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Sample records for cell flow systems

  1. Redox flow cell energy storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    NASA-Redox systems are electrochemical storage devices that use two fully soluble Redox couples, anode and cathode fluids, as active electrode materials separated by a highly selective ion exchange membrane. The reactants are contained in large storage tanks and pumped through a stack of Redox flow cells where the electrochemical reactions (reduction and oxidation) take place at porous carbon felt electrodes. A string or stack of these power producing cells is connected in series in a bipolar manner. Redox energy storage systems promise to be inexpensive and possess many features that provide for flexible design, long life, high reliability and minimal operation and maintenance costs. These features include independent sizing of power and storage capacity requirements and inclusion within the cell stack of a cell that monitors the state of charge of the system as a whole, and a rebalance cell which permits continuous correction to be made for minor side reactions that would tend to result in the anode fluid and cathode fluids becoming electrochemically out of balance. These system features are described and discussed.

  2. Electrochemical cell for rebalancing REDOX flow system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An electrically rechargeable REDOX cell or battery system including one of more rebalancing cells is described. Each rebalancing cell is divided into two chambers by an ion permeable membrane. The first chamber is fed with gaseous hydrogen and a cathode fluid which is circulated through the cathode chamber of the REDOX cell is also passed through the second chamber of the rebalancing cell. Electrochemical reactions take place on the surface of insert electrodes in the first and second chambers to rebalance the electrochemical capacity of the anode and cathode fluids of the REDOX system.

  3. Breakthrough Flow Battery Cell Stack: Transformative Electrochemical Flow Storage System (TEFSS)

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-09

    GRIDS Project: UTRC is developing a flow battery with a unique design that provides significantly more power than today's flow battery systems. A flow battery is a cross between a traditional battery and a fuel cell. Flow batteries store their energy in external tanks instead of inside the cell itself. Flow batteries have traditionally been expensive because the battery cell stack, where the chemical reaction takes place, is costly. In this project, UTRC is developing a new stack design that achieves 10 times higher power than today’s flow batteries. This high power output means the size of the cell stack can be smaller, reducing the amount of expensive materials that are needed. UTRC’s flow battery will reduce the cost of storing electricity for the electric grid, making widespread use feasible.

  4. Porcine skin flow-through diffusion cell system.

    PubMed

    Baynes, R E

    2001-11-01

    Porcine Skin Flow-Through Diffusion Cell System (Ronald E. Baynes, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina). Porcine skin can be used in a diffusion cell apparatus to study the rate and extent of absorption of topically applied chemicals through the skin. Although the skin of a number of animals can be used in this system, that of the pig most closely approximates human skin anatomically and physiologically.

  5. NASA Non-Flow-Through PEM Fuel Cell System for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Araghi, Koorosh R.

    2011-01-01

    NASA is researching passive NFT Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell technologies for primary fuel cell power plants in air-independent applications. NFT fuel cell power systems have a higher power density than flow through systems due to both reduced parasitic loads and lower system mass and volume. Reactant storage still dominates system mass/volume considerations. NFT fuel cell stack testing has demonstrated equivalent short term performance to flow through stacks. More testing is required to evaluate long-term performance.

  6. Non-Flow-Through Fuel Cell System Test Results and Demonstration on the SCARAB Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheidegger, Brianne, T.; Burke, Kenneth A.; Jakupca, Ian J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the demonstration of a non-flow-through PEM fuel cell as part of a power system on the SCARAB rover. A 16-cell non-flow-through fuel cell stack from Infinity Fuel Cell and Hydrogen, Inc. was incorporated into a power system designed to act as a range extender by providing power to the rover s hotel loads. This work represents the first attempt at a ground demonstration of this new technology aboard a mobile test platform. Development and demonstration were supported by the Office of the Chief Technologist s Space Power Systems Project and the Advanced Exploration System Modular Power Systems Project.

  7. Non-Flow-Through Fuel Cell System Test Results and Demonstration on the SCARAB Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheidegger, Brianne; Burke, Kenneth; Jakupca, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This presentation describes the results of the demonstration of a non-flow-through PEM fuel cell as part of a power system on the SCARAB rover at the NASA Glenn Research Center. A 16-cell non-flow-through fuel cell stack from Infinity Fuel Cell and Hydrogen, Inc. was incorporated into a power system designed to act as a range extender by providing power to the SCARAB rover s hotel loads. The power system, including the non-flow-through fuel cell technology, successfully demonstrated its goal as a range extender by powering hotel loads on the SCARAB rover, making this demonstration the first to use the non-flow-through fuel cell technology on a mobile platform.

  8. Recent advances in redox flow cell storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    Several features which were conceived and incorporated into complete redox systems that greatly enhanced its ability to be kept in proper charge balance, to be capable of internal voltage regulation, and in general be treated as a true multicell electrochemical system rather than an assembly of single cells that were wired together, were discussed. The technology status as it relates to the two application areas of solar photovoltaic/wind and distributed energy storage for electric utility applications was addressed. The cost and life advantages of redox systems were also covered.

  9. The Advantages of Non-Flow-Through Fuel Cell Power Systems for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoberecht, Mark; Burke, Kenneth; Jakupca, Ian

    2011-01-01

    NASA has been developing proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell power systems for the past decade, as an upgraded technology to the alkaline fuel cells which presently provide power for the Shuttle Orbiter. All fuel cell power systems consist of one or more fuel cell stacks in combination with appropriate balance-of-plant hardware. Traditional PEM fuel cells are characterized as flow-through, in which recirculating reactant streams remove product water from the fuel cell stack. NASA recently embarked on the development of non-flow-through fuel cell systems, in which reactants are dead-ended into the fuel cell stack and product water is removed by internal wicks. This simplifies the fuel cell power system by eliminating the need for pumps to provide reactant circulation, and mechanical water separators to remove the product water from the recirculating reactant streams. By eliminating these mechanical components, the resulting fuel cell power system has lower mass, volume, and parasitic power requirements, along with higher reliability and longer life. These improved non-flow-through fuel cell power systems therefore offer significant advantages for many aerospace applications.

  10. RhizoFlowCell system reveals early effects of micropollutants on aquatic plant rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Mynampati, Kalyan Chakravarthy; Lee, Yong Jian; Wijdeveld, Arjan; Reuben, Sheela; Samavedham, Lakshminarayanan; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Swarup, Sanjay

    2015-12-01

    In aquatic systems, one of the non-destructive ways to quantify toxicity of contaminants to plants is to monitor changes in root exudation patterns. In aquatic conditions, monitoring and quantifying such changes are currently challenging because of dilution of root exudates in water phase and lack of suitable instrumentation to measure them. Exposure to pollutants would not only change the plant exudation, but also affect the microbial communities that surround the root zone, thereby changing the metabolic profiles of the rhizosphere. This study aims at developing a device, the RhizoFlowCell, which can quantify metabolic response of plants, as well as changes in the microbial communities, to give an estimate of the stress to which the rhizosphere is exposed. The usefulness of RhizoFlowCell is demonstrated using naphthalene as a test pollutant. Results show that RhizoFlowCell system is useful in quantifying the dynamic metabolic response of aquatic rhizosphere to determine ecosystem health.

  11. Setup and Validation of Flow Cell Systems for Biofouling Simulation in Industrial Settings

    PubMed Central

    Teodósio, Joana S.; Simões, Manuel; Alves, Manuel A.; Melo, Luís F.; Mergulhão, Filipe J.

    2012-01-01

    A biofouling simulation system consisting of a flow cell and a recirculation tank was used. The fluid circulates at a flow rate of 350 L· h−1 in a semicircular flow cell with hydraulic diameter of 18.3 mm, corresponding to an average velocity of 0.275 m· s−1. Using computational fluid dynamics for flow simulation, an average wall shear stress of 0.4 Pa was predicted. The validity of the numerical simulations was visually confirmed by inorganic deposit formation (using kaolin particles) and also by direct observation of pathlines of tracer PVC particles using streak photography. Furthermore, the validity of chemostat assumptions was verified by residence time analysis. The system was used to assess the influence of the dilution rate on biofilm formation by Escherichia coli JM109(DE3). Two dilution rates of 0.013 and 0.0043 h−1 were tested and the results show that the planktonic cell concentration is increased at the lower dilution rate and that no significant changes were detected on the amount of biofilm formed in both conditions. PMID:22666110

  12. Steady and disturbed flow effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vascular system: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Nurullah; Isik, Sevim; Uykan, Ozge

    2010-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is still one of the most important reasons of the death in the world. The endothelium is the membrane of special cells which lines the interior surface of blood vessels forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. Endothelial cells (ECs) line the entire circulatory system, from the heart to the smallest capillary. ECs dysfunction has been linked with atherosclerosis through their response to fluid forces. ECs change their morphology when exposed to mechanical stresses. The morphological responses include reorientation, elongation, and rearrangement of adhering molecules. Atherosclerotic lesions are formed in specific arterial regions, where low and oscillatory endothelial shear stress (ESS) occur. In this study, the effects of steady and disturbed flow over human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) at different flow rates and periods were determined. Steady flow experiments were performed at flow rate of 1000 cm3/min for twenty four hours. Disturbed flow experiments simulating the flow in branching regions of arterial systems were carried out at flow rates of 250 cm3/min for five hours. The results obtained testified to the morphological changes easily observed. The directional alignment of the cells was determined in the steady flow experiments. Under disturbed flow conditions we observed not only the cell movement at the stagnation point but also the polygonal cell shape downstream the flow field.

  13. Coupled Flow-Structure-Biochemistry Simulations of Dynamic Systems of Blood Cells Using an Adaptive Surface Tracking Method.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, M H; Kunz, R F; Bistline, J E; Dong, C

    2009-07-01

    A method for the computation of low Reynolds number dynamic blood cell systems is presented. The specific system of interest here is interaction between cancer cells and white blood cells in an experimental flow system. Fluid dynamics, structural mechanics, six-degree-of freedom motion control and surface biochemistry analysis components are coupled in the context of adaptive octree-based grid generation. Analytical and numerical verification of the quasi-steady assumption for the fluid mechanics is presented. The capabilities of the technique are demonstrated by presenting several three-dimensional cell system simulations, including the collision/interaction between a cancer cell and an endothelium adherent polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) cell in a shear flow.

  14. Coupled flow-structure-biochemistry simulations of dynamic systems of blood cells using an adaptive surface tracking method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskins, M. H.; Kunz, R. F.; Bistline, J. E.; Dong, C.

    2009-07-01

    A method for the computation of low-Reynolds number dynamic blood cell systems is presented. The specific system of interest here is interaction between cancer cells and white blood cells in an experimental flow system. Fluid dynamics, structural mechanics, six-degree-of-freedom motion control, and surface biochemistry analysis components are coupled in the context of adaptive octree-based grid generation. Analytical and numerical verification of the quasi-steady assumption for the fluid mechanics is presented. The capabilities of the technique are demonstrated by presenting several three-dimensional cell system simulations, including the collision/interaction between a cancer cell and an endothelium adherent polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) cell in a shear flow.

  15. A Comparison of Flow-Through Versus Non-Flow-Through Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems for NASA's Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) under the auspices of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), NASA is developing both primary fuel cell power systems and regenerative fuel cell (RFC) energy storage systems within the fuel cell portion of the Energy Storage Project. This effort is being led by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in partnership with the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and industrial partners. The development goals are to improve fuel cell and electrolysis stack electrical performance, reduce system mass, volume, and parasitic power requirements, and increase system life and reliability. A major focus of this effort has been the parallel development of both flow-through and non-flow-through proton exchange membrane (PEM) primary fuel cell power systems. The plan has been, at the appropriate time, to select a single primary fuel cell technology for eventual flight hardware development. Ideally, that appropriate time would occur after both technologies have achieved a technology readiness level (TRL) of six, which represents an engineering model fidelity PEM fuel cell system being successfully tested in a relevant environment. Budget constraints in fiscal year 2009 and beyond have prevented NASA from continuing to pursue the parallel development of both primary fuel cell options. Because very limited data exists for either system, a toplevel, qualitative assessment based on engineering judgement was performed expeditiously to provide guidance for a selection. At that time, the non-flow-through technology was selected for continued development because of potentially major advantages in terms of weight, volume, parasitic power, reliability, and life. This author believes that the advantages are significant enough, and the potential benefits great enough, to offset the higher state of technology readiness of flow-through technology. This paper

  16. Diffusion Split-Flow Thin Cell (SPLITT) system for protein separations.

    PubMed

    Merugu, Srinivas; Sant, Himanshu J; Gale, Bruce K

    2012-08-01

    A diffusion Split-Flow Thin Cell (SPLITT) system was used to partially remove small peptides such as β2 microglobulin (β2M) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in a continuous manner from an input flow stream while preserving most (over 97%) of the larger protein in the sample, such as albumin. To help determine the operating conditions for this work, a two-dimensional numerical model based on the Navier-Stokes equation and convection-diffusion equations was developed for diffusional SPLITT using COMSOL multiphysics software (COMSOL Inc., MA). These simulations were used to obtain the relationship between important operational parameters and the purification efficiency for proteins of interest. The diffusion-based SPLITT system was fabricated using xurography and was used to demonstrate protein purification based on the differences in size or diffusion coefficient of the sample. The results obtained from the experiments are compared with the mathematical model and show good agreement, while the variations between these results are discussed. The results show that significant portions of small peptides (>25%) can be removed while preserving larger proteins (up to 95%) in the carrier stream. A potential application of this technique is to be used as an additional step in kidney dialysis to remove toxins that are not effectively removed by current dialysis protocols.

  17. Red blood cell flow in the cardiovascular system: a fluid dynamics perspective.

    PubMed

    AlMomani, Thakir D; Vigmostad, Sarah C; Chivukula, Venkat Keshav; Al-zube, Loay; Smadi, Othman; BaniHani, Suleiman

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of red blood cells (RBCs) is one of the major aspects of the cardiovascular system that has been studied intensively in the past few decades. The dynamics of biconcave RBCs are thought to have major influences in cardiovascular diseases, the problems associated with cardiovascular assistive devices, and the determination of blood rheology and properties. This article provides an overview of the works that have been accomplished in the past few decades and aim to study the dynamics of RBCs under different flow conditions. While significant progress has been made in both experimental and numerical studies, a detailed understanding of the behavior of RBCs is still faced with many challenges. Experimentally, the size of RBCs is considered to be a major limitation that allows measurements to be performed under conditions similar to physiological conditions. In numerical computations, researchers still are working to develop a model that can cover the details of the RBC mechanics as it deforms and moves in the bloodstream. Moreover, most of reported computational models have been confined to the behavior of a single RBC in 2-dimensional domains. Advanced models are yet to be developed for accurate description of RBC dynamics under physiological flow conditions in 3-dimensional regimes.

  18. Redesigned Gas Mass Flow Sensors for Space Shuttle Pressure Control System and Fuel Cell System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A program was conducted to determine if a state of the art micro-machined silicon solid state flow sensor could be used to replace the existing space shuttle orbiter flow sensors. The rather aggressive goal was to obtain a new sensor which would also be a multi-gas sensor and operate over a much wider flow range and with a higher degree of accuracy than the existing sensors. Two types of sensors were tested. The first type was a venturi throat design and the second was a bypass design. The accuracy of venturi design was found to be marginally acceptable. The bypass sensor was much better although it still did not fully reach the accuracy goal. Two main problems were identified which would require further work.

  19. Ultrasonic flow metering system

    DOEpatents

    Gomm, Tyler J.; Kraft, Nancy C.; Mauseth, Jason A.; Phelps, Larry D.; Taylor, Steven C.

    2002-01-01

    A system for determining the density, flow velocity, and mass flow of a fluid comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the fluid. A system for determining flow velocity uses two of the inventive circuits with directional transmitters and receivers, one of which is set at an angle to the direction of flow that is different from the others.

  20. Electrocapturing flow cell

    DOEpatents

    Morozov, Victor

    2011-04-05

    A flow cell for electrophoretically-assisted capturing analytes from a flow. The flow cell includes a specimen chamber, a first membrane, a second membrane, a first electrode chamber, and a second electrode chamber. The specimen chamber may have a sample inlet and a sample outlet. A first portion of the first membrane may be coupled to a first portion of the specimen chamber. A first portion of the second membrane may be coupled to a second portion of the specimen chamber. The first electrode chamber may be configured to accept a charge. A portion of the first electrode chamber may be coupled to a second portion of the first membrane. A second electrode chamber may be configured to accept an opposite charge. A portion of the second electrode chamber may be coupled to a second portion of the second membrane.

  1. Cascade redox flow battery systems

    DOEpatents

    Horne, Craig R.; Kinoshita, Kim; Hickey, Darren B.; Sha, Jay E.; Bose, Deepak

    2014-07-22

    A reduction/oxidation ("redox") flow battery system includes a series of electrochemical cells arranged in a cascade, whereby liquid electrolyte reacts in a first electrochemical cell (or group of cells) before being directed into a second cell (or group of cells) where it reacts before being directed to subsequent cells. The cascade includes 2 to n stages, each stage having one or more electrochemical cells. During a charge reaction, electrolyte entering a first stage will have a lower state-of-charge than electrolyte entering the nth stage. In some embodiments, cell components and/or characteristics may be configured based on a state-of-charge of electrolytes expected at each cascade stage. Such engineered cascades provide redox flow battery systems with higher energy efficiency over a broader range of current density than prior art arrangements.

  2. Flow through, immunomagnetic cell separation.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, J J; Zborowski, M; Sun, L; Moore, L

    1998-01-01

    A brief, process-oriented overview of immunologically based cell separation technology is presented. In addition, the design and preliminary experimental data of two unique flow-through immunomagnetic cell separation devices are presented. The first design is based on a dipole magnetic field, while the second design is basis on a quadrupole magnetic field. The dipole design can "fractionate" an inlet, magnetically labeled, cell stream into different outlet streams on the basis of the degree to which the cell is immunomagnetically labeled. The quadrupole separator splits an inlet, immunomagnetically labeled, cell stream into two outlet streams in which the purity, recovery, and potentially the degree to which the cells are immunomagnetically labeled is controlled by the flow rates in the inlet and outlet flows. A 99% purity and 86% recovery have been achieved with this system. Some distinct advantages of these two systems are the potential of high purity, recovery, and throughput at a cost which is potentially significantly lower than current, comparable technologies.

  3. Flow-through immunomagnetic separation system for waterborne pathogen isolation and detection: application to Giardia and Cryptosporidium cell isolation.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Qasem; Christophe, Lay; Teo, William; Li, ShuJun; Feng, Han Hua

    2010-07-12

    Simultaneous sample washing and concentration of two waterborne pathogen samples were demonstrated using a rotational magnetic system under continuous flow conditions. The rotation of periodically arranged small permanent magnets close to a fluidic channel carrying magnetic particle suspension allows the trapping and release of particles along the fluidic channel in a periodic manner. Each trapping and release event resembles one washing cycle. The performance of the magnetic separation system (MSS) was evaluated in order to test its functionality to isolate magnetic-labelled protozoan cells from filtered, concentrated tap water, secondary effluent water, and purified water. Experimental protocols described in US Environmental Protection Agency method 1623 which rely on the use of a magnetic particle concentrator, were applied to test and compare our continuous flow cell separation system to the standard magnetic bead-based isolation instruments. The recovery efficiencies for Giardia cysts using the magnetic tube holder and our magnetic separation system were 90.5% and 90.1%, respectively, from a tap water matrix and about 31% and 18.5%, respectively, from a spiked secondary effluent matrix. The recovery efficiencies for Cryptosporidium cells using the magnetic tube holder and our magnetic separation system were 90% and 83.3%, respectively, from a tap water matrix and about 38% and 36%, respectively, from a spiked secondary effluent matrix. Recoveries from all matrices with the continuous flow system were typically higher in glass tubing conduits than in molded plastic conduits.

  4. Chemostat flow cell system: an in vitro model for the evaluation of antiplaque agents.

    PubMed

    Herles, S; Olsen, S; Afflitto, J; Gaffar, A

    1994-11-01

    We developed an experimental in vitro model of dental plaque to assess the potential efficacy of antiplaque agents. The model used a chemostat, which provided a continuous source of 5 species of oral bacteria grown in an artificial "saliva-like" medium. This mixture was pumped through six flow cells, each containing two types of surfaces on which plaque formed and was subsequently measured. Formation of bacterial plaque on hydroxyapatite surfaces was assessed by measurement of the DNA and protein content of the plaque film. The amount of bacterial plaque formed on germanium surfaces was measured by attenuated total reflectance (ATR/FT-IR) spectroscopy. Plaque viability was also assessed by a fluorescent staining technique. The quantity of plaque formed on both types of surfaces gradually increased with the duration of flow (from 24 to 72 h) through the cells during a 72-hour experimental period. The flow cells were then pulsed with experimental treatment solutions for 30 s, twice daily. Parallel to results of human clinical studies, the model was capable of discriminating among water, a placebo mouthrinse, and an active antimicrobial mouthrinse formulation containing 0.03% triclosan. It therefore offers a valuable alternative to animal model testing and allows for more rapid evaluations under well-controlled experimental conditions.

  5. Development Status of PEM Non-Flow-Through Fuel Cell System Technology for NASA Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoberecht, Mark A.; Jakupca, Ian J.

    2011-01-01

    Today s widespread development of proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell technology for commercial users owes its existence to NASA, where fuel cell technology saw its first applications. Beginning with the early Gemini and Apollo programs, and continuing to this day with the Shuttle Orbiter program, fuel cells have been a primary source of electrical power for many NASA missions. This is particularly true for manned missions, where astronauts are able to make use of the by-product of the fuel cell reaction, potable water. But fuel cells also offer advantages for unmanned missions, specifically when power requirements exceed several hundred watts and primary batteries are not a viable alternative. In recent years, NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) funded the development of fuel cell technology for applications that provide both primary power and regenerative fuel cell energy storage for planned Exploration missions that involved a return to the moon. Under this program, the Altair Lunar Lander was a mission requiring fuel cell primary power. There were also various Lunar Surface System applications requiring regenerative fuel cell energy storage, in which a fuel cell and electrolyzer combine to form an energy storage system with hydrogen, oxygen, and water as common reactants. Examples of these systems include habitat modules and large rovers. In FY11, the ETDP has been replaced by the Enabling Technology Development and Demonstration Program (ETDDP), with many of the same technology goals and requirements applied against NASA s revised Exploration portfolio.

  6. Miniaturized flow injection analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Folta, J.A.

    1997-07-01

    A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis is described, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38{times}25{times}3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction. 9 figs.

  7. Miniaturized flow injection analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Folta, James A.

    1997-01-01

    A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38.times.25.times.3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction.

  8. Pressure Regulator With Internal Ejector Circulation Pump, Flow and Pressure Measurement Porting, and Fuel Cell System Integration Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    An advanced reactant pressure regulator with an internal ejector reactant circulation pump has been developed to support NASA's future fuel cell power systems needs. These needs include reliable and safe operation in variable-gravity environments, and for exploration activities with both manned and un manned vehicles. This product was developed for use in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) power plant reactant circulation systems, but the design could also be applied to other fuel cell system types, (e.g., solid-oxide or alkaline) or for other gas pressure regulation and circulation needs. The regulator design includes porting for measurement of flow and pressure at key points in the system, and also includes several fuel cell system integration options. NASA has recognized ejectors as a viable alternative to mechanical pumps for use in spacecraft fuel cell power systems. The ejector motive force is provided by a variable, high-pressure supply gas that travels through the ejector s jet nozzle, whereby the pressure energy of the fluid stream is converted to kinetic energy in the gas jet. The ejector can produce circulation-to-consumption-flow ratios that are relatively high (2-3 times), and this phenomenon can potentially (with proper consideration of the remainder of the fuel cell system s design) be used to provide completely for reactant pre-humidification and product water removal in a fuel cell system. Specifically, a custom pressure regulator has been developed that includes: (1) an ejector reactant circulation pump (with interchangeable jet nozzles and mixer sections, gas-tight sliding and static seals in required locations, and internal fluid porting for pressure-sensing at the regulator's control elements) and (2) internal fluid porting to allow for flow rate and system pressure measurements. The fluid porting also allows for inclusion of purge, relief, and vacuum-breaker check valves on the regulator assembly. In addition, this regulator could also

  9. Gas Flow Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, Thomas; Ihlefeld, Curtis; Slack, Barry

    2010-01-01

    This system provides a portable means to detect gas flow through a thin-walled tube without breaking into the tubing system. The flow detection system was specifically designed to detect flow through two parallel branches of a manifold with only one inlet and outlet, and is a means for verifying a space shuttle program requirement that saves time and reduces the risk of flight hardware damage compared to the current means of requirement verification. The prototype Purge Vent and Drain Window Cavity Conditioning System (PVD WCCS) Flow Detection System consists of a heater and a temperature-sensing thermistor attached to a piece of Velcro to be attached to each branch of a WCCS manifold for the duration of the requirement verification test. The heaters and thermistors are connected to a shielded cable and then to an electronics enclosure, which contains the power supplies, relays, and circuit board to provide power, signal conditioning, and control. The electronics enclosure is then connected to a commercial data acquisition box to provide analog to digital conversion as well as digital control. This data acquisition box is then connected to a commercial laptop running a custom application created using National Instruments LabVIEW. The operation of the PVD WCCS Flow Detection System consists of first attaching a heater/thermistor assembly to each of the two branches of one manifold while there is no flow through the manifold. Next, the software application running on the laptop is used to turn on the heaters and to monitor the manifold branch temperatures. When the system has reached thermal equilibrium, the software application s graphical user interface (GUI) will indicate that the branch temperatures are stable. The operator can then physically open the flow control valve to initiate the test flow of gaseous nitrogen (GN2) through the manifold. Next, the software user interface will be monitored for stable temperature indications when the system is again at

  10. The effect of corrosion inhibitors on microbial communities associated with corrosion in a model flow cell system.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Kathleen E; Perez-Ibarra, Beatriz Monica; Jenneman, Gary; Harris, Jennifer Busch; Webb, Robert; Sublette, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    A model flow cell system was designed to investigate pitting corrosion in pipelines associated with microbial communities. A microbial inoculum producing copious amounts of H₂S was enriched from an oil pipeline biofilm sample. Reservoirs containing a nutrient solution and the microbial inoculum were pumped continuously through six flow cells containing mild steel corrosion coupons. Two cells received corrosion inhibitor "A", two received corrosion inhibitor "B", and two ("untreated") received no additional chemicals. Coupons were removed after 1 month and analyzed for corrosion profiles and biofilm microbial communities. Coupons from replicate cells showed a high degree of similarity in pitting parameters and in microbial community profiles, as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence libraries but differed with treatment regimen, suggesting that the corrosion inhibitors differentially affected microbial species. Viable microbial biomass values were more than 10-fold higher for coupons from flow cells treated with corrosion inhibitors than for coupons from untreated flow cells. The total number of pits >10 mils diameter and maximum pitting rate were significantly correlated with each other and the total number of pits with the estimated abundance of sequences classified as Desulfomicrobium. The maximum pitting rate was significantly correlated with the sum of the estimated abundance of Desulfomicrobium plus Clostridiales, and with the sum of the estimated abundance of Desulfomicrobium plus Betaproteobacteria. The lack of significant correlation with the estimated abundance of Deltaproteobacteria suggests not all Deltaproteobacteria species contribute equally to microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) and that it is not sufficient to target one bacterial group when monitoring for MIC.

  11. Artificial fish skin of self-powered micro-electromechanical systems hair cells for sensing hydrodynamic flow phenomena.

    PubMed

    Asadnia, Mohsen; Kottapalli, Ajay Giri Prakash; Miao, Jianmin; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi; Triantafyllou, Michael S

    2015-10-06

    Using biological sensors, aquatic animals like fishes are capable of performing impressive behaviours such as super-manoeuvrability, hydrodynamic flow 'vision' and object localization with a success unmatched by human-engineered technologies. Inspired by the multiple functionalities of the ubiquitous lateral-line sensors of fishes, we developed flexible and surface-mountable arrays of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) artificial hair cell flow sensors. This paper reports the development of the MEMS artificial versions of superficial and canal neuromasts and experimental characterization of their unique flow-sensing roles. Our MEMS flow sensors feature a stereolithographically fabricated polymer hair cell mounted on Pb(Zr(0.52)Ti(0.48))O3 micro-diaphragm with floating bottom electrode. Canal-inspired versions are developed by mounting a polymer canal with pores that guide external flows to the hair cells embedded in the canal. Experimental results conducted employing our MEMS artificial superficial neuromasts (SNs) demonstrated a high sensitivity and very low threshold detection limit of 22 mV/(mm s(-1)) and 8.2 µm s(-1), respectively, for an oscillating dipole stimulus vibrating at 35 Hz. Flexible arrays of such superficial sensors were demonstrated to localize an underwater dipole stimulus. Comparative experimental studies revealed a high-pass filtering nature of the canal encapsulated sensors with a cut-off frequency of 10 Hz and a flat frequency response of artificial SNs. Flexible arrays of self-powered, miniaturized, light-weight, low-cost and robust artificial lateral-line systems could enhance the capabilities of underwater vehicles.

  12. Artificial fish skin of self-powered micro-electromechanical systems hair cells for sensing hydrodynamic flow phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Asadnia, Mohsen; Kottapalli, Ajay Giri Prakash; Miao, Jianmin; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi; Triantafyllou, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Using biological sensors, aquatic animals like fishes are capable of performing impressive behaviours such as super-manoeuvrability, hydrodynamic flow ‘vision’ and object localization with a success unmatched by human-engineered technologies. Inspired by the multiple functionalities of the ubiquitous lateral-line sensors of fishes, we developed flexible and surface-mountable arrays of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) artificial hair cell flow sensors. This paper reports the development of the MEMS artificial versions of superficial and canal neuromasts and experimental characterization of their unique flow-sensing roles. Our MEMS flow sensors feature a stereolithographically fabricated polymer hair cell mounted on Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 micro-diaphragm with floating bottom electrode. Canal-inspired versions are developed by mounting a polymer canal with pores that guide external flows to the hair cells embedded in the canal. Experimental results conducted employing our MEMS artificial superficial neuromasts (SNs) demonstrated a high sensitivity and very low threshold detection limit of 22 mV/(mm s−1) and 8.2 µm s−1, respectively, for an oscillating dipole stimulus vibrating at 35 Hz. Flexible arrays of such superficial sensors were demonstrated to localize an underwater dipole stimulus. Comparative experimental studies revealed a high-pass filtering nature of the canal encapsulated sensors with a cut-off frequency of 10 Hz and a flat frequency response of artificial SNs. Flexible arrays of self-powered, miniaturized, light-weight, low-cost and robust artificial lateral-line systems could enhance the capabilities of underwater vehicles. PMID:26423435

  13. Micro reactor integrated μ-PEM fuel cell system: a feed connector and flow field free approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, A.; Mueller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    2013-12-01

    A system level microreactor concept for hydrogen generation with Sodium Borohydride (NaBH4) is demonstrated. The uniqueness of the system is the transport and distribution feature of fuel (hydrogen) to the anode of the fuel cell without any external feed connectors and flow fields. The approach here is to use palladium film instead of feed connectors and the flow fields; palladium's property to adsorb and desorb the hydrogen at ambient and elevated condition. The proof of concept is demonstrated with a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) based complete system integration which includes microreactor, palladium transport layer and the self-breathing polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The hydrolysis of NaBH4 was carried out in the presence of platinum supported by nickel (NiPt). The prototype functionality is tested with NaBH4 chemical hydride. The characterization of the integrated palladium layer and fuel cell is tested with constant and switching load. The presented integrated fuel cell is observed to have a maximum power output and current of 60 mW and 280 mA respectively.

  14. Overhead Projection Cell for Streamline Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waage, Harold M.

    1969-01-01

    Describes the construction and operation of an overhead projection apparatus designed to demonstrate streamline flow of a liquid. The apparatus consists of a Plexiglass tank containing water in which plates forming the cell are submerged, a constant level reservoir, an overflow device and a system for marking the flow lines with a dye. (LC)

  15. Performance Mapping Studies in Redox Flow Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoberecht, M. A.; Thaller, L. H.

    1981-01-01

    Pumping power requirements in any flow battery system constitute a direct parasitic energy loss. It is therefore useful to determine the practical lower limit for reactant flow rates. Through the use of a theoretical framework based on electrochemical first principles, two different experimental flow mapping techniques were developed to evaluate and compare electrodes as a function of flow rate. For the carbon felt electrodes presently used in NASA-Lewis Redox cells, a flow rate 1.5 times greater than the stoichiometric rate seems to be the required minimum.

  16. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Delivery System Modulates Ischemic Cardiac Remodeling With an Increase of Coronary Artery Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Sook; Joo, Wan Seok; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Sung Wan

    2016-01-01

    Ways for extending the longevity of stem cells are imperative to attain diverse expected therapeutic effects. Here, we constructed a three-dimentional (3D) scaffold system for human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) delivery. Intramyocardial injections of porous PEI1.8k blended with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) (PLGA/PEI1.8k) (PPP) microparticles by physical electrostatic conjugation and structural entrapment of hMSCs demonstrated enhanced functional and geometric improvements on post-infarct cardiac remodeling in rats. In the hMSC-loaded PPP delivery, increases of coronary artery blood flow rate and in vivo engraftment rate as well as time-dependent functional, geometric, and pathologic findings reversing post-infarct cardiac remodeling account for improved left ventricular (LV) systolic function up to the level of sham thoracotomy group. This study expands our understanding by proving that increase of coronary artery blood flow augmented functional recovery of hMSC-loaded PPP delivery system after myocardial infarction (MI). PMID:26782638

  17. In situ monitoring of atmospheric nitrous acid based on multi-pumping flow system and liquid waveguide capillary cell.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuhan; Lu, Keding; Dong, Huabin; Li, Xin; Cheng, Peng; Zou, Qi; Wu, Yusheng; Liu, Xingang; Zhang, Yuanhang

    2016-05-01

    In the last four decades, various techniques including spectroscopic, wet chemical and mass spectrometric methods, have been developed and applied for the detection of ambient nitrous acid (HONO). We developed a HONO detection system based on long path photometry which consists of three independent modules i.e., sampling module, fluid propulsion module and detection module. In the propulsion module, solenoid pumps are applied. With solenoid pumps the pulsed flow can be computer controlled both in terms of pump stroke volume and pulse frequency, which enables the attainment of a very stable flow rate. In the detection module, a customized Liquid Waveguide Capillary Cell (LWCC) is used. The customized LWCC pre-sets the optical fiber in-coupling with the liquid wave guide, providing the option of fast startup and easy maintenance of the absorption photometry. In summer 2014, our system was deployed in a comprehensive campaign at a rural site in the North China Plain. More than one month of high quality HONO data spanning from the limit of detection to 5ppb were collected. Intercomparison of our system with another established system from Forschungszentrum Juelich is presented and discussed. In conclusion, our instrument achieved a detection limit of 10pptV within 2min and a measurement uncertainty of 7%, which is well suited for investigation of the HONO budget from urban to rural conditions in China.

  18. Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Computer simulation of atmospheric flow corresponds well to imges taken during the second Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (BFFC) mission. The top shows a view from the pole, while the bottom shows a view from the equator. Red corresponds to hot fluid rising while blue shows cold fluid falling. This simulation was developed by Anil Deane of the University of Maryland, College Park and Paul Fischer of Argorne National Laboratory. Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

  19. Deterministic Aperiodic Sickle Cell Blood Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atsaves, Louis; Harris, Wesley

    2013-11-01

    In this paper sickle cell blood flow in the capillaries is modeled as a hydrodynamical system. The hydrodynamical system consists of the axisymmetric unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and a set of constitutive equations for oxygen transport. Blood cell deformation is not considered in this paper. The hydrodynamical system is reduced to a system of non-linear partial differential equations that are then transformed into a system of three autonomous non-linear ordinary differential equations and a set of algebraic equations. We examine the hydrodynamical system to discern stable/unstable, periodic/nonperiodic, reversible/irreversible properties of the system. The properties of the solutions are driven in large part by the coefficients of the governing system of equations. These coefficients depend on the physiological properties of the sickle cell blood. The chaotic nature of the onset of crisis in sickle cell patients is identified. Research Assistant.

  20. Flow Cytometry Total Cell Counts: A Field Study Assessing Microbiological Water Quality and Growth in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, G.; Van der Mark, E. J.; Verberk, J. Q. J. C.; Van Dijk, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs) as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A one-year sampling program was carried out in two distribution systems in The Netherlands. Results demonstrated that, in both systems, the biomass differences measured by ATP were not significant. TCC differences were also not significant in treatment plant 1, but decreased slightly in treatment plant 2. TCC values were found to be higher at temperatures above 15°C than at temperatures below 15°C. The correlation study of parameters describing biostability found no relationship among TCC, heterotrophic plate counts, and Aeromonas. Also no relationship was found between TCC and ATP. Some correlation was found between the subgroup of high nucleic acid content bacteria and ATP (R2 = 0.63). Overall, the results demonstrated that TCC is a valuable parameter to assess the drinking water biological quality and regrowth; it can directly and sensitively quantify biomass, detect small changes, and can be used to determine the subgroup of active HNA bacteria that are related to ATP. PMID:23819117

  1. A Complete Optical Sensor System Based on a POF-SPR Platform and a Thermo-Stabilized Flow Cell for Biochemical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cennamo, Nunzio; Chiavaioli, Francesco; Trono, Cosimo; Tombelli, Sara; Giannetti, Ambra; Baldini, Francesco; Zeni, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    An optical sensor platform based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in a plastic optical fiber (POF) integrated into a thermo-stabilized flow cell for biochemical sensing applications is proposed. This device has been realized and experimentally tested by using a classic receptor-analyte assay. For this purpose, the gold surface of the POF was chemically modified through the formation of a self-assembling monolayer. The surface robustness of the POF-SPR platform has been tested for the first time thanks to the flow cell. The experimental results show that the proposed device can be successfully used for label-free biochemical sensing. The final goal of this work is to achieve a complete, small-size, simple to use and low cost optical sensor system. The whole system with the flow cell and the optical sensor are extensively described, together with the experimental results obtained with an immunoglobulin G (IgG)/anti-IgG assay. PMID:26861328

  2. A radio-high-performance liquid chromatography dual-flow cell gamma-detection system for on-line radiochemical purity and labeling efficiency determination.

    PubMed

    Lindegren, S; Jensen, H; Jacobsson, L

    2014-04-11

    In this study, a method of determining radiochemical yield and radiochemical purity using radio-HPLC detection employing a dual-flow-cell system is evaluated. The dual-flow cell, consisting of a reference cell and an analytical cell, was constructed from two PEEK capillary coils to fit into the well of a NaI(Tl) detector. The radio-HPLC flow was directed from the injector to the reference cell allowing on-line detection of the total injected sample activity prior to entering the HPLC column. The radioactivity eluted from the column was then detected in the analytical cell. In this way, the sample will act as its own standard, a feature enabling on-line quantification of the processed radioactivity passing through the system. All data were acquired on-line via an analog signal from a rate meter using chromatographic software. The radiochemical yield and recovery could be simply and accurately determined by integration of the peak areas in the chromatogram obtained from the reference and analytical cells using an experimentally determined volume factor to correct for the effect of different cell volumes.

  3. Endovascular blood flow measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khe, A. K.; Cherevko, A. A.; Chupakhin, A. P.; Krivoshapkin, A. L.; Orlov, K. Yu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper an endovascular measurement system used for intraoperative cerebral blood flow monitoring is described. The system is based on a Volcano ComboMap Pressure and Flow System extended with analogue-to-digital converter and PC laptop. A series of measurements performed in patients with cerebrovascular pathologies allows us to introduce “velocity-pressure” and “flow rate-energy flow rate” diagrams as important characteristics of the blood flow. The measurement system presented here can be used as an additional instrument in neurosurgery for assessment and monitoring of the operation procedure. Clinical data obtained with the system are used for construction of mathematical models and patient-specific simulations. The monitoring of the blood flow parameters during endovascular interventions was approved by the Ethics Committee at the Meshalkin Novosibirsk Research Institute of Circulation Pathology and included in certain surgical protocols for pre-, intra- and postoperative examinations.

  4. Rebalancing electrolytes in redox flow battery systems

    DOEpatents

    Chang, On Kok; Pham, Ai Quoc

    2014-12-23

    Embodiments of redox flow battery rebalancing systems include a system for reacting an unbalanced flow battery electrolyte with a rebalance electrolyte in a first reaction cell. In some embodiments, the rebalance electrolyte may contain ferrous iron (Fe.sup.2+) which may be oxidized to ferric iron (Fe.sup.3+) in the first reaction cell. The reducing ability of the rebalance reactant may be restored in a second rebalance cell that is configured to reduce the ferric iron in the rebalance electrolyte back into ferrous iron through a reaction with metallic iron.

  5. Whole cell quenched flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Ya-Yu; Haeri, Sina; Gizewski, Carsten; Stewart, Joanna D; Ehrhard, Peter; Shrimpton, John; Janasek, Dirk; West, Jonathan

    2013-12-03

    This paper describes a microfluidic quenched flow platform for the investigation of ligand-mediated cell surface processes with unprecedented temporal resolution. A roll-slip behavior caused by cell-wall-fluid coupling was documented and acts to minimize the compression and shear stresses experienced by the cell. This feature enables high-velocity (100-400 mm/s) operation without impacting the integrity of the cell membrane. In addition, rotation generates localized convection paths. This cell-driven micromixing effect causes the cell to become rapidly enveloped with ligands to saturate the surface receptors. High-speed imaging of the transport of a Janus particle and fictitious domain numerical simulations were used to predict millisecond-scale biochemical switching times. Dispersion in the incubation channel was characterized by microparticle image velocimetry and minimized by using a horizontal Hele-Shaw velocity profile in combination with vertical hydrodynamic focusing to achieve highly reproducible incubation times (CV = 3.6%). Microfluidic quenched flow was used to investigate the pY1131 autophosphorylation transition in the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R). This predimerized receptor undergoes autophosphorylation within 100 ms of stimulation. Beyond this demonstration, the extreme temporal resolution can be used to gain new insights into the mechanisms underpinning a tremendous variety of important cell surface events.

  6. Towards optical cell transfection inside a micro flow cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunig, H. G.; Uchugonova, A.; König, K.

    2014-03-01

    For optical transfection, cells are shortly subjected to intense, focused laser radiation which leads to a temporary opening in the cell membrane. Although the method is very efficient and ensures high cell viability, the targeting of single cells with laser pulses is a tedious and slow approach. We present first measurements aiming at an experimental setup which is suitable for high throughput and automated optical cell transfection. In our setup, cells flow through a micro flow cell where they are spatially confined. The laser radiation is focused into the cell in a way that an elongated focal region is realized. This makes the time consuming aiming of the laser beam at individual cells unnecessary and opens the possibility to develop a completely automated system. The elongated laser focal region is realized by a quasi-Bessel beam which is generated by an axicon lens setup and continuously scanned from side to side of the cell. We present test measurements of the newly employed setup and discuss its suitability to be fully integrated into a flow cell sequencing system.

  7. Co-flow planar SOFC fuel cell stack

    DOEpatents

    Chung, Brandon W.; Pham, Ai Quoc; Glass, Robert S.

    2004-11-30

    A co-flow planar solid oxide fuel cell stack with an integral, internal manifold and a casing/holder to separately seal the cell. This construction improves sealing and gas flow, and provides for easy manifolding of cell stacks. In addition, the stack construction has the potential for an improved durability and operation with an additional increase in cell efficiency. The co-flow arrangement can be effectively utilized in other electrochemical systems requiring gas-proof separation of gases.

  8. Free flow cell electrophoresis using zwitterionic buffer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodkey, R. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Studies of a zwitterionic buffer formulated for cell electrophoresis were done using the McDonnell-Douglas Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System. Standard buffers were analyzed for their stability in the electrical field and the results showed that both buffers tested were inherently unstable. Further, titration studies showed that the standards buffers buffered poorly at the pH employed for electrophoresis. The zwitterionic buffer buffered well at its nominal pH and was shown to be stable in the electrical field. Comparative studies of the buffer with standard cell separation buffers using formalin fixed rabbit and goose red blood cells showed that the zwitterionic buffer gave better resolution of the fixed cells. Studies with viable hybridoma cells showed that buffer Q supported cell viability equal to Hank's Balanced Salt Solution and that hybridoma cells in different stages of the growth cycle demonstrated reproducible differences in electrophoretic mobility.

  9. Duct Flow Control System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    is ejected under pressure tangentially of local duct surfaces through Coanda affected slots at the trailing edge of the duct from which only the...channel passages in order to modify the flow stream through the duct so as to perform certain functions such as thrust control and steerage control effects enhancing vehicle maneuverability.

  10. A negative dielectrophoresis and gravity-driven flow-based high-throughput and high-efficiency cell-sorting system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dongkyu; Kim, Dowon; Kim, Youngwoong; Park, Ki-Hyun; Oh, Eun-Jee; Kim, Yonggoo; Kim, Byungkyu

    2014-02-01

    We present a negative dielectrophoresis (n-DEP)-based cell separation system for high-throughput and high-efficiency cell separation. To achieve a high throughput, the proposed system comprises macro-sized channel and cantilever-type electrode (CE) arrays (L × W × H = 150 µm × 500 µm × 50 µm) to generate n-DEP force. For high efficiency, double separation modules, which have macro-sized channels and CE arrays in each separation module, are employed. In addition, flow regulators to precisely control the hydrodynamic force are allocated for each outlet. Because the hydrodynamic force and the n-DEP force acting on the target cell are the main determinants of the separation efficiency, we evaluate the theoretical amount of hydrodynamic force and n-DEP force acting on each target cell. Based on theoretical results, separation conditions are experimentally investigated. Finally, to demonstrate the separation performance, we performed the separation of target cells (live K562) from nontarget cells (dead K562) under conditions of low voltage (7Vp-p with 100 kHz) and a flow rate of 15 µL•min⁻¹, 6 µL•min⁻¹, and 8 µL•min⁻¹ in outlets 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The system can separate target cells with 95% separation efficiency in the case of the ratio of 5:1 (live K562:dead K562).

  11. FLOW SYSTEM FOR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, W.H.

    1963-06-11

    A reactor is designed with means for terminating the reaction when returning coolant is below a predetermined temperature. Coolant flowing from the reactor passes through a heat exchanger to a lower reservoir, and then circulates between the lower reservoir and an upper reservoir before being returned to the reactor. Means responsive to the temperature of the coolant in the return conduit terminate the chain reaction when the temperature reaches a predetermined minimum value. (AEC)

  12. Direct flow crystal growth system

    DOEpatents

    Montgomery, Kenneth E.; Milanovich, Fred P.

    1992-01-01

    A crystal is grown in a constantly filtered solution which is flowed directly into the growing face of a crystal. In a continuous flow system, solution at its saturation temperature is removed from a crystal growth tank, heated above its saturation temperature, filtered, cooled back to its saturation temperature, and returned to the tank.

  13. Improving Power Production in Acetate-Fed Microbial Fuel Cells via Enrichment of Exoelectrogenic Organisms in Flow-Through Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Leak, David; Andras, Calin

    2009-01-01

    An exoelectrogenic, biofilm-forming microbial consortium was enriched in an acetate-fed microbial fuel cell (MFC) using a flow-through anode coupled to an air-cathode. Multiple parameters known to improve MFC performance were integrated in one design including electrode spacing, specific electrode surface area, flow-through design, minimization of dead volume within anode chamber, and control of external resistance. In addition, continuous feeding of carbon source was employed and the MFC was operated at intermittent high flows to enable removal of non-biofilm forming organisms over a period of six months. The consortium enriched using the modified design and operating conditions resulted in a power density of 345 W m-3 of net anode volume (3650 mW m-2), when coupled to a ferricyanide cathode. The enriched consortium included -, -, -Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Members of the order Rhodocyclaceae and Burkholderiaceae (Azospira spp. (49%), Acidovorax spp. (11%) and Comamonas spp. (7%)), dominated the microbial consortium. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis based on primers selective for Archaea suggested a very low abundance of methanogens. Limiting the delivery of the carbon source via continuous feeding corresponding to the maximum cathodic oxidation rates permitted in the flow-through, air-cathode MFC resulted in coulombic efficiencies reaching 88 5.7%.

  14. Flow analysis system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Wayne S. (Inventor); Barck, Bruce N. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A non-invasive flow analysis system and method wherein a sensor, such as an acoustic sensor, is coupled to a conduit for transmitting a signal which varies depending on the characteristics of the flow in the conduit. The signal is amplified and there is a filter, responsive to the sensor signal, and tuned to pass a narrow band of frequencies proximate the resonant frequency of the sensor. A demodulator generates an amplitude envelope of the filtered signal and a number of flow indicator quantities are calculated based on variations in amplitude of the amplitude envelope. A neural network, or its equivalent, is then used to determine the flow rate of the flow in the conduit based on the flow indicator quantities.

  15. Glucose Dependency of the Metabolic Pathway of HEK 293 Cells Measured by a Flow-through Type pH/CO2 Sensor System Using ISFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Akira; Mohri, Satoshi; Nakamura, Michihiro; Naruse, Keiji

    Our group previously reported the application of a flow-through type pH/CO2 sensor system designed to evaluate the metabolic activity of cultured cells. The sensor system consists of two ion-sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs), an ISFET to measure the total pH change and an ISFET enclosed within a gas-permeable silicone tube to measure the pH change attributable to CO2. In that study, we used the system to quantitatively analyze metabolic switching induced by glucose concentration changes in three cultured cell types (bovine arterial endothelium cell (BAEC), human umbilical vein endothelium cell (HUVEC), and rat cardiomuscle cell (RCMC)), and to measure the production rates of total carbonate and free lactic acid in the cultured cells. In every cell type examined, a decrease in the glucose concentration led to an increase in total carbonate, a product of cellular respiration, and a decrease of free lactic acid, a product of glycolysis. There were very significant differences among the cell types, however, in the glucose concentrations at the metabolic switching points. We postulated that the cell has a unique switching point on the metabolic pathway from glycolysis to respiration. In this paper we use our sensor system to evaluate the metabolic switching of human embryonic kidney 293 cells triggered by glucose concentration changes. The superior metabolic pathway switched from glycolysis to respiration when the glucose concentration decreased to about 2 mM. This result was very similar to that obtained in our earlier experiments on HUVECs, but far different from our results on the other two cells types, BAECs and RCMCs. This sensor system will be useful for analyzing cellular metabolism for many applications and will yield novel information on different cell types.

  16. Enhanced-Solubilization of a Multi-Component Immiscible Liquid Source Zone within an Intermediate-scale Flow Cell System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvell, J. R.; Tick, G. R.

    2011-12-01

    Complex multi-component immiscible liquid mixtures can significantly limit the effectiveness of groundwater remediation. The use of enhanced-flushing technologies has emerged as a promising technique for the remediation of sites contaminated with immiscible liquids. A series of two dimensional (2-D) flow cell experiments was conducted to quantify the effectiveness of two different flushing agents on the removal of a uniformly distributed multi-component immiscible liquid source zone. A 39.5 x 20.2 cm flow-cell was packed with 20/30-mesh sand and emplaced with a 15 x 3 cm rectangular source zone within the center of the flow cell. The source zone was established with a 10% NAPL saturation (Sn) consisting of equal 1:1:1 mole mixture of tetrachloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE), and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (DCE). The solubilization agents investigated included 5 wt% solution of a complexing sugar, hydroxypropyl-$betacyclodextrin (HPCD), and a 5 wt% solution of a surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The results of these experiments indicate that the addition of a chemical flushing agent greatly reduces the time needed to remove each component compared to flushing with water alone (i.e. pump and treat). Elution curve (concentration-time) analysis from both total extraction and at the down-gradient end of the source zone showed that SDS removed all three components from the source zone approximately 10 times faster than HPCD. For the extraction port SDS showed slightly more ideal removal in terms of mass flux behavior, removing more mass initially before a significant reduction in mass flux was observed. Although SDS was superior when evaluated on a recovery basis, HPCD outperformed SDS for all components when compared based on contaminant-mass to reagent-mass and moles of contaminant to moles of reagent removed for the source zone port. These findings suggest that the selection of a particular flushing agent should be evaluated carefully prior to remediation as

  17. Mirrored serpentine flow channels for fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Rock, Jeffrey Allan

    2000-08-08

    A PEM fuel cell having serpentine flow field channels wherein the input/inlet legs of each channel border the input/inlet legs of the next adjacent channels in the same flow field, and the output/exit legs of each channel border the output/exit legs of the next adjacent channels in the same flow field. The serpentine fuel flow channels may be longer, and may contain more medial legs, than the serpentine oxidant flow channels.

  18. Advanced flow cytometric analysis of nanoparticle targeting to rare leukemic stem cells in peripheral human blood in a defined model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Christy L.; Leary, James F.

    2015-03-01

    Leukemia stem cells are both stem-like and leukemic-like. This complicates their detection as rare circulating tumor cells in the peripheral blood of leukemia patients. Since leukemic stem cells are also resistant to standard chemotherapeutic regimens, new therapeutic strategies need to be designed to kill the leukemic stem cells without killing normal stem cells. In these initial targeting studies we utilized a bioinformatics approach to design an antibodyfluorescent nanoparticle conjugate for targeting to these leukemic stem cells and to minimize targeting to normal stemprogenitor cells. Multicolor flow cytometric analyses were performed on a BD FACS Aria III. Human leukemic stem cell-like cell RS4;11 (with putative immunophenotype CD133+/CD24+/-, CD34+/-, CD38+, CD10-/Flt3+) was spiked into normal hematopoietic stem-progenitor cells obtained from a "buffy coat" prep (with putative immunophenotype CD133- /CD34+/CD38-/CD10-/Flt-3-) to be used as a model human leukemia patient. To analyze the model system, digital data mixtures of the two cell types were first created and assigned classifiers in order to create truth sets. ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) and multidimensional cluster analyses were used to evaluate the specificity and sensitivity of the immunophenotyping panel and for automated cell population identification, respectively. Costs of misclassification (false targeting) were also accounted for by this analysis scheme. Ultimately, this analysis scheme will be applied to use of nanoparticle-antibody conjugates at therapeutic doses for targeted killing of leukemia stem cells preferentially to normal stem -progenitor cells.

  19. Fuel cell with internal flow control

    DOEpatents

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Venkiteswaran, Arun [Karnataka, IN

    2012-06-12

    A fuel cell stack is provided with a plurality of fuel cell cassettes where each fuel cell cassette has a fuel cell with an anode and cathode. The fuel cell stack includes an anode supply chimney for supplying fuel to the anode of each fuel cell cassette, an anode return chimney for removing anode exhaust from the anode of each fuel cell cassette, a cathode supply chimney for supplying oxidant to the cathode of each fuel cell cassette, and a cathode return chimney for removing cathode exhaust from the cathode of each fuel cell cassette. A first fuel cell cassette includes a flow control member disposed between the anode supply chimney and the anode return chimney or between the cathode supply chimney and the cathode return chimney such that the flow control member provides a flow restriction different from at least one other fuel cell cassettes.

  20. Pulse-Flow Microencapsulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    2006-01-01

    The pulse-flow microencapsulation system (PFMS) is an automated system that continuously produces a stream of liquid-filled microcapsules for delivery of therapeutic agents to target tissues. Prior microencapsulation systems have relied on batch processes that involve transfer of batches between different apparatuses for different stages of production followed by sampling for acquisition of quality-control data, including measurements of size. In contrast, the PFMS is a single, microprocessor-controlled system that performs all processing steps, including acquisition of quality-control data. The quality-control data can be used as real-time feedback to ensure the production of large quantities of uniform microcapsules.

  1. Comparative in vitro dissolution study of carbamazepine immediate-release products using the USP paddles method and the flow-through cell system

    PubMed Central

    Medina, José Raúl; Salazar, Dulce Karina; Hurtado, Marcela; Cortés, Alma Rosa; Domínguez-Ramírez, Adriana Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Dissolution profiles of four carbamazepine immediate-release generic products (200 mg tablets) and the reference product Tegretol® were evaluated using the USP paddles method and an alternative method with the flow-through cell system, USP Apparatus 4. Under official conditions all products met the Q specification, dissolution profiles of generic products were similar to the dissolution profile of the reference product (f2 > 50) and model-independent parameters showed non significant differences to the reference product except mean dissolution time for product A (p < 0.05). On the other hand, when the flow-through cell system was used, none of the products met the pharmacopeial specification at 15 min and product A did not reach dissolution criteria at 60 min, dissolution profiles of all generic products were not similar to the reference product profile (f2 < 50) and all model-independent parameters showed significant differences compared to the reference product (p < 0.05). Weibull’s model was more useful for adjusting the dissolution data of all products in both USP apparatuses and Td values showed significant differences compared to the reference product (p < 0.05) when USP Apparatus 4 was used. These results indicate that the proposed method, using the flow-through cell system, is more discriminative in evaluating both, rate and extent of carbamazepine dissolution process from immediate-release generic products. PMID:24648826

  2. Wireless sap flow measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, C.; Davis, T. W.; Tseng, C.; Cheng, C.; Liang, X.; Yu, P.

    2010-12-01

    This study exhibits a measurement system for wireless sensor networks to measure sap flow in multiple locations simultaneously. Transpiration is a major component of the land-surface system because it is indicative of the water movement between the soil and the air. Sap flow can be used to approximate transpiration. In forests, transpiration cannot be represented by the sap flow from a single tree. Multi-location sap flow measurements are required to show the heterogeneity caused by different trees or soil conditions. Traditional multi-location measurements require manpower and capital for data collection and instrument maintenance. Fortunately, multi-location measurements can be achieved by using the new technology of wireless sensor networks. With multi-hop communication protocol, data can be forwarded to the base station via multiple sensor nodes. This communication protocol can provide reliable data collection with the least power consumption. This study encountered two major problems. The first problem was signal amplification. The Crossbow IRIS mote was selected as the sensor node that receives the temperature data of the sap flow probe (thermocouple) through a MDA300 data acquisition board. However, the wireless sensor node could not directly receive any data from the thermocouples since the least significant bit value of the MDA300, 0.6 mV, is much higher than the voltage signal generated. Thus, the signal from the thermocouple must be amplified to exceed this threshold. The second problem is power management. A specific heat differential is required for the thermal dissipation method of measuring sap flow. Thus, an adjustable DC power supply is necessary for calibrating the heater's temperature settings. A circuit was designed to combine the signal amplifier and power regulator. The regulator has been designed to also provide power to the IRIS mote to extend battery life. This design enables wireless sap flow measurements in the forest. With the

  3. Electrohydrodynamic Flows in Electrochemical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saville, D. A.

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have established a new class of assembly processes with colloidal suspensions. Particles are driven together to form large crystalline structures in both dc and ac fields. The current work centers on this new class of flows in ac fields. In the research carried out under the current award, it was established that: (i) Small colloidal particles crystallize near an electrode due to electrohydrodynamic flows induced by an sinusoidally varying applied potential. (ii) These flows originate due to disturbances in the electrode polarization layer arising from the presence of the particles. Inasmuch as the charge and the field strength both scale on the applied field, the flows are proportional to the square of the applied voltage. (iii) Suspensions of two different sorts of particles can be crystallized and will form well-ordered binary crystals. (iv) At high frequencies the EHD flows die out. Thus, with a homogeneous system the particles become widely spaced due to dipolar repulsion. With a binary suspension, however, the particles may become attractive due to dipolar attraction arising from differences in electrokinetic dipoles. Consequently binary crystals form at both high and low frequencies.

  4. Blood Cell Interactions and Segregation in Flow

    PubMed Central

    Munn, Lance L.; Dupin, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    For more than a century, pioneering researchers have been using novel experimental and computational approaches to probe the mysteries of blood flow. Thanks to their efforts, we know that blood cells generally prefer to migrate to the axis of flow, that red and white cells segregate in flow, and that cell deformability and their tendency to reversibly aggregate contribute to the non-Newtonian nature of this unique fluid. All of these properties have beneficial physiological consequences, allowing blood to perform a variety of critical functions. Our current understanding of these unusual flow properties of blood have been made possible by the ingenuity and diligence of a number of researchers, including Harry Goldsmith, who developed novel technologies to visualize and quantify the flow of blood at the level of individual cells. Here we summarize efforts in our lab to continue this tradition and to further our understanding of how blood cells interact with each other and with the blood vessel wall. PMID:18188702

  5. Fuel cell system combustor

    DOEpatents

    Pettit, William Henry

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode and cathode effluents. The combustor includes a turbulator section at its input end for intimately mixing the anode and cathode effluents before they contact the combustors primary catalyst bed. The turbulator comprises at least one porous bed of mixing media that provides a tortuous path therethrough for creating turbulent flow and intimate mixing of the anode and cathode effluents therein.

  6. Flow field design development using the segmented cell approach

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, G.; Ramsey, J. C.

    2002-01-01

    We report on fuel cell flow-field development employing two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (2-D CFD). Simulation of the flow distribution of a parallel channel flow-field, with a simple one-channel manifold, predicted inhomogeneous performance distribution within the cell. Further modeling, focusing on modification of the inlet and outlet flow fields, was used to predict a more homogeneous flow distribution in the flow-field. Attempts were made to verify the theoretical predictions experimentally by application of the segmented cell system. Measurements of the current distribution and CO transient response supported the 2-D CFD predictions. However, the margin of error between predicted and experimental results was considered insufficient to be of practical use. Future work will involve the evaluation of 3-D CFD to achieve the appropriate level of accuracy.

  7. Information-Systems Data-Flow Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosiu, J. O.

    1983-01-01

    Single form presents clear picture of entire system. Form giving relational review of data flow well suited to information system planning, analysis, engineering, and management. Used to review data flow for developing system or one already in use.

  8. Streak Imaging Flow Cytometer for Rare Cell Analysis.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Joshua; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Ossandon, Miguel; Prickril, Ben; Rasooly, Avraham

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for simple and affordable techniques for cytology for clinical applications, especially for point-of-care (POC) medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings. However, this often requires adapting expensive and complex laboratory-based techniques that often require significant power and are too massive to transport easily. One such technique is flow cytometry, which has great potential for modification due to the simplicity of the principle of optical tracking of cells. However, it is limited in that regard due to the flow focusing technique used to isolate cells for optical detection. This technique inherently reduces the flow rate and is therefore unsuitable for rapid detection of rare cells which require large volume for analysis.To address these limitations, we developed a low-cost, mobile flow cytometer based on streak imaging. In our new configuration we utilize a simple webcam for optical detection over a large area associated with a wide-field flow cell. The new flow cell is capable of larger volume and higher throughput fluorescence detection of rare cells than the flow cells with hydrodynamic focusing used in conventional flow cytometry. The webcam is an inexpensive, commercially available system, and for fluorescence analysis we use a 1 W 450 nm blue laser to excite Syto-9 stained cells with emission at 535 nm. We were able to detect low concentrations of stained cells at high flow rates of 10 mL/min, which is suitable for rapidly analyzing larger specimen volumes to detect rare cells at appropriate concentration levels. The new rapid detection capabilities, combined with the simplicity and low cost of this device, suggest a potential for clinical POC flow cytometry in resource-poor settings associated with global health.

  9. Bistability of cell adhesion in shear flow.

    PubMed

    Efremov, Artem; Cao, Jianshu

    2011-09-07

    Cell adhesion plays a central role in multicellular organisms helping to maintain their integrity and homeostasis. This complex process involves many different types of adhesion proteins, and synergetic behavior of these proteins during cell adhesion is frequently observed in experiments. A well-known example is the cooperation of rolling and stationary adhesion proteins during the leukocytes extravasation. Despite the fact that such cooperation is vital for proper functioning of the immune system, its origin is not fully understood. In this study we constructed a simple analytic model of the interaction between a leukocyte and the blood vessel wall in shear flow. The model predicts existence of cell adhesion bistability, which results from a tug-of-war between two kinetic processes taking place in the cell-wall contact area-bond formation and rupture. Based on the model results, we suggest an interpretation of several cytoadhesion experiments and propose a simple explanation of the existing synergy between rolling and stationary adhesion proteins, which is vital for effective cell adherence to the blood vessel walls in living organisms.

  10. Flow pumping system for physiological waveforms.

    PubMed

    Tsai, William; Savaş, Omer

    2010-02-01

    A pulsatile flow pumping system is developed to replicate flow waveforms with reasonable accuracy for experiments simulating physiological blood flows at numerous points in the body. The system divides the task of flow waveform generation between two pumps: a gear pump generates the mean component and a piston pump generates the oscillatory component. The system is driven by two programmable servo controllers. The frequency response of the system is used to characterize its operation. The system has been successfully tested in vascular flow experiments where sinusoidal, carotid, and coronary flow waveforms are replicated.

  11. Numerical Simulation of Sickle Cell Blood Flow in the Microcirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Stanley A.; Carlson, Brian E.

    2001-11-01

    A numerical simulation of normal and sickle cell blood flow through the transverse arteriole-capillary microcirculation is carried out to model the dominant mechanisms involved in the onset of vascular stasis in sickle cell disease. The transverse arteriole-capillary network is described by Strahler's network branching method, and the oxygen and blood transport in the capillaries is modeled by a Krogh cylinder analysis utilizing Lighthill's lubrication theory, as developed by Berger and King. Poiseuille's law is used to represent blood flow in the arterioles. Applying this flow and transport model and utilizing volumetric flow continuity at each network bifurcation, a nonlinear system of equations is obtained, which is solved iteratively using a steepest descent algorithm coupled with a Newton solver. Ten different networks are generated and flow results are calculated for normal blood and sickle cell blood without and with precapillary oxygen loss. We find that total volumetric blood flow through the network is greater in the two sickle cell blood simulations than for normal blood owing to the anemia associated with sickle cell disease. The percentage of capillary blockage in the network increases dramatically with decreasing pressure drop across the network in the sickle cell cases while there is no blockage when normal blood flows through simulated networks. It is concluded that, in sickle cell disease, without any vasomotor dilation response to decreasing oxygen concentrations in the blood, capillary blockage will occur in the microvasculature even at average pressure drops across the transverse arteriole-capillary networks.

  12. Application of Light Reflection Visualization for Measuring Organic-Liquid Saturation for Two-Phase Systems in Two-Dimensional Flow Cells

    PubMed Central

    DiFilippo, Erica L.; Brusseau, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A simple, noninvasive imaging technique was used to obtain in situ measurements of organic-liquid saturation in a two-phase system under dynamic conditions. Efficacy of the light reflection visualization (LRV) imaging method was tested through comparison of measured and known volumes of organic liquid for experiments conducted with a two-dimensional flow cell. Two sets of experiments were conducted, with source-zone configurations representing two archetypical residual-and-pool architectures. LRV measurements were collected during the injection of organic liquid and during a dissolution phase induced by water flushing. There was a strong correlation between measured and known organic-liquid volumes, with the LRV-measured values generally somewhat lower than the known volumes. Errors were greater for the system wherein organic liquid was present in multiple zones comprised of porous media of different permeabilities, and for conditions of multiphase flow. This method proved effective at determining organic-liquid distribution in a two-phase system using minimal specialized equipment. PMID:26457050

  13. Spatial response variations within biosensor flow cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cant, Nicola; Harrison, Sarah

    2012-02-01

    Biosensors are currently being developed for the detection of a wide range of analytes in a variety of scenarios. One such area is that of environmental monitoring for the presence of biological threats, from toxins through to viruses and bacteria. The varying nature, and in particular disparate size, of such a variety of analytes poses a significant challenge in the development of effective high confidence instruments. Many existing biosensors employ functionalised flow cells in which spatially defined arrays of surface immobilised recognition elements are present to specifically capture their analyte of interest. Experimental data obtained using a grating coupled SPR instrument, the BIAcore Flexchip, has revealed spatial dependency differences in response behaviours between proteinaceous and particulate analytes. In particular, the magnitude of responses seen with Bacillus anthracis spores across the instruments flow cell appear to be influenced by shear and gravitational effects whilst those from soluble proteins are more uniform. We have explored this dependence to understand its fundamental impact on the successful implementation of multi-analyte environmental biological detection systems.

  14. Flow cytometer jet monitor system

    DOEpatents

    Van den Engh, Ger

    1997-01-01

    A direct jet monitor illuminates the jet of a flow cytometer in a monitor wavelength band which is substantially separate from the substance wavelength band. When a laser is used to cause fluorescence of the substance, it may be appropriate to use an infrared source to illuminate the jet and thus optically monitor the conditions within the jet through a CCD camera or the like. This optical monitoring may be provided to some type of controller or feedback system which automatically changes either the horizontal location of the jet, the point at which droplet separation occurs, or some other condition within the jet in order to maintain optimum conditions. The direct jet monitor may be operated simultaneously with the substance property sensing and analysis system so that continuous monitoring may be achieved without interfering with the substance data gathering and may be configured so as to allow the front of the analysis or free fall area to be unobstructed during processing.

  15. Evolution of Unsteady Groundwater Flow Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xing; Jin, Menggui; Niu, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Natural groundwater flow is usually transient, especially in long time scale. A theoretical approach on unsteady groundwater flow systems was adopted to highlight some of the knowledge gaps in the evolution of groundwater flow systems. The specific consideration was focused on evolution of groundwater flow systems from unsteady to steady under natural and mining conditions. Two analytical solutions were developed, using segregation variable method to calculate the hydraulic head under steady and unsteady flow conditions. The impact of anisotropy ratio, hydraulic conductivity (K) and specific yield (μs) on the flow patterns were analyzed. The results showed that the area of the equal velocity region increased and the penetrating depth of the flow system decreased while the anisotropy ratio (ɛ = °Kx-/Kz--) increased. Stagnant zones were found in the flow field where the directions of streamlines were opposite. These stagnant zones moved up when the horizontal hydraulic conductivity increased. The results of the study on transient flow indicated a positive impact on hydraulic head with an increase of hydraulic conductivity, while a negative effect on hydraulic head was observed when the specific yield was enhanced. An unsteady numerical model of groundwater flow systems with annual periodic recharge was developed using MODFLOW. It was observed that the transient groundwater flow patterns were different from that developed in the steady flow under the same recharge intensity. The water table fluctuated when the recharge intensity altered. The monitoring of hydraulic head and concentration migration revealed that the unsteady recharge affected the shallow local flow system more than the deep regional flow system. The groundwater flow systems fluctuated with the action of one or more pumping wells. The comparison of steady and unsteady groundwater flow observation indicated that the unsteady flow patterns cannot be simulated by the steady model when the condition

  16. Coded illumination for motion-blur free imaging of cells on cell-phone based imaging flow cytometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Manish; Gorthi, Sai Siva

    2014-10-01

    Cell-phone based imaging flow cytometry can be realized by flowing cells through the microfluidic devices, and capturing their images with an optically enhanced camera of the cell-phone. Throughput in flow cytometers is usually enhanced by increasing the flow rate of cells. However, maximum frame rate of camera system limits the achievable flow rate. Beyond this, the images become highly blurred due to motion-smear. We propose to address this issue with coded illumination, which enables recovery of high-fidelity images of cells far beyond their motion-blur limit. This paper presents simulation results of deblurring the synthetically generated cell/bead images under such coded illumination.

  17. Flow field measurements in the cell culture unit.

    PubMed

    Walker, Stephen; Wilder, Mike; Dimanlig, Arsenio; Jagger, Justin; Searby, Nancy

    2002-10-01

    The cell culture unit (CCU) is being designed to support cell growth for long-duration life science experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). The CCU is a perfused loop system that provides a fluid environment for controlled cell growth experiments within cell specimen chambers (CSCs), and is intended to accommodate diverse cell specimen types. Many of the functional requirements depend on the fluid flow field within the CSC (e.g., feeding and gas management). A design goal of the CCU is to match, within experimental limits, all environmental conditions, other than the effects of gravity on the cells, whether the hardware is in microgravity ( micro g), normal Earth gravity, or up to 2g on the ISS centrifuge. In order to achieve this goal, two steps are being taken. The first step is to characterize the environmental conditions of current 1g cell biology experiments being performed in laboratories using ground-based hardware. The second step is to ensure that the design of the CCU allows the fluid flow conditions found in 1g to be replicated from microgravity up to 2g. The techniques that are being used to take these steps include flow visualization, particle image velocimetry (PIV), and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Flow visualization using the injection of dye has been used to gain a global perspective of the characteristics of the CSC flow field. To characterize laboratory cell culture conditions, PIV is being used to determine the flow field parameters of cell suspension cultures grown in Erlenmeyer flasks on orbital shakers. These measured parameters will be compared to PIV measurements in the CSCs to ensure that the flow field that cells encounter in CSCs is within the bounds determined for typical laboratory experiments. Using CFD, a detailed simulation is being developed to predict the flow field within the CSC for a wide variety of flow conditions, including microgravity environments. Results from all these measurements and analyses of the

  18. Flow field measurements in the cell culture unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Stephen; Wilder, Mike; Dimanlig, Arsenio; Jagger, Justin; Searby, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    The cell culture unit (CCU) is being designed to support cell growth for long-duration life science experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). The CCU is a perfused loop system that provides a fluid environment for controlled cell growth experiments within cell specimen chambers (CSCs), and is intended to accommodate diverse cell specimen types. Many of the functional requirements depend on the fluid flow field within the CSC (e.g., feeding and gas management). A design goal of the CCU is to match, within experimental limits, all environmental conditions, other than the effects of gravity on the cells, whether the hardware is in microgravity ( micro g), normal Earth gravity, or up to 2g on the ISS centrifuge. In order to achieve this goal, two steps are being taken. The first step is to characterize the environmental conditions of current 1g cell biology experiments being performed in laboratories using ground-based hardware. The second step is to ensure that the design of the CCU allows the fluid flow conditions found in 1g to be replicated from microgravity up to 2g. The techniques that are being used to take these steps include flow visualization, particle image velocimetry (PIV), and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Flow visualization using the injection of dye has been used to gain a global perspective of the characteristics of the CSC flow field. To characterize laboratory cell culture conditions, PIV is being used to determine the flow field parameters of cell suspension cultures grown in Erlenmeyer flasks on orbital shakers. These measured parameters will be compared to PIV measurements in the CSCs to ensure that the flow field that cells encounter in CSCs is within the bounds determined for typical laboratory experiments. Using CFD, a detailed simulation is being developed to predict the flow field within the CSC for a wide variety of flow conditions, including microgravity environments. Results from all these measurements and analyses of the

  19. Bioinspired Sensory Systems for Shear Flow Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvert, Brendan; Chen, Kevin K.; Kanso, Eva

    2017-03-01

    Aquatic organisms such as copepods exhibit remarkable responses to changes in ambient flows, especially shear gradients, when foraging, mating and escaping. To accomplish these tasks, the sensory system of the organism must decode the local sensory measurements to detect the flow properties. Evidence suggests that organisms sense differences in the hydrodynamic signal rather than absolute values of the ambient flow. In this paper, we develop a mathematical framework for shear flow detection using a bioinspired sensory system that measures only differences in velocity. We show that the sensory system is capable of reconstructing the properties of the ambient shear flow under certain conditions on the flow sensors. We discuss these conditions and provide explicit expressions for processing the sensory measurements and extracting the flow properties. These findings suggest that by combining suitable velocity sensors and physics-based methods for decoding sensory measurements, we obtain a powerful approach for understanding and developing underwater sensory systems.

  20. Microconfined flow behavior of red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Tomaiuolo, Giovanna; Lanotte, Luca; D'Apolito, Rosa; Cassinese, Antonio; Guido, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) perform essential functions in human body, such as gas exchange between blood and tissues, thanks to their ability to deform and flow in the microvascular network. The high RBC deformability is mainly due to the viscoelastic properties of the cell membrane. Since an impaired RBC deformability could be found in some diseases, such as malaria, sickle cell anemia, diabetes and hereditary disorders, there is the need to provide further insight into measurement of RBC deformability in a physiologically relevant flow field. Here, RBCs deformability has been studied in terms of the minimum apparent plasma-layer thickness by using high-speed video microscopy of RBCs flowing in cylindrical glass capillaries. An in vitro systematic microfluidic investigation of RBCs in micro-confined conditions has been performed, resulting in the determination of the RBCs time recovery constant, RBC volume and surface area and RBC membrane shear elastic modulus and surface viscosity. It has been noticed that the deformability of RBCs induces cells aggregation during flow in microcapillaries, allowing the formation of clusters of cells. Overall, our results provide a novel technique to estimate RBC deformability and also RBCs collective behavior, which can be used for the analysis of pathological RBCs, for which reliable quantitative methods are still lacking.

  1. Microfluidic Impedance Flow Cytometry Enabling High-Throughput Single-Cell Electrical Property Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Xue, Chengcheng; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Deyong; Wu, Min-Hsien; Wang, Junbo

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent developments in microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for high-throughput electrical property characterization of single cells. Four major perspectives of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell characterization are included in this review: (1) early developments of microfluidic impedance flow cytometry for single-cell electrical property characterization; (2) microfluidic impedance flow cytometry with enhanced sensitivity; (3) microfluidic impedance and optical flow cytometry for single-cell analysis and (4) integrated point of care system based on microfluidic impedance flow cytometry. We examine the advantages and limitations of each technique and discuss future research opportunities from the perspectives of both technical innovation and clinical applications. PMID:25938973

  2. Automated flow-chart system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodford, W.

    1980-01-01

    Program produces flow chart of any program written in FORTRAN. Each FORTRAN statement is printed with symbol representing actions required during execution. Flow chart is generated on line-printer. This program is in COBOL for batch execution on IBM 370-series computer.

  3. New optical configuration for flow cytometric sorting of aspherical cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, John C.; Schaare, Peter N.; Kuennemeyer, Rainer

    1997-05-01

    The orthogonal axes of illumination, flow, and detection in conventional sorting flow cytometers can limit accuracy or throughput when making fluorescence measurements on a spherical cells. A new radially symmetric optical configuration has been designed to overcome these problems. Both illumination and fluorescence collection are performed by a single optical element which encircles the sample stream flow axis. Unlike existing epi-illumination flow cytometer designs, these optics are compatible with electrostatic sorting. The resolution of this system is currently being evaluated for DNA chromosome content measurement with an ultimate goal of separation of X- and Y- chromosome-bearing mammalian spermatozoa. We describe the new optical configuration and present preliminary results of instrument performance. Comparison with a conventional orthogonal optical geometry is made using fluorescent microspheres, chicken red blood cells and chinchilla sperm.

  4. Electrochemical cell operation and system

    DOEpatents

    Maru, Hansraj C.

    1980-03-11

    Thermal control in fuel cell operation is affected through sensible heat of process gas by providing common input manifolding of the cell gas flow passage in communication with the cell electrolyte and an additional gas flow passage which is isolated from the cell electrolyte and in thermal communication with a heat-generating surface of the cell. Flow level in the cell gas flow passage is selected based on desired output electrical energy and flow level in the additional gas flow passage is selected in accordance with desired cell operating temperature.

  5. Systems and methods for rebalancing redox flow battery electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Chang, On Kok

    2015-03-17

    Various methods of rebalancing electrolytes in a redox flow battery system include various systems using a catalyzed hydrogen rebalance cell configured to minimize the risk of dissolved catalyst negatively affecting flow battery performance. Some systems described herein reduce the chance of catalyst contamination of RFB electrolytes by employing a mediator solution to eliminate direct contact between the catalyzed membrane and the RFB electrolyte. Other methods use a rebalance cell chemistry that maintains the catalyzed electrode at a potential low enough to prevent the catalyst from dissolving.

  6. Cell-based screening using high-throughput flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Black, Christopher B; Duensing, Thomas D; Trinkle, Linda S; Dunlay, R Terry

    2011-02-01

    This review describes the use of high-throughput flow cytometry for performing multiplexed cell-based and bead-based screens. With the many advances in cell-based analysis and screening, flow cytometry has historically been underutilized as a screening tool largely due to the limitations in handling large numbers of samples. However, there has been a resurgence in the use of flow cytometry due to a combination of innovations around instrumentation and a growing need for cell-based and bead-based applications. The HTFC™ Screening System (IntelliCyt Corporation, Albuquerque, NM) is a novel flow cytometry-based screening platform that incorporates a fast sample-loading technology, HyperCyt®, with a two-laser, six-parameter flow cytometer and powerful data analysis capabilities. The system is capable of running multiplexed screening assays at speeds of up to 40 wells per minute, enabling the processing of a 96- and 384-well plates in as little as 3 and 12 min, respectively. Embedded in the system is HyperView®, a data analysis software package that allows rapid identification of hits from multiplexed high-throughput flow cytometry screening campaigns. In addition, the software is incorporated into a server-based data management platform that enables seamless data accessibility and collaboration across multiple sites. High-throughput flow cytometry using the HyperCyt technology has been applied to numerous assay areas and screening campaigns, including efflux transporters, whole cell and receptor binding assays, functional G-protein-coupled receptor screening, in vitro toxicology, and antibody screening.

  7. Biofilm responses to smooth flow fields and chemical gradients in novel microfluidic flow cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jisun L.; Au, Kelly H.; Huynh, Kimberly T.

    2013-01-01

    We present two novel microfluidic flow cells developed to provide reliable control of flow distributions and chemical gradients in biofilm studies. We developed a single-inlet microfluidic flow cell to support biofilm growth under a uniform velocity field, and a double-inlet flow cell to provide a very smooth transverse concentration gradient. Both flow cells consist of a layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) bonded to glass cover slips and were fabricated using the replica molding technique. We demonstrate the capabilities of the flow cells by quantifying flow patterns before and after growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms through particle imaging velocimetry, and by evaluating concentration gradients within the double-inlet microfluidic flow cell. Biofilm growth substantially increased flow complexity by diverting flow around biomass, creating high- and low-velocity regions and surface friction. Under a glucose gradient in the double-inlet flow cell, P. aeruginosa biofilms grew in proportion to the local glucose concentration, producing distinct spatial patterns in biofilm biomass relative to the imposed glucose gradient. When biofilms were subjected to a ciprofloxacin gradient, spatial patterns of fractions of dead cells were also in proportion to the local antibiotic concentration. These results demonstrate that the microfluidic flow cells are suitable for quantifying flow complexities resulting from flow-biofilm interactions and investigating spatial patterns of biofilm growth under chemical gradients. These novel microfluidic flow cells will facilitate biofilm research that requires flow control and in situ imaging, particularly investigations of biofilm-environment interactions. PMID:24038055

  8. Artificial Hair Cells for Sensing Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Jack

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present additional information about the flow-velocity sensors described briefly in the immediately preceding article. As noted therein, these sensors can be characterized as artificial hair cells that implement an approximation of the sensory principle of flow-sensing cilia of fish: A cilium is bent by an amount proportional to the flow to which it is exposed. A nerve cell at the base of the cilium senses the flow by sensing the bending of the cilium. In an artificial hair cell, the artificial cilium is a microscopic cantilever beam, and the bending of an artificial cilium is measured by means of a strain gauge at its base (see Figure 1). Figure 2 presents cross sections of a representative sensor of this type at two different stages of its fabrication process. The process consists of relatively- low-temperature metallization, polymer-deposition, microfabrication, and surface-micromachining subprocesses, including plastic-deformation magnetic assembly (PDMA), which is described below. These subprocesses are suitable for a variety of substrate materials, including silicon, some glasses, and some polymers. Moreover, because it incorporates a polymeric supporting structure, this sensor is more robust, relative to its silicon-based counterparts.

  9. Interstitial flows promote an amoeboid cell phenotype and motility of breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Chih-Kuan; Huang, Yu Ling; Zheng, Angela; Wu, Mingming

    2015-03-01

    Lymph nodes, the drainage systems for interstitial flows, are clinically known to be the first metastatic sites of many cancer types including breast and prostate cancers. Here, we demonstrate that breast cancer cell morphology and motility is modulated by interstitial flows in a cell-ECM adhesion dependent manner. The average aspect ratios of the cells are significantly lower (or are more amoeboid like) in the presence of the flow in comparison to the case when the flow is absent. The addition of exogenous adhesion molecules within the extracellular matrix (type I collagen) enhances the overall aspect ratio (or are more mesenchymal like) of the cell population. Using measured cell trajectories, we find that the persistence of the amoeboid cells (aspect ratio less than 2.0) is shorter than that of mesenchymal cells. However, the maximum speed of the amoeboid cells is larger than that of mesenchymal cells. Together these findings provide the novel insight that interstitial flows promote amoeboid cell morphology and motility and highlight the plasticity of tumor cell motility in response to its biophysical environment. Supported by NIH Grant R21CA138366.

  10. Flow properties of particles in a model annular shear cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Zhu, H. P.; Yu, A. B.

    2012-05-01

    In order to quantitatively investigate the mechanical and rheological properties of solid flow in a shear cell under conditions relevant to those in an annular cell, we performed a series of discrete particle simulations of slightly polydispersed spheres from quasi-static to intermediate flow regimes. It is shown that the average values of stress tensor components are uniformly distributed in the cell space away from the stationary walls; however, some degree of inhomogeneity in their spatial distributions does exist. A linear relationship between the (internal/external) shear and normal stresses prevails in the shear cell and the internal and external friction coefficients can compare well with each other. It is confirmed that annular shear cells are reasonably effective as a method of measuring particle flow properties. The so-called I-rheology proposed by Jop et al. [Nature (London) 441, 727 (2006)] is rigorously tested in this cell system. The results unambiguously display that the I-rheology can effectively describe the intermediate flow regime with a high correlation coefficient. However, significant deviations take place when it is applied to the quasi-static regime, which corresponds to very small values of inertial number.

  11. Pumping power considerations in the designs of NASA-Redox flow cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoberecht, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Pressure drop data for six different cell geometries of various flow port, manifold, and cavity dimensions are presented. The redox/energy/storage system uses two fully soluble redox couples as anode and cathode fluids. Both fluids are pumped through a redox cell, or stack of cells, where the electrochemical reactions take place at porous carbon felt electrodes. Pressure drop losses are therefore associated with this system due to the continuous flow of reactant solutions. The exact pressure drop within a redox flow cell is directly dependent on the flow rate as well as the various cell dimensions. Pumping power requirements for a specific set of cell operating conditions are found for various cell geometries once the flow rate and pressure drop are determined. These pumping power requirements contribute to the overall system parasitic energy losses which must be minimized, the choice of cell geometry becomes critical.

  12. High speed flow cytometric separation of viable cells

    DOEpatents

    Sasaki, Dennis T.; Van den Engh, Gerrit J.; Buckie, Anne-Marie

    1995-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell populations are separated to provide cell sets and subsets as viable cells with high purity and high yields, based on the number of original cells present in the mixture. High-speed flow cytometry is employed using light characteristics of the cells to separate the cells, where high flow speeds are used to reduce the sorting time.

  13. High speed flow cytometric separation of viable cells

    DOEpatents

    Sasaki, D.T.; Van den Engh, G.J.; Buckie, A.M.

    1995-11-14

    Hematopoietic cell populations are separated to provide cell sets and subsets as viable cells with high purity and high yields, based on the number of original cells present in the mixture. High-speed flow cytometry is employed using light characteristics of the cells to separate the cells, where high flow speeds are used to reduce the sorting time.

  14. Redox flow cell development and demonstration project, calendar year 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Research and development on the redox flow cell conducted from January 1, 1977, to December 31, 1977, are described in this report. The major focus of the effort during 1977 was the key technology issues that directly influence the fundamental feasibility of the overall redox concept. These issues were the development of a suitable ion exchange membrane for the system, the screening and study of candidate redox couples to achieve optimum cell performance, and the carrying out of systems analysis and modeling to develop system performance goals and cost estimates.

  15. Continuous cell sorting in a flow based on single cell resonance Raman spectra.

    PubMed

    McIlvenna, David; Huang, Wei E; Davison, Paul; Glidle, Andrew; Cooper, Jon; Yin, Huabing

    2016-04-21

    Single cell Raman spectroscopy measures a spectral fingerprint of the biochemistry of cells, and provides a powerful method for label-free detection of living cells without the involvement of a chemical labelling strategy. However, as the intrinsic Raman signals of cells are inherently weak, there is a significant challenge in discriminating and isolating cells in a flowing stream. Here we report an integrated Raman-microfluidic system for continuous sorting of a stream of cyanobacteria, Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. These carotenoid-containing microorganisms provide an elegant model system enabling us to determine the sorting accuracy using the subtly different resonance Raman spectra of microorganism cultured in a (12)C or (13)C carbon source. Central to the implementation of continuous flow sorting is the use of "pressure dividers" that eliminate fluctuations in flow in the detection region. This has enabled us to stabilise the flow profile sufficiently to allow automated operation with synchronisation of Raman acquisition, real-time classification and sorting at flow rates of ca. <100 μm s(-1), without the need to "trap" the cells. We demonstrate the flexibility of this approach in sorting mixed cell populations with the ability to achieve 96.3% purity of the selected cells at a speed of 0.5 Hz.

  16. A dynamic plug flow reactor model for a vanadium redox flow battery cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yifeng; Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria; Bao, Jie

    2016-04-01

    A dynamic plug flow reactor model for a single cell VRB system is developed based on material balance, and the Nernst equation is employed to calculate cell voltage with consideration of activation and concentration overpotentials. Simulation studies were conducted under various conditions to investigate the effects of several key operation variables including electrolyte flow rate, upper SOC limit and input current magnitude on the cell charging performance. The results show that all three variables have a great impact on performance, particularly on the possibility of gassing during charging at high SOCs or inadequate flow rates. Simulations were also carried out to study the effects of electrolyte imbalance during long term charging and discharging cycling. The results show the minimum electrolyte flow rate needed for operation within a particular SOC range in order to avoid gassing side reactions during charging. The model also allows scheduling of partial electrolyte remixing operations to restore capacity and also avoid possible gassing side reactions during charging. Simulation results also suggest the proper placement for cell voltage monitoring and highlight potential problems associated with setting the upper charging cut-off limit based on the inlet SOC calculated from the open-circuit cell voltage measurement.

  17. A spectral boundary integral method for flowing blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong; Isfahani, Amir H. G.; Olson, Luke N.; Freund, Jonathan B.

    2010-05-01

    A spectral boundary integral method for simulating large numbers of blood cells flowing in complex geometries is developed and demonstrated. The blood cells are modeled as finite-deformation elastic membranes containing a higher viscosity fluid than the surrounding plasma, but the solver itself is independent of the particular constitutive model employed for the cell membranes. The surface integrals developed for solving the viscous flow, and thereby the motion of the massless membrane, are evaluated using an O(NlogN) particle-mesh Ewald (PME) approach. The cell shapes, which can become highly distorted under physiologic conditions, are discretized with spherical harmonics. The resolution of these global basis functions is, of course, excellent, but more importantly they facilitate an approximate de-aliasing procedure that stabilizes the simulations without adding any numerical dissipation or further restricting the permissible numerical time step. Complex geometry no-slip boundaries are included using a constraint method that is coupled into an implicit system that is solved as part of the time advancement routine. The implementation is verified against solutions for axisymmetric flows reported in the literature, and its accuracy is demonstrated by comparison against exact solutions for relaxing surface deformations. It is also used to simulate flow of blood cells at 30% volume fraction in tubes between 4.9 and 16.9 μm in diameter. For these, it is shown to reproduce the well-known non-monotonic dependence of the effective viscosity on the tube diameter.

  18. LADEE Propulsion System Cold Flow Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jonathan Hunter; Chapman, Jack M.; Trinh, Hau, P.; Bell, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is a NASA mission that will orbit the Moon. Its main objective is to characterize the atmosphere and lunar dust environment. The spacecraft development is being led by NASA Ames Research Center and scheduled for launch in 2013. The LADEE spacecraft will be operated with a bi-propellant hypergolic propulsion system using MMH and NTO as the fuel and oxidizer, respectively. The propulsion system utilizes flight-proven hardware on major components. The propulsion layout is composed of one 100-lbf main thruster and four 5-lbf RCS thrusters. The propellants are stored in four tanks (two parallel-connected tanks per propellant component). The propellants will be pressurized by regulated helium. A simulated propulsion system has been built for conducting cold flow test series to characterize the transient fluid flow of the propulsion system feed lines and to verify the critical operation modes, such as system priming, waterhammer, and crucial mission duty cycles. Propellant drainage differential between propellant tanks will also be assessed. Since the oxidizer feed line system has a higher flow demand than the fuel system does, the cold flow test focuses on the oxidizer system. The objective of the cold flow test is to simulate the LADEE propulsion fluid flow operation through water cold flow test and to obtain data for anchoring analytical models. The models will be used to predict the transient and steady state flow behaviors in the actual flight operations. The test activities, including the simulated propulsion test article, cold flow test, and analytical modeling, are being performed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. At the time of the abstract submission, the test article checkout is being performed. The test series will be completed by November, 2012

  19. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Jayat, C; Ratinaud, M H

    1993-01-01

    Numerous flow cytometric analyses are based on DNA content studies. We have considered firstly monoparametric cell cycle analyses, which only take DNA content into account, but are sometimes of limited interest. Then, we have presented multiparametric analyses, which can be used to improve cycle phase identification by taking simultaneously into account DNA and other cellular components, or by considering some events occurring during cell cycle. Finally, we have discussed monoparametric and multiparametric cell cycle analysis interest in various application fields, particularly in pharmacology, toxicology, tumoral pathology and higher plant system studies.

  20. Flow cytometer acquisition and detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Casstevens, Martin K.; Burzynski, Ryszard; Weibel, John; Kachynski, Alexander

    2010-05-04

    A flow cytometer has a flow cell through which a sample flows and at least one laser emitting an excitation beam for illuminating a corresponding interrogation region in the flow cell. Scattered and fluorescence light from each interrogation region is collected by one or more input fibers for that region, and the input fiber(s) are fed to a dispersion module for that interrogation region that disperses the incoming light into different spectral regions. The dispersed light is conveyed, such as by a plurality of output fibers, to one or more photosensitive detectors. Thus, time multiplexed light signals may be delivered to a detector whereby several unique light signals can be measured by a single detector.

  1. Monitoring electrolyte concentrations in redox flow battery systems

    DOEpatents

    Chang, On Kok; Sopchak, David Andrew; Pham, Ai Quoc; Kinoshita, Kimio

    2015-03-17

    Methods, systems and structures for monitoring, managing electrolyte concentrations in redox flow batteries are provided by introducing a first quantity of a liquid electrolyte into a first chamber of a test cell and introducing a second quantity of the liquid electrolyte into a second chamber of the test cell. The method further provides for measuring a voltage of the test cell, measuring an elapsed time from the test cell reaching a first voltage until the test cell reaches a second voltage; and determining a degree of imbalance of the liquid electrolyte based on the elapsed time.

  2. The Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, J. E.; Ohlsen, D.; Kittleman, S.; Borhani, N.; Leslie, F.; Miller, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) experiment performed visualizations of thermal convection in a rotating differentially heated spherical shell of fluid. In these experiments dielectric polarization forces are used to generate a radially directed buoyancy force. This enables the laboratory simulation of a number of geophysically and astrophysically important situations in which sphericity and rotation both impose strong constraints on global scale fluid motions. During USML-2 a large set of experiments with spherically symmetric heating were carried out. These enabled the determination of critical points for the transition to various forms of nonaxisymmetric convection and, for highly turbulent flows, the transition latitudes separating the different modes of motion. This paper presents a first analysis of these experiments as well as data on the general performance of the instrument during the USML-2 flight.

  3. Fuel cell with interdigitated porous flow-field

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1997-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is formed with an improved system for distributing gaseous reactants to the membrane surface. A PEM fuel cell has an ionic transport membrane with opposed catalytic surfaces formed thereon and separates gaseous reactants that undergo reactions at the catalytic surfaces of the membrane. The fuel cell may also include a thin gas diffusion layer having first and second sides with a first side contacting at least one of the catalytic surfaces. A macroporous flow-field with interdigitated inlet and outlet reactant channels contacts the second side of the thin gas diffusion layer for distributing one of the gaseous reactants over the thin gas diffusion layer for transport to an adjacent one of the catalytic surfaces of the membrane. The porous flow field may be formed from a hydrophilic material and provides uniform support across the backside of the electrode assembly to facilitate the use of thin backing layers.

  4. Fuel cell with interdigitated porous flow-field

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, M.S.

    1997-06-24

    A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is formed with an improved system for distributing gaseous reactants to the membrane surface. A PEM fuel cell has an ionic transport membrane with opposed catalytic surfaces formed thereon and separates gaseous reactants that undergo reactions at the catalytic surfaces of the membrane. The fuel cell may also include a thin gas diffusion layer having first and second sides with a first side contacting at least one of the catalytic surfaces. A macroporous flow-field with interdigitated inlet and outlet reactant channels contacts the second side of the thin gas diffusion layer for distributing one of the gaseous reactants over the thin gas diffusion layer for transport to an adjacent one of the catalytic surfaces of the membrane. The porous flow field may be formed from a hydrophilic material and provides uniform support across the backside of the electrode assembly to facilitate the use of thin backing layers. 9 figs.

  5. Flow Battery System Design for Manufacturability.

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, Tracy Louise; Meacham, Paul Gregory; Perry, David; Broyles, Robin S.; Hickey, Steven; Hernandez, Jacquelynne

    2014-10-01

    Flow battery energy storage systems can support renewable energy generation and increase energy efficiency. But, presently, the costs of flow battery energy storage systems can be a significant barrier for large-scale market penetration. For cost- effective systems to be produced, it is critical to optimize the selection of materials and components simultaneously with the adherence to requirements and manufacturing processes to allow these batteries and their manufacturers to succeed in the market by reducing costs to consumers. This report analyzes performance, safety, and testing requirements derived from applicable regulations as well as commercial and military standards that would apply to a flow battery energy storage system. System components of a zinc-bromine flow battery energy storage system, including the batteries, inverters, and control and monitoring system, are discussed relative to manufacturing. The issues addressed include costs and component availability and lead times. A service and support model including setup, maintenance and transportation is outlined, along with a description of the safety-related features of the example flow battery energy storage system to promote regulatory and environmental, safety, and health compliance in anticipation of scale manufacturing.

  6. Bioinspired sensory systems for local flow characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvert, Brendan; Chen, Kevin; Kanso, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that many aquatic organisms sense differential hydrodynamic signals.This sensory information is decoded to extract relevant flow properties. This task is challenging because it relies on local and partial measurements, whereas classical flow characterization methods depend on an external observer to reconstruct global flow fields. Here, we introduce a mathematical model in which a bioinspired sensory array measuring differences in local flow velocities characterizes the flow type and intensity. We linearize the flow field around the sensory array and express the velocity gradient tensor in terms of frame-independent parameters. We develop decoding algorithms that allow the sensory system to characterize the local flow and discuss the conditions under which this is possible. We apply this framework to the canonical problem of a circular cylinder in uniform flow, finding excellent agreement between sensed and actual properties. Our results imply that combining suitable velocity sensors with physics-based methods for decoding sensory measurements leads to a powerful approach for understanding and developing underwater sensory systems.

  7. Models of flow-induced loading on blood cells in laminar and turbulent flow, with application to cardiovascular device flow.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Nathan J; Dooley, Patrick N

    2007-08-01

    Viscous shear stress and Reynolds stress are often used to predict hemolysis and thrombosis due to flow-induced stress on blood elements in cardiovascular devices. These macroscopic stresses are distinct from the true stress on an individual cell, which is determined by the local microscale flow field. In this paper the flow-induced stress on blood cells is calculated for laminar and turbulent flow, using simplified models for cells and for turbulent eddies. The model is applied to estimate shear stress on red blood cells in flow through a prosthetic heart valve, using the energy spectral density measured by Liu et al. [J. Biomech. Eng. 122:118-124, 2000]. Results show that in laminar flow, the maximum stress on a cell is approximately equal to the macroscopic viscous shear stress. In turbulent flow through a prosthetic heart valve, the estimated root mean square of flow-induced stress on a cell is at least an order of magnitude less than the Reynolds stress. The results support the hypothesis that smaller turbulent eddies cause higher stress on cells. However, the stress due to an eddy depends on the velocity scale of the eddy as well as its length scale. For the heart valve flow investigated, turbulence contributes to flow-induced stress on cells almost equally across a broad range of the frequency spectrum. The model suggests that Reynolds stress alone is not an adequate predictor of cell damage in turbulent flow, and highlights the importance of the energy spectral density.

  8. Neural network system for traffic flow management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, John F.; Elibiary, Khalid J.; Petersson, L. E. Rickard

    1992-09-01

    Atlanta will be the home of several special events during the next five years ranging from the 1996 Olympics to the 1994 Super Bowl. When combined with the existing special events (Braves, Falcons, and Hawks games, concerts, festivals, etc.), the need to effectively manage traffic flow from surface streets to interstate highways is apparent. This paper describes a system for traffic event response and management for intelligent navigation utilizing signals (TERMINUS) developed at Georgia Tech for adaptively managing special event traffic flows in the Atlanta, Georgia area. TERMINUS (the original name given Atlanta, Georgia based upon its role as a rail line terminating center) is an intelligent surface street signal control system designed to manage traffic flow in Metro Atlanta. The system consists of three components. The first is a traffic simulation of the downtown Atlanta area around Fulton County Stadium that models the flow of traffic when a stadium event lets out. Parameters for the surrounding area include modeling for events during various times of day (such as rush hour). The second component is a computer graphics interface with the simulation that shows the traffic flows achieved based upon intelligent control system execution. The final component is the intelligent control system that manages surface street light signals based upon feedback from control sensors that dynamically adapt the intelligent controller's decision making process. The intelligent controller is a neural network model that allows TERMINUS to control the configuration of surface street signals to optimize the flow of traffic away from special events.

  9. A CLIPS expert system for clinical flow cytometry data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salzman, G. C.; Duque, R. E.; Braylan, R. C.; Stewart, C. C.

    1990-01-01

    An expert system is being developed using CLIPS to assist clinicians in the analysis of multivariate flow cytometry data from cancer patients. Cluster analysis is used to find subpopulations representing various cell types in multiple datasets each consisting of four to five measurements on each of 5000 cells. CLIPS facts are derived from results of the clustering. CLIPS rules are based on the expertise of Drs. Stewart, Duque, and Braylan. The rules incorporate certainty factors based on case histories.

  10. Investigation of propellant flow control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebman, A. A.

    1973-01-01

    Mechanical, electromechanical, and fluidic concepts were studied as propellant flow control system for oxygen/hydrogen attitude control thrusters. A mechanical flow controller was designed, fabricated, and tested with hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen over a range of inlet pressures and temperatures. Results of these tests are presented along with a discussion of a flight-weight design. Also presented are recommendations for further design and development. A detailed coverage of the fluidics investigation is included.

  11. Estimating flow heterogeneity in natural fracture systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leckenby, Robert J.; Sanderson, David J.; Lonergan, Lidia

    2005-10-01

    Examples of small to medium scale fault systems have been mapped in Jurassic sedimentary rocks in north Somerset, England. These examples include contractional and dilational strike-slip oversteps as well as normal faults. These maps form the basis of calculations performed to investigate heterogeneity in natural fracture systems with the aim of predicting fluid flow localisation in different fault styles. As there is no way to measure fracture aperture directly, we use vein thickness to represent an integrated flow path or 'palaeo-aperture' from which we derive a representation of the flow distribution. Three different methods are used to estimate flow heterogeneity based on: (1) fracture density (the ratio of fracture length to area), (2) fracture aperture (fracture porosity) and (3) hydraulic conductance (fracture permeability normalised to the pressure gradient and fluid properties). Our results show that fracture density and hydraulic conductance are poorly correlated and that fracture density does not fully represent the natural heterogeneity of fracture systems. Fracture aperture and hydraulic conductance indicate stronger degrees of flow localisation. Different types of structures also seem to display characteristic and predictable patterns of heterogeneity. Normal fault systems show the highest magnitude of localisation along the faults rather than in the relay ramps, while contractional and dilational strike-slip systems show very strong localisation in the faults and oversteps, respectively. In all cases the amount of damage in the oversteps can modify such patterns of heterogeneity.

  12. Cancer Cell Glycocalyx Mediates Mechanostransduction and Flow-Regulated Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Qazi, Henry; Palomino, Rocio; Shi, Zhong-Dong; Munn, Lance L.; Tarbell, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian cells are covered by a surface proteoglycan (glycocalyx) layer, and it is known that blood vessel-lining endothelial cells use the glycocalyx to sense and transduce the shearing forces of blood flow into intracellular signals. Tumor cells in vivo are exposed to forces from interstitial fluid flow that may affect metastatic potential but are not reproduced by most in vitro cell motility assays. We hypothesized that glycocalyx-mediated mechanotransduction of interstitial flow shear stress is an un-recognized factor that can significantly enhance metastatic cell motility and play a role in augmentation of invasion. Involvement of MMP levels, cell adhesion molecules (CD44, α3 integrin), and glycocalyx components (heparan sulfate and hyaluronan) were investigated in a cell/collagen gel suspension model designed to mimic the interstitial flow microenvironment. Physiologic levels of flow upregulated MMP levels and enhanced the motility of metastatic cells. Blocking the flow-enhanced expression of MMP actvity or adhesion molecules (CD44 and integrins) resulted in blocking the flow-enhanced migratory activity. The presence of a glycocalyx-like layer was verified around tumor cells, and the degradation of this layer by hyaluronidase and heparinase blocked the flow-regulated invasion. This study shows for the first time that interstitial flow enhancement of metastatic cell motility can be mediated by the cell surface glycocalyx – a potential target for therapeutics. PMID:24077103

  13. Automated cell viability assessment using a microfluidics based portable imaging flow analyzer

    PubMed Central

    Jagannadh, Veerendra Kalyan; Adhikari, Jayesh Vasudeva; Gorthi, Sai Siva

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we report a system-level integration of portable microscopy and microfluidics for the realization of optofluidic imaging flow analyzer with a throughput of 450 cells/s. With the use of a cellphone augmented with off-the-shelf optical components and custom designed microfluidics, we demonstrate a portable optofluidic imaging flow analyzer. A multiple microfluidic channel geometry was employed to demonstrate the enhancement of throughput in the context of low frame-rate imaging systems. Using the cell-phone based digital imaging flow analyzer, we have imaged yeast cells present in a suspension. By digitally processing the recorded videos of the flow stream on the cellphone, we demonstrated an automated cell viability assessment of the yeast cell population. In addition, we also demonstrate the suitability of the system for blood cell counting. PMID:26015835

  14. Mimicking the Interfacial Dynamics of Flowing White Blood Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santore, Maria

    2015-03-01

    The rolling of particles on surfaces, facilitated by hydrodynamic forces combined with localized surface interactions of the appropriate strengths, spatial arrangements, and ranges, is a technologically useful means of transporting and manipulating particles. One's intuition for the rolling of a marble or a car tire cannot be extrapolated down to microparticle length scales because the microparticle interactions are dominated by electrostatic, van der Waals, and hydrogen bonding interactions rather than a friction that depends on an imposed normal force. Indeed, our microparticle rolling systems are inspired by the rolling of white blood cells on the inner walls of venules as part of the innate immune response: Selectin molecules engage with their counterparts on the opposing surfaces to slow cell motion relative to that for freely flowing cells. In the resulting rolling signature, ligand-receptor binding and crack closing on the front of the cell are balanced with molecular dis-bonding and crack opening at the rear. The contact region is relatively static, allowing other interactions (for instance signaling) to occur for a finite duration. Thus, achieving particle rolling in synthetic systems is important because it facilitates particle-surface interactions in a continuous nonfouling fashion where the contact surface is continually renewed. In developing a synthetic model for this system, we employ polymers to modify flowing particles and /or planar collectors, producing heterogeneous interfaces which can support rolling or produce other motion signatures such as skipping, arrest, or free flow. We identify, in the synthetic system, combinations of variables that produce rolling and demonstrate how the distinction between rolling and arrest is not a simple matter of the adhesion strength between the particles and the collector. Rolling is a cooperative process and the coordination of binding in one location with dis-bonding in another requires appropriate length

  15. Improved Flow-Field Structures for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gurau, Bogdan

    2013-05-31

    The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is ideal if high energy-density liquid fuels are required. Liquid fuels have advantages over compressed hydrogen including higher energy density and ease of handling. Although state-of-the-art DMFCs exhibit manageable degradation rates, excessive fuel crossover diminishes system energy and power density. Although use of dilute methanol mitigates crossover, the concomitant lowering of the gross fuel energy density (GFED) demands a complex balance-of-plant (BOP) that includes higher flow rates, external exhaust recirculation, etc. An alternative approach is redesign of the fuel delivery system to accommodate concentrated methanol. NuVant Systems Inc. (NuVant) will maximize the GFED by design and assembly of a DMFC that uses near neat methanol. The approach is to tune the diffusion of highly concentrated methanol (to the anode catalytic layer) to the back-diffusion of water formed at the cathode (i.e. in situ generation of dilute methanol at the anode layer). Crossover will be minimized without compromising the GFED by innovative integration of the anode flow-field and the diffusion layer. The integrated flow-field-diffusion-layers (IFDLs) will widen the current and potential DMFC operating ranges and enable the use of cathodes optimized for hydrogen-air fuel cells.

  16. Code System to Calculate Tornado-Induced Flow Material Transport.

    SciTech Connect

    ANDRAE, R. W.

    1999-11-18

    Version: 00 TORAC models tornado-induced flows, pressures, and material transport within structures. Its use is directed toward nuclear fuel cycle facilities and their primary release pathway, the ventilation system. However, it is applicable to other structures and can model other airflow pathways within a facility. In a nuclear facility, this network system could include process cells, canyons, laboratory offices, corridors, and offgas systems. TORAC predicts flow through a network system that also includes ventilation system components such as filters, dampers, ducts, and blowers. These ventilation system components are connected to the rooms and corridors of the facility to form a complete network for moving air through the structure and, perhaps, maintaining pressure levels in certain areas. The material transport capability in TORAC is very basic and includes convection, depletion, entrainment, and filtration of material.

  17. A Mechanical System to Reproduce Cardiovascular Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Thomas; Valsecchi, Pietro

    2010-11-01

    Within the framework of the "Pumps&Pipes" collaboration between ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company and The DeBakey Heart and Vascular Center in Houston, a hydraulic control system was developed to accurately simulate general cardiovascular flows. The final goal of the development of the apparatus was the reproduction of the periodic flow of blood through the heart cavity with the capability of varying frequency and amplitude, as well as designing the systolic/diastolic volumetric profile over one period. The system consists of a computer-controlled linear actuator that drives hydraulic fluid in a closed loop to a secondary hydraulic cylinder. The test section of the apparatus is located inside a MRI machine, and the closed loop serves to physically separate all metal moving parts (control system and actuator cylinder) from the MRI-compatible pieces. The secondary cylinder is composed of nonmetallic elements and directly drives the test section circulatory flow loop. The circulatory loop consists of nonmetallic parts and several types of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, which model the behavior of blood. This design allows for a periodic flow of blood-like fluid pushed through a modeled heart cavity capable of replicating any healthy heart condition as well as simulating anomalous conditions. The behavior of the flow inside the heart can thus be visualized by MRI techniques.

  18. Resource Prospector Propulsion System Cold Flow Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Hunter; Holt, Kim; Addona, Brad; Trinh, Huu

    2015-01-01

    Resource Prospector (RP) is a NASA mission being led by NASA Ames Research Center with current plans to deliver a scientific payload package aboard a rover to the lunar surface. As part of an early risk reduction activity, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Johnson Space Flight Center (JSC) have jointly developed a government-version concept of a lunar lander for the mission. The spacecraft consists of two parts, the lander and the rover which carries the scientific instruments. The lander holds the rover during launch, cruise, and landing on the surface. Following terminal descent and landing the lander portion of the spacecraft become dormant after the rover embarks on the science mission. The lander will be equipped with a propulsion system for lunar descent and landing, as well as trajectory correction and attitude control maneuvers during transit to the moon. Hypergolic propellants monomethyl hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide will be used to fuel sixteen 70-lbf descent thrusters and twelve 5-lbf attitude control thrusters. A total of four metal-diaphragm tanks, two per propellant, will be used along with a high-pressure composite-overwrapped pressure vessel for the helium pressurant gas. Many of the major propulsion system components are heritage missile hardware obtained by NASA from the Air Force. In parallel with the flight system design activities, a simulated propulsion system based on flight drawings was built for conducting a series of water flow tests to characterize the transient fluid flow of the propulsion system feed lines and to verify the critical operation modes such as system priming, waterhammer, and crucial mission duty cycles. The primary objective of the cold flow testing was to simulate the RP propulsion system fluid flow operation through water flow testing and to obtain data for anchoring analytical models. The models will be used to predict the transient and steady state flow behaviors in the actual flight operations. All design and

  19. Information flow in heterogeneously interacting systems.

    PubMed

    Yamaguti, Yutaka; Tsuda, Ichiro; Takahashi, Yoichiro

    2014-02-01

    Motivated by studies on the dynamics of heterogeneously interacting systems in neocortical neural networks, we studied heterogeneously-coupled chaotic systems. We used information-theoretic measures to investigate directions of information flow in heterogeneously coupled Rössler systems, which we selected as a typical chaotic system. In bi-directionally coupled systems, spontaneous and irregular switchings of the phase difference between two chaotic oscillators were observed. The direction of information transmission spontaneously switched in an intermittent manner, depending on the phase difference between the two systems. When two further oscillatory inputs are added to the coupled systems, this system dynamically selects one of the two inputs by synchronizing, selection depending on the internal phase differences between the two systems. These results indicate that the effective direction of information transmission dynamically changes, induced by a switching of phase differences between the two systems.

  20. Vesicles, capsules and red blood cells under flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misbah, Chaouqi

    2012-12-01

    Blood flow is dictated by the dynamics of red blood cells (RBCs), which constitute by far the major component. RBCs are made of a a two dimensional fluid bilayer of phospholipids, having underneath a network of proteins conferring to them shear elasticity, and they possess many membrane and transmembrane proteins (like ion channels). Simplified systems, like vesicles (made of a pure bilayer of phospholipid) and capsules (made of an extensible polymer shell) are used as models for RBCs. Both systems reproduce several features known for RBCs under flow. Their interest lies, besides some simplicity, in the fact that they can be fabricated in the laboratory, and their properties (size, stiffness, internal content....) can be varied in a wide range allowing thus to explore a quite significant parameter space that is essential to test predictions and discriminate between different models. We shall review the main recent achievement in this field, both for a single entity, collective effects and the impact on rheology.

  1. Bursting the bubble on bacterial biofilms: a flow cell methodology

    PubMed Central

    Crusz, Shanika A.; Popat, Roman; Rybtke, Morten Theil; Cámara, Miguel; Givskov, Michael; Diggle, Stephen P.; Williams, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The flow cell biofilm system is an important and widely used tool for the in vitro cultivation and evaluation of bacterial biofilms under hydrodynamic conditions of flow. This paper provides an introduction to the background and use of such systems, accompanied by a detailed guide to the assembly of the apparatus including the description of new modifications which enhance its performance. As such, this is an essential guide for the novice biofilm researcher as well as providing valuable trouble-shooting techniques for even the most experienced laboratories. The adoption of a common and reliable methodology amongst researchers would enable findings to be shared and replicated amongst the biofilm research community, with the overall aim of advancing understanding and management of these complex and widespread bacterial communities. PMID:22877233

  2. A laminar flow electroporation system for efficient DNA and siRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zewen; Zhao, Deyao; Li, Xueming; Wu, Mengxi; Wang, Wei; Huang, Huang; Wang, Xiaoxia; Du, Quan; Liang, Zicai; Li, Zhihong

    2011-08-01

    By introducing a hydrodynamic mechanism into a microfluidics-based electroporation system, we developed a novel laminar flow electroporation system with high performance. The laminar buffer flow implemented in the system separated the cell suspension flow from the electrodes, thereby excluding many unfavorable effects due to electrode reaction during electroporation, such as hydrolysis, bubble formation, pH change, and heating. Compared to conventional microfluidic electroporation systems, these improvements significantly enhanced transfection efficiency and cell viability. Furthermore, successful electrotransfection of plasmid DNA and, more importantly, synthetic siRNA, was demonstrated in several hard-to-transfect cell types using this system.

  3. Fuel cell system configurations

    DOEpatents

    Kothmann, Richard E.; Cyphers, Joseph A.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel cell stack configurations having elongated polygonal cross-sectional shapes and gaskets at the peripheral faces to which flow manifolds are sealingly affixed. Process channels convey a fuel and an oxidant through longer channels, and a cooling fluid is conveyed through relatively shorter cooling passages. The polygonal structure preferably includes at least two right angles, and the faces of the stack are arranged in opposite parallel pairs.

  4. A Mathematical Theory of System Information Flow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-27

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0232 A Mathematical Theory of System Information Flow Michael Mislove ADMINISTRATORS OF THE TULANE EDUCATIONAL FUND THE 6823...MM-YYYY) 17-06-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 27MAR2013 - 31MAR2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Mathematical Theory of System...Bierhorst Department of Mathematics Tulane University 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S

  5. Design Flexibility of Redox Flow Systems. [for energy storage applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagedorn, N. H.; Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    The characteristics inherent in Redox flow systems permit considerable latitude in designing systems for specific storage applications. The first of these characteristics is the absence of plating/deplating reactions with their attendant morphology changes at the electrodes. This permits a given Redox system to operate over a wide range of depths of discharge and charge/discharge rates. The second characteristic is the separation of power generating components (stacks) from the energy storage components (tanks). This results in cost effective system design, ease of system growth via modularization, and freedom from sizing restraints so that the whole spectrum of applications, from utilities down to single residence can be considered. The final characteristic is the commonality of the reactant fluids which assures that all cells at all times are receiving reactants at the same state of charge. Since no cell can be out of balance with respect to any other cell, it is possible for some cells to be charged while others are discharging, in effect creating a DC to DC transformer. It is also possible for various groups of cells to be connected to separate loads, thus supplying a range of output voltages. Also, trim cells can be used to maintain constant bus voltage as the load is changed or as the depth of discharge increases. The commonality of reactant fluids also permits any corrective measures such as rebalancing to occur at the system level instead of at the single cell level.

  6. Patterning of cell-instructive hydrogels by hydrodynamic flow focusing.

    PubMed

    Cosson, Steffen; Allazetta, Simone; Lutolf, Matthias P

    2013-06-07

    Microfluidic gradient systems offer a very precise means to probe the response of cells to graded biomolecular signals in vitro, for example to model how morphogen proteins affect cell fate during developmental processes. However, existing gradient makers are designed for non-physiological plastic or glass cell culture substrates that are often limited in maintaining the phenotype and function of difficult-to-culture mammalian cell types, such as stem cells. To address this bottleneck, we combine hydrogel engineering and microfluidics to generate tethered protein gradients on the surface of biomimetic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels. Here we used software-assisted hydrodynamic flow focusing for exposing and rapidly capturing tagged proteins to gels in a step-wise fashion, resulting in immobilized gradients of virtually any desired shape and composition. To render our strategy amenable for high-throughput screening of multifactorial artificial cellular microenvironments, a dedicated microfluidic chip was devised for parallelization and multiplexing, yielding arrays of orthogonally overlapping gradients of up to 4 × 4 proteins. To illustrate the power of the platform for stem cell biology, we assessed how gradients of tethered leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) influence embryonic stem cell (ESC) behavior. ESC responded to LIF gradients in a binary manner, maintaining the pluripotency marker Rex1/Zfp42 and forming self-renewing colonies above a threshold concentration of 85 ng cm(-2). Our concept should be broadly applicable to probe how complex signaling microenvironments influence stem cell fate in culture.

  7. Photometric detection in flow analysis systems using integrated PEDDs.

    PubMed

    O' Toole, Martina; Lau, King Tong; Diamond, Dermot

    2005-06-15

    A novel inexpensive optical-sensing technique has been developed for colorimetric flow analysis. This sensing system employs two LEDs whereby one is used as the light source and the other as a light detector. The LED used as light detector is reverse biased with a 5-V supply so that the photocurrent generated by the incident light discharges the capacitance. Direct digital output is provided by a simple timer circuit that measures the time taken for this discharge process from 5V (logic 1) to 1.7V (logic 0). This sensing concept has been applied in flow analysis by constructing an optical flow cell with a pair of LEDs. Calibration of the integrated optical flow cell using a dye resulted in a linear response that obeys the Beer-Lambert law. The flow rate, dynamic range, sensitivity and limits of detection were investigated. The system was also used for pH determination in the range of pH 2.5-6.8 using bromocresol green (BCG). The pK(a) of BCG was successfully determined by this technique.

  8. High-throughput continuous flow femtosecond laser-assisted cell optoporation and transfection.

    PubMed

    Breunig, Hans Georg; Uchugonova, Aisada; Batista, Ana; König, Karsten

    2014-12-01

    We present a femtosecond-laser based nanoprocessing system for transient optical cell membrane poration to allow the introduction of foreign molecules into the interior of a cell with very high throughput. In the setup, cells flow through a micro-flow tube for spatial confinement and are simultaneously targeted by fs laser radiation. Beam-shaping generates a focal geometry along a line which is scanned across the micro-flow cell to increase the number of reachable cells. Successful cell membrane poration was observed indirectly by cell transfection even with cell-light interaction times in the millisecond range. The system was characterized by experiments with Chinese hamster ovary cells regarding cell viability, the uptake of extrinsic molecules and cell transfection efficiency. The continuous flow of cells enables a tremendous increase of cell throughput compared to previous nonflow approaches by treating millions of cells, although with only limited efficiency. The setup opens the possibility to realize a completely automated high-throughput laser-assisted cell-poration system which could be integrated in lab-on-a-chip devices.

  9. Air-water flow in subsurface systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A.; Mishra, P.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater traces its roots to tackle challenges of safe and reliable drinking water and food production. When the groundwater level rises, air pressure in the unsaturated Vadose zone increases, forcing air to escape from the ground surface. Abnormally high and low subsurface air pressure can be generated when the groundwater system, rainfall, and sea level fluctuation are favorably combined [Jiao and Li, 2004]. Through this process, contamination in the form of volatile gases may diffuse from the ground surface into residential areas, or possibly move into groundwater from industrial waste sites. It is therefore crucial to understand the combined effects of air-water flow in groundwater system. Here we investigate theoretically and experimentally the effects of air and water flow in groundwater system.

  10. Mass flow in close binary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Y.; Mccluskey, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    The manner of mass flow in close binary systems is examined with a special view to the role of the so-called critical Roche (or Jacobian) lobe, taking into consideration relevant physical conditions such as radiation pressure that may affect the restricted three-body problem treatment. The mass does not necessarily flow from component one to component two through the L1 point to form a gaseous ring surrounding the latter. These considerations are applied to X-ray binaries with early-type optical components, such as Cyg X-1 (HDE 226868) and 3U 1700 - 37 (HD 153919). In the two bright close binary systems Beta Lyr and UW CMa, which are believed to be undergoing dynamic mass transfer, recent Copernicus observations show that the gas giving rise to the prominent ultraviolet emission lines surrounds the entire binary system rather than merely component two. Implications of these observations are also discussed.

  11. High-throughput magnetic flow sorting of human cells selected on the basis of magnetophoretic mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reece, Lisa M.; Sanders, Lehanna; Kennedy, David; Guernsey, Byron; Todd, Paul; Leary, James F.

    2010-02-01

    We have shown the potential of a new method for optimizing the separation of human stem cell subsets from peripheral blood based on a novel cell labeling technique that leverages the capabilities of a new commercially available high speed magnetic cell sorting system (IKOTECH LLC, New Albany, IN). This new system sorts cells in a continuously flowing manner using a Quadrupole Magnetic cell Sorter (QMS). The sorting mechanism is based upon the magnetophoretic mobility of the cells, a property related to the relative binding distributions of magnetic particles per cell, as determined by the utilization of a Magnetic Cell Tracking Velocimeter (MCTV). KG-1 cells were competitively labeled with anti-CD34 magnetic beads and anti-CD34 FITC to obtain an optimal level of magnetophoretic mobility as visualized by the MCTV for high throughput sort recovery in the QMS. In QMS sorting, the concept of split-flow thin channel (SPLITT) separation technology is applied by having a sample stream enter a vertical annular flow channel near the channel's interior wall followed by another sheath flow entering near the exterior wall. The two flows are initially separated by a flow splitter. They pass through the bore of a Halbach permanent quadrupole magnet assembly, which draws magnetized cells outward and deflects them into a positive outflow, while negative cells continue straight out via the inner flow lamina. QMS sorts cells based upon their magnetophoretic mobility, or the velocity of a cell per unit ponderomotive force, the counterpart of fluorescence intensity in flow cytometry. The magnetophoretic mobility distribution of a cell population, measured by automated MCTV, is used as input data for the algorithmic control of sample, sheath, and outlet flow velocities of the QMS. In this study, the relative binding distributions of magnetic particles per cell were determined by MCTV using novel sorting and sizing algorithms. The resulting mobility histograms were used to set the QMS

  12. The myelodysplastic syndromes flow cytometric score: a three-parameter prognostic flow cytometric scoring system.

    PubMed

    Alhan, C; Westers, T M; Cremers, E M P; Cali, C; Witte, B I; Ossenkoppele, G J; van de Loosdrecht, A A

    2016-03-01

    The prognosis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is currently estimated by using the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R). Several studies have shown that further refinement of prognostication for MDS can be achieved by adding flow cytometric parameters. However, widespread implementation of flow cytometry for the prognosis of MDS is hampered by complexity of the analysis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to construct a robust and practical flow cytometric score that could be implemented as a routine procedure. To achieve this, bone marrow aspirates of 109 MDS patients were analyzed by flow cytometry. A second cohort consisting of 103 MDS patients was used to validate the MDS flow cytometric score (MFS). The parameters forming the MFS were sideward light scatter and CD117 expression of myeloid progenitor cells and CD13 expression on monocytes. Three MFS risk categories were formed. Patients with MDS and intermediate MFS scores had significantly better overall survival (OS) compared with the patients with high MFS scores. The MFS further refined prognostication within the IPSS-R low-risk category, by identifying patients with worse OS in case of high MFS. In conclusion, a practical three parameter flow cytometric prognostic score was constructed enabling further refinement of prognostication of MDS.

  13. Parallel-plate Flow Chamber and Continuous Flow Circuit to Evaluate Endothelial Progenitor Cells under Laminar Flow Shear Stress

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Whitney O.; Jantzen, Alexandra E.; Carlon, Tim A.; Jamiolkowski, Ryan M.; Grenet, Justin E.; Ley, Melissa M.; Haseltine, Justin M.; Galinat, Lauren J.; Lin, Fu-Hsiung; Allen, Jason D.; Truskey, George A.; Achneck, Hardean E.

    2012-01-01

    The overall goal of this method is to describe a technique to subject adherent cells to laminar flow conditions and evaluate their response to well quantifiable fluid shear stresses1. Our flow chamber design and flow circuit (Fig. 1) contains a transparent viewing region that enables testing of cell adhesion and imaging of cell morphology immediately before flow (Fig. 11A, B), at various time points during flow (Fig. 11C), and after flow (Fig. 11D). These experiments are illustrated with human umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and porcine EPCs2,3. This method is also applicable to other adherent cell types, e.g. smooth muscle cells (SMCs) or fibroblasts. The chamber and all parts of the circuit are easily sterilized with steam autoclaving. In contrast to other chambers, e.g. microfluidic chambers, large numbers of cells (> 1 million depending on cell size) can be recovered after the flow experiment under sterile conditions for cell culture or other experiments, e.g. DNA or RNA extraction, or immunohistochemistry (Fig. 11E), or scanning electron microscopy5. The shear stress can be adjusted by varying the flow rate of the perfusate, the fluid viscosity, or the channel height and width. The latter can reduce fluid volume or cell needs while ensuring that one-dimensional flow is maintained. It is not necessary to measure chamber height between experiments, since the chamber height does not depend on the use of gaskets, which greatly increases the ease of multiple experiments. Furthermore, the circuit design easily enables the collection of perfusate samples for analysis and/or quantification of metabolites secreted by cells under fluid shear stress exposure, e.g. nitric oxide (Fig. 12)6. PMID:22297325

  14. Parallel-plate flow chamber and continuous flow circuit to evaluate endothelial progenitor cells under laminar flow shear stress.

    PubMed

    Lane, Whitney O; Jantzen, Alexandra E; Carlon, Tim A; Jamiolkowski, Ryan M; Grenet, Justin E; Ley, Melissa M; Haseltine, Justin M; Galinat, Lauren J; Lin, Fu-Hsiung; Allen, Jason D; Truskey, George A; Achneck, Hardean E

    2012-01-17

    The overall goal of this method is to describe a technique to subject adherent cells to laminar flow conditions and evaluate their response to well quantifiable fluid shear stresses. Our flow chamber design and flow circuit (Fig. 1) contains a transparent viewing region that enables testing of cell adhesion and imaging of cell morphology immediately before flow (Fig. 11A, B), at various time points during flow (Fig. 11C), and after flow (Fig. 11D). These experiments are illustrated with human umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and porcine EPCs. This method is also applicable to other adherent cell types, e.g. smooth muscle cells (SMCs) or fibroblasts. The chamber and all parts of the circuit are easily sterilized with steam autoclaving. In contrast to other chambers, e.g. microfluidic chambers, large numbers of cells (> 1 million depending on cell size) can be recovered after the flow experiment under sterile conditions for cell culture or other experiments, e.g. DNA or RNA extraction, or immunohistochemistry (Fig. 11E), or scanning electron microscopy. The shear stress can be adjusted by varying the flow rate of the perfusate, the fluid viscosity, or the channel height and width. The latter can reduce fluid volume or cell needs while ensuring that one-dimensional flow is maintained. It is not necessary to measure chamber height between experiments, since the chamber height does not depend on the use of gaskets, which greatly increases the ease of multiple experiments. Furthermore, the circuit design easily enables the collection of perfusate samples for analysis and/or quantification of metabolites secreted by cells under fluid shear stress exposure, e.g. nitric oxide (Fig. 12).

  15. Alternative flow cytometry strategies to analyze stem cells and cell death in planarians

    PubMed Central

    Peiris, Tanuja Harshani; García‐Ojeda, Marcos E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Planarians possess remarkable stem cell populations that continuously support cellular turnover and are instrumental in the regeneration of tissues upon injury. Cellular turnover and tissue regeneration in planarians rely on the proper integration of local and systemic signals that regulate cell proliferation and cell death. Thus, understanding the signals controlling cellular proliferation and cell death in planarians could provide valuable insights for maintenance of adult body homeostasis and the biology of regeneration. Flow cytometry techniques have been utilized widely to identify, isolate, and characterize planarian stem cell populations. We developed alternative flow cytometry strategies that reduce the number of reagents and the time of sample preparation to analyze stem cells and cell death in planarians. The sensitivity of these methods is validated with functional studies using RNA interference and treatment with  γ irradiation or stressful conditions that are known to trigger cell death. Altogether, we provide a community resource intended to minimize adverse effects during ex vivo studies of stem cells and cell death in planarians. PMID:27307993

  16. Traction Forces of Endothelial Cells under Slow Shear Flow

    PubMed Central

    Perrault, Cecile M.; Brugues, Agusti; Bazellieres, Elsa; Ricco, Pierre; Lacroix, Damien; Trepat, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial cells are constantly exposed to fluid shear stresses that regulate vascular morphogenesis, homeostasis, and disease. The mechanical responses of endothelial cells to relatively high shear flow such as that characteristic of arterial circulation has been extensively studied. Much less is known about the responses of endothelial cells to slow shear flow such as that characteristic of venous circulation, early angiogenesis, atherosclerosis, intracranial aneurysm, or interstitial flow. Here we used a novel, to our knowledge, microfluidic technique to measure traction forces exerted by confluent vascular endothelial cell monolayers under slow shear flow. We found that cells respond to flow with rapid and pronounced increases in traction forces and cell-cell stresses. These responses are reversible in time and do not involve reorientation of the cell body. Traction maps reveal that local cell responses to slow shear flow are highly heterogeneous in magnitude and sign. Our findings unveil a low-flow regime in which endothelial cell mechanics is acutely responsive to shear stress. PMID:26488643

  17. In vivo cell characteristic extraction and identification by photoacoustic flow cytography

    PubMed Central

    He, Guo; Xu, Dong; Qin, Huan; Yang, Sihua; Xing, Da

    2015-01-01

    We present a photoacoustic flow cytography with fast cross-sectional (B-scan) imaging to precisely identify specific cells in vivo. The B-scan imaging speed of the system is up to 200 frame/s with a lateral resolution of 1.5 μm, which allows to dynamically image the flowing cells within the microvascular. The shape, size and photoacoustic intensity of the target cells are extracted from streaming images and integrated into a standard pattern to distinguish cell types. Circulating red blood cells and melanoma cells in blood vessels are simultaneously identified on melanoma-bearing mouse model. The results demonstrate that in vivo photoacoustic flow cytography can provide cells characteristics analysis and cell type’s visual identification, which will be applied for noninvasively monitoring circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and analyzing hematologic diseases. PMID:26504626

  18. Development of advanced fuel cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gitlow, B.; Meyer, A. P.; Bell, W. F.; Martin, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted continuing the development effort to improve the weight, life, and performance characteristics of hydrogen-oxygen alkaline fuel cells for advanced power systems. These advanced technology cells operate with passive water removal which contributes to a lower system weight and extended operating life. Endurance evaluation of two single cells and two, two-cell plaques was continued. Three new test articles were fabricated and tested. A single cell completed 7038 hours of endurance testing. This cell incorporated a Fybex matrix, hybrid-frame, PPF anode, and a 90 Au/10 Pt cathode. This configuration was developed to extend cell life. Two cell plaques with dedicated flow fields and manifolds for all fluids did not exhibit the cell-to-cell electrolyte transfer that limited the operating life of earlier multicell plaques.

  19. Cell Maintenance Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Living human cells require attachment to a suitable surface and special culture conditions in order to grow. These requirements are modified and amplified when cells are taken into a weightless environment. Special handling and maintenance systems are required for routine laboratory procedures conducted in the Orbiter and in the Spacelab. Methods were developed to maintain cells in special incubators designed for the Orbiter middeck, however, electrophoresis and other experiments require cells to be harvested off of the culture substrate before they can be processed or used. The cell transport assembly (CTA) was flown on STS-8, and results show that improvements are required to maintain adequate numbers of cells in this device longer than 48 hours. The life sciences middeck centrifuge probably can be used, but modifications will be required to transfer cells from the CTA and keep the cells sterile. Automated systems such as the Skylab SO-15 flight hardware and crew operated systems are being evaluated for use on the Space Shuttle, Spacelab, and Space Station research modules.

  20. Biomechanics of cell rolling: shear flow, cell-surface adhesion, and cell deformability.

    PubMed

    Dong, C; Lei, X X

    2000-01-01

    The mechanics of leukocyte (white blood cell; WBC) deformation and adhesion to endothelial cells (EC) has been investigated using a novel in vitro side-view flow assay. HL-60 cell rolling adhesion to surface-immobilized P-selectin was used to model the WBC-EC adhesion process. Changes in flow shear stress, cell deformability, or substrate ligand strength resulted in significant changes in the characteristic adhesion binding time, cell-surface contact and cell rolling velocity. A 2-D model indicated that cell-substrate contact area under a high wall shear stress (20 dyn/cm2) could be nearly twice of that under a low stress (0.5 dyn/cm2) due to shear flow-induced cell deformation. An increase in contact area resulted in more energy dissipation to both adhesion bonds and viscous cytoplasm, whereas the fluid energy that inputs to a cell decreased due to a flattened cell shape. The model also predicted a plateau of WBC rolling velocity as flow shear stresses further increased. Both experimental and computational studies have described how WBC deformation influences the WBC-EC adhesion process in shear flow.

  1. Lymphatic vessel development: fluid flow and valve-forming cells.

    PubMed

    Kume, Tsutomu

    2015-08-03

    Hemodynamic forces regulate many aspects of blood vessel disease and development, including susceptibility to atherosclerosis and remodeling of primary blood vessels into a mature vascular network. Vessels of the lymphatic circulatory system are also subjected to fluid flow-associated forces, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which these forces regulate the formation and maintenance of lymphatic vessels remain largely uncharacterized. This issue of the JCI includes two articles that begin to address how fluid flow influences lymphatic vessel development and function. Sweet et al. demonstrate that lymph flow is essential for the remodeling of primary lymphatic vessels, for ensuring the proper distribution of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and for the development and maturation of lymphatic valves. Kazenwadel et al. show that flow-induced lymphatic valve development is initiated by the upregulation of GATA2, which has been linked to lymphedema in patients with Emberger syndrome. Together, these observations and future studies inspired by these results have potential to lead to the development of strategies for the treatment of lymphatic disorders.

  2. Carbon Nanotube Based Flow-Through Electrochemical Cell for Electroanalysis.

    PubMed

    Buffa, Andrea; Erel, Yigal; Mandler, Daniel

    2016-11-15

    A flow-through electrode made of a carbon nanotubes (CNT) film deposited on a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane was assembled and employed for the determination of low concentration of copper as a model system by linear sweep anodic stripping voltammetry (LSASV). CNT films with areal mass ranging from 0.12 to 0.72 mg cm(-2) were characterized by measurement of sheet resistance, water permeation flux and capacitance. Moreover, CNT with two different sizes and PTFE membrane with two different pore diameters (0.45 and 5.0 μm) were evaluated during the optimization of the electrode. Thick layers made of small CNT exhibited the lowest sheet resistance and the greatest analytical response, whereas thin layers of large CNT had the lowest capacitance and the highest permeation flux. Electrodes made of 0.12 mg cm(-2) of large CNT deposited on 5.0 μm PTFE enabled sufficiently high mass transfer and collection efficiency for detecting 64 ppt of Cu(II) within 5 min of deposition and 4.0 mL min(-1) flow rate. The analytical response was linear over 4 orders of magnitude (10(-9) to 10(-5) M) of Cu(II). The excellent performance of the flow-through CNT membrane integrated in a flow cell makes it an appealing approach not only for electroanalysis, but also for the electrochemical treatment of waters, such as the removal of low concentrations of heavy metals and organics.

  3. Bio-cathode materials evaluation and configuration optimization for power output of vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland - microbial fuel cell systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shentan; Song, Hailiang; Wei, Size; Yang, Fei; Li, Xianning

    2014-08-01

    To optimize the performance of a vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland-microbial fuel cell (CW-MFC), studies of bio-cathode materials and reactor configurations were carried out. Three commonly used bio-cathode materials including stainless steel mesh (SSM), carbon cloth (CC) and granular activated carbon (GAC) were compared and evaluated. GAC-SSM bio-cathode achieved the highest maximum power density of 55.05 mWm(-2), and it was most suitable for CW-MFCs application because of its large surface area and helpful capillary water absorption. Two types of CW-MFCs with roots were constructed, one was placed in the anode and the other was placed in the cathode. Both planted CW-MFCs obtained higher power output than non-planted CW-MFC. Periodic voltage fluctuations of planted CW-MFCs were caused by light/dark cycles, and the influent substrate concentration significantly affected the amplitude of oscillation. The coulombic efficiencies of CW-MFCs decreased greatly with the increase of the influent substrate concentration.

  4. A bio-inspired aquatic flow sensor using an artificial cell membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Preston A.; Garrison, Kevin; Leo, Donald J.; Sarles, Stephen A.

    2012-04-01

    Receptors known as hair cells give many animals this ability to sense a wide range of stimuli, such as sound, orientation, vibration, and flow. Previous researchers have mimicked natural hair cells by building electromechanical sensor systems that produce an electric response due to the bending of artificial hairs. Inspired by the roles of sensory hairs in fish, this work builds on previous research by investigating the flow dependent electrical response of a 'skin'-encapsulated artificial hair cell in an aqueous flow. This study presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of a flow sensor that will help close the loop between the sensing mechanisms and control strategies that aquatic organisms employ for functions such as locomotion regulation, prey capture, and particulate capture. The system is fabricated with a durable, artificial bilayer that forms at the interface between lipid-encased aqueous volumes contained in a flexible encapsulated polyurethane substrate. Flow experiments are conducted by placing the bio-inspired sensor in a flow chamber and subjecting it to pulse-like flows. Specifically, through temporal responses of the measured current and power spectral density (PSD) analysis, our results show that the amplitude and frequency of the current response are related to the flow over the hair. This preliminary study demonstrates that the encapsulated artificial hair cell flow sensor is capable of sensing changes in flow through a mechanoelectrical response and that its sensing capabilities may be altered by varying its surface morphology.

  5. Microfluidic-based single cell trapping using a combination of stagnation point flow and physical barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Miao; Chen, Zongzheng; Xiang, Cheng; Liu, Bo; Xie, Handi; Qin, Kairong

    2016-06-01

    Single cell trapping in vitro by microfluidic device is an emerging approach for the study of the relationship between single cells and their dynamic biochemical microenvironments. In this paper, a hydrodynamic-based microfluidic device for single cell trapping is designed using a combination of stagnation point flow and physical barrier. The microfluidic device overcomes the weakness of the traditional ones, which have been only based upon either stagnation point flows or physical barriers, and can conveniently load dynamic biochemical signals to the trapped cell. In addition, it can connect with a programmable syringe pump and a microscope to constitute an integrated experimental system. It is experimentally verified that the microfluidic system can trap single cells in vitro even under flow disturbance and conveniently load biochemical signals to the trapped cell. The designed micro-device would provide a simple yet effective experimental platform for further study of the interactions between single cells and their microenvironments.

  6. Measuring Cell Viscoelastic Properties Using a Microfluidic Extensional Flow Device.

    PubMed

    Guillou, Lionel; Dahl, Joanna B; Lin, Jung-Ming G; Barakat, AbduI I; Husson, Julien; Muller, Susan J; Kumar, Sanjay

    2016-11-01

    The quantification of cellular mechanical properties is of tremendous interest in biology and medicine. Recent microfluidic technologies that infer cellular mechanical properties based on analysis of cellular deformations during microchannel traversal have dramatically improved throughput over traditional single-cell rheological tools, yet the extraction of material parameters from these measurements remains quite complex due to challenges such as confinement by channel walls and the domination of complex inertial forces. Here, we describe a simple microfluidic platform that uses hydrodynamic forces at low Reynolds number and low confinement to elongate single cells near the stagnation point of a planar extensional flow. In tandem, we present, to our knowledge, a novel analytical framework that enables determination of cellular viscoelastic properties (stiffness and fluidity) from these measurements. We validated our system and analysis by measuring the stiffness of cross-linked dextran microparticles, which yielded reasonable agreement with previously reported values and our micropipette aspiration measurements. We then measured viscoelastic properties of 3T3 fibroblasts and glioblastoma tumor initiating cells. Our system captures the expected changes in elastic modulus induced in 3T3 fibroblasts and tumor initiating cells in response to agents that soften (cytochalasin D) or stiffen (paraformaldehyde) the cytoskeleton. The simplicity of the device coupled with our analytical model allows straightforward measurement of the viscoelastic properties of cells and soft, spherical objects.

  7. Aerodynamic Flow Field Measurements for Automotive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepner, Timothy E.

    1999-01-01

    The design of a modern automotive air handling system is a complex task. The system is required to bring the interior of the vehicle to a comfortable level in as short a time as possible. A goal of the automotive industry is to predict the interior climate of an automobile using advanced computational fluid dynamic (CFD) methods. The development of these advanced prediction tools will enable better selection of engine and accessory components. The goal of this investigation was to predict methods used by the automotive industry. To accomplish this task three separate experiments were performed. The first was a laboratory setup where laser velocimeter (LV) flow field measurements were made in the heating and air conditioning unit of a Ford Windstar. The second involved flow field measurements in the engine compartment of a Ford Explorer, with the engine running idle. The third mapped the flow field exiting the center dashboard panel vent inside the Explorer, while the circulating fan operated at 14 volts. All three experiments utilized full-coincidence three-component LV systems. This enabled the mean and fluctuating velocities to be measured along with the Reynolds stress terms.

  8. Flow and Diffusion in Channel-Guided Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Marel, Anna-Kristina; Zorn, Matthias; Klingner, Christoph; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland; Frey, Erwin; Rädler, Joachim O.

    2014-01-01

    Collective migration of mechanically coupled cell layers is a notable feature of wound healing, embryonic development, and cancer progression. In confluent epithelial sheets, the dynamics have been found to be highly heterogeneous, exhibiting spontaneous formation of swirls, long-range correlations, and glass-like dynamic arrest as a function of cell density. In contrast, the flow-like properties of one-sided cell-sheet expansion in confining geometries are not well understood. Here, we studied the short- and long-term flow of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells as they moved through microchannels. Using single-cell tracking and particle image velocimetry (PIV), we found that a defined averaged stationary cell current emerged that exhibited a velocity gradient in the direction of migration and a plug-flow-like profile across the advancing sheet. The observed flow velocity can be decomposed into a constant term of directed cell migration and a diffusion-like contribution that increases with density gradient. The diffusive component is consistent with the cell-density profile and front propagation speed predicted by the Fisher-Kolmogorov equation. To connect diffusion-mediated transport to underlying cellular motility, we studied single-cell trajectories and occurrence of vorticity. We discovered that the directed large-scale cell flow altered fluctuations in cellular motion at short length scales: vorticity maps showed a reduced frequency of swirl formation in channel flow compared with resting sheets of equal cell density. Furthermore, under flow, single-cell trajectories showed persistent long-range, random-walk behavior superimposed on drift, whereas cells in resting tissue did not show significant displacements with respect to neighboring cells. Our work thus suggests that active cell migration manifests itself in an underlying, spatially uniform drift as well as in randomized bursts of short-range correlated motion that lead to a diffusion-mediated transport

  9. Method for Studying Microbial Biofilms in Flowing-Water Systems

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Karsten

    1982-01-01

    A method for the study of microbial biofilms in flowing-water systems was developed with special reference to the flow conditions in electrochemical concentration cells. Seawater was circulated in a semiclosed flow system through biofilm reactors (3 cm s−1) with microscope cover slips arranged in lamellar piles parallel with the flow. At fixed time intervals cover slips with their biofilm were removed from the pile, stained with crystal violet, and mounted on microscope slides. The absorbances of the slides were measured at 590 nm and plotted against time to give microbial biofilm development. From calibration experiments a staining time of 1 min and a rinse time of 10 min in a tap water flow (3 cm s−1) were considered sufficient. When an analysis of variance was performed on biofilm development data, 78% of the total variance was found to be due to random natural effects; the rest could be explained by experimental effects. The absorbance values correlated well with protein N, dry weight, and organic weight in two biofilm experiments, one with a biofilm with a high (75%) and one with a low (∼25%, normal) inorganic content. Comparisons of regression lines revealed that the absorbance of the stained biofilms was an estimate closely related to biofilm dry weight. PMID:16345929

  10. Fluid flow dynamics in MAS systems.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Dirk; Purea, Armin; Engelke, Frank

    2015-08-01

    The turbine system and the radial bearing of a high performance magic angle spinning (MAS) probe with 1.3mm-rotor diameter has been analyzed for spinning rates up to 67kHz. We focused mainly on the fluid flow properties of the MAS system. Therefore, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and fluid measurements of the turbine and the radial bearings have been performed. CFD simulation and measurement results of the 1.3mm-MAS rotor system show relatively low efficiency (about 25%) compared to standard turbo machines outside the realm of MAS. However, in particular, MAS turbines are mainly optimized for speed and stability instead of efficiency. We have compared MAS systems for rotor diameter of 1.3-7mm converted to dimensionless values with classical turbomachinery systems showing that the operation parameters (rotor diameter, inlet mass flow, spinning rate) are in the favorable range. This dimensionless analysis also supports radial turbines for low speed MAS probes and diagonal turbines for high speed MAS probes. Consequently, a change from Pelton type MAS turbines to diagonal turbines might be worth considering for high speed applications. CFD simulations of the radial bearings have been compared with basic theoretical values proposing considerably smaller frictional loss values. The discrepancies might be due to the simple linear flow profile employed for the theoretical model. Frictional losses generated inside the radial bearings result in undesired heat-up of the rotor. The rotor surface temperature distribution computed by CFD simulations show a large temperature gradient over the rotor.

  11. Fluid flow dynamics in MAS systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Dirk; Purea, Armin; Engelke, Frank

    2015-08-01

    The turbine system and the radial bearing of a high performance magic angle spinning (MAS) probe with 1.3 mm-rotor diameter has been analyzed for spinning rates up to 67 kHz. We focused mainly on the fluid flow properties of the MAS system. Therefore, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and fluid measurements of the turbine and the radial bearings have been performed. CFD simulation and measurement results of the 1.3 mm-MAS rotor system show relatively low efficiency (about 25%) compared to standard turbo machines outside the realm of MAS. However, in particular, MAS turbines are mainly optimized for speed and stability instead of efficiency. We have compared MAS systems for rotor diameter of 1.3-7 mm converted to dimensionless values with classical turbomachinery systems showing that the operation parameters (rotor diameter, inlet mass flow, spinning rate) are in the favorable range. This dimensionless analysis also supports radial turbines for low speed MAS probes and diagonal turbines for high speed MAS probes. Consequently, a change from Pelton type MAS turbines to diagonal turbines might be worth considering for high speed applications. CFD simulations of the radial bearings have been compared with basic theoretical values proposing considerably smaller frictional loss values. The discrepancies might be due to the simple linear flow profile employed for the theoretical model. Frictional losses generated inside the radial bearings result in undesired heat-up of the rotor. The rotor surface temperature distribution computed by CFD simulations show a large temperature gradient over the rotor.

  12. Complete degradation of the azo dye Acid Orange-7 and bioelectricity generation in an integrated microbial fuel cell, aerobic two-stage bioreactor system in continuous flow mode at ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Eustace; Keshavarz, Taj; Kyazze, Godfrey

    2014-03-01

    In this study, the commercially used model azo dye Acid Orange-7 (AO-7) was fully degraded into less toxic intermediates using an integrated microbial fuel cell (MFC) and aerobic bioreactor system. The integrated bioreactor system was operated at ambient temperature and continuous-flow mode. AO-7 loading rate was varied during experiments from 70gm(-3)day(-1) to 210gm(-3)day(-1). Colour and soluble COD removal rates reached>90% under all AO-7 loading rates. The MFC treatment stage prompted AO-7 to undergo reductive degradation into its constituent aromatic amines. HPLC-MS analysis of metabolite extracts from the aerobic stage of the bioreactor system indicated further oxidative degradation of the resulting aromatic amines into simpler compounds. Bioluminescence based Vibrio fischeri ecotoxicity testing demonstrated that aerobic stage effluent exhibited toxicity reductions of approximately fivefold and ten-fold respectively compared to the dye wastewater influent and MFC-stage effluent.

  13. Connexin 36 mediates blood cell flow in mouse pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Short, Kurt W; Head, W Steve; Piston, David W

    2014-02-01

    The insulin-secreting β-cells are contained within islets of Langerhans, which are highly vascularized. Blood cell flow rates through islets are glucose-dependent, even though there are no changes in blood cell flow within in the surrounding exocrine pancreas. This suggests a specific mechanism of glucose-regulated blood flow in the islet. Pancreatic islets respond to elevated glucose with synchronous pulses of electrical activity and insulin secretion across all β-cells in the islet. Connexin 36 (Cx36) gap junctions between islet β-cells mediate this synchronization, which is lost in Cx36 knockout mice (Cx36(-/-)). This leads to glucose intolerance in these mice, despite normal plasma insulin levels and insulin sensitivity. Thus, we sought to investigate whether the glucose-dependent changes in intraislet blood cell flow are also dependent on coordinated pulsatile electrical activity. We visualized and quantified blood cell flow using high-speed in vivo fluorescence imaging of labeled red blood cells and plasma. With the use of a live animal glucose clamp, blood cell flow was measured during either hypoglycemia (∼50 mg/dl) or hyperglycemia (∼300 mg/dl). In contrast to the large glucose-dependent islet blood velocity changes observed in wild-type mice, only minimal differences are observed in both Cx36(+/-) and Cx36(-/-) mice. This observation supports a novel model where intraislet blood cell flow is regulated by the coordinated electrical activity in the islet β-cells. Because Cx36 expression and function is reduced in type 2 diabetes, the resulting defect in intraislet blood cell flow regulation may also play a significant role in diabetic pathology.

  14. 46 CFR 153.358 - Venting system flow capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Venting Systems § 153.358 Venting system flow capacity. (a) The cross-sectional flow area of any vent system segment, including any PV or SR valve, must at no point be less than that of a pipe whose inside... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Venting system flow capacity. 153.358 Section...

  15. Detection of circulating immune complexes by Raji cell assay: comparison of flow cytometric and radiometric methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsmore, S.F.; Crockard, A.D.; Fay, A.C.; McNeill, T.A.; Roberts, S.D.; Thompson, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Several flow cytometric methods for the measurement of circulating immune complexes (CIC) have recently become available. We report a Raji cell flow cytometric assay (FCMA) that uses aggregated human globulin (AHG) as primary calibrator. Technical advantages of the Raji cell flow cytometric assay are discussed, and its clinical usefulness is evaluated in a method comparison study with the widely used Raji cell immunoradiometric assay. FCMA is more precise and has greater analytic sensitivity for AHG. Diagnostic sensitivity by the flow cytometric method is superior in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, and vasculitis patients: however, diagnostic specificity is similar for both assays, but the reference interval of FCMA is narrower. Significant correlations were found between CIC levels obtained with both methods in SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, and vasculitis patients and in longitudinal studies of two patients with cerebral SLE. The Raji cell FCMA is recommended for measurement of CIC levels to clinical laboratories with access to a flow cytometer.

  16. Cell Radiation Experiment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    2010-01-01

    The cell radiation experiment system (CRES) is a perfused-cell culture apparatus, within which cells from humans or other animals can (1) be maintained in homeostasis while (2) being exposed to ionizing radiation during controlled intervals and (3) being monitored to determine the effects of radiation and the repair of radiation damage. The CRES can be used, for example, to determine effects of drug, radiation, and combined drug and radiation treatments on both normal and tumor cells. The CRES can also be used to analyze the effects of radiosensitive or radioprotectant drugs on cells subjected to radiation. The knowledge gained by use of the CRES is expected to contribute to the development of better cancer treatments and of better protection for astronauts, medical-equipment operators, and nuclear-power-plant workers, and others exposed frequently to ionizing radiation.

  17. Fuel cell system

    DOEpatents

    Early, Jack; Kaufman, Arthur; Stawsky, Alfred

    1982-01-01

    A fuel cell system is comprised of a fuel cell module including sub-stacks of series-connected fuel cells, the sub-stacks being held together in a stacked arrangement with cold plates of a cooling means located between the sub-stacks to function as electrical terminals. The anode and cathode terminals of the sub-stacks are connected in parallel by means of the coolant manifolds which electrically connect selected cold plates. The system may comprise a plurality of the fuel cell modules connected in series. The sub-stacks are designed to provide a voltage output equivalent to the desired voltage demand of a low voltage, high current DC load such as an electrolytic cell to be driven by the fuel cell system. This arrangement in conjunction with switching means can be used to drive a DC electrical load with a total voltage output selected to match that of the load being driven. This arrangement eliminates the need for expensive voltage regulation equipment.

  18. Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    Traffic management can be thought of as a stochastic queuing process where the serving time at one of its control points is dynamically linked to the global traffic pattern, which is, in turn, dynamically linked to the control point. For this closed-loop system to be effective, the traffic management system must sense and interpret a large spatial projection of data originating from multiple sensor suites. This concept is the basis for the development of a Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) system. This paper presents the results of a study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to define the operational specifications and characteristics, to determine the constraints, and to examine the state of technology of a TFWAS system in terms of traffic management and control. In doing so, the functions and attributes of a TFWAS system are mapped into an operational structure consistent with the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) concept and the existing highway infrastructure. This mapping includes identifying candidate sensor suites and establishing criteria, requirements, and performance measures by which these systems can be graded in their ability and practicality to meet the operational requirements of a TFWAS system. In light of this, issues such as system integration, applicable technologies, impact on traffic management and control, and public acceptance are addressed.

  19. Single chamber fuel cells: Flow geometry, rate and composition considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan, Ionel C.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2003-11-17

    Four different single chamber fuel cell designs were compared using propane-air gas mixtures. Gas flow around the electrodes has a significant influence on the open circuit voltage and the power density of the cell. The strong influence of flow geometry is likely due to its effect on gas composition, particularly on the oxygen chemical potential at the two electrodes as a result of gas mixing. The chamber design which exposes the cathode first to the inlet gas was found to yield the best performance at lower flow rates, while the open tube design with the electrodes equally exposed to the inlet gas worked best at higher flow rates.

  20. Refinement Of Hexahedral Cells In Euler Flow Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, John E.; Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Thomas, Scott D.

    1996-01-01

    Topologically Independent Grid, Euler Refinement (TIGER) computer program solves Euler equations of three-dimensional, unsteady flow of inviscid, compressible fluid by numerical integration on unstructured hexahedral coordinate grid refined where necessary to resolve shocks and other details. Hexahedral cells subdivided, each into eight smaller cells, as needed to refine computational grid in regions of high flow gradients. Grid Interactive Refinement and Flow-Field Examination (GIRAFFE) computer program written in conjunction with TIGER program to display computed flow-field data and to assist researcher in verifying specified boundary conditions and refining grid.

  1. Continuous flow magnetic cell fractionation based on antigen expression level.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Thomas; Moore, Lee R; Jing, Ying; Haam, Seungjoo; Williams, P Stephen; Fleischman, Aaron J; Roy, Shuvo; Chalmers, Jeffrey J; Zborowski, Maciej

    2006-07-31

    Cell separation is important in medical and biological research and plays an increasingly important role in clinical therapy and diagnostics, such as rare cancer cell detection in blood. The immunomagnetic labeling of cells with antibodies conjugated to magnetic nanospheres gives rise to a proportional relationship between the number of magnetic nanospheres attached to the cell and the cell surface marker number. This enables the potential fractionation of cell populations by magnetophoretic mobility (MM). We exploit this feature with our apparatus, the Dipole Magnet Flow Fractionator (DMFF), which consists of an isodynamic magnetic field, an orthogonally-oriented thin ribbon of cell suspension in continuous sheath flow, and ten outlet flows. From a sample containing a 1:1 mixture of immunomagnetically labeled (label+) and unlabeled (label-) cells, we achieved an increase in enrichment of the label+ cell fraction with increasing outlet numbers in the direction of the magnetic field gradient (up to 10-fold). The total recovery of the ten outlet fractions was 90.0+/-7.7%. The mean MM of label+ cells increased with increasing outlet number by up to a factor of 2.3. The postulated proportionality between the number of attached magnetic beads and the number of cell surface markers was validated by comparison of MM measured by cell tracking velocimetry (CTV) with cell florescence intensity measured by flow cytometry.

  2. Deoxygenation Reduces Sickle Cell Blood Flow at Arterial Oxygen Tension.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinran; Wood, David K; Higgins, John M

    2016-06-21

    The majority of morbidity and mortality in sickle cell disease is caused by vaso-occlusion: circulatory obstruction leading to tissue ischemia and infarction. The consequences of vaso-occlusion are seen clinically throughout the vascular tree, from the relatively high-oxygen and high-velocity cerebral arteries to the relatively low-oxygen and low-velocity postcapillary venules. Prevailing models of vaso-occlusion propose mechanisms that are relevant only to regions of low oxygen and low velocity, leaving a wide gap in our understanding of the most important pathologic process in sickle cell disease. Progress toward understanding vaso-occlusion is further challenged by the complexity of the multiple processes thought to be involved, including, but not limited to 1) deoxygenation-dependent hemoglobin polymerization leading to impaired rheology, 2) endothelial and leukocyte activation, and 3) altered cellular adhesion. Here, we chose to focus exclusively on deoxygenation-dependent rheologic processes in an effort to quantify their contribution independent of the other processes that are likely involved in vivo. We take advantage of an experimental system that, to our knowledge, uniquely enables the study of pressure-driven blood flow in physiologic-sized tubes at physiologic hematocrit under controlled oxygenation conditions, while excluding the effects of endothelium, leukocyte activation, adhesion, inflammation, and coagulation. We find that deoxygenation-dependent rheologic processes are sufficient to increase apparent viscosity significantly, slowing blood flow velocity at arterial oxygen tension even without additional contributions from inflammation, adhesion, and endothelial and leukocyte activation. We quantify the changes in apparent viscosity and define a set of functional regimes of sickle cell blood flow personalized for each patient that may be important in further dissecting mechanisms of in vivo vaso-occlusion as well as in assessing risk of patient

  3. Laser rastering flow cytometry: fast cell counting and identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacca, G.; Junnarkar, M. R.; Goldblatt, N. R.; Yee, M. W.; Van Slyke, B. M.; Briese, T. C.

    2009-02-01

    We describe the concept of laser rastering flow cytometry, where a rapidly scanning laser beam allows counting and classification of cells at much higher rates than currently possible. Modifications to existing flow cytometers to implement the concept include an acousto-optic deflector, fast analog-to-digital conversion, and a two-step digital-signal-processing scheme that handles the high data rates and provides key assay information. Results are shown that prove the concept, demonstrating the ability to resolve closely spaced cells and to measure cells at rates more than an order of magnitude faster than on conventional flow-cytometer-based hematology analyzers.

  4. A Multichannel Dampened Flow System for Studies on Shear Stress-Mediated Mechanotransduction

    PubMed Central

    Voyvodic, Peter L.; Min, Daniel; Baker, Aaron B.

    2012-01-01

    Shear stresses are powerful regulators of cellular function and potent mediators of the development of vascular disease. We have designed and optimized a system allowing the application of flow to cultured cells in a multichannel format. By using a multichannel peristaltic pump, flow can be driven continuously in the system for long-term studies in multiple isolated flow loops. A key component of the system is a dual-chamber pulse dampener that removes the pulsatility of the flow without the need for having an open system or elevated reservoir. We optimized the design parameters of the pulse dampening chambers for the maximum reduction in flow pulsation while minimizing the fluid needed for each isolated flow channel. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to steady and pulsatile shear stress using the system. We found that cells under steady flow had a marked increased production of eNOS and formation of actin stress fibers in comparison to those under pulsatile flow conditions. Overall, the results confirm the utility of the device as a practical means to apply shear stress to cultured cells in the multichannel format and provide steady, long term flow to microfluidic devices. PMID:22836694

  5. Myosin IIA dependent retrograde flow drives 3D cell migration.

    PubMed

    Shih, Wenting; Yamada, Soichiro

    2010-04-21

    Epithelial cell migration is an essential part of embryogenesis and tissue regeneration, yet their migration is least understood. Using our three-dimensional (3D) motility analysis, migrating epithelial cells formed an atypical polarized cell shape with the nucleus leading the cell front and a contractile cell rear. Migrating epithelial cells exerted traction forces to deform both the anterior and posterior extracellular matrix toward the cell body. The cell leading edge exhibited a myosin II-dependent retrograde flow with the magnitude and direction consistent with surrounding network deformation. Interestingly, on a two-dimensional substrate, myosin IIA-deficient cells migrated faster than wild-type cells, but in a 3D gel, these myosin IIA-deficient cells were unpolarized and immobile. In contrast, the migration rates of myosin IIB-deficient cells were similar to wild-type cells. Therefore, myosin IIA, not myosin IIB, is required for 3D epithelial cell migration.

  6. 46 CFR 153.358 - Venting system flow capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Venting system flow capacity. 153.358 Section 153.358... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Venting Systems § 153.358 Venting system flow capacity. (a) The cross-sectional flow area of any...

  7. Design of flow chamber with electronic cell volume capability and light detection optics for multilaser flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Schuette, W H; Shackney, S E; Plowman, F A; Tipton, H W; Smith, C A; MacCollum, M A

    1984-11-01

    A multibeam optical detection system has been developed with a high optical efficiency, achieved through a reduction in the number of optical interfaces employed in the system. This reduction is made possible by a combination of employing simple lenses, gluing the objective lens directly upon the face of the flow cuvette and the extraction of only one fluorescence signal from each laser beam. A modified flow chamber is also described that includes fluidic resistance elements for the elimination of most of the electric shielding normally associated with electronic cell volume measurements.

  8. Viscoplastic flow in a Hele-Shaw cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balmforth, Neil; Hewitt, Duncan

    2015-11-01

    A theoretical study is presented of the flow of viscoplastic fluid through a Hele-Shaw cell that contains various kinds of obstructions. Circular and elliptical blockages of the cell are considered together with step-wise contractions or expansions in slot width, all within the simplifying approximation of a narrow gap. Specific attention is paid to the flow patterns that develop around the obstacles, particularly any stagnant plugged regions, and the asymptotic limits of relatively small or large yield stress. Periodic arrays of circular contractions or expansions are studied to explore the interference between obstructions. Finally, viscoplastic flow through a cell with randomly roughened walls is examined, and it is shown that constructive interferences of local contractions and expansions leads to a pronounced channelization of the flow. An optimization algorithm based on minimisation of the pressure drop is derived to construct the path of the channels in the limit of relatively large yield stress or, equivalently, relatively slow flow.

  9. Continuous, flow-through immunomagnetic cell sorting in a quadrupole field.

    PubMed

    Sun, L; Zborowski, M; Moore, L R; Chalmers, J J

    1998-12-01

    A flow-through quadrupole magnetic cell separator has been designed, built, and evaluated by using a cell model system of human peripheral T lymphocytes (CD4+, CD8+, and CD45+ cells). The immunomagnetic labeling was accomplished by using a sandwich of mouse anti-human monoclonal antibody conjugated to fluorescein isothiocyanate and rat anti-mouse polyclonal antibody conjugated to a colloidal magnetic nanoparticle. The feed and sorted fractions were analyzed by FACScan flow cytometry. The magnetically labeled cells were separated from nonlabeled ones in a flow-through cylindrical column within a quadrupole field, which exerted a radial, outward force on the magnetic cells. The flow rate of the cell samples was 0.1-0.75 ml/min, and the flow rate of sheath fluid was 1.5-33.3 times that of the sample flow rate. The maximum shear stress exerted on the cell was less than 1 dyne/cm2, which was well below the level that would threaten cell integrity and membrane disruption. The maximum magnetic field was 0.765 T at the channel wall, and the gradient was 0.174 T/mm. The highest purity of selected cells was 99.6% (CD8 cells, initial purity of 26%), and the highest recovery of selected cells was 79% (CD4 cells, initial purity of 20%). The maximum throughput of the quadrupole magnetic cell separator was 7,040 cells/s (CD45 cells, initial purity of 5%). Theoretical calculations showed that the throughput can be increased to 10(6) cells/s by a scale-up of the current prototype.

  10. Mechanical Control of Cell flow in Multicellular Spheroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delarue, Morgan; Montel, Fabien; Caen, Ouriel; Elgeti, Jens; Siaugue, Jean-Michel; Vignjevic, Danijela; Prost, Jacques; Joanny, Jean-François; Cappello, Giovanni

    2013-03-01

    Collective cell motion is observed in a wide range of biological processes. In tumors, physiological gradients of nutrients, growth factors, or even oxygen give rise to gradients of proliferation. We show using fluorescently labeled particles that these gradients drive a velocity field resulting in a cellular flow in multicellular spheroids. Under mechanical stress, the cellular flow is drastically reduced. We describe the results with a hydrodynamic model that considers only convection of the particles by the cellular flow.

  11. Piezoelectric Microvalve for Flow Control in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, B.A.; Vipperman, J.S.; Clark, W.; Hensel, J.P.; Thornton, J.D.; Kim. S.

    2006-11-01

    Maldistribution of fuel across the cells of a fuel cell stack is an issue that can contribute to poor cell performance and possible cell failure. It has been proposed that an array of microvalves could promote even distribution of fuel across a fuel cell stack. A piezoelectric microvalve has been developed for this purpose. This valve can be tuned to a nominal flow rate (and failure position) from which the actuator would either increase or decrease the flow rate and fuel. The valve can successfully regulate the flow of fuel from 0.7 to 1.1 slpm of hydrogen in the range of temperatures from 80° to 100°C and has been tested over pressure drops from 0.5 to 1 psi. A bank of these valves is currently being tested in a four-cell stack at the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory.

  12. VLT Data Flow System Begins Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-06-01

    Building a Terabyte Archive at the ESO Headquarters The ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) is the sum of many sophisticated parts. The site at Cerro Paranal in the dry Atacama desert in Northern Chile is one of the best locations for astronomical observations from the surface of the Earth. Each of the four 8.2-m telescopes is a technological marvel with self-adjusting optics placed in a gigantic mechanical structure of the utmost precision, continuously controlled by advanced soft- and hardware. A multitude of extremely complex instruments with sensitive detectors capture the faint light from distant objects in the Universe and record the digital data fast and efficiently as images and spectra, with a minimum of induced noise. And now the next crucial link in this chain is in place. A few nights ago, following an extended test period, the VLT Data Flow System began providing the astronomers with a steady stream of high-quality, calibrated image and spectral data, ready to be interpreted. The VLT project has entered into a new phase with a larger degree of automation. Indeed, the first 8.2-m Unit Telescope, ANTU, with the FORS1 and ISAAC instruments, has now become a true astronomy machine . A smooth flow of data through the entire system ESO PR Photo 25a/99 ESO PR Photo 25a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 292 pix - 104k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 584 pix - 264k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 2189 pix - 1.5M] Caption to ESO PR Photo 25a/99 : Simplified flow diagramme for the VLT Data Flow System . It is a closed-loop software system which incorporates various subsystems that track the flow of data all the way from the submission of proposals to storage of the acquired data in the VLT Science Archive Facility. The DFS main components are: Program Handling, Observation Handling, Telescope Control System, Science Archive, Pipeline and Quality Control. Arrows indicate lines of feedback. Already from the start of this project more than ten years ago, the ESO Very Large Telescope was

  13. Rapid cell isolation by magnetic flow sorting for applications in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zborowski, M; Sun, L; Moore, L R; Chalmers, J J

    1999-01-01

    Rapid and efficient cell sorting methods are important for tissue progenitor cell isolation. We built and evaluated a laboratory prototype of a continuous flow, quadrupole magnetic cell sorter. The sorter was tested on a model cell system of human peripheral lymphocytes. The helper T cell subpopulation was targeted by primary, mouse anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody conjugated to a fluorochrome (FITC), and magnetized by secondary, anti-FITC antibody magnetic colloid. The purities and recoveries of the cell fractions were measured by flow cytometry and an automated cell counter. Cells were spread across the flow according to their magnetophoretic mobilities. The purity of the CD4 cell enriched fraction was 99.6%, and the purity of the CD4 cell depleted fraction was 2% for an initial CD4 cell purity of 36%; the corresponding recovery of the enriched CD4 cell fraction was 59% at a sorting speed of 4,200 cells/s (four experiments). The recovery could be increased to 90% with a concomitant decrease in the purity of CD4 cell enriched fraction to 66%. This type of sorting should be applicable to any cells in suspension for which a suitable antibody exists, in particular, to large, fragile cells.

  14. Gas-Particle Interactions in a Microgravity Flow Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louge, Michel; Jenkins, James

    1999-01-01

    We are developing a microgravity flow cell in which to study the interaction of a flowing gas with relatively massive particles that collide with each other and with the moving boundaries of the cell. The absence of gravity makes possible the independent control of the relative motion of the boundaries and the flow of the gas. The cell will permit gas-particle interactions to be studied over the entire range of flow conditions over which the mixture is not turbulent. Within this range, we shall characterize the viscous dissipation of the energy of the particle fluctuations, measure the influence of particle-phase viscosity on the pressure drop along the cell, and observe the development of localized inhomogeneities that are likely to be associated with the onset of clusters. These measurements and observations should contribute to an understanding of the essential physics of pneumatic transport.

  15. Cell exclusion in couette flow: evaluation through flow visualization and mechanical forces.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Laura J; Marshall, Lindsay J; Devitt, Andrew; Hilton, Andrew; Tansley, Geoff D

    2013-03-01

    Cell exclusion is the phenomenon whereby the hematocrit and viscosity of blood decrease in areas of high stress. While this is well known in naturally occurring Poiseuille flow in the human body, it has never previously been shown in Couette flow, which occurs in implantable devices including blood pumps. The high-shear stresses that occur in the gap between the boundaries in Couette flow are known to cause hemolysis in erythrocytes. We propose to mitigate this damage by initiating cell exclusion through the use of a spiral-groove bearing (SGB) that will provide escape routes by which the cells may separate themselves from the plasma and the high stresses in the gap. The force between two bearings (one being the SGB) in Couette flow was measured. Stained erythrocytes, along with silver spheres of similar diameter to erythrocytes, were visualized across a transparent SGB at various gap heights. A reduction in the force across the bearing for human blood, compared with fluids of comparable viscosity, was found. This indicates a reduction in the viscosity of the fluid across the bearing due to a lowered hematocrit because of cell exclusion. The corresponding images clearly show both cells and spheres being excluded from the gap by entering the grooves. This is the first time the phenomenon of cell exclusion has been shown in Couette flow. It not only furthers our understanding of how blood responds to different flows but could also lead to improvements in the future design of medical devices.

  16. Detection of circulating breast cancer cells using photoacoustic flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Kiran

    According to the American Cancer Society, more than 200,000 new cases of breast cancer are expected to be diagnosed this year. Moreover, about 40,000 women died from breast cancer last year alone. As breast cancer progresses in an individual, it can transform from a localized state to a metastatic one with multiple tumors distributed through the body, not necessarily contained within the breast. Metastasis is the spread of cancer through the body by circulating tumor cells (CTCs) which can be found in the blood and lymph of the diagnosed patient. Diagnosis of a metastatic state by the discovery of a secondary tumor can often come too late and hence, significantly reduce the patient's chance of survival. There is a current need for a CTC detection method which would diagnose metastasis before the secondary tumor occurs or reaches a size resolvable by current imaging systems. Since earlier detection would improve prognosis, this study proposes a method of labeling of breast cancer cells for detection with a photoacoustic flow cytometry system as a model for CTC detection in human blood. Gold nanoparticles and fluorescent polystyrene nanoparticles are proposed as contrast agents for T47D, the breast cancer cell line of choice. The labeling, photoacoustic detection limit, and sensitivity are first characterized and then applied to a study to show detection from human blood.

  17. Flow of Red Blood Cells in Stenosed Microvessels

    PubMed Central

    Vahidkhah, Koohyar; Balogh, Peter; Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2016-01-01

    A computational study is presented on the flow of deformable red blood cells in stenosed microvessels. It is observed that the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect is significantly enhanced due to the presence of a stenosis. The apparent viscosity of blood is observed to increase by several folds when compared to non-stenosed vessels. An asymmetric distribution of the red blood cells, caused by geometric focusing in stenosed vessels, is observed to play a major role in the enhancement. The asymmetry in cell distribution also results in an asymmetry in average velocity and wall shear stress along the length of the stenosis. The discrete motion of the cells causes large time-dependent fluctuations in flow properties. The root-mean-square of flow rate fluctuations could be an order of magnitude higher than that in non-stenosed vessels. Several folds increase in Eulerian velocity fluctuation is also observed in the vicinity of the stenosis. Surprisingly, a transient flow reversal is observed upstream a stenosis but not downstream. The asymmetry and fluctuations in flow quantities and the flow reversal would not occur in absence of the cells. It is concluded that the flow physics and its physiological consequences are significantly different in micro- versus macrovascular stenosis. PMID:27319318

  18. Partitioning of red blood cell aggregates in bifurcating microscale flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaliviotis, E.; Sherwood, J. M.; Balabani, S.

    2017-03-01

    Microvascular flows are often considered to be free of red blood cell aggregates, however, recent studies have demonstrated that aggregates are present throughout the microvasculature, affecting cell distribution and blood perfusion. This work reports on the spatial distribution of red blood cell aggregates in a T-shaped bifurcation on the scale of a large microvessel. Non-aggregating and aggregating human red blood cell suspensions were studied for a range of flow splits in the daughter branches of the bifurcation. Aggregate sizes were determined using image processing. The mean aggregate size was marginally increased in the daughter branches for a range of flow rates, mainly due to the lower shear conditions and the close cell and aggregate proximity therein. A counterintuitive decrease in the mean aggregate size was apparent in the lower flow rate branches. This was attributed to the existence of regions depleted by aggregates of certain sizes in the parent branch, and to the change in the exact flow split location in the T-junction with flow ratio. The findings of the present investigation may have significant implications for microvascular flows and may help explain why the effects of physiological RBC aggregation are not deleterious in terms of in vivo vascular resistance.

  19. Partitioning of red blood cell aggregates in bifurcating microscale flows

    PubMed Central

    Kaliviotis, E.; Sherwood, J. M.; Balabani, S.

    2017-01-01

    Microvascular flows are often considered to be free of red blood cell aggregates, however, recent studies have demonstrated that aggregates are present throughout the microvasculature, affecting cell distribution and blood perfusion. This work reports on the spatial distribution of red blood cell aggregates in a T-shaped bifurcation on the scale of a large microvessel. Non-aggregating and aggregating human red blood cell suspensions were studied for a range of flow splits in the daughter branches of the bifurcation. Aggregate sizes were determined using image processing. The mean aggregate size was marginally increased in the daughter branches for a range of flow rates, mainly due to the lower shear conditions and the close cell and aggregate proximity therein. A counterintuitive decrease in the mean aggregate size was apparent in the lower flow rate branches. This was attributed to the existence of regions depleted by aggregates of certain sizes in the parent branch, and to the change in the exact flow split location in the T-junction with flow ratio. The findings of the present investigation may have significant implications for microvascular flows and may help explain why the effects of physiological RBC aggregation are not deleterious in terms of in vivo vascular resistance. PMID:28303921

  20. Flow of Red Blood Cells in Stenosed Microvessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahidkhah, Koohyar; Balogh, Peter; Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2016-06-01

    A computational study is presented on the flow of deformable red blood cells in stenosed microvessels. It is observed that the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect is significantly enhanced due to the presence of a stenosis. The apparent viscosity of blood is observed to increase by several folds when compared to non-stenosed vessels. An asymmetric distribution of the red blood cells, caused by geometric focusing in stenosed vessels, is observed to play a major role in the enhancement. The asymmetry in cell distribution also results in an asymmetry in average velocity and wall shear stress along the length of the stenosis. The discrete motion of the cells causes large time-dependent fluctuations in flow properties. The root-mean-square of flow rate fluctuations could be an order of magnitude higher than that in non-stenosed vessels. Several folds increase in Eulerian velocity fluctuation is also observed in the vicinity of the stenosis. Surprisingly, a transient flow reversal is observed upstream a stenosis but not downstream. The asymmetry and fluctuations in flow quantities and the flow reversal would not occur in absence of the cells. It is concluded that the flow physics and its physiological consequences are significantly different in micro- versus macrovascular stenosis.

  1. Thaw flow control for liquid heat transport systems

    DOEpatents

    Kirpich, Aaron S.

    1989-01-01

    In a liquid metal heat transport system including a source of thaw heat for use in a space reactor power system, the thaw flow throttle or control comprises a fluid passage having forward and reverse flow sections and a partition having a plurality of bleed holes therein to enable fluid flow between the forward and reverse sections. The flow throttle is positioned in the system relatively far from the source of thaw heat.

  2. Adhesion of endothelial cells and endothelial progenitor cells on peptide-linked polymers in shear flow.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Cooper, Stuart

    2013-05-01

    The initial adhesion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), cord blood endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs), and human blood outgrowth endothelial cells (HBOECs) was studied under radial flow conditions. The surface of a variable shear-rate device was either coated with polymer films or covered by synthetic fibers. Spin-coating was applied to produce smooth polymer films, while fibrous scaffolds were generated by electrospinning. The polymer was composed of hexyl methacrylate, methyl methacrylate, poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA), and CGRGDS peptide. The peptide was incorporated into the polymer system by coupling to an acrylate-PEG-N-hydroxysuccinimide comonomer. A shear-rate-dependent increase of the attached cells with time was observed with all cell types. The adhesion of ECs increased on RGD-linked polymer surfaces compared to polymers without adhesive peptides. The number of attached ECFCs and HBOECs are significantly higher than that of HUVECs within the entire shear-rate range and surfaces examined, especially on RGD-linked polymers at low shear rates. Their superior adhesion ability of endothelial progenitor cells under flow conditions suggests they are a promising source for in vivo seeding of vascular grafts and shows the potential to be used for self-endothelialized implants.

  3. Flow cytometric immunofluorescence of rat anterior pituitary cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, J. Michael; Hymer, W. C.

    1985-01-01

    A flow cytometric immunofluorescence technique was developed for the quantification of growth hormone, prolactin, and luteinizing hormone producing cells. The procedure is based on indirect-immunofluorescence of intracellular hormone using an EPICS V cell sorter and can objectively count 50,000 cells in about 3 minutes. It can be used to study the dynamics of pituitary cell populations under various physiological and pharmacological conditions.

  4. Cell flow analysis with a two-photon fluorescence fiber probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu-Chung; Ye, Jing Yong; Thomas, Thommey P.; Baker, James R., Jr.; Norris, Theodore B.

    2010-11-01

    We report the use of a sensitive double-clad fiber (DCF) probe for in situ cell flow velocity measurements and cell analysis by means of two-photon excited fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). We have demonstrated the feasibility to use this fiber probe for in vivo two-photon flow cytometry previously. However, because of the viscosity of blood and the non-uniform flow nature in vivo, it is problematic to use the detected cell numbers to estimate the sampled blood volume. To precisely calibrate the sampled blood volume, it is necessary to conduct real time flow velocity measurement. We propose to use FCS technique to measure the flow velocity. The ability to measure the flow velocities of labeled cells in whole blood has been demonstrated. Our two-photon fluorescence fiber probe has the ability to monitor multiple fluorescent biomarkers simultaneously. We demonstrate that we can distinguish differently labeled cells by their distinct features on the correlation curves. The ability to conduct in situ cell flow analysis using the fiber probe may be useful in disease diagnosis or further comprehension of the circulation system.

  5. Upward swimming of a sperm cell in shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omori, Toshihiro; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2016-03-01

    Mammalian sperm cells are required to swim over long distances, typically around 1000-fold their own length. They must orient themselves and maintain a swimming motion to reach the ovum, or egg cell. Although the mechanism of long-distance navigation is still unclear, one possible mechanism, rheotaxis, was reported recently. This work investigates the mechanism of the rheotaxis in detail by simulating the motions of a sperm cell in shear flow adjacent to a flat surface. A phase diagram was developed to show the sperm's swimming motion under different shear rates, and for varying flagellum waveform conditions. The results showed that, under shear flow, the sperm is able to hydrodynamically change its swimming direction, allowing it to swim upwards against the flow, which suggests that the upward swimming of sperm cells can be explained using fluid mechanics, and this can then be used to further understand physiology of sperm cell navigation.

  6. Design of a miniature flow cell for in situ x-ray imaging of redox flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jervis, Rhodri; Brown, Leon D.; Neville, Tobias P.; Millichamp, Jason; Finegan, Donal P.; Heenan, Thomas M. M.; Brett, Dan J. L.; Shearing, Paul R.

    2016-11-01

    Flow batteries represent a possible grid-scale energy storage solution, having many advantages such as scalability, separation of power and energy capabilities, and simple operation. However, they can suffer from degradation during operation and the characteristics of the felt electrodes are little understood in terms of wetting, compression and pressure drops. Presented here is the design of a miniature flow cell that allows the use of x-ray computed tomography (CT) to study carbon felt materials in situ and operando, in both lab-based and synchrotron CT. Through application of the bespoke cell it is possible to observe felt fibres, electrolyte and pore phases and therefore enables non-destructive characterisation of an array of microstructural parameters during the operation of flow batteries. Furthermore, we expect this design can be readily adapted to the study of other electrochemical systems.

  7. Water injected fuel cell system compressor

    DOEpatents

    Siepierski, James S.; Moore, Barbara S.; Hoch, Martin Monroe

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

  8. Fluid flow plate for decreased density of fuel cell assembly

    DOEpatents

    Vitale, Nicholas G.

    1999-01-01

    A fluid flow plate includes first and second outward faces. Each of the outward faces has a flow channel thereon for carrying respective fluid. At least one of the fluids serves as reactant fluid for a fuel cell of a fuel cell assembly. One or more pockets are formed between the first and second outward faces for decreasing density of the fluid flow plate. A given flow channel can include one or more end sections and an intermediate section. An interposed member can be positioned between the outward faces at an interface between an intermediate section, of one of the outward faces, and an end section, of that outward face. The interposed member can serve to isolate the reactant fluid from the opposing outward face. The intermediate section(s) of flow channel(s) on an outward face are preferably formed as a folded expanse.

  9. Stochastic uncertainty analysis for unconfined flow systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Gaisheng; Zhang, Dongxiao; Lu, Zhiming

    2006-01-01

    A new stochastic approach proposed by Zhang and Lu (2004), called the Karhunen-Loeve decomposition-based moment equation (KLME), has been extended to solving nonlinear, unconfined flow problems in randomly heterogeneous aquifers. This approach is on the basis of an innovative combination of Karhunen-Loeve decomposition, polynomial expansion, and perturbation methods. The random log-transformed hydraulic conductivity field (InKS) is first expanded into a series in terms of orthogonal Gaussian standard random variables with their coefficients obtained as the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the covariance function of InKS- Next, head h is decomposed as a perturbation expansion series ??A(m), where A(m) represents the mth-order head term with respect to the standard deviation of InKS. Then A(m) is further expanded into a polynomial series of m products of orthogonal Gaussian standard random variables whose coefficients Ai1,i2(m)...,im are deterministic and solved sequentially from low to high expansion orders using MODFLOW-2000. Finally, the statistics of head and flux are computed using simple algebraic operations on Ai1,i2(m)...,im. A series of numerical test results in 2-D and 3-D unconfined flow systems indicated that the KLME approach is effective in estimating the mean and (co)variance of both heads and fluxes and requires much less computational effort as compared to the traditional Monte Carlo simulation technique. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Mean Flow Augmented Acoustics in Rocket Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischbach, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Combustion instability in solid rocket motors and liquid engines has long been a subject of concern. Many rockets display violent fluctuations in pressure, velocity, and temperature originating from the complex interactions between the combustion process and gas dynamics. Recent advances in energy based modeling of combustion instabilities require accurate determination of acoustic frequencies and mode shapes. Of particular interest is the acoustic mean flow interactions within the converging section of a rocket nozzle, where gradients of pressure, density, and velocity become large. The expulsion of unsteady energy through the nozzle of a rocket is identified as the predominate source of acoustic damping for most rocket systems. Recently, an approach to address nozzle damping with mean flow effects was implemented by French [1]. This new approach extends the work originated by Sigman and Zinn [2] by solving the acoustic velocity potential equation (AVPE) formulated by perturbing the Euler equations [3]. The present study aims to implement the French model within the COMSOL Multiphysiscs framework and analyzes one of the author's presented test cases.

  11. Microtopography and flow modulate the direction of endothelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Uttayarat, P; Chen, M; Li, M; Allen, F D; Composto, R J; Lelkes, P I

    2008-02-01

    The migration of vascular endothelial cells under flow can be modulated by the addition of chemical or mechanical stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate how topographic cues derived from a substrate containing three-dimensional microtopography interact with fluid shear stress in directing endothelial cell migration. Subconfluent bovine aortic endothelial cells were seeded on fibronectin-coated poly(dimethylsiloxane) substrates patterned with a combinatorial array of parallel and orthogonal microgrooves ranging from 2 to 5 microm in width at a constant depth of 1 microm. During a 4-h time-lapse observation in the absence of flow, the majority of the prealigned cells migrated parallel to the grooves with the distribution of their focal adhesions (FAs) depending on the groove width. No change in this migratory pattern was observed after the cells were exposed to moderate shear stress (13.5 dyn/cm(2)), irrespective of groove direction with respect to flow. After 4-h exposure to high shear stress (58 dyn/cm(2)) parallel to the grooves, the cells continued to migrate in the direction of both grooves and flow. By contrast, when microgrooves were oriented perpendicular to flow, most cells migrated orthogonal to the grooves and downstream with flow. Despite the change in the migration direction of the cells under high shear stress, most FAs and actin microfilaments maintained their original alignment parallel to the grooves, suggesting that topographic cues were more effective than those derived from shear stress in guiding the orientation of cytoskeletal and adhesion proteins during the initial exposure to flow.

  12. Combustor air flow control method for fuel cell apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Mowery, Kenneth D.; Ripley, Eugene V.

    2001-01-01

    A method for controlling the heat output of a combustor in a fuel cell apparatus to a fuel processor where the combustor has dual air inlet streams including atmospheric air and fuel cell cathode effluent containing oxygen depleted air. In all operating modes, an enthalpy balance is provided by regulating the quantity of the air flow stream to the combustor to support fuel cell processor heat requirements. A control provides a quick fast forward change in an air valve orifice cross section in response to a calculated predetermined air flow, the molar constituents of the air stream to the combustor, the pressure drop across the air valve, and a look up table of the orifice cross sectional area and valve steps. A feedback loop fine tunes any error between the measured air flow to the combustor and the predetermined air flow.

  13. Selecting MODFLOW cell sizes for accurate flow fields.

    PubMed

    Haitjema, H; Kelson, V; de Lange, W

    2001-01-01

    Contaminant transport models often use a velocity field derived from a MODFLOW flow field. Consequently, the accuracy of MODFLOW in representing a ground water flow field determines in part the accuracy of the transport predictions, particularly when advective transport is dominant. We compared MODFLOW ground water flow rates and MODPATH particle traces (advective transport) for a variety of conceptual models and different grid spacings to exact or approximate analytic solutions. All of our numerical experiments concerned flow in a single confined or semiconfined aquifer. While MODFLOW appeared robust in terms of both local and global water balance, we found that ground water flow rates, particle traces, and associated ground water travel times are accurate only when sufficiently small cells are used. For instance, a minimum of four or five cells are required to accurately model total ground water inflow in tributaries or other narrow surface water bodies that end inside the model domain. Also, about 50 cells are needed to represent zones of differing transmissivities or an incorrect flow field and (locally) inaccurate ground water travel times may result. Finally, to adequately represent leakage through aquitards or through the bottom of surface water bodies it was found that the maximum allowable cell dimensions should not exceed a characteristic leakage length lambda, which is defined as the square root of the aquifer transmissivity times the resistance of the aquitard or stream bottom. In some cases a cell size of one-tenth of lambda is necessary to obtain accurate results.

  14. Fuel cell with metal screen flow-field

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Zawodzinski, Christine

    1998-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is provided with electrodes supplied with a reactant on each side of a catalyzed membrane assembly (CMA). The fuel cell includes a metal mesh defining a rectangular flow-field pattern having an inlet at a first corner and an outlet at a second corner located on a diagonal from the first corner, wherein all flow paths from the inlet to the outlet through the square flow field pattern are equivalent to uniformly distribute the reactant over the CMA. In a preferred form of metal mesh, a square weave screen forms the flow-field pattern. In a particular characterization of the present invention, a bipolar plate electrically connects adjacent fuel cells, where the bipolar plate includes a thin metal foil having an anode side and a cathode side; a first metal mesh on the anode side of the thin metal foil; and a second metal mesh on the cathode side of the thin metal foil. In another characterization of the present invention, a cooling plate assembly cools adjacent fuel cells, where the cooling plate assembly includes an anode electrode and a cathode electrode formed of thin conducting foils; and a metal mesh flow field therebetween for distributing cooling water flow over the electrodes to remove heat generated by the fuel cells.

  15. Fuel cell with metal screen flow-field

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Zawodzinski, Christine

    2001-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is provided with electrodes supplied with a reactant on each side of a catalyzed membrane assembly (CMA). The fuel cell includes a metal mesh defining a rectangular flow-field pattern having an inlet at a first corner and an outlet at a second corner located on a diagonal from the first corner, wherein all flow paths from the inlet to the outlet through the square flow field pattern are equivalent to uniformly distribute the reactant over the CMA. In a preferred form of metal mesh, a square weave screen forms the flow-field pattern. In a particular characterization of the present invention, a bipolar plate electrically connects adjacent fuel cells, where the bipolar plate includes a thin metal foil having an anode side and a cathode side; a first metal mesh on the anode side of the thin metal foil; and a second metal mesh on the cathode side of the thin metal foil. In another characterization of the present invention, a cooling plate assembly cools adjacent fuel cells, where the cooling plate assembly includes an anode electrode and a cathode electrode formed of thin conducting foils; and a metal mesh flow field therebetween for distributing cooling water flow over the electrodes to remove heat generated by the fuel cells.

  16. Fuel cell with metal screen flow-field

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, C.

    1998-08-25

    A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is provided with electrodes supplied with a reactant on each side of a catalyzed membrane assembly (CMA). The fuel cell includes a metal mesh defining a rectangular flow-field pattern having an inlet at a first corner and an outlet at a second corner located on a diagonal from the first corner, wherein all flow paths from the inlet to the outlet through the square flow field pattern are equivalent to uniformly distribute the reactant over the CMA. In a preferred form of metal mesh, a square weave screen forms the flow-field pattern. In a particular characterization of the present invention, a bipolar plate electrically connects adjacent fuel cells, where the bipolar plate includes a thin metal foil having an anode side and a cathode side; a first metal mesh on the anode side of the thin metal foil; and a second metal mesh on the cathode side of the thin metal foil. In another characterization of the present invention, a cooling plate assembly cools adjacent fuel cells, where the cooling plate assembly includes an anode electrode and a cathode electrode formed of thin conducting foils; and a metal mesh flow field there between for distributing cooling water flow over the electrodes to remove heat generated by the fuel cells. 11 figs.

  17. Liquid flow cells having graphene on nitride for microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Adiga, Vivekananda P.; Dunn, Gabriel; Zettl, Alexander K.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2016-09-20

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to liquid flow cells for microscopy. In one aspect, a device includes a substrate having a first and a second oxide layer disposed on surfaces of the substrate. A first and a second nitride layer are disposed on the first and second oxide layers, respectively. A cavity is defined in the first oxide layer, the first nitride layer, and the substrate, with the cavity including a third nitride layer disposed on walls of the substrate and the second oxide layer that define the cavity. A channel is defined in the second oxide layer. An inlet port and an outlet port are defined in the second nitride layer and in fluid communication with the channel. A plurality of viewports is defined in the second nitride layer. A first graphene sheet is disposed on the second nitride layer covering the plurality of viewports.

  18. Mean Flow Augmented Acoustics in Rocket Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischbach, Sean R.

    2014-01-01

    Oscillatory motion in solid rocket motors and liquid engines has long been a subject of concern. Many rockets display violent fluctuations in pressure, velocity, and temperature originating from the complex interactions between the combustion process and gas dynamics. The customary approach to modeling acoustic waves inside a rocket chamber is to apply the classical inhomogeneous wave equation to the combustion gas. The assumption of a linear, non-dissipative wave in a quiescent fluid remains valid while the acoustic amplitudes are small and local gas velocities stay below Mach 0.2. The converging section of a rocket nozzle, where gradients in pressure, density, and velocity become large, is a notable region where this approach is not applicable. The expulsion of unsteady energy through the nozzle of a rocket is identified as the predominate source of acoustic damping for most rocket systems. An accurate model of the acoustic behavior within this region where acoustic modes are influenced by the presence of a steady mean flow is required for reliable stability predictions. Recently, an approach to address nozzle damping with mean flow effects was implemented by French [1]. This new approach extends the work originated by Sigman and Zinn [2] by solving the acoustic velocity potential equation (AVPE) formulated by perturbing the Euler equations [3]. The acoustic velocity potential (psi) describing the acoustic wave motion in the presence of an inhomogeneous steady high-speed flow is defined by, (del squared)(psi) - (lambda/c)(exp 2)(psi) - M(dot)[M(dot)(del)(del(psi))] - 2(lambda(M/c) + (M(dot)del(M))(dot)del(psi)-2(lambda)(psi)[M(dot)del(1/c)]=0 (1) with M as the Mach vector, c as the speed of sound, and lambda as the complex eigenvalue. French apply the finite volume method to solve the steady flow field within the combustion chamber and nozzle with inviscid walls. The complex eigenvalues and eigenvector are determined with the use of the ARPACK eigensolver. The

  19. Mentat: An object-oriented macro data flow system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimshaw, Andrew S.; Liu, Jane W. S.

    1988-01-01

    Mentat, an object-oriented macro data flow system designed to facilitate parallelism in distributed systems, is presented. The macro data flow model is a model of computation similar to the data flow model with two principal differences: the computational complexity of the actors is much greater than in traditional data flow systems, and there are persistent actors that maintain state information between executions. Mentat is a system that combines the object-oriented programming paradigm and the macro data flow model of computation. Mentat programs use a dynamic structure called a future list to represent the future of computations.

  20. Sample introduction system for a flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Van den Engh, Ger

    1997-01-01

    A sample introduction system for a flow cytometer allows easy change of sample containers such as test tubes and facilitates use in high pressure environments. The sample container includes a cap having a pressure supply chamber and a sample container attachment cavity. A sample container may be automatically positioned into the attachment cavity so as to sealably engage the end of the sample container as its outer surface. This positioning may be accomplished through some sample introduction mechanism. To facilitate cleaning, HPLC tubing and fittings may be used in a manner which facilitates removing of the entire tubing from both the nozzle container and other sample container cap to permit its replacement to avoid contamination. The sample container support may include horizontal stops which loosely limit the movement of the sample container and thus avoid further stresses upon it.

  1. Sample introduction system for a flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Engh, G. van den

    1997-02-11

    A sample introduction system for a flow cytometer allows easy change of sample containers such as test tubes and facilitates use in high pressure environments. The sample container includes a cap having a pressure supply chamber and a sample container attachment cavity. A sample container may be automatically positioned into the attachment cavity so as to sealably engage the end of the sample container as its outer surface. This positioning may be accomplished through some sample introduction mechanism. To facilitate cleaning, HPLC tubing and fittings may be used in a manner which facilitates removing of the entire tubing from both the nozzle container and other sample container cap to permit its replacement to avoid contamination. The sample container support may include horizontal stops which loosely limit the movement of the sample container and thus avoid further stresses upon it. 3 figs.

  2. Understanding and modeling alternating tangential flow filtration for perfusion cell culture.

    PubMed

    Kelly, William; Scully, Jennifer; Zhang, Di; Feng, Gang; Lavengood, Mathew; Condon, Jason; Knighton, John; Bhatia, Ravinder

    2014-01-01

    Alternating tangential flow (ATF) filtration has been used with success in the Biopharmaceutical industry as a lower shear technology for cell retention with perfusion cultures. The ATF system is different than tangential flow filtration; however, in that reverse flow is used once per cycle as a means to minimize fouling. Few studies have been reported in the literature that evaluates ATF and how key system variables affect the rate at which ATF filters foul. In this study, an experimental setup was devised that allowed for determination of the time it took for fouling to occur for given mammalian (PER.C6) cell culture cell densities and viabilities as permeate flow rate and antifoam concentration was varied. The experimental results indicate, in accordance with D'Arcy's law, that the average resistance to permeate flow (across a cycle of operation) increases as biological material deposits on the membrane. Scanning electron microscope images of the post-run filtration surface indicated that both cells and antifoam micelles deposit on the membrane. A unique mathematical model, based on the assumption that fouling was due to pore blockage from the cells and micelles in combination, was devised that allowed for estimation of sticking factors for the cells and the micelles on the membrane. This model was then used to accurately predict the increase in transmembane pressure during constant flux operation for an ATF cartridge used for perfusion cell culture.

  3. Pockels-effect cell for gas-flow simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weimer, D.

    1982-01-01

    A Pockels effect cell using a 75 cu cm DK*P crystal was developed and used as a gas flow simulator. Index of refraction gradients were produced in the cell by the fringing fields of parallel plate electrodes. Calibration curves for the device were obtained for index of refraction gradients in excess of .00025 m.

  4. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard

    2016-12-20

    The present invention includes an integrated planar, series connected fuel cell system having electrochemical cells electrically connected via interconnects, wherein the anodes of the electrochemical cells are protected against Ni loss and migration via an engineered porous anode barrier layer.

  5. Chaos in an Eulerian Based Model of Sickle Cell Blood Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apori, Akwasi; Harris, Wesley

    2001-11-01

    A novel Eulerian model describing the manifestation of sickle cell blood flow in the capillaries has been formulated to study the apparently chaotic onset of sickle cell crises. This Eulerian model was based on extending previous models of sickle cell blood flow which were limited due to their Lagrangian formulation. Oxygen concentration, red blood cell velocity, cell stiffness, and plasma viscosity were modeled as system state variables. The governing equations of the system were expressed in canonical form. The non-linear coupling of velocity-viscosity and viscosity- stiffness proved to be the origin of chaos in the system. The system was solved with respect to a control parameter representing the unique rheology of the sickle cell erythrocytes. Results of chaos tests proved positive for various ranges of the control parameter. The results included con-tinuous patterns found in the Poincare section, spectral broadening of the Fourier power spectrum, and positive Lyapunov exponent values. The onset of chaos predicted by this sickle cell flow model as the control parameter was varied appeared to coincide with the change from a healthy state to a crisis state in a sickle cell patient. This finding that sickle cell crises may be caused from the well understood change of a solution from a steady state to chaotic could point to new ways in preventing and treating crises and should be validated in clinical trials.

  6. High Throughput Label Free Measurement of Cancer Cell Adhesion Kinetics Under Hemodynamic Flow

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Adrianne; Baker, Aaron B.

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of receptor-mediated cell adhesion to extracellular matrix and adherent cell monolayers plays a key role in many physiological and pathological processes including cancer metastasis. Within this process the presence of fluidic shear forces is a key regulator of binding equilibrium and kinetics of cell adhesion. Current techniques to examine the kinetics of cell adhesion are either performed in the absence of flow or are low throughput, limiting their application to pharmacological compound screening or the high throughput investigation of biological mechanisms. We developed a high throughput flow device that applies flow in a multi-well format and interfaced this system with electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) system to allow label free detection of cell adhesion. We demonstrate that this combined system is capable of making real time measurements of cancer cell adhesion to extracellular matrix and immobilized platelets. In addition, we examined the dependence of the kinetics of binding of cancer cells on the level of shear stress and in the presence of small molecule inhibitors to adhesion-related pathways. This versatile system is broadly adaptable to the high throughput study of cell adhesion kinetics for many applications including drug screening and the investigation of the mechanisms of cancer metastasis. PMID:26816215

  7. High Throughput Label Free Measurement of Cancer Cell Adhesion Kinetics Under Hemodynamic Flow.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Adrianne; Baker, Aaron B

    2016-01-27

    The kinetics of receptor-mediated cell adhesion to extracellular matrix and adherent cell monolayers plays a key role in many physiological and pathological processes including cancer metastasis. Within this process the presence of fluidic shear forces is a key regulator of binding equilibrium and kinetics of cell adhesion. Current techniques to examine the kinetics of cell adhesion are either performed in the absence of flow or are low throughput, limiting their application to pharmacological compound screening or the high throughput investigation of biological mechanisms. We developed a high throughput flow device that applies flow in a multi-well format and interfaced this system with electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) system to allow label free detection of cell adhesion. We demonstrate that this combined system is capable of making real time measurements of cancer cell adhesion to extracellular matrix and immobilized platelets. In addition, we examined the dependence of the kinetics of binding of cancer cells on the level of shear stress and in the presence of small molecule inhibitors to adhesion-related pathways. This versatile system is broadly adaptable to the high throughput study of cell adhesion kinetics for many applications including drug screening and the investigation of the mechanisms of cancer metastasis.

  8. Feasibility study of red blood cell debulking by magnetic field-flow fractionation with step-programmed flow

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Lee R.; Williams, P. Stephen; Nehl, Franziska; Abe, Koji; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Zborowski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Emerging applications of rare cell separation and analysis, such as separation of mature red blood cells from hematopoietic cell cultures require efficient methods of red blood cell (RBC) debulking. We have tested the feasibility of magnetic RBC separation as an alternative to centrifugal separation using an approach based on the mechanism of magnetic field-flow fractionation (MgFFF). A specially designed permanent magnet assembly generated a quadrupole field having a maximum field of 1.68 T at the magnet pole tips, zero field at the aperture axis, and a nearly constant radial field gradient of 1.75 T/mm (with a negligible angular component) inside a cylindrical aperture of 1.9 mm (diameter) and 76 mm (length). The cell samples included high-spin hemoglobin RBCs obtained by chemical conversion of hemoglobin to methemoglobin (met RBC) or by exposure to anoxic conditions (deoxy RBC), low-spin hemoglobin obtained by exposure of RBC suspension to ambient air (oxy RBC), and mixtures of deoxy RBC and cells from a KG-1a white blood cell (WBC) line. The observation that met RBCs did not elute from the channel at the lower flow rate of 0.05 mL/min applied for 15 min but quickly eluted at the subsequent higher flow rate of 2.0 mL/min was in agreement with FFF theory. The well-defined experimental conditions (precise field and flow characteristics) and a well-established FFF theory verified by studies with model cell systems provided us with a strong basis for making predictions about potential practical applications of the magnetic RBC separation. PMID:24141316

  9. Feasibility study of red blood cell debulking by magnetic field-flow fractionation with step-programmed flow.

    PubMed

    Moore, Lee R; Williams, P Stephen; Nehl, Franziska; Abe, Koji; Chalmers, Jeffrey J; Zborowski, Maciej

    2014-02-01

    Emerging applications of rare cell separation and analysis, such as separation of mature red blood cells from hematopoietic cell cultures, require efficient methods of red blood cell (RBC) debulking. We have tested the feasibility of magnetic RBC separation as an alternative to centrifugal separation using an approach based on the mechanism of magnetic field-flow fractionation (MgFFF). A specially designed permanent magnet assembly generated a quadrupole field having a maximum field of 1.68 T at the magnet pole tips, zero field at the aperture axis, and a nearly constant radial field gradient of 1.75 T/mm (with a negligible angular component) inside a cylindrical aperture of 1.9 mm (diameter) and 76 mm (length). The cell samples included high-spin hemoglobin RBCs obtained by chemical conversion of hemoglobin to methemoglobin (met RBC) or by exposure to anoxic conditions (deoxy RBC), low-spin hemoglobin obtained by exposure of RBC suspension to ambient air (oxy RBC), and mixtures of deoxy RBC and cells from a KG-1a white blood cell (WBC) line. The observation that met RBCs did not elute from the channel at the lower flow rate of 0.05 mL/min applied for 15 min but quickly eluted at the subsequent higher flow rate of 2.0 mL/min was in agreement with FFF theory. The well-defined experimental conditions (precise field and flow characteristics) and a well-established FFF theory verified by studies with model cell systems provided us with a strong basis for making predictions about potential practical applications of the magnetic RBC separation.

  10. Margination of White Blood Cells in Microcapillary Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Fornleitner, Julia; Gompper, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Margination of white blood cells (WBCs) towards vessel walls is an essential precondition for their efficient adhesion to the vascular endothelium. We perform numerical simulations with a two-dimensional blood flow model to investigate the dependence of WBC margination on hydrodynamic interactions of blood cells with the vessel walls, as well as on their collective behavior and deformability. We find WBC margination to be optimal in intermediate ranges of red blood cell (RBC) volume fractions and flow rates, while, beyond these ranges, it is substantially attenuated. RBC aggregation enhances WBC margination, while WBC deformability reduces it. These results are combined in state diagrams, which identify WBC margination for a wide range of flow and cell suspension conditions.

  11. New flow cytometric assays for monitoring cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zaritskaya, Liubov; Shurin, Michael R; Sayers, Thomas J; Malyguine, Anatoli M

    2010-06-01

    The exact immunologic responses after vaccination that result in effective antitumor immunity have not yet been fully elucidated and the data from ex vivo T-cell assays have not yet defined adequate surrogate markers for clinical efficacy. A more detailed knowledge of the specific immune responses that correlate with positive clinical outcomes should help to develop better or novel strategies to effectively activate the immune system against tumors. Furthermore, clinically relevant material is often limited and, thus, precludes the ability to perform multiple assays. The two main assays currently used to monitor lymphocyte-mediated cytoxicity in cancer patients are the (51)Cr-release assay and IFN-gamma ELISpot assay. The former has a number of disadvantages, including low sensitivity, poor labeling and high spontaneous release of isotope from some tumor target cells. Additional problems with the (51)Cr-release assay include difficulty in obtaining autologous tumor targets, and biohazard and disposal problems for the isotope. The ELISpot assays do not directly measure cytotoxic activity and are, therefore, a surrogate marker of cyotoxic capacity of effector T cells. Furthermore, they do not assess cytotoxicity mediated by the production of the TNF family of death ligands by the cytotoxic cells. Therefore, assays that allow for the simultaneous measurement of several parameters may be more advantageous for clinical monitoring. In this respect, multifactor flow cytometry-based assays are a valid addition to the currently available immunologic monitoring assays. Use of these assays will enable detection and enumeration of tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and their specific effector functions and any correlations with clinical responses. Comprehensive, multifactor analysis of effector cell responses after vaccination may help to detect factors that determine the success or failure of a vaccine and its immunological potency.

  12. System for measuring multiphase flow using multiple pressure differentials

    DOEpatents

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-01-01

    An improved method and system for measuring a multi-phase flow in a pressure flow meter. An extended throat venturi is used and pressure of the multi-phase flow is measured at three or more positions in the venturi, which define two or more pressure differentials in the flow conduit. The differential pressures are then used to calculate the mass flow of the gas phase, the total mass flow, and the liquid phase. The system for determining the mass flow of the high void fraction fluid flow and the gas flow includes taking into account a pressure drop experienced by the gas phase due to work performed by the gas phase in accelerating the liquid phase.

  13. Design, evaluation, and application of continuous-flow cells for organic electrochemical synthesis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nobe, K.

    1982-09-30

    Two examples of the oxidation and reduction of aldehydes as a paired synthesis have been studied. These are model systems for potential energy savings in organic electrochemical synthesis. Both are indirect processes; the reduction via alkali metal amalgam and the oxidation via hypobromite. One, using furfural as the substrate, has proved unsuccessful due to the oxidation of its reduction products with the electrogenerated oxidant, bromine. The other paired synthesis, using glucose, has been operated successfully in two types of parallel plate flow cells and two types of porous, packed bed flow cells. To date, the optimum electrode materials and operating conditions for the glucose paired reaction, as determined by product yields and current efficiencies, are an amalgamated zinc cathode, a graphite anode, an initial glucose concentration of 0.8M, a 0.8M NaBr supporting electrolyte and an electrolyte flow rate of 0.8 1/min. Both constant current (10 mA/cm/sup 2/) and constant cathode potential (-2.10V vs SCE) electrolyses were performed under the above conditions. Electrolyses carried out in the parallel plate flow cell and the packed bed flow cell in which the current and electrolyte flow are parallel to one another gave comparable results. Lower current efficiencies were obtained in the porous, packed bed flow cell with perpendicular current and flow. The reasons for the poorer results in the perpendicular configuration cell are not known at this time and further experimentation is required with this system. The current efficiencies and yields of both the oxidation reaction (the production of gluconic acid) and the reduction reaction (the formation of sorbitol) in the packed bed cells were found to be dependent on solution pH.

  14. Liquid chromatography/Fourier transform IR spectrometry interface flow cell

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, C.C.; Taylor, L.T.

    1985-01-04

    A zero dead volume (ZDV) microbore high performance liquid chromatography (..mu.. HPLC)/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) interface flow cell includes an IR transparent crystal having a small diameter bore therein through which a sample liquid is passed. The interface flow cell further includes a metal holder in combination with a pair of inner, compressible seals for directly coupling the thus configured spectrometric flow cell to the outlet of a ..mu.. HPLC column end fitting to minimize the transfer volume of the effluents exiting the ..mu.. HPLC column which exhibit excellent flow characteristics due to the essentially unencumbered, open-flow design. The IR beam passes transverse to the sample flow through the circular bore within the IR transparent crystal, which is preferably comprised of potassium bromide (KBr) or calcium fluoride (CaF/sub 2/), so as to minimize interference patterns and vignetting encountered in conventional parallel-plate IR cells. The long IR beam pathlength and lensing effect of the circular cross-section of the sample volume in combination with the refractive index differences between the solvent and the transparent crystal serve to focus the IR beam in enhancing sample detection sensitivity by an order of magnitude.

  15. Liquid chromatography/Fourier transform IR spectrometry interface flow cell

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Charles C.; Taylor, Larry T.

    1986-01-01

    A zero dead volume (ZDV) microbore high performance liquid chromatography (.mu.HPLC)/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) interface flow cell includes an IR transparent crystal having a small diameter bore therein through which a sample liquid is passed. The interface flow cell further includes a metal holder in combination with a pair of inner, compressible seals for directly coupling the thus configured spectrometric flow cell to the outlet of a .mu.HPLC column end fitting to minimize the transfer volume of the effluents exiting the .mu.HPLC column which exhibit excellent flow characteristics due to the essentially unencumbered, open-flow design. The IR beam passes transverse to the sample flow through the circular bore within the IR transparent crystal, which is preferably comprised of potassium bromide (KBr) or calcium fluoride (CaF.sub.2), so as to minimize interference patterns and vignetting encountered in conventional parallel-plate IR cells. The long IR beam pathlength and lensing effect of the circular cross-section of the sample volume in combination with the refractive index differences between the solvent and the transparent crystal serve to focus the IR beam in enhancing sample detection sensitivity by an order of magnitude.

  16. Endothelial colony forming cells and mesenchymal progenitor cells form blood vessels and increase blood flow in ischemic muscle.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyu-Tae; Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Kuppermann, David; Melero-Martin, Juan M; Bischoff, Joyce

    2017-04-10

    Here we investigated whether endothelial colony forming cells (ECFC) and mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPC) form vascular networks and restore blood flow in ischemic skeletal muscle, and whether host myeloid cells play a role. ECFC + MPC, ECFC alone, MPC alone, or vehicle alone were injected into the hind limb ischemic muscle one day after ligation of femoral artery and vein. At day 5, hind limbs injected with ECFC + MPC showed greater blood flow recovery compared with ECFC, MPC, or vehicle. Tail vein injection of human endothelial specific Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I demonstrated an increased number of perfused human vessels in ECFC + MPC compared with ECFC. In vivo bioluminescence imaging showed ECFC persisted for 14 days in ECFC + MPC-injected hind limbs. Flow cytometric analysis of ischemic muscles at day 2 revealed increased myeloid lineage cells in ECFC + MPC-injected muscles compared to vehicle-injected muscles. Neutrophils declined by day 7, while the number of myeloid cells, macrophages, and monocytes did not. Systemic myeloid cell depletion with anti-Gr-1 antibody blocked the improved blood flow observed with ECFC + MPC and reduced ECFC and MPC retention. Our data suggest that ECFC + MPC delivery could be used to reestablish blood flow in ischemic tissues, and this may be enhanced by coordinated recruitment of host myeloid cells.

  17. How cells flow in the spreading of cellular aggregates.

    PubMed

    Beaune, Grégory; Stirbat, Tomita Vasilica; Khalifat, Nada; Cochet-Escartin, Olivier; Garcia, Simon; Gurchenkov, Vasily Valérïévitch; Murrell, Michael P; Dufour, Sylvie; Cuvelier, Damien; Brochard-Wyart, Françoise

    2014-06-03

    Like liquid droplets, cellular aggregates, also called "living droplets," spread onto adhesive surfaces. When deposited onto fibronectin-coated glass or polyacrylamide gels, they adhere and spread by protruding a cellular monolayer (precursor film) that expands around the droplet. The dynamics of spreading results from a balance between the pulling forces exerted by the highly motile cells at the periphery of the film, and friction forces associated with two types of cellular flows: (i) permeation, corresponding to the entry of the cells from the aggregates into the film; and (ii) slippage as the film expands. We characterize these flow fields within a spreading aggregate by using fluorescent tracking of individual cells and particle imaging velocimetry of cell populations. We find that permeation is limited to a narrow ring of width ξ (approximately a few cells) at the edge of the aggregate and regulates the dynamics of spreading. Furthermore, we find that the subsequent spreading of the monolayer depends heavily on the substrate rigidity. On rigid substrates, the migration of the cells in the monolayer is similar to the flow of a viscous liquid. By contrast, as the substrate gets softer, the film under tension becomes unstable with nucleation and growth of holes, flows are irregular, and cohesion decreases. Our results demonstrate that the mechanical properties of the environment influence the balance of forces that modulate collective cell migration, and therefore have important implications for the spreading behavior of tissues in both early development and cancer.

  18. Flow dependent performance of microfluidic microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Vigolo, Daniele; Al-Housseiny, Talal T; Shen, Yi; Akinlawon, Fiyinfoluwa O; Al-Housseiny, Saif T; Hobson, Ronald K; Sahu, Amaresh; Bedkowski, Katherine I; DiChristina, Thomas J; Stone, Howard A

    2014-06-28

    The integration of Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) in a microfluidic geometry can significantly enhance the power density of these cells, which would have more active bacteria per unit volume. Moreover, microfluidic MFCs can be operated in a continuous mode as opposed to the traditional batch-fed mode. Here we investigate the effect of fluid flow on the performance of microfluidic MFCs. The growth and the structure of the bacterial biofilm depend to a large extent on the shear stress of the flow. We report the existence of a range of flow rates for which MFCs can achieve maximum voltage output. When operated under these optimal conditions, the power density of our microfluidic MFC is about 15 times that of a similar-size batch MFC. Furthermore, this optimum suggests a correlation between the behaviour of bacteria and fluid flow.

  19. Cross-flow electrochemical reactor cells, cross-flow reactors, and use of cross-flow reactors for oxidation reactions

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Poeppel, Roger B.; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thaddeus P.; Udovich, Carl A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention discloses cross-flow electrochemical reactor cells containing oxygen permeable materials which have both electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity, cross-flow reactors, and electrochemical processes using cross-flow reactor cells having oxygen permeable monolithic cores to control and facilitate transport of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas stream to oxidation reactions of organic compounds in another gas stream. These cross-flow electrochemical reactors comprise a hollow ceramic blade positioned across a gas stream flow or a stack of crossed hollow ceramic blades containing a channel or channels for flow of gas streams. Each channel has at least one channel wall disposed between a channel and a portion of an outer surface of the ceramic blade, or a common wall with adjacent blades in a stack comprising a gas-impervious mixed metal oxide material of a perovskite structure having electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity. The invention includes reactors comprising first and second zones seprated by gas-impervious mixed metal oxide material material having electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity. Prefered gas-impervious materials comprise at least one mixed metal oxide having a perovskite structure or perovskite-like structure. The invention includes, also, oxidation processes controlled by using these electrochemical reactors, and these reactions do not require an external source of electrical potential or any external electric circuit for oxidation to proceed.

  20. Dynamic modelling of packaging material flow systems.

    PubMed

    Tsiliyannis, Christos A

    2005-04-01

    A dynamic model has been developed for reused and recycled packaging material flows. It allows a rigorous description of the flows and stocks during the transition to new targets imposed by legislation, product demand variations or even by variations in consumer discard behaviour. Given the annual reuse and recycle frequency and packaging lifetime, the model determines all packaging flows (e.g., consumption and reuse) and variables through which environmental policy is formulated, such as recycling, waste and reuse rates and it identifies the minimum number of variables to be surveyed for complete packaging flow monitoring. Simulation of the transition to the new flow conditions is given for flows of packaging materials in Greece, based on 1995--1998 field inventory and statistical data.

  1. Polymer-based micro flow sensor for dynamical flow measurements in hydraulic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrens, R.; Festa, M.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper we present a micro flow sensor from a polymer for dynamical flow measurements in hydraulic systems. The flow sensor is based on the thermal anemometric principle and consists of two micro-structured housing shells from polysulfone (PSU) which form a small fluidic channel with a cross-section of 580 µm × 400 µm. In between there is a thin polyimide membrane supporting three gold track structures forming an electrical heater and two resistive thermometers which allows the detection of the flow direction, too. The complete sensor is inserted into the hydraulic system, but only a small bypass flow is directed through the fluidic channel by means of a special splitting system. Due to its small heat capacity, the sensor is suitable to detect flow pulsations up to about 1200 Hz which allows the sensor to be used for the condition monitoring or preventive maintenance of hydraulic systems.

  2. Paper-based flow fractionation system for preconcentration and field-flow fractionation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seokbin; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kim, Wonjung

    2015-11-01

    We present a novel paper-based flow fractionation system for preconcentration and field-flow fractionation. The paper fluidic system consisting of a straight channel connected with expansion regions can generate a fluid flow with a constant flow rate for 10 min without any external pumping devices. The flow bifurcates with a fraction ratio of up to 30 depending on the control parameters of the channel geometry. Utilizing this simple paper-based bifurcation system, we developed a continuous-flow preconcentrator and a field-flow fractionator on a paper platform. Our experimental results show that the continuous-flow preconcentrator can produce a 33-fold enrichment of the ion concentration and that the flow fractionation system successfully separates the charged dyes. Our study suggests simple, cheap ways to construct preconcentration and field-flow fractionation systems for paper-based microfluidic diagnostic devices. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korea government(MSIP) (NRF-2015R1A2A2A04006181).

  3. Red blood cell clustering in Poiseuille microcapillary flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaiuolo, Giovanna; Lanotte, Luca; Ghigliotti, Giovanni; Misbah, Chaouqi; Guido, Stefano

    2012-05-01

    Red blood cells (RBC) flowing in microcapillaries tend to associate into clusters, i.e., small trains of cells separated from each other by a distance comparable to cell size. This process is usually attributed to slower RBCs acting to create a sequence of trailing cells. Here, based on the first systematic investigation of collective RBC flow behavior in microcapillaries in vitro by high-speed video microscopy and numerical simulations, we show that RBC size polydispersity within the physiological range does not affect cluster stability. Lower applied pressure drops and longer residence times favor larger RBC clusters. A limiting cluster length, depending on the number of cells in a cluster, is found by increasing the applied pressure drop. The insight on the mechanism of RBC clustering provided by this work can be applied to further our understanding of RBC aggregability, which is a key parameter implicated in clotting and thrombus formation.

  4. Flow cytometry methods for the study of cell-cycle parameters of planarian stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hara; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro

    2009-05-01

    Due to their characteristic inaccessibility and low numbers, little is known about the cell-cycle dynamics of most stem cells in vivo. A powerful, established methodology to study cell-cycle dynamics is flow cytometry, which is used routinely to study the cell-cycle dynamics of proliferating cells in vitro. Its use in heterogeneous mixtures of cells obtained from whole animals, however, is complicated by the relatively low abundance of cycling to non-cycling cells. We report on flow cytometric methods that take advantage of the abundance of proliferating stem cells in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. The optimized protocols allow us to measure cell-cycle dynamics and follow BrdU-labeled cells specifically in complex mixtures of cells. These methods expand on the growing toolkit being developed to study stem cell biology in planarians, and open the door to detailed cytometric studies of a collectively totipotent population of adult stem cells in vivo.

  5. Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, William D.

    1999-01-01

    Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions.

  6. Gradient isolator for flow field of fuel cell assembly

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, W.D.

    1999-06-15

    Isolator(s) include isolating material and optionally gasketing material strategically positioned within a fuel cell assembly. The isolating material is disposed between a solid electrolyte and a metal flow field plate. Reactant fluid carried by flow field plate channel(s) forms a generally transverse electrochemical gradient. The isolator(s) serve to isolate electrochemically a portion of the flow field plate, for example, transversely outward from the channel(s), from the electrochemical gradient. Further, the isolator(s) serve to protect a portion of the solid electrolyte from metallic ions. 4 figs.

  7. Cortical Flow-Driven Shapes of Nonadherent Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callan-Jones, A. C.; Ruprecht, V.; Wieser, S.; Heisenberg, C. P.; Voituriez, R.

    2016-01-01

    Nonadherent polarized cells have been observed to have a pearlike, elongated shape. Using a minimal model that describes the cell cortex as a thin layer of contractile active gel, we show that the anisotropy of active stresses, controlled by cortical viscosity and filament ordering, can account for this morphology. The predicted shapes can be determined from the flow pattern only; they prove to be independent of the mechanism at the origin of the cortical flow, and are only weakly sensitive to the cytoplasmic rheology. In the case of actin flows resulting from a contractile instability, we propose a phase diagram of three-dimensional cell shapes that encompasses nonpolarized spherical, elongated, as well as oblate shapes, all of which have been observed in experiment.

  8. Circulation times of cancer cells by in vivo flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Li, Yan; Gu, Zhengqin; Chen, Tong; Wang, Cheng; Wei, Xunbin

    2012-03-01

    Liver cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world, with approximately 1,000,000 cases reported every year. Hepatocellular carcinoma may metastasize to lung, bones, kidney, and many other organs. Surgical resection, liver transplantation, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are the foundation of current HCC therapies. However the outcomes are poor: the survival rate is almost zero for metastatic HCC patients. Molecular mechanisms of HCC metastasis need to be understood better and new therapies must be developed. A recently developed "in vivo flow cytometer" combined with real-time confocal fluorescence imaging are used to assess spreading and the circulation kinetics of liver tumor cells. The in vivo flow cytometer has the capability to detect and quantify continuously the number and flow characteristics of fluorescently labeled cells in vivo in real time without extracting blood sample. We have measured the depletion kinetics of two related human HCC cell lines, high-metastatic HCCLM3 cells and low-metastatic HepG2 cells, which were from the same origin and obtained by repetitive screenings in mice. >60% HCCLM3 cells are depleted within the first hour. Interestingly, the low-metastatic HepG2 cells possess noticeably slower depletion kinetics. In comparison, <40% HepG2 cells are depleted within the first hour. The differences in depletion kinetics might provide insights into early metastasis processes.

  9. Continuous flow two-dimensional acoustic orientation of nonspherical cells.

    PubMed

    Jakobsson, Ola; Antfolk, Maria; Laurell, Thomas

    2014-06-17

    Flow cytometry is a frequently used method when it comes to cell sorting and analysis. Nonspherical cells, such as red blood cells or sperm cells, however, pose a challenge as they reduce the precision of light scatter measurements which interfere with the analysis of these and other cell populations in the same sample. Here, we present a microfluidic chip for acoustophoresis utilizing ultrasonic standing waves to focus and orient red blood cells in two dimensions in the channel center. The cells can be oriented to show either their flat or up-ended side toward the optical axis and the observer. In an acoustic standing wave field the cells will be rotated until the direction of the smallest dimension is parallel with the direction where the acoustic energy is strongest. While keeping the cells focused in the channel center utilizing acoustic resonances in two dimensions, the orientation can be controlled by increasing the acoustic energy in either the horizontal or vertical resonance mode. It was shown that 87.8 ± 3.8% of the red blood cells could be horizontally oriented while 98.7 ± 0.3% could be vertically oriented. The ability to control the orientation of nonspherical cells with high accuracy is a beneficial feature and potential contribution to the rapidly growing field of flow and image cytometry.

  10. Statistical mixture modeling for cell subtype identification in flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cliburn; Feng, Feng; Ottinger, Janet; Foster, David; West, Mike; Kepler, Thomas B

    2008-08-01

    Statistical mixture modeling provides an opportunity for automated identification and resolution of cell subtypes in flow cytometric data. The configuration of cells as represented by multiple markers simultaneously can be modeled arbitrarily well as a mixture of Gaussian distributions in the dimension of the number of markers. Cellular subtypes may be related to one or multiple components of such mixtures, and fitted mixture models can be evaluated in the full set of markers as an alternative, or adjunct, to traditional subjective gating methods that rely on choosing one or two dimensions. Four color flow data from human blood cells labeled with FITC-conjugated anti-CD3, PE-conjugated anti-CD8, PE-Cy5-conjugated anti-CD4, and APC-conjugated anti-CD19 Abs was acquired on a FACSCalibur. Cells from four murine cell lines, JAWS II, RAW 264.7, CTLL-2, and A20, were also stained with FITC-conjugated anti-CD11c, PE-conjugated anti-CD11b, PE-Cy5-conjugated anti-CD8a, and PE-Cy7-conjugated-CD45R/B220 Abs, respectively, and single color flow data were collected on an LSRII. The data were fitted with a mixture of multivariate Gaussians using standard Bayesian statistical approaches and Markov chain Monte Carlo computations. Statistical mixture models were able to identify and purify major cell subsets in human peripheral blood, using an automated process that can be generalized to an arbitrary number of markers. Validation against both traditional expert gating and synthetic mixtures of murine cell lines with known mixing proportions was also performed. This article describes the studies of statistical mixture modeling of flow cytometric data, and demonstrates their utility in examples with four-color flow data from human peripheral blood samples and synthetic mixtures of murine cell lines.

  11. Input/Output operations for hybrid data-flow/control-flow systems

    SciTech Connect

    Evripidou, P.; Gaudiot, J.L.

    1991-12-31

    Hybrid data-flow/control-flow system combine the advantages of the data-flow model: functionality and tolerance to communication and memory latencies with the efficient instruction scheduling of the control-flow model. The absence of global state in such hybrid multiprocessors and multiprocessors in general renders the implementation of state tasks such as Input/Output operations very difficult to implement. A distributed file-pointer scheme for incorporations I/O operations onto the data-flow model has been developed. A dependency detection algorithm detects and classify cases of potential access conflicts. A conflict resolution data-flow graph is then created which at execution time safely distributes file-pointers to the I/O actors. This scheme has also been implemented on a hybrid a data-flow control-flow multiprocessor: the Decoupled Data-Driven Multiprocessor with Variable Resolution Actors.

  12. SIGNAL FLOW GRAPH ANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SYSTEMS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CONTROL SYSTEMS, *MECHANICS, *STRUCTURES, *THERMODYNAMICS, *TOPOLOGY, BEAMS(ELECTROMAGNETIC), BEAMS(STRUCTURAL), GAS FLOW, GEARS, HEAT EXCHANGERS, MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS, MATHEMATICS, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING , RAMJET ENGINES.

  13. Classification of biological cells using a sound wave based flow cytometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohm, Eric M.; Gnyawali, Vaskar; Van De Vondervoort, Mia; Daghighi, Yasaman; Tsai, Scott S. H.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2016-03-01

    A flow cytometer that uses sound waves to determine the size of biological cells is presented. In this system, a microfluidic device made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was developed to hydrodynamically flow focus cells in a single file through a target area. Integrated into the microfluidic device was an ultrasound transducer with a 375 MHz center frequency, aligned opposite the transducer was a pulsed 532 nm laser focused into the device by a 10x objective. Each passing cell was insonfied with a high frequency ultrasound pulse, and irradiated with the laser. The resulting ultrasound and photoacoustic waves from each cell were analyzed using signal processing methods, where features in the power spectra were compared to theoretical models to calculate the cell size. Two cell lines with different size distributions were used to test the system: acute myeloid leukemia cells (AML) and melanoma cells. Over 200 cells were measured using this system. The average calculated diameter of the AML cells was 10.4 +/- 2.5 μm using ultrasound, and 11.4 +/- 2.3 μm using photoacoustics. The average diameter of the melanoma cells was 16.2 +/- 2.9 μm using ultrasound, and 18.9 +/- 3.5 μm using photoacoustics. The cell sizes calculated using ultrasound and photoacoustic methods agreed with measurements using a Coulter Counter, where the AML cells were 9.8 +/- 1.8 μm and the melanoma cells were 16.0 +/- 2.5 μm. These results demonstrate a high speed method of assessing cell size using sound waves, which is an alternative method to traditional flow cytometry techniques.

  14. Cell-cell interaction in blood flow in patients with coronary heart disease (in vitro study)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2007-02-01

    Blood cell-cell and cell-vessel wall interactions are one of the key patterns in blood and vascular pathophysiology. We have chosen the method of reconstruction of pulsative blood flow in vitro in the experimental set. Blood flow structure was studied by PC integrated video camera with following slide by slide analysis. Studied flow was of constant volumetric blood flow velocity (1 ml/h). Diameter of tube in use was comparable with coronary arteries diameter. Glucose solution and unfractured heparin were used as the nonspecial irritants of studied flow. Erythrocytes space structure in flow differs in all groups of patients in our study (men with stable angina pectoris (SAP), myocardial infarction (MI) and practically healthy men (PHM). Intensity of erythrocytes aggregate formation was maximal in patients with SAP, but time of their "construction/deconstruction" at glucose injection was minimal. Phenomena of primary clotting formation in patients with SAP of high function class was reconstructed under experimental conditions. Heparin injection (10 000 ED) increased linear blood flow velocity both in patients with SAP, MI and PHP but modulated the cell profile in the flow. Received data correspond with results of animal model studies and noninvasive blood flow studies in human. Results of our study reveal differences in blood flow structure in patients with coronary heart disease and PHP under irritating conditions as the possible framework of metabolic model of coronary blood flow destabilization.

  15. FlowSim/FlowRisk: A code system for studying risk associated with material process flows

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, A.M.

    1993-10-01

    The need to study and assess life-cycle risks of Pu release by nuclear warheads during peace time lead to the development of a code suite which could model day to day operations involving nuclear weapons and calculate the associated risk involved in these proceedings. The life-cycle study called LIONSHARE is described in Reference 1. The code that models the flow is called FlowSim. The code that evaluates the associated risk is called FlowRisk. We shall concentrate here on the methodology used by FlowSim in modeling material flows. FlowRisk, mainly a postprocessor of FlowSim runs, will be dealt with in less detail.

  16. Flow-enhanced solution printing of all-polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Diao, Ying; Zhou, Yan; Kurosawa, Tadanori; Shaw, Leo; Wang, Cheng; Park, Steve; Guo, Yikun; Reinspach, Julia A.; Gu, Kevin; Gu, Xiaodan; Tee, Benjamin C. K.; Pang, Changhyun; Yan, Hongping; Zhao, Dahui; Toney, Michael F.; Mannsfeld, Stefan C. B.; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-08-12

    Morphology control of solution coated solar cell materials presents a key challenge limiting their device performance and commercial viability. Here we present a new concept for controlling phase separation during solution printing using an all-polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell as a model system. The key aspect of our method lies in the design of fluid flow using a microstructured printing blade, on the basis of the hypothesis of flow-induced polymer crystallization. Our flow design resulted in a similar to 90% increase in the donor thin film crystallinity and reduced microphase separated donor and acceptor domain sizes. The improved morphology enhanced all metrics of solar cell device performance across various printing conditions, specifically leading to higher short-circuit current, fill factor, open circuit voltage and significantly reduced device-to-device variation. However, we expect our design concept to have broad applications beyond all-polymer solar cells because of its simplicity and versatility.

  17. Flow-enhanced solution printing of all-polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Diao, Ying; Zhou, Yan; Kurosawa, Tadanori; Shaw, Leo; Wang, Cheng; Park, Steve; Guo, Yikun; Reinspach, Julia A; Gu, Kevin; Gu, Xiaodan; Tee, Benjamin C K; Pang, Changhyun; Yan, Hongping; Zhao, Dahui; Toney, Michael F; Mannsfeld, Stefan C B; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-08-12

    Morphology control of solution coated solar cell materials presents a key challenge limiting their device performance and commercial viability. Here we present a new concept for controlling phase separation during solution printing using an all-polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell as a model system. The key aspect of our method lies in the design of fluid flow using a microstructured printing blade, on the basis of the hypothesis of flow-induced polymer crystallization. Our flow design resulted in a ∼90% increase in the donor thin film crystallinity and reduced microphase separated donor and acceptor domain sizes. The improved morphology enhanced all metrics of solar cell device performance across various printing conditions, specifically leading to higher short-circuit current, fill factor, open circuit voltage and significantly reduced device-to-device variation. We expect our design concept to have broad applications beyond all-polymer solar cells because of its simplicity and versatility.

  18. Flow-enhanced solution printing of all-polymer solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Ying; Zhou, Yan; Kurosawa, Tadanori; Shaw, Leo; Wang, Cheng; Park, Steve; Guo, Yikun; Reinspach, Julia A.; Gu, Kevin; Gu, Xiaodan; Tee, Benjamin C. K.; Pang, Changhyun; Yan, Hongping; Zhao, Dahui; Toney, Michael F.; Mannsfeld, Stefan C. B.; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-01-01

    Morphology control of solution coated solar cell materials presents a key challenge limiting their device performance and commercial viability. Here we present a new concept for controlling phase separation during solution printing using an all-polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell as a model system. The key aspect of our method lies in the design of fluid flow using a microstructured printing blade, on the basis of the hypothesis of flow-induced polymer crystallization. Our flow design resulted in a ∼90% increase in the donor thin film crystallinity and reduced microphase separated donor and acceptor domain sizes. The improved morphology enhanced all metrics of solar cell device performance across various printing conditions, specifically leading to higher short-circuit current, fill factor, open circuit voltage and significantly reduced device-to-device variation. We expect our design concept to have broad applications beyond all-polymer solar cells because of its simplicity and versatility. PMID:26264528

  19. Blood Flow through an Open-Celled Foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Jason; Maitland, Duncan

    2011-11-01

    The Hazen-Dupuit-Darcy (HDD) equation is commonly used in engineering applications to model the pressure gradient of flow through a porous media. One major advantage of this equation is that it simplifies the complex geometric details of the porous media into two coefficients: the permeability, K, and form factor, C. However through this simplification, the flow details within the porous media are no longer accessible, making it difficult to study the phenomena that contribute to changes in K and C due to clotting of blood flow. To obtain a more detailed understanding of blood flow through a porous media, a direct assessment of the complex interstitial geometry and flow is required. In this study, we solve the Navier-Stokes equations for Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood flow through an open-celled foam geometry obtained from a micro-CT scan. The nominal strut size of the foam sample is of O(10e-5) m and the corresponding Reynolds number based upon this length ranges up to O(10). Fitting the pressure gradient vs. Darcy velocity data with the HDD equation demonstrates that both viscous and inertial forces play an important role in the flow through the foam at these Reynolds numbers. Recirculation zones are observed to form in the wake of the pore struts, producing regions of flow characterized by both low shear rates and long fluid residence times, factors of which have been shown in previous studies to promote blood clotting.

  20. A comparative flow visualization study of thermocapillary flow in drops in liquid-liquid systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Rashidnia, N.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments are performed to visualize thermocapillary flow in drops in an immiscible host liquid. The host liquid used is silicone oil. Drops of three different liquids are used, viz, vegetable oil, water-methanol mixture anad pure methanol. Clear evidence of thermocapillary flow is seen in vegetable oil drops. For a mixture of water and methanol (approximately 50-50 by weight), natural convection is seen to dominate the flow outside the drop. Pure methanol drops exhibit thermocapillary flow, but dissolve in silicone oil. A small amount of water added to pure methanol significantly reduces the dissolution. Flow oscillations occur in this system for both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions.

  1. Influence of Flow Behavior of Alginate-Cell Suspensions on Cell Viability and Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Ning, Liqun; Guillemot, Arthur; Zhao, Jingxuan; Kipouros, Georges; Chen, Xiongbiao

    2016-07-01

    Tissue scaffolds with living cells fabricated by three-dimensional bioprinting/plotting techniques are becoming more prevalent in tissue repair and regeneration. In the bioprinting process, cells are subject to process-induced forces (such as shear force) that can result in cell damage and loss of cell function. The flow behavior of the biomaterial solutions that encapsulate living cells in this process plays an important role. This study used a rheometer to examine the flow behavior of alginate solution and alginate-Schwann cell (RSC96), alginate-fibroblast cell (NIH-3T3), and alginate-skeletal muscle cell (L8) suspensions during shearing with respect to effects on cell viability and proliferation. The flow behavior of all the alginate-cell suspensions varied with alginate concentration and cell density and had a significant influence on the viability and proliferation of the cells once sheared as well as on the recovery of the sheared cells. These findings provide a mean to preserve cell viability and/or retain cell proliferation function in the bioprinting process by regulating the flow behavior of cell-biomaterial suspensions and process parameters.

  2. Lymphocyte fractionation using immunomagnetic colloid and a dipole magnet flow cell sorter.

    PubMed

    Moore, L R; Zborowski, M; Sun, L; Chalmers, J J

    1998-09-24

    The relationship between cell function and surface marker expression is a subject of active investigation in biology and medicine. These investigations require separating cells of a homogeneous subset into multiple fractions of varying marker expression. We have developed a novel cell sorter, the dipole magnet flow sorter (DMFS), which separates selected T lymphocyte subpopulations, targeted by immunomagnetic colloid, into multiple fractions according to cell surface marker expression, as determined by flow cytometry. A narrow stream of cells is introduced into a sheath of carrier fluid in a rectangular channel while subjected to a perpendicular magnetic force. The special design of the pole pieces ensures a constant magnetic force acting on the magnetically labeled cells in the separation area. Cells are spread across the flow in relation to their magnetophoretic mobility. Separation is achieved by control of the positions of the effluent stream boundaries, which separate fluid volumes with cells of different magnetophoretic mobility. CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes labeled with primary antibody-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) conjugate and anti-FITC-magnetic colloid are the chosen cell systems. Flow cytometry analysis shows that, for CD4 cells, a three-fold increase in total marker number per cell is observed when comparing the highest to the lowest fluorescence fractions. Similarly, a four-fold increase in total marker number is observed for CD8 cells. We also observed the separation of two dissimilar cell types that differed in expression of the CD4 marker, monocytes and T helper lymphocytes. We believe that this type of separation is applicable to any cells in suspension for which a suitable antibody exists and, due to the comparatively gentle nature of the process, is particularly suitable for the sorting of fragile cells.

  3. Heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ben

    culture raceway for biofuel production. According to the proposed flow field design of ARID-HV algal raceway, experiments and numerical simulation have been conducted to understand the enhancement of flow mixing in the flow field of ARID-HV raceway by cutting slots on top of the dam near the dead zones. A new method was proposed to quantitatively evaluate the flow mixing by using the statistics of temporal and spatial distribution of the massless fluid particles (centered in each cell at the inlet surface) in the raceway collecting the data of path-lines of fluid particles from CFD results. It is hoped that this method can be applied to assist the algal raceway flow field design as well as other engineering applications. The third part introduces the details about the construction work of a high temperature molten salt test loop. Because of the limited operating temperature of conventional synthetic oils, in order to obtain higher energy conversion efficiency, higher operating temperature is always desirable in a CSP plant which leads to the requirement of new generation of HTF. Currently, a halide salt eutectic mixture (NaCl-KCl-ZnCl2) as a potential HTF for future CSP applications has been proposed by a multi-institute research team, led by University of Arizona. The thermophysical properties of the halide eutectic salt have been measured. However, this new developed halide eutectic salt has not been tested in a circulating loop at a high operating temperature for the measurement of heat transfer coefficient. It is a significant effort to build such a test system due to extremely high operating temperature. As a consequence, in the third part of this dissertation, details about the design of the lab-scale test system and all the equipment items will be introduced. The investigations included in this dissertation for the heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems are of particular interest to the renewable energy engineering community. It is expected

  4. Dynamic deformability of sickle red blood cells in microphysiological flow.

    PubMed

    Alapan, Y; Matsuyama, Y; Little, J A; Gurkan, U A

    2016-06-01

    In sickle cell disease (SCD), hemoglobin molecules polymerize intracellularly and lead to a cascade of events resulting in decreased deformability and increased adhesion of red blood cells (RBCs). Decreased deformability and increased adhesion of sickle RBCs lead to blood vessel occlusion (vaso-occlusion) in SCD patients. Here, we present a microfluidic approach integrated with a cell dimensioning algorithm to analyze dynamic deformability of adhered RBC at the single-cell level in controlled microphysiological flow. We measured and compared dynamic deformability and adhesion of healthy hemoglobin A (HbA) and homozygous sickle hemoglobin (HbS) containing RBCs in blood samples obtained from 24 subjects. We introduce a new parameter to assess deformability of RBCs: the dynamic deformability index (DDI), which is defined as the time-dependent change of the cell's aspect ratio in response to fluid flow shear stress. Our results show that DDI of HbS-containing RBCs were significantly lower compared to that of HbA-containing RBCs. Moreover, we observed subpopulations of HbS containing RBCs in terms of their dynamic deformability characteristics: deformable and non-deformable RBCs. Then, we tested blood samples from SCD patients and analyzed RBC adhesion and deformability at physiological and above physiological flow shear stresses. We observed significantly greater number of adhered non-deformable sickle RBCs than deformable sickle RBCs at flow shear stresses well above the physiological range, suggesting an interplay between dynamic deformability and increased adhesion of RBCs in vaso-occlusive events.

  5. The flow of sickle-cell blood in the capillaries.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, S A; King, W S

    1980-01-01

    Oxygen tension levels and red cell velocities for the flow of sickle-cell blood in the capillaries are determined by using the Krogh model for oxygen transport and lubrication theory for the cell motion. The coupling and interaction between these arises from the red cell compliance, which is assumed to vary with the oxygen concentration. Microsieving data is used to establish an upper bound for this relationship. Calculations are carried out for a range of capillary sizes, taking into account the rightward shift of the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve and the reduced hematocrit of sickle-cell blood, and are compared to, as a base case, the flow of normal blood under normal pressure gradient. The results indicate that under normal pressure gradients the oxygen tensions and cell velocities for sickle blood are considerably higher than for normal blood, thus acting against the tendency for cells to sickle, or significantly change their rheological properties, in the capillaries. Under reduced pressure gradients, however, the concentrations and velocities drop dramatically, adding to the likelihood of such shape or flow property changes. PMID:7260242

  6. Reduction of Europium in a Redox Flow Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Daluh; Horng, Jiin-Shiung; Tung, Chia-Pao

    1988-05-01

    An electrolytic cell similar to the iron I chromium redox flow cell was used to investigate the reduction of europium. The cell contains two compartments partitioned by an anion exchange membrane, which is permeable to chloride ions. The anolyte is ferrous chloride which is oxidized to ferric form at the anode. Rare-earth chloride prepared from Taiwan black monazite is fed as the catholyte. The reduction of europium was tested in two connected cells at 20 and 45°C. All of Eu3+ can be reduced at 45°C, and 72% of the europium can be recovered in sulfate form. In oxide form, purity is about 84%.

  7. Fuel cell gas management system

    DOEpatents

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur

    2000-01-11

    A fuel cell gas management system including a cathode humidification system for transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell equal to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  8. Design, modeling and characterization of microfluidic architectures for high flow rate, small footprint microfluidic systems.

    PubMed

    Saias, Laure; Autebert, Julien; Malaquin, Laurent; Viovy, Jean-Louis

    2011-03-07

    We propose a strategy for optimizing distribution of flow in a microfluidic chamber for microreactor, lateral flow assay and immunocapture applications. It is aimed at maximizing flow throughput, while keeping footprint, cell thickness, and shear stress in the distribution channels at a minimum, and offering a uniform flow field along the whole analysis chamber. In order to minimize footprint, the traditional tree-like or "rhombus" design, in which distribution microchannels undergo a series of splittings into two subchannels with equal lengths and widths, was replaced by a design in which subchannel lengths are unequal, and widths are analytically adapted within the Hele-Shaw approximation, in order to keep the flow resistance uniform along all flow paths. The design was validated by hydrodynamic flow simulation using COMSOL finite element software. Simulations show that, if the channel is too narrow, the Hele-Shaw approximation loses accuracy, and the flow velocity in the chamber can fluctuate by up to 20%. We thus used COMSOL simulation to fine-tune the channel parameters, and obtained a fluctuation of flow velocity across the whole chamber below 10%. The design was then implemented into a PDMS device, and flow profiles were measured experimentally using particle tracking. Finally, we show that this system can be applied to cell sorting in self-assembling magnetic arrays, increasing flow throughput by a factor 100 as compared to earlier reported designs.

  9. Performance on ETL 1 kW redox flow cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaki, K.; Kaneko, H.; Negishi, A.; Ozawa, T.

    A 1 kW - 3 kWh redox flow cell, in which 96 bipolar cells with the apparent electrode area of 432 sq cm are involved, has been developed and tested in Electrotechnical Laboratory. The rated output current and voltage are 26 A and 43 V. To elucidate fundamental aspects of the anolyte, polarography and spectroscopy were applied as well as observations with a miniaturized redox flow cell, and influence of the complex species in the anolyte on the cell performance has been recognized. During the charge and discharge cycles the anolyte was continuously monitored by the spectroscopy or controlled potential coulometry, while a voltammetric detector was applied for monitoring the catholyte. Further screening of carbon fiber electrode materials has been continued after the previous presentation, and among more than 70 varieties were found a few kinds of carbon fiber, with which the target performance can be achieved.

  10. Maximizing the power density of aqueous electrochemical flow cells with in operando deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulet, Marc-Antoni; Ibrahim, Omar A.; Kim, Will H. J.; Kjeang, Erik

    2017-01-01

    To transition toward sustainable energy systems, next generation power sources must provide high power density at minimum cost. Using inexpensive and environmentally friendly fabrication methods, this work describes a room temperature electrochemical flow cell with a maximum power density of 2.01 W cm-2 or 13.4 W cm-3. In part, this is achieved by minimizing ohmic resistance through decreased electrode spacing, implementation of current collectors and improvement of electrolyte conductivity. The majority of the performance gain is provided by a novel in operando dynamic flowing deposition method for which the cell design has been optimized. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are deposited dynamically at the entrance of and within the carbon paper electrodes during operation of the cell. A natural equilibrium is reached between deposition and detachment of CNTs at which the electrochemical surface area and pore size distribution of the flow-through porous electrodes are greatly enhanced. In this way, the novel deposition method more than doubles the power density of the cell and sets a new performance benchmark for what is practically attainable with aqueous electrochemical flow cells. Overall, it is expected that the design and operation methods illustrated here will enable a wide range of electrochemical flow cell technologies to achieve optimal performance.

  11. Cell confluency analysis on microcarriers by micro-flow imaging.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Christopher J; Cicalese, Stephanie M; Davis, Harrison B; Dogdas, Belma; Shah, Tosha; Culp, Tim; Hoang, Van M

    2016-12-01

    The productivity of cell culture-derived vaccines grown in anchorage-dependent animal cells is limited by bioreactor surface area. One way to increase the available surface area is by growing cells as monolayers on small spheres called microcarriers, which are approximately 100-250 μm in diameter. In order for microcarrier-based cell culture to be a success, it is important to understand the kinetics of cell growth on the microcarriers. Micro-flow imaging (MFI) is a simple and powerful technique that captures images and analyzes samples as they are drawn through a precision flow cell. In addition to providing size distribution and defect frequency data to compare microcarrier lots, MFI was used to generate hundreds of images to determine cell coverage and confluency on microcarriers. Same-day manual classification of these images provided upstream cell culture teams with actionable data that informed in-process decision making (e.g. time of infection). Additionally, an automated cell coverage algorithm was developed to increase the speed and throughput of the analyses.

  12. Position paper -- Tank ventilation system design air flow rates

    SciTech Connect

    Goolsby, G.K.

    1995-01-04

    The purpose of this paper is to document a project position on required ventilation system design air flow rates for the waste storage tanks currently being designed by project W-236A, the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF). The Title 1 design primary tank heat removal system consists of two systems: a primary tank vapor space ventilation system; and an annulus ventilation system. At the conclusion of Title 1 design, air flow rates for the primary and annulus ventilation systems were 960 scfm and 4,400 scfm, respectively, per tank. These design flow rates were capable of removing 1,250,000 Btu/hr from each tank. However, recently completed and ongoing studies have resulted in a design change to reduce the extreme case heat load to 700,000 Btu/hr. This revision of the extreme case heat load, coupled with results of scale model evaporative testing performed by WHC Thermal Hydraulics, allow for a reduction of the design air flow rates for both primary and annulus ventilation systems. Based on the preceding discussion, ICF Kaiser Hanford Co. concludes that the design should incorporate the following design air flow rates: Primary ventilation system--500 scfm maximum and Annulus ventilation system--1,100 scfm maximum. In addition, the minimum air flow rates in the primary and annulus ventilation systems will be investigated during Title 2 design. The results of the Title 2 investigation will determine the range of available temperature control using variable air flows to both ventilation systems.

  13. Numerical investigation of granular flow in a shear cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Zhu, H. P.; Yu, A. B.; Luding, S.

    2013-06-01

    Granular flow in a shear cell under conditions relevant to those in an annular cell is investigated based on the results obtained by using the Discrete Element Method. The distributions of porosity and coordination number are studied, and the relationship of these variables is established. The so-called I-rheology proposed by Jop et al. [Nature (London) 441, 727 (2006)] is tested. The results display that the I-rheology can effectively describe the intermediate flow regime, whereas significant deviations take place when it is applied to the quasi-static regime. The correlations between stresses and packing fraction are examined and the packing fraction values for the quasi-static/intermediate and intermediate/inertial regime transitions are identified. The force networks/structures for different scaled stiffness are analyzed to further understand the regime-transitions for the granular flow.

  14. Detection, isolation, and capture of circulating breast cancer cells with photoacoustic flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Kiran; Njoroge, Martin; Goldschmidt, Benjamin S.; Gaffigan, Brian; Rood, Kyle; Viator, John A.

    2013-03-01

    According to the CDC, breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer related deaths among women. Metastasis, or the presence of secondary tumors caused by the spread of cancer cells via the circulatory or lymphatic systems, significantly worsens the prognosis of any breast cancer patient. In this study, a technique is developed to detect circulating breast cancer cells in human blood using a photoacoustic flow cytometry method. A Q-switched laser with a 5 ns pulse at 532 nm is used to interrogate thousands of cells with one pulse as they flow through the beam path. Cells which are pigmented, either naturally or artificially, emit an ultrasound wave as a result of the photoacoustic (PA) effect. Breast cancer cells are targeted with chromophores through immunochemistry in order to provide pigment. After which, the device is calibrated to demonstrate a single-cell detection limit. Cultured breast cancer cells are added to whole blood to reach a biologically relevant concentration of about 25-45 breast cancer cells per 1 mL of blood. An in vitro photoacoustic flow cytometer is used to detect and isolate these cells followed by capture with the use of a micromanipulator. This method can not only be used to determine the disease state of the patient and the response to therapy, it can also be used for genetic testing and in vitro drug trials since the circulating cell can be captured and studied.

  15. Detection and capture of breast cancer cells with photoacoustic flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Kiran; Goldschmidt, Benjamin S.; Viator, John A.

    2016-08-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer related deaths among women. Metastasis-the presence of secondary tumors caused by the spread of cancer cells via the circulatory or lymphatic systems-significantly worsens the prognosis of any breast cancer patient. A technique is developed to detect circulating breast cancer cells in human blood using a photoacoustic flow cytometry method. A Q-switched laser is used to interrogate thousands of blood cells with one pulse as they flow through the beam path. Cells that are optically absorbing, either naturally or artificially, emit an ultrasound wave as a result of the photoacoustic (PA) effect. Breast cancer cells are targeted with chromophores through immunochemistry in order to enhance optical absorption. After which, the PA cytometry device is calibrated to demonstrate the ability to detect single cells. Cultured breast cancer cells are added to whole blood to reach a biologically relevant concentration of about 25 to 45 breast cancer cells per 1 mL of blood. An in vitro PA flow cytometer is used to detect and isolate these cells followed by capture with the use of a micromanipulator. This method can not only be used to determine the disease state of the patient and the response to therapy but also it can be used for genetic testing and in vitro drug trials since the circulating cell can be captured and studied.

  16. Modelling the damage potential of fluid flows for animal cells undergoing cultivation in bioreactors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanford Keen, Giles

    1996-11-01

    Mechanical disruption and injury sustained by animal cells undergoing cultivation in bioreactors is an important problem in biotechnology. Damage to cells is thought to be caused primarily by bubbles bursting at the free surface of the culture medium. Here we present computational studies applying a mathematical model for the cell damage rates experienced by cells in laminar flow. Two fluid dynamical systems are considered - namely a converging channel and a single bursting bubble. The flows are calculated using a fourth-order finite difference technique on a stretched grid, and a boundary integral method respectively. It is possible to obtain an estimate for the number of cells in a particular population which are likely to be disrupted by the forces they experience in the flow. This is done by calculating the maximum rate of strain experienced by fluid particles, and combining this with experimental data on the strength and size of cells, obtained by micromanipulation techniques. The resulting information is then used together with the cell damage model to produce a cell damage prediction. The computational results are compared with experimental measurements of cell death, to validate the model for cell damage.

  17. Integrated Microfluidic Flow-Through Microbial Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huawei; Ali, Md Azahar; Xu, Zhen; Halverson, Larry J; Dong, Liang

    2017-01-25

    This paper reports on a miniaturized microbial fuel cell with a microfluidic flow-through configuration: a porous anolyte chamber is formed by filling a microfluidic chamber with three-dimensional graphene foam as anode, allowing nutritional medium to flow through the chamber to intimately interact with the colonized microbes on the scaffolds of the anode. No nutritional media flow over the anode. This allows sustaining high levels of nutrient utilization, minimizing consumption of nutritional substrates, and reducing response time of electricity generation owing to fast mass transport through pressure-driven flow and rapid diffusion of nutrients within the anode. The device provides a volume power density of 745 μW/cm(3) and a surface power density of 89.4 μW/cm(2) using Shewanella oneidensis as a model biocatalyst without any optimization of bacterial culture. The medium consumption and the response time of the flow-through device are reduced by 16.4 times and 4.2 times, respectively, compared to the non-flow-through counterpart with its freeway space volume six times the volume of graphene foam anode. The graphene foam enabled microfluidic flow-through approach will allow efficient microbial conversion of carbon-containing bioconvertible substrates to electricity with smaller space, less medium consumption, and shorter start-up time.

  18. Integrated Microfluidic Flow-Through Microbial Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Huawei; Ali, Md. Azahar; Xu, Zhen; Halverson, Larry J.; Dong, Liang

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on a miniaturized microbial fuel cell with a microfluidic flow-through configuration: a porous anolyte chamber is formed by filling a microfluidic chamber with three-dimensional graphene foam as anode, allowing nutritional medium to flow through the chamber to intimately interact with the colonized microbes on the scaffolds of the anode. No nutritional media flow over the anode. This allows sustaining high levels of nutrient utilization, minimizing consumption of nutritional substrates, and reducing response time of electricity generation owing to fast mass transport through pressure-driven flow and rapid diffusion of nutrients within the anode. The device provides a volume power density of 745 μW/cm3 and a surface power density of 89.4 μW/cm2 using Shewanella oneidensis as a model biocatalyst without any optimization of bacterial culture. The medium consumption and the response time of the flow-through device are reduced by 16.4 times and 4.2 times, respectively, compared to the non-flow-through counterpart with its freeway space volume six times the volume of graphene foam anode. The graphene foam enabled microfluidic flow-through approach will allow efficient microbial conversion of carbon-containing bioconvertible substrates to electricity with smaller space, less medium consumption, and shorter start-up time.

  19. Integrated Microfluidic Flow-Through Microbial Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Huawei; Ali, Md. Azahar; Xu, Zhen; Halverson, Larry J.; Dong, Liang

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on a miniaturized microbial fuel cell with a microfluidic flow-through configuration: a porous anolyte chamber is formed by filling a microfluidic chamber with three-dimensional graphene foam as anode, allowing nutritional medium to flow through the chamber to intimately interact with the colonized microbes on the scaffolds of the anode. No nutritional media flow over the anode. This allows sustaining high levels of nutrient utilization, minimizing consumption of nutritional substrates, and reducing response time of electricity generation owing to fast mass transport through pressure-driven flow and rapid diffusion of nutrients within the anode. The device provides a volume power density of 745 μW/cm3 and a surface power density of 89.4 μW/cm2 using Shewanella oneidensis as a model biocatalyst without any optimization of bacterial culture. The medium consumption and the response time of the flow-through device are reduced by 16.4 times and 4.2 times, respectively, compared to the non-flow-through counterpart with its freeway space volume six times the volume of graphene foam anode. The graphene foam enabled microfluidic flow-through approach will allow efficient microbial conversion of carbon-containing bioconvertible substrates to electricity with smaller space, less medium consumption, and shorter start-up time. PMID:28120875

  20. Axial dispersion in flowing red blood cell suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgorski, Thomas; Losserand, Sylvain; Coupier, Gwennou

    2016-11-01

    A key parameter in blood microcirculation is the transit time of red blood cells (RBCs) through an organ, which can influence the efficiency of gas exchange and oxygen availability. A large dispersion of this transit time is observed in vivo and is partly due to the axial dispersion in the flowing suspension. In the classic Taylor-Aris example of a solute flowing in a tube, the combination of molecular diffusion and parabolic velocity profile leads to enhanced axial dispersion. In suspensions of non-Brownian deformable bodies such as RBCs, axial dispersion is governed by a combination of shear induced migration and shear-induced diffusion arising from hydrodynamic interactions. We revisit this problem in the case of RBC pulses flowing in a microchannel and show that the axial dispersion of the pulse eventually saturates with a final extension that depends directly on RBC mechanical properties. The result is especially interesting in the dilute limit since the final pulse length depends only on the channel width, exponent of the migration law and dimensionless migration velocity. In continuous flow, the dispersion of transit times is the result of complex cell-cell and cell-wall interactions and is strongy influenced by the polydispersity of the blood sample. The authors acknowledge support from LabEx TEC21 and CNES.

  1. INNOVATIVE URBAN WET-WEATHER FLOW MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes innovative methods to improve wet weather flow (WWF) management systems, that provide drainage services at the same time as decreasing stormwater pollutant discharges, for urban developments of the 21st century. Traditionally, wet-weather collection systems...

  2. Death Valley regional groundwater flow system, Nevada and California-Hydrogeologic framework and transient groundwater flow model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    : Belcher, Wayne R.; Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2010-01-01

    by acquiring additional data, by reevaluating existing data using current technology and concepts, and by refining earlier interpretations to reflect the current understanding of the regional groundwater flow system. Groundwater flow in the Death Valley region is composed of several interconnected, complex groundwater flow systems. Groundwater flow occurs in three subregions in relatively shallow and localized flow paths that are superimposed on deeper, regional flow paths. Regional groundwater flow is predominantly through a thick Paleozoic carbonate rock sequence affected by complex geologic structures from regional faulting and fracturing that can enhance or impede flow. Spring flow and ET are the dominant natural groundwater discharge processes. Groundwater also is withdrawn for agricultural, commercial, and domestic uses. Groundwater flow in the DVRFS was simulated using MODFLOW-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey 3D finitedifference modular groundwater flow modeling code that incorporates a nonlinear least-squares regression technique to estimate aquifer parameters. The DVRFS model has 16 layers of defined thickness, a finite-difference grid consisting of 194 rows and 160 columns, and uniform cells 1,500 meters (m) on each side. Prepumping conditions (before 1913) were used as the initial conditions for the transient-state calibration. The model uses annual stress periods with discrete recharge and discharge components. Recharge occurs mostly from infiltration of precipitation and runoff on high mountain ranges and from a small amount of underflow from adjacent basins. Discharge occurs primarily through ET and spring discharge (both simulated as drains) and water withdrawal by pumping and, to a lesser amount, by underflow to adjacent basins simulated by constant-head boundaries. All parameter values estimated by the regression are reasonable and within the range of expected values. The simulated hydraulic heads of the final calibrated transient mode

  3. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    : Belcher, Wayne R.

    2004-01-01

    provided by acquiring additional data, by reevaluating existing data using current technology and concepts, and by refining earlier interpretations to reflect the current understanding of the regional ground-water flow system. Ground-water flow in the Death Valley region is composed of several interconnected, complex ground-water flow systems. Ground-water flow occurs in three subregions in relatively shallow and localized flow paths that are superimposed on deeper, regional flow paths. Regional ground-water flow is predominantly through a thick Paleozoic carbonate rock sequence affected by complex geologic structures from regional faulting and fracturing that can enhance or impede flow. Spring flow and evapotranspiration (ET) are the dominant natural ground-water discharge processes. Ground water also is withdrawn for agricultural, commercial, and domestic uses. Ground-water flow in the DVRFS was simulated using MODFLOW-2000, a 3D finite-difference modular ground-water flow modeling code that incorporates a nonlinear least-squares regression technique to estimate aquifer parameters. The DVRFS model has 16 layers of defined thickness, a finite-difference grid consisting of 194 rows and 160 columns, and uniform cells 1,500 m on each side. Prepumping conditions (before 1913) were used as the initial conditions for the transient-state calibration. The model uses annual stress periods with discrete recharge and discharge components. Recharge occurs mostly from infiltration of precipitation and runoff on high mountain ranges and from a small amount of underflow from adjacent basins. Discharge occurs primarily through ET and spring discharge (both simulated as drains) and water withdrawal by pumping and, to a lesser amount, by underflow to adjacent basins, also simulated by drains. All parameter values estimated by the regression are reasonable and within the range of expected values. The simulated hydraulic heads of the final calibrated transient model gener

  4. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard

    2015-09-29

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  5. Fluid flow releases fibroblast growth factor-2 from human aortic smooth muscle cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoads, D. N.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.

    2000-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that fluid shear stress regulates the release of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 from human aortic smooth muscle cells. FGF-2 is a potent mitogen that is involved in the response to vascular injury and is expressed in a wide variety of cell types. FGF-2 is found in the cytoplasm of cells and outside cells, where it associates with extracellular proteoglycans. To test the hypothesis that shear stress regulates FGF-2 release, cells were exposed to flow, and FGF-2 amounts were measured from the conditioned medium, pericellular fraction (extracted by heparin treatment), and cell lysate. Results from the present study show that after 15 minutes of shear stress at 25 dyne/cm(2) in a parallel-plate flow system, a small but significant fraction (17%) of the total FGF-2 was released from human aortic smooth muscle cells. FGF-2 levels in the circulating medium increased 10-fold over medium from static controls (P<0.01). A 50% increase in FGF-2 content versus control (P<0.01) was found in the pericellular fraction (extracted by heparin treatment). Furthermore, a significant decrease in FGF-2 was detected in the cell lysate, indicating that FGF-2 was released from inside the cell. Cell permeability studies with fluorescent dextran were performed to examine whether transient membrane disruption caused FGF-2 release. Flow cytometry detected a 50% increase in mean fluorescence of cells exposed to 25 dyne/cm(2) versus control cells. This indicates that the observed FGF-2 release from human aortic smooth muscle cells is likely due to transient membrane disruption on initiation of flow.

  6. Process simulation of a PEM fuel cell system

    SciTech Connect

    Ledjeff-Hey, K.; Roes, J.; Formanski, V.; Gieshoff, J.; Vogel, B.

    1996-01-01

    The thermodynamic performance of a PEM fuel cell system for producing electrical power from natural gas is investigated by considering the flows of energy and energy through the various steps of the whole system. The flows of energy are evaluated using a computer code for energy and energy analyses. The fuel cell system is designed to produce a hydrogen volumetric flow of nearly 5.0 m{sup 3} {sub NTP}/h, provided to the fuel cell at an absolute pressure of 2.9 bar. The fuel cell itself is working with an efficiency of about 60 % at an operating temperature of 65 - 75{degrees} C with an air ratio of four and provides a maximum electric power of 9 kW. Taking into consideration only the produced electric power as useful output of the fuel cell system a total efficiency of 42.2 % is calculated using the simulation results.

  7. Stress distributions and cell flows in a growing cell aggregate

    PubMed Central

    Delarue, Morgan; Joanny, Jean-François; Jülicher, Frank; Prost, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the short-time response of a multicellular spheroid to an external pressure jump. Our experiments show that 5 min after the pressure jump, the cell density increases in the centre of the spheroid but does not change appreciably close to the surface of the spheroid. This result can be explained if the cells are polarized which we show to be the case. Motivated by the experimental results, we develop a theory for polarized spheroids where the cell polarity is radial (except in a thin shell close to the spheroid surface). The theory takes into account the dependence of cell division and apoptosis rates on the local stress, the cell polarity and active stress generated by the cells and the dependence of active stress on the local pressure. We find a short-time increase of the cell density after a pressure jump that decays as a power law from the spheroid centre, which is in reasonable agreement with the experimental results. By comparing our theory to experiments, we can estimate the isotropic compression modulus of the tissue. PMID:25485084

  8. Experimental analysis of internal gas flow configurations for a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, A.; Fraser, S. D.; Baumgartner, W. R.; Hacker, V.

    The internal gas distribution system utilised for supplying fresh reactants and removing reaction products from the individual cells of a fuel cell stack can be designed in a parallel, a serial or a mixture of parallel and serial gas flow configuration. In order to investigate the interdependence between the internal stack gas distribution configuration and single cell as well as overall stack performance, a small laboratory-scale fuel cell stack consisting of identical unit cells was subject to operation with different gas distribution configurations and different operating parameters. The current/voltage characteristics measured with the different gas distribution configurations are analysed and compared on unit cell- as well as on stack-level. The results show the significant impact of the internal stack gas distribution system on operation and performance of the individual unit cells and the overall stack.

  9. Comparative testing of various flow-cell detectors fabricated using CaF{sub 2} solid scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, T.; Ohashi, H.; Hamada, Y.; Jamsranjav, E.

    2015-03-15

    A monitoring system based on a flow-cell detector was developed for measuring the tritium concentration in water. The flow-cell detector was fabricated using a granular CaF{sub 2} solid scintillator. This system does not use a liquid scintillation counting system and does not generate radioactive organic liquid waste. Moreover, continuous real-time measurements are possible, in contrast to a liquid scintillation counting system, which requires batch measurements. For further development of the system, four flow-cell detectors were fabricated. They included a single 3-mm-diameter cell, three 3-mm-diameter cells in series, a single 5-mm-diameter cell, and three 5-mm-diameter cells in series. Continuously flowing water containing tritium at various concentrations was passed through the flow cells, and tritium count were measured for 600 and 10000 s. Investigating the relation between the count rate and concentration, the three 5-mm-diameter cells were most sensitive, with a linear relation maintained down to approximately 2 Bq/ml and 10 Bq/ml for 10000- and 600-s measurements, respectively. (authors)

  10. Cell-cooling in flow cytometry by Peltier elements.

    PubMed

    Göttlinger, C; Meyer, K L; Weichel, W; Müller, W; Raftery, B; Radbruch, A

    1986-05-01

    We have built a cooling device for cell suspensions in flow cytometry that makes use of the Peltier effect (Barnard RD, Thermo electricity in Metals and Alloys, Taylor and Francis, London; Siemens-Z 34:383-88, 1963). The prototype described here is used for cooling collection tubes during long-duration cell sorting and is capable of maintaining a temperature of 2-5 degrees C in a cell suspension of up to 3 ml. In general, Peltier element-based cooling is useful for equilibrating the temperature of small volumes of fluids. Furthermore, Peltier element-based cooling devices are easy to build and handle.

  11. Geochemical and Isotopic Interpretations of Groundwater Flow in the Oasis Valley Flow System, Southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Thomas; F.C. Benedict, Jr.; T.P. Rose; R.L. Hershey; J.B. Paces; Z.E. Peterman; I.M. Farnham; K.H. Johannesson; A.K. Singh; K.J. Stetzenbach; G.B. Hudson; J.M. Kenneally; G.F. Eaton; D.K. Smith

    2003-01-08

    This report summarizes the findings of a geochemical investigation of the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley groundwater flow system in southwestern Nevada. It is intended to provide geochemical data and interpretations in support of flow and contaminant transport modeling for the Western and Central Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Units.

  12. Quantitative analysis of cell migration using optical flow.

    PubMed

    Boric, Katica; Orio, Patricio; Viéville, Thierry; Whitlock, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Neural crest cells exhibit dramatic migration behaviors as they populate their distant targets. Using a line of zebrafish expressing green fluorescent protein (sox10:EGFP) in neural crest cells we developed an assay to analyze and quantify cell migration as a population, and use it here to characterize in detail the subtle defects in cell migration caused by ethanol exposure during early development. The challenge was to quantify changes in the in vivo migration of all Sox10:EGFP expressing cells in the visual field of time-lapse movies. To perform this analysis we used an Optical Flow algorithm for motion detection and combined the analysis with a fit to an affine transformation. Through this analysis we detected and quantified significant differences in the cell migrations of Sox10:EGFP positive cranial neural crest populations in ethanol treated versus untreated embryos. Specifically, treatment affected migration by increasing the left-right asymmetry of the migrating cells and by altering the direction of cell movements. Thus, by applying this novel computational analysis, we were able to quantify the movements of populations of cells, allowing us to detect subtle changes in cell behaviors. Because cranial neural crest cells contribute to the formation of the frontal mass these subtle differences may underlie commonly observed facial asymmetries in normal human populations.

  13. Blood Flow and the Vascular System: An Interface of Fluid Mechanics with Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerem, Robert

    1998-11-01

    The cardiovascular system has as its primary function the delivery of blood to the tissues of the body. Important in the regulation of this function is the monolayer of endothelial cells positioned as the inner lining of a blood vessel. This endothelium represents the interface with flowing blood, and over the past two decades much has been learned about the response of endothelial cells to flow and the associated shear stress. The nature of this response is dependent on the detailed characteristics of the flow, with there as an example being significant differences in the response to steady flow as compared to oscillatory flow. The response to flow also is an active process, one involving structural and shape changes as well as alterations in the cell's ability to synthesize and secrete biologically active molecules. A critical question is how does the endothelial cell sense its fluid mechanical environment? Having sensed this environment, how is this signal transduced into the types of cellular changes that have been observed? These questions are beginning to be answered, and with this knowledge one can begin to develop computational models of the response of an endothelial cell to flow. The model described here focuses on intracellular calcium, an important second messenger in the transduction of a flow signal. As mechanisms for the recognition of flow, the model includes effects due to both convection diffusion coupling of the transport of small molecules to the cell's surface and mechanically-gated ion channels in the cell's membrane. It also includes a variety of intracellular mechanisms involved in the regulation of calcium dynamics. Although the model is only an initial step in quantifying our understanding of endothelial biology, approximate agreement with experimental results has been obtained. Even so, there still is much to be done if the model is to be further improved.

  14. [Cell polarity in the cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Haller, C; Kübler, W

    1999-05-01

    The importance of cell polarity as a fundamental biological principle is increasingly recognized in the cardiovascular system. Polar cell mechanisms underlie not only the development of the heart and blood vessels, but also play a major role in the adult organism for polarized endothelial functions such as the separation of the intra- and extravascular compartment and the vectorial exchange of substances between these compartments. Endothelial cells are connected through intercellular junctions which separate the functionally and structurally distinct luminal and abluminal cell surfaces. The luminal plasma membrane is in contact with the blood and takes part in the regulation of hemostasis. The abluminal cell membrane connects the endothelial cell with the basement membrane and modulates blood flow through the release of vasoactive substances. Results from epithelial model systems have shown that the polarized cell phenotype is generated by specific protein sorting and regulated protein trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the cell surface. The polarized distribution of cell membrane proteins is maintained by anchorage with the cytoskeleton and limitation of lateral diffusion by tight junctions. Disturbances of cell polarity may contribute to the pathogenesis of disease states, including ischemic and radiocontrast-induced acute renal failure and carcinomas. Recent results have demonstrated the importance of cholesterol for protein traffic from the trans-Golgi network to the apical cell membrane. This novel intracellular function of cholesterol could point to a connection between cell polarity and the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis. The polarity of the endothelium also has to be taken into account when developing gene-therapeutic strategies, since therapeutic success will not only depend on the efficient expression of the desired gene product, but also on its correct cellular location or secretion into the correct extracellular compartment. These

  15. Reversible logic gates based on enzyme-biocatalyzed reactions and realized in flow cells: a modular approach.

    PubMed

    Fratto, Brian E; Katz, Evgeny

    2015-05-18

    Reversible logic gates, such as the double Feynman gate, Toffoli gate and Peres gate, with 3-input/3-output channels are realized using reactions biocatalyzed with enzymes and performed in flow systems. The flow devices are constructed using a modular approach, where each flow cell is modified with one enzyme that biocatalyzes one chemical reaction. The multi-step processes mimicking the reversible logic gates are organized by combining the biocatalytic cells in different networks. This work emphasizes logical but not physical reversibility of the constructed systems. Their advantages and disadvantages are discussed and potential use in biosensing systems, rather than in computing devices, is suggested.

  16. Multi-stage fuel cell system method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    George, Thomas J.; Smith, William C.

    2000-01-01

    A high efficiency, multi-stage fuel cell system method and apparatus is provided. The fuel cell system is comprised of multiple fuel cell stages, whereby the temperatures of the fuel and oxidant gas streams and the percentage of fuel consumed in each stage are controlled to optimize fuel cell system efficiency. The stages are connected in a serial, flow-through arrangement such that the oxidant gas and fuel gas flowing through an upstream stage is conducted directly into the next adjacent downstream stage. The fuel cell stages are further arranged such that unspent fuel and oxidant laden gases too hot to continue within an upstream stage because of material constraints are conducted into a subsequent downstream stage which comprises a similar cell configuration, however, which is constructed from materials having a higher heat tolerance and designed to meet higher thermal demands. In addition, fuel is underutilized in each stage, resulting in a higher overall fuel cell system efficiency.

  17. Dynamics of model blood cells in shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgorski, Thomas; Callens, Natacha; Minetti, Christophe; Coupier, Gwennou; Dubois, Frank; Misbah, Chaouqi

    The dynamics of a vesicle suspension in shear flow was investigated by digital holographic microscopy [1] in parabolic flights and in the MASER 11 sounding rocket. Vesicles are lipid membranes which mimic the mechanical behaviour of cells, such as red blood cells in flow. In a simple shear flow between parallel walls, a lift force of purely viscous origin pushes vesicles away from walls. Our parabolic flight experiments [2] reveal that the lift velocity in a dilute suspen-sion is well described by theoretical predictions by Olla. As vesicles gather near the center of the flow chamber due to lift forces from both walls, one expects hydrodynamic interactions of pairs of vesicles to result in shear induced diffusion in the suspension. The BIOMICS experi-ment in the MASER 11 sounding rocket revealed a complex spatial structure of a polydisperse vesicle suspension due to the interplay between lift forces from the walls and hydrodynamic interactions. These phenomena have a strong impact on the structure and rheology of blood in small vessels, and a precise knowledge of the dynamics of migration and diffusion of soft particles in flow can lead to alternative ways to separate and sort blood cells. 1. Dubois, F., Schockaert, C., Callens, N., Yourrassowsky, C., "Focus plane detection criteria in digital holography microscopy by amplitude analysis", Opt. Express, Vol. 14, pp 5895-5908, 2006 2. Callens, N., Minetti, C., Coupier, G., Mader, M.-A., Dubois, F., Misbah, C., Podgorski, T., "Hydrodynamics lift of vesicles under shear flow in microgravity", Europhys. Lett., Vol. 83, p. 24002, 2008

  18. Characterizing blood cells by biophysical measurements in flow.

    PubMed

    Groner, W; Tycko, D

    1980-01-01

    One effect of automation in the hematology laboratory has been to introduce new characterizations of blood cells. Resistive pulse sensing (Coulter) and light scatter measurements in flow provide rapid and reproducible cell counts. They also provide information about red cell size, shape, and deformability. Thus, they have provided new characterization of these cells in terms of their biophysical properties. Leukocytes have been classified by optical scatter and absorption measurements in flow after being stained cytochemically. This provides rapid and precise WBC differential counts. However, here again, additional information about relative cell-enzyme content or activity is also accessible to provide a new characterization of the leukocytes. The ultimate range of utility of this expanding technology in the automated hematology laboratory of the future will, of course, depend upon establishing relations between the biophysical parameters and the functions of the cells. This, in turn, must depend upon the use of the technology by researchers and clinicians in studying cell function and the aberrations of these functions which define disease.

  19. Compact Fuel-Cell System Would Consume Neat Methanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Kindler, Andrew; Valdez, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    In a proposed direct methanol fuel-cell electric-power-generating system, the fuel cells would consume neat methanol, in contradistinction to the dilute aqueous methanol solutions consumed in prior direct methanol fuel-cell systems. The design concept of the proposed fuel-cell system takes advantage of (1) electro-osmotic drag and diffusion processes to manage the flows of hydrogen and water between the anode and the cathode and (2) evaporative cooling for regulating temperature. The design concept provides for supplying enough water to the anodes to enable the use of neat methanol while ensuring conservation of water for the whole fuel-cell system.

  20. Hydrodynamic modeling of granular flows in a modified Couette cell.

    PubMed

    Jop, Pierre

    2008-03-01

    We present simulations of granular flows in a modified Couette cell, using a continuum model recently proposed for dense granular flows. Based on a friction coefficient, which depends on an inertial number, the model captures the positions of the wide shear bands. We show that a smooth transition in velocity-profile shape occurs when the height of the granular material is increased, leading to a differential rotation of the central part close to the surface. The numerical predictions are in qualitative agreement with previous experimental results. The model provides predictions for the increase of the shear band width when the rotation rate is increased.

  1. Photothermal imaging of moving cells in lymph and blood flow in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharov, Vladimir P.; Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2004-07-01

    The in vivo capabilities of a new, integrated optical system for studying lymph and blood flow were explored, including imaging of moving red and white blood cells. This system combined transmission microscopy with different dual-beam photothermal (PT) techniques, such as PT imaging, PT thermolens method, and PT deflection velocimetry. All of these PT techniques are based on irradiation of rat mesenteric microvessels with a short laser pulse and on detection of temperature-dependent variations of the refractive index with a second, probe laser beam. In general, the concept of in vivo PT flow cytometry was developed, with a focus on real-time monitoring of moving blood cells in their natural states without labeling (e.g., fluorescent), including obtaining PT images of the cells and determining their flow velocity and response to different interventions. Preliminary experiments revealed many potential applications of this integrated system: (1) quantitation of lymph and blood flow without probes; (2) imaging of moving red and white blood cells; (3) visualization and tracking of PT nanoprobes and sensitizers; (4) comparison of laser-tissue interactions in vivo and in vitro, especially optimization of laser treatment of vascular lesions (port-wine stains, lymphatic malformations, etc.); and (5) determination of the link between in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity studies.

  2. In Vitro Model of Physiological and Pathological Blood Flow with Application to Investigations of Vascular Cell Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Winston; Scott-Drechsel, Devon; Tan, Wei

    2015-11-03

    Vascular disease is a common cause of death within the United States. Herein, we present a method to examine the contribution of flow dynamics towards vascular disease pathologies. Unhealthy arteries often present with wall stiffening, scarring, or partial stenosis which may all affect fluid flow rates, and the magnitude of pulsatile flow, or pulsatility index. Replication of various flow conditions is the result of tuning a flow pressure damping chamber downstream of a blood pump. Introduction of air within a closed flow system allows for a compressible medium to absorb pulsatile pressure from the pump, and therefore vary the pulsatility index. The method described herein is simply reproduced, with highly controllable input, and easily measurable results. Some limitations are recreation of the complex physiological pulse waveform, which is only approximated by the system. Endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts are affected by the blood flow through the artery. The dynamic component of blood flow is determined by the cardiac output and arterial wall compliance. Vascular cell mechano-transduction of flow dynamics may trigger cytokine release and cross-talk between cell types within the artery. Co-culture of vascular cells is a more accurate picture reflecting cell-cell interaction on the blood vessel wall and vascular response to mechanical signaling. Contribution of flow dynamics, including the cell response to the dynamic and mean (or steady) components of flow, is therefore an important metric in determining disease pathology and treatment efficacy. Through introducing an in vitro co-culture model and pressure damping downstream of blood pump which produces simulated cardiac output, various arterial disease pathologies may be investigated.

  3. Numerical analysis of cell adhesion in capillary flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeishi, Naoki; Imai, Yohsuke; Ishida, Shunichi; Omori, Toshihiro; Kamm, Roger; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2016-11-01

    Numerical simulation of cell adhesion was performed for capillaries whose diameter is comparable to or smaller than that of the cell. Despite a lot of works about leukocyte and tumor cell rolling, cell motion in capillaries has remained unclear. The solid and fluid mechanics of a cell in flow was coupled with a slip bond model of ligand-receptor interactions. When the size of a capillary was reduced, the cell always transitioned to "bullet-like" motion, with a consequent decrease in the velocity of the cell. A state diagram is obtained for various values of capillary diameter and receptor density. According to our numerical results, bullet motion enables firm adhesion of a cell to the capillary wall even for a weak ligand-receptor binding. We also quantified effects of various parameters, including the dissociation rate constant, the spring constant, and the reactive compliance on the characteristics of cell motion. Our results suggest that even under the interaction between PSGL-1 and P-selectin, which is mainly responsible for leukocyte rolling, a cell is able to show firm adhesion in a small capillary. These findings may help in understanding such phenomena as leukocyte plugging and cancer metastasis. This research was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 25000008, 26107703, 14J03967. We also acknowledge support from the Tohoku University Division for International Advanced Research and Education Organization.

  4. Effect of Flow on Gene Regulation in Smooth Muscle Cells and Macromolecular Transport Across Endothelial Cell Monolayers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McIntire, Larry V.; Wagner, John E.; Papadaki, Maria; Whitson, Peggy A.; Eskin, Suzanne G.

    1996-01-01

    Endothelial cells line all of the vessels of the circulatory system, providing a non-thrombogenic conduit for blood flow; they regulate many complex functions in the vasculature, such as coagulation, fibrinolysis, platelet aggregation, vessel tone and growth, and leukocyte traffic; and they form the principal barrier to transport of substances between the blood and the surrounding tissue space. The permeability of endothelial cell changes with environmental stimuli; shear stress, in particular, applied either in vivo, or in vitro, induces changes in protein expression and secretion of vasoactive factors by endothelial cells. The ability to study the effects of shear on the macromolecular permeability of the cerebral vasculature is particularly important, since in no other place is the barrier function of the endothelium more important than in the brain. The endothelial cells of this organ have developed special barrier properties that keep the cerebral system from experiencing any drastic change in composition; together with glial cells, they form the blood brain barrier (BBB). We have studied the effect of flow on bovine BBB using flow chambers and tissue culture systems.

  5. Analysis of cell flux in the parallel plate flow chamber: implications for cell capture studies.

    PubMed

    Munn, L L; Melder, R J; Jain, R K

    1994-08-01

    The parallel plate flow chamber provides a controlled environment for determinations of the shear stress at which cells in suspension can bind to endothelial cell monolayers. By decreasing the flow rate of cell-containing media over the monolayer and assessing the number of cells bound at each wall shear stress, the relationship between shear force and binding efficiency can be determined. The rate of binding should depend on the delivery of cells to the surface as well as the intrinsic cell-surface interactions; thus, only if the cell flux to the surface is known can the resulting binding curves be interpreted correctly. We present the development and validation of a mathematical model based on the sedimentation rate and velocity profile in the chamber for the delivery of cells from a flowing suspension to the chamber surface. Our results show that the flux depends on the bulk cell concentration, the distance from the entrance point, and the flow rate of the cell-containing medium. The model was then used in a normalization procedure for experiments in which T cells attach to TNF-alpha-stimulated HUVEC monolayers, showing that a threshold for adhesion occurs at a shear stress of about 3 dyn/cm2.

  6. Systems and Sensors for Debris-flow Monitoring and Warning.

    PubMed

    Arattano, Massimo; Marchi, Lorenzo

    2008-04-04

    Debris flows are a type of mass movement that occurs in mountain torrents. They consist of a high concentration of solid material in water that flows as a wave with a steep front. Debris flows can be considered a phenomenon intermediate between landslides and water floods. They are amongst the most hazardous natural processes in mountainous regions and may occur under different climatic conditions. Their destructiveness is due to different factors: their capability of transporting and depositing huge amounts of solid materials, which may also reach large sizes (boulders of several cubic meters are commonly transported by debris flows), their steep fronts, which may reach several meters of height and also their high velocities. The implementation of both structural and nonstructural control measures is often required when debris flows endanger routes, urban areas and other infrastructures. Sensor networks for debris-flow monitoring and warning play an important role amongst non-structural measures intended to reduce debris-flow risk. In particular, debris flow warning systems can be subdivided into two main classes: advance warning and event warning systems. These two classes employ different types of sensors. Advance warning systems are based on monitoring causative hydrometeorological processes (typically rainfall) and aim to issue a warning before a possible debris flow is triggered. Event warning systems are based on detecting debris flows when these processes are in progress. They have a much smaller lead time than advance warning ones but are also less prone to false alarms. Advance warning for debris flows employs sensors and techniques typical of meteorology and hydrology, including measuring rainfall by means of rain gauges and weather radar and monitoring water discharge in headwater streams. Event warning systems use different types of sensors, encompassing ultrasonic or radar gauges, ground vibration sensors, videocameras, avalanche pendulums, photocells

  7. Systems and Sensors for Debris-flow Monitoring and Warning

    PubMed Central

    Arattano, Massimo; Marchi, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    Debris flows are a type of mass movement that occurs in mountain torrents. They consist of a high concentration of solid material in water that flows as a wave with a steep front. Debris flows can be considered a phenomenon intermediate between landslides and water floods. They are amongst the most hazardous natural processes in mountainous regions and may occur under different climatic conditions. Their destructiveness is due to different factors: their capability of transporting and depositing huge amounts of solid materials, which may also reach large sizes (boulders of several cubic meters are commonly transported by debris flows), their steep fronts, which may reach several meters of height and also their high velocities. The implementation of both structural and non-structural control measures is often required when debris flows endanger routes, urban areas and other infrastructures. Sensor networks for debris-flow monitoring and warning play an important role amongst non-structural measures intended to reduce debris-flow risk. In particular, debris flow warning systems can be subdivided into two main classes: advance warning and event warning systems. These two classes employ different types of sensors. Advance warning systems are based on monitoring causative hydrometeorological processes (typically rainfall) and aim to issue a warning before a possible debris flow is triggered. Event warning systems are based on detecting debris flows when these processes are in progress. They have a much smaller lead time than advance warning ones but are also less prone to false alarms. Advance warning for debris flows employs sensors and techniques typical of meteorology and hydrology, including measuring rainfall by means of rain gauges and weather radar and monitoring water discharge in headwater streams. Event warning systems use different types of sensors, encompassing ultrasonic or radar gauges, ground vibration sensors, videocameras, avalanche pendulums

  8. Heat recovery subsystem and overall system integration of fuel cell on-site integrated energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mougin, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    The best HVAC (heating, ventilating and air conditioning) subsystem to interface with the Engelhard fuel cell system for application in commercial buildings was determined. To accomplish this objective, the effects of several system and site specific parameters on the economic feasibility of fuel cell/HVAC systems were investigated. An energy flow diagram of a fuel cell/HVAC system is shown. The fuel cell system provides electricity for an electric water chiller and for domestic electric needs. Supplemental electricity is purchased from the utility if needed. An excess of electricity generated by the fuel cell system can be sold to the utility. The fuel cell system also provides thermal energy which can be used for absorption cooling, space heating and domestic hot water. Thermal storage can be incorporated into the system. Thermal energy is also provided by an auxiliary boiler if needed to supplement the fuel cell system output. Fuel cell/HVAC systems were analyzed with the TRACE computer program.

  9. Heat recovery subsystem and overall system integration of fuel cell on-site integrated energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mougin, L. J.

    1983-07-01

    The best HVAC (heating, ventilating and air conditioning) subsystem to interface with the Engelhard fuel cell system for application in commercial buildings was determined. To accomplish this objective, the effects of several system and site specific parameters on the economic feasibility of fuel cell/HVAC systems were investigated. An energy flow diagram of a fuel cell/HVAC system is shown. The fuel cell system provides electricity for an electric water chiller and for domestic electric needs. Supplemental electricity is purchased from the utility if needed. An excess of electricity generated by the fuel cell system can be sold to the utility. The fuel cell system also provides thermal energy which can be used for absorption cooling, space heating and domestic hot water. Thermal storage can be incorporated into the system. Thermal energy is also provided by an auxiliary boiler if needed to supplement the fuel cell system output. Fuel cell/HVAC systems were analyzed with the TRACE computer program.

  10. A simple microfluidic device for the deformability assessment of blood cells in a continuous flow.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Raquel O; Pinho, Diana; Faustino, Vera; Lima, Rui

    2015-12-01

    Blood flow presents several interesting phenomena in microcirculation that can be used to develop microfluidic devices capable to promote blood cells separation and analysis in continuous flow. In the last decade there have been numerous microfluidic studies focused on the deformation of red blood cells (RBCs) flowing through geometries mimicking microvessels. In contrast, studies focusing on the deformation of white blood cells (WBCs) are scarce despite this phenomenon often happens in the microcirculation. In this work, we present a novel integrative microfluidic device able to perform continuous separation of a desired amount of blood cells, without clogging or jamming, and at the same time, capable to assess the deformation index (DI) of both WBCs and RBCs. To determine the DI of both WBCs and RBCs, a hyperbolic converging microchannel was used, as well as a suitable image analysis technique to measure the DIs of these blood cells along the regions of interest. The results show that the WBCs have a much lower deformability than RBCs when subjected to the same in vitro flow conditions, which is directly related to their cytoskeleton and nucleus contents. The proposed strategy can be easily transformed into a simple and inexpensive diagnostic microfluidic system to simultaneously separate and assess blood cells deformability.

  11. Performance evaluation of a flow-down collecting solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, C.J.; Kanayama, Kimio; Baba, Hiromu; Endo, Noboru

    1999-07-01

    The authors carried out experimental studies on a solar system of solar heat pump/PV system. From the experiments during March and April 1997, the authors obtained only results much lower than their goals. As one of their goals, coefficient of performance of collecting system should be 50 or more. Investigating the reasons on the above, they found that the capacity of a collecting pump was excessive, and the pipelines were too long. Even if these faults were corrected, however, it would be difficult to consider that the performance of the system could be markedly improved. In order to increase the performance of the system, a drastic improvement including the system flow was done. That is, to common knowledge, the forced circulating-type solar system was greatly changed, i.e., circulating direction of working fluid (water) in the system was reversed, and the water collected solar energy during flow down by its own gravity. Changing the system flow and the system control, reducing capacity of the collecting pump and shortening length of the pipelines, the original solar system was remade drastically into a flow-down collecting solar system, so that the electric power consumption was decreased by 64%, and the coefficient of performance of the collecting system was greatly increased from 29 to 65 without changing collector efficiency. This paper discussed mainly the system performance on the basis of the correlation between the collector efficiency and the flow rate of working fluid (water), the correlation between the coefficient of performance of the collecting system, and the flow rate, as well as the correlation between the merit factor and the flow rate.

  12. Fluid Flow Induced Calcium Response in Bone Cell Network

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Bo; Lu, Xin L.; Hung, Clark T.; Costa, Kevin D.; Xu, Qiaobing; Whitesides, George M.; Guo, X. Edward

    2010-01-01

    In our previous work, bone cell networks with controlled spacing and functional intercellular gap junctions had been successfully established by using microcontact printing and self assembled monolayers technologies [Guo, X. E., E. Takai, X. Jiang, Q. Xu, G. M. Whitesides, J. T. Yardley, C. T. Hung, E. M. Chow, T. Hantschel, and K. D. Costa. Mol. Cell. Biomech. 3:95–107, 2006]. The present study investigated the calcium response and the underlying signaling pathways in patterned bone cell networks exposed to a steady fluid flow. The glass slides with cell networks were separated into eight groups for treatment with specific pharmacological agents that inhibit pathways significant in bone cell calcium signaling. The calcium transients of the network were recorded and quantitatively evaluated with a set of network parameters. The results showed that 18α-GA (gap junction blocker), suramin (ATP inhibitor), and thapsigargin (depleting intracellular calcium stores) significantly reduced the occurrence of multiple calcium peaks, which were visually obvious in the untreated group. The number of responsive peaks also decreased slightly yet significantly when either the COX-2/PGE2 or the NOS/nitric oxide pathway was disrupted. Different from all other groups, cells treated with 18α-GA maintained a high concentration of intracellular calcium following the first peak. In the absence of calcium in the culture medium, the intracellular calcium concentration decreased slowly with fluid flow without any calcium transients observed. These findings have identified important factors in the flow mediated calcium signaling of bone cells within a patterned network. PMID:20852730

  13. Hyperbolic contraction measuring systems for extensional flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyström, M.; Tamaddon Jahromi, H. R.; Stading, M.; Webster, M. F.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper an experimental method for extensional measurements on medium viscosity fluids in contraction flow is evaluated through numerical simulations and experimental measurements. This measuring technique measures the pressure drop over a hyperbolic contraction, caused by fluid extension and fluid shear, where the extensional component is assumed to dominate. The present evaluative work advances our previous studies on this experimental method by introducing several contraction ratios and addressing different constitutive models of varying shear and extensional response. The constitutive models included are those of the constant viscosity Oldroyd-B and FENE-CR models, and the shear-thinning LPTT model. Examining the results, the impact of shear and first normal stress difference on the measured pressure drop are studied through numerical pressure drop predictions. In addition, stream function patterns are investigated to detect vortex development and influence of contraction ratio. The numerical predictions are further related to experimental measurements for the flow through a 15:1 contraction ratio with three different test fluids. The measured pressure drops are observed to exhibit the same trends as predicted in the numerical simulations, offering close correlation and tight predictive windows for experimental data capture. This result has demonstrated that the hyperbolic contraction flow is well able to detect such elastic fluid properties and that this is matched by numerical predictions in evaluation of their flow response. The hyperbolical contraction flow technique is commended for its distinct benefits: it is straightforward and simple to perform, the Hencky strain can be set by changing contraction ratio, non-homogeneous fluids can be tested, and one can directly determine the degree of elastic fluid behaviour. Based on matching of viscometric extensional viscosity response for FENE-CR and LPTT models, a decline is predicted in pressure drop for

  14. Design flow factors for sewerage systems in small arid communities.

    PubMed

    Imam, Emad H; Elnakar, Haitham Y

    2014-09-01

    Reliable estimation of sewage flow rates is essential for the proper design of sewers, pumping stations, and treatment plants. The design of the various components of the sewerage system should be based on the most critical flow rates with a focus on extremely low and peak flow rates that would be sustained for a duration related to the acceptable limits of behavior of the components under consideration. The extreme flow conditions and to what extent they differ from the average values are closely related to the size of the community or network, and the socioeconomic conditions. A single pumping station is usually sufficient to pump flow from small community in either flat or non-undulating topography. Therefore, the hydraulic loading on the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) results from the pumped flow from the pumping station rather than the trunk sewer flow. The intermittent operation of the pumping units further accentuates the sewage hydrograph in the final trunk sewer. Accordingly, the design flow for the various components of the WWTP should be determined based on their relevant flow factors. In this study, analysis of one representative small community out of five monitored small communities in Egypt and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is presented. Pumped sewage flow rates were measured and the sewer incoming flows were hydraulically derived. The hourly and daily sewer and pumped flow records were analyzed to derive the relationship between the flow factors that would be sustained for various durations (instantaneously, 1 h, 2 h, etc.) and their probability of non-exceedance. The resulting peaking factors with a consideration for their sustained flow duration and specified probability would permit the design of the various components of the treatment plant using more accurate critical flows.

  15. A Novel Counter Sheet-flow Sandwich Cell Culture Device for Mammalian Cell Growth in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shujin; Gao, Yuxin; Shu, Nanjiang; Tang, Zemei; Tao, Zulai; Long, Mian

    2008-08-01

    Cell culture and growth in space is crucial to understand the cellular responses under microgravity. The effects of microgravity were coupled with such environment restrictions as medium perfusion, in which the underlying mechanism has been poorly understood. In the present work, a customer-made counter sheet-flow sandwich cell culture device was developed upon a biomechanical concept from fish gill breathing. The sandwich culture unit consists of two side chambers where the medium flow is counter-directional, a central chamber where the cells are cultured, and two porous polycarbonate membranes between side and central chambers. Flow dynamics analysis revealed the symmetrical velocity profile and uniform low shear rate distribution of flowing medium inside the central culture chamber, which promotes sufficient mass transport and nutrient supply for mammalian cell growth. An on-orbit experiment performed on a recovery satellite was used to validate the availability of the device.

  16. Defining human dendritic cell progenitors by multiparametric flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Breton, Gaëlle; Lee, Jaeyop; Liu, Kang; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2015-01-01

    Human dendritic cells (DCs) develop from progressively restricted bone marrow (BM) progenitors: these progenitor cells include granulocyte, monocyte and DC progenitor (GMDP) cells; monocyte and DC progenitor (MDP) cells; and common DC progenitor (CDP) and DC precursor (pre-DC) cells. These four DC progenitors can be defined on the basis of the expression of surface markers such as CD34 and hematopoietin receptors. In this protocol, we describe five multiparametric flow cytometry panels that can be used as a tool (i) to simultaneously detect or phenotype the four DC progenitors, (ii) to isolate DC progenitors to enable in vitro differentiation or (iii) to assess the in vitro differentiation and proliferation of DC progenitors. The entire procedure from isolation of cells to flow cytometry can be completed in 3–7 h. This protocol provides optimized antibody panels, as well as gating strategies, for immunostaining of BM and cord blood specimens to study human DC hematopoiesis in health, disease and vaccine settings. PMID:26292072

  17. Pulsed photoacoustic flow imaging with a handheld system.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Pim J; Daoudi, Khalid; Steenbergen, Wiendelt

    2016-02-01

    Flow imaging is an important technique in a range of disease areas, but estimating low flow speeds, especially near the walls of blood vessels, remains challenging. Pulsed photoacoustic flow imaging can be an alternative since there is little signal contamination from background tissue with photoacoustic imaging. We propose flow imaging using a clinical photoacoustic system that is both handheld and portable. The system integrates a linear array with 7.5 MHz central frequency in combination with a high-repetition-rate diode laser to allow high-speed photoacoustic imaging--ideal for this application. This work shows the flow imaging performance of the system in vitro using microparticles. Both two-dimensional (2-D) flow images and quantitative flow velocities from 12 to 75  mm/s were obtained. In a transparent bulk medium, flow estimation showed standard errors of ∼7% the estimated speed; in the presence of tissue-realistic optical scattering, the error increased to 40% due to limited signal-to-noise ratio. In the future, photoacoustic flow imaging can potentially be performed in vivo using fluorophore-filled vesicles or with an improved setup on whole blood.

  18. Detection of artificial water flows by the lateral line system of a benthic feeding cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Schwalbe, Margot A B; Sevey, Benjamin J; Webb, Jacqueline F

    2016-04-01

    The mechanosensory lateral line system of fishes detects water motions within a few body lengths of the source. Several types of artificial stimuli have been used to probe lateral line function in the laboratory, but few studies have investigated the role of flow sensing in benthic feeding teleosts. In this study, we used artificial flows emerging from a sandy substrate to assess the contribution of flow sensing to prey detection in the peacock cichlid, Aulonocara stuartgranti, which feeds on benthic invertebrates in Lake Malawi. Using a positive reinforcement protocol, we trained fish to respond to flows lacking the visual and chemical cues generated by tethered prey in prior studies with A. stuartgranti Fish successfully responded to artificial flows at all five rates presented (characterized using digital particle image velocimetry), and showed a range of flow-sensing behaviors, including an unconditioned bite response. Immediately after lateral line inactivation, fish rarely responded to flows and the loss of vital fluorescent staining of hair cells (with 4-di-2-ASP) verified lateral line inactivation. Within 2 days post-treatment, some aspects of flow-sensing behavior returned and after 7 days, flow-sensing behavior and hair cell fluorescence both returned to pre-treatment levels, which is consistent with the reported timing of hair cell regeneration in other vertebrates. The presentation of ecologically relevant water flows to assess flow-sensing behaviors and the use of a positive reinforcement protocol are methods that present new opportunities to study the role of flow sensing in the feeding ecology of benthic feeding fishes.

  19. Simulation of red blood cell aggregation in shear flow.

    PubMed

    Lim, B; Bascom, P A; Cobbold, R S

    1997-01-01

    A simulation model has been developed for red blood cell (RBC) aggregation in shear flow. It is based on a description of the collision rates of RBC, the probability of particles sticking together, and the breakage of aggregates by shear forces. The influence of shear rate, hematocrit, aggregate fractal dimension, and binding strength on aggregation kinetics were investigated and compared to other theoretical and experimental results. The model was used to simulate blood flow in a long large diameter tube under steady flow conditions at low Reynolds numbers. The time and spatial distribution of the state of aggregation are shown to be in qualitative agreement with previous B-mode ultrasound studies in which a central region of low echogenicity was noted. It is suggested that the model can provide a basis for interpreting prior measurements of ultrasound echogenicity and may help relate them to the local state of aggregation.

  20. Convective flows of colloidal suspension in an inclined closed cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorodin, Boris; Cherepanov, Ivan; Ishutov, Sergey

    2016-12-01

    The nonlinear spatiotemporal evolution of convective flows is numerically investigated in the case of colloidal suspension filling an inclined closed cell heated from below. The bifurcation diagram (the dependency of the Nusselt number on the Rayleigh number) is obtained. The characteristics of the wave and steady patterns are investigated depending on heat intensity. The travelling wave changing travel direction and the non-regular oscillatory flow are found to be stable solutions within a certain interval of the Rayleigh number. Temporal Fourier decomposition is used together with other diagnostic tools to analyse the complex bifurcation and spatiotemporal properties caused by the interplay of the gravity-induced gradient of concentration and convective mixing of the fluid. It is shown that a more complex flow structure exists at a lower heating intensity (Rayleigh number).

  1. Circulation system for flowing uranium hexafluoride cavity reactor experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaminet, J. F.; Kendall, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    Research related to determining the feasibility of producing continuous power from fissile fuel in the gaseous state is presented. The development of three laboratory-scale flow systems for handling gaseous UF6 at temperatures up to 500 K, pressure up to approximately 40 atm, and continuous flow rates up to approximately 50g/s is presented. A UF6 handling system fabricated for static critical tests currently being conducted is described. The system was designed to supply UF6 to a double-walled aluminum core canister assembly at temperatures between 300 K and 400 K and pressure up to 4 atm. A second UF6 handling system designed to provide a circulating flow of up to 50g/s of gaseous UF6 in a closed-loop through a double-walled aluminum core canister with controlled temperature and pressure is described. Data from flow tests using UF6 and UF6/He mixtures with this system at flow rates up to approximately 12g/s and pressure up to 4 atm are presented. A third UF6 handling system fabricated to provide a continuous flow of UF6 at flow rates up to 5g/s and at pressures up to 40 atm for use in rf-heated, uranium plasma confinement experiments is described.

  2. Noninvasive and label-free detection of circulating melanoma cells by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ping; Liu, Rongrong; Niu, Zhenyu; Suo, Yuanzhen; He, Hao; Wei, Xunbin

    2015-03-01

    Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes. Circulating melanoma cell has high light absorption due to melanin highly contained in melanoma cells. This property is employed for the detection of circulating melanoma cell by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC). PAFC is based on photoacoustic effect. Compared to in vivo flow cytometry based on fluorescence, PAFC can employ high melanin content of melanoma cells as endogenous biomarkers to detect circulating melanoma cells in vivo. In our research, we developed in vitro experiments to prove the ability of PAFC system of detecting PA signals from melanoma cells. For in vivo experiments, we constructed a model of melanoma tumor bearing mice by inoculating highly metastatic murine melanoma cancer cells B16F10 with subcutaneous injection. PA signals were detected in the blood vessels of mouse ears in vivo. By counting circulating melanoma cells termly, we obtained the number variation of circulating melanoma cells as melanoma metastasized. Those results show that PAFC is a noninvasive and label-free method to detect melanoma metastases in blood or lymph circulation. Our PAFC system is an efficient tool to monitor melanoma metastases, cancer recurrence and therapeutic efficacy.

  3. System proportions fluid-flow in response to demand signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Control system provides proportioned fluid flow rates in response to demand signals. It compares a digital signal, representing a flow demand, with a reference signal to yield a control voltage to one or more solenoid valves connected to orifices of a predetermined size.

  4. Development of Cellular Absorptive Tracers (CATs) for a Quantitative Characterization of Microbial Mass in Flow Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Saripalli, Prasad; Brown, Christopher F.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2005-03-16

    We report on a new Cellular Absorptive Tracers (CATs) method, for a simple, non-destructive characterization of bacterial mass in flow systems. Results show that adsorption of a CAT molecule into the cellular mass results in its retardation during flow, which is a good, quantitative measure of the biomass quantity and distribution. No such methods are currently available for a quantitative characterization of cell mass.

  5. The stellate cell system (vitamin A-storing cell system).

    PubMed

    Senoo, Haruki; Mezaki, Yoshihiro; Fujiwara, Mutsunori

    2017-03-15

    Past, present, and future research into hepatic stellate cells (HSCs, also called vitamin A-storing cells, lipocytes, interstitial cells, fat-storing cells, or Ito cells) are summarized and discussed in this review. Kupffer discovered black-stained cells in the liver using the gold chloride method and named them stellate cells (Sternzellen in German) in 1876. Wake rediscovered the cells in 1971 using the same gold chloride method and various modern histological techniques including electron microscopy. Between their discovery and rediscovery, HSCs disappeared from the research history. Their identification, the establishment of cell isolation and culture methods, and the development of cellular and molecular biological techniques promoted HSC research after their rediscovery. In mammals, HSCs exist in the space between liver parenchymal cells (PCs) or hepatocytes and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) of the hepatic lobule, and store 50-80% of all vitamin A in the body as retinyl ester in lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. SCs also exist in extrahepatic organs such as pancreas, lung, and kidney. Hepatic (HSCs) and extrahepatic stellate cells (EHSCs) form the stellate cell (SC) system or SC family; the main storage site of vitamin A in the body is HSCs in the liver. In pathological conditions such as liver fibrosis, HSCs lose vitamin A, and synthesize a large amount of extracellular matrix (ECM) components including collagen, proteoglycan, glycosaminoglycan, and adhesive glycoproteins. The morphology of these cells also changes from the star-shaped HSCs to that of fibroblasts or myofibroblasts.

  6. Human red blood cell behavior under homogeneous extensional flow in a hyperbolic-shaped microchannel.

    PubMed

    Yaginuma, T; Oliveira, M S N; Lima, R; Ishikawa, T; Yamaguchi, T

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that certain pathological conditions result in a decrease of red blood cells (RBCs) deformability and subsequently can significantly alter the blood flow in microcirculation, which may block capillaries and cause ischemia in the tissues. Microfluidic systems able to obtain reliable quantitative measurements of RBC deformability hold the key to understand and diagnose RBC related diseases. In this work, a microfluidic system composed of a microchannel with a hyperbolic-shaped contraction followed by a sudden expansion is presented. We provide a detailed quantitative description of the degree of deformation of human RBCs under a controlled homogeneous extensional flow field. We measured the deformation index (DI) as well as the velocity of the RBCs travelling along the centerline of the channel for four different flow rates and analyze the impact of the particle Reynolds number. The results show that human RBC deformation tends to reach a plateau value in the region of constant extensional rate, the value of which depends on the extension rate. Additionally, we observe that the presence of a sudden expansion downstream of the hyperbolic contraction modifies the spatial distribution of cells and substantially increases the cell free layer (CFL) downstream of the expansion plane similarly to what is seen in other expansion flows. Beyond a certain value of flow rate, there is only a weak effect of inlet flow rates on the enhancement of the downstream CFL. These in vitro experiments show the potential of using microfluidic systems with hyperbolic-shaped microchannels both for the separation of the RBCs from plasma and to assess changes in RBC deformability in physiological and pathological situations for clinical purposes. However, the selection of the geometry and the identification of the most suitable region to evaluate the changes on the RBC deformability under extensional flows are crucial if microfluidics is to be used as an in vitro clinical

  7. Human red blood cell behavior under homogeneous extensional flow in a hyperbolic-shaped microchannel

    PubMed Central

    Yaginuma, T.; Oliveira, M. S. N.; Lima, R.; Ishikawa, T.; Yamaguchi, T.

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that certain pathological conditions result in a decrease of red blood cells (RBCs) deformability and subsequently can significantly alter the blood flow in microcirculation, which may block capillaries and cause ischemia in the tissues. Microfluidic systems able to obtain reliable quantitative measurements of RBC deformability hold the key to understand and diagnose RBC related diseases. In this work, a microfluidic system composed of a microchannel with a hyperbolic-shaped contraction followed by a sudden expansion is presented. We provide a detailed quantitative description of the degree of deformation of human RBCs under a controlled homogeneous extensional flow field. We measured the deformation index (DI) as well as the velocity of the RBCs travelling along the centerline of the channel for four different flow rates and analyze the impact of the particle Reynolds number. The results show that human RBC deformation tends to reach a plateau value in the region of constant extensional rate, the value of which depends on the extension rate. Additionally, we observe that the presence of a sudden expansion downstream of the hyperbolic contraction modifies the spatial distribution of cells and substantially increases the cell free layer (CFL) downstream of the expansion plane similarly to what is seen in other expansion flows. Beyond a certain value of flow rate, there is only a weak effect of inlet flow rates on the enhancement of the downstream CFL. These in vitro experiments show the potential of using microfluidic systems with hyperbolic-shaped microchannels both for the separation of the RBCs from plasma and to assess changes in RBC deformability in physiological and pathological situations for clinical purposes. However, the selection of the geometry and the identification of the most suitable region to evaluate the changes on the RBC deformability under extensional flows are crucial if microfluidics is to be used as an in vitro clinical

  8. Alternative experiments using the geophysical fluid flow cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    This study addresses the possibility of doing large scale dynamics experiments using the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell. In particular, cases where the forcing generates a statically stable stratification almost everywhere in the spherical shell are evaluated. This situation is typical of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans. By calculating the strongest meridional circulation expected in the spacelab experiments, and testing its stability using quasi-geostrophic stability theory, it is shown that strongly nonlinear baroclinic waves on a zonally symmetric modified thermal wind will not occur. The Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell does not have a deep enough fluid layer to permit useful studies of large scale planetary wave processes arising from instability. It is argued, however, that by introducing suitable meridional barriers, a significant contribution to the understanding of the oceanic thermocline problem could be made.

  9. Study of Paclitaxel-Treated HeLa Cells by Differential Electrical Impedance Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Kirkegaard, Julie; Clausen, Casper Hyttel; Rodriguez-Trujillo, Romen; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the electrical investigation of paclitaxel-treated HeLa cells using a custom-made microfluidic biosensor for whole cell analysis in continuous flow. We apply the method of differential electrical impedance spectroscopy to treated HeLa cells in order to elucidate the changes in electrical properties compared with non-treated cells. We found that our microfluidic system was able to distinguish between treated and non-treated cells. Furthermore, we utilize a model for electrical impedance spectroscopy in order to perform a theoretical study to clarify our results. This study focuses on investigating the changes in the electrical properties of the cell membrane caused by the effect of paclitaxel. We observe good agreement between the model and the obtained results. This establishes the proof-of-concept for the application in cell drug therapy. PMID:25587422

  10. Detection of Apoptotic Versus Autophagic Cell Death by Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Sica, Valentina; Maiuri, M Chiara; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Different modes of regulated cell death (RCD) can be initiated by distinct molecular machineries and their morphological manifestations can be difficult to discriminate. Moreover, cells responding to stress often activate an adaptive response centered around autophagy, and whether such a response is cytoprotective or cytotoxic cannot be predicted based on morphological parameters only. Molecular definitions are therefore important to understand various RCD subroutines from a mechanistic perspective. In vitro, various forms of RCD including apoptosis and autophagic cell death can be easily discriminated from each other with assays that involve chemical or pharmacological interventions targeting key components of either pathway. Here, we detail a straightforward method to discriminate apoptosis from autophagic cell death by flow cytometry, based on the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk and the genetic inhibition of ATG5.

  11. Rapid flow-induced responses in endothelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stamatas, G. N.; McIntire, L. V.

    2001-01-01

    Endothelial cells alter their morphology, growth rate, and metabolism in response to fluid shear stress. To study rapid flow-induced responses in the 3D endothelial cell morphology and calcium distribution, coupled fluorescence microscopy with optical sectioning, digital imaging, and numerical deconvolution techniques have been utilized. Results demonstrate that within the first minutes of flow application nuclear calcium is increasing. In the same time frame whole cell height and nuclear height are reduced by about 1 microm. Whole cell height changes may facilitate reduction of shear stress gradients on the luminal surface, whereas nuclear structural changes may be important for modulating endothelial growth rate and metabolism. To study the role of the cytoskeleton in these responses, endothelial cells have been treated with specific disrupters (acrylamide, cytochalasin D, and colchicine) of each of the cytoskeleton elements (intermediate filaments, microfilaments, and microtubules, respectively). None of these compounds had any effect on the shear-induced calcium response. Cytochalasin D and acrylamide did not affect the shear-induced nuclear morphology changes. Colchicine, however, completely abrogated the response, indicating that microtubules may be implicated in force transmission from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. A pedagogical model based on tensegrity theory principles is presented that is consistent with the results on the 3D endothelial morphology.

  12. Stem cells and fluid flow drive cyst formation in an invertebrate excretory organ.

    PubMed

    Thi-Kim Vu, Hanh; Rink, Jochen C; McKinney, Sean A; McClain, Melainia; Lakshmanaperumal, Naharajan; Alexander, Richard; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro

    2015-06-09

    Cystic kidney diseases (CKDs) affect millions of people worldwide. The defining pathological features are fluid-filled cysts developing from nephric tubules due to defective flow sensing, cell proliferation and differentiation. The underlying molecular mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood, and the derived excretory systems of established invertebrate models (Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster) are unsuitable to model CKDs. Systematic structure/function comparisons revealed that the combination of ultrafiltration and flow-associated filtrate modification that is central to CKD etiology is remarkably conserved between the planarian excretory system and the vertebrate nephron. Consistently, both RNA-mediated genetic interference (RNAi) of planarian orthologues of human CKD genes and inhibition of tubule flow led to tubular cystogenesis that share many features with vertebrate CKDs, suggesting deep mechanistic conservation. Our results demonstrate a common evolutionary origin of animal excretory systems and establish planarians as a novel and experimentally accessible invertebrate model for the study of human kidney pathologies.

  13. Compliant fuel cell system

    DOEpatents

    Bourgeois, Richard Scott; Gudlavalleti, Sauri

    2009-12-15

    A fuel cell assembly comprising at least one metallic component, at least one ceramic component and a structure disposed between the metallic component and the ceramic component. The structure is configured to have a lower stiffness compared to at least one of the metallic component and the ceramic component, to accommodate a difference in strain between the metallic component and the ceramic component of the fuel cell assembly.

  14. Guide to Flow Measurement for Electric Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frieman, Jason D.; Walker, Mitchell L. R.; Snyder, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In electric propulsion (EP) systems, accurate measurement of the propellant mass flow rate of gas or liquid to the thruster and external cathode is a key input in the calculation of thruster efficiency and specific impulse. Although such measurements are often achieved with commercial mass flow controllers and meters integrated into propellant feed systems, the variability in potential propellant options and flow requirements amongst the spectrum of EP power regimes and devices complicates meter selection, integration, and operation. At the direction of the Committee on Standards for Electric Propulsion Testing, a guide was jointly developed by members of the electric propulsion community to establish a unified document that contains the working principles, methods of implementation and analysis, and calibration techniques and recommendations on the use of mass flow meters in laboratory and spacecraft electric propulsion systems. The guide is applicable to EP devices of all types and power levels ranging from microthrusters to high-power ion engines and Hall effect thrusters. The establishment of a community standard on mass flow metering will help ensure the selection of the proper meter for each application. It will also improve the quality of system performance estimates by providing comprehensive information on the physical phenomena and systematic errors that must be accounted for during the analysis of flow measurement data. This paper will outline the standard methods and recommended practices described in the guide titled "Flow Measurement for Electric Propulsion Systems."

  15. Structural analysis of red blood cell aggregates under shear flow.

    PubMed

    Chesnutt, J K W; Marshall, J S

    2010-03-01

    A set of measures of red blood cell (RBC) aggregates are developed and applied to examine the aggregate structure under plane shear and channel flows. Some of these measures are based on averages over the set of red blood cells which are in contact with each other at a given time. Other measures are developed by first fitting an ellipse to the planar projection of the aggregate, and then examining the area and aspect ratio of the fit ellipse as well as the orientations of constituent RBCs with respect to the fit ellipse axes. The aggregate structural measures are illustrated using a new mesoscale computational model for blood cell transport, collision and adhesion. The sensitivity of this model to change in adhesive surface energy density and shear rate on the aggregate structure is examined. It is found that the mesoscale model predictions exhibit reasonable agreement with experimental and theoretical data for blood flow in plane shear and channel flows. The new structural measures are used to examine the differences between predictions of two- and three-dimensional computations of the aggregate formation, showing that two-dimensional computations retain some of the important aspects of three-dimensional computations.

  16. Boundary-layer-ingesting inlet flow control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Lewis R. (Inventor); Allan, Brian G. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system for reducing distortion at the aerodynamic interface plane of a boundary-layer-ingesting inlet using a combination of active and passive flow control devices is disclosed. Active flow control jets and vortex generating vanes are used in combination to reduce distortion across a range of inlet operating conditions. Together, the vortex generating vanes can reduce most of the inlet distortion and the active flow control jets can be used at a significantly reduced control jet mass flow rate to make sure the inlet distortion stays low as the inlet mass flow rate varies. Overall inlet distortion, measured and described as average SAE circumferential distortion descriptor, was maintained at a value of 0.02 or less. Advantageous arrangements and orientations of the active flow control jets and the vortex generating vanes were developed using computational fluid dynamics simulations and wind tunnel experimentations.

  17. Monitoring circulating apoptotic cells by in-vivo flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xunbin; Tan, Yuan; Chen, Yun; Zhang, Li; Li, Yan; Liu, Guangda; Wu, Bin; Wang, Chen

    2008-02-01

    Chemotherapies currently constitute one main venue of cancer treatment. For a large number of adult and elderly patients, however, treatment options are poor. These patients may suffer from disease that is resistant to conventional chemotherapy or may not be candidates for curative therapies because of advanced age or poor medical conditions. To control disease in these patients, new therapies must be developed that are selectively targeted to unique characteristics of tumor cell growth and metastasis. A reliable early evaluation and prediction of response to the chemotherapy is critical to its success. Chemotherapies induce apoptosis in tumor cells and a portion of such apoptotic cancer cells may be present in the circulation. However, the fate of circulating tumor cells is difficult to assess with conventional methods that require blood sampling. We report the in situ measurement of circulating apoptotic cells in live animals using in vivo flow cytometry, a novel method that enables real-time detection and quantification of circulating cells without blood extraction. Apoptotic cells are rapidly cleared from the circulation with a half-life of ~10 minutes. Real-time monitoring of circulating apoptotic cells can be useful for detecting early changes in disease processes, as well as for monitoring response to therapeutic intervention.

  18. Enhanced sensitivity in flow injection analysis using a long pathlength liquid waveguide capillary flow cell for spectrophotometric detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-Zhong

    2006-01-01

    Incorporation of a liquid waveguide capillary flow cell into a flow injection instrument enhances the sensitivity of flow injection analysis with spectrophotometric detection by two orders of magnitude. Nitrite determination at nM levels has been used to demonstrate the feasibility of this novel technique for trace analysis. Combining the long pathlength spectrophotometry with flow injection analysis, this technique has advantages of low detection limit, good precision and high sample throughput.

  19. Miniature battery-operated electromagnetic system for blood flow measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, T. B.

    1971-01-01

    System consisting of solid state electronics package and a pair of standard flow-transducer cuffs is useful in cardiovascular studies. Device shows good zero stability and calibrations, and low noise levels.

  20. Magnetic fingerprints of rolling cells for quantitative flow cytometry in whole blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisbeck, Mathias; Helou, Michael Johannes; Richter, Lukas; Kappes, Barbara; Friedrich, Oliver; Hayden, Oliver

    2016-09-01

    Over the past 50 years, flow cytometry has had a profound impact on preclinical and clinical applications requiring single cell function information for counting, sub-typing and quantification of epitope expression. At the same time, the workflow complexity and high costs of such optical systems still limit flow cytometry applications to specialized laboratories. Here, we present a quantitative magnetic flow cytometer that incorporates in situ magnetophoretic cell focusing for highly accurate and reproducible rolling of the cellular targets over giant magnetoresistance sensing elements. Time-of-flight analysis is used to unveil quantitative single cell information contained in its magnetic fingerprint. Furthermore, we used erythrocytes as a biological model to validate our methodology with respect to precise analysis of the hydrodynamic cell diameter, quantification of binding capacity of immunomagnetic labels, and discrimination of cell morphology. The extracted time-of-flight information should enable point-of-care quantitative flow cytometry in whole blood for clinical applications, such as immunology and primary hemostasis.

  1. Magnetic fingerprints of rolling cells for quantitative flow cytometry in whole blood

    PubMed Central

    Reisbeck, Mathias; Helou, Michael Johannes; Richter, Lukas; Kappes, Barbara; Friedrich, Oliver; Hayden, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, flow cytometry has had a profound impact on preclinical and clinical applications requiring single cell function information for counting, sub-typing and quantification of epitope expression. At the same time, the workflow complexity and high costs of such optical systems still limit flow cytometry applications to specialized laboratories. Here, we present a quantitative magnetic flow cytometer that incorporates in situ magnetophoretic cell focusing for highly accurate and reproducible rolling of the cellular targets over giant magnetoresistance sensing elements. Time-of-flight analysis is used to unveil quantitative single cell information contained in its magnetic fingerprint. Furthermore, we used erythrocytes as a biological model to validate our methodology with respect to precise analysis of the hydrodynamic cell diameter, quantification of binding capacity of immunomagnetic labels, and discrimination of cell morphology. The extracted time-of-flight information should enable point-of-care quantitative flow cytometry in whole blood for clinical applications, such as immunology and primary hemostasis. PMID:27596736

  2. Measuring information flow in cellular networks by the systems biology method through microarray data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Li, Cheng-Wei

    2015-01-01

    In general, it is very difficult to measure the information flow in a cellular network directly. In this study, based on an information flow model and microarray data, we measured the information flow in cellular networks indirectly by using a systems biology method. First, we used a recursive least square parameter estimation algorithm to identify the system parameters of coupling signal transduction pathways and the cellular gene regulatory network (GRN). Then, based on the identified parameters and systems theory, we estimated the signal transductivities of the coupling signal transduction pathways from the extracellular signals to each downstream protein and the information transductivities of the GRN between transcription factors in response to environmental events. According to the proposed method, the information flow, which is characterized by signal transductivity in coupling signaling pathways and information transductivity in the GRN, can be estimated by microarray temporal data or microarray sample data. It can also be estimated by other high-throughput data such as next-generation sequencing or proteomic data. Finally, the information flows of the signal transduction pathways and the GRN in leukemia cancer cells and non-leukemia normal cells were also measured to analyze the systematic dysfunction in this cancer from microarray sample data. The results show that the signal transductivities of signal transduction pathways change substantially from normal cells to leukemia cancer cells.

  3. Measuring information flow in cellular networks by the systems biology method through microarray data

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Li, Cheng-Wei

    2015-01-01

    In general, it is very difficult to measure the information flow in a cellular network directly. In this study, based on an information flow model and microarray data, we measured the information flow in cellular networks indirectly by using a systems biology method. First, we used a recursive least square parameter estimation algorithm to identify the system parameters of coupling signal transduction pathways and the cellular gene regulatory network (GRN). Then, based on the identified parameters and systems theory, we estimated the signal transductivities of the coupling signal transduction pathways from the extracellular signals to each downstream protein and the information transductivities of the GRN between transcription factors in response to environmental events. According to the proposed method, the information flow, which is characterized by signal transductivity in coupling signaling pathways and information transductivity in the GRN, can be estimated by microarray temporal data or microarray sample data. It can also be estimated by other high-throughput data such as next-generation sequencing or proteomic data. Finally, the information flows of the signal transduction pathways and the GRN in leukemia cancer cells and non-leukemia normal cells were also measured to analyze the systematic dysfunction in this cancer from microarray sample data. The results show that the signal transductivities of signal transduction pathways change substantially from normal cells to leukemia cancer cells. PMID:26082788

  4. Energy flow for electric power system deregulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chia-Hung

    Over the past few years, the electric power utility industry in North America and other countries has experienced a strong drive towards deregulation. People have considered the necessity of deregulation of electric utilities for higher energy efficiency and energy saving. The vertically integrated monopolistic industry is being transferred into a horizontally integrated competitive structure in some countries. Wheeling charges are a current high priority problem throughout the power industry, for independent power producers, as well as regulators. Nevertheless the present transmission pricing mechanism fails to be adjusted by a customer loading condition. Customer loading is dynamic, but the present wheeling charge method is fixed, not real-time. A real-time wheeling charge method is developed in this dissertation. This dissertation introduces a concept of a power flow network which can be used for the calculation of power contribution factors in a network. The contribution factor is defined as the ratio of the power contributed by a particular source to a line flow or bus load to the total output of the source. Generation, transmission, and distribution companies can employ contribution factors for the calculation of energy cost, wheeling charges, and loss compensation. Based on the concept of contribution factors, a proposed loss allocation method is developed in this dissertation. Besides, counterflow condition will be given a credit in the proposed loss allocation method. A simple 22-bus example was used for evaluating the contribution factors, proposed wheeling charge method, and loss allocation method.

  5. A smart flow measurement system for flow evaluation with multiple signals in different operation modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaltsas, G.; Katsikogiannis, P.; Asimakopoulos, P.; Nassiopoulou, A. G.

    2007-11-01

    This paper presents the development and evaluation of a smart flow measurement system based on an integrated thermal flow sensor that implements a heater and two pairs of thermopiles, symmetrically situated on both sides of the heater. A specially designed interface circuit monitors and controls sensor operation, allowing three different operational modes: constant voltage (CV), constant power (CP) and constant temperature (CT). It also simultaneously monitors the heater resistance and the thermopile signal. Communication with a PC is implemented through a USB connection, and a developed Java program controls the system and data representation and storage. Transfer rates in the order of 20 000 sps are achieved, which allow detailed flow monitoring. For system evaluation, flow measurements were performed in both the calorimetric and hot-wire principles with the three different modes of operation and the corresponding results are presented comparatively. Flow velocity was determined by different sensor signals (heater resistance and power, thermopile signal) and the related sensitivities were extracted. Furthermore, it was verified that the system could detect the flow direction as well as the transition point from laminar to turbulent region.

  6. Transverse high gradient magnetic filter cell with bounded flow field

    SciTech Connect

    Badescu, V.; Rotariu, O.; Murariu, V.; Rezlescu, N.

    1997-11-01

    The capture of fine paramagnetic particles from a fluid suspension in a magnetic filter element of a novel design is analyzed. Unlike the systems previously analyzed, in the model the flow is bounded by two by two parallel planar plates, and the ferromagnetic wires are installed outside these spaces, within planes parallel with the plates. The analysis is based on the study of particle trajectories, considering the laminar flow of carrier fluid. From these the authors establish the conditions for the maximum recovery of the particles in suspension. This study is useful in designing magnetic filter batteries with corrosion-protected ferromagnetic wires.

  7. Dynamic physical properties of dissociated tumor cells revealed by dielectrophoretic field-flow fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Sangjo; Gascoyne, Peter; Noshari, Jamileh; Stemke Hale, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic disease results from the shedding of cancer cells from a solid primary tumor, their transport through the cardiovascular system as circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and their engraftment and growth at distant sites. Little is known about the properties and fate of tumor cells as they leave their growth site and travel as single cells. We applied analytical dielectrophoretic field-flow fractionation (dFFF) to study the membrane capacitance, density and hydrodynamic properties together with the size and morphology of cultured tumor cells after they were harvested and placed into single cell suspensions. After detachment, the tumor cells exhibited biophysical properties that changed with time through a process of cytoplasmic shedding whereby membrane and cytoplasm were lost. This process appeared to be distinct from the cell death mechanisms of apoptosis, anoikis and necrosis and it may explain why multiple phenotypes are seen among CTCs isolated from patients and among the tumor cells obtained from ascitic fluid of patients. The implications of dynamic biophysical properties and cytoplasmic loss for CTC migration into small blood vessels in the circulatory system, survival and gene expression are discussed. Because the total capacitance of tumor cells remained higher than blood cells even after they had shed cytoplasm, dFFF offers a compelling, antibody-independent technology for isolating viable CTCs from blood even when they are no larger than peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PMID:21691666

  8. NOAA-USGS Debris-Flow Warning System - Final Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    Landslides and debris flows cause loss of life and millions of dollars in property damage annually in the United States (National Research Council, 2004). In an effort to reduce loss of life by debris flows, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) operated an experimental debris-flow prediction and warning system in the San Francisco Bay area from 1986 to 1995 that relied on forecasts and measurements of precipitation linked to empirical precipitation thresholds to predict the onset of rainfall-triggered debris flows. Since 1995, there have been substantial improvements in quantifying precipitation estimates and forecasts, development of better models for delineating landslide hazards, and advancements in geographic information technology that allow stronger spatial and temporal linkage between precipitation forecasts and hazard models. Unfortunately, there have also been several debris flows that have caused loss of life and property across the United States. Establishment of debris-flow warning systems in areas where linkages between rainfall amounts and debris-flow occurrence have been identified can help mitigate the hazards posed by these types of landslides. Development of a national warning system can help support the NOAA-USGS goal of issuing timely Warnings of potential debris flows to the affected populace and civil authorities on a broader scale. This document presents the findings and recommendations of a joint NOAA-USGS Task Force that assessed the current state-of-the-art in precipitation forecasting and debris-flow hazard-assessment techniques. This report includes an assessment of the science and resources needed to establish a demonstration debris-flow warning project in recently burned areas of southern California and the necessary scientific advancements and resources associated with expanding such a warning system to unburned areas and, possibly, to a

  9. Membrane-less micro fuel cell based on two-phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, S. M. H.; Neuenschwander, M.; Hadikhani, P.; Modestino, M. A.; Psaltis, D.

    2017-04-01

    Most microfluidic fuel cells use highly soluble fuels and oxidants in streams of liquid electrolytes to overcome the mass transport limitations that result from the low solubility of gaseous reactants such as hydrogen and oxygen. In this work, we address these limitations by implementing controlled two-phase flows of these gases in a set of microchannels electrolytically connected through a narrow gap. Annular flows of the gases reshape the concentration boundary layer over the surface of electrodes and increase the mass-transport limited current density in the system. Our results show that the power density of a two-phase system with hydrogen and oxygen streams is an order of magnitude higher than that of single phase system consisting of liquid electrolytes saturated with the same reactants. The reactor design described here can be employed to boost the performance of MFFCs and put them in a more competitive position compared to membrane based fuel cells.

  10. Laminar Flow Control Leading Edge Systems in Simulated Airline Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, R. D.; Maddalon, D. V.; Fisher, D. F.

    1988-01-01

    Achieving laminar flow on the wings of a commercial transport involves difficult problems associated with the wing leading edge. The NASA Leading Edge Flight Test Program has made major progress toward the solution of these problems. The effectiveness and practicality of candidate laminar flow leading edge systems were proven under representative airline service conditions. This was accomplished in a series of simulated airline service flights by modifying a JetStar aircraft with laminar flow leading edge systems and operating it out of three commercial airports in the United States. The aircraft was operated as an airliner would under actual air traffic conditions, in bad weather, and in insect infested environments.

  11. Low power, constant-flow air pump systems

    SciTech Connect

    Polito, M.D.; Albert, B.

    1994-01-01

    A rugged, yet small and lightweight constant-flow air pump system has been designed. Flow control is achieved using a novel approach which is three times more power efficient than previous designs. The resultant savings in battery size and weight makes these pumps ideal for sampling air on balloon platforms. The pump package includes meteorological sensors and an onboard computer that stores time and sensor data and turns the constant-flow pump circuit on/off. Some applications of these systems are also presented in this report.

  12. Blood flow quantification using optical flow methods in a body fitted coordinate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maday, Peter; Brosig, Richard; Endres, Jurgen; Kowarschik, Markus; Navab, Nassir

    2014-03-01

    In this paper a blood flow quantification method that is based on a physically motivated dense 2D flow estimation algorithm is outlined. It yields accurate time varying volumetric flow rate measurements based on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) image sequences, with robustness to significant inter-frame displacements. Time varying volumetric flow rates are estimated for individual non-branching vascular segments based on the estimated 2D flow fields and a 3D vessel segmentation from a 3D Rotational Angiography (3DRA) acquisition. The novelty of the approach lies in the use of a vessel aligned coordinate system for the problem formulation. The coordinate functions are generated using the Schwarz-Christoffel1(SC) map that yields a solution with coordinate lines aligned with the vessel boundaries. The use of vessel aligned coordinates enables the easy and accurate handling of boundary conditions in the irregular domain of a vessel lumen while only requiring slight modifications to the used finite difference approach. Unlike traditional coarse to fine methods we use an anisotropic scaling strategy that enables the estimation of flows with larger inter frame displacements. The evaluation of our method is based on highly realistic synthetic DSA datasets for a number of cases. Ground truth volumetric flow rate values are compared against the measurements and a high degree of fidelity is observed. Performance measures are obtained with varying flow velocities and acquisition rates.

  13. A bulk flow model of a brush seal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Schlumberger, S.; Braun, M. J.; Choy, F.; Mullen, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    Fibers can be readily fabricated into a variety of seal configurations that are compliant and responsive to high speed or lightly loaded systems. A linear, circular, or contoured brush seal system is a contact seal consisting of the bristle pattern and hardened interface. When compared to a labyrinth seal, the brush seal system is superior and features low leakage, dynamic stability, and permits compliant structures. But in turn, the system usually requires a hardened smooth interface and permits only limited pressure drops. Wear life and wear debris for operations with static or dynamic excitation are largely undetermined. A seal system involves control of fluid within specific boundaries. The brush and rub ring (or rub surface) form a seal system. Design similitudes, a bulk flow model, and rub ring (interface) coatings are discussed. The bulk flow model calculations are based on flows in porous media and filters. The coatings work is based on experience and expanded to include current practice.

  14. Synchronization trigger control system for flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chun, K. S.

    1987-01-01

    The use of cinematography or holographic interferometry for dynamic flow visualization in an internal combustion engine requires a control device that globally synchronizes camera and light source timing at a predefined shaft encoder angle. The device is capable of 0.35 deg resolution for rotational speeds of up to 73 240 rpm. This was achieved by implementing the shaft encoder signal addressed look-up table (LUT) and appropriate latches. The developed digital signal processing technique achieves 25 nsec of high speed triggering angle detection by using direct parallel bit comparison of the shaft encoder digital code with a simulated angle reference code, instead of using angle value comparison which involves more complicated computation steps. In order to establish synchronization to an AC reference signal whose magnitude is variant with the rotating speed, a dynamic peak followup synchronization technique has been devised. This method scrutinizes the reference signal and provides the right timing within 40 nsec. Two application examples are described.

  15. Flow cytometric data analysis of circulating progenitor cell stability.

    PubMed

    Mahar, Ernestine A; Mou, Liping; Hayek, Salim S; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Waller, Edmund K

    2017-02-01

    A recent publication by Mekonnen et al. demonstrated that among women with non-obstructive coronary artery disease, higher levels of circulating progenitor cells in the blood (CPC), were associated with impaired coronary flow reserve [1]. We performed a quality control assessment of the stability of circulating blood progenitor cells in blood samples stored at 4 °C, to determine the time period during which blood samples can be analyzed and yield consistent data for progenitor cell content. Healthy volunteers (n=6) were recruited and underwent phlebotomy, and blood was stored in EDTA tubes at 4 °C. Flow cytometry was performed to quantitate progenitor cell subsets at 0-4 h, 24 h, and 48 h post phlebotomy. All processed samples were fixed with 1% Paraformaldehyde and 1,000,000 total data events were collected. We found no significant differences in PC data for both CD34+ (P=0.68 for one-way ANOVA) and CD34+/CD133+ (P=0.74 for one-way ANOVA).

  16. High pulsatility flow stimulates smooth muscle cell hypertrophy and contractile protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Devon; Tan, Yan; Shandas, Robin; Stenmark, Kurt R.

    2013-01-01

    Proximal arterial stiffening is an important predictor of events in systemic and pulmonary hypertension, partly through its contribution to downstream vascular abnormalities. However, much remains undetermined regarding the mechanisms involved in the vascular changes induced by arterial stiffening. We therefore addressed the hypothesis that high pulsatility flow, caused by proximal arterial stiffening, induces downstream pulmonary artery endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction that in turn leads to phenotypic change of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). To test the hypothesis, we employed a model pulmonary circulation in which upstream compliance regulates the pulsatility of flow waves imposed onto a downstream vascular mimetic coculture composed of pulmonary ECs and SMCs. The effects of high pulsatility flow on SMCs were determined both in the presence and absence of ECs. In the presence of ECs, high pulsatility flow increased SMC size and expression of the contractile proteins, smooth muscle α-actin (SMA) and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC), without affecting proliferation. In the absence of ECs, high pulsatility flow decreased SMC expression of SMA and SM-MHC, without affecting SMC size or proliferation. To identify the molecular signals involved in the EC-mediated SMC responses, mRNA and/or protein expression of vasoconstrictors [angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and endothelin (ET)-1], vasodilator (eNOS), and growth factor (TGF-β1) in EC were examined. Results showed high pulsatility flow decreased eNOS and increased ACE, ET-1, and TGF-β1 expression. ACE inhibition with ramiprilat, ET-1 receptor inhibition with bosentan, and treatment with the vasodilator bradykinin prevented flow-induced, EC-dependent SMC changes. In conclusion, high pulsatility flow stimulated SMC hypertrophy and contractile protein expression by altering EC production of vasoactive mediators and cytokines, supporting the idea of a coupling between proximal vascular stiffening, flow

  17. Two-phase flow cell for chemiluminescence and bioluminescence measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Mullin, J.L.; Seitz, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    A new approach to two-phase CL (chemiluminescence) measurements is reported. A magnetically stirred reagent phase is separated from the analyte phase by a dialysis membrane so that only smaller molecules can go from one phase to the other. The system is designed so that the analyte phase flows through a spiral groove on an aluminum block that is flush against the dialysis membrane. As solution flows through the spiral grove, analyte diffuses into the reagent phase where it reacts to produce light. A simple model is developed to predict how this system will behave. Experimentally, the system is evaluated by using the luminol reaction catalyzed by peroxidase, the firefly reaction, and the bacterial bioluminescence reaction. 10 references, 4 tables, 6 figures.

  18. Improved Measurement of B(sub 22) of Macromolecules in a Flow Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Wilbur; Fanguy, Joseph; Holman, Steven; Guo, Bin

    2008-01-01

    An improved apparatus has been invented for use in determining the osmotic second virial coefficient of macromolecules in solution. In a typical intended application, the macromolecules would be, more specifically, protein molecules, and the protein solution would be pumped through a flow cell to investigate the physical and chemical conditions that affect crystallization of the protein in question. Some background information is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the novel aspects of this apparatus. A method of determining B22 from simultaneous measurements of the static transmittance (taken as an indication of concentration) and static scattering of light from the same location in a flowing protein solution was published in 2004. The apparatus used to implement the method at that time included a dual-detector flow cell, which had two drawbacks: a) The amount of protein required for analysis of each solution condition was of the order of a milligram - far too large a quantity for a high-throughput analysis system, for which microgram or even nanogram quantities of protein per analysis are desirable. b) The design of flow cell was such that two light sources were used to probe different regions of the flowing solution. Consequently, the apparatus did not afford simultaneous measurements at the same location in the solution and, hence, did not guarantee an accurate determination of B22.

  19. Relation of streams, lakes, and wetlands to groundwater flow systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, T.C.

    1999-01-01

    Surface-water bodies are integral parts of groundwater flow systems. Groundwater interacts with surface water in nearly all landscapes, ranging from small streams, lakes, and wetlands in headwater areas to major river valleys and seacoasts. Although it generally is assumed that topographically high areas are groundwater recharge areas and topographically low areas are groundwater discharge areas, this is true primarily for regional flow systems. The superposition of local flow systems associated with surface-water bodies on this regional framework results in complex interactions between groundwater and surface water in all landscapes, regardless of regional topographic position. Hydrologic processes associated with the surface-water bodies themselves, such as seasonally high surface-water levels and evaporation and transpiration of groundwater from around the perimeter of surfacewater bodies, are a major cause of the complex and seasonally dynamic groundwater flow fields associated with surface water. These processes have been documented at research sites in glacial, dune, coastal, mantled karst, and riverine terrains.

  20. Permafrost thaw in a nested groundwater-flow system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, Jeffery M.; Voss, Clifford I.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater flow in cold regions containing permafrost accelerates climate-warming-driven thaw and changes thaw patterns. Simulation analyses of groundwater flow and heat transport with freeze/thaw in typical cold-regions terrain with nested flow indicate that early thaw rate is particularly enhanced by flow, the time when adverse environmental impacts of climate-warming-induced permafrost loss may be severest. For the slowest climate-warming rate predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), once significant groundwater flow begins, thick permafrost layers can vanish in several hundred years, but survive over 1,000 years where flow is minimal. Large-scale thaw depends mostly on the balance of heat advection and conduction in the supra-permafrost zone. Surface-water bodies underlain by open taliks allow slow sub-permafrost flow, with lesser influence on regional thaw. Advection dominance over conduction depends on permeability and topography. Groundwater flow around permafrost and flow through permafrost impact thaw differently; the latter enhances early thaw rate. Air-temperature seasonality also increases early thaw. Hydrogeologic heterogeneity and topography strongly affect thaw rates/patterns. Permafrost controls the groundwater/surface-water-geomorphology system; hence, prediction and mitigation of impacts of thaw on ecology, chemical exports and infrastructure require improved hydrogeology/permafrost characterization and understanding

  1. Tracking Epithelial Cell Junctions in C. elegans Embryogenesis With Active Contours Guided by SIFT Flow

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chen-Yu; Gonçalves, Monira; Chisholm, Andrew D.; Cosman, Pamela C.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of cell shape in live samples is an important goal in developmental biology. Automated or semiautomated segmentation and tracking of cell nuclei has been successfully implemented in several biological systems. Segmentation and tracking of cell surfaces has been more challenging. Here, we present a new approach to tracking cell junctions in the developing epidermis of C. elegans embryos. Epithelial junctions as visualized with DLG-1::GFP form lines at the subapical circumference of differentiated epidermal cells and delineate changes in epidermal cell shape and position. We develop and compare two approaches for junction segmentation. For the first method (projection approach), 3-D cell boundaries are projected into 2D for segmentation using active contours with a nonintersecting force, and subsequently tracked using scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) flow. The resulting 2-D tracked boundaries are then back-projected into 3-D space. The second method (volumetric approach) uses a 3-D extended version of active contours guided by SIFT flow in 3-D space. In both methods, cell junctions are manually located at the first time point and tracked in a fully automated way for the remainder of the video. Using these methods, we have generated the first quantitative description of ventral epidermal cell movements and shape changes during epidermal enclosure. PMID:24771564

  2. Multiscale modeling of mechanosensing channels on vesicles and cell membranes in 3D constricted flows and shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhangli; Pak, On Shun; Young, Yuan-Nan; Liu, Allen; Stone, Howard

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the gating of mechanosensing channels (Mscls) on vesicles and cell membranes under different flow conditions using a multiscale approach. At the cell level (microns), the membrane tension is calculated using a 3D two-component whole-cell membrane model based on dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), including the cortex cytoskeleton and its interactions with the lipid bilayer. At the Mscl level (nanometers), we predict the relation between channel gating and the membrane tension obtained from a cell-level model using a semi-analytical model based on the bilayer hydrophobic mismatch energy. We systematically study the gating of Mscls of vesicles and cell membranes in constricted channel flows and shear flows, and explore the dependence of the gating on flow rate, cell shape and size. The results provide guidance for future experiments in inducing Mscl opening for various purposes such as drug delivery.

  3. Interplay of Proximal Flow Confluence and Distal Flow Divergence in Patient-Specific Vertebrobasilar System

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiaoping; Huang, Xu; Feng, Yundi; Tan, Wenchang; Liu, Huaijun

    2016-01-01

    Approximately one-quarter of ischemic strokes involve the vertebrobasilar arterial system that includes the upstream flow confluence and downstream flow divergence. A patient-specific hemodynamic analysis is needed to understand the posterior circulation. The objective of this study is to determine the distribution of hemodynamic parameters in the vertebrobasilar system, based on computer tomography angiography images. Here, the interplay of upstream flow confluence and downstream flow divergence was hypothesized to be a determinant factor for the hemodynamic distribution in the vertebrobasilar system. A computational fluid dynamics model was used to compute the flow fields in patient-specific vertebrobasilar models (n = 6). The inlet and outlet boundary conditions were the aortic pressure waveform and flow resistances, respectively. A 50% reduction of total outlet area was found to induce a ten-fold increase in surface area ratio of low time-averaged wall shear stress (i.e., TAWSS ≤ 4 dynes/cm2). This study enhances our understanding of the posterior circulation associated with the incidence of atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:27467755

  4. Modeling of gaseous flows within proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Weisbrod, K.R.; Vanderborgh, N.E.; Grot, S.A.

    1996-12-31

    Development of a comprehensive mechanistic model has been helpful to understand PEM fuel cell performance. Both through-the-electrode and down-the-channel models have been developed to support our experimental effort to enhance fuel cell design and operation. The through-the-electrode model was described previously. This code describes the known transport properties and dynamic processes that occur within a membrane and electrode assembly. Key parameters include transport through the backing layers, water diffusion and electroosmotic transport in the membrane, and reaction electrochemical kinetics within the cathode catalyst layer. In addition, two geometric regions within the cathode layer are represented, the first region below saturation and second with liquid water present. Although processes at high gas stoichiometry are well represented by more simple codes, moderate stoichiometry processes require a two dimensional representation that include the gaseous composition and temperature along flow channel. Although usually PEM hardware utilizes serpentine flow channels, this code does not include such geometric features and thus the flow can be visualized along a single channel.

  5. Experimental study of granular flows in a rough annular shear cell.

    PubMed

    Jasti, Venkata; Higgs, C Fred

    2008-10-01

    The study of granular flows in physics has always been important because of their recurring presence in nature and industry. However, the nonlinear and multiphase behavior exhibited by these particulate systems makes them hard to model and predict. Several experiments were conducted in the past to gain insight into granular flows. The current experimental work furthers this insight and specifically attempts to understand the effect of rough surfaces on granular flows, namely, their local flow behavior. Understanding this interaction can have implications on industrial-scale granular problems. In this work, a granular shear cell, a two-dimensional annular shear cell, was developed to conduct shear experiments where roughness is imposed on the driving surface and experimentally quantified. A digital particle tracking velocimetry data retrieval scheme was developed to extract solid fraction, velocity, and granular temperature data from the experiments as a function of the roughness factor and wheel rotation rate. In general, the steady-state results show the two distinct regions as expected-a high-velocity and dilute-gas-like kinetic region near the moving wall and a high-solid-fraction liquid-like frictional flow regime away from the moving wall. Parametric studies conducted show that the normalized slip near the moving wall decreases with increasing wall roughness and decreasing wall rotation rate. Slip is an important parameter which can be easily interpreted as momentum transfer or traction performance in granular systems related to wheel-terrain interaction, agricultural processing, and most notably granular lubrication.

  6. Protocol for the clonal analysis of NK cell effector functions by multi-parameter flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Schönberg, Kathrin; Hejazi, Maryam; Uhrberg, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells provide a first line of defense against viral infections and prepare the ground for subsequent action of virus-specific T cells in a concerted way. Human NK cells use a sophisticated system of inhibitory and stimulatory receptors of the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene family, which are expressed in a clonally distributed manner. Several studies suggest that KIR play a critical role in NK cell-mediated protection against HCV and HIV infection. As each NK cell expresses an individual set of KIR receptors that enables them to sense differences in HLA class I expression, classical measurement of NK cell function by analysis of target cell killing does not enable one to define and isolate the clinically relevant NK cell effector subsets. Here, we have developed a flow cytometry-based protocol to measure cytolytic activity together with KIR expression at a clonal level. Combined analysis of KIR expression in conjunction with cell surface mobilization of CD107 enables precise enumeration of cytolytic NK cells with defined specificity for HLA class I. Moreover, via inclusion of intracellular perforin or alternatively granzyme B, NK cells with deficient loading of cytotoxic granula can be identified. The present protocol enables identification and isolation of cytotoxic NK cells on a clonal level and enables reliable measurement in healthy as well as in pathological settings such as virus infection and hematological disease.

  7. Flow Cytometry-based Assay for the Monitoring of NK Cell Functions.

    PubMed

    Tognarelli, Sara; Jacobs, Benedikt; Staiger, Nina; Ullrich, Evelyn

    2016-10-30

    Natural killer (NK) cells are an important part of the human tumor immune surveillance system. NK cells are able to distinguish between healthy and virus-infected or malignantly transformed cells due to a set of germline encoded inhibitory and activating receptors. Upon virus or tumor cell recognition a variety of different NK cell functions are initiated including cytotoxicity against the target cell as well as cytokine and chemokine production leading to the activation of other immune cells. It has been demonstrated that accurate NK cell functions are crucial for the treatment outcome of different virus infections and malignant diseases. Here a simple and reliable method is described to analyze different NK cell functions using a flow cytometry-based assay. NK cell functions can be evaluated not only for the whole NK cell population, but also for different NK cell subsets. This technique enables scientists to easily study NK cell functions in healthy donors or patients in order to reveal their impact on different malignancies and to further discover new therapeutic strategies.

  8. Numerical Analysis of Hydrodynamic Flow in Microfluidic Biochip for Single-Cell Trapping Application.

    PubMed

    Khalili, Amelia Ahmad; Ahmad, Mohd Ridzuan

    2015-11-09

    Single-cell analysis has become the interest of a wide range of biological and biomedical engineering research. It could provide precise information on individual cells, leading to important knowledge regarding human diseases. To perform single-cell analysis, it is crucial to isolate the individual cells before further manipulation is carried out. Recently, microfluidic biochips have been widely used for cell trapping and single cell analysis, such as mechanical and electrical detection. This work focuses on developing a finite element simulation model of single-cell trapping system for any types of cells or particles based on the hydrodynamic flow resistance (Rh) manipulations in the main channel and trap channel to achieve successful trapping. Analysis is carried out using finite element ABAQUS-FEA™ software. A guideline to design and optimize single-cell trapping model is proposed and the example of a thorough optimization analysis is carried out using a yeast cell model. The results show the finite element model is able to trap a single cell inside the fluidic environment. Fluid's velocity profile and streamline plots for successful and unsuccessful single yeast cell trapping are presented according to the hydrodynamic concept. The single-cell trapping model can be a significant important guideline in designing a new chip for biomedical applications.

  9. A modular segmented-flow platform for 3D cell cultivation.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Karen; Förster, Tobias; Römer, Robert; Quade, Mandy; Wiedemeier, Stefan; Grodrian, Andreas; Gastrock, Gunter

    2015-07-10

    In vitro 3D cell cultivation is promised to equate tissue in vivo more realistically than 2D cell cultivation corresponding to cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Therefore, a scalable 3D cultivation platform was developed. This platform, called pipe-based bioreactors (pbb), is based on the segmented-flow technology: aqueous droplets are embedded in a water-immiscible carrier fluid. The droplet volumes range from 60 nL to 20 μL and are used as bioreactors lined up in a tubing like pearls on a string. The modular automated platform basically consists of several modules like a fluid management for a high throughput droplet generation for self-assembly or scaffold-based 3D cell cultivation, a storage module for incubation and storage, and an analysis module for monitoring cell aggregation and proliferation basing on microscopy or photometry. In this report, the self-assembly of murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to uniformly sized embryoid bodies (EBs), the cell proliferation, the cell viability as well as the influence on the cell differentiation to cardiomyocytes are described. The integration of a dosage module for medium exchange or agent addition will enable pbb as long-term 3D cell cultivation system for studying stem cell differentiation, e.g. cardiac myogenesis or for diagnostic and therapeutic testing in personalized medicine.

  10. Numerical Analysis of Hydrodynamic Flow in Microfluidic Biochip for Single-Cell Trapping Application

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad Khalili, Amelia; Ahmad, Mohd Ridzuan

    2015-01-01

    Single-cell analysis has become the interest of a wide range of biological and biomedical engineering research. It could provide precise information on individual cells, leading to important knowledge regarding human diseases. To perform single-cell analysis, it is crucial to isolate the individual cells before further manipulation is carried out. Recently, microfluidic biochips have been widely used for cell trapping and single cell analysis, such as mechanical and electrical detection. This work focuses on developing a finite element simulation model of single-cell trapping system for any types of cells or particles based on the hydrodynamic flow resistance (Rh) manipulations in the main channel and trap channel to achieve successful trapping. Analysis is carried out using finite element ABAQUS-FEA™ software. A guideline to design and optimize single-cell trapping model is proposed and the example of a thorough optimization analysis is carried out using a yeast cell model. The results show the finite element model is able to trap a single cell inside the fluidic environment. Fluid’s velocity profile and streamline plots for successful and unsuccessful single yeast cell trapping are presented according to the hydrodynamic concept. The single-cell trapping model can be a significant important guideline in designing a new chip for biomedical applications. PMID:26569218

  11. Structural integrated sensor and actuator systems for active flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behr, Christian; Schwerter, Martin; Leester-Schädel, Monika; Wierach, Peter; Dietzel, Andreas; Sinapius, Michael

    2016-04-01

    An adaptive flow separation control system is designed and implemented as an essential part of a novel high-lift device for future aircraft. The system consists of MEMS pressure sensors to determine the flow conditions and adaptive lips to regulate the mass flow and the velocity of a wall near stream over the internally blown Coanda flap. By the oscillating lip the mass flow in the blowing slot changes dynamically, consequently the momentum exchange of the boundary layer over a high lift flap required mass flow can be reduced. These new compact and highly integrated systems provide a real-time monitoring and manipulation of the flow conditions. In this context the integration of pressure sensors into flow sensing airfoils of composite material is investigated. Mechanical and electrical properties of the integrated sensors are investigated under mechanical loads during tensile tests. The sensors contain a reference pressure chamber isolated to the ambient by a deformable membrane with integrated piezoresistors connected as a Wheatstone bridge, which outputs voltage signals depending on the ambient pressure. The composite material in which the sensors are embedded consists of 22 individual layers of unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) prepreg. The results of the experiments are used for adapting the design of the sensors and the layout of the laminate to ensure an optimized flux of force in highly loaded structures primarily for future aeronautical applications. It can be shown that the pressure sensor withstands the embedding process into fiber composites with full functional capability and predictable behavior under stress.

  12. Investigation of hydrate formation and transportability in multiphase flow systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, Giovanny A.

    cohesion force (3.32 mN/m). These measurements prove the importance of natural surfactants in crude oil for particle dispersion. An experimental methodology was provided to determine the effectiveness of asphaltenes as a dispersant. Even though hydrate deposition was inferred from the flowloop tests, it could not be verified from these measurements. Custom-made experimental set-ups (a recirculation liquid system, a rocking cell and a lab-scale mini-loop) were used to isolate the hydrate deposi- tion investigation. Besides water, mineral oil 70T and King Ranch condensate were used in combination with water for the deposition investigation. One of the most important deliverables of this thesis was the construction of a lab-scale flowloop that provides insight on deposition phenomenon in multiphase flow, representing the only set-up, reported in the literature, suitable for this investigation. The miniloop can handle gas-liquid flow (maximum flow rates of 10 Nm3/m for gas and 22 GPM for liquid) through a 10 ft. long straight section (2 in. standard tubing). The testing section (30 in. long) was designed to observe hydrate deposition on the wall. Three mechanisms of hydrate deposition were identified: film growth, particles adhering and particle bedding. The maximum water conversions were: 27.5 ml in the rocking cell, 2400 ml in the miniloop with 100 % WC and 250 ml in the miniloop for dispersed water in mineral oil 70T. The measured DP across to the testing section ranged from 0 to 8 in. H2O. Deposits were obtained for different flow regimes, including 100 % LL, stratified, stratified- wavy and slug flow. The maximum deposit thickness was 1.5 in., obtained in the gas flowing section. When deposits form from particle cohesion, they were easy to slough. From all the experimental worked in this thesis, hydrates accumulated depending on the degrees of subcooling of the bulk fluid, film growth (between 3 to 5 F), deposition from a combination of film growth and particle cohesion

  13. Mean Line Pump Flow Model in Rocket Engine System Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph P.; Lavelle, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    A mean line pump flow modeling method has been developed to provide a fast capability for modeling turbopumps of rocket engines. Based on this method, a mean line pump flow code PUMPA has been written that can predict the performance of pumps at off-design operating conditions, given the loss of the diffusion system at the design point. The pump code can model axial flow inducers, mixed-flow and centrifugal pumps. The code can model multistage pumps in series. The code features rapid input setup and computer run time, and is an effective analysis and conceptual design tool. The map generation capability of the code provides the map information needed for interfacing with a rocket engine system modeling code. The off-design and multistage modeling capabilities of the code permit parametric design space exploration of candidate pump configurations and provide pump performance data for engine system evaluation. The PUMPA code has been integrated with the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) code and an expander rocket engine system has been simulated. The mean line pump flow code runs as an integral part of the NPSS rocket engine system simulation and provides key pump performance information directly to the system model at all operating conditions.

  14. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard; Delaforce, Philip Mark

    2016-03-08

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having an interconnect that reduces or eliminates diffusion (leakage) of fuel and oxidant by providing an increased densification, by forming the interconnect as a ceramic/metal composite.

  15. Revised conceptualization of the North China Basin groundwater flow system: Groundwater age, heat and flow simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Guoliang; Han, Dongmei; Currell, Matthew J.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater flow in deep sedimentary basins results from complex evolution processes on geological timescales. Groundwater flow systems conceptualized according to topography and/or groundwater table configuration generally assume a near-equilibrium state with the modern landscape. However, the time to reach such a steady state, and more generally the timescales of groundwater flow system evolution are key considerations for large sedimentary basins. This is true in the North China Basin (NCB), which has been studied for many years due to its importance as a groundwater supply. Despite many years of study, there remain contradictions between the generally accepted conceptual model of regional flow, and environmental tracer data. We seek to reconcile these contractions by conducting simulations of groundwater flow, age and heat transport in a three dimensional model, using an alternative conceptual model, based on geological, thermal, isotope and historical data. We infer flow patterns under modern hydraulic conditions using this new model and present the theoretical maximum groundwater ages under such a flow regime. The model results show that in contrast to previously accepted conceptualizations, most groundwater is discharged in the vicinity of the break-in-slope of topography at the boundary between the piedmont and central plain. Groundwater discharge to the ocean is in contrast small, and in general there are low rates of active flow in the eastern parts of the basin below the central and coastal plain. This conceptualization is more compatible with geochemical and geothermal data than the previous model. Simulated maximum groundwater ages of ∼1 Myrs below the central and coastal plain indicate that residual groundwater may be retained in the deep parts of the basin since being recharged during the last glacial period or earlier. The groundwater flow system has therefore probably not reached a new equilibrium state with modern-day hydraulic conditions. The

  16. Selective particle and cell capture in a continuous flow using micro-vortex acoustic streaming.

    PubMed

    Collins, David J; Khoo, Bee Luan; Ma, Zhichao; Winkler, Andreas; Weser, Robert; Schmidt, Hagen; Han, Jongyoon; Ai, Ye

    2017-04-10

    Acoustic streaming has emerged as a promising technique for refined microscale manipulation, where strong rotational flow can give rise to particle and cell capture. In contrast to hydrodynamically generated vortices, acoustic streaming is rapidly tunable, highly scalable and requires no external pressure source. Though streaming is typically ignored or minimized in most acoustofluidic systems that utilize other acoustofluidic effects, we maximize the effect of acoustic streaming in a continuous flow using a high-frequency (381 MHz), narrow-beam focused surface acoustic wave. This results in rapid fluid streaming, with velocities orders of magnitude greater than that of the lateral flow, to generate fluid vortices that extend the entire width of a 400 μm wide microfluidic channel. We characterize the forces relevant for vortex formation in a combined streaming/lateral flow system, and use these acoustic streaming vortices to selectively capture 2 μm from a mixed suspension with 1 μm particles and human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MDA-231) from red blood cells.

  17. Large scale simulation of red blood cell aggregation in shear flows.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong; Kaliviotis, Efstathios; Munjiza, Ante; Avital, Eldad; Ji, Chunning; Williams, John

    2013-07-26

    Aggregation of highly deformable red blood cells (RBCs) significantly affects the blood flow in the human circulatory system. To investigate the effect of deformation and aggregation of RBCs in blood flow, a mathematical model has been established by coupling the interaction between the fluid and the deformable solids. The model includes a three-dimensional finite volume method solver for incompressible viscous flows, the combined finite-discrete element method for computing the deformation of the RBCs, a JKR model-Johnson, Kendall and Roberts (1964-1971) (Johnson et al., 1971) to take account of the adhesion forces between different RBCs and an iterative direct-forcing immersed boundary method to couple the fluid-solid interactions. The flow of 49,512 RBCs at 45% concentration under the influence of aggregating forces was examined, improving the existing knowledge on simulating flow and structural characteristics of blood at a large scale: previous studies on the particular issue were restricted to simulating the flow of 13,000 aggregative ellipsoidal particles at a 10% concentration. The results are in excellent agreement with experimental studies. More specifically, both the experimental and the simulation results show uniform RBC distributions under high shear rates (60-100/s) whereas large aggregation structures were observed under a lower shear rate of 10/s. The statistical analysis of the simulation data also shows that the shear rate has significant influence on both the flow velocity profiles and the frequency distribution of the RBC orientation angles.

  18. Measurement system design of an imaging electromagnetic flow meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y. Y.; Lucas, G.; Leeungculsatien, T.; Zhang, T.

    2012-03-01

    Electromagnetic flow meters based on the principles of Faraday's laws of induction have been used successfully in many industries. In order to achieve velocity profile measurements in single phase and multiphase flows with non-uniform velocity profiles, a novel Imaging Electromagnetic Flow meter (IEF) has been developed which is described in this paper. The novel electromagnetic flow meter uses a microcontroller as the processing core to achieve the function of driving the uniform magnetic field, acquiring voltage signals with electronic system, matrix inversion calculation and result display. The work undertaken in the paper demonstrates that an imaging electromagnetic flow meter for liquid velocity profile measurement is an instrument that is highly suited for control via a microcontroller.

  19. MAG-GATE System for Molten metal Flow Control

    SciTech Connect

    Richard D. Nathenson, P.E.

    2004-05-15

    The need for improved active flow control has been recognized as part of the Steel Industry Technology Roadmap. Under TRP 9808 for the American Iron and Steel Institute and the Department of Energy, Concept Engineering Group Inc. has developed MAG-GATE{trademark}, an electromagnetic system for active molten metal flow control. Two hot steel tests were successfully conducted in 2003 at the Whemco Foundry Division, Midland, PA. Approximately 110,000 pounds of 0.2% carbon steel were poured through the device subject to electromagnetic flow control. Excellent agreement between predicted and actual flow control was found. A survey of the molten metal flow control practices at 100 continuous casters in North America was also conducted in 2003. This report summarizes the results of the development program to date. Preliminary designs are described for the next step of a beta test at an operating billet/bloom or slab caster.

  20. Method, apparatus and system for controlling fluid flow

    DOEpatents

    McMurtrey, Ryan D.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Burch, Joesph V.

    2007-10-30

    A system, apparatus and method of controlling the flow of a fluid are provided. In accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, a flow control device includes a valve having a flow path defined therethrough and a valve seat in communication with the flow path with a valve stem disposed in the valve seat. The valve stem and valve seat are cooperatively configured to cause mutual relative linear displacement thereof in response to rotation of the valve stem. A gear member is coupled with the rotary stem and a linear positioning member includes a portion which complementarily engages the gear member. Upon displacement of the linear positioning member along a first axis, the gear member and rotary valve stem are rotated about a second axis and the valve stem and valve seat are mutually linearly displaced to alter the flow of fluid through the valve.

  1. The PHOENICS flow-simulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fueyo, Norberto

    In the scope of the 1990-04 lecture series on computational fluid dynamics, a computation code named PHOENICS is presented. An overview of the main computational techniques used in PHOENICS is given. The modeling features available to the user are shown. PHOENICS is based on the finite volume method and has three different steps which are described: discretization, integration of each differential equation for each cell and solution of each set of algebraic equations. Improvements to help dictionaries and new manuals are suggested.

  2. Mean Flow Augmented Acoustics in Rocket Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischbach, Sean R.

    2015-01-01

    Combustion instability in solid rocket motors and liquid engines is a complication that continues to plague designers and engineers. Many rocket systems experience violent fluctuations in pressure, velocity, and temperature originating from the complex interactions between the combustion process and gas dynamics. During sever cases of combustion instability fluctuation amplitudes can reach values equal to or greater than the average chamber pressure. Large amplitude oscillations lead to damaged injectors, loss of rocket performance, damaged payloads, and in some cases breach of case/loss of mission. Historic difficulties in modeling and predicting combustion instability has reduced most rocket systems experiencing instability into a costly fix through testing paradigm or to scrap the system entirely.

  3. Webcam-based flow cytometer using wide-field imaging for low cell number detection at high throughput.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Joshua; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Rasooly, Avraham

    2014-09-07

    was 91.4 cells per mL, with a 95% confidence interval of 86-97 cells per mL. These low cell concentrations and the large volume capabilities of the system may overcome the limitations of current cytometry, and are applicable to rare cell (such as circulating tumor cell) detection The simplicity and low cost of this device suggests that it may have a potential use in developing point-of-care clinical flow cytometry for resource-poor settings associated with global health.

  4. Stochastic modeling of a lava-flow aquifer system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronkite-Ratcliff, Collin; Phelps, Geoffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes preliminary three-dimensional geostatistical modeling of a lava-flow aquifer system using a multiple-point geostatistical model. The purpose of this study is to provide a proof-of-concept for this modeling approach. An example of the method is demonstrated using a subset of borehole geologic data and aquifer test data from a portion of the Calico Hills Formation, a lava-flow aquifer system that partially underlies Pahute Mesa, Nevada. Groundwater movement in this aquifer system is assumed to be controlled by the spatial distribution of two geologic units—rhyolite lava flows and zeolitized tuffs. The configuration of subsurface lava flows and tuffs is largely unknown because of limited data. The spatial configuration of the lava flows and tuffs is modeled by using a multiple-point geostatistical simulation algorithm that generates a large number of alternative realizations, each honoring the available geologic data and drawn from a geologic conceptual model of the lava-flow aquifer system as represented by a training image. In order to demonstrate how results from the geostatistical model could be analyzed in terms of available hydrologic data, a numerical simulation of part of an aquifer test was applied to the realizations of the geostatistical model.

  5. Flow Analysis on a Limited Volume Chilled Water System

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Lin

    2012-07-31

    LANL Currently has a limited volume chilled water system for use in a glove box, but the system needs to be updated. Before we start building our new system, a flow analysis is needed to ensure that there are no high flow rates, extreme pressures, or any other hazards involved in the system. In this project the piping system is extremely important to us because it directly affects the overall design of the entire system. The primary components necessary for the chilled water piping system are shown in the design. They include the pipes themselves (perhaps of more than one diameter), the various fitting used to connect the individual pipes to form the desired system, the flow rate control devices (valves), and the pumps that add energy to the fluid. Even the most simple pipe systems are actually quite complex when they are viewed in terms of rigorous analytical considerations. I used an 'exact' analysis and dimensional analysis considerations combined with experimental results for this project. When 'real-world' effects are important (such as viscous effects in pipe flows), it is often difficult or impossible to use only theoretical methods to obtain the desired results. A judicious combination of experimental data with theoretical considerations and dimensional analysis are needed in order to reduce risks to an acceptable level.

  6. White blood cell counting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  7. System and method for bidirectional flow and controlling fluid flow in a conduit

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, M.G.

    1999-03-23

    A system for measuring bidirectional flow, including backflow, of fluid in a conduit is disclosed. The system utilizes a structural mechanism to create a pressure differential in the conduit. Pressure sensors are positioned upstream from the mechanism, at the mechanism, and downstream from the mechanism. Data from the pressure sensors are transmitted to a microprocessor or computer, and pressure differential detected between the pressure sensors is then used to calculate the backflow. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to shut off valves located in the conduit, upon the occurrence of backflow, or to control flow, total material dispersed, etc. in the conduit. 3 figs.

  8. System and method for bidirectional flow and controlling fluid flow in a conduit

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, Marcos German

    1999-01-01

    A system for measuring bidirectional flow, including backflow, of fluid in a conduit. The system utilizes a structural mechanism to create a pressure differential in the conduit. Pressure sensors are positioned upstream from the mechanism, at the mechanism, and downstream from the mechanism. Data from the pressure sensors are transmitted to a microprocessor or computer, and pressure differential detected between the pressure sensors is then used to calculate the backflow. Control signals may then be generated by the microprocessor or computer to shut off valves located in the conduit, upon the occurrence of backflow, or to control flow, total material dispersed, etc. in the conduit.

  9. Dynamic Microenvironment Induces Phenotypic Plasticity of Esophageal Cancer Cells Under Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calibasi Kocal, Gizem; Güven, Sinan; Foygel, Kira; Goldman, Aaron; Chen, Pu; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Baskin, Yasemin; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-12-01

    Cancer microenvironment is a remarkably heterogeneous composition of cellular and non-cellular components, regulated by both external and intrinsic physical and chemical stimuli. Physical alterations driven by increased proliferation of neoplastic cells and angiogenesis in the cancer microenvironment result in the exposure of the cancer cells to elevated levels of flow-based shear stress. We developed a dynamic microfluidic cell culture platform utilizing eshopagael cancer cells as model cells to investigate the phenotypic changes of cancer cells upon exposure to fluid shear stress. We report the epithelial to hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal transition as a result of decreasing E-Cadherin and increasing N-Cadherin and vimentin expressions, higher clonogenicity and ALDH positive expression of cancer cells cultured in a dynamic microfluidic chip under laminar flow compared to the static culture condition. We also sought regulation of chemotherapeutics in cancer microenvironment towards phenotypic control of cancer cells. Such in vitro microfluidic system could potentially be used to monitor how the interstitial fluid dynamics affect cancer microenvironment and plasticity on a simple, highly controllable and inexpensive bioengineered platform.

  10. Dynamic Microenvironment Induces Phenotypic Plasticity of Esophageal Cancer Cells Under Flow

    PubMed Central

    Calibasi Kocal, Gizem; Güven, Sinan; Foygel, Kira; Goldman, Aaron; Chen, Pu; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Baskin, Yasemin; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer microenvironment is a remarkably heterogeneous composition of cellular and non-cellular components, regulated by both external and intrinsic physical and chemical stimuli. Physical alterations driven by increased proliferation of neoplastic cells and angiogenesis in the cancer microenvironment result in the exposure of the cancer cells to elevated levels of flow-based shear stress. We developed a dynamic microfluidic cell culture platform utilizing eshopagael cancer cells as model cells to investigate the phenotypic changes of cancer cells upon exposure to fluid shear stress. We report the epithelial to hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal transition as a result of decreasing E-Cadherin and increasing N-Cadherin and vimentin expressions, higher clonogenicity and ALDH positive expression of cancer cells cultured in a dynamic microfluidic chip under laminar flow compared to the static culture condition. We also sought regulation of chemotherapeutics in cancer microenvironment towards phenotypic control of cancer cells. Such in vitro microfluidic system could potentially be used to monitor how the interstitial fluid dynamics affect cancer microenvironment and plasticity on a simple, highly controllable and inexpensive bioengineered platform. PMID:27910892

  11. Evidence for P-Glycoprotein Involvement in Cell Volume Regulation Using Coulter Sizing in Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Pasquier, Jennifer; Rioult, Damien; Abu-Kaoud, Nadine; Hoarau-Véchot, Jessica; Marin, Matthieu; Le Foll, Frank

    2015-06-24

    The regulation of cell volume is an essential function that is coupled to a variety of physiological processes such as receptor recycling, excitability and contraction, cell proliferation, migration, and programmed cell death. Under stress, cells undergo emergency swelling and respond to such a phenomenon with a regulatory volume decrease (RVD) where they release cellular ions, and other osmolytes as well as a concomitant loss of water. The link between P-glycoprotein, a transmembrane transporter, and cell volume regulation is controversial, and changes in cells volume are measured using microscopy or electrophysiology. For instance, by using the patch-clamp method, our team demonstrated that chloride currents activated in the RVD were more intense and rapid in a breast cancer cell line overexpressing the P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The Cell Lab Quanta SC is a flow cytometry system that simultaneously measures electronic volume, side scatter and three fluorescent colors; altogether this provides unsurpassed population resolution and accurate cell counting. Therefore, here we propose a novel method to follow cellular volume. By using the Coulter-type channel of the cytometer Cell Lab Quanta SC MPL (multi-platform loading), we demonstrated a role for the P-gp during different osmotic treatments, but also a differential activity of the P-gp through the cell cycle. Altogether, our data strongly suggests a role of P-gp in cell volume regulation.

  12. Evidence for P-Glycoprotein Involvement in Cell Volume Regulation Using Coulter Sizing in Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Pasquier, Jennifer; Rioult, Damien; Abu-Kaoud, Nadine; Hoarau-Véchot, Jessica; Marin, Matthieu; Le Foll, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of cell volume is an essential function that is coupled to a variety of physiological processes such as receptor recycling, excitability and contraction, cell proliferation, migration, and programmed cell death. Under stress, cells undergo emergency swelling and respond to such a phenomenon with a regulatory volume decrease (RVD) where they release cellular ions, and other osmolytes as well as a concomitant loss of water. The link between P-glycoprotein, a transmembrane transporter, and cell volume regulation is controversial, and changes in cells volume are measured using microscopy or electrophysiology. For instance, by using the patch-clamp method, our team demonstrated that chloride currents activated in the RVD were more intense and rapid in a breast cancer cell line overexpressing the P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The Cell Lab Quanta SC is a flow cytometry system that simultaneously measures electronic volume, side scatter and three fluorescent colors; altogether this provides unsurpassed population resolution and accurate cell counting. Therefore, here we propose a novel method to follow cellular volume. By using the Coulter-type channel of the cytometer Cell Lab Quanta SC MPL (multi-platform loading), we demonstrated a role for the P-gp during different osmotic treatments, but also a differential activity of the P-gp through the cell cycle. Altogether, our data strongly suggests a role of P-gp in cell volume regulation. PMID:26114386

  13. Effects of uniform rotational flow on predator-prey system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Hee

    2012-12-01

    Rotational flow is often observed in lotic ecosystems, such as streams and rivers. For example, when an obstacle interrupts water flowing in a stream, energy dissipation and momentum transfer can result in the formation of rotational flow, or a vortex. In this study, I examined how rotational flow affects a predator-prey system by constructing a spatially explicit lattice model consisting of predators, prey, and plants. A predation relationship existed between the species. The species densities in the model were given as S (for predator), P (for prey), and G (for plant). A predator (prey) had a probability of giving birth to an offspring when it ate prey (plant). When a predator or prey was first introduced, or born, its health state was assigned an initial value of 20 that subsequently decreased by one with every time step. The predator (prey) was removed from the system when the health state decreased to less than zero. The degree of flow rotation was characterized by the variable, R. A higher R indicates a higher tendency that predators and prey move along circular paths. Plants were not affected by the flow because they were assumed to be attached to the streambed. Results showed that R positively affected both predator and prey survival, while its effect on plants was negligible. Flow rotation facilitated disturbances in individuals’ movements, which consequently strengthens the predator and prey relationship and prevents death from starvation. An increase in S accelerated the extinction of predators and prey.

  14. Ambient pressure fuel cell system

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    2000-01-01

    An ambient pressure fuel cell system is provided with a fuel cell stack formed from a plurality of fuel cells having membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) that are hydrated with liquid water and bipolar plates with anode and cathode sides for distributing hydrogen fuel gas and water to a first side of each one of the MEAs and air with reactant oxygen gas to a second side of each one of the MEAs. A pump supplies liquid water to the fuel cells. A recirculating system may be used to return unused hydrogen fuel gas to the stack. A near-ambient pressure blower blows air through the fuel cell stack in excess of reaction stoichiometric amounts to react with the hydrogen fuel gas.

  15. A multi-agent system for monitoring patient flow.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Samanta; Tralli, Augusta; Balestra, Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Patient flow within a healthcare facility may follow different and, sometimes, complicated paths. Each path phase is associated with the documentation of the activities carried out during it and may require the consultation of clinical guidelines, medical literature and the use of specific software and decision aid systems. In this study we present the design of a Patient Flow Management System (PFMS) based on Multi Agent Systems (MAS) methodology. System requirements were identified by means of process modeling tools and a MAS consisting of six agents was designed and is under construction. Its main goal is to support both the medical staff during the health care process and the hospital managers in assuring that all the required documentation is completed and available. Moreover, such a tool can be used for the assessment and comparison of different clinical pathways, in order to identify possible improvementsand the optimum patient flow.

  16. Portable Fluorescence Imaging System for Hypersonic Flow Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, J. A.; Alderfer, D. W.; Jones, S. B.; Danehy, P. M.

    2003-01-01

    A portable fluorescence imaging system has been developed for use in NASA Langley s hypersonic wind tunnels. The system has been applied to a small-scale free jet flow. Two-dimensional images were taken of the flow out of a nozzle into a low-pressure test section using the portable planar laser-induced fluorescence system. Images were taken from the center of the jet at various test section pressures, showing the formation of a barrel shock at low pressures, transitioning to a turbulent jet at high pressures. A spanwise scan through the jet at constant pressure reveals the three-dimensional structure of the flow. Future capabilities of the system for making measurements in large-scale hypersonic wind tunnel facilities are discussed.

  17. A contribution about ferrofluid based flow manipulation and locomotion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, K.; Zeidis, I.; Bohm, V.; Popp, J.

    2009-02-01

    With the background of developing apedal bionic inspired locomotion systems for future application fields like autonomous (swarm) robots, medical engineering and inspection systems, this article presents a selection of locomotion systems with bifluidic flow control using ferrofluid. By controlling the change of shape, position and pressure of the ferrofluid in a secondary low viscous fluid by magnetic fields locomotion of objects or the ferrofluid itself can be realised. The locomotion of an object is caused in the first example by a ferrofluid generated flow of the secondary fluid and in the second and third case by the direct alteration of the ferrofluid position.

  18. Detection of Trypanosoma brucei Variant Surface Glycoprotein Switching by Magnetic Activated Cell Sorting and Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Danae; Mugnier, Monica R; Boothroyd, Catherine E; Papavasiliou, F Nina

    2016-10-19

    Trypanosoma brucei, a protozoan parasite that causes both Human and Animal African Trypanosomiasis (known as sleeping sickness and nagana, respectively) cycles between a tsetse vector and a mammalian host. It evades the mammalian host immune system by periodically switching the dense, variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) that covers its surface. The detection of antigenic variation in Trypanosoma brucei can be both cumbersome and labor intensive. Here, we present a method for quantifying the number of parasites that have 'switched' to express a new VSG in a given population. The parasites are first stained with an antibody against the starting VSG, and then stained with a secondary antibody attached to a magnetic bead. Parasites expressing the starting VSG are then separated from the rest of the population by running the parasites over a column attached to a magnet. Parasites expressing the dominant, starting VSG are retained on the column, while the flow-through contains parasites that express a new VSG as well as some contaminants expressing the starting VSG. This flow-through population is stained again with a fluorescently labeled antibody against the starting VSG to label contaminants, and propidium iodide (PI), which labels dead cells. A known number of absolute counting beads that are visible by flow cytometry are added to the flow-through population. The ratio of beads to number of cells collected can then be used to extrapolate the number of cells in the entire sample. Flow cytometry is used to quantify the population of switchers by counting the number of PI negative cells that do not stain positively for the starting, dominant VSG. The proportion of switchers in the population can then be calculated using the flow cytometry data.

  19. Information systems for material flow management in construction processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesároš, P.; Mandičák, T.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the options for the management of material flows in the construction process. Management and resource planning is one of the key factors influencing the effectiveness of construction project. It is very difficult to set these flows correctly. The current period offers several options and tools to do this. Information systems and their modules can be used just for the management of materials in the construction process.

  20. 93. TEMPERATURE AND FLOW RATE CONTROLS FOR SYSTEM 1 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    93. TEMPERATURE AND FLOW RATE CONTROLS FOR SYSTEM 1 AND SYSTEM 2, FACING WEST IN MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ROOM (101), LSB (BLDG. 770) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  1. Smooth muscle cells orchestrate the endothelial cell response to flow and injury

    PubMed Central

    Balcells, Mercedes; Martorell, Jordi; Olive, Carla; Santacana, Marina; Chitalia, Vipul; Cardoso, Angelo A.; Edelman, Elazer R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Local modulation of vascular mTOR signaling reduces smooth muscle cells (SMC) proliferation after endovascular interventions but may be associated with endothelial cell (EC) toxicity. The trilaminate vascular architecture juxtaposes EC and SMC to enable complex paracrine co-regulation, but shields SMC from flow. We hypothesized that flow differentially impacts mTOR signaling in EC and SMC, and that SMC regulate mTOR in EC. Methods and Results SMC and/or EC were exposed to coronary artery flow in a perfusion bioreactor. We demonstrated by flowcytometry, immunofluorescence and immunoblotting that EC expression of phospho-S6 ribosomal protein (p-S6RP), a downstream target of mTOR, was doubled by flow. Conversely, S6RP in SMC was growth factor-, but not flow-, responsive and SMC eliminated the flow-sensitivity of EC. Temsirolimus, a sirolimus analog, eliminated the effect of GF on SMC and flow on EC, reducing p-S6RP below basal levels and inhibiting endothelial recovery. EC p-S6RP expression in stented porcine arteries confirmed our in vitro findings – phosphorylation was greatest in EC farthest from intact SMC in metal stented arteries and altogether absent after sirolimus stent-elution. Conclusions mTOR pathway is activated in EC in response to luminal flow. SMC inhibit this flow-induced stimulation of endothelial mTOR pathway. Thus, we now define a novel external stimulus regulating phosphorylation of S6RP and another level of EC-SMC cross-talk. These interactions may explain the impact of local anti-proliferative delivery that targets SMC proliferation, and suggest that future stents integrate design influences on flow and drug effects on their molecular targets. PMID:20458015

  2. Minimizing ultraviolet noise due to mis-matches between detector flow cell and post column mobile phase temperatures in supercritical fluid chromatography: effect of flow cell design.

    PubMed

    Berger, Terry A

    2014-10-17

    A mis-match between the post-column mobile phase temperature and the UV detector flow cell temperature can cause significant UV noise in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). Deviations as little as 5 °C can increase noise as much as 5 times, making the detector unsuited for trace analysis. Two approaches were used to minimize this noise. When a flow cell was in direct thermal contact (metal on metal) with the detector optical bench, the mobile phase temperature was actively controlled to the measured flow cell temperature, by using one of the heat exchangers (HX) in the column compartment. However, with some older, but still widely used flow cell designs, this required repeated, hourly monitoring of the flow cell temperature and repeated manual adjustment of the heat exchanger temperature, due to thermal drift. Flow cell design had a strong influence on susceptibility to this thermally induced noise. Thermally insulating the flow cell from the optical bench made some cells much less susceptible to such thermally induced noise. Five different flow cells, some insulated, some un-insulated, were evaluated. Most had a truncated conical flow path, but one had a cylindrical flow path. Using either approach, the ASTM noise, with a 10mm, 13 μL conical flow cell, could be optimized to ≈0.007 mAU at 2.5 Hz, in SFC, which is very near the 0.006 mAU manufacturer's specification for HPLC. The insulated version of this flow cell required far less optimization, compared to the un-insulated version. At 150 bar, an experimental 3mm, 2 μL flow cell, with only one side insulated, yielded noise slightly too high (≈0.16-0.18 mAU) for trace analysis, at 80 Hz. However, at 200 bar, noise at 80 Hz was <0.06 mAU, which should allow quantification of a 1 mAU tall trace component with a signal to noise ratio (S/N) >10. Even partially un-insulated, this flow cell design was much less susceptible to thermally induced noise. Further insulating this flow cell design failed to improve

  3. Unitized regenerative fuel cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell system uses heat pipes to convey waste heat from the fuel cell stack to the reactant storage tanks. The storage tanks act as heat sinks/sources and as passive radiators of the waste heat from the fuel cell stack. During charge up, i.e., the electrolytic process, gases are conveyed to the reactant storage tanks by way of tubes that include dryers. Reactant gases moving through the dryers give up energy to the cold tanks, causing water vapor in with the gases to condense and freeze on the internal surfaces of the dryer. During operation in its fuel cell mode, the heat pipes convey waste heat from the fuel cell stack to the respective reactant storage tanks, thereby heating them such that the reactant gases, as they pass though the respective dryers on their way to the fuel cell stacks retrieve the water previously removed.

  4. Preliminary design of an intermittent smoke flow visualization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Donald T.; Myatt, James H.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype intermittent flow visualization system that was designed to study vortex flow field dynamics has been constructed and tested through its ground test phase. It produces discrete pulses of dense white smoke consisting of particles of terephthalic acid by the pulsing action of a fast-acting three-way valve. The trajectories of the smoke pulses can be tracked by a video imaging system without intruding in the flow around in flight. Two methods of pulsing the smoke were examined. The simplest and safest approach is to simply divert the smoke between the two outlet ports on the valve; this approach should be particularly effective if it were desired to inject smoke at two locations during the same test event. The second approach involves closing off one of the outlet ports to momentarily block the flow. The second approach requires careful control of valve dwell times to avoid excessive pressure buildup within the cartridge container. This method also increases the velocity of the smoke injected into the flow. The flow of the smoke has been blocked for periods ranging from 30 to 80 milliseconds, depending on the system volume and the length of time the valve is allowed to remain open between valve closings.

  5. Research on MEMS sensor in hydraulic system flow detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongpeng; Zhang, Yindong; Liu, Dong; Ji, Yulong; Jiang, Jihai; Sun, Yuqing

    2010-12-01

    With the development of mechatronics technology and fault diagnosis theory, people regard flow information much more than before. Cheap, fast and accurate flow sensors are urgently needed by hydraulic industry. So MEMS sensor, which is small, low cost, well performed and easy to integrate, will surely play an important role in this field. Based on the new method of flow measurement which was put forward by our research group, this paper completed the measurement of flow rate in hydraulic system by setting up the mathematical model, using numerical simulation method and doing physical experiment. Based on viscous fluid flow equations we deduced differential pressure-velocity model of this new sensor and did optimization on parameters. Then, we designed and manufactured the throttle and studied the velocity and pressure field inside the sensor by FLUENT. Also in simulation we get the differential pressure-velocity curve .The model machine was simulated too to direct experiment. In the static experiments we calibrated the MEMS sensing element and built some sample sensors. Then in a hydraulic testing system we compared the sensor signal with a turbine meter. It presented good linearity and could meet general hydraulic system use. Based on the CFD curves, we analyzed the error reasons and made some suggestion to improve. In the dynamic test, we confirmed this sensor can realize high frequency flow detection by a 7 piston-pump.

  6. Research on MEMS sensor in hydraulic system flow detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongpeng; Zhang, Yindong; Liu, Dong; Ji, Yulong; Jiang, Jihai; Sun, Yuqing

    2011-05-01

    With the development of mechatronics technology and fault diagnosis theory, people regard flow information much more than before. Cheap, fast and accurate flow sensors are urgently needed by hydraulic industry. So MEMS sensor, which is small, low cost, well performed and easy to integrate, will surely play an important role in this field. Based on the new method of flow measurement which was put forward by our research group, this paper completed the measurement of flow rate in hydraulic system by setting up the mathematical model, using numerical simulation method and doing physical experiment. Based on viscous fluid flow equations we deduced differential pressure-velocity model of this new sensor and did optimization on parameters. Then, we designed and manufactured the throttle and studied the velocity and pressure field inside the sensor by FLUENT. Also in simulation we get the differential pressure-velocity curve .The model machine was simulated too to direct experiment. In the static experiments we calibrated the MEMS sensing element and built some sample sensors. Then in a hydraulic testing system we compared the sensor signal with a turbine meter. It presented good linearity and could meet general hydraulic system use. Based on the CFD curves, we analyzed the error reasons and made some suggestion to improve. In the dynamic test, we confirmed this sensor can realize high frequency flow detection by a 7 piston-pump.

  7. Redox flow cell development and demonstration project, calendar year 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The major focus of the effort was the key technology issues that directly influence the fundamental feasibility of the overall redox concept. These issues were the development of a suitable semipermeable separator membrane for the system, the screening and study of candidate redox couples to achieve optimum cell performance, and the carrying out of systems analysis and modeling to develop system performance goals and cost estimates.

  8. Migration Systems in Europe: Evidence From Harmonized Flow Data

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Keuntae; Raymer, James

    2014-01-01

    Empirical tests of migration systems theory require consistent and complete data on international migration flows. Publicly available data, however, represent an inconsistent and incomplete set of measurements obtained from a variety of national data collection systems. We overcome these obstacles by standardizing the available migration reports of sending and receiving countries in the European Union and Norway each year from 2003–2007 and by estimating the remaining missing flows. The resulting harmonized estimates are then used to test migration systems theory. First, locating thresholds in the size of flows over time, we identify three migration systems within the European Union and Norway. Second, examining the key determinants of flows with respect to the predictions of migration systems theory, our results highlight the importance of shared experiences of nation-state formation, geography, and accession status in the European Union. Our findings lend support to migration systems theory and demonstrate that knowledge of migration systems may improve the accuracy of migration forecasts toward managing the impacts of migration as a source of social change in Europe. PMID:22791267

  9. A cell-centered ICE method for multiphase flow simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiwa, B.A.; Padial, N.T.; Rauenzahn, R.M.; VanderHeyden, W.B.

    1993-12-01

    The Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian (ICE) method is a finite-volume scheme that is stable for any value of the Courant number based on the sound speed. In the incompressible limit, the ICE method becomes essentially identical to the Marker and Cell (MAC) method, so the two schemes are closely related. In this article, the classical ICE method is extended to multiple interpenetrating phases, and employed with a single control volume (nonstaggered) mesh framework. The incompressible limit is preserved, so that problems involving equations of state, or those exhibiting constant material densities, can be addressed with the same computer code. The scheme reduces properly to a single-fluid method, enabling benchmarking using well-known test cases. Thus, the numerical issues focus only on those aspects unique to problems having multiple density, velocity and temperature fields. The discussion begins with a derivation of the exact, ensemble-averaged equations. Examples of the most basic closures axe given, and the well-posedness of the equations is demonstrated. The numerical method is described in operator notation, and the discretization is sketched. The flow patterns in a bubble column are computed as an incompressible flow example. For a compressible flow example, the expansion and compression of a bubble formed by high-explosive gases under water is shown. In each case, comparison to experimental data is made.

  10. Continuous flow electrophoresis: The effect of sample concentration on throughput and resolution in an upward flowing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jandebeur, T. S.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of sample concentration on throughput and resolution in a modified continuous particle electrophoresis (CPE) system with flow in an upward direction is investigated. Maximum resolution is achieved at concentrations ranging from 2 x 10 to the 8th power cells/ml to 8 x 10 to the 8th power cells/ml. The widest peak separation is at 2 x 10 to the 8th power cells/ml; however, the sharpest peaks and least overlap between cell populations is at 8 x 10 to the 8th power cells/ml. Apparently as a result of improved electrophoresis cell performance due to coasting the chamber with bovine serum albumin, changing the electrode membranes and rinse, and lowering buffer temperatures, sedimentation effects attending to higher concentrations are diminished. Throughput as measured by recovery of fixed cells is diminished at the concentrations judged most likely to yield satisfactory resolution. The tradeoff appears to be improved recovery/throughput at the expense of resolution.

  11. A deuterium-calibrated groundwater flow model of a regional carbonate-alluvial system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, Stephen T.; Campana, Michael E.

    1990-11-01

    The White River Flow System (WRFS), a regional carbonate-alluvial groundwater system in southeastern Nevada, U.S.A., contains large amounts of water in storage, especially in the underlying carbonate reservoir. As the population of Nevada grows, it may become necessary to tap the resources of this and other regional carbonate systems. Because of the depth to the carbonate reservoir and, until now, lack of motivation to collect detailed hydrogeological data on it, the state of knowledge of flow in the carbonate system is poor. However, a simple mixing-cell flow model of the WRFS can be constructed and calibrated with the spatial distribution of the stable isotope deuterium. This type of model subdivides the system into carbonate and alluvial cells and routes water and deuterium through the entire cell network. It provides estimates of recharge rates, groundwater ages and volumes of water in storage. Transience in recharge rates and their deuterium signatures are unaccounted for by the model. The lack of constraints on the system mandates the calibration of three different flow scenarios, each of which differs slightly from the other. Despite these differences, some consistent quantitative results are obtained. Foremost among these are: (1) the carbonate aquifer may contain as much as 752 km 3 of water in storage; (2) recharge from the Sheep Range to Coyote Spring Valley is at least 90% greater than previously believed; (3) Lower Meadow Valley is part of the WRFS and contributes underflow to Upper Moapa Valley; (4) underflow with an average value of 0.163 m 3 s -1 flows westward out of the system along the Pahranagat Shear Zone; (5) recharge to the alluvial system is greater than that to the carbonate system; (6) groundwater mean ages range from 1600 to 34 000 years, with the oldest waters exceeding 100 000 years old. The results also demonstrate that deuterium can be used to calibrate simple flow models and provide groundwater ages. Despite the uncertainties and

  12. System Size, Energy, Pseudorapidity, and Centrality Dependence of Elliptic Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Alver, B.; Ballintijn, M.; Busza, W.; Decowski, M. P.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Henderson, C.; Kane, J. L.; Kulinich, P.; Li, W.; Loizides, C.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Vale, C.; Nieuwenhuizen, G. J. van; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.

    2007-06-15

    This Letter presents measurements of the elliptic flow of charged particles as a function of pseudorapidity and centrality from Cu-Cu collisions at 62.4 and 200 GeV using the PHOBOS detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The elliptic flow in Cu-Cu collisions is found to be significant even for the most central events. For comparison with the Au-Au results, it is found that the detailed way in which the collision geometry (eccentricity) is estimated is of critical importance when scaling out system-size effects. A new form of eccentricity, called the participant eccentricity, is introduced which yields a scaled elliptic flow in the Cu-Cu system that has the same relative magnitude and qualitative features as that in the Au-Au system.

  13. Photoacoustic-fluorescence in vitro flow cytometry for quantification of absorption, scattering and fluorescence properties of the cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedosekin, D. A.; Sarimollaoglu, M.; Foster, S.; Galanzha, E. I.; Zharov, V. P.

    2013-03-01

    Fluorescence flow cytometry is a well-established analytical tool that provides quantification of multiple biological parameters of cells at molecular levels, including their functional states, morphology, composition, proliferation, and protein expression. However, only the fluorescence and scattering parameters of the cells or labels are available for detection. Cell pigmentation, presence of non-fluorescent dyes or nanoparticles cannot be reliably quantified. Herewith, we present a novel photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry design for simple integration of absorbance measurements into schematics of conventional in vitro flow cytometers. The integrated system allow simultaneous measurements of light absorbance, scattering and of multicolor fluorescence from single cells in the flow at rates up to 2 m/s. We compared various combinations of excitation laser sources for multicolor detection, including simultaneous excitation of PA and fluorescence using a single 500 kHz pulsed nanosecond laser. Multichannel detection scheme allows simultaneous detection of up to 8 labels, including 4 fluorescent tags and 4 PA colors. In vitro PA-fluorescence flow cytometer was used for studies of nanoparticles uptake and for the analysis of cell line pigmentation, including genetically encoded melanin expression in breast cancer cell line. We demonstrate that this system can be used for direct nanotoxicity studies with simultaneous quantification of nanoparticles content and assessment of cell viability using a conventional fluorescent apoptosis assays.

  14. Migration dynamics of breast cancer cells in a tunable 3D interstitial flow chamber.

    PubMed

    Haessler, Ulrike; Teo, Jeremy C M; Foretay, Didier; Renaud, Philippe; Swartz, Melody A

    2012-04-01

    The migration of cells such as leukocytes, tumor cells, and fibroblasts through 3D matrices is critical for regulating homeostasis and immunity and for driving pathogenesis. Interstitial flow through the extracellular matrix, which can substantially increase during inflammation and in the tumor microenvironment, can influence cell migration in multiple ways. Leukocytes and tumor cells are heterogeneous in their migration responses to flow, yet most 3D migration studies use endpoint measurements representing average characteristics. Here we present a robust new microfluidic device for 3D culture with live imaging under well-controlled flow conditions, along with a comparison of analytical methods for describing the migration behavior of heterogeneous cell populations. We then use the model to provide new insight on how interstitial flow affects MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell invasion, phenomena that are not seen from averaged or endpoint measurements. Specifically, we find that interstitial flow increases the percentage of cells that become migratory, and increases migrational speed in about 20% of the cells. It also increases the migrational persistence of a subpopulation (5-10% of cells) in the positive or negative flow direction. Cells that migrated upstream moved faster but with less directedness, whereas cells that migrated in the direction of flow moved at slower speeds but with higher directedness. These findings demonstrate how fluid flow in the tumor microenvironment can enhance tumor cell invasion by directing a subpopulation of tumor cells in the flow direction; i.e., towards the draining lymphatic vessels, a major route of metastasis.

  15. A zero-flow microfluidics for long-term cell culture and detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Shengbo; Tang, Xiaoliang; Feng, Qiliang; Jian, Aoqun; Zhang, Wendong

    2015-04-01

    A zero-flow microfluidic design is proposed in this paper, which can be used for long-term cell culture and detection, especially for a lab-on-chip integrated with a biosensor. It consists of two parts: a main microchannel; and a circle microchamber. The Finite Element Method (FEM) was employed to predict the fluid transport properties for a minimum fluid flow disturbance. Some commonly used microfluidic structures were also analysed systematically to prove the designed structure. Then the designed microfluidics was fabricated. Based on the simulations and experiments, this design provides a continuous flow environment, with a relatively stable and low shear stress atmosphere, similar to a zero-flow environment. Furthermore, the nutrients maintaining cells' normal growth can be taken into the chamber through the diffusion effect. It also proves that the microfluidics can realize long-term cell culture and detection. The application of the structure in the field of biological microelectromechenical systems (BioMEMS) will provide a research foundation for microfluidic technology.

  16. Air-flow regulation system for a coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.

    1984-01-01

    An improved air-flow regulator for a fixed-bed coal gasifier is provided which allows close air-flow regulation from a compressor source even though the pressure variations are too rapid for a single primary control loop to respond. The improved system includes a primary controller to control a valve in the main (large) air supply line to regulate large slow changes in flow. A secondary controller is used to control a smaller, faster acting valve in a secondary (small) air supply line parallel to the main line valve to regulate rapid cyclic deviations in air flow. A low-pass filter with a time constant of from 20 to 50 seconds couples the output of the secondary controller to the input of the primary controller so that the primary controller only responds to slow changes in the air-flow rate, the faster, cyclic deviations in flow rate sensed and corrected by the secondary controller loop do not reach the primary controller due to the high frequency rejection provided by the filter. This control arrangement provides at least a factor of 5 improvement in air-flow regulation for a coal gasifier in which air is supplied by a reciprocating compressor through a surge tank.

  17. OVERSMART Reporting Tool for Flow Computations Over Large Grid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David L.; Chan, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Structured grid solvers such as NASA's OVERFLOW compressible Navier-Stokes flow solver can generate large data files that contain convergence histories for flow equation residuals, turbulence model equation residuals, component forces and moments, and component relative motion dynamics variables. Most of today's large-scale problems can extend to hundreds of grids, and over 100 million grid points. However, due to the lack of efficient tools, only a small fraction of information contained in these files is analyzed. OVERSMART (OVERFLOW Solution Monitoring And Reporting Tool) provides a comprehensive report of solution convergence of flow computations over large, complex grid systems. It produces a one-page executive summary of the behavior of flow equation residuals, turbulence model equation residuals, and component forces and moments. Under the automatic option, a matrix of commonly viewed plots such as residual histograms, composite residuals, sub-iteration bar graphs, and component forces and moments is automatically generated. Specific plots required by the user can also be prescribed via a command file or a graphical user interface. Output is directed to the user s computer screen and/or to an html file for archival purposes. The current implementation has been targeted for the OVERFLOW flow solver, which is used to obtain a flow solution on structured overset grids. The OVERSMART framework allows easy extension to other flow solvers.

  18. A flow-through microarray cell for the online SERS detection of antibody-captured E. coli bacteria.

    PubMed

    Knauer, Maria; Ivleva, Natalia P; Niessner, Reinhard; Haisch, Christoph

    2012-03-01

    We present an immunoassay microarray flow-through system for the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) analysis of bacteria. The system has been constructed to support and automatize the nondestructive in situ analysis of different microorganisms in aqueous environment. After the immobilization of the desired antibodies to an activated PEG-coated surface, the chip is placed into the flow cell which is then flushed with the contaminated sample. Finally, colloidal metal nanoparticles are added and the cells are detected label-free by SERS. Here, we introduce the successful imaging of single microorganisms in the flow cell as well as the quantification of microorganisms in water by SERS mapping with a linear range between 4.3 × 10(3) to 4.3 × 10(5) cells/mL. The method has potential for routine application, e.g. for drinking water control.

  19. Dolomitization by ground-water flow systems in carbonate platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Simms, M.

    1984-09-01

    Dolomite occurs throughout the subsurface of modern carbonate platforms such as the Bahamas. Groundwater flow systems must be responsible for delivery of reactants needed for dolomitization. Reflux, freshwater lens flows, and thermal convection are large-scale flow systems that may be widespread in active platforms. The author has evaluated some aspects of the dynamics and characteristics of these processes with ground-water flow theory and by scaled sandbox experiments. Reflux is not restricted to hypersaline brines, but can occur with bankwaters of only slightly elevated salinity such as those found on the Bahama Banks today (42%). The lack of evaporites in a stratigraphic section, therefore, does not rule out the possibility that reflux may have operated. Flows associated with freshwater lenses include flow in the lens, in the mixing zone, and in the seawater beneath and offshore of the lens. Upward transfer of seawater through the platform margins occurs when surrounding cold ocean water migrates into the platform and is heated. This type of thermal convection (Kohout convection) has been studied by Francis Kohout in south Florida. The ranges of mass flux of magnesium in these processes are all comparable and are all sufficient to account for young dolomites beneath modern platforms. Each process yields dolomitized zones of characteristic shape and location and perhaps may be distinguishable in ancient rocks. The concepts presented here may have application to exploration for dolomite reservoirs in the Gulf Coast and elsewhere.

  20. Flow monitoring and control system for injection wells

    DOEpatents

    Corey, John C.

    1993-01-01

    A system for monitoring and controlling the injection rate of fluid by an injection well of an in-situ remediation system for treating a contaminated groundwater plume. The well is fitted with a gated insert, substantially coaxial with the injection well. A plurality of openings, some or all of which are equipped with fluid flow sensors and gates, are spaced along the insert. The gates and sensors are connected to a surface controller. The insert may extend throughout part of, or substantially the entire length of the injection well. Alternatively, the insert may comprise one or more movable modules which can be positioned wherever desired along the well. The gates are opened part-way at the start of treatment. The sensors monitor and display the flow rate of fluid passing through each opening on a controller. As treatment continues, the gates are opened to increase flow in regions of lesser flow, and closed to decrease flow in regions of greater flow, thereby approximately equalizing the amount of fluid reaching each part of the plume.

  1. Flow monitoring and control system for injection wells

    DOEpatents

    Corey, J.C.

    1993-02-16

    A system for monitoring and controlling the injection rate of fluid by an injection well of an in-situ remediation system for treating a contaminated groundwater plume. The well is fitted with a gated insert, substantially coaxial with the injection well. A plurality of openings, some or all of which are equipped with fluid flow sensors and gates, are spaced along the insert. The gates and sensors are connected to a surface controller. The insert may extend throughout part of, or substantially the entire length of the injection well. Alternatively, the insert may comprise one or more movable modules which can be positioned wherever desired along the well. The gates are opened part-way at the start of treatment. The sensors monitor and display the flow rate of fluid passing through each opening on a controller. As treatment continues, the gates are opened to increase flow in regions of lesser flow, and closed to decrease flow in regions of greater flow, thereby approximately equalizing the amount of fluid reaching each part of the plume.

  2. A Self-Contained, Flow-Powered Microgenerator System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    A Self-Contained, Flow-Powered Microgenerator System D. P. Arnold1*, P. Galle1, F. Herrault1, S. Das2, J. H. Lang2, and M. G. Allen1 1School of...fully functional, self-contained microgenerator system, which can power various portable electronics using only compressed gas. The system...standalone device. The purpose is to demonstrate the migration of a MEMS-based microgenerator from a bench-top laboratory experiment to a self

  3. Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Particle Laden Flows in Microfluidic Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    wide application and will enable the study of colloidal/macromolecular transport in physiological systems, such as, blood filtration in the kidney... MICROFLUIDIC SYSTEMS DOE/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Sponsored by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DARPA Order No. E117...Jun 00 – Aug 02 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE LATTICE BOLTZMANN SIMULATION OF PARTICLE LADEN FLOWS IN MICROFLUIDIC SYSTEMS 6. AUTHOR(S) David S

  4. Modeling of flow systems for implementation under KATE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlow, Jonathan E.

    1990-01-01

    The modeling of flow systems is a task currently being investigated at Kennedy Space Center in parallel with the development of the KATE artificial intelligence system used for monitoring diagnosis and control. Various aspects of the modeling issues are focussed on with particular emphasis on a water system scheduled for demonstration within the KATE environment in September of this year. LISP procedures were written to solve the continuity equations for three internal pressure nodes using Newton's method for simultaneous nonlinear equations.

  5. Multiphase Flow Technology Impacts on Thermal Control Systems for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, John; Sankovic, John; Lekan, Jack

    2006-01-01

    The Two-Phase Flow Facility (TPHIFFy) Project focused on bridging the critical knowledge gap by developing and demonstrating critical multiphase fluid products for advanced life support, thermal management and power conversion systems that are required to enable the Vision for Space Exploration. Safety and reliability of future systems will be enhanced by addressing critical microgravity fluid physics issues associated with flow boiling, condensation, phase separation, and system stability. The project included concept development, normal gravity testing, and reduced gravity aircraft flight campaigns, in preparation for the development of a space flight experiment implementation. Data will be utilized to develop predictive models that could be used for system design and operation. A single fluid, two-phase closed thermodynamic loop test bed was designed, assembled and tested. The major components in this test bed include: a boiler, a condenser, a phase separator and a circulating pump. The test loop was instrumented with flow meters, thermocouples, pressure transducers and both high speed and normal speed video cameras. A low boiling point surrogate fluid, FC-72, was selected based on scaling analyses using preliminary designs for operational systems. Preliminary results are presented which include flow regime transitions and some observations regarding system stability.

  6. Magnetically insulated electron flows in pulsed power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawconnell, Robert I.

    1989-08-01

    Magnetic insulation is crucial in the operation of large pulsed power systems. Particular attention will be paid to describing magnetic insulation in realistic pulsed power systems. A theoretical model is developed that allows the production of self consistent magnetically insulated laminar flows in perturbed cylindrical systems given only the electron density profile. The theory is checked and justified by detailed comparisons with results from a 2-dimensional electromagnetic code, MASK. The procedure followed in the theoretical development is to use the relativistic Vlasov equation, Ampere's law and Gauss' law, to obtain a relation between the density profile and the velocity profile for insulated flows. Given the density profile and the corresponding derived velocity profile, a self consistent flow solution is obtained by means of Maxwell's equations. It is checked by taking a special case (corresponding to no perturbations) which results in the well known Brillouin flow theory. Emphasis is placed on determining the magnetic insulation threshold of a pulsed power system employing a plasma erosion opening switch. The procedure employed in the computational study is to vary critical aspects of the pulsed power system and then note whether magnetic insulation breaks down. The point at which magnetic insulation breaks down (as a function of geometry, load impedance, and applied voltage) is the magnetic insulation threshold for the system.

  7. Colony-forming cell assay for human hematopoietic progenitor cells harvested by a novel continuous-flow cell separation method.

    PubMed

    Shiono, Hiroyuki; Chen, Hong Miao; Okada, Tadashi; Ito, Yoichiro

    2007-06-01

    In order to prove the functional potentiality of cells separated according to their densities by a novel continuous-flow cell separation method, the colony-forming cell (CFC) assay was performed on the harvested cells from peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood. The number of colony-forming unit-granulocyte, erythroid, macrophage, megakaryocyte (CFU-GEMM), which are considered to be stem cells, was approximately 3% of colonies developed from the peripheral blood and approximately 4% of colonies from the umbilical cord blood. It appears that this new method could allow us for harvesting of hematopoietic progenitor cells without losing their native ability to proliferate.

  8. Flow cytometric analysis of the cell cycle in chronic gastritis.

    PubMed

    Guerci, A; Chambre, J F; Franck, P; Floquet, J; Gaucher, P; Guerci, O

    1992-09-01

    Flow cytometric cell cycle analysis was recorded in gastric biopsy specimens from patients with normal gastric mucosa (GM), superficial gastritis (SG) and chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). Cell-cycle analysis showed significantly higher percentages of cells in S- and S+G2/M-phase in CAG than in SG and normal GM (P < 0.0001). Moreover, CAG with severe or moderate atrophy showed significantly higher percentages of cells in S-phase (P < 0.05) and S+G2/M-phase (P < 0.02) than CAG with mild atrophy in antrum. In fundus, even if this increase was observed, it did not reach statistical significance. Consideration of concomitant pathologic findings such as oesophagite, gastric or duodenal ulcer, duodenite or benign polyp allowed a better differentiation of CAG both in antrum and in fundus. Significantly higher S-phase was observed in CAG with severe or moderate atrophy than in CAG with mild atrophy (P < 0.05). No statistically significant results were observed in patients with normal gastric mucosa or chronic gastritis and a concomitant pathologic finding.

  9. Cerebral blood flow in sickle cell cerebrovascular disease

    SciTech Connect

    Huttenlocher, P.R.; Moohr, J.W.; Johns, L.; Brown, F.D.

    1984-05-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been studied by the xenon-133 (/sup 133/Xe) inhalation method in 16 children with suspected sickle cell cerebrovascular disease. Abnormalities consisting of decreases in total, hemispheral, or regional CBF were found in 17 of 26 studies. Eleven studies performed immediately after stroke, transient ischemic attack, or depression of state of alertness showed abnormalities. In addition to confirming regional cerebrovascular insufficiency in children with stroke due to major cerebral artery occlusion, the method detected diffuse decrease in CBF in children with stupor, coma, and seizures who had normal angiographic findings. In contrast, six of seven studies obtained after exchange transfusion or during maintenance on hypertransfusion therapy showed normal findings. The difference between results in patients with acute neurologic disturbances and those receiving transfusion therapy was statistically significant (P less than .005). The data indicate that the /sup 133/Xe method reliably demonstrates cerebrovascular impairment in sickle cell disease. They also suggest that CBF changes in patients with sickle cell disease can be reversed by exchange transfusion and by hypertransfusion therapy. The /sup 133/Xe CBF method may be useful for following up children with sickle cell disease who are at high risk for recurrent stroke.

  10. Flow Analysis of X-34 Main Propulsion System Feedlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce; Garcia, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The X-34 Main Propulsion System (MPS) configuration includes the liquid oxygen (LOX) and rocket propellant #1 (RP-1) feedlines. The flow analyses of these feedlines were performed and documented in previous studies. These analyses predicted a relatively low inlet distortion and nearly even flow split at the engine interface. The new design for these MPS feedlines has been recommended recently. The new configuration includes a tighter radius in the RP-1 feedline and a neck-down section between the gimbals. Conversely, the LOX feedline is very similar to the previous design. There were concerns that this new RP-1 configuration might generate a greater flow distortion at the engine interface than the original design. To resolve this issue, a Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to determine the flow Field in the new RP-1 feedlines.

  11. Design and Implementation of Automatic Air Flow Rate Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, A.; Saputra, C.; Munir, M. M.; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    Venturimeter is an apparatus that can be used to measure the air flow rate. In this experiment we designed a venturimeter which equipped with a valve that is used to control the air flow rate. The difference of pressure between the cross sections was measured with the differential pressure sensor GA 100-015WD which can calculate the difference of pressures from 0 to 3737.33 Pa. A 42M048C Z36 stepper motor was used to control the valve. The precision of this motor rotation is about 0.15 °. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) was developed to monitor and set the value of flow rate then an 8-bit microcontroller was used to process the control system In this experiment- the venturimeter has been examined to get the optimal parameter of controller. The results show that the controller can set the stable output air flow rate.

  12. Shock-induced turbulent flow in baffle systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A.L.; Reichenbach, H.

    1993-07-01

    Experiments are described on shock propagation through 2-D aligned and staggered baffle systems. Flow visualization was provided by shadow and schlieren photography, recorded by the Cranz-Schardin camera. Also single-frame, infinite-fringe, color interferograms were used. Intuition suggests that this is a rather simple 2-D shock diffraction problem. However, flow visualization reveals that the flow rapidly evolved into a complex 3-D turbulent mixing problem. Mushroom-shaped mixing regions blocked the flow into the next baffle orifice. Thus energy was transferred from the directed kinetic energy (induced by the shock) to rotational energy of turbulent mixing, and then dissipated by molecular effects. These processes dramatically dissipate the strength of the shock wave. The experiments provide an excellent test case that could be used to assess the accuracy of computer code calculations of such problems.

  13. Lockheed laminar-flow control systems development and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, Roy H.

    1987-01-01

    Progress is summarized from 1974 to the present in the practical application of laminar-flow control (LFC) to subsonic transport aircraft. Those efforts included preliminary design system studies of commercial and military transports and experimental investigations leading to the development of the leading-edge flight test article installed on the NASA JetStar flight test aircraft. The benefits of LFC on drag, fuel efficiency, lift-to-drag ratio, and operating costs are compared with those for turbulent flow aircraft. The current activities in the NASA Industry Laminar-Flow Enabling Technologies Development contract include summaries of activities in the Task 1 development of a slotted-surface structural concept using advanced aluminum materials and the Task 2 preliminary conceptual design study of global-range military hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) to obtain data at high Reynolds numbers and at Mach numbers representative of long-range subsonic transport aircraft operation.

  14. Flow cytometry detection of planktonic cells with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons sorbed to cell surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cerezo, Maria I; Linden, Matthew; Agustí, Susana

    2017-02-17

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are very important components of oil pollution. These pollutants tend to sorb to cell surfaces, exerting toxic effects on organisms. Our study developed a flow cytometric method for the detection of PAHs sorbed to phytoplankton by exploiting their spectral characteristics. We discriminated between cells with PAHs from cells free of PAHs. Clear discrimination was observed with flow cytometer provided with 375 or 405nm lasers in addition to the standard 488nm laser necessary to identify phytoplankton. Using this method, we measured the relationship between the percentages of phytoplankton organisms with PAHs, with the decrease in the growth rate. Moreover, the development of this method could be extended to facilitate the study of PAHs impact on cell cultures from a large variety of organisms.

  15. Improved Diffuse Fluorescence Flow Cytometer Prototype for High Sensitivity Detection of Rare Circulating Cells In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestana, Noah Benjamin

    Accurate quantification of circulating cell populations is important in many areas of pre-clinical and clinical biomedical research, for example, in the study of cancer metastasis or the immune response following tissue and organ transplants. Normally this is done "ex-vivo" by drawing and purifying a small volume of blood and then analyzing it with flow cytometry, hemocytometry or microfludic devices, but the sensitivity of these techniques are poor and the process of handling samples has been shown to affect cell viability and behavior. More recently "in vivo flow cytometry" (IVFC) techniques have been developed where fluorescently-labeled cells flowing in a small blood vessel in the ear or retina are analyzed, but the sensitivity is generally poor due to the small sampling volume. To address this, our group recently developed a method known as "Diffuse Fluorescence Flow Cytometry" (DFFC) that allows detection and counting of rare circulating cells with diffuse photons, offering extremely high single cell counting sensitivity. In this thesis, an improved DFFC prototype was designed and validated. The chief improvements were three-fold, i) improved optical collection efficiency, ii) improved detection electronics, and iii) development of a method to mitigate motion artifacts during in vivo measurements. In combination, these improvements yielded an overall instrument detection sensitivity better than 1 cell/mL in vivo, which is the most sensitive IVFC system reported to date. Second, development and validation of a low-cost microfluidic device reader for analysis of ocular fluids is described. We demonstrate that this device has equivalent or better sensitivity and accuracy compared a fluorescence microscope, but at an order-of-magnitude reduced cost with simplified operation. Future improvements to both instruments are also discussed.

  16. Fuel cell manifold sealing system

    DOEpatents

    Grevstad, Paul E.; Johnson, Carl K.; Mientek, Anthony P.

    1980-01-01

    A manifold-to-stack seal and sealing method for fuel cell stacks. This seal system solves the problem of maintaining a low leak rate manifold seal as the fuel cell stack undergoes compressive creep. The seal system eliminates the problem of the manifold-to-stack seal sliding against the rough stack surface as the stack becomes shorter because of cell creep, which relative motion destroys the seal. The seal system described herein utilizes a polymer seal frame firmly clamped between the manifold and the stack such that the seal frame moves with the stack. Thus, as the stack creeps, the seal frame creeps with it, and there is no sliding at the rough, tough to seal, stack-to-seal frame interface. Here the sliding is on a smooth easy to seal location between the seal frame and the manifold.

  17. Three-Phase Load Flow for Unbalanced Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yih-Ping

    Traditionally, transmission systems are assumed to be balanced in power system analysis. A single phase positive sequence circuit is used in transmission system load flow analysis to simplify the study. However, when untransposed transmission lines are used in a power system due to economic considerations, space limitation; or when large unbalanced load is on the system; or when an unbalance contingency occurs on the system, this assumption may not hold true. The unbalance condition in some isolated systems are so precarious that disaster can result. One such incident occurred on a generator unit of the third nuclear power plant of Taipower in 1985. In that particular case, the turbine blades were broken and a spark ignited the liquid hydrogen when the blade vibration resonated with the 120.5 Hz rotor current. One cause of this rotor current generation is system unbalance. The unbalanced three-phase load flow program is needed in today's power system analysis. An advanced three-phase unbalanced transmission load flow program, capable of locating the unbalanced problem of large electric network systems, was proposed to be developed and tested in this research. Features of this program include simultaneous power flow of multiple voltage levels on an individual phase basis; PV bus generator, cogenerator, transformer simulation, and load modeling. It is found that delta-grounded wye step-up transformer reduces the convergence speed greatly. When too many delta-grounded wye step-up transformers exist in a large scale system and a quick approximate result of the unbalance conditions is needed, these step-up transformers can be substituted by grounded-wye to grounded-wye type transformers. This is tested on a Taipower system case which included 345KV, 161KV and 69KV feeders, network transformers, 34 PV bus generators and 188 three-phase buses. Impending unbalance problems in Taipower system were located. When not too many delta-grounded wye type transformers are in the

  18. Transport processes in biological systems: Tumoral cells and human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucia, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    The entropy generation approach has been developed for the analysis of complex systems, with particular regards to biological systems, in order to evaluate their stationary states. The entropy generation is related to the transport processes related to exergy flows. Moreover, cancer can be described as an open complex dynamic and self-organizing system. Consequently, it is used as an example useful to evaluate the different thermo-chemical quantities of the transport processes in normal and in tumoral cells systems.

  19. Controlled Logic Gates-Switch Gate and Fredkin Gate Based on Enzyme-Biocatalyzed Reactions Realized in Flow Cells.

    PubMed

    Fratto, Brian E; Katz, Evgeny

    2016-04-04

    Controlled logic gates, where the logic operations on the Data inputs are performed in the way determined by the Control signal, were designed in a chemical fashion. Specifically, the systems where the Data output signals directed to various output channels depending on the logic value of the Control input signal have been designed based on enzyme biocatalyzed reactions performed in a multi-cell flow system. In the Switch gate one Data signal was directed to one of two possible output channels depending on the logic value of the Control input signal. In the reversible Fredkin gate the routing of two Data signals between two output channels is controlled by the third Control signal. The flow devices were created using a network of flow cells, each modified with one enzyme that biocatalyzed one chemical reaction. The enzymatic cascade was realized by moving the solution from one reacting cell to another which were organized in a specific network. The modular design of the enzyme-based systems realized in the flow device allowed easy reconfiguration of the logic system, thus allowing simple extension of the logic operation from the 2-input/3-output channels in the Switch gate to the 3-input/3-output channels in the Fredkin gate. Further increase of the system complexity for realization of various logic processes is feasible with the use of the flow cell modular design.

  20. Label-free detection of circulating melanoma cells by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Yang, Ping; Liu, Rongrong; Niu, Zhenyu; Suo, Yuanzhen; He, Hao; Gao, Wenyuan; Tang, Shuo; Wei, Xunbin

    2016-03-01

    Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes. Melanoma cells have high light absorption due to melanin highly contained in melanoma cells. This property is employed for the detection of circulating melanoma cell by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC), which is based on photoacoustic effect. Compared to in vivo flow cytometry based on fluorescence, PAFC can employ high melanin content of melanoma cells as endogenous biomarkers to detect circulating melanoma cells in vivo. We have developed in vitro experiments to prove the ability of PAFC system of detecting photoacoustic signals from melanoma cells. For in vivo experiments, we have constructed a model of melanoma tumor bearing mice by inoculating highly metastatic murine melanoma cancer cells, B16F10 with subcutaneous injection. PA signals are detected in the blood vessels of mouse ears in vivo. The raw signal detected from target cells often contains some noise caused by electronic devices, such as background noise and thermal noise. We choose the Wavelet denoising method to effectively distinguish the target signal from background noise. Processing in time domain and frequency domain would be combined to analyze the signal after denoising. This algorithm contains time domain filter and frequency transformation. The frequency spectrum image of the signal contains distinctive features that can be used to analyze the property of target cells or particles. The processing methods have a great potential for analyzing signals accurately and rapidly. By counting circulating melanoma cells termly, we obtain the number variation of circulating melanoma cells as melanoma metastasized. Those results show that PAFC is a noninvasive and label-free method to detect melanoma metastases in blood or lymph circulation.

  1. Mating system as a barrier to gene flow.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xin-Sheng

    2015-05-01

    Understanding mating system as one of reproductive isolating barriers remains important although this barrier is classified in a different sense from behavioral, ecological, and mechanical isolating barriers. Selfing enhances incipient speciation while outcrossing facilitates species integrity. Here, I study how mating system affects gene exchanges between genetically diverging species in a hybrid zone. Results show that a predominant selfing species has a greater barrier to selective gene flow than does a predominant outcrossing species. Barrier to neutral gene flow convexly changes with the selfing rate due to linkage disequilibrium, with a maximum at around intermediate selfing rate. Asymmetric transient or steady-state barriers to neutral gene flow occur between two sides of a hybrid zone when the neutral gene is affected by its linked selective gene whose alternative alleles are adaptive to heterogeneous habitats. Selfing interacts with both a physical barrier and a density-dependent ecological regulation (a logarithmic model) to strengthen the barriers to neutral and selective gene flow. This theory helps to interpret incipient speciation driven by selfing or to explain the asymmetric gene flow or unequal genomic mixtures between closely related species caused by their asymmetric mating systems in natural hybrid zones.

  2. Continuous separation of breast cancer cells from blood samples using multi-orifice flow fractionation (MOFF) and dielectrophoresis (DEP).

    PubMed

    Moon, Hui-Sung; Kwon, Kiho; Kim, Seung-Il; Han, Hyunju; Sohn, Joohyuk; Lee, Soohyeon; Jung, Hyo-Il

    2011-03-21

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are highly correlated with the invasive behavior of cancer, so their isolations and quantifications are important for biomedical applications such as cancer prognosis and measuring the responses to drug treatments. In this paper, we present the development of a microfluidic device for the separation of CTCs from blood cells based on the physical properties of cells. For use as a CTC model, we successfully separated human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) from a spiked blood cell sample by combining multi-orifice flow fractionation (MOFF) and dielectrophoretic (DEP) cell separation technique. Hydrodynamic separation takes advantage of the massive and high-throughput filtration of blood cells as it can accommodate a very high flow rate. DEP separation plays a role in precise post-processing to enhance the efficiency of the separation. The serial combination of these two different sorting techniques enabled high-speed continuous flow-through separation without labeling. We observed up to a 162-fold increase in MCF-7 cells at a 126 µL min(-1) flow rate. Red and white blood cells were efficiently removed with separation efficiencies of 99.24% and 94.23% respectively. Therefore, we suggest that our system could be used for separation and detection of CTCs from blood cells for biomedical applications.

  3. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results

  4. Flow-enhanced solution printing of all-polymer solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Diao, Ying; Zhou, Yan; Kurosawa, Tadanori; ...

    2015-08-12

    Morphology control of solution coated solar cell materials presents a key challenge limiting their device performance and commercial viability. Here we present a new concept for controlling phase separation during solution printing using an all-polymer bulk heterojunction solar cell as a model system. The key aspect of our method lies in the design of fluid flow using a microstructured printing blade, on the basis of the hypothesis of flow-induced polymer crystallization. Our flow design resulted in a similar to 90% increase in the donor thin film crystallinity and reduced microphase separated donor and acceptor domain sizes. The improved morphology enhancedmore » all metrics of solar cell device performance across various printing conditions, specifically leading to higher short-circuit current, fill factor, open circuit voltage and significantly reduced device-to-device variation. However, we expect our design concept to have broad applications beyond all-polymer solar cells because of its simplicity and versatility.« less

  5. Mathematical modelling of flow distribution in the human cardiovascular system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sud, V. K.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents a detailed model of the entire human cardiovascular system which aims to study the changes in flow distribution caused by external stimuli, changes in internal parameters, or other factors. The arterial-venous network is represented by 325 interconnected elastic segments. The mathematical description of each segment is based on equations of hydrodynamics and those of stress/strain relationships in elastic materials. Appropriate input functions provide for the pumping of blood by the heart through the system. The analysis employs the finite-element technique which can accommodate any prescribed boundary conditions. Values of model parameters are from available data on physical and rheological properties of blood and blood vessels. As a representative example, simulation results on changes in flow distribution with changes in the elastic properties of blood vessels are discussed. They indicate that the errors in the calculated overall flow rates are not significant even in the extreme case of arteries and veins behaving as rigid tubes.

  6. Toward the measurement of multiple fluorescence lifetimes in flow cytometry: maximizing multi-harmonic content from cells and microspheres.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Patrick; Naivar, Mark A; Houston, Jessica P

    2015-11-01

    Flow cytometry is a powerful means for in vitro cellular analyses where multi-fluorescence and multi-angle light scattering can indicate unique biochemical or morphological features of single cells. Yet, to date, flow cytometry systems have lacked the ability to capture complex fluorescence dynamics due to the transient nature of flowing cells. In this contribution we introduce a simple approach for measuring multiple fluorescence lifetimes from a single cytometric event. We leverage square wave modulation, Fourier analysis, and high frequency digitization and show the ability to resolve more than one fluorescence lifetime from fluorescently-labelled cells and microspheres. Illustration of a flow cytometer capable of capturing multiple fluorescence lifetime measurements; creating potential for multi-parametric, time-resolved signals to be captured for every color channel.

  7. Flow cytometry and cell sorting of heterogeneous microbial populations: the importance of single-cell analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Davey, H M; Kell, D B

    1996-01-01

    The most fundamental questions such as whether a cell is alive, in the sense of being able to divide or to form a colony, may sometimes be very hard to answer, since even axenic microbial cultures are extremely heterogeneous. Analyses that seek to correlate such things as viability, which is a property of an individual cell, with macroscopic measurements of culture variables such as ATP content, respiratory activity, and so on, must inevitably fail. It is therefore necessary to make physiological measurements on individual cells. Flow cytometry is such a technique, which allows one to analyze cells rapidly and individually and permits the quantitative analysis of microbial heterogeneity. It therefore offers many advantages over conventional measurements for both routine and more exploratory analyses of microbial properties. While the technique has been widely applied to the study of mammalian cells, is use in microbiology has until recently been much more limited, largely because of the smaller size of microbes and the consequently smaller optical signals obtainable from them. Since these technical barriers no longer hold, flow cytometry with appropriate stains has been used for the rapid discrimination and identification of microbial cells, for the rapid assessment of viability and of the heterogeneous distributions of a wealth of other more detailed physiological properties, for the analysis of antimicrobial drug-cell interactions, and for the isolation of high-yielding strains of biotechnological interest. Flow cytometric analyses provide an abundance of multivariate data, and special methods have been devised to exploit these. Ongoing advances mean that modern flow cytometers may now be used by nonspecialists to effect a renaissance in our understanding of microbial heterogeneity. PMID:8987359

  8. Use of Multi-Functional Flexible Micro-Sensors for in situ Measurement of Temperature, Voltage and Fuel Flow in a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Chan, Pin-Cheng; Lee, Chung-Ju

    2010-01-01

    Temperature, voltage and fuel flow distribution all contribute considerably to fuel cell performance. Conventional methods cannot accurately determine parameter changes inside a fuel cell. This investigation developed flexible and multi-functional micro sensors on a 40 μm-thick stainless steel foil substrate by using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and embedded them in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) to measure the temperature, voltage and flow. Users can monitor and control in situ the temperature, voltage and fuel flow distribution in the cell. Thereby, both fuel cell performance and lifetime can be increased. PMID:22163545

  9. Use of multi-functional flexible micro-sensors for in situ measurement of temperature, voltage and fuel flow in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Chan, Pin-Cheng; Lee, Chung-Ju

    2010-01-01

    Temperature, voltage and fuel flow distribution all contribute considerably to fuel cell performance. Conventional methods cannot accurately determine parameter changes inside a fuel cell. This investigation developed flexible and multi-functional micro sensors on a 40 μm-thick stainless steel foil substrate by using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and embedded them in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) to measure the temperature, voltage and flow. Users can monitor and control in situ the temperature, voltage and fuel flow distribution in the cell. Thereby, both fuel cell performance and lifetime can be increased.

  10. Automotive Power Flow System; Auto Mechanics I: 9043.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This automotive power flow system course sets the foundation in the theory of operation of the standard and automatic transmission, clutch assemblies, drive-line and rear axle assemblies. This is a one or two quinmester credit course covering 45 clock hours. In the fourth quinmester course in the tenth year, instruction consists of lectures,…

  11. Flow monitoring and control system for injection wells

    DOEpatents

    Corey, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for monitoring and controlling the rate of fluid flow from an injection well used for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC09-89SR18035 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

  12. Large-scale flow experiments for managing river systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, Christopher P.; Olden, Julian D.; Lytle, David A.; Melis, Theodore S.; Schmidt, John C.; Bray, Erin N.; Freeman, Mary C.; Gido, Keith B.; Hemphill, Nina P.; Kennard, Mark J.; McMullen, Laura E.; Mims, Meryl C.; Pyron, Mark; Robinson, Christopher T.; Williams, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental manipulations of streamflow have been used globally in recent decades to mitigate the impacts of dam operations on river systems. Rivers are challenging subjects for experimentation, because they are open systems that cannot be isolated from their social context. We identify principles to address the challenges of conducting effective large-scale flow experiments. Flow experiments have both scientific and social value when they help to resolve specific questions about the ecological action of flow with a clear nexus to water policies and decisions. Water managers must integrate new information into operating policies for large-scale experiments to be effective. Modeling and monitoring can be integrated with experiments to analyze long-term ecological responses. Experimental design should include spatially extensive observations and well-defined, repeated treatments. Large-scale flow manipulations are only a part of dam operations that affect river systems. Scientists can ensure that experimental manipulations continue to be a valuable approach for the scientifically based management of river systems.

  13. Mantle flow field in the southern Ryukyu subduction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, S.; Kuo, B.

    2012-12-01

    The Okinawa trough in the Ryukyu subduction system is the only active back arc basin formed within a continental lithosphere. Recent shear-wave splitting measurements show variable fast directions along the trough suggesting complex three-dimensional flow field in the mantle wedge. In this study we use numerical subduction models to explore the effects of plate thickness variations caused by non-uniform lithospheric stretching on the dynamics in the southern Ryukyu subduction system. We calculate orientations of infinite strain axes as a proxy for olivine lattice preferred orientations and orientations of seismic anisotropy. Our models demonstrate that flow patterns may vary significantly with depth near the plate edge as a result of the along-arc variations in lithospheric thickness. The model results show that the toroidal circulation around the lateral slab edge predominates at greater depths. The thick neighboring lithosphere acts as an effective barrier of the lateral mass exchanges in the shallow portion of the mantle wedge. The wedge material is drawn in horizontally toward the plate edge from the central region of the subduction zone induced by pressure gradients, opposite to the inwards lateral flow at greater depths. Model predictions for the lattice preferred orientations of olivine aggregates agree reasonably well with the observed shear-wave splitting patterns. The results suggest that the depth-varying flow field near the subduction zone edge and the westward flow components in the shallow portion of the mantle wedge may contribute to complex patterns of seismic anisotropy and arc isotopic systematics.

  14. Improvement of Unbalanced Load Flow Program for Large Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Shinichi; Suzuki, Haruhiko; Iba, Kenji; Fujiwara, Shuhei

    The idea of unbalanced power flow calculation was proposed many years ago. At that time, however, the needs for such techniques was not an argent issue. But modern power system networks are comprised of long untransposed transmission lines. Therefore, for some kind of analysis, it is now almost impossible to treat a system as though it were a symmetrical network. The aims of most previous studies were oriented to solve voltage/current imbalance in local or small system because local imbalance was a serious concern. This is still an important issue, but more recently our needs have become concentrated on practical bulk power systems, since principal EHV lines are entirely untransposed. Following such a background, we have developed a practical unbalanced load flow program. This program was developed for steady state analysis of large scale of practical networks under many possible unbalanced conditions.

  15. Comparison of laser excited fluorescence and photoacoustic limits of detection for static and flow cells

    SciTech Connect

    Voigtman, E.; Jurgensen, A.; Winefordner, J.D.

    1981-10-01

    The fluorescence and photoacoustic characteristics of a windowless flow cell intended for liquid chromatographic applications are compared with respective characteristics of a static cuvette cell. In addition, a photoionization mode of operation for the flow cell is exhibited which utilizes the ionization products of two-photon excitation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in n-alkanes to effect a sensitive detection of those PAHs.

  16. Solid oxide fuel cell having compound cross flow gas patterns

    DOEpatents

    Fraioli, A.V.

    1983-10-12

    A core construction for a fuel cell is disclosed having both parallel and cross flow passageways for the fuel and the oxidant gases. Each core passageway is defined by electrolyte and interconnect walls. Each electrolyte wall consists of cathode and anode materials sandwiching an electrolyte material. Each interconnect wall is formed as a sheet of inert support material having therein spaced small plugs of interconnect material, where cathode and anode materials are formed as layers on opposite sides of each sheet and are electrically connected together by the interconnect material plugs. Each interconnect wall in a wavy shape is connected along spaced generally parallel line-like contact areas between corresponding spaced pairs of generally parallel electrolyte walls, operable to define one tier of generally parallel flow passageways for the fuel and oxidant gases. Alternate tiers are arranged to have the passageways disposed normal to one another. Solid mechanical connection of the interconnect walls of adjacent tiers to the opposite sides of the common electrolyte wall therebetween is only at spaced point-like contact areas, 90 where the previously mentioned line-like contact areas cross one another.

  17. Solid oxide fuel cell having compound cross flow gas patterns

    DOEpatents

    Fraioli, Anthony V.

    1985-01-01

    A core construction for a fuel cell is disclosed having both parallel and cross flow passageways for the fuel and the oxidant gases. Each core passageway is defined by electrolyte and interconnect walls. Each electrolyte wall consists of cathode and anode materials sandwiching an electrolyte material. Each interconnect wall is formed as a sheet of inert support material having therein spaced small plugs of interconnect material, where cathode and anode materials are formed as layers on opposite sides of each sheet and are electrically connected together by the interconnect material plugs. Each interconnect wall in a wavy shape is connected along spaced generally parallel line-like contact areas between corresponding spaced pairs of generally parallel electrolyte walls, operable to define one tier of generally parallel flow passageways for the fuel and oxidant gases. Alternate tiers are arranged to have the passageways disposed normal to one another. Solid mechanical connection of the interconnect walls of adjacent tiers to the opposite sides of the common electrolyte wall therebetween is only at spaced point-like contact areas, 90 where the previously mentioned line-like contact areas cross one another.

  18. Flight Design System-1 System Design Document. Volume 9: Executive logic flow, program design language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The detailed logic flow for the Flight Design System Executive is presented. The system is designed to provide the hardware/software capability required for operational support of shuttle flight planning.

  19. Simulation of ground-water flow in the Intermediate and Floridan aquifer systems in Peninsular Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Nicasio

    2002-01-01

    A numerical model of the intermediate and Floridan aquifer systems in peninsular Florida was used to (1) test and refine the conceptual understanding of the regional ground-water flow system; (2) develop a data base to support subregional ground-water flow modeling; and (3) evaluate effects of projected 2020 ground-water withdrawals on ground-water levels. The four-layer model was based on the computer code MODFLOW-96, developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The top layer consists of specified-head cells simulating the surficial aquifer system as a source-sink layer. The second layer simulates the intermediate aquifer system in southwest Florida and the intermediate confining unit where it is present. The third and fourth layers simulate the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers, respectively. Steady-state ground-water flow conditions were approximated for time-averaged hydrologic conditions from August 1993 through July 1994 (1993-94). This period was selected based on data from Upper Floridan a quifer wells equipped with continuous water-level recorders. The grid used for the ground-water flow model was uniform and composed of square 5,000-foot cells, with 210 columns and 300 rows.

  20. Clinical utility of flow cytometry in the study of erythropoiesis and nonclonal red cell disorders.

    PubMed

    Chesney, Alden; Good, David; Reis, Marciano

    2011-01-01

    Erythropoiesis involves proliferation and differentiation of small population of hematopoietic stem cells resident in the bone marrow into mature red blood cells. The determination of the cellular composition of the blood is a valuable tool in the diagnosis of diseases and monitoring of therapy. Flow cytometric analysis is increasingly being used to characterize the heterogeneous cell populations present in the blood and the hematopoietic cell differentiation and maturation pathways of the bone marrow. Here we discuss the role of flow cytometry in the study of erythropoiesis and nonclonal red blood cell disorders. First, we discuss flow cytometric analysis of reticulocytes. Next, we review salient quantitative methods that can be used for detection of fetal-maternal hemorrhage (FMH). We also discuss flow cytometric analysis of high hemoglobin F (HbF) in Sickle Cell Disease (SCD), hereditary spherocytosis (HS), red cell survival and red cell volume. We conclude by discussing cell cycle of erythroid cells.

  1. Design of Flow Systems for Improved Networking and Reduced Noise in Biomolecular Signal Processing in Biocomputing and Biosensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Arjun; Fratto, Brian E.; Privman, Vladimir; Katz, Evgeny

    2016-01-01

    We consider flow systems that have been utilized for small-scale biomolecular computing and digital signal processing in binary-operating biosensors. Signal measurement is optimized by designing a flow-reversal cuvette and analyzing the experimental data to theoretically extract the pulse shape, as well as reveal the level of noise it possesses. Noise reduction is then carried out numerically. We conclude that this can be accomplished physically via the addition of properly designed well-mixing flow-reversal cell(s) as an integral part of the flow system. This approach should enable improved networking capabilities and potentially not only digital but analog signal-processing in such systems. Possible applications in complex biocomputing networks and various sense-and-act systems are discussed. PMID:27399702

  2. Design of Flow Systems for Improved Networking and Reduced Noise in Biomolecular Signal Processing in Biocomputing and Biosensing Applications.

    PubMed

    Verma, Arjun; Fratto, Brian E; Privman, Vladimir; Katz, Evgeny

    2016-07-05

    We consider flow systems that have been utilized for small-scale biomolecular computing and digital signal processing in binary-operating biosensors. Signal measurement is optimized by designing a flow-reversal cuvette and analyzing the experimental data to theoretically extract the pulse shape, as well as reveal the level of noise it possesses. Noise reduction is then carried out numerically. We conclude that this can be accomplished physically via the addition of properly designed well-mixing flow-reversal cell(s) as an integral part of the flow system. This approach should enable improved networking capabilities and potentially not only digital but analog signal-processing in such systems. Possible applications in complex biocomputing networks and various sense-and-act systems are discussed.

  3. An annotation system for 3D fluid flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughlin, Maria M.; Hughes, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Annotation is a key activity of data analysis. However, current systems for data analysis focus almost exclusively on visualization. We propose a system which integrates annotations into a visualization system. Annotations are embedded in 3D data space, using the Post-it metaphor. This embedding allows contextual-based information storage and retrieval, and facilitates information sharing in collaborative environments. We provide a traditional database filter and a Magic Lens filter to create specialized views of the data. The system has been customized for fluid flow applications, with features which allow users to store parameters of visualization tools and sketch 3D volumes.

  4. Power flow prediction in vibrating systems via model reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xianhui

    This dissertation focuses on power flow prediction in vibrating systems. Reduced order models (ROMs) are built based on rational Krylov model reduction which preserve power flow information in the original systems over a specified frequency band. Stiffness and mass matrices of the ROMs are obtained by projecting the original system matrices onto the subspaces spanned by forced responses. A matrix-free algorithm is designed to construct ROMs directly from the power quantities at selected interpolation frequencies. Strategies for parallel implementation of the algorithm via message passing interface are proposed. The quality of ROMs is iteratively refined according to the error estimate based on residual norms. Band capacity is proposed to provide a priori estimate of the sizes of good quality ROMs. Frequency averaging is recast as ensemble averaging and Cauchy distribution is used to simplify the computation. Besides model reduction for deterministic systems, details of constructing ROMs for parametric and nonparametric random systems are also presented. Case studies have been conducted on testbeds from Harwell-Boeing collections. Input and coupling power flow are computed for the original systems and the ROMs. Good agreement is observed in all cases.

  5. Subsonic Flow for the Multidimensional Euler-Poisson System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Myoungjean; Duan, Ben; Xie, Chunjing

    2016-04-01

    We establish the existence and stability of subsonic potential flow for the steady Euler-Poisson system in a multidimensional nozzle of a finite length when prescribing the electric potential difference on a non-insulated boundary from a fixed point at the exit, and prescribing the pressure at the exit of the nozzle. The Euler-Poisson system for subsonic potential flow can be reduced to a nonlinear elliptic system of second order. In this paper, we develop a technique to achieve a priori {C^{1,α}} estimates of solutions to a quasi-linear second order elliptic system with mixed boundary conditions in a multidimensional domain enclosed by a Lipschitz continuous boundary. In particular, we discovered a special structure of the Euler-Poisson system which enables us to obtain {C^{1,α}} estimates of the velocity potential and the electric potential functions, and this leads us to establish structural stability of subsonic flows for the Euler-Poisson system under perturbations of various data.

  6. Modeling the influence of optic flow on grid cell firing in the absence of other cues1.

    PubMed

    Raudies, Florian; Mingolla, Ennio; Hasselmo, Michael E

    2012-12-01

    Information from the vestibular, sensorimotor, or visual systems can affect the firing of grid cells recorded in entorhinal cortex of rats. Optic flow provides information about the rat's linear and rotational velocity and, thus, could influence the firing pattern of grid cells. To investigate this possible link, we model parts of the rat's visual system and analyze their capability in estimating linear and rotational velocity. In our model a rat is simulated to move along trajectories recorded from rat's foraging on a circular ground platform. Thus, we preserve the intrinsic statistics of real rats' movements. Visual image motion is analytically computed for a spherical camera model and superimposed with noise in order to model the optic flow that would be available to the rat. This optic flow is fed into a template model to estimate the rat's linear and rotational velocities, which in turn are fed into an oscillatory interference model of grid cell firing. Grid scores are reported while altering the flow noise, tilt angle of the optical axis with respect to the ground, the number of flow templates, and the frequency used in the oscillatory interference model. Activity patterns are compatible with those of grid cells, suggesting that optic flow can contribute to their firing.

  7. Debris flow early warning systems in Norway: organization and tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleivane, I.; Colleuille, H.; Haugen, L. E.; Alve Glad, P.; Devoli, G.

    2012-04-01

    In Norway, shallow slides and debris flows occur as a combination of high-intensity precipitation, snowmelt, high groundwater level and saturated soil. Many events have occurred in the last decades and are often associated with (or related to) floods events, especially in the Southern of Norway, causing significant damages to roads, railway lines, buildings, and other infrastructures (i.e November 2000; August 2003; September 2005; November 2005; Mai 2008; June and Desember 2011). Since 1989 the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) has had an operational 24 hour flood forecasting system for the entire country. From 2009 NVE is also responsible to assist regions and municipalities in the prevention of disasters posed by landslides and snow avalanches. Besides assisting the municipalities through implementation of digital landslides inventories, susceptibility and hazard mapping, areal planning, preparation of guidelines, realization of mitigation measures and helping during emergencies, NVE is developing a regional scale debris flow warning system that use hydrological models that are already available in the flood warning systems. It is well known that the application of rainfall thresholds is not sufficient to evaluate the hazard for debris flows and shallow slides, and soil moisture conditions play a crucial role in the triggering conditions. The information on simulated soil and groundwater conditions and water supply (rain and snowmelt) based on weather forecast, have proved to be useful variables that indicate the potential occurrence of debris flows and shallow slides. Forecasts of runoff and freezing-thawing are also valuable information. The early warning system is using real-time measurements (Discharge; Groundwater level; Soil water content and soil temperature; Snow water equivalent; Meteorological data) and model simulations (a spatially distributed version of the HBV-model and an adapted version of 1-D soil water and energy balance

  8. Microvascular endothelial cells exhibit optimal aspect ratio for minimizing flow resistance.

    PubMed

    Sumagin, Ronen; Brown, Carl W; Sarelius, Ingrid H; King, Michael R

    2008-04-01

    A recent analytical solution of the three-dimensional Stokes flow through a bumpy tube predicts that for a given bump area, there exists an optimal circumferential wavenumber which minimizes flow resistance. This study uses measurements of microvessel endothelial cell morphology to test whether this prediction holds in the microvasculature. Endothelial cell (EC) morphology was measured in blood perfused in situ microvessels in anesthetized mice using confocal intravital microscopy. EC borders were identified by immunofluorescently labeling the EC surface molecule ICAM-1 which is expressed on the surface but not in the EC border regions. Comparison of this theory with extensive in situ measurements of microvascular EC geometry in mouse cremaster muscle using intravital microscopy reveals that the spacing of EC nuclei in venules ranging from 27 to 106 microm in diameter indeed lies quite close to this predicted optimal configuration. Interestingly, arteriolar ECs are configured to minimize flow resistance not in the resting state, but at the dilated vessel diameter. These results raise the question of whether less organized circulatory systems, such as that found in newly formed solid tumors or in the developing embryo, may deviate from the optimal bump spacing predicted to minimize flow resistance.

  9. Continuous-flow free acid monitoring method and system

    DOEpatents

    Strain, James E.; Ross, Harley H.

    1981-01-01

    A free acid monitoring method and apparatus is provided for continuously measuring the excess acid present in a process stream. The disclosed monitoring system and method is based on the relationship of the partial pressure ratio of water and acid in equilibrium with an acid solution at constant temperature. A portion of the process stream is pumped into and flows through the monitor under the influence of gravity and back to the process stream. A continuous flowing sample is vaporized at a constant temperature and the vapor is subsequently condensed. Conductivity measurements of the condensate produces a nonlinear response function from which the free acid molarity of the sample process stream is determined.

  10. Continuous-flow free acid monitoring method and system

    DOEpatents

    Strain, J.E.; Ross, H.H.

    1980-01-11

    A free acid monitoring method and apparatus is provided for continuously measuring the excess acid present in a process stream. The disclosed monitoring system and method is based on the relationship of the partial pressure ratio of water and acid in equilibrium with an acid solution at constant temperature. A portion of the process stream is pumped into and flows through the monitor under the influence of gravity and back to the process stream. A continuous flowing sample is vaporized at a constant temperature and the vapor is subsequently condensed. Conductivity measurements of the condensate produces a nonlinear response function from which the free acid molarity of the sample process stream is determined.

  11. Computer programs for calculating potential flow in propulsion system inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockman, N. O.; Button, S. L.

    1973-01-01

    In the course of designing inlets, particularly for VTOL and STOL propulsion systems, a calculational procedure utilizing three computer programs evolved. The chief program is the Douglas axisymmetric potential flow program called EOD which calculates the incompressible potential flow about arbitrary axisymmetric bodies. The other two programs, original with Lewis, are called SCIRCL AND COMBYN. Program SCIRCL generates input for EOD from various specified analytic shapes for the inlet components. Program COMBYN takes basic solutions output by EOD and combines them into solutions of interest, and applies a compressibility correction.

  12. Investigation and visualization of liquid-liquid flow in a vertically mounted Hele-Shaw cell: flow regimes, velocity and shape of droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shad, S.; Gates, I. D.; Maini, B. B.

    2009-11-01

    The motion and shape of a liquid drop flowing within a continuous, conveying liquid phase in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell were investigated experimentally. The continuous phase was more viscous and wetted the bounding walls of the Hele-Shaw cell. The gap between the Hele-Shaw plates was set equal to 0.0226 cm. Four different flow regimes were observed: (a) small-droplet flow, (b) elongated-droplet flow, (c) churn flow and (d) channel flow. At low capillary number, that is, when capillary forces are larger than viscous forces, the droplet shape was irregular and changed with time and distance, and it moved with lower velocity than that of the conveying phase. At higher capillary number, several different shapes of stabilized elongated and flattened drops were observed. In contrast to gas-liquid systems, the velocities of droplets are higher than that of conveying liquid. New correlations derived from dimensionless analysis and fitted to the experimental data were generated to predict the elongated-drop velocity and aspect ratio.

  13. Traffic flow wide-area surveillance system definition

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.; Carnal, C.L.; Moynihan, P.I.

    1994-11-01

    Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) is a system for assessing the state of traffic flow over a wide area for enhanced traffic control and improved traffic management and planning. The primary purpose of a TFWAS system is to provide a detailed traffic flow description and context description to sophisticated traffic management and control systems being developed or envisioned for the future. A successful TFWAS system must possess the attributes of safety, reconfigurability, reliability, and expandability. The primary safety premise of TFWAS is to ensure that no action or failure of the TFWAS system or its components can result in risk of injury to humans. A wide variety of communication techniques is available for use with TFWAS systems. These communication techniques can be broken down into two categories, landlines and wireless. Currently used and possible future traffic sensing technologies have been examined. Important criteria for selecting TFWAS sensors include sensor capabilities, costs, operational constraints, sensor compatibility with the infrastructure, and extent. TFWAS is a concept that can take advantage of the strengths of different traffic sensing technologies, can readily adapt to newly developed technologies, and can grow with the development of new traffic control strategies. By developing innovative algorithms that will take information from a variety of sensor types and develop descriptions of traffic flows over a wide area, a more comprehensive understanding of the traffic state can be provided to the control system to perform the most reasonable control actions over the entire wide area. The capability of characterizing the state of traffic over an entire region should revolutionize developments in traffic control strategies.

  14. Interstitial fluid flow: simulation of mechanical environment of cells in the interosseous membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Wei; Ding, Guang-Hong

    2011-08-01

    In vitro experiments have shown that subtle fluid flow environment plays a significant role in living biological tissues, while there is no in vivo practical dynamical measurement of the interstitial fluid flow velocity. On the basis of a new finding that capillaries and collagen fibrils in the interosseous membrane form a parallel array, we set up a porous media model simulating the flow field with FLUENT software, studied the shear stress on interstitial cells' surface due to the interstitial fluid flow, and analyzed the effect of flow on protein space distribution around the cells. The numerical simulation results show that the parallel nature of capillaries could lead to directional interstitial fluid flow in the direction of capillaries. Interstitial fluid flow would induce shear stress on the membrane of interstitial cells, up to 30 Pa or so, which reaches or exceeds the threshold values of cells' biological response observed in vitro. Interstitial fluid flow would induce nonuniform spacial distribution of secretion protein of mast cells. Shear tress on cells could be affected by capillary parameters such as the distance between the adjacent capillaries, blood pressure and the permeability coefficient of capillary's wall. The interstitial pressure and the interstitial porosity could also affect the shear stress on cells. In conclusion, numerical simulation provides an effective way for in vivo dynamic interstitial velocity research, helps to set up the vivid subtle interstitial flow environment of cells, and is beneficial to understanding the physiological functions of interstitial fluid flow.

  15. Pattern formation of a reaction-diffusion system with self-consistent flow in the amoeboid organism Physarum plasmodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hiroyasu; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki; Ito, Masami

    1999-01-01

    The amoeboid organism, the plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum, moves by forming a spatiotemporal pattern of contraction oscillators. This biological system can be regarded as a reaction-diffusion system with spatial interaction via active flow of protoplasmic sol in the cell. We present a reaction-diffusion system with self-consistent flow on the basis of the physiological evidence that the flow is determined by contraction patterns in the plasmodium. Such a coupling of reaction, diffusion, and advection is characteristic of biological systems, and is expected to be related to control mechanisms of amoeboid behavior. Using weakly nonlinear analysis, we show that the envelope dynamics obeys the complex Ginzburg-Landau (CGL) equation when a bifurcation occurs at finite wave number. The flow term affects the nonlinear term of the CGL equation through the critical wave number squared. A physiological role of pattern formation with the flow is discussed.

  16. Water outlet control mechanism for fuel cell system operation in variable gravity environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Arturo (Inventor); McCurdy, Kerri L. (Inventor); Bradley, Karla F. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A self-regulated water separator provides centrifugal separation of fuel cell product water from oxidant gas. The system uses the flow energy of the fuel cell's two-phase water and oxidant flow stream and a regulated ejector or other reactant circulation pump providing the two-phase fluid flow. The system further uses a means of controlling the water outlet flow rate away from the water separator that uses both the ejector's or reactant pump's supply pressure and a compressibility sensor to provide overall control of separated water flow either back to the separator or away from the separator.

  17. Estimating the system price of redox flow batteries for grid storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Seungbum; Gallagher, Kevin G.

    2015-11-01

    Low-cost energy storage systems are required to support extensive deployment of intermittent renewable energy on the electricity grid. Redox flow batteries have potential advantages to meet the stringent cost target for grid applications as compared to more traditional batteries based on an enclosed architecture. However, the manufacturing process and therefore potential high-volume production price of redox flow batteries is largely unquantified. We present a comprehensive assessment of a prospective production process for aqueous all vanadium flow battery and nonaqueous lithium polysulfide flow battery. The estimated investment and variable costs are translated to fixed expenses, profit, and warranty as a function of production volume. When compared to lithium-ion batteries, redox flow batteries are estimated to exhibit lower costs of manufacture, here calculated as the unit price less materials costs, owing to their simpler reactor (cell) design, lower required area, and thus simpler manufacturing process. Redox flow batteries are also projected to achieve the majority of manufacturing scale benefits at lower production volumes as compared to lithium-ion. However, this advantage is offset due to the dramatically lower present production volume of flow batteries compared to competitive technologies such as lithium-ion.

  18. Flow characteristics of continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices in a novel open-loop system.

    PubMed

    Stanfield, J Ryan; Selzman, Craig H; Pardyjak, Eric R; Bamberg, Stacy

    2012-01-01

    Fluid-pumping technology is a mature engineering subject area with a well-documented knowledge base. However, the pump design optimization techniques accepted in industry are geared toward steady-state constant-flow conditions. In contrast, the implantation of a continuous-flow pump to aid the output of the human left ventricle subjects the device to perpetual variation. This study measures pressure-flow performance characteristics for both axial- and centrifugal continuous-flow rotary blood pumps across a wide range of pressure differential values under uniform conditions by means of a novel open-loop flow system. The axial-flow devices show lower hydraulic efficiency. All pumps yield best efficiency point at a head to flow coefficient ratio of approximately 1.7. The open-loop flow system accounts for the dynamic changes associated with human heart physiology and allows for more precise characterization of existing heart pumps and those in development.

  19. Natural selection of autocatalytic systems in flow as the universal mechanism of prebiotic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsev, S.; Mezhevikin, V.

    The problem of searching for extraterrestrial life is closely associated with the problem of origin of life in general and on the Earth. However convincing scientific concept of this event does not exist till now. The probability of casual occurrence of the elementary living cell from a set of abiogenous substances is so small, that from the point of natural-science methodological positions this variant of life origin should be excluded. It is necessary to assume the predecessors of cells were very simple, and their development, perfecting and thickening occurred gradually and in the certain sense neatly via natural selection. An assumption, that the predecessors of cells were elementary autocatalytic systems on the basis of the phase-isolated particles, and the mechanism of their selection was selection in flow with respect to kinetics parameters is put forward. In the paper probable directions of autocatalytic systems selection in flow inside a reactor of deal mixing are considered. As reali analog of in flow system of the kind the hydrothermal vent tube worms found in deep-sea waters could be considered. Thus, it is possible to select certain types of autocatalytic systems admitting an opportunity of "mutagenesis", and to plan experimental modeling of initial stages of prebiotic evolution under various physical-chemical conditions, including extraterrestrial ones. According to the concept, the life origin under the certain physical-chemical planetary conditions is the inevitable planetary phenomenon and key stages of this phenomenon allow not only theoretical, but also experimental analysis.

  20. Flow cytometric analysis of mast cells from normal and pathological human bone marrow samples: identification and enumeration.

    PubMed Central

    Orfao, A.; Escribano, L.; Villarrubia, J.; Velasco, J. L.; Cerveró, C.; Ciudad, J.; Navarro, J. L.; San Miguel, J. F.

    1996-01-01

    In the present paper we have used a three-color immunofluorescence procedure combined with flow cytometry cell analysis and sorting for the identification and enumeration of human mast cells in both normal and pathological bone marrow samples. Our results show that bone marrow mast cells are clearly identifiable on the basis of their light-scatter properties and strong CD117 expression. These cells were negative for the CD34, CD38, and BB4 antigens. In addition, they were CD33+ and displayed a high reactivity for the anti-IgE monoclonal antibody. The identity of the CD117-strong+ cells (mast cells) was confirmed by both microscopic examination and flow cytometry analysis. The overall frequency of mast cells in the bone marrow samples analyzed in the present study was constantly lower than 1%. The lowest frequencies corresponded to normal human bone marrow samples (0.0080 +/- 0.0082%) and the highest to those patients suffering from indolent systemic mast cell disease (0.40 +/- 0.13%). In summary, our results show that the identification and enumeration of bone marrow mast cells can be achieved using multiparametric flow cytometry. Moreover, once identified, mast cells are suitable for being characterized from the phenotypic and the functional point of view, facilitating the comparison between normal and abnormal mast cells. Images Figure 3 PMID:8909239

  1. Improving Viability of Stem Cells During Syringe Needle Flow Through the Design of Hydrogel Cell Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Aguado, Brian A.; Mulyasasmita, Widya; Su, James; Lampe, Kyle J.

    2012-01-01

    Cell transplantation is a promising therapy for a myriad of debilitating diseases; however, current delivery protocols using direct injection result in poor cell viability. We demonstrate that during the actual cell injection process, mechanical membrane disruption results in significant acute loss of viability at clinically relevant injection rates. As a strategy to protect cells from these damaging forces, we hypothesize that cell encapsulation within hydrogels of specific mechanical properties will significantly improve viability. We use a controlled in vitro model of cell injection to demonstrate success of this acute protection strategy for a wide range of cell types including human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), human adipose stem cells, rat mesenchymal stem cells, and mouse neural progenitor cells. Specifically, alginate hydrogels with plateau storage moduli (G′) ranging from 0.33 to 58.1 Pa were studied. A compliant crosslinked alginate hydrogel (G′=29.6 Pa) yielded the highest HUVEC viability, 88.9%±5.0%, while Newtonian solutions (i.e., buffer only) resulted in 58.7%±8.1% viability. Either increasing or decreasing the hydrogel storage modulus reduced this protective effect. Further, cells within noncrosslinked alginate solutions had viabilities lower than media alone, demonstrating that the protective effects are specifically a result of mechanical gelation and not the biochemistry of alginate. Experimental and theoretical data suggest that extensional flow at the entrance of the syringe needle is the main cause of acute cell death. These results provide mechanistic insight into the role of mechanical forces during cell delivery and support the use of protective hydrogels in future clinical stem cell injection studies. PMID:22011213

  2. Simulation of contaminant flow ina laboratory-scale porous system

    SciTech Connect

    Rashidi, M.

    1995-12-01

    The microscopic movement of contaminants in a porous medium has been simulated in an experiment. The approach has been to study the microscale transport processes using a novel nonintrusive fluorescence imaging technique developed in our laboratories. The system studied consists of a packed porous column with a refractive index-matched fluid seeded with fluorescent tracer particles (for flow measurements) or an organic dye (for contaminant concentration measurements). Microscopic measurements of contaminant concentration, contaminant velocity, and pore geometry were obtained in a full three-dimensional volume of the test section at a good accuracy and a high resolution. 3D plots of these measurements show the complex geometry of the porous medium. It is also seen that near the contaminant front there is a significant correlation between the flow and the contaminant concentration. The goal is to use these and future results toward better understanding of contaminant flow and report thorough natural porous media.

  3. A gas flow indicator for portable life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, R. L., III; Schroeder, E. C.

    1975-01-01

    A three-part program was conducted to develop a gas flow indicator (GFI) to monitor ventilation flow in a portable life support system. The first program phase identified concepts which could potentially meet the GFI requirements. In the second phase, a working breadboard GFI, based on the concept of a pressure sensing diaphragm-aneroid assembly connected to a venturi, was constructed and tested. Extensive testing of the breadboard GFI indicated that the design would meet all NASA requirements including eliminating problems experienced with the ventilation flow sensor used in the Apollo program. In the third program phase, an optimized GFI was designed by utilizing test data obtained on the breadboard unit. A prototype unit was constructed using prototype materials and fabrication techniques, and performance tests indicated that the prototype GFI met or exceeded all requirements.

  4. Material handling robot system for flow-through storage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, James F.; Candiloro, Brian; Downer, James; Wiesman, Richard; Fallin, Larry; Smith, Ron

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the design, development and planned implementation of a system of mobile robots for use in flow through storage applications. The robots are being designed with on-board embedded controls so that they can perform their tasks as semi-autonomous workers distributed within a centrally controlled network. On the storage input side, boxes will be identified by bar-codes and placed into preassigned flow through bins. On the shipping side, orders will be forwarded to the robots from a central order processing station and boxes will be picked from designated storage bins following proper sequencing to permit direct loading into trucks for shipping. Because of the need to maintain high system availability, a distributed control strategy has been selected. When completed, the system will permit robots to be dynamically reassigned responsibilities if an individual unit fails. On-board health diagnostics and condition monitoring will be used to maintain high reliability of the units.

  5. High density cell culture system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An annular culture vessel for growing mammalian cells is constructed in a one piece integral and annular configuration with an open end which is closed by an endcap. The culture vessel is rotatable about a horizontal axis by use of conventional roller systems commonly used in culture laboratories. The end wall of the endcap has tapered access ports to frictionally and sealingly receive the ends of hypodermic syringes. The syringes permit the introduction of fresh nutrient and withdrawal of spent nutrients. The walls are made of conventional polymeric cell culture material and are subjected to neutron bombardment to form minute gas permeable perforations in the walls.

  6. Trends in Flow-based Biosensing Systems for Pesticide Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Prieto-Simón, Beatriz; Campàs, Mònica; Andreescu, Silvana; Marty, Jean-Louis

    2006-01-01

    This review gives a survey on the state of the art of pesticide detection using flow-based biosensing systems for sample screening. Although immunosensor systems have been proposed as powerful pesticide monitoring tools, this review is mainly focused on enzyme-based biosensors, as they are the most commonly employed when using a flow system. Among the different detection methods able to be integrated into flow-injection analysis (FIA) systems, the electrochemical ones will be treated in more detail, due to their high sensitivity, simple sample pretreatment, easy operational procedures and real-time detection. During the last decade, new trends have been emerging in order to increase the enzyme stability, the sensitivity and selectivity of the measurements, and to lower the detection limits. These approaches are based on (i) the design of novel matrices for enzyme immobilisation, (ii) new manifold configurations of the FIA system, sometimes including miniaturisation or lab-on-chip protocols thanks to micromachining technology, (iii) the use of cholinesterase enzymes either from various commercial sources or genetically modified with the aim of being more sensitive, (iv) the incorporation of other highly specific enzymes, such as organophosphate hydrolase (OPH) or parathion hydrolase (PH) and (v) the combination of different electrochemical methods of detection. This article discusses these novel strategies and their advantages and limitations.

  7. Induction of mammalian cell death by simple shear and extensional flows.

    PubMed

    Tanzeglock, Timm; Soos, Miroslav; Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2009-10-01

    In this work we investigated whether the type of shear flow, to which cells are exposed, influences the initiation of cell death. It is shown that mammalian cells, indeed, distinguish between discrete types of flow and respond differently. Two flow devices were employed to impose accurate hydrodynamic flow fields: uniform steady simple shear flow and oscillating extensional flow. To distinguish between necrotic and apoptotic cell death, fluorescence activated cell sorting and the release of DNA in the culture supernatant was used. Results show that Chinese Hamster Ovaries and Human Embryonic Kidney cells will enter the apoptotic pathway when subjected to low levels of hydrodynamic stress (around 2.0 Pa) in oscillating, extensional flow. In contrast, necrotic death prevails when the cells are exposed to hydrodynamic stresses around 1.0 Pa in simple shear flow or around 500 Pa in extensional flow. These threshold values at which cells enter the respective death pathway should be avoided when culturing cells for recombinant protein production to enhance culture longevity and productivity.

  8. Theory to predict shear stress on cells in turbulent blood flow.

    PubMed

    Morshed, Khandakar Niaz; Bark, David; Forleo, Marcio; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Shear stress on blood cells and platelets transported in a turbulent flow dictates the fate and biological activity of these cells. We present a theoretical link between energy dissipation in turbulent flows to the shear stress that cells experience and show that for the case of physiological turbulent blood flow: (a) the Newtonian assumption is valid, (b) turbulent eddies are universal for the most complex of blood flow problems, and (c) shear stress distribution on turbulent blood flows is possibly universal. Further we resolve a long standing inconsistency in hemolysis between laminar and turbulent flow using the theoretical framework. This work demonstrates that energy dissipation as opposed to bulk shear stress in laminar or turbulent blood flow dictates local mechanical environment of blood cells and platelets universally.

  9. A Novel Flow-Perfusion Bioreactor Supports 3D Dynamic Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Sailon, Alexander M.; Allori, Alexander C.; Davidson, Edward H.; Reformat, Derek D.; Allen, Robert J.; Warren, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Bone engineering requires thicker three-dimensional constructs than the maximum thickness supported by standard cell-culture techniques (2 mm). A flow-perfusion bioreactor was developed to provide chemotransportation to thick (6 mm) scaffolds. Methods. Polyurethane scaffolds, seeded with murine preosteoblasts, were loaded into a novel bioreactor. Control scaffolds remained in static culture. Samples were harvested at days 2, 4, 6, and 8 and analyzed for cellular distribution, viability, metabolic activity, and density at the periphery and core. Results. By day 8, static scaffolds had a periphery cell density of 67% ± 5.0%, while in the core it was 0.3% ± 0.3%. Flow-perfused scaffolds demonstrated peripheral cell density of 94% ± 8.3% and core density of 76% ± 3.1% at day 8. Conclusions. Flow perfusion provides chemotransportation to thick scaffolds. This system may permit high throughput study of 3D tissues in vitro and enable prefabrication of biological constructs large enough to solve clinical problems. PMID:20037739

  10. Harvesting Energy from Salinity Differences Using Battery Electrodes in a Concentration Flow Cell.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taeyoung; Rahimi, Mohammad; Logan, Bruce E; Gorski, Christopher A

    2016-09-06

    Salinity-gradient energy (SGE) technologies produce carbon-neutral and renewable electricity from salinity differences between seawater and freshwater. Capacitive mixing (CapMix) is a promising class of SGE technologies that captures energy using capacitive or battery electrodes, but CapMix devices have produced relatively low power densities and often require expensive materials. Here, we combined existing CapMix approaches to develop a concentration flow cell that can overcome these limitations. In this system, two identical battery (i.e., faradaic) electrodes composed of copper hexacyanoferrate (CuHCF) were simultaneously exposed to either high (0.513 M) or low (0.017 M) concentration NaCl solutions in channels separated by a filtration membrane. The average power density produced was 411 ± 14 mW m(-2) (normalized to membrane area), which was twice as high as previously reported values for CapMix devices. Power production was continuous (i.e., it did not require a charging period and did not vary during each step of a cycle) and was stable for 20 cycles of switching the solutions in each channel. The concentration flow cell only used inexpensive materials and did not require ion-selective membranes or precious metals. The results demonstrate that the concentration flow cell is a promising approach for efficiently harvesting energy from salinity differences.

  11. Factors influencing yield of plateletpheresis using intermittent flow cell separator.

    PubMed

    DAS, S S; Chaudhary, R K; Shukla, J S

    2005-10-01

    Platelet recovery in the recipient is influenced by the transfused dose of platelets, which in turn is dependent on the quality of single donor platelets (SDPs) in terms of platelet yield. Various donor factors such as predonation platelet count and Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration affect the platelet yield. A total of 61 plateletpheresis procedures performed on intermittent flow cell separator (MCS3p, Hemonetics) were evaluated for platelet yield. A relationship between predonation platelet count and Hb concentration with yield of platelets was studied using Pearson Correlation. The mean platelet yield was 2.9 +/- 0.64 x 10(11). While a direct relationship was observed between predonation platelet count and yield (r = 0.51, P < 0.001), no such correlation was noticed with donor Hb concentration (r = -0.05, P > 0.005). The yield was > or =3 x 10(11) in >80% of procedures when the predonation platelet count was > or =250 x 10(3)/mm. Optimization of platelet yield, which is influenced by predonation platelet count, is an emerging issue in blood transfusion services. However, further studies in this regard are needed using more advanced cell separators.

  12. Developing a miniaturized continuous flow electrochemical cell for biosensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, M.; Ovreiu, E.; Dejana, R.; Foglietti, V.; Nardi, L.; Masci, A.; Lanza, B.; Della Seta, L.; Montereali, M.-R.; Vastarella, W.; Pilloton, R.

    2009-01-01

    The development of a miniaturized electrochemical cell for biosensor application regards both the structuring of an array of electrodes in a fluidic chamber and their connections to the control & processing unit The sensitivity of the chrono-amperometric measurement performed with the cell is increased by: (a) integrating the reference electrode on the same chip with the counter- and working- electrodes, (b) designing a specific pattern of the gold electrodes and (c) serially distributing them along the pipeline reservoir. Borosilicate glass is used as substrate for the electrodes, allowing, due to its transparency, an accurate and easy pad to pad alignment of the up-side-down chip versus a PCB soldered on a standard DIL 40 socket. This alignment is necessary to accomplish the elastomer-based-solderless electric contact, between chip and PCB. The solderless contact significantly improves both reliability and signal processing accuracy. The reservoir and its cover are micromachined out of silicone rubber respectively photosensitive glass in order to easy disassemble the fluidic chamber without any damage. Both thickness and elasticity of the photosensitive glass rend the device less brittle. A plug-in -plug-flow device with improved characteristics has been obtained with a modular structure that allows further extension of the number of electrodes.

  13. Brief history of laminar flow clean room systems

    SciTech Connect

    Whitfield, W J

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews the development and evolution of laminar flow clean rooms and hoods and describes the underlying principles and rationales associated with development of this type of clean room system and Federal Standard No. 209. By the mid 1970's, over a thousand hospitals in the US had installed laminar flow equipment in operating rooms. During the past several years a great deal of attention has been focused on conserving energy in clean rooms. Some gains in energy conservation have been achieved by improved design, off hours shutdown, and closer evaluation of requirements for clean rooms. By the early 1970's, the laminar flow principle had been carried from the Laboratory and applied to production hardware to create a mature industry producing and marketing a variety of laminar flow equipment in less than 10 years time. This achievement was made possible by literally dozens of persons in industry, government, military, and private individuals who developed hardware, added numerous innovations, and had the foresight to apply the technology to many fields other than industrial clean rooms. Now, with laminar flow devices available, class 100 levels are readily achievable and maintained, and at the same time require fewer operating restrictions than previously possible.

  14. Fuel Cells Vehicle Systems Analysis (Fuel Cell Freeze Investigation)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G.; Markel, T.; Wipke, K.

    2005-05-01

    Presentation on Fuel Cells Vehicle Systems Analysis (Fuel Cell Freeze Investigation) for the 2005 Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Annual Review held in Arlington, Virginia on May 23-26, 2005.

  15. Two-phase Flow Characteristics in a Gas-Flow Channel of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sung Chan

    Fuel cells, converting chemical energy of fuels directly into electricity, have become an integral part of alternative energy and energy efficiency. They provide a power source of high energy-conversion efficiency and zero emission, meeting the critical demands of a rapidly growing society. The proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, also called polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), are the major type of fuel cells for transportation, portable and small-scale stationary applications. They provide high-power capability, work quietly at low temperatures, produce only water byproduct and no emission, and can be compactly assembled, making them one of the leading candidates for the next generation of power sources. Water management is one of the key issues in PEM fuel cells: appropriate humidification is critical for the ionic conductivity of membrane while excessive water causes flooding and consequently reduces cell performance. For efficient liquid water removal from gas flow channels of PEM fuel cells, in-depth understanding on droplet dynamics and two-phase flow characteristics is required. In this dissertation, theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, and experimental testing with visualization are carried out to understand the two-phase flow characteristics in PEM fuel cell channels. Two aspects of two-phase phenomena will be targeted: one is the droplet dynamics at the GDL surface; the other is the two-phase flow phenomena in gas flow channels. In the former, forces over a droplet, droplet deformation, and detachment are studied. Analytical solutions of droplet deformation and droplet detachment velocity are obtained. Both experiments and numerical simulation are conducted to validate analytical results. The effects of contact angle, channel geometry, superficial air velocity, properties of gas phase fluids are examined and criteria for the detachment velocity are derived to relate the Reynolds number to the Weber number. In the latter, two-phase flow

  16. Tracking and Measurement of the Motion of Blood Cells Using Optical Flow Methods

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dongmin; Van de Ven, Anne L.; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of microcirculation is a critical task in biomedical and physiological research. In order to monitor human’s condition and develop effective therapies of some diseases, the microcirculation information, such as flow velocity and vessel density, must be evaluated in a noninvasive manner. As one of the tasks of microcirculation investigation, automatic blood cell tracking presents an effective approach to estimate blood flow velocity. Currently, the most common method for blood cell tracking is based on spatiotemporal image analysis, which has lots of limitations, such as the diameter of microvesssels cannot be too larger than blood cells or tracers, cells or tracers should have fixed velocity, and it requires the image with high qualification. In this paper, we propose an optical flow method for automatic cell tracking. The key algorithm of the method is to align an image to its neighbors in a large image collection consisting of a variety of scenes. Considering the method cannot solve the problems in all cases of cell movement, another optical flow method, SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) flow, is also presented. The experimental results show that both methods can track the cells accurately. Optical flow is specially robust to the case where the velocity of cell is unstable, while SIFT flow works well when there are large displacement of cell between two adjacent frames. Our proposed methods outperform other methods when doing in vivo cell tracking, which can be used to estimate the blood flow directly and help to evaluate other parameters in microcirculation. PMID:24058034

  17. STORM-SEWER FLOW MEASUREMENT AND RECORDING SYSTEM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilpatrick, Frederick A.; Kaehrle, William R.

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive study and development of instruments and techniques for measuring all components of flow in a storm-sewer drainage system were undertaken by the U. S. Geological Survey under the sponsorship of FHWA. The study involved laboratory and field calibration and testing of measuring flumes, pipe insert meters, weirs, and electromagnetic velocity meters as well as the development and calibration of pneumatic bubbler and pressure transducer head-measuring systems. Tracer dilution and acoustic-flowmeter measurements were used in field verification tests. A single micrologger was used to record data from all the instruments and also to activate on command the electromagnetic velocity meter and tracer dilution systems.

  18. Characterizing dynamic hysteresis and fractal statistics of chaotic two-phase flow and application to fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkholder, Michael B.; Litster, Shawn

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we analyze the stability of two-phase flow regimes and their transitions using chaotic and fractal statistics, and we report new measurements of dynamic two-phase pressure drop hysteresis that is related to flow regime stability and channel water content. Two-phase flow dynamics are relevant to a variety of real-world systems, and quantifying transient two-phase flow phenomena is important for efficient design. We recorded two-phase (air and water) pressure drops and flow images in a microchannel under both steady and transient conditions. Using Lyapunov exponents and Hurst exponents to characterize the steady-state pressure fluctuations, we develop a new, measurable regime identification criteria based on the dynamic stability of the two-phase pressure signal. We also applied a new experimental technique by continuously cycling the air flow rate to study dynamic hysteresis in two-phase pressure drops, which is separate from steady-state hysteresis and can be used to understand two-phase flow development time scales. Using recorded images of the two-phase flow, we show that the capacitive dynamic hysteresis is related to channel water content and flow regime stability. The mixed-wettability microchannel and in-channel water introduction used in this study simulate a polymer electrolyte fuel cell cathode air flow channel.

  19. High-throughput nanoliter sample introduction microfluidic chip-based flow injection analysis system with gravity-driven flows.

    PubMed

    Du, Wen-Bin; Fang, Qun; He, Qiao-Hong; Fang, Zhao-Lun

    2005-03-01

    In this work, a simple, robust, and automated microfluidic chip-based FIA system with gravity-driven flows and liquid-core waveguide (LCW) spectrometric detection was developed. The high-throughput sample introduction system was composed of a capillary sampling probe and an array of horizontally positioned microsample vials with a slot fabricated on the bottom of each vial. FI sample loading and injection were performed by linearly moving the array of vials filled alternately with 50-microL samples and carrier, allowing the probe inlet to enter the solutions in the vials through the slots sequentially and the sample and carrier solution to be introduced into the chip driven by gravity. The performance of the system was demonstrated using the complexation of o-phenanthroline with Fe(II) as a model reaction. A 20-mm-long Teflon AF 2400 capillary (50-microm i.d., 375-microm o.d.) was connected to the chip to function as a LCW detection flow cell with a cell volume of 40 nL and effective path length of 1.7 cm. Linear absorbance response was obtained in the range of 1.0-100 microM Fe(II) (r2=0.9967), and a good reproducibility of 0.6% RSD (n=18) was achieved. The sensitivity was comparable with that obtained using conventional FIA systems, which typically consume 10,000-fold more sample. The highest sampling throughput of 1000 h-1 was obtained by using injection times of 0.08 and 3.4 s for sample and carrier solution, respectively, with a sample consumption of only 0.6 nL for each cycle.

  20. Bivariate flow cytometric analysis of murine intestinal epithelial cells for cytokinetic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Pallavicini, M.G.; Ng, C.R.; Gray, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    The heterogeneous nature of the small intestine and the lack of methods to obtain pure crypt populations has, in the past, limited the application of standard flow cytometric analysis for cytokinetic studies of the proliferating crypts. The authors describe a flow cytometric technique to discriminate crypt and villus cells in an epithelial cell suspension on the basis of cell length, and to measure the DNA content of the discriminated subpopulations. These data indicate that bivariate analysis of a mixed epithelial cell suspension can be used to distinguish mature villus cells, G/sub 1/ crypt cells, and S-phase crypt cells. In addition, continuous labeling studies suggest that the position of a cell on the cell length axis reflects epithelial cell maturity. The authors applied this flow cytometric technique to determine the cytokinetic nature of epithelial cells obtained by sequential digestion of the small intestine. 22 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Evaluation of a Multicommuted Flow System for Photometric Environmental Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Ródenas-Torralba, Eva; Rocha, Fábio R. P.; Reis, Boaventura F.; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    A portable flow analysis instrument is described for in situ photometric measurements. This system is based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and a photodiode detector, coupled to a multipumping flow system. The whole equipment presents dimensions of 25  cm × 22  cm × 10  cm, weighs circa 3 kg, and costs 650 €. System performance was evaluated for different chemistries without changing hardware configuration for determinations of (i) Fe3+ with SCN-, (ii) iodometric nitrite determination, (iii) phenol with sodium nitroprusside, and (iv) 1-naphthol-N-methylcarbamate (carbaryl) with p-aminophenol. The detection limits were estimated as 22, 60, 25, and 60 ng mL -1 for iron, nitrite, phenol, and carbaryl at the 99.7% confidence level with RSD of 2.3, 1.0, 1.8, and 0.8%, respectively. Reagent and waste volumes were lower than those obtained by flow systems with continuous reagent addition. Sampling rates of 100, 110, 65, and 72 determinations per hour were achieved for iron, nitrite, phenol, and carbaryl determinations PMID:17671614

  2. Cell-cycle distribution of urothelial tumour cells as measured by flow cytometry.

    PubMed Central

    Collste, L. G.; Darzynkiewicz, Z.; Traganos, F.; Sharpless, T. K.; Devonec, M.; Claps, M. L.; Whitmore, W. F.; Melamed, M. R.

    1979-01-01

    The fraction of cells in S + G2 + mitosis from 54 urothelial tumours was calculated by flow cytometry after acridine orange (AO) staining of cells obtained by bladder irrigation or biopsy. Fluorescence signals emitted by the AO-stained DNA and RNA of each cell were separated optically and measured for 5,000 cells per specimen. The patients were classified by the histology of their tumours and clinical data into 5 diagnostic categories: NED (no evidence of disease, but history of bladder tumour), 3; papilloma, 8; non-invasive papillary carcinoma, 8; carcinoma in situ, 17 and invasive carcinoma, 18. The fraction of cells with DNA values in S + G2 + M of the cell cycle varied between 7 and 57% of the total, with a wide range within each diagnostic category, but no statistically significant differences between the groups. The proportion of cells in S + G2 + M from an individual tumour was not correlated with histologic grade or clinical behaviour. The possibility that some tumour cells with DNA values above G1 level are quiescent cells arrested at S or G2 is discussed. PMID:526428

  3. System and method for detecting cells or components thereof

    DOEpatents

    Porter, Marc D.; Lipert, Robert J.; Doyle, Robert T.; Grubisha, Desiree S.; Rahman, Salma

    2009-01-06

    A system and method for detecting a detectably labeled cell or component thereof in a sample comprising one or more cells or components thereof, at least one cell or component thereof of which is detectably labeled with at least two detectable labels. In one embodiment, the method comprises: (i) introducing the sample into one or more flow cells of a flow cytometer, (ii) irradiating the sample with one or more light sources that are absorbed by the at least two detectable labels, the absorption of which is to be detected, and (iii) detecting simultaneously the absorption of light by the at least two detectable labels on the detectably labeled cell or component thereof with an array of photomultiplier tubes, which are operably linked to two or more filters that selectively transmit detectable emissions from the at least two detectable labels.

  4. Non-linear system identification in flow-induced vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Spanos, P.D.; Zeldin, B.A.; Lu, R.

    1996-12-31

    The paper introduces a method of identification of non-linear systems encountered in marine engineering applications. The non-linearity is accounted for by a combination of linear subsystems and known zero-memory non-linear transformations; an equivalent linear multi-input-single-output (MISO) system is developed for the identification problem. The unknown transfer functions of the MISO system are identified by assembling a system of linear equations in the frequency domain. This system is solved by performing the Cholesky decomposition of a related matrix. It is shown that the proposed identification method can be interpreted as a {open_quotes}Gram-Schmidt{close_quotes} type of orthogonal decomposition of the input-output quantities of the equivalent MISO system. A numerical example involving the identification of unknown parameters of flow (ocean wave) induced forces on offshore structures elucidates the applicability of the proposed method.

  5. The aerodynamic performance of several flow control devices for internal flow systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, W. T.; Wettlaufer, B. M.; Mort, K. W.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental reseach and development program was undertaken to develop and document new flow-control devices for use in the major modifications to the 40 by 80 Foot wind tunnel at Ames Research Center. These devices, which are applicable to other facilities as well, included grid-type and quasi-two-dimensional flow straighteners, louver panels for valving, and turning-vane cascades with net turning angles from 0 deg to 90 deg. The tests were conducted at model scale over a Reynolds number range from 2 x 100,000 to 17 x 100,000, based on chord. The results showed quantitatively the performance benefits of faired, low-blockage, smooth-surface straightener systems, and the advantages of curved turning-vanes with hinge-line gaps sealed and a preferred chord-to-gap ratio between 2.5 and 3.0 for 45 deg or 90 deg turns.

  6. Fuel Cell Manufacturing Diagnostic Techniques: IR Thermography with Reactive Flow through Excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Manak, A. J.; Ulsh, M.; Bender, G.

    2012-01-01

    While design and material considerations for PEMFCs have a large impact on cost, it is also necessary to consider a transition to high volume production of fuel cell systems, including MEA components, to enable economies of scale and reduce per unit cost. One of the critical manufacturing tasks is developing and deploying techniques to provide in‐process measurement of fuel cell components for quality control. This effort requires a subsidiary task: The study of the effect of manufacturing defects on performance and durability with the objective to establish validated manufacturing tolerances for fuel cell components. This work focuses on the development of a potential quality control method for gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs). The method consists of infrared (IR) thermography combined with reactive flow through (RFT) excitation. Detection of catalyst loading reduction defects in GDE catalyst layers will be presented.

  7. Solenoid micropump-based flow system for generalized calibration strategy.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Marcin; Kościelniak, Paweł; Swit, Paweł; Paluch, Justyna; Kozak, Joanna

    2015-02-01

    Generalized calibration strategy (GCS) is one of the innovative approaches aimed at verification and improvement of accuracy of analytical determinations. It combines in a single procedure the interpolative and the extrapolative calibration approaches along with stepwise dilution of a sample with the use of a dedicated flow system. In the paper a simple solenoid micropump-based flow system designed for implementation of GCS has been described. The manifold consists of several modules fully operated by a computer and connected with each other in a properly designed network. Its performance and usefulness were tested on determination of calcium by FAAS in synthetic and natural samples containing strong interferents. It was shown how GCS can serve for detection, examination and elimination of the interference effects. It was demonstrated that the designed manifold enabled to perform GCS procedure with very good precision, in short time and with very low standard, sample and reagent consumption.

  8. Optimal Power Flow for Distribution Systems under Uncertain Forecasts

    SciTech Connect

    Dall'Anese, Emiliano; Baker, Kyri; Summers, Tyler

    2016-12-29

    The paper focuses on distribution systems featuring renewable energy sources and energy storage devices, and develops an optimal power flow (OPF) approach to optimize the system operation in spite of forecasting errors. The proposed method builds on a chance-constrained multi-period AC OPF formulation, where probabilistic constraints are utilized to enforce voltage regulation with a prescribed probability. To enable a computationally affordable solution approach, a convex reformulation of the OPF task is obtained by resorting to i) pertinent linear approximations of the power flow equations, and ii) convex approximations of the chance constraints. Particularly, the approximate chance constraints provide conservative bounds that hold for arbitrary distributions of the forecasting errors. An adaptive optimization strategy is then obtained by embedding the proposed OPF task into a model predictive control framework.

  9. Fiber optic flow system for potable water monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadnik, Dorota; Majewska, Emilia; Chudy, Michal; Wróblewski, Wojciech; Brzózka, Zbigniew; Dybko, Artur

    2005-09-01

    The principle of the operation of a fiber optic chemical sensor (FOCS) is a chemically sensitive receptor part, which can be called as a chemooptical interface. This interface converts information on the analyte into changes of optical signal. In the case of the designed system, an appropriate reagent exhibiting changes in absorbance is immobilized on a polymeric support in a form of small beads. Such modified polymers are then loaded into a tube in order to construct a flow through sensor. The following reagents were used: bromothymol blue as pH-sensitive indicator, Chlorophosphonazo III as calcium-sensitive indicator, and 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR) as heavy metal indicator. The paper describes the immobilization procedures, tests of the flow through sensors with their calibration characteristics as well as system design considerations.

  10. Optimal Power Flow for Distribution Systems under Uncertain Forecasts: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Dall'Anese, Emiliano; Baker, Kyri; Summers, Tyler

    2016-12-01

    The paper focuses on distribution systems featuring renewable energy sources and energy storage devices, and develops an optimal power flow (OPF) approach to optimize the system operation in spite of forecasting errors. The proposed method builds on a chance-constrained multi-period AC OPF formulation, where probabilistic constraints are utilized to enforce voltage regulation with a prescribed probability. To enable a computationally affordable solution approach, a convex reformulation of the OPF task is obtained by resorting to i) pertinent linear approximations of the power flow equations, and ii) convex approximations of the chance constraints. Particularly, the approximate chance constraints provide conservative bounds that hold for arbitrary distributions of the forecasting errors. An adaptive optimization strategy is then obtained by embedding the proposed OPF task into a model predictive control framework.

  11. A factorial design for optimizing a flow injection analysis system.

    PubMed

    Luna, J R; Ovalles, J F; León, A; Buchheister, M

    2000-05-01

    The use of a factorial design for the response exploration of a flow injection (FI) system is described and illustrated by FI spectrophotometric determination of paraquat. Variable response (absorbance) is explored as a function of the factors flow rate and length of the reaction coil. The present study was found to be useful to detect and estimate any interaction among the factors that may affect the optimal conditions for the maximal response in the optimization of the FI system, which is not possible with a univariate design. In addition, this study showed that factorial experiments enable economy of experimentation and yield results of high precision due to the use of the whole data for calculating the effects.

  12. System and method measuring fluid flow in a conduit

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, M.G.; Kidd, T.G.

    1999-05-18

    A system is described for measuring fluid mass flow in a conduit in which there exists a pressure differential in the fluid between at least two spaced-apart locations in the conduit. The system includes a first pressure transducer disposed in the side of the conduit at a first location for measuring pressure of fluid at that location, a second or more pressure transducers disposed in the side of the conduit at a second location, for making multiple measurements of pressure of fluid in the conduit at that location, and a computer for computing the average pressure of the multiple measurements at the second location and for computing flow rate of fluid in the conduit from the pressure measurement by the first pressure transducer and from the average pressure calculation of the multiple measurements. 3 figs.

  13. System and method measuring fluid flow in a conduit

    DOEpatents

    Ortiz, Marcos German; Kidd, Terrel G.

    1999-01-01

    A system for measuring fluid mass flow in a conduit in which there exists a pressure differential in the fluid between at least two spaced-apart locations in the conduit. The system includes a first pressure transducer disposed in the side of the conduit at a first location for measuring pressure of fluid at that location, a second or more pressure transducers disposed in the side of the conduit at a second location, for making multiple measurements of pressure of fluid in the conduit at that location, and a computer for computing the average pressure of the multiple measurements at the second location and for computing flow rate of fluid in the conduit from the pressure measurement by the first pressure transducer and from the average pressure calculation of the multiple measurements.

  14. Fuel cell-fuel cell hybrid system

    DOEpatents

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Williams, Mark C.

    2003-09-23

    A device for converting chemical energy to electricity is provided, the device comprising a high temperature fuel cell with the ability for partially oxidizing and completely reforming fuel, and a low temperature fuel cell juxtaposed to said high temperature fuel cell so as to utilize remaining reformed fuel from the high temperature fuel cell. Also provided is a method for producing electricity comprising directing fuel to a first fuel cell, completely oxidizing a first portion of the fuel and partially oxidizing a second portion of the fuel, directing the second fuel portion to a second fuel cell, allowing the first fuel cell to utilize the first portion of the fuel to produce electricity; and allowing the second fuel cell to utilize the second portion of the fuel to produce electricity.

  15. Real-time image processor for detection of rare cells and particles in flow at 37 MHz line scans per second

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayazi, A.; Goda, K.; Sadasivam, J.; Lonappan, C. K.; Gossett, D. R.; Sollier, Elodie; Fard, A.; Hur, S. C.; Kim, S. H.; Adam, J.; Murray, C.; Wang, C.; Brackbill, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, Bahram

    2013-02-01

    We describe a real-time image processor that has enabled a new automated flow through microscope to screen cells in flow at 100,000 cells/s and a record false positive rate of one in a million. This unit is integrated with an ultrafast optical imaging modality known as serial time-encoded amplified microscopy (STEAM) for blur-free imaging of particles in high-speed flow. We show real-time image-based identification and screening of budding yeast cells and rare breast cancer cells in blood. The system generates E-slides (an electronic version of glass slides) on which particles of interest are digitally analyzed.

  16. Rapid Multiplexed Flow Cytometric Assay for Botulinum Neurotoxin Detection Using an Automated Fluidic Microbead-Trapping Flow Cell for Enhanced Sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Ozanich, Richard M.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Warner, Marvin G.; Miller, Keith D.; Antolick, Kathryn C.; Marks, James D.; Lou, Jianlong; Grate, Jay W.

    2009-07-15

    A bead-based sandwich immunoassay for botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) has been developed and demonstrated using a recombinant 50 kDa fragment (BoNT/A-HC-fragment) of the BoNT/A heavy chain (BoNT/A-HC) as a structurally valid simulant. Three different anti-BoNT/A antibodies were attached to three different fluorescent dye encoded flow cytometry beads for multiplexing. The assay was conducted in two formats: a manual microcentrifuge tube format and an automated fluidic system format. Flow cytometry detection was used for both formats. The fluidic system used a novel microbead-trapping flow cell to capture antibody-coupled beads with subsequent sequential perfusion of sample, wash, dye-labeled reporter antibody, and final wash solutions. After the reaction period, the beads were collected for analysis by flow cytometry. Sandwich assays performed on the fluidic system gave median fluorescence intensity signals on the flow cytometer that were 2-4 times higher than assays performed manually in the same amount of time. Limits of detection were estimated at 1 pM (~50 pg/mL for BoNT/A-HC-fragment) for the 15 minute fluidic assay.

  17. Impact of Spatial Permeability Distribution Characteristics on Hyporheic Flow Using a Physical System and Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stonedahl, S. H.; Gibson, C.; Reiter, C.; Stonedahl, F.; Sawyer, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    Permeability heterogeneity has been found to significantly affect the volume and speed with which water flows through the hyporheic zone. In this study we investigated how characteristics of spatial permeability distributions within a simple Tóthian system affected hyporheic flow both in physical and simulated domains. Our setup consisted of a 13x7x1 grid of two sediments with a divide bisecting the surface water and top middle cell creating two regions of constant head, which induced flow through the grid. Cells were filled with sand and sandy-gravel in a 2:1 ratio and positioned according to TProGS outputs. We ran a blue dye and salt solution through the system, recorded dye location using time-lapse photography, and measured the electrolytic conductivity as the water exited the system. We also calculated a grid of head values using MODFLOW and simulated flow through the system, yielding simulated dye-fronts, residence times, and exiting salt concentrations for the modeled system. We found strong agreement between the simulation and experimental procedure. We generated an additional 100 grids with the 2:1 sediment ratio for each of the transition probabilities 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0. We simulated these with 1, 2, and 3 order of magnitude differences in permeability values and used moving averages with varying window sizes to investigate the effect of the abruptness of transitions between sediment types. For these cases we compared cumulative residence time distributions, volumetric flux, and deviation from the normalized velocity field for homogenous sediment. We found that smoothing the transition between grid cells increased the volumetric flux, decreased the median residence times, and increased the deviation from a normalized homogenous velocity field. These effects were generally greater on grids created with larger transition probabilities and greater differences in K values.

  18. Information Flow Integrity for Systems of Independently-Developed Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-22

    software (to enforce resource retrieval integrity and fine-grained control-flow integrity of approved code ), and user-space programs (to enforce access...and authorization constraints. Both of these methods enable an efficient deployment of code to enforce expected integrity requirements. This work...confused deputy attacks, code reuse attacks, retrofitting legacy code , web browser, operating system kernels, attack surface, safety games, access

  19. Optical routing and switching of energy flow in nanostructure systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, S. M.

    2011-09-01

    We study optical routing and switching of energy transfer between semiconductor quantum dots and metallic nanostructures. We demonstrate that in the presence of a metallic nanoshell, one can use quantum coherence to direct or switch energy transfer flow from a quantum dot to another quantum dot or to the nanoshell. Our results show that a quantum dot-metallic nanoshell system can act as a bistable energy switch formed via quantum mechanical control of energy transfer processes.

  20. Hot Flow Testing of Multiple Nozzle Exhaust Eductor Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    distribution unlimited. Hot Flow Testing of Multiple Nozzle Exhaust Eductor Systems by James Allan Hill Lieutenant, United States Navy B.A. Economics...8217M 3.. . . . . . . . A L). N30 - - 𔃺 0 N N N O. 3 ’ . . . .4 A% v 34 -- --- .L 4 44 Q 4 a 4 0 0 a 03 -r ’P 0 t .4. 0 0 0 0 0 0 a 3.q 4z -- . . . . 9