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Sample records for cell growth inhibitory

  1. Inhibitory effects of indomethacin on growth and proliferation of gastric carcinoma cells KATO III.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Y; Tarnawski, A; Fujiwara, K; Arakawa, T; Kobayashi, K

    1993-06-01

    The effects of indomethacin on growth and proliferation of gastric carcinoma cells KATO III were examined. Indomethacin (10(-4) and 10(-3) M) significantly inhibited cell growth and these effects were not affected by treatment with 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (3 x 10(-7) M and 3 x 10(-6) M). Indomethacin 10(-3) M significantly reduced cell viability and completely inhibited cell growth. Indomethacin 10(-4) M did not affect cell viability and its inhibitory effect of cell growth became apparent on the fifth day of culture. Indomethacin 10(-4) M reduced BrdU labeling index within 2 hours. These results suggest that indomethacin inhibited growth and proliferation of gastric carcinoma cells KATO III. This effect is not mediated by prostaglandins. PMID:8358051

  2. Inhibitory effect of substituted dextrans on MCF7 human breast cancer cell growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Morere, J F; Letourneur, D; Planchon, P; Avramoglou, T; Jozefonvicz, J; Israel, L; Crepin, M

    1992-12-01

    Substituted dextrans can reproduce some of the properties of heparin and can thus be used to alter cellular growth. We studied the effect of heparin (H108), dextran (D), carboxymethylbenzylamide dextran (CMDB) and carboxymethylbenzylamide sulfonate dextran (CMDBS) on the growth of human mammary cells of the MCF7 tumor line. The cells were cultured in minimum Eagle's medium containing 2% fetal calf serum without biopolymer, or with increasing concentrations of H108, D, CMDB or CMDBS. Growth curves were accurately based on cell counting using a Coulter counter. Cell distribution in the various phases of the cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. Dose-dependent growth inhibitory effects (400-4000 micrograms/ml) were observed. The effect on MCF7 tumor cells was most apparent with CMDBS. The percentage of cells in the S phase decreased with preferential blocking in the G0/G1 phase. Pre-clinical studies can be anticipated as there is an absence of in vivo toxicity.

  3. Isolation and Structure of Cancer Cell Growth Inhibitory Tetracyclic Triterpenoids from the Zimbabwean Monadenium lugardae.

    PubMed

    Pettit, George R; Ye, Qinghua; Herald, Delbert L; Knight, John C; Hogan, Fiona; Melody, Noeleen; Mukku, Venugopal J R V; Doubek, Dennis L; Chapuis, Jean-Charles

    2016-06-24

    The Zimbabwean medicinal plant Monadenium lugardae was evaluated as a potential source of new anticancer constituents. Four new tetracyclic triterpene (1-4) were isolated, accompanied by four previously known triterpenes (5-8). Against a panel of human tumor cell lines, lugardstatins 1 (1) and 2 (2) had good cancer cell growth inhibitory activity. All of the triterpene structures (1-8) were established by 1D and 2D NMR spectrometric and HR mass spectrometric analysis. PMID:27214528

  4. Growth inhibitory activity of extracts and compounds from Cimicifuga species on human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Einbond, Linda Saxe; Wen-Cai, Ye; He, Kan; Wu, Hsan-au; Cruz, Erica; Roller, Marc; Kronenberg, Fredi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to explore the growth inhibitory effect of extracts and compounds from black cohosh and related Cimicifuga species on human breast cancer cells and to determine the nature of the active components. Black cohosh fractions enriched for triterpene glycosides and purified components from black cohosh and related Asian species were tested for growth inhibition of the ER− Her2 overexpressing human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-453. Growth inhibitory activity was assayed using the Coulter Counter, MTT and colony formation assays. Results suggested that the growth inhibitory activity of black cohosh extracts appears to be related to their triterpene glycoside composition. The most potent Cimicifuga component tested was 25-acetyl-7,8-didehydrocimigenol 3-O-β-D-xylopyranoside, which has an acetyl group at position C-25. It had an IC50 of 3.2 µg/ml (5 µM) compared to7.2 µg/ml (12.1 µM) for the parent compound 7,8-didehydrocimigenol 3-O-β-D-xylopyranoside. Thus, the acetyl group at position C-25 enhances growth inhibitory activity. The purified triterpene glycoside actein (β-D-xylopyranoside), with an IC50 equal to 5.7 µg/ml (8.4 µM), exhibited activity comparable to cimigenol 3-O-β-D-xyloside. MCF7 (ER+Her2 low) cells transfected for Her2 are more sensitive than the parental MCF7 cells to the growth inhibitory effects of actein from black cohosh, indicating that Her2 plays a role in the action of actein. The effect of actein on Her2 overexpressing MDA-MB-453 and MCF7 (ER+Her2 low) human breast cancer cells was examined by fluorescent microscopy. Treatment with actein altered the distribution of actin filaments and induced apoptosis in these cells. These findings, coupled with our previous evidence that treatment with the triterpene glycoside actein induced a stress response and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells, suggest that compounds from Cimicifuga species may be useful in the prevention and treatment of human breast cancer

  5. Mechanism of growth inhibitory effect of cape aloe extract in ehrlich ascites tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Kametani, Saeda; Oikawa, Tomoko; Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko; Kennedy, David Opare; Norikura, Toshio; Honzawa, Mayumi; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao

    2007-12-01

    Cape aloe (Aloe ferox Miller) has been a herb well known for its cathartic properties and has also been used popularly as a health drink (juice, tea and tonic) in the United States and in Europe. Cape aloe extract also has been reported to possess several pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and protective effect against liver injury. However, the investigations on an anti-tumor activity in cape aloe extract are very few and subsequent mechanisms have not been well elucidated. In this study, we examined the effect of the selective growth inhibitory activity of cape aloe extract and found that the cape aloe extract, especially the dichloromethane (CH(2)Cl(2)) extract, caused a dose-dependent growth inhibitory effect in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EATC), but not in mouse embryo fibroblast (NIH3T3) cells, which was used as a normal cell model. Furthermore, the CH(2)Cl(2) extract caused an accumulation of cells in the G1 phase and a decrease of cells in the S and G2/M phase of the cell cycle and inhibited DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, other results suggest that cell cycle arrest and inhibition of proliferation in EATC by the CH(2)Cl(2 )extract are associated with decreased retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation.

  6. Troglitazone enhances tamoxifen-induced growth inhibitory activity of MCF-7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hong-Nu; Noh, Eun-Mi; Lee, Young-Rae; Roh, Si-Gyun; Song, Eun-Kyung; Han, Myung-Kwan; Lee, Yong-Chul; Shim, In Kyong; Lee, Seung Jin; Jung, Sung Hoo; Kim, Jong-Suk Youn, Hyun Jo

    2008-12-05

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) ligands have been identified as a potential source of therapy for human cancers. However, PPAR{gamma} ligands have a limitation for breast cancer therapy, since estrogen receptor {alpha} (ER{sub {alpha}}) negatively interferes with PPAR{gamma} signaling in breast cancer cells. Here we show that ER{sub {alpha}} inhihits PPAR{gamma} transactivity and ER{sub {alpha}}-mediated inhibition of PPAR{gamma} transactivity is blocked by tamoxifen, an estrogen receptor blocker. The activation of ER{sub {alpha}} with 17-{beta}-estradiol blocked PPRE transactivity induced by troglitazone, a PPAR{gamma} ligand, indicating the resistance of ER{sub {alpha}}-positive breast cancer cells to troglitazone. Indeed, troglitazone inhibited the growth of ER{sub {alpha}}-negative MDA-MB-231 cells more than that of ER{sub {alpha}}-positive MCF-7 cells. Combination of troglitazone with tamoxifen led to a marked increase in growth inhibition of ER{sub {alpha}}-positive MCF-7 cells compared to either agent alone. Our data indicates that troglitazone enhances the growth inhibitory activity of tamoxifen in ER{sub {alpha}}-positive MCF-7 cells.

  7. Inhibitory effects of docosyl p-coumarate on DNA topoisomerase activity and human cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Nishimura, Katsumi; Takenaka, Yukiko; Takeuchi, Toshifumi; Sugawara, Fumio; Yoshida, Hiromi; Tanahashi, Takao

    2010-10-01

    We previously found six compounds of alkyl p-coumarates from a composite plant Artemisia annua L., and chemically synthesized these compounds (cis-isomer of C20, C22 and C24, and trans-isomer of C20, C22 and C24 of p-coumarates are compounds 1-6, respectively). This report describes the inhibitory activities of these alkyl p-coumarates against DNA polymerase (pol), DNA topoisomerase (topo), and human cancer cell growth. Among the compounds tested, compounds 1 and 4 weakly inhibited repair-related pol beta activity, but no compound influenced the activity of replicative pol alpha. Compounds 4-6 and compounds 2 and 5 were potent inhibitors of human topos I and II, respectively. Compounds 2, 4, 5 and 6 also suppressed the growth of human colon carcinoma cell line, HCT116, with or without p53, suggesting that cell growth inhibition had the same tendency as the inhibition of topos rather than pols. Compound 5 (docosyl p-coumarate), which was the strongest inhibitor of topo II and cancer cell growth in the compounds tested, halted HCT116 p53(+/+) cells in G2/M phases, and induced apoptosis, although this compound did not affect the cell cycle of HCT116 p53(-/-) cells. These results suggest that the effect of p53-dependent cell cycle arrest may be effective for topo inhibition by com-pound 5. From these findings, the action mode of alkyl p-coumarates as an anti-cancer agent is discussed. PMID:20811721

  8. Physical and biological characterization of a growth-inhibitory activity purified from the neuroepithelioma cell line A673.

    PubMed Central

    Stam, K; Stewart, A A; Qu, G Y; Iwata, K K; Fenyö, D; Chait, B T; Marshak, D R; Haley, J D

    1995-01-01

    Epithelial- and haematopoietic-cell growth-inhibitory activities have been identified in the conditioned medium of the human peripheral neuroepithelioma cell line A673. An A673-cell-derived growth-inhibitory activity was previously fractionated into two distinct components which inhibited the proliferation of human carcinoma and leukaemia cells in culture. One inhibitory activity was shown to comprise interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha). Here, we have purified to homogeneity a distinct activity which inhibited the growth of the epithelial cells in vitro. Using a combination of protein-sequence analysis and mass spectrometry, we demonstrated that biological activity can be assigned to a dimeric protein with a molecular mass of 25,576 (+/- 4) Da and an N-terminal sequence identical with that of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1). Further characterization of the growth inhibitor with TGF-beta-isoform-specific antibodies showed that > 90% of the bioactivity consists of TGF-beta 1 and not TGF-beta 2 or TGF-beta 3. Although A673 cells were growth-inhibited by exogenous TGF-beta 1, we showed that TGF-beta 1 in A673-cell-conditioned media was present in the latent, biologically inactive, form which did not act as an autocrine growth modulator of A673 cells in vitro. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7826358

  9. Trichomonas vaginalis homolog of macrophage migration inhibitory factor induces prostate cell growth, invasiveness, and inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Twu, Olivia; Dessí, Daniele; Vu, Anh; Mercer, Frances; Stevens, Grant C; de Miguel, Natalia; Rappelli, Paola; Cocco, Anna Rita; Clubb, Robert T; Fiori, Pier Luigi; Johnson, Patricia J

    2014-06-01

    The human-infective parasite Trichomonas vaginalis causes the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted infection worldwide. Infections in men may result in colonization of the prostate and are correlated with increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer. We have found that T. vaginalis secretes a protein, T. vaginalis macrophage migration inhibitory factor (TvMIF), that is 47% similar to human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (HuMIF), a proinflammatory cytokine. Because HuMIF is reported to be elevated in prostate cancer and inflammation plays an important role in the initiation and progression of cancers, we have explored a role for TvMIF in prostate cancer. Here, we show that TvMIF has tautomerase activity, inhibits macrophage migration, and is proinflammatory. We also demonstrate that TvMIF binds the human CD74 MIF receptor with high affinity, comparable to that of HuMIF, which triggers activation of ERK, Akt, and Bcl-2-associated death promoter phosphorylation at a physiologically relevant concentration (1 ng/mL, 80 pM). TvMIF increases the in vitro growth and invasion through Matrigel of benign and prostate cancer cells. Sera from patients infected with T. vaginalis are reactive to TvMIF, especially in males. The presence of anti-TvMIF antibodies indicates that TvMIF is released by the parasite and elicits host immune responses during infection. Together, these data indicate that chronic T. vaginalis infections may result in TvMIF-driven inflammation and cell proliferation, thus triggering pathways that contribute to the promotion and progression of prostate cancer.

  10. In Vitro Growth Inhibitory Activities of Natural Products from Irciniid Sponges against Cancer Cells: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    BenRedjem Romdhane, Yosr; Elbour, Monia; Carbone, Marianna; Ciavatta, Maria Letizia; Gavagnin, Margherita; Mathieu, Véronique; Lefranc, Florence; Ktari, Leila; Ben Mustapha, Karim; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Kiss, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Marine sponges of the Irciniidae family contain both bioactive furanosesterterpene tetronic acids (FTAs) and prenylated hydroquinones (PHQs). Both classes of compounds are known for their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties and known to display growth inhibitory effects against various human tumor cell lines. However, the different experimental conditions of the reported in vitro bioassays, carried out on different cancer cell lines within separate studies, prevent realistic actual discrimination between the two classes of compounds from being carried out in terms of growth inhibitory effects. In the present work, a chemical investigation of irciniid sponges from Tunisian coasts led to the purification of three known FTAs and three known PHQs. The in vitro growth inhibitory properties of the six purified compounds have been evaluated in the same experiment in a panel of five human and one murine cancer cell lines displaying various levels of sensitivity to proapoptotic stimuli. Surprisingly, FTAs and PHQs elicited distinct profiles of growth inhibitory-responses, differing by one to two orders of magnitude in favor of the PHQs in all cell lines. The obtained comparative results are discussed in the light of a better selection of drug candidates from natural sources.

  11. In Vitro Growth Inhibitory Activities of Natural Products from Irciniid Sponges against Cancer Cells: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    BenRedjem Romdhane, Yosr; Elbour, Monia; Carbone, Marianna; Ciavatta, Maria Letizia; Gavagnin, Margherita; Mathieu, Véronique; Lefranc, Florence; Ktari, Leila; Ben Mustapha, Karim; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Kiss, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Marine sponges of the Irciniidae family contain both bioactive furanosesterterpene tetronic acids (FTAs) and prenylated hydroquinones (PHQs). Both classes of compounds are known for their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties and known to display growth inhibitory effects against various human tumor cell lines. However, the different experimental conditions of the reported in vitro bioassays, carried out on different cancer cell lines within separate studies, prevent realistic actual discrimination between the two classes of compounds from being carried out in terms of growth inhibitory effects. In the present work, a chemical investigation of irciniid sponges from Tunisian coasts led to the purification of three known FTAs and three known PHQs. The in vitro growth inhibitory properties of the six purified compounds have been evaluated in the same experiment in a panel of five human and one murine cancer cell lines displaying various levels of sensitivity to proapoptotic stimuli. Surprisingly, FTAs and PHQs elicited distinct profiles of growth inhibitory-responses, differing by one to two orders of magnitude in favor of the PHQs in all cell lines. The obtained comparative results are discussed in the light of a better selection of drug candidates from natural sources. PMID:27597966

  12. In Vitro Growth Inhibitory Activities of Natural Products from Irciniid Sponges against Cancer Cells: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    BenRedjem Romdhane, Yosr; Elbour, Monia; Carbone, Marianna; Ciavatta, Maria Letizia; Gavagnin, Margherita; Mathieu, Véronique; Lefranc, Florence; Ktari, Leila; Ben Mustapha, Karim; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Kiss, Robert; Mollo, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    Marine sponges of the Irciniidae family contain both bioactive furanosesterterpene tetronic acids (FTAs) and prenylated hydroquinones (PHQs). Both classes of compounds are known for their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties and known to display growth inhibitory effects against various human tumor cell lines. However, the different experimental conditions of the reported in vitro bioassays, carried out on different cancer cell lines within separate studies, prevent realistic actual discrimination between the two classes of compounds from being carried out in terms of growth inhibitory effects. In the present work, a chemical investigation of irciniid sponges from Tunisian coasts led to the purification of three known FTAs and three known PHQs. The in vitro growth inhibitory properties of the six purified compounds have been evaluated in the same experiment in a panel of five human and one murine cancer cell lines displaying various levels of sensitivity to proapoptotic stimuli. Surprisingly, FTAs and PHQs elicited distinct profiles of growth inhibitory-responses, differing by one to two orders of magnitude in favor of the PHQs in all cell lines. The obtained comparative results are discussed in the light of a better selection of drug candidates from natural sources. PMID:27597966

  13. Inhibitory effect of maple syrup on the cell growth and invasion of human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Uemura, Kentaro; Moriyama, Kaho; Mitamura, Kuniko; Taga, Atsushi

    2015-04-01

    Maple syrup is a natural sweetener consumed by individuals of all ages throughout the world. Maple syrup contains not only carbohydrates such as sucrose but also various components such as organic acids, amino acids, vitamins and phenolic compounds. Recent studies have shown that these phenolic compounds in maple syrup may possess various activities such as decreasing the blood glucose level and an anticancer effect. In this study, we examined the effect of three types of maple syrup, classified by color, on the cell proliferation, migration and invasion of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in order to investigate whether the maple syrup is suitable as a phytomedicine for cancer treatment. CRC cells that were administered maple syrup showed significantly lower growth rates than cells that were administered sucrose. In addition, administration of maple syrup to CRC cells caused inhibition of cell invasion, while there was no effect on cell migration. Administration of maple syrup clearly inhibited AKT phosphorylation, while there was no effect on ERK phosphorylation. These data suggest that maple syrup might inhibit cell proliferation and invasion through suppression of AKT activation and be suitable as a phytomedicine for CRC treatment, with fewer adverse effects than traditional chemotherapy.

  14. Inhibitory effect of iron withdrawal by chelation on the growth of human and murine mammary carcinoma and fibrosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Power Coombs, Melanie R; Grant, Taryn; Greenshields, Anna L; Arsenault, Daniel J; Holbein, Bruce E; Hoskin, David W

    2015-10-01

    Since iron uptake is essential for cell growth, rapidly dividing cancer cells are sensitive to iron depletion. To explore the effect of iron withdrawal on cancer cell growth, mouse and human mammary carcinoma cells (4T1 and MDA-MB-468, respectively) and mouse and human fibrosarcoma cells (L929 and HT1080, respectively) were cultured in the absence or presence of DIBI, a novel iron-chelating polymer containing hydroxypyridinone iron-ligand functionality. Cell growth was measured by a colorimetric assay for cell metabolic activity. DIBI-treated 4T1, MDA-MB-468, L929 and HT1080 cells, as well as their normal counterparts, showed a dose- and time-dependent reduction in growth that was selective for human cancer cells and mouse fibrosarcoma cells. The inhibitory effect of DIBI on fibrosarcoma and mammary carcinoma cell growth was reversed by addition of exogenous iron in the form of iron (III) citrate, confirming the iron selectivity of DIBI and that its inhibitory activity was iron-related. Fibrosarcoma and mammary carcinoma cell growth inhibition by DIBI was associated with S-phase cell cycle arrest and low to moderate levels of cell death by apoptosis. Consistent with apoptosis induction following DIBI-mediated iron withdrawal, fibrosarcoma and mammary carcinoma cells exhibited mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. A comparison of DIBI to other iron chelators showed that DIBI was superior to deferiprone and similar to or better than deferoxamine for inhibition of fibrosarcoma and mammary carcinoma cell growth. These findings suggest that iron withdrawal from the tumor microenvironment with a selective and potent iron chelator such as DIBI may prevent or inhibit tumor progression.

  15. Pretreatment with anti-oxidants sensitizes oxidatively stressed human cancer cells to growth inhibitory effect of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA)

    PubMed Central

    Mahlum, Amy; Mehraein-Ghomi, Farideh; Kegel, Stacy J.; Guo, Song; Peters, Noel R.; Wilding, George

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Most prostate, colon and breast cancer cells are resistant to growth inhibitory effects of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). We have examined whether the high oxidative stress in these cells causes a loss of SAHA activity and if so, whether pretreatment with an anti-oxidant can sensitize these cells to SAHA. Methods A DNA-Hoechst dye fluorescence measured cell growth and dichlorfluorescein-diacetate (DCF-DA) dye fluorescence measured reactive oxygen species (ROS). Growth inhibitory and ROS-generating activities of SAHA in androgen-treated or untreated LNCaP cells and PC-3 prostate cancer cells, HT-29 and HCT-115 colon cancer cells, MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells and A549 and NCI-H460 lung cancer cells with or without pretreatment with an anti-oxidant Vitamin E was determined. SAHA activity against LNCaP cells treated with another anti-oxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) was also determined. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) was used to determine intracellular SAHA level. Results SAHA treatment markedly inhibits LNCaP cell growth, when the cells are at a low ROS level. SAHA is, however, inactive against the same cell line, when the cells are at a high ROS level. A significant decrease in SAHA level was observed in LNCaP cells with high ROS after 24-and 72-h treatment when compared to cells with low ROS. Vitamin E pretreatment that reduces cellular ROS, synergistically sensitizes oxidatively stressed LNCaP, PC-3, HT-29, HCT-115 and MDA-MB231 cells, but not the A-549 and NCI-H460 cells with low ROS to SAHA. NAC treatment also sensitized androgen-treated LNCaP cells to the growth inhibitory effects of SAHA. Conclusion Response to SAHA could be improved by combining anti-oxidants such as Vitamin E with SAHA for the treatment of oxidatively stressed human malignancies that are otherwise resistant to SAHA. PMID:20512578

  16. Inhibitory effects of different forms of tocopherols, tocopherol phosphates, and tocopherol quinones on growth of colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dolfi, Sonia C; Yang, Zhihong; Lee, Mao-Jung; Guan, Fei; Hong, Jungil; Yang, Chung S

    2013-09-11

    Tocopherols are the major source of dietary vitamin E. In this study, the growth inhibitory effects of different forms of tocopherols (T), tocopheryl phosphates (TP), and tocopherol quinones (TQ) on human colon cancer HCT116 and HT29 cells were investigated. δ-T was more active than γ-T in inhibiting colon cancer cell growth, decreasing cancer cell colony formation, and inducing apoptosis; however, α-T was rather ineffective. Similarly, the rate of cellular uptake also followed the ranking order δ-T > γ-T ≫ α-T. TP and TQ generally had higher inhibitory activities than their parent compounds. Interestingly, the γ forms of TP and TQ were more active than the δ forms in inhibiting cancer cell growth, whereas the α forms were the least effective. The potencies of γ-TQ and δ-TQ (showing IC50 values of ∼0.8 and ∼2 μM on HCT116 cells after a 72 h incubation, respectively) were greater than 100-fold and greater than 20-fold higher, respectively, than those of their parent tocopherols. Induction of cancer cell apoptosis by δ-T, γ-TP, and γ-TQ was characterized by the cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP1 and DNA fragmentation. These studies demonstrated the higher growth inhibitory activity of δ-T than γ-T, the even higher activities of the γ forms of TP and TQ, and the ineffectiveness of the α forms of tocopherol and their metabolites against colon cancer cells.

  17. Inhibitory effects of small molecular peptides from Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis on cancer cell growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhujun; Zhang, Xuewu

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the whole proteins of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis were extracted, hydrolysis with three proteases (trypsin, alcalase and papain) was performed, and gel filtration chromatography was employed to separate hydrolysates. Totally, 15 polypeptides were isolated, which showed anti-proliferation activities on five cancer cells (HepG-2, MCF-7, SGC-7901, A549 and HT-29), with the IC50 values between <31.25 and 336.57 μg mL(-1). Moreover, a new peptide YGFVMPRSGLWFR was identified from papain-digested hydrolysates. It also exhibited inhibitory activities on cancer cells, and the best activity was observed on A549 cancer cells (IC50 values 104.05 μg mL(-1)). In other words, these polypeptides exhibited anti-proliferation activities on cancer cells, and low toxicity or stimulatory activity on normal cells, suggesting that they are promising ingredients in food and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:26584028

  18. An Investigation of the Growth Inhibitory Capacity of Several Medicinal Plants From Iran on Tumor Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeilbeig, Maryam; Kouhpayeh, Seyed Amin; Amirghofran, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traditional herbal medicine is a valuable resource that provides new drugs for cancer treatment. Objectives: In this study we aim to screen and investigate the in vitro anti-tumor activities of ten species of plants commonly grown in Southern Iran. Materials and Methods: We used the MTT colorimetric assay to evaluate the cytotoxic activities of the methanol extracts of these plants on various tumor cell lines. The IC50 was calculated as a scale for this evaluation. Results: Satureja bachtiarica, Satureja hortensis, Thymus vulgaris, Thymus daenensis and Mentha lonigfolia showed the inhibitoriest effects on Jurkat cells with > 80% inhibition at 200 µg/mL. Satureja hortensis (IC50: 66.7 µg/mL) was the most effective. These plants also strongly inhibited K562 cell growth; Satureja bachtiarica (IC50: 28.3 µg/mL), Satureja hortensis (IC50: 52 µg/mL) and Thymus vulgaris (IC50: 87 µg/mL) were the most effective extracts. Cichorium intybus, Rheum ribes, Alhagi pseudalhagi and Glycyrrihza glabra also showed notable effects on the leukemia cell lines. The Raji cell line was mostly inhibited by Satureja bachtiarica and Thymus vulgaris with approximately 40% inhibition at 200µg/ml. The influence of these extracts on solid tumor cell lines was not strong. Fen cells were mostly affected by Glycyrrihza glabra (IC50: 182 µg/mL) and HeLa cells by Satureja hortensis (31.6% growth inhibitory effect at 200 µg/mL). Conclusions: Leukemic cell lines were more sensitive to the extracts than the solid tumor cell lines; Satureja hortensis, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus vulgaris, Thymus daenensis and Mentha lonigfolia showed remarkable inhibitory potential. PMID:26634114

  19. Inhibitory effects of naringenin on tumor growth in human cancer cell lines and sarcoma S-180-implanted mice.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Syu-Ichi; Tomizawa, Ayako; Hiura, Takako; Osanai, Yuu; Shouji, Ai; Ujibe, Mayuko; Ohtake, Takaharu; Kimura, Katsuhiko; Ishikawa, Masaaki

    2005-03-01

    We have investigated the effect of naringenin (NGEN) on tumor growth in various human cancer cell lines and sarcoma S-180-implanted mice. NGEN showed cytotoxicity in cell lines derived from cancer of the breast (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231), stomach (KATOIII, MKN-7), liver (HepG2, Hep3B, Huh7), cervix (Hela, Hela-TG), pancreas (PK-1), and colon (Caco-2) as well as leukemia (HL-60, NALM-6, Jurkat, U937). NGEN-induced cytotoxicity was low in Caco-2 and high in leukemia cells compared to other cell lines. NGEN dose-dependently induced apoptosis, with hypodiploid cells detected in both Caco-2 and HL-60 by flow cytometric analysis. In vivo, NGEN inhibited tumor growth in sarcoma S-180-implanted mice, following intraperitoneal or peroral injection once a day for 5 d. Naringin (NG) also inhibited tumor growth by peroral injection but not intraperitoneal injection. NGEN, one of the most abundant flavonoids in citrus fruits, may have a potentially useful inhibitory effect on tumor growth. PMID:15744083

  20. Growth inhibitory activity of cucurbitacin glucosides isolated from Citrullus colocynthis on human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tannin-Spitz, Tehila; Grossman, Shlomo; Dovrat, Sara; Gottlieb, Hugo E; Bergman, Margalit

    2007-01-01

    Our aim was to study the effects of cucurbitacin glucosides extracted from Citrullus colocynthis leaves on human breast cancer cell growth. Leaves were extracted, resulting in the identification of cucurbitacin B/E glucosides. The cucurbitacin glucoside combination (1:1) inhibited growth of ER(+) MCF-7 and ER(-) MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines. Cell-cycle analysis showed that treatment with isolated cucurbitacin glucoside combination resulted in accumulation of cells at the G(2)/M phase of the cell cycle. Treated cells showed rapid reduction in the level of the key protein complex necessary to the regulation of G(2) exit and initiation of mitosis, namely the p34(CDC2)/cyclin B1 complex. cucurbitacin glucoside treatment also caused changes in the overall cell morphology from an elongated form to a round-shaped cell, which indicates that cucurbitacin treatment caused impairment of actin filament organization. This profound morphological change might also influence intracellular signaling by molecules such as PKB, resulting in inhibition in the transmission of survival signals. Reduction in PKB phosphorylation and inhibition of survivin, an anti-apoptosis family member, was observed. The treatment caused elevation in p-STAT3 and in p21(WAF), proven to be a STAT3 positive target in absence of survival signals. Cucurbitacin glucoside treatment also induced apoptosis, as measured by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining and by changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi) using a fluorescent dye, JC-1. We suggest that cucurbitacin glucosides exhibit pleiotropic effects on cells, causing both cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. These results suggest that cucurbitacin glucosides might have therapeutic value against breast cancer cells.

  1. Growth inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects of xanthohumol, a prenylated chalone present in hops, in human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Deeb, D; Gao, X; Jiang, H; Arbab, A S; Dulchavsky, S A; Gautam, S C

    2010-09-01

    Promotion of apoptosis in cancer cells could potentially lead to the regression and improved prognosis of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Xanthohumol (XN), a prenylated chalcone-derived from hops, has shown strong antitumorigenic activity towards diverse types of cancer cells. In the present study, the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing activity of XN was tested in hormone-sensitive and hormone-refractory human prostate cancer cells lines. Cell growth/viability assay (MTS) demonstrated that prostate cancer cells are highly sensitive to XN at a concentration range of 20-40 μM. The primary mode of tumor cell destruction was apoptosis as demonstrated by the binding of annexin V-FITC, cleavage of PARP-1, activation of procaspases -3, -8, and -9, mitochondrial depolarization and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Induction of apoptosis by XN was associated with the inhibition of prosurvival Akt, NF-κB and mTOR signaling proteins and NF-κB-regulated anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and survivin. These studies provide a rationale for clinical evaluation of XN for the treatment of hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer. PMID:20944105

  2. Growth Inhibitory and Apoptosis-inducing Effects of Xanthohumol, a Prenylated Chalcone Present in Hops, in Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    DEEB, D.; GAO, X.; JIANG, H.; ARBAB, A.S.; DULCHAVSKY, S.A.; GAUTAM, S.C.

    2013-01-01

    Promotion of apoptosis in cancer cells could potentially lead to the regression and improved prognosis of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Xanthohumol (XN), a prenylated chalcone-derived from hops, has shown strong antitumorigenic activity towards diverse types of cancer cells. In the present study, the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing activity of XN was tested in hormone-sensitive and hormone-refractory human prostate cancer cells lines. Cell growth/viability assay (MTS) demonstrated that prostate cancer cells are highly sensitive to XN at a concentration range of 20-40 μM. The primary mode of tumor cell destruction was apoptosis as demonstrated by the binding of annexin V-FITC, cleavage of PARP-1, activation of procaspases -3, -8, and -9, mitochondrial depolarization and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Induction of apoptosis by XN was associated with the inhibition of prosurvival Akt, NF-κB and mTOR signaling proteins and NF-κB-regulated anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and survivin. These studies provide a rationale for clinical evaluation of XN for the treatment of hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer. PMID:20944105

  3. Sodium phenylacetate enhances the inhibitory effect of dextran derivative on breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Di Benedetto, M; Kourbali, Y; Starzec, A; Vassy, R; Jozefonvicz, J; Perret, G; Crepin, M; Kraemer, M

    2001-09-14

    Sodium phenylacetate (NaPa) and carboxymethyl benzylamide dextran derivative (CMDB(LS4)) are able to inhibit growth of breast tumour cells. In this study, we explored whether the combination of NaPa and CMDB(LS4)may enhance their respective inhibitory effects on the MCF-7ras cell growth in vitro and in vivo. NaPa inhibited MCF-7ras cell proliferation by reducing the DNA replication concomitantly with a recruitment of cells in G0/G1 phase and by inducing apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The addition of CMDB(LS4)potentiated the NaPa antiproliferative effect in the manner dependent on the ratio of CMDB(LS4)and NaPa concentrations. In nude mice, CMDB(LS4)(150 mg kg(-1)) or NaPa (40 mg kg(-1)) administrated twice a week, for 7 weeks inhibited MCF-7ras xenograft growth by 40% and 60%, respectively. The treatment by both, CMDB(LS4)and NaPa, decreased tumour growth by 83% without any toxicity. To better understand the mechanism of NaPa and CMDB(LS4)action we assessed their effect on mitogenic activity of MCF-7ras conditioned medium (CM) on BALBC/3T3 fibroblasts. CMDB(LS4)added to the CM, inhibited its mitogenic activity whereas NaPa had an anti-mitogenic effect when CM was prepared from MCF-7ras cells pretreated with NaPa. Thus, the antiproliferative effects of NaPa and CMDB(LS4)involve 2 different mechanisms explaining, at least in part, the possible synergism between them. Overall, this study points to the potential use of a combination of dextran derivatives with NaPa to inhibit the breast tumour growth.

  4. Sodium phenylacetate enhances the inhibitory effect of dextran derivative on breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Benedetto, M Di; Kourbali, Y; Starzec, A; Vassy, R; Jozefonvicz, J; Perret, G; Crepin, M; Kraemer, M

    2001-01-01

    Sodium phenylacetate (NaPa) and carboxymethyl benzylamide dextran derivative (CMDBLS4) are able to inhibit growth of breast tumour cells. In this study, we explored whether the combination of NaPa and CMDBLS4 may enhance their respective inhibitory effects on the MCF-7ras cell growth in vitro and in vivo. NaPa inhibited MCF-7ras cell proliferation by reducing the DNA replication concomitantly with a recruitment of cells in G0/G1 phase and by inducing apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The addition of CMDBLS4 potentiated the NaPa antiproliferative effect in the manner dependent on the ratio of CMDBLS4 and NaPa concentrations. In nude mice, CMDBLS4 (150 mg kg−1) or NaPa (40 mg kg−1) administrated twice a week, for 7 weeks inhibited MCF-7ras xenograft growth by 40% and 60%, respectively. The treatment by both, CMDBLS4 and NaPa, decreased tumour growth by 83% without any toxicity. To better understand the mechanism of NaPa and CMDBLS4 action we assessed their effect on mitogenic activity of MCF-7ras conditioned medium (CM) on BALBC/3T3 fibroblasts. CMDBLS4 added to the CM, inhibited its mitogenic activity whereas NaPa had an anti-mitogenic effect when CM was prepared from MCF-7ras cells pretreated with NaPa. Thus, the antiproliferative effects of NaPa and CMDBLS4 involve 2 different mechanisms explaining, at least in part, the possible synergism between them. Overall, this study points to the potential use of a combination of dextran derivatives with NaPa to inhibit the breast tumour growth. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaignhttp://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11556846

  5. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor promotes tumor growth and metastasis by inducing Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells in the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Kendra D.; Templeton, Dennis J.; Cross, Janet V.

    2012-01-01

    The Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine, is overexpressed in many solid tumors and is associated with poor prognosis. We previously identified inhibitors of MIF within a class of natural products with demonstrated anti-cancer activities. We therefore sought to determine how MIF contributes to tumor growth and progression. We show here that, in murine tumors including the 4T1 model of aggressive, spontaneously metastatic breast cancer in immunologically intact mice, tumor-derived MIF promotes tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis through control of inflammatory cells within the tumor. Specifically, MIF increases the prevalence of a highly immune suppressive subpopulation of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) within the tumor. In vitro, MIF promotes differentiation of myeloid cells into the same population of MDSCs. Pharmacologic inhibition of MIF reduces MDSC accumulation in the tumor similar to MIF depletion, and blocks the MIF-dependent in vitro differentiation of MDSCs. Our results demonstrate that MIF is a therapeutically targetable mechanism for control of tumor growth and metastasis through regulation of the host immune response, and support the potential utility of MIF inhibitors, either alone or in combination with standard tumor-targeting therapeutic or immunotherapy approaches. PMID:23125418

  6. Molecular Understanding of Growth Inhibitory Effect from Irradiated to Bystander Tumor Cells in Mouse Fibrosarcoma Tumor Model.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sejal; Srambikkal, Nishad; Yadav, Hansa D; Shetake, Neena; Balla, Murali M S; Kumar, Amit; Ray, Pritha; Ghosh, Anu; Pandey, B N

    2016-01-01

    Even though bystander effects pertaining to radiation risk assessment has been extensively studied, the molecular players of radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE) in the context of cancer radiotherapy are poorly known. In this regard, the present study is aimed to investigate the effect of irradiated tumor cells on the bystander counterparts in mouse fibrosarcoma (WEHI 164 cells) tumor model. Mice co-implanted with WEHI 164 cells γ-irradiated with a lethal dose of 15 Gy and unirradiated (bystander) WEHI 164 cells showed inhibited tumor growth, which was measured in terms of tumor volume and Luc+WEHI 164 cells based bioluminescence in vivo imaging. Histopathological analysis and other assays revealed decreased mitotic index, increased apoptosis and senescence in these tumor tissues. In addition, poor angiogenesis was observed in these tumor tissues, which was further confirmed by fluorescence imaging of tumor vascularisation and CD31 expression by immuno-histochemistry. Interestingly, the growth inhibitory bystander effect was exerted more prominently by soluble factors obtained from the irradiated tumor cells than the cellular fraction. Cytokine profiling of the supernatants obtained from the irradiated tumor cells showed increased levels of VEGF, Rantes, PDGF, GMCSF and IL-2 and decreased levels of IL-6 and SCF. Comparative proteomic analysis of the supernatants from the irradiated tumor cells showed differential expression of total 24 protein spots (21 up- and 3 down-regulated) when compared with the supernatant from the unirradiated control cells. The proteins which showed substantially higher level in the supernatant from the irradiated cells included diphosphate kinase B, heat shock cognate, annexin A1, angiopoietin-2, actin (cytoplasmic 1/2) and stress induced phosphoprotein 1. However, the levels of proteins like annexin A2, protein S100 A4 and cofilin was found to be lower in this supernatant. In conclusion, our results provided deeper insight about

  7. Molecular Understanding of Growth Inhibitory Effect from Irradiated to Bystander Tumor Cells in Mouse Fibrosarcoma Tumor Model.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sejal; Srambikkal, Nishad; Yadav, Hansa D; Shetake, Neena; Balla, Murali M S; Kumar, Amit; Ray, Pritha; Ghosh, Anu; Pandey, B N

    2016-01-01

    Even though bystander effects pertaining to radiation risk assessment has been extensively studied, the molecular players of radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE) in the context of cancer radiotherapy are poorly known. In this regard, the present study is aimed to investigate the effect of irradiated tumor cells on the bystander counterparts in mouse fibrosarcoma (WEHI 164 cells) tumor model. Mice co-implanted with WEHI 164 cells γ-irradiated with a lethal dose of 15 Gy and unirradiated (bystander) WEHI 164 cells showed inhibited tumor growth, which was measured in terms of tumor volume and Luc+WEHI 164 cells based bioluminescence in vivo imaging. Histopathological analysis and other assays revealed decreased mitotic index, increased apoptosis and senescence in these tumor tissues. In addition, poor angiogenesis was observed in these tumor tissues, which was further confirmed by fluorescence imaging of tumor vascularisation and CD31 expression by immuno-histochemistry. Interestingly, the growth inhibitory bystander effect was exerted more prominently by soluble factors obtained from the irradiated tumor cells than the cellular fraction. Cytokine profiling of the supernatants obtained from the irradiated tumor cells showed increased levels of VEGF, Rantes, PDGF, GMCSF and IL-2 and decreased levels of IL-6 and SCF. Comparative proteomic analysis of the supernatants from the irradiated tumor cells showed differential expression of total 24 protein spots (21 up- and 3 down-regulated) when compared with the supernatant from the unirradiated control cells. The proteins which showed substantially higher level in the supernatant from the irradiated cells included diphosphate kinase B, heat shock cognate, annexin A1, angiopoietin-2, actin (cytoplasmic 1/2) and stress induced phosphoprotein 1. However, the levels of proteins like annexin A2, protein S100 A4 and cofilin was found to be lower in this supernatant. In conclusion, our results provided deeper insight about

  8. Molecular Understanding of Growth Inhibitory Effect from Irradiated to Bystander Tumor Cells in Mouse Fibrosarcoma Tumor Model

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Sejal; Srambikkal, Nishad; Yadav, Hansa D.; Shetake, Neena; Balla, Murali M. S.; Kumar, Amit; Ray, Pritha; Ghosh, Anu

    2016-01-01

    Even though bystander effects pertaining to radiation risk assessment has been extensively studied, the molecular players of radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE) in the context of cancer radiotherapy are poorly known. In this regard, the present study is aimed to investigate the effect of irradiated tumor cells on the bystander counterparts in mouse fibrosarcoma (WEHI 164 cells) tumor model. Mice co-implanted with WEHI 164 cells γ-irradiated with a lethal dose of 15 Gy and unirradiated (bystander) WEHI 164 cells showed inhibited tumor growth, which was measured in terms of tumor volume and Luc+WEHI 164 cells based bioluminescence in vivo imaging. Histopathological analysis and other assays revealed decreased mitotic index, increased apoptosis and senescence in these tumor tissues. In addition, poor angiogenesis was observed in these tumor tissues, which was further confirmed by fluorescence imaging of tumor vascularisation and CD31 expression by immuno-histochemistry. Interestingly, the growth inhibitory bystander effect was exerted more prominently by soluble factors obtained from the irradiated tumor cells than the cellular fraction. Cytokine profiling of the supernatants obtained from the irradiated tumor cells showed increased levels of VEGF, Rantes, PDGF, GMCSF and IL-2 and decreased levels of IL-6 and SCF. Comparative proteomic analysis of the supernatants from the irradiated tumor cells showed differential expression of total 24 protein spots (21 up- and 3 down-regulated) when compared with the supernatant from the unirradiated control cells. The proteins which showed substantially higher level in the supernatant from the irradiated cells included diphosphate kinase B, heat shock cognate, annexin A1, angiopoietin-2, actin (cytoplasmic 1/2) and stress induced phosphoprotein 1. However, the levels of proteins like annexin A2, protein S100 A4 and cofilin was found to be lower in this supernatant. In conclusion, our results provided deeper insight about

  9. Growth-Inhibitory and Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (Apple Punice) on Fibrosarcoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Sineh Sepehr, Koushan; Baradaran, Behzad; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Yousefi, Bahman; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, Meghdad; Khori, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Punica granatum L. var. granatum (Pomegranate), an herbaceous plant found in Iran, The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects, induction of apoptosis, and the mechanism of cell death of ethanol extract from Punica granatum L. var. spinosa on the mouse fibrosarcoma cell line, WEHI-164. Methods: Various parts of the herbs were extracted from fruit using ethanol as the solvent, and the cytotoxicity and cell viability of the ethanolic extract were determined by the MTT assay. To determine whether necrosis or apoptosis is the predominant cause of cell death, cell death detection was performed using the ELISA method. The induction of apoptosis was confirmed using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase- (TdT-) mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Moreover, a sensitive immunoblotting technique was used to examine the production of Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins. Results: Our findings suggested that the ethalonic extract of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa altered cell morphology, decreased cell viability, suppressed cell proliferation and induced cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner in WEHI-164 cells (IC50 = 229.024μg/ml), when compared to a chemotherapeutic anticancer drug, Toxol (Vesper Pharmaceuticals), with increased nucleosome production from apoptotic cells. Induction of apoptosis by the plant extract was proved by the decrease of pro-Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins and quantitatively confirmed by Immunoblotting analysis. Conclusion: The results obtained from the present study have demonstrated the growth-inhibitory effect of Ethanol Extracts from Punica granatum L. var. spinosa, and clearly showed that apoptosis was the major mechanism of in-vitro cell death induced by the extract. PMID:25671193

  10. Cyclosporine A decreases the fluconazole minimum inhibitory concentration of Candida albicans clinical isolates but not biofilm formation and cell growth.

    PubMed

    Wibawa, T; Nurrokhman; Baly, I; Daeli, P R; Kartasasmita, G; Wijayanti, N

    2015-03-01

    Among the genus Candida, Candida albicans is the most abundant species in humans. One of the virulent factors of C. albicans is its ability to develop biofilm. Biofilm forming microbes are characterized by decreasing of its susceptibility to antibiotics and antifungal. The fungicidal effect of fluconazole may be enhanced by cyclosporine A in laboratory engineered C. albicans strains. The aim of this work is to analyze the synergistic effect of cyclosporine A with fluconazole in C. albicans clinical isolates and the effect of cycolsporine A alone in the biofilm formation. Six fluconazole resistant and six sensitive C. albicans clinical isolates were analyzed for its minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs), biofilm formation, and cell growths. A semi-quantitative XTT [2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5- sulfo-phenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] reduction assay was conducted to measure the biofilm formation. Cyclosporine A has synergistic effect with fluconazole that was shown by decreasing MICs of both fluconazole resistant and sensitive C. albicans clinical isolates. However, cyclosporine A alone did not influence the biofilm formation and cell growth of both fluconazole resistant and sensitive C. albicans clinical isolates. These results indicated that cyclosporine A might be a promising candidate of adjuvant therapy for fluconazole against both fluconazole resistant and sensitive C. albicans clinical isolates.

  11. Growth inhibitory effect of KYKZL-1 on Hep G{sub 2} cells via inhibition of AA metabolites and caspase-3 pathway and cell cycle arrest

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Jing; Du, Yi-Fang; Xiao, Zhi-Yi; Pan, Li-Li; Li, Wei; Huan, Lin; Gong, Zhu-Nan; Wei, Shao-Hua; Huang, Shi-Qian; Xun, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Chang, Lei-Lei; Xie, Meng-Yu; Ao, Gui-Zhen; Cai, Jie; Qiu, Ting; Wu, Hao; Sun, Ting; Xu, Guang-Lin

    2014-01-01

    KYKZL-1, a newly synthesized compound with COX/5-LOX dual inhibition, was subjected to the inhibitory activity test on Hep G{sub 2} growth. We found that KYKZL-1 inhibited the growth of Hep G{sub 2} cells via inducing apoptosis. Further studies showed that KYKZL-1 activated caspase-3 through cytochrome c release from mitochondria and down regulation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio and reduced the high level of COX-2 and 5-LOX. As shown in its anti-inflammatory effect, KYKZL-1 also exhibited inhibitory effect on the PGE{sub 2} and LTB{sub 4} production in Hep G{sub 2} cells. Accordingly, exogenous addition of PGE{sub 2} or LTB{sub 4} reversed the decreases in cell viability. In addition, KYKZL-1 caused cell cycle arrest at the S–G{sub 2} checkpoint via the activation of p21{sup CIP1} protein and down-regulation of cyclin A expression. These data indicate that the growth inhibitory effect of KYKZL-1 is associated with inhibition of AA metabolites and caspase-3 pathway and cell cycle arrest. Combined with our previous findings, KYKZL-1 exhibiting COX/5-LOX inhibition may be a promising potential agent not only for inflammation control but also for cancer prevention/therapy with an enhanced gastric safety profile. - Highlights: • KYKZL-1 is designed to exhibit COX/5-LOX dual inhibition. • KYKZL-1 resulted in apoptosis of Hep G{sub 2} cells. • KYKZL-1 activated caspase-3 through cytochrome c and bcl-2/bax ratio. • KYKZL-1 caused cell cycle arrest via modulation of p21{sup CIP1} and cyclin A level.

  12. The Induction of Metformin Inhibitory Effects on Tumor Cell Growth in Hypoxic Condition.

    PubMed

    Safari, Zohreh; Safaralizadeh, Reza; Seyedzadeh, Mir Hadi; Valinezad Orang, Ayla; Zare, Ahad; Hosseinpour Feizi, Mohammad Ali; Kardar, Gholam Ali

    2015-12-01

    It is aimed to evaluate the actual anti-cancerous effects of metformin on cancer cells in hypoxic condition. Non-cancerous cells (HEK293) and cancer cells (MCF-7) were cultured in both hypoxia and normoxia conditions and treated with different concentrations of metformin. The proliferation, apoptosis, and necrosis rate were assessed using MTT test and Annexin V assay. The S6K1 phosphorylation was assessed using western blotting. Zymography was used to measure the activity of metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Metformin treatment inhibited proliferation of cancer cells in the optimal concentration of 10 mM under hypoxia condition, while it showed no effects on non-cancerous cell viability. The statistical analysis of MTT assay indicated that the pro-apoptotic function of metformin for cancer cells under hypoxia condition compared to normoxia was significant with different metformin concentrations (p<0.01). However, the effect of metformin treatments for non-cancerous cells under hypoxia condition compared to normoxia was not significant. Western-blot analysis indicated a significant decrease in S6K1 phosphorylation in cancer cells under hypoxia condition (p<0.05). Nevertheless, there was no considerable difference between normoxia and hypoxia conditions in non-cancerous cells. MMP-9 zymography analysis revealed that the highest inhibition of MMP-9 activity was observed in hypoxia condition by 20mM of metformin concentration only in cancer cell. The results indicate that in hypoxia condition metformin exerts its anti-cancerous function by inhibiting proliferation and tumor progression and inducing cell apoptosis more effectively than normoxia condition. In line with cancer cell conditions, most importantly hypoxic condition, metformin can be considered as a potential anti-cancerous drug. PMID:26725558

  13. The Induction of Metformin Inhibitory Effects on Tumor Cell Growth in Hypoxic Condition.

    PubMed

    Safari, Zohreh; Safaralizadeh, Reza; Seyedzadeh, Mir Hadi; Valinezad Orang, Ayla; Zare, Ahad; Hosseinpour Feizi, Mohammad Ali; Kardar, Gholam Ali

    2015-12-01

    It is aimed to evaluate the actual anti-cancerous effects of metformin on cancer cells in hypoxic condition. Non-cancerous cells (HEK293) and cancer cells (MCF-7) were cultured in both hypoxia and normoxia conditions and treated with different concentrations of metformin. The proliferation, apoptosis, and necrosis rate were assessed using MTT test and Annexin V assay. The S6K1 phosphorylation was assessed using western blotting. Zymography was used to measure the activity of metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Metformin treatment inhibited proliferation of cancer cells in the optimal concentration of 10 mM under hypoxia condition, while it showed no effects on non-cancerous cell viability. The statistical analysis of MTT assay indicated that the pro-apoptotic function of metformin for cancer cells under hypoxia condition compared to normoxia was significant with different metformin concentrations (p<0.01). However, the effect of metformin treatments for non-cancerous cells under hypoxia condition compared to normoxia was not significant. Western-blot analysis indicated a significant decrease in S6K1 phosphorylation in cancer cells under hypoxia condition (p<0.05). Nevertheless, there was no considerable difference between normoxia and hypoxia conditions in non-cancerous cells. MMP-9 zymography analysis revealed that the highest inhibition of MMP-9 activity was observed in hypoxia condition by 20mM of metformin concentration only in cancer cell. The results indicate that in hypoxia condition metformin exerts its anti-cancerous function by inhibiting proliferation and tumor progression and inducing cell apoptosis more effectively than normoxia condition. In line with cancer cell conditions, most importantly hypoxic condition, metformin can be considered as a potential anti-cancerous drug.

  14. Growth inhibitory effects of Phyllanthus niruri extracts in combination with cisplatin on cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Araújo Júnior, Raimundo Fernandes; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; da Costa Porto, Cínthia Raquel; de Aquino, Ranniere Gurgel Furtado; Guedes, Hugo Gonçalo; Petrovick, Pedro Ros; de Souza, Tatiane Pereira; Araújo, Aurigena Antunes; Guerra, Gerlane Coelho Bernardo

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the cytotoxic effects of spray-dried extracts of Phyllanthus niruri in combination with cisplatin on two cancer cell lines. METHODS: Colorectal carcinoma (HT29) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells were treated with spray-dried extracts of Phyllanthus niruri (SDEPN) either alone or in combination with cisplatin at different concentrations (0.5 mg/mL and 1 mg/mL) for 4 h and 24 h. To verify and quantify cancer cells treated with these products as well as identify the cell cycle stage and cell viability, we stained the cells with propidium iodide and assessed them by flow cytometry. The percentage of cells in different cell cycle phases was quantified and data were expressed as histograms. Significant differences between groups were determined using analysis of variance and Bonferroni’s test, as indicated. A value of P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: SDEPN had significantly different cytotoxic effects on HT29 (2.81 ± 0.11 vs 3.51 ± 1.13, P > 0.05) and HepG2 (5.07 ± 0.3 vs 15.9 ± 1.04, P < 0.001) cells when compared to control cells for 4 h. SDEPN also had significantly different cytotoxic effects on HT29 (1.91 ± 0.57 vs 4.53 ± 1.22, P > 0.05) and HepG2 (14.56 ± 1.6 vs 35.67 ± 3.94, P < 0.001) cells when compared to control cells for 24 h. Both cell lines were killed by cisplatin in a dose-dependent manner compared to control cells (HepG2 cells for 4 h: 10.78 ± 1.58 vs 53.89 ± 1.53, P < 0.001; 24 h: 8.9 ± 1.43 vs 62.78 ± 1.87, P < 0.001 and HT29 cells for 4 h: 9.52 ± 0.913 vs 49.86 ± 2.89, P < 0.001; 24 h: 11.78 ± 1.05 vs 53.34 ± 2.65, P < 0.001). In HT29 cells, pretreatment with SDEPN and subsequent treatment with cisplatin resulted in a greater number of cells being killed (12.78 ± 1.01 vs 93.76 ± 1.6, P < 0.001). HepG2 cells showed significant cell killing with treatment with SDEPN when combined with cisplatin (12.87 ± 2.78 vs 78.8 ± 3.02, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: SDEPN is

  15. Inhibitory effect of isoamericanol A from Jatropha curcas seeds on the growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line by G2/M cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Katagi, Ayako; Sui, Li; Kamitori, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Toshisada; Katayama, Takeshi; Hossain, Akram; Noguchi, Chisato; Dong, Youyi; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    Although various parts of J. curcas (Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae) have long been used as traditional folk medicines for their antiviral, analgesic, and/or antidotal efficacies, we are the first to investigate the role of anti-carcinogenicity of isoamericanol A (IAA) from the seed extract. Our results showed that IAA is capable of inhibiting cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner on the human cancer cell lines of MCF-7, MDA-MB231, HuH-7, and HeLa. Flow cytometry analysis showed IAA significantly induces cell cycle arrest at G2/M on MCF-7 cells. At both protein and mRNA levels examined by western blot and real-time PCR, the results revealed increased expression of BTG2 (B-cell translocation gene 2), p21 (p21(WAF1/CIPI) ), and GADD45A (growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible, alpha) after IAA treatment, but inversed expression in CDK1 (cyclin-dependent kinase 1) and cyclins B1 and B2. All these effects contribute to G2/M cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, these results coincide with the changes in molecular expressions determined by DNA-microarray analysis. Our findings indicate that IAA has an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation of MCF-7 through cell cycle arrest, giving it great potential as a future therapeutic reagent for cancers. PMID:27441238

  16. In vitro and in vivo studies on the inhibitory effects of myocardial cell culture medium on growth of a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, A549

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Y.; Zhou, J.; Fu, S.Z.; Fan, J.; Wu, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the heart is one of the body’s vital organs, with an abundant blood supply, metastasis to the heart is considered rare. In a previous study, we found that the myocardial microenvironment might contain a low molecular weight natural tumour suppressor. The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect of cardiac myocyte–conditioned medium (cmcm) on the growth of A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Methods An mtt assay was used to detect the inhibition ratio with respect to A549 proliferation. Human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549 cell strain) were transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice to produce tumours. The xenograft tumour growth in mice was observed after selected drug administration. Results After treatment with cmcm and cisplatin (Cis), A549 cell viability significantly declined (p < 0.001). The cell viability in the cmcm and Cis groups were 53.42% ± 3.45% and 58.45% ± 6.39% respectively. Growth of implanted tumour cells in vivo was significantly inhibited in the cmcm group, the group treated with recombinant human adenovirus–p53, and the Cis-treated group compared with a control group. The inhibition rates were 41.44% in the cmcm group, 41.34% in the p53 group, and 64.50% in the Cis group. Lung metastasis capacity was significantly reduced in the presence of cmcm (p < 0.05). Lung metastasis inhibition rates in mice were 56.52% in the cmcm group, 47.83% in the p53 group, and 82.61% in the Cis group. With cmcm, the lives of A549-tumour-bearing mice could be significantly prolonged without any effect on weight loss. Conclusions Use of cmcm has the effect of reducing A549 cell viability, tumour volume, and lung metastasis rate, while prolonging survival duration without severe toxicity. PMID:26966411

  17. MLS-2384, a new 6-bromoindirubin derivative with dual JAK/Src kinase inhibitory activity, suppresses growth of diverse cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lucy; Gaboriaud, Nicolas; Vougogianopoulou, Konstantina; Tian, Yan; Wu, Jun; Wen, Wei; Skaltsounis, Leandros; Jove, Richard

    2014-02-01

    Janus kinase (JAK) and Src kinase are the two major tyrosine kinase families upstream of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT). Among the seven STAT family proteins, STAT3 is constitutively activated in many diverse cancers. Upon activation, JAK and Src kinases phosphorylate STAT3, and thereby promote cell growth and survival. MLS-2384 is a novel 6-bromoindirubin derivative with a bromo-group at the 6-position on one indole ring and a hydrophilic group at the 3'-position on the other indole ring. In this study, we investigated the kinase inhibitory activity and anticancer activity of MLS-2384. Our data from in vitro kinase assays, cell viability analyses, western blotting analyses, and animal model studies, demonstrate that MLS-2384 is a dual JAK/Src kinase inhibitor, and suppresses growth of various human cancer cells, such as prostate, breast, skin, ovarian, lung, and liver. Consistent with the inactivation of JAK and Src kinases, phosphorylation of STAT3 was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner in the cancer cells treated with MLS-2384. STAT3 downstream proteins involved in cell proliferation and survival, such as c-Myc and Mcl-1, are downregulated by MLS-2384 in prostate cancer cells, whereas survivin is downregulated in A2058 cells. In these two cancer cell lines, PARP is cleaved, indicating that MLS-2384 induces apoptosis in human melanoma and prostate cancer cells. Importantly, MLS-2384 suppresses tumor growth with low toxicity in a mouse xenograft model of human melanoma. Taken together, MLS-2384 demonstrates dual JAK/Src inhibitory activity and suppresses tumor cell growth both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings support further development of MLS-2384 as a potential small-molecule therapeutic agent that targets JAK, Src, and STAT3 signaling in multiple human cancer cells.

  18. Loss of growth inhibitory effects of retinoic acid in human breast cancer cells following long-term exposure to retinoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, R; Darbre, P D

    2000-01-01

    Although retinoids are known to be inhibitory to breast cancer cell growth, a key remaining question is whether they would remain effective if administered long-term. We describe here the long-term effects of all-trans retinoic acid on two oestrogen-dependent human breast cancer cell lines MCF7 and ZR-75-1. Although both cell lines were growth inhibited by retinoic acid in the short-term in either the absence or the presence of oestradiol, prolonged culture with 1 μM all-trans retinoic acid resulted in the cells acquiring resistance to the growth inhibitory effects of retinoic acid. Time courses showed that oestrogen deprivation of the cell lines resulted in upregulation of the basal non-oestrogen stimulated growth rate such that cells learned to grow at the same rate without as with oestradiol, but the cells remained growth inhibited by retinoic acid throughout. Addition of 1 μM all-trans retinoic acid to steroid deprivation conditions resulted in reproducible loss of growth response to both retinoic acid and oestradiol, although the time courses were separable in that loss of growth response to retinoic acid preceded that of oestradiol. Loss of growth response to retinoic acid did not involve loss of receptors, ER as measured by steroid binding assay or RARα as measured by Northern blotting. Function of the receptors was retained in terms of the ability of both oestradiol and retinoic acid to upregulate pS2 gene expression, but there was reduced ability to upregulate transiently transfected ERE- and RRE-linked reporter genes. Despite the accepted role of IGFBP3 in retinoic acid-mediated growth inhibition, progression to retinoic acid resistance occurred irrespective of level of IGFBP3, which remained high in the resistant MCF7 cells. Measurement of AP1 activity showed that the two cell lines had markedly different basal AP1 activities, but that progression to resistance was accompanied in both cases by a lost ability of retinoic acid to reduce AP1 activity

  19. The cytotoxic and growth inhibitory effects of palladium(II) complexes on MDA-MB-435 cells.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Nathália Cristina; da Silva Demartini, Mariana; Torres, Claudia; de Almeida, Eduardo Tonon; Gouvêa, Cibele Marli Cação Paiva

    2012-01-01

    The antitumorigenic potential of two palladium(II) complexes, [Pd(ca(2)-o-phen)Cl(2)] - C1 and [Pd(dmba)(dppp)Cl] - C2, was evaluated, using MDA-MB-435 cells, a human breast adenocarcinoma cell-line that does not express the estrogen receptor α (ER-). Growth inhibition and induced alterations in cell-morphology were analyzed. The sulforhodamine B test showed that, compared to control cells, both C1 and C2 significantly inhibited (p < 0.5) cell growth. The maximum effect with both was achieved with 1 μM complexes, after 24 h of treatment. No further cell-growth inhibition was achieved by increasing concentration or incubation time. Cell morphology was analyzed after staining with hematoxylin-eosin (HE). The morphological changes noted in the treated cells were cell rounding-up, shrinkage, nuclear condensation and reduction of cell length (p < 0.05), thereby indicating that both C1 and C2 are cytotoxic to breast adenocarcinoma cells. All together, there was every indication that, by decreasing cell growth and inducing morphological changes, the tested complexes are cytotoxic, hence their potentiality as promising candidates for antineoplastic drug development.

  20. Mechanism of inhibitory action of prostaglandins on the growth of human gastric carcinoma cell line KATO III.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, A; Yamatani, T; Fujita, T; Chiba, T

    1991-10-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) play important roles in the regulation of various gastric functions. In this study, the effects of various PGs on the growth of the human gastric carcinoma cell line KATO III were investigated. All the PGs tested inhibited KATO III cell growth with a relative potency order of PGE2 greater than PGE1 greater than 17S,20-dimethyl-6-oxo PGE1-methyl ester (ornoprostil) greater than PGF2 alpha. This inhibition was accompanied by an increase of cyclic adenosine monophosphate production. Furthermore, in the presence of guanosine triphosphate, these PGs stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in the plasma membrane of KATO III cells, followed by enhancement of membrane guanosine triphosphatase activity. The relative potencies of these PGs for increasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels, activating adenylate cyclase, and enhancing guanosine triphosphatase activity were all comparable to those for inhibiting cell growth. On the other hand, the proliferation of KATO III cells was also inhibited by forskolin as well as dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate, whereas none of the agents that did not increase cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels had any effect. These results suggest that PGs inhibit KATO III cell growth by stimulating cyclic adenosine monophosphate production via a guanosine triphosphate-dependent process, suggesting the involvement of guanosine triphosphate-binding stimulatory protein, probably coupled to PGE2 receptors, in the action of PGs. PMID:1653751

  1. [Inhibitory effects of a hot water extract from Japanese tea on the cell growth of mutans streptococci].

    PubMed

    Kitamura, K; Loyola, J P; Sobue, S

    1990-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effect of a hot water extract from Japanese tea on the cellular growth of mutans streptococci in vitro. The extract contained polyphenol compounds, mainly catechin derivatives. Few fluoride components were contained in the extract. Streptococcus mutans MT8148R (serotype c) and S. sobrinus MT6715 (serotype g) strains were used in the present study. The organisms (10-10(7) CFU/ml) were cultured in brain heart infusion (BHI) and tryptose phosphate (TP) broths containing the tea extract (0-8 mg/ml). After incubation for 24-48 hours the cell numbers in the cultures were determined. Furthermore, cell growth of these strains on BHI agar plates containing the extract (0-2 mg/ml) were examined. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The tea extract (2-8 mg/ml) in BHI broth inhibited remarkably the growth of S. mutans and S. sobrinus (inoculum size; 10(6) CFU/ml). No difference in susceptibility to the tea extract between S. mutans and S. sobrinus was noted. 2. The cell growth of both strains in TP broth was inhibited by the tea extract. However S. sobrinus was found to be more sensitive to the extract than S. mutans. 3. Growth of S. sobrinus cells on the BHI agar plate was suppressed by the tea extract more effectively than that of S. mutans. These results suggest that the tea extract would be useful as an anti-cariogenic agent. PMID:2133962

  2. Inhibitory effects of costunolide isolated from Laurus nobilis on IgE-induced degranulation of mast cell-like RBL-2H3 cells and the growth of Y16 pro-B cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Joon; Nam, Kung-Woo; Kim, Bora; Lee, Sung-Jin; Oh, Ki-Bong; Kim, Kyeong Ho; Mar, Woongchon; Shin, Jongheon

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the inhibitory effects of costunolide isolated from the leaves of Laurus nobilis L. (Lauraceae) on basophil-mediated allergic reactions and interleukin (IL)-5-mediated B cell growth. The effects of costunolide on β-hexosaminidase (a key parameter of degranulation) release and IL-4 expression in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells were determined by measuring β-hexosaminidase activity and by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. The effects of costunolide on Y16 pro-B cell viability and growth were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Costunolide was found significantly to inhibit β-hexosaminidase activity (p < 0.01) and IL-4 transcription in RBL-2H3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Its 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) was 34 µM, while that of the positive control, ketotifen, was 24 µM (IL-4 mRNA transcription). Moreover, costunolide dose-dependently suppressed pro-B cell growth in IL-5-stimulated Y16 cells. These results provide evidence that costunolide stabilizes mast cells by inhibiting IgE-mediated degranulation and inhibits IL-5-stimulated B cell growth. PMID:21674633

  3. Inhibitory effects of nisin and potassium sorbate alone or in combination on vegetative cells growth and spore germination of Bacillus sporothermodurans in milk.

    PubMed

    Aouadhi, Chedia; Mejri, Slah; Maaroufi, Abderrazak

    2015-04-01

    The inhibitory activities of nisin or/and potassium sorbate on spores and vegetative cells of Bacillus sporothermodurans LTIS27, which are known to be a contaminant of dairy products and to be extremely heat-resistant, were investigated. First, the tested concentrations of nisin or potassium sorbate inhibited vegetative cell growth; with the minimum inhibitory concentrations were 5 × 10(3) IU/ml and 2% (w/v), respectively. Then, the behaviour of vegetative cells and spores in presence of sub-lethal concentrations of nisin (50 UI/ml) or/and potassium sorbate (0.2%), in milk at 37 °C for 5 days, were evaluated. In the absence of inhibitors, strain grew and sporulated at the end of the exponential phase. Nisin (50 UI/ml) was able to inhibit spore outgrowth but didn't affect their germination. It induced an immediate and transitory reduction (1.6log(10) after 1 h and 2.8log(10) after 6 h of incubation) of vegetative cell growth which reappeared between 10 h and 24 h. Potassium sorbate (0.2%) had a durable bacteriostatic effect (1.1log(10) after 6 h), on vegetative cells, followed by a slower regrowth. It was able to inhibit both germination and outgrowth of spores. Association of nisin and potassium sorbate, at sub-lethal concentrations, showed a synergistic effect and resulted in a total inhibition of cells growth after 5 days. The results illustrate the efficacy of nisin and potassium sorbate in combination, and the commercial potential of applying such treatment to decontaminate any product that has a problem with persistence of bacterial spores. PMID:25475264

  4. Inhibitory effects of nisin and potassium sorbate alone or in combination on vegetative cells growth and spore germination of Bacillus sporothermodurans in milk.

    PubMed

    Aouadhi, Chedia; Mejri, Slah; Maaroufi, Abderrazak

    2015-04-01

    The inhibitory activities of nisin or/and potassium sorbate on spores and vegetative cells of Bacillus sporothermodurans LTIS27, which are known to be a contaminant of dairy products and to be extremely heat-resistant, were investigated. First, the tested concentrations of nisin or potassium sorbate inhibited vegetative cell growth; with the minimum inhibitory concentrations were 5 × 10(3) IU/ml and 2% (w/v), respectively. Then, the behaviour of vegetative cells and spores in presence of sub-lethal concentrations of nisin (50 UI/ml) or/and potassium sorbate (0.2%), in milk at 37 °C for 5 days, were evaluated. In the absence of inhibitors, strain grew and sporulated at the end of the exponential phase. Nisin (50 UI/ml) was able to inhibit spore outgrowth but didn't affect their germination. It induced an immediate and transitory reduction (1.6log(10) after 1 h and 2.8log(10) after 6 h of incubation) of vegetative cell growth which reappeared between 10 h and 24 h. Potassium sorbate (0.2%) had a durable bacteriostatic effect (1.1log(10) after 6 h), on vegetative cells, followed by a slower regrowth. It was able to inhibit both germination and outgrowth of spores. Association of nisin and potassium sorbate, at sub-lethal concentrations, showed a synergistic effect and resulted in a total inhibition of cells growth after 5 days. The results illustrate the efficacy of nisin and potassium sorbate in combination, and the commercial potential of applying such treatment to decontaminate any product that has a problem with persistence of bacterial spores.

  5. Inhibitory Effects of Retinol Are Greater than Retinoic Acid on the Growth and Adhesion of Human Refractory Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan; Imai, Masahiko; Matsuura, Tomokazu; Hasegawa, Shinya; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Takahashi, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin A constituents include retinal, which plays a role in vision, and retinoic acid (RA), which has been used in the therapy of human acute promyelocytic leukemia. However, the effects on cancer of retinol (Rol) and its ester, retinyl palmitate (RP) are not known well. In the current study, we examined the effects of these agents on proliferation and adhesion of various cancer cells. Rol exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of the proliferation of human refractory and prostate cancer cells, while RA and RP showed little or no effect. In contrast, RA inhibited the growth of human breast cancer cells to a greater extent than Rol at low concentrations, but not at high concentrations. Rol suppressed adhesion of refractory and prostate cancer cells to a greater extent than RA, while it suppressed adhesion of breast cancer cells as well as RA and of JHP-1 cells less effectively than RA. These results indicate that Rol is a potent suppressor of cancer cell growth and adhesion, which are both linked to metastasis and tumor progression. Rol might be useful for the clinical treatment of cancer. PMID:26822412

  6. Interleukin-1beta can mediate growth arrest and differentiation via the leukemia inhibitory factor/JAK/STAT pathway in medullary thyroid carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-In; Strock, Christopher J; Ball, Douglas W; Nelkin, Barry D

    2005-02-01

    Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) is a pleiotropic cytokine that can induce several cellular signal transduction pathways. Here, we show that IL-1beta can induce cell cycle arrest and differentiation in the human medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) cell line, TT. IL-1beta induces cell cycle arrest accompanied by morphological changes and expression of the neuroendocrine marker calcitonin. These changes are blocked by the MEK1/2 specific inhibitor U0126, indicating that MEK1/2 is essential for IL-1beta signaling in TT cells. IL-1beta induces expression of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and activation of STAT3 via the MEK/ERK pathway. This activation of STAT3 could be abrogated by treatment with anti-LIF neutralizing antibody or anti-gp130 blocking antibody, indicating that induction of LIF expression is sufficient and essential for STAT3 activation by IL-1beta. In addition to activation of the LIF/JAK/STAT pathway, IL-1beta also induced an MEK/ERK-mediated intracellular cell-autonomous signaling pathway that is independently sufficient for growth arrest and differentiation. Thus, IL-1beta activates the MEK/ERK pathway to induce growth arrest and differentiation in MTC cells via dual independent signaling mechanisms, the cell-extrinsic LIF/JAK/STAT pathway, and the cell-intrinsic autonomous signaling pathway.

  7. Melatonin downregulates nuclear receptor RZR/RORγ expression causing growth-inhibitory and anti-angiogenesis activity in human gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ri-Xiong; Liu, Hui; Xu, Li; Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Rui-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    An adequate supply of oxygen and nutrients, derived from the formation of novel blood vessels, is critical for the growth and expansion of tumor cells. It has been demonstrated that melatonin (MLT) exhibits marked in vitro and in vivo oncostatic activities. The primary purpose of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of MLT on the growth and angiogenesis of gastric cancer cells, and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. The present results revealed that MLT inhibited the growth of gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, the present study demonstrated that low concentrations (0.01, 0.1 and 1 mM) of MLT had no clear effect on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion, whereas a high concentration (3 mM) of MLT suppressed VEGF secretion in SGC-7901 cells. Notably, administration of MLT caused suppression of gastric cancer growth and blockade of tumor angiogenesis in tumor-bearing nude mice. Furthermore, MLT treatment reduced the expression of the MLT nuclear receptor RZR/RORγ, SUMO-specific protease 1, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and VEGF at transcriptional and translational levels within gastric cancer cells during tumorigenesis. In conclusion, MLT nuclear receptor RZR/RORγ may be of great importance in the MLT mediated anti-angiogenesis and growth-inhibitory effect in gastric cancer cells. Since RZR/RORγ is overexpressed in multiple human cancers, MLT may be a promising agent for the treatment of cancers. PMID:27446366

  8. Inhibitory effects of 405 nm irradiation on Chlamydia trachomatis growth and characterization of the ensuing inflammatory response in HeLa cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis is an intracellular bacterium that resides in the conjunctival and reproductive tract mucosae and is responsible for an array of acute and chronic diseases. A percentage of these infections persist even after use of antibiotics, suggesting the need for alternative treatments. Previous studies have demonstrated anti-bacterial effects using different wavelengths of visible light at varying energy densities, though only against extracellular bacteria. We investigated the effects of visible light (405 and 670 nm) irradiation via light emitting diode (LEDs) on chlamydial growth in endocervical epithelial cells, HeLa, during active and penicillin-induced persistent infections. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of this photo treatment on the ensuing secretion of IL-6 and CCL2, two pro-inflammatory cytokines that have previously been identified as immunopathologic components associated with trichiasis in vivo. Results C. trachomatis-infected HeLa cells were treated with 405 or 670 nm irradiation at varying energy densities (0 – 20 J/cm2). Bacterial growth was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR analyzing the 16S: GAPDH ratio, while cell-free supernatants were examined for IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (CCL2) production. Our results demonstrated a significant dose-dependent inhibitory effect on chlamydial growth during both active and persistent infections following 405 nm irradiation. Diminished bacterial load corresponded to lower IL-6 concentrations, but was not related to CCL2 levels. In vitro modeling of a persistent C. trachomatis infection induced by penicillin demonstrated significantly elevated IL-6 levels compared to C. trachomatis infection alone, though 405 nm irradiation had a minimal effect on this production. Conclusion Together these results identify novel inhibitory effects of 405 nm violet light on the bacterial growth of intracellular bacterium C. trachomatis in vitro, which also coincides

  9. Growth inhibitory activities of crude extracts obtained from herbal plants in the Ryukyu Islands on several human colon carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kaneshiro, Tatsuya; Suzui, Masumi; Takamatsu, Reika; Murakami, Akira; Ohigashi, Hajime; Fujino, Tetsuya; Yoshimi, Naoki

    2005-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of herbs for the treatment of human diseases including cancer. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether crude extracts obtained from 44 herbal plants in the Ryukyu Islands might contain components capable of inhibiting the growth of a variety of human colon carcinoma cell lines. Leaves, roots and other parts of the plants were extracted with chloroform, and the crude extracts were dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide and used for the experiments. Extracts of Hemerocallis fulva, Ipomoea batatas, Curcuma longa, and Nasturium officinale caused marked dose-dependent growth inhibition, with IC(50) values in the range of 10-80 mug/ml. With the HCT116 cell line, the extracts of Hemerocallis fulva and Ipomoea batatas induced G1 cell cycle arrest after 48 h of treatment. In addition, we found that extracts of Curcuma longa, and Nasturium officinale induced apoptosis in these cells after 48 h of treatment. The present studies are the first systematic examination of the growth inhibitory effects of crude extracts obtained from herbal plants in the Ryukyu Islands. The findings provide evidence that several plants in the Ryukyu Islands contain components that may have anticancer activity. PMID:16235999

  10. Proteome analyses of the growth inhibitory effects of NCH-51, a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor, on lymphoid malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Sanda, T; Okamoto, T; Uchida, Y; Nakagawa, H; Iida, S; Kayukawa, S; Suzuki, T; Oshizawa, T; Suzuki, T; Miyata, N; Ueda, R

    2007-11-01

    Recent reports showing successful inhibition of cancer and leukemia cell growth using histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) compounds have highlighted the potential use of HDACi as anti-cancer agents. However, high incidence of toxicity and low stability in vivo were observed with hydroxamic acid-based HDACi such as suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), thus limiting its clinical applicability. In this study, we found that a novel non-hydroxamate HDACi NCH-51 could inhibit the cell growth of a variety of lymphoid malignant cells through apoptosis induction, more effectively than SAHA. Activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9, but not -7 was detected after the treatment with NCH-51. Gene expression profiles showed that NCH-51 and SAHA similarly upregulated p21 and downregulated anti-apoptotic molecules including survivin, bcl-w and c-FLIP. Proteome analysis using two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed that NCH-51 upregulated anti-oxidant molecules including peroxiredoxin 1 and 2 and glutathione S-transferase at the protein level. Interestingly, NCH-51 induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) after 8 h whereas SAHA continuously declined ROS. Pretreatment with an antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, abolished the cytotoxicity of NCH-51. These findings suggest that NCH-51 exhibits cytotoxicity by sustaining ROS at the higher level greater than SAHA. This study indicates the therapeutic efficacy of NCH-51 and novel insights for anti-HDAC therapy.

  11. Inhibitory effects of tetrandrine on epidermal growth factor-induced invasion and migration in HT29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Yang, Jai-Sing; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Lee, Chiu-Fang; Chiang, Ni-Na; Chen, Fu-An

    2016-01-01

    Tetrandrine has been shown to reduce cancer cell proliferation and to inhibit metastatic effects in multiple cancer models in vitro and in vivo. However, the effects of tetrandrine on the underlying mechanism of HT29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell metastasis remain to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was focused on tetrandrine‑treated HT29 cells following epidermal growth factor (EGF) treatment, and Transwell, gelatin zymography, gene expression and immunoblotting assays were performed to investigate metastatic effects in vitro. Tetrandrine was observed to dose‑dependently inhibit EGF‑induced HT29 cell invasion and migration, however, no effect on cell viability occurred following exposure to tetradrine between 0.5 and 2 µM. Tetrandrine treatment inhibited the enzymatic activity of matrix metalloprotease (MMP)‑2 and MMP‑9 in a concentration‑dependent manner. The present study also found a reduction in the mRNA expression levels of MMP‑2 and MMP‑9 in the tetrandrine‑treated HT29 cells. Tetrandrine also suppressed the phosphorylation of EGF receptor (EGFR) and its downstream pathway, including phosphoinositide‑dependent kinase 1, phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase and phosphorylated AKT, suppressing the gene expression of MMP‑2 and MMP‑9. Furthermore, tetrandrine triggered mitogen‑activated protein kinase signaling through the suppressing the activation of phosphorylated extracellular signal‑regulated protein kinase. These data suggested that targeting EGFR signaling and its downstream molecules contributed to the inhibition of EGF‑induced HT29 cell metastasis caused by tetrandrine, eventually leading to a reduction in the mRNA and gelatinase activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9, respectively. PMID:26648313

  12. Inhibitory effect of soluble platelet-derived growth factor receptor β on intraosseous growth of breast cancer cells in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Shan, Hongchao; Takahashi, Tetsuyuki; Bando, Yoshimi; Izumi, Keisuke; Uehara, Hisanori

    2011-10-01

    Bone metastasis is a frequent complication of advanced breast cancer. On the basis of functional and molecular evidence, signaling mediated by the binding of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB and -DD to PDGF receptor β (PDGFRβ) is critical for the survival and growth of metastatic breast cancer cells within the bone microenvironment. In this study, we propose a new approach to blocking PDGFRβ signaling using soluble PDGFRβ (sPDGFRβ) as a decoy receptor for PDGF-BB and -DD secreted from tumor cells and bone marrow stromal cells. A bone-seeking TNBCT/Bo cell line was established by in vivo selection from TNBCT human breast cancer cells, which are negative for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 protein expression. The TNBCT/Bo cells were transfected with a mammalian expression vector encoding the extracellular domain of PDGFRβ. A stable transfectant (TNBCT/Bo-sPDGFRβ) grew at a similar rate to that of control cells under normal culture conditions, although growth stimulation of human fibroblasts with PDGF-BB was neutralized by the culture medium from TNBCT/Bo-sPDGFRβ cells. Intratibial injection of TNBCT/Bo-sPDGFRβ cells into athymic nude mice resulted in a significant decrease in tumor incidence compared with control mice (P < 0.01). This attenuated growth correlated with decreased cancer cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and recruitment of stromal cells, and with an increase in the number of apoptotic cells. These findings suggest that sPDGFRβ is useful for the treatment of breast cancer bone metastasis.

  13. Estrogen receptor beta growth-inhibitory effects are repressed through activation of MAPK and PI3K signalling in mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cotrim, C Z; Fabris, V; Doria, M L; Lindberg, K; Gustafsson, J-Å; Amado, F; Lanari, C; Helguero, L A

    2013-05-01

    Two thirds of breast cancers express estrogen receptors (ER). ER alpha (ERα) mediates breast cancer cell proliferation, and expression of ERα is the standard choice to indicate adjuvant endocrine therapy. ERbeta (ERβ) inhibits growth in vitro; its effects in vivo have been incompletely investigated and its role in breast cancer and potential as alternative target in endocrine therapy needs further study. In this work, mammary epithelial (EpH4 and HC11) and breast cancer (MC4-L2) cells with endogenous ERα and ERβ expression and T47-D human breast cancer cells with recombinant ERβ (T47-DERβ) were used to explore effects exerted in vitro and in vivo by the ERβ agonists 2,3-bis (4-hydroxy-phenyl)-propionitrile (DPN) and 7-bromo-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3-benzoxazol-5-ol (WAY). In vivo, ERβ agonists induced mammary gland hyperplasia and MC4-L2 tumour growth to a similar extent as the ERα agonist 4,4',4''-(4-propyl-(1H)-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl) trisphenol (PPT) or 17β-estradiol (E2) and correlated with higher number of mitotic and lower number of apoptotic features. In vitro, in MC4-L2, EpH4 or HC11 cells incubated under basal conditions, ERβ agonists induced apoptosis measured as upregulation of p53 and apoptosis-inducible factor protein levels and increased caspase 3 activity, whereas PPT and E2 stimulated proliferation. However, when extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK ½) were activated by co-incubation with basement membrane extract or epidermal growth factor, induction of apoptosis by ERβ agonists was repressed and DPN induced proliferation in a similar way as E2 or PPT. In a context of active ERK ½, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (AKT) signalling was necessary to allow proliferation stimulated by ER agonists. Inhibition of MEK ½ with UO126 completely restored ERβ growth-inhibitory effects, whereas inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 inhibited ERβ-induced proliferation. These

  14. Inhibitory Effects of PEI-RGD/125I-(αV) ASODN on Growth and Invasion of HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Haidong; Qiao, Yu; Sun, Ming; Yuan, Xueyu; Luo, Qiong; Yang, Yuehua; Yuan, Shidong; Lv, Zhongwei

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the in vitro inhibitory effects of PEI-RGD/125I-(αV)ASODN (PEI, polyethylenimine; RGD, Arg-Gly-Asp; ASODN, antisense oligodeoxynucleotide) on the growth and invasion of HepG2 cells. Material/Methods ASODN of the integrin αV-subunit was marked with 125I and underwent complexation with PEI-RGD, a PEI derivative. Next, PEI-RGD/125I-(αV) ASODN was introduced into HepG2 cells via receptor-mediated transfection, and its inhibition rate on HepG2 cell growth was tested using the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method. The effects of PEI-RGD/125I-(αV) ASODN on HepG2 cell invasion ability were evaluated using the Boyden chamber assay. Results 1) The 125I marking rate of (αV) ASODN was 73.78±4.09%, and the radiochemical purity was 96.68±1.38% (greater than 90% even after a 48-h incubation period at 37°C), indicating high stability. 2) The cytotoxicity assays showed that the cell inhibition rates did not differ significantly between the PEI-RGD/125I-(αV)ASODN group and the PEI-RGD/(αV) ASODN group, but they were both significantly higher than in the other groups and were positively correlated (r=0.879) with the dosage within a certain range. 3) The invasion assays showed that the inhibition rate was significantly greater in the PEI-RGD/125I-(αV) ASODN group compared to the other groups. Conclusions PEI-RGD/125I-(αV) ASODN can efficiently inhibit the growth and proliferation of HepG2 cells and can also weaken their invasive ability. PMID:26258995

  15. Growth-inhibitory Activity and Downregulation of the Class II Tumor-suppressor Gene H-rev107 in Tumor Cell Lines and Experimental Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sers, Christine; Emmenegger, Urban; Husmann, Knut; Bucher, Katharina; Andres, Ann-Catherine; Schäfer, Reinhold

    1997-01-01

    The H-rev107 gene is a new class II tumor suppressor, as defined by its reversible downregulation and growth-inhibiting capacity in HRAS transformed cell lines. Overexpression of the H-rev107 cDNA in HRAS-transformed ANR4 hepatoma cells or in FE-8 fibroblasts resulted in 75% reduction of colony formation. Cell populations of H-rev107 transfectants showed an attenuated tumor formation in nude mice. Cells explanted from tumors or maintained in cell culture for an extended period of time no longer exhibited detectable levels of the H-rev107 protein, suggesting strong selection against H-rev107 expression in vitro and in vivo. Expression of the truncated form of H-rev107 lacking the COOH-terminal membrane associated domain of 25 amino acids, had a weaker inhibitory effect on proliferation in vitro and was unable to attenuate tumor growth in nude mice. The H-rev107 mRNA is expressed in most adult rat tissues, and immunohistochemical analysis showed expression of the protein in differentiated epithelial cells of stomach, of colon and small intestine, in kidney, bladder, esophagus, and in tracheal and bronchial epithelium. H-rev107 gene transcription is downregulated in rat cell lines derived from liver, kidney, and pancreatic tumors and also in experimental mammary tumors expressing a RAS transgene. In colon carcinoma cell lines only minute amounts of protein were detectable. Thus, downregulation of H-rev107 expression may occur at the level of mRNA or protein. PMID:9049257

  16. Isolation of an inhibitory insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein from bone cell-conditioned medium: A potential local regulator of IGF action

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, S.; Bautista, C.M.; Wergedal, J.; Baylink, D.J. )

    1989-11-01

    Inhibitory insulin-like growth factor binding protein (In-IGF-BP) has been purified to homogeneity from medium conditioned by TE89 human osteosarcoma cells by two different methods using Sephadex G-100 gel filtration, FPLC Mono Q ion-exchange, HPLC C{sub 4} reverse-phase, HPLC CN reverse-phase and affinity chromatographies. In-IGF-BP thus purified appeared to be homogeneous and unique by the following criteria. (i) N-terminal sequence analysis yielded a unique sequence (Asp-Glu-Ala-Ile-His-Cys-Pro-Pro-Glu-Ser-Glu-Ala-Lys-Leu-Ala). (ii) Amino acid composition of In-IGF-BP revealed marked differences with the amino acid compositions of other known PBs. (iii) In-IGF-BP exhibited a single band with molecular mass of 25 kDa under reducing conditions on sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gels. IGF-I and IGF-II but not insulin displaced the binding of {sup 125}I-labeled IGF-I or {sup 125}I-labeled IGF-II binding to In-IGF-BP. In-IGF-BP inhibited basal, IGF-stimulated bone cell proliferation and serum-stimulated bone cell proliferation. Forskolin increases synthesis of In-IGF-BP in TE85 human osteosarcoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Based on these findings, the authors conclude that In-IGF-BP is a protein that has a unique sequence and significant biological actions on bone cells.

  17. Serum fractions inhibitory to the growth of Leptospires.

    PubMed

    Ryu, E

    1965-11-01

    It is known that the growth inhibitory substance of animal sera on Leptospires exists in the albumin fraction. Since the globulin fraction obtained from animal sera having growth inhibitory property may support, though variable individually, some degree of leptospiral growth, it may be added, with 5% of pooled rabbit serum, to the medium to be used for the propagation of Leptospires. PMID:4220645

  18. Serum fractions inhibitory to the growth of Leptospires.

    PubMed

    Ryu, E

    1965-11-01

    It is known that the growth inhibitory substance of animal sera on Leptospires exists in the albumin fraction. Since the globulin fraction obtained from animal sera having growth inhibitory property may support, though variable individually, some degree of leptospiral growth, it may be added, with 5% of pooled rabbit serum, to the medium to be used for the propagation of Leptospires.

  19. ErbB Inhibitory Protein [EBIP]: A Modified Ectodomain of EGFR Synergizes with Dasatinib to Inhibit Growth of Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nautiyal, Jyoti; Yu, Yingjie; Aboukameel, Amro; Kanwar, Shailender; Das, Jayanta K; Du, Jianhua; Patel, Bhaumik; Sarkar, Fazlul H.; Rishi, Arun K.; Mohammad, Ramzi; Majumdar, Adhip P. N.

    2010-01-01

    Many solid tumors including breast cancer show increased activation of several growth factor receptors, specifically EGFR and its family members (EGFRs) as well as c-Src, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that promote proliferation, inhibit apoptosis and induce metastasis. We hypothesize that inhibition of c-Src and EGFRs will be an effective therapeutic strategy for triple negative breast cancer. To test our hypothesis we used a c-Src specific inhibitor dasatinib (BMS-354825; Bristol-Myers Squibb) and our newly developed ErbB Inhibitory Protein (EBIP), a potential pan-erbB inhibitor in breast cancer cells. EBIP is composed of 1-448 amino acids of the ectodomain of human EGFR to which the 30 amino acids epitope (known as “U” region) of rat EGFR-Related Protein (ERRP) is fused at the C-terminal end. The combination of dasatinib and EBIP was found to be highly effective in inhibiting the growth of 4 different breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-468, SKBr-3, MDA-MB-453 and MDA-MB-231) that express different levels of EGFRs. In EGFR overexpressing MDA-MB-468 cells, the combination, but not monotherapy markedly stimulated apoptosis mediated by caspases -9 and 8 and attenuated activation of EGFR and Src as well as tyrosine kinase activity. EBIP also inhibited heregulin-induced activation of HER-2 and HER-3 in MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells. The combination therapy was highly effective in suppressing tumor growth (∼90% inhibition) in MDA-MB-468 derived xenografts in SCID mice. The latter could be attributed to induction of apoptosis. We conclude that combining dasatinib and EBIP could be an effective therapeutic strategy for breast cancer by targeting EGFRs and Src signaling. PMID:20515951

  20. Tumor cell growth inhibitory activity and structure-activity relationship of polyoxygenated steroids from the gorgonian Menella kanisa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pan; Tang, Hua; Liu, Bao-Shu; Li, Tie-Jun; Sun, Peng; Zhu, Wen; Luo, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Wen

    2013-09-01

    Fourteen new polyoxygenated steroids (6, 9, 14-18, 20-23, 25-27) having carbon skeletons of cholestane, ergostane, and 24-norcholestane, were isolated together with thirteen known analogues (1-5, 7, 8, 10-13, 19, 24) from the South China Sea gorgonian Menella kanisa. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by detailed analysis of spectroscopic data and comparisons with reported data. This is the first report of chemical investigation on the title gorgonian. Compounds 12 and 13 were reported for the first time from natural sources. These compounds exhibited different levels of growth inhibition activity against A549 and MG-63 cell lines in bioassay in vitro. Preliminary structure-activity analysis revealed an important role of side chain in the activity. A substitution of a 5α-hydroxy or an oxidation of 6β-hydroxy to a ketone carbonyl group may decrease the activity whereas the contribution of the 1-ketone group remains uncertain.

  1. Glanduliferins A and B, two new glucosylated steroids from Impatiens glandulifera, with in vitro growth inhibitory activity in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cimmino, Alessio; Mathieu, Véronique; Evidente, Marco; Ferderin, Marlène; Moreno Y Banuls, Laetitia; Masi, Marco; De Carvalho, Annelise; Kiss, Robert; Evidente, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    Impatiens glandulifera has been imported from Himalaya in Europe and is considered as an invasive alien plant whose spreading arouses increasing interest among scientific literature. Via anti-cancer bioguiding, two new glucosylated steroids, named glanduliferins A and B, were isolated from the dried stem of I. glandulifera plants, together with the well-known α-spinasterol and 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, which are also isolated from roots and leaves. They were characterized as 17-(2-hydroxy-2-pentamethylcyclopropyl-ethyl)-10,13-dimethyl-2,3,4,5,6,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-tetradecahydro-1H-cyclopents[a]phenathren-3-O-(4-O-acetyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside and 17-(4-ethyl-1,5-dimethyl-hex-2-enyl)-10,13-dimethyl-2,3,4,5,6,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-tetradecahydro-1H-cyclopents[a]phenathren-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside using various NMR and HRESIMS techniques and chemical methods. In vitro determination of the growth inhibitory activity of the four isolated compounds using the MTT colorimetric assay revealed mean IC50 growth inhibitory value of ~30 μM for glanduliferin A while glanduliferin B and α-spinasterol were poorly active till 100 μM. 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone revealed to be active in the single micromolar digit range as previously described. Quantitative videomicroscopy analyses of the effects of glanduliferins A and B suggested cytostatic rather than cytotoxic activity in U373 glioblastoma (GBM) cells.

  2. Glanduliferins A and B, two new glucosylated steroids from Impatiens glandulifera, with in vitro growth inhibitory activity in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cimmino, Alessio; Mathieu, Véronique; Evidente, Marco; Ferderin, Marlène; Moreno Y Banuls, Laetitia; Masi, Marco; De Carvalho, Annelise; Kiss, Robert; Evidente, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    Impatiens glandulifera has been imported from Himalaya in Europe and is considered as an invasive alien plant whose spreading arouses increasing interest among scientific literature. Via anti-cancer bioguiding, two new glucosylated steroids, named glanduliferins A and B, were isolated from the dried stem of I. glandulifera plants, together with the well-known α-spinasterol and 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, which are also isolated from roots and leaves. They were characterized as 17-(2-hydroxy-2-pentamethylcyclopropyl-ethyl)-10,13-dimethyl-2,3,4,5,6,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-tetradecahydro-1H-cyclopents[a]phenathren-3-O-(4-O-acetyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside and 17-(4-ethyl-1,5-dimethyl-hex-2-enyl)-10,13-dimethyl-2,3,4,5,6,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-tetradecahydro-1H-cyclopents[a]phenathren-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside using various NMR and HRESIMS techniques and chemical methods. In vitro determination of the growth inhibitory activity of the four isolated compounds using the MTT colorimetric assay revealed mean IC50 growth inhibitory value of ~30 μM for glanduliferin A while glanduliferin B and α-spinasterol were poorly active till 100 μM. 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone revealed to be active in the single micromolar digit range as previously described. Quantitative videomicroscopy analyses of the effects of glanduliferins A and B suggested cytostatic rather than cytotoxic activity in U373 glioblastoma (GBM) cells. PMID:26732071

  3. Inhibitory effect of BCG cell-wall skeletons (BCG-CWS) emulsified in squalane on tumor growth and metastasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yung Choon; Hata, Katsusuke; Lee, Kyung Bok; Azuma, Ichiro

    2002-08-01

    The antimetastatic effect of BCG-CWS, which was emulsified in an oil-in-water form with either Drakeol 6VR mineral oil (BCG-CWS/DK) or squalane (BCG-CWS/SQA), on lung metastasis produced by highly metastatic murine tumor cells, Colon26-M3.1 carcinoma cells and B16-BL6 melanoma cells, was investigated in syngeneic mice. An intravenous (i.v.) administration of BCG-CWS (100 mg/mouse) 1 day after tumor inoculation significantly inhibited tumor metastasis of both Colon26-M3.1 carcinoma and B16-BL6 melanoma cells in experimental lung metastasis models. No differences in the antitumor activity of the two oil-based formulations (BCG-CWS/DK and BCG-CWS/SQA) were obverved. However, BCG-CWS/SQA administered through subcutaneous (s.c.) route was shown to be effective only when it was consecutively injected (3 times) after tumor inoculation. An in vivo analysis for tumor-induced angiogenesis showed that a single i.v. administration of BCG-CWS/SQA inhibited the number of tumor-induced blood vessels and suppressed tumor growth. Furthermore, the multiple administration of BCG-CWS/SQA given at on week intervals led to a significant reduction in spontaneous lung metastasis of B16-BL6 melanoma cells in a spontaneous metastasis model. These results suggest that BCG-CWS emulsified with squalane is a potent inhibitory agent of lung metastasis, and that the antimetastatic effect of BCG-CWS is related to the suppression of tumor growth and the inhibition of tumor-induced angiogenesis.

  4. Predictors of Longitudinal Growth in Inhibitory Control in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moilanen, Kristin L.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, we examined latent growth in 731 young children's inhibitory control from the ages of two to four years, and whether demographic characteristics or parenting behaviors were related to initial levels and growth in inhibitory control. As part of an ongoing longitudinal evaluation of the family check-up, children's inhibitory…

  5. Inhibitory effect of RNA-mediated knockdown of zinc finger protein 91 pseudogene on pancreatic cancer cell growth and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weiyi; Li, Ning; Hu, Jiong; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, human pancreatic cancer is a rare malignancy with a poor prognosis. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to have a crucial role in cancer occurrence and progression; however, the role of pseudogene-expressed lncRNAs, a major type of lncRNA, have not been thoroughly analyzed in cancer. Therefore, the present study focused on zinc finger protein 91 pseudogene (ZFP91-P). ZFP91-P expression was initially detected in two pancreatic cancer cell lines by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and the highest expression of ZFP91-P was found in the BXPC-3-H cell line. Subsequently, BXPC-3-H cells were transfected with ZFP91-P short hairpin RNA (shRNA) using a plasmid vector and termed shZFP91-P. Cells transfected with negative control plasmid vector were termed shCon. MTT and Transwell assays were performed to analyze the proliferation and migration of BXPC-3-H cells, respectively, and western blotting was used to detect epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers, including vimentin and β-catenin. The present study showed that depletion of ZFP91-P markedly decreased pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and inhibited cell migration capacity. In addition, the expression of β-catenin increased while vimentin expression decreased. The current findings suggest that high expression of ZFP91-P promotes the migration of BXPC-3-H cells and may be a novel marker for early diagnosis for pancreatic cancer. PMID:27446435

  6. Growth inhibitory effects of miR-221 and miR-222 in non-small cell lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Ryo; Sato, Mitsuo; Kakumu, Tomohiko; Hase, Tetsunari; Yogo, Naoyuki; Maruyama, Eiichi; Sekido, Yoshitaka; Kondo, Masashi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Both pro- and anti-oncogenic roles of miR-221 and miR-222 microRNAs are reported in several types of human cancers. A previous study suggested their oncogenic role in invasiveness in lung cancer, albeit only one cell line (H460) was used. To further evaluate involvement of miR-221 and miR-222 in lung cancer, we investigated the effects of miR-221 and miR-222 overexpression on six lung cancer cell lines, including H460, as well as one immortalized normal human bronchial epithelial cell line, HBEC4. miR-221 and miR-222 induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like changes in a minority of HBEC4 cells but, unexpectedly, both the microRNAs rather suppressed their invasiveness. Consistent with the prior report, miR-221 and miR-222 promoted growth in H460; however, miR-221 suppressed growth in four other cell lines with no effects in one, and miR-222 suppressed growth in three cell lines but promoted growth in two. These are the first results to show tumor-suppressive effects of miR-221 and miR-222 in lung cancer cells, and we focused on clarifying the mechanisms. Cell cycle and apoptosis analyses revealed that growth suppression by miR-221 and miR-222 occurred through intra-S-phase arrest and/or apoptosis. Finally, lung cancer cell lines transfected with miR-221 or miR-222 became more sensitive to the S-phase targeting drugs, possibly due to an increased S-phase population. In conclusion, our data are the first to show tumor-suppressive effects of miR-221 and miR-222 on lung cancer, warranting testing their potential as therapeutics for the disease. PMID:25641933

  7. Synergistic growth inhibitory effect of deracoxib with doxorubicin against a canine mammary tumor cell line, CMT-U27

    PubMed Central

    BAKIREL, Tülay; ALKAN, Fulya Üstün; ÜSTÜNER, Oya; ÇINAR, Suzan; YILDIRIM, Funda; ERTEN, Gaye; BAKIREL, Utku

    2016-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors have been shown to exert anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activities on many types of malignant tumors. These anticancer properties make it worthwhile to examine the possible benefit of combining COX inhibitors with other anti-cancer agents. In the present study, we evaluated the potential of deracoxib (DER) in potentiating antitumor activity of doxorubicin (DOX) in canine mammary carcinoma cells (CMT-U27). DER (50–250 µM) enhanced the antiproliferative activity of DOX by reducing the IC50 (approximately 3- to 3.5 fold). Interaction analysis of the data showed that combinations of DOX at 0.9 µM with DER (100–250 µM) produced synergism in the CMT-U27 cell line, with a ratio index ranging from 1.98 to 2.33. In additional studies identifying the mechanism of observed synergistic effect, we found that DER strongly potentiated DOX-caused G0/G1 arrest in cell cycle progression. Also, DER (100–250 µM) augmented apoptosis induction with approximately 1.35- and 1.37- fold increases in apoptotic response caused by DOX in the cells. DER enhanced the antiproliferative effect of DOX in conjunction with induction of apoptosis by modulation of Bcl-2 expression and changes in the cell cycle of the CMT-U27 cell line. Although the exact molecular mechanism of the alterations in the cell cycle and apoptosis observed with DER and DOX combinations require further investigations, the results suggest that the synergistic effect of DOX and DER combinations in CMT therapy may be achieved at relatively lower doses of DOX with lesser side effects. Therefore, combining DER with DOX may prove beneficial in the clinical treatment of canine mammary cancer. PMID:26822118

  8. The targeted inhibitory effects of human amniotic fluid stem cells carrying CXCR4 promoter and DAL-1 on non-small cell lung carcinoma growth.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Li, S; Cai, T; Wang, H; Xie, X; Liu, Z; Zhang, Y

    2016-02-01

    The differentially expressed in adenocarcinoma of the lung-1 (DAL-1) protein has been demonstrated to be suppressive to various types of tumors including lung cancer. This study aimed to determine the targeted effects of human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFS cells) carrying CXCR4 promoter driven conditionally replicable adenovirus vector overexpressing DAL-1 (Ad-CXCR4-DAL-1) on non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) growth. The apoptotic effects of virus vectors were assessed using flow cytometry, and the cytotoxicity analyzed by CCK-8 assay. In vivo imaging system was used to determine the homing capability of hAFS cells. A549 cell xenograft mouse model was created to assess the in vivo effect of DAL-1 overexpression on NSCLC growth. We found that infection of Ad-CXCR4-DAL-1 increased the apoptosis of A549 NSCLC cells but not 16HBE normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Ad-CXCR4-DAL-1 administered via intratumoral injection led to significant reduced growth and greater necrosis of A549 xenograft tumors comparing to null vector treated animals. When infused via tail vein, hAFS cells carrying Ad-CXCR4-DAL-1 homed to lung cancer xenografts, caused virus replication and DAL-1 overexpression, and led to significant lower growth and greater necrosis of A549 cell xenografts comparing to non-treatment control. In conclusion, hAFS cells are capable of carrying Ad-CXCR4-DAL-1 vectors, specifically targeting to lung cancer, and causing oncolytic effects when administered in vivo.

  9. Plant-derived SAC domain of PAR-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4) exhibits growth inhibitory effects in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Shayan; Jain, Sumeet; Rai, Vineeta; Sahoo, Dipak K.; Raha, Sumita; Suklabaidya, Sujit; Senapati, Shantibhusan; Rangnekar, Vivek M.; Maiti, Indu B.; Dey, Nrisingha

    2015-01-01

    The gene Par-4 (Prostate Apoptosis Response 4) was originally identified in prostate cancer cells undergoing apoptosis and its product Par-4 showed cancer specific pro-apoptotic activity. Particularly, the SAC domain of Par-4 (SAC-Par-4) selectively kills cancer cells leaving normal cells unaffected. The therapeutic significance of bioactive SAC-Par-4 is enormous in cancer biology; however, its large scale production is still a matter of concern. Here we report the production of SAC-Par-4-GFP fusion protein coupled to translational enhancer sequence (5′ AMV) and apoplast signal peptide (aTP) in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN plants under the control of a unique recombinant promoter M24. Transgene integration was confirmed by genomic DNA PCR, Southern and Northern blotting, Real-time PCR, and Nuclear run-on assays. Results of Western blot analysis and ELISA confirmed expression of recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP protein and it was as high as 0.15% of total soluble protein. In addition, we found that targeting of plant recombinant SAC-Par-4-GFP to the apoplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was essential for the stability of plant recombinant protein in comparison to the bacterial derived SAC-Par-4. Deglycosylation analysis demonstrated that ER-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP-SEKDEL undergoes O-linked glycosylation unlike apoplast-targeted SAC-Par-4-GFP. Furthermore, various in vitro studies like mammalian cells proliferation assay (MTT), apoptosis induction assays, and NF-κB suppression suggested the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of plant-derived SAC-Par-4-GFP against multiple prostate cancer cell lines. Additionally, pre-treatment of MAT-LyLu prostate cancer cells with purified SAC-Par-4-GFP significantly delayed the onset of tumor in a syngeneic rat prostate cancer model. Taken altogether, we proclaim that plant made SAC-Par-4 may become a useful alternate therapy for effectively alleviating cancer in the new era. PMID:26500666

  10. Inhibitory effect of six green tea catechins and caffeine on the growth of four selected human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Valcic, S; Timmermann, B N; Alberts, D S; Wächter, G A; Krutzsch, M; Wymer, J; Guillén, J M

    1996-06-01

    Green tea is an aqueous infusion of dried unfermented leaves of Camellia sinensis (family Theaceae) from which numerous biological activities have been reported including antimutagenic, antibacterial, hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, antitumor and cancer preventive activities. From the aqueous-alcoholic extract of green tea leaves, six compounds (+)-gallocatechin (GC), (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and caffeine, were isolated and purified. Together with (+)-catechin, these compounds were tested against each of four human tumor cells lines (MCF-7 breast carcinoma, HT-29 colon carcinoma, A-427 lung carcinoma and UACC-375 melanoma). The three most potent green tea components against all four tumor cell lines were EGCG, GC and EGC. EGCG was the most potent of the seven green tea components against three out of the four cell lines (i.e. MCF-7 breast cancer, HT-29 colon cancer and UACC-375 melanoma). On the basis of these extensive in vitro studies, it would be of considerable interest to evaluate all three of these components in comparative preclinical in vivo animal tumor model systems before final decisions are made concerning which of these potential chemopreventive drugs should be taken into broad clinical trials.

  11. Characterization, Purification of Poncirin from Edible Citrus Ougan (Citrus reticulate cv. Suavissima) and Its Growth Inhibitory Effect on Human Gastric Cancer Cells SGC-7901

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Luo, Fenglei; Zheng, Yixiong; Zhang, Jiukai; Huang, Jianzhen; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2013-01-01

    Poncirin is a bitter flavanone glycoside with various biological activities. Poncirin was isolated from four different tissues (flavedo, albedo, segment membrane, and juice sac) of Ougan fruit (Citrus reticulate cv. Suavissima). The highest content of poncirin was found in the albedo of Ougan fruit (1.37 mg/g DW). High speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) combined with D101 resin chromatography was utilized for the separation and purification of poncirin from the albedo of Ougan fruit. After this two-step purification, poncirin purity increased from 0.14% to 96.56%. The chemical structure of the purified poncirin was identified by both HPLC-PDA and LC-MS. Poncirin showed a significant in vitro inhibitory effect on the growth of the human gastric cancer cells, SGC-7901, in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, poncirin from Ougan fruit, may be beneficial for gastric cancer prevention. The purification method demonstrated here will be useful for further studies on the pharmacological mechanism of poncirin activity, as well as for guiding the consumption of Ougan fruit. PMID:23615464

  12. Polymethoxyflavones as agents that prevent formation of cataract: nobiletin congeners show potent growth inhibitory effects in human lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Yoshiki; Oshitari, Tetsuta; Okuyama, Yuji; Shimada, Arata; Takahashi, Hideyo; Natsugari, Hideaki; Kosano, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Posterior capsular opacification (PCO) is the most frequent complication and the primary reason for visual decrease after extracapsular cataract surgery. The proliferation and migration of leftover lens epithelial cells (LECs) after surgery may contribute to the development of PCO. To prevent PCO, a rational approach would be to inhibit both the proliferation and the migration of LECs using nontoxic xenobiotics. Nobiletin, one of the most abundant polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) in citrus peel, and its synthetic congeners displayed a potent inhibition of LEC proliferation. Structural features which enhance anti-proliferative activity have also been discussed.

  13. Elevated serum levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and stem cell growth factor β in patients with idiopathic and systemic sclerosis associated pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Stefanantoni, K; Sciarra, I; Vasile, M; Badagliacca, R; Poscia, R; Pendolino, M; Alessandri, C; Vizza, C D; Valesini, G; Riccieri, V

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) can be idiopathic or secondary to autoimmune diseases, and it represents one of the most threatening complications of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine with proinflammatory functions that appears to be involved in the pathogenesis of hypoxia-induced PH. In SSc patients, high serum levels of MIF have been associated with the development of ulcers and PAH. Stem cell growth factor β (SCGF β) is a human growth factor that, together with MIF, is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic spinal cord injury. The aim of our study was to measure serum levels of MIF in patients with idiopathic and SSc-associated PAH. We enrolled 13 patients with idiopathic PAH and 15 with SSc-associated PAH. We also selected 14 SSc patients without PAH and 12 normal healthy controls, matched for sex and age. PAH was confirmed by right hearth catheterism (mPAP>25 mmHg). MIF and SCGF β levels were measured by ELISA. We found significantly higher circulating levels of MIF and of SCGF β in patients with idiopathic PAH (P=0.03 and P=0.004) and with PAH secondary to SSc (P=0.018 and P=0.023) compared to SSc patients without PAH. Higher levels of MIF were found in those patients with an higher New York Heart Association (NYHA) class (P=0.03). We can hypothesize that MIF and SCGF β are able to play a role in PAH, both idiopathic or secondary, and in the future they may be evaluated as useful biomarkers and prognostic factors for this serious vascular disease.

  14. Flavonoids with epidermal growth factor-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity stimulate PEPT1-mediated cefixime uptake into human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, U; Kuntz, S; Daniel, H

    2001-10-01

    We have tested 33 flavonoids, occurring ubiquitously in foods of plant origin, for their ability to alter the transport of the beta-lactam antibiotic cefixime via the H+-coupled intestinal peptide transporter PEPT1 in the human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2. Of the flavonoids tested, quercetin, genistein, naringin, diosmin, acacetin, and chrysin increased uptake of [14C]cefixime dose dependently by up to 60%. All other flavonoids were either without effect or decreased the absorption of cefixime. Quercetin was shown to increase the Vmax of cefixime influx without changing the apparent Km for transport. However, the expected concomitant increase in intracellular acidification due to PEPT1-mediated cefixime/H+-cotransport was less pronounced in the presence of quercetin. This suggested that pH regulatory systems such as apical Na+/H+-exchange could be activated by quercetin and maintain the proton-motive driving force for cefixime uptake. Since quercetin and genistein have been shown to inhibit epidermal growth factor (EGF)-receptor tyrosine kinases, we applied tyrphostin 25 to prove whether such an inhibition could explain the stimulatory effects seen on cefixime uptake. It was found that tyrphostin 25 simulated the effects of quercetin by increasing cefixime absorption due to maintenance of the transmembrane pH gradient. In conclusion, our studies show that flavonoids with EGF-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitory activities enhance the intestinal absorption of the beta-lactam antibiotic cefixime in Caco-2 cells by activation of apical Na+/H+-exchange and a concomitant increase of the driving force for PEPT1.

  15. Leea indica Ethyl Acetate Fraction Induces Growth-Inhibitory Effect in Various Cancer Cell Lines and Apoptosis in Ca Ski Human Cervical Epidermoid Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yau Hsiung, Wong; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

    2011-01-01

    The anticancer potential of Leea indica, a Chinese medicinal plant was investigated for the first time. The crude ethanol extract and fractions (ethyl acetate, hexane, and water) of Leea indica were evaluated their cytotoxicity on various cell lines (Ca Ski, MCF 7, MDA-MB-435, KB, HEP G2, WRL 68, and Vero) by MTT assay. Leea indica ethyl acetate fraction (LIEAF) was found showing the greatest cytotoxic effect against Ca Ski cervical cancer cells. Typical apoptotic morphological changes such as DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation were observed in LIEAF-treated cells. Early signs of apoptosis such as externalization of phosphatidylserine and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential indicated apoptosis induction. This was further substantiated by dose- and time-dependent accumulation of sub-G1 cells, depletion of intracellular glutathione, and activation of caspase-3. In conclusion, these results suggested that LIEAF inhibited cervical cancer cells growth by inducing apoptosis and could be developed as potential anticancer drugs. PMID:21423690

  16. A Peculiar Molecular Profile of Umbilical Cord-Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Drives Their Inhibitory Effects on Multiple Myeloma Cell Growth and Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Ciavarella, Sabino; Caselli, Anna; Tamma, Antonella Valentina; Savonarola, Annalisa; Loverro, Giuseppe; Paganelli, Roberto; Tucci, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) are under intensive investigation in preclinical models of cytotherapies against cancer, including multiple myeloma (MM). However, the therapeutic use of stromal progenitors holds critical safety concerns due to their potential MM-supporting activity in vivo. Here, we explored whether MSCs from sources other than BM, such as adipose tissue (AD-MSCs) and umbilical cord (UC-MSCs), affect MM cell growth in comparison to either normal (nBM-MSCs) or myelomatous marrow MSCs (MM-BM-MSCs). Results from both proliferation and clonogenic assays indicated that, in contrast to nBM- and MM-BM-MSCs, both AD and particularly UC-MSCs significantly inhibit MM cell clonogenicity and growth in vitro. Furthermore, when co-injected with UC-MSCs into mice, RPMI-8226 MM cells formed smaller subcutaneous tumor masses, while peritumoral injections of the same MSC subtype significantly delayed the tumor burden growing in subcutaneous plasmocytoma-bearing mice. Finally, both microarrays and ELISA revealed different expression of several genes and soluble factors in UC-MSCs as compared with other MSCs. Our data suggest that UC-MSCs have a distinct molecular profile that correlates with their intrinsic anti-MM activity and emphasize the UCs as ideal sources of MSCs for future cell-based therapies against MM. PMID:25758779

  17. The inhibitory effect of dexamethasone on platelet-derived growth factor-induced vascular smooth muscle cell migration through up-regulating PGC-1{alpha} expression

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wei; Guo, Ting; Zhang, Yan; Jiang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Yongxian; Zen, Ke; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Chen-Yu

    2011-05-01

    Dexamethasone has been shown to inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration, which is required for preventing restenosis. However, the mechanism underlying effect of dexamethasone remains unknown. We have previously demonstrated that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1{alpha}) can inhibit VSMC migration and proliferation. Here, we investigated the role of PGC-1{alpha} in dexamethasone-reduced VSMC migration and explored the possible mechanism. We first examined PGC-1{alpha} expression in cultured rat aortic VSMCs. The results revealed that incubation of VSMCs with dexamethasone could significantly elevate PGC-1{alpha} mRNA expression. In contrast, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) decreased PGC-1{alpha} expression while stimulating VSMC migration. Mechanistic study showed that suppression of PGC-1{alpha} by small interfering RNA strongly abrogated the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone on VSMC migration, whereas overexpression of PGC-1{alpha} had the opposite effect. Furthermore, an analysis of MAPK signal pathways showed that dexamethasone inhibited ERK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation in VSMCs. Overexpression of PGC-1{alpha} decreased both basal and PDGF-induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation, but it had no effect on ERK phosphorylation. Finally, inhibition of PPAR{gamma} activation by a PPAR{gamma} antagonist GW9662 abolished the suppressive effects of PGC-1{alpha} on p38 MAPK phosphorylation and VSMC migration. These effects of PGC-1{alpha} were enhanced by a PPAR{gamma} agonist troglitazone. Collectively, our data indicated for the first time that one of the anti-migrated mechanisms of dexamethasone is due to the induction of PGC-1{alpha} expression. PGC-1{alpha} suppresses PDGF-induced VSMC migration through PPAR{gamma} coactivation and, consequently, p38 MAPK inhibition.

  18. Growth kinetic model that describes the inhibitory and lytic effects of phenol on Candida tropicalis yeast.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Ordaz, N; Hernández-Manzano, E; Ruiz-Lagúnez, J C; Cristiani-Urbina, E; Galíndez-Mayer, J

    1998-01-01

    The object of this work was to carry out a kinetic study on the Candida tropicalis cell lysis and to obtain a kinetic model that would describe the inhibitory and lytic effects of phenol on the yeast growth. From the experiments, a model for the growth kinetic behavior of the yeast was evolved. The proposed model describes satisfactorily the inhibitory and lytic effects of phenol on yeast cultures. From the kinetic model constants, it was found that C. tropicalis showed high affinity and tolerance toward phenol. The overall growth yields decreased when the initial phenol concentration increased, and it may be due to an increased maintenance coefficient and to cell lysis.

  19. Structure-activity relationships of benzhydrol derivatives based on 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) and their inhibitory activities on multiple myeloma cell growth via inactivation of the NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Takashi; Dodo, Kosuke; Ishikawa, Minoru; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Sagawa, Morihiko; Kizaki, Masahiro; Aoyama, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), which was isolated from the rhizomes of Zingiberaceae, exhibits various biological actions, including anti-inflammatory, anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and anti-cancer activities. ACA represents an attractive candidate for the treatment of many cancers. We herein examined the structure-activity relationships of ACA derivatives based on the benzhydrol skeleton in human leukemia cells (HL-60). Our results revealed that the ACA derivatives synthesized (ACA, 1, and 18) had inhibitory effects on the growth of multiple myeloma cells (IM-9 cells) by inactivating the NF-κB pathway.

  20. Contradicting interplay between insulin-like growth factor-1 and miR-486-5p in primary NK cells and hepatoma cell lines with a contemporary inhibitory impact on HCC tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Youness, Rana Ahmed; Rahmoon, Mai Atef; Assal, Reem Amr; Gomaa, Asmaa Ibrahim; Hamza, Mohamed Tarif; Waked, Imam; El Tayebi, Hend Mohamed; Abdelaziz, Ahmed Ihab

    2016-08-01

    In this study, an impaired natural killer (NK) cell cytolytic activity in 135 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients parallel to a reduced expression level of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 in NK cells of HCC patients has been revealed. Ectopic expression of miR-486-5p, a direct upstream regulator of IGF-1, restored the endogenous level of IGF-1 in NK cells of HCC patients, thus augmenting its cytolytic activity against Huh7 cells in an opposite manner to the IGF-1 siRNAs. Unorthodoxly, over-expression of miR-486-5p in target hepatocytes resulted in the repression of IGF-1, suppression of Huh7 cells proliferation and viability in a similar pattern to the IGF-1 siRNAs. Therefore, this study highlights a potential role of IGF-1 in modulating cytolytic potential of NK cells of HCC patients. miR-486-5p acts in a cell-specific manner, differentially modulating IGF-1 expression in NK cells and their target hepatocytes with a contemporary inhibitory impact on HCC progression.

  1. Conditions for production, and some characteristics, of mycobacterial growth inhibitory factor produced by spleen cells from mice immunized with viable cells of the attenuated H37Ra strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Cahall, D L; Youmans, G P

    1975-10-01

    Mycobacterial growth inhibitory factor (MycoIF), found in supernatant fluids of mouse spleen cell cultures that have been stimulated in vitro with homologous antigen, inhibited the intracellular multiplication of virulent tubercle bacilli within normal mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. Antigenically stimulated H37Ra-immunized mouse spleen cells required 72 h of incubation to produce supernatant fluids that would cause intracellular inhibition. Supernatant fluids from 48-h mouse spleen cell cultures were not able to produce intracellular inhibition. Investigation of the culture conditions showed that at lease 1.0% human serum was required in the tissue culture medium for the production of MycoIF by spleen cells from immunized mice. MycoIF activity was noted only in supernatant fluids from spleen cell cultures incubated with antigen for 72 h. MycoIF was nondialyzable and unaffected by freezing, lyophilization, or incubation at 60 C for 30 min. However, MycoIF was inactivated after incubation at 80 C for 30 min. MycoIF was unaffected by low hydrogen ion concentrations (pH 7 to 12), but exposure to higher hydrogen ion concentrations (pH 6, pH 5) significantly decrease MycoIF activity, and exposure to pH 4 to 2 abolished all activity. Supernatant fluids diluted 1:32 were still able to produce significant intracellular inhibition of growth of virulent tubercle bacilli.

  2. Cell cycle-specific growth inhibitory effect on human gingival fibroblasts of a toxin isolated from the culture medium of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed

    Helgeland, K; Nordby, O

    1993-05-01

    A toxin isolated from the growth medium of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans by ammonium sulfate precipitation was shown to inhibit irreversibly the multiplication of human gingival fibroblasts. DNA histograms from flow cytometric measurements showed that the cells accumulated preferentially in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Such cells exhibited sheetlike protrusions, and an increased frequency of micronuclei was evident in cells treated with low concentrations of the toxin. Toxin-treated cells were viable for several weeks, as shown by staining with trypan blue and fluorescein diacetate, and the general cell metabolism as measured by oxygen consumption was unimpaired. PMID:8496779

  3. Identification and characterization of CMTM4, a novel gene with inhibitory effects on HeLa cell growth through Inducing G2/M phase accumulation.

    PubMed

    Plate, Markus; Li, Ting; Wang, Yu; Mo, Xiaoning; Zhang, Yingmei; Ma, Dalong; Han, Wenling

    2010-04-01

    Human CMTM is a novel gene family consisting of CKLF and CMTM1-8. CMTM4 is the most conserved gene and has three RNA splicing forms designated as CMTM4-v1, -v2 and -v3, but in many types of tissue and cell lines, only CMTM4-v1 and -v2 could be detected. CMTM4-v2 is the full length cDNA product, which has been highly conserved during evolution. CMTM4-v1 and -v2 are broadly expressed in normal types of tissue. They are distributed on the cell membrane and across the cytoplasm in a speckled pattern. Overexpression of CMTM4-v1 and -v2 can inhibit HeLa cell growth via G2/M phase accumulation without inducing apoptosis. Therefore, CMTM4 might be an important gene involved in cell growth and cell cycle regulation. PMID:20213316

  4. Inhibitory effects of a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist on basal and epidermal growth factor-induced cell proliferation and metastasis-associated properties in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Tang; Hwang, Jiuan-Jiuan; Lee, Lung-Ta; Liebow, Charles; Lee, Ping-Ping H; Ke, Ferng-Chun; Lo, Tung-Bin; Schally, Andrew V; Lee, Ming-Ting

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a potent LHRH agonist, [D-Trp(6)]LHRH on the basal and EGF-induced cell proliferation and the metastasis-associated properties in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma. [D-Trp(6)]LHRH time-dependently inhibited the basal and EGF-stimulated growth of A431 cancer cells. It is assumed that phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of cellular proteins is highly related to cell growth. This study demonstrates that [D-Trp(6)]LHRH decreased the basal and EGF-induced total cellular kinase activity, particularly the tyrosine phosphorylation of several cellular proteins including the EGFR. In contrast, [D-Trp(6)]LHRH did not cause detectable changes in basal and EGF-stimulated serine/threonine phosphorylation of A431 cellular proteins. The inhibitory effect of [D-Trp(6)]LHRH on A431 cell proliferation was associated with apoptosis as evidenced by the cell morphology and DNA integrity (ladder pattern), the expression of interleukin 1beta-converting enzyme (ICE) and activation of caspase. Furthermore, EGF could rescue the remaining attached A431 cells following [D-Trp(6)]LHRH treatment for 48 hr, which suggests that limited exposure to [D-Trp(6)]LHRH did not channel all cells to irreversible apoptotic process. We also determined the effects of [D-Trp(6)]LHRH on metastasis-associated properties in A431 cells. [D-Trp(6)]LHRH reduced both basal and EGF-stimulated secretion of MMP-9 and MMP-2. In addition, [D-Trp(6)]LHRH suppressed the basal and EGF-induced invasive activity of A431 cells based on an in vitro invasion assay. In conclusion, this study indicates that [D-Trp(6)]LHRH may act partly through activating tyrosine phosphatase activity to inhibit cell proliferation and the metastasis-associated properties of A431 cancer cells. Our work suggests that [D-Trp(6)]LHRH may be therapeutically useful in limiting the tumor growth and metastasis of some neoplasms.

  5. Five novel naphthylisoquinoline alkaloids with growth inhibitory activities against human leukemia cells HL-60, K562 and U937 from stems and leaves of Ancistrocladus tectorius.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chao; Li, Zhan-Lin; Gong, Ping; Kang, Sheng-Li; Liu, Ming-Sheng; Pei, Yue-Hu; Jing, Yong-Kui; Hua, Hui-Ming

    2013-12-01

    Two new 7,6'-coupled naphthylisoquinolines, namely ancistrotectorines A (1) and B (2), two new 5,3'-coupled naphthylisoquinolines, namely ancistrotectorines C (3) and D (4), and one new 7,8-coupled naphthylisoquinoline, namely ancistrotectorine E (5), together with 9 known naphthylisoquinoline alkaloids, hamatine (6), ancistrobertsonine B (7), ancistrocladinine (8), hamatinine (9), ancistrotanzanine A (10), ancistrotanzanine B (11), ancistrotectoriline B (12), 7-epi-ancistrobrevine D (13), and ancistrotectorine (14), were isolated from the 70% EtOH extract of Ancistrocladus tectorius. Their structures were elucidated based on the extensive analysis of spectroscopic data (1D, 2D NMR and MS). Compound 5 exhibited inhibitory activities against HL-60, K562 and U937 cell lines with IC50 values of 1.70, 4.18 and 2.56 μM respectively.

  6. In Search of the Molecular Mechanisms Mediating the Inhibitory Effect of the GnRH Antagonist Degarelix on Human Prostate Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Monica; Martinez-Arguelles, Daniel B.; Patterson, Nathan H.; Chaurand, Pierre; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2015-01-01

    Degarelix is a gonadrotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor (GnRHR) antagonist used in patients with prostate cancer who need androgen deprivation therapy. GnRHRs have been found in extra-pituitary tissues, including prostate, which may be affected by the GnRH and GnRH analogues used in therapy. The direct effect of degarelix on human prostate cell growth was evaluated. Normal prostate myofibroblast WPMY-1 and epithelial WPE1-NA22 cells, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)-1 cells, androgen-independent PC-3 and androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cells, as well as VCaP cells derived from a patient with castration-resistant prostate cancer were used. Discriminatory protein and lipid fingerprints of normal, hyperplastic, and cancer cells were generated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS). The investigated cell lines express GNRHR1 and GNRHR2 and their endogenous ligands. Degarelix treatment reduced cell viability in all prostate cell lines tested, with the exception of the PC-3 cells; this can be attributed to increased apoptosis, as indicated by increased caspase 3/7, 8 and 9 levels. WPE1-NA22, BPH-1, LNCaP, and VCaP cell viability was not affected by treatment with the GnRH agonists leuprolide and goserelin. Using MALDI MS, we detected changes in m/z signals that were robust enough to create a complete discriminatory profile induced by degarelix. Transcriptomic analysis of BPH-1 cells provided a global map of genes affected by degarelix and indicated that the biological processes affected were related to cell growth, G-coupled receptors, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, angiogenesis and cell adhesion. Taken together, these data demonstrate that (i) the GnRH antagonist degarelix exerts a direct effect on prostate cell growth through apoptosis; (ii) MALDI MS analysis provided a basis to fingerprint degarelix-treated prostate cells; and (iii) the clusters of genes affected by degarelix suggest that

  7. Mechanism of growth inhibitory effect of Blumea balsamifera extract in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Norikura, Toshio; Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko; Shimizu, Miki; Huang, Xuedan; Xu, Shenghui; Kametani, Saeda; Rho, Sook-Nyung; Kennedy, David Opare; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao

    2008-05-01

    Blumea balsamifera is known to improve physiological disorders such as rheumatism and hypertension, but its anticancer activity has not been well elucidated. In this study, we found that Blumea balsamifera MeOH extract (BME) induced growth-inhibitory activity in rat and human hepatocellular carcinoma cells without cytotoxicity in rat hepatocytes which were used as a normal cell model. BME induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase via decreases in the expression of cyclin-E and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. Furthermore, BME reduced the level of a proliferation-inducing ligand, that stimulates tumor cell growth. These findings suggest that BME has possible therapeutic potential in hepatoma cancer patients and that depletion of cellular APRIL is an important mechanism in the growth-inhibitory effect of BME. PMID:18460811

  8. Inhibitory Receptors Beyond T Cell Exhaustion

    PubMed Central

    Fuertes Marraco, Silvia A.; Neubert, Natalie J.; Verdeil, Grégory; Speiser, Daniel E.

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitory receptors (iRs) are frequently associated with “T cell exhaustion”. However, the expression of iRs is also dependent on T cell differentiation and activation. Therapeutic blockade of various iRs, also referred to as “checkpoint blockade”, is showing ­unprecedented results in the treatment of cancer patients. Consequently, the clinical potential in this field is broad, calling for increased research efforts and rapid refinements in the understanding of iR function. In this review, we provide an overview on the significance of iR expression for the interpretation of T cell functionality. We summarize how iRs have been strongly associated with “T cell exhaustion” and illustrate the parallel evidence on the importance of T cell differentiation and activation for the expression of iRs. The differentiation subsets of CD8 T cells (naïve, effector, and memory cells) show broad and inherent differences in iR expression, while activation leads to strong upregulation of iRs. Therefore, changes in iR expression during an immune response are often concomitant with T cell differentiation and activation. Sustained expression of iRs in chronic infection and in the tumor microenvironment likely reflects a specialized T cell differentiation. In these situations of prolonged antigen exposure and chronic inflammation, T cells are “downtuned” in order to limit tissue damage. Furthermore, we review the novel “checkpoint blockade” treatments and the potential of iRs as biomarkers. Finally, we provide recommendations for the immune monitoring of patients to interpret iR expression data combined with parameters of activation and differentiation of T cells. PMID:26167163

  9. Gene expression associations with the growth inhibitory effects of small molecules on live cells: specificity of effects and uniformity of mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Shedden, Kerby; Yang, Yang; Rosania, Gus

    2010-01-01

    The NCI60 human tumor cell line screen is a public resource for studying selective and non-selective growth inhibition of small molecules against cancer cells. By coupling growth inhibition screening data with biological characterizations of the different cell lines, it becomes possible to infer mechanisms of action underlying some of the observable patterns of selective activity. Using these data, mechanistic relationships have been identified including specific associations between single genes and small families of closely related compounds, and less specific relationships between biological processes involving several cooperating genes and broader families of compounds. Here we aim to characterize the degree to which such specific and general relationships are present in these data. A related question is whether genes tend to act with a uniform mechanism for all associated compounds, or whether multiple mechanisms are commonly involved. We address these two issues in a statistical framework placing special emphasis on the effects of measurement error in the gene expression and chemical screening data. We find that as measurement accuracy increases, the pattern of apparent associations shifts from one dominated by isolated gene/compound pairs, to one in which families consisting of an average of 25 compounds are associated to the same gene. At the same time, the number of genes that appear to play a role in influencing compound activities decreases. For less than half of the genes, the presence of both positive and negative correlations indicates pleiotropic associations with molecules via different mechanisms of action. PMID:20657799

  10. Growth inhibitory effects of endotoxins from Bacteroides gingivalis and intermedius on human gingival fibroblasts in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Layman, D.L.; Diedrich, D.L.

    1987-06-01

    Purified endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide from Bacteroides gingivalis and Bacteroides intermedius caused a similar dose-dependent inhibition of growth of cultured human gingival fibroblasts as determined by /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation and direct cell count. Approximately 200 micrograms/ml endotoxin caused a 50% reduction in /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake of logarithmically growing cells. Inhibition of growth was similar in cultures of fibroblasts derived from either healthy or diseased human gingiva. When examining the change in cell number with time of exposure in culture, the rate of proliferation was significantly suppressed during the logarithmic phase of growth. However, the cells recovered so that the rate of proliferation, although reduced, was sufficient to produce a cell density similar to the control cells with prolonged culture. The endotoxins were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The profiles of the Bacteroides endotoxins were different. B. gingivalis endotoxin showed a wide range of distinct bands indicating a heterogeneous distribution of molecular species. Endotoxin from B. intermedius exhibited a few discrete low molecular weight bands, but the majority of the lipopolysaccharides electrophoresed as a diffuse band of high molecular weight material. The apparent heterogeneity of the two Bacteroides endotoxins and the similarity in growth inhibitory capacity suggest that growth inhibitory effects of these substances cannot be attributed to any polysaccharide species of endotoxin.

  11. Differential growth inhibitory effects of highly oxygenated guaianolides isolated from the Middle Eastern indigenous plant Achillea falcata in HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tohme, Rita; Al Aaraj, Lamis; Ghaddar, Tarek; Gali-Muhtasib, Hala; Saliba, Najat A; Darwiche, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants play a crucial role in traditional medicine and in the maintenance of human health worldwide. Sesquiterpene lactones represent an interesting group of plant-derived compounds that are currently being tested as lead drugs in cancer clinical trials. Achillea falcata is a medicinal plant indigenous to the Middle Eastern region and belongs to the Asteraceae family, which is known to be rich in sesquiterpene lactones. We subjected Achillea falcata extracts to bioassay-guided fractionation against the growth of HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells and identified four secotanapartholides, namely 3-β-methoxy-isosecotanapartholide (1), isosecotanapartholide (2), tanaphallin (3), and 8-hydroxy-3-methoxyisosecotanapartholide (4). Three highly oxygenated guaianolides were isolated for the first time from Achillea falcata, namely rupin A (5), chrysartemin B (6), and 1β, 2β-epoxy-3β,4α,10α-trihydroxyguaian-6α,12-olide (7). These sesquiterpene lactones showed no or minor cytotoxicity while exhibiting promising anticancer effects against HCT-116 cells. Further structure-activity relationship studies related the bioactivity of the tested compounds to their skeleton, their lipophilicity, and to the type of functional groups neighboring the main alkylating center of the molecule. PMID:23860275

  12. Preliminary investigation of the inhibitory effects of mechanical stress in tumor growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Ishita; Miga, Michael I.

    2008-03-01

    In the past years different models have been formulated to explain the growth of gliomas in the brain. The most accepted model is based on a reaction-diffusion equation that describes the growth of the tumor as two separate components- a proliferative component and an invasive component. While many improvements have been made to this basic model, the work exploring the factors that naturally inhibit growth is insufficient. It is known that stress fields affect the growth of normal tissue. Due to the rigid skull surrounding the brain, mechanical stress might be an important factor in inhibiting the growth of gliomas. A realistic model of glioma growth would have to take that inhibitory effect into account. In this work a mathematical model based on the reaction-diffusion equation was used to describe tumor growth, and the affect of mechanical stresses caused by the mass effect of tumor cells was studied. An initial tumor cell concentration with a Gaussian distribution was assumed and tumor growth was simulated for two cases- one where growth was solely governed by the reaction-diffusion equation and second where mechanical stress inhibits growth by affecting the diffusivity. All the simulations were performed using the finite difference method. The results of simulations show that the proposed mechanism of inhibition could have a significant affect on tumor growth predictions. This could have implications for varied applications in the imaging field that use growth models, such as registration and model updated surgery.

  13. Inhibitory effect of Disulfiram/copper complex on non-small cell lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Lincan; Shen, Hongmei; Zhao, Guangqiang; Yang, Runxiang; Cai, Xinyi; Zhang, Lijuan; Jin, Congguo; Huang, Yunchao

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Disulfiram and copper synergistically inhibit lung cancer cell proliferation. • Lung cancer cell colony formation ability is inhibited by Disulfiram/copper. • Disulfiram/copper increases the sensitivity of cisplatin to lung cancer cells. • Lung cancer stem cells are specifically targeted by Disulfiram/copper complex. - Abstract: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of cancer-related death in both men and women worldwide. Recently, Disulfiram has been reported to be able to inhibit glioblastoma, prostate, or breast cancer cell proliferation. In this study, the synergistic effect of Disulfiram and copper on NSCLC cell growth was investigated. Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation was detected by 1-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan (MTT) assay and cell cycle analysis. Liquid colony formation and tumor spheroid formation assays were used to evaluate their effect on cancer cell clonogenicity. Real-time PCR was performed to test the mRNA level of cancer stem cell related genes. We found that Disulfiram or copper alone did not potently inhibit NSCLC cell proliferation in vitro. However, the presence of copper significantly enhanced inhibitory effect of Disulfiram on NSCLC cell growth, indicating a synergistic effect between Disulfiram and copper. Cell cycle analysis showed that Disulfiram/copper complex caused NSCLC cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. Furthermore, Disulfiram/copper significantly increased the sensitivity of cisplatin in NSCLC cells tested by MTT assay. Liquid colony formation assay revealed that copper dramatically increased the inhibitory effect of Disulfiram on NSCLC cell colony forming ability. Disulfiram combined with copper significantly attenuated NSCLC cell spheroid formation and recuded the mRNA expression of lung cancer stem cell related genes. Our data suggest that Disulfiram/copper complex alone or combined with other chemotherapy is a potential therapeutic strategy for NSCLC patients.

  14. Inhibitory effect of ethyl acetate extract of the shaggy inc cap medicinal mushroom, Coprinus comatus (Higher Basidiomycetes) fruit bodies on cell growth of human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Rouhana-Toubi, Amal; Wasser, Solomon P; Agbarya, Abed; Fares, Fuad

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we screened organic extracts of different mushroom mycelia and picked ethyl acetate extract of Coprinus comatus as one of the most active extracts against human ovarian cancer cells. In the current study, we extracted a dry powder of C. comatus fruit bodies using ethyl acetate and examined its effect on the viability of three cell lines originated from human ovarian cancer (ES-2, SKOV-3, and SW-626). This extract was active against all tested cell lines, in a dose-dependent manner (concentrations 50-200 µg/mL, P<0.01). In an attempt to segregate the active fraction, we subjected the extract to chromatography on a silica gel column. The effect of six different fractions and of the crude extract on the viability of ES-2 cells was examined after exposure time of 24 h. Fraction F (last eluted) was significantly more effective than crude extract in the reduction of cell viability (P<0.01). Fraction F was also significantly more active than crude extract in the reduction of viability of SKOV-3 cells. We next identified some of the compounds of fraction F (mainly fatty acids) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In summary, ethyl acetate extract of C. comatus reduced viability of three lines of human ovarian cancer. Fractionation of this extract by a silica gel column enabled the selection of a fraction significantly more active than the original extract. PMID:24266371

  15. A peptide antagonist disrupts NK cell inhibitory synapse formation.

    PubMed

    Borhis, Gwenoline; Ahmed, Parvin S; Mbiribindi, Bérénice; Naiyer, Mohammed M; Davis, Daniel M; Purbhoo, Marco A; Khakoo, Salim I

    2013-03-15

    Productive engagement of MHC class I by inhibitory NK cell receptors depends on the peptide bound by the MHC class I molecule. Peptide:MHC complexes that bind weakly to killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs) can antagonize the inhibition mediated by high-affinity peptide:MHC complexes and cause NK cell activation. We show that low-affinity peptide:MHC complexes stall inhibitory signaling at the step of Src homology protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 recruitment and do not go on to form the KIR microclusters induced by high-affinity peptide:MHC, which are associated with Vav dephosphorylation and downstream signaling. Furthermore, the low-affinity peptide:MHC complexes prevented the formation of KIR microclusters by high-affinity peptide:MHC. Thus, peptide antagonism of NK cells is an active phenomenon of inhibitory synapse disruption.

  16. [Inhibitory effects of liquor cultured with Nelumbo nucifera and Nymphaea tetragona on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Hou, Wen-hua

    2007-10-01

    The inhibitory effects of liquor cultured with Nelumbo nucifera and Nymphaea tetragona on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa have been investigated by measuring the cell number and the chlorophyll a content of Microcystis aeruginosa of culture in the laboratory. The results showed that the inhibitory effects on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa with different concentration of the liquor cultured with Nelumbo nucifera and Nymphaea tetragona were dissimilar, and an evident phenomenon appeared that low concentrations could promote the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa. However, the inhibitory effects on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa with continuous liquor cultured with Nelumbo nucifera and Nymphaea tetragona were obvious, which made the algal cell almost lose the capability of photosynthesis, and the inhibitory effects of liquor cultured with Nymphaea tetragona were better than those of Nelumbo nucifera. The scale-up experiment demonstrated that the algal cell received menace and damage by measuring the activities of peroxidase (SOD) and the accumulated contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) of Microcystis aeruginosa in the co-culture. Sterilization methods influenced the algal growth inhibition experiment so that high temperature couldn't replace micropore filter, which explained that the matter excreted by Nelumbo nucifera and Nymphaea tetragona may contain thermally-instabe matter.

  17. [Inhibitory effects of liquor cultured with Nelumbo nucifera and Nymphaea tetragona on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Hou, Wen-hua

    2007-10-01

    The inhibitory effects of liquor cultured with Nelumbo nucifera and Nymphaea tetragona on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa have been investigated by measuring the cell number and the chlorophyll a content of Microcystis aeruginosa of culture in the laboratory. The results showed that the inhibitory effects on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa with different concentration of the liquor cultured with Nelumbo nucifera and Nymphaea tetragona were dissimilar, and an evident phenomenon appeared that low concentrations could promote the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa. However, the inhibitory effects on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa with continuous liquor cultured with Nelumbo nucifera and Nymphaea tetragona were obvious, which made the algal cell almost lose the capability of photosynthesis, and the inhibitory effects of liquor cultured with Nymphaea tetragona were better than those of Nelumbo nucifera. The scale-up experiment demonstrated that the algal cell received menace and damage by measuring the activities of peroxidase (SOD) and the accumulated contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) of Microcystis aeruginosa in the co-culture. Sterilization methods influenced the algal growth inhibition experiment so that high temperature couldn't replace micropore filter, which explained that the matter excreted by Nelumbo nucifera and Nymphaea tetragona may contain thermally-instabe matter. PMID:18268975

  18. Inhibitory effect of Disulfiram/copper complex on non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Duan, Lincan; Shen, Hongmei; Zhao, Guangqiang; Yang, Runxiang; Cai, Xinyi; Zhang, Lijuan; Jin, Congguo; Huang, Yunchao

    2014-04-18

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of cancer-related death in both men and women worldwide. Recently, Disulfiram has been reported to be able to inhibit glioblastoma, prostate, or breast cancer cell proliferation. In this study, the synergistic effect of Disulfiram and copper on NSCLC cell growth was investigated. Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation was detected by 1-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan (MTT) assay and cell cycle analysis. Liquid colony formation and tumor spheroid formation assays were used to evaluate their effect on cancer cell clonogenicity. Real-time PCR was performed to test the mRNA level of cancer stem cell related genes. We found that Disulfiram or copper alone did not potently inhibit NSCLC cell proliferation in vitro. However, the presence of copper significantly enhanced inhibitory effect of Disulfiram on NSCLC cell growth, indicating a synergistic effect between Disulfiram and copper. Cell cycle analysis showed that Disulfiram/copper complex caused NSCLC cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. Furthermore, Disulfiram/copper significantly increased the sensitivity of cisplatin in NSCLC cells tested by MTT assay. Liquid colony formation assay revealed that copper dramatically increased the inhibitory effect of Disulfiram on NSCLC cell colony forming ability. Disulfiram combined with copper significantly attenuated NSCLC cell spheroid formation and recuded the mRNA expression of lung cancer stem cell related genes. Our data suggest that Disulfiram/copper complex alone or combined with other chemotherapy is a potential therapeutic strategy for NSCLC patients.

  19. In vitro growth inhibitory efficacy of some target specific novel drug molecules against Theileria equi.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, A; Maji, C; Dahiya, R K; Suthar, A; Kumar, R; Gupta, A K; Dimri, U; Kumar, S

    2016-02-15

    The in vitro growth inhibitory efficacies of five drug molecules against Theileria equi were evaluated in in vitro cultured parasites. A continuous microaerophilic stationary-phase culture (MASP) system was established for propagation of T. equi parasites. This in vitro culture system was used to assess the growth inhibitory effect of harmaline hydrochloride dihydrate (HHD), hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTAB), hesparidin methyl chalcone (HMC), andrographolide and imidocarb dipropionate against T. equi. The 50% inhibitory concentration value of HHD, HDTAB, HMC, and imidocarb dipropionate for T. equi growth were 17.42 μM, 14.00 μM, 246.34 μM and 0.279 μM (equivalent to 0.139 μg/ml), respectively (P<0.05). The andrographolide was not effective in inhibiting in vitro growth of T. equi in the present study. Furthermore, the in vitro cytotoxicity of these five drugs was evaluated on horse PBMC. At 2000 μM concentration of HHD, HDTAB, HMC, andrographolide and imidocarb dipropionate were 8.34, 46.44, 58.53, 31.06, 15.14% cytotoxic on PBMC, respectively. Out of our four tested drug molecules, HHD was having low IC50 value along with least cytotoxicity, as compared to reference drug imidocarb dipropionate. The difference in IC50 value of HDTAB and HHD was significant, but HDTAB was moderately more cytotoxic on PBMC cell lines. HHD and HDTAB are selective inhibitor for heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and choline kinase pathway. It can be concluded that HHD and HDTAB are potential drug molecules against T. equi parasite by acting on Hsp90 and choline kinase pathway. PMID:26827852

  20. In vitro growth inhibitory efficacy of some target specific novel drug molecules against Theileria equi.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, A; Maji, C; Dahiya, R K; Suthar, A; Kumar, R; Gupta, A K; Dimri, U; Kumar, S

    2016-02-15

    The in vitro growth inhibitory efficacies of five drug molecules against Theileria equi were evaluated in in vitro cultured parasites. A continuous microaerophilic stationary-phase culture (MASP) system was established for propagation of T. equi parasites. This in vitro culture system was used to assess the growth inhibitory effect of harmaline hydrochloride dihydrate (HHD), hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTAB), hesparidin methyl chalcone (HMC), andrographolide and imidocarb dipropionate against T. equi. The 50% inhibitory concentration value of HHD, HDTAB, HMC, and imidocarb dipropionate for T. equi growth were 17.42 μM, 14.00 μM, 246.34 μM and 0.279 μM (equivalent to 0.139 μg/ml), respectively (P<0.05). The andrographolide was not effective in inhibiting in vitro growth of T. equi in the present study. Furthermore, the in vitro cytotoxicity of these five drugs was evaluated on horse PBMC. At 2000 μM concentration of HHD, HDTAB, HMC, andrographolide and imidocarb dipropionate were 8.34, 46.44, 58.53, 31.06, 15.14% cytotoxic on PBMC, respectively. Out of our four tested drug molecules, HHD was having low IC50 value along with least cytotoxicity, as compared to reference drug imidocarb dipropionate. The difference in IC50 value of HDTAB and HHD was significant, but HDTAB was moderately more cytotoxic on PBMC cell lines. HHD and HDTAB are selective inhibitor for heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and choline kinase pathway. It can be concluded that HHD and HDTAB are potential drug molecules against T. equi parasite by acting on Hsp90 and choline kinase pathway.

  1. In vitro suppression of fibroblast growth inhibitory lymphokine production by asbestos.

    PubMed Central

    Lemaire, I; Dubois, C

    1983-01-01

    Human peripheral blood mononuclear leucocytes (PBML) stimulated with concanavalin A (Con A) or phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) produced a soluble factor which inhibits lung fibroblast DNA synthesis and growth. Lymphocyte enriched preparations produced significant growth inhibitory activity in the presence of PHA whereas media from adherent mononuclear cells incubated in the presence of the mitogen did not contain similar activity. This fibroblast growth inhibitory factor (FGIF) was non-dialysable, heat stable and resistant to pH 5. FGIF was also resistant to treatment with chymotrypsin and phosphodiesterase but partially sensitive to treatment with trypsin. Interestingly, there was significant suppression of FGIF production by PBML cultured with PHA in the presence of low concentrations of chrysotile asbestos (5-25 micrograms/ml). In this regard, asbestos (25 micrograms/ml) was not cytotoxic for lymphocytes but had a damaging effect on monocytes as evidenced by the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) a cytoplasmic enzyme, in their culture media. These findings indicate that stimulated lymphocytes have the ability to inhibit fibroblast proliferation by releasing FGIF and that asbestos interfere with this process. Thus, while FGIF may regulate the extent of connective tissue proliferation during normal repair process, suppression of its production by asbestos may contribute to excessive fibroblast accumulation and fibrosis. Images Fig. 2 PMID:6872328

  2. Identification of Candidate Angiogenic Inhibitors Processed by Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) in Cell-Based Proteomic Screens: Disruption of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)/Heparin Affin Regulatory Peptide (Pleiotrophin) and VEGF/Connective Tissue Growth Factor Angiogenic Inhibitory Complexes by MMP-2 Proteolysis▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Richard A.; Butler, Georgina S.; Hamma-Kourbali, Yamina; Delbé, Jean; Brigstock, David R.; Courty, José; Overall, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) exert both pro- and antiangiogenic functions by the release of cytokines or proteolytically generated angiogenic inhibitors from extracellular matrix and basement membrane remodeling. In the Mmp2−/− mouse neovascularization is greatly reduced, but the mechanistic aspects of this remain unclear. Using isotope-coded affinity tag labeling of proteins analyzed by multidimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry we explored proteome differences between Mmp2−/− cells and those rescued by MMP-2 transfection. Proteome signatures that are hallmarks of proteolysis revealed cleavage of many known MMP-2 substrates in the cellular context. Proteomic evidence of MMP-2 processing of novel substrates was found. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6, follistatin-like 1, and cystatin C protein cleavage by MMP-2 was biochemically confirmed, and the cleavage sites in heparin affin regulatory peptide (HARP; pleiotrophin) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were sequenced by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. MMP-2 processing of HARP and CTGF released vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from angiogenic inhibitory complexes. The cleaved HARP N-terminal domain increased HARP-induced cell proliferation, whereas the HARP C-terminal domain was antagonistic and decreased cell proliferation and migration. Hence the unmasking of cytokines, such as VEGF, by metalloproteinase processing of their binding proteins is a new mechanism in the control of cytokine activation and angiogenesis. PMID:17908800

  3. Down-regulation of T-STAR, a growth inhibitory protein, after SV40-mediated immortalization.

    PubMed

    Kool, J; van Zaane, W; van der Eb, A J; Terleth, C

    2001-11-01

    Normal human cells can undergo a limited number of divisions, whereas transformed cells may have an extended life span and can give rise to immortal cells. To isolate genes involved in the immortalization process, gene expression in SV40-transformed preimmortal human fibroblasts was compared with expression in SV40-transformed immortalized fibroblasts using an mRNA differential display. We found that the growth-inhibitory protein testis-signal transduction and activation of RNA (T-STAR) a homologue of cell-cycle regulator Sam68, is strongly down-regulated in immortalized cells. Overexpression of T-STAR in the SV40-transformed immortalized cells resulted in a strong reduction of colony formation, whereas deletion of the RNA-binding domain of T-STAR abrogated this effect. Down-regulation of testis-signal transduction and activation of RNA (T-STAR) expression is found only in immortal cells isolated after a proliferative crisis accompanied with massive cell death. The strict correlation of down-regulation of T-STAR expression only in those immortal cells that arose after a clear proliferative crisis suggests that the loss of T-STAR might be necessary to bypass crisis. PMID:11714634

  4. Growth-inhibitory activity of natural and synthetic isothiocyanates against representative human microbial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kurepina, Natalia; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Mustaev, Arkady

    2013-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to test the growth inhibition activity of isothiocyanates (ITC), defense compounds of plants, against common human microbial pathogens. Methods and Results In this study we have tested the growth inhibitory activity of a diverse collection of new and previously known representative ITC of various structural classes against pathogenic bacteria, fungi and molds by a serial dilution method. Generally, the compounds were more active against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi exhibiting species-specific bacteriostatic or bactericidal effect. The most active compounds inhibited the growth of both drug-susceptible and multi drug resistant (MDR) pathogens at micromolar concentrations. In the case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis some compounds were more active against MDR, rather than against susceptible strains. The average anti-microbial activity for some of new derivatives was significantly higher than previously reported for the most active ITC compounds. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) established for various classes of ITC with Bacillus cereus (model organism for B. anthracis) followed a distinct pattern, thereby enabling prediction of new more efficient inhibitors. Remarkably, tested bacteria failed to develop resistance to ITC. While effectively inhibiting microbial growth, ITCs displayed moderate toxicity towards eukaryotic cells. Conclusions High antimicrobial activity coupled with moderate toxicity grants further thorough studies of the ITC compounds aimed at elucidation of their cellular targets and inhibitory mechanism. Significance and impact of the study This systematic study identified new ITC compounds highly active against common human microbial pathogens at the concentrations comparable with those for currently used antimicrobial drugs (e.g. rifampicin, fluconazole). Tested representative pathogens do not develop resistance to the inhibitors. These properties justify further evaluation of ITC compounds as potential

  5. Hypoxia shifts activity of neuropeptide Y in Ewing sarcoma from growth-inhibitory to growth-promoting effects

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Susana; Izycka-Swieszewska, Ewa; Earnest, Joshua Patrick; Shabbir, Asim; Everhart, Lindsay M.; Wang, Shuo; Martin, Samantha; Horton, Meredith; Mahajan, Akanksha; Christian, David; O'Neill, Alison; Wang, Hongkun; Zhuang, Tingting; Czarnecka, Magdalena; Johnson, Michael D.; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.; Kitlinska, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an aggressive malignancy driven by an oncogenic fusion protein, EWS-FLI1. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), and two of its receptors, Y1R and Y5R are up-regulated by EWS-FLI1 and abundantly expressed in ES cells. Paradoxically, NPY acting via Y1R and Y5R stimulates ES cell death. Here, we demonstrate that these growth-inhibitory actions of NPY are counteracted by hypoxia, which converts the peptide to a growth-promoting factor. In ES cells, hypoxia induces another NPY receptor, Y2R, and increases expression of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), an enzyme that cleaves NPY to a shorter form, NPY3-36. This truncated peptide no longer binds to Y1R and, therefore, does not stimulate ES cell death. Instead, NPY3-36 acts as a selective Y2R/Y5R agonist. The hypoxia-induced increase in DPPIV activity is most evident in a population of ES cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, rich in cancer stem cells (CSCs). Consequently, NPY, acting via Y2R/Y5Rs, preferentially stimulates proliferation and migration of hypoxic ALDHhigh cells. Hypoxia also enhances the angiogenic potential of ES by inducing Y2Rs in endothelial cells and increasing the release of its ligand, NPY3-36, from ES cells. In summary, hypoxia acts as a molecular switch shifting NPY activity away from Y1R/Y5R-mediated cell death and activating the Y2R/Y5R/DPPIV/NPY3-36 axis, which stimulates ES CSCs and promotes angiogenesis. Hypoxia-driven actions of the peptide such as these may contribute to ES progression. Due to the receptor-specific and multifaceted nature of NPY actions, these findings may inform novel therapeutic approaches to ES. PMID:24318733

  6. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor promotes cyst growth in polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Zhou, Xia; Fan, Lucy X.; Yao, Ying; Swenson-Fields, Katherine I.; Gadjeva, Mihaela; Wallace, Darren P.; Peters, Dorien J.M.; Yu, Alan; Grantham, Jared J.; Li, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by renal cyst formation, inflammation, and fibrosis. Macrophages infiltrate cystic kidneys, but the role of these and other inflammatory factors in disease progression are poorly understood. Here, we identified macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) as an important regulator of cyst growth in ADPKD. MIF was upregulated in cyst-lining epithelial cells in polycystin-1–deficient murine kidneys and accumulated in cyst fluid of human ADPKD kidneys. MIF promoted cystic epithelial cell proliferation by activating ERK, mTOR, and Rb/E2F pathways and by increasing glucose uptake and ATP production, which inhibited AMP-activated protein kinase signaling. MIF also regulated cystic renal epithelial cell apoptosis through p53-dependent signaling. In polycystin-1–deficient mice, MIF was required for recruitment and retention of renal macrophages, which promoted cyst expansion, and Mif deletion or pharmacologic inhibition delayed cyst growth in multiple murine ADPKD models. MIF-dependent macrophage recruitment was associated with upregulation of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. TNF-α induced MIF expression, and MIF subsequently exacerbated TNF-α expression in renal epithelial cells, suggesting a positive feedback loop between TNF-α and MIF during cyst development. Our study indicates MIF is a central and upstream regulator of ADPKD pathogenesis and provides a rationale for further exploration of MIF as a therapeutic target for ADPKD. PMID:25961459

  7. The inhibitory effects of silver nanoparticles, silver ions, and silver chloride colloids on microbial growth.

    PubMed

    Choi, Okkyoung; Deng, Kathy Kanjun; Kim, Nam-Jung; Ross, Louis; Surampalli, Rao Y; Hu, Zhiqiang

    2008-06-01

    Emerging nanomaterials are of great concern to wastewater treatment utilities and the environment. The inhibitory effects of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and other important Ag species on microbial growth were evaluated using extant respirometry and an automatic microtiter fluorescence assay. Using autotrophic nitrifying organisms from a well-controlled continuously operated bioreactor, Ag NPs (average size=14+/-6 nm), Ag(+) ions (AgNO(3)), and AgCl colloids (average size=0.25 microm), all at 1mg/L Ag, inhibited respiration by 86+/-3%, 42+/-7%, and 46+/-4%, respectively. Based on a prolonged microtiter assay, at about 0.5mg/L Ag, the inhibitions on the growth of Escherichia coli PHL628-gfp by Ag NPs, Ag(+) ions, and AgCl colloids were 55+/-8%, 100%, and 66+/-6%, respectively. Cell membrane integrity was not compromised under the treatment of test Ag species by using a LIVE/DEAD Baclight bacterial viability assay. However, electron micrographs demonstrated that Ag NPs attached to the microbial cells, probably causing cell wall pitting. The results suggest that nitrifying bacteria are especially susceptible to inhibition by Ag NPs, and the accumulation of Ag NPs could have detrimental effects on the microorganisms in wastewater treatment.

  8. Inhibitory crosstalk between ERK and AMPK in the growth and proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Du Jianhai; Guan Tongju; Zhang Hui; Xia Yi; Liu Fei; Zhang Youyi

    2008-04-04

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is one of the key protein kinases that regulate the growth and proliferation in cardiac fibroblasts (CFs). As an energy sensor of cellular metabolism, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is found recently to be involved in myocardial remodeling. In this study, we investigated the crosstalk between ERK and AMPK in the growth and proliferation of CFs. In neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts (NRCFs), we found that serum significantly inhibited basal AMPK phosphorylation between 10 min and 24 h and also partially inhibited AMPK phosphorylation by AMPK activator, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-ribonucleoside (AICAR). Furthermore, ERK inhibitor could greatly reverse the inhibition of AMPK by serum. Conversely, activation of AMPK by AICAR also showed a significant inhibition of basal and serum-induced ERK phosphorylation but it showed a delayed and steadfast inhibition which appeared after 60 min and lasted until 12 h. Moreover, inhibition of ERK could repress the activation of p70S6K, an important kinase in cardiac proliferation, and AICAR could also inhibit p70S6K phosphorylation. In addition, under both serum and serum-free medium, AICAR significantly inhibited the DNA synthesis and cell numbers, and reduced cells at S phase. In conclusion, AMPK activation with AICAR inhibited growth and proliferation in cardiac fibroblasts, which involved inhibitory interactions between ERK and AMPK. This is the first report that AMPK could be a target of ERK in growth factors-induced proliferation, which may give a new mechanism that growth factors utilize in their promotion of proliferation in cardiac fibroblasts.

  9. [Growth-inhibitory activity of Cladosporium cladosporioides by cysteine].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Toshihiko; Ueno, Yukihiro; Ogasawara, Ayako; Mikami, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Tatsuji

    2007-07-01

    When Cladosporium cladosporioides was cultured with cysteine, its growth was completely inhibited statically. The growth of C. cladosporioides cultured on potato-dextrose agar plates was also inhibited by the addition of cysteine. The production of ATP in C. cladosporioides was inhibited by cysteine. When a silicone block was incubated with C. cladosporioides, the surface of the block was coated with the biofilm of C. cladosporioides. However, the block containing cysteine was not covered with biofilm. These results indicate that cysteine is useful as a material to prevent the growth of C. cladosporioides.

  10. The inhibitory effects of interleukin-1 on growth hormone action during catabolic illness.

    PubMed

    Cooney, Robert N; Shumate, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) induces the expression of the anabolic genes responsible for growth, metabolism, and differentiation. Normally, GH stimulates the synthesis of circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) by liver, which upregulates protein synthesis in many tissues. The development of GH resistance during catabolic illness or inflammation contributes to loss of body protein, resulting in multiple complications that prolong recovery and cause death. In septic patients, increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and GH resistance are commonly observed together. Numerous studies have provided evidence that the inhibitory effects of cytokines on skeletal muscle protein synthesis during sepsis and inflammation are mediated indirectly by changes in the GH/IGF-I system. Interleukin (IL)-1, a member of the family of proinflammatory cytokines, interacts with most cell types and is an important mediator of the inflammatory response. Infusion of a specific IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) ameliorates protein catabolism and GH resistance during systemic infection. This suggests that IL-1 is an important mediator of GH resistance during systemic infection or inflammation. Consequently, a better understanding of the interaction between GH, IL-1, and the regulation of protein metabolism is of great importance for the care of the patient.

  11. Inhibitory Activity of Podophyllotoxin and Matairesinol-derivative Lignans on the Root Growth of Brassica campestris.

    PubMed

    Arimoto, M; Matsuura, S; Muro, C; Tsujibo, H; Matsumura, E; Yamaguchi, H; Inamori, Y

    1994-01-01

    All the lignans tested in a bioassay with Brassica campestris L. subsp. rapa Hook. fil. et Anders inhibited the root growth of this plant, except for deoxypicropodophyllin. The effects of functional groups in the molecule on the inhibitory activity of these compounds were studied. It is suggested that the methylenedioxyl group and the stereochemical configuration of the lactone junction of podophyllotoxin derivatives were closely related to the inhibitory activity. The O-methyl derivative of two hydroxyl groups of matairesinol greatly enhanced the inhibition of root growth in this plant.

  12. Cell Growth and Division

    PubMed Central

    Bell, George I.

    1968-01-01

    In a previous paper, we proposed a model in which the volume growth rate and probability of division of a cell were assumed to be determined by the cell's age and volume. Some further mathematical implications of the model are here explored. In particular we seek properties of the growth and division functions which are required for the balanced exponential growth of a cell population. Integral equations are derived which relate the distribution of birth volumes in successive generations and in which the existence of balanced exponential growth can be treated as an eigenvalue problem. The special case in which all cells divide at the same age is treated in some detail and conditions are derived for the existence of a balanced exponential solution and for its stability or instability. The special case of growth rate proportional to cell volume is seen to have neutral stability. More generally when the division probability depends on age only and growth rate is proportional to cell volume, there is no possibility of balanced exponential growth. Some comparisons are made with experimental results. It is noted that the model permits the appearance of differentiated cells. A generalization of the model is formulated in which cells may be described by many state variables instead of just age and volume. PMID:5643273

  13. Monitoring cell growth.

    PubMed

    Strober, W

    2001-05-01

    This appendix provides two protocols for monitoring cell growth. Counting cells using a hemacytometer is tedious but it allows one to effectively distinguish live cells from dead cells (using Trypan Blue exclusion). In addition, this procedure is less subject to errors due to cell clumping or heterogeneity of cell size. The use of an electronic cell counter is quicker and easier than counting cells using a hemacytometer. However, an electronic cell counter as currently constructed does not distinguish live from dead cells in a reliable fashion and is subject to error due to the presence of cell clumps. Overall, the electronic cell counter is best reserved for repetitive and rapid counting of fresh peripheral blood cells and should be used with caution when counting cell populations derived from tissues. PMID:18432653

  14. NBQX suppresses inhibitory glycine currents in retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, W; Miller, R F

    1994-08-15

    The quinoxaline NBQX (2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoylbenzo (F) quinoxaline) is a potent non-NMDA receptor antagonist, which appears to be relatively free of antagonistic action at the glycine binding site of the NMDA receptor. However, we report here that at 50 microM, NBQX significantly attenuated the inhibitory currents induced by the exogenous application of 100 microM glycine as observed using whole-cell recordings from ganglion cells in a slice preparation of the tiger salamander retina. In contrast, NBQX had no effect on GABA-mediated inhibition. This observation suggests that care should be taken when attributing the action of NBQX solely to its antagonism of non-NMDA glutamate receptors, particularly when higher concentrations are used.

  15. Characterization of anticancer agents by their growth inhibitory activity and relationships to mechanism of action and structure.

    PubMed

    Keskin, O; Bahar, I; Jernigan, R L; Beutler, J A; Shoemaker, R H; Sausville, E A; Covell, D G

    2000-04-01

    An analysis of the growth inhibitory potency of 122 anticancer agents available from the National Cancer Institute anticancer drug screen is presented. Methods of singular value decomposition (SVD) were applied to determine the matrix of distances between all compounds. These SVD-derived dissimilarity distances were used to cluster compounds that exhibit similar tumor growth inhibitory activity patterns against 60 human cancer cell lines. Cluster analysis divides the 122 standard agents into 25 statistically distinct groups. The first eight groups include structurally diverse compounds with reactive functionalities that act as DNA-damaging agents while the remaining 17 groups include compounds that inhibit nucleic acid biosynthesis and mitosis. Examination of the average activity patterns across the 60 tumor cell lines reveals unique 'fingerprints' associated with each group. A diverse set of structural features are observed for compounds within these groups, with frequent occurrences of strong within-group structural similarities. Clustering of cell types by their response to the 122 anticancer agents divides the 60 cell types into 21 groups. The strongest within-panel groupings were found for the renal, leukemia and ovarian cell panels. These results contribute to the basis for comparisons between log(GI(50)) screening patterns of the 122 anticancer agents and additional tested compounds.

  16. Inhibitory and Cytotoxic Activities of Chrysin on Human Breast Adenocarcinoma Cells by Induction of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Borji, Abasalt; Hasanzadeh, Malihe; Jabbari, Farahzad; Farkhondeh, Tahereh; Samini, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Chrysin, an active natural bioflavonoid found in honey and many plant extracts, was first known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The fact that antioxidants have several inhibitory effects against different diseases, such as cancer, led to search for food rich in antioxidants. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of chrysin on the cultured human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Materials and Methods: Cells were cultured in Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium and treated with different chrysin concentrations for three consecutive days. Cell viability was quantitated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The percentage of apoptotic cells was determined by flow cytometry using Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate. Results: The MTT assay showed that chrysin had an antiproliferative effect on MCF-7 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The 50% cell growth inhibition values for chrysin against MCF-7 cells were 19.5 and 9.2 μM after 48 and 72 h, respectively. Chrysin induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells as determined by flow cytometry. Chrysin inhibits the growth of the breast cancer cells by inducing cancer cell apoptosis which may, in part, explain its anticancer activity. Conclusion: This study shows that chrysin could also be considered as a promising chemotherapeutic agent and anticancer activity in treatment of the breast cancer cells in future. SUMMARY Chrysin had an antiproliferative effect on human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) cells in a dose- and time-dependent mannerChrysin induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, as determined by flow cytometryChrysin inhibits the growth of the breast cancer cells by inducing cancer cell apoptosisChrysin may have anticancer activity. Abbreviations used: Human breast cancer cells (MCF-7), 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), normal fibroblast mouse (L929). PMID

  17. Inhibitory Role of Pentraxin-3 in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dan; Zong, Ye; Zhu, Sheng-Tao; Wang, Yong-Jun; Li, Peng; Zhang, Shu-Tian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Esophageal cancer is the sixth leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) is a member of the PTX superfamily. Here, we investigated the role of PTX3 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods: The effect of PTX3 on ESCC cell proliferation, colony formation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion was investigated using cell viability assays, colony formation assays, flow cytometry, and migration and invasion assays. The effect of PTX3 on the tumorigenicity of ESCC in vivo was investigated with xenograft studies in nude mice. Results: PTX3 overexpression in ESCC cells reduced cellular proliferation and colony formation (P < 0.05) and increased the rate of apoptosis (P < 0.05). PTX3 expression had no significant effect on the migratory or invasive potential of ESCC cells. In our mouse model of human ESCC, we achieved 100% successful tumor establishment. Compared with the control and empty vector-expressing groups, the PTX3-expressing group formed significantly smaller tumors (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study indicates that PTX3 might play an inhibitory role in ESCC. PMID:27625097

  18. Microarray analysis of early adipogenesis in C3H10T1/2 cells: Cooperative inhibitory effects of growth factors and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, Paul R.; Cimafranca, Melissa A.; Liu Xueqing; Cho, Young C.; Jefcoate, Colin R. . E-mail: jefcoate@facstaff.wisc.edu

    2005-08-22

    C3H10T1/2 mouse embryo fibroblasts differentiate into adipocytes when stimulated by a standard hormonal mixture (IDMB). 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), inhibits induction of the key adipogenic gene peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) and subsequent adipogenesis. This TCDD-mediated inhibition requires activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, which can be accomplished by serum, epidermal growth factor (EGF), or fibroblast growth factor (FGF). In the absence of serum or growth factors, IDMB induced adipogenesis without mitosis. Microarray analysis identified 200 genes that exhibited expression changes of at least twofold after 24 h of IDMB treatment. This time precedes most PPAR{gamma} stimulation but follows the period of TCDD/ERK cooperation and periods of increased cell contraction and DNA synthesis. Functionally related gene clusters include genes associated with cell structure, triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism, oxidative regulation, and secreted proteins. In the absence of growth factors TCDD inhibited 30% of these IDMB responses without inhibiting the process of differentiation. A combination of EGF and TCDD that blocks differentiation cooperatively blocked a further 44 IDMB-responsive genes, most of which have functional links to differentiation, including PPAR{gamma}. Cell cycle regulators that are stimulated by EGF were substantially inhibited by IDMB but these responses were unaffected by TCDD. By contrast, TCDD and EGF cooperatively reversed IDMB-induced changes in cell adhesion complexes immediately prior to increases in PPAR{gamma}1 expression. Changes in adhesion-linked signaling may play a key role in TCDD affects on differentiation.

  19. Growth-inhibitory and metal-binding proteins in Chlorella vulgaris exposed to cadmium or zinc.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhiyong; Li, Lianping; Huang, Gaoling; Yan, Qingpi; Shi, Bing; Xu, Xiaoqin

    2009-01-18

    Phytochelatins, with the general structure of (gamma-Glu-Cys)n-Gly (n=2-11), are usually recognized as being strongly induced by metals in microalgae and play an important role in the detoxification of heavy metals in environment. However, there have been few studies on metallothionein (MT) synthesis in Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) exposed to heavy metals. The present study describes the growth inhibition of C. vulgaris exposed to different concentrations of cadmium and zinc, and the induction of metal-binding MT-like proteins in the cells. The amounts of metal-binding proteins, induced in the alga exposed to different concentrations of Cd and Zn, were analyzed with a size-exclusion HPLC coupled to ICP-MS. After being purified with a gel filtration column (Sephadex G-75, 3.5cmx80cm) and a desalting column (G-25, 1.5cmx30cm), the isoforms and sub-isoforms of Zn-binding protein were characterized by a reverse phase-HPLC coupled to electrospray ionization and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). In addition, the ultraviolet spectra of purified Zn-binding proteins were analyzed in media with different pH values. The results showed that the significant inhibitory effects (at p<0.05) on the cell growth were observed when excessive metals such as 80micromoll(-1) of Cd, and 60 and 80micromoll(-1) of Zn were added. The Cd/Zn-binding proteins induced in C. vulgaris exposed to Cd and Zn were referred to as Cd/Zn-MT-like proteins in which the mean molecular mass of the apo-MT-like was 6152Da. The induced Cd/Zn-MT-like proteins might be involved in the detoxification of heavy metals, such as cadmium and zinc, by the alga. PMID:19019465

  20. Inhibitory Effects of Angelica Polysaccharide on Activation of Mast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Wei-An; Sun, Yuan-Yuan; Mao, Jing-Yi; Wang, Li; Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Jie; Rahman, Khalid; Ye, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects of Angelica polysaccharide (AP) on activation of mast cells and its possible molecular mechanism. In our study, we determined the proinflammatory cytokines and allergic mediators in anti-DNP IgE stimulated RBL-2H3 cells and found that AP (50, 100, and 200 μg/mL) significantly decreased the release of histamine, β-hexosaminidase, leukotrienes C4 (LTC4), IL-1, IL-4, TNF-α, IL-6, and human monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) (p < 0.05). In addition, Ca2+ entry was inhibited by treatment with AP. AP also downregulated the protein expressions of p-Fyn, p-Akt, p-P38, IL-4, TNF-α, and NF-κB p65 in both Fyn gene upregulated and normal RBL-2H3 cells (p < 0.05). Collectively, our results showed that AP could inhibit the activation of mast cells via suppressing the releases of proinflammatory cytokines allergic mediators, Gab2/PI3-K/Akt and Fyn/Syk pathways. PMID:27200102

  1. Lysophospholipid receptors LPA1–3 are not required for the inhibitory effects of LPA on mouse retinal growth cones

    PubMed Central

    Birgbauer, Eric; Chun, Jerold

    2016-01-01

    One of the major requirements in the development of the visual system is axonal guidance of retinal ganglion cells toward correct targets in the brain. A novel class of extracellular lipid signaling molecules, lysophospholipids, may serve as potential axon guidance cues. They signal through cognate G protein-coupled receptors, at least some of which are expressed in the visual system. Here we show that in the mouse visual system, a lysophospholipid known as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is inhibitory to retinal neurites in vitro when delivered extracellularly, causing growth cone collapse and neurite retraction. This inhibitory effect of LPA is both active in the nanomolar range and specific compared to the related lysophospholipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). Knockout mice lacking three of the five known LPA receptors, LPA1–3, continue to display retinal growth cone collapse and neurite retraction in response to LPA, demonstrating that these three receptors are not required for these inhibitory effects and indicating the existence of one or more functional LPA receptors expressed on mouse retinal neurites that can mediate neurite retraction. PMID:26966392

  2. Essential Oils from Ugandan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: Chemical Composition and Growth Inhibitory Effects on Oral Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ocheng, Francis; Bwanga, Freddie; Joloba, Moses; Softrata, Abier; Azeem, Muhammad; Pütsep, Katrin; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Obua, Celestino; Gustafsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed the growth inhibitory effects of essential oils extracted from ten Ugandan medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Helichrysum odoratissimum, Vernonia amygdalina, Hoslundia opposita, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon nardus, Teclea nobilis, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, and Lantana trifolia) used traditionally in the management of oral diseases against oral pathogens. Chemical compositions of the oils were explored by GC-MS. Inhibitory effects of the oils were assessed on periodontopathic Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and cariogenic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using broth dilution methods at concentrations of 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01%. The most sensitive organism was A. actinomycetemcomitans. Its growth was markedly inhibited by six of the oils at all the concentrations tested. Essential oil from C. nardus exhibited the highest activity with complete growth inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis at all the three concentrations tested, the major constituents in the oil being mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Most of the oils exhibited limited effects on L. acidophilus. We conclude that essential oils from the studied plants show marked growth inhibitory effects on periodontopathic A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis, moderate effects on cariogenic S. mutans, and the least effect on L. acidophilus. The present study constitutes a basis for further investigations and development of certain oils into alternative antiplaque agents. PMID:26170872

  3. The inhibitory effect of CIL-102 on the growth of human astrocytoma cells is mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species and induction of ERK1/2 MAPK

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Chih-Chuan; Kuo, Hsing-Chun; Cheng, Ho-Chen; Wang, Ting-Chung; Sze, Chun-I

    2012-08-15

    CIL-102 (1-[4-(furo[2,3-b]quinolin-4-ylamino)phenyl]ethanone) is the major active agent of the alkaloid derivative of Camptotheca acuminata, with multiple pharmacological activities, including anticancer effects and promotion of apoptosis. The mechanism by which CIL-102 inhibits growth remains poorly understood in human astrocytoma cells. Herein, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which CIL-102 affects the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell cycle G2/M arrest in glioma cells. Treatment of U87 cells with 1.0 μM CIL-102 resulted in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK1/2), downregulation of cell cycle-related proteins (cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin D1, and cdk1), and phosphorylation of cdk1Tyr{sup 15} and Cdc25cSer{sup 216}. Furthermore, treatment with the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 abolished CIL-102-induced Cdc25cSer{sup 216} expression and reversed CIL-102-inhibited cdk1 activation. In addition, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), an ROS scavenger, blocked cell cycle G2/M arrest and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Cdc25cSer{sup 216} in U87 cells. CIL-102-mediated ERK1/2 and ROS production, and cell cycle arrest were blocked by treatment with specific inhibitors. In conclusion, we have identified a novel CIL-102-inhibited proliferation in U87 cells by activating the ERK1/2 and Cdc25cSer{sup 216} cell cycle-related proteins and inducing ROS production; this might be a new mechanism in human astrocytoma cells. -- Highlights: ► We show the effects of CIL-102 on the G2/M arrest of human astrocytoma cells. ► ROS and the Ras/ERK1/2 triggering pathways are involved in the CIL-102 treatment. ► CIL-102 induces sustained activation of ERK1/2 and Cdc25c and ROS are required.

  4. Mechanics of Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ateshian, Gerard A.; Morrison, Barclay; Holmes, Jeffrey W.; Hung, Clark T.

    2012-01-01

    Cell growth describes an essential feature of biological tissues. This growth process may be modeled by using a set of relatively simple governing equations based on the axioms of mass and momentum balance, and using a continuum framework that describes cells and tissues as mixtures of a solid matrix, a solvent and multiple solutes. In this model the mechanics of cell growth is driven by osmotic effects, regulated by the cells’ active uptake of solutes and passive uptake of solvent. By accounting for the anisotropy of the cells’ cytoskeletal structures or extracellular matrix, as well as external constraints, a wide variety of growing shapes may be produced as illustrated in various examples. PMID:22904576

  5. Longitudinal Growth Curves of Brain Function Underlying Inhibitory Control through Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Foran, William; Velanova, Katerina; Luna, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies suggest that developmental improvements in inhibitory control are primarily supported by changes in prefrontal executive function. However, studies are contradictory with respect to how activation in prefrontal regions changes with age, and they have yet to analyze longitudinal data using growth curve modeling, which allows characterization of dynamic processes of developmental change, individual differences in growth trajectories, and variables that predict any interindividual variability in trajectories. In this study, we present growth curves modeled from longitudinal fMRI data collected over 302 visits (across ages 9 to 26 years) from 123 human participants. Brain regions within circuits known to support motor response control, executive control, and error processing (i.e., aspects of inhibitory control) were investigated. Findings revealed distinct developmental trajectories for regions within each circuit and indicated that a hierarchical pattern of maturation of brain activation supports the gradual emergence of adult-like inhibitory control. Mean growth curves of activation in motor response control regions revealed no changes with age, although interindividual variability decreased with development, indicating equifinality with maturity. Activation in certain executive control regions decreased with age until adolescence, and variability was stable across development. Error-processing activation in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex showed continued increases into adulthood and no significant interindividual variability across development, and was uniquely associated with task performance. These findings provide evidence that continued maturation of error-processing abilities supports the protracted development of inhibitory control over adolescence, while motor response control regions provide early-maturing foundational capacities and suggest that some executive control regions may buttress immature networks as error processing

  6. FKBP-12 exhibits an inhibitory activity on calcium oxalate crystal growth in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Han, In Sook; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Park, Jong Wook; Suh, Min Ho; Suh, Sung Il; Shin, Song Woo; Ahn, Su Yul; Choe, Byung Kil

    2002-01-01

    Urolithiasis and calcium oxalate crystal deposition diseases are still significant medical problems. In the course of nephrocalcin cDNA cloning, we have identified FKBP-12 as an inhibitory molecule of calcium oxalate crystal growth. lambdagt 11 cDNA libraries were constructed from renal carcinoma tissues and screened for nephrocalcin cDNA clones using anti-nephrocalcin antibody as a probe. Clones expressing recombinant proteins, which appeared to be antigenically cross-reactive to nephrocalcin, were isolated and their DNA sequences and inhibitory activities on the calcium oxalate crystal growth were determined. One of the clone lambda gt 11 #31-1 had a partial fragment (80 bp) of FKBP-12 cDNA as an insert. Therefore, a full-length FKBP-12 cDNA was PCR-cloned from the lambda gt 11 renal carcinoma cDNA library and was subcloned into an expression vector. The resultant recombinant FKBP-12 exhibited an inhibitory activity on the calcium oxalate crystal growth (Kd=10(-7) M). Physiological effect of the extracellular FKBP-12 was investigated in terms of macrophage activation and proinflammatory cytokine gene induction. Extracellular FKBP-12 failed to activate macrophages even at high concentrations. FKBP-12 seems an anti-stone molecule for the oxalate crystal deposition disease and recurrent stone diseases. PMID:11850587

  7. Inhibitory Activity of (+)-Usnic Acid against Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Motility

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Nguyen, Thanh Thi; Jeong, Min-Hye; Crişan, Florin; Yu, Young Hyun; Ha, Hyung-Ho; Choi, Kyung Hee; Jeong, Hye Gwang; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Lee, Kwang Youl; Kim, Kyung Keun; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Kim, Hangun

    2016-01-01

    Lichens are symbiotic organisms that produce various unique chemicals that can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. With the aim of screening new anti-cancer agents that inhibit cancer cell motility, we tested the inhibitory activity of seven lichen species collected from the Romanian Carpathian Mountains against migration and invasion of human lung cancer cells and further investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying their anti-metastatic activity. Among them, Alectoria samentosa, Flavocetraria nivalis, Alectoria ochroleuca, and Usnea florida showed significant inhibitory activity against motility of human lung cancer cells. HPLC results showed that usnic acid is the main compound in these lichens, and (+)-usnic acid showed similar inhibitory activity that crude extract have. Mechanistically, β-catenin-mediated TOPFLASH activity and KITENIN-mediated AP-1 activity were decreased by (+)-usnic acid treatment in a dose-dependent manner. The quantitative real-time PCR data showed that (+)-usnic acid decreased the mRNA level of CD44, Cyclin D1 and c-myc, which are the downstream target genes of both β-catenin/LEF and c-jun/AP-1. Also, Rac1 and RhoA activities were decreased by treatment with (+)-usnic acid. Interestingly, higher inhibitory activity for cell invasion was observed when cells were treated with (+)-usnic acid and cetuximab. These results implied that (+)-usnic acid might have potential activity in inhibition of cancer cell metastasis, and (+)-usnic acid could be used for anti-cancer therapy with a distinct mechanisms of action. PMID:26751081

  8. Sulforaphane Analogues with Heterocyclic Moieties: Syntheses and Inhibitory Activities against Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ye-Hui; Dai, Dong-Fang; Li, Jing; Dong, Yan-Wei; Jiang, Yin; Li, Huan-Gong; Gao, Yuan; Chong, Chuan-Ke; Li, Hui-Ying; Chu, Xiao-Qian; Yang, Cheng; Zhang, Quan; Tong, Zhong-Sheng; Bai, Cui-Gai; Chen, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that sulforaphane (SFN) selectively inhibits the growth of ALDH⁺ breast cancer stem-like cells.Herein, a series of SFN analogues were synthesized and evaluated against breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and SUM-159, and the leukemia stem cell-like cell line KG-1a. These SFN analogues were characterized by the replacement of the methyl group with heterocyclic moieties, and the replacement of the sulfoxide group with sulfide or sulfone. A growth inhibitory assay indicated that the tetrazole analogs 3d, 8d and 9d were significantly more potent than SFN against the three cancer cell lines. Compound 14c, the water soluble derivative of tetrazole sulfide 3d, demonstrated higher potency against KG-1a cell line than 3d. SFN, 3d and 14c significantly induced the activation of caspase-3, and reduced the ALDH⁺ subpopulation in the SUM159 cell line, while the marketed drug doxrubicin(DOX) increased the ALDH⁺ subpopulation. PMID:27110751

  9. Inhibitory Effects of Lipophilic Acids and Related Compounds on Bacteria and Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, C. W.; Salomon, D.; Simmons, J. L.; Sreevalsan, T.; Freese, E.

    1975-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of lipophilic acids, antimicrobial food additives, and analgesics-antipyretics was examined at concentrations from 0.1 to 100 mM in bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli) and mammalian cells (HeLa, human fibroblasts, and mouse neuroblastoma cells). Most compounds inhibit the growth of HeLa cells about as efficiently as that of B. subtilis. However, butyrate and propionate, as well as acetaminophen, antipyrene, phenacetin, and salicylamide, inhibit HeLa at millimolar concentrations whereas, at least 10 times higher concentrations are needed to inhibit B. subtilis. The concentrations needed to inhibit growth by 50% decrease with increasing octanol-water partition coefficients of the compound. Growth of E. coli is inhibited similar to that of B. subtilis by all compounds except butylbenzoate, decanoate, and linoleate which cannot penetrate the lipopolysaccharide layer. All growth inhibitors inhibit amino acid uptake into bacteria and their vesicles, and oxygen consumption in bacteria. In HeLa cells or human fibroblasts, neither amino acid uptake nor adenine 5′-triphosphate synthesis are inhibited by fatty acids at concentrations that completely inhibit growth. Short chain fatty acids (propionate, butyrate, and pentanoate) induce in HeLa the formation of cell processes. In neuroblastoma cells, grown in the presence of 10% fetal calf serum, butyrate also induces such processes which slowly continue to grow in length for at least 7 days; these processes differ in speed of formation, width, and cycloheximide susceptibility from the thin processes produced by serum deprivation alone. Images PMID:1137388

  10. Cell Growth Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Exogene Corporation uses advanced technologies to enhance production of bio-processed substances like proteins, antibiotics and amino acids. Among them are genetic modification and a genetic switch. They originated in research for Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Extensive experiments in cell growth through production of hemoglobin to improve oxygen supply to cells were performed. By improving efficiency of oxygen use by cells, major operational expenses can be reduced. Greater product yields result in decreased raw material costs and more efficient use of equipment. A broad range of applications is cited.

  11. Peripheral Nervous System Genes Expressed in Central Neurons Induce Growth on Inhibitory Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Buchser, William J.; Smith, Robin P.; Pardinas, Jose R.; Haddox, Candace L.; Hutson, Thomas; Moon, Lawrence; Hoffman, Stanley R.; Bixby, John L.; Lemmon, Vance P.

    2012-01-01

    Trauma to the spinal cord and brain can result in irreparable loss of function. This failure of recovery is in part due to inhibition of axon regeneration by myelin and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). Peripheral nervous system (PNS) neurons exhibit increased regenerative ability compared to central nervous system neurons, even in the presence of inhibitory environments. Previously, we identified over a thousand genes differentially expressed in PNS neurons relative to CNS neurons. These genes represent intrinsic differences that may account for the PNS’s enhanced regenerative ability. Cerebellar neurons were transfected with cDNAs for each of these PNS genes to assess their ability to enhance neurite growth on inhibitory (CSPG) or permissive (laminin) substrates. Using high content analysis, we evaluated the phenotypic profile of each neuron to extract meaningful data for over 1100 genes. Several known growth associated proteins potentiated neurite growth on laminin. Most interestingly, novel genes were identified that promoted neurite growth on CSPGs (GPX3, EIF2B5, RBMX). Bioinformatic approaches also uncovered a number of novel gene families that altered neurite growth of CNS neurons. PMID:22701605

  12. Characterization of DicB by partially masking its potent inhibitory activity of cell division.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaoyuan; Pei, Hairun; Zhang, Xiaoying; Wei, Qiang; Zhu, Jia; Zheng, Jimin; Jia, Zongchao

    2016-07-01

    DicB, a protein encoded by the Kim (Qin) prophage in Escherichia coli, inhibits cell division through interaction with MinC. Thus far, characterization of DicB has been severely hampered owing to its potent activity which ceases cell division and leads to cell death. In this work, through fusing maltose-binding protein to the N-terminus of DicB (MBP-DicB), we successfully expressed and purified recombinant DicB that enabled in vitro analysis for the first time. More importantly, taking advantage of the reduced inhibitory activity of MBP-DicB, we were able to study its effects on cell growth and morphology. Inhibition of cell growth by MBP-DicB was systematically evaluated using various DicB constructs, and their corresponding effects on cell morphology were also investigated. Our results revealed that the N-terminal segment of DicB plays an essential functional role, in contrast to its C-terminal tail. The N-terminus of DicB is of critical importance as even the first amino acid (following the initial Met) could not be removed, although it could be mutated. This study provides the first glimpse of the molecular determinants underlying DicB's function. PMID:27466443

  13. Characterization of DicB by partially masking its potent inhibitory activity of cell division

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shaoyuan; Pei, Hairun; Zhang, Xiaoying; Wei, Qiang; Zhu, Jia; Zheng, Jimin; Jia, Zongchao

    2016-01-01

    DicB, a protein encoded by the Kim (Qin) prophage in Escherichia coli, inhibits cell division through interaction with MinC. Thus far, characterization of DicB has been severely hampered owing to its potent activity which ceases cell division and leads to cell death. In this work, through fusing maltose-binding protein to the N-terminus of DicB (MBP–DicB), we successfully expressed and purified recombinant DicB that enabled in vitro analysis for the first time. More importantly, taking advantage of the reduced inhibitory activity of MBP–DicB, we were able to study its effects on cell growth and morphology. Inhibition of cell growth by MBP–DicB was systematically evaluated using various DicB constructs, and their corresponding effects on cell morphology were also investigated. Our results revealed that the N-terminal segment of DicB plays an essential functional role, in contrast to its C-terminal tail. The N-terminus of DicB is of critical importance as even the first amino acid (following the initial Met) could not be removed, although it could be mutated. This study provides the first glimpse of the molecular determinants underlying DicB's function. PMID:27466443

  14. Chemistry and tumor cell growth inhibitory activity of 11,20-epoxy-3Z,5(6)E-diene briaranes from the South China Sea gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea.

    PubMed

    Li, Cui; Jiang, Mei; La, Ming-Ping; Li, Tie-Jun; Tang, Hua; Sun, Peng; Liu, Bao-Shu; Yi, Yang-Hua; Liu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Wen

    2013-05-01

    Eighteen new 11,20-epoxy-3Z,5E-dien briaranes, gemmacolides AA-AR (1-18), were isolated together with three known analogs, dichotellides F (19) and I (20), and juncenolide C (21), from the South China Sea gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis and comparison with reported data. The absolute configuration was determined based on the ECD experiment. In the in vitro bioassay, compounds 1-3, 5, 6, 8-12, and 14-19 exhibited different levels of growth inhibition activity against A549 and MG63 cell lines. Preliminary structure-activity analysis suggests that 12-O-isovalerate may increase the activity whereas 13- or 14-O-isovalerate may decrease the activity. Contribution of substitutions at C-2 and C-16 remains uncertain.

  15. Inhibitory Effect of Algal Extracts on Mycelial Growth of the Tomato-Wilt Pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyoung

    2008-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the inhibitory effect of cyanobacterial extracts of Nostoc commune FA-103 against the tomato-wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. In an optimal medium, cell growth, antifungal activity, and antifungal compound production could be increased 2.7-fold, 4.1-fold, and 13.4-fold, respectively. A crude algal extract had a similar effect as mancozeb at the recommended dose, both in laboratory and pot tests. In vitro and in vivo fungal growth, spore sporulation and fungal infection of wilt pathogen in tomato seeds were significantly inhibited by cyanobacterial extracts. Nostoc commune FA-103 extracts have potential for the suppression of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. PMID:23997634

  16. Triiodothyronine regulates cell growth and survival in renal cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Czarnecka, Anna M; Matak, Damian; Szymanski, Lukasz; Czarnecka, Karolina H; Lewicki, Slawomir; Zdanowski, Robert; Brzezianska-Lasota, Ewa; Szczylik, Cezary

    2016-10-01

    Triiodothyronine plays an important role in the regulation of kidney cell growth, differentiation and metabolism. Patients with renal cell cancer who develop hypothyreosis during tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment have statistically longer survival. In this study, we developed cell based model of triiodothyronine (T3) analysis in RCC and we show the different effects of T3 on renal cell cancer (RCC) cell growth response and expression of the thyroid hormone receptor in human renal cell cancer cell lines from primary and metastatic tumors along with human kidney cancer stem cells. Wild-type thyroid hormone receptor is ubiquitously expressed in human renal cancer cell lines, but normalized against healthy renal proximal tube cell expression its level is upregulated in Caki-2, RCC6, SKRC-42, SKRC-45 cell lines. On the contrary the mRNA level in the 769-P, ACHN, HKCSC, and HEK293 cells is significantly decreased. The TRβ protein was abundant in the cytoplasm of the 786-O, Caki-2, RCC6, and SKRC-45 cells and in the nucleus of SKRC-42, ACHN, 769-P and cancer stem cells. T3 has promoting effect on the cell proliferation of HKCSC, Caki-2, ASE, ACHN, SK-RC-42, SMKT-R2, Caki-1, 786-0, and SK-RC-45 cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sunitinib, directly inhibits proliferation of RCC cells, while thyroid hormone receptor antagonist 1-850 (CAS 251310‑57-3) has less significant inhibitory impact. T3 stimulation does not abrogate inhibitory effect of sunitinib. Renal cancer tumor cells hypostimulated with T3 may be more responsive to tyrosine kinase inhibition. Moreover, some tumors may be considered as T3-independent and present aggressive phenotype with thyroid hormone receptor activated independently from the ligand. On the contrary proliferation induced by deregulated VHL and or c-Met pathways may transgress normal T3 mediated regulation of the cell cycle. PMID:27632932

  17. Inhibitory effects of capsaicin on hepatic stellate cells and liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fu-Xiang; Teng, Yin-Yan; Zhu, Qian-Dong; Zhang, Qi-Yu; Tang, Yin-He

    2014-10-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play an important role in the process of liver fibrosis. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of capsaicin on HSCs and liver fibrosis. Cultured HSCs were incubated with various concentrations of capsaicin. Cell proliferation was examined using a cell counting kit. Production of hydrogen peroxide was determined using a 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay. The mRNA and protein expression of target genes was analyzed by reverse transcription PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. Cell apoptosis was evaluated by annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI) costaining followed by flow cytometric analysis. A CCl4 rat liver fibrosis model was used to assess in vivo effects of capsaicin by histological examination and measurement of liver fibrosis markers, including hydroxyproline content, serum type III collagen, and hyaluronic acid (HA) levels. Our results show that capsaicin dose-dependently inhibited cell proliferation, suppressed cell activation, and decreased hydrogen peroxide production in cultured HSCs. Capsaicin reduced the mRNA levels of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in HSCs. Moreover, capsaicin-induced cell apoptosis was associated with increased expression of Bax, cytochrome c (cyt c), and caspase-3, but reduced levels of Bcl-2. The animal studies further revealed that capsaicin efficiently reduced the extent of liver fibrosis, inhibited HSC proliferation, and promoted cell apoptosis. Our findings suggest that capsaicin might inhibit fibrogenesis by inhibiting the activities of HSCs.

  18. Storkhead box 2 and melanoma inhibitory activity promote oral squamous cell carcinoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Sasahira, Tomonori; Nishiguchi, Yukiko; Fujiwara, Rina; Kurihara, Miyako; Kirita, Tadaaki; Bosserhoff, Anja Katrin; Kuniyasu, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    Background Storkhead box protein 2 (STOX2) is a transcriptional factor associated with pre-eclampsia with fetal growth restriction. We recently reported that melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) promotes oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) progression. However, the relationship between STOX2 and MIA remains unknown in malignancies. Methods We used immunohistochemistry and PCR to investigate MIA and STOX2 expression in OSCC. We also performed functional analysis in human OSCC cells. Results MIA and STOX2 mRNA levels were higher in OSCCs than in normal oral epithelial cells, and upregulation of STOX2 was significantly correlated with overexpression of MIA. Immunostaining for STOX2 was associated with nodal metastasis (P = 0.0002) and MIA expression (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, MIA expression (P = 0.0035) and STOX2 expression (P = 0.0061) were associated with poor outcome in OSCCs. In vitro analysis using OSCC cells revealed that MIA increased expression of STOX2 by paracrine manner. Moreover, STOX2 accelerated OSCC cell growth, invasion, suppressed apoptosis, and enhanced resistance to paclitaxel, cisplatin, and 5-FU. Conclusions Our results suggest that MIA-STOX2 signaling may be a useful diagnostic and therapeutic target in OSCCs. PMID:27050375

  19. The Ras/Raf/MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway induces autocrine-paracrine growth inhibition via the leukemia inhibitory factor/JAK/STAT pathway.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-In; Strock, Christopher J; Ball, Douglas W; Nelkin, Barry D

    2003-01-01

    Sustained activation of the Ras/Raf/MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway can lead to cell cycle arrest in many cell types. We have found, with human medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cells, that activated Ras or c-Raf-1 can induce growth arrest by producing and secreting an autocrine-paracrine factor. This protein was purified from cell culture medium conditioned by Raf-activated MTC cells and was identified by mass spectrometry as leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). LIF expression upon Raf activation and subsequent activation of JAK-STAT3 was also observed in small cell lung carcinoma cells, suggesting that this autocrine-paracrine signaling may be a common response to Ras/Raf activation. LIF was sufficient to induce growth arrest and differentiation of MTC cells. This effect was mediated through the gp130/JAK/STAT3 pathway, since anti-gp130 blocking antibody or dominant-negative STAT3 blocked the effects of LIF. Thus, LIF expression provides a novel mechanism allowing Ras/Raf signaling to activate the JAK-STAT3 pathway. In addition to this cell-extrinsic growth inhibitory pathway, we find that the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway induces an intracellular growth inhibitory signal, independent of the LIF/JAK/STAT3 pathway. Therefore, activation of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway can lead to growth arrest and differentiation via at least two different signaling pathways. This use of multiple pathways may be important for "fail-safe" induction and maintenance of cell cycle arrest.

  20. The Ras/Raf/MEK/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Pathway Induces Autocrine-Paracrine Growth Inhibition via the Leukemia Inhibitory Factor/JAK/STAT Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-In; Strock, Christopher J.; Ball, Douglas W.; Nelkin, Barry D.

    2003-01-01

    Sustained activation of the Ras/Raf/MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway can lead to cell cycle arrest in many cell types. We have found, with human medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cells, that activated Ras or c-Raf-1 can induce growth arrest by producing and secreting an autocrine-paracrine factor. This protein was purified from cell culture medium conditioned by Raf-activated MTC cells and was identified by mass spectrometry as leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). LIF expression upon Raf activation and subsequent activation of JAK-STAT3 was also observed in small cell lung carcinoma cells, suggesting that this autocrine-paracrine signaling may be a common response to Ras/Raf activation. LIF was sufficient to induce growth arrest and differentiation of MTC cells. This effect was mediated through the gp130/JAK/STAT3 pathway, since anti-gp130 blocking antibody or dominant-negative STAT3 blocked the effects of LIF. Thus, LIF expression provides a novel mechanism allowing Ras/Raf signaling to activate the JAK-STAT3 pathway. In addition to this cell-extrinsic growth inhibitory pathway, we find that the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway induces an intracellular growth inhibitory signal, independent of the LIF/JAK/STAT3 pathway. Therefore, activation of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway can lead to growth arrest and differentiation via at least two different signaling pathways. This use of multiple pathways may be important for “fail-safe” induction and maintenance of cell cycle arrest. PMID:12509453

  1. Growth inhibitory response and ultrastructural modification of oral-associated candidal reference strains (ATCC) by Piper betle L. extract

    PubMed Central

    Nordin, Mohd-Al-Faisal; Wan Harun, Wan Himratul-Aznita; Abdul Razak, Fathilah; Musa, Md Yusoff

    2014-01-01

    Candida species have been associated with the emergence of strains resistant to selected antifungal agents. Plant products have been used traditionally as alternative medicine to ease mucosal fungal infections. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper betle extract on the growth profile and the ultrastructure of commonly isolated oral candidal cells. The major component of P. betle was identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS/MS). Seven ATCC control strains of Candida species were cultured in yeast peptone dextrose broth under four different growth environments: (i) in the absence of P. betle extract; and in the presence of P. betle extract at respective concentrations of (ii) 1 mg⋅mL−1; (iii) 3 mg⋅mL−1; and (iv) 6 mg⋅mL−1. The growth inhibitory responses of the candidal cells were determined based on changes in the specific growth rates (µ). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe any ultrastructural alterations in the candida colonies. LC-MS/MS was performed to validate the presence of bioactive compounds in the extract. Following treatment, it was observed that the µ-values of the treated cells were significantly different than those of the untreated cells (P<0.05), indicating the fungistatic properties of the P. betle extract. The candidal population was also reduced from an average of 13.44×106 to 1.78×106 viable cell counts (CFU)⋅mL−1. SEM examination exhibited physical damage and considerable morphological alterations of the treated cells. The compound profile from LC-MS/MS indicated the presence of hydroxybenzoic acid, chavibetol and hydroxychavicol in P. betle extract. The effects of P. betle on candida cells could potentiate its antifungal activity. PMID:24406634

  2. Growth inhibitory response and ultrastructural modification of oral-associated candidal reference strains (ATCC) by Piper betle L. extract.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Mohd-Al-Faisal; Wan Harun, Wan Himratul-Aznita; Abdul Razak, Fathilah; Musa, Md Yusoff

    2014-03-01

    Candida species have been associated with the emergence of strains resistant to selected antifungal agents. Plant products have been used traditionally as alternative medicine to ease mucosal fungal infections. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper betle extract on the growth profile and the ultrastructure of commonly isolated oral candidal cells. The major component of P. betle was identified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS/MS). Seven ATCC control strains of Candida species were cultured in yeast peptone dextrose broth under four different growth environments: (i) in the absence of P. betle extract; and in the presence of P. betle extract at respective concentrations of (ii) 1 mg⋅mL(-1); (iii) 3 mg⋅mL(-1); and (iv) 6 mg⋅mL(-1). The growth inhibitory responses of the candidal cells were determined based on changes in the specific growth rates (µ). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe any ultrastructural alterations in the candida colonies. LC-MS/MS was performed to validate the presence of bioactive compounds in the extract. Following treatment, it was observed that the µ-values of the treated cells were significantly different than those of the untreated cells (P<0.05), indicating the fungistatic properties of the P. betle extract. The candidal population was also reduced from an average of 13.44×10(6) to 1.78×10(6) viable cell counts (CFU)⋅mL(-1). SEM examination exhibited physical damage and considerable morphological alterations of the treated cells. The compound profile from LC-MS/MS indicated the presence of hydroxybenzoic acid, chavibetol and hydroxychavicol in P. betle extract. The effects of P. betle on candida cells could potentiate its antifungal activity.

  3. Novel nootropic dipeptide Noopept increases inhibitory synaptic transmission in CA1 pyramidal cells.

    PubMed

    Kondratenko, Rodion V; Derevyagin, Vladimir I; Skrebitsky, Vladimir G

    2010-05-31

    Effects of newly synthesized nootropic and anxiolytic dipeptide Noopept on inhibitory synaptic transmission in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells were investigated using patch-clamp technique in whole-cell configuration. Bath application of Noopept (1 microM) significantly increased the frequency of spike-dependant spontaneous IPSCs whereas spike-independent mIPSCs remained unchanged. It was suggested that Noopept mediates its effect due to the activation of inhibitory interneurons terminating on CA1 pyramidal cells. Results of current clamp recording of inhibitory interneurons residing in stratum radiatum confirmed this suggestion. PMID:20382202

  4. Mutation at Glu23 eliminates the neuron growth inhibitory activity of human metallothionein-3

    SciTech Connect

    Ding Zhichun; Teng Xinchen; Cai Bin; Wang Hui; Zheng Qi; Wang Yang; Zhou Guoming; Zhang Mingjie; Wu Houming; Sun Hongzhe . E-mail: hsun@hku.hk; Huang Zhongxian . E-mail: zxhuang@fudan.edu.cn

    2006-10-20

    Human metallothionein-3 (hMT3), first isolated and identified as a neuronal growth inhibitory factor (GIF), is a metalloprotein expressed predominantly in brain. However, untill now, the exact mechanism of the bioactivity of hMT3 is still unknown. In order to study the influence of acid-base catalysis on S-nitrosylation of hMT3, we constructed the E23K mutant of hMT3. During the course of bioassay, we found out unexpectedly that mutation at E23 of hMT3 eliminates the neuronal growth inhibitory activity completely. To the best of our knowledge, it is First report that other residues, besides the TCPCP motif, in the {beta}-domain can alter the bioactivity of hMT3. In order to figure out the causes for the loss of bioactivity of the E23K mutant, the biochemical properties were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, CD spectroscopy, pH titration, DTNB reaction, EDTA reaction, and SNOC reaction. All data demonstrated that stability of the metal-thiolate cluster and overall structure of the E23K mutant were not altered too much. However, the reaction of the E23K mutant with SNOC exhibited biphasic kinetics and the mutant protein released zinc ions much faster than hMT3 in the initial step, while hMT3 exhibited single kinetic process. The 2D [{sup 1}H-{sup 15}N] HSQC was also employed to characterize structural changes during the reaction of hMT3 with varying mounts of nitric oxide. It was shown that the resonance of Glu23 disappeared at a molar ratio of NO to protein of 4. Based on these results, we suggest that mutation at Glu23 may alter the NO metabolism and/or affect zinc homeostasis in brain, thus altering the neuronal growth inhibitory activity.

  5. microRNA-145 Mediates the Inhibitory Effect of Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal Cells on Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Takahara, Kiyoshi; Ii, Masaaki; Inamoto, Teruo; Nakagawa, Takatoshi; Ibuki, Naokazu; Yoshikawa, Yuki; Tsujino, Takuya; Uchimoto, Taizo; Saito, Kenkichi; Takai, Tomoaki; Tanda, Naoki; Minami, Koichiro; Uehara, Hirofumi; Komura, Kazumasa; Hirano, Hajime; Nomi, Hayahito; Kiyama, Satoshi; Asahi, Michio; Azuma, Haruhito

    2016-09-01

    Adipose-derived stromal cell (ASC), known as one of the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), is a promising tool for regenerative medicine; however, the effect of ASCs on tumor growth has not been studied sufficiently. We investigated the hypothesis that ASCs have an inhibitory effect on metastatic tumor progression. To evaluate the in vitro inhibitory effect of ASCs on metastatic prostate cancer (PCa), direct coculture and indirect separate culture experiments with PC3M-luc2 cells and human ASCs were performed, and ASCs were administered to PC3M-luc2 cell-derived tumor-bearing nude mice for in vivo experiment. We also performed exosome microRNA (miRNA) array analysis to explore a mechanistic insight into the effect of ASCs on PCa cell proliferation/apoptosis. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments exhibited the inhibitory effect of ASCs on PC3M-luc2 cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis and PCa growth, respectively. Among upregulated miRNAs in ASCs compared with fibroblasts, we focused on miR-145, which was known as a tumor suppressor. ASC-derived conditioned medium (CM) significantly inhibited PC3M-luc2 cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis, but the effect was canceled by miR-145 knockdown in ASCs. ASC miR-145 knockdown CM also reduced the expression of Caspase 3/7 with increased antiapoptotic protein, BclxL, expression in PC3M-luc2 cells. This study provides preclinical data that ASCs inhibit PCa growth, inducing PCa cell apoptosis with reduced activity of BclxL, at least in part, by miR-145, including exosomes released from ASCs, suggesting that ASC administration could be a novel and promising therapeutic strategy in patients with PCa. PMID:27465939

  6. Transcriptome analysis of phycocyanin inhibitory effects on SKOV-3 cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Ying, Jun; Wang, Jian; Ji, Huijuan; Lin, Chaoqing; Pan, Ruowang; Zhou, Li; Song, Yulong; Zhang, Enyong; Ren, Ping; Chen, Jishun; Liu, Qian; Xu, Teng; Yi, Huiguang; Li, Jinsong; Bao, Qiyu; Hu, Yunliang; Li, Peizhen

    2016-07-01

    Phycocyanin (PC) from Spirulina platensis has inhibitory effects on tumor cell growth. In this research, the transcriptome study was designed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of PC inhibition on human ovarian cancer cell SKOV-3 proliferation. The PC IC50 was 216.6μM and 163.8μM for 24h and 48h exposure, respectively, as determined by CCK-8 assay. The morphological changes of SKOV-3 cells after PC exposure were recorded using HE staining. Cells arrested in G2/M stages as determined by flow cytometry. The transcriptome analysis showed that 2031 genes (with > three-fold differences) were differentially expressed between the untreated and the PC-treated cells, including 1065 up-regulated and 966 down-regulated genes. Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analysis identified 18 classical pathways that were remarkably enriched, such as neurotrophin signaling pathway, VEGF signaling pathway and P53 signaling pathway. qPCR results further showed that PTPN12, S100A2, RPL26, and LAMA3 increased while HNRNPA1P10 decreased in PC-treated cells. Molecules and genes in those pathways may be potential targets to develop treatments for ovarian cancer. PMID:26995654

  7. The Inhibitory Effect of Rhein on Proliferation of High Glucose-induced Mesangial Cell Through Cell Cycle Regulation and Induction of Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shouzhu; Lv, Yanying; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Junping; Wang, Guangjian; Wang, Siwang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Increased mesangial cell proliferation and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) are the major pathological features of early-stage diabetic nephropathy. This study was sought to investigate the inhibitory effects of rhein (RH) on high glucose (HG)-cultured mesangial cells. Specially, we focus on the analysis of proliferation rate, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and the expression of collagen IV and laminin. Materials and Methods: The established rat renal mesangial cell (RMC) line was cultured in medium with different concentrations of glucose (5.6 mM or 25 mM) and RH (40 μM, 20 μM, and 10 μM). Pro-treated cells were collected at 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h for cell proliferation analysis and after 24 h for the experiments of flow cytometry, transmission electron microscope, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting. Results: Our data shows HG can promote the proliferation of RMCs and RH has an inhibitory effect on HG-induced RMC proliferation and expression of ECM. Based on our data, we hypothesize this inhibitory effect might be a result of cell cycle regulation and the induction of cellular apoptosis. Conclusion: RH can inhibit cellular proliferation and downregulate the expression of ECM under the circumstance of HG. The mechanism of growth suppression may be due to cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, induction of cell apoptosis, and upregulation of apoptotic mediators bax and caspase-3. SUMMARY Rhein (RH) has an inhibitory effect on high glucose.induced rat mesangial cells proliferationRH has an inhibitory effect on the expression of extracellular matrixRH has a growth.suppression effectRH can upregulate the expression of apoptotic mediators bax and caspase-3All above shows RH is one of the main active ingredient in Shenkang injection. Abbreviations used: RH: Rhein, ECM: Extracellular matrix, DN: Diabetic nephropathy, RMC: Renal mesangial cell, SKI: Shenkang injection, MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol–2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium

  8. 3β,5α,6β-Oxygenated sterols from the South China Sea gorgonian Muriceopsis flavida and their tumor cell growth inhibitory activity and apoptosis-inducing function.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao-Fang; Lu, Xin; Tang, Hua; Zhang, Min-Min; Wang, Pan; Sun, Peng; Liu, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Zeng-Lei; Li, Ling; Rui, Yao-Cheng; Li, Tie-Jun; Zhang, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Three new polyhydroxysterols, named muriflasteroids A-C (1-3) were isolated from the South China Sea gorgonian Muriceopsis flavida, together with sixteen known analogs, cholest-3β,5α,6β-triol,3β-acetate (4), 5α-methoxycholest-3β,6β-diol (5), (22E)-cholest-22-en-3β,5α,6β-triol (6), cholest-3β,5α,6β-triol (7), (22E)-24-norcholest-22-en-3β,5α,6β-triol (8), (22E,24S)-ergost-22-en-3β,5α,6β-triol (9), ergost-24(28)-en-3β,5α,6β-triol (10), (22E)-cholest-7,22-dien-3β,5α,6β-triol (11), cholest-7-en-3β,5α,6β-triol (12), (22E)-24-norcholest-7,22-dien-3β,5α,6β-triol (13), ergost-7,24(28)-dien-3β,5α,6β-triol (14), (22E,24R)-ergost-7,22-dien-3β,5α,6β-triol (15), (22E)-cholest-22-en-1β,3β,5α,6β-tetrol (16), (22E)-24-norcholest-22-en-1β,3β,5α,6β-tetrol (17), cholest-1β,3β,5α,6β-tetrol (18), and (24ξ)-ergost-1β,3β,5α,6β-tetrol (19). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis in combination with comparison of reported data. All the compounds are reported for the first time from the animal. In the bioassay in vitro, these compounds exhibited different levels of growth inhibition activity against A549 and MG63 cell lines. In particular, compound 18 displayed a considerable activity, being similar as that of positive control adriamycin. An annexin V analysis indicated that compounds 7 and 18 can significantly induce apoptosis in A549 cell, and compound 7 is more potent in the induction of apoptosis. Preliminary structure-activity analysis suggests that the acetylation on 3-OH and appearance of Δ⁷ may decrease the activity while substitution of 1-OH and the nature of side chain may also play an important role in the activity. Methylation of 5-OH contributed a little to the activity.

  9. The inhibitory effect of natural bioactives on the growth of pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Sun

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory activity of natural products, against growth of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Salmonella typhimurium (KCCM 11862). Chitosan, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and garlic were used as natural bioactives for antibacterial activity. The testing method was carried out according to the disk diffusion method. All of chitosan, EGCG, and garlic showed inhibitory effect against the growth of E. coli and Salmonella typhi. To evaluate the antibacterial activity of natural products during storage, chicken skins were inoculated with 106 of E. coli or Salmonella typhi. The inoculated chicken skins, treated with 0.5, 1, or 2% natural bioactives, were stored during 8 day at 4℃. The numbers of microorganisms were measured at 8 day. Both chitosan and EGCG showed significant decrease in the number of E. coli and Salmonella typhi in dose dependent manner (P < 0.05). These results suggest that natural bioactives such as chitosan, EGCG may be possible to be used as antimicrobial agents for the improvement of food safety. PMID:20368950

  10. Coordinated Regulation of Apoptosis and Cell Proliferation by Transforming Growth Factor β1 in Cultured Uterine Epithelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotello, Rocco J.; Lieberman, Rita C.; Purchio, Anthony F.; Gerschenson, Lazaro E.

    1991-04-01

    Cell and tissue growth is regulated through a complex interplay of stimulatory and inhibitory signals. We describe two biological actions of transforming growth factor β 1 (TGF-β 1) in primary cultures of rabbit uterine epithelial cells: (i) inhibition of cell proliferation and (ii) a concomitant increase in cells undergoing apoptosis (programmed cell death). It is proposed that proliferation and apoptosis together comprise normal cell growth regulation.

  11. Resveratrol exerts growth inhibitory effects on human SZ95 sebocytes through the inactivation of the PI3-K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Hyun, Moo Yeol; Go, Kyung Chan; Zouboulis, Christos C; Kim, Beom Joon

    2015-04-01

    Resveratrol is known to be a naturally produced polyphenol that is able to reduce cell proliferation in several types of cancer cells and adipocytes. However, the antiproliferative effects of resveratrol on the growth of human sebocytes are not yet clear. In the present study, we investigated possible cellular pathways associated with these growth inhibitory effects on human SZ95 sebocytes. Our results revealed that resveratrol inhibited the proliferation of sebocytes, and that this resulted in disruption of the cell cycle. The inactivation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), Akt and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ was also shown to be involved in the inhibition of sebocyte growth by resveratrol. To examine the antiproliferative effects of resveratrol, we determined the levels of cell cycle control proteins. Resveratrol inhibited cyclin D1 synthesis, whereas it stimulated p21WAF1/CIP1 (p21) and p27KIP1 (p27) synthesis. In addition, we demonstrated that the resveratrol-mediated cell cycle arrest resulted in an increase in the proportion of cells in the sub-G0/G1 phase. Moreover, we found that the growth inhibitory effects of resveratrol were enhanced by treatment with LY294002 [a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor] more so than by treatment with PD98059 (a MEK inhibitor), which indicates that resveratrol exerts its inhibitory effects on sebocyte proliferation through the inhibition of Akt. Linoleic acid (LA) is a well-established lipid inducer in sebocytes and is known to stimulate sebocyte differentiation through the upregulation of PPAR-γ. In this study, resveratrol was found to decrease the lipid content and PPAR-γ expression during LA-stimulated lipogenesis. Our results indicate that resveratrol plays a critical role in the inhibition of sebocyte growth through the inactivation of the Akt pathway. The present data suggest that resveratrol may be used as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of acne vulgaris.

  12. Synaptic basis for intense thalamocortical activation of feedforward inhibitory cells in neocortex.

    PubMed

    Cruikshank, Scott J; Lewis, Timothy J; Connors, Barry W

    2007-04-01

    The thalamus provides fundamental input to the neocortex. This input activates inhibitory interneurons more strongly than excitatory neurons, triggering powerful feedforward inhibition. We studied the mechanisms of this selective neuronal activation using a mouse somatosensory thalamocortical preparation. Notably, the greater responsiveness of inhibitory interneurons was not caused by their distinctive intrinsic properties but was instead produced by synaptic mechanisms. Axons from the thalamus made stronger and more frequent excitatory connections onto inhibitory interneurons than onto excitatory cells. Furthermore, circuit dynamics allowed feedforward inhibition to suppress responses in excitatory cells more effectively than in interneurons. Thalamocortical excitatory currents rose quickly in interneurons, allowing them to fire action potentials before significant feedforward inhibition emerged. In contrast, thalamocortical excitatory currents rose slowly in excitatory cells, overlapping with feedforward inhibitory currents that suppress action potentials. These results demonstrate the importance of selective synaptic targeting and precise timing in the initial stages of neocortical processing.

  13. Feeding deterrent and growth inhibitory activities of PONNEEM, a newly developed phytopesticidal formulation against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner)

    PubMed Central

    Packiam, Soosaimanickam Maria; Baskar, Kathirvelu; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the feeding deterrent, growth inhibitory and egg hatchability effects of PONNEEM on Helicoverpa armigera (H. armigera). Methods Five oil formulations were prepared at different ratios to assess the feeding deterrent, growth inhibitory and egg hatchability effects on H. armigera. Results Invariably all the newly formulated phytopesticidal oil formulations showed the feeding deterrent and growth inhibitory activities against H. armigera. The maximum feeding deterrent activity of 88.44% was observed at 15 µL/L concentration of PONNEEM followed by formulation A (74.54%). PONNEEM was found to be effective in growth inhibitory activities and egg hatchability at 10 µL/L concentration. It exhibited statistically significant feeding deterrent activity and growth inhibitory activity compared with all the other treatments. Conclusions PONNEEM was found to be effective phytopesticidal formulation to control the larval stage of H. armigera. This is the first report for the feeding deterrent activity of PONNEEM against H. armigera. This newly formulated phytopesticide was patented in India. PMID:25183105

  14. Signaling pathways engaged by NK cell receptors: double concerto for activating receptors, inhibitory receptors and NK cells.

    PubMed

    Tomasello, E; Bléry, M; Vély, F; Vivier, E

    2000-04-01

    Despite the absence of antigen-specific receptors at their surface, NK cells can selectively eliminate virus-infected cells, tumor cells and allogenic cells. A dynamic and precisely coordinated balance between activating and inhibitory receptors governs NK cell activation programs. Multiple activating and inhibitory NK cell surface molecules have been described, a group of them acting as receptors for MHC class I molecules. In spite of their heterogeneity, activating NK cell receptors present remarkable structural and functional homologies with T cell- and B cell-antigen receptors. Inhibitory NK cell receptors operate at early stages of activating cascades by recruiting protein tyrosine phosphatases via intra- cytoplasmic motifs (ITIM), a strategy which is widely conserved in hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells.

  15. Interneuron- and GABAA receptor-specific inhibitory synaptic plasticity in cerebellar Purkinje cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qionger; Duguid, Ian; Clark, Beverley; Panzanelli, Patrizia; Patel, Bijal; Thomas, Philip; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Smart, Trevor G.

    2015-07-01

    Inhibitory synaptic plasticity is important for shaping both neuronal excitability and network activity. Here we investigate the input and GABAA receptor subunit specificity of inhibitory synaptic plasticity by studying cerebellar interneuron-Purkinje cell (PC) synapses. Depolarizing PCs initiated a long-lasting increase in GABA-mediated synaptic currents. By stimulating individual interneurons, this plasticity was observed at somatodendritic basket cell synapses, but not at distal dendritic stellate cell synapses. Basket cell synapses predominantly express β2-subunit-containing GABAA receptors; deletion of the β2-subunit ablates this plasticity, demonstrating its reliance on GABAA receptor subunit composition. The increase in synaptic currents is dependent upon an increase in newly synthesized cell surface synaptic GABAA receptors and is abolished by preventing CaMKII phosphorylation of GABAA receptors. Our results reveal a novel GABAA receptor subunit- and input-specific form of inhibitory synaptic plasticity that regulates the temporal firing pattern of the principal output cells of the cerebellum.

  16. Development of Adult-Generated Cell Connectivity with Excitatory and Inhibitory Cell Populations in the Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Restivo, Leonardo; Niibori, Yosuke; Mercaldo, Valentina; Josselyn, Sheena A; Frankland, Paul W

    2015-07-22

    New neurons are generated continuously in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus and integrate into existing hippocampal circuits throughout adulthood. Although the addition of these new neurons may facilitate the formation of new memories, as they integrate, they provide additional excitatory drive to CA3 pyramidal neurons. During development, to maintain homeostasis, new neurons form preferential contacts with local inhibitory circuits. Using retroviral and transgenic approaches to label adult-generated granule cells, we first asked whether a comparable process occurs in the adult hippocampus in mice. Similar to development, we found that, during adulthood, new neurons form connections with inhibitory cells in the dentate gyrus, hilus, and CA3 regions as they integrate into hippocampal circuits. In particular, en passant bouton and filopodia connections with CA3 interneurons peak when adult-generated dentate granule cells (DGCs) are ∼4 weeks of age, a time point when these cells are most excitable. Consistent with this, optical stimulation of 4-week-old (but not 6- or 8-week-old) adult-generated DGCs strongly activated CA3 interneurons. Finally, we found that CA3 interneurons were activated robustly during learning and that their activity was strongly coupled with activity of 4-week-old (but not older) adult-generated DGCs. These data indicate that, as adult-generated neurons integrate into hippocampal circuits, they transiently form strong anatomical, effective, and functional connections with local inhibitory circuits in CA3. Significance statement: New neurons are generated continuously in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus and integrate into existing hippocampal circuits throughout adulthood. Understanding how these cells integrate within well formed circuits will increase our knowledge about the basic principles governing circuit assembly in the adult hippocampus. This study uses a combined connectivity analysis (anatomical, functional, and effective

  17. Inhibitory effects of Hedyotis diffusa Willd. on colorectal cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    SUN, GUODONG; WEI, LIHUI; FENG, JIANYU; LIN, JIUMAO; PENG, JUN

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are proposed to be closely correlated with the development and progression of tumors, as well as with chemo- and radioresistance. Targeting CSCs may therefore be a promising potential strategy for the treatment of cancer. Currently, natural products have received great interest due to their therapeutic efficacy and reduced adverse effects compared with modern chemotherapeutics. As a significant component of a number of traditional Chinese medicine formulas, the medicinal herb Hedyotis diffusa Willd. (HDW) has long been utilized in China to clinically treat a variety of malignancies, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Previously, the authors of the present study reported that HDW suppressed CRC growth through multiple mechanisms, including promoting apoptosis, and inhibiting cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. To additionally investigate its mode of action, the present study isolated a stem-like side population (SP) from colorectal cancer HT-29 cells to investigate the effect of ethanol extract of HDW on CSCs. It was observed that HDW was able to markedly downregulate the expression of CSC marker leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 and also significantly decrease the proportion of SP in HT-29 cells, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, HDW treatment significantly and dose-dependently inhibited the viability and sphere formation, and induced cell morphological changes of isolated HT-29 SP cells. In addition, HDW greatly suppressed the messenger RNA expression of several critical genes that mediate CSC features, including ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B, member 1, β-catenin, c-Myc, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and survivin. In conclusion, the present study indicates that HDW may exert inhibitory effects on cancer stem cells. PMID:27313710

  18. Inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus fermentum on microbial growth and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Rybalchenko, Oxana V; Bondarenko, Viktor M; Orlova, Olga G; Markov, Alexander G; Amasheh, S

    2015-10-01

    Beneficial effects of Lactobacilli have been reported, and lactic bacteria are employed for conservation of foods. Therefore, the effects of a Lactobacillus fermentum strain were analyzed regarding inhibitory effects on staphylococci, Candida albicans and enterotoxigenic enterobacteria by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM of bacterial biofilms was performed using cocultures of bacteriocin-producing L. fermentum 97 with different enterotoxigenic strains: Staphylococcus epidermidis expressing the ica gene responsible for biofilm formation, Staphylococcus aureus producing enterotoxin type A, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloaceae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus mirabilis producing thermolabile and thermostable enterotoxins determined by elt or est genes, and Candida albicans. L. fermentum 97 changed morphological features and suppressed biofilm formation of staphylococci, enterotoxigenic enterobacteria and Candida albicans; a marked transition to resting states, a degradation of the cell walls and cytoplasm, and a disruption of mature bacterial biofilms were observed, the latter indicating efficiency even in the phase of higher cell density.

  19. Inhibitory receptor expression on memory CD8 T cells following Ad vector immunization.

    PubMed

    Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo; Alayo, Quazim A; Ra, Joshua; Provine, Nicholas M; Larocca, Rafael; Lee, Benjamin; Barouch, Dan H

    2016-09-22

    T cells are an important component of immune responses, and their function is influenced by their expression of inhibitory receptors. Immunization with alternative serotype adenovirus (Ad) vectors induces highly functional T cell responses with lower programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) expression and increased boostability relative to Ad5 vectors. However, a detailed phenotypic characterization of other inhibitory receptors is lacking, and it is unknown whether Ad5-induced CD8 T cells eventually recover function with time. In this report, we measure the expression of various inhibitory receptors and memory markers during early and late time points following vaccination with Ad5 and alternative serotype Ad vectors. CD8 T cells induced by Ad5 exhibited increased expression of the inhibitory receptor Tim-3 and showed decreased central memory differentiation as compared with alternative serotype Ad vectors, even a year following immunization. Moreover, relative to Ad5-primed mice, Ad26-primed mice exhibited substantially improved recall of SIV Gag-specific CD8 T cell responses following heterologous boosting with MVA or Ad35 vectors. We also demonstrate that low doses of Ad5 priming resulted in more boostable immune responses with lower PD-1 expression as compared to high Ad5 doses, suggesting a role for vector dose in influencing immune dysfunction following Ad5 vaccination. These data suggest that Ad5 vectors induce a long-term pattern of immune exhaustion that can be partly overcome by lowering vector dose and modulating inhibitory signals. PMID:27566899

  20. Inhibitory effects of apoptotic cell ingestion upon endotoxin-driven myeloid dendritic cell maturation.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Lynda M; Lucas, Mark; Simpson, Cathy; Lamb, Jonathan; Savill, John; Lacy-Hulbert, Adam

    2002-02-15

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the sentinels of the immune system, able to interact with both naive and memory T cells. The recent observation that DCs can ingest cells dying by apoptosis has raised the possibility that DCs may, in fact, present self-derived Ags, initiating both autoimmunity and tumor-specific responses, especially if associated with appropriate danger signals. Although the process of ingestion of apoptotic cells has not been shown to induce DC maturation, the exact fate of these phagocytosing DCs remains unclear. In this paper we demonstrate that DCs that ingest apoptotic cells are able to produce TNF-alpha but have a diminished ability to produce IL-12 in response to external stimuli, a property that corresponds to a failure to up-regulate CD86. By single-cell analysis we demonstrate that these inhibitory effects are restricted to those DCs that have engulfed apoptotic cells, with bystander DCs remaining unaffected. These changes were independent of the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines TGF-beta1 and IL-10 and corresponded with a diminished capacity to stimulate naive T cells. Thus, the ingestion of apoptotic cells is not an immunologically null event but is capable of modulating DC maturation. These results have important implications for our understanding of the role of clearance of dying cells by DCs not only in the normal resolution of inflammation but also in control of subsequent immune responses to apoptotic cell-derived Ags.

  1. A PEPTIDE ANTAGONIST DISRUPTS NATURAL KILLER CELL INHIBITORY SYNAPSE FORMATION1

    PubMed Central

    Borhis, Gwenoline; Ahmed, Parvin S.; Mbiribindi, Bérénice; Naiyer, Mohammed M.; Davis, Daniel M; Purbhoo, Marco A; Khakoo, Salim I

    2013-01-01

    Productive engagement of MHC Class I by inhibitory NK cell receptors depends on the peptide bound by the MHC class I molecule. Peptide:MHC complexes that bind weakly to killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) can antagonize the inhibition mediated by high affinity peptide:MHC complexes and cause NK cell activation. We show that low affinity peptide:MHC complexes stall inhibitory signalling at the step of SHP-1 recruitment and do not go on to form the KIR microclusters induced by high affinity peptide:MHC, which are associated with Vav dephosphorylation and downstream signalling. Furthermore the low affinity peptide:MHC complexes prevented the formation of KIR microclusters by high affinity peptide:MHC. Thus peptide antagonism of NK cells is an active phenomenon of inhibitory synapse disruption. PMID:23382564

  2. A novel inhibitory nucleo-cortical circuit controls cerebellar Golgi cell activity

    PubMed Central

    Ankri, Lea; Husson, Zoé; Pietrajtis, Katarzyna; Proville, Rémi; Léna, Clément; Yarom, Yosef; Dieudonné, Stéphane; Uusisaari, Marylka Yoe

    2015-01-01

    The cerebellum, a crucial center for motor coordination, is composed of a cortex and several nuclei. The main mode of interaction between these two parts is considered to be formed by the inhibitory control of the nuclei by cortical Purkinje neurons. We now amend this view by showing that inhibitory GABA-glycinergic neurons of the cerebellar nuclei (CN) project profusely into the cerebellar cortex, where they make synaptic contacts on a GABAergic subpopulation of cerebellar Golgi cells. These spontaneously firing Golgi cells are inhibited by optogenetic activation of the inhibitory nucleo-cortical fibers both in vitro and in vivo. Our data suggest that the CN may contribute to the functional recruitment of the cerebellar cortex by decreasing Golgi cell inhibition onto granule cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06262.001 PMID:25965178

  3. Characterization of the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing activities of a triterpene saponin, securioside B against BAC1.2F5 macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Yui, Satoru; Kudo, Tomoya; Hodono, Kazumi; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Kuroda, Minpei; Sashida, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Masatoshi

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the growth state of macrophages in local pathological sites is considered a factor that regulates the processes of many disease, such as tumors, inflammation, and atherosclerosis, the substances that regulate macrophage growth or survival may be useful for disease control. We previously reported that securiosides A and B, novel triterpene saponins, exerted macrophage-oriented cytotoxicity in the presence of a L-cell-conditioned medium containing macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), while the compounds did not exhibit an effect on macrophages in the absence of the growth-stimulating factors. AIM: This study was undertaken to characterize the growth-inhibitory and the apoptosis-inducing activities of securioside B, focusing on the effects of the macrophage-growth factor(s), and to examine the implication of a mitochondria pathway in apoptosis induction. METHODS: The effect of securioside B on a murine macrophage cell line (BAC1.2F5) was examined by MTT assay and lactose dehydrogenase release assay in the presence of L-cell-conditioned medium, M-CSF, or granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF). RESULT: Securioside B inhibited the growth of the cells stimulated by recombinant M-CSF or GM-CSF, but it scarcely induced cytolysis of the cells under the same conditions. Moreover, securioside B did not induce cell death when the compound only was added to the cells. On the other hand, the compound extensively induced apoptotic cell death in the presence of L-cell-conditioned medium, suggesting that apoptosis induction by securioside B requires the additional factor(s) present in L-cell-conditioned medium. Securioside B plus L-cell-conditioned medium induced the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, but not caspase-8. In addition, cytochrome c release from the mitochondria into the cytosol, and disrupted mitochondria membrane potential, was also observed in the apoptotic BAC1.2F5 cells. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that securioside B has growth-inhibitory

  4. Transcriptomic evaluation of plant growth inhibitory activity of goniothalamin from the Malaysian medicinal plant Goniothalamus andersonii.

    PubMed

    Wasano, Naoya; Takemura, Tomoko; Ismil, Raihan; Bakar, Baki; Fujii, Yoshiharu

    2015-05-01

    Goniothalamin produced by the Malaysian medicinal plant, Goniothalamus andersonii J. Sinclair, strongly inhibits plant growth. However, its mode of action has not been characterized at the gene expression level. We conducted DNA microarray assay to analyze the changes in early gene responses of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. After a 6-h exposure to goniothalamin, we observed an upregulation of genes highly associated with heat response, and 22 heat shock protein (AtHSP) genes were upregulated more than 50 fold. Together with these genes, we observed upregulation of the genes related to oxidative stress and protein folding. Also, the genes related to cell wall modification and cell growth, expansin (AtEXPA) genes, were significantly downregulated. The results suggested that goniothalamin induces oxidative stresses and inhibits the expression of cell wall-associated proteins resulting in growth inhibition of Arabidopsis seedlings. PMID:26058144

  5. Regio- and stereoselective synthesis of pregnane-fused isoxazolines by nitril-oxide/alkene 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and an evaluation of their cell-growth inhibitory effect in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mótyán, Gergő; Baji, Ádám; Zupkó, István; Frank, Éva

    2016-04-01

    Efficient syntheses of some pregnane-fused isoxazolines from 16-dehydropregnenolone acetate with different arylnitrile oxides were carried out by 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions. The intermolecular ring-closures occurred in a highly regio- and stereoselective manner permitting the formation of a single 16α,17α-condensed diastereomer in which the O terminus of the nitrile oxide dipole is attached to C-17 of the sterane core. The conversions were found to be affected significantly by the electronic character of the substituents on the aromatic moiety of the 1,3-dipoles. Deacetylation of the primary products resulted in the corresponding 3β-OH analogs. All of the synthesized compounds were subjected to in vitro pharmacological studies for the determination of their antiproliferative effects on four breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, T47D, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-361).

  6. Leukemia inhibitory factor promotes tumor growth and metastasis in human osteosarcoma via activating STAT3.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Lu, Yi; Li, Jinzhi; Liu, Yanping; Liu, Jian; Wang, Weiguo

    2015-10-01

    The leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) has been demonstrated to be an oncogene and participated in multiple procedures during the initiation and progression of many human malignancies. However, the role of LIF in osteosarcoma is still largely unknown. Here, we performed a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments to investigate the expression and biological functions of LIF in osteosarcoma. Compared to that in the non-cancerous tissues, LIF was significantly overexpressed in a panel of 68 osteosarcoma samples (p < 0.0001). Moreover, the overexpression of LIF was significantly correlated with advanced tumor stage, larger tumor size, and shorter overall survival. In addition, knockdown of LIF notably suppressed the proliferation and invasion of osteosarcoma via blocking the STAT3 signal pathway; in contrast, treatment with the recombinant LIF protein significantly promoted the growth and invasion of osteosarcoma through enhancing the phosphorylation of STAT3, which can be partially neutralized by the STAT3 inhibitor, HO-3867. In conclusion, we demonstrated that LIF was frequently overexpressed in osteosarcoma, which could promote the growth and invasion through activating the STAT3 pathway. Our findings proposed that LIF might be a potent therapeutic target for osteosarcoma.

  7. Leukemia inhibitory factor promotes tumor growth and metastasis in human osteosarcoma via activating STAT3.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Lu, Yi; Li, Jinzhi; Liu, Yanping; Liu, Jian; Wang, Weiguo

    2015-10-01

    The leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) has been demonstrated to be an oncogene and participated in multiple procedures during the initiation and progression of many human malignancies. However, the role of LIF in osteosarcoma is still largely unknown. Here, we performed a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments to investigate the expression and biological functions of LIF in osteosarcoma. Compared to that in the non-cancerous tissues, LIF was significantly overexpressed in a panel of 68 osteosarcoma samples (p < 0.0001). Moreover, the overexpression of LIF was significantly correlated with advanced tumor stage, larger tumor size, and shorter overall survival. In addition, knockdown of LIF notably suppressed the proliferation and invasion of osteosarcoma via blocking the STAT3 signal pathway; in contrast, treatment with the recombinant LIF protein significantly promoted the growth and invasion of osteosarcoma through enhancing the phosphorylation of STAT3, which can be partially neutralized by the STAT3 inhibitor, HO-3867. In conclusion, we demonstrated that LIF was frequently overexpressed in osteosarcoma, which could promote the growth and invasion through activating the STAT3 pathway. Our findings proposed that LIF might be a potent therapeutic target for osteosarcoma. PMID:26271643

  8. Secondary metabolites from Glycine soja and their growth inhibitory effect against Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-Ying; Luo, Shi-Hong; Yi, Ting-Shuang; Li, Chun-Huan; Luo, Qian; Hua, Juan; Liu, Yan; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2011-06-01

    The wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) has been reported to be relatively resistant to insect and pathogenic pests. However, the responsible secondary metabolites in the aerial part of this important plant are largely unknown. From the aerial part of G. soja, 13 compounds were isolated and identified, including seven isoflavonoids (1-7), a cyclitol (8), two sterol derivatives (9 and 10), and three triterpenoids (11-13). Compound 7 is a new isoflavonoid, and compounds 9 and 10 are reported as natural products for the first time. The growth inhibitory activity of 1, 3, 4, and 8 against the larvae of Spodoptera litura was investigated. The most abundant isoflavonoid in the aerial part of G. soja, daidzein (1), which could not be metabolized by S. litura, was found to inhibit the insect larvae growth significantly in 3 days after feeding diets containing the compound. Compounds 3, 4, and 8, which could be partially or completely metabolized, were inactive. Our results suggested that the isoflavonoid daidzein (1) might function as a constitutive defense component in G. soja against insect pests.

  9. Inhibition of breast cancer cell motility with a non-cyclooxygenase inhibitory derivative of sulindac by suppressing TGFβ/miR-21 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ruixia; Feng, Xiangling; Li, Wei; Piazza, Gary A.; Xi, Yaguang

    2016-01-01

    Compelling efficacy on intervention of tumorigenesis by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been documented intensively. However, the toxicities related to cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition resulting in suppression of physiologically important prostaglandins limit their clinical use for human cancer chemoprevention. A novel derivative of the NSAID sulindac sulfide (SS), referred as sulindac sulfide amide (SSA), was recently developed, which lacks COX inhibitory activity, yet shows greater suppressive effect than SS on growth of various cancer cells. In this study, we focus on the inhibitory activity of SSA on breast tumor cell motility, which has not been studied previously. Our results show that SSA treatment at non-cytotoxic concentrations can specifically reduce breast tumor cell motility without influencing tumor cell growth, and the mechanism of action involves the suppression of TGFβ signaling by directly blocking Smad2/3 phosphorylation. Moreover, miR-21, a well-documented oncogenic miRNA for promoting tumor cell metastasis, was also found to be involved in inhibitory activity of SSA in breast tumor cell motility through the modulation of TGFβ pathway. In conclusion, we demonstrate that a non-COX inhibitory derivative of sulindac can inhibit breast tumor metastasis by a mechanism involving the TGFβ/miR-21 signaling axis. PMID:26769851

  10. Inhibition of breast cancer cell motility with a non-cyclooxygenase inhibitory derivative of sulindac by suppressing TGFβ/miR-21 signaling.

    PubMed

    Yi, Bin; Chang, Hong; Ma, Ruixia; Feng, Xiangling; Li, Wei; Piazza, Gary A; Xi, Yaguang

    2016-02-16

    Compelling efficacy on intervention of tumorigenesis by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been documented intensively. However, the toxicities related to cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition resulting in suppression of physiologically important prostaglandins limit their clinical use for human cancer chemoprevention. A novel derivative of the NSAID sulindac sulfide (SS), referred as sulindac sulfide amide (SSA), was recently developed, which lacks COX inhibitory activity, yet shows greater suppressive effect than SS on growth of various cancer cells. In this study, we focus on the inhibitory activity of SSA on breast tumor cell motility, which has not been studied previously. Our results show that SSA treatment at non-cytotoxic concentrations can specifically reduce breast tumor cell motility without influencing tumor cell growth, and the mechanism of action involves the suppression of TGFβ signaling by directly blocking Smad2/3 phosphorylation. Moreover, miR-21, a well-documented oncogenic miRNA for promoting tumor cell metastasis, was also found to be involved in inhibitory activity of SSA in breast tumor cell motility through the modulation of TGFβ pathway. In conclusion, we demonstrate that a non-COX inhibitory derivative of sulindac can inhibit breast tumor metastasis by a mechanism involving the TGFβ/miR-21 signaling axis.

  11. The inhibitory effect of hypoxic cytotoxin on the expansion of cancer stem cells in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Nozawa-Suzuki, Noriko; Nagasawa, Hideko; Ohnishi, Ken; Morishige, Ken-Ichirou

    2015-02-20

    While an increase in progression free survival time is seen when an angiogenesis inhibitor is used in the treatment of high-relapse rate ovarian cancer, it has little effect on overall survival. A possible cause of treatment-resistance to angiogenesis inhibitors is the growth of stem cells in a hypoxic microenvironment built inside the tumor tissue by angiogenesis inhibition. In this study, we examined the possible suppression of stem cell and cancer stem cell (CSC) expansion by hypoxic cytotoxin, TX-402. TX-402, an analogue of tirapazamine, has been developed as a hypoxia selective prodrug with inhibitory effects of HIF-1 and angiogenesis. We considered TX-402 as a possible molecular-target drug candidate for ovarian cancer due to its inhibition of CSC expansion. In this study, we found that the expressions of HIF-1α and HIF-2α were increased under hypoxia in serous ovarian cancer cell lines. The expressions of HIF-1α and HIF-2α induced under hypoxia were repressed by TX-402 in a dose-dependent manner. Next, we investigated the effects of hypoxia on the expression levels of stem cell factors, Oct4, Nanog, Sox2 and Lin28, and showed that their expressions were induced by hypoxia. It was also observed that the expressions of putative ovarian cancer stem cell markers, CD133 and CD44 were induced under hypoxia. Furthermore, TX-402 was found to dose-dependently inhibit the expressions of CSC markers and stem cell factors. Oct4 expression was repressed by HIF-2α silencing, but not by HIF-1α silencing, indicating that TX-402 may repress the expression of Oct4 by inhibiting HIF-2α. We constructed CaOV3 spheroids as a 3-dimensional hypoxia model, in which the internal hypoxic region contained CSC-like cells expressing Oct4. The internal hypoxic region, which contained Oct4 expressing cells, disappeared following TX-402 treatment. In conclusion, hypoxia promoted the expansion of CSCs expressing CD133 and CD44 accompanied by an increase of stem cell factors. Its

  12. The C/EBPbeta isoform, liver-inhibitory protein (LIP), induces autophagy in breast cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, Maria M.; Sealy, Linda

    2010-11-15

    Autophagy is a process involving the bulk degradation of cellular components in the cytoplasm via the lysosomal degradation pathway. Autophagy manifests a protective role in stressful conditions such as nutrient or growth factor depletion; however, extensive degradation of regulatory molecules or organelles essential for survival can lead to the demise of the cell, or autophagy-mediated cell death. The role of autophagy in cancer is complex with roles in both tumor suppression and tumor promotion proposed. Here we report that an isoform of the C/EBPbeta transcription factor, liver-enriched inhibitory protein (LIP), induces cell death in human breast cancer cells and stimulates autophagy. Overexpression of LIP is incompatible with cell growth and when cell cycle analysis was performed, a DNA profile of cells undergoing apoptosis was not observed. Instead, LIP expressing cells appeared to have large autophagic vesicles when examined via electron microscopy. Autophagy was further assessed in LIP expressing cells by monitoring the development of acidic vesicular organelles and conversion of LC3 from the cytoplasmic form to the membrane-bound form. Our work shows that C/EBPbeta isoform, LIP, is another member of the group of transcription factors, including E2F1 and p53, which are capable of playing a role in autophagy.

  13. PID1 (NYGGF4), a new growth-inhibitory gene in embryonal brain tumors and gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Erdreich-Epstein, Anat; Robison, Nathan; Ren, Xiuhai; Zhou, Hong; Xu, Jingying; Davidson, Tom B.; Schur, Mathew; Gilles, Floyd H.; Ji, Lingyun; Malvar, Jemily; Shackleford, Gregory M.; Margol, Ashley S.; Krieger, Mark D.; Judkins, Alexander R.; Jones, David T.W.; Pfister, Stefan; Kool, Marcel; Sposto, Richard; Asgharazadeh, Shahab

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We present here the first report of PID1 (Phosphotyrosine Interaction Domain containing 1; NYGGF4) in cancer. PID1 was identified in 2006 as a gene that modulates insulin signaling and mitochondrial function in adipocytes and muscle cells. Experimental Design and Results Using four independent medulloblastoma datasets, we show that mean PID1 mRNA levels were lower in unfavorable medulloblastomas (Groups 3 and 4, and anaplastic histology) compared with favorable medulloblastomas (SHH and WNT groups, and desmoplastic/nodular histology) and with fetal cerebellum. In two large independent glioma datasets PID1 mRNA was lower in glioblastomas (GBMs), the most malignant gliomas, compared to other astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and non-tumor brains. Neural and proneural GBM subtypes had higher PID1 mRNA compared to classical and mesenchymal GBM. Importantly, overall survival and radiation-free progression-free survival were longer in medulloblastoma patients with higher PID1 mRNA (univariate and multivariate analyses). Higher PID1 mRNA also correlated with longer overall survival in glioma and GBM patients. In cell culture, overexpression of PID1 inhibited colony formation in medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) and GBM cell lines. Increasing PID1 also increased cell death and apoptosis, inhibited proliferation, induced mitochondrial depolarization, and decreased serum-mediated phosphorylation of AKT and ERK in medulloblastoma, ATRT and/or GBM cell lines, whereas siRNA to PID1 diminished mitochondrial depolarization. Conclusions These data are the first to link PID1 to cancer and suggest that PID1 may have a tumor inhibitory function in these pediatric and adult brain tumors. PMID:24300787

  14. Mechanisms of the Eimeria tenella growth inhibitory activity induced by concanavalin A and reticuloendotheliosis virus supernatants with interferon gamma activity in chicken macrophages and fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Dimier-Poisson, I H; Soundouss, Z; Naciri, M; Bout, D T; Quéré, P

    1999-01-01

    Pretreatment of chicken bone marrow macrophages and embryo fibroblasts with supernatants containing chicken interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) for 24 hr prior to inoculation inhibited intracellular Eimeria tenella replication, measured by [3H] uracil incorporation. The supernatants (Sns) were obtained from culture of lymphoblastoid cells transformed by a reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) and chicken splenocytes stimulated with concanavalin A (Con A). The mechanisms of the E. tenella growth inhibitory activity induced by Sn REV and Sn Con A in chicken macrophages and fibroblasts were studied. Addition of oxygen scavengers (superoxide dismutase, D-mannitol, DABCO, benzoic acid, L-histidine hydrochloride) was able to overcome the inhibition of E. tenella replication after pretreatment with Sn REV or Sn Con A in macrophage cultures but not in fibroblast cultures. Nitric oxide (NO) synthesis was induced in macrophage culture treated with Sn REV or Sn Con A but not in fibroblast culture. Addition of NG monomethyl-L-arginine, an NO synthase inhibitor together with the supernatants was also able to overcome inhibition of E. tenella replication in macrophage culture. On the other hand, addition of L-tryptophan to Sn REV- or Sn Con A-treated fibroblasts was able to reverse the inhibitory effect on E. tenella replication. In conclusion, production of inorganic NO or toxic oxygen intermediates may be involved in the E. tenella growth inhibitory activity of chicken macrophages pretreated with supernatants containing an IFN-gamma activity, and cellular tryptophan depletion may be involved for chicken fibroblasts, thus matching the mechanisms of the IFN-gamma-induced growth inhibitory activity for protozoans in mammals.

  15. Identification of octanal as plant growth inhibitory volatile compound released from Heracleum sosnowskyi fruit.

    PubMed

    Mishyna, Maryia; Laman, Nikolai; Prokhorov, Valery; Maninang, John Solomon; Fujii, Yoshiharu

    2015-05-01

    Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden of the Apiaceae family is a malignant invasive plant in Eastern Europe, Belarus and Russia. The species is known for its prolific seed production, which has been linked to the plant's invasive success. The fruit also has a strong aroma, but the contribution of the fruit's volatile constituent to out-compete neighboring plants has not been fully established. In this study, fruit volatiles of H. sosnowskyi and conspecifics (i.e. H. asperum, H. lescovii, H. dissectum, H. hirtum) were identified by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS). Octyl acetate, octanol, octanal, hexyl isobutyrate, and hexyl-2-methyl butyrate were found to be the principal volatiles. Using authentic standards, the growth-inhibitory property of the individual compounds was assayed by the novel Cotton swab method. Assay results with lettuce (Lactuca sativa) showed that octanal strongly inhibited seed germination and radicle elongation of seedlings. The results suggest that octanal may be the main contributor to the allelopathic activity of H. sosnowksyi fruits. Furthermore, the mixture of fruit volatiles from the invasive H. sosnowskyi more strongly delayed lettuce seedling elongation than the volatiles from fruits of the non-invasive H. asperum, H. lescovii, H. dissectum and H. hirtum. Thus, the present study is the first to demonstrate the possible involvement of fruit volatiles of Heracleum species in plant-plant interaction. PMID:26058155

  16. Inhibitory role of ERβ on anterior pituitary cell proliferation by controlling the expression of proteins related to cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Pablo A; Petiti, Juan P; Wagner, Ignacio A; Sabatino, Maria E; Sasso, Corina V; De Paul, Ana L; Torres, Alicia I; Gutiérrez, Silvina

    2015-11-01

    Considering that the role of ERβ in the growth of pituitary cells is not well known, the aim of this work was to determine the expression of ERβ in normal and tumoral cells and to investigate its implications in the proliferative control of this endocrine gland, by analyzing the participation of cyclin D1, Cdk4 and p21. Our results showed that the expression of ERβ decreased during pituitary tumoral development induced by chronic E2 stimulation. The 20 ± 1.6% of normal adenohypophyseal cells expressed ERβ, with this protein being reduced in the hyperplastic/adenomatous pituitary: at 20 days the ERβ+ population was 10.7 ± 2.2%, while after 40 and 60 days of treatment an almost complete loss in the ERβ expression was observed (40 d: 1 ± 0.6%; 60 d: 2 ± 0.6%). The ERα/β ratio increased starting from tumors at 40 days, mainly due to the loss of ERβ expression. The cell proliferation was analyzed in normal and hyperplastic pituitary and also in GH3β- and GH3β+ which contained different levels of ERβ expression, and therefore different ERα/β ratios. The over-expression of ERβ inhibited the GH3 cell proliferation and expression of cyclin D1 and ERα. Also, the ERβ activation by its agonist DPN changed the subcellular localization of p21, inducing an increase in the p21 nuclear expression, where it acts as a tumoral suppressor. These results show that ERβ exerts an inhibitory role on pituitary cell proliferation, and that this effect may be partially due to the modulation of some key regulators of the cell cycle, such as cyclin D1 and p21. These data contribute significantly to the understanding of the ER effects in the proliferative control of pituitary gland, specifically related to the ERβ function in the E2 actions on this endocrine gland.

  17. Chemical investigation of Cyperus distans L. and inhibitory activity of scabequinone in seed germination and seedling growth bioassays.

    PubMed

    Vilhena, Karyme S S; Guilhon, Giselle Maria Skelding Pinheiro; Zoghbi, Maria das Graças B; Santos, Lourivaldo Silva; Souza Filho, Antonio Pedro Silva

    2014-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the rhizomes of Cyperus distans (Cyperaceae) led to the identification of α-ciperone, cyperotundone and scabequinone, besides other common constituents. Complete assignment of the (13)C NMR data of scabequinone is being published for the first time. The inhibitory effects of C. distans extracts and scabequinone on the seed germination and seedling growth of Mimosa pudica, Senna obtusifolia and Pueraria phaseoloides were evaluated. Seed germination inhibition bioassay revealed that S. obtusifolia (52-53%) was more sensitive to the hexane and the methanol extracts at 1% than M. pudica (0-10%). Scabequinone at 250 mg L⁻¹ displayed seed germination inhibitions more than 50% and radicle growth reduction of more than 35% of the test species S. obtusifolia and P. phaseoloides, while the hypocotyl growth of M. pudica was significantly affected (>50%) by the quinone at the same concentration. These results demonstrate that scabequinone contributes to the overall inhibitory activities of C. distans.

  18. Chemical investigation of Cyperus distans L. and inhibitory activity of scabequinone in seed germination and seedling growth bioassays.

    PubMed

    Vilhena, Karyme S S; Guilhon, Giselle Maria Skelding Pinheiro; Zoghbi, Maria das Graças B; Santos, Lourivaldo Silva; Souza Filho, Antonio Pedro Silva

    2014-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the rhizomes of Cyperus distans (Cyperaceae) led to the identification of α-ciperone, cyperotundone and scabequinone, besides other common constituents. Complete assignment of the (13)C NMR data of scabequinone is being published for the first time. The inhibitory effects of C. distans extracts and scabequinone on the seed germination and seedling growth of Mimosa pudica, Senna obtusifolia and Pueraria phaseoloides were evaluated. Seed germination inhibition bioassay revealed that S. obtusifolia (52-53%) was more sensitive to the hexane and the methanol extracts at 1% than M. pudica (0-10%). Scabequinone at 250 mg L⁻¹ displayed seed germination inhibitions more than 50% and radicle growth reduction of more than 35% of the test species S. obtusifolia and P. phaseoloides, while the hypocotyl growth of M. pudica was significantly affected (>50%) by the quinone at the same concentration. These results demonstrate that scabequinone contributes to the overall inhibitory activities of C. distans. PMID:24941231

  19. Inhibitory effects of fermented extract of Ophiopogon japonicas on thrombin-induced vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Jun-Hui; Jeong, Gi Hee; Park, Sung Lyea; Won, Se Yeon; Paek, Nam Soo; Lee, Bog-Hieu; Moon, Sung-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Ophiopogon japonicus is known to have various pharmacological effects. The present study investigated the effects of an extract of fermented Ophiopogon japonicas (FEOJ) on thrombin‑treated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). FEOJ treatment inhibited the proliferation of VSMCs treated with thrombin as indicated by an MTT assay. These inhibitory effects were associated with decreased phosphorylation of AKT, reduced expression of cyclin D1 and increased expression of p27KIP1 in thrombin‑induced VSMCs. In addition, FEOJ treatment suppressed the thrombin‑stimulated migration of VSMCs as demonstrated by a wound‑healing migration assay. Furthermore, zymographic analyses demonstrated that treatment of FEOJ with VSMCs suppressed the thrombin‑induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑2, which was attributed to the reduction of nuclear factor (NF)‑κB binding activity. Collectively, these results demonstrated that FEOJ induced p27KIP1 expression, reduced cyclin D1 expression and AKT phosphorylation, and inhibited MMP‑2 expression mediated by downregulation of NF‑κB binding activity in thrombin‑treated VSMCs, which led to growth inhibition and repression of migration. These results supported the use of FEOJ for the prevention of vascular diseases and provided novel insight into the underlying mechanism of action.

  20. Inhibitory effect of prolactin on Toxoplasma proliferation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with hyperprolactinemia.

    PubMed

    Dzitko, K; Lawnicka, H; Gatkowska, J; Dziadek, B; Komorowski, J; Długońska, H

    2012-06-01

    Despite many years of studies on the mechanisms of immunological defence responses induced in host organisms by Toxoplasma, no satisfactory immunoprophylaxis or chemotherapy have yet been established for humans. Thus, alternative methods to prevent toxoplasmosis and to enhance the efficacy of currently used antitoxoplasmic drugs are under evaluation. In this work, we strove to determine the influence of human prolactin (endogenous present in serum--sPRL and recombinant--rhPRL) on the course of Toxoplasma infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) originating from female hyperprolactinemia patients. This study revealed that exogenous rhPRL as well as autologous sPRL from inactivated sera significantly restricted intracellular growth of Toxoplasma in PBMC cultures. Moreover, analysis of IL-10 production by PBMC infected with Toxoplasma and cultured in the presence of sPRL showed a positive correlation between sPRL concentration and the level of IL-10. The obtained results could indicate the possible protective action of PRL in a host organism infected with Toxoplasma and suggest that a significant increase in the serum PRL level, during pregnancy for instance, might significantly limit the risk of Toxoplasma spreading and could play an important role in natural protection against toxoplasmosis. The mechanism of inhibitory effect of PRL needs further detailed study.

  1. Inhibitory effects of whisky congeners on melanogenesis in mouse B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ohguchi, Kenji; Koike, Minako; Suwa, Yoshihide; Koshimizu, Seiichi; Mizutani, Yuki; Nozawa, Yoshinori; Akao, Yukihiro

    2008-04-01

    We examined the effect of whisky congeners, substances other than ethanol in whisky, on melanogenesis in mouse B16 melanoma cells. Treatment with whisky congeners significantly blocked melanogenesis. Our results indicate that the inhibitory effects of whisky congeners on melanogenesis is due to direct inhibition of tyrosinase activity and to suppression of tyrosinase protein levels.

  2. The X protein of hepatitis B virus activates hepatoma cell proliferation through repressing melanoma inhibitory activity 2 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yilin; Yang, Yang; Cai, Yanyan; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yingle; Zhu, Ying; Wu, Jianguo

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrated that HBV represses MIA2 gene expression both invitro and in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The X protein of HBV plays a major role in such regulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knock-down of MIA2 in HepG2 cells activates cell growth and proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBx activates cell proliferation, over-expression of MIA2 impaired such regulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBx activates hepatoma cell proliferation through repressing MIA2 expression. -- Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths globally. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection accounts for over 75% of all HCC cases; however, the molecular pathogenesis of HCC is not well understood. In this study, we found that the expression of the newly identified gene melanoma inhibitory activity 2 (MIA2) was reduced by HBV infection invitro and invivo, and that HBV X protein (HBx) plays a major role in this regulation. Recent studies have revealed that MIA2 is a potential tumor suppressor, and that, in most HCCs, MIA2 expression is down-regulated or lost. We found that the knock-down of MIA2 in HepG2 cells activated cell growth and proliferation, suggesting that MIA2 inhibits HCC cell growth and proliferation. In addition, the over-expression of HBx alone induced cell proliferation, whereas MIA2 over-expression impaired the HBx-mediated induction of proliferation. Taken together, our results suggest that HBx activates hepatoma cell growth and proliferation through repression of the potential tumor suppressor MIA2.

  3. Stromal Cells from Human Decidua Exert a Strong Inhibitory Effect on NK Cell Function and Dendritic Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Canegallo, Francesca; Conte, Romana; Venturini, Pier Luigi; Moretta, Lorenzo; Mingari, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Stromal cells (SC) are an important component of decidual tissues where they are in strict proximity with both NK and CD14+ myelomonocytic cells that play a role in the maintenance of pregnancy. In this study we analyzed whether decidual SC (DSC) could exert a regulatory role on NK and CD14+ cells that migrate from peripheral blood (PB) to decidua during pregnancy. We show that DSCs inhibit the IL15-mediated up-regulation of major activating NK receptors in PB-derived NK cells. In addition, the IL15-induced NK cell proliferation, cytolytic activity and IFN-γ production were severely impaired. DSCs sharply inhibited dendritic cells differentiation and their ability to induce allogeneic T cell proliferation. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) mediated the inhibitory effect of DSCs. Our results strongly suggest an important role of DSCs in preventing potentially dangerous immune response, thus contributing to maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:24586479

  4. Inhibitory action of two zinc oxide sources on the ex vivo growth of porcine small intestine bacteria.

    PubMed

    Vahjen, W; Zentek, J; Durosoy, S

    2012-12-01

    Pharmacological dosage of zinc oxide in piglet weaning diets is a common practice to improve growth performance and gut health. However, high zinc excretion in animal wastes poses environmental challenges. Alternatives to current practice are studied. In this study, the inhibitory action of 2 zinc oxide sources on the ex vivo growth of small intestinal bacteria from weaned piglets was studied. Lag time was higher (P < 0.05) in media supplemented with a new zinc oxide preparation in stomach samples, but not in jejunum samples. Bacterial growth reduction (P < 0.05) was more drastic and more rapid in media supplemented with the new zinc oxide preparation.

  5. Continuous-release beads of natural allelochemicals for the long-term control of cyanobacterial growth: Preparation, release dynamics and inhibitory effects.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haomin; Xiao, Xi; Lin, Fang; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Nie, Zeyu; Sun, Lijuan; Xu, Chen; Shi, Jiyan

    2016-05-15

    The effects of allelochemicals on cyanobacterial blooms have been observed for more than 20 years; however, the use of these compounds, usually involving a "direct-added" mode, has clear disadvantages, such as a short activity period or temporarily excessive localized concentration. Here, a simulated-allelopathy mode to facilitate the application of allelochemicals was proposed and tested on Microcystis aeruginosa. The continuous-release beads of 5,4'-dihydroxyflavone (DHF) were constitutive of a polymer matrix and showed a high drug-loading rate (47.18%) and encapsulation efficiency (67.65%) with a theoretical release time of approximately 120 d. Cyanobacterial growth tests showed that the DHF beads had long-term inhibition effects (>30 d), whereas those of "direct-added" DHF to cells lasted a maximum of 10 d. The beads also continuously affected the superoxide dismutase, catalase, and lipid peroxidation of M. aeruginosa. The inhibitory effects of DHF beads on cyanobacterial growth increased as initial cell densities of M. aeruginosa decreased, suggesting that the beads inhibit cyanobacterial activity more effectively in the early bloom phase. Consequently, the anti-cyanobacterial beads represent a novel application mode of allelochemicals with long-term inhibitory effects on cyanobacterial growth. Our study demonstrates that the successful application of allelochemicals offers great potential to control harmful cyanobacterial blooms, especially at the initial stage of development. PMID:26986500

  6. Inhibitory Effect of Sophorolipid on Candida albicans Biofilm Formation and Hyphal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Farazul; Alfatah, Md.; Ganesan, K.; Bhattacharyya, Mani Shankar

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans causes superficial and life-threatening systemic infections. These are difficult to treat often due to drug resistance, particularly because C. albicans biofilms are inherently resistant to most antifungals. Sophorolipid (SL), a glycolipid biosurfactant, has been shown to have antimicrobial and anticancer properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of SL on C. albicans biofilm formation and preformed biofilms. SL was found to inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation as well as reduce the viability of preformed biofilms. Moreover, SL, when used along with amphotericin B (AmB) or fluconazole (FLZ), was found to act synergistically against biofilm formation and preformed biofilms. Effect of SL on C. albicans biofilm formation was further visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), which revealed absence of hyphae, typical biofilm architecture and alteration in the morphology of biofilm cells. We also found that SL downregulates the expression of hypha specific genes HWP1, ALS1, ALS3, ECE1 and SAP4, which possibly explains the inhibitory effect of SL on hyphae and biofilm formation. PMID:27030404

  7. T Cells Expressing Constitutively Active Akt Resist Multiple Tumor-associated Inhibitory Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiali; Dotti, Gianpietro; Huye, Leslie E; Foster, Aaron E; Savoldo, Barbara; Gramatges, Maria M; Spencer, David M; Rooney, Cliona M

    2010-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes has shown promise for the therapy of cancer. However, tumor-specific T cells are susceptible to diverse inhibitory signals from the tumor microenvironment. The Akt/protein kinase B plays a central role in T-cell proliferation, function, and survival and we hypothesized that expression of constitutively active Akt (caAkt) in T cells could provide resistance to many of these tumor-associated inhibitory mechanisms. caAkt expression in activated human T cells increased proliferation and cytokine production, a likely result of their sustained expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and provided resistance to apoptosis by upregulating antiapoptotic molecules. caAkt expressing T cells (caAkt-T-cells) were also relatively resistant to suppression by and conversion into regulatory T cells (Tregs). These characteristics provided a survival advantage to T cells cocultured with tumor cells in vitro; CD3/28-stimulated T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for disialoganglioside (GD2) that redirected their activity to the immunosuppressive, GD2-expressing neuroblastoma cell line, LAN-1, resisted tumor-induced apoptosis when co-expressing transgenic caAkt. In conclusion, caAkt-transduced T cells showed resistance to several evasion strategies employed by tumors and may therefore enhance the antitumor activity of adoptively transferred T lymphocytes. PMID:20842106

  8. Mycobacterium-Specific γ9δ2 T Cells Mediate Both Pathogen-Inhibitory and CD40 Ligand-Dependent Antigen Presentation Effects Important for Tuberculosis Immunity.

    PubMed

    Abate, Getahun; Spencer, Charles T; Hamzabegovic, Fahreta; Blazevic, Azra; Xia, Mei; Hoft, Daniel F

    2016-02-01

    Numerous pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, can activate human γ9δ2 T cells to proliferate and express effector mechanisms. γ9δ2 T cells can directly inhibit the growth of intracellular mycobacteria and may also act as antigen-presenting cells (APC). Despite evidence for γδ T cells having the capacity to function as APC, the mechanisms involved and importance of these effects on overall tuberculosis (TB) immunity are unknown. We prepared M. tuberculosis-specific γ9δ2 T cell lines to study their direct protective effects and APC functions for M. tuberculosis-specific αβ T cells. The direct inhibitory effects on intracellular mycobacteria were measured, and the enhancing effects on proliferative and effector responses of αβ T cells assessed. Furthermore, the importance of cell-to-cell contact and soluble products for γ9δ2 T cell effector responses and APC functions were investigated. We demonstrate, in addition to direct inhibitory effects on intracellular mycobacteria, the following: (i) γ9δ2 T cells enhance the expansion of M. tuberculosis-specific αβ T cells and increase the ability of αβ T cells to inhibit intracellular mycobacteria; (ii) although soluble mediators are critical for the direct inhibitory effects of γ9δ2 T cells, their APC functions do not require soluble mediators; (iii) the APC functions of γ9δ2 T cells involve cell-to-cell contact that is dependent on CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L) interactions; and (iv) fully activated CD4(+) αβ T cells and γ9δ2 T cells provide similar immune enhancing/APC functions for M. tuberculosis-specific T cells. These effector and helper effects of γ9δ2 T cells further indicate that these T cells should be considered important new targets for new TB vaccines.

  9. Inhibitory effects of antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone on growth and invasiveness of PC3 human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Moreno, Laura; Arenas, M Isabel; Schally, Andrew V; Fernández-Martínez, Ana B; Zarka, Elías; González-Santander, Marta; Carmena, María J; Vacas, Eva; Prieto, Juan C; Bajo, Ana M

    2013-02-15

    New approaches are needed to the therapy of advanced prostate cancer. This study determined the effect of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) antagonists, JMR-132 and JV-1-38 on growth of PC3 tumors as well as on angiogenesis and metastasis through the evaluation of various factors that contribute largely to the progression of prostate cancer. Human PC3 androgen-independent prostate cancer cells were injected subcutaneously into nude mice. The treatment with JMR-132 (10 μg/day) or JV-1-38 (20 μg/day) lasted 41 days. We also evaluated the effects of JMR-132 and JV-1-38 on proliferation, cell adhesion and migration in PC-3 cells in vitro. Several techniques (Western blot, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, ELISA and zymography) were used to evaluate the expression levels of GHRH receptors and its splice variants, GHRH, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α, metalloproteinases (MMPs) -2 and -9, β-catenin and E-cadherin. GHRH antagonists suppressed the proliferation of PC-3 cells in vitro and significantly inhibited growth of PC3 tumors. After treatment with these analogues, we found an increase in expression of GHRH receptor accompanied by a decrease of GHRH levels, a reduction in both VEGF and HIF-1α expression and in active forms of MMP-2 and MMP-9, a significant increase in levels of membrane-associated β-catenin and a significant decline in E-cadherin. These results support that the blockade of GHRH receptors can modulate elements involved in angiogenesis and metastasis. Consequently, GHRH antagonists could be considered as suitable candidates for therapeutic trials in the management of androgen-independent prostate cancer.

  10. Cooperative inhibitory effects of antisense oligonucleotide of cell adhesion molecules and cimetidine on cancer cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Nan-Hong; Chen, Yan-Ling; Wang, Xiao-Qian; Li, Xiu-Jin; Yin, Feng-Zhi; Wang, Xiao-Zhong

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the cooperative effects of antisense oligonucleotide (ASON) of cell adhesion molecules and cimetidine on the expression of E-selectin and ICAM-1 in endothelial cells and their adhesion to tumor cells. METHODS: After treatment of endothelial cells with ASON and/or cimetidine and induction with TNF-α, the protein and mRNA changes of E-selectin and ICAM-1 in endothelial cells were examined by flow cytometry and RT-PCR, respectively. The adhesion rates of endothelial cells to tumor cells were measured by cell adhesion experiment. RESULTS: In comparison with TNF-α inducing group, lipo-ASON and lipo-ASON/cimetidine could significantly decrease the protein and mRNA levels of E-selectin and ICAM-1 in endothelial cells, and lipo-ASON/cimetidine had most significant inhibitory effect on E-selectin expression (from 36.37 ± 1.56% to 14.23 ± 1.07%, P < 0.001). Meanwhile, cimetidine alone could inhibit the expression of E-selectin (36.37 ± 1.56% vs 27.2 ± 1.31%, P < 0.001), but not ICAM-1 (69.34 ± 2.50% vs 68.07 ± 2.10%, P > 0.05)and the two kinds of mRNA, either. Compared with TNF-α inducing group, the rate of adhesion was markedly decreased in lipo-E-selectin ASON and lipo-E-selectin ASON/cimetidine treated groups(P < 0.05), and lipo-E-selectin ASON/cimetidine worked better than lipo-E-selectin ASON alone except for HepG2/ECV304 group (P < 0.05). However, the decrease of adhesion was not significant in lipo-ICAM-1 ASON and lipo-ICAM-1 ASON/cimetidine treated groups except for HepG2/ECV304 group (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that ASON in combination with cimetidine in vitro can significantly reduce the adhesion between endothelial cells and hepatic or colorectal cancer cells, which is stronger than ASON or cimetidine alone. This study provides some useful proofs for gene therapy of antiadhesion. PMID:14695770

  11. Melanogenesis inhibitory activity of two generic drugs: cinnarizine and trazodone in mouse B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Te-Sheng; Lin, Victor Chia-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    More than 200 generic drugs were screened to identify the inhibitory activity on melanogenesis in mouse B16 melanoma cells. Cinnarizine and trazodone were identified as melanogenesis inhibitors. The inhibitory effects of the two drugs on cell survival, melanogenesis, and tyrosinase activity were investigated. The results showed that both cinnarizine and trazodone inhibited melanogenesis in B16 cells by a dose-dependent manner at the non-cytotoxic concentrations. Based on the results of the present study, seeking new melanogenesis inhibitors from generic drugs is an alternative approach to developing new depigmenting agents in cosmeceuticals. Moreover, cinnarizine and trazodone were proven to be good candidates as skin-whitening agents for treatment of skin hyperpigmentation. PMID:22272104

  12. Melanogenesis Inhibitory Activity of Two Generic Drugs: Cinnarizine and Trazodone in Mouse B16 Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Te-Sheng; Lin, Victor Chia-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    More than 200 generic drugs were screened to identify the inhibitory activity on melanogenesis in mouse B16 melanoma cells. Cinnarizine and trazodone were identified as melanogenesis inhibitors. The inhibitory effects of the two drugs on cell survival, melanogenesis, and tyrosinase activity were investigated. The results showed that both cinnarizine and trazodone inhibited melanogenesis in B16 cells by a dose-dependent manner at the non-cytotoxic concentrations. Based on the results of the present study, seeking new melanogenesis inhibitors from generic drugs is an alternative approach to developing new depigmenting agents in cosmeceuticals. Moreover, cinnarizine and trazodone were proven to be good candidates as skin-whitening agents for treatment of skin hyperpigmentation. PMID:22272104

  13. Inhibitory effect of Adonis amurensis components on tube-like formation of human umbilical venous cells.

    PubMed

    You, Young-Jae; Kim, Yong; Nam, Nguyen-Hai; Ahn, Byung-Zun

    2003-05-01

    Antiangiogenic activity-guided fractionation and isolation carried out on the methanol extract of Adonis amurensis led to the identification of three compounds, namely cymarin, cymarol, and cymarilic acid. Amongst the three compounds, cymarilic acid was isolated from this plant for the first time. This compound showed no significant cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines but was found to be strongly inhibitory toward tube formation induced by human umbilical venous endothelial (HUVE) cells. Cymarin and cymarol exhibited potent cytotoxicity against a human solid tumor cell line A549 (human lung carcinoma), while being inactive on murine leukemic cells (L1210).

  14. Dominant inhibitory Ras delays Sindbis virus-induced apoptosis in neuronal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Joe, A K; Ferrari, G; Jiang, H H; Liang, X H; Levine, B

    1996-01-01

    Mature neurons are more resistant than dividing cells or differentiating neurons to Sindbis virus-induced apoptotic death. Therefore, we hypothesized that mitogenic signal transduction pathways may influence susceptibility to Sindbis virus-induced apoptosis. Since Ras, a 21-kDa GTP-binding protein, plays an important role in cellular proliferation and neuronal differentiation, we investigated the effect of an inducible dominant inhibitory Ras on Sindbis virus-induced death of a rat pheochromocytoma cell line, PC12 cells. Dexamethasone induction of dominant inhibitory Ras (Ha Ras(Asn17)) expression in transfected PC12 cell lines (MMTV-M17-21 and GSrasDN6 cells) resulted in a marked delay in Sindbis virus-induced apoptosis, compared with infected, uninduced cells. The delay in death after Sindbis virus infection in induced versus uninduced PC12 cells was not associated with differences in viral titers or viral infectivity. No delay in Sindbis virus-induced apoptosis was observed in Ha Ras(Asn17)-transfected PC12 cells if dexamethasone induction was initiated less than 12 h before Sindbis virus infection or in wild-type PC12 cells infected with a chimeric Sindbis virus construct that expresses Ha Ras(Asn17). The delay in Sindbis virus-induced apoptosis in induced Ha Ras(Asn17)-transfected PC12 cells was associated with a decrease in cellular DNA synthesis as measured by 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation. Thus, in PC12 cells, inducible dominant inhibitory Ras inhibits cellular proliferation and delays Sindbis virus-induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that a Ras-dependent signaling pathway is a determinant of neuronal susceptibility to Sindbis virus-induced apoptosis. PMID:8892895

  15. Growth modulating effects of chlorinated oleic acid in cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Høstmark, A T; Lystad, E; Jebens, E; Skramstad, J; Frøyen, P

    1998-07-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids represent a major fraction of extractable, organically bound chlorine in fish. After dietary intake such fatty acids may be transferred from the mother to the foetus through the placenta, and via breast milk to the child. In the present work we have studied the effect of chlorinated oleic acid on the growth of three widely differing types of cells in culture. Chlorinated oleic acid inhibited growth of Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HMVEC), Immortilized Human Kidney Epithelial (IHKE) cells, and human Hepatoma cells (HepG2). The order of potency was: HMVEC > IHKE > HepG2. Vitamin E counteracted the inhibitory effect of chlorinated oleic acid on HepG2 cells, but did not significantly affect the fatty acid effect on HMVEC or IHKE. Defatted serum albumin stimulated the growth of HMVEC and IHKE. With HMVEC there was no major interaction between the effect of albumin and chlorinated oleic acid on cell growth. In contrast, with IHKE albumin at low concentration abolished the growth inhibiting effect of chlorinated oleic acid and appreciably counteracted growth inhibition by the fatty acid of HepG2. We conclude that the growth modulation by chlorinated oleic acid and its interaction with vitamin E and albumin are cell specific.

  16. Inhibitory effect of allicin and garlic extracts on growth of cultured hyphae

    PubMed Central

    Aala, Farzad; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Nulit, Rosimah; Rezaie, Sassan

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) is one of the most common dermatophytes worldwide. This fungus invaded skin appendages of humans and animals. Recently, resistance to antifungal drugs as well as appearance of side effects due to indication of these kinds of antibiotics has been reported. Besides, using some plant extracts have been indicated in herbal medicine as an alternative treatment of these fungal infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) and pure allicin on the growth of hypha in T. rubrum using Electron miscroscopy. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out to observe the morphological changes of T. rubrum treated with allicin as well as aqueous garlic extract using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: SEM surveys, showed that hypha treated with allicin has rough and granular like surface, abnormal and irregularly-shape. However, hypha treated with garlic extract had rough and fluffy surface and also irregularly-shape. TEM studies also found that hypha treated with allicin displays disintegration of cytoplasm, breaking down in cell membrane and the cell wall, and collapsing of hypha, meanwhile hypha treated with garlic extract exhibiting degradation and dissolution of cytoplasm components, demolition of cell wall and cell membrane, and hypha appeared to break. Conclusion: The present study revealed that pure allicin (6.25 µg/ml and 12.5 µg/ml) is more efficient in inhibition of the growth in hyphal cells compare to the garlic extract (2 mg/ml and 4 mg/ml) and they could be used as alternatives in treatment of dermatophytosis. PMID:24847416

  17. Inhibitory activity of reuterin, nisin, lysozyme and nitrite against vegetative cells and spores of dairy-related Clostridium species.

    PubMed

    Avila, Marta; Gómez-Torres, Natalia; Hernández, Marta; Garde, Sonia

    2014-02-17

    The butyric acid fermentation, responsible for late blowing of cheese, is caused by the outgrowth in cheese of some species of Clostridium, resulting in texture and flavor defects and economical losses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different antimicrobial compounds against vegetative cells and spores of C. tyrobutyricum, C. butyricum, C. beijerinckii and C. sporogenes strains isolated from cheeses with late blowing defect. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for reuterin, nisin, lysozyme and sodium nitrite were determined against Clostridium strains in milk and modified RCM (mRCM) after 7d exposure. Although the sensitivity of Clostridium to the tested antimicrobials was strain-dependent, C. sporogenes and C. beijerinckii generally had higher MIC values than the rest of Clostridium species. The majority of Clostridium strains were more resistant to antimicrobials in milk than in mRCM, and vegetative cells exhibited higher sensitivity than spores. Reuterin (MIC values 0.51-32.5 mM) and nisin (MIC values 0.05-12.5 μg/ml) were able to inhibit the growth of vegetative cells and spores of all assayed Clostridium strains in milk and mRCM. Strains of C. tyrobutyricum exhibited the highest sensitivity to lysozyme (MIC values<0.20-400 μg/ml) and sodium nitrite (MIC values 18.75-150 μg/ml). These results suggest that reuterin and nisin, with a broad inhibitory activity spectrum against Clostridium spp. spores and vegetative cells, may be the best options to control Clostridium growth in dairy products and to prevent associated spoilage, such as late blowing defect of cheese. However, further studies in cheese would be necessary to validate this hypothesis.

  18. Inhibitory activity of reuterin, nisin, lysozyme and nitrite against vegetative cells and spores of dairy-related Clostridium species.

    PubMed

    Avila, Marta; Gómez-Torres, Natalia; Hernández, Marta; Garde, Sonia

    2014-02-17

    The butyric acid fermentation, responsible for late blowing of cheese, is caused by the outgrowth in cheese of some species of Clostridium, resulting in texture and flavor defects and economical losses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different antimicrobial compounds against vegetative cells and spores of C. tyrobutyricum, C. butyricum, C. beijerinckii and C. sporogenes strains isolated from cheeses with late blowing defect. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for reuterin, nisin, lysozyme and sodium nitrite were determined against Clostridium strains in milk and modified RCM (mRCM) after 7d exposure. Although the sensitivity of Clostridium to the tested antimicrobials was strain-dependent, C. sporogenes and C. beijerinckii generally had higher MIC values than the rest of Clostridium species. The majority of Clostridium strains were more resistant to antimicrobials in milk than in mRCM, and vegetative cells exhibited higher sensitivity than spores. Reuterin (MIC values 0.51-32.5 mM) and nisin (MIC values 0.05-12.5 μg/ml) were able to inhibit the growth of vegetative cells and spores of all assayed Clostridium strains in milk and mRCM. Strains of C. tyrobutyricum exhibited the highest sensitivity to lysozyme (MIC values<0.20-400 μg/ml) and sodium nitrite (MIC values 18.75-150 μg/ml). These results suggest that reuterin and nisin, with a broad inhibitory activity spectrum against Clostridium spp. spores and vegetative cells, may be the best options to control Clostridium growth in dairy products and to prevent associated spoilage, such as late blowing defect of cheese. However, further studies in cheese would be necessary to validate this hypothesis. PMID:24361835

  19. Inhibitory mechanisms of Acacia mearnsii extracts on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhibin; Zhou, Lirong; Liu, Dandan; Zhu, Qiyu; Chen, Wenqing

    2015-01-01

    Our previous work revealed that Acacia mearnsii extract can inhibit the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa, the common species forming toxic cyanobacterial blooms in eutrophic freshwater. In the present study, we demonstrated that this plant extract can significantly increase cell membrane permeability and Ca²⁺/Mg²⁺-ATPase activity on the membrane. Long-term exposure to concentrations of 20 ppm A. mearnsii extract led to algal cell membrane leakage or even lysis. Comparison of expression of three photosynthesis-related genes (rbcL, psaB and psbD) in M. aeruginosa with and without plant extract treatment revealed that their expression was remarkably reduced in the presence of the extract. Down-regulation of photosynthesis-related genes could indicate the inhibition of the photosynthetic process. Thus, our results suggested that both photosynthetic systems and membranes of M. aeruginosa are potentially damaged by A. mearnsii extract.

  20. Inhibitory effect of berberine on human skin squamous cell carcinoma A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, D X; Zhang, J; Zhang, Y; Zhao, P W; Yang, L M

    2015-01-01

    Berberine (BBR) is a natural alkaloid with significant anti-tumor activity against many types of cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms employed by BBR to repress the proliferation and growth of skin squamous cell carcinoma A431 cells. Berberine was reported to inhibit the proliferation of A431 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and was observed to induce a series of biochemical events, including the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome-c to cytosol, induction of proteins of the Bcl-2 family and caspases, and the cleavage of poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase. This suggested its ability to induce apoptosis. The results of a wound healing test revealed that berberine inhibited the migration of A431 cells. Ezrin was transfected into A431 cells by RNA interference. The level of expression of Ezrin in the transfected A431 cells was observed to decrease with berberine treatment, which suggested that berberine might inhibit the invasion of A431 cells through Ezrin. The results of this study demonstrated that berberine could potentially inhibit proliferation, induce apoptosis, and inhibit the invasion of A431 cells. PMID:26400287

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF MAGNETIC FIELDS ON INHIBITION OF MCF-7 CELL GROWTH BY TAMOXIFEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE INFLUENCE OF MAGNETIC FIELDS ON INHIBITION OF MCF-7 CELL GROWTH BY TAMOXIFEN.
    Harland and Liburdy (1) reported that 1.2-uT, 60-Hz magnetic fields could significantly block the inhibitory action of pharmacological levels of tamoxifen (10-7 M) on the growth of MCF-7 human br...

  2. Know Thyself: NK-Cell Inhibitory Receptors Prompt Self-Tolerance, Education, and Viral Control

    PubMed Central

    Nash, William T.; Teoh, Jeffrey; Wei, Hairong; Gamache, Awndre; Brown, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells provide essential protection against viral infections. One of the defining features of this lymphocyte population is the expression of a wide array of variable cell surface stimulatory and inhibitory NK receptors (sNKR and iNKR, respectively). The iNKR are particularly important in terms of NK-cell education. As receptors specific for MHC class I (MHC I) molecules, they are responsible for self-tolerance and adjusting NK-cell reactivity based on the expression level of self-MHC I. The end result of this education is twofold: (1) inhibitory signaling tunes the functional capacity of the NK cell, endowing greater potency with greater education, and (2) education on self allows the NK cell to detect aberrations in MHC I expression, a common occurrence during many viral infections. Many studies have indicated an important role for iNKR and MHC I in disease, making these receptors attractive targets for manipulating NK-cell reactivity in the clinic. A greater understanding of iNKR and their ability to regulate NK cells will provide a basis for future attempts at translating their potential utility into benefits for human health. PMID:24795719

  3. Inhibitory effects of artesunate on angiogenesis and on expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor and VEGF receptor KDR/flk-1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huan-Huan; Zhou, Hui-Jun; Wu, Guo-Dong; Lou, Xiao-E

    2004-05-01

    Artesunate (ART) is a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin extracted from the plant Artemisia annua is a safe and effective antimalarial drug. In the present investigation, ART was found also to inhibit angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro. The anti-angiogenic effect in vivo was evaluated in nude mice by means of human ovarian cancer HO-8910 implantation and immunohistochemical stainings for microvessel (CD(31)), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor KDR/flk-1. Tumor growth was decreased and microvessel density was reduced following drug treatment with no apparent toxicity to the animals. ART also remarkably lowered VEGF expression on tumor cells and KDR/flk-1 expression on endothelial cells as well as tumor cells. The in vitro effect of ART was tested on models of angiogenesis, namely, proliferation, migration and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The results showed that ART significantly inhibited angiogenesis in a dose-dependent form in the range of 0.5 approximately 50 micromol/l. Additionally, the inhibitory effect of ART on HVUEC proliferation was stronger than that on Hela, JAR, HO-8910 cancer cells, NIH-3T3 fibroblast cells and human endometrial cells, indicating that ART was selectively against HUVEC. These findings and the known low toxicity of ART are clues that ART may be a promising angiogenesis inhibitor. PMID:15051917

  4. Targeting Btk with ibrutinib inhibit gastric carcinoma cells growth

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin Dao; Chen, Xiao Ying; Ji, Ke Wei; Tao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a member of the Tec-family non-receptor tyrosine kinases family. It has previously been reported to be expressed in B cells and has an important role in B-cell malignancies. While the roles of Btk in the pathogenesis of certain B-cell malignancies are well established, the functions of Btk in gastric carcinoma have never been investigated. Herein, we found that Btk is over-expressed in gastric carcinoma tissues and gastric cancer cells. Knockdown of Btk expression selectively inhibits the growth of gastric cancer cells, but not that of the normal gastric mucosa epithelial cell, which express very little Btk. Inhibition of Btk by its inhibitor ibrutinib has an additive inhibitory effect on gastric cancer cell growth. Treatment of gastric cancer cells, but not immortalized breast epithelial cells with ibrutinib results in effective cell killing, accompanied by the attenuation of Btk signals. Ibrutinib also induces apoptosis in gastric carcinoma cells as well as is a chemo-sensitizer for docetaxel (DTX), a standard of care for gastric carcinoma patients. Finally, ibrutinib markedly reduces tumor growth and increases tumor cell apoptosis in the tumors formed in mice inoculated with the gastric carcinoma cells. Given these promising preclinical results for ibrutinib in gastric carcinoma, a strategy combining Btk inhibitor warrants attention in gastric cancer. PMID:27508020

  5. Tracking Inhibitory Alterations during Interstrain Clostridium difficile Interactions by Monitoring Cell Envelope Capacitance

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Global threats arising from the increasing use of antibiotics coupled with the high recurrence rates of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infections (CDI) after standard antibiotic treatments highlight the role of commensal probiotic microorganisms, including nontoxigenic C. difficile (NTCD) strains in preventing CDI due to highly toxigenic C. difficile (HTCD) strains. However, optimization of the inhibitory permutations due to commensal interactions in the microbiota requires probes capable of monitoring phenotypic alterations to C. difficile cells. Herein, by monitoring the field screening behavior of the C. difficile cell envelope with respect to cytoplasmic polarization, we demonstrate that inhibition of the host-cell colonization ability of HTCD due to the S-layer alterations occurring after its co-culture with NTCD can be quantitatively tracked on the basis of the capacitance of the cell envelope of co-cultured HTCD. Furthermore, it is shown that effective inhibition requires the dynamic contact of HTCD cells with freshly secreted extracellular factors from NTCD because contact with the cell-free supernatant causes only mild inhibition. We envision a rapid method for screening the inhibitory permutations to arrest C. difficile colonization by routinely probing alterations in the HTCD dielectrophoretic frequency response due to variations in the capacitance of its cell envelope. PMID:27547818

  6. Inhibitory effect and cell damage on bacterial flora of fish caused by chitosan, nisin and sodium lactate.

    PubMed

    Schelegueda, Laura Inés; Zalazar, Aldana Lourdes; Gliemmo, María Fernanda; Campos, Carmen Adriana

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the combined use of chitosan, nisin and sodium lactate on the growth of Listeria innocua, Shewanella putrefaciens and psychrophilic bacteria isolated from fish was investigated in broth by means of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). Furthermore, the sites of cell-injury caused by mentioned antimicrobials and their combinations on L. innocua and S. putrefaciens were studied. MIC of antimicrobial mixtures were evaluated by Berembaum design and check board method. Antimicrobials' sites of injury were investigated by the evaluation of cell constituents' release, cell surface hydrophobicity and differential scanning calorimetry. Results depended on antimicrobial used; several combinations inhibited the growth of L. innocua and S. putrefaciens and all combinations inhibited psychrophilic bacteria. Besides, some mixtures showed synergistic effects. All the mixtures affected ribosomes and DNA of the studied bacteria. Regarding cellular envelope, antimicrobials acted according to the structural characteristics of target microorganisms. Cell damage was higher when antimicrobials were combined, which could explain the observed synergistic effects. This study demonstrates and justifies the synergistic action of chitosan, nisin and sodium lactate on the inhibition of microorganisms related to fish spoilage and remarks the promissory use of the synergic combination of antimicrobials for fish preservation.

  7. Prediction of Inhibitory Activity of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors Using Grid Search-Projection Pursuit Regression Method

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hongying; Hu, Zhide; Bazzoli, Andrea; Zhang, Yang

    2011-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) is an important protein target for anti-tumor drug discovery. To identify potential EGFR inhibitors, we conducted a quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) study on the inhibitory activity of a series of quinazoline derivatives against EGFR tyrosine kinase. Two 2D-QSAR models were developed based on the best multi-linear regression (BMLR) and grid-search assisted projection pursuit regression (GS-PPR) methods. The results demonstrate that the inhibitory activity of quinazoline derivatives is strongly correlated with their polarizability, activation energy, mass distribution, connectivity, and branching information. Although the present investigation focused on EGFR, the approach provides a general avenue in the structure-based drug development of different protein receptor inhibitors. PMID:21811593

  8. A tick B-cell inhibitory protein from salivary glands of the hard tick, Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Da; Liang Jiangguo; Yu Haining; Wu Haifeng; Xu Chunhua; Liu Jingze . E-mail: jzliu21@heinfo.net; Lai Ren . E-mail: rlai72@njau.edu.cn

    2006-05-05

    Some studies done to date suggest that B-cell inhibitory factor occurred in tick saliva. In this study, a novel protein having B-cell inhibitory activity was purified and characterized from the salivary glands of the hard tick, Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum. This protein was named B-cell inhibitory factor (BIF). The cDNA encoding BIF was cloned by cDNA library screening. The predicted protein from the cDNA sequence is composed of 138 amino acids including the mature BIF. No similarity was found by Blast search. The lipopolysaccharide-induced B-cell proliferation was inhibited by BIF. This is First report of the identification and characterization of B-cell inhibitory protein from tick. The current study facilitates the study of identifying the interaction among tick, Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, and host.

  9. Synergistic inhibitory effect of berberine and d-limonene on human gastric carcinoma cell line MGC803.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiu-Zhen; Wang, Ling; Liu, Dong-Wu; Tang, Guang-Yan; Zhang, Hong-Yu

    2014-09-01

    This study aims at evaluating the anticancer effects of berberine hydrochloride (berberine) and d-limonene, alone and in combination, on human gastric carcinoma cell line MGC803 to determine whether berberine and d-limonene work synergistically and elucidate their mechanisms. MGC803 cells were treated with berberine and d-limonene, alone and in combination, for 24-48 h. The inhibitory effects of these drugs on growth were determined by MTT assay. The combination index and drug reduction index were calculated with the Chou-Talalay method based on the median-effect principle. Flow cytometry and laser scanning confocal microscopy were employed to evaluate the effects of both drugs on cell-cycle perturbation and apoptosis, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential, and expression of Bcl-2 and caspase-3 in MGC803 cells. Berberine or d-limonene alone can inhibit the growth of MGC803 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Berberine and d-limonene at a combination ratio of 1:4 exhibited a synergistic effect on anti-MGC803 cells. The two drugs distinctly induced intracellular ROS generation, reduced the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), enhanced the expression of caspase-3, and decreased the expression of Bcl-2. The combination of berberine and d-limonene showed more remarkable effects compared with drugs used singly in MGC803 cells. The combination of berberine and d-limonene exerted synergistic anticancer effects on MGC803 cells by cell-cycle arrest, ROS production, and apoptosis induction through the mitochondria-mediated intrinsic pathway.

  10. Discovery of Diverse Small Molecule Chemotypes with Cell-Based PKD1 Inhibitory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sharlow, Elizabeth R.; Mustata Wilson, Gabriela; Close, David; Leimgruber, Stephanie; Tandon, Manuj; Reed, Robyn B.; Shun, Tong Ying; Wang, Q. Jane; Wipf, Peter; Lazo, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Protein kinase D (PKD) is a novel family of serine/threonine kinases regulated by diacylglycerol, which is involved in multiple cellular processes and various pathological conditions. The limited number of cell-active, selective inhibitors has historically restricted biochemical and pharmacological studies of PKD. We now markedly expand the PKD1 inhibitory chemotype inventory with eleven additional novel small molecule PKD1 inhibitors derived from our high throughput screening campaigns. The in vitro IC50s for these eleven compounds ranged in potency from 0.4 to 6.1 µM with all of the evaluated compounds being competitive with ATP. Three of the inhibitors (CID 1893668, (1Z)-1-(3-ethyl-5-methoxy-1,3-benzothiazol-2-ylidene)propan-2-one; CID 2011756, 5-(3-chlorophenyl)-N-[4-(morpholin-4-ylmethyl)phenyl]furan-2-carboxamide; CID 5389142, (6Z)-6-[4-(3-aminopropylamino)-6-methyl-1H-pyrimidin-2-ylidene]cyclohexa-2,4-dien-1-one) inhibited phorbol ester-induced endogenous PKD1 activation in LNCaP prostate cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The specificity of these compounds for PKD1 inhibitory activity was supported by kinase assay counter screens as well as by bioinformatics searches. Moreover, computational analyses of these novel cell-active PKD1 inhibitors indicated that they were structurally distinct from the previously described cell-active PKD1 inhibitors while computational docking of the new cell-active compounds in a highly conserved ATP-binding cleft suggests opportunities for structural modification. In summary, we have discovered novel PKD1 inhibitors with in vitro and cell-based inhibitory activity, thus successfully expanding the structural diversity of small molecule inhibitors available for this important pharmacological target. PMID:21998636

  11. VEGF-A modulates expression of inhibitory checkpoints on CD8+ T cells in tumors

    PubMed Central

    Voron, Thibault; Colussi, Orianne; Marcheteau, Elie; Pernot, Simon; Nizard, Mevyn; Pointet, Anne-Laure; Latreche, Sabrina; Bergaya, Sonia; Benhamouda, Nadine; Tanchot, Corinne; Stockmann, Christian; Combe, Pierre; Berger, Anne; Zinzindohoue, Franck; Yagita, Hideo; Tartour, Eric; Terme, Magali

    2015-01-01

    Immune escape is a prerequisite for tumor development. To avoid the immune system, tumors develop different mechanisms, including T cell exhaustion, which is characterized by expression of immune inhibitory receptors, such as PD-1, CTLA-4, Tim-3, and a progressive loss of function. The recent development of therapies targeting PD-1 and CTLA-4 have raised great interest since they induced long-lasting objective responses in patients suffering from advanced metastatic tumors. However, the regulation of PD-1 expression, and thereby of exhaustion, is unclear. VEGF-A, a proangiogenic molecule produced by the tumors, plays a key role in the development of an immunosuppressive microenvironment. We report in the present work that VEGF-A produced in the tumor microenvironment enhances expression of PD-1 and other inhibitory checkpoints involved in CD8+ T cell exhaustion, which could be reverted by anti-angiogenic agents targeting VEGF-A–VEGFR. In view of these results, association of anti-angiogenic molecules with immunomodulators of inhibitory checkpoints may be of particular interest in VEGF-A-producing tumors. PMID:25601652

  12. A Pipeline for Screening Small Molecules with Growth Inhibitory Activity against Burkholderia cenocepacia

    PubMed Central

    Selin, Carrie; Stietz, Maria S.; Blanchard, Jan E.; Hall, Dennis G.; Brown, Eric D.; Cardona, Silvia T.

    2015-01-01

    Infections with the bacteria Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are very difficult to eradicate in cystic fibrosis patients due the intrinsic resistance of Bcc to most available antibiotics and the emergence of multiple antibiotic resistant strains during antibiotic treatment. In this work, we used a whole-cell based assay to screen a diverse collection of small molecules for growth inhibitors of a relevant strain of Bcc, B. cenocepacia K56-2. The primary screen used bacterial growth in 96-well plate format and identified 206 primary actives among 30,259 compounds. From 100 compounds with no previous record of antibacterial activity secondary screening and data mining selected a total of Bce bioactives that were further analyzed. An experimental pipeline, evaluating in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activity, toxicity and in vivo antibacterial activity using C. elegans was used for prioritizing compounds with better chances to be further investigated as potential Bcc antibacterial drugs. This high throughput screen, along with the in vitro and in vivo analysis highlights the utility of this experimental method to quickly identify bioactives as a starting point of antibacterial drug discovery. PMID:26053039

  13. A Pipeline for Screening Small Molecules with Growth Inhibitory Activity against Burkholderia cenocepacia.

    PubMed

    Selin, Carrie; Stietz, Maria S; Blanchard, Jan E; Gehrke, Sebastian S; Bernard, Sylvain; Hall, Dennis G; Brown, Eric D; Cardona, Silvia T

    2015-01-01

    Infections with the bacteria Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are very difficult to eradicate in cystic fibrosis patients due the intrinsic resistance of Bcc to most available antibiotics and the emergence of multiple antibiotic resistant strains during antibiotic treatment. In this work, we used a whole-cell based assay to screen a diverse collection of small molecules for growth inhibitors of a relevant strain of Bcc, B. cenocepacia K56-2. The primary screen used bacterial growth in 96-well plate format and identified 206 primary actives among 30,259 compounds. From 100 compounds with no previous record of antibacterial activity secondary screening and data mining selected a total of Bce bioactives that were further analyzed. An experimental pipeline, evaluating in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activity, toxicity and in vivo antibacterial activity using C. elegans was used for prioritizing compounds with better chances to be further investigated as potential Bcc antibacterial drugs. This high throughput screen, along with the in vitro and in vivo analysis highlights the utility of this experimental method to quickly identify bioactives as a starting point of antibacterial drug discovery. PMID:26053039

  14. Proliferative and Inhibitory Activity of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) Extract on Cancer Cell Lines; A-549, XWLC-05, HCT-116, CNE and Beas-2b.

    PubMed

    Cichello, Simon Angelo; Yao, Qian; Dowell, Ashley; Leury, Brian; He, Xiao-Qiong

    2015-01-01

    Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) is used primarily as an adaptogen herb and also for its immune stimulant properties in Western herbal medicine. Another closely related species used in East Asian medicine systems i.e. Kampo, TCM (Manchuria, Korea, Japan and Ainu of Hokkaido) and also called Siberian ginseng (Acanthopanax senticosus) also displays immune-stimulant and anti-cancer properties. These may affect tumour growth and also provide an anti-fatigue effect for cancer patients, in particular for those suffering from lung cancer. There is some evidence that a carbohydrate in Siberian ginseng may possess not only immune stimulatory but also anti-tumour effects and also display other various anti-cancer properties. Our study aimed to determine the inhibitory and also proliferative effects of a methanol plant extract of Siberan ginseng (E. senticosus) on various cancer and normal cell lines including: A-549 (small cell lung cancer), XWLC-05 (Yunnan lung cancer cell line), CNE (human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line), HCT-116 (human colon cancer) and Beas-2b (human lung epithelial). These cell lines were treated with an extract from E. senticosus that was evaporated and re- constituted in DMSO. Treatment of A-549 (small cell lung cancer) cells with E. senticosus methanolic extract showed a concentration-dependent inhibitory trend from 12.5 - 50μg/mL, and then a plateau, whereas at 12.5 and 25 μg/mL, there is a slight growth suppression in QBC-939 cells, but then a steady suppression from 50, 100 and 200μg/mL. Further, in XWLC-05 (Yunnan lung cancer cell line), E. senticosus methanolic extract displayed an inhibitory effect which plateaued with increasing dosage. Next, in CNE (human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line) there was a dose dependent proliferative response, whereas in Beas-2 (human lung epithelial cell line), an inhibitory effect. Finally in colon cancer cell line (HCT-116) we observed an initially weak inhibitory effect and then plateau

  15. Synaptic Connectivity between Renshaw Cells and Motoneurons in the Recurrent Inhibitory Circuit of the Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Niall J.; Bhumbra, Gardave S.; Foster, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Renshaw cells represent a fundamental component of one of the first discovered neuronal circuits, but their function in motor control has not been established. They are the only central neurons that receive collateral projections from motor outputs, yet the efficacy of the excitatory synapses from single and converging motoneurons remains unknown. Here we present the results of dual whole-cell recordings from identified, synaptically connected Renshaw cell-motoneuron pairs in the mouse lumbar spinal cord. The responses from single Renshaw cells demonstrate that motoneuron synapses elicit large excitatory conductances with few or no failures. We show that the strong excitatory input from motoneurons results from a high probability of neurotransmitter release onto multiple postsynaptic contacts. Dual current-clamp recordings confirm that single motoneuron inputs were sufficient to depolarize the Renshaw cell beyond threshold for firing. Reciprocal connectivity was observed in approximately one-third of the paired recordings tested. Ventral root stimulation was used to evoke currents from Renshaw cells or motoneurons to characterize responses of single neurons to the activation of their corresponding presynaptic cell populations. Excitatory or inhibitory synaptic inputs in the recurrent inhibitory loop induced substantial effects on the excitability of respective postsynaptic cells. Quantal analysis estimates showed a large number of converging inputs from presynaptic motoneuron and Renshaw cell populations. The combination of considerable synaptic efficacy and extensive connectivity within the recurrent circuitry indicates a role of Renshaw cells in modulating motor outputs that may be considerably more important than has been previously supposed. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We have recently shown that Renshaw cells mediate powerful shunt inhibition on motoneuron excitability. Here we complete a quantitative description of the recurrent circuit using recordings of

  16. Acetylcholinesterase and insect growth inhibitory activities of Gutierrezia microcephala on fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith.

    PubMed

    Calderón, J S; Céspedes, C L; Rosas, R; Gómez-Garibay, F; Salazar, J R; Lina, L; Aranda, E; Kubo, I

    2001-01-01

    From the aerial parts of Gutierrezia microcephala (Asteraceae), four oxyflavones were isolated, namely 5,7,2'-trihydroxy-3,6,8,4',5'-pentamethoxyflavone (1); 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3,6,8-trimethoxyflavone (2); 5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxy-3,6,8,5'-tetramethoxyflavone (3); 5,2'-dihydroxy-3,6,7,8,4',5'-hexamethoxyflavone (4), and an ent-clerodane, bacchabolivic acid (5). Compounds 1-5, the synthetic methyl ester (6), n-hexane and MeOH extracts were evaluated against the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda). Gedunin, a known insect growth regulator isolated from Cedrela spp. was used as a positive control. When tested for activity on neonate larvae into the no-choice artificial diet bioassay, flavone (1), clerodane (5), its methyl ester (6), MeOH and n-hexane extracts caused significant larval mortality with MC50 of 3.9, 10.7, 3.46, 7.95 and 7.5 ppm at 7 days, respectively, as well as growth reduction. They also increased the development time of surviving larvae and a significant delay in time to pupation and adult emergence. Acute toxicity against adults of S. frugiperda was also found, 5, 6, gedunin and n-hexane extract had the most potent activity with LD50 value of 6.59, 15.05, 10.78, and 12.79 ppm, respectively. In addition, MeOH, n-hexane extracts, 5, 6 and gedunin caused acetylcholinesterase inhibition with 93.7, 100, 90.2, 62.0 and 100% at 50.0 ppm, respectively; whereas 1-4 exhibited only moderate inhibitory activity. Compounds 1, 5 and 6 showed inhibitory activities comparable with gedunin. These compounds could be responsible of the insect growth inhibitory activity of this plant. PMID:11421454

  17. Purification and Characterization of a Novel Hemagglutinin with Inhibitory Activity toward Osteocarcinoma Cells from Northeast China Black Beans.

    PubMed

    Dan, Xiuli; Wong, Jack Ho; Fang, Evandro Fei; Chan, Francis Chun Wai; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-04-22

    In the present study, we isolated a novel hemagglutinin from an edible legume and explored its growth-inhibitory effect on osteocarcinoma and liver cancer cells. The protein was purified by liquid chromatography techniques which entailed affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion-exchange chromatography on Mono Q, and gel filtration on Superdex 75 with an FPLC system. The hemagglutinating activity of this hemagglutinin was demonstrated to be ion dependent and stable over a wide range of temperature and pH values. Antiproliferative activity was observed in the tumor cell lines MG-63 and HepG2 but not in the normal cell line WRL 68. Osteocarcinoma cells treated with the hemagglutinin underwent obvious cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and apoptosis. The mRNA expression level of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were found to be up-regulated to different extents after treatment of this hemagglutinin. PMID:25816710

  18. Melanogenesis inhibitory activity of sesquiterpenes from Canarium ovatum resin in mouse B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kensuke; Tochigi, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Ayako; Fukatsu, Makoto; Ezaki, Yoichiro; Tanaka, Reiko; Akihisa, Toshihiro

    2012-08-01

    Four known sesquiterpene alcohols, i.e., 1-4, ten triterpene alcohols, i.e., 5-14, and four triterpene acids, i.e., 15-18, were isolated from the MeOH extract of Canarium ovatum resin (elemi resin). Upon evaluation of the previously described compounds 1-18 on the melanogenesis in B16 melanoma cells induced with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), three sesquiterpene alcohols, i.e., cryptomeridiol (1), 4-epicryptomeridiol (2), and cadin-1(14)-ene-7α,11-diol (4), exhibited inhibitory effects with 27.4-34.1 and 39.0-56.9% reduction of melanin content at 50 and 100 μM, respectively, with no or very low toxicity to the cells (80.9-103.9% of cell viability at 100 μM). Western-blot analysis revealed that compounds 1 and 2 reduced the protein levels of MITF (=microphtalmia-associated transcription factor), tyrosinase, and TRP-2 (=tyrosine-related protein 2), mostly in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that these compounds exhibit melanogenesis inhibitory activity on α-MSH-stimulated B16 melanoma cells by, at least in part, inhibiting the expression of MITF, followed by decreasing the expression of tyrosinase and TRP-2. Three sesquiterpene alcohols, i.e., 1, 2, and 4, are, therefore, considered to be valuable as potential skin-whitening agents.

  19. Npas4 regulates excitatory-inhibitory balance within neural circuits through cell type-specific gene programs

    PubMed Central

    Spiegel, I; Mardinly, AR; Gabel, HW; Bazinet, JE; Couch, CH; Tzeng, CP; Harmin, DA; Greenberg, ME

    2014-01-01

    Summary The nervous system adapts to experience by inducing a transcriptional program that controls important aspects of synaptic plasticity. Although the molecular mechanisms of experience-dependent plasticity are well characterized in excitatory neurons, the mechanisms that regulate this process in inhibitory neurons are only poorly understood. Here, we describe a transcriptional program that is induced by neuronal activity in inhibitory neurons. We find that while neuronal activity induces expression of early-response transcription factors such as Npas4 in both excitatory and inhibitory neurons, Npas4 activates distinct programs of late-response genes in inhibitory and excitatory neurons. These late-response genes differentially regulate synaptic input to these two types of neurons, promoting inhibition onto excitatory neurons while inducing excitation onto inhibitory neurons. These findings suggest that the functional outcomes of activity-induced transcriptional responses are adapted in a cell type-specific manner to achieve a circuit-wide homeostatic response. PMID:24855953

  20. NK Cell Responsiveness is Tuned Commensurate with the Number of Inhibitory Receptors for Self MHC Class I: the Rheostat Model

    PubMed Central

    Joncker, Nathalie T.; Fernandez, Nadine C.; Treiner, Emmanuel; Vivier, Eric; Raulet, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Inhibitory receptors that engage self-MHC class I molecules enable NK cells to detect disease-associated loss of MHC class I on surrounding cells. Previous studies showed that some NK cells lack all receptors for self-MHC class I, yet fail to exhibit autoimmunity because they are generally hyporesponsive to stimulation. We asked whether NK cells exist in only two states, responsive and hyporesponsive, corresponding to cells that express or fail to express inhibitory receptors for self-MHC class I. The alternative model is that NK cells vary continuously in their responsiveness, based on variations in the number of different inhibitory and stimulatory receptors they express, which is known to vary. Here we show in the murine system that NK cell responsiveness increases quantitatively with each added self MHC-specific inhibitory receptor. Genetic analysis demonstrated that interactions of each of the receptors with self-MHC class I were necessary to observe augmented responsiveness. These findings suggest that NK cell responsiveness is comparable to a rheostat: it is tuned to an optimal set point depending on the inhibitory and stimulatory interactions encountered in the normal environment, so as to ensure self-tolerance and yet optimize sensitivity to changes in normal cells. PMID:19342631

  1. Differential GABAergic and glycinergic inputs of inhibitory interneurons and Purkinje cells to principal cells of the cerebellar nuclei.

    PubMed

    Husson, Zoé; Rousseau, Charly V; Broll, Ilja; Zeilhofer, Hanns Ulrich; Dieudonné, Stéphane

    2014-07-01

    The principal neurons of the cerebellar nuclei (CN), the sole output of the olivo-cerebellar system, receive a massive inhibitory input from Purkinje cells (PCs) of the cerebellar cortex. Morphological evidence suggests that CN principal cells are also contacted by inhibitory interneurons, but the properties of this connection are unknown. Using transgenic, tracing, and immunohistochemical approaches in mice, we show that CN interneurons form a large heterogeneous population with GABA/glycinergic phenotypes, distinct from GABAergic olive-projecting neurons. CN interneurons are found to contact principal output neurons, via glycine receptor (GlyR)-enriched synapses, virtually devoid of the main GABA receptor (GABAR) subunits α1 and γ2. Those clusters account for 5% of the total number of inhibitory receptor clusters on principal neurons. Brief optogenetic stimulations of CN interneurons, through selective expression of channelrhodopsin 2 after viral-mediated transfection of the flexed gene in GlyT2-Cre transgenic mice, evoked fast IPSCs in principal cells. GlyR activation accounted for 15% of interneuron IPSC amplitude, while the remaining current was mediated by activation of GABAR. Surprisingly, small GlyR clusters were also found at PC synapses onto principal CN neurons in addition to α1 and γ2 GABAR subunits. However, GlyR activation was found to account for <3% of the PC inhibitory synaptic currents evoked by electrical stimulation. This work establishes CN glycinergic neurons as a significant source of inhibition to CN principal cells, forming contacts molecularly distinct from, but functionally similar to, Purkinje cell synapses. Their impact on CN output, motor learning, and motor execution deserves further investigation.

  2. Only a Minority of the Inhibitory Inputs to Cerebellar Golgi Cells Originates from Local GABAergic Cells123

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cerebellar Golgi cells (GoCs) efficiently control the spiking activity of granule cells through GABAA receptor-mediated tonic and phasic inhibition. Recent experiments provided compelling evidence for the extensive interconnection of GoCs through electrical synapses, but their chemical inhibitory synaptic inputs are debated. Here, we investigated the GABAergic synaptic inputs of GoCs using in vitro electrophysiology and quantitative light microscopy (LM) and electron microscopy (EM). We characterized GABAA receptor-mediated IPSCs in GoCs and Lugaro cells (LuCs), and found that IPSCs in GoCs have lower frequencies, smaller amplitudes, and much slower decay kinetics. Pharmacological and LM immunolocalization experiments revealed that GoCs express α3, whereas LuCs express α1 subunit-containing GABAA receptors. The selective expression and clustered distribution of the α3 subunit in GoCs allowed the quantitative analysis of GABAergic synapses on their dendrites in the molecular layer (ML). EM and LM experiments in rats, and wild-type and GlyT2-GFP transgenic mice revealed that only one third of axon terminals establishing GABAergic synapses on GoC dendrites contain GlyT2, ruling out LuCs, globular cells, and any noncortical glycinergic inputs as major inhibitory sources. We also show that axon terminals of stellate/basket cells very rarely innervate GlyT2-GFP-expressing GoCs, indicating that only a minority of the inhibitory inputs to GoCs in the ML originates from local interneurons, and the majority of their inhibitory inputs exclusively releases GABA. PMID:27257627

  3. Inhibitory effects of epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate on serum-stimulated rat aortic smooth muscle cells via nuclear factor-{kappa}B down-modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Dong-Wook; Lim, Hye Ryeon; Baek, Hyun Sook; Lee, Mi Hee; Lee, Seung Jin; Hyon, Suong-Hyu; Park, Jong-Chul . E-mail: parkjc@yumc.yonsei.ac.kr

    2006-06-23

    The abnormal growth of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty. Although (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) has antiproliferative effects on various cells, relatively a little is known about precise mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of EGCG on SMCs. In this study, the inhibitory effects of EGCG on attachment, proliferation, migration, and cell cycle of rat aortic SMCs (RASMCs) with serum stimulation were investigated. Also, the involvement of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) during these inhibitions by EGCG was examined. EGCG treatment resulted in significant (p < 0.05) inhibition in attachment and proliferation of RASMCs induced by serum. While non-treated RASMCs migrated into denuded area in response to serum and showed essentially complete closure after 36 h, EGCG-treated cells covered only 31% of the area even after 48 h of incubation. Furthermore, EGCG treatment resulted in an appreciable cell cycle arrest at both G0/G1- and G2/M-phases. The immunoblot analysis revealed that the constitutive expression of NF-{kappa}B/p65 nuclear protein in RASMCs was lowered by EGCG in both the cytosol and the nucleus in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the EGCG-caused inhibitory effects on RASMCs may be mediated through NF-{kappa}B down-modulation.

  4. Hypertonic Stress Induces VEGF Production in Human Colon Cancer Cell Line Caco-2: Inhibitory Role of Autocrine PGE2

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Luciana B.; Piva, Bruno; Diaz, Bruno L.

    2011-01-01

    Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is a major regulator of angiogenesis. VEGF expression is up regulated in response to micro-environmental cues related to poor blood supply such as hypoxia. However, regulation of VEGF expression in cancer cells is not limited to the stress response due to increased volume of the tumor mass. Lipid mediators in particular arachidonic acid-derived prostaglandin (PG)E2 are regulators of VEGF expression and angiogenesis in colon cancer. In addition, increased osmolarity that is generated during colonic water absorption and feces consolidation seems to activate colon cancer cells and promote PGE2 generation. Such physiological stimulation may provide signaling for cancer promotion. Here we investigated the effect of exposure to a hypertonic medium, to emulate colonic environment, on VEGF production by colon cancer cells. The role of concomitant PGE2 generation and MAPK activation was addressed by specific pharmacological inhibition. Human colon cancer cell line Caco-2 exposed to a hypertonic environment responded with marked VEGF and PGE2 production. VEGF production was inhibited by selective inhibitors of ERK 1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways. To address the regulatory role of PGE2 on VEGF production, Caco-2 cells were treated with cPLA2 (ATK) and COX-2 (NS-398) inhibitors, that completely block PGE2 generation. The Caco-2 cells were also treated with a non selective PGE2 receptor antagonist. Each treatment significantly increased the hypertonic stress-induced VEGF production. Moreover, addition of PGE2 or selective EP2 receptor agonist to activated Caco-2 cells inhibited VEGF production. The autocrine inhibitory role for PGE2 appears to be selective to hypertonic environment since VEGF production induced by exposure to CoCl2 was decreased by inhibition of concomitant PGE2 generation. Our results indicated that hypertonicity stimulates VEGF production in colon cancer cell lines. Also PGE2 plays an inhibitory role on VEGF production by

  5. The enhanced inhibitory effect of different antitumor agents in self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems on human cervical cancer HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Ujhelyi, Zoltán; Kalantari, Azin; Vecsernyés, Miklós; Róka, Eszter; Fenyvesi, Ferenc; Póka, Róbert; Kozma, Bence; Bácskay, Ildikó

    2015-07-21

    The aim of this study was to develop topical self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) containing antitumor agents (bleomycin, cisplatin and ifosfamide) and to investigate their inhibitory potential in SMEDDS on human cervical cancer HeLa cells. The physicochemical properties of cytostatic drug loaded SMEDDS were characterized. The cytotoxicity of main components of SMEDDS was also investigated. Their IC50 values were determined. HeLa cells were treated by different concentrations of cisplatin, bleomycin and ifosfamide alone and in various SMEDDS. The inhibitory effect on cell growth was analyzed by MTT cell viability assay. Inflammation is a driving force that accelerates cancer development. The inhibitory effect of these antitumor agents has also been tested on HeLa cells in the presence of inflammatory mediators (IL-1-β, TNF-α) as an in vitro model of inflamed human cervix. Significant differences in the cytotoxicity of cytostatic drugs alone and in SMEDDS have been found in a concentration-dependent manner. The self-micro emulsifying system may potentiate the effectiveness of bleomycin, cisplatin and ifosfamide topically. The effect of SMEDDS containing antitumor agents was decreased significantly in the presence of inflammatory mediators. According to our experiments, the optimal SMEDDS formulation is 1:1:2:6:2 ratios of Isopropyl myristate, Capryol 90, Kolliphor RH 40, Cremophor RH40, Transcutol HP and Labrasol. It can be concluded that SMEDDS may increase the inhibitory effect of bleomycin, ifosfamide and cisplatin on human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Inflammation on HeLa cells hinders the effectiveness of SMEDDS containing antitumor agents. Our results might ensure useful data for development of optimal antitumor formulations.

  6. Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cell-Mediated CD8 T Cell Priming Depends on Co-Inhibitory Signal Integration over Time

    PubMed Central

    Kaczmarek, Julita; Homsi, Yahya; van Üüm, Jan; Metzger, Christina; Knolle, Percy A.; Kolanus, Waldemar; Lang, Thorsten; Diehl, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The initiation of adaptive immunity requires cell-to-cell contact between T cells and antigen-presenting cells. Together with immediate TCR signal transduction, the formation of an immune synapse (IS) is one of the earliest events detected during T cell activation. Here, we show that interaction of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) with naive CD8 T cells, which induces CD8 T cells without immediate effector function, is characterized by a multi-focal type IS. The co-inhibitory molecule B7H1, which is pivotal for the development of non-responsive LSEC-primed T cells, did not alter IS structure or TCRβ/CD11a cluster size or density, indicating that IS form does not determine the outcome of LSEC-mediated T cell activation. Instead, PD-1 signaling during CD8 T cell priming by LSEC repressed IL-2 production as well as sustained CD25 expression. When acting during the first 24 h of LSEC/CD8 T cell interaction, CD28 co-stimulation inhibited the induction of non-responsive LSEC-primed T cells. However, after more than 36 h of PD-1 signaling, CD28 co-stimulation failed to rescue effector function in LSEC-primed T cells. Together, these data show that during LSEC-mediated T cell priming, integration of co-inhibitory PD-1 signaling over time turns on a program for CD8 T cell development, that cannot be overturned by co-stimulatory signals. PMID:24924593

  7. Induction of Inhibitory Receptors on T Cells During Plasmodium vivax Malaria Impairs Cytokine Production.

    PubMed

    Costa, Pedro A C; Leoratti, Fabiana M S; Figueiredo, Maria M; Tada, Mauro S; Pereira, Dhelio B; Junqueira, Caroline; Soares, Irene S; Barber, Daniel L; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T; Antonelli, Lis R V

    2015-12-15

    The function and regulation of the immune response triggered during malaria is complex and poorly understood, and there is a particular paucity of studies conducted in humans infected with Plasmodium vivax. While it has been proposed that T-cell-effector responses are crucial for protection against blood-stage malaria in mice, the mechanisms behind this in humans remain poorly understood. Experimental models of malaria have shown that the regulatory molecules, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte attenuator-4 (CTLA-4), lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), and programmed death-1 (PD-1) are involved in the functional impairment of T cells during infection. Our goal was to define the role of these molecules during P. vivax malaria. We demonstrate that infection triggers the expression of regulatory molecules on T cells. The pattern of expression differs in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Higher frequencies of CD4(+) express more than 1 regulatory molecule compared to CD8(+) T cells. Moreover, lower proportions of CD4(+) T cells coexpress regulatory molecules, but are still able to proliferate. Importantly, simultaneously blockade of the CLTA-4, PD-1, and T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-3 signaling restores the cytokine production by antigen-specific cells. These data support the hypothesis that upregulation of inhibitory receptors on T cells during P. vivax malaria impairs parasite-specific T-cell effector function.

  8. Stimulatory and inhibitory effects of neuropeptide Y on growth hormone secretion in acromegaly in vivo.

    PubMed

    Watanobe, H; Tamura, T

    1997-02-01

    It has been reported that neuropeptide Y (NPY) affects growth hormone (GH) secretion in several animal species. With respect to the role of NPY in regulating GH release in humans, one previous study has reported that NPY inhibited GH secretion from cultured GH-secreting pituitary adenoma cells in vitro. However, since it has yet to be explored whether NPY affects GH secretion in acromegaly in vivo, in this study we attempted to examine the effect of intravenous (i.v.) bolus injection of 100 microg of human NPY on plasma GH levels in 15 patients with active acromegaly, trying to find a possible correlation among GH responses to NPY, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH;500 microg, i.v.), luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH;100 microg, i.v.), and bromocriptine (Br;2.5 mg, per os). NPY significantly increased GH secretion (more than twice the basal level) in 4 (27%) patients, and all of them were responsive to LHRH and non-responsive to Br. In contrast, 3 (20%) acromegalics showed a significant decrease in GH levels (less than half the baseline) after NPY, and all these patients were responsive to both TRH and Br. From these results, we hypothesize that the NPY-induced increase in GH release may be a feature of somatotroph-like pituitary adenoma causing acromegaly, whereas the NPY-induced decrease in GH secretion may be a feature of lactotroph-like adenoma.

  9. Metformin inhibits salivary adenocarcinoma growth through cell cycle arrest and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yuqi; Yu, Tao; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Tianqing; Zhou, Yang; He, Fan; Kurago, Zoya; Myssiorek, David; Wu, Yingjie; Lee, Peng; Li, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of metformin have been observed in many types of cancer. However, its effect on human salivary gland carcinoma is unknown. The effect of metformin alone or in combination with pp242 (an mTOR inhibitor) on salivary adenocarcinoma cells growth were determined in vitro and in vivo. We found that metformin suppressed HSY cell growth in vitro in a time and dose dependent manner associated with a reduced expression of MYC onco-protein, and the same inhibitory effect of metformin was also confirmed in HSG cells. In association with the reduction of MYC onco-protein, metformin significantly restored p53 tumor suppressor gene expression. The distinctive effects of metformin and PP242 on MYC reduction and P53 restoration suggested that metformin inhibited cell growth through a different pathway from PP242 in salivary carcinoma cells. Furthermore, the anti-tumor efficacy of metformin was confirmed in vivo as indicated by the increases of tumor necrosis and reduced proliferation in xenograft tumors from metformin treated group. For the first time, the inhibitory effect of metformin on human salivary gland tumor cells was documented. Moreover, metformin inhibitory effects were enhanced by mTOR inhibitor suggesting that metformin and mTOR inhibitor utilize distinctive signaling pathways to suppress salivary tumor growth. PMID:26885449

  10. Design and synthesis of conformationally constrained analogues of cis-cinnamic acid and evaluation of their plant growth inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Keisuke; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Abe, Masato; Nakanishi, Kazunari; Tazawa, Yuta; Yamaguchi, Chihiro; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Okuda, Katsuhiro; Shindo, Mitsuru

    2013-12-01

    1-O-cis-Cinnamoyl-β-D-glucopyranose is known to be one of the most potent allelochemical candidates and was isolated from Spiraea thunbergii Sieb by Hiradate et al. (2004), who suggested that it derived its strong inhibitory activity from cis-cinnamic acid, which is crucial for phytotoxicity. In this study, key structural features and substituent effects of cis-cinnamic acid (cis-CA) on lettuce root growth inhibition was investigated. These structure-activity relationship studies indicated the importance of the spatial relationship of the aromatic ring and carboxylic acid moieties. In this context, conformationally constrained cis-CA analogues, in which the aromatic ring and cis-olefin were connected by a carbon bridge, were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as plant growth inhibitors. The results of the present study demonstrated that the inhibitory activities of the five-membered and six-membered bridged compounds were enhanced, up to 0.27 μM, and were ten times higher than cis-CA, while the potency of the other compounds was reduced.

  11. Growth inhibitory effect of D-arabinose against the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans: Discovery of a novel bioactive monosaccharide.

    PubMed

    Sakoguchi, Hirofumi; Yoshihara, Akihide; Shintani, Tomoya; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Sato, Masashi

    2016-02-01

    Biological activities of unusual monosaccharides (rare sugars) have largely remained unstudied until recently. We compared the growth inhibitory effects of aldohexose stereoisomers against the animal model Caenorhabditis elegans cultured in monoxenic conditions with Escherichia coli as food. Among these stereoisomers, the rare sugar D-arabinose (D-Ara) showed particularly strong growth inhibition. The IC50 value for D-Ara was estimated to be 7.5 mM, which surpassed that of the potent glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose (19.5 mM) used as a positive control. The inhibitory effect of D-Ara was also observed in animals cultured in axenic conditions using a chemically defined medium; this excluded the possible influence of E. coli. To our knowledge, this is the first report of biological activity of D-Ara. The D-Ara-induced inhibition was recovered by adding either D-ribose or D-fructose, but not D-glucose. These findings suggest that the inhibition could be induced by multiple mechanisms, for example, disturbance of D-ribose and D-fructose metabolism. PMID:26791015

  12. Growth inhibitory effect of D-arabinose against the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans: Discovery of a novel bioactive monosaccharide.

    PubMed

    Sakoguchi, Hirofumi; Yoshihara, Akihide; Shintani, Tomoya; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Sato, Masashi

    2016-02-01

    Biological activities of unusual monosaccharides (rare sugars) have largely remained unstudied until recently. We compared the growth inhibitory effects of aldohexose stereoisomers against the animal model Caenorhabditis elegans cultured in monoxenic conditions with Escherichia coli as food. Among these stereoisomers, the rare sugar D-arabinose (D-Ara) showed particularly strong growth inhibition. The IC50 value for D-Ara was estimated to be 7.5 mM, which surpassed that of the potent glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose (19.5 mM) used as a positive control. The inhibitory effect of D-Ara was also observed in animals cultured in axenic conditions using a chemically defined medium; this excluded the possible influence of E. coli. To our knowledge, this is the first report of biological activity of D-Ara. The D-Ara-induced inhibition was recovered by adding either D-ribose or D-fructose, but not D-glucose. These findings suggest that the inhibition could be induced by multiple mechanisms, for example, disturbance of D-ribose and D-fructose metabolism.

  13. Inhibitory activity of hydrosols, herbal teas and related essential oils against filament formation and the growth of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Inouye, Shigeharu; Takahashi, Miki; Abe, Shigeru

    2009-01-01

    The antifungal activity of 43 hydrosols, 7 herbal teas and 12 essential oils was determined using Candida albicans as a test organism. All of the hydrosols examined showed more potent inhibition against the filamentous form than the yeast form of C. albicans. In particular, the filamentous form was markedly inhibited by seven hydrosols, of which monarda, santolina and clove water also inhibited the growth of the yeast form. Most of the inhibitory activity of the hydrosols was correlated with that of their respective major components. Poor correlation was observed between the inhibition of filament formation and the growth inhibition of the yeast form among the hydrosols examined, among essential oils and among the major components of hydrosols and essential oils. Seven herbal teas showed moderate or weak activity against the filament formation of C. albicans, but no inhibition against the yeast form.

  14. A strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae evolved for fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass displays improved growth and fermentative ability in high solids concentrations and in the presence of inhibitory compounds

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Softwoods are the dominant source of lignocellulosic biomass in the northern hemisphere, and have been investigated worldwide as a renewable substrate for cellulosic ethanol production. One challenge to using softwoods, which is particularly acute with pine, is that the pretreatment process produces inhibitory compounds detrimental to the growth and metabolic activity of fermenting organisms. To overcome the challenge of bioconversion in the presence of inhibitory compounds, especially at high solids loading, a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was subjected to evolutionary engineering and adaptation for fermentation of pretreated pine wood (Pinus taeda). Results An industrial strain of Saccharomyces, XR122N, was evolved using pretreated pine; the resulting daughter strain, AJP50, produced ethanol much more rapidly than its parent in fermentations of pretreated pine. Adaptation, by preculturing of the industrial yeast XR122N and the evolved strains in 7% dry weight per volume (w/v) pretreated pine solids prior to inoculation into higher solids concentrations, improved fermentation performance of all strains compared with direct inoculation into high solids. Growth comparisons between XR122N and AJP50 in model hydrolysate media containing inhibitory compounds found in pretreated biomass showed that AJP50 exited lag phase faster under all conditions tested. This was due, in part, to the ability of AJP50 to rapidly convert furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural to their less toxic alcohol derivatives, and to recover from reactive oxygen species damage more quickly than XR122N. Under industrially relevant conditions of 17.5% w/v pretreated pine solids loading, additional evolutionary engineering was required to decrease the pronounced lag phase. Using a combination of adaptation by inoculation first into a solids loading of 7% w/v for 24 hours, followed by a 10% v/v inoculum (approximately equivalent to 1 g/L dry cell weight) into 17.5% w/v solids, the final

  15. Inhibitory effects of low molecular weight polyphenolics from Inonotus obliquus on human DNA topoisomerase activity and cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Isoko; Nakajima, Yuki; Nishida, Hiroshi; Konishi, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Toshifumi; Sugawara, Fumio; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2013-08-01

    Low molecular weight (LMW) polyphenolics containing a polyhydroxylated benzyl moiety are abundant in medicinal plants. In the present study, we report on the activities of seven LMW polyphenolics isolated from Inonotus obliquus, a medicinal mushroom. The isolated compounds included caffeic acid (CA), 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone (DBL), gallic acid, syringic acid, protocatechuic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and 2,5-dihydroxyterephthalic acid. We analyzed their inhibitory effects on DNA polymerase (pol) and DNA topoisomerase (topo), and their effects on human cancer cell growth. All isolated compounds inhibited human topo II activity; the most potent were DBL and CA, which contain a catechol propanoid moiety. CA and DBL inhibited the activity of human topo I, whereas other compounds had no effect. No compound modulated the activities of 11 mammalian pol species or other DNA metabolic enzymes, including T7 RNA polymerase, mouse IMP dehydrogenase (type II), T4 polynucleotide kinase and bovine deoxyribonuclease I. CA and DBL markedly suppressed the proliferation of human colon HCT116 carcinoma cells with an LD50 of 70.0 and 49.4 µM, respectively, and halted the cell cycle in the G2/M phase. The suppressive effect of these compounds on cancer cell growth correlated with their ability to inhibit topo II. These results suggest that CA- and DBL-dependent decreases in cell proliferation are due to the inhibition of cellular topo II. The mechanism of action of these catechol propanoid compounds and the implication for their use as anticancer agents are discussed. PMID:23799608

  16. Identification of a novel variant hepatocyte growth factor secreted by spleen-derived stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Miau, L H; Jan, Y W; Shen, B J; Tsai, W H; Lee, H S; Lee, S C

    1996-06-25

    Stromal cells can interact with parenchymal cells by secreting various cytokines to affect the growth, differentiation or movement of the latter. Here we report the identification and characterization of a novel variant hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) from the conditioned medium of stromal cells derived from mouse spleen. Compared to human HGF, it has much lower heparin-binding activity and lacks the beta-chain. Its molecular weight, 70 kDa, is very close to that of the alpha-chain of HGF. Human HGF homologue was not found in the conditioned medium. The conditioned medium of stromal cells, like recombinant HGF, could inhibit the growth of rat hepatoma cells. The inhibitory activity was presumably attributed to this novel HGF because the inhibitory activity, as the existence of this novel HGF, was confined to the identical fractions after heparin-column chromatography. Furthermore, this activity could be specifically abrogated by neutralizing anti-HGF antibodies.

  17. Phytogrowth-inhibitory activities of sulfur-containing compounds. II. The inhibitory activities of thiosalicylic acid and dihydro-2(3H)-thiophenone-related compounds on plant growth.

    PubMed

    Inamori, Y; Muro, C; Yoshioka, M; Yamada, M; Tsujibo, H; Kusano, G; Watanabe, M; Fujimoto, M

    1993-08-01

    Thiosalicylic acid (I) showed rather strong inhibitory activity on the growth of roots of all plants treated except Abelmoschus esculentus Moench at the concentration of 5.0 x 10(-4) M. This compound strongly inhibited the growth of the root of Echinochloa utilis Ohwi et Yabuno even at the low concentration of 5.0 x 10(-5) M. Dihydro-2(3H)-thiophenone (VII) also exhibited inhibitory activity on the growth of roots of all plants treated except Glycine max Merrill. Both compounds inhibited the germination of seeds of some plants at the concentration of 1.0 x 10(-3) M. In I-related compounds (I-V), methyl acetylthiosalicylate (IV) had the strongest inhibitory activity, while in VII-related compounds (VII-XI), 4-hydroxy-2(5H)-thiophenone (VIII) showed the most potent inhibitory activity. The amount of chlorophyll in the cotyledon of Brassica campestris L. subsp. rapa Hook. f. et Anders treated with all compounds except tetrahydrothiophene (XI) was lower than that of the control group.

  18. Physicochemical Basis for the Inhibitory Effects of Organic and Inorganic Salts on the Growth of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Pectobacterium atrosepticum▿

    PubMed Central

    Yaganza, Elian-Simplice; Tweddell, Russell J.; Arul, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-one salts were tested for their effects on the growth of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Pectobacterium atrosepticum. In liquid medium, 11 salts (0.2 M) exhibited strong inhibition of bacterial growth. The inhibitory action of salts relates to the water-ionizing capacity and the lipophilicity of their constituent ions. PMID:19114504

  19. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase PTPRS Is an Inhibitory Receptor on Human and Murine Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bunin, Anna; Sisirak, Vanja; Ghosh, Hiyaa S.; Grajkowska, Lucja T.; Hou, Z. Esther; Miron, Michelle; Yang, Cliff; Ceribelli, Michele; Uetani, Noriko; Chaperot, Laurence; Plumas, Joel; Hendriks, Wiljan; Tremblay, Michel L.; Haecker, Hans; Staudt, Louis M.; Green, Peter H.; Bhagat, Govind; Reizis, Boris

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are primary producers of type I interferon (IFN) in response to viruses. The IFN-producing capacity of pDCs is regulated by specific inhibitory receptors, yet none of the known receptors are conserved in evolution. We report that within the human immune system, receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma (PTPRS) is expressed specifically on pDCs. Surface PTPRS was rapidly downregulated after pDC activation, and only PTPRS– pDCs produced IFN-α. Antibody-mediated PTPRS crosslinking inhibited pDC activation, whereas PTPRS knockdown enhanced IFN response in a pDC cell line. Similarly, murine Ptprs and the homologous receptor phosphatase Ptprf were specifically co-expressed in murine pDCs. Haplodeficiency or DC-specific deletion of Ptprs on Ptprf-deficient background were associated with enhanced IFN response of pDCs, leukocyte infiltration in the intestine and mild colitis. Thus, PTPRS represents an evolutionarily conserved pDC-specific inhibitory receptor, and is required to prevent spontaneous IFN production and immune-mediated intestinal inflammation. PMID:26231120

  20. Inhibitory effects of neferine on Nav1.5 channels expressed in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Wang, Huan; Xiao, Jun-Hua; Wang, Jia-Ling; Xiang, Ji-Zhou; Tang, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    Neferine, a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid in Lotus Plumule, was proved to have a wide range of biological activities. In the present study, using whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we investigated the effects of neferine on Nav1.5 channels that are stably expressed in HEK 293 cells. We found that neferine potently and reversibly inhibited Nav1.5 currents in a concentration dependent manner with a half-maximal inhibition (IC50) being 26.15 μmol/L. The inhibitory effects of neferine on Nav1.5 currents were weaker than those of quinidine at the same concentration. The steady-state inactivation curve was significantly shifted towards hyperpolarizing direction in the presence of 30 μmol/L neferine, while the voltage-dependent activation was unaltered. Neferine prolonged the time to peak of activation, increased the inactivation time constants of Nav1.5 currents and markedly slowed the recovery from inactivation. The inhibitory effect of neferine could be potentiated in a frequency-dependent manner. These results suggested that neferine can block Nav1.5 channels under the open state and inactivating state and it is an open channel blocker of Nav1.5 channels. PMID:27465321

  1. Inhibitory effects of stilbenes on the growth of three soybean pathogens in culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of resveratrol and pterostilbene on in vitro growth of three soybean pathogens were tested to determine if these stilbenic compounds could potentially be targets to increase innate resistance in transgenic soybean plants. Growth of Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerot...

  2. Epigenetic inactivation of Wnt inhibitory factor-1 in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Song-Hua; Li, Sheng-Lei; Dong, Zi-Ming; Kan, Quan-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (WIF1), as one of most important Wnt antagonists, has been detected frequently silenced by promoter hypermethylation in various types of cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate the promoter methylation profiles of WIF1 in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues and cell lines, as well as the functional roles of WIF1 in the human ESCC metastatic behavior. WIF1 mRNA levels and promoter methylation status in ESCC tissues and cell lines were detected using RT-PCR and methylation-specific PCR (MS-PCR), respectively. WIF1 protein levels were assessed by Western blot. Stable ESCC cell line with restoration of WIF1 was generated in EC109 cells, which naturally do not express detectable WIF1 mRNA. The effects of reexpressed WIF1 on EC109 cell proliferation and migration were investigated using crystal violet and wound healing assay, respectively. Also the effects of WIF1 reexpression on the beta-catenin/T-cell factor-dependent transcription activity was measured by luciferase assay. WIF1 promoter methylation was frequently observed in ESCC tissues (46%, 23/50) and cell lines (50%, 2/4). Treatment with demethylating agent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), increased or restored WIF1 expression in these ESCC cell lines. Restoration of the WIF1 in EC109 cells resulted in a significant inhibition on both cell proliferation and migration. Moreover, reexpression of WIF1 caused significant decrease of beta-catenin/T-cell factor-dependent transcription activity. These findings demonstrated that WIF1 silencing due to promoter hypermethylation is a major mechanism during carcinogenesis of ESCC. This would be an opportunity to prevent the development and progression of HCC through modulation of WIF1.

  3. Parabolic growth patterns in 96-well plate cell growth experiments.

    PubMed

    Faessel, H M; Levasseur, L M; Slocum, H K; Greco, W R

    1999-05-01

    In preparing for the routine use of the ubiquitous in vitro cell growth inhibition assay for the study of anticancer agents, we characterized the statistical properties of the assay and found some surprising results. Parabolic well-to-well cell growth patterns were discovered, which could profoundly affect the results of routine growth inhibition studies of anticancer and other agents. Four human ovarian cell lines, A2780/WT, A2780/DX5, A2780/DX5B, and A121, and one human ileocecal adenocarcinoma cell line, HCT-8, were seeded into plastic 96-well plates with a 12-channel pipette, without drugs, and grown from 1-5 d. The wells were washed with a plate washer, cells stained with sulforhodamine B (SRB), and dye absorbance measured with a plate reader. Variance models were fit to the data from replicates to determine the nature of the heteroscedastic error structure. Exponential growth models were fit to data to estimate doubling times for each cell line. Polynomial models were fit to data from 10-plate stacks of 96-well plates to explore nonuniformity of cell growth in wells in different regions of the stacks. Each separate step in the assay was examined for precision, patterns, and underlying causes of variation. Differential evaporation of water from wells is likely a major, but not exclusive, contributor to the systematic well-to-well cell growth patterns. Because the fundamental underlying causes of the parabolic growth patterns were not conclusively found, a randomization step for the growth assay was developed.

  4. In vitro inhibitory effects of imatinib mesylate on stromal cells and hematopoietic progenitors from bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Soares, P.B.; Jeremias, T.S.; Alvarez-Silva, M.; Licínio, M.A.; Santos-Silva, M.C.; Vituri, C.L.

    2012-01-01

    Imatinib mesylate (IM) is used to treat chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) because it selectively inhibits tyrosine kinase, which is a hallmark of CML oncogenesis. Recent studies have shown that IM inhibits the growth of several non-malignant hematopoietic and fibroblast cells from bone marrow (BM). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of IM on stromal and hematopoietic progenitor cells, specifically in the colony-forming units of granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM), using BM cultures from 108 1.5- to 2-month-old healthy Swiss mice. The results showed that low concentrations of IM (1.25 µM) reduced the growth of CFU-GM in clonogenic assays. In culture assays with stromal cells, fibroblast proliferation and α-SMA expression by immunocytochemistry analysis were also reduced in a concentration-dependent manner, with a survival rate of approximately 50% with a dose of 2.5 µM. Cell viability and morphology were analyzed using MTT and staining with acrydine orange/ethidium bromide. Most cells were found to be viable after treatment with 5 µM IM, although there was gradual growth inhibition of fibroblastic cells while the number of round cells (macrophage-like cells) increased. At higher concentrations (15 µM), the majority of cells were apoptotic and cell growth ceased completely. Oil red staining revealed the presence of adipocytes only in untreated cells (control). Cell cycle analysis of stromal cells by flow cytometry showed a blockade at the G0/G1 phases in groups treated with 5-15 µM. These results suggest that IM differentially inhibits the survival of different types of BM cells since toxic effects were achieved. PMID:23011404

  5. New chlorogenin hexasaccharide isolated from Agave fourcroydes with cytotoxic and cell cycle inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Takashi; Koyano, Takashi; Kowithayakorn, Thaworn; Sakai, Shinobu; Kawahara, Nobuo; Goda, Yukihiro; Yamaguchi, Naoto; Ishibashi, Masami

    2004-07-15

    A new chlorogenin hexasaccharide (1) was isolated from leaves of Agave fourcroydes (Agavaceae). The structure of the new saponin was elucidated as chlorogenin 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside] (1) by spectroscopic analysis and the result of acidic hydrolysis. The new saponin (1) as well as known hexasaccharides (3 and 5) isolated here showed cytotoxicity against HeLa cells, and 1 exhibited a cell cycle inhibitory effect at the G2/M stage at the concentration of 7.5 and 10 microg/mL.

  6. Inhibitory Effects and Mechanisms of Luteolin on Proliferation and Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Dehua; Li, Dongye; Wu, Wanling

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis (AS) is a complicated progress, involving many types of cells. Although the exact mechanisms of progression of atherosclerosis are uncertain, the balance of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation and apoptosis appears to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis, and much discussion has been undertaken to elucidate the detailed mechanisms, relevant gene expression and transduction pathways. Drug treatment has focused on ameliorating atherosclerosis. Some researchers have indicated that inhibiting VSMCs proliferation is involved in attenuating atherosclerosis. Luteolin is a kind of flavonoids naturally occurring in many plants and possesses beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases. Luteolin can reduce VSMCs’ proliferation and migration and this reduction is stimulated by several factors. The aim of this review is to summarize the existing inhibitory effects and mechanisms of luteolin on proliferation and migration of VSMCs, and consider whether luteolin may be a potential candidate for preventing and treating atherosclerosis. PMID:23686014

  7. Inhibitory effects of whisky polyphenols on melanogenesis in mouse B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Sayaka; Terashita, Takao; Yoshizumi, Hajime; Shirasaka, Norifumi

    2011-01-01

    Whisky exerts an inhibitory effect on melanogenesis in B16 cells, the anti-melanogenic activity being positively correlated with the aging period and anti-oxidative activity of whisky. We examined the correlation between the inhibition of melanogenesis and the concentration of each compound in various whiskies to evaluate the importance of 11 different whisky polyphenols, including ellagic acid, gallic acid and lyoniresinol, in the anti-melanogenic activity of whisky. The concentration of all the compounds was positively correlated with the anti-melanogenic activity of whisky. Ellagic acid, gallic acid and lyoniresinol were the predominant polyphenols in the whiskies measured by HPLC. These three compounds also significantly inhibited the melanogenesis and tyrosinase activity in B16 cells. Ellagic acid, gallic acid and lyoniresinol were confirmed as the major participants in the anti-melanogenic activity of whisky.

  8. Inhibitory effects of bovine lactoferrin on the adherence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to host cells.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Y; Tazume, S; Shimizu, K; Matsuzawa, H; Dosako, S; Isoda, H; Tsukiji, M; Fujimura, R; Muranaka, Y; Isihida, H

    2000-02-01

    Adherence is an essential and prerequisite step for the colonization of mucosal surfaces by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). We studied the effect of bovine lactoferrin (BLF) on the adherence of ETEC to human epithelial cells in vitro, and to intestinal mucosa of ICR germfree mice in vivo. In the in vitro study, BLF was found to inhibit the adherence of ETEC. This adhesion-inhibiting activity of BLF was found to lessen with decreasing BLF concentration, but the data obtained suggest a positive inhibitory effect of BLF against the adhesion of ETEC cells. In the in vivo study, the counts of adherent bacteria in various sections of the intestinal tract (duodenum, jejunoileum, and large intestine) were lower in the BLF group than in the control group, suggesting the possible action of BLF as an intestinal tract adherence-blocking agent with regards to ETEC.

  9. Measurement of adherent cell mass and growth

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kidong; Millet, Larry J.; Kim, Namjung; Li, Huan; Jin, Xiaozhong; Popescu, Gabriel; Aluru, N. R.; Hsia, K. Jimmy; Bashir, Rashid

    2010-01-01

    The characterization of physical properties of cells such as their mass and stiffness has been of great interest and can have profound implications in cell biology, tissue engineering, cancer, and disease research. For example, the direct dependence of cell growth rate on cell mass for individual adherent human cells can elucidate the mechanisms underlying cell cycle progression. Here we develop an array of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) resonant mass sensors that can be used to directly measure the biophysical properties, mass, and growth rate of single adherent cells. Unlike conventional cantilever mass sensors, our sensors retain a uniform mass sensitivity over the cell attachment surface. By measuring the frequency shift of the mass sensors with growing (soft) cells and fixed (stiff) cells, and through analytical modeling, we derive the Young’s modulus of the unfixed cell and unravel the dependence of the cell mass measurement on cell stiffness. Finally, we grew individual cells on the mass sensors and measured their mass for 50+ hours. Our results demonstrate that adherent human colon epithelial cells have increased growth rates with a larger cell mass, and the average growth rate increases linearly with the cell mass, at 3.25%/hr. Our sensitive mass sensors with a position-independent mass sensitivity can be coupled with microscopy for simultaneous monitoring of cell growth and status, and provide an ideal method to study cell growth, cell cycle progression, differentiation, and apoptosis. PMID:21068372

  10. Cell Assembly Dynamics of Sparsely-Connected Inhibitory Networks: A Simple Model for the Collective Activity of Striatal Projection Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Angulo-Garcia, David; Berke, Joshua D.; Torcini, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Striatal projection neurons form a sparsely-connected inhibitory network, and this arrangement may be essential for the appropriate temporal organization of behavior. Here we show that a simplified, sparse inhibitory network of Leaky-Integrate-and-Fire neurons can reproduce some key features of striatal population activity, as observed in brain slices. In particular we develop a new metric to determine the conditions under which sparse inhibitory networks form anti-correlated cell assemblies with time-varying activity of individual cells. We find that under these conditions the network displays an input-specific sequence of cell assembly switching, that effectively discriminates similar inputs. Our results support the proposal that GABAergic connections between striatal projection neurons allow stimulus-selective, temporally-extended sequential activation of cell assemblies. Furthermore, we help to show how altered intrastriatal GABAergic signaling may produce aberrant network-level information processing in disorders such as Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases. PMID:26915024

  11. Inhibitory effects of lysophosphatidic acid receptor-5 on cellular functions of sarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Araki, Mutsumi; Kitayoshi, Misaho; Dong, Yan; Hirane, Miku; Ozaki, Shuhei; Mori, Shiori; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Honoki, Kanya; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2014-06-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid that interacts with G protein-coupled LPA receptors (LPA receptor-1 (LPA1) to LPA6). Here, we investigated the effects of LPA signaling via LPA5 on cellular functions of sarcoma cells by generating Lpar5 overexpressing and Lpar5 knockdown cells from rat osteosarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma cells, respectively. The cell motility activity of Lpar5 overexpressing cells was significantly lower, while Lpar5 knockdown cells showed high cell motility, compared with respective controls. Gelatin zymography showed that LPA5 suppressed the activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2. LPA5 also inhibited the cell motility activity of endothelial cells, correlating with the expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor genes. These results suggest that LPA signaling via LPA5 negatively regulates the cellular functions of rat sarcoma cells. PMID:24798396

  12. Inhibitory effects of soluble algae products (SAP) released by Scenedesmus sp. LX1 on its growth and lipid production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Yu, Yin; Wu, Yin-Hu; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2013-10-01

    Soluble algal products (SAP) accumulated in culture medium via water reuse may affect the growth of microalga during the cultivation. Scenedesmus sp. LX1, a freshwater microalga, was used in this study to investigate the effect of SAP on growth and lipid production of microalga. Under the SAP concentrations of 6.4-25.8 mg L(-1), maximum algal density (K) and maximum growth rate (Rmax) of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 were decreased by 50-80% and 35-70% compared with the control group, respectively. The effect of SAP on lipid accumulation of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 was non-significant. According to hydrophilic-hydrophobic and acid-base properties, SAP was fractionized into six fractions. All of the fractions could inhibit the growth of Scenedesmus sp. LX1. Organic bases (HIB, HOB) and hydrophilic acids (HIA) showed the strongest inhibition. HIA could also decrease the lipid content of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 by 59.2%. As the inhibitory effect, SAP should be seriously treated before water reuse.

  13. Inhibitory effects of soluble algae products (SAP) released by Scenedesmus sp. LX1 on its growth and lipid production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Yu, Yin; Wu, Yin-Hu; Hu, Hong-Ying

    2013-10-01

    Soluble algal products (SAP) accumulated in culture medium via water reuse may affect the growth of microalga during the cultivation. Scenedesmus sp. LX1, a freshwater microalga, was used in this study to investigate the effect of SAP on growth and lipid production of microalga. Under the SAP concentrations of 6.4-25.8 mg L(-1), maximum algal density (K) and maximum growth rate (Rmax) of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 were decreased by 50-80% and 35-70% compared with the control group, respectively. The effect of SAP on lipid accumulation of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 was non-significant. According to hydrophilic-hydrophobic and acid-base properties, SAP was fractionized into six fractions. All of the fractions could inhibit the growth of Scenedesmus sp. LX1. Organic bases (HIB, HOB) and hydrophilic acids (HIA) showed the strongest inhibition. HIA could also decrease the lipid content of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 by 59.2%. As the inhibitory effect, SAP should be seriously treated before water reuse. PMID:23982061

  14. A novel dithiocarbamate analogue with potentially decreased ALDH inhibition has copper-dependent proteasome-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing activity in human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Zhai, Shumei; Liu, Xiaojun; Li, Liwen; Wu, Shirley; Dou, Q. Ping; Yan, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Dithiocarbamates are a class of sulfur-based metal-chelating compounds with various applications in medicine. We reported previously that certain members of dithiocarbamates, such as diethyldithiocarbamate, disulfiram (DSF) and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), were able to bind with tumor cellular copper to inhibit tumor growth through the inhibition of proteasome activity and induction of cancer cell apoptosis. Since the DSF is an irreversible inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), its ALDH-inhibitory activity might potentially affect its usefulness as an anti-cancer drug. For the purpose of selecting potent anti-cancer compounds that are not ALDH inhibitors and mapping out preliminary structure–activity relationship trends for these novel compounds, we synthesized a series of PDTC analogues and chose three novel compounds to study their ALDH-inhibitory activity, proteasome-inhibitory activity as well as the cancer cell apoptosis-inducing activity. The results showed that compared to DSF, compound 9 has less ALDH inhibition activity, and the in vitro results also proved the positive effects of 9-Cu in proteasome inhibition and apoptosis induction in breast cancer cells, suggesting that 9 as a lead compound could be developed into a novel proteasome inhibitor anti-cancer drug. PMID:21035945

  15. Expression of killer inhibitory receptors on cytotoxic cells from HIV-1-infected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Galiani, M D; Aguado, E; Tarazona, R; Romero, P; Molina, I; Santamaria, M; Solana, R; PeñA, J

    1999-01-01

    Dysfunction of cytotoxic activity of T and natural killer (NK) lymphocytes is a main immunological feature in patients with AIDS, but its basis are not well understood. It has been recently described that T and NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity can be regulated by HLA killer inhibitory receptors (KIR). In this work, we have determined on cytotoxic T cells and NK cells from HIV-1-infected individuals the expression of the following KIR molecules: p58, p70, and ILT2 (immunoglobulin-like family KIR) as well as CD94 and NKG2A (C-lectin-type family KIR). With some exceptions, no significant changes were found on the expression of immunoglobulin-like KIR in either CD8+ or CD56+ cells. Interestingly, the percentages of CD8+ and CD56+ cells expressing CD94 were significantly increased in these individuals. We also show that, in vitro, IL-10 up-regulates CD94 expression on CD8+ and CD56+ cells obtained from normal individuals, suggesting that the augmented expression observed in HIV-infected individuals could be related to the high levels of IL-10 previously described in HIV-1-infected individuals. PMID:10193420

  16. Inhibitory Effects of Synthetic Peptides Containing Bovine Lactoferrin C-lobe Sequence on Bacterial Growth

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woan-Sub; Ohashi, Midori; Shimazaki, Kei-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Lactoferrin is a glycoprotein with various biological effects, with antibacterial activity being one of the first effects reported. This glycoprotein suppresses bacterial growth through bacteriostatic or bactericidal action. It also stimulates the growth of certain kinds of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. In this study, Asn-Leu-Asn-Arg was selected and chemically synthesized based on the partial sequences of bovine lactoferrin tryptic fragments. Synthetic Asn-Leu-Asn-Arg suppressed the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. syringae and Escherichia coli. P. fluorescens is a major psychrotrophic bacteria found in raw and pasteurized milk, which decreases milk quality. P. syringae is a harmful infectious bacterium that damages plants. However, synthetic Asn-Leu-Asn-Arg did not inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus. It is expected that this synthetic peptide would be the first peptide sequence from the bovine lactoferrin C-lobe that shows antibacterial activity.

  17. Inhibitory Effects of Synthetic Peptides Containing Bovine Lactoferrin C-lobe Sequence on Bacterial Growth

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woan-Sub; Ohashi, Midori; Shimazaki, Kei-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Lactoferrin is a glycoprotein with various biological effects, with antibacterial activity being one of the first effects reported. This glycoprotein suppresses bacterial growth through bacteriostatic or bactericidal action. It also stimulates the growth of certain kinds of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. In this study, Asn-Leu-Asn-Arg was selected and chemically synthesized based on the partial sequences of bovine lactoferrin tryptic fragments. Synthetic Asn-Leu-Asn-Arg suppressed the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. syringae and Escherichia coli. P. fluorescens is a major psychrotrophic bacteria found in raw and pasteurized milk, which decreases milk quality. P. syringae is a harmful infectious bacterium that damages plants. However, synthetic Asn-Leu-Asn-Arg did not inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus. It is expected that this synthetic peptide would be the first peptide sequence from the bovine lactoferrin C-lobe that shows antibacterial activity. PMID:27621684

  18. Inhibitory Effects of Synthetic Peptides Containing Bovine Lactoferrin C-lobe Sequence on Bacterial Growth.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woan-Sub; Ohashi, Midori; Shimazaki, Kei-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Lactoferrin is a glycoprotein with various biological effects, with antibacterial activity being one of the first effects reported. This glycoprotein suppresses bacterial growth through bacteriostatic or bactericidal action. It also stimulates the growth of certain kinds of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. In this study, Asn-Leu-Asn-Arg was selected and chemically synthesized based on the partial sequences of bovine lactoferrin tryptic fragments. Synthetic Asn-Leu-Asn-Arg suppressed the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. syringae and Escherichia coli. P. fluorescens is a major psychrotrophic bacteria found in raw and pasteurized milk, which decreases milk quality. P. syringae is a harmful infectious bacterium that damages plants. However, synthetic Asn-Leu-Asn-Arg did not inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus. It is expected that this synthetic peptide would be the first peptide sequence from the bovine lactoferrin C-lobe that shows antibacterial activity.

  19. Inhibitory Effects of Synthetic Peptides Containing Bovine Lactoferrin C-lobe Sequence on Bacterial Growth.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woan-Sub; Ohashi, Midori; Shimazaki, Kei-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Lactoferrin is a glycoprotein with various biological effects, with antibacterial activity being one of the first effects reported. This glycoprotein suppresses bacterial growth through bacteriostatic or bactericidal action. It also stimulates the growth of certain kinds of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. In this study, Asn-Leu-Asn-Arg was selected and chemically synthesized based on the partial sequences of bovine lactoferrin tryptic fragments. Synthetic Asn-Leu-Asn-Arg suppressed the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. syringae and Escherichia coli. P. fluorescens is a major psychrotrophic bacteria found in raw and pasteurized milk, which decreases milk quality. P. syringae is a harmful infectious bacterium that damages plants. However, synthetic Asn-Leu-Asn-Arg did not inhibit the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus. It is expected that this synthetic peptide would be the first peptide sequence from the bovine lactoferrin C-lobe that shows antibacterial activity. PMID:27621684

  20. Quiescence of Memory CD8(+) T Cells Is Mediated by Regulatory T Cells through Inhibitory Receptor CTLA-4.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Vandana; Penny, Laura Anne; Yuzefpolskiy, Yevgeniy; Baumann, Florian Martin; Sarkar, Surojit

    2015-06-16

    Immune memory cells are poised to rapidly expand and elaborate effector functions upon reinfection yet exist in a functionally quiescent state. The paradigm is that memory T cells remain inactive due to lack of T cell receptor (TCR) stimuli. Here, we report that regulatory T (Treg) cells orchestrate memory T cell quiescence by suppressing effector and proliferation programs through inhibitory receptor, cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4 (CTLA-4). Loss of Treg cells resulted in activation of genome-wide transcriptional programs characteristic of effector T cells and drove transitioning as well as established memory CD8(+) T cells toward terminally differentiated KLRG-1(hi)IL-7Rα(lo)GzmB(hi) phenotype, with compromised metabolic fitness, longevity, polyfunctionality, and protective efficacy. CTLA-4 functionally replaced Treg cells in trans to rescue memory T cell defects and restore homeostasis. These studies present the CTLA-4-CD28-CD80/CD86 axis as a potential target to accelerate vaccine-induced immunity and improve T cell memory quality in current cancer immunotherapies proposing transient Treg cell ablation.

  1. Transcriptional down-regulation of epidermal growth factor receptors by nerve growth factor treatment of PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Shibutani, M; Lazarovici, P; Johnson, A C; Katagiri, Y; Guroff, G

    1998-03-20

    Treatment of PC12 cells with nerve growth factor leads to a decrease in the number of epidermal growth factor receptors on the cell membrane. The mRNA for the epidermal growth factor receptor decreases in a comparable fashion. This decrease appears due to a decrease in the transcription of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene because first, there is no difference in the stability of the epidermal growth factor receptor mRNA, second, newly transcribed epidermal growth factor receptor mRNA is decreased in nerve growth factor-differentiated cells, and third, constructs containing the promoter region of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene are transcribed much less readily in nerve growth factor-differentiated cells than in untreated cells. The decreases in mRNA are not seen in the p140(trk)-deficient variant PC12nnr5 cells nor in cells containing either dominant-negative Ras or dominant-negative Src. Treatment with nerve growth factor also increases the cellular content of GCF2, a putative transcription factor inhibitory for the transcription of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene. The increase in GCF2, like the decrease in the epidermal growth factor receptor mRNA, is not seen in PC12nnr5 cells nor in cells expressing either dominant-negative Ras or dominant-negative Src. The results suggest that nerve growth factor-induced down-regulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor is under transcriptional control, is p140(trk)-, Ras-, and Src-dependent, and may involve transcriptional repression by GCF2.

  2. Extracellular vesicles from malignant effusions induce tumor cell migration: inhibitory effect of LMWH tinzaparin.

    PubMed

    Gamperl, Hans; Plattfaut, Corinna; Freund, Annika; Quecke, Tabea; Theophil, Friederike; Gieseler, Frank

    2016-10-01

    Elevated levels of extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been correlated with inflammatory diseases as well as progressive and metastatic cancer. By presenting tissue factor (TF) on their membrane surface, cellular microparticles (MPs) activate both the coagulation system and cell-signaling pathways such as the PAR/ERK pathway. We have shown before that malignant effusions are a rich source of tumor cell-derived EVs. Here, we used EVs from malignant effusions from three different patients after serial low-speed centrifugation steps as recommended by the ISTH (lsEV). Significant migration of human pancreatic carcinoma cells could be induced by lsEVs and was effectively inhibited by pre-incubation with tinzaparin, a low-molecular-weight heparin. Tinzaparin induced tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) release from tumor cells, and recombinant TFPI inhibited EV-induced tumor cell migration. EVs also induced ERK phosphorylation, whereas inhibitors of PAR2 and ERK suppressed EV-induced tumor cell migration. LsEVs have been characterized by high-resolution flow cytometry and, after elimination of smaller vesicles including exosomes, by further high-speed centrifugation (hsEV). The remaining population consisting primarily of MPs is indeed the main migration-inducing population with tenase activity. Compared to other LMWHs, tinzaparin is suggested to have high potency to induce TFPI release from epithelial cells. The migration-inhibitory effect of TFPI and the interruption of tumor cell migration by inhibitors of PAR2 and ERK suggest that lsEVs induce tumor cell migration by activating the PAR2 signaling pathway. Tinzaparin might inhibit this process at least partly by inducing the release of TFPI from tumor cells, which blocks PAR-activating TF complexes. The clinical relevance of the results is discussed.

  3. Extracellular vesicles from malignant effusions induce tumor cell migration: inhibitory effect of LMWH tinzaparin.

    PubMed

    Gamperl, Hans; Plattfaut, Corinna; Freund, Annika; Quecke, Tabea; Theophil, Friederike; Gieseler, Frank

    2016-10-01

    Elevated levels of extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been correlated with inflammatory diseases as well as progressive and metastatic cancer. By presenting tissue factor (TF) on their membrane surface, cellular microparticles (MPs) activate both the coagulation system and cell-signaling pathways such as the PAR/ERK pathway. We have shown before that malignant effusions are a rich source of tumor cell-derived EVs. Here, we used EVs from malignant effusions from three different patients after serial low-speed centrifugation steps as recommended by the ISTH (lsEV). Significant migration of human pancreatic carcinoma cells could be induced by lsEVs and was effectively inhibited by pre-incubation with tinzaparin, a low-molecular-weight heparin. Tinzaparin induced tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) release from tumor cells, and recombinant TFPI inhibited EV-induced tumor cell migration. EVs also induced ERK phosphorylation, whereas inhibitors of PAR2 and ERK suppressed EV-induced tumor cell migration. LsEVs have been characterized by high-resolution flow cytometry and, after elimination of smaller vesicles including exosomes, by further high-speed centrifugation (hsEV). The remaining population consisting primarily of MPs is indeed the main migration-inducing population with tenase activity. Compared to other LMWHs, tinzaparin is suggested to have high potency to induce TFPI release from epithelial cells. The migration-inhibitory effect of TFPI and the interruption of tumor cell migration by inhibitors of PAR2 and ERK suggest that lsEVs induce tumor cell migration by activating the PAR2 signaling pathway. Tinzaparin might inhibit this process at least partly by inducing the release of TFPI from tumor cells, which blocks PAR-activating TF complexes. The clinical relevance of the results is discussed. PMID:27435911

  4. Inhibitory effects of seaweed extracts on the growth of the vaginal bacterium Gardnerella vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Ha, Yu-Mi; Choi, Jae-Suk; Lee, Bo-Bae; Moon, Hye Eun; Cho, Kwang Keun; Choi, In Soon

    2014-05-01

    Of 44 species of seaweed screened for potential anti-Gardnerella vaginalis activity, 27 (61.4%) showed antimicrobial activity by the agar disk-diffusion method. Among them, the strongest activities against the pathogen were exhibited by Chlorophyta, with Ulva pertusa producing an 11.3-mm zone of inhibition at 5 mg disk⁻¹. The MIC values of U. pertusa extracts against both G. vaginalis KCTC 5096 and KCTC 5097, the main cause of vaginosis, were 312 μg ml⁻¹, while the MIC values against both Candida albicans KCTC 7270 and KCTC 7965, the main cause of candidiasis, were 2.5 mg ml⁻¹. Against Lactobacillus gasseri KCTC 3173 and Lactobacillus jensenii KCTC 5194, members of the normal vaginal microflora, no inhibitory effect was seen even at 10 mg ml⁻¹. To identify the primary active compounds, a U. pertusa powder was successively fractionated according to polarity, and the main active agents against G. vaginalis KCTC 5096 were determined to be nitrogenous compounds (156 μg ml⁻¹ of the MIC value). According to these results, it was suggested that extracts of the seaweed U. pertusa are valuable for the development of natural therapeutic agents for treating women with bacterial vaginosis.

  5. Structure of the Malaria Antigen AMA1 in Complex with a Growth-Inhibitory Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Tao; Kim, Hanna; Anders, Robin F; Foley, Michael; Batchelor, Adrian H

    2007-01-01

    Identifying functionally critical regions of the malaria antigen AMA1 (apical membrane antigen 1) is necessary to understand the significance of the polymorphisms within this antigen for vaccine development. The crystal structure of AMA1 in complex with the Fab fragment of inhibitory monoclonal antibody 1F9 reveals that 1F9 binds to the AMA1 solvent-exposed hydrophobic trough, confirming its importance. 1F9 uses the heavy and light chain complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) to wrap around the polymorphic loops adjacent to the trough, but uses a ridge of framework residues to bind to the hydrophobic trough. The resulting 1F9-AMA1–combined buried surface of 2,470 Å2 is considerably larger than previously reported Fab–antigen interfaces. Mutations of polymorphic AMA1 residues within the 1F9 epitope disrupt 1F9 binding and dramatically reduce the binding of affinity-purified human antibodies. Moreover, 1F9 binding to AMA1 is competed by naturally acquired human antibodies, confirming that the 1F9 epitope is a frequent target of immunological attack. PMID:17907804

  6. Growth inhibitory effect of grape phenolics against wine spoilage yeasts and acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pastorkova, E; Zakova, T; Landa, P; Novakova, J; Vadlejch, J; Kokoska, L

    2013-02-15

    This paper investigates the in vitro antimicrobial potential of 15 grape phenolic compounds of various chemical classes (phenolic acids, stilbenes and flavonoids) using the broth microdilution method against yeasts and acetic acid bacteria frequently occurring in deteriorated wine. Pterostilbene (MICs=32-128 μg/mL), resveratrol (MICs=256-512 μg/mL) and luteolin (MICs=256-512 μg/mL) are among six active compounds that possessed the strongest inhibitory effects against all microorganisms tested. In the case of phenolic acids, myricetin, p-coumaric and ferulic acids exhibited selective antimicrobial activity (MICs=256-512 μg/mL), depending upon yeasts and bacteria tested. In comparison with potassium metabisulphite, all microorganisms tested were more susceptible to the phenolics. The results revealed the antibacterial and antiyeast effects against wine spoilage microorganisms of several highly potent phenolics naturally occurring in grapes. These findings also provide arguments for further investigation of stilbenes as prospective compounds reducing the need for the use of sulphites in winemaking.

  7. Inhibitory effects of Iranian Thymus vulgaris extracts on in vitro growth of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Behnia, Maryam; Haghighi, Ali; Komeylizadeh, Hossein; Tabaei, Seyyed-Javadi Seyyed; Abadi, Alireza

    2008-09-01

    One of the most common drugs used against a wide variety of anaerobic protozoan parasites is metronidazole. However, this drug is mutagenic for bacteria and is a potent carcinogen for rodents. Thymus vulgaris is used for cough suppression and relief of dyspepsia. Also it has antibacterial and antifungal properties. The aim of this study was to investigate antiamebic effect of Thymus vulgaris against Entamoeba histolytica in comparison with metronidazole. One hundred gram air-dried T. vulgaris plant was obtained and macerated at 25 degrees C for 14 days using n-hexane and a mixture of ethanol and water. For essential oil isolation T. vulgaris was subjected to hydrodistillation using a clevenger-type apparatus for 3 hr. E. histolytica, HM-1: IMSS strain was used in all experiments. It was found that the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for T. vulgaris hydroalcoholic, hexanic extracts, and the essential oil after 24 hr was 4 mg/mL, 4 mg/mL, and 0.7 mg/mL, respectively. After 48 hr the MIC for T. vulgaris hydroalcoholic and hexanic extracts was 3 and 3 mg/mL, respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Iranian T. vulgaris is effective against the trophozoites of E. histolytica.

  8. The inhibitory activity of linalool against the filamentous growth and biofilm formation in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chih-Chieh; Lai, Wen-Lin; Chuang, Kuei-Chin; Lee, Meng-Hwan; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2013-07-01

    Candida spp. are part of the natural human microbiota, but they also represent important opportunistic human pathogens. Biofilm-associated Candida albicans infections are clinically relevant due to their high levels of resistance to traditional antifungal agents. In this study, we investigated the ability of linalool to inhibit the formation of C. albicans biofilms and reduce existing C. albicans biofilms. Linalool exhibited antifungal activity against C. albicans ATCC 14053, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 8 mM. Sub-MIC concentrations of linalool also inhibited the formation of germ tubes and biofilms in that strain. The defective architecture composition of C. albicans biofilms exposed to linalool was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The expression levels of the adhesin genes HWP1 and ALS3 were downregulated by linalool, as assessed by real-time RT-PCR. The expression levels of CYR1 and CPH1, which encode components of the cAMP-PKA and MAPK hyphal formation regulatory pathways, respectively, were also suppressed by linalool, as was the gene encoding their upstream regulator, Ras1. The expression levels of long-term hyphae maintenance associated genes, including UME6, HGC1, and EED1, were all suppressed by linalool. These results indicate that linalool may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of candidiasis associated with medical devices because it interferes with the morphological switch and biofilm formation of C. albicans.

  9. Interplay between cell growth and cell cycle in plants.

    PubMed

    Sablowski, Robert; Carnier Dornelas, Marcelo

    2014-06-01

    The growth of organs and whole plants depends on both cell growth and cell-cycle progression, but the interaction between both processes is poorly understood. In plants, the balance between growth and cell-cycle progression requires coordinated regulation of four different processes: macromolecular synthesis (cytoplasmic growth), turgor-driven cell-wall extension, mitotic cycle, and endocycle. Potential feedbacks between these processes include a cell-size checkpoint operating before DNA synthesis and a link between DNA contents and maximum cell size. In addition, key intercellular signals and growth regulatory genes appear to target at the same time cell-cycle and cell-growth functions. For example, auxin, gibberellin, and brassinosteroid all have parallel links to cell-cycle progression (through S-phase Cyclin D-CDK and the anaphase-promoting complex) and cell-wall functions (through cell-wall extensibility or microtubule dynamics). Another intercellular signal mediated by microtubule dynamics is the mechanical stress caused by growth of interconnected cells. Superimposed on developmental controls, sugar signalling through the TOR pathway has recently emerged as a central control point linking cytoplasmic growth, cell-cycle and cell-wall functions. Recent progress in quantitative imaging and computational modelling will facilitate analysis of the multiple interconnections between plant cell growth and cell cycle and ultimately will be required for the predictive manipulation of plant growth.

  10. Inhibitory effect of cinnamaldehyde, derived from Cinnamomi cortex, on the growth of influenza A/PR/8 virus in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, K; Imanishi, N; Kashiwayama, Y; Kawano, A; Terasawa, K; Shimada, Y; Ochiai, H

    2007-04-01

    We have investigated the inhibitory effect of trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA), one of the principal constituents of essential oil derived from Cinnamomi cortex, on the growth of influenza A/PR/8 virus in vitro and in vivo. When 1-h drug treatment was initiated at various times post-infection (p.i.) in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells using a fixed dose of CA (40 microM), the maximum inhibitory effect (29.7% virus yield of control) was obtained when drug treatment was started at 3h p.i. Under the same treatment schedule, CA inhibited the virus growth in a dose-dependent manner (20-200 microM), and, at 200 microM, the virus yield was reduced to an undetectable level. RT-PCR and SDS-PAGE analyses showed that CA inhibited viral protein synthesis at the post-transcriptional level. In mice infected with the lung-adapted PR-8 virus, inhalation (50mg/cage/day) and nasal inoculation (250 microg/mouse/day) of CA significantly increased survival rates on the 8 days to 100% and 70%, respectively, in contrast to a survival rate of 20% in the untreated control group. Importantly, inhalation of CA caused virus yield reduction by 1 log in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid on day 6 after infection, compared with that of the untreated control group. These findings might provide further support to the empirical indication of Cinnamomi cortex-containing Kampo medicines for acute respiratory infectious diseases. PMID:17303260

  11. The interaction between Sertoli cells and luekemia inhibitory factor on the propagation and differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Rastegar, Tayebeh; Habibi Roudkenar, Mehryar; Parvari, Soraya; Baazm, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sertoli cells play a pivotal role in creating microenvironments essential for spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) self-renewal and commitment to differentiation. Maintenance of SSCs and or induction of in vitro spermiogenesis may provide a therapeutic strategy to treat male infertility. Objective: This study investigated the role of luekemia inhibitory factor (LIF) on the propagation of SSCs and both functions of Sertoli cells on the proliferation and differentiation of these cells. Materials and Methods: SSCs were sorted from the testes of adult male mice by magnetic activated cell sorting and thymus cell antigen 1 antibody. On the other hand, isolated Sertoli cells were enriched using lectin coated plates. SSCs were cultured on Sertoli cells for 7 days in the absence or presence of LIF. The effects of these conditions were evaluated by microscopy and expression of meiotic and post meiotic transcripts by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results: Our data showed that SSCs co-cultured with Sertoli cells in the presence of LIF formed colonies on top of the Sertoli cells. These colonies had alkaline phosphatesase activity and expressed SSCs specific genes. SSCs were enjoyed limited development after the mere removal of LIF, and exhibiting expression of meiotic and postmeiotic transcript and loss of SSCs specific gene expression (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings represent co-culture of SSCs with Sertoli cells provides conditions that may allow efficient proliferation and differentiation of SSCs for male infertility treatment. PMID:26730242

  12. Fas apoptosis inhibitory molecule enhances CD40 signaling in B cells and augments the plasma cell compartment.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Hiroaki; Rothstein, Thomas L

    2009-08-01

    Fas apoptosis inhibitory molecule (FAIM) was cloned as a mediator of Fas resistance that is highly evolutionarily conserved but contains no known effector motifs. In this study, we report entirely new functions of FAIM that regulate B cell signaling and differentiation. FAIM acts to specifically enhance CD40 signaling for NF-kappaB activation, IRF-4 expression, and BCL-6 down-regulation in vitro, but has no effect on its own or in conjunction with LPS or anti-Ig stimulation. In keeping with its effects on IRF-4 and BCL-6, FAIM overexpression augments the plasma cell compartment in vivo. These results indicate that FAIM is a new player on the field of B cell differentiation and acts as a force multiplier for a series of events that begins with CD40 engagement and ends with plasma cell differentiation.

  13. Dexamethasone Regulates EphA5, a Potential Inhibitory Factor with Osteogenic Capability of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Yoshii, Toshitaka; Yasuda, Hiroaki; Okawa, Atsushi; Sotome, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the importance of quality management procedures for the handling of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) and provided evidence for the existence of osteogenic inhibitor molecules in BMSCs. One candidate inhibitor is the ephrin type-A receptor 5 (EphA5), which is expressed in hBMSCs and upregulated during long-term culture. In this study, forced expression of EphA5 diminished the expression of osteoblast phenotypic markers. Downregulation of endogenous EphA5 by dexamethasone treatment promoted osteoblast marker expression. EphA5 could be involved in the normal growth regulation of BMSCs and could be a potential marker for replicative senescence. Although Eph forward signaling stimulated by ephrin-B-Fc promoted the expression of ALP mRNA in BMSCs, exogenous addition of EphA5-Fc did not affect the ALP level. The mechanism underlying the silencing of EphA5 in early cultures remains unclear. EphA5 promoter was barely methylated in hBMSCs while histone deacetylation could partially suppress EphA5 expression in early-passage cultures. In repeatedly passaged cultures, the upregulation of EphA5 independent of methylation could competitively inhibit osteogenic signal transduction pathways such as EphB forward signaling. Elucidation of the potential inhibitory function of EphA5 in hBMSCs may provide an alternative approach for lineage differentiation in cell therapy strategies and regenerative medicine. PMID:27057165

  14. Generation and characterization of leukemia inhibitory factor-dependent equine induced pluripotent stem cells from adult dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Whitworth, Deanne J; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A; Sun, Jane; Fortuna, Patrick R J; Wolvetang, Ernst J

    2014-07-01

    In this study we have reprogrammed dermal fibroblasts from an adult female horse into equine induced pluripotent stem cells (equiPSCs). These equiPSCs are dependent only on leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), placing them in striking contrast to previously derived equiPSCs that have been shown to be co-dependent on both LIF and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). These equiPSCs have a normal karyotype and have been maintained beyond 60 passages. They possess alkaline phosphatase activity and express eqNANOG, eqOCT4, and eqTERT mRNA. Immunocytochemistry confirmed that they produce NANOG, REX1, SSEA4, TRA1-60, and TRA1-81. While our equiPSCs are LIF dependent, bFGF co-stimulates their proliferation via the PI3K/AKT pathway. EquiPSCs lack expression of eqXIST and immunostaining for H3K27me3, suggesting that during reprogramming the inactive X chromosome has likely been reactivated to generate cells that have two active X chromosomes. EquiPSCs form embryoid bodies and in vitro teratomas that contain derivatives of all three germ layers. These LIF-dependent equiPSCs likely reflect a more naive state of pluripotency than equiPSCs that are co-dependent on both LIF and bFGF and so provide a novel resource for understanding pluripotency in the horse.

  15. A lectin with highly potent inhibitory activity toward breast cancer cells from edible tubers of Dioscorea opposita cv. nagaimo.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yau Sang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2013-01-01

    A 70-kDa galactose-specific lectin was purified from the tubers of Dioscorea opposita cv. nagaimo. The purification involved three chromatographic steps: anion exchange chromatography on a Q-Sepharose column, FPLC-anion exchange chromatography on a Mono Q column, and FPLC-gel filtration on a Superdex 75 column. The purified nagaimo lectin presented as a single 35-kDa band in reducing SDS-PAGE while it exhibited a 70-kDa single band in non-reducing SDS-PAGE suggesting its dimeric nature. Nagaimo lectin displayed moderate thermostability, retaining full hemagglutinating activity after heating up to 62°C for 30 minutes. It also manifested stability over a wide pH range from pH 2 to 13. Nagaimo lectin was a galactose-specific lectin, as evidenced by binding with galactose and galactose-containing sugars such as lactose and raffinose. The minimum concentration of galactose, lactose and raffinose required to exert an inhibitory effect on hemagglutinating activity of nagaimo lectin was 20 mM, 5 mM and 40 mM, respectively. Nagaimo lectin inhibited the growth of some cancer cell lines including breast cancer MCF7 cells, hepatoma HepG2 cells and nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE2 cells, with IC(50) values of 3.71 µM, 7.12 µM and 19.79 µM, respectively, after 24 hour treatment with nagaimo lectin. The induction of phosphatidylserine externalization and mitochondrial depolarization indicated that nagaimo lectin evoked apoptosis in MCF7 cells. However, the anti-proliferative activity of nagaimo lectin was not blocked by application of galactose, signifying that the activity was not related to the carbohydrate binding specificity of the lectin. PMID:23349827

  16. A Lectin with Highly Potent Inhibitory Activity toward Breast Cancer Cells from Edible Tubers of Dioscorea opposita cv. Nagaimo

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yau Sang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2013-01-01

    A 70-kDa galactose-specific lectin was purified from the tubers of Dioscorea opposita cv. nagaimo. The purification involved three chromatographic steps: anion exchange chromatography on a Q-Sepharose column, FPLC-anion exchange chromatography on a Mono Q column, and FPLC-gel filtration on a Superdex 75 column. The purified nagaimo lectin presented as a single 35-kDa band in reducing SDS-PAGE while it exhibited a 70-kDa single band in non-reducing SDS-PAGE suggesting its dimeric nature. Nagaimo lectin displayed moderate thermostability, retaining full hemagglutinating activity after heating up to 62°C for 30 minutes. It also manifested stability over a wide pH range from pH 2 to 13. Nagaimo lectin was a galactose-specific lectin, as evidenced by binding with galactose and galactose-containing sugars such as lactose and raffinose. The minimum concentration of galactose, lactose and raffinose required to exert an inhibitory effect on hemagglutinating activity of nagaimo lectin was 20 mM, 5 mM and 40 mM, respectively. Nagaimo lectin inhibited the growth of some cancer cell lines including breast cancer MCF7 cells, hepatoma HepG2 cells and nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE2 cells, with IC50 values of 3.71 µM, 7.12 µM and 19.79 µM, respectively, after 24 hour treatment with nagaimo lectin. The induction of phosphatidylserine externalization and mitochondrial depolarization indicated that nagaimo lectin evoked apoptosis in MCF7 cells. However, the anti-proliferative activity of nagaimo lectin was not blocked by application of galactose, signifying that the activity was not related to the carbohydrate binding specificity of the lectin. PMID:23349827

  17. Inhibitory effects of N-(4-hydrophenyl) retinamide on liver cancer and malignant melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xing-Zhong; Zhang, Li; Shi, Bi-Zhi; Hu, Ping

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of N-(4-hydrophenyl) retinamide (4-HPR), the derivative of retinoic acid, on inhibition of migration, invasion, cell growth, and induction of apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCCs) and malignant melanoma cells. METHODS: 4-HPR was chemically synthesized. Cellular migration and invasion were assayed by Borden chamber experiment. Cell growth was assayed by MTT chromometry. Apoptosis effect was measured using Hoechst 32258 staining and flow cytometry. Gene transfection was performed with lipofectamine. RESULTS: We observed that the migration of HCC and melanoma cells was significantly suppressed by 4-HPR and the migration cells were reduced to 585.03 (control 20127.2, P < 0.05, n = 4) in SMMC 7721-k3 HCC, and to 25425.04 (control 30230.1, P < 0.05, n = 4) in melanoma cells after 6-h incubation with 4-HPR. The invasion through reconstituted basement membrane was also significantly reduced by 4-HPR treatment to 11.23.3 in SMMC 7721-k3 HCC (control 2713.1), and to 24.33.2 in melanoma cells (control 67.510.1, P < 0.05, n = 3). Cell growth, especially in melanoma cells, was also significantly inhibited. Furthermore, 3 mmol/L of 4-HPR induced apoptosis in B16 melanoma cells (37.110.94%) more significantly than all-trans retinoic acid (P < 0.05), but it failed to induce apoptosis in SMMC 7721-k3 HCC. The mechanism for 4-HPR-induced apoptosis was not clear, but we observed that 4-HPR could regulate p27kip1, and overexpression of cerebroside sulfotransferase (CST) diminished the apoptosis induced by 4-HPR in melanoma cells. CONCLUSION: 4-HPR is a potent inhibitor of HCC migration and inducer of melanoma cell apoptosis. CST and p27kip1expression might be associated with 4-HPR-induced apoptosis. PMID:16270382

  18. Inhibitory effect of putranjivain A on allergic inflammation through suppression of mast cell activation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hui-Hun; Park, Seung-Bin; Lee, Soyoung; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Shin, Tae-Yong; Park, Pil-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Ho; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    A great number of people are suffering from allergic inflammatory disease such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and sinusitis. Therefore discovery of drugs for the treatment of these diseases is an important subject in human health. Putranjivain A (PJA), member of ellagitannin, is known to possess beneficial effects including anti-cancer and anti-viral activities. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether PJA modulates the allergic inflammatory reaction and to study its possible mechanisms of action using mast cell-based in vitro and in vivo models. The study was performed in anaphylaxis mouse model and cultured mast cells. PJA inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in immunoglobulin E-stimulated mast cells. PJA reduced this expression by inhibiting nuclear factor (NF)-κB and nuclear factor of activated T cell. The oral administration of PJA reduced systemic and cutaneous anaphylaxis, the release of serum histamine, and the expression of the histamine H{sub 1} receptor. In addition, PJA attenuated the activation of mast cells. PJA inhibited the release of histamine from various types of mast cells by the suppression of intracellular calcium. The inhibitory activity of PJA on the allergic reaction was similar to that of disodium cromoglycate, a known anti-allergic drug. These results suggest that PJA can facilitate the prevention or treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases mediated by mast cells. - Highlights: • PJA reduced the degranulation of mast cells. • PJA inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines. • The effect of PJA on allergic reaction was comparable to the DSCG. • PJA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases.

  19. Postsynaptic blockade of inhibitory postsynaptic currents by plasmin in CA1 pyramidal cells of rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, A; Tanaka, T; Saito, H; Matsuki, N

    1997-06-27

    We have shown previously that plasmin facilitated the generation of long-term potentiation (LTP) in CA1 and dentate region of rat hippocampus. In the present study, we investigated the effects of plasmin on postsynaptic currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons of rat hippocampal slices. Plasmin (100 nM) had no effect on NMDA nor on non-NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents. However, plasmin significantly decreased GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents. This effect of plasmin disappeared when intracellular Ca2+ was strongly chelated with BAPTA. Furthermore, plasmin attenuated the GABA-induced currents in CA1 pyramidal cells. These results suggest that the STP-enhancing effect of plasmin is due to a blockade of postsynaptic GABA(A) responses and that an increase in intracellular Ca2+ by plasmin may be involved in its mechanism.

  20. Inhibitory nature of tiagabine-augmented GABAA receptor-mediated depolarizing responses in hippocampal pyramidal cells.

    PubMed

    Jackson, M F; Esplin, B; Capek, R

    1999-03-01

    Tiagabine is a potent GABA uptake inhibitor with demonstrated anticonvulsant activity. GABA uptake inhibitors are believed to produce their anticonvulsant effects by prolonging the postsynaptic actions of GABA, released during episodes of neuronal hyperexcitability. However, tiagabine has recently been reported to facilitate the depolarizing actions of GABA in the CNS of adult rats following the stimulation of inhibitory pathways at a frequency (100 Hz) intended to mimic interneuronal activation during epileptiform activity. In the present study, we performed extracellular and whole cell recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat hippocampal slices to examine the functional consequences of tiagabine-augmented GABA-mediated depolarizing responses. Orthodromic population spikes (PSs), elicited from the stratum radiatum, were inhibited following the activation of recurrent inhibitory pathways by antidromic conditioning stimulation of the alveus, which consisted of either a single stimulus or a train of stimuli delivered at high-frequency (100 Hz, 200 ms). The inhibition of orthodromic PSs produced by high-frequency conditioning stimulation (HFS), which was always of much greater strength and duration than that produced by a single conditioning stimulus, was greatly enhanced following the bath application of tiagabine (2-100 microM). Thus, in the presence of tiagabine (20 microM), orthodromic PSs, evoked 200 and 800 ms following HFS, were inhibited to 7.8 +/- 2.6% (mean +/- SE) and 34.4 +/- 18.5% of their unconditioned amplitudes compared with only 35.4 +/- 12.7% and 98.8 +/- 12.4% in control. Whole cell recordings revealed that the bath application of tiagabine (20 microM) either caused the appearance or greatly enhanced the amplitude of GABA-mediated depolarizing responses (DR). Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) evoked from stratum radiatum at time points that coincided with the DR were inhibited to below the threshold for action-potential firing

  1. High gravity and high cell density mitigate some of the fermentation inhibitory effects of softwood hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    After steam pretreatment of lignocellulosic substrates the fermentation of the biomass derived sugars to ethanol is typically problematic because of both the generally low sugar concentrations that can be supplied and the presence of naturally occurring and process derived inhibitors. As the majority of the inhibitory materials are usually associated with the hemicellulose rich, water soluble component, this fraction was supplemented with glucose to simulate high solids, un-detoxified substrate to see if a high gravity/high cell consistency approach might better cope with inhibition. Several yeast strains were assessed, with the Tembec T1, T2 and Lallemand LYCC 6469 strains showing the greatest ethanol productivity and yield. The addition of supplemental glucose enabled the faster and quantitatively higher removal of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). High cell density could provide effective fermentation at high sugar concentrations while enhancing inhibitor reduction. A 77% ethanol yield could be achieved using strain LYCC 6469 after 48 h at high cell density. It was apparent that a high cell density approach improved ethanol production by all of the evaluated yeast strains. PMID:23410516

  2. Targeting a c-Myc inhibitory polypeptide to specific intracellular compartments using cell penetrating peptides.

    PubMed

    Bidwell, Gene L; Davis, Aisha N; Raucher, Drazen

    2009-04-01

    The therapeutic index of current anti-cancer chemotherapeutics can be improved by two major mechanisms: 1) developing drugs which are specifically toxic to the cancer cells and 2) developing methods to deliver drugs to the tumor site. In an attempt to combine these approaches, we developed a thermally responsive polypeptide inhibitor of c-Myc. This polypeptide is based on the thermally responsive Elastin-like polypeptide (ELP). When injected systemically, ELP-fused drugs will aggregate and accumulate at the tumor site where local hyperthermia is applied. ELP was fused to a peptide which blocks c-Myc/Max dimerization (H1), thereby inhibiting transcription activation by c-Myc (ELP-H1). In this study, the cellular uptake, intracellular distribution, and potency of the Pen, Tat and Bac cell penetrating peptides fused to ELP-H1 were evaluated. While Pen-ELP-H1 and Tat-ELP-H1 were localized in the cytoplasm, Bac-ELP-H1 localized to the nucleus in a subset of the cells and was the most potent inhibitor of MCF-7 cell proliferation. This data demonstrates that ELP can be targeted to the desired cellular compartment simply by choice of the CPP used, resulting in a more potent nuclear targeted c-Myc inhibitory polypeptide which may be beneficial in cancer therapy.

  3. Inhibitory effects of tetradecanoylphorbol acetate and diacylglycerol on erythropoietin production in human renal carcinoma cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Hagiwara, Masamichi; Nagakura, Kazuhiko; Ueno, Munehisa; Fisher, J.W. )

    1987-11-01

    A human renal carcinoma from a patient with an erythrocytosis, serially transplanted into athymic nude mice, was grown in primary monolayer cell cultures. After reaching confluency the cultured cells formed multicellular hemicysts (domes) which became more abundant as the cultures approached saturation density. Erythropoietin (Ep) production by this renal carcinoma in culture was only slightly increased at the time of semiconfluency but showed a marked increase in Ep levels in the culture medium after the cultures reached confluency, in parallel with an increase in dome formation. The phorbol ester tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) showed a significant dose-related inhibitory effect on Ep production and dome formation in the renal carcinoma cell cultures, suggesting an important role of protein kinase C, the only known receptor for TPA, in inhibiting the expression of differentiated phenotypes in the renal carcinoma cells. These studies suggest a role of the inositol-lipid second messenger path and protein kinase C in the regulation of Ep production.

  4. Divergent effects of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factors on a human endometrial carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Korc, M; Haussler, C A; Trookman, N S

    1987-09-15

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), at concentrations ranging from 0.83 to 4.98 nM, markedly inhibited the proliferation of RL95-2 cells that were seeded at low plating densities (4.7 X 10(3) cells/cm2). Under the same incubation conditions, 16.6 pM EGF enhanced cell proliferation. At high plating densities (2.5 X 10(4) cells/cm2) 0.83 nM EGF also stimulated cell proliferation. Both the inhibitory and stimulatory effects of EGF were mimicked by transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha). However, the inhibitory action of TGF-alpha was always greater that of EGF. Binding studies with 125I-labeled TGF-alpha indicated that maximal cell surface binding of TGF-alpha occurred at 15 min, whereas maximal internalization occurred at 45 min. Both cell surface and internalized radioactivity declined sharply thereafter. Analysis of radioactivity released into the incubation medium during pulse-chase experiments indicated that RL95-2 cells extensively degraded both TGF-alpha and EGF. The lysosomotropic compound methylamine arrested the generation of low-molecular-weight degradation products of EGF, but not of TGF-alpha. In contrast to EGF and TGF-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) inhibited the proliferation of RL95-2 cells that were seeded at either low or high plating densities. Further, transforming growth factor-beta induced the appearance of large cuboidal cells that were readily distinguished from cells treated with either EGF or TGF-alpha. These findings point to complex regulatory actions of growth factors on the proliferation of RL95-2 cells and suggest that the processing of TGF-alpha following EGF receptor activation is distinct from the processing of EGF. PMID:3497713

  5. Cell surface syndecan-1 contributes to binding and function of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) on epithelial tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Pasqualon, Tobias; Lue, Hongqi; Groening, Sabine; Pruessmeyer, Jessica; Jahr, Holger; Denecke, Bernd; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Ludwig, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Surface expressed proteoglycans mediate the binding of cytokines and chemokines to the cell surface and promote migration of various tumor cell types including epithelial tumor cells. We here demonstrate that binding of the chemokine-like inflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) to epithelial lung and breast tumor cell lines A549 and MDA-MB231 is sensitive to enzymatic digestion of heparan sulphate chains and competitive inhibition with heparin. Moreover, MIF interaction with heparin was confirmed by chromatography and a structural comparison indicated a possible heparin binding site. These results suggested that proteoglycans carrying heparan sulphate chains are involved in MIF binding. Using shRNA-mediated gene silencing, we identified syndecan-1 as the predominant proteoglycan required for the interaction with MIF. MIF binding was decreased by induction of proteolytic shedding of syndecan-1, which could be prevented by inhibition of the metalloproteinases involved in this process. Finally, MIF induced the chemotactic migration of A549 cells, wound closure and invasion into matrigel without affecting cell proliferation. These MIF-induced responses were abrogated by heparin or by silencing of syndecan-1. Thus, our study indicates that syndecan-1 on epithelial tumor cells promotes MIF binding and MIF-mediated cell migration. This may represent a relevant mechanism through which MIF enhances tumor cell motility and metastasis.

  6. Growth inhibitory effects on fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda of some limonoids isolated from Cedrela spp. (Meliaceae).

    PubMed

    Céspedes, C L; Calderón, J S; Lina, L; Aranda, E

    2000-05-01

    Dichloromethane extracts of Cedrela salvadorensis and Cedrela dugessi afforded a photogedunin epimeric mixture, gedunin and cedrelanolide. These compounds and the photogedunin epimeric acetates 3 and 4 at the 23-OH position were evaluated against Spodoptera frugiperda. Toosendanin, isolated from Melia azedarach, was used as a positive control. When tested for activity on neonate larvae into the no-choice bioassays, gedunin, photogedunin epimeric mixture, and photogedunin acetates mixture caused significant larval mortality with LC(50) of 39.0, 10.0, and 8.0 ppm at 7 days, respectively, as well as growth reduction. All the compounds tested inhibited larval growth, compared to the control, in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, it was possible to observe significant reduced pupal weights and adult emergence. All the tested compounds except cedrelanolide showed comparable activity to that of toosendanin. PMID:10820113

  7. The inhibitory cytokine IL-35 contributes to regulatory T-cell function.

    PubMed

    Collison, Lauren W; Workman, Creg J; Kuo, Timothy T; Boyd, Kelli; Wang, Yao; Vignali, Kate M; Cross, Richard; Sehy, David; Blumberg, Richard S; Vignali, Dario A A

    2007-11-22

    Regulatory T (T(reg)) cells are a critical sub-population of CD4+ T cells that are essential for maintaining self tolerance and preventing autoimmunity, for limiting chronic inflammatory diseases, such as asthma and inflammatory bowel disease, and for regulating homeostatic lymphocyte expansion. However, they also suppress natural immune responses to parasites and viruses as well as anti-tumour immunity induced by therapeutic vaccines. Although the manipulation of T(reg) function is an important goal of immunotherapy, the molecules that mediate their suppressive activity remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that Epstein-Barr-virus-induced gene 3 (Ebi3, which encodes IL-27beta) and interleukin-12 alpha (Il12a, which encodes IL-12alpha/p35) are highly expressed by mouse Foxp3+ (forkhead box P3) T(reg) cells but not by resting or activated effector CD4+ T (T(eff)) cells, and that an Ebi3-IL-12alpha heterodimer is constitutively secreted by T(reg) but not T(eff) cells. Both Ebi3 and Il12a messenger RNA are markedly upregulated in T(reg) cells co-cultured with T(eff) cells, thereby boosting Ebi3 and IL-12alpha production in trans. T(reg)-cell restriction of this cytokine occurs because Ebi3 is a downstream target of Foxp3, a transcription factor that is required for T(reg)-cell development and function. Ebi3-/- and Il12a-/- T(reg) cells have significantly reduced regulatory activity in vitro and fail to control homeostatic proliferation and to cure inflammatory bowel disease in vivo. Because these phenotypic characteristics are distinct from those of other IL-12 family members, this novel Ebi3-IL-12alpha heterodimeric cytokine has been designated interleukin-35 (IL-35). Ectopic expression of IL-35 confers regulatory activity on naive T cells, whereas recombinant IL-35 suppresses T-cell proliferation. Taken together, these data identify IL-35 as a novel inhibitory cytokine that may be specifically produced by T(reg) cells and is required for maximal suppressive

  8. Inhibitory effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor on DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis and its derived carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Toyohara, Yukiyo; Hashitani, Susumu; Kishimoto, Hiromitsu; Noguchi, Kazuma; Yamamoto, Nobuto; Urade, Masahiro

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the inhibitory effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) on carcinogenesis and tumor growth, using a 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model, as well as the cytocidal effect of activated macrophages against HCPC-1, a cell line established from DMBA-induced cheek pouch carcinoma. DMBA application induced squamous cell carcinoma in all 15 hamsters of the control group at approximately 10 weeks, and all 15 hamsters died of tumor burden within 20 weeks. By contrast, 2 out of the 14 hamsters with GcMAF administration did not develop tumors and the remaining 12 hamsters showed a significant delay of tumor development for approximately 3.5 weeks. The growth of tumors formed was significantly suppressed and none of the hamsters died within the 20 weeks during which they were observed. When GcMAF administration was stopped at the 13th week of the experiment in 4 out of the 14 hamsters in the GcMAF-treated group, tumor growth was promoted, but none of the mice died within the 20-week period. On the other hand, when GcMAF administration was commenced after the 13th week in 5 out of the 15 hamsters in the control group, tumor growth was slightly suppressed and all 15 hamsters died of tumor burden. However, the mean survival time was significantly extended. GcMAF treatment activated peritoneal macrophages in vitro and in vivo, and these activated macrophages exhibited a marked cytocidal effect on HCPC-1 cells. Furthermore, the cytocidal effect of activated macrophages was enhanced by the addition of tumor-bearing hamster serum. These findings indicated that GcMAF possesses an inhibitory effect on tumor development and growth in a DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model. PMID:22848250

  9. Inhibitory effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage activating factor on DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis and its derived carcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    TOYOHARA, YUKIYO; HASHITANI, SUSUMU; KISHIMOTO, HIROMITSU; NOGUCHI, KAZUMA; YAMAMOTO, NOBUTO; URADE, MASAHIRO

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the inhibitory effect of vitamin D-binding protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) on carcinogenesis and tumor growth, using a 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model, as well as the cytocidal effect of activated macrophages against HCPC-1, a cell line established from DMBA-induced cheek pouch carcinoma. DMBA application induced squamous cell carcinoma in all 15 hamsters of the control group at approximately 10 weeks, and all 15 hamsters died of tumor burden within 20 weeks. By contrast, 2 out of the 14 hamsters with GcMAF administration did not develop tumors and the remaining 12 hamsters showed a significant delay of tumor development for approximately 3.5 weeks. The growth of tumors formed was significantly suppressed and none of the hamsters died within the 20 weeks during which they were observed. When GcMAF administration was stopped at the 13th week of the experiment in 4 out of the 14 hamsters in the GcMAF-treated group, tumor growth was promoted, but none of the mice died within the 20-week period. On the other hand, when GcMAF administration was commenced after the 13th week in 5 out of the 15 hamsters in the control group, tumor growth was slightly suppressed and all 15 hamsters died of tumor burden. However, the mean survival time was significantly extended. GcMAF treatment activated peritoneal macrophages in vitro and in vivo, and these activated macrophages exhibited a marked cytocidal effect on HCPC-1 cells. Furthermore, the cytocidal effect of activated macrophages was enhanced by the addition of tumor-bearing hamster serum. These findings indicated that GcMAF possesses an inhibitory effect on tumor development and growth in a DMBA-induced hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model. PMID:22848250

  10. New constituents from Crinum latifolium with inhibitory effects against tube-like formation of human umbilical venous endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nam, Nguyen-Hai; Kim, Yong; You, Young-Jae; Hong, Dong-Ho; Kim, Hwan-Mook; Ahn, Byung-Zun

    2004-12-01

    Six compounds (1-6) were isolated from the methanol extract of Crinum latifolium by bioassay-guided separation. Among the six isolates, compounds 2 and 6 were new metabolites. Their structures were established as 4-senecioyloxymethyl-3,4-dimethoxycoumarin (2) and 5,6,3'-trihydroxy-7,8,4'-trimethoxyflavone (6) based on spectroscopic analyses. Compound 2 was found to be strongly inhibitory against the in vitro tube-like formation of human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) while manifesting no cytotoxicity in tumor cell lines (B16F10, HCT116). Significant inhibitory activity (inhibition percentage, 53.5%) was still observed at concentrations as low as 1 microg/mL. Compound 6 showed a modest inhibitory effect on the tube-like formation of HUVECs. Other compounds, including cycloartenol (1), 4',7-dihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavan (3), 4',7-dihydroxyflavan (4), and 2',4',7-trihydroxydihydrochalcone (5) were found to be nearly inactive.

  11. Inhibitory effects of Brazilin on the vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration induced by PDGF-BB.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Li, Li; Wu, Yu-Jie; Yan, Yu; Xu, Xiao-Na; Wang, Shou-Bao; Yuan, Tian-Yi; Fang, Lian-Hua; Du, Guan-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration contribute to the pathogenesis of vascular diseases including atherosclerosis and restenosis. Brazilin isolated from the heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan L. has been reported to exhibit various biological activities, such as anti-platelet aggregation, anti-inflammation, vasorelaxation and pro-apoptosis. However, the functional effects of Brazilin on VSMCs remain unexplored. The present study investigated the potential effects of Brazilin on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB induced VSMC proliferation and migration as well as the underlying mechanism of action. VSMC proliferation and migration were measured by Crystal Violet Staining, wound-healing and Boyden chamber assays, respectively. Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. Enzymatic action of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was carried out by gelatin zymography. Expression of adhesion molecules, cell cycle regulatory proteins, the phosphorylated levels of PDGF receptor β (PDGF-Rβ), Src, extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt were tested by immunoblotting. The present study demonstrated that pretreatment with Brazilin dose-dependently inhibited PDGF-BB stimulated VSMC proliferation and migration, which were associated with a cell-cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase, a reduction in the adhesion molecule expression and MMP-9 activation in VSMCs. Furthermore, the increase in PDGF-Rβ, Src, ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation induced by PDGF-BB were suppressed by Brazilin. These findings indicate that Brazilin inhibits PDGF-BB induced VSMC proliferation and migration, and the inhibitory effects of Brazilin may be associated with the blockade of PDGF-Rβ - ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways. In conclusion, the present study implicates that Brazilin may be useful as an anti-proliferative agent for the treatment of vascular diseases. PMID:24228601

  12. A growth inhibitory model with SO(x) influenced effective growth rate for estimation of algal biomass concentration under flue gas atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Ronda, Srinivasa Reddy; Kethineni, Chandrika; Parupudi, Lakshmi Chandrika Pavani; Thunuguntla, Venkata Bala Sai Chaitanya; Vemula, Sandeep; Settaluri, Vijaya Saradhi; Allu, Prasada Rao; Grande, Suresh Kumar; Sharma, Suraj; Kandala, Chari Venkatakrishna

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical model for the prediction of biomass concentration under rice husk flue gas emission has been developed. The growth inhibitory model (GIM) considers the CO2 mass transfer rate, the critical SOx concentration and its role in pH-based inter-conversion of bicarbonate. The calibration and subsequent validation of the growth profile of Nannochloropsis limnetica at 2% and 10% (v/v) CO2 showed that the predicted values were consistent with the measured values, with r(2) being 0.96 and 0.98, respectively, and p<0.001 in both cases. The constants used in the GIM for the prediction of biomass have been justified using sensitivity analysis. GIM applicability was defined as ±30% of the calibrated flow rate (3.0 L min(-1)). This growth model can be applied to predict algal growth in photo-bioreactors treated with flue gas in the generation of biomass feed stock for biofuel production. PMID:24300846

  13. Polydatin inhibits growth of lung cancer cells by inducing apoptosis and causing cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yusong; Zhuang, Zhixiang; Meng, Qinghui; Jiao, Yang; Xu, Jiaying; Fan, Saijun

    2014-01-01

    Polydatin (PD), a small natural compound from Polygonum cuspidatum, has a number of biological functions. However, the anticancer activity of PD has been poorly investigated. In the present study, thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide assay was used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of PD on cell growth. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were investigated by flow cytometry. In addition, the expression of several proteins associated with apoptosis and cell cycle were analyzed by western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that PD significantly inhibits the proliferation of A549 and NCI-H1975 lung cancer cell lines and causes dose-dependent apoptosis. Cell cycle analysis revealed that PD induces S phase cell cycle arrest. Western blot analysis showed that the expression of Bcl-2 decreased as that of Bax increased, and the expression of cyclin D1 was also suppressed. The results suggest that PD has potential therapeutic applications in the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:24348867

  14. Inhibitory effect of benzene metabolites on nuclear DNA synthesis in bone marrow cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.W.; Johnson, J.T.; Garner, C.D. )

    1989-01-01

    Effects of endogenously produced and exogenously added benzene metabolites on the nuclear DNA synthetic activity were investigated using a culture system of mouse bone marrow cells. Effects of the metabolites were evaluated by a 30-min incorporation of ({sup 3}H)thymidine into DNA following a 30-min interaction with the cells in McCoy's 5a medium with 10% fetal calf serum. Phenol and muconic acid did not inhibit nuclear DNA synthesis. However, catechol, 1,2,4-benzenetriol, hydroquinone, and p-benzoquinone were able to inhibit 52, 64, 79, and 98% of the nuclear DNA synthetic activity, respectively, at 24 {mu}M. In a cell-free DNA synthetic system, catechol and hydroquinone did not inhibit the incorporation of ({sup 3}H)thymidine triphosphate into DNA up to 24 {mu}M but 1,2,4-benzenetriol and p-benzoquinone did. The effect of the latter two benzene metabolites was completely blocked in the presence of 1,4-dithiothreitol (1 mM) in the cell-free assay system. Furthermore, when DNA polymerase {alpha}, which requires a sulfhydryl (SH) group as an active site, was replaced by DNA polymerase 1, which does not require an SH group for its catalytic activity, p-benzoquinone and 1,2,4-benzenetriol were unable to inhibit DNA synthesis. Thus, the data imply the p-benzoquinone and 1,2,4-benzenetriol inhibited DNA polymerase {alpha}, consequently resulting in inhibition of DNA synthesis in both cellular and cell-free DNA synthetic systems. The present study identifies catechol, hydroquinone, p-benzoquinone, and 1,2,4-benzenetriol as toxic benzene metabolites in bone marrow cells and also suggests that their inhibitory action on DNA synthesis is mediated by mechanism(s) other than that involving DNA damage as a primary cause.

  15. INHIBITORY EFFECT OF TETRAMETHYLPYRAZINE ON HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA: POSSIBLE ROLE OF APOPTOSIS AND CELL CYCLE ARREST.

    PubMed

    Cao, J; Miao, Q; Zhang, J; Miao, S; Bi, L; Zhang, S; Yang, Q; Zhou, X; Zhang, M; Xie, Y; Wang, S

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer. An important approach to control HCC is chemoprevention. This study aims at investigating the antitumor effect of Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP). Rats were injected with N-Nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) to establish HCC. Tumor development was observed. Liver function was evaluated. Apoptosis and cell cycle arrest-related makers and signaling cascades were determined by Western blot, RT-PCR and flow cytometric analysis. The administration of TMP could significantly inhibit tumor development in DEN-induced HCC rats, shown by reduced incidence of tumor, decreased number of tumor nodules and reduced maximal size of tumor. DEN-induced increase of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly inhibited by TMP. TMP exhibited inhibitory effect on HCC through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in rats. TMP induced apoptosis through increasing Bax, decreasing Bcl-2, increasing the release of cytochrome c, and activating caspase, which consisted of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. TMP induced G2/M cell cycle arrest through down-regulation of cyclin B1/cdc2. In addition, inhibition of Akt and ERK signaling and the antioxidant activities of TMP may also contribute to its antitumor effect. These data provide new insight into the mechanisms underlying the antitumor effect of TMP. PMID:26122217

  16. Novel inhibitors of macrophage migration inhibitory factor prevent cytokine-induced beta cell death.

    PubMed

    Vujicic, Milica; Nikolic, Ivana; Krajnovic, Tamara; Cheng, Kai-Fan; VanPatten, Sonya; He, Mingzhu; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Stojanovic, Ivana; Al-Abed, Yousef; Saksida, Tamara

    2014-10-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is a multifunctional cytokine involved in the regulation of immune processes and also in apoptosis induction. Elevated MIF expression is detrimental for insulin-producing beta cells and MIF inhibition protected beta cells from several cytotoxic insults such as inflammatory cytokines, high fatty acids or high glucose concentrations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate two newly synthesized small molecule MIF inhibitors (K664-1 and K647-1) and to compare them with previously established effects of the prototypical MIF inhibitor, ISO-1. Our results indicate that K664-1 and K647-1 are 160- and 40-fold more effective in inhibition of MIF׳s tautomerase activity than ISO-1. Also, new inhibitors confer beta cell protection from cytokine-triggered apoptosis at significantly lower concentrations than ISO-1. Although all three MIF inhibitors inhibit caspase 3 activity, K664-1 and K647-1 suppress pro-apoptotic BAX protein expression and up-regulate anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 mRNA. Finally, all three MIF inhibitors operate through blockade of nitric oxide production stimulated by cytokines. In conclusion, two novel MIF inhibitors are more potent than ISO-1 and operate through inhibition of the mitochondria-related apoptotic pathway. We propose that these compounds represent a unique class of anti-MIF antagonists that should be further tested for therapeutic use.

  17. PAT4 is abundantly expressed in excitatory and inhibitory neurons as well as epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Roshanbin, Sahar; Hellsten, Sofie V; Tafreshiha, Atieh; Zhu, Yinan; Raine, Amanda; Fredriksson, Robert

    2014-04-01

    PAT4, the fourth member of the SLC36/proton dependent amino acid transporter (PAT) family, is a high-affinity, low capacity electroneutral transporter of neutral amino acids like proline and tryptophan. It has also been associated with the function of mTORC1, a complex in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. We performed in situ hybridization and immunohistological analysis to determine the expression profile of PAT4, as well as an RT-PCR study on tissue from mice exposed to leucine. We performed a phylogenetic analysis to determine the evolutionary origin of PAT4. The in situ hybridization and the immunohistochemistry on mouse brain sections and hypothalamic cells showed abundant PAT4 expression in the mouse brain intracellularly in both inhibitory and excitatory neurons, partially co-localizing with lysosomal markers and epithelial cells lining the ventricles. Its location in epithelial cells around the ventricles indicates a transport of substrates across the blood brain barrier. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PAT4 belongs to an evolutionary old family most likely predating animals, and PAT4 is the oldest member of that family. PMID:24530433

  18. Inhibitory effects of terpene alcohols and aldehydes on growth of green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    SciTech Connect

    Ikawa, Miyoshi; Mosley, S.P.; Barbero, L.J. )

    1992-10-01

    The growth of the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa was inhibited by terpene alcohols and the terpene aldehyde citral. The strongest activity was shown by citral. Nerol, geraniol, and citronellol also showed pronounced activity. Strong inhibition was linked to acyclic terpenes containing a primary alcohol or aldehyde function. Inhibition appeared to be taking place through the vapor phase rather than by diffusion through the agar medium from the terpene-treated paper disks used in the system. Inhibition through agar diffusion was shown by certain aged samples of terpene hydrocarbons but not by recently purchased samples.

  19. Learning-related feedforward inhibitory connectivity growth required for memory precision.

    PubMed

    Ruediger, Sarah; Vittori, Claudia; Bednarek, Ewa; Genoud, Christel; Strata, Piergiorgio; Sacchetti, Benedetto; Caroni, Pico

    2011-05-26

    In the adult brain, new synapses are formed and pre-existing ones are lost, but the function of this structural plasticity has remained unclear. Learning of new skills is correlated with formation of new synapses. These may directly encode new memories, but they may also have more general roles in memory encoding and retrieval processes. Here we investigated how mossy fibre terminal complexes at the entry of hippocampal and cerebellar circuits rearrange upon learning in mice, and what is the functional role of the rearrangements. We show that one-trial and incremental learning lead to robust, circuit-specific, long-lasting and reversible increases in the numbers of filopodial synapses onto fast-spiking interneurons that trigger feedforward inhibition. The increase in feedforward inhibition connectivity involved a majority of the presynaptic terminals, restricted the numbers of c-Fos-expressing postsynaptic neurons at memory retrieval, and correlated temporally with the quality of the memory. We then show that for contextual fear conditioning and Morris water maze learning, increased feedforward inhibition connectivity by hippocampal mossy fibres has a critical role for the precision of the memory and the learned behaviour. In the absence of mossy fibre long-term potentiation in Rab3a(-/-) mice, c-Fos ensemble reorganization and feedforward inhibition growth were both absent in CA3 upon learning, and the memory was imprecise. By contrast, in the absence of adducin 2 (Add2; also known as β-adducin) c-Fos reorganization was normal, but feedforward inhibition growth was abolished. In parallel, c-Fos ensembles in CA3 were greatly enlarged, and the memory was imprecise. Feedforward inhibition growth and memory precision were both rescued by re-expression of Add2 specifically in hippocampal mossy fibres. These results establish a causal relationship between learning-related increases in the numbers of defined synapses and the precision of learning and memory in the adult

  20. Inhibitory effect of cinnamon powder on pathogen growth in laboratory media and oriental-style rice cakes (sulgidduk).

    PubMed

    Hong, Yu-Jin; Bae, Young-Min; Moon, Bokyung; Lee, Sun-Young

    2013-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the use of natural plant materials as alternative food preservatives. We examined the antimicrobial effects of natural plant materials used as additives against foodborne pathogens in laboratory media and Sulgidduk, oriental-style rice cakes. Cinnamon, mugwort, and garlic powder solutions (3%) were tested for their antimicrobial activities against pathogens in laboratory media. Sulgidduk prepared with different amounts of cinnamon powder (1, 3, and 6%) was inoculated with a Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus cereus cocktail. The samples were air or vacuum packaged and stored at 22 ± 1°C for 72 h, and microbial growth was determined. Cinnamon powder showed more inhibitory properties against pathogens such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, S. aureus, and B. cereus than did mugwort or garlic powder. The populations of S. aureus and B. cereus in Sulgidduk containing cinnamon powder were significantly lower than in the control during storage time. Different packaging methods did not result in a significant difference in pathogen growth. In a sensory evaluation, Sulgidduk containing 1 and 3% cinnamon powder did not significantly differ from the control sample in any of the attributes tested other than flavor. These results indicate that natural plant materials such as cinnamon powder could be used as food additives to improve the microbiological stability of rice cakes.

  1. Inhibitory Effect of Furanic and Phenolic Compounds on Exoelectrogenesis in a Microbial Electrolysis Cell Bioanode

    DOE PAGES

    Zeng, Xiaofei; Borole, Abhijeet P.; Pavlostathis, Spyros G.

    2016-09-09

    Furanic and phenolic compounds are 20 lignocellulose-derived compounds known to inhibit to H2- and ethanol- producing microorganisms in dark fermentation. Bioelectrochemical conversion of furanic and phenolic compounds to electricity or H2 has recently been demonstrated as a productive method to use these compounds. However, potential inhibitory effect of furanic and phenolic compounds on exoelectrogenesis in bioelectrochemical systems is not well understood. This study systematically investigated the inhibitory effect of furfural (FF), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), syringic acid (SA), vanillic acid (VA), and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA) on exoelectrogenesis in the bioanode of a microbial electrolysis cell. A mixture of these five compounds atmore » an increasing initial total concentration from 0.8 to 8.0 g/L resulted in current decrease up to 91%. The observed inhibition primarily affected exoelectrogenesis, instead of non-exoelectrogenic biotransformation pathways (e.g., fermentation) of the five compounds. Furthermore, the parent compounds at a high concentration, as opposed to their biotransformation products, were responsible for the observed inhibition. Tests with individual compounds show that all five parent compounds contributed to the observed inhibition by the mixture. The IC50 (concentration resulting in 50% current decrease) was estimated as 2.7 g/L for FF, 3.0 g/L for HMF, 1.9 g/L for SA, 2.1 g/L for VA and 2.0 g/L for HBA. Nevertheless, these compounds below their non-inhibitory concentrations jointly resulted in significant inhibition as a mixture. Catechol and phenol, which were persistent biotransformation products of the mixture, inhibited exoelectrogens at high concentrations, but to a lesser extent than the parent compounds. Recovery of exoelectrogenesis from inhibition by all compounds was observed, except for catechol, which resulted in irreversible inhibition. The reversibility of inhibition, as well as the observed difference in recovery

  2. Epitaxial silicon growth for solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daiello, R. V.; Robinson, P. H.; Richman, D.

    1978-01-01

    Growth and fabrication procedures for the baseline solar cells are described along with measured cell parameters, and the results. Reproducibility of these results was established and the direction to be taken for higher efficiency is identified.

  3. Role of mast cells in tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Conti, Pio; Castellani, Maria L; Kempuraj, Durasamy; Salini, Vincenzo; Vecchiet, Jacopo; Tetè, Stefano; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Perrella, Alessandro; De Lutiis, Maria Anna; Tagen, Michael; Theoharides, Theoharis C

    2007-01-01

    The growth of malignant tumors is determined in large part by the proliferative capacity of the tumor cells. Clinical observations and animal experiments have established that tumor cells elicit immune responses. Histopathologic studies show that many tumors are surrounded by mononuclear cell and mast cell infiltrates. Mast cells are ubiquitous in the body and are critical for allergic reactions. Increasing evidence indicates that mast cells secrete proinflammatory cytokines and are involved in neuro-inflammatory processes and cancer. Mast cells accumulate in the stroma surrounding certain tumors, especially mammary adenocarcinoma, and the molecules they secrete can benefit the tumor. However, mast cells can also increase at the site of tumor growth and participate in tumor rejection. Mast cells may be recruited by tumor-derived chemoattractants and selectively secrete molecules such as growth factors, histamine, heparin, VEGF, and IL-8, as well as proteases that permit the formation of new blood vessels and metastases. Tumor mast cell intersections play regulatory and modulatory roles affecting various aspects of tumor growth. Discovery of these new roles of mast cells further complicates the understanding of tumor growth. This review focuses on the strategic importance of mast cells to the progression of tumors, and proposes a revised immune effector mechanism of mast cell involvement in tumor growth. PMID:18000287

  4. [Inhibitory interactions in neuronal networks including cells of the auditory cortex and the medial geniculate body].

    PubMed

    Sil'kis, I G

    1994-01-01

    Cross-correlation method was used for revealing effective inhibitory interactions in neural networks containing simultaneously recorded neurons from different loci of auditory cortex (A1) and medial geniculate body (MGB). It was shown that (i) inhibitory connections were "divergent", i. e., one neuron in A1 (MGB) depressed activity of neurons in different loci of A1 and MGB simultaneously; (ii) inputs to inhibitory neuron were "convergent", i.e., one neuron in A1 (MGB) was excited by neurons from different loci of A1 and MGB simultaneously. There were inhibitory neurons which selectively depressed activity of only one neighbouring neuron. The results allow to suggest that the same inhibitory neuron may be involved in afferent and feedback inhibition. We supposed that the principles of organization of inhibitory connections in thalamo-cortical networks underlie the observed exceptions to mapping (tonotopic) principle of organization of receptive fields of A1 and MGB. PMID:7879428

  5. Luteolin and its inhibitory effect on tumor growth in systemic malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, Shailendra

    2013-04-01

    Lamy et al have provided interesting data in their recent article in your esteemed journal. Luteolin augments apoptosis in a number of systemic malignancies. Luteolin reduces tumor growth in breast carcinomas. Luteolin mediates this effect by up-regulating the expression of Bax and down-regulating the expression of Bcl-xL. EGFR-induced MAPK activation is also attenuated. As a result there is increased G2/ M phase arrest. These effects have been seen both in vivo as well as in vitro. It also reduces ERα expression and causes inhibition of IGF-1 mediated PI3K–Akt pathway. Luteolin also activates p38 resulting in nuclear translocation of the apoptosis-inducing factor. Simultaneously it also activates ERK. As a result there is increased intra-tumoral apoptosis which is caspase dependent as well as caspase independent. - Highlights: ► Luteolin and tumor growth in breast carcinomas. ► Luteolin and pulmonary cancer. ► Luteolin and colon cancer.

  6. Cell Assisted Cell Growth Experiments with Dictyostelium discoideum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Albert; Ip, Wui; Franck, Carl

    2007-03-01

    In eukaryotic cell culture, it is routinely recommended to keep the cells above a minimum cell density to maintain vigorous growth. We are investigating the basis for this prescription by viewing cell growth as a social behavior facilitated by cell-cell communication. Employing Dictyostelium discoideum, we find good evidence for a slow-fast transition in the cell growth rate vs. density in well mixed, 25 ml, cell cultures. We also use low height microfluidic chambers (four orders of magnitude smaller in volume) to find similar behavior even though the system is not well mixed and the cells are confined to substrates. A preliminary measurement at a flow rate that should strongly perturb cell-cell communication by means of diffusing signal molecules suggests that cell communication essential for growth is not accomplished by such means but possibly via direct contacts.

  7. Stochastic Gompertz model of tumour cell growth.

    PubMed

    Lo, C F

    2007-09-21

    In this communication, based upon the deterministic Gompertz law of cell growth, a stochastic model in tumour growth is proposed. This model takes account of both cell fission and mortality too. The corresponding density function of the size of the tumour cells obeys a functional Fokker--Planck equation which can be solved analytically. It is found that the density function exhibits an interesting "multi-peak" structure generated by cell fission as time evolves. Within this framework the action of therapy is also examined by simply incorporating a therapy term into the deterministic cell growth term.

  8. 15-Deoxy-{delta}{sup 12,14}-Prostaglandin J{sub 2} regulates leukemia inhibitory factor signaling through JAK-STAT pathway in mouse embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rajasingh, Johnson; Bright, John J. . E-mail: jbright1@clarian.org

    2006-08-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are genetically normal, pluripotent cells, capable of self-renewal and differentiation into all cell lineages. While leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) maintains pluripotency in mouse ES cells, retinoic acid and other nuclear hormones induce neuro-glial differentiation in mouse and human ES cells in culture. Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-dependent nuclear receptor transcription factors that regulate cell growth and differentiation in many cell types. However, the role of PPARs in the regulation of ES cell growth and differentiation is not known. In this study, we show that LIF induces proliferation and self-renewal of mouse D3-ES cells in culture. However, treatment with 15-Deoxy-{delta}{sup 12,14}-Prostaglandin J{sub 2} (15d-PGJ2), a natural ligand for PPAR{gamma}, or all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) results in a dose-dependent decrease in proliferation and self-renewal in D3-ES cells. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analyses showed that LIF induces tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK1, TYK2 and STAT3 in 30 min and treatment with 15d-PGJ2 or ATRA results in a dose-dependent decrease in LIF-induced phosphorylation of JAK1 and STAT3 in D3-ES cells. However, treatment of D3-ES cells with Ciglitazone or 15d-PGJ2 for 48 h in culture resulted in a dose-dependent increase in PPAR{gamma} protein expression. These results suggest that PPAR{gamma} agonists regulate LIF signaling through JAK-STAT pathway leading to growth and self-renewal of ES cells.

  9. Inhibitory effect of chlorine and ultraviolet radiation on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in chicken breast and development of predictive growth models.

    PubMed

    Oh, S R; Kang, I; Oh, M H; Ha, S D

    2014-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of chlorine (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) was investigated with and without UV radiation (300 mW·s/cm(2)) for the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in chicken breast meat. Using a polynomial model, predictive growth models were also developed as a function of chlorine concentration, UV exposure, and storage temperature (4, 10, and 15°C). A maximum L. monocytogenes reduction (0.8 log cfu, cfu/g) was obtained when combining chlorine at 200 mg/kg and UV at 300 mW·s/cm(2), and a maximum synergistic effect (0.4 log cfu/g) was observed when using chlorine at 100 mg/kg and UV at 300 mW·s/cm(2). Primary models developed for specific growth rate and lag time showed a good fitness (R(2) > 0.91), as determined by the reparameterized Gompertz equation. Secondary polynomial models were obtained using nonlinear regression analysis. The developed models were validated with mean square error, bias factor, and accuracy factor, which were 0.0003, 0.96, and 1.11, respectively, for specific growth rate and 7.69, 0.99, and 1.04, respectively, for lag time. The treatment of chlorine and UV did not change the color and texture of chicken breast after 7 d of storage at 4°C. As a result, the combination of chlorine at 100 mg/kg and UV at 300 mW·s/cm(2) appears to an effective method into inhibit L. monocytogenes growth in broiler carcasses with no negative effects on color and textural quality. Based on the validation results, the predictive models can be used to accurately predict L. monocytogenes growth in chicken breast.

  10. Expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor by osteoblastic cells: protection against cadmium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lizotte, Jérôme; Abed, Elie; Signor, Céline; Malu, Diane Tshikudi; Cuevas, Jorge; Kevorkova, Olha; Sanchez-Dardon, Jaime; Satoskar, Abhay; Scorza, Tatiana; Jumarie, Catherine; Moreau, Robert

    2012-12-17

    Exposition to cadmium (Cd) has been linked to bone metabolism alterations and occurrence of osteoporosis. Despite its known renal toxicity which indirectly disrupts bone metabolism through impairment of vitamin D synthesis, increasing evidence argues for the direct action of Cd on bone-forming osteoblasts. Indeed, accumulation of Cd in osteoblasts and metal-induced cell death has been documented but little is known about the intracellular mechanisms of protection against this stress. In this work, we investigated the protection afforded by thiol-containing proteins against Cd cytotoxicity in MC3T3 osteoblastic cells. Viability of MC3T3 cells was reduced by Cd in a concentration-dependent manner with a LC(50) of 7.6±1.1μM. Depletion of glutathione by l-buthionine sulphoximine (BSO) increased cell sensitivity to Cd cytotoxicity, suggesting the involvement of thiol-containing peptides as a mechanism of protection. Accordingly, Cd was shown to promote progressive depletion of reduced thiol content and to stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Interestingly, low non cytotoxic concentrations of Cd increased the gene expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), also a thiol-containing protein. Inhibition of the transcription factor NFκB prevented Cd-dependent upregulation of MIF expression and consequently, increased Cd cytotoxicity in osteoblasts. Moreover, MIF deficient mouse osteoblasts were more sensitive to Cd cytotoxicity than the corresponding control cells. By gel-filtration chromatography, we demonstrated that MIF acts as a thiol-containing protein and thereby promotes Cd complexation. In accordance with its binding ability, addition of recombinant MIF to the culture medium reduced Cd cytotoxicity. Overall, upregulation of MIF expression by Cd may protect against the cytotoxicity of this metal in the osteoblasts.

  11. Characterizing the inhibitory action of zinc oxide nanoparticles on allergic-type mast cell activation.

    PubMed

    Feltis, B N; Elbaz, A; Wright, P F A; Mackay, G A; Turney, T W; Lopata, A L

    2015-08-01

    The development of nanoparticles (NPs) for commercial products is undergoing a dramatic expansion. Many sunscreens and cosmetics now use zinc oxide (ZnO) or titania (TiO2) NPs, which are effective ultraviolet (UV) filters. Zinc oxide topical creams are also used in mild anti-inflammatory treatments. In this study we evaluated the effect of size and dispersion state of ZnO and TiO2 NPs, compared to "bulk" ZnO, on mast cell degranulation and viability. ZnO and TiO2 NPs were characterized using dynamic light scattering and disc centrifugation. Rat basophilic leukaemia (RBL-2H3) cells and primary mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) were exposed to ZnO and TiO2 NPs of different sizes (25-200 nm) and surface coatings at concentrations from 1 to 200 μg/mL. The effect of NPs on immunoglobulin E (IgE)-dependent mast cell degranulation was assessed by measuring release of both β-hexosaminidase and histamine via colorimetric and ELISA assays. The intracellular level of Zn(2+) and Ca(2+) ions were measured using zinquin ethyl ester and Fluo-4 AM fluorescence probes, respectively. Cellular viability was determined using the soluble tetrazolium-based MTS colorimetric assay. Exposure of RBL-2H3 and primary mouse BMMC to ZnO NPs markedly inhibited both histamine and β-hexosaminidase release. This effect was both particle size and dispersion dependent. In contrast, TiO2 NPs did not inhibit the allergic response. These effects were independent of cytotoxicity, which was observed only at high concentrations of ZnO NPs, and was not observed for TiO2 NPs. The inhibitory effects of ZnO NPs on mast cells were inversely proportional to particle size and dispersion status, and thus these NPs may have greater potential than "bulk" zinc in the inhibition of allergic responses.

  12. The inhibitory effect and mechanism of luteolin 7-glucoside on rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tack-Joong; Kim, Jin-Ho; Jin, Yong-Ri; Yun, Yeo-Pyo

    2006-01-01

    The abnormal proliferation of aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty and possibly also in the development of hypertension. The present study was designed to examine the inhibitory effects and the mechanism of luteolin 7-glucoside (L7G) on the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced proliferation of VSMCs. L7G significantly inhibited the PDGF-BB-induced proliferation and the DNA synthesis of the VSMCs in a concentration-dependent manner. Pre-incubation of the VSMCs with L7G significantly inhibited the PDGF-BB-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), Akt and the phospholipase C (PLC)-gamma1 activation. However, L7G had almost no affect on the phosphorylation of PDGF-beta receptor tyrosine kinase, which was induced by PDGF-BB. These results suggest that L7G inhibits the PDGF-BB-induced proliferation of VSMCs via the blocking of PLC-gamma1, Akt, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation.

  13. The inhibitory effect and mechanism of luteolin 7-glucoside on rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tack-Joong; Kim, Jin-Ho; Jin, Yong-Ri; Yun, Yeo-Pyo

    2006-01-01

    The abnormal proliferation of aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty and possibly also in the development of hypertension. The present study was designed to examine the inhibitory effects and the mechanism of luteolin 7-glucoside (L7G) on the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced proliferation of VSMCs. L7G significantly inhibited the PDGF-BB-induced proliferation and the DNA synthesis of the VSMCs in a concentration-dependent manner. Pre-incubation of the VSMCs with L7G significantly inhibited the PDGF-BB-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), Akt and the phospholipase C (PLC)-gamma1 activation. However, L7G had almost no affect on the phosphorylation of PDGF-beta receptor tyrosine kinase, which was induced by PDGF-BB. These results suggest that L7G inhibits the PDGF-BB-induced proliferation of VSMCs via the blocking of PLC-gamma1, Akt, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. PMID:16491846

  14. Inhibitory effect of liposome-entrapped lemongrass oil on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cheese.

    PubMed

    Cui, H Y; Wu, J; Lin, L

    2016-08-01

    Listeria monocytogenes infection in dairy products is of mounting public concern. To inhibit bacterial growth, we engineered stimuli-responsive liposomes containing lemongrass oil for this study. The controlled release of liposome-entrapped lemongrass oil is triggered by listerolysin O, secreted by L. monocytogenes. We investigated the antibiotic activities of lemongrass oil liposomes against L. monocytogenes in cheese. We also assessed their possible effects on the quality of the cheese. Liposomes containing lemongrass oil (5.0mg/mL) presented the optimal polydispersity index (0.246), zeta-potential (-58.9mV) and entrapment efficiency (25.7%). The liposomes displayed satisfactory antibiotic activity against L. monocytogenes in cheese over the storage period at 4°C. We observed no effects on the physical and sensory properties of the cheese after the liposome treatment. PMID:27265173

  15. Inhibitory effect of essential oils on Aspergillus ochraceus growth and ochratoxin A production.

    PubMed

    Hua, Huijuan; Xing, Fuguo; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Yueju; Zhou, Lu; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin which is a common contaminant in grains during storage. Aspergillus ochraceus is the most common producer of OTA. Essential oils play a crucial role as a biocontrol in the reduction of fungal contamination. Essential oils namely natural cinnamaldehyde, cinnamon oil, synthetic cinnamaldehyde, Litsea citrate oil, citral, eugenol, peppermint, eucalyptus, anise and camphor oils, were tested for their efficacy against A. ochraceus growth and OTA production by fumigation and contact assays. Natural cinnamaldehyde proved to be the most effective against A. ochraceus when compared to other oils. Complete fungal growth inhibition was obtained at 150-250 µL/L with fumigation and 250-500 µL/L with contact assays for cinnamon oil, natural and synthetic cinnamaldehyde, L. citrate oil and citral. Essential oils had an impact on the ergosterol biosynthesis and OTA production. Complete inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis was observed at ≥ 100 µg/mL of natural cinnamaldehyde and at 200 µg/mL of citral, but total inhibition was not observed at 200 µg/mL of eugenol. But, citral and eugenol could inhibit the OTA production at ≥ 75 µg/mL and ≥ 150 µg/mL respectively, while natural cinnamaldehyde couldn't fully inhibit OTA production at ≤ 200 µg/mL. The inhibition of OTA by natural cinnamaldehyde is mainly due to the reduction in fungal biomass. However, citral and eugenol could significant inhibit the OTA biosynthetic pathway. Also, we observed that cinnamaldehyde was converted to cinnamic alcohol by A. ochraceus, suggesting that the antimicrobial activity of cinnamaldehyde was mainly attributed to its carbonyl aldehyde group. The study concludes that natural cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol could be potential biocontrol agents against OTA contamination in storage grains. PMID:25255251

  16. Inhibitory Effect of Essential Oils on Aspergillus ochraceus Growth and Ochratoxin A Production

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Yueju; Zhou, Lu; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin which is a common contaminant in grains during storage. Aspergillus ochraceus is the most common producer of OTA. Essential oils play a crucial role as a biocontrol in the reduction of fungal contamination. Essential oils namely natural cinnamaldehyde, cinnamon oil, synthetic cinnamaldehyde, Litsea citrate oil, citral, eugenol, peppermint, eucalyptus, anise and camphor oils, were tested for their efficacy against A. ochraceus growth and OTA production by fumigation and contact assays. Natural cinnamaldehyde proved to be the most effective against A. ochraceus when compared to other oils. Complete fungal growth inhibition was obtained at 150–250 µL/L with fumigation and 250–500 µL/L with contact assays for cinnamon oil, natural and synthetic cinnamaldehyde, L. citrate oil and citral. Essential oils had an impact on the ergosterol biosynthesis and OTA production. Complete inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis was observed at ≥100 µg/mL of natural cinnamaldehyde and at 200 µg/mL of citral, but total inhibition was not observed at 200 µg/mL of eugenol. But, citral and eugenol could inhibit the OTA production at ≥75 µg/mL and ≥150 µg/mL respectively, while natural cinnamaldehyde couldn’t fully inhibit OTA production at ≤200 µg/mL. The inhibition of OTA by natural cinnamaldehyde is mainly due to the reduction in fungal biomass. However, citral and eugenol could significant inhibit the OTA biosynthetic pathway. Also, we observed that cinnamaldehyde was converted to cinnamic alcohol by A. ochraceus, suggesting that the antimicrobial activity of cinnamaldehyde was mainly attributed to its carbonyl aldehyde group. The study concludes that natural cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol could be potential biocontrol agents against OTA contamination in storage grains. PMID:25255251

  17. The inhibitory effects of endostatin on endothelial cells are modulated by extracellular matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Delaney, Christie E.; Weagant, Brodie T.; Addison, Christina L. . E-mail: caddison@ohri.ca

    2006-08-01

    We investigated the ability of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins to modulate the response of endothelial cells to both promoters and inhibitors of angiogenesis. Using human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC), we found that cells demonstrated different adhesive properties and proliferative responses to the growth factor VEGF depending upon which ECM protein with which they were in contact, with fibronectin having the most impact on VEGF-induced HDMEC proliferation and survival. More importantly, we observed that ECM could modulate the ability of the angiogenic inhibitor endostatin to prevent endothelial cell proliferation, survival and migration. We observed that growth on vitronectin or fibronectin impaired the ability of endostatin to inhibit VEGF-induced HDMEC proliferation to the greatest extent as determined by BrdU incorporation. We found that, following growth on collagen I or collagen IV, endostatin only inhibited VEGF-induced HDMEC proliferation at the highest dose tested (2500 ng/ml). In a similar manner, we observed that growth on ECM proteins modulated the ability of endostatin to induce endothelial cell apoptosis, with growth on collagen I, fibronectin and collagen IV impairing endostatin-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, endostatin inhibited VEGF-induced HDMEC migration following culture on collagen I, collagen IV and laminin, while migration was not inhibited by endostatin following HDMEC culture on other matrices including vitronectin, fibronectin and tenascin-C. These results suggest that different matrix proteins may affect different mechanisms of endostatin inhibition of angiogenesis. Taken together, our results suggest that the ECM may have a profound impact on the ability of angiostatic molecules such as endostatin to inhibit angiogenesis and thus may have impact on the clinical efficacy of such inhibitors.

  18. Superresolution microscopy reveals nanometer-scale reorganization of inhibitory natural killer cell receptors upon activation of NKG2D.

    PubMed

    Pageon, Sophie V; Cordoba, Shaun-Paul; Owen, Dylan M; Rothery, Stephen M; Oszmiana, Anna; Davis, Daniel M

    2013-07-23

    Natural killer (NK) cell responses are regulated by a dynamic equilibrium between activating and inhibitory receptor signals at the immune synapse (or interface) with target cells. Although the organization of receptors at the immune synapse is important for appropriate integration of these signals, there is little understanding of this in detail, because research has been hampered by the limited resolution of light microscopy. Through the use of superresolution single-molecule fluorescence microscopy to reveal the organization of the NK cell surface at the single-protein level, we report that the inhibitory receptor KIR2DL1 is organized in nanometer-scale clusters at the surface of human resting NK cells. Nanoclusters of KIR2DL1 became smaller and denser upon engagement of the activating receptor NKG2D, establishing an unexpected crosstalk between activating receptor signals and the positioning of inhibitory receptors. These rearrangements in the nanoscale organization of surface NK cell receptors were dependent on the actin cytoskeleton. Together, these data establish that NK cell activation involves a nanometer-scale reorganization of surface receptors, which in turn affects models for signal integration and thresholds that control NK cell effector functions and NK cell development. PMID:23882121

  19. Growth-modulating effects of dichloro myristic and dichloro stearic acid in cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Høstmark, A T; Lystad, E; Jebens, E; Skramstad, J; Frøyen, P

    1999-10-01

    Chloro-containing fatty acids are a major fraction of extractable, organically bound chlorine in fish. It has been suggested that dichloro stearic acid (9,10-dichlorooctadecanoic acid) (C18) is metabolized to dichloro myristic acid (5,6-dichlorotetradecanoic acid) (C14) which accumulates in tissues. Hence, the biological effects of the C18 dichloro fatty acid could be due to formation of the C14 dichloro fatty acid. In this study we have compared the effects of dichloro stearic and dichloro myristic acid on growth of three widely differing cell lines. Both fatty acids inhibited cell growth; however, dichloro myristic acid had a weaker growth inhibitory effect than dichloro stearic acid. Dichloro myristic acid had a biphasic effect (i.e. growth was stimulated at low concentrations, followed by inhibition at higher concentrations) on the growth of human hepatoma cells and immortalized human kidney epithelial cells, but no such effect on human microvascular endothelial cells. The order of potency for growth inhibition by dichloro myristic acid was consistently human hepatoma cells>immortalized human kidney epithelial cells >human microvascular endothelial cells, whereas the relative potency of dichloro stearic acid was variable. Albumin alone stimulated cell growth and had a stronger protective effect against growth inhibition by dichloro myristic acid than against that of dichloro stearic acid. It seems unlikely that a major part of the effect of dichloro stearic acid on cell growth is caused by conversion to dichloro myristic acid.

  20. In vitro growth inhibition of human cancer cells by novel honokiol analogs.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jyh Ming; Prakasha Gowda, A S; Sharma, Arun K; Amin, Shantu

    2012-05-15

    Honokiol possesses many pharmacological activities including anti-cancer properties. Here in, we designed and synthesized honokiol analogs that block major honokiol metabolic pathway which may enhance their effectiveness. We studied their cytotoxicity in human cancer cells and evaluated possible mechanism of cell cycle arrest. Two analogs, namely 2 and 4, showed much higher growth inhibitory activity in A549 human lung cancer cells and significant increase of cell population in the G0-G1 phase. Further elucidation of the inhibition mechanism on cell cycle showed that analogs 2 and 4 inhibit both CDK1 and cyclin B1 protien levels in A549 cells. PMID:22533983

  1. In vitro growth inhibition of human cancer cells by novel honokiol analogs.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jyh Ming; Prakasha Gowda, A S; Sharma, Arun K; Amin, Shantu

    2012-05-15

    Honokiol possesses many pharmacological activities including anti-cancer properties. Here in, we designed and synthesized honokiol analogs that block major honokiol metabolic pathway which may enhance their effectiveness. We studied their cytotoxicity in human cancer cells and evaluated possible mechanism of cell cycle arrest. Two analogs, namely 2 and 4, showed much higher growth inhibitory activity in A549 human lung cancer cells and significant increase of cell population in the G0-G1 phase. Further elucidation of the inhibition mechanism on cell cycle showed that analogs 2 and 4 inhibit both CDK1 and cyclin B1 protien levels in A549 cells.

  2. Triterpenoids of sour jujube show pronounced inhibitory effect on human tumor cells and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Aimin; Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Zhang, Zhenxue; He, Xiangjiu

    2014-10-01

    Sour jujube is a common fruit and traditional medicine in China. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of sour jujube was used to determine the chemical identity of potent antiproliferative and antioxidant constituents. Four novel ursane-type triterpenoids, together with 8 known were isolated and identified. The new triterpenoids were elucidated to be 2α,3β,13β,23-tetrahydroxy-urs-11-en-28-oic acid (3), 2α,3β-dihydroxy-urs-20(30)-en-28-oic acid (9), 2α,3β,28-trihydroxy-urs-20(30)-ene (10), and 3β,12β,13β-trihydroxy-ursan-28-oic acid (11). Among the triterpenoids isolated, 2α,3β,19α-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (7), 9 and 10 showed high potent inhibitory activity toward the proliferation of HepG2 cells, which the IC50 values were lower than 5 μM. Compounds 9 and 10 also exhibited pronounced activity against MCF-7 cells, with IC50 value of 0.8 ± 0.03 and 1.5 ± 0.1 μM, respectively. Compound 10 showed high antioxidant activity with an EC50 of 0.8 ± 0.02 μM, which was 18.9 times higher than ascorbic acid in antioxidant capacity.

  3. Inhibitory action of NoxA1 on dual oxidase activity in airway cells.

    PubMed

    Pacquelet, Sandrine; Lehmann, Mandy; Luxen, Sylvia; Regazzoni, Karine; Frausto, Monika; Noack, Deborah; Knaus, Ulla G

    2008-09-01

    Imbalance between pro- and antioxidant mechanisms in the lungs can compromise pulmonary functions, including blood oxygenation, host defense, and maintenance of an anti-inflammatory environment. Thus, tight regulatory control of reactive oxygen species is critical for proper lung function. Increasing evidence supports a role for the NADPH oxidase dual oxidase (Duox) as an important source for regulated H2O2 production in the respiratory tract epithelium. In this study Duox expression, function, and regulation were investigated in a fully differentiated, mucociliary airway epithelium model. Duox-mediated H2O2 generation was dependent on calcium flux, which was required for dissociation of the NADPH oxidase regulatory protein Noxa1 from plasma membrane-bound Duox. A functional Duox1-based oxidase was reconstituted in model cell lines to permit mutational analysis of Noxa1 and Duox1. Although the activation domain of Noxa1 was not required for Duox function, mutation of a proline-rich domain in the Duox C terminus, a potential interaction motif for the Noxa1 Src homology domain 3, caused up-regulation of basal and stimulated H2O2 production. Similarly, knockdown of Noxa1 in airway cells increased basal H2O2 generation. Our data indicate a novel, inhibitory function for Noxa1 in Duox regulation. This represents a new paradigm for control of NADPH oxidase activity, where second messenger-promoted conformational change of the Nox structure promotes oxidase activation by relieving constraint induced by regulatory components.

  4. Involvement of inhibitory PAS domain protein in neuronal cell death in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Torii, S; Kasai, S; Suzuki, A; Todoroki, Y; Yokozawa, K; Yasumoto, K-I; Seike, N; Kiyonari, H; Mukumoto, Y; Kakita, A; Sogawa, K

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitory PAS domain protein (IPAS), a repressor of hypoxia-inducible factor-dependent transcription under hypoxia, was found to exert pro-apoptotic activity in oxidative stress-induced cell death. However, physiological and pathological processes associated with this activity are not known. Here we show that IPAS is a key molecule involved in neuronal cell death in Parkinson’s disease (PD). IPAS was ubiquitinated by Parkin for proteasomal degradation following carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone treatment. Phosphorylation of IPAS at Thr12 by PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) was required for ubiquitination to occur. Activation of the PINK1–Parkin pathway attenuated IPAS-dependent apoptosis. IPAS was markedly induced in the midbrain following 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) administration, and IPAS-deficient mice showed resistance to MPTP-induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). A significant increase in IPAS expression was found in SNpc neurons in patients with sporadic PD. These results indicate a mechanism of neurodegeneration in PD. PMID:27551449

  5. Inhibitory and toxic effects of volatiles emitted by strains of Pseudomonas and Serratia on growth and survival of selected microorganisms, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Popova, Alexandra A; Koksharova, Olga A; Lipasova, Valentina A; Zaitseva, Julia V; Katkova-Zhukotskaya, Olga A; Eremina, Svetlana Iu; Mironov, Alexander S; Chernin, Leonid S; Khmel, Inessa A

    2014-01-01

    In previous research, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by various bacteria into the chemosphere were suggested to play a significant role in the antagonistic interactions between microorganisms occupying the same ecological niche and between bacteria and target eukaryotes. Moreover, a number of volatiles released by bacteria were reported to suppress quorum-sensing cell-to-cell communication in bacteria, and to stimulate plant growth. Here, volatiles produced by Pseudomonas and Serratia strains isolated mainly from the soil or rhizosphere exhibited bacteriostatic action on phytopathogenic Agrobacterium tumefaciens and fungi and demonstrated a killing effect on cyanobacteria, flies (Drosophila melanogaster), and nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans). VOCs emitted by the rhizospheric Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain 449 and by Serratia proteamaculans strain 94 isolated from spoiled meat were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, and the effects of the main headspace compounds--ketones (2-nonanone, 2-heptanone, 2-undecanone) and dimethyl disulfide--were inhibitory toward the tested microorganisms, nematodes, and flies. The data confirmed the role of bacterial volatiles as important compounds involved in interactions between organisms under natural ecological conditions.

  6. Inhibitory and toxic effects of volatiles emitted by strains of Pseudomonas and Serratia on growth and survival of selected microorganisms, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Popova, Alexandra A; Koksharova, Olga A; Lipasova, Valentina A; Zaitseva, Julia V; Katkova-Zhukotskaya, Olga A; Eremina, Svetlana Iu; Mironov, Alexander S; Chernin, Leonid S; Khmel, Inessa A

    2014-01-01

    In previous research, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by various bacteria into the chemosphere were suggested to play a significant role in the antagonistic interactions between microorganisms occupying the same ecological niche and between bacteria and target eukaryotes. Moreover, a number of volatiles released by bacteria were reported to suppress quorum-sensing cell-to-cell communication in bacteria, and to stimulate plant growth. Here, volatiles produced by Pseudomonas and Serratia strains isolated mainly from the soil or rhizosphere exhibited bacteriostatic action on phytopathogenic Agrobacterium tumefaciens and fungi and demonstrated a killing effect on cyanobacteria, flies (Drosophila melanogaster), and nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans). VOCs emitted by the rhizospheric Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain 449 and by Serratia proteamaculans strain 94 isolated from spoiled meat were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, and the effects of the main headspace compounds--ketones (2-nonanone, 2-heptanone, 2-undecanone) and dimethyl disulfide--were inhibitory toward the tested microorganisms, nematodes, and flies. The data confirmed the role of bacterial volatiles as important compounds involved in interactions between organisms under natural ecological conditions. PMID:25006575

  7. Thymoquinone Inhibits Escherichia coli ATP Synthase and Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Laughlin, Thomas F.; Kady, Ismail O.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the thymoquinone induced inhibition of purified F1 or membrane bound F1FO E. coli ATP synthase. Both purified F1 and membrane bound F1FO were completely inhibited by thymoquinone with no residual ATPase activity. The process of inhibition was fully reversible and identical in both membrane bound F1Fo and purified F1 preparations. Moreover, thymoquinone induced inhibition of ATP synthase expressing wild-type E. coli cell growth and non-inhibition of ATPase gene deleted null control cells demonstrates that ATP synthase is a molecular target for thymoquinone. This also links the beneficial dietary based antimicrobial and anticancer effects of thymoquinone to its inhibitory action on ATP synthase. PMID:25996607

  8. Curcumin associated magnetite nanoparticles inhibit in vitro melanoma cell growth.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Fernanda França; dos Santos, Michelly Christine; dos Passos, Debora Cristina Silva; Lima, Emilia Celma de Oliveira; Guillo, Lidia Andreu

    2011-09-01

    Curcumin is a natural product possessing therapeutic properties but the low water solubility of this compound limits its use. We have successfully incorporated curcumin into a bilayer of dodecanoic acid attached to magnetite nanoparticles in an effort to maximize solubility and delivery efficiency. Curcumin/magnetite nanoparticles were characterized using diffused reflectance infra-red fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Moreover curcumin associated magnetite nanoparticles inhibited in vitro melanoma cell growth. An inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 66.0 +/- 3.0 microM (48 +/- 2.2 microg-iron/mL) was observed for the curcumin/magnetite nanoparticles. Fluorescent microscopy revealed that curcumin associated magnetite nanoparticles were internalized by the melanoma cells and remained in the cytoplasm. The curcumin/magnetic nanoparticles synthesized in this study possess magnetic and water solubility properties making this a novel curcumin formulation with therapeutic potential.

  9. Corrosion by bacteria of concrete in sewerage systems and inhibitory effects of formates on their growth.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Tateo; Aso, Iwao; Togashi, Shunsuke; Tanigawa, Minoru; Shoji, Kazuo; Watanabe, Tsugumichi; Watanabe, Naoki; Maki, Kazuo; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2002-05-01

    Not only sulfur-oxidizing bacteria but also an acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacterium (or bacteria) were found in the corroded concrete from several sewerage systems in Japan. The surface pH of concrete test piece exposed to an atmosphere containing hydrogen sulfide of the concentrations more than 600 ppm in the systems was usually below 2 after a month. This was attributable to ability of the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to grow in the thin water layer which contained hydrogen sulfide and covered the piece even when the surface pH of concrete was 12-13. When the sulfuroxidizing bacteria grew in the surface of concrete and produced sulfuric acid, the pH of the inner parts of concrete was lowered where the bacteria were hardly found. Probably, sulfuric acid formed by the bacteria in the surface parts penetrated into the inner parts. The different species of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were found in different sewerage systems. The growth of the sulfur-oxidizing and acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria was completely inhibited by formates, especially by calcium formate of concentrations more than 50 mM. Calcium formate can protect concrete in sewerage systems from bacterial corrosion.

  10. Corrosion by bacteria of concrete in sewerage systems and inhibitory effects of formates on their growth.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Tateo; Aso, Iwao; Togashi, Shunsuke; Tanigawa, Minoru; Shoji, Kazuo; Watanabe, Tsugumichi; Watanabe, Naoki; Maki, Kazuo; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2002-05-01

    Not only sulfur-oxidizing bacteria but also an acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacterium (or bacteria) were found in the corroded concrete from several sewerage systems in Japan. The surface pH of concrete test piece exposed to an atmosphere containing hydrogen sulfide of the concentrations more than 600 ppm in the systems was usually below 2 after a month. This was attributable to ability of the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to grow in the thin water layer which contained hydrogen sulfide and covered the piece even when the surface pH of concrete was 12-13. When the sulfuroxidizing bacteria grew in the surface of concrete and produced sulfuric acid, the pH of the inner parts of concrete was lowered where the bacteria were hardly found. Probably, sulfuric acid formed by the bacteria in the surface parts penetrated into the inner parts. The different species of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were found in different sewerage systems. The growth of the sulfur-oxidizing and acidophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria was completely inhibited by formates, especially by calcium formate of concentrations more than 50 mM. Calcium formate can protect concrete in sewerage systems from bacterial corrosion. PMID:12153031

  11. Amino acid alcohols: growth inhibition and induction of differentiated features in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Landau, O; Wasserman, L; Deutsch, A A; Reiss, R; Panet, H; Novogrodsky, A; Nordenberg, J

    1993-05-14

    The effects of a series of D- and L-amino acid alcohols on the proliferation and phenotypic expression of B16 mouse melanoma cells were evaluated. B16 melanoma cells were incubated for different time intervals in the presence of D- or L-phenylalaninol (PHE), D- or L-alaninol (AL), D- or L-leucinol (LE), L-histidinol (HIS), L-tyrosinol (TYR) and L-methioninol (MET). All agents, including the D or L configuration, induced an anti-proliferative effect, although of considerably different magnitude. D-PHE was the most active growth inhibitor. The growth inhibitory effects were accompanied by phenotypic alterations, which included morphological changes and enhancement in the activities of NADPH cytochrome c reductase and tau-glutamyl transpeptidase. These phenotypic alterations correlated with the growth inhibitory effects of the different agents and seem to reflect a higher differentiated state. PMID:8099846

  12. Inhibitory Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Growth and Aflatoxin B1 Production by Aspergillus Parasiticus

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyyed Amin Ayatollahi; Pourtalebi, Somayyeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aflatoxins (AFs) are secondary hazardous fungal metabolites that are produced by strains of some Aspergillus species on food and feedstuffs. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is one of the most important AF with high toxicity. Prevention of AF production and their elimination from food products is a matter of importance for many researchers in the last decades. Nanomaterials applications in medical science have been widely studied in the recent years. Most of existing researches seek the effect of nanoparticles on bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on growth and AFB1 production of AF-producing Aspergillus parasiticus. Methods: A parasiticus was inoculated (106 conidia per ml of medium) to potato dextrose broth (PDB) medium and then AgNPs was added and incubated with shaking at 130 rpm and 28°C for 7 days. AF was assayed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Microbiological assay (MBA) on microplates contained potato dextrose broth (PDB) medium (4 days at 28°C) at different concentrations of AgNPs (60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180 and 200 μg/ml) was measured. Results: The results demonstrated that a minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) equal to 180 μg/ml was determined for AgNPs against A. parasiticus. The AgNPs effectively inhibited AFB1 production at a concentration of 90 μg/ml. Conclusion: The results obtained in this study show AgNPs at concentrations lower than the MIC drastically inhibited production of AFB1 by A. parasiticus in culture medium. The AgNPs may be useful to control AF contamination of susceptible crops in the field. PMID:26538778

  13. Dysregulation of Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1) expression resulted in aberrant Wnt-β-catenin signaling and cell death of the cloaca endoderm, and anorectal malformations

    PubMed Central

    Ng, R C-L; Matsumaru, D; Ho, A S-H; Garcia-Barceló, M-M; Yuan, Z-W; Smith, D; Kodjabachian, L; Tam, P K-H; Yamada, G; Lui, V C-H

    2014-01-01

    In mammalian urorectal development, the urorectal septum (urs) descends from the ventral body wall to the cloaca membrane (cm) to partition the cloaca into urogenital sinus and rectum. Defective urs growth results in human congenital anorectal malformations (ARMs), and their pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. Recent studies only focused on the importance of urs mesenchyme proliferation, which is induced by endoderm-derived Sonic Hedgehog (Shh). Here, we showed that the programmed cell death of the apical urs and proximal cm endoderm is particularly crucial for the growth of urs during septation. The apoptotic endoderm was closely associated with the tempo-spatial expression of Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (Wif1), which is an inhibitor of Wnt-β-catenin signaling. In Wif1lacZ/lacZ mutant mice and cultured urorectum with exogenous Wif1, cloaca septation was defective with undescended urs and hypospadias-like phenotypes, and such septation defects were also observed in Shh−/− mutants and in endodermal β-catenin gain-of-function (GOF) mutants. In addition, Wif1 and Shh were expressed in a complementary manner in the cloaca endoderm, and Wif1 was ectopically expressed in the urs and cm associated with excessive endodermal apoptosis and septation defects in Shh−/− mutants. Furthermore, apoptotic cells were markedly reduced in the endodermal β-catenin GOF mutant embryos, which counteracted the inhibitory effects of Wif1. Taken altogether, these data suggest that regulated expression of Wif1 is critical for the growth of the urs during cloaca septation. Hence, Wif1 governs cell apoptosis of urs endoderm by repressing β-catenin signal, which may facilitate the protrusion of the underlying proliferating mesenchymal cells towards the cm for cloaca septation. Dysregulation of this endodermal Shh-Wif1-β-catenin signaling axis contributes to ARM pathogenesis. PMID:24632949

  14. Growth factors and hormones which affect survival, growth, and differentiation of the MCF-7 stem cells and their descendants

    SciTech Connect

    Resnicoff, M.; Medrano, E.E. )

    1989-03-01

    The human breast tumor cell line was separated by Percoll density gradient centrifugation into six different subpopulations, A to F, of which (E) appears to contain the stem cells on the basis of several criteria. The authors analyzed the response of the isolated subpopulations to insulin, thrombin, PGF{sub 2{alpha}}, estradiol, and 13-cis-retinal. They demonstrate that the first two growth factors stimulate ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation in the more differentiated subpopulations (D and F), while PGF{sub 2{alpha}} has mitogenic activity in subpopulations C and D. In the absence of any added growth factor, estradiol has the extreme and transient capacity of allowing the stem cell to detach from the tissue culture dish and to grow in suspension as multicellular aggregates (MCF-7/SE cells). 13-cis-Retinal acts as a negative modulator of differentiation and protects the cells from the inhibitory and differentiation activity in Na-butyrate.

  15. Inhibitory effect of metformin combined with gemcitabine on pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuqi; He, Zhilong; Jia, Zhenyu; Xu, Chunfang

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a malignant digestive system tumor with a particularly poor prognosis, and is the fourth leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in the USA. The anti-diabetic therapeutic agent, metformin (MET) has been demonstrated to exert anti-tumor effects. The present study assessed the ability of MET, alone or in combination with gemcitabine (GEM), to inhibit the growth of the human CFPAC-1 pancreatic cancer cell line in vitro and in vivo. Cell counting kit-8 assays were performed to measure CFPAC-1 cell viability and apoptosis was detected with annexin V/propidium iodide. Cell cycle analysis was conducted by flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein levels of B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL), Bcl2 associated X protein (Bax), caspase-3, survivin and cyclin D1 in CFPAC-1 cells and tumor tissues were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Furthermore, the expression levels of caspase-3 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in tumor tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated that following MET treatment, the growth of CFPAC-1 cells and xenografts in nude mice was inhibited, the expression levels of Bcl-xL, survivin and cyclin D1 were downregulated, while the expression levels of Bax and caspase-3 were upregulated. These effects were enhanced when MET was administered in combination with GEM. The mechanism underlying the anti-tumor effect of MET may be associated with the induction of cell apoptosis and the inhibition of proliferation. PMID:27499118

  16. In vitro growth-inhibitory effect of Brazilian plants extracts against Paenibacillus larvae and toxicity in bees.

    PubMed

    Piana, Mariana; de Brum, Thiele F; Boligon, Aline A; Alves, Camilla F S; de Freitas, Robson B; Nunes, Letícia T; Mossmann, Natalia J; Janovik, Vanessa; Jesus, Roberta S; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Santos, Roberto C V; Athayde, Margareth L

    2015-01-01

    American foulbrood (AFB) is a serious worldwide spreading disease in bees caused by Paenibacillus larvae. Plants extracts are known to decrease or inhibit the growth of these bacteria. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Calendula. officinalis, Cariniana domestica, and Nasturtium officinale extracts against the P. larvae and to evaluate the toxicity of the extracts in bees. In vitro activity against P. larvae of the extracts was evaluated by micro dilution method and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were also determined. The concentrations used in the toxicity test were established based on the MIC values and by the spraying application method. The P. larvae was susceptible to the evaluated crude extract of C. officinalis and N. officinale. To C. domestica, only the ethyl acetate (EtAc) fraction and n-butanol (BuOH) fractions had activity against P. larvae. Toxicity analysis in bees showed no toxicity for N. officinale crude extract and for C. domestica BuOH fraction during 15 days of treatment, however, some deaths of bees occurred during the first three days of treatment with C. officinalis and C. domestica EtAc fraction. The results with these species were firstly described and showed that N. officinale crude extract and C. domestica BuOH fraction both presented not toxic effects in the concentration tested by the spraying application method, and can be a useful alternative for treatment or prevention of AFB. PMID:26062113

  17. In vitro growth-inhibitory effect of Brazilian plants extracts against Paenibacillus larvae and toxicity in bees.

    PubMed

    Piana, Mariana; de Brum, Thiele F; Boligon, Aline A; Alves, Camilla F S; de Freitas, Robson B; Nunes, Letícia T; Mossmann, Natalia J; Janovik, Vanessa; Jesus, Roberta S; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Santos, Roberto C V; Athayde, Margareth L

    2015-01-01

    American foulbrood (AFB) is a serious worldwide spreading disease in bees caused by Paenibacillus larvae. Plants extracts are known to decrease or inhibit the growth of these bacteria. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Calendula. officinalis, Cariniana domestica, and Nasturtium officinale extracts against the P. larvae and to evaluate the toxicity of the extracts in bees. In vitro activity against P. larvae of the extracts was evaluated by micro dilution method and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were also determined. The concentrations used in the toxicity test were established based on the MIC values and by the spraying application method. The P. larvae was susceptible to the evaluated crude extract of C. officinalis and N. officinale. To C. domestica, only the ethyl acetate (EtAc) fraction and n-butanol (BuOH) fractions had activity against P. larvae. Toxicity analysis in bees showed no toxicity for N. officinale crude extract and for C. domestica BuOH fraction during 15 days of treatment, however, some deaths of bees occurred during the first three days of treatment with C. officinalis and C. domestica EtAc fraction. The results with these species were firstly described and showed that N. officinale crude extract and C. domestica BuOH fraction both presented not toxic effects in the concentration tested by the spraying application method, and can be a useful alternative for treatment or prevention of AFB.

  18. Molecular crowding limits translation and cell growth.

    PubMed

    Klumpp, Stefan; Scott, Matthew; Pedersen, Steen; Hwa, Terence

    2013-10-15

    Bacterial growth is crucially dependent on protein synthesis and thus on the cellular abundance of ribosomes and related proteins. Here, we show that the slow diffusion of the bulky tRNA complexes in the crowded cytoplasm imposes a physical limit on the speed of translation, which ultimately limits the rate of cell growth. To study the required allocation of ancillary translational proteins to alleviate the effect of molecular crowding, we develop a model for cell growth based on a coarse-grained partitioning of the proteome. We find that coregulation of ribosome- and tRNA-affiliated proteins is consistent with measured growth-rate dependencies and results in near-optimal allocation over a broad range of growth rates. The analysis further resolves a long-standing controversy in bacterial growth physiology concerning the growth-rate dependence of translation speed and serves as a caution against premature identification of phenomenological parameters with mechanistic processes.

  19. [Inhibitory activity of hydrosols prepared from 18 Japanese herbs of weak aromatic flavor against filamentous formation and growth of Candida albicans].

    PubMed

    Inouye, Shigeharu; Takahashi, Miki; Abe, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    Leaf hydrosols prepared from 18 weakly aromatic Japanese herbs used traditionally were tested on the filamentation-inhibitory activity of Candida albicans. These hydrosols were divided into two classes, A and B. The inhibitory activity of 13 hydrosols belonging to class A was markedly altered depending on the drying process of the parent herbs. On the other hand, the remaining 5 hydrosols belonging to class B showed no significant change on the composition and inhibitory activity upon drying. The change of the bioactivity was correlated with the change and concentration of the respective major constituents. Especially strong bioactivity shown by hydrosols of dried Houttuynia cordata and fresh Prunus pendula was ascribed to n-capric acid and cyanide, respectively. Eight hydrosols exhibited weak or moderate activity against the growth of C. albicans.

  20. [Inhibitory activity of hydrosols prepared from 18 Japanese herbs of weak aromatic flavor against filamentous formation and growth of Candida albicans].

    PubMed

    Inouye, Shigeharu; Takahashi, Miki; Abe, Shigeru

    2012-01-01

    Leaf hydrosols prepared from 18 weakly aromatic Japanese herbs used traditionally were tested on the filamentation-inhibitory activity of Candida albicans. These hydrosols were divided into two classes, A and B. The inhibitory activity of 13 hydrosols belonging to class A was markedly altered depending on the drying process of the parent herbs. On the other hand, the remaining 5 hydrosols belonging to class B showed no significant change on the composition and inhibitory activity upon drying. The change of the bioactivity was correlated with the change and concentration of the respective major constituents. Especially strong bioactivity shown by hydrosols of dried Houttuynia cordata and fresh Prunus pendula was ascribed to n-capric acid and cyanide, respectively. Eight hydrosols exhibited weak or moderate activity against the growth of C. albicans. PMID:22467129

  1. Extracellular Molecular Markers and Soma Size of Inhibitory Neurons: Evidence for Four Subtypes of GABAergic Cells in the Inferior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Nichole L.; Young, Jesse W.; Mellott, Jeffrey G.

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition plays an important role in shaping responses to stimuli throughout the CNS, including in the inferior colliculus (IC), a major hub in both ascending and descending auditory pathways. Subdividing GABAergic cells has furthered the understanding of inhibition in many brain areas, most notably in the cerebral cortex. Here, we seek the same understanding of subcortical inhibitory cell types by combining staining for two types of extracellular markers—perineuronal nets (PNs) and perisomatic rings of terminals expressing vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) —to subdivide IC GABAergic cells in adult guinea pigs. We found four distinct groups of GABAergic cells in the IC: (1) those with both a PN and a VGLUT2 ring; (2) those with only a PN; (3) those with only a VGLUT2 ring; and (4) those with neither marker. In addition, these four GABAergic subtypes differ in their soma size and distribution among IC subdivisions. Functionally, the presence or absence of VGLUT2 rings indicates differences in inputs, whereas the presence or absence of PNs indicates different potential for plasticity and temporal processing. We conclude that these markers distinguish four GABAergic subtypes that almost certainly serve different roles in the processing of auditory stimuli within the IC. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT GABAergic inhibition plays a critical role throughout the brain. Identification of subclasses of GABAergic cells (up to 15 in the cerebral cortex) has furthered the understanding of GABAergic roles in circuit modulation. Inhibition is also prominent in the inferior colliculus, a subcortical hub in auditory pathways. Here, we use two extracellular markers to identify four distinct groups of GABAergic cells. Perineuronal nets and perisomatic rings of glutamatergic boutons are present in many subcortical areas and often are associated with inhibitory cells, but they have rarely been used to identify inhibitory subtypes. Our results further the understanding of

  2. Cell Density Effects of Frog Skin Bacteria on Their Capacity to Inhibit Growth of the Chytrid Fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Yasumiba, Kiyomi; Bell, Sara; Alford, Ross

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts on frog skin can reduce the growth of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) through production of inhibitory metabolites. Bacteria can be effective at increasing the resistance of amphibians to chytridiomycosis when added to amphibian skin, and isolates can be screened for production of metabolites that inhibit Bd growth in vitro. However, some bacteria use density-dependent mechanism such as quorum sensing to regulate metabolite production. It is therefore important to consider cell density effects when evaluating bacteria as possible candidates for bioaugmentation. The aim of our study was to evaluate how the density of cutaneous bacteria affects their inhibition of Bd growth in vitro. We sampled cutaneous bacteria isolated from three frog species in the tropical rainforests of northern Queensland, Australia, and selected ten isolates that were inhibitory to Bd in standardised pilot trials. We grew each isolate in liquid culture at a range of initial dilutions, sub-sampled each dilution at a series of times during the first 48 h of growth and measured spectrophotometric absorbance values, cell counts and Bd-inhibitory activity of cell-free supernatants at each time point. The challenge assay results clearly demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of most isolates were density dependent, with relatively low variation among isolates in the minimum cell density needed to inhibit Bd growth. We suggest the use of minimum cell densities and fast-growing candidate isolates to maximise bioaugmentation efforts. PMID:26563320

  3. Cell Density Effects of Frog Skin Bacteria on Their Capacity to Inhibit Growth of the Chytrid Fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Yasumiba, Kiyomi; Bell, Sara; Alford, Ross

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts on frog skin can reduce the growth of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) through production of inhibitory metabolites. Bacteria can be effective at increasing the resistance of amphibians to chytridiomycosis when added to amphibian skin, and isolates can be screened for production of metabolites that inhibit Bd growth in vitro. However, some bacteria use density-dependent mechanism such as quorum sensing to regulate metabolite production. It is therefore important to consider cell density effects when evaluating bacteria as possible candidates for bioaugmentation. The aim of our study was to evaluate how the density of cutaneous bacteria affects their inhibition of Bd growth in vitro. We sampled cutaneous bacteria isolated from three frog species in the tropical rainforests of northern Queensland, Australia, and selected ten isolates that were inhibitory to Bd in standardised pilot trials. We grew each isolate in liquid culture at a range of initial dilutions, sub-sampled each dilution at a series of times during the first 48 h of growth and measured spectrophotometric absorbance values, cell counts and Bd-inhibitory activity of cell-free supernatants at each time point. The challenge assay results clearly demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of most isolates were density dependent, with relatively low variation among isolates in the minimum cell density needed to inhibit Bd growth. We suggest the use of minimum cell densities and fast-growing candidate isolates to maximise bioaugmentation efforts.

  4. Inhibitory and activating functions for MAPK Kss1 in the S. cerevisiae filamentous-growth signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Cook, J G; Bardwell, L; Thorner, J

    1997-11-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are conserved signalling modules that regulate responses to diverse extracellular stimuli, developmental cues and environmental stresses. A MAPK is phosphorylated and activated by a MAPK kinase (MAPKK), which is activated by an upstream protein kinase, such as Raf, Mos or a MAPKK kinase. Ste7, a MAPKK in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is required for two developmental pathways: mating and invasive (filamentous) growth. Kss1 and Fus3, the MAPK targets of Ste7, are required for mating, but their role in invasive growth has been unclear. Because no other S. cerevisiae MAPK has been shown to function in invasive growth, it was proposed that Ste7 may have non-MAPK targets. We show instead that Kss1 is the principal target of Ste7 in the invasive-growth response in both haploids and diploids. We demonstrate further that Kss1 in its inactive form is a potent negative regulator of invasive growth. Ste7 acts to relieve this negative regulation by switching Kss1 from an inhibitor to an activator. These results indicate that this MAPK has a physiologically important function in its unactivated state. Comparison of normal and MAPK-deficient cells indicates that nitrogen starvation and activated Ras stimulate filamentous growth through both MAPK-independent and MAPK-dependent means. PMID:9363895

  5. Inhibitory activity of synthesized acetylated Procyanidin B1 analogs against HeLa S3 cells proliferation.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Syuhei; Ishihara, Sayaka; Okamoto, Taisuke; Doi, Syoma; Harui, Kota; Higashino, Yusuke; Kawasaki, Takashi; Nakajima, Noriyuki; Saito, Akiko

    2014-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins, also known as condensed tannins and/or oligomeric flavonoids, occur in many edible plants and have various interesting biological activities. Previously, we reported a synthetic method for the preparation of various procyanidins in pure form and described their biological activities. Here, we describe the synthesis of procyanidin B1 acetylated analogs and discuss their inhibition activities against HeLa S3 cell proliferation. Surprisingly, the lower-unit acetylated procyanidin B1 strongly inhibited the proliferation of HeLa S3 cells. This molecule showed much stronger inhibitory activity than did epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), green tea polyphenol, and dimeric compounds that included EGCG as a unit. This result suggests that the phenolic hydroxyl groups of the upper-units in flavan-3-ols are important for their inhibitory activity against cancer cell proliferation and that a hydrophobic lower unit dimer enhances this activity. PMID:24500007

  6. Immune inhibitory molecules LAG-3 and PD-1 synergistically regulate T cell function to promote tumoral immune escape

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Seng-Ryong; Turnis, Meghan E.; Goldberg, Monica V.; Bankoti, Jaishree; Selby, Mark; Nirschl, Christopher J.; Bettini, Matthew L.; Gravano, David; Vogel, Peter; Liu, Chih Long; Tangsombatvisit, Stephanie; Grosso, Joseph F.; Netto, George; Smeltzer, Matthew P.; Chaux, Alcides; Utz, Paul J.; Workman, Creg J.; Pardoll, Drew M.; Korman, Alan J.; Drake, Charles G.; Vignali, Dario A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitory receptors on immune cells are pivotal regulators of immune escape in cancer. Among these inhibitory receptors, CTLA-4 (targeted clinically by ipilimumab) serves as a dominant off-switch while other receptors such as PD-1 and LAG-3 seem to serve more subtle rheostat functions. However, the extent of synergy and cooperative interactions between inhibitory pathways in cancer remain largely unexplored. Here we reveal extensive co-expression of PD-1 and LAG-3 on tumor-infiltrating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in three distinct transplantable tumors. Dual anti-LAG-3/anti-PD-1 antibody treatment cured most mice of established tumors that were largely resistant to single antibody treatment. Despite minimal immunopathological sequelae in PD-1 and LAG-3 single knockout mice, dual knockout mice abrogated self-tolerance with resultant autoimmune infiltrates in multiple organs, leading to eventual lethality. However, Lag3−/−Pdcd1−/− mice demonstrated markedly increased survival from and clearance of multiple transplantable tumors. Together, these results define a strong synergy between the PD-1 and LAG-3 inhibitory pathways in tolerance to both self and tumor antigens. Additionally, they argue strongly that dual blockade of these molecules represents a promising combinatorial strategy for cancer. PMID:22186141

  7. Effects of Selenium Yeast on Oxidative Stress, Growth Inhibition, and Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chih-Hung; Hsia, Simon; Shih, Min-Yi; Hsieh, Fang-Chin; Chen, Pei-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that selenium (Se) yeast may exhibit potential anti-cancer properties; whereas the precise mechanisms remain unknown. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of Se yeast on oxidative stress, growth inhibition, and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. Treatments of ER-positive MCF-7 and triple-negative MDA-MB-231 cells with Se yeast (100, 750, and 1500 ng Se/mL), methylseleninic acid (MSA, 1500 ng Se/mL), or methylselenocysteine (MSC, 1500 ng Se/mL) at a time course experiment (at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h) were analyzed. Se yeast inhibited the growth of these cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Compared with the same level of MSA, cancer cells exposure to Se yeast exhibited a lower growth-inhibitory response. The latter has also lower superoxide production and reduced antioxidant enzyme activities. Furthermore, MSA (1500 ng Se/mL)-exposed non-tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) have a significant growth inhibitory effect, but not Se yeast and MSC. Compared with MSA, Se yeast resulted in a greater increase in the early apoptosis in MCF-7 cells as well as a lower proportion of early and late apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, nuclear morphological changes and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential were observed. In conclusion, a dose of 100 to 1500 ng Se/mL of Se yeast can increase oxidative stress, and stimulate growth inhibitory effects and apoptosis induction in breast cancer cell lines, but does not affect non-tumorigenic cells. PMID:26392813

  8. Inhibitory axons are targeted in hippocampal cell culture by anti-Caspr2 autoantibodies associated with limbic encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Pinatel, Delphine; Hivert, Bruno; Boucraut, José; Saint-Martin, Margaux; Rogemond, Véronique; Zoupi, Lida; Karagogeos, Domna; Honnorat, Jérôme; Faivre-Sarrailh, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Caspr2), also known as CNTNAP2, is a cell adhesion molecule that clusters voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv1.1/1.2) at the juxtaparanodes of myelinated axons and may regulate axonal excitability. As a component of the Kv1 complex, Caspr2 has been identified as a target in neuromyotonia and Morvan syndrome, but also in some cases of autoimmune limbic encephalitis (LE). How anti-Caspr2 autoimmunity is linked with the central neurological symptoms is still elusive. In the present study, using anti-Caspr2 antibodies from seven patients affected by pure LE, we determined that IgGs in the cerebrospinal fluid of four out seven patients were selectively directed against the N-terminal Discoïdin and LamininG1 modules of Caspr2. Using live immunolabeling of cultured hippocampal neurons, we determined that serum IgGs in all patients strongly targeted inhibitory interneurons. Caspr2 was highly detected on GAD65-positive axons that are surrounding the cell bodies and at the VGAT-positive inhibitory presynaptic contacts. Functional assays indicated that LE autoantibodies may induce alteration of Gephyrin clusters at inhibitory synaptic contacts. Next, we generated a Caspr2-Fc chimera to reveal Caspr2 receptors on hippocampal neurons localized at the somato-dendritic compartment and post-synapse. Caspr2-Fc binding was strongly increased on TAG-1-transfected neurons and conversely, Caspr2-Fc did not bind hippocampal neurons from TAG-1-deficient mice. Our data indicate that Caspr2 may participate as a cell recognition molecule in the dynamics of inhibitory networks. This study provides new insight into the potential pathogenic effect of anti-Caspr2 autoantibodies in central hyperexcitability that may be related with perturbation of inhibitory interneuron activity. PMID:26217189

  9. Inhibitory effects of mast cell-mediated allergic reactions by cell cultured Siberian Ginseng.

    PubMed

    Jeong, H J; Koo, H N; Myung, N I; Shin, M K; Kim, J W; Kim, D K; Kim, K S; Kim, H M; Lee, Y M

    2001-02-01

    The crude drug "Siberian Ginseng (SG)" has long been used in empirical Oriental medicine for the nonspecific enhancement of resistance in humans and animals. In this study, we investigated the effect of cell cultured SG by oral administration in mast cell-mediated allergic reactions. SG dose-dependently inhibited compound 48/80-induced systemic allergy with doses of 10(-2) to 1 g/kg 1 h before oral administration. Of special note, SG inhibited systemic allergy with the dose of 1 g/kg by 25%. SG (1 g/kg) also inhibited passive cutaneous allergic reaction by 51%. SG dose-dependently inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. When SG (0.01 mg/ml) was added, the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 in antidinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE antibody-stimulated mast cells was inhibited 39.5% and 23.3%, respectively. In addition, SG inhibited anti-DNP IgE antibody-stimulated TNF-alpha protein expression in mast cells. Our studies provide evidence that SG may be beneficial in the treatment of various types of allergic diseases.

  10. Cancer Stem Cell-Secreted Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Stimulates Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cell Function and Facilitates Glioblastoma Immune Evasion.

    PubMed

    Otvos, Balint; Silver, Daniel J; Mulkearns-Hubert, Erin E; Alvarado, Alvaro G; Turaga, Soumya M; Sorensen, Mia D; Rayman, Patricia; Flavahan, William A; Hale, James S; Stoltz, Kevin; Sinyuk, Maksim; Wu, Qiulian; Jarrar, Awad; Kim, Sung-Hak; Fox, Paul L; Nakano, Ichiro; Rich, Jeremy N; Ransohoff, Richard M; Finke, James; Kristensen, Bjarne W; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Lathia, Justin D

    2016-08-01

    Shifting the balance away from tumor-mediated immune suppression toward tumor immune rejection is the conceptual foundation for a variety of immunotherapy efforts currently being tested. These efforts largely focus on activating antitumor immune responses but are confounded by multiple immune cell populations, including myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which serve to suppress immune system function. We have identified immune-suppressive MDSCs in the brains of GBM patients and found that they were in close proximity to self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSCs). MDSCs were selectively depleted using 5-flurouracil (5-FU) in a low-dose administration paradigm, which resulted in prolonged survival in a syngeneic mouse model of glioma. In coculture studies, patient-derived CSCs but not nonstem tumor cells selectively drove MDSC-mediated immune suppression. A cytokine screen revealed that CSCs secreted multiple factors that promoted this activity, including macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), which was produced at high levels by CSCs. Addition of MIF increased production of the immune-suppressive enzyme arginase-1 in MDSCs in a CXCR2-dependent manner, whereas blocking MIF reduced arginase-1 production. Similarly to 5-FU, targeting tumor-derived MIF conferred a survival advantage to tumor-bearing animals and increased the cytotoxic T cell response within the tumor. Importantly, tumor cell proliferation, survival, and self-renewal were not impacted by MIF reduction, demonstrating that MIF is primarily an indirect promoter of GBM progression, working to suppress immune rejection by activating and protecting immune suppressive MDSCs within the GBM tumor microenvironment. Stem Cells 2016;34:2026-2039. PMID:27145382

  11. Cancer Stem Cell-Secreted Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Stimulates Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cell Function and Facilitates Glioblastoma Immune Evasion.

    PubMed

    Otvos, Balint; Silver, Daniel J; Mulkearns-Hubert, Erin E; Alvarado, Alvaro G; Turaga, Soumya M; Sorensen, Mia D; Rayman, Patricia; Flavahan, William A; Hale, James S; Stoltz, Kevin; Sinyuk, Maksim; Wu, Qiulian; Jarrar, Awad; Kim, Sung-Hak; Fox, Paul L; Nakano, Ichiro; Rich, Jeremy N; Ransohoff, Richard M; Finke, James; Kristensen, Bjarne W; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Lathia, Justin D

    2016-08-01

    Shifting the balance away from tumor-mediated immune suppression toward tumor immune rejection is the conceptual foundation for a variety of immunotherapy efforts currently being tested. These efforts largely focus on activating antitumor immune responses but are confounded by multiple immune cell populations, including myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which serve to suppress immune system function. We have identified immune-suppressive MDSCs in the brains of GBM patients and found that they were in close proximity to self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSCs). MDSCs were selectively depleted using 5-flurouracil (5-FU) in a low-dose administration paradigm, which resulted in prolonged survival in a syngeneic mouse model of glioma. In coculture studies, patient-derived CSCs but not nonstem tumor cells selectively drove MDSC-mediated immune suppression. A cytokine screen revealed that CSCs secreted multiple factors that promoted this activity, including macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), which was produced at high levels by CSCs. Addition of MIF increased production of the immune-suppressive enzyme arginase-1 in MDSCs in a CXCR2-dependent manner, whereas blocking MIF reduced arginase-1 production. Similarly to 5-FU, targeting tumor-derived MIF conferred a survival advantage to tumor-bearing animals and increased the cytotoxic T cell response within the tumor. Importantly, tumor cell proliferation, survival, and self-renewal were not impacted by MIF reduction, demonstrating that MIF is primarily an indirect promoter of GBM progression, working to suppress immune rejection by activating and protecting immune suppressive MDSCs within the GBM tumor microenvironment. Stem Cells 2016;34:2026-2039.

  12. Inhibitory activity of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes) on transformed cells by human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Márquez, Eva; Lagunas-Martínez, Alfredo; Bermudez-Morales, Victor H; Burgete-García, Ana I; León-Rivera, Ismael; Montiel-Arcos, Elizur; García-Villa, Enrique; Gariglio, Patricio; Madrid-Marina V, Vicente; Ondarza-Vidaurreta, Raul N

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of the aqueous extracts of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, obtained from three localities (China; and Morelos and Michoacan, Mexico) on cervical cells transformed by human papillomavirus (HeLa and SiHa) and C-33A cancer cells. The cells were plated in DMEM medium supplemented, and were incubated in the presence of different concentrations of G. lucidum for 24 h. Cell proliferation was determined by MTT colorimetric assay and viability by trypan blue assay. Inhibitory dose was determined (IC50) of the three different extracts of G. lucidum in the culture cell lines mentioned above. The apoptosis process was confirmed by nuclear DNA fragmentation and the cell cycle was determined by flow cytometry. The results showed that aqueous extracts G. lucidum obtained from three localities produced inhibition in the proliferation of VPH transformed cells; they also induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in HeLa, SiHa, and C-33A cancer cells. Therefore, it was found that aqueous extracts G. lucidum obtained from three different locations produced inhibitory effect on cancer cells and may have a potential therapeutic use for the prevention and treatment of this disease. PMID:24941039

  13. Inhibitory Effect of Herbal Remedy PERVIVO and Anti-Inflammatory Drug Sulindac on L-1 Sarcoma Tumor Growth and Tumor Angiogenesis in Balb/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Skopiński, P.; Bałan, B. J.; Kocik, J.; Zdanowski, R.; Lewicki, S.; Niemcewicz, M.; Gawrychowski, K.; Skopińska-Różewska, E.; Stankiewicz, W.

    2013-01-01

    Anticancer activity of many herbs was observed for hundreds of years. They act as modifiers of biologic response, and their effectiveness may be increased by combining multiple herbal extracts . PERVIVO, traditional digestive herbal remedy, contains some of them, and we previously described its antiangiogenic activity. Numerous studies documented anticancer effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. We were the first to show that sulindac and its metabolites inhibit angiogenesis. In the present paper the combined in vivo effect of multicomponent herbal remedy PERVIVO and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac on tumor growth, tumor angiogenesis, and tumor volume in Balb/c mice was studied. These effects were checked after grafting cells collected from syngeneic sarcoma L-1 tumors into mice skin. The strongest inhibitory effect was observed in experimental groups treated with PERVIVO and sulindac together. The results of our investigation showed that combined effect of examined drugs may be the best way to get the strongest antiangiogenic and antitumor effect. PMID:23935247

  14. Zinc-Induced Polymerization of Killer-Cell Ig-like Receptor into Filaments Promotes Its Inhibitory Function at Cytotoxic Immunological Synapses.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Rajagopalan, Sumati; Sarkar, Pabak; Dorward, David W; Peterson, Mary E; Liao, Hsien-Shun; Guillermier, Christelle; Steinhauser, Matthew L; Vogel, Steven S; Long, Eric O

    2016-04-01

    The inhibitory function of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) that bind HLA-C and block activation of human natural killer (NK) cells is dependent on zinc. We report that zinc induced the assembly of soluble KIR into filamentous polymers, as detected by electron microscopy, which depolymerized after zinc chelation. Similar KIR filaments were isolated from lysates of cells treated with zinc, and membrane protrusions enriched in zinc were detected on whole cells by scanning electron microscopy and imaging mass spectrometry. Two independent mutations in the extracellular domain of KIR, away from the HLA-C binding site, impaired zinc-driven polymerization and inhibitory function. KIR filaments formed spontaneously, without the addition of zinc, at functional inhibitory immunological synapses of NK cells with HLA-C(+) cells. Adding to the recent paradigm of signal transduction through higher order molecular assemblies, zinc-induced polymerization of inhibitory KIR represents an unusual mode of signaling by a receptor at the cell surface.

  15. Inhibitory Effects and Underlying Mechanism of 7-Hydroxyflavone Phosphate Ester in HeLa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liguo; Chen, Xiaolan; Yang, Fang; Jin, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Chrysin and its phosphate ester have previously been shown to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in Hela cells; however, the underlying mechanism remains to be characterized. In the present study, we therefore synthesized diethyl flavon-7-yl phosphate (FP, C19H19O6P) by a simplified Atheron-Todd reaction, and explored its anti-tumor characteristics and mechanisms. Cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis were measured by MTS, flow cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling techniques, respectively in human cervical cancer HeLa cells treated with 7-hydroxyflavone (HF) and FP. p21, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cAMP levels in Hela cells were analyzed by western blot and radioimmunoassay. Both HF and FP inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in HeLa cells via induction of PCNA/p21 expression, cleaved caspase-3/poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1, elevation of cAMP levels, and cell cycle arrest with accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 fraction. The effects of FP were more potent than those of HF. The interactions of FP with Ca2+-calmodulin (CaM) and Ca2+-CaM-phosphodiesterase (PDE)1 were explored by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and fluorescence spectra. FP, but not HF, formed non-covalent complexes with Ca2+-CaM-PDE1, indicating that FP is an inhibitor of PDE1, and resulting in elevated cellular cAMP levels. It is possible that the elevated cAMP levels inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in Hela cells through induction of p21 and cleaved caspase-3/PARP-1 expression, and causing down-regulation of PCNA and cell cycle arrest with accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 and G2/M fractions. In conclusion, FP was shown to be a Ca2+-CaM-PDE inhibitor, which might account for its underlying anti-cancer mechanism in HeLa cells. These observations clearly demonstrate the special roles of phosphorylated flavonoids in biological processes, and suggest that FP might represent a potential

  16. Inhibitory effects of anti-rheumatic drugs containing magnosalin, a compound from 'Shin-i' (Flos magnoliae), on the proliferation of synovial cells in rheumatoid arthritis models.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, S; Kobayashi, H; Matsuno, H; Kimura, I; Kimura, M

    1998-05-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effects of magnosalin, a compound isolated from 'Shin-i' (Flos magnoliae) on proliferation of synovial cells isolated from MRL/1pr and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Magnosalin (2.39-23.9 microM) inhibited 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS)-stimulated [3H]-thymidine incorporation into the synovial cells in the MRL/1pr mice. The effect of magnosalin was greater than that of hydrocortisone, bucillamine and magnoshinin (another compound from 'Shin-i'), but weaker than that of corticosterone. The effects of magnosalin for FBS-induced thymidine incorporation into the cells of the CIA mice and the RA patients were significantly greater than those in the corresponding control mice and osteoarthritis patients. Interleukin (IL)-1alpha increased the incorporation of thymidine into the synovial cells in the C57BL/6J mice to a greater degree than did basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or platelet-derived growth factor BB-homodimer (PDGF-BB). The inhibitory effect of magnosalin on the submaximal action of IL-1alpha was significantly greater than that of bFGF, PDGF-BB or FBS. These results offer evidence that magnosalin suppresses the proliferation of synovial cells in RA models by inhibiting IL-1alpha-stimulated action.

  17. Inhibitory effect of genetically engineered mesenchymal stem cells with Apoptin on hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingsi; Hou, Lingling; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Diandian; Wang, Ziling; Hu, Honggang; Fu, Yuanhui; He, Jinsheng

    2016-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive tumor and has become one of the most frequent causes of cancer death in the world. The rate of post-operative recurrence and metastasis are still high even though after surgical resection. It is a difficult problem with extraordinary importance for the clinical treatment. So stem cell therapy becomes one of the anti-tumor biotherapy methods which is exploring. Due to the feature of homing to tumor site and immunosuppressive, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the capacity of gene treatment to tumor as a vehicle. Apoptin derived from chicken anemia virus is one kind of protein with an inherent ability to lyse cancer cells while leaving normal cells unharmed. Adenovirus (Ad) vectors can be modified to deliver therapeutic genes with the advantages of low toxicity and high transfer capacity. Now it has not been reported that combining MSCs and Adenovirus with Apoptin are used in HCC treatment. This study intends to construct recombinant adenovirus which expresses Apoptin and then infects human bone marrow MSCs, and explore the migration of MSCs to the hepatoma cells and inhibitory effect of genetically engineered mesenchymal stem cells with Apoptin on hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Our research successfully established the recombinant Ad which was constructed by Ad system, and obtained MSCs which could secrete Apoptin. We found that both the modified MSCs with Apoptin and their conditional medium significantly inhibited the proliferation of liver cancer cells HepG2, which provided a novel means and experimental basis for stem cell treatment for HCC. This study tries to search for a stem cell therapy for cancers, which will provide a new approach and experimental basis for the clinical treatment of cancer. At the same time, this research will also provide experimental basis for a novel in vivo drug delivery system through stem cells as vehicle, which will resolve immune rejection induced by repeated applications of

  18. Growth regulation of cultured human nevus cells.

    PubMed

    Mancianti, M L; Györfi, T; Shih, I M; Valyi-Nagy, I; Levengood, G; Menssen, H D; Halpern, A C; Elder, D E; Herlyn, M

    1993-03-01

    Cells isolated from congenital melanocytic nevi and cultured in vitro have growth characteristics that resemble their premalignant stage in situ. A serum-free, chemically defined medium has been developed that allows continuous growth of established nevus cultures for up to several months. Like primary melanoma cells, nevus cells in high-calcium-containing W489 medium require insulin for growth. In contrast to melanoma cells, nevus cells in serum-free medium require the presence of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, which enhanced intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate. In contrast to the requirements of normal human melanocytes from newborn foreskin, congenital nevus cells grow with less dependency on basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Nevus cultures contain bFGF-like activity, and they express bFGF mRNA. Nevic cells of compound nevi also express bFGF mRNA in situ but only in the junctional areas. These results indicate that bFGF plays an important growth regulatory role for nevus cells in vitro and in vivo. PMID:8440904

  19. Growth Inhibitory and Tumor- Suppressive Functions of p53 Depend on its Repression of CD44 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Godar, Samuel; Ince, Tan A.; Bell, George W.; Feldser, David; Donaher, Joana Liu; Bergh, Jonas; Liu, Anne; Miu, Kevin; Watnick, Randolph S.; Reinhardt, Ferenc; McAllister, Sandra S.; Jacks, Tyler; Weinberg, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The p53 tumor suppressor is a key mediator of cellular responses to various stresses. Here we show that under conditions of basal physiologic and cell-culture stress, p53 inhibits expression of the CD44 cell-surface molecule via binding to a non-canonical p53-binding sequence in the CD44 promoter. This interaction enables an untransformed cell to respond to stress-induced, p53-dependent cytostatic and apoptotic signals that would otherwise be blocked by the actions of CD44. In the absence of p53 function, the resulting de-repressed CD44 expression is essential for the growth and tumor-initiating ability of highly tumorigenic mammary epithelial cells. In both tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells, CD44’s expression is positively regulated by p63, a paralogue of p53. Our data indicate that CD44 is a key tumor-promoting agent in transformed tumor cells lacking p53 function. They also suggest that the de-repression of CD44 resulting from inactivation of p53 can potentially aid the survival of immortalized, premalignant, cells. PMID:18614011

  20. Cloned Hemoglobin Genes Enhance Growth Of Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khosla, Chaitan; Bailey, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments show that portable deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences incorporated into host cells make them produce hemoglobins - oxygen-binding proteins essential to function of red blood cells. Method useful in several biotechnological applications. One, enhancement of growth of cells at higher densities. Another, production of hemoglobin to enhance supplies of oxygen in cells, for use in chemical reactions requiring oxygen, as additive to serum to increase transport of oxygen, and for binding and separating oxygen from mixtures of gases.

  1. Inhibitory effects of Stephania tetrandra S. Moore on free radical-induced lysis of rat red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, Nobuyasu; Hikiami, Hiroaki; Yokoyama, Koichi; Kouta, Kazufumi; Sakakibara, Iwao; Shimada, Yutaka; Terasawa, Katsutoshi

    2005-04-01

    Crude preparations of Stephania tetrandra S. MOORE (ST), a traditional herbal medicine, have been used safely for arthritis and silicosis in China. In this study, we demonstrated that ST in vitro protects red blood cells from 2,2-azo-bis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced hemolysis. The inhibitory effect was dose-dependent at concentrations of 10 to 1000 microg/ml. Moreover, tests were carried out to identify the main ingredient of ST that exerts a scavenging effect on free-radicals. Three representative alkaloids, tetrandrine, fangchinoline, and cyclanoline, isolated from ST, were found to have inhibitory activities against AAPH-induced lysis of red blood cells (RBC). Furthermore, the ingestion of 200 mg of ST extract was associated with a significant increase in free-radical scavenging effect of plasma in rats. These results suggest that ST as antioxidant inhibits AAPH-induced hemolysis of RBC both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:15802807

  2. Inhibitory constituents of Euonymus alatus leaves and twigs on nitric oxide production in BV2 microglia cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Eun Ju; Yang, Heejung; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kang, So Young; Sung, Sang Hyun; Kim, Young Choong

    2011-06-01

    The excessive and prolonged nitric oxide (NO) production has been linked to various inflammatory diseases as well as tumourigenesis. On the search for anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer compounds from the medicinal plants, the methanolic extract of Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Sieb. (Celastraceae) was found to have significant inhibitory activity on NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia cells. Hence, we attempted to isolate the inhibitory constituent of E. alatus leaves and twigs on NO production. Thirteen compounds including two new glycerol derivates (1, 2), two C(13) isoprenoids (3, 4), two phenolics (5, 6) and seven flavonoids (7-13) were isolated, and the structures of 1-13 were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D spectroscopic methods. The isolated compounds significantly inhibited NO production induced by LPS in BV2 microglia cells.

  3. Potent inhibitory effect of δ-tocopherol on prostate cancer cells cultured in vitro and grown as xenograft tumors in vivo.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huarong; He, Yan; Cui, Xiao-Xing; Goodin, Susan; Wang, Hong; Du, Zhi Yun; Li, Dongli; Zhang, Kun; Tony Kong, Ah-Ng; DiPaola, Robert S; Yang, Chung S; Conney, Allan H; Zheng, Xi

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, the effects of δ-tocopherol (δ-T) on growth and apoptosis of human prostate cancer cells were determined and compared with that of α-tocopherol (α-T), a commonly used form of vitamin E. Treatment of human prostate cancer cells with δ-T resulted in strong growth inhibition and apoptosis stimulation, while the effects of α-T were modest. The strong effects of δ-T on the cells were associated with suppression of androgen receptor (AR) activity and decreased level of prostate specific antigen (PSA) that is a downstream target of the AR signaling. In the in vivo study, we found that δ-T had a more potent inhibitory effect on the formation and growth of prostate xenograft tumors than that of α-T. Moreover, δ-T inhibited proliferation and stimulated apoptosis in the tumors. The present study identified δ-T as a better form of vitamin E than α-T for future clinical studies of prostate cancer prevention.

  4. Enterohepatic recirculation of bioactive ginger phytochemicals is associated with enhanced tumor growth-inhibitory activity of ginger extract.

    PubMed

    Gundala, Sushma R; Mukkavilli, Rao; Yang, Chunhua; Yadav, Pooja; Tandon, Vibha; Vangala, Subrahmanyam; Prakash, Satya; Aneja, Ritu

    2014-06-01

    Phytochemical complexity of plant foods confers health-promoting benefits including chemopreventive and anticancer effects. Isolating single constituents from complex foods may render them inactive, emphasizing the importance of preserving the natural composition of whole extracts. Recently, we demonstrated in vitro synergy among the most abundant bioactive constituents of ginger extract (GE), viz., 6-gingerol (6G), 8-gingerol (8G), 10-gingerol (10G) and 6-shogaol (6S). However, no study has yet examined the in vivo collaboration among ginger phytochemicals or evaluated the importance, if any, of the natural 'milieu' preserved in whole extract. Here, we comparatively evaluated in vivo efficacy of GE with an artificial quasi-mixture (Mix) formulated by combining four most active ginger constituents at concentrations equivalent to those present in whole extract. Orally fed GE showed 2.4-fold higher tumor growth-inhibitory efficacy than Mix in human prostate tumor xenografts. Pharmacokinetic evaluations and bioavailability measurements addressed the efficacy differences between GE and Mix. Plasma concentration-time profiles revealed multiple peaking phenomenon for ginger constituents when they were fed as GE as opposed to Mix, indicating enterohepatic recirculation. Bioavailability of 6G, 8G, 10G and 6S was 1.6-, 1.1-, 2.5- and 3.4-fold higher, respectively, when dosed with GE compared with Mix. In addition, gingerol glucuronides were detected in feces upon intravenous administration confirming hepatobiliary elimination. These data ascribe the superior in vivo efficacy of GE to higher area under the concentration time curves, greater residence time and enhanced bioavailability, of ginger phytochemicals, when fed as a natural extract compared with artificial Mix, emphasizing the usefulness of consuming whole foods over single agents.

  5. Gellan sulfate inhibits Plasmodium falciparum growth and invasion of red blood cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Recuenco, Frances Cagayat; Kobayashi, Kyousuke; Ishiwa, Akiko; Enomoto-Rogers, Yukiko; Fundador, Noreen Grace V.; Sugi, Tatsuki; Takemae, Hitoshi; Iwanaga, Tatsuya; Murakoshi, Fumi; Gong, Haiyan; Inomata, Atsuko; Horimoto, Taisuke; Iwata, Tadahisa; Kato, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Here, we assessed the sulfated derivative of the microbial polysaccharide gellan gum and derivatives of λ and κ-carrageenans for their ability to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 and Dd2 growth and invasion of red blood cells in vitro. Growth inhibition was assessed by means of flow cytometry after a 96-h exposure to the inhibitors and invasion inhibition was assessed by counting ring parasites after a 20-h exposure to them. Gellan sulfate strongly inhibited invasion and modestly inhibited growth for both P. falciparum 3D7 and Dd2; both inhibitory effects exceeded those achieved with native gellan gum. The hydrolyzed λ-carrageenan and oversulfated κ-carrageenan were less inhibitory than their native forms. In vitro cytotoxicity and anticoagulation assays performed to determine the suitability of the modified polysaccharides for in vivo studies showed that our synthesized gellan sulfate had low cytotoxicity and anticoagulant activity. PMID:24740150

  6. Oak ellagitannins suppress the phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor in human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Fridrich, Diana; Glabasnia, Arne; Fritz, Jessica; Esselen, Melanie; Pahlke, Gudrun; Hofmann, Thomas; Marko, Doris

    2008-05-14

    The ellagitannins castalagin and vescalagin, and the C-glycosides grandinin and roburin E as well as ellagic acid were found to potently inhibit the growth of human colon carcinoma cells (HT29) in vitro. In a cell-free system these compounds were identified as potent inhibitors of the protein tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with IC 50 values in the low nanomolar range. To address the question of whether the interference with the activity of the isolated EGFR also plays a role within intact cells, effects on the phosphorylation status of the EGFR, as a measure for its activity, were determined in HT29 cells. As exemplified for castalagin and grandinin, both the nonglycosylated and the glycosylated ellagitannins effectively suppressed EGFR phosphorylation, but only at concentrations > or =10 microM, thus, in a concentration range where growth inhibition was observed. These results indicate that the suppression of EGFR-mediated signaling might contribute to the growth inhibitory effects of these compounds present in oak-matured wines and spirits such as whiskey. In contrast, despite substantial growth inhibitory properties, ellagic acid did not significantly affect EGFR phosphorylation in HT29 cells up to 100 microM. PMID:18419129

  7. Syzygium cumini inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in cervical cancer cell lines: a primary study.

    PubMed

    Barh, D; Viswanathan, G

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is common among women in the Indian subcontinent and the incidences and death rates are gradually increasing over the years. Several dietary phytochemicals have been reported to have growth inhibitory and apoptotic effect on HeLa and other cervical cell lines. In this study, using Hoechst 33342 staining, MTT, Annexin V-FLUOS/PI and TUNEL assays we demonstrated that Syzygium cumini extract inhibits the growth and induces apoptosis in HeLa and SiHa cervical cancer cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The phytochemical, its mode of action and safety issues are yet to be determined. PMID:22275971

  8. Melanin biosynthesis inhibitory activity of a compound isolated from young green barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Tian Xiao; Irino, Nobuto; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2015-07-01

    In the course to find compounds that inhibit melanin biosynthesis (i.e., whitening agents), we evaluated the effects of the methanol-soluble fraction (i.e., the water-soluble portion of methanol extracts-CHP20P-MeOH eluted fraction) from young green barley leaves on melanin production in B16 melanoma cells. Activity-guided fractionation led to an isolate called tricin (compound 1) as an inhibitory compound of melanin production in B16 melanoma cells. Furthermore, tricin analogs such as tricetin, tricetin trimethyl ether, luteolin, and apigenin were used for analyzing the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of 5,7-dihydroxyflavones studies. Tricin demonstrated stronger inhibitory activity compared to three other compounds. The results suggest that a hydroxyl group at the C-4' position and methoxy groups at the C-3',5' positions of the tricin skeleton may have important roles in this inhibitory activity in B16 melanoma cells. Our results suggest that tricin inhibits melanin biosynthesis with higher efficacy than arbutin, and it could be used as a whitening agent. PMID:25827948

  9. Melanin biosynthesis inhibitory activity of a compound isolated from young green barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Tian Xiao; Irino, Nobuto; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2015-07-01

    In the course to find compounds that inhibit melanin biosynthesis (i.e., whitening agents), we evaluated the effects of the methanol-soluble fraction (i.e., the water-soluble portion of methanol extracts-CHP20P-MeOH eluted fraction) from young green barley leaves on melanin production in B16 melanoma cells. Activity-guided fractionation led to an isolate called tricin (compound 1) as an inhibitory compound of melanin production in B16 melanoma cells. Furthermore, tricin analogs such as tricetin, tricetin trimethyl ether, luteolin, and apigenin were used for analyzing the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of 5,7-dihydroxyflavones studies. Tricin demonstrated stronger inhibitory activity compared to three other compounds. The results suggest that a hydroxyl group at the C-4' position and methoxy groups at the C-3',5' positions of the tricin skeleton may have important roles in this inhibitory activity in B16 melanoma cells. Our results suggest that tricin inhibits melanin biosynthesis with higher efficacy than arbutin, and it could be used as a whitening agent.

  10. Application of Recombinant Human Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) Produced in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) for Maintenance of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Youngblood, Bradford A.; Alfano, Randall; Pettit, Steve C.; Zhang, Deshui; Dallmann, H. Garry; Huang, Ning; MacDonald, Clinton C.

    2014-01-01

    Embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells have the ability to differentiate into any somatic cell type, and thus have potential to treat a number of diseases that are currently incurable. Application of these cells for clinical or industrial uses would require an increase in production to yield adequate numbers of viable cells. However, the relatively high costs of cytokines and growth factors required for maintenance of stem cells in the undifferentiated state have the potential to limit translational research. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a member of the IL-6 cytokine family, is a key regulator in the maintenance of naïve states for both human and mouse stem cells. In this study, we describe a new recombinant human LIF (rhLIF) using a plant-based (rice) expression system. We found that rice-derived rhLIF possessed the same specific activity as commercial E. coli-derived LIF and was capable of supporting mouse embryonic stem cell proliferation in the undifferentiated state as evidenced from pluripotency marker level analysis. Retention of the pluripotent state was found to be indistinguishable between rice-derived rhLIF and other recombinant LIF proteins currently on the market. PMID:24380819

  11. GDNF-induced leukemia inhibitory factor can mediate differentiation via the MEK/ERK pathway in pheochromocytoma cells derived from nf1-heterozygous knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-In; Powers, James F; Tischler, Arthur S; Strock, Christopher J; Ball, Douglas W; Nelkin, Barry D

    2005-02-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) can induce neuron-like differentiation of mouse pheochromocytoma (MPC) cell lines derived from mice with a heterozygous knockout mutation of nf1, the murine counterpart of the human gene mutated in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Here, we show that GDNF-induced differentiation in the MPC 862L cell line is mediated by the MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Neurite outgrowth, increased expression of growth-associated protein 43, and decreased incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) were induced by treatment with GDNF, H-RasV12, or a constitutively active MEK2. GDNF also induces leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) via the MEK/ERK pathway, and LIF itself can elicit these differentiative changes via a cell-extrinsic autocrine/paracrine pathway. Treatment with anti-LIF neutralizing antibody depleted the differentiative activity of the conditioned medium from cells stimulated for MEK/ERK signaling, while recombinant LIF could induce differentiation in MPC cells, indicating that LIF is the sole factor with differentiative activity. LIF could activate MEK1/2 and STAT3, but LIF-induced differentiation was blocked only by the MEK1/2-specific inhibitor U0126, indicating that the MEK/ERK pathway is necessary for LIF action in MPC cells. Our findings suggest that LIF may be utilized for signaling mediated by GDNF and may be important in the pathobiology of neuroendocrine tumors.

  12. Shape of growth cells in directional solidification.

    PubMed

    Pocheau, A; Georgelin, M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize experimentally the whole shape of the growth cells displayed in directional solidification and its evolution with respect to control parameters. A library of cells is first built up from observation of directional solidification of a succinonitrile alloy in a large range of pulling velocity, cell spacing, and thermal gradient. Cell boundaries are then extracted from these images and fitted by trial functions on their whole profile, from cell tip to cell grooves. A coherent evolution of the fit parameters with the control parameters is evidenced. It enables us to characterize the whole cell shape by a single function involving only two parameters which vary smoothly in the control parameter space. This, in particular, evidences a continuous evolution of the cell geometry at the cell to dendrite transition which denies the existence of a change of branch of solutions at the occurrence of sidebranching. More generally, this global determination of cell shape complemented with a previous determination of the position of cells in the thermal field (the cell tip undercooling) provides a complete characterization of growth solutions and of their evolutions in this system. It thus brings about a relevant framework for testing and improving theoretical and numerical understanding of cell shapes and cell stability in directional solidification.

  13. Inhibitory control of hippocampal inhibitory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chamberland, Simon; Topolnik, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Information processing within neuronal networks is determined by a dynamic partnership between principal neurons and local circuit inhibitory interneurons. The population of GABAergic interneurons is extremely heterogeneous and comprises, in many brain regions, cells with divergent morphological and physiological properties, distinct molecular expression profiles, and highly specialized functions. GABAergic interneurons have been studied extensively during the past two decades, especially in the hippocampus, which is a relatively simple cortical structure. Different types of hippocampal inhibitory interneurons control spike initiation [e.g., axo-axonic and basket cells (BCs)] and synaptic integration (e.g., bistratified and oriens–lacunosum moleculare interneurons) within pyramidal neurons and synchronize local network activity, providing a means for functional segregation of neuronal ensembles and proper routing of hippocampal information. Thus, it is thought that, at least in the hippocampus, GABAergic inhibitory interneurons represent critical regulating elements at all stages of information processing, from synaptic integration and spike generation to large-scale network activity. However, this raises an important question: if inhibitory interneurons are fundamental for network computations, what are the mechanisms that control the activity of the interneurons themselves? Given the essential role of synaptic inhibition in the regulation of neuronal activity, it would be logical to expect that specific inhibitory mechanisms have evolved to control the operation of interneurons. Here, we review the mechanisms of synaptic inhibition of interneurons and discuss their role in the operation of hippocampal inhibitory circuits. PMID:23162426

  14. Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Enhances Endometrial Stromal Cell Decidualization in Humans and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Joanne; Li, Priscilla; Lane, Natalie; Dimitriadis, Evdokia

    2011-01-01

    Adequate differentiation or decidualization of endometrial stromal cells (ESC) is critical for successful pregnancy in humans and rodents. Here, we investigated the role of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in human and murine decidualization. Ex vivo human (H) ESC decidualization was induced by estrogen (E, 10−8 M) plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, 10−7 M). Exogenous LIF (≥50 ng/ml) induced STAT3 phosphorylation in non-decidualized and decidualized HESC and enhanced E+MPA-induced decidualization (measured by PRL secretion, P<0.05). LIF mRNA in HESC was down-regulated by decidualization treatment (E+MPA) whereas LIF receptor (R) mRNA was up-regulated, suggesting that the decidualization stimulus ‘primed’ HESC for LIF action, but that factors not present in our in vitro model were required to induce LIF expression. Ex vivo first trimester decidual biopsies secreted >100 pg/mg G-CSF, IL6, IL8, and MCP1. Decidualized HESC secreted IL6, IL8, IL15 and MCP1. LIF (50 ng/ml) up-regulated IL6 and IL15 (P<0.05) secretion in decidualized HESC compared to 0.5 ng/ml LIF. In murine endometrium, LIF and LIFR immunolocalized to decidualized stromal cells on day 5 of gestation (day 0 = day of plug detection). Western blotting confirmed that LIF and the LIFR were up-regulated in intra-implantation sites compared to inter-implantation sites on Day 5 of gestation. To determine the role of LIF during in vivo murine decidualization, intra-peritoneal injections of a long-acting LIF antagonist (PEGLA; 900 or 1200 µg) were given just post-attachment, during the initiation of decidualization on day 4. PEGLA treatment reduced implantation site decidual area (P<0.05) and desmin staining immuno-intensity (P<0.05) compared to control on day 6 of gestation. This study demonstrated that LIF was an important regulator of decidualization in humans and mice and data provides insight into the processes underlying decidualization, which are important for understanding implantation

  15. Adolescent maturation of inhibitory inputs onto cingulate cortex neurons is cell-type specific and TrkB dependent

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberg, Angela; Piekarski, David J.; Caporale, Natalia; Munoz-Cuevas, Francisco Javier; Wilbrecht, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The maturation of inhibitory circuits during adolescence may be tied to the onset of mental health disorders such as schizophrenia. Neurotrophin signaling likely plays a critical role in supporting inhibitory circuit development and is also implicated in psychiatric disease. Within the neocortex, subcircuits may mature at different times and show differential sensitivity to neurotrophin signaling. We measured miniature inhibitory and excitatory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs and mEPSCs) in Layer 5 cell-types in the mouse anterior cingulate (Cg) across the periadolescent period. We differentiated cell-types mainly by Thy1 YFP transgene expression and also retrobead injection labeling in the contralateral Cg and ipsilateral pons. We found that YFP− neurons and commissural projecting neurons had lower frequency of mIPSCs than neighboring YFP+ neurons or pons projecting neurons in juvenile mice (P21–25). YFP− neurons and to a lesser extent commissural projecting neurons also showed a significant increase in mIPSC amplitude during the periadolescent period (P21–25 vs. P40–50), which was not seen in YFP+ neurons or pons projecting neurons. Systemic disruption of tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) signaling during P23–50 in TrkBF616A mice blocked developmental changes in mIPSC amplitude, without affecting miniature excitatory post synaptic currents (mEPSCs). Our data suggest that the maturation of inhibitory inputs onto Layer 5 pyramidal neurons is cell-type specific. These data may inform our understanding of adolescent brain development across species and aid in identifying candidate subcircuits that may show greater vulnerability in mental illness. PMID:25762898

  16. Epitope mapping of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody and induction of growth-inhibitory polyclonal antibodies by vaccination with EGFR mimotope.

    PubMed

    Navari, Mohsen; Zare, Mehrak; Javanmardi, Masoud; Asadi-Ghalehni, Majid; Modjtahedi, Helmout; Rasaee, Mohammad Javed

    2014-10-01

    One of the proposed approaches in cancer therapy is to induce and direct the patient's own immune system against cancer cells. In this study, we determined the epitope mapping of the rat anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody ICR-62 using a phage display of random peptide library and identified a 12 amino acids peptide, which was recognized as a mimotope. The peptide was synthesized and conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) as carrier protein (P-BSA). We have shown that ICR-62 can react specifically with P-BSA as well as native EGFR. Two rabbits were immunized either by BSA or P-BSA and the rabbits IgGs were purified and examined for binding to the antigens, mimotope and the EGFR protein purified from the EGFR overexpressing A431 cell line. We showed that the rabbit IgG generated against the mimotope is capable of inhibiting the growth of A431 cells by 15%, but does not have any effect on the growth of EGFR-negative MDA-MB-453 cell line in vitro. Our results support the need for further investigations on the potential of vaccination with either mimotope of the EGFR or epitope displayed on the surface of phage particles for use in active immunotherapy of cancer.

  17. Role of bentonite clays on cell growth.

    PubMed

    Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Ramírez-Apan, María Teresa; Kaufhold, Stephan; Ufer, Kristian; Palacios, Eduardo; Montoya, Ascención

    2016-04-01

    Bentonites, naturally occurring clays, are produced industrially because of their adsorbent capacity but little is known about their effects on human health. This manuscript reports on the effect of bentonites on cell growth behaviour. Bentonites collected from India (Bent-India), Hungary (Bent-Hungary), Argentina (Bent-Argentina), and Indonesia (Bent-Indonesia) were studied. All four bentonites were screened in-vitro against two human cancer cell lines [U251 (central nervous system, glioblastoma) and SKLU-1 (lung adenocarcinoma)] supplied by the National Cancer Institute (USA). Bentonites induced growth inhibition in the presence of U251 cells, and growth increment in the presence of SKLU-1 cells, showing that interactions between bentonite and cell surfaces were highly specific. The proliferation response for U251 cells was explained because clay surfaces controlled the levels of metabolic growth components, thereby inhibiting the development of high-grade gliomas, particularly primary glioblastomas. On the other hand, the proliferation response for SKLU-1 was explained by an exacerbated growth favoured by swelling, and concomitant accumulation of solutes, and their hydration and transformation via clay-surface mediated reactions. PMID:26849195

  18. Role of bentonite clays on cell growth.

    PubMed

    Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Ramírez-Apan, María Teresa; Kaufhold, Stephan; Ufer, Kristian; Palacios, Eduardo; Montoya, Ascención

    2016-04-01

    Bentonites, naturally occurring clays, are produced industrially because of their adsorbent capacity but little is known about their effects on human health. This manuscript reports on the effect of bentonites on cell growth behaviour. Bentonites collected from India (Bent-India), Hungary (Bent-Hungary), Argentina (Bent-Argentina), and Indonesia (Bent-Indonesia) were studied. All four bentonites were screened in-vitro against two human cancer cell lines [U251 (central nervous system, glioblastoma) and SKLU-1 (lung adenocarcinoma)] supplied by the National Cancer Institute (USA). Bentonites induced growth inhibition in the presence of U251 cells, and growth increment in the presence of SKLU-1 cells, showing that interactions between bentonite and cell surfaces were highly specific. The proliferation response for U251 cells was explained because clay surfaces controlled the levels of metabolic growth components, thereby inhibiting the development of high-grade gliomas, particularly primary glioblastomas. On the other hand, the proliferation response for SKLU-1 was explained by an exacerbated growth favoured by swelling, and concomitant accumulation of solutes, and their hydration and transformation via clay-surface mediated reactions.

  19. Binding of the Fap2 protein of Fusobacterium nucleatum to human inhibitory receptor TIGIT protects tumors from immune cell attack.

    PubMed

    Gur, Chamutal; Ibrahim, Yara; Isaacson, Batya; Yamin, Rachel; Abed, Jawad; Gamliel, Moriya; Enk, Jonatan; Bar-On, Yotam; Stanietsky-Kaynan, Noah; Coppenhagen-Glazer, Shunit; Shussman, Noam; Almogy, Gideon; Cuapio, Angelica; Hofer, Erhard; Mevorach, Dror; Tabib, Adi; Ortenberg, Rona; Markel, Gal; Miklić, Karmela; Jonjic, Stipan; Brennan, Caitlin A; Garrett, Wendy S; Bachrach, Gilad; Mandelboim, Ofer

    2015-02-17

    Bacteria, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, are present in the tumor microenvironment. However, the immunological consequences of intra-tumoral bacteria remain unclear. Here, we have shown that natural killer (NK) cell killing of various tumors is inhibited in the presence of various F. nucleatum strains. Our data support that this F. nucleatum-mediated inhibition is mediated by human, but not by mouse TIGIT, an inhibitory receptor present on all human NK cells and on various T cells. Using a library of F. nucleatum mutants, we found that the Fap2 protein of F. nucleatum directly interacted with TIGIT, leading to the inhibition of NK cell cytotoxicity. We have further demonstrated that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes expressed TIGIT and that T cell activities were also inhibited by F. nucleatum via Fap2. Our results identify a bacterium-dependent, tumor-immune evasion mechanism in which tumors exploit the Fap2 protein of F. nucleatum to inhibit immune cell activity via TIGIT.

  20. Inhibitory effect of polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) on the growth of the toxic benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis cf. ovata.

    PubMed

    Pichierri, Salvatore; Pezzolesi, Laura; Vanucci, Silvana; Totti, Cecilia; Pistocchi, Rossella

    2016-10-01

    Diatoms have been shown to produce and release a wide range of secondary metabolites that mediate interactions between individuals of different species. Among these compounds, different types of fatty acid derived long-chained polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) have been related to multiple functions such as intra- or interspecific signals and adverse effect on the reproduction of marine organisms. Several studies have reported changes on growth, cell membrane permeability, flow cytometric properties and cell morphology in phytoplankton organisms exposed to PUAs, but little information is available on the effect of these compounds on benthic microalgae. Ostreopsis cf. ovata is a toxic benthic dinoflagellate which causes massive blooms along the Mediterranean coasts typically during the late summer period. In this study the effects of three toxic PUAs known to be produced by several algae (2E,4E-decadienal, 2E,4E-octadienal and 2E,4E-heptadienal) on the growth, cytological features and cell morphology of O. cf. ovata were investigated. Our results show a clear decrease of O. cf. ovata growth with longer-chain molecules than with shorter-chain ones, confirmed also by EC50 values calculated at 48h for 2E,4E-decadienal and 2E,4E-octadienal (6.6±1.5, 17.9±2.6μmolL(-1) respectively) and at 72h for 2E,4E-heptadienal (18.4±0.7μmolL(-1)). Moreover, morphological analysis highlighted up to 79% of abnormal forms of O. cf. ovata at the highest concentrations of 2E,4E-decadienal tested (9, 18 and 36μmolL(-1)), a gradual DNA degradation and an increase of lipid droplets with all tested PUAs. Further studies are needed to better clarify the interactions between diatoms and O. cf. ovata, especially on bloom-forming dynamics. PMID:27606904

  1. Uptake of dexamethasone incorporated into liposomes by macrophages and foam cells and its inhibitory effect on cellular cholesterol ester accumulation.

    PubMed

    Chono, Sumio; Morimoto, Kazuhiro

    2006-09-01

    To confirm the efficacy of dexamethasone incorporated into liposomes in the treatment of atherosclerosis, the uptake of dexamethasone-liposomes by macrophages and foam cells and its inhibitory effect on cellular cholesterol ester accumulation in these cells were investigated in-vitro. Dexamethasone-liposomes were prepared with egg yolk phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and dicetylphosphate in a lipid molar ratio of 7/2/1 by the hydration method. This was adjusted to three different particle sizes to clarify the influence of particle size on the uptake by the macrophages and foam cells, and the inhibitory effect on cellular cholesterol ester accumulation. The distribution of particle sizes of dexamethasone-liposomes were 518.7+/-49.5 nm (L500), 202.2+/-23.1 nm (L200), and 68.6+/-6.5 nm (L70), respectively. For each size, dexamethasone concentration and dexamethasone/lipid molar ratio in dexamethasone-liposome suspension were 1 mg dexamethasone mL-1 and 0.134 mol dexamethasone mol-1 total lipids, respectively. The zeta potential was approximately -70 mV for all sizes. Dexamethasone-liposomes or free dexamethasone were added to the macrophages in the presence of oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and foam cells, and then incubated at 37 degrees C. The uptake amount of dexamethasone by the macrophages and foam cells after a 24-h incubation was L500>L200>free dexamethasone>L70. The macrophages in the presence of oxLDL and foam cells were incubated with dexamethasone-liposomes or free dexamethasone for 24 h at 37 degrees C to evaluate the inhibitory effect on the cellular cholesterol ester accumulation. The cellular cholesterol ester level in the macrophages treated with oxLDL was significantly increased compared with that in macrophages without additives. L500, L200 and free dexamethasone significantly inhibited this cholesterol ester accumulation. L500, L200 and free dexamethasone also significantly reduced cellular cholesterol ester accumulation in foam cells. In

  2. Different Inhibitory Effect and Mechanism of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles on Normal Cells and Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yingchao; Li, Shipu; Cao, Xianying; Yuan, Lin; Wang, Youfa; Yin, Yixia; Qiu, Tong; Dai, Honglian; Wang, Xinyu

    2014-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP), similar to inorganic phase in bones, shows good biocompatibility and bioactivity as bone defect repairing material. Recently, nanoscaled HAP shows the special properties differing from bulk HAP in physics, chemistry and biology. This paper demonstrates that HAP nanoparticle (nHAP) possesses the ability for inhibiting cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, after treatment with nHAP for 3 days, proliferation of human cancer cells are inhibited by more than 65% and by less than 30% for human normal cells. In vivo, injection of nHAP in transplanted tumor results in significant reduction (about 50%) of tumor size. The anticancer effect of nHAP is mainly attributed to high amount by endocytosis in cancer cells and inhibition on protein synthesis in cells. The abundant nHAP internalized in cancer cells around endoplasmic reticulum may inhibit the protein synthesis by decreasing the binding of mRNA to ribosome due to its high adsorption capacity for ribosome and arrest cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. nHAP shows no ROS-involved cytotoxicity and low cytotoxicity to normal cells. These results strongly suggest that nHAP can inhibit cancer cell proliferation and have a potential application in cancer treatment.

  3. Different Inhibitory Effect and Mechanism of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles on Normal Cells and Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yingchao; Li, Shipu; Cao, Xianying; Yuan, Lin; Wang, Youfa; Yin, Yixia; Qiu, Tong; Dai, Honglian; Wang, Xinyu

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP), similar to inorganic phase in bones, shows good biocompatibility and bioactivity as bone defect repairing material. Recently, nanoscaled HAP shows the special properties differing from bulk HAP in physics, chemistry and biology. This paper demonstrates that HAP nanoparticle (nHAP) possesses the ability for inhibiting cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, after treatment with nHAP for 3 days, proliferation of human cancer cells are inhibited by more than 65% and by less than 30% for human normal cells. In vivo, injection of nHAP in transplanted tumor results in significant reduction (about 50%) of tumor size. The anticancer effect of nHAP is mainly attributed to high amount by endocytosis in cancer cells and inhibition on protein synthesis in cells. The abundant nHAP internalized in cancer cells around endoplasmic reticulum may inhibit the protein synthesis by decreasing the binding of mRNA to ribosome due to its high adsorption capacity for ribosome and arrest cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. nHAP shows no ROS-involved cytotoxicity and low cytotoxicity to normal cells. These results strongly suggest that nHAP can inhibit cancer cell proliferation and have a potential application in cancer treatment. PMID:25409543

  4. Inhibitory effects of brown algae extracts on histamine production in mackerel muscle via inhibition of growth and histidine decarboxylase activity of Morganella morganii.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Koth Bong Woo Ri; Cho, Ji Young; Ahn, Dong Hyun

    2014-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate the inhibitory effects of brown algae extracts on histamine production in mackerel muscle. First, antimicrobial activities of brown algae extracts against Morganella morganii were investigated using a disk diffusion method. An ethanol extract of Ecklonia cava (ECEE) exhibited strong antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ECEE was 2 mg/ml. Furthermore, the brown algae extracts were examined for their ability to inhibit crude histidine decarboxylase (HDC) of M. morganii. The ethanol extract of Eisenia bicyclis (EBEE) and ECEE exhibited significant inhibitory activities (19.82% and 33.79%, respectively) at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. To obtain the phlorotannin dieckol, ECEE and EBEE were subjected to liquid-liquid extraction, silica gel column chromatography, and HPLC. Dieckol exhibited substantial inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 0.61 mg/ml, and exhibited competitive inhibition. These extracts were also tested on mackerel muscle. The viable cell counts and histamine production in mackerel muscle inoculated with M. morganii treated with ≥2.5 MIC of ECEE (weight basis) were highly inhibited compared with the untreated sample. Furthermore, treatment of crude HDC-inoculated mackerel muscle with 0.5% ECEE and 0.5% EBEE (weight basis), which exhibited excellent inhibitory activities against crude HDC, reduced the overall histamine production by 46.29% and 56.89%, respectively, compared with the untreated sample. Thus, these inhibitory effects of ECEE and EBEE should be helpful in enhancing the safety of mackerel by suppressing histamine production in this fish species.

  5. Extracellular calcium increases bisphosphonate-induced growth inhibition of breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Journé, Fabrice; Kheddoumi, Naïma; Chaboteaux, Carole; Duvillier, Hugues; Laurent, Guy; Body, Jean-Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Bisphosphonates have become standard therapy for the treatment of skeletal complications related to breast cancer. Although their therapeutic effects mainly result from an inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption, in vitro data indicate that they also act directly on breast cancer cells, inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Methods The present study examined the effects of calcium (from 0.6 to 2.0 mmol/l) on the antitumour activity of the bisphosphonate ibandronate (1 to 1,000 nmol/l) on MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Cell culture densities were determined using crystal violet staining assay. Apoptotic cell death was assessed by annexin V-phycoerythrin and 7-amino-actinomycin double staining. Results At low calcium concentration, 30 μmol/l ibandronate had no effect on MDA-MB-231 cells growth and only slightly inhibited MCF-7 cells growth. Higher calcium levels significantly increased growth inhibition as well as cell apoptosis induced by ibandronate. We observed similar effects with zoledronic acid. Of note, enhancement of ibandronate-induced growth inhibition was also observed in other breast cancer cell lines (T-47D, ZR-75, Hs-578T and BT-549 cells). The growth inhibitory effect of ibandronate in the presence of high concentrations of calcium was partly suppressed by the calcium chelator EGTA (ethylene glycol tetra-acetic acid). In addition, in the presence of calcium at high concentrations, cells accumulated more [14C]ibandronate than at low calcium concentrations. We obtained further evidence of enhancement of cellular ibandronate accumulation by calcium by demonstrating that high calcium levels increased the inhibition of protein prenylation induced by the bisphosphonate. Conclusion Altogether, our data suggest that extracellular calcium, probably through its binding to ibandronate, markedly increased its cellular accumulation and its inhibitory activity on breast tumour cells. Thus, calcium released during the process of

  6. Function of Membrane-Associated Proteoglycans in the Regulation of Satellite Cell Growth.

    PubMed

    Song, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Muscle growth can be divided into embryonic and postnatal periods. During the embryonic period, mesenchymal stem cells proliferate and differentiate to form muscle fibers. Postnatal muscle growth (hypertrophy) is characterized by the enlargement of existing muscle fiber size. Satellite cells (also known as adult myoblasts) are responsible for hypertrophy. The activity of satellite cells can be regulated by their extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM is composed of collagens, proteoglycans, non-collagenous glycoproteins, cytokines and growth factors. Proteoglycans contain a central core protein with covalently attached glycosaminoglycans (GAGs: chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and heparan sulfate) and N- or O-linked glycosylation chains. Membrane-associated proteoglycans attach to the cell membrane either through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor or transmembrane domain. The GAGs can bind proteins including cytokines and growth factors. Both cytokines and growth factors play important roles in regulating satellite cell growth and development. Cytokines are generally associated with immune cells. However, cytokines can also affect muscle cell development. For instance, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and leukemia inhibitory factor have been reported to affect the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells and myoblasts. Growth factors are potent stimulators or inhibitors of satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. The proper function of some cytokines and growth factors requires an interaction with the cell membrane-associated proteoglycans to enhance the affinity to bind to their primary receptors to initiate downstream signal transduction. This chapter is focused on the interaction of membrane-associated proteoglycans with cytokines and growth factors, and their role in satellite cell growth and development.

  7. Purification and identification of a polysaccharide from medicinal mushroom Amauroderma rude with immunomodulatory activity and inhibitory effect on tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Pan, Honghui; Han, Yuanyuan; Huang, Jiguo; Yu, Xiongtao; Jiao, Chunwei; Yang, Xiaobing; Dhaliwal, Preet; Xie, Yizhen; Yang, Burton B

    2015-07-10

    Medicinal mushrooms in recent years have been the subject of many experiments searching for anticancer properties. We previously screened thirteen mushrooms for their potential in inhibiting tumor growth, and found that the water extract of Amauroderma rude exerted the highest activity. Previous studies have shown that the polysaccharides contained in the water extract were responsible for the anticancer properties. This study was designed to explore the potential effects of the polysaccharides on immune regulation and tumor growth. Using the crude Amauroderma rude extract, in vitro experiments showed that the capacities of spleen lymphocytes, macrophages, and natural killer cells were all increased. In vivo experiments showed that the extract increased macrophage metabolism, lymphocyte proliferation, and antibody production. In addition, the partially purified product stimulated the secretion of cytokines in vitro, and in vivo. Overall, the extract decreased tumor growth rates. Lastly, the active compound was purified and identified as polysaccharide F212. Most importantly, the purified polysaccharide had the highest activity in increasing lymphocyte proliferation. In summary, this molecule may serve as a lead compound for drug development. PMID:26219260

  8. Purification and identification of a polysaccharide from medicinal mushroom Amauroderma rude with immunomodulatory activity and inhibitory effect on tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Honghui; Han, Yuanyuan; Huang, Jiguo; Yu, Xiongtao; Jiao, Chunwei; Yang, Xiaobing; Dhaliwal, Preet; Xie, Yizhen; Yang, Burton B.

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms in recent years have been the subject of many experiments searching for anticancer properties. We previously screened thirteen mushrooms for their potential in inhibiting tumor growth, and found that the water extract of Amauroderma rude exerted the highest activity. Previous studies have shown that the polysaccharides contained in the water extract were responsible for the anticancer properties. This study was designed to explore the potential effects of the polysaccharides on immune regulation and tumor growth. Using the crude Amauroderma rude extract, in vitro experiments showed that the capacities of spleen lymphocytes, macrophages, and natural killer cells were all increased. In vivo experiments showed that the extract increased macrophage metabolism, lymphocyte proliferation, and antibody production. In addition, the partially purified product stimulated the secretion of cytokines in vitro, and in vivo. Overall, the extract decreased tumor growth rates. Lastly, the active compound was purified and identified as polysaccharide F212. Most importantly, the purified polysaccharide had the highest activity in increasing lymphocyte proliferation. In summary, this molecule may serve as a lead compound for drug development. PMID:26219260

  9. Purification and identification of a polysaccharide from medicinal mushroom Amauroderma rude with immunomodulatory activity and inhibitory effect on tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Pan, Honghui; Han, Yuanyuan; Huang, Jiguo; Yu, Xiongtao; Jiao, Chunwei; Yang, Xiaobing; Dhaliwal, Preet; Xie, Yizhen; Yang, Burton B

    2015-07-10

    Medicinal mushrooms in recent years have been the subject of many experiments searching for anticancer properties. We previously screened thirteen mushrooms for their potential in inhibiting tumor growth, and found that the water extract of Amauroderma rude exerted the highest activity. Previous studies have shown that the polysaccharides contained in the water extract were responsible for the anticancer properties. This study was designed to explore the potential effects of the polysaccharides on immune regulation and tumor growth. Using the crude Amauroderma rude extract, in vitro experiments showed that the capacities of spleen lymphocytes, macrophages, and natural killer cells were all increased. In vivo experiments showed that the extract increased macrophage metabolism, lymphocyte proliferation, and antibody production. In addition, the partially purified product stimulated the secretion of cytokines in vitro, and in vivo. Overall, the extract decreased tumor growth rates. Lastly, the active compound was purified and identified as polysaccharide F212. Most importantly, the purified polysaccharide had the highest activity in increasing lymphocyte proliferation. In summary, this molecule may serve as a lead compound for drug development.

  10. Elevated thymidine phosphorylase activity in psoriatic lesions accounts for the apparent presence of an epidermal growth inhibitor, but is not in itself growth inhibitory

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerberg, C.; Fisher, G.J.; Voorhees, J.J.; Cooper, K.D. )

    1991-08-01

    An apparent tissue-specific growth inhibitor, or chalone, obtained from psoriatic lesions was tentatively identified in the 100-kDa fraction based upon inhibition of DNA synthesis, as measured by (3H)-thymidine uptake by a squamous cell carcinoma cell line, SCC 38. This fraction, however, failed to inhibit SCC 38 cell growth when assessed directly in a neutral red uptake assay. Characterization of the inhibitor of (3H)-thymidine uptake revealed it to have biochemical properties identical to thymidine phosphorylase: (1) molecular weight close to 100 kDa, (2) isoelectric point of 4.2, and (3) thymidine phosphorylase enzyme activity. Thus, the authors conclude that its ability to inhibit (3H)-thymidine uptake was due to thymidine catabolism rather than inhibition of DNA synthesis or growth inhibition. Examination of thymidine phosphorylase activity in keratome biopsies from psoriatic and normal skin demonstrated a twentyfold increase in activity in psoriatic lesions relative to non-lesional or normal skin. This increase in metabolism of thymidine was due to thymidine phosphorylase rather than uridine phosphorylase activity. The correlation between increased thymidine phosphorylase activity and increased keratinocyte proliferation in vitro (cultured) and in vivo (psoriasis), suggests that this enzyme may play a critical role in providing the thymidine necessary for keratinocyte proliferation.

  11. Cell type-specific, presynaptic LTP of inhibitory synapses on fast-spiking GABAergic neurons in the mouse visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Sarihi, Abdolrahman; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Jiang, Bin; Sohya, Kazuhiro; Safari, Mir-Shahram; Arami, Masoumeh Kourosh; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Tsumoto, Tadaharu

    2012-09-19

    Properties and plasticity of inhibitory synapses on fast-spiking (FS) GABAergic (FS-GABA) interneurons in layer II/III of the mouse visual cortex were examined in cortical slices by whole-cell recordings of IPSCs or IPSPs evoked by activation of presynaptic FS or non-FS GABAergic interneurons. Unitary IPSCs (uIPSCs) evoked by action potentials of FS-GABA neurons have shorter onset latency, faster rising slope, higher peak amplitude, and faster decay time than those evoked by action potentials of non-FS-GABA neurons. Tetanic activation of presynaptic FS-GABA neurons induced long-term potentiation (LTP) of uIPSCs, whereas that of presynaptic non-FS-GABA neurons did not induce LTP, indicating that long-term plasticity of inhibitory synapses on FS-GABA neurons is pathway specific. For further analysis of inhibitory synaptic plasticity, IPSPs evoked by electrical stimulation of an adjacent site in the cortex were recorded from FS-GABA neurons. Theta burst stimulation induced LTP of IPSPs in 12 of 14 FS-GABA neurons. The paired-pulse stimulation protocol and coefficient of variation analysis indicated that this form of LTP may be presynaptic in origin. Filling postsynaptic cells with a Ca(2+) chelator did not block the induction of LTP, suggesting no involvement of postsynaptic Ca(2+) rise. Also, this form of LTP was dependent neither on metabotropic glutamate receptors nor voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels of the L and T types. Further pharmacological analysis indicated that voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels other than the P/Q type, such as N and R types, were not involved in LTP, suggesting that P/Q-type channels are a candidate for factors inducing LTP of inhibitory synapses between FS-GABA neurons. PMID:22993435

  12. Metformin inhibits growth and decreases resistance to anoikis in medullary thyroid cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Klubo-Gwiezdzinska, Joanna; Jensen, Kirk; Costello, John; Patel, Aneeta; Hoperia, Victoria; Bauer, Andrew; Burman, Kenneth D; Wartofsky, Leonard; Vasko, Vasyl

    2012-06-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is associated with activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. Recent studies showed that the antidiabetic agent metformin decreases proliferation of cancer cells through 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent inhibition of mTOR. In the current study, we assessed the effect of metformin on MTC cells. For this purpose, we determined growth, viability, migration, and resistance to anoikis assays using two MTC-derived cell lines (TT and MZ-CRC-1). Expressions of molecular targets of metformin were examined in MTC cell lines and in 14 human MTC tissue samples. We found that metformin inhibited growth and decreased expression of cyclin D1 in MTC cells. Treatment with metformin was associated with inhibition of mTOR/p70S6K/pS6 signaling and downregulation of pERK in both TT and MZ-CRC-1 cells. Metformin had no significant effects on pAKT in the cell lines examined. Metformin-inducible AMPK activation was noted only in TT cells. Treatment with AMPK inhibitor (compound C) or AMPK silencing did not prevent growth inhibitory effects of metformin in TT cells. Metformin had no effect on MTC cell migration but reduced the ability of cells to form multicellular spheroids in nonadherent conditions. Immunostaining of human MTC showed over-expression of cyclin D1 in all tumors compared with corresponding normal tissue. Activation of mTOR/p70S6K was detected in 8/14 (57.1%) examined tumors. Together, these findings indicate that growth inhibitory effects in MTC cells are associated with downregulation of both mTOR/6SK and pERK signaling pathways. Expression of metformin's molecular targets in human MTC cells suggests its potential utility for the treatment of MTC in patients.

  13. Continuous inhibitory signaling by both SHP-1 and SHIP-1 pathways is required to maintain unresponsiveness of anergic B cells

    PubMed Central

    Getahun, Andrew; Beavers, Nicole A.; Larson, Sandy R.; Shlomchik, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Many autoreactive B cells persist in the periphery in a state of unresponsiveness called anergy. This unresponsiveness is rapidly reversible, requiring continuous BCR interaction with self-antigen and resultant regulatory signaling for its maintenance. Using adoptive transfer of anergic B cells with subsequent acute induction of gene deletion or expression, we demonstrate that the continuous activities of independent inhibitory signaling pathways involving the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 and the inositol phosphatase SHIP-1 are required to maintain anergy. Acute breach of anergy by compromise of either of these pathways leads to rapid cell activation, proliferation, and generation of short-lived plasma cells that reside in extrafollicular foci. Results are consistent with predicted/observed reduction in the Lyn–SHIP-1–PTEN–SHP-1 axis function in B cells from systemic lupus erythematosus patients. PMID:27114609

  14. Screening of several Indonesian medicinal plants for their inhibitory effect on histamine release from RBL-2H3 cells.

    PubMed

    Ikawati, Z; Wahyuono, S; Maeyama, K

    2001-05-01

    Twelve alcoholic extracts and 12 hexane extracts of plant materials selected on the basis of medicinal folklore for asthma treatment in Indonesia were studied for their activity in inhibiting histamine release from RBL-2H3 cells (rat basophilic leukemia cell line), a tumor analog of mast cells. The results of screening indicated that five alcoholic extracts (Plantago major leaves, Eucalyptus globulus leaves and fruit, Cinnamomum massoiae cortex, Vitex trifolia leaves) and two hexane extracts (Eucalyptus globulus leaves, Vitex trifolia leaves) inhibited IgE-dependent histamine release from RBL-2H3 cells. The inhibitory effects were found to be more than 80% for extract concentrations of 0.5 mg/ml. The results indicate that the extracts contain active compounds that inhibit mast-cell degranulation, and provide insight into the development of new drugs for treating asthma and/or allergic disease. PMID:11297859

  15. The pituitary growth hormone cell in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, Wesley C.; Grindeland, R.

    1989-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH), produced and secreted from specialized cells in the pituitary gland, controls the metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrate. It is also probably involved in the regulation of proper function of bone, muscle and immune systems. The behavior of the GH cell system was studied by flying either isolated pituitary cells or live rats. In the latter case, pituitary GH cells are prepared on return to earth and then either transplanted into hypophysectomized rats or placed into cell culture so that function of GH cells in-vivo vs. in-vitro can be compared. The results from three flights to date (STS-8, 1983; SL-3, 1985; Cosmos 1887, 1987) established that the ability of GH cells to release hormone, on return to earth, is compromised. The mechanism(s) responsible for this attenuation response is unknown. However, the data are sufficiently positive to indicate that the nature of the secretory defect resides directly within the GH cells.

  16. Leukemia inhibitory factor antagonizes gonadotropin induced-testosterone synthesis in cultured porcine leydig cells: sites of action.

    PubMed

    Mauduit, C; Goddard, I; Besset, V; Tabone, E; Rey, C; Gasnier, F; Dacheux, F; Benahmed, M

    2001-06-01

    In the present report, the action of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) on testicular steroid hormone formation was studied. For this purpose, the direct effects of LIF were evaluated on basal and human (h)CG-stimulated testosterone synthesis by cultured, purified Leydig cells isolated from porcine testes. LIF reduced (more than 60%) hCG-stimulated testosterone synthesis. This inhibitory effect was exerted in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The maximal and half-maximal effects were obtained with, respectively, 10 ng/ml (0.5 nM ) and 2.5 ng/ml (0.125 nM ) of LIF after a 48-h treatment of the Leydig cells. Such an effect of the cytokine was not a cytotoxic effect, because it was reversible and Leydig cells recovered most of their steroidogenic activity after the removal of LIF. Considering the sites of action of LIF in inhibiting gonadotropin-stimulated testosterone formation, it was shown that LIF significantly (P < 0.002) reduced, in a comparable range (about 60% decrease), testosterone synthesis stimulated with LH/hCG or with pharmacological agents that enhance cAMP levels (cholera toxin, forskolin, and PG E2), and testosterone synthesis stimulated with 8-bromo-cAMP. Such an observation indicates that the antigonadotropic action of the cytokine is exerted in a predominant manner at a step (or steps) located beyond cAMP formation. Furthermore, incubation of Leydig cells with 22R-hydroxycholesterol (5 microg/ml, 2 h), a cholesterol substrate derivative that does not need an assisted process to be delivered to the inner mitochondrial membrane, reversed most of the inhibitory effect of LIF on the steroid hormone formation. Such results indicate that LIF acts by reducing cholesterol substrate availability in the mitochondria. Consequently, LIF action was tested on steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and PBR (peripheral benzodiazepine receptor) shown to be potentially involved in such a cholesterol transfer. LIF reduced, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, LH

  17. Enhanced Fermentative Hydrogen and Methane Production from an Inhibitory Fruit-Flavored Medium with Membrane-Encapsulated Cells

    PubMed Central

    Akinbomi, Julius; Wikandari, Rachman; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the possibility of improving fermentative hydrogen and methane production from an inhibitory fruit-flavored medium using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane-encapsulated cells. Hexanal, myrcene, and octanol, which are naturally produced in fruits such as apple, grape, mango, orange, strawberry, and plum, were investigated. Batch and semi-continuous fermentation processes at 55 °C were carried out. Presence of 5 g/L of myrcene, octanol, and hexanal resulted in no methane formation by fermenting bacteria, while encapsulated cells in the membranes resulted in successful fermentation with 182, 111, and 150 mL/g COD of methane, respectively. The flavor inhibitions were not serious on hydrogen-producing bacteria. With free cells in the presence of 5 g/L (final concentration) of hexanal-, myrcene-, and octanol-flavored media, average daily yields of 68, 133, and 88 mL/g COD of hydrogen, respectively, were obtained. However, cell encapsulation further improved these hydrogen yields to 189, 179, and 198 mL/g COD. The results from this study indicate that the yields of fermentative hydrogen and methane productions from an inhibitory medium could be improved using encapsulated cells. PMID:26501329

  18. Enhanced Fermentative Hydrogen and Methane Production from an Inhibitory Fruit-Flavored Medium with Membrane-Encapsulated Cells.

    PubMed

    Akinbomi, Julius; Wikandari, Rachman; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the possibility of improving fermentative hydrogen and methane production from an inhibitory fruit-flavored medium using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane-encapsulated cells. Hexanal, myrcene, and octanol, which are naturally produced in fruits such as apple, grape, mango, orange, strawberry, and plum, were investigated. Batch and semi-continuous fermentation processes at 55 °C were carried out. Presence of 5 g/L of myrcene, octanol, and hexanal resulted in no methane formation by fermenting bacteria, while encapsulated cells in the membranes resulted in successful fermentation with 182, 111, and 150 mL/g COD of methane, respectively. The flavor inhibitions were not serious on hydrogen-producing bacteria. With free cells in the presence of 5 g/L (final concentration) of hexanal-, myrcene-, and octanol-flavored media, average daily yields of 68, 133, and 88 mL/g COD of hydrogen, respectively, were obtained. However, cell encapsulation further improved these hydrogen yields to 189, 179, and 198 mL/g COD. The results from this study indicate that the yields of fermentative hydrogen and methane productions from an inhibitory medium could be improved using encapsulated cells. PMID:26501329

  19. Interleukin-8 as an autocrine growth factor for human colon carcinoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Brew, R; Erikson, J S; West, D C; Kinsella, A R; Slavin, J; Christmas, S E

    2000-01-01

    Cell lines derived from human colon carcinomas secrete interleukin 8 (IL-8) in vitro and this chemokine has also been detected immunohistochemically in human colon carcinoma specimens, in which it is tumour cell associated. In these experiments, IL-8 was shown to comprise an important component of the angiogenic activity of colon carcinoma cell line supernatants. The effect of modulating IL-8 activity upon the growth of the colon carcinoma cell lines HCT116A, HT29 and CaCo2 was investigated. Supplementing endogenously produced IL-8 by recombinant chemokine led to stimulation of cell growth. Neutralization of the effect of endogenously produced IL-8, either with the specific antagonist peptide AcRRWWCR or with blocking anti-IL-8 antibody, resulted in around 50% inhibition of cell growth (P<0.05). All of the colon carcinoma cell lines tested expressed mRNA for both IL-8RA and RB when grown at confluence. At the protein level, all cell lines expressed IL-8RA. Expression of IL-8RB was weak, although increased expression was seen in HCT116A cells as they approached confluence. Antibodies to IL-8RA and RB did not affect proliferation at low cell density but were strongly inhibitory when cells were cultured at a higher density. These data suggest that IL-8 acts as an autocrine growth factor for colon carcinoma cell lines and would support the concept that a similar autocrine loop operates in vivo.

  20. Metabolism, cell growth and the bacterial cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jue D; Levin, Petra A

    2009-11-01

    Adaptation to fluctuations in nutrient availability is a fact of life for single-celled organisms in the 'wild'. A decade ago our understanding of how bacteria adjust cell cycle parameters to accommodate changes in nutrient availability stemmed almost entirely from elegant physiological studies completed in the 1960s. In this Opinion article we summarize recent groundbreaking work in this area and discuss potential mechanisms by which nutrient availability and metabolic status are coordinated with cell growth, chromosome replication and cell division.

  1. Inhibitory effect of cinnamon, clove, lemongrass, oregano and palmarose essential oils on growth and fumonisin B1 production by Fusarium proliferatum in maize grain.

    PubMed

    Velluti, A; Sanchis, V; Ramos, A J; Egido, J; Marín, S

    2003-12-31

    The effect of cinnamon, clove, oregano, palmarose and lemongrass oils on growth and FB1 production by three different isolates of F. proliferatum in irradiated maize grain at 0.995 and 0.950 aw and at 20 and 30 degrees C was evaluated. The five essential oils inhibited growth of F. proliferatum isolates at 0.995 aw at both temperatures, while at 0.950 aw only cinnamon, clove and oregano oils were effective in inhibiting growth of F. proliferatum at 20 degrees C and none of them at 30 degrees C. Cinnamon, oregano and palmarose oils had significant inhibitory effect on FB1 production by the three strains of F. proliferatum at 0.995 aw and both temperatures, while clove and lemongrass oils had only significant inhibitory effect at 30 degrees C. No differences were found using 500 or 1000 microg essential oil g(-1). At 0.950 aw, none of the essential oils had any significant effect on FB1 production. The results suggest that mainly cinnamon and oregano oils could be effective in controlling growth and FB1 production by F. proliferatum in maize under preharvest conditions. PMID:14623380

  2. Inhibitory effect of cinnamon, clove, lemongrass, oregano and palmarose essential oils on growth and fumonisin B1 production by Fusarium proliferatum in maize grain.

    PubMed

    Velluti, A; Sanchis, V; Ramos, A J; Egido, J; Marín, S

    2003-12-31

    The effect of cinnamon, clove, oregano, palmarose and lemongrass oils on growth and FB1 production by three different isolates of F. proliferatum in irradiated maize grain at 0.995 and 0.950 aw and at 20 and 30 degrees C was evaluated. The five essential oils inhibited growth of F. proliferatum isolates at 0.995 aw at both temperatures, while at 0.950 aw only cinnamon, clove and oregano oils were effective in inhibiting growth of F. proliferatum at 20 degrees C and none of them at 30 degrees C. Cinnamon, oregano and palmarose oils had significant inhibitory effect on FB1 production by the three strains of F. proliferatum at 0.995 aw and both temperatures, while clove and lemongrass oils had only significant inhibitory effect at 30 degrees C. No differences were found using 500 or 1000 microg essential oil g(-1). At 0.950 aw, none of the essential oils had any significant effect on FB1 production. The results suggest that mainly cinnamon and oregano oils could be effective in controlling growth and FB1 production by F. proliferatum in maize under preharvest conditions.

  3. Inhibitory effects of prostaglandin E2 on collagen synthesis and cell proliferation in human stellate cells from pancreatic head adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Several studies have described an increased cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in pancreatic cancer, but the role of COX-2 in tumour development and progression is not clear. The aim of the present study was to examine expression of COX-2 in cancer cells and stromal cells in pancreatic cancer specimens, and to explore the role of PGE2 in pancreatic stellate cell proliferation and collagen synthesis. Methods Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence was performed on slides from whole sections of tissue blocks using antibodies against COX-2 and α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA). Pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) were isolated from surgically resected tumour tissue by the outgrowth method. Cells were used between passages 4 and 8. Collagen synthesis was determined by [3H]-proline incorporation, or by enzyme immunoassay measurement of collagen C-peptide. DNA synthesis was measured by incorporation of [3H]-thymidine in DNA. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) was determined by radioimmunoassay. Collagen 1A1 mRNA was determined by RT-qPCR. Results Immunohistochemistry staining showed COX-2 in pancreatic carcinoma cells, but not in stromal cells. All tumours showed positive staining for αSMA in the fibrotic stroma. Cultured PSC expressed COX-2, which could be further induced by interleukin-1β (IL-1β), epidermal growth factor (EGF), thrombin, and PGE2, but not by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ). Indirect coculture with the adenocarcinoma cell line BxPC-3, but not HPAFII or Panc-1, induced COX-2 expression in PSC. Treatment of PSC with PGE2 strongly stimulated cAMP accumulation, mediated by EP2 receptors, and also stimulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Treatment of PSC with PGE2 or forskolin suppressed both TGFβ-stimulated collagen synthesis and PDGF-stimulated DNA synthesis. Conclusions The present results show that COX-2 is mainly produced in carcinoma cells and suggest that the cancer cells are the main source of PGE2 in pancreatic

  4. Stimulation of human thyroid growth via the inhibitory guanine nucleotide binding (G) protein Gi: constitutive expression of the G-protein alpha subunit Gi alpha-1 in autonomous adenoma.

    PubMed Central

    Selzer, E; Wilfing, A; Schiferer, A; Hermann, M; Grubeck-Loebenstein, B; Freissmuth, M

    1993-01-01

    The alpha subunits of the stimulatory and inhibitory G proteins, Gs alpha and Gi alpha, activate transmembrane-signaling systems involved in the control of cell proliferation. We have investigated the pattern of expression of Gi alpha subtypes and Gi alpha-mediated proliferative responses in the human thyroid. Human thyroid membranes contain two subtypes of Gi alpha, Gi alpha-1 and Gi alpha-2, as assessed by using specific antibodies. The expression of Gi alpha-1 is under tight control by thyrotropin in vivo and in primary cultures of thyroid epithelial cells. In contrast, Gi alpha-1 is expressed in the absence of thyrotropin in thyroid autonomous adenoma, an endocrine-active tumor, and its levels are not regulated by thyrotropin in thyroid epithelial cells prepared from these tumors. If thyroid epithelial cells are treated with pertussis toxin to block signal transduction via Gi, the mitogenic response to serum factors is reduced. These observations demonstrate that Gi subtypes transmit growth stimuli in the human thyroid. The constitutive expression of Gi alpha-1 in autonomous adenoma may allow for the unregulated stimulation of thyroid cell proliferation by a yet unidentified signaling pathway and, thus, be causally related to autonomous growth of thyroid cells. Images PMID:8434024

  5. Increased migration of olfactory ensheathing cells secreting the Nogo receptor ectodomain over inhibitory substrates and lesioned spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Reginensi, Diego; Carulla, Patricia; Nocentini, Sara; Seira, Oscar; Serra-Picamal, Xavier; Torres-Espín, Abel; Matamoros-Angles, Andreu; Gavín, Rosalina; Moreno-Flores, María Teresa; Wandosell, Francisco; Samitier, Josep; Trepat, Xavier; Navarro, Xavier; del Río, José Antonio

    2015-07-01

    Olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) transplantation emerged some years ago as a promising therapeutic strategy to repair injured spinal cord. However, inhibitory molecules are present for long periods of time in lesioned spinal cord, inhibiting both OEC migration and axonal regrowth. Two families of these molecules, chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPG) and myelin-derived inhibitors (MAIs), are able to trigger inhibitory responses in lesioned axons. Mounting evidence suggests that OEC migration is inhibited by myelin. Here we demonstrate that OEC migration is largely inhibited by CSPGs and that inhibition can be overcome by the bacterial enzyme Chondroitinase ABC. In parallel, we have generated a stable OEC cell line overexpressing the Nogo receptor (NgR) ectodomain to reduce MAI-associated inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Results indicate that engineered cells migrate longer distances than unmodified OECs over myelin or oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp)-coated substrates. In addition, they also show improved migration in lesioned spinal cord. Our results provide new insights toward the improvement of the mechanisms of action and optimization of OEC-based cell therapy for spinal cord lesion.

  6. Trimebutine maleate has inhibitory effects on the voltage-dependent Ca2+ inward current and other membrane currents in intestinal smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Shimada, T; Kurachi, Y; Terano, A; Hamada, E; Sugimoto, T

    1990-04-01

    We examined effects of trimebutine maleate on the membrane currents of the intestinal smooth muscle cells by using the tight-seal whole cell clamp technique. Trimebutine suppressed the Ba2+ inward current through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of trimebutine on the Ba2+ inward current was not use-dependent. It shifted the steady-state inactivation curve to the left along the voltage axis. Trimebutine also had inhibitory effects on the other membrane currents of the cells, such as the voltage-dependent K+ current, the Ca2(+)-activated oscillating K+ current and the acetylcholine-induced inward current. These relatively non-specific inhibitory effects of trimebutine on the membrane currents may explain, at least in part, the dual actions of the drug on the intestinal smooth muscle contractility, i.e. inhibitory as well as excitatory. PMID:2161373

  7. Paradoxical inhibitory effect of cromakalim on sup 86 Rb outflow from pancreatic islet cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lebrun, P.; Antoine, M.H.; Devreux, V.; Hermann, M.; Herchuelz, A. )

    1990-12-01

    Cromakalim appears to be the most potent pharmacologic agent belonging to the new class of smooth muscle relaxants: the K+ channel openers. The present study aimed at characterizing the effects of cromakalim on 86Rb outflow, 45Ca outflow and insulin release from prelabeled and perifused rat pancreatic islets. Cromakalim provoked a concentration-dependent reduction in 86Rb outflow. This inhibitory effect was attenuated in islets exposed throughout to glibenclamide or to a Ca+(+)-free medium. In islets exposed to glucose and extracellular Ca++, cromakalim induced a dose-dependent reduction in 45Ca outflow. The drug also inhibited the increase in 45Ca outflow mediated by K+ depolarization. Lastly, cromakalim elicited a concentration-dependent inhibition of insulin release from islets perifused in the presence of glucose and extracellular Ca++. The present data suggest that the paradoxical inhibitory effect of cromakalim on 86Rb outflow probably reflects the capacity of the drug to reduce the activity of the ATP-sensitive K+ channels and to indirectly inhibit the Ca+(+)-activated K+ channels. Furthermore, the cromakalim-induced changes in 45Ca outflow are compatible with an inhibitory effect of the drug on the voltage-dependent Ca++ channels.

  8. Dickkopf-1 has an Inhibitory Effect on Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Fibroblast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Qiu, Sang-Sang; Shao, Yan; Song, Hong-Huan; Li, Gu-Li; Lu, Wei; Zhu, Li-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are bone marrow stem cells which play an important role in tissue repair. The treatment with MSCs will be likely to aggravate the degree of fibrosis. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is involved in developmental and physiological processes, such as fibrosis. Dickkopfs (DKKs) are considered as an antagonist to block Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by binding the receptor of receptor-related protein (LRP5/6). DKK1 was chosen in attempt to inhibit fibrosis of MSCs by lowering activity of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Methods: Stable MSCs were randomly divided into four groups: MSCs control, MSCs + transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), MSCs + DKK1, and MSCs + TGF-β + DKK1. Flow cytometry was used to identify MSCs. Cell viability was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide test. Immunofluorescence was used to detect protein expression in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. Western blotting analysis was employed to test expression of fibroblast surface markers and, finally, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was employed to test mRNA expression of fibroblast surface markers and Wnt/β-catenin signaling proteins. Results: Cultivated MSCs were found to conform to the characteristics of standard MSCs: expression of cluster of differentiation (CD) 73, 90, and 105, not expression of 34, 45, and 79. We found that DKK1 could maintain the normal cell morphology of MSCs. Western blotting analysis showed that fibroblast surface markers were expressed in high quantities in the group MSCs + TGF-β. However, the expression was lower in the MSCs + TGF-β + DKK1. Immunofluorescence showed high expression of all Wnt/β-catnin molecules in the MSCs + TGF-β group but expressed in lower quantities in MSCs + TGF-β + DKK1 group. Finally, mRNA expression of fibroblast markers vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin and Wnt/β-catenin signaling proteins β-catenin, T-cell factor

  9. Poloxamines display a multiple inhibitory activity of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cuestas, María L; Sosnik, Alejandro; Mathet, Verónica L

    2011-08-01

    Primary hepatocellular carcinoma is the third most common fatal cancer worldwide with more than 500,000 annual deaths. Approximately 40% of the patients with HCC showed tumoral overexpression of transmembrane proteins belonging to the ATP-binding cassette protein superfamily (ABC) which pump drugs out of cells. The overexpression of these efflux transporters confers on the cells a multiple drug resistance phenotype, which is considered a crucial cause of treatment refractoriness in patients with cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of different concentrations of pH- and temperature-responsive X-shaped poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) block copolymers (poloxamines, Tetronic, PEO-PPO) showing a wide range of molecular weights and EO/PO ratios on the functional activity of three different ABC proteins, namely P-glycoprotein (P-gp or MDR1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP1, in two human hepatocarcinoma cell lines, HepG2 and Huh7. First, the cytotoxicity of the different copolymers (at different concentrations) on both liver carcinoma cell lines was thoroughly evaluated by means of apoptosis analysis using annexin V and propidium iodide (PI). Thus, viable cells (AV-/PI-), early apoptotic cells (AV+/PI-) and late apoptotic cells (V-FITC+/PI+) were identified. Results pointed out copolymers of intermediate to high hydrophobicity and intermediate molecular weight (e.g., T904) as the most cytotoxic. Then, DiOC2, rhodamine 123 and vinblastine were used as differential substrates of these pumps. HeLa, an epithelial cell line of human cervical cancer that does not express P-gp, was used exclusively as a control and enabled the discerning between P-gp and MRP1 inhibition. Moderate to highly hydrophobic poloxamines T304, T904 and T1301 showed inhibitory activity against P-gp and BCRP but not against MRP1 in both hepatic cell lines. A remarkable dependence of this effect on the

  10. Poloxamines display a multiple inhibitory activity of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cuestas, María L; Sosnik, Alejandro; Mathet, Verónica L

    2011-08-01

    Primary hepatocellular carcinoma is the third most common fatal cancer worldwide with more than 500,000 annual deaths. Approximately 40% of the patients with HCC showed tumoral overexpression of transmembrane proteins belonging to the ATP-binding cassette protein superfamily (ABC) which pump drugs out of cells. The overexpression of these efflux transporters confers on the cells a multiple drug resistance phenotype, which is considered a crucial cause of treatment refractoriness in patients with cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of different concentrations of pH- and temperature-responsive X-shaped poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) block copolymers (poloxamines, Tetronic, PEO-PPO) showing a wide range of molecular weights and EO/PO ratios on the functional activity of three different ABC proteins, namely P-glycoprotein (P-gp or MDR1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP1, in two human hepatocarcinoma cell lines, HepG2 and Huh7. First, the cytotoxicity of the different copolymers (at different concentrations) on both liver carcinoma cell lines was thoroughly evaluated by means of apoptosis analysis using annexin V and propidium iodide (PI). Thus, viable cells (AV-/PI-), early apoptotic cells (AV+/PI-) and late apoptotic cells (V-FITC+/PI+) were identified. Results pointed out copolymers of intermediate to high hydrophobicity and intermediate molecular weight (e.g., T904) as the most cytotoxic. Then, DiOC2, rhodamine 123 and vinblastine were used as differential substrates of these pumps. HeLa, an epithelial cell line of human cervical cancer that does not express P-gp, was used exclusively as a control and enabled the discerning between P-gp and MRP1 inhibition. Moderate to highly hydrophobic poloxamines T304, T904 and T1301 showed inhibitory activity against P-gp and BCRP but not against MRP1 in both hepatic cell lines. A remarkable dependence of this effect on the

  11. By reducing hexokinase 2, resveratrol induces apoptosis in HCC cells addicted to aerobic glycolysis and inhibits tumor growth in mice

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yujing; He, Lei; Chen, Kan; Li, Jingjing; Li, Sainan; Liu, Tong; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Wang, Jianrong; Lu, Wenxia; Zhou, Yuqing; Yin, Qin; Abudumijiti, Huerxidan; Chen, Rongxia; Zhang, Rong; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Zheng; Zhu, Rong; Yang, Jing; Wang, Chengfen; Zhang, Huawei; Zhou, Yingqun; Xu, Ling; Guo, Chuanyong

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells exhibit an altered metabolic phenotype known as the aerobic glycolysis. The expression of HK2 changes the metabolic phenotype of cells to support cancerous growth. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of resveratrol on HK2 expression and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell glycolysis. Aerobic glycolysis was observed in four HCC cell lines compared to the normal hepatic cells. Resveratrol sensitized aerobic glycolytic HCC cells to apoptosis, and this effect was attenuated by glycolytic inhibitors. The induction of mitochondrial apoptosis was associated with the decrease of HK2 expression by resveratrol in HCC cells. In addition, resveratrol enhanced sorafenib induced cell growth inhibition in aerobic glycolytic HCC cells. Combination treatment with both reagents inhibited the growth and promoted apoptosis of HCC-bearing mice. The reduction of HK2 by resveratrol provides a new dimension to clinical HCC therapies aimed at preventing disease progression. PMID:25938543

  12. Immunolocalization of Growth, Inhibitory, and Proliferative Factors Involved in Initial Ovarian Folliculogenesis From Adult Common Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri collinsi)

    PubMed Central

    Brito, A. B.; Domingues, S. F. S.; Santos, R. R.; Amorim, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    We performed an immunohistochemical (IHC) study to determine the follicular expression of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF-9), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), Kit Ligand (KL), and c-Kit in squirrel monkey ovary. Ovarian tissue fragments from 4 squirrel monkeys were collected by laparotomy and processed for classical histology and IHC. Additionally, follicle development was assessed by Ki67 immunostaining to evaluate proliferative status of granulosa cells. A total of 4025 follicles were examined (1475 for classical histology and 2550 for immunohistochemistry). More than 80% of the evaluated follicles were morphologically normal. The GDF-9 protein was detectable in oocyte cytoplasm from primordial (100%), primary (99.1%), and secondary (100%) follicles. The AMH was not expressed in primordial follicles but just in few primary follicles (13.8%). On the other hand, it was highly expressed in granulosa cells from secondary follicles (67.9%). c-Kit, KL receptor, was found in the oolemma of primordial (100%), primary (100%), and secondary (100%) follicles. The KL expression was observed in oocytes and granulosa cells from primordial (94.9%), primary (91.6%) and secondary follicles (100%). Ki67 immunostaining was observed in granulosa cells from primary (5.7%) and secondary (54.8%) follicles but not in primordial follicles. In conclusion, we described the localization of GDF-9, KL, c-Kit, and Ki67 proteins and confirmed the presence of AMH protein in preantral follicles from squirrel monkey. Our results offer contribution for understanding of folliculogenesis in neotropical nonhuman primates. Moreover, these markers can be used to assess follicular viability and functionality after cryopreservation, transplantation, or in vitro culture of ovarian tissue. PMID:24784715

  13. Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine-1 as a Novel Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarker in Stage I and II Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Ning; Wang, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Teng; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Kun-Peng; Zhi, Xiu-Yi; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Ke-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increased level of serum macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1), a member of transforming growth factor-β superfamily, was found in patients with epithelial tumors. This study aimed to evaluate whether serum level of MIC-1 can be a candidate diagnostic and prognostic indicator for early-stage nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: A prospective study enrolled 152 patients with Stage I–II NSCLC, who were followed up after surgical resection. Forty-eight patients with benign pulmonary disease (BPD) and 105 healthy controls were also included in the study. Serum MIC-1 levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the association with clinical and prognostic features was analyzed. Results: In patients with NSCLC, serum protein levels of MIC-1 were significantly increased compared with healthy controls and BPD patients (all P < 0.001). A threshold of 1000 pg/ml of MIC-1 was found in patients with early-stage (Stage I and II) NSCLC, with sensitivity and specificity of 70.4% and 99.0%, respectively. The serum levels of MIC-1 were associated with age (P = 0.001), gender (P = 0.030), and T stage (P = 0.022). Serum MIC-1 threshold of 1465 pg/ml was found in patients with poor early outcome, with sensitivity and specificity of 72.2% and 66.1%, respectively. The overall 3-year survival rate of NSCLC patients with high serum levels of MIC-1 (≥1465 pg/ml) was lower than that of NSCLC patients with low serum MIC-1 levels (77.6% vs. 94.8%). Multivariate Cox regression survival analysis showed that a high serum level of MIC-1 was an independent risk factor for reduced overall survival (hazard ratio = 3.37, 95% confidential interval: 1.09–10.42, P = 0.035). Conclusion: The present study suggested that serum MIC-1 may be a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for patients with early-stage NSCLC. PMID:27569226

  14. Effects of o-phenanthroline, 2,2'-dipyridyl and neocuproine on the activities of bleomycin to inhibit DNA synthesis and growth of cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, K; Takita, T; Umezawa, H

    1986-10-01

    Effects of o-phenanthroline, 2,2'-dipyridyl and neocuproine, which form stable complexes preferentially with Fe(II), Fe(II) and specifically with Cu(I), respectively, on the inhibitory activity of bleomycin against DNA synthesis of rat ascites hepatoma AH66 cells were examined. The inhibitory activity of metal-free bleomycin was suppressed in the presence of o-phenanthroline or 2,2'-dipyridyl, but not by neocuproine, though these chelating agents also showed the inhibitory activity against the DNA synthesis of the cells by themselves alone. The activity of bleomycin-Cu(II) was also suppressed by o-phenanthroline, but bleomycin-Fe(II) and bleomycin-Fe(III) exhibited some activities in the presence of o-phenanthroline. The growth inhibitory activity of bleomycin against HeLa cells was also suppressed by o-phenanthroline. From these results, bleomycin-iron complexes were suggested to be responsible to the bleomycin action in cells.

  15. Dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from Schisandra chinensis and their inhibitory activity on NO production in lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Di; Yang, Zhiyou; Yao, Xuechun; Wang, Hua; Han, Na; Liu, Zhihui; Wang, Yu; Yang, Jingyu; Yin, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Four dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans, schisanchinins A-D, and 10 known compounds were isolated from the EtOAc extract of fruits of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. Structures of compounds 1-4 were elucidated using a combination of spectroscopic techniques, including MS, UV and IR, NMR ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, HMQC, HMBC). The stereochemistry of the chiral centers and the biphenyl configuration were determined using NOESY, as well as analysis of CD spectra. In vitro activity assays showed that 11 of the 14 compounds exhibited inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO release in primary murine BV2 microglia cells.

  16. Plant cell suspension cultures as model systems for investigating growth regulating compounds.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, K; Rademacher, W; Jung, J

    1982-12-01

    Several plant growth regulators were investigated for their activity in cell suspension cultures of Glycine max, Gossypium hirsutum and Zea mays. The effect on the growth of the cell cultures was traced by means of cell counting and determining packed cell volume and turbidity of the suspensions. The growth retardant 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-3,4,5,9,10-pentaaza-tetracyclo-5,4,10(2,6) ,0(8,11)-dodeca-3,9-diene (NDA) and, to a slightly lesser extent, ancymidol proved to be the compounds with the greatest inhibitory action on cell division growth of all three cell cultures. In the case of cotton this effect was accompanied by increased synthesis and secretion of cell-wall material. Staining methods showed that, especially in the case of NDA, a high percentage of cells could be considered as viable, and showed thus that NDA inhibits the cell division process while the cells remain metabolically active. The effects of 1,1-Dimethyl-piperidiniumchloride (DPC), a genuine growth retardant of cell propagation, and, with less efficiency, N-trimethyl-(β-chloroethyl)-ammoniumchloride (CCC) in cotton, the triazole LAB 117 682 in soybean and maize, and, to a lesser extent, (2-isopropyl-5-methyl-4-trimethyl-ammoniumchloride)-phenyl-l-piperidiniumcarboxylate (AM0-1618) in soybean can be regarded as species-specific. Otherwise, CCC and particularly daminozide exhibited no action at the concentrations used. A comparison of the data from hydroculture studies with soybean and maize seedlings showed considerable agreement with the effectiveness of the substances in the corresponding cell cultures. Thus, cell cultures can be used to identify and screen substances with growth-influencing activity, and may also offer new ways to elucidate the mode of action of plant growth regulators. PMID:24257776

  17. Descending projections from auditory cortex to excitatory and inhibitory cells in the nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Mellott, Jeffrey G.; Bickford, Martha E.; Schofield, Brett R.

    2014-01-01

    Descending projections from the auditory cortex (AC) terminate in subcortical auditory centers from the medial geniculate nucleus (MG) to the cochlear nucleus, allowing the AC to modulate the processing of acoustic information at many levels of the auditory system. The nucleus of the brachium of the inferior colliculus (NBIC) is a large midbrain auditory nucleus that is a target of these descending cortical projections. The NBIC is a source of several auditory projections, including an ascending projection to the MG. This ascending projection appears to originate from both excitatory and inhibitory NBIC cells, but whether the cortical projections contact either of these cell groups is unknown. In this study, we first combined retrograde tracing and immunochemistry for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD, a marker of GABAergic cells) to identify GABAergic and non-GABAergic NBIC projections to the MG. Our first result is that GAD-immunopositive cells constitute ~17% of the NBIC to MG projection. We then used anterograde labeling and electron microscopy to examine the AC projection to the NBIC. Our second result is that cortical boutons in the NBIC form synapses with round vesicles and asymmetric synapses, consistent with excitatory effects. Finally, we combined fluorescent anterograde labeling of corticofugal axons with immunochemistry and retrograde labeling of NBIC cells that project to the MG. These final results suggest first that AC axons contact both GAD-negative and GAD-positive NBIC cells and, second, that some of cortically-contacted cells project to the MG. Overall, the results imply that corticofugal projections can modulate both excitatory and inhibitory ascending projections from the NBIC to the auditory thalamus. PMID:25339870

  18. Establishing equivalence for microbial-growth-inhibitory effects ("iso-hurdle rules") by analyzing disparate listeria monocytogenes data with a gamma-type predictive model.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Laure; Kan-King-Yu, Denis; Le Marc, Yvan; Johnston, Moira D; Rama-Heuzard, Florence; Guillou, Sandrine; McClure, Peter; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2012-02-01

    Preservative factors act as hurdles against microorganisms by inhibiting their growth; these are essential control measures for particular food-borne pathogens. Different combinations of hurdles can be quantified and compared to each other in terms of their inhibitory effect ("iso-hurdle"). We present here a methodology for establishing microbial iso-hurdle rules in three steps: (i) developing a predictive model based on existing but disparate data sets, (ii) building an experimental design focused on the iso-hurdles using the model output, and (iii) validating the model and the iso-hurdle rules with new data. The methodology is illustrated with Listeria monocytogenes. Existing data from industry, a public database, and the literature were collected and analyzed, after which a total of 650 growth rates were retained. A gamma-type model was developed for the factors temperature, pH, a(w), and acetic, lactic, and sorbic acids. Three iso-hurdle rules were assessed (40 logcount curves generated): salt replacement by addition of organic acids, sorbic acid replacement by addition of acetic and lactic acid, and sorbic acid replacement by addition of lactic/acetic acid and salt. For the three rules, the growth rates were equivalent in the whole experimental domain (γ from 0.1 to 0.5). The lag times were also equivalent in the case of mild inhibitory conditions (γ ≥ 0.2), while they were longer in the presence of salt than acids under stress conditions (γ < 0.2). This methodology allows an assessment of the equivalence of inhibitory effects without intensive data generation; it could be applied to develop milder formulations which guarantee microbial safety and stability.

  19. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) enhances MAP2 + and HUC/D + neurons and influences neurite extension during differentiation of neural progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (L1F), a member of the Interleukin 6 cytokine family, has a role in differentiation of Human Neural Progenitor (hNP) cells in vitro. hNP cells, derived from Human Embryonic Stem (hES) cells, have an unlimited capacity for self-renewal in monolayer cultu...

  20. Inhibitory effect of commercial green tea and rosemary leaf powders on the growth of foodborne pathogens in laboratory media and oriental-style rice cakes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Young; Gwon, So-Young; Kim, Seung-Ju; Moon, Bo Kyung

    2009-05-01

    The antimicrobial effects of green tea and rosemary added to foods as antagonists to foodborne pathogens were determined in laboratory media and oriental-style rice cakes. The growth of each pathogen (Bacillus cereus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Enterobacter sakazakii, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes) in tryptic soy broth or rice cake with or without addition of green tea or rosemary leaf powders before autoclaving or cooking, respectively, was investigated after inoculation. The addition of 1% green tea or rosemary produced similar results for inhibiting the growth of pathogens in tryptic soy broth. However, green tea was more effective than rosemary for inhibiting the growth of L. monocytogenes. Both botanicals had inhibitory effects against all pathogens tested in this study. Green tea was particularly effective against B. cereus, S. aureus, and L. monocytogenes, and rosemary was strongly inhibitory against B. cereus and S. aureus. The addition of 1 or 3% green tea or rosemary to rice cakes did not significantly reduce total aerobic counts; however, levels of B. cereus and S. aureus were significantly reduced in rice cakes stored for 3 days at room temperature (22 degrees C). The order of antimicrobial activities against B. cereus in rice cake was 1% rosemary < 1% green tea < 3% rosemary = 3% green tea. These results indicate that the use of natural plant materials such as green tea and rosemary could improve the microbial quality of foods in addition to their functional properties.

  1. On the properties and origin of the GABAB inhibitory postsynaptic potential recorded in morphologically identified projection cells of the cat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Soltesz, I; Lightowler, S; Leresche, N; Crunelli, V

    1989-01-01

    Intracellular recordings were performed from projection cells of the cat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in vitro to investigate the properties and origin of optic tract evoked inhibitory postsynaptic potentials mediated by GABAB receptors and their relationship to the physiologically different cell classes present in this nucleus. In all three main laminae of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, stimulation of the optic tract evoked an excitatory postsynaptic potential followed by two inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. The first is a GABAA receptor mediated inhibitory postsynaptic potential since it was blocked by bicuculline, reversed in polarity following intracellular Cl- injection and had a reversal potential similar to the bicuculline sensitive hyperpolarizing effect of GABA. The second is a GABAB receptor mediated inhibitory postsynaptic potential. Its amplitude was not linearly related to membrane potential (maximal amplitude at -60 mV), it decreased when using frequencies of stimulation higher than 0.05 Hz and it was reversibly increased by addition of bicuculline to the perfusion medium. The reversal potential of GABAB inhibitory postsynaptic potentials was dependent on the extracellular K+ concentration but did not change in the presence of bicuculline or when recording with Cl- filled microelectrodes. While GABAA inhibitory postsynaptic potentials always abolished repetitive firing of projection cells, GABAB inhibitory postsynaptic potentials were able to block weak firing but unable to decrease strong activation of projection cells evoked by direct current injection. Optic tract evoked GABAB (as well as GABAA) inhibitory postsynaptic potentials could be recorded in slices which did not include the perigeniculate nucleus, thus indicating that they are generated by the interneurons of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. Using intracellular injection of horseradish peroxidase, we have found that the GABAB inhibitory postsynaptic potentials are

  2. The Role of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Mast Cell-Stimulated Fibroblast Proliferation and Collagen Production

    PubMed Central

    Ningyan, Gu; Xu, Yao; Hongfei, Shi; Jingjing, Chen; Min, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Current clinical and translational studies have shown that mast cell plays a pivotal role in multiple fibrotic diseases including scleroderma. However, the lack of mature human mast cell culture model exhibits a major obstacle for further dissection of cytokines and signaling molecules required for mast cell mediated fibrosis in various diseases. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor is a mast cell released pro-inflammatory cytokine which is deregulated in scleroderma patients and is also involved in non-scleroderma related fibrosis. In the current study, we successfully generated a practical and reliable human mast cell culture system with bone marrow CD34+ hematopietic precursors. The derivative mast cell is normal in terms of both morphology and function as manifested by normal degranulation. More importantly, we were able to show mast cell conditioned medium as well as MIF supplementation augments fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis. This positive regulatory effect of mast cell conditioned medium can be dampened by MIF antibody. In addition, MIF-knockdown significantly inhibits pro-fibrotic activities of CD34+ hematopietic precursor derived mast cells. These data strongly suggest that mast cell released MIF is required for mast cell mediated fibrogenic activities. The current manuscript seems to be the first mechanistic report showing the significance of MIF in mast cell mediated fibrosis, which may pave the way for the development of potential MIF-targeted therapy for fibrotic diseases to a further extent. Moreover, we strongly believe mast cell culture and differentiation model as well as corresponding genetic manipulation methodology will be helpful in characterizing novel mast cell based therapeutic targets. PMID:25826375

  3. Multiple phytoestrogens inhibit cell growth and confer cytoprotection by inducing manganese superoxide dismutase expression.

    PubMed

    Robb, Ellen L; Stuart, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are of interest because of their reported beneficial effects on many human maladies including cancer, neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. As data on phytoestrogens continues to accumulate, it is clear that there is significant overlap in the cellular effects elicited by these various compounds. Here, we show that one mechanism by which a number of phytoestrogens achieve their growth inhibitory and cytoprotective effects is via induction of the mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Eight phytoestrogens, including resveratrol, coumestrol, kaempferol, genistein, daidzein, apigenin, isoliquirtigenin and glycitin, were tested for their ability to induce MnSOD expression in mouse C2C12 and primary myoblasts. Five of these, resveratrol, coumestrol, kaempferol, genistein and daidzein, significantly increased MnSOD expression, slowed proliferative growth and enhanced stress resistance (hydrogen peroxide LD50) . When siRNA was used to prevent the MnSOD induction by genistein, coumestrol or daidzein, none of these compounds exerted any effect on proliferative growth, and only the effect of coumestrol on stress resistance persisted. The estrogen antagonist ICI182780 prevented the increased MnSOD expression and also the changes in cell growth and stress resistance, indicating that these effects are mediated by estrogen receptors (ER). The absence of effects of resveratrol or coumestrol, but not genistein, in ERβ-null cells further indicated that this ER in particular is important in mediating these effects. Thus, an ER-mediated induction of MnSOD expression appears to underlie the growth inhibitory and cytoprotective activities of multiple phytoestrogens.

  4. Physapubescin selectively induces apoptosis in VHL-null renal cell carcinoma cells through down-regulation of HIF-2α and inhibits tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lixia; Xia, Guiyang; Qiu, Feng; Wu, Chunli; Denmon, Andria P.; Zi, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    We have purified physapubescin, a predominant steroidal lactone, from medicinal plant Physalis pubescens L., commonly named as “hairy groundcherry” in English and “Deng-Long-Cao” in Chinese. Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-null 786-O, RCC4 and A498 Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) cell lines expressing high levels of Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF)-2α are more sensitive to physapubescin-mediated apoptosis and growth inhibitory effect than VHL wild-type Caki-2 and ACHN RCC cell lines. Restoration of VHL in RCC4 cells attenuated the growth inhibitory effect of physapubescin. Physapubescin decreases the expression of HIF-2α and increases the expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologus protein (CHOP), which leads to up-regulation of death receptor 5 (DR5), activation of caspase-8 and -3, cleavage of poly (ADP-Ribose) polymerase (PARP) and apoptosis. Under hypoxia conditions, the apoptotic and growth inhibitory effects of physapubescin are further enhanced. Additionally, physapubescin synergizes with TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) for markedly enhanced induction of apoptosis in VHL-null 786-O cells but not in VHL wild-type Caki-2 cells. Physapubescin significantly inhibited in vivo angiogenesis in the 786-O xenograft. Physapubescin as a novel agent for elimination of VHL-null RCC cells via apoptosis is warranted for further investigation. PMID:27581364

  5. Physapubescin selectively induces apoptosis in VHL-null renal cell carcinoma cells through down-regulation of HIF-2α and inhibits tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lixia; Xia, Guiyang; Qiu, Feng; Wu, Chunli; Denmon, Andria P; Zi, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    We have purified physapubescin, a predominant steroidal lactone, from medicinal plant Physalis pubescens L., commonly named as "hairy groundcherry" in English and "Deng-Long-Cao" in Chinese. Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-null 786-O, RCC4 and A498 Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) cell lines expressing high levels of Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF)-2α are more sensitive to physapubescin-mediated apoptosis and growth inhibitory effect than VHL wild-type Caki-2 and ACHN RCC cell lines. Restoration of VHL in RCC4 cells attenuated the growth inhibitory effect of physapubescin. Physapubescin decreases the expression of HIF-2α and increases the expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologus protein (CHOP), which leads to up-regulation of death receptor 5 (DR5), activation of caspase-8 and -3, cleavage of poly (ADP-Ribose) polymerase (PARP) and apoptosis. Under hypoxia conditions, the apoptotic and growth inhibitory effects of physapubescin are further enhanced. Additionally, physapubescin synergizes with TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) for markedly enhanced induction of apoptosis in VHL-null 786-O cells but not in VHL wild-type Caki-2 cells. Physapubescin significantly inhibited in vivo angiogenesis in the 786-O xenograft. Physapubescin as a novel agent for elimination of VHL-null RCC cells via apoptosis is warranted for further investigation. PMID:27581364

  6. In vitro growth-inhibitory effect of ethanol GRAS plant and supercritical CO₂ hop extracts on planktonic cultures of oral pathogenic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Pilna, J; Vlkova, E; Krofta, K; Nesvadba, V; Rada, V; Kokoska, L

    2015-09-01

    Conventional chemical antiseptics used for treatment of oral infections often produce side-effects, which restrict their long-term use. Plants are considered as perspective sources of novel natural antiseptics. However, little is still known about their inhibitory properties against oral pathogens. The objective of this study was to test in vitro antimicrobial activities of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) species against planktonic cultures of cariogenic, periodontal and candidal microorganisms and identify active compounds of the most active extracts. Growth-inhibitory effects of ethanol extracts from 109 GRAS plant species, six Humulus lupulus cultivars and two hop supercritical CO2 extracts were evaluated using broth microdilution method. The chemical analysis was done through high-performance liquid chromatography. Best results were obtained for supercritical CO2 and ethanol extracts of H. lupulus with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ≥8 μg/mL and ≥16 μg/mL, respectively. The chemical analysis of supercritical CO2H. lupulus extracts revealed that α- and β-acids were their main constituents. Capsicum annuum and Capsicum frutescens showed antibacterial effect against Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus salivarius (MIC=64-128 μg/mL). These strains were further inhibited by Zanthoxylum clava-herculis (MIC=64-128 μg/mL) and Myristica fragrans (both MIC≥128 μg/mL). The latter also exhibited antimicrobial activity against Fusobacterium nucleatum (MIC=64 μg/mL). Punica granatum possessed inhibitory effects against Candida albicans (MIC=128 μg/mL) and F. nucleatum (MIC=64 μg/mL). The results indicate that supercritical CO2H. lupulus extracts together with ethanol extracts of C. annuum, C. frutescens, M. fragrans, P. granatum and Z. clava-herculis are promising materials for further investigation on new antiseptic agents of oral care products.

  7. In vitro growth-inhibitory effect of ethanol GRAS plant and supercritical CO₂ hop extracts on planktonic cultures of oral pathogenic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Pilna, J; Vlkova, E; Krofta, K; Nesvadba, V; Rada, V; Kokoska, L

    2015-09-01

    Conventional chemical antiseptics used for treatment of oral infections often produce side-effects, which restrict their long-term use. Plants are considered as perspective sources of novel natural antiseptics. However, little is still known about their inhibitory properties against oral pathogens. The objective of this study was to test in vitro antimicrobial activities of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) species against planktonic cultures of cariogenic, periodontal and candidal microorganisms and identify active compounds of the most active extracts. Growth-inhibitory effects of ethanol extracts from 109 GRAS plant species, six Humulus lupulus cultivars and two hop supercritical CO2 extracts were evaluated using broth microdilution method. The chemical analysis was done through high-performance liquid chromatography. Best results were obtained for supercritical CO2 and ethanol extracts of H. lupulus with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ≥8 μg/mL and ≥16 μg/mL, respectively. The chemical analysis of supercritical CO2H. lupulus extracts revealed that α- and β-acids were their main constituents. Capsicum annuum and Capsicum frutescens showed antibacterial effect against Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus salivarius (MIC=64-128 μg/mL). These strains were further inhibited by Zanthoxylum clava-herculis (MIC=64-128 μg/mL) and Myristica fragrans (both MIC≥128 μg/mL). The latter also exhibited antimicrobial activity against Fusobacterium nucleatum (MIC=64 μg/mL). Punica granatum possessed inhibitory effects against Candida albicans (MIC=128 μg/mL) and F. nucleatum (MIC=64 μg/mL). The results indicate that supercritical CO2H. lupulus extracts together with ethanol extracts of C. annuum, C. frutescens, M. fragrans, P. granatum and Z. clava-herculis are promising materials for further investigation on new antiseptic agents of oral care products. PMID:26232134

  8. Somatostatin receptor-1 induces cell cycle arrest and inhibits tumor growth in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Wang, Xiaochi; Li, Wei; Li, Fei; Yang, Hui; Wang, Hao; Brunicardi, F Charles; Chen, Changyi; Yao, Qizhi; Fisher, William E

    2008-11-01

    Functional somatostatin receptors (SSTR) are lost in human pancreatic cancer. Transfection of SSTR-1 inhibited pancreatic cancer cell proliferation in vitro. We hypothesize that stable transfection of SSTR-1 may inhibit pancreatic cancer growth in vivo possibly through cell cycle arrest. In this study, we examined the expression of SSTR-1 mRNA in human pancreatic cancer tissue specimens, and investigated the effect of SSTR-1 overexpression on cell proliferation, cell cycle, and tumor growth in a subcutaneous nude mouse model. We found that SSTR-1 mRNA was downregulated in the majority of pancreatic cancer tissue specimens. Transfection of SSTR-1 caused cell cycle arrest at the G(0)/G(1) growth phase, with a corresponding decline of cells in the S (mitotic) phase. The overexpression of SSTR-1 significantly inhibited subcutaneous tumor size by 71% and 43% (n = 5, P < 0.05, Student's t-test), and inhibited tumor weight by 69% and 47% (n = 5, P < 0.05, Student's t-test), in Panc-SSTR-1 and MIA-SSTR-1 groups, respectively, indicating the potent inhibitory effect of SSTR-1 on pancreatic cancer growth. Our data demonstrate that overexpression of SSTR-1 significantly inhibits pancreatic cancer growth possibly through cell cycle arrest. This study suggests that gene therapy with SSTR-1 may be a potential adjuvant treatment for pancreatic cancer.

  9. Somatostatin Receptor-1 Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Inhibits Tumor Growth in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Wang, Xiaochi; Li, Wei; Li, Fei; Yang, Hui; Wang, Hao; Brunicardi, F. Charles; Chen, Changyi; Yao, Qizhi; Fisher, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Functional somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) are lost in human pancreatic cancer. Transfection of SSTR-1 inhibited pancreatic cancer cell proliferation in vitro. We hypothesize that stable transfection of SSTR-1 may inhibit pancreatic cancer growth in vivo possibly through cell cycle arrest. In this study, we examined the expression of SSTR-1 mRNA in human pancreatic cancer tissue specimens, and investigated the effect of SSTR-1 overexpression on cell proliferation, cell cycle, and tumor growth in in a subcutaneous nude mouse model. We found that SSTR-1 mRNA was downregulated in the majority of pancreatic cancer tissue specimens. Transfection of SSTR-1 caused cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 growth phase, with a corresponding decline of cells in the S (mitotic) phase. The overexpression of SSTR-1 significantly inhibited subcutaneous tumor size by 71% and 43% (n=5, p<0.05, t-test), and inhibited tumor weight by 69% and 47%, (n=5, p<0.05, t-test), in Panc-SSTR-1 and MIA-SSTR-1 groups, respectively, indicating the potent inhibitory effect of SSTR-1 on pancreatic cancer growth. Our data demonstrate that overexpression of SSTR-1 significantly inhibits pancreatic cancer growth possibly through cell cycle arrest. This study suggests that gene therapy with SSTR-1 may be a potential adjuvant treatment for pancreatic cancer. PMID:18823376

  10. Serum-free suspension culturing of human cells: adaptation, growth, and cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Biaggio, Rafael Tagé; Abreu-Neto, Mário Soares; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Swiech, Kamilla

    2015-08-01

    Human cell lines have attracted great interest because they are capable of producing glycosylated proteins that are more similar to native human proteins, thereby reducing the potential for immune responses. However, these cells have not been extensively characterized and cultured under serum-free suspension conditions. In this work, we describe the adaptation, growth, and cryopreservation of the human cell lines SK-Hep-1, HepG2, and HKB-11 under serum-free suspension conditions. The results showed that both HKB-11 and SK-Hep-1 adapted to serum-free suspension cultures in FreeStyle and SFM II, respectively. Kinetic characterization showed that the HKB-11 and SK-Hep-1 cells reached cell densities as high as 8.6 × 10(6) and 1.9 × 10(6) cells/mL, respectively. The maximum specific growth rates (μ max) were similar for both cells (0.0159/h for HKB-11 and 0.0186/h for SK-Hep-1). The growth limitation of adapted cells does not appear to be associated with glucose or glutamine depletion, nor with the formation of lactate in inhibitory concentrations. However, in both cases, ammonia production reached concentrations that are considered inhibitory to mammalian cells (2-5 mM). The adapted cells were also successfully cryopreserved under serum-free formulations. The SK-HEP-1 and HKB-11 cells that were adapted to serum-free suspension conditions might be suitable for use in the manufacturing of recombinant proteins, thereby eliminating the potential for the introduction of adventitious process contamination and greatly simplifying downstream protein purification. PMID:25822314

  11. Serum-free suspension culturing of human cells: adaptation, growth, and cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Biaggio, Rafael Tagé; Abreu-Neto, Mário Soares; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Swiech, Kamilla

    2015-08-01

    Human cell lines have attracted great interest because they are capable of producing glycosylated proteins that are more similar to native human proteins, thereby reducing the potential for immune responses. However, these cells have not been extensively characterized and cultured under serum-free suspension conditions. In this work, we describe the adaptation, growth, and cryopreservation of the human cell lines SK-Hep-1, HepG2, and HKB-11 under serum-free suspension conditions. The results showed that both HKB-11 and SK-Hep-1 adapted to serum-free suspension cultures in FreeStyle and SFM II, respectively. Kinetic characterization showed that the HKB-11 and SK-Hep-1 cells reached cell densities as high as 8.6 × 10(6) and 1.9 × 10(6) cells/mL, respectively. The maximum specific growth rates (μ max) were similar for both cells (0.0159/h for HKB-11 and 0.0186/h for SK-Hep-1). The growth limitation of adapted cells does not appear to be associated with glucose or glutamine depletion, nor with the formation of lactate in inhibitory concentrations. However, in both cases, ammonia production reached concentrations that are considered inhibitory to mammalian cells (2-5 mM). The adapted cells were also successfully cryopreserved under serum-free formulations. The SK-HEP-1 and HKB-11 cells that were adapted to serum-free suspension conditions might be suitable for use in the manufacturing of recombinant proteins, thereby eliminating the potential for the introduction of adventitious process contamination and greatly simplifying downstream protein purification.

  12. Ratite oils promote keratinocyte cell growth and inhibit leukocyte activation

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Darin C.; Leung, Gigi; Wang, Eddy; Ma, Sam; Lo, Blanche K. K.; McElwee, Kevin J.; Cheng, Kimberly M.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, native Australian aborigines have used emu oil for the treatment of inflammation and to accelerate wound healing. Studies on mice suggest that topically applied emu oil may have anti-inflammatory properties and may promote wound healing. We investigated the effects of ratite oils (6 emu, 3 ostrich, 1 rhea) on immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) in vitro by culturing the cells in media with oil concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, and 1.0%. Peking duck, tea tree, and olive oils were used as comparative controls. The same oils at 0.5% concentration were evaluated for their influence on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) survival over 48 hr and their ability to inhibit IFNγ production in PBMCs activated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in ELISpot assays. Compared to no oil control, significantly shorter population doubling time durations were observed for HaCaT cells cultured in emu oil (1.51 × faster), ostrich oil (1.46 × faster), and rhea oil (1.64 × faster). Tea tree oil demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity and olive oil significantly prolonged (1.35 × slower) cell population doubling time. In contrast, almost all oils, particularly tea tree oil, significantly reduced PBMC viability. Different oils had different levels of inhibitory effect on IFNγ production with individual emu, ostrich, rhea, and duck oil samples conferring full inhibition. This preliminary investigation suggests that emu oil might promote wound healing by accelerating the growth rate of keratinocytes. Combined with anti-inflammatory properties, ratite oil may serve as a useful component in bandages and ointments for the treatment of wounds and inflammatory skin conditions. PMID:26217022

  13. Ratite oils promote keratinocyte cell growth and inhibit leukocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Darin C; Leung, Gigi; Wang, Eddy; Ma, Sam; Lo, Blanche K K; McElwee, Kevin J; Cheng, Kimberly M

    2015-09-01

    Traditionally, native Australian aborigines have used emu oil for the treatment of inflammation and to accelerate wound healing. Studies on mice suggest that topically applied emu oil may have anti-inflammatory properties and may promote wound healing. We investigated the effects of ratite oils (6 emu, 3 ostrich, 1 rhea) on immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) in vitro by culturing the cells in media with oil concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, and 1.0%. Peking duck, tea tree, and olive oils were used as comparative controls. The same oils at 0.5% concentration were evaluated for their influence on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) survival over 48 hr and their ability to inhibit IFNγ production in PBMCs activated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in ELISpot assays. Compared to no oil control, significantly shorter population doubling time durations were observed for HaCaT cells cultured in emu oil (1.51×faster), ostrich oil (1.46×faster), and rhea oil (1.64×faster). Tea tree oil demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity and olive oil significantly prolonged (1.35×slower) cell population doubling time. In contrast, almost all oils, particularly tea tree oil, significantly reduced PBMC viability. Different oils had different levels of inhibitory effect on IFNγ production with individual emu, ostrich, rhea, and duck oil samples conferring full inhibition. This preliminary investigation suggests that emu oil might promote wound healing by accelerating the growth rate of keratinocytes. Combined with anti-inflammatory properties, ratite oil may serve as a useful component in bandages and ointments for the treatment of wounds and inflammatory skin conditions. PMID:26217022

  14. SLC26A11 (KBAT) in Purkinje Cells Is Critical for Inhibitory Transmission and Contributes to Locomotor Coordination.

    PubMed

    Rahmati, Negah; Vinueza Veloz, Maria Fernanda; Xu, Jie; Barone, Sharon; Rodolfo Ben Hamida, Nahuel; Schonewille, Martijn; Hoebeek, Freek E; Soleimani, Manoocher; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2016-01-01

    Chloride homeostasis determines the impact of inhibitory synaptic transmission and thereby mediates the excitability of neurons. Even though cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) receive a pronounced inhibitory GABAergic input from stellate and basket cells, the role of chloride homeostasis in these neurons is largely unknown. Here we studied at both the cellular and systems physiological level the function of a recently discovered chloride channel, SLC26A11 or kidney brain anion transporter (KBAT), which is prominently expressed in PCs. Using perforated patch clamp recordings of PCs, we found that a lack of KBAT channel in PC-specific KBAT KO mice (L7-KBAT KOs) induces a negative shift in the reversal potential of chloride as reflected in the GABAA-receptor-evoked currents, indicating a decrease in intracellular chloride concentration. Surprisingly, both in vitro and in vivo PCs in L7-KBAT KOs showed a significantly increased action potential firing frequency of simple spikes, which correlated with impaired motor performance on the Erasmus Ladder. Our findings support an important role for SLC26A11 in moderating chloride homeostasis and neuronal activity in the cerebellum. PMID:27390771

  15. SLC26A11 (KBAT) in Purkinje Cells Is Critical for Inhibitory Transmission and Contributes to Locomotor Coordination123

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jie; Hoebeek, Freek E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chloride homeostasis determines the impact of inhibitory synaptic transmission and thereby mediates the excitability of neurons. Even though cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) receive a pronounced inhibitory GABAergic input from stellate and basket cells, the role of chloride homeostasis in these neurons is largely unknown. Here we studied at both the cellular and systems physiological level the function of a recently discovered chloride channel, SLC26A11 or kidney brain anion transporter (KBAT), which is prominently expressed in PCs. Using perforated patch clamp recordings of PCs, we found that a lack of KBAT channel in PC-specific KBAT KO mice (L7-KBAT KOs) induces a negative shift in the reversal potential of chloride as reflected in the GABAA-receptor-evoked currents, indicating a decrease in intracellular chloride concentration. Surprisingly, both in vitro and in vivo PCs in L7-KBAT KOs showed a significantly increased action potential firing frequency of simple spikes, which correlated with impaired motor performance on the Erasmus Ladder. Our findings support an important role for SLC26A11 in moderating chloride homeostasis and neuronal activity in the cerebellum. PMID:27390771

  16. Activation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Macrophages Mediates Feedback Inhibition of M2 Polarization and Gastrointestinal Tumor Cell Growth.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gang; Liu, Liping; Peek, Richard M; Hao, Xishan; Polk, D Brent; Li, Hui; Yan, Fang

    2016-09-23

    EGF receptor (EGFR) in tumor cells serves as a tumor promoter. However, information about EGFR activation in macrophages in regulating M2 polarization and tumor development is limited. This study aimed to investigate the effects of EGFR activation in macrophages on M2 polarization and development of gastrointestinal tumors. IL-4, a cytokine to elicit M2 polarization, stimulated release of an EGFR ligand, HB-EGF, and transactivation and down-regulation of EGFR in Raw 264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages from WT mice. Knockdown of HB-EGF in macrophages inhibited EGFR transactivation by IL-4. IL-4-stimulated STAT6 activation, Arg1 and YM1 gene expression, and HB-EGF production were further enhanced by inhibition of EGFR activity in Raw 264.7 cells using an EGFR kinase inhibitor and in peritoneal macrophages from Egfr(wa5) mice with kinase inactive EGFR and by knockdown of EGFR in peritoneal macrophages from Egfr(fl/fl) LysM-Cre mice with myeloid cell-specific EGFR deletion. Chitin induced a higher level of M2 polarization in peritoneal macrophages in Egfr(fl/fl) LysM-Cre mice than that in Egfr(fl/fl) mice. Accordingly, IL-4-conditioned medium stimulated growth and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in gastric epithelial and colonic tumor cells, which were suppressed by that from Raw 264.7 cells with HB-EGF knockdown but promoted by that from Egfr(wa5) and Egfr(fl/fl) LysM-Cre peritoneal macrophages. Clinical assessment revealed that the number of macrophages with EGFR expression became less, indicating decreased inhibitory effects on M2 polarization, in late stage of human gastric cancers. Thus, IL-4-stimulated HB-EGF-dependent transactivation of EGFR in macrophages may mediate inhibitory feedback for M2 polarization and HB-EGF production, thereby inhibiting gastrointestinal tumor growth.

  17. Beta(2)-microglobulin as a negative growth regulator of myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Min, Rui; Li, Zhongkui; Epstein, Joshua; Barlogie, Bart; Yi, Qing

    2002-08-01

    High beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)m) levels in myeloma correlate with poor prognosis. We hypothesized that beta(2)m may affect myeloma cell growth and survival. In this study, we examined the in vitro effects of beta(2)m on myeloma cells. Primary myeloma cells freshly isolated from patients and myeloma cell lines were used, cultured in the presence of beta(2)m, and monitored for growth and survival. Beta(2)m suppressed the growth of primary tumour cells and myeloma cell lines (ARK-RS, ARP-1, RPMI-8226, U266, ARH-77 and IM-9). High concentrations of beta(2)m induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Beta(2)m-induced apoptosis was dependent on activation of a caspase cascade, inhibited by interleukin 6, and did not involve the surface death receptors, as receptor-neutralizing antibodies had no inhibitory effect. Beta(2)m-induced growth arrest was associated with downregulation of cyclins A and D2. Surprisingly, anti-beta(2)m antibodies did not block the effect of beta(2)m but were synergistic with beta(2)m, resulting in 90% growth inhibition and 70% apoptosis of myeloma cells. Whereas beta(2)m treatment resulted in slight upregulation of surface beta(2)m and major histocompatibility complex class I alpha-chain expression, treatment of myeloma cells with anti-beta(2)m antibodies alone or with beta(2)m resulted in significant downregulation of surface beta(2)m and class I molecules, suggesting that class I molecules may be involved in signal transduction. Our data demonstrate that beta(2)m plays an important role in regulating the growth and survival of myeloma cells in vitro and warrants further investigation to delineate the mechanisms of beta(2)m and anti-beta(2)m antibody-induced growth regulation of myeloma cells.

  18. Regulatory Dendritic Cells Restrain NK Cell IFN-γ Production through Mechanisms Involving NKp46, IL-10, and MHC Class I-Specific Inhibitory Receptors.

    PubMed

    Spallanzani, Raúl G; Torres, Nicolás I; Avila, Damián E; Ziblat, Andrea; Iraolagoitia, Ximena L Raffo; Rossi, Lucas E; Domaica, Carolina I; Fuertes, Mercedes B; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Zwirner, Norberto W

    2015-09-01

    Cross-talk between mature dendritic cells (mDC) and NK cells through the cell surface receptors NKp30 and DNAM-1 leads to their reciprocal activation. However, the impact of regulatory dendritic cells (regDC) on NK cell function remains unknown. As regDC constrain the immune response in different physiological and pathological conditions, the aim of this work was to investigate the functional outcome of the interaction between regDC and NK cells and the associated underlying mechanisms. RegDC generated from monocyte-derived DC treated either with LPS and dexamethasone, vitamin D3, or vitamin D3 and dexamethasone instructed NK cells to secrete lower amounts of IFN-γ than NK cells exposed to mDC. Although regDC triggered upregulation of the activation markers CD69 and CD25 on NK cells, they did not induce upregulation of CD56 as mDC, and silenced IFN-γ secretion through mechanisms involving insufficient secretion of IL-18, but not IL-12 or IL-15 and/or induction of NK cell apoptosis. Blocking experiments demonstrated that regDC curb IFN-γ secretion by NK cells through a dominant suppressive mechanism involving IL-10, NK cell inhibitory receptors, and, unexpectedly, engagement of the activating receptor NKp46. Our findings unveil a previously unrecognized cross-talk through which regDC shape NK cell function toward an alternative activated phenotype unable to secrete IFN-γ, highlighting the plasticity of NK cells in response to tolerogenic stimuli. In addition, our findings contribute to identify a novel inhibitory role for NKp46 in the control of NK cell function, and have broad implications in the resolution of inflammatory responses and evasion of antitumor responses. PMID:26232426

  19. Efficient delivery to human lung fibroblasts (WI-38) of pirfenidone incorporated into liposomes modified with truncated basic fibroblast growth factor and its inhibitory effect on collagen synthesis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Togami, Kohei; Miyao, Aki; Miyakoshi, Kei; Kanehira, Yukimune; Tada, Hitoshi; Chono, Sumio

    2015-01-01

    In the present in vitro study, we assessed the delivery of pirfenidone incorporated into liposomes modified with truncated basic fibroblast growth factor (tbFGF) to lung fibroblasts and investigated the anti-fibrotic effect of the drug. The tbFGF peptide, KRTGQYKLC, was used to modify the surface of liposomes (tbFGF-liposomes). We used the thin-layer evaporation method, followed by sonication, to prepare tbFGF-liposomes containing pirfenidone. The cellular accumulation of tbFGF-liposomes was 1.7-fold greater than that of non-modified liposomes in WI-38 cells used as a model of lung fibroblasts. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that tbFGF-liposomes were widely localized in WI-38 cells. The inhibitory effects of pirfenidone incorporated into tbFGF-liposomes on transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced collagen synthesis in WI-38 cells were evaluated by measuring the level of intracellular hydroxyproline, a major component of the protein collagen. Pirfenidone incorporated into tbFGF-liposomes at concentrations of 10, 30, and 100 µM significantly decreased the TGF-β1-induced hydroxyproline content in WI-38 cells. The anti-fibrotic effect of pirfenidone incorporated into tbFGF-liposomes was enhanced compared with that of pirfenidone solution. These results indicate that tbFGF-liposomes are a useful drug delivery system of anti-fibrotic drugs to lung fibroblasts for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  20. A single mutation in the gatekeeper residue in TgMAPKL-1 restores the inhibitory effect of a bumped kinase inhibitor on the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Sugi, Tatsuki; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro; Horimoto, Taisuke; Kato, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the causative pathogen for Toxoplasmosis. Bumped kinase inhibitor 1NM-PP1 inhibits the growth of T. gondii by targeting TgCDPK1. However, we recently reported that resistance to 1NM-PP1 can be acquired via a mutation in T. gondii mitogen-activated protein kinase like 1 (TgMAPKL-1). Further characterization of how this TgMAPKL-1 mutation restores the inhibitory effect of 1NM-PP1 would shed further light on the function of TgMAPKL-1 in the parasite life cycle. Therefore, we made parasite clones with TgMAPKL-1 mutated at the gatekeeper residue Ser 191, which is critical for 1NM-PP1 susceptibility. Host cell lysis of RH/ku80-/HA-TgMAPKL-1S191A was completely inhibited at 250 nM 1NM-PP1, whereas that of RH/ku80-/HA-TgMAPKL-1S191Y was not. By comparing 1NM-PP1-sensitive (RH/ku80-/HA-TgMAPKL-1S191A) and -resistant (RH/ku80-/HA-TgMAPKL-1S191Y) clones, we observed that inhibition of TgMAPKL-1 blocked cell cycle progression after DNA duplication. Morphological analysis revealed that TgMAPKL-1 inhibition caused enlarged parasite cells with many daughter cell scaffolds and imcomplete cytokinesis. We conclude that the mutation in TgMAPKL-1 restored the cell cycle-arresting effect of 1NM-PP1 on T. gondii endodyogeny. Given that endodyogeny is the primary mechanism of cell division for both the tachyzoite and bradyzoite stages of this parasite, TgMAPKL-1 may be a promising target for drug development. Exploration of the signals that regulate TgMAPKL-1 will provide further insights into the unique mode of T. gondii cell division. PMID:25941623

  1. Global Transcriptome Profiling Analysis of Inhibitory Effects of Paclobutrazol on Leaf Growth in Lily (Lilium Longiflorum-Asiatic Hybrid).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaopei; Chai, Min; Li, Yang; Sun, Meiyu; Zhang, Jinzheng; Sun, Guofeng; Jiang, Chuangdao; Shi, Lei

    2016-01-01

    As a popular ornamental flower, potted lily is an important object of lily breeding. Paclobutrazol, a chemical growth retardation compound, is often used to dwarf plant in producing potted lilies. However, in recent years, the plants with inherited dwarf traits by using genetic engineer breeding technology are being developed. The studies on molecular basis of lily dwarfism will offer some target genes which have profound dwarf effect for genetic engineer breeding. Here, we confirmed that paclobutrazol inhibited plant height and leaf size in Lilium Longiflorum-Asiatic hybrid, and then RNA-Seq technique was employed to analyze gene transcripts of Lilium Longiflorum-Asiatic hybrid leaves by paclobutrazol treatment in order to get a deeper insight into dwarfism mechanism of lily. Approximately 38.6 Gb data was obtained and assemble into 53,681 unigenes. Annotation, pathways, functional classification and phylogenetic classification of these data were analyzed based on Nr, Nt, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG, and GO databases. 2704 differentially expressed genes were screened by comparing paclobutrazol-treated samples with untreated samples and quantitative real-time PCR was performed to validate expression profiles. By analyzing dynamic changes of differentially expressed genes, nine metabolic pathways and signal transduction pathways were significantly enriched and many potentially interesting genes were identified that encoded putative regulators or key components of cell division, cell expansion, GA metabolism and signaling transduction and these genes were highlighted to reveal their importance in regulation of plant size. These results will provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanism on lily dwarfism and some potential genes related to lily organ size, which will lay the foundation for molecular breeding of potted lilies. These tra