis in female wild-type gonad. These results indicate that a germ cell-intrinsic cue for the sperm-egg fate decision is present in medaka and that spermatogenesis can proceed in a female gonadal environment.

  10. SOX17 Is a Critical Specifier of Human Primordial Germ Cell Fate

    PubMed Central

    Irie, Naoko; Weinberger, Leehee; Tang, Walfred W.C.; Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Viukov, Sergey; Manor, Yair S.; Dietmann, Sabine; Hanna, Jacob H.; Surani, M. Azim

    2015-01-01

    Summary Specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs) marks the beginning of the totipotent state. However, without a tractable experimental model, the mechanism of human PGC (hPGC) specification remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate specification of hPGC-like cells (hPGCLCs) from germline competent pluripotent stem cells. The characteristics of hPGCLCs are consistent with the embryonic hPGCs and a germline seminoma that share a CD38 cell-surface marker, which collectively defines likely progression of the early human germline. Remarkably, SOX17 is the key regulator of hPGC-like fate, whereas BLIMP1 represses endodermal and other somatic genes during specification of hPGCLCs. Notable mechanistic differences between mouse and human PGC specification could be attributed to their divergent embryonic development and pluripotent states, which might affect other early cell-fate decisions. We have established a foundation for future studies on resetting of the epigenome in hPGCLCs and hPGCs for totipotency and the transmission of genetic and epigenetic information. PMID:25543152

  11. The fate of cranial neural crest cells in the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Rolf; Joss, Jean; Olsson, Lennart

    2008-06-15

    The cranial neural crest has been shown to give rise to a diversity of cells and tissues, including cartilage, bone and connective tissue, in a variety of tetrapods and in the zebrafish. It has been claimed, however, that in the Australian lungfish these tissues are not derived from the cranial neural crest, and even that no migrating cranial neural crest cells exist in this species. We have earlier documented that cranial neural crest cells do migrate, although they emerge late, in the Australian lungfish. Here, we have used the lipophilic fluorescent dye, DiI, to label premigratory cranial neural crest cells and follow their fate until stage 43, when several cranial skeletal elements have started to differentiate. The timing and extent of their migration was investigated, and formation of mandibular, hyoid and branchial streams documented. Cranial neural crest was shown to contribute cells to several parts of the head skeleton, including the trabecula cranii and derivatives of the mandibular arch (e.g., Meckel's cartilage, quadrate), the hyoid arch (e.g., the ceratohyal) and the branchial arches (ceratobranchials I-IV), as well as to the connective tissue surrounding the myofibers in cranial muscles. We conclude that cranial neural crest migration and fate in the Australian lungfish follow the stereotyped pattern documented in other vertebrates. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Gastrin: a distinct fate of neurogenin3 positive progenitor cells in the embryonic pancreas.

    PubMed

    Suissa, Yaron; Magenheim, Judith; Stolovich-Rain, Miri; Hija, Ayat; Collombat, Patrick; Mansouri, Ahmed; Sussel, Lori; Sosa-Pineda, Beatriz; McCracken, Kyle; Wells, James M; Heller, R Scott; Dor, Yuval; Glaser, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Neurogenin3(+) (Ngn3(+)) progenitor cells in the developing pancreas give rise to five endocrine cell types secreting insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide and ghrelin. Gastrin is a hormone produced primarily by G-cells in the stomach, where it functions to stimulate acid secretion by gastric parietal cells. Gastrin is expressed in the embryonic pancreas and is common in islet cell tumors, but the lineage and regulators of pancreatic gastrin(+) cells are not known. We report that gastrin is abundantly expressed in the embryonic pancreas and disappears soon after birth. Some gastrin(+) cells in the developing pancreas co-express glucagon, ghrelin or pancreatic polypeptide, but many gastrin(+) cells do not express any other islet hormone. Pancreatic gastrin(+) cells express the transcription factors Nkx6.1, Nkx2.2 and low levels of Pdx1, and derive from Ngn3(+) endocrine progenitor cells as shown by genetic lineage tracing. Using mice deficient for key transcription factors we show that gastrin expression depends on Ngn3, Nkx2.2, NeuroD1 and Arx, but not Pax4 or Pax6. Finally, gastrin expression is induced upon differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to pancreatic endocrine cells expressing insulin. Thus, gastrin(+) cells are a distinct endocrine cell type in the pancreas and an alternative fate of Ngn3+ cells.

  13. Ontogeny of embryogenic callus in Medicago truncatula: the fate of the pluripotent and totipotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Ding; Nolan, Kim E; Irwanto, Rina R; Sheahan, Michael B; Rose, Ray J

    2011-04-01

    Understanding the fate and dynamics of cells during callus formation is essential to understanding totipotency and the mechanisms of somatic embryogenesis. Here, the fate of leaf explant cells during the development of embryogenic callus was investigated in the model legume Medicago truncatula. Callus development was examined from cultured leaf explants of the highly regenerable genotype Jemalong 2HA (2HA) and from mesophyll protoplasts of 2HA and wild-type Jemalong. Callus development was studied by histology, manipulation of the culture system, detection of early production of reactive oxygen species and visualization of SERK1 (SOMATIC EMBRYO RECEPTOR KINASE1) gene expression. Callus formation in leaf explants initiates at the cut surface and within veins of the explant. The ontogeny of callus development is dominated by the division and differentiation of cells derived from pluripotent procambial cells and from dedifferentiated mesophyll cells. Procambium-derived cells differentiated into vascular tissue and rarely formed somatic embryos, whereas dedifferentiated mesophyll cells were competent to form somatic embryos. Interestingly, explants incubated adaxial-side down had substantially less cell proliferation associated with veins yet produced similar numbers of somatic embryos to explants incubated abaxial-side down. Somatic embryos mostly formed on the explant surface originally in contact with the medium, while in protoplast microcalli, somatic embryos only fully developed once at the surface of the callus. Mesophyll protoplasts of 2HA formed embryogenic callus while Jemalong mesophyll protoplasts produced callus rich in vasculature. The ontogeny of embryogenic callus in M. truncatula relates to explant orientation and is driven by the dynamics of pluripotent procambial cells, which proliferate and differentiate into vasculature. The ontogeny is also related to de-differentiated mesophyll cells that acquire totipotency and form the majority of embryos. This

  14. Machine learning classification of cell-specific cardiac enhancers uncovers developmental subnetworks regulating progenitor cell division and cell fate specification

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Shaad M.; Busser, Brian W.; Huang, Di; Cozart, Elizabeth J.; Michaud, Sébastien; Zhu, Xianmin; Jeffries, Neal; Aboukhalil, Anton; Bulyk, Martha L.; Ovcharenko, Ivan; Michelson, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila heart is composed of two distinct cell types, the contractile cardial cells (CCs) and the surrounding non-muscle pericardial cells (PCs), development of which is regulated by a network of conserved signaling molecules and transcription factors (TFs). Here, we used machine learning with array-based chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data and TF sequence motifs to computationally classify cell type-specific cardiac enhancers. Extensive testing of predicted enhancers at single-cell resolution revealed the added value of ChIP data for modeling cell type-specific activities. Furthermore, clustering the top-scoring classifier sequence features identified novel cardiac and cell type-specific regulatory motifs. For example, we found that the Myb motif learned by the classifier is crucial for CC activity, and the Myb TF acts in concert with two forkhead domain TFs and Polo kinase to regulate cardiac progenitor cell divisions. In addition, differential motif enrichment and cis-trans genetic studies revealed that the Notch signaling pathway TF Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] discriminates PC from CC enhancer activities. Collectively, these studies elucidate molecular pathways used in the regulatory decisions for proliferation and differentiation of cardiac progenitor cells, implicate Su(H) in regulating cell fate decisions of these progenitors, and document the utility of enhancer modeling in uncovering developmental regulatory subnetworks. PMID:24496624

  15. Machine learning classification of cell-specific cardiac enhancers uncovers developmental subnetworks regulating progenitor cell division and cell fate specification.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Shaad M; Busser, Brian W; Huang, Di; Cozart, Elizabeth J; Michaud, Sébastien; Zhu, Xianmin; Jeffries, Neal; Aboukhalil, Anton; Bulyk, Martha L; Ovcharenko, Ivan; Michelson, Alan M

    2014-02-01

    The Drosophila heart is composed of two distinct cell types, the contractile cardial cells (CCs) and the surrounding non-muscle pericardial cells (PCs), development of which is regulated by a network of conserved signaling molecules and transcription factors (TFs). Here, we used machine learning with array-based chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data and TF sequence motifs to computationally classify cell type-specific cardiac enhancers. Extensive testing of predicted enhancers at single-cell resolution revealed the added value of ChIP data for modeling cell type-specific activities. Furthermore, clustering the top-scoring classifier sequence features identified novel cardiac and cell type-specific regulatory motifs. For example, we found that the Myb motif learned by the classifier is crucial for CC activity, and the Myb TF acts in concert with two forkhead domain TFs and Polo kinase to regulate cardiac progenitor cell divisions. In addition, differential motif enrichment and cis-trans genetic studies revealed that the Notch signaling pathway TF Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] discriminates PC from CC enhancer activities. Collectively, these studies elucidate molecular pathways used in the regulatory decisions for proliferation and differentiation of cardiac progenitor cells, implicate Su(H) in regulating cell fate decisions of these progenitors, and document the utility of enhancer modeling in uncovering developmental regulatory subnetworks.

  16. Sequoia regulates cell fate decisions in the external sensory organs of adult Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Hillary K; Giagtzoglou, Nikolaos; Yamamoto, Shinya; Schulze, Karen L; Bellen, Hugo J

    2009-06-01

    The adult Drosophila external sensory organ (ESO), comprising the hair, socket, neuron, sheath and glia cells, arises through the asymmetric division of sensory organ precursor cells (SOPs). In a mosaic screen designed to identify new components in ESO development, we isolated mutations in sequoia, which encodes a putative zinc-finger transcription factor that has previously been shown to have a role in dendritogenesis. Here, we show that adult clones mutant for seq exhibit a loss of hair cells and a gain of socket cells. We propose that the seq mutant phenotype arises, in part, owing to the loss of several crucial transcription factors known to be important in peripheral nervous system development such as D-Pax2, Prospero and Hamlet. Thus, Sequoia is a new upstream regulator of genes that orchestrates cell fate specification during development of the adult ESO lineage.

  17. The Hippo pathway member YAP enhances human neural crest cell fate and migration.

    PubMed

    Hindley, Christopher J; Condurat, Alexandra Larisa; Menon, Vishal; Thomas, Ria; Azmitia, Luis M; Davis, Jason A; Pruszak, Jan

    2016-03-16

    The Hippo/YAP pathway serves as a major integrator of cell surface-mediated signals and regulates key processes during development and tumorigenesis. The neural crest is an embryonic tissue known to respond to multiple environmental cues in order to acquire appropriate cell fate and migration properties. Using multiple in vitro models of human neural development (pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cells; LUHMES, NTERA2 and SH-SY5Y cell lines), we investigated the role of Hippo/YAP signaling in neural differentiation and neural crest development. We report that the activity of YAP promotes an early neural crest phenotype and migration, and provide the first evidence for an interaction between Hippo/YAP and retinoic acid signaling in this system.

  18. Emergence of Form from Function - Mechanical Engineering Approaches to Probe the Role of Stem Cell Mechanoadaptation in Sealing Cell Fate.

    PubMed

    Knothe Tate, Melissa L; Gunning, Peter W; Sansalone, Vittorio

    2016-10-14

    Stem cell "mechanomics" refers to the effect of mechanical cues on stem cell and matrix biology, where cell shape and fate are intrinsic manifestations of form and function. Before specialization, the stem cell itself serves as a sensor and actuator; its structure emerges from its local mechanical milieu as the cell adapts over time. Coupling of novel spatiotemporal imaging and computational methods allows for linking of the energy of adaptation to the structure, biology and mechanical function of the cell. Cutting edge imaging methods enable probing of mechanisms by which stem cells' emergent anisotropic architecture and fate commitment occurs. A novel cell-scale model provides a mechanistic framework to describe stem cell growth and remodeling through mechanical feedback; making use of a generalized virtual power principle, the model accounts for the rate of doing work or the rate of using energy to effect the work. This coupled approach provides a basis to elucidate mechanisms underlying the stem cell's innate capacity to adapt to mechanical stimuli as well as the role of mechanoadaptation in lineage commitment. An understanding of stem cell mechanoadaptation is key to deciphering lineage commitment, during prenatal development, postnatal wound healing, and engineering of tissues.

  19. Wnt Signaling in Mammary Glands: Plastic Cell Fates and Combinatorial Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Caroline M.; Goel, Shruti; Fakhraldeen, Saja A.; Kim, Soyoung

    2012-01-01

    The mouse mammary gland is an outstanding developmental model that exemplifies the activities of many of the effector pathways known to organize mammalian morphogenesis; furthermore, there are well-characterized methods for the specific genetic manipulation of various mammary epithelial cell components. Among these signaling pathways, Wnt signaling has been shown to generate plasticity of fate determination, expanding the genetic programs available to cells in the mammary lineage. It is responsible first for the appearance of the mammary fate in embryonic ectoderm and then for maintaining bi-potential basal stem cells in adult mammary ductal trees. Recent technical developments have led to the separate analysis of various mammary epithelial cell subpopulations, spurring the investigation of Wnt-dependent interactions. Although Wnt signaling was shown to be oncogenic for mouse mammary epithelium even before being identified as the principle oncogenic driver for gut epithelium, conclusive data implicating this pathway as a tumor driver for breast cancer lag behind, and we examine potential reasons. PMID:22661590

  20. Engineering Spatial Control of Multiple Differentiation Fates within a Stem Cell Population

    PubMed Central

    Ker, Dai Fei Elmer; Chu, Bur; Phillippi, Julie A.; Gharaibeh, Burhan; Huard, Johnny; Weiss, Lee E.; Campbell, Phil G.

    2011-01-01

    The capability to engineer microenvironmental cues to direct a stem cell population toward multiple fates, simultaneously, in spatially defined regions is important for understanding the maintenance and repair of multi-tissue units. We have previously developed an inkjet-based bioprinter to create patterns of solid-phase growth factors (GFs) immobilized to an extracellular matrix (ECM) substrate, and applied this approach to drive muscle-derived stem cells toward osteoblasts ‘on–pattern’ and myocytes ‘off–pattern’ simultaneously. Here this technology is extended to spatially control osteoblast, tenocyte and myocyte differentiation simultaneously. Utilizing immunofluorescence staining to identify tendon-promoting GFs, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) was shown to upregulate the tendon marker Scleraxis (Scx) in C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal fibroblasts, C2C12 myoblasts and primary muscle-derived stem cells, while downregulating the myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Quantitative PCR studies indicated that FGF-2 may direct stem cells towards a tendon fate via the Ets family members of transcription factors such as pea3 and erm. Neighboring patterns of FGF-2 and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) printed onto a single fibrin-coated coverslip upregulated Scx and the osteoblast marker ALP, respectively, while non-printed regions showed spontaneous myotube differentiation. This work illustrates spatial control of multi-phenotype differentiation and may have potential in the regeneration of multi-tissue units. PMID:21316755

  1. Engineering dynamical control of cell fate switching using synthetic phospho-regulons

    PubMed Central

    Gordley, Russell M.; Williams, Reid E.; Bashor, Caleb J.; Toettcher, Jared E.; Yan, Shude; Lim, Wendell A.

    2016-01-01

    Many cells can sense and respond to time-varying stimuli, selectively triggering changes in cell fate only in response to inputs of a particular duration or frequency. A common motif in dynamically controlled cells is a dual-timescale regulatory network: although long-term fate decisions are ultimately controlled by a slow-timescale switch (e.g., gene expression), input signals are first processed by a fast-timescale signaling layer, which is hypothesized to filter what dynamic information is efficiently relayed downstream. Directly testing the design principles of how dual-timescale circuits control dynamic sensing, however, has been challenging, because most synthetic biology methods have focused solely on rewiring transcriptional circuits, which operate at a single slow timescale. Here, we report the development of a modular approach for flexibly engineering phosphorylation circuits using designed phospho-regulon motifs. By then linking rapid phospho-feedback with slower downstream transcription-based bistable switches, we can construct synthetic dual-timescale circuits in yeast in which the triggering dynamics and the end-state properties of the ON state can be selectively tuned. These phospho-regulon tools thus open up the possibility to engineer cells with customized dynamical control. PMID:27821768

  2. Neuronal cell fate diversification controlled by sub-temporal action of Kruppel

    PubMed Central

    Stratmann, Johannes; Gabilondo, Hugo; Benito-Sipos, Jonathan; Thor, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    During Drosophila embryonic nervous system development, neuroblasts express a programmed cascade of five temporal transcription factors that govern the identity of cells generated at different time-points. However, these five temporal genes fall short of accounting for the many distinct cell types generated in large lineages. Here, we find that the late temporal gene castor sub-divides its large window in neuroblast 5–6 by simultaneously activating two cell fate determination cascades and a sub-temporal regulatory program. The sub-temporal program acts both upon itself and upon the determination cascades to diversify the castor window. Surprisingly, the early temporal gene Kruppel acts as one of the sub-temporal genes within the late castor window. Intriguingly, while the temporal gene castor activates the two determination cascades and the sub-temporal program, spatial cues controlling cell fate in the latter part of the 5–6 lineage exclusively act upon the determination cascades. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19311.001 PMID:27740908

  3. Redox Signaling in Diabetic Nephropathy: Hypertrophy versus Death Choices in Mesangial Cells and Podocytes.

    PubMed

    Manda, Gina; Checherita, Alexandru-Ionel; Comanescu, Maria Victoria; Hinescu, Mihail Eugen

    2015-01-01

    This review emphasizes the role of oxidative stress in diabetic nephropathy, acting as trigger, modulator, and linker within the complex network of pathologic events. It highlights key molecular pathways and new hypothesis in diabetic nephropathy, related to the interferences of metabolic, oxidative, and inflammatory stresses. Main topics this review is addressing are biomarkers of oxidative stress in diabetic nephropathy, the sources of reactive oxygen species (mitochondria, NADPH-oxidases, hyperglycemia, and inflammation), and the redox-sensitive signaling networks (protein kinases, transcription factors, and epigenetic regulators). Molecular switches deciding on the renal cells fate in diabetic nephropathy are presented, such as hypertrophy versus death choices in mesangial cells and podocytes. Finally, the antioxidant response of renal cells in diabetic nephropathy is tackled, with emphasis on targeted therapy. An integrative approach is needed for identifying key molecular networks which control cellular responses triggered by the array of stressors in diabetic nephropathy. This will foster the discovery of reliable biomarkers for early diagnosis and prognosis, and will guide the discovery of new therapeutic approaches for personalized medicine in diabetic nephropathy.

  4. Stem cell and progenitor fate in the mammalian intestine: Notch and lateral inhibition in homeostasis and disease.

    PubMed

    Sancho, Rocio; Cremona, Catherine A; Behrens, Axel

    2015-05-01

    The control of cell fate decisions is vital to build functional organs and maintain normal tissue homeostasis, and many pathways and processes cooperate to direct cells to an appropriate final identity. Because of its continuously renewing state and its carefully organised hierarchy, the mammalian intestine has become a powerful model to dissect these pathways in health and disease. One of the signalling pathways that is key to maintaining the balance between proliferation and differentiation in the intestinal epithelium is the Notch pathway, most famous for specifying distinct cell fates in adjacent cells via the evolutionarily conserved process of lateral inhibition. Here, we will review recent discoveries that advance our understanding of how cell fate in the mammalian intestine is decided by Notch and lateral inhibition, focusing on the molecular determinants that regulate protein turnover, transcriptional control and epigenetic regulation.

  5. Phenotypic Plasticity and Cell Fate Decisions in Cancer: Insights from Dynamical Systems Theory

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Prakash; Levine, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Waddington’s epigenetic landscape, a famous metaphor in developmental biology, depicts how a stem cell progresses from an undifferentiated phenotype to a differentiated one. The concept of “landscape” in the context of dynamical systems theory represents a high-dimensional space, in which each cell phenotype is considered as an “attractor” that is determined by interactions between multiple molecular players, and is buffered against environmental fluctuations. In addition, biological noise is thought to play an important role during these cell-fate decisions and in fact controls transitions between different phenotypes. Here, we discuss the phenotypic transitions in cancer from a dynamical systems perspective and invoke the concept of “cancer attractors”—hidden stable states of the underlying regulatory network that are not occupied by normal cells. Phenotypic transitions in cancer occur at varying levels depending on the context. Using epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cancer stem-like properties, metabolic reprogramming and the emergence of therapy resistance as examples, we illustrate how phenotypic plasticity in cancer cells enables them to acquire hybrid phenotypes (such as hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal and hybrid metabolic phenotypes) that tend to be more aggressive and notoriously resilient to therapies such as chemotherapy and androgen-deprivation therapy. Furthermore, we highlight multiple factors that may give rise to phenotypic plasticity in cancer cells, such as (a) multi-stability or oscillatory behaviors governed by underlying regulatory networks involved in cell-fate decisions in cancer cells, and (b) network rewiring due to conformational dynamics of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) that are highly enriched in cancer cells. We conclude by discussing why a therapeutic approach that promotes “recanalization”, i.e., the exit from “cancer attractors” and re-entry into “normal attractors”, is more likely to

  6. Phenotypic Plasticity and Cell Fate Decisions in Cancer: Insights from Dynamical Systems Theory.

    PubMed

    Jia, Dongya; Jolly, Mohit Kumar; Kulkarni, Prakash; Levine, Herbert

    2017-06-22

    Waddington's epigenetic landscape, a famous metaphor in developmental biology, depicts how a stem cell progresses from an undifferentiated phenotype to a differentiated one. The concept of "landscape" in the context of dynamical systems theory represents a high-dimensional space, in which each cell phenotype is considered as an "attractor" that is determined by interactions between multiple molecular players, and is buffered against environmental fluctuations. In addition, biological noise is thought to play an important role during these cell-fate decisions and in fact controls transitions between different phenotypes. Here, we discuss the phenotypic transitions in cancer from a dynamical systems perspective and invoke the concept of "cancer attractors"-hidden stable states of the underlying regulatory network that are not occupied by normal cells. Phenotypic transitions in cancer occur at varying levels depending on the context. Using epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cancer stem-like properties, metabolic reprogramming and the emergence of therapy resistance as examples, we illustrate how phenotypic plasticity in cancer cells enables them to acquire hybrid phenotypes (such as hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal and hybrid metabolic phenotypes) that tend to be more aggressive and notoriously resilient to therapies such as chemotherapy and androgen-deprivation therapy. Furthermore, we highlight multiple factors that may give rise to phenotypic plasticity in cancer cells, such as (a) multi-stability or oscillatory behaviors governed by underlying regulatory networks involved in cell-fate decisions in cancer cells, and (b) network rewiring due to conformational dynamics of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) that are highly enriched in cancer cells. We conclude by discussing why a therapeutic approach that promotes "recanalization", i.e., the exit from "cancer attractors" and re-entry into "normal attractors", is more likely to succeed rather than a

  7. M-CSF instructs myeloid lineage fate in single haematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Mossadegh-Keller, Noushine; Sarrazin, Sandrine; Kandalla, Prashanth K.; Espinosa, Leon; Stanley, E. Richard; Nutt, Stephen L.; Moore, Jordan; Sieweke, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Under stress conditions such as infection or inflammation the body rapidly needs to generate new blood cells that are adapted to the challenge. Haematopoietic cytokines are known to increase output of specific mature cells by affecting survival, expansion and differentiation of lineage-committed progenitors1,2, but it has been debated whether long-term haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are susceptible to direct lineage-specifying effects of cytokines. Although genetic changes in transcription factor balance can sensitize HSCs to cytokine instruction3, the initiation of HSC commitment is generally thought to be triggered by stochastic fluctuation in cell-intrinsic regulators such as lineage-specific transcription factors4–7, leaving cytokines to ensure survival and proliferation of the progeny cells8,9. Here we show that macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF, also called CSF1), a myeloid cytokine released during infection and inflammation, can directly induce the myeloid master regulator PU.1 and instruct myeloid cell-fate change in mouse HSCs, independently of selective survival or proliferation. Video imaging and single-cell gene expression analysis revealed that stimulation of highly purified HSCs with M-CSF in culture resulted in activation of the PU.1 promoter and an increased number of PU.1+ cells with myeloid gene signature and differentiation potential. In vivo, high systemic levels of M-CSF directly stimulated M-CSF-receptor-dependent activation of endogenous PU.1 protein in single HSCs and induced a PU.1-dependent myeloid differentiation preference. Our data demonstrate that lineage-specific cytokines can act directly on HSCs in vitro and in vivo to instruct a change of cell identity. This fundamentally changes the current view of how HSCs respond to environmental challenge and implicates stress-induced cytokines as direct instructors of HSC fate. PMID:23575636

  8. Chemokines influence the migration and fate of neural precursor cells from the young adult and middle-aged rat subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Gordon, R J; Mehrabi, N F; Maucksch, C; Connor, B

    2012-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated a role for the chemokines MCP-1, MIP-1α and GRO-α in directing subventricular zone (SVZ)-derived neural precursor cell migration towards the site of cell death in the adult rodent brain. However the influence of chemokines such as MCP-1, MIP-1α and GRO-α on the differentiation of adult neural precursor cells has not previously been investigated. Further, as the majority of neurological disorders and injuries occur during ageing, it is important to investigate the effect of chemokines on adult neural precursor cell cultures obtained from the ageing brain. This study therefore examined the effect of MCP-1, MIP-1α and GRO-α on SVZ-derived neural precursor cell differentiation in vitro, and assessed whether precursor cells from the middle-aged rat brain (13 months old) follow the same migratory and differential profile as neural precursor cells obtained from the young adult rat brain (2 months old). We observed that each of the chemokines examined generated differing effects in regards to neuronal or glial differentiation. Further, both MIP-1α and GRO-α increased total cell number, suggesting an effect on precursor cell proliferation and/or survival. In agreement with cultures obtained from young adult brains, SVZ-derived neural precursor cells cultured from the middle-aged brain exhibited chemotactic migration in response to a concentration gradient. These results indicate that the chemokines MCP-1, MIP-1α and GRO-α can influence both the migration and fate choice of SVZ-derived neural precursor cells, as well as promoting cell viability. While a response to each of these chemokines is maintained in the middle-aged brain, a distinct age-related alteration in differential fate can be identified.

  9. Complex interplays in immune T-cell differentiation and developmental fate determination.

    PubMed

    Duc, Huynh Thien

    2011-08-01

    Aspects relevant to immune T-cell differentiation and fate determination have been examined and discussed in the context of transcription factors, initiating cytokines in association with cognate antigen activation. It appears that the differentiation optional program, in light of recent results related to genetic as well as epigenetic mechanisms, is not predetermined and irreversibly fixed; rather, there is some degree of flexibility allowing the manipulation of remodeling the already differentiated effector cell subsets/lineages. From the progress obtained it will be possible, in the near future, to tailor and obtain various well-defined and efficient immune effector cell subsets/cell lineages for translational applications in autoimmunity, infectious diseases, graft rejection as well as cancer in safe conditions.

  10. Asynchronous fate decisions by single cells collectively ensure consistent lineage composition in the mouse blastocyst

    PubMed Central

    Saiz, Néstor; Williams, Kiah M.; Seshan, Venkatraman E.; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Intercellular communication is essential to coordinate the behaviour of individual cells during organismal development. The preimplantation mammalian embryo is a paradigm of tissue self-organization and regulative development; however, the cellular basis of these regulative abilities has not been established. Here we use a quantitative image analysis pipeline to undertake a high-resolution, single-cell level analysis of lineage specification in the inner cell mass (ICM) of the mouse blastocyst. We show that a consistent ratio of epiblast and primitive endoderm lineages is achieved through incremental allocation of cells from a common progenitor pool, and that the lineage composition of the ICM is conserved regardless of its size. Furthermore, timed modulation of the FGF-MAPK pathway shows that individual progenitors commit to either fate asynchronously during blastocyst development. These data indicate that such incremental lineage allocation provides the basis for a tissue size control mechanism that ensures the generation of lineages of appropriate size. PMID:27857135

  11. Cell fate after mitotic arrest in different tumor cells is determined by the balance between slippage and apoptotic threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Galán-Malo, Patricia; Vela, Laura; Gonzalo, Oscar; Calvo-Sanjuán, Rubén; Gracia-Fleta, Lucía; Naval, Javier; Marzo, Isabel

    2012-02-01

    Microtubule poisons and other anti-mitotic drugs induce tumor death but the molecular events linking mitotic arrest to cell death are still not fully understood. We have analyzed cell fate after mitotic arrest produced by the microtubule-destabilizing drug vincristine in a panel of human tumor cell lines showing different response to vincristine. In Jurkat, RPMI 8226 and HeLa cells, apoptosis was triggered shortly after vincristine-induced mitotic arrest. However, A549 cells, which express a great amount of Bcl-x{sub L} and undetectable amounts of Bak, underwent mitotic slippage prior to cell death. However, when Bcl-x{sub L} gene was silenced in A549 cells, vincristine induced apoptosis during mitotic arrest. Another different behavior was found in MiaPaca2 cells, where vincristine caused death by mitotic catastrophe that switched to apoptosis when cyclin B1 degradation was prevented by proteasome inhibition. Overexpression of Bcl-x{sub L} or silencing Bax and Bak expression delayed the onset of apoptosis in Jurkat and RPMI 8226 cells, enabling mitotic slippage and endoreduplication. In HeLa cells, overexpression of Bcl-x{sub L} switched cell death from apoptosis to mitotic catastrophe. Mcl-1 offered limited protection to vincristine-induced cell death and Mcl-1 degradation was not essential for vincristine-induced death. All these results, taken together, indicate that the Bcl-x{sub L}/Bak ratio and the ability to degrade cyclin B1 determine cell fate after mitotic arrest in the different tumor cell types. Highlights: ► Vincristine induces cell death by apoptosis or mitotic catastrophe. ► Apoptosis-proficient cells die by apoptosis during mitosis upon vincristine treatment. ► p53wt apoptosis-deficient cells undergo apoptosis from a G1-like tetraploid state. ► p53mt apoptosis-deficient cells can survive and divide giving rise to 8N cells.

  12. Emerging roots alter epidermal cell fate through mechanical and reactive oxygen species signaling.

    PubMed

    Steffens, Bianka; Kovalev, Alexander; Gorb, Stanislav N; Sauter, Margret

    2012-08-01

    A central question in biology is how spatial information is conveyed to locally establish a developmental program. Rice (Oryza sativa) can survive flash floods by the emergence of adventitious roots from the stem. Epidermal cells that overlie adventitious root primordia undergo cell death to facilitate root emergence. Root growth and epidermal cell death are both controlled by ethylene. This study aimed to identify the signal responsible for the spatial control of cell death. Epidermal cell death correlated with the proximity to root primordia in wild-type and ADVENTITIOUS ROOTLESS1 plants, indicating that the root emits a spatial signal. Ethylene-induced root growth generated a mechanical force of ~18 millinewtons within 1 h. Force application to epidermal cells above root primordia caused cell death in a dose-dependent manner and was inhibited by 1-methylcyclopropene or diphenylene iodonium, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. Exposure of epidermal cells not overlying a root to either force and ethylene or force and the catalase inhibitor aminotriazole induced ectopic cell death. Genetic downregulation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger METALLOTHIONEIN2b likewise promoted force-induced ectopic cell death. Hence, reprogramming of epidermal cell fate by the volatile plant hormone ethylene requires two signals: mechanosensing for spatial resolution and ROS for cell death signaling.

  13. p53-regulated autophagy is controlled by glycolysis and determines cell fate.

    PubMed

    Duan, Lei; Perez, Ricardo E; Davaadelger, Batzaya; Dedkova, Elena N; Blatter, Lothar A; Maki, Carl G

    2015-09-15

    The tumor suppressor p53 regulates downstream targets that determine cell fate. Canonical p53 functions include inducing apoptosis, growth arrest, and senescence. Non-canonical p53 functions include its ability to promote or inhibit autophagy and its ability to regulate metabolism. The extent to which autophagy and/or metabolic regulation determines cell fate by p53 is unclear. To address this, we compared cells resistant or sensitive to apoptosis by the p53 activator Nutlin-3a. In resistant cells, glycolysis was maintained upon Nutlin-3a treatment, and activated p53 promoted prosurvival autophagy. In contrast, in apoptosis sensitive cells activated p53 increased superoxide levels and inhibited glycolysis through repression of glycolytic pathway genes. Glycolysis inhibition and increased superoxide inhibited autophagy by repressing ATG genes essential for autophagic vesicle maturation. Inhibiting glycolysis increased superoxide and blocked autophagy in apoptosis-resistant cells, causing p62-dependent caspase-8 activation. Finally, treatment with 2-DG or the autophagy inhibitors chloroquine or bafilomycin A1 sensitized resistant cells to Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis. Together, these findings reveal novel links between glycolysis and autophagy that determine apoptosis-sensitivity in response to p53. Specifically, the findings indicate 1) that glycolysis plays an essential role in autophagy by limiting superoxide levels and maintaining expression of ATG genes required for autophagic vesicle maturation, 2) that p53 can promote or inhibit autophagy depending on the status of glycolysis, and 3) that inhibiting protective autophagy can expand the breadth of cells susceptible to Nutlin-3a induced apoptosis.

  14. p53-regulated autophagy is controlled by glycolysis and determines cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Lei; Perez, Ricardo E.; Davaadelger, Batzaya; Dedkova, Elena N.; Blatter, Lothar A.; Maki, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 regulates downstream targets that determine cell fate. Canonical p53 functions include inducing apoptosis, growth arrest, and senescence. Non-canonical p53 functions include its ability to promote or inhibit autophagy and its ability to regulate metabolism. The extent to which autophagy and/or metabolic regulation determines cell fate by p53 is unclear. To address this, we compared cells resistant or sensitive to apoptosis by the p53 activator Nutlin-3a. In resistant cells, glycolysis was maintained upon Nutlin-3a treatment, and activated p53 promoted prosurvival autophagy. In contrast, in apoptosis sensitive cells activated p53 increased superoxide levels and inhibited glycolysis through repression of glycolytic pathway genes. Glycolysis inhibition and increased superoxide inhibited autophagy by repressing ATG genes essential for autophagic vesicle maturation. Inhibiting glycolysis increased superoxide and blocked autophagy in apoptosis-resistant cells, causing p62-dependent caspase-8 activation. Finally, treatment with 2-DG or the autophagy inhibitors chloroquine or bafilomycin A1 sensitized resistant cells to Nutlin-3a-induced apoptosis. Together, these findings reveal novel links between glycolysis and autophagy that determine apoptosis-sensitivity in response to p53. Specifically, the findings indicate 1) that glycolysis plays an essential role in autophagy by limiting superoxide levels and maintaining expression of ATG genes required for autophagic vesicle maturation, 2) that p53 can promote or inhibit autophagy depending on the status of glycolysis, and 3) that inhibiting protective autophagy can expand the breadth of cells susceptible to Nutlin-3a induced apoptosis. PMID:26337205

  15. miR-600 Acts as a Bimodal Switch that Regulates Breast Cancer Stem Cell Fate through WNT Signaling.

    PubMed

    El Helou, Rita; Pinna, Guillaume; Cabaud, Olivier; Wicinski, Julien; Bhajun, Ricky; Guyon, Laurent; Rioualen, Claire; Finetti, Pascal; Gros, Abigaelle; Mari, Bernard; Barbry, Pascal; Bertucci, Francois; Bidaut, Ghislain; Harel-Bellan, Annick; Birnbaum, Daniel; Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Ginestier, Christophe

    2017-02-28

    Breast cancer stem cells (bCSCs) have been implicated in tumor progression and therapeutic resistance; however, the molecular mechanisms that define this state are unclear. We have performed two microRNA (miRNA) gain- and loss-of-function screens to identify miRNAs that regulate the choice between bCSC self-renewal and differentiation. We find that micro-RNA (miR)-600 silencing results in bCSC expansion, while its overexpression reduces bCSC self-renewal, leading to decreased in vivo tumorigenicity. miR-600 targets stearoyl desaturase 1 (SCD1), an enzyme required to produce active, lipid-modified WNT proteins. In the absence of miR-600, WNT signaling is active and promotes self-renewal, whereas overexpression of miR-600 inhibits the production of active WNT and promotes bCSC differentiation. In a series of 120 breast tumors, we found that a low level of miR-600 is correlated with active WNT signaling and a poor prognosis. These findings highlight a miR-600-centered signaling network that governs bCSC-fate decisions and influences tumor progression.

  16. Ascl1 and Gsh1/2 control inhibitory and excitatory cell fate in spinal sensory interneurons.

    PubMed

    Mizuguchi, Rumiko; Kriks, Sonja; Cordes, Ralf; Gossler, Achim; Ma, Qiufu; Goulding, Martyn

    2006-06-01

    Sensory information from the periphery is integrated and transduced by excitatory and inhibitory interneurons in the dorsal spinal cord. Recent studies have identified a number of postmitotic factors that control the generation of these sensory interneurons. We show that Gsh1/2 and Ascl1 (Mash1), which are expressed in sensory interneuron progenitors, control the choice between excitatory and inhibitory cell fates in the developing mouse spinal cord. During the early phase of neurogenesis, Gsh1/2 and Ascl1 coordinately regulate the expression of Tlx3, which is a critical postmitotic determinant for dorsal glutamatergic sensory interneurons. However, at later developmental times, Ascl1 controls the expression of Ptf1a in dIL(A) progenitors to promote inhibitory neuron differentiation while at the same time upregulating Notch signaling to ensure the proper generation of dIL(B) excitatory neurons. We propose that this switch in Ascl1 function enables the cogeneration of inhibitory and excitatory sensory interneurons from a common pool of dorsal progenitors.

  17. SMAD7 directly converts human embryonic stem cells to telencephalic fate by a default mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Ozair, Mohammad Zeeshan; Noggle, Scott; Warmflash, Aryeh; Krzyspiak, Joanna Ela; Brivanlou, Ali H.

    2013-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) provide a valuable window into the dissection of the molecular circuitry underlying the early formation of the human forebrain. However, dissection of signaling events in forebrain development using current protocols is complicated by non-neural contamination and fluctuation of extrinsic influences. Here we show that SMAD7, a cell-intrinsic inhibitor of TGFβ signaling, is sufficient to directly convert pluripotent hESCs to an anterior neural fate. Time-course gene expression revealed down-regulation of MAPK components, and combining MEK1/2 inhibition with SMAD7-mediated TGFβ inhibition promoted telencephalic conversion. FGF-MEK and TGFβ-SMAD signaling maintain hESCs by promoting pluripotency genes and repressing neural genes. Our findings suggest that in the absence of these cues, pluripotent cells simply revert to a program of neural conversion. Hence the “primed” state of hESCs requires inhibition of the “default” state of neural fate acquisition. This has parallels in amphibians, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved mechanism. PMID:23034881

  18. Ectodysplasin/NF-κB Promotes Mammary Cell Fate via Wnt/β-catenin Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Voutilainen, Maria; Lönnblad, Darielle; Shirokova, Vera; Elo, Teresa; Rysti, Elisa; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth; Schneider, Pascal; Mikkola, Marja L.

    2015-01-01

    Mammary gland development commences during embryogenesis with the establishment of a species typical number of mammary primordia on each flank of the embryo. It is thought that mammary cell fate can only be induced along the mammary line, a narrow region of the ventro-lateral skin running from the axilla to the groin. Ectodysplasin (Eda) is a tumor necrosis factor family ligand that regulates morphogenesis of several ectodermal appendages. We have previously shown that transgenic overexpression of Eda (K14-Eda mice) induces formation of supernumerary mammary placodes along the mammary line. Here, we investigate in more detail the role of Eda and its downstream mediator transcription factor NF-κB in mammary cell fate specification. We report that K14-Eda mice harbor accessory mammary glands also in the neck region indicating wider epidermal cell plasticity that previously appreciated. We show that even though NF-κB is not required for formation of endogenous mammary placodes, it is indispensable for the ability of Eda to induce supernumerary placodes. A genome-wide profiling of Eda-induced genes in mammary buds identified several Wnt pathway components as potential transcriptional targets of Eda. Using an ex vivo culture system, we show that suppression of canonical Wnt signalling leads to a dose-dependent inhibition of supernumerary placodes in K14-Eda tissue explants. PMID:26581094

  19. RB1 dual role in proliferation and apoptosis: Cell fate control and implications for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Indovina, Paola; Pentimalli, Francesca; Casini, Nadia; Vocca, Immacolata; Giordano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Inactivation of the retinoblastoma (RB1) tumor suppressor is one of the most frequent and early recognized molecular hallmarks of cancer. RB1, although mainly studied for its role in the regulation of cell cycle, emerged as a key regulator of many biological processes. Among these, RB1 has been implicated in the regulation of apoptosis, the alteration of which underlies both cancer development and resistance to therapy. RB1 role in apoptosis, however, is still controversial because, depending on the context, the apoptotic cues, and its own status, RB1 can act either by inhibiting or promoting apoptosis. Moreover, the mechanisms whereby RB1 controls both proliferation and apoptosis in a coordinated manner are only now beginning to be unraveled. Here, by reviewing the main studies assessing the effect of RB1 status and modulation on these processes, we provide an overview of the possible underlying molecular mechanisms whereby RB1, and its family members, dictate cell fate in various contexts. We also describe the current antitumoral strategies aimed at the use of RB1 as predictive, prognostic and therapeutic target in cancer. A thorough understanding of RB1 function in controlling cell fate determination is crucial for a successful translation of RB1 status assessment in the clinical setting. PMID:26160835

  20. Estrogen receptor coregulators and pioneer factors: the orchestrators of mammary gland cell fate and development

    PubMed Central

    Manavathi, Bramanandam; Samanthapudi, Venkata S. K.; Gajulapalli, Vijay Narasimha Reddy

    2014-01-01

    The steroid hormone, 17β-estradiol (E2), plays critical role in various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis, and is essential for reproduction and mammary gland development. E2 actions are mediated by two classical nuclear hormone receptors, estrogen receptor α and β (ERs). The activity of ERs depends on the coordinated activity of ligand binding, post-translational modifications (PTMs), and importantly the interaction with their partner proteins called “coregulators.” Because coregulators are proved to be crucial for ER transcriptional activity, and majority of breast cancers are ERα positive, an increased interest in the field has led to the identification of a large number of coregulators. In the last decade, gene knockout studies using mouse models provided impetus to our further understanding of the role of these coregulators in mammary gland development. Several coregulators appear to be critical for terminal end bud (TEB) formation, ductal branching and alveologenesis during mammary gland development. The emerging studies support that, coregulators along with the other ER partner proteins called “pioneer factors” together contribute significantly to E2 signaling and mammary cell fate. This review discusses emerging themes in coregulator and pioneer factor mediated action on ER functions, in particular their role in mammary gland cell fate and development. PMID:25364741

  1. Stencil Micropatterning of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells for Probing Spatial Organization of Differentiation Fates.

    PubMed

    Sahni, Geetika; Yuan, Jun; Toh, Yi-Chin

    2016-06-17

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, have the intrinsic ability to differentiate into all three germ layers. This makes them an attractive cell source for regenerative medicine and experimental modeling of normal and diseased organogenesis. However, the differentiation of hPSCs in vitro is heterogeneous and spatially disordered. Cell micropatterning technologies potentially offer the means to spatially control stem cell microenvironments and organize the resultant differentiation fates. Micropatterning hPSCs needs to take into account the stringent requirements for hPSC survival and maintenance. Here, we describe stencil micropatterning as a method that is highly compatible with hPSCs. hPSC micropatterns are specified by the geometries of the cell stencil through-holes, which physically confine the locations where hPSCs can access and attach to the underlying extracellular matrix-coated substrate. Due to this mode of operation, there is greater flexibility to use substrates that can adequately support hPSCs as compared to other cell micropatterning methods. We also highlight critical steps for the successful generation of hPSC micropatterns. As an example, we demonstrate that stencil micropatterning of hPSCs can be used to modulate spatial polarization of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions, which in turn determines mesoendoderm differentiation patterns. This simple and robust method to micropattern hPSCs widens the prospects of establishing experimental models to investigate tissue organization and patterning during early embryonic development.

  2. The Natural and Engineered 3D Microenvironment as a Regulatory Cue During Stem Cell Fate Determination

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Amanda W.; Yener, Bülent; Stegemann, Jan P.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of using stem cells as self-renewing sources of healthy cells in regenerative medicine has existed for decades, but most applications have yet to achieve clinical success. A main reason for the lack of successful stem cell therapies is the difficulty in fully recreating the maintenance and control of the native stem cell niche. Improving the performance of transplanted stem cells therefore requires a better understanding of the cellular mechanisms guiding stem cell behavior in both native and engineered three-dimensional (3D) microenvironments. Most techniques, however, for uncovering mechanisms controlling cell behavior in vitro have been developed using 2D cell cultures and are of limited use in 3D environments such as engineered tissue constructs. Deciphering the mechanisms controlling stem cell fate in native and engineered 3D environments, therefore, requires rigorous quantitative techniques that permit mechanistic, hypothesis-driven studies of cell–microenvironment interactions. Here, we review the current understanding of 2D and 3D stem cell control mechanisms and propose an approach to uncovering the mechanisms that govern stem cell behavior in 3D. PMID:19505193

  3. Gene regulatory network analysis reveals differences in site-specific cell fate determination in mammalian brain

    PubMed Central

    Ertaylan, Gökhan; Okawa, Satoshi; Schwamborn, Jens C.; del Sol, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenesis—the generation of new neurons—is an ongoing process that persists in the adult mammalian brain of several species, including humans. In this work we analyze two discrete brain regions: the subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the walls of the lateral ventricles; and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus in mice and shed light on the SVZ and SGZ specific neurogenesis. We propose a computational model that relies on the construction and analysis of region specific gene regulatory networks (GRNs) from the publicly available data on these two regions. Using this model a number of putative factors involved in neuronal stem cell (NSC) identity and maintenance were identified. We also demonstrate potential gender and niche-derived differences based on cell surface and nuclear receptors via Ar, Hif1a, and Nr3c1. We have also conducted cell fate determinant analysis for SVZ NSC populations to Olfactory Bulb interneurons and SGZ NSC populations to the granule cells of the Granular Cell Layer. We report 31 candidate cell fate determinant gene pairs, ready to be validated. We focus on Ar—Pax6 in SVZ and Sox2—Ncor1 in SGZ. Both pairs are expressed and localized in the suggested anatomical structures as shown by in situ hybridization and found to physically interact. Finally, we conclude that there are fundamental differences between SGZ and SVZ neurogenesis. We argue that these regulatory mechanisms are linked to the observed differential neurogenic potential of these regions. The presence of nuclear and cell surface receptors in the region specific regulatory circuits indicate the significance of niche derived extracellular factors, hormones and region specific factors such as the oxygen sensitivity, dictating SGZ and SVZ specific neurogenesis. PMID:25565969

  4. Deficiency of microRNA miR-34a expands cell fate potential in pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong Jin; Lin, Chao-Po; Risso, Davide; Chen, Sean; Kim, Thomas Aquinas; Tan, Meng How; Li, Jin Billy; Wu, Yalei; Chen, Caifu; Xuan, Zhenyu; Macfarlan, Todd; Peng, Weiqun; Lloyd, K C Kent; Kim, Sang Yong; Speed, Terence P; He, Lin

    2017-02-10

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) efficiently generate all embryonic cell lineages but rarely generate extraembryonic cell types. We found that microRNA miR-34a deficiency expands the developmental potential of mouse pluripotent stem cells, yielding both embryonic and extraembryonic lineages and strongly inducing MuERV-L (MERVL) endogenous retroviruses, similar to what is seen with features of totipotent two-cell blastomeres. miR-34a restricts the acquisition of expanded cell fate potential in pluripotent stem cells, and it represses MERVL expression through transcriptional regulation, at least in part by targeting the transcription factor Gata2. Our studies reveal a complex molecular network that defines and restricts pluripotent developmental potential in cultured ESCs and iPSCs.

  5. Cell Fate Determination and the Switch from Diffuse Growth to Planar Polarity in Arabidopsis Root Epidermal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Balcerowicz, Daria; Schoenaers, Sébastjen; Vissenberg, Kris

    2015-01-01

    Plant roots fulfill important functions as they serve in water and nutrient uptake, provide anchorage of the plant body in the soil and in some species form the site of symbiotic interactions with soil-living biota. Root hairs, tubular-shaped outgrowths of specific epidermal cells, significantly increase the root’s surface area and aid in these processes. In this review we focus on the molecular mechanisms that determine the hair and non-hair cell fate of epidermal cells and that define the site on the epidermal cell where the root hair will be initiated (=planar polarity determination). In the model plant Arabidopsis, trichoblast and atrichoblast cell fate results from intra- and intercellular position-dependent signaling and from complex feedback loops that ultimately regulate GL2 expressing and non-expressing cells. When epidermal cells reach the end of the root expansion zone, root hair promoting transcription factors dictate the establishment of polarity within epidermal cells followed by the selection of the root hair initiation site at the more basal part of the trichoblast. Molecular players in the abovementioned processes as well as the role of phytohormones are discussed, and open areas for future experiments are identified. PMID:26779192

  6. A Blueprint for a Synthetic Genetic Feedback Controller to Reprogram Cell Fate.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Domitilla; Abdallah, Hussein; Qian, Yili; Collins, James J

    2017-01-25

    To artificially reprogram cell fate, experimentalists manipulate the gene regulatory networks (GRNs) that maintain a cell's phenotype. In practice, reprogramming is often performed by constant overexpression of specific transcription factors (TFs). This process can be unreliable and inefficient. Here, we address this problem by introducing a new approach to reprogramming based on mathematical analysis. We demonstrate that reprogramming GRNs using constant overexpression may not succeed in general. Instead, we propose an alternative reprogramming strategy: a synthetic genetic feedback controller that dynamically steers the concentration of a GRN's key TFs to any desired value. The controller works by adjusting TF expression based on the discrepancy between desired and actual TF concentrations. Theory predicts that this reprogramming strategy is guaranteed to succeed, and its performance is independent of the GRN's structure and parameters, provided that feedback gain is sufficiently high. As a case study, we apply the controller to a model of induced pluripotency in stem cells.

  7. AID-induced remodeling of immunoglobulin genes and B cell fate.

    PubMed

    Laffleur, Brice; Denis-Lagache, Nicolas; Péron, Sophie; Sirac, Christophe; Moreau, Jeanne; Cogné, Michel

    2014-03-15

    Survival and phenotype of normal and malignant B lymphocytes are critically dependent on constitutive signals by the B cell receptor (BCR) for antigen. In addition, either antigen ligation of the BCR or various mitogenic stimuli result in B cell activation and induction of activation-induced deaminase (AID). AID activity can in turn mediate somatic hypermutation (SHM) of immunoglobulin (Ig) V regions and also deeply remodel the Ig heavy chain locus through class switch recombination (CSR) or locus suicide recombination (LSR). In addition to changes linked to affinity for antigen, modifying the class/isotype (i.e. the structure and function) of the BCR or suddenly deleting BCR expression also modulates the fate of antigen-experienced B cells.

  8. Building a plant: cell fate specification in the early Arabidopsis embryo.

    PubMed

    ten Hove, Colette A; Lu, Kuan-Ju; Weijers, Dolf

    2015-02-01

    Embryogenesis is the beginning of plant development, yet the cell fate decisions and patterning steps that occur during this time are reiterated during development to build the post-embryonic architecture. In Arabidopsis, embryogenesis follows a simple and predictable pattern, making it an ideal model with which to understand how cellular and tissue developmental processes are controlled. Here, we review the early stages of Arabidopsis embryogenesis, focusing on the globular stage, during which time stem cells are first specified and all major tissues obtain their identities. We discuss four different aspects of development: the formation of outer versus inner layers; the specification of vascular and ground tissues; the determination of shoot and root domains; and the establishment of the first stem cells. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Molecular processes that drive cigarette smoke-induced epithelial cell fate of the lung.

    PubMed

    Nyunoya, Toru; Mebratu, Yohannes; Contreras, Amelia; Delgado, Monica; Chand, Hitendra S; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2014-03-01

    Cigarette smoke contains numerous chemical compounds, including abundant reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and aldehydes, and many other carcinogens. Long-term cigarette smoking significantly increases the risk of various lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer, and contributes to premature death. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have elucidated mechanisms involved in cigarette smoke-induced inflammation, DNA damage, and autophagy, and the subsequent cell fates, including cell death, cellular senescence, and transformation. In this Translational Review, we summarize the known pathways underlying these processes in airway epithelial cells to help reveal future challenges and describe possible directions of research that could lead to better management and treatment of these diseases.

  10. A Multistate Toggle Switch Defines Fungal Cell Fates and Is Regulated by Synergistic Genetic Cues

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Matthew Z.; Porman, Allison M.; Wang, Na; Mancera, Eugenio; Bennett, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Heritable epigenetic changes underlie the ability of cells to differentiate into distinct cell types. Here, we demonstrate that the fungal pathogen Candida tropicalis exhibits multipotency, undergoing stochastic and reversible switching between three cellular states. The three cell states exhibit unique cellular morphologies, growth rates, and global gene expression profiles. Genetic analysis identified six transcription factors that play key roles in regulating cell differentiation. In particular, we show that forced expression of Wor1 or Efg1 transcription factors can be used to manipulate transitions between all three cell states. A model for tristability is proposed in which Wor1 and Efg1 are self-activating but mutually antagonistic transcription factors, thereby forming a symmetrical self-activating toggle switch. We explicitly test this model and show that ectopic expression of WOR1 can induce white-to-hybrid-to-opaque switching, whereas ectopic expression of EFG1 drives switching in the opposite direction, from opaque-to-hybrid-to-white cell states. We also address the stability of induced cell states and demonstrate that stable differentiation events require ectopic gene expression in combination with chromatin-based cues. These studies therefore experimentally test a model of multistate stability and demonstrate that transcriptional circuits act synergistically with chromatin-based changes to drive cell state transitions. We also establish close mechanistic parallels between phenotypic switching in unicellular fungi and cell fate decisions during stem cell reprogramming. PMID:27711197

  11. A Multistate Toggle Switch Defines Fungal Cell Fates and Is Regulated by Synergistic Genetic Cues.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Matthew Z; Porman, Allison M; Wang, Na; Mancera, Eugenio; Huang, Denis; Cuomo, Christina A; Bennett, Richard J

    2016-10-01

    Heritable epigenetic changes underlie the ability of cells to differentiate into distinct cell types. Here, we demonstrate that the fungal pathogen Candida tropicalis exhibits multipotency, undergoing stochastic and reversible switching between three cellular states. The three cell states exhibit unique cellular morphologies, growth rates, and global gene expression profiles. Genetic analysis identified six transcription factors that play key roles in regulating cell differentiation. In particular, we show that forced expression of Wor1 or Efg1 transcription factors can be used to manipulate transitions between all three cell states. A model for tristability is proposed in which Wor1 and Efg1 are self-activating but mutually antagonistic transcription factors, thereby forming a symmetrical self-activating toggle switch. We explicitly test this model and show that ectopic expression of WOR1 can induce white-to-hybrid-to-opaque switching, whereas ectopic expression of EFG1 drives switching in the opposite direction, from opaque-to-hybrid-to-white cell states. We also address the stability of induced cell states and demonstrate that stable differentiation events require ectopic gene expression in combination with chromatin-based cues. These studies therefore experimentally test a model of multistate stability and demonstrate that transcriptional circuits act synergistically with chromatin-based changes to drive cell state transitions. We also establish close mechanistic parallels between phenotypic switching in unicellular fungi and cell fate decisions during stem cell reprogramming.

  12. Gated communities: apoplastic and symplastic signals converge at plasmodesmata to control cell fates.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Yvonne; Simon, Rüdiger

    2013-12-01

    Due to their rigid cell walls, plant cells can only communicate with each other either by symplastic transport of diverse non-cell autonomous signalling molecules via plasmodesmata (PDs) or by endo- and exocytosis of signalling molecules via the extracellular apoplastic space. PDs are plasma membrane-lined channels spanning the cell wall between neighbouring cells, allowing the exchange of molecules by symplastic movement through them. This review focuses on developmental decisions that are coordinated by short- and long-distance communication of cells via PDs. We propose a model combining both apoplastic and symplastic signalling events via secreted ligands and their PD-localized receptor kinases which gate the symplastic transport of information molecules through PDs. Cell communities can thus coordinate cell-fate decisions non-cell autonomously by connecting or disconnecting symplastic subdomains. Here we concentrate on the establishment of such subdomains in the plant's primary meristems that serve to maintain long-lasting stem cell populations in the shoot and root apical meristems, and discuss how apoplastic signalling via transport of information molecules through PDs is integrated with symplastic feedback signalling events.

  13. Nano-scale control of cellular environment to drive embryonic stem cells selfrenewal and fate.

    PubMed

    Blin, Guillaume; Lablack, Nassrine; Louis-Tisserand, Marianne; Nicolas, Claire; Picart, Catherine; Pucéat, Michel

    2010-03-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are pluripotent cells capable to give rise to any embryonic cell lineage. In culture, these cells form colonies creating their own niche. Depending upon the molecular and physico-chemical environment, the pluripotent cells oscillate between two metastable states of pluripotency either reminiscent of the inner cell mass of the embryo or the epiblast, a stage of development which give rise to the three embryonic layers, ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm. Herein, we used PLL/HA nanofilms cross-linked to various degrees to modulate the nanoenvironment of ESCs. Adhesion of ESC on nanofilms increased from native films to highly cross-linked films. The adhesion process was associated with cell proliferation. Expression of genes markers of the ICM decreased with adhesion of cells to cross-linked films. In parallel, genes more reminiscent of the epiblast, were turned on. ESC differentiation within embryoid bodies further revealed that cell pluripotency was better retained when cells did not adhere on native films. We further report that both the stiffness and the chemistry of nanofilms play a key role in modulating the niche of ESC and in turn govern their selfrenewal and fate.

  14. The aggregation and inheritance of damaged proteins determines cell fate during mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Bufalino, Mary Rose; van der Kooy, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that proliferating cells polarize damaged proteins during mitosis to protect one cell from aging, and that the structural conformation of damaged proteins mediates their toxicity. We report that the growth, resistance to stress, and differentiation characteristics of a cancer cell line (PC12) with an inducible Huntingtin (Htt) fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) are dependent on the conformation of Htt. Cell progeny containing inclusion bodies have a longer cell cycle and increased resistance to stress than those with diffuse Htt. Using live imaging, we demonstrate that asymmetric division resulting from a cell containing a single inclusion body produces sister cells with different fates. The cell that receives the inclusion body has decreased proliferation and increased differentiation compared with its sister cell without Htt. This is the first report that reveals a functional consequence of the asymmetric division of damaged proteins in mammalian cells, and we suggest that this is a result of inclusion body-induced proteasome impairment. PMID:24553116

  15. Dissecting engineered cell types and enhancing cell fate conversion via CellNet

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Samantha A.; Cahan, Patrick; Li, Hu; Zhao, Anna M.; San Roman, Adrianna K.; Shivdasani, Ramesh A.; Collins, James J.; Daley, George Q.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Engineering clinically relevant cells in vitro holds promise for regenerative medicine, but most protocols fail to faithfully recapitulate target cell properties. To address this, we developed CellNet, a network biology platform that determines whether engineered cells are equivalent to their target tissues, diagnoses aberrant gene regulatory networks, and prioritizes candidate transcriptional regulators to enhance engineered conversions. Using CellNet, we improved B cell to macrophage conversion, transcriptionally and functionally, by knocking down predicted B cell regulators. Analyzing conversion of fibroblasts to induced hepatocytes (iHeps), CellNet revealed an unexpected intestinal program regulated by the master regulator Cdx2. We observed long-term functional engraftment of mouse colon by iHeps, thereby establishing their broader potential as endoderm progenitors and demonstrating direct conversion of fibroblasts into intestinal epithelium. Our studies illustrate how CellNet can be employed to improve direct conversion and to uncover unappreciated properties of engineered cells. PMID:25126792

  16. Thickness sensing of hMSCs on collagen gel directs stem cell fate

    SciTech Connect

    Leong, Wen Shing; Tay, Chor Yong; Yu, Haiyang; Li, Ang; Wu, Shu Cheng; Duc, Duong-Hong; Lim, Chwee Teck; Tan, Lay Poh

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} hMSCs appeared to sense thin collagen gel (130 {mu}m) with higher effective modulus as compared to thick gel (1440 {mu}m). {yields} Control of collagen gel thickness can modulate cellular behavior, even stem cell fate (neuronal vs. Quiescent). {yields} Distinct cellular behavior of hMSCs on thin and thick collagen gel suggests long range interaction of hMSCs with collagen gel. -- Abstract: Mechanically compliant substrate provides crucial biomechanical cues for multipotent stem cells to regulate cellular fates such as differentiation, proliferation and maintenance of their phenotype. Effective modulus of which cells sense is not only determined by intrinsic mechanical properties of the substrate, but also the thickness of substrate. From our study, it was found that interference from underlying rigid support at hundreds of microns away could induce significant cellular response. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured on compliant biological gel, collagen type I, of different thickness but identical ECM composition and local stiffness. The cells sensed the thin gel (130 {mu}m) as having a higher effective modulus than the thick gel (1440 {mu}m) and this was reflected in their changes in morphology, actin fibers structure, proliferation and tissue specific gene expression. Commitment into neuronal lineage was observed on the thin gel only. Conversely, the thick gel (1440 {mu}m) was found to act like a substrate with lower effective modulus that inhibited actin fiber polymerization. Stem cells on the thick substrate did not express tissue specific genes and remained at their quiescent state. This study highlighted the need to consider not only the local modulus but also the thickness of biopolymer gel coating during modulation of cellular responses.

  17. Arabidopsis LEAFY COTYLEDON1 controls cell fate determination during post-embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Mingkun; Hu, Yilong; Liu, Xu; Li, Yuge; Hou, Xingliang

    2015-01-01

    Arabidopsis LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) transcription factor is a master regulator that shapes plant embryo development and post-embryonic seedling establishment. Loss-of-function of LEC1 alters the cotyledon identity, causing the formation of ectopic trichomes, which does not occur in wild-type seedlings, implying that LEC1 might regulate embryonic cell fate determination during post-embryonic development. To test this hypothesis, we compared the expression of trichome development-related genes between the wild-type and the lec1 mutant. We observed that transcripts of GLABROUS1 (GL1), GL2, and GL3, genes encoding the positive regulators in trichome development, were significantly upregulated, while the TRICHOMELESS1 (TCL2), ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 (ETC1), and ETC2 genes, encoding the negative regulators in trichome development, were downregulated in the lec1 mutant. Furthermore, overexpression of LEC1 activated the expressions of TCL2, CAPPICE (CPC), and ETC1, resulting in production of cotyledonary leaves with no or fewer trichomes during vegetative development. In addition, we demonstrated that LEC1 interacts with TCL2 in yeast and in vitro. A genetic experiment showed that loss-of-function of GL2 rescued the ectopic trichome formation in the lec1 mutant. These findings strongly support that LEC1 regulates trichome development, providing direct evidence for the role of LEC1 in cell fate determination during post-embryonic development. PMID:26579186

  18. Expression of α-Smooth Muscle Actin Determines the Fate of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Talele, Nilesh P.; Fradette, Julie; Davies, John E.; Kapus, Andras; Hinz, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Summary Pro-fibrotic microenvironments of scars and tumors characterized by increased stiffness stimulate mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to express α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). We investigated whether incorporation of α-SMA into contractile stress fibers regulates human MSC fate. Sorted α-SMA-positive MSCs exhibited high contractile activity, low clonogenicity, and differentiation potential limited to osteogenesis. Knockdown of α-SMA was sufficient to restore clonogenicity and adipogenesis in MSCs. Conversely, α-SMA overexpression induced YAP translocation to the nucleus and reduced the high clonogenicity and adipogenic potential of α-SMA-negative MSCs. Inhibition of YAP rescued the decreased adipogenic differentiation potential induced by α-SMA, establishing a mechanistic link between matrix stiffness, α-SMA, YAP, and MSC differentiation. Consistent with in vitro findings, nuclear localization of YAP was positively correlated in α-SMA expressing stromal cells of adiposarcoma and osteosarcoma. We propose that α-SMA mediated contraction plays a critical role in mechanically regulating MSC fate by controlling YAP/TAZ activation. PMID:26028530

  19. The Fate of Chrysotile-Induced Multipolar Mitosis and Aneuploid Population in Cultured Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo Cortez, Beatriz; Quassollo, Gonzalo; Caceres, Alfredo; Machado-Santelli, Glaucia Maria

    2011-01-01

    Chrysotile is one of the six types of asbestos, and it is the only one that can still be commercialized in many countries. Exposure to other types of asbestos has been associated with serious diseases, such as lung carcinomas and pleural mesotheliomas. The association of chrysotile exposure with disease is controversial. However, in vitro studies show the mutagenic potential of chrysotile, which can induce DNA and cell damage. The present work aimed to analyze alterations in lung small cell carcinoma cultures after 48 h of chrysotile exposure, followed by 2, 4 and 8 days of recovery in fiber-free culture medium. Some alterations, such as aneuploid cell formation, increased number of cells in G2/M phase and cells in multipolar mitosis were observed even after 8 days of recovery. The presence of chrysotile fibers in the cell cultures was detected and cell morphology was observed by laser scanning confocal microscopy. After 4 and 8 days of recovery, only a few chrysotile fragments were present in some cells, and the cellular morphology was similar to that of control cells. Cells transfected with the GFP-tagged α-tubulin plasmid were treated with chrysotile for 24 or 48 h and cells in multipolar mitosis were observed by time-lapse microscopy. Fates of these cells were established: retention in metaphase, cell death, progression through M phase generating more than two daughter cells or cell fusion during telophase or cytokinesis. Some of them were related to the formation of aneuploid cells and cells with abnormal number of centrosomes. PMID:21483691

  20. Highly efficient intracellular transduction in three-dimensional gradients for programming cell fate.

    PubMed

    Eltaher, Hoda M; Yang, Jing; Shakesheff, Kevin M; Dixon, James E

    2016-09-01

    Fundamental behaviour such as cell fate, growth and death are mediated through the control of key genetic transcriptional regulators. These regulators are activated or repressed by the integration of multiple signalling molecules in spatio-temporal gradients. Engineering these gradients is complex but considered key in controlling tissue formation in regenerative medicine approaches. Direct programming of cells using exogenously delivered transcription factors can by-pass growth factor complexity but there is still a requirement to deliver such activity spatio-temporally. We previously developed a technology termed GAG-binding enhanced transduction (GET) to efficiently deliver a variety of cargoes intracellularly using GAG-binding domains to promote cell targeting, and cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) to allow cell entry. Herein we demonstrate that GET can be used in a three dimensional (3D) hydrogel matrix to produce gradients of intracellular transduction of mammalian cells. Using a compartmentalised diffusion model with a source-gel-sink (So-G-Si) assembly, we created gradients of reporter proteins (mRFP1-tagged) and a transcription factor (TF, myogenic master regulator MyoD) and showed that GET can be used to deliver molecules into cells spatio-temporally by monitoring intracellular transduction and gene expression programming as a function of location and time. The ability to spatio-temporally control the intracellular delivery of functional proteins will allow the establishment of gradients of cell programming in hydrogels and approaches to direct cellular behaviour for many regenerative medicine applications. Regenerative medicine aims to reform functional biological tissues by controlling cell behaviour. Growth factors (GFs) are soluble cues presented to cells in spatio-temporal gradients and play important roles programming cell fate and gene expression. The efficient transduction of cells by GET (Glycosaminoglycan-enhanced transducing

  1. Germ cells are not the primary factor for sexual fate determination in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Goto, Rie; Saito, Taiju; Takeda, Takahiro; Fujimoto, Takafumi; Takagi, Misae; Arai, Katsutoshi; Yamaha, Etsuto

    2012-10-01

    The presence of germ cells in the early gonad is important for sexual fate determination and gonadal development in vertebrates. Recent studies in zebrafish and medaka have shown that a lack of germ cells in the early gonad induces sex reversal in favor of a male phenotype. However, it is uncertain whether the gonadal somatic cells or the germ cells are predominant in determining gonadal fate in other vertebrate. Here, we investigated the role of germ cells in gonadal differentiation in goldfish, a gonochoristic species that possesses an XX-XY genetic sex determination system. The primordial germ cells (PGCs) of the fish were eliminated during embryogenesis by injection of a morpholino oligonucleotide against the dead end gene. Fish without germ cells showed two types of gonadal morphology: one with an ovarian cavity; the other with seminiferous tubules. Next, we tested whether function could be restored to these empty gonads by transplantation of a single PGC into each embryo, and also determined the gonadal sex of the resulting germline chimeras. Transplantation of a single GFP-labeled PGC successfully produced a germline chimera in 42.7% of the embryos. Some of the adult germline chimeras had a developed gonad on one side that contained donor derived germ cells, while the contralateral gonad lacked any early germ cell stages. Female germline chimeras possessed a normal ovary and a germ-cell free ovary-like structure on the contralateral side; this structure was similar to those seen in female morphants. Male germline chimeras possessed a testis and a contralateral empty testis that contained some sperm in the tubular lumens. Analysis of aromatase, foxl2 and amh expression in gonads of morphants and germline chimeras suggested that somatic transdifferentiation did not occur. The offspring of fertile germline chimeras all had the donor-derived phenotype, indicating that germline replacement had occurred and that the transplanted PGC had rescued both female and

  2. A gene expression atlas of a bicoid-depleted Drosophila embryo reveals early canalization of cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Staller, Max V.; Fowlkes, Charless C.; Bragdon, Meghan D. J.; Wunderlich, Zeba; Estrada, Javier; DePace, Angela H.

    2015-01-01

    In developing embryos, gene regulatory networks drive cells towards discrete terminal fates, a process called canalization. We studied the behavior of the anterior-posterior segmentation network in Drosophila melanogaster embryos by depleting a key maternal input, bicoid (bcd), and measuring gene expression patterns of the network at cellular resolution. This method results in a gene expression atlas containing the levels of mRNA or protein expression of 13 core patterning genes over six time points for every cell of the blastoderm embryo. This is the first cellular resolution dataset of a genetically perturbed Drosophila embryo that captures all cells in 3D. We describe the technical developments required to build this atlas and how the method can be employed and extended by others. We also analyze this novel dataset to characterize the degree and timing of cell fate canalization in the segmentation network. We find that in two layers of this gene regulatory network, following depletion of bcd, individual cells rapidly canalize towards normal cell fates. This result supports the hypothesis that the segmentation network directly canalizes cell fate, rather than an alternative hypothesis whereby cells are initially mis-specified and later eliminated by apoptosis. Our gene expression atlas provides a high resolution picture of a classic perturbation and will enable further computational modeling of canalization and gene regulation in this transcriptional network. PMID:25605785

  3. A gene expression atlas of a bicoid-depleted Drosophila embryo reveals early canalization of cell fate.

    PubMed

    Staller, Max V; Fowlkes, Charless C; Bragdon, Meghan D J; Wunderlich, Zeba; Estrada, Javier; DePace, Angela H

    2015-02-01

    In developing embryos, gene regulatory networks drive cells towards discrete terminal fates, a process called canalization. We studied the behavior of the anterior-posterior segmentation network in Drosophila melanogaster embryos by depleting a key maternal input, bicoid (bcd), and measuring gene expression patterns of the network at cellular resolution. This method results in a gene expression atlas containing the levels of mRNA or protein expression of 13 core patterning genes over six time points for every cell of the blastoderm embryo. This is the first cellular resolution dataset of a genetically perturbed Drosophila embryo that captures all cells in 3D. We describe the technical developments required to build this atlas and how the method can be employed and extended by others. We also analyze this novel dataset to characterize the degree and timing of cell fate canalization in the segmentation network. We find that in two layers of this gene regulatory network, following depletion of bcd, individual cells rapidly canalize towards normal cell fates. This result supports the hypothesis that the segmentation network directly canalizes cell fate, rather than an alternative hypothesis whereby cells are initially mis-specified and later eliminated by apoptosis. Our gene expression atlas provides a high resolution picture of a classic perturbation and will enable further computational modeling of canalization and gene regulation in this transcriptional network. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. MRI surveillance of cancer cell fate in a brain metastasis model after early radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Murrell, Donna H; Zarghami, Niloufar; Jensen, Michael D; Dickson, Fiona; Chambers, Ann F; Wong, Eugene; Foster, Paula J

    2017-10-01

    Incidence of brain metastasis attributed to breast cancer is increasing and prognosis is poor. It is thought that disseminated dormant cancer cells persist in metastatic organs and may evade treatments, thereby facilitating a mechanism for recurrence. Radiotherapy is used to treat brain metastases clinically, but assessment has been limited to macroscopic tumor volumes detectable by clinical imaging. Here, we use cellular MRI to understand the concurrent responses of metastases and nonproliferative or slowly cycling cancer cells to radiotherapy. MRI cell tracking was used to investigate the impact of early cranial irradiation on the fate of individual iron-labeled cancer cells and outgrowth of breast cancer brain metastases in the human MDA-MB-231-BR-HER2 cell model. Early whole-brain radiotherapy significantly reduced the outgrowth of metastases from individual disseminated cancer cells in treated animals compared to controls. However, the numbers of nonproliferative iron-retaining cancer cells in the brain were not significantly different. Radiotherapy, when given early in cancer progression, is effective in preventing the outgrowth of solitary cancer cells to brain metastases. Future studies of the nonproliferative cancer cells' clonogenic potentials are warranted, given that their persistent presence suggests that they may have evaded treatment. Magn Reson Med 78:1506-1512, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. Taenia taeniaeformis: fate and proliferation of mucosal cells during gastric hyperplasia in larvae infected rats.

    PubMed

    Lagapa, J T; Oku, Y; Nonaka, N; Kamiya, M

    2008-04-01

    Fate and proliferation of gastric mucosal cells during hyperplasia of Taenia taeniaeformis eggs inoculated Wistar rats were investigated using PCNA immunohistochemistry, BrdU labeling and other histopathologic staining techniques. Results revealed marked cell proliferation in gastric corpus and antral mucosa of infected rats as evidenced by increased lengths of proliferative zones and indices of BrdU labeling. The gastropathy in corpus was characterized by massive accumulation of precursors, neck and intermediate cells following significant decreases in numbers of parietal and zymogenic cells. Gastropathy in antrum was described with significant increases in precursors and mucous cells. Our results suggested that T. taeniaeformis-induced gastric hyperplasia was initiated by depletion of parietal cells presumably due to the cestode's ES products. As a result, there was inhibition of zymogenic cell differentiation due to the disruption of normal development pathways of gastric mucosal lineages. These sequences of events were considered to cause the increase in cell proliferation and accumulation of intermediate cells resulting to the hyperplastic lesions.

  6. Modulated DISP3/PTCHD2 expression influences neural stem cell fate decisions

    PubMed Central

    Konířová, Jana; Oltová, Jana; Corlett, Alicia; Kopycińska, Justyna; Kolář, Michal; Bartůněk, Petr; Zíková, Martina

    2017-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are defined by their dual ability to self-renew through mitotic cell division or differentiate into the varied neural cell types of the CNS. DISP3/PTCHD2 is a sterol-sensing domain-containing protein, highly expressed in neural tissues, whose expression is regulated by thyroid hormone. In the present study, we used a mouse NSC line to investigate what effect DISP3 may have on the self-renewal and/or differentiation potential of the cells. We demonstrated that NSC differentiation triggered significant reduction in DISP3 expression in the resulting astrocytes, neurons and oligodendrocytes. Moreover, when DISP3 expression was disrupted, the NSC “stemness” was suppressed, leading to a larger population of cells undergoing spontaneous neuronal differentiation. Conversely, overexpression of DISP3 resulted in increased NSC proliferation. When NSCs were cultured under differentiation conditions, we observed that the lack of DISP3 augmented the number of NSCs differentiating into each of the neural cell lineages and that neuronal morphology was altered. In contrast, DISP3 overexpression resulted in impaired cell differentiation. Taken together, our findings imply that DISP3 may help dictate the NSC cell fate to either undergo self-renewal or switch to the terminal differentiation cell program. PMID:28134287

  7. Polycomb protein EZH2 regulates cancer cell fate decision in response to DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z; Lee, S T; Qiao, Y; Li, Z; Lee, P L; Lee, Y J; Jiang, X; Tan, J; Aau, M; Lim, C Z H; Yu, Q

    2011-11-01

    Polycomb protein histone methyltransferase enhancer of Zeste homologe 2 (EZH2) is frequently overexpressed in human malignancy and is implicated in cancer cell proliferation and invasion. However, it is largely unknown whether EZH2 has a role in modulating DNA damage response. Here, we show that EZH2 is an important determinant of cell fate decision in response to genotoxic stress. EZH2 depletion results in abrogation of both cell cycle G1 and G2/M checkpoints, directing DNA damage response toward predominant apoptosis in both p53-proficient and p53-deficient cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Mechanistically, EZH2 regulates DNA damage response in p53 wild-type cells mainly through transcriptional repression of FBXO32, which binds to and directs p21 for proteasome-mediated degradation, whereas it affects p53-deficient cells through regulating Chk1 activation by a distinct mechanism. Furthermore, pharmacological depletion of EZH2 phenocopies the effects of EZH2 knockdown on cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis. These data unravel a crucial role of EZH2 in determining the cancer cell outcome following DNA damage and suggest that therapeutic targeting oncogenic EZH2 might serve as a strategy for improving conventional chemotherapy in a given malignancy.

  8. Modulated DISP3/PTCHD2 expression influences neural stem cell fate decisions.

    PubMed

    Konířová, Jana; Oltová, Jana; Corlett, Alicia; Kopycińska, Justyna; Kolář, Michal; Bartůněk, Petr; Zíková, Martina

    2017-01-30

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are defined by their dual ability to self-renew through mitotic cell division or differentiate into the varied neural cell types of the CNS. DISP3/PTCHD2 is a sterol-sensing domain-containing protein, highly expressed in neural tissues, whose expression is regulated by thyroid hormone. In the present study, we used a mouse NSC line to investigate what effect DISP3 may have on the self-renewal and/or differentiation potential of the cells. We demonstrated that NSC differentiation triggered significant reduction in DISP3 expression in the resulting astrocytes, neurons and oligodendrocytes. Moreover, when DISP3 expression was disrupted, the NSC "stemness" was suppressed, leading to a larger population of cells undergoing spontaneous neuronal differentiation. Conversely, overexpression of DISP3 resulted in increased NSC proliferation. When NSCs were cultured under differentiation conditions, we observed that the lack of DISP3 augmented the number of NSCs differentiating into each of the neural cell lineages and that neuronal morphology was altered. In contrast, DISP3 overexpression resulted in impaired cell differentiation. Taken together, our findings imply that DISP3 may help dictate the NSC cell fate to either undergo self-renewal or switch to the terminal differentiation cell program.

  9. Viscoelastic Properties of Differentiating Blood Cells Are Fate- and Function-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Ekpenyong, Andrew E.; Whyte, Graeme; Chalut, Kevin; Pagliara, Stefano; Lautenschläger, Franziska; Fiddler, Christine; Paschke, Stephan; Keyser, Ulrich F.; Chilvers, Edwin R.; Guck, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Although cellular mechanical properties are known to alter during stem cell differentiation, understanding of the functional relevance of such alterations is incomplete. Here, we show that during the course of differentiation of human myeloid precursor cells into three different lineages, the cells alter their viscoelastic properties, measured using an optical stretcher, to suit their ultimate fate and function. Myeloid cells circulating in blood have to be advected through constrictions in blood vessels, engendering the need for compliance at short time-scales (cell types have increased short time scale compliance and flow better through microfluidic constrictions. Moreover, all three differentiated cell types reduce their steady-state viscosity by more than 50% and show over 140% relative increase in their ability to migrate through tissue-like pores at long time-scales (>minutes), compared to undifferentiated cells. These findings suggest that reduction in steady-state viscosity is a physiological adaptation for enhanced migration through tissues. Our results indicate that the material properties of cells define their function, can be used as a cell differentiation marker and could serve as target for novel therapies. PMID:23028868

  10. Fate of Mammalian Cochlear Hair Cells and Stereocilia after Loss of the Stereocilia

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Shuping; Yang, Shiming; Guo, Weiwei; He, David Z.Z.

    2009-01-01

    Cochlear hair cells transduce mechanical stimuli into electrical activity. The site of hair cell transduction is the hair bundle, an array of stereocilia with different height arranged in a staircase. Tip links connect the apex of each stereocilium to the side of its taller neighbor. The hair bundle and tip links of hair cells are susceptible to acoustic trauma and ototoxic drugs. It has been shown that hair cells in lower vertebrates and in the mammalian vestibular system may survive bundle loss and undergo self-repair of the stereocilia. Our goals were to determine whether cochlear hair cells could survive the trauma and whether the tip link and/or the hair bundle could be regenerated. We simulated the acoustic trauma-induced tip link damage or stereociliary loss by disrupting tip links or ablating the hair bundles in the cultured organ of Corti from neonatal gerbils. Hair-cell fate and stereociliary morphology and function were examined using confocal and scanning electron microscopies and electrophysiology. Most bundleless hair cells survived and developed for about 2 weeks. However, no spontaneous hair-bundle regeneration was observed. When tip links were ruptured, repair of tip links and restoration of mechanotransduction were observed in less than 24 hours. Our study suggests that the dynamic nature of the hair cell's transduction apparatus is retained despite the fact that regeneration of the hair bundle is lost in mammalian cochlear hair cells. PMID:19955380

  11. Conversion of neurons and glia to external-cell fates in the external sensory organs of Drosophila hamlet mutants by a cousin-cousin cell-type respecification.

    PubMed

    Moore, Adrian W; Roegiers, Fabrice; Jan, Lily Y; Jan, Yuh-Nung

    2004-03-15

    The Drosophila external sensory organ forms in a lineage elaborating from a single precursor cell via a stereotypical series of asymmetric divisions. HAMLET transcription factor expression demarcates the lineage branch that generates two internal cell types, the external sensory neuron and thecogen. In HAMLET mutant organs, these internal cells are converted to external cells via an unprecedented cousin-cousin cell-fate respecification event. Conversely, ectopic HAMLET expression in the external cell branch leads to internal cell production. The fate-determining signals NOTCH and PAX2 act at multiple stages of lineage elaboration and HAMLET acts to modulate their activity in a branch-specific manner.

  12. β-Catenin Signaling Biases Multipotent Lingual Epithelial Progenitors to Differentiate and Acquire Specific Taste Cell Fates.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Dany; Xu, Mingang; Liu, Fei; Millar, Sarah E; Barlow, Linda A

    2015-05-01

    Continuous taste bud cell renewal is essential to maintain taste function in adults; however, the molecular mechanisms that regulate taste cell turnover are unknown. Using inducible Cre-lox technology, we show that activation of β-catenin signaling in multipotent lingual epithelial progenitors outside of taste buds diverts daughter cells from a general epithelial to a taste bud fate. Moreover, while taste buds comprise 3 morphological types, β-catenin activation drives overproduction of primarily glial-like Type I taste cells in both anterior fungiform (FF) and posterior circumvallate (CV) taste buds, with a small increase in Type II receptor cells for sweet, bitter and umami, but does not alter Type III sour detector cells. Beta-catenin activation in post-mitotic taste bud precursors likewise regulates cell differentiation; forced activation of β-catenin in these Shh+ cells promotes Type I cell fate in both FF and CV taste buds, but likely does so non-cell autonomously. Our data are consistent with a model where β-catenin signaling levels within lingual epithelial progenitors dictate cell fate prior to or during entry of new cells into taste buds; high signaling induces Type I cells, intermediate levels drive Type II cell differentiation, while low levels may drive differentiation of Type III cells.

  13. β-Catenin Signaling Biases Multipotent Lingual Epithelial Progenitors to Differentiate and Acquire Specific Taste Cell Fates

    PubMed Central

    Gaillard, Dany; Xu, Mingang; Liu, Fei; Millar, Sarah E.; Barlow, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    Continuous taste bud cell renewal is essential to maintain taste function in adults; however, the molecular mechanisms that regulate taste cell turnover are unknown. Using inducible Cre-lox technology, we show that activation of β-catenin signaling in multipotent lingual epithelial progenitors outside of taste buds diverts daughter cells from a general epithelial to a taste bud fate. Moreover, while taste buds comprise 3 morphological types, β-catenin activation drives overproduction of primarily glial-like Type I taste cells in both anterior fungiform (FF) and posterior circumvallate (CV) taste buds, with a small increase in Type II receptor cells for sweet, bitter and umami, but does not alter Type III sour detector cells. Beta-catenin activation in post-mitotic taste bud precursors likewise regulates cell differentiation; forced activation of β-catenin in these Shh+ cells promotes Type I cell fate in both FF and CV taste buds, but likely does so non-cell autonomously. Our data are consistent with a model where β-catenin signaling levels within lingual epithelial progenitors dictate cell fate prior to or during entry of new cells into taste buds; high signaling induces Type I cells, intermediate levels drive Type II cell differentiation, while low levels may drive differentiation of Type III cells. PMID:26020789

  14. Determination of T-cell fate by dendritic cells: a new role for asymmetric cell division?

    PubMed

    Russell, Sarah M

    2008-07-01

    The production, from a single naive T cell, of the many different activated T cell types required for an effective immune response has fascinated immunologists for decades. This process underpins the development of vaccines, immunosuppressive regimes in transplant patients, and immunotherapy in cancer among other things. Despite the enormous advances in detailing the mechanisms and influencing factors in the differentiation of each T-cell subtype, it is still not clear how the different T-cell progeny are produced in proportions that are appropriate for each situation. This review discusses the notion that asymmetric cell division might allow for the regulated generation of different cell populations.

  15. Moving epithelia: Tracking the fate of mammalian limbal epithelial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Nick

    2015-09-01

    Lineage tracing allows the destiny of a stem cell (SC) and its progeny to be followed through time. In order to track their long-term fate, SC must be permanently marked to discern their distribution, division, displacement and differentiation. This information is essential for unravelling the mysteries that govern their replenishing activity while they remain anchored within their niche microenvironment. Modern-day lineage tracing uses inducible genetic recombination to illuminate cells within embryonic, newborn and adult tissues, and the advent of powerful high-resolution microscopy has enabled the behaviour of labelled cells to be monitored in real-time in a living organism. The simple structural organization of the mammalian cornea, including its accessibility and transparency, renders it the ideal tissue to study SC fate using lineage tracing assisted by non-invasive intravital microscopy. Despite more than a century of research devoted to understanding how this tissue is maintained and repaired, many limitations and controversies continue to plague the field, including uncertainties about the specificity of current SC markers, the number of SC within the cornea, their mode of division, their location, and importantly the signals that dictate cell migration. This communication will highlight historical discoveries as well as recent developments in the corneal SC field; more specifically how the progeny of these cells are mobilised to replenish this dynamic tissue during steady-state, disease and transplantation. Also discussed is how insights gleaned from animal studies can be used to advance our knowledge of the fundamental mechanisms that govern modelling and remodelling of the human cornea in health and disease.

  16. The neural stem cell fate determinant TRIM32 regulates complex behavioral traits

    PubMed Central

    Hillje, Anna-Lena; Beckmann, Elisabeth; Pavlou, Maria A. S.; Jaeger, Christian; Pacheco, Maria P.; Sauter, Thomas; Schwamborn, Jens C.; Lewejohann, Lars

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, new neurons are generated throughout the entire lifespan in two restricted areas of the brain, the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ)—olfactory bulb (OB) system. In both regions newborn neurons display unique properties that clearly distinguish them from mature neurons. Enhanced excitability and increased synaptic plasticity enables them to add specific properties to information processing by modulating the existing local circuitry of already established mature neurons. Hippocampal neurogenesis has been suggested to play a role in spatial-navigation learning, spatial memory, and spatial pattern separation. Cumulative evidences implicate that adult-born OB neurons contribute to learning processes and odor memory. We recently demonstrated that the cell fate determinant TRIM32 is upregulated in differentiating neuroblasts of the SVZ-OB system in the adult mouse brain. The absence of TRIM32 leads to increased progenitor cell proliferation and less cell death. Both effects accumulate in an overproduction of adult-generated OB neurons. Here, we present novel data from behavioral studies showing that such an enhancement of OB neurogenesis not necessarily leads to increased olfactory performance but in contrast even results in impaired olfactory capabilities. In addition, we show at the cellular level that TRIM32 protein levels increase during differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs). At the molecular level, several metabolic intermediates that are connected to glycolysis, glycine, or cysteine metabolism are deregulated in TRIM32 knockout mice brain tissue. These metabolomics pathways are directly or indirectly linked to anxiety or depression like behavior. In summary, our study provides comprehensive data on how the impairment of neurogenesis caused by the loss of the cell fate determinant TRIM32 causes a decrease of olfactory performance as well as a deregulation of metabolomic pathways that are linked to mood

  17. Two transcription factors, Pou4f2 and Isl1, are sufficient to specify the retinal ganglion cell fate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fuguo; Kaczynski, Tadeusz J; Sethuramanujam, Santhosh; Li, Renzhong; Jain, Varsha; Slaughter, Malcolm; Mu, Xiuqian

    2015-03-31

    As with other retinal cell types, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) arise from multipotent retinal progenitor cells (RPCs), and their formation is regulated by a hierarchical gene-regulatory network (GRN). Within this GRN, three transcription factors--atonal homolog 7 (Atoh7), POU domain, class 4, transcription factor 2 (Pou4f2), and insulin gene enhancer protein 1 (Isl1)--occupy key node positions at two different stages of RGC development. Atoh7 is upstream and is required for RPCs to gain competence for an RGC fate, whereas Pou4f2 and Isl1 are downstream and regulate RGC differentiation. However, the genetic and molecular basis for the specification of the RGC fate, a key step in RGC development, remains unclear. Here we report that ectopic expression of Pou4f2 and Isl1 in the Atoh7-null retina using a binary knockin-transgenic system is sufficient for the specification of the RGC fate. The RGCs thus formed are largely normal in gene expression, survive to postnatal stages, and are physiologically functional. Our results indicate that Pou4f2 and Isl1 compose a minimally sufficient regulatory core for the RGC fate. We further conclude that during development a core group of limited transcription factors, including Pou4f2 and Isl1, function downstream of Atoh7 to determine the RGC fate and initiate RGC differentiation.

  18. Unique expression patterns of cell fate molecules delineate sequential stages of dentate gyrus development.

    PubMed

    Pleasure, S J; Collins, A E; Lowenstein, D H

    2000-08-15

    The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is uniquely organized with a displaced proliferative zone that continues to generate dentate granule cells throughout life. We have analyzed the expression of Notch receptors, Notch ligands, and basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) genes during dentate gyrus development to determine whether the need to maintain a pool of undifferentiated precursors is reflected in the patterns of expression of these genes. Many of these genes are expressed diffusely throughout the cortical neuroepithelium at embryonic days 16 and 17 in the rat, just preceding the migration of newly born granule cells and dentate precursor cells into the dentate anlage. However, at this time, Mash1, Math3, and Id3 expression are all concentrated in the area that specifically gives rise to granule cells and dentate precursor cells. Two days later, at the time of migration of the first granule cells and dentate precursor cells, cells expressing Mash1 are seen in the migratory route from the subventricular zone to the developing dentate gyrus. Newly born granule cells expressing NeuroD are also present in this migratory pathway. In the first postnatal week, precursor cells expressing Mash1 reside in the dentate hilus, and by the third postnatal week they have largely taken up their final position in the subgranular zone along the hilar side of the dentate granule cell layer. After terminal differentiation, granule cells born in the hilus or the subgranular zone begin to express NeuroD followed by NeuroD2. This study establishes that the expression patterns of bHLH mRNAs evolve during the formation of the dentate gyrus, and the precursor cells resident in the mature dentate gyrus share features with precursor cells found in development. Thus, many of the same mechanisms that are known to regulate cell fate and precursor pool size in other brain regions are likely to be operative in the dentate gyrus at all stages of development.

  19. Phosphorylation of the Polarity Protein BASL Differentiates Asymmetric Cell Fate through MAPKs and SPCH.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Guo, Xiaoyu; Dong, Juan

    2016-11-07

    Cell polarization is commonly used for the regulation of stem cell asymmetric division in both animals and plants. Stomatal development in Arabidopsis, a process that produces breathing pores in the epidermis, requires asymmetric cell division to differentiate highly specialized guard cells while maintaining a stem cell population [1, 2]. The BREAKING OF ASYMMETRY IN THE STOMATAL LINEAGE (BASL) protein exhibits a polarized localization pattern in the cell and is required for differential cell fates resulting from asymmetric cell division [3]. The polarization of BASL is made possible by a positive feedback loop with a canonical mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway that recruits the MAPKK kinase YODA (YDA) and MAPK 6 (MPK6) to the cortical polarity site [4]. Here, we study BASL intracellular dynamics and show that the membrane-associated BASL is slowly replenished at the cortical polarity site and that the mobility is tightly linked to its phosphorylation status. Because BASL polarity is only exhibited by one daughter cell after an asymmetric cell division, we study how BASL differentially functions in the two daughter cells. The YDA MAPK cascade transduces upstream ligand-receptor signaling [5-13] to the transcription factor SPEECHLESS (SPCH), which controls stomatal initiation and is directly suppressed by MPK3/6-mediated phosphorylation [14, 15]. We show that BASL polarization leads to elevated nuclear MPK6 signaling and lowered SPCH abundance in one of the two daughter cells. Therefore, two daughter cells are differentiated by BASL polarity-mediated differential suppression of SPCH, which may provide developmental plasticity in plant stem cell asymmetric cell division (ACD).

  20. Expression of an activated rasD gene changes cell fate decisions during Dictyostelium development.

    PubMed

    Louis, S A; Spiegelman, G B; Weeks, G

    1997-02-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that the expression of an activated rasD gene in wild-type Dictyostelium cells results in formation of aggregates with multitips, instead of the normal single tips, and a block in further development. In an attempt to better understand the role of activated RasD development, we examined cell-type-specific gene expression in a strain stably expressing high levels of RasD[G12T]. We found that the expression of prestalk cell-specific genes ecmA and tagB was markedly enhanced, whereas the expression of the prespore cell-specific gene cotC was reduced to very low levels. When the fate of cells in the multitipped aggregate was monitored with an ecmA/lacZ fusion, it appeared that most of the cells eventually adopted prestalk gene expression characteristics. When mixtures of the [G12T]rasD cells and Ax3 cells were induced to differentiate, chimeric pseudoplasmodia were not formed. Thus, although the [G12T]rasD transformant had a marked propensity to form prestalk cells, it could not supply the prestalk cell population when mixed with wild-type cells. Both stalk and spore cell formation occurred in low cell density monolayers of the [G12T]rasD strain, suggesting that at least part of the inhibition of stalk and spore formation during multicellular development involved inhibitory cell interactions within the cell mass. Models for the possible role of rasD in development are discussed.

  1. Fate mapping of human glioblastoma reveals an invariant stem cell hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Lan, Xiaoyang; Jörg, David J; Cavalli, Florence M G; Richards, Laura M; Nguyen, Long V; Vanner, Robert J; Guilhamon, Paul; Lee, Lilian; Kushida, Michelle M; Pellacani, Davide; Park, Nicole I; Coutinho, Fiona J; Whetstone, Heather; Selvadurai, Hayden J; Che, Clare; Luu, Betty; Carles, Annaick; Moksa, Michelle; Rastegar, Naghmeh; Head, Renee; Dolma, Sonam; Prinos, Panagiotis; Cusimano, Michael D; Das, Sunit; Bernstein, Mark; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Mungall, Andrew J; Moore, Richard A; Ma, Yussanne; Gallo, Marco; Lupien, Mathieu; Pugh, Trevor J; Taylor, Michael D; Hirst, Martin; Eaves, Connie J; Simons, Benjamin D; Dirks, Peter B

    2017-09-14

    Human glioblastomas harbour a subpopulation of glioblastoma stem cells that drive tumorigenesis. However, the origin of intratumoural functional heterogeneity between glioblastoma cells remains poorly understood. Here we study the clonal evolution of barcoded glioblastoma cells in an unbiased way following serial xenotransplantation to define their individual fate behaviours. Independent of an evolving mutational signature, we show that the growth of glioblastoma clones in vivo is consistent with a remarkably neutral process involving a conserved proliferative hierarchy rooted in glioblastoma stem cells. In this model, slow-cycling stem-like cells give rise to a more rapidly cycling progenitor population with extensive self-maintenance capacity, which in turn generates non-proliferative cells. We also identify rare 'outlier' clones that deviate from these dynamics, and further show that chemotherapy facilitates the expansion of pre-existing drug-resistant glioblastoma stem cells. Finally, we show that functionally distinct glioblastoma stem cells can be separately targeted using epigenetic compounds, suggesting new avenues for glioblastoma-targeted therapy.

  2. Tracking the Fate of Stem Cell Implants with Fluorine-19 MRI

    PubMed Central

    Gaudet, Jeffrey M.; Ribot, Emeline J.; Chen, Yuhua; Gilbert, Kyle M.; Foster, Paula J.

    2015-01-01

    Background In this study we used cellular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) labeled with a Fluorine-19 (19F) agent. 19F-MRI offers unambiguous detection and in vivo quantification of labeled cells. Methods We investigated two common stem cell transplant mouse models: an immune competent, syngeneic transplant model and an immune compromised, xenograft transplant model. 19F labelled stem cells were implanted intramuscularly into the hindlimb of healthy mice. The transplant was then monitored for up to 17 days using 19F-MRI, after which the tissue was excised for fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemisty. Results Immediately following transplantation, 19F-MRI quantification correlated very well with the expected cell number in both models. The 19F signal decreased over time in both models, with a more rapid decrease in the syngeneic model. By endpoint, only 2/7 syngeneic mice had any detectable 19F signal. In the xenograft model, all mice had detectable signal at endpoint. Fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry were used to show that the 19F signal was related to the presence of bystander labeled macrophages, and not original MSC. Conclusions Our results show that 19F-MRI is an excellent tool for verifying the delivery of therapeutic cells early after transplantation. However, in certain circumstances the transfer of cellular label to other bystander cells may confuse interpretation of the long-term fate of the transplanted cells. PMID:25767871

  3. Expression Levels of Histone Deacetylases Determine the Cell Fate of Hematopoietic Progenitors*

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Taeko; Kikuchi, Jiro; Nishimura, Noriko; Shimizu, Rumi; Kitamura, Toshio; Furukawa, Yusuke

    2009-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are globally implicated in the growth and differentiation of mammalian cells; however, relatively little is known about their specific roles in hematopoiesis. In this study, we investigated the expression of HDACs in human hematopoietic cells and their functions during hematopoiesis. The expression of HDACs was very low in hematopoietic progenitor cells, which was accompanied by histone hyperacetylation. HDACs were detectable in more differentiated progenitors and erythroid precursors but down-regulated in mature myeloid cells especially granulocytes. In contrast, acute myeloid leukemias showed HDAC overexpression and histone hypoacetylation. Transcription of the HDAC1 gene was repressed by CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins during myeloid differentiation, and activated by GATA-1 during erythro-megakaryocytic differentiation. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of HDAC1 enhanced myeloid differentiation in immature hematopoietic cell lines and perturbed erythroid differentiation in progenitor cells. Myeloid but not erythro-megakaryocytic differentiation was blocked in mice transplanted with HDAC1-overexpressing hematopoietic progenitor cells. These findings suggest that HDAC is not merely an auxiliary factor of genetic elements but plays a direct role in the cell fate decision of hematopoietic progenitors. PMID:19736310

  4. A single-cell pedigree analysis of alternative stochastic lymphocyte fates

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, E. D.; Markham, J. F.; McGuinness, L. P.; Hodgkin, P. D.

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to most stimulated lymphocytes, B cells exposed to Toll-like receptor 9 ligands are nonself-adherent, allowing individual cells and families to be followed in vitro for up to 5 days. These B cells undergo phases typical of an adaptive response, dividing up to 6 times before losing the impetus for further growth and division and eventually dying by apoptosis. Using long-term microscopic imaging, accurate histories of individual lymphocyte fates were collected. Quantitative analysis of family relationships revealed that times to divide of siblings were strongly related but these correlations were progressively lost through consecutive divisions. A weaker, but significant, correlation was also found for death times among siblings. Division cessation is characterized by a loss of cell growth and the division in which this occurs is strongly inherited from the original founder cell and is related to the size this cell reaches before its first division. Thus, simple division-based dilution of factors synthesized during the first division may control the maximum division reached by stimulated cells. The stochastic distributions of times to divide, times to die, and divisions reached are also measured. Together, these results highlight the internal cellular mechanisms that control immune responses and provide a foundation for the development of new mathematical models that are correct at both single-cell and population levels. PMID:19633185

  5. Dynamics and heterogeneity of a fate determinant during transition towards cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Peláez, Nicolás; Gavalda-Miralles, Arnau; Wang, Bao; Navarro, Heliodoro Tejedor; Gudjonson, Herman; Rebay, Ilaria; Dinner, Aaron R; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K; Amaral, Luís AN; Carthew, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Yan is an ETS-domain transcription factor responsible for maintaining Drosophila eye cells in a multipotent state. Yan is at the core of a regulatory network that determines the time and place in which cells transit from multipotency to one of several differentiated lineages. Using a fluorescent reporter for Yan expression, we observed a biphasic distribution of Yan in multipotent cells, with a rapid inductive phase and slow decay phase. Transitions to various differentiated states occurred over the course of this dynamic process, suggesting that Yan expression level does not strongly determine cell potential. Consistent with this conclusion, perturbing Yan expression by varying gene dosage had no effect on cell fate transitions. However, we observed that as cells transited to differentiation, Yan expression became highly heterogeneous and this heterogeneity was transient. Signals received via the EGF Receptor were necessary for the transience in Yan noise since genetic loss caused sustained noise. Since these signals are essential for eye cells to differentiate, we suggest that dynamic heterogeneity of Yan is a necessary element of the transition process, and cell states are stabilized through noise reduction. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08924.001 PMID:26583752

  6. Dynamics and heterogeneity of a fate determinant during transition towards cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Peláez, Nicolás; Gavalda-Miralles, Arnau; Wang, Bao; Navarro, Heliodoro Tejedor; Gudjonson, Herman; Rebay, Ilaria; Dinner, Aaron R; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K; Amaral, Luís A N; Carthew, Richard W

    2015-11-19

    Yan is an ETS-domain transcription factor responsible for maintaining Drosophila eye cells in a multipotent state. Yan is at the core of a regulatory network that determines the time and place in which cells transit from multipotency to one of several differentiated lineages. Using a fluorescent reporter for Yan expression, we observed a biphasic distribution of Yan in multipotent cells, with a rapid inductive phase and slow decay phase. Transitions to various differentiated states occurred over the course of this dynamic process, suggesting that Yan expression level does not strongly determine cell potential. Consistent with this conclusion, perturbing Yan expression by varying gene dosage had no effect on cell fate transitions. However, we observed that as cells transited to differentiation, Yan expression became highly heterogeneous and this heterogeneity was transient. Signals received via the EGF Receptor were necessary for the transience in Yan noise since genetic loss caused sustained noise. Since these signals are essential for eye cells to differentiate, we suggest that dynamic heterogeneity of Yan is a necessary element of the transition process, and cell states are stabilized through noise reduction.

  7. Dynamics and heterogeneity of a fate determinant during transition towards cell differentiation

    DOE PAGES

    Pelaez, Nicolas; Gavalda-Miralles, Arnau; Wang, Bao; ...

    2015-11-19

    Yan is an ETS-domain transcription factor responsible for maintaining Drosophila eye cells in a multipotent state. Yan is at the core of a regulatory network that determines the time and place in which cells transit from multipotency to one of several differentiated lineages. Using a fluorescent reporter for Yan expression, we observed a biphasic distribution of Yan in multipotent cells, with a rapid inductive phase and slow decay phase. Transitions to various differentiated states occurred over the course of this dynamic process, suggesting that Yan expression level does not strongly determine cell potential. Consistent with this conclusion, perturbing Yan expressionmore » by varying gene dosage had no effect on cell fate transitions. However, we observed that as cells transited to differentiation, Yan expression became highly heterogeneous and this heterogeneity was transient. Signals received via the EGF Receptor were necessary for the transience in Yan noise since genetic loss caused sustained noise. As a result, since these signals are essential for eye cells to differentiate, we suggest that dynamic heterogeneity of Yan is a necessary element of the transition process, and cell states are stabilized through noise reduction.« less

  8. Protein Kinase B Controls Transcriptional Programs that Direct Cytotoxic T Cell Fate but Is Dispensable for T Cell Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Macintyre, Andrew N.; Finlay, David; Preston, Gavin; Sinclair, Linda V.; Waugh, Caryll M.; Tamas, Peter; Feijoo, Carmen; Okkenhaug, Klaus; Cantrell, Doreen A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary In cytotoxic T cells (CTL), Akt, also known as protein kinase B, is activated by the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and the cytokine interleukin 2 (IL-2). Akt can control cell metabolism in many cell types but whether this role is important for CTL function has not been determined. Here we have shown that Akt does not mediate IL-2- or TCR-induced cell metabolic responses; rather, this role is assumed by other Akt-related kinases. There is, however, a nonredundant role for sustained and strong activation of Akt in CTL to coordinate the TCR- and IL-2-induced transcriptional programs that control expression of key cytolytic effector molecules, adhesion molecules, and cytokine and chemokine receptors that distinguish effector versus memory and naive T cells. Akt is thus dispensable for metabolism, but the strength and duration of Akt activity dictates the CTL transcriptional program and determines CTL fate. PMID:21295499

  9. Concentration-dependent effect of nerve growth factor on cell fate determination of neural progenitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Hui; Hu, Zhengqing

    2011-10-01

    Stem cell-based spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) replacement therapy has been proposed to be a promising strategy to restore hearing either via replacing degenerated neurons or by improving the efficacy of cochlear implants which rely on functional neurons. However, lack of suitable donor cells and low survival rate of implanted cells are the major obstacles to successful implementation of therapeutic transplantation. The present study investigated the potential of mouse inner ear statoacoustic ganglion (SAG)-derived neural progenitors (NPs) to differentiate toward SGN-like glutamatergic cells and the influence to cell survival and differentiation when nerve growth factor (NGF) was supplied. We found that SAG-NPs could form neurospheres, proliferate, and differentiate into cells expressing neuronal protein neurofilament and β-III tubulin. NGF affected the cell fate of SAG-NP in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro. Low concentration of NGF (2-5 ng/mL) promoted cell proliferation. Medium concentration of NGF (20-40 ng/mL) stimulated cells to differentiate into bi-polar SGN-like cells expressing glutamatergic proteins. High concentration of NGF (100 ng/mL) could rescue cells from induced apoptosis. In the in vivo study, NGF (100 ng/mL) dramatically enhanced SAG-NP survival rate after implantation into adult mammalian inner ear. This finding raises the possibility to further induce these NPs to differentiate into SGN-like neurons in future in vivo study. In conclusion, given the capability of proliferation and differentiation into SGN-like cells with the supplement of NGF in vitro, SAG-NPs can serve as donor cells in stem cell-based SGN replacement therapy. NGF improved the survival of SAG-NPs not only in vitro but also in vivo.

  10. Autophagy is associated with cell fate in the process of macrophage-derived foam cells formation and progress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaopeng; Tang, Yue; Cui, Yongchun; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Dong

    2016-07-30

    Autophagy participates in plaque formation and progression; however, its association with foam cells' fate is unknown. To investigate autophagy features and its effect on the fate of different-stage macrophage foam cells (FCs). Different-stage FCs were obtained through incubation of THP-1 macrophages (THP-M) with oxidized low-density lipoprotein LDL (oxLDL, 80 μg/mL) for various durations (0-72 h). Autophagy in THP-1 macrophage FCs and in apoE-/- mice was regulated by Rapamycin (80 ug/mL) or 3-MA (10 mM). Lipid droplet accumulation, LC3 I/II, P62 expression level, and autophagic flux were measured. Vascular ultrasound, TUNEL, IHC, and DHE staining were used to detect the artery plaques in apoE-/- mice. In early-stage FCs, the amount of autophagosomes gradually increased, and autophagic flux intensity accelerated, but in mid-late stage FCs, autophagic flux was suppressed. For early stage FCs, treatment with autophagy activator rapamycin markedly decreased intracellular lipid content and prevented them from transforming into foam cells, while the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA considerably increased the intracellular lipid-droplet accumulation. During the process of foam cell development, upregulating autophagy not only reduced intracellular lipid-droplet accumulation, but also inhibited cell apoptosis through clearing dysfunctional mitochondria and lowering intracellular ROS level. The in vivo experiments produced consistent results that rapamycin administration in apoE-/- mice reduced the death rate of macrophages and delayed plaque progression. The fate of macrophage FCs was associated with autophagy. Early autophagy enhancement inhibits the formation and progression of macrophage FCs and prevents atherosclerosis.

  11. Morphogenesis of Drosophila melanogaster macrochaetes: cell fate determination for bristle organ.

    PubMed

    Furman, D P; Bukharina, T A

    2012-01-01

    Formation of specialized spatial structures comprising various cell types is most important in the ontogenesis of multicellular organisms. An example is the D. melanogaster bristle organs. Bristles (micro- and macrochaetes) are external sensory organs, elements of the peripheral nervous system, playing the role of mechanoreceptors. Their comparatively simple organization comprising only four specialized cells and a common origin of these cells make macrochaetes a convenient model for studying cell differentiation. The four cells forming bristle organ result from two successive divisions of a single cell, sensory organ precursor (SOP) cell. The number of macrochaetes on drosophila body corresponds to the number of SOP cells. The morphogenesis of macrochaetes comprises three stages, the first two determining a neural fate of the cells. The third stage is cell specialization into components of the bristle organ-neuron, thecogen, tormogen, and trichogen. Development of each bristle commences from segregation of proneural clusters, of 20-30 cells, from the massif of undifferentiated cells of the wing imaginal disc. At this stage, each cluster cell can potentially become a SOP cell. At the second stage, the only SOP cell and its position are determined within each cluster. Finally, two asymmetric divisions of the SOP cell with subsequent differentiation of the daughter cells gives the bristle organ. Several dozens genes are involved in the control of macrochaete morphogenesis. The main component of this system is the proneural genes of achaete-scute complex (AS-C). An increased content of proneural proteins fundamentally distinguished the cells that will follow the neural developmental pathway from the disc epidermal cells. A local AS-C expression, initiated at specified disc sites by specific transcription factors, determines the number and topology of proneural clusters. The expression of AS-C genes, continuing in the cells of the cluster, increases the difference in

  12. Minireview: beta-cell replacement therapy for diabetes in the 21st century: manipulation of cell fate by directed differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yechoor, Vijay; Chan, Lawrence

    2010-08-01

    Pancreatic beta-cell failure underlies type 1 diabetes; it also contributes in an essential way to type 2 diabetes. beta-Cell replacement is an important component of any cure for diabetes. The current options of islet and pancreas transplantation are not satisfactory as definitive forms of therapy. Here, we review strategies for induced de novo pancreatic beta-cell formation, which depend on the targeted differentiation of cells into pancreatic beta-cells. With this objective in mind, one can manipulate the fate of three different types of cells: 1) from terminally differentiated cells, e.g. exocrine pancreatic cells, into beta-cells; 2) from multipotent adult stem cells, e.g. hepatic oval cells, into pancreatic islets; and 3) from pluripotent stem cells, e.g. embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, into beta-cells. We will examine the pros and cons of each strategy as well as the hurdles that must be overcome before these approaches to generate new beta-cells will be ready for clinical application.

  13. Pigmentation and sporulation are alternative cell fates in Bacillus pumilus SF214.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Nicola; Di Luccia, Blanda; Isticato, Rachele; D'Apuzzo, Enrica; De Felice, Maurilio; Ricca, Ezio

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus SF214 is a spore forming bacterium, isolated from a marine sample, able to produce a matrix and a orange-red, water soluble pigment. Pigmentation is strictly regulated and high pigment production was observed during the late stationary growth phase in a minimal medium and at growth temperatures lower than the optimum. Only a subpopulation of stationary phase cells produced the pigment, indicating that the stationary culture contains a heterogeneous cell population and that pigment synthesis is a bimodal phenomenon. The fraction of cells producing the pigment varied in the different growth conditions and occurred only in cells not devoted to sporulation. Only some of the pigmented cells were also able to produce a matrix. Pigment and matrix production in SF214 appear then as two developmental fates both alternative to sporulation. Since the pigment had an essential role in the cell resistance to oxidative stress conditions, we propose that within the heterogeneous population different survival strategies can be followed by the different cells.

  14. ER stress regulates myeloid-derived suppressor cell fate through TRAIL-R-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Condamine, Thomas; Kumar, Vinit; Ramachandran, Indu R; Youn, Je-In; Celis, Esteban; Finnberg, Niklas; El-Deiry, Wafik S; Winograd, Rafael; Vonderheide, Robert H; English, Nickolas R; Knight, Stella C; Yagita, Hideo; McCaffrey, Judith C; Antonia, Scott; Hockstein, Neil; Witt, Robert; Masters, Gregory; Bauer, Thomas; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I

    2014-06-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) dampen the immune response thorough inhibition of T cell activation and proliferation and often are expanded in pathological conditions. Here, we studied the fate of MDSCs in cancer. Unexpectedly, MDSCs had lower viability and a shorter half-life in tumor-bearing mice compared with neutrophils and monocytes. The reduction of MDSC viability was due to increased apoptosis, which was mediated by increased expression of TNF-related apoptosis-induced ligand receptors (TRAIL-Rs) in these cells. Targeting TRAIL-Rs in naive mice did not affect myeloid cell populations, but it dramatically reduced the presence of MDSCs and improved immune responses in tumor-bearing mice. Treatment of myeloid cells with proinflammatory cytokines did not affect TRAIL-R expression; however, induction of ER stress in myeloid cells recapitulated changes in TRAIL-R expression observed in tumor-bearing hosts. The ER stress response was detected in MDSCs isolated from cancer patients and tumor-bearing mice, but not in control neutrophils or monocytes, and blockade of ER stress abrogated tumor-associated changes in TRAIL-Rs. Together, these data indicate that MDSC pathophysiology is linked to ER stress, which shortens the lifespan of these cells in the periphery and promotes expansion in BM. Furthermore, TRAIL-Rs can be considered as potential targets for selectively inhibiting MDSCs.

  15. 3D niche microarrays for systems-level analyses of cell fate.

    PubMed

    Ranga, A; Gobaa, S; Okawa, Y; Mosiewicz, K; Negro, A; Lutolf, M P

    2014-07-14

    The behaviour of mammalian cells in a tissue is governed by the three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment and involves a dynamic interplay between biochemical and mechanical signals provided by the extracellular matrix (ECM), cell-cell interactions and soluble factors. The complexity of the microenvironment and the context-dependent cell responses that arise from these interactions have posed a major challenge to understanding the underlying regulatory mechanisms. Here we develop an experimental paradigm to dissect the role of various interacting factors by simultaneously synthesizing more than 1,000 unique microenvironments with robotic nanolitre liquid-dispensing technology and by probing their effects on cell fate. Using this novel 3D microarray platform, we assess the combined effects of matrix elasticity, proteolytic degradability and three distinct classes of signalling proteins on mouse embryonic stem cells, unveiling a comprehensive map of interactions involved in regulating self-renewal. This approach is broadly applicable to gain a systems-level understanding of multifactorial 3D cell-matrix interactions.

  16. Roles of TGF-β family signals in the fate determination of pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Fumiko; Watabe, Tetsuro; Miyazono, Kohei

    2014-08-01

    Members of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family have been implicated in embryogenesis as well as in the determination of the cell fates of mouse and human embryonic stem (ES) cells, which are characterized by their self-renewal and pluripotency. The cellular responses to TGF-β family signals are divergent depending on the cellular context and local environment. TGF-β family signals play critical roles both in the maintenance of the pluripotent state of ES cells by inducing the expression of Nanog, Oct4, and Sox2, and in their differentiation into various cell types by regulating the expression of master regulatory genes. Moreover, multiple lines of evidence have suggested the importance of TGF-β family signals in establishing induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Since ES and iPS cells have great potential for applications in regenerative medicine, it is critical to figure out the mechanisms underlying their self-renewal, pluripotency, and differentiation. Here, we discuss the roles of TGF-β family ligands and their downstream signaling molecules, Smad proteins, in the maintenance of the pluripotency and lineage specification of mouse and human ES and iPS cells.

  17. ER stress regulates myeloid-derived suppressor cell fate through TRAIL-R–mediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Condamine, Thomas; Kumar, Vinit; Ramachandran, Indu R.; Youn, Je-In; Celis, Esteban; Finnberg, Niklas; El-Deiry, Wafik S.; Winograd, Rafael; Vonderheide, Robert H.; English, Nickolas R.; Knight, Stella C.; Yagita, Hideo; McCaffrey, Judith C.; Antonia, Scott; Hockstein, Neil; Witt, Robert; Masters, Gregory; Bauer, Thomas; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I.

    2014-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) dampen the immune response thorough inhibition of T cell activation and proliferation and often are expanded in pathological conditions. Here, we studied the fate of MDSCs in cancer. Unexpectedly, MDSCs had lower viability and a shorter half-life in tumor-bearing mice compared with neutrophils and monocytes. The reduction of MDSC viability was due to increased apoptosis, which was mediated by increased expression of TNF-related apoptosis–induced ligand receptors (TRAIL-Rs) in these cells. Targeting TRAIL-Rs in naive mice did not affect myeloid cell populations, but it dramatically reduced the presence of MDSCs and improved immune responses in tumor-bearing mice. Treatment of myeloid cells with proinflammatory cytokines did not affect TRAIL-R expression; however, induction of ER stress in myeloid cells recapitulated changes in TRAIL-R expression observed in tumor-bearing hosts. The ER stress response was detected in MDSCs isolated from cancer patients and tumor-bearing mice, but not in control neutrophils or monocytes, and blockade of ER stress abrogated tumor-associated changes in TRAIL-Rs. Together, these data indicate that MDSC pathophysiology is linked to ER stress, which shortens the lifespan of these cells in the periphery and promotes expansion in BM. Furthermore, TRAIL-Rs can be considered as potential targets for selectively inhibiting MDSCs. PMID:24789911

  18. Positive intergenic feedback circuitry, involving EBF1 and FOXO1, orchestrates B-cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Mansson, Robert; Welinder, Eva; Åhsberg, Josefine; Benner, Christopher; Glass, Christopher K.; Lucas, Joseph S.; Sigvardsson, Mikael; Murre, Cornelis

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have identified a number of transcriptional regulators, including E2A, early B-cell factor 1 (EBF1), FOXO1, and paired box gene 5 (PAX5), that promote early B-cell development. However, how this ensemble of regulators mechanistically promotes B-cell fate remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that B-cell development in FOXO1-deficient mice is arrested in the common lymphoid progenitor (CLP) LY6D+ cell stage. We demonstrate that this phenotype closely resembles the arrest in B-cell development observed in EBF1-deficient mice. Consistent with these observations, we find that the transcription signatures of FOXO1- and EBF1-deficient LY6D+ progenitors are strikingly similar, indicating a common set of target genes. Furthermore, we found that depletion of EBF1 expression in LY6D+ CLPs severely affects FOXO1 mRNA abundance, whereas depletion of FOXO1 activity in LY6D+ CLPs ablates EBF1 transcript levels. We generated a global regulatory network from EBF1 and FOXO1 genome-wide transcription factor occupancy and transcription signatures derived from EBF1- and FOXO1-deficient CLPs. This analysis reveals that EBF1 and FOXO1 act in a positive feedback circuitry to promote and stabilize specification to the B-cell lineage. PMID:23213261

  19. Lineage and fate of each blastomere of the eight-cell sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Cameron, R A; Hough-Evans, B R; Britten, R J; Davidson, E H

    1987-03-01

    A fluoresceinated lineage tracer was injected into individual blastomeres of eight-cell sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) embryos, and the location of the progeny of each blastomere was determined in the fully developed pluteus. Each blastomere gives rise to a unique portion of the advanced embryo. We confirm many of the classical assignments of cell fate along the animal-vegetal axis of the cleavage-stage embryo, and demonstrate that one blastomere of the animal quartet at the eight-cell stage lies nearest the future oral pole and the opposite one nearest the future aboral pole of the embryo. Clones of cells deriving from ectodermal founder cells always remain contiguous, while clones of cells descendant from the vegetal plate (i.e., gut, secondary mesenchyme) do not. The l