Science.gov

Sample records for cell killing ability

  1. The kinematics of cytotoxic lymphocytes influence their ability to kill target cells.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Purnima; Leggatt, Graham; Matthaei, Klaus I; Frazer, Ian H

    2014-01-01

    Cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTL) have been reported to show a range of motility patterns from rapid long-range tracking to complete arrest, but how and whether these kinematics affect their ability to kill target cells is not known. Many in vitro killing assays utilize cell lines and tumour-derived cells as targets, which may be of limited relevance to the kinetics of CTL-mediated killing of somatic cells. Here, live-cell microscopy is used to examine the interactions of CTL and primary murine skin cells presenting antigens. We developed a qualitative and quantitative killing assay using extended-duration fluorescence time-lapse microscopy coupled with large-volume objective software-based data analysis to obtain population data of cell-to-cell interactions, motility and apoptosis. In vivo and ex vivo activated antigen-specific cytotoxic lymphocytes were added to primary keratinocyte targets in culture with fluorometric detection of caspase-3 activation in targets as an objective determinant of apoptosis. We found that activated CTL achieved contact-dependent apoptosis of non-tumour targets after a period of prolonged attachment - on average 21 hours - which was determined by target cell type, amount of antigen, and activation status of CTL. Activation of CTL even without engagement of the T cell receptor was sufficient to mobilise cells significantly above baseline, while the addition of cognate antigen further enhanced their motility. Highly activated CTL showed markedly increased vector displacement, and velocity, and lead to increased antigen-specific target cell death. These data show that the inherent kinematics of CTL correlate directly with their ability to kill non-tumour cells presenting cognate antigen.

  2. HIV transcription is induced with cell killing

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Schreck, S.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei; Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R.

    1993-11-01

    In this report, we demonstrate that this induction of HIV-LTR transcription occurs when stably transfected HeLa cells are exposed to agents which mediate cell killing, such as UV radiation, electroporation of sucrose buffer, prolonged heating, and low and high pH. Cells cultured following UV exposure demonstrated a peak in CAT expression that is evident in viable (but not necessarily cell division-competent) cells 24 h after exposure; this inductive response continued until at least 72 h after exposure. HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent, and the amount of CAT transcription induced was correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture.

  3. Can Nanomedicines Kill Cancer Stem Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yi; Alakhova, Daria Y.; Kabanov, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    Most tumors are heterogeneous and many cancers contain small population of highly tumorigenic and intrinsically drug resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs). Like normal stem cell, CSCs have ability to self-renew and differentiate to other tumor cell types. They are believed to be a source for drug resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis. CSCs often overexpress drug efflux transporters, spend most of their time in non-dividing G0 cell cycle state, and therefore, can escape the conventional chemotherapies. Thus, targeting CSCs is essential for developing novel therapies to prevent cancer relapse and emerging of drug resistance. Nanocarrier-based therapeutic agents (nanomedicines) have been used to achieve longer circulation times, better stability and bioavailability over current therapeutics. Recently, some groups have successfully applied nanomedicines to target CSCs to eliminate the tumor and prevent its recurrence. These approaches include 1) delivery of therapeutic agents (small molecules, siRNA, antibodies) that affect embryonic signaling pathways implicated in self-renewal and differentiation in CSCs, 2) inhibiting drug efflux transporters in an attempt to sensitize CSCs to therapy, 3) targeting metabolism in CSCs through nanoformulated chemicals and field-responsive magnetic nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, and 4) disruption of multiple pathways in drug resistant cells using combination of chemotherapeutic drugs with amphiphilic Pluronic block copolymers. Despite clear progress of these studies the challenges of targeting CSCs by nanomedicines still exist and leave plenty of room for improvement and development. This review summarizes biological processes that are related to CSCs, overviews the current state of anti-CSCs therapies, and discusses state-of-the-art nanomedicine approaches developed to kill CSCs. PMID:24120657

  4. HIV transcription is induced with cell killing

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Schreck, S.; Chang-Liu, Chin Mei; Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    Previous work has shown that HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct are induced to express chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) following exposure to DNA-damaging agents such as ultraviolet radiation, {gamma} rays, neutrons, and others. In this report, the authors demonstrate that this induction of HIV-LTR transcription occurs when stably transfected HeLa cells are exposed to agents which mediate cell killing, such as UV radiation, electroporation of sucrose buffer, prolonged heating, and low and high pH. Cells cultured following UV exposure demonstrated a peak in CAT expression that is evidence in viable (but not necessarily cell division-competent) cells 24 h after exposure; this inductive response continued until at least 72 h after exposure. HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent, and the amount of CAT transcription induced was correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture. Other agents which caused no cell killing (such as heat-shock for up to 2 h, treatment with metronidazole, exposure to sunlight, vitamin C treatment, and others) had no effect on HIV-LTR induction. These results suggest that HIV transcription is induced as a consequence of the turn on of a cellular death or apoptotic pathway.

  5. Newcastle disease virus selectively kills human tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Reichard, K W; Lorence, R M; Cascino, C J; Peeples, M E; Walter, R J; Fernando, M B; Reyes, H M; Greager, J A

    1992-05-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), strain 73-T, has previously been shown to be cytolytic to mouse tumor cells. In this study, we have evaluated the ability of NDV to replicate in and kill human tumor cells in culture and in athymic mice. Plaque assays were used to determine the cytolytic activity of NDV on six human tumor cell lines, fibrosarcoma (HT1080), osteosarcoma (KHOS), cervical carcinoma (KB8-5-11), bladder carcinoma (HCV29T), neuroblastoma (IMR32), and Wilm's tumor (G104), and on nine different normal human fibroblast lines. NDV formed plaques on all tumor cells tested as well as on chick embryo cells (CEC), the native host for NDV. Plaques did not form on any of the normal fibroblast lines. To detect NDV replication, virus yield assays were performed which measured virus particles in infected cell culture supernatants. Virus yield increased 10,000-fold within 24 hr in tumor and CEC supernatants. Titers remained near zero in normal fibroblast supernatants. In vivo tumoricidal activity was evaluated in athymic nude Balb-c mice by subcutaneous injection of 9 x 10(6) tumor cells followed by intralesional injection of either live or heat-killed NDV (1.0 x 10(6) plaque forming units [PFU]), or medium. After live NDV treatment, tumor regression occurred in 10 out of 11 mice bearing KB8-5-11 tumors, 8 out of 8 with HT-1080 tumors, and 6 out of 7 with IMR-32 tumors. After treatment with heat-killed NDV no regression occurred (P less than 0.01, Fisher's exact test). Nontumor-bearing mice injected with 1.0 x 10(8) PFU of NDV remained healthy. These results indicate that NDV efficiently and selectively replicates in and kills tumor cells, but not normal cells, and that intralesional NDV causes complete tumor regression in athymic mice with a high therapeutic index.

  6. Drug repurposing screen identifies lestaurtinib amplifies the ability of the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 inhibitor AG14361 to kill breast cancer associated gene-1 mutant and wild type breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer is a devastating disease that results in approximately 40,000 deaths each year in the USA. Current drug screening and chemopreventatitive methods are suboptimal, due in part to the poor specificity of compounds for cancer cells. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitor (PARPi)-mediated therapy is a promising approach for familial breast cancers caused by mutations of breast cancer-associated gene-1 and -2 (BRCA1/2), yet drug resistance frequently occurs during the treatment. Moreover, PARPis exhibit very little effect on cancers that are proficient for DNA repair and clinical efficacy for PARPis as single-agent therapies has yet to be illustrated. Methods Using a quantitative high-throughput screening approach, we screened a library containing 2,816 drugs, most of which are approved for human or animal use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or other countries, to identify compounds that sensitize breast cancer cells to PARPi. After initial screening, we performed further cellular and molecular analysis on lestaurtinib, which is an orally bioavailable multikinase inhibitor and has been used in clinical trials for myeloproliferative disorders and acute myelogenous leukemia. Results Our study indicated that lestaurtinib is highly potent against breast cancers as a mono-treatment agent. It also strongly enhanced the activity of the potent PARPi AG14361 on breast cancer cell growth both in vitro and in vivo conditions. The inhibition of cancer growth is measured by increased apoptosis and reduced cell proliferation. Consistent with this, the treatment results in activation of caspase 3/7, and accumulation of cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle, irrespective of their BRCA1 status. Finally, we demonstrated that AG14361 inhibits NF-κB signaling, which is further enhanced by lestaurtinib treatment. Conclusions Lestaurtinib amplifies the ability of the PARP1 inhibitor AG14361 to kill BRCA1 mutant and wild-type breast cancer

  7. The Cell Killing Mechanisms of Hydroxyurea

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amanpreet; Xu, Yong-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxyurea is a well-established inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase that has a long history of scientific interest and clinical use for the treatment of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. It is currently the staple drug for the management of sickle cell anemia and chronic myeloproliferative disorders. Due to its reversible inhibitory effect on DNA replication in various organisms, hydroxyurea is also commonly used in laboratories for cell cycle synchronization or generating replication stress. However, incubation with high concentrations or prolonged treatment with low doses of hydroxyurea can result in cell death and the DNA damage generated at arrested replication forks is generally believed to be the direct cause. Recent studies in multiple model organisms have shown that oxidative stress and several other mechanisms may contribute to the majority of the cytotoxic effect of hydroxyurea. This review aims to summarize the progress in our understanding of the cell-killing mechanisms of hydroxyurea, which may provide new insights towards the improvement of chemotherapies that employ this agent. PMID:27869662

  8. Univalent antibodies kill tumour cells in vitro and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glennie, M. J.; Stevenson, G. T.

    1982-02-01

    Antibody molecules are bivalent, or less often multivalent, with each antibody site within a single molecule having the same specificity. Bivalency must enhance the tenacity of antibody attachment to cell surfaces, as dissociation will require simultaneous release at both sites. However, the bivalency of the antibody sometimes induces a target cell to undergo antigenic modulation1-3, thereby offering the cell a means of evading complement and the various effector cells recruited by the antibody. We have investigated the attack by univalent antibodies, which, despite removal of one antibody site, retain their Fc zones and hence their ability to recruit the killing agents, on neoplastic B lymphocytes of the guinea pig L2C line. Rabbit antibodies raised against surface immunoglobulin of these cells were partially digested with papain to yield the univalent Fab/c derivatives4,5. We report here that these derivatives showed enhanced cell killing both in vitro and in vivo, and that this enhancement appeared to derive from avoiding antigenic modulation.

  9. HIV transcription is induced with some forms of cell killing

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Schreck, S.; Panozzo, J.; Chang-Liu, C.-M.; Libertin, C.R.

    1996-11-01

    Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct`, we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. {Gamma} rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that {gamma}-ray-induced apoptotic death requires function p53, which is missing in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture.

  10. Potassium channels mediate killing by human natural killer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schlichter, L.; Sidell N.; Hagiwara, S.

    1986-01-01

    Human natural killer (NK) cells in peripheral blood spontaneously recognize and kill a wide variety of target cells. It has been suggested that ion channels are involved in the killing process because there is a Ca-dependent stage and because killing by presensitized cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which in many respects resembles NK killing, is associated with changes in K and Na transport in the target cell. Using the whole-cell variation of the patch-clamp technique, the authors found a voltage-dependent potassium (K/sup +/) current in NK cells. The K/sup +/ current was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the K-channel blockers 4-aminopyridine and quinidine and by the traditional Ca-channel blockers verapamil and Cd/sup 2 +/. They tested the effects of ion-channel blockers on killing of two commonly used target cell lines: K562, which is derived from a human myeloid leukemia, and U937, which is derived from a human histiocytic leukemia. Killing of K562 target cells, determined in a standard /sup 51/Cr-release assay, was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by verapamil, quinidine, Cd/sup 2 +/, and 4-aminopyridine at concentrations comparable to those that blocked the K/sup +/ current in NK cells. In K562 target cells only a voltage-dependent Na= current was found and it was blocked by concentrations of tetrodotoxin that had no effect on killing. Killing of U937 target cells was also inhibited by the two ion-channel blockers tested, quinidine and verapamil. In this cell line only a small K/sup +/ current was found that was similar to the one in NK cells. The findings show that there are K channels in NK cells and that these channels play a necessary role in the killing process.

  11. Trogocytosis by Entamoeba histolytica contributes to cell killing and tissue invasion.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Katherine S; Solga, Michael D; Mackey-Lawrence, Nicole M; Somlata; Bhattacharya, Alok; Petri, William A

    2014-04-24

    Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amoebiasis, a potentially fatal diarrhoeal disease in the developing world. The parasite was named "histolytica" for its ability to destroy host tissues, which is probably driven by direct killing of human cells. The mechanism of human cell killing has been unclear, although the accepted model was that the parasites use secreted toxic effectors to kill cells before ingestion. Here we report the discovery that amoebae kill by ingesting distinct pieces of living human cells, resulting in intracellular calcium elevation and eventual cell death. After cell killing, amoebae detach and cease ingestion. Ingestion of human cell fragments is required for cell killing, and also contributes to invasion of intestinal tissue. The internalization of fragments of living human cells is reminiscent of trogocytosis (from Greek trogo, nibble) observed between immune cells, but amoebic trogocytosis differs because it results in death. The ingestion of live cell material and the rejection of corpses illuminate a stark contrast to the established model of dead cell clearance in multicellular organisms. These findings change the model for tissue destruction in amoebiasis and suggest an ancient origin of trogocytosis as a form of intercellular exchange.

  12. Potassium Channels Mediate Killing by Human Natural Killer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichter, Lyanne; Sidell, Neil; Hagiwara, Susumu

    1986-01-01

    Human natural killer (NK) cells in peripheral blood spontaneously recognize and kill a wide variety of target cells. It has been suggested that ion channels are involved in the killing process because there is a Ca-dependent stage and because killing by presensitized cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which in many respects resembles NK killing, is associated with changes in K and Na transport in the target cell. However, no direct evidence exists for ion channels in NK cells or in their target cells. Using the whole-cell variation of the patch-clamp technique, we found a voltage-dependent potassium (K+) current in NK cells. The K+ current was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the K-channel blockers 4-aminopyridine and quinidine and by the traditional Ca-channel blockers verapamil and Cd2+. We tested the effects of ion-channel blockers on killing of two commonly used target cell lines: K562, which is derived from a human myeloid leukemia, and U937, which is derived from a human histiocytic leukemia. Killing of K562 target cells, determined in a standard 51Cr-release assay, was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by verapamil, quinidine, Cd2+, and 4-aminopyridine at concentrations comparable to those that blocked the K+ current in NK cells. In K562 target cells only a voltage-dependent Na+ current was found and it was blocked by concentrations of tetrodotoxin that had no effect on killing. Killing of U937 target cells was also inhibited by the two ion-channel blockers tested, quinidine and verapamil. In this cell line only a small K+ current was found that was similar to the one in NK cells. We could not find any evidence of a Ca2+ current in target cells or in NK cells; therefore, our results cannot explain the Ca dependence of killing. Our findings show that there are K channels in NK cells and that these channels play a necessary role in the killing process. In contrast, the endogenous channel type in the target cell is probably not a factor in determining target cell

  13. Killing Prostate Cancer Cells and Endothelial Cells with a VEGF-Triggered Cell Death Receptor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-02- 1 -0029 TITLE: Killing Prostate Cancer Cells and...CONTRACT NUMBER Killing Prostate Cancer Cells and Endothelial Cells with a VEGF-Triggered Cell Death Receptor 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-02- 1 -0029...as a means to kill prostate cancer cells and vascular endothelial cells in vitro. The scope of this project involved: ( 1 ) creating adenoviral

  14. Mechanisms of Dendritic Cell Lysosomal Killing of Cryptococcus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hole, Camaron R.; Bui, Hoang; Wormley, Floyd L.; Wozniak, Karen L.

    2012-10-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pulmonary fungal pathogen that disseminates to the CNS causing fatal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. Dendritic cells (DCs) phagocytose C. neoformans following inhalation. Following uptake, cryptococci translocate to the DC lysosomal compartment and are killed by oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms. DC lysosomal extracts kill cryptococci in vitro; however, the means of antifungal activity remain unknown. Our studies determined non-oxidative antifungal activity by DC lysosomal extract. We examined DC lysosomal killing of cryptococcal strains, anti-fungal activity of purified lysosomal enzymes, and mechanisms of killing against C. neoformans. Results confirmed DC lysosome fungicidal activity against all cryptococcal serotypes. Purified lysosomal enzymes, specifically cathepsin B, inhibited cryptococcal growth. Interestingly, cathepsin B combined with its enzymatic inhibitors led to enhanced cryptococcal killing. Electron microscopy revealed structural changes and ruptured cryptococcal cell walls following treatment. Finally, additional studies demonstrated that osmotic lysis was responsible for cryptococcal death.

  15. Natural killer cells kill human melanoma cells with characteristics of cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Pietra, Gabriella; Manzini, Claudia; Vitale, Massimo; Balsamo, Mirna; Ognio, Emanuela; Boitano, Monica; Queirolo, Paola; Moretta, Lorenzo; Mingari, Maria Cristina

    2009-07-01

    Experimental and clinical data suggest that tumours harbour a cell population retaining stem cell characteristics that can drive tumorigenesis. CD133 is considered an important cancer stem cells (CSC)-associated marker. In a large variety of human malignancies, including melanoma, CD133(+) cells have been reported to comprise CSC. In this study, we show that melanoma cell lines are highly heterogeneous for the expression of several stem cell-associated markers including CD133, c-kit/CD117 and p75 neurotrophin receptor/CD271. Since no information is available on the ability of NK cells to recognize and lyse melanoma stem cells, we assessed whether melanoma cell lines, characterized by stem cell-like features, were susceptible to lysis by IL-2-activated NK cells. We show that activated NK cells efficiently kill malignant melanoma cell lines that were enriched in putative CSC by the use of different selection methods (i.e. CD133 expression, radioresistance or the ability to form melanospheres in stem cell-supportive medium). NK cell-mediated recognition and lysis of melanoma cells involved different combinations of activating NK receptors. Since CSC have been reported to be both drug resistant and radioresistant, our present data suggest that NK-based adoptive immunotherapy could represent a novel therapeutic approach to possibly eradicate metastatic melanoma.

  16. Individual motile CD4+ T cells can participate in efficient multi-killing through conjugation to multiple tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Liadi, Ivan; Singh, Harjeet; Romain, Gabrielle; Rey-Villamizar, Nicolas; Merouane, Amine; Adolacion, Jay R T.; Kebriaei, Partow; Huls, Helen; Qiu, Peng; Roysam, Badrinath; Cooper, Laurence J.N.; Varadarajan, Navin

    2015-01-01

    T cells genetically modified to express a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) for the investigational treatment of B-cell malignancies comprise a heterogeneous population, and their ability to persist and participate in serial killing of tumor cells is a predictor of therapeutic success. We implemented Timelapse Imaging Microscopy In Nanowell Grids (TIMING) to provide direct evidence that CD4+CAR+ T cells (CAR4 cells) can engage in multi-killing via simultaneous conjugation to multiple tumor cells. Comparisons of the CAR4 cells and CD8+CAR+ T cells (CAR8 cells) demonstrate that while CAR4 cells can participate in killing and multi-killing, they do so at slower rates, likely due to the lower Granzyme B content. Significantly, in both sets of T cells, a minor sub-population of individual T cells identified by their high motility, demonstrated efficient killing of single tumor cells. By comparing both the multi-killer and single killer CAR+ T cells it appears that the propensity and kinetics of T-cell apoptosis was modulated by the number of functional conjugations. T cells underwent rapid apoptosis, and at higher frequencies, when conjugated to single tumor cells in isolation and this effect was more pronounced on CAR8 cells. Our results suggest that the ability of CAR+ T cells to participate in multi-killing should be evaluated in the context of their ability to resist activation induced cell death (AICD). We anticipate that TIMING may be utilized to rapidly determine the potency of T-cell populations and may facilitate the design and manufacture of next-generation CAR+ T cells with improved efficacy. PMID:25711538

  17. AKT and oxidative stress team up to kill cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dolado, Ignacio; Nebreda, Angel R

    2008-12-09

    AKT, a protein kinase frequently hyperactivated in cancer, plays an important role in cell survival and contributes to tumor cell resistance to cytotoxic therapies. A new study in this issue of Cancer Cell shows that AKT also induces the accumulation of oxygen radicals, which can be exploited to selectively kill cancer cells containing high levels of AKT activity.

  18. Diversity and decay ability of basidiomycetes isolated from lodgepole pines killed by the mountain pine beetle.

    PubMed

    Son, E; Kim, J-J; Lim, Y W; Au-Yeung, T T; Yang, C Y H; Breuil, C

    2011-01-01

    When lodgepole pines (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson) that are killed by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its fungal associates are not harvested, fungal decay can affect wood and fibre properties. Ophiostomatoids stain sapwood but do not affect the structural properties of wood. In contrast, white or brown decay basidiomycetes degrade wood. We isolated both staining and decay fungi from 300 lodgepole pine trees killed by mountain pine beetle at green, red, and grey stages at 10 sites across British Columbia. We retained 224 basidiomycete isolates that we classified into 34 species using morphological and physiological characteristics and rDNA large subunit sequences. The number of basidiomycete species varied from 4 to 14 species per site. We assessed the ability of these fungi to degrade both pine sapwood and heartwood using the soil jar decay test. The highest wood mass losses for both sapwood and heartwood were measured for the brown rot species Fomitopsis pinicola and the white rot Metulodontia and Ganoderma species. The sap rot species Trichaptum abietinum was more damaging for sapwood than for heartwood. A number of species caused more than 50% wood mass losses after 12 weeks at room temperature, suggesting that beetle-killed trees can rapidly lose market value due to degradation of wood structural components.

  19. Bacterial killing ability of 10% ethylene oxide plus 90% hydrochlorofluorocarbon sterilizing gas.

    PubMed

    Alfa, M J; DeGagne, P; Olson, N

    1997-09-01

    To use a serum and salt challenge in narrow-lumen carriers to evaluate a 10% ethylene oxide plus 90% hydrochlorofluorocarbon (EO-HCFC) sterilant mixture in a retrofitted 12/88 sterilizer as an alternative to the banned chlorofluorocarbon-ethylene oxide (EO) sterilant mixture. An EO-HCFC sterilizing gas mixture in a retrofitted 12/88 sterilizer was compared to 100% ethylene oxide (100% EO) sterilizing gas to determine its relative ability to kill seven different bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis spores, Bacillus stearothermophilus spores, Bacillus circulans spores, and Mycobacterium chelonei) in the presence or absence of a combined 10% serum and 0.65% salt challenge using both penicylinders (PC) and long narrow-lumen (LU) carriers. The EO-HCFC sterilant mixture (96% sterile carriers) was equivalent to the 100% EO sterilant (98% sterile carriers) for killing vegetative organisms, as well as spore suspensions, on the 27 PC and 27 LU carriers in the absence of serum and salt. In the presence of serum and salt, the EO-HCFC sterilant mixture was markedly better than the 100% EO sterilant at reducing the bacterial load on the 63 PC carriers (95% vs 62% sterile PC carriers, respectively), whereas both sterilizers were equivalent for the 63 LU carriers (49% vs 40% sterile LU carriers, respectively). Of the seven test organisms, E faecalis, B subtilis, B stearothermophilus, and B circulans were the most difficult to kill for both PC and LU carriers when serum and salt were present. The data presented in this report indicate that the EO-HCFC sterilant mixture is an effective alternative for gas sterilization. Indeed, the efficiency of bacterial killing for the EO-HCFC sterilant mixture was similar to that achieved by the 12/88 EO-CFC sterilant mixture.

  20. Azithromycin kills invasive Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in gingival epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lai, Pin-Chuang; Walters, John D

    2013-03-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans invades periodontal pocket epithelium and is therefore difficult to eliminate by periodontal scaling and root planing. It is susceptible to azithromycin, which is taken up by many types of mammalian cells. This led us to hypothesize that azithromycin accumulation by gingival epithelium could enhance the killing of intraepithelial A. actinomycetemcomitans. [(3)H]azithromycin transport by Smulow-Glickman gingival epithelial cells and SCC-25 oral epithelial cells was characterized. To test our hypothesis, we infected cultured Smulow-Glickman cell monolayers with A. actinomycetemcomitans (Y4 or SUNY 465 strain) for 2 h, treated them with gentamicin to eliminate extracellular bacteria, and then incubated them with azithromycin for 1 to 4 h. Viable intracellular bacteria were released, plated, and enumerated. Azithromycin transport by both cell lines exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics and was competitively inhibited by l-carnitine and several other organic cations. Cell incubation in medium containing 5 μg/ml azithromycin yielded steady-state intracellular concentrations of 144 μg/ml in SCC-25 cells and 118 μg/ml in Smulow-Glickman cells. Azithromycin induced dose- and time-dependent intraepithelial killing of both A. actinomycetemcomitans strains. Treatment of infected Smulow-Glickman cells with 0.125 μg/ml azithromycin killed approximately 29% of the intraepithelial CFU of both strains within 4 h, while treatment with 8 μg/ml azithromycin killed ≥82% of the CFU of both strains (P < 0.05). Addition of carnitine inhibited the killing of intracellular bacteria by azithromycin (P < 0.05). Thus, human gingival epithelial cells actively accumulate azithromycin through a transport system that facilitates the killing of intraepithelial A. actinomycetemcomitans and is shared with organic cations.

  1. Monoclonal Antibodies against Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Acquire an Ability To Kill Tumor Cells through Complement Activation by Mutations That Selectively Facilitate the Hexamerization of IgG on Opsonized Cells.

    PubMed

    Tammen, Annalina; Derer, Stefanie; Schwanbeck, Ralf; Rösner, Thies; Kretschmer, Anna; Beurskens, Frank J; Schuurman, Janine; Parren, Paul W H I; Valerius, Thomas

    2017-02-15

    Triggering of the complement cascade induces tumor cell lysis via complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and attracts and activates cytotoxic cells. It therefore represents an attractive mechanism for mAb in cancer immunotherapy development. The classical complement pathway is initiated by IgG molecules that have assembled into ordered hexamers after binding their Ag on the tumor cell surface. The requirements for CDC are further impacted by factors such as Ab epitope, valency, and affinity. Thus, mAb against well-validated solid tumor targets, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) that effectively induces complement activation and CDC, are highly sought after. The potency of complement activation by IgG Abs can be increased via several strategies. We identified single-point mutations in the Fc domain (e.g., E345K or E430G) enhancing Fc:Fc interactions, hexamer formation, and CDC after Ab binds cell-surface Ag. We show that EGFR Abs directed against clinically relevant epitopes can be converted into mAb with unprecedented CDC activity. Alternative strategies rely on increasing the affinity of monomeric IgG for C1q by introduction of a quadruple mutation at the C1q binding site or via generation of an IgG1/IgG3 chimera. In this study we show that selective enhancement of C1q binding via avidity modulation is superior to the unattended increase in C1q binding via affinity approaches, particularly for target cells with reduced EGFR expression levels. Improving Fc:Fc interactions of Ag-bound IgG therefore represents a highly promising and novel approach for potentiating the anti-tumor activity of therapeutic mAb against EGFR and potentially other tumor targets.

  2. Bacteria-killing ability of fresh blood plasma compared to frozen blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Anne C; Fair, Jeanne M

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the bacteria-killing assay (BKA) has become a popular technique among ecoimmunologists. New variations of that assay allow researchers to use smaller volumes of blood, an important consideration for those working on small-bodied animals. However, this version of the assay requires access to a lab with a nanodrop spectrophotometer, something that may not be available in the field. One possible solution is to freeze plasma for transport; however, this assumes that frozen plasma samples will give comparable results to fresh ones. We tested this assumption using plasma samples from three species of birds: chickens (Gallus gallus), ash-throated flycatchers (Myiarchus cinerascens), and western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana). Chicken plasma samples lost most or all of their bacterial killing ability after freezing. This did not happen in flycatchers and bluebirds; however, frozen plasma did not produce results comparable to those obtained using fresh plasma. We caution researchers using the BKA to use fresh samples whenever possible, and to validate the use of frozen samples on a species-by-species basis.

  3. Morphological effect of oscillating magnetic nanoparticles in killing tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Dengfeng; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Guoxin; Shi, Hongcheng

    2014-04-01

    Forced oscillation of spherical and rod-shaped iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) via low-power and low-frequency alternating magnetic field (AMF) was firstly used to kill cancer cells in vitro. After being loaded by human cervical cancer cells line (HeLa) and then exposed to a 35-kHz AMF, MNPs mechanically damaged cell membranes and cytoplasm, decreasing the cell viability. It was found that the concentration and morphology of the MNPs significantly influenced the cell-killing efficiency of oscillating MNPs. In this preliminary study, when HeLa cells were pre-incubated with 100 μg/mL rod-shaped MNPs (rMNP, length of 200 ± 50 nm and diameter of 50 to 120 nm) for 20 h, MTT assay proved that the cell viability decreased by 30.9% after being exposed to AMF for 2 h, while the cell viability decreased by 11.7% if spherical MNPs (sMNP, diameter of 200 ± 50 nm) were used for investigation. Furthermore, the morphological effect of MNPs on cell viability was confirmed by trypan blue assay: 39.5% rMNP-loaded cells and 15.1% sMNP-loaded cells were stained after being exposed to AMF for 2 h. It was also interesting to find that killing tumor cells at either higher (500 μg/mL) or lower (20 μg/mL) concentration of MNPs was less efficient than that achieved at 100 μg/mL concentration. In conclusion, the relatively asymmetric morphological rod-shaped MNPs can kill cancer cells more effectively than spherical MNPs when being exposed to AMF by virtue of their mechanical oscillations.

  4. How Taxol/paclitaxel kills cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Beth A

    2014-09-15

    Taxol (generic name paclitaxel) is a microtubule-stabilizing drug that is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of ovarian, breast, and lung cancer, as well as Kaposi's sarcoma. It is used off-label to treat gastroesophageal, endometrial, cervical, prostate, and head and neck cancers, in addition to sarcoma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Paclitaxel has long been recognized to induce mitotic arrest, which leads to cell death in a subset of the arrested population. However, recent evidence demonstrates that intratumoral concentrations of paclitaxel are too low to cause mitotic arrest and result in multipolar divisions instead. It is hoped that this insight can now be used to develop a biomarker to identify the ∼50% of patients that will benefit from paclitaxel therapy. Here I discuss the history of paclitaxel and our recently evolved understanding of its mechanism of action. © 2014 Weaver. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  5. How Taxol/paclitaxel kills cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Beth A.

    2014-01-01

    Taxol (generic name paclitaxel) is a microtubule-stabilizing drug that is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of ovarian, breast, and lung cancer, as well as Kaposi's sarcoma. It is used off-label to treat gastroesophageal, endometrial, cervical, prostate, and head and neck cancers, in addition to sarcoma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Paclitaxel has long been recognized to induce mitotic arrest, which leads to cell death in a subset of the arrested population. However, recent evidence demonstrates that intratumoral concentrations of paclitaxel are too low to cause mitotic arrest and result in multipolar divisions instead. It is hoped that this insight can now be used to develop a biomarker to identify the ∼50% of patients that will benefit from paclitaxel therapy. Here I discuss the history of paclitaxel and our recently evolved understanding of its mechanism of action. PMID:25213191

  6. Comparison between three adjuvants for a vaccine against canine leishmaniasis: In vitro evaluation of macrophage killing ability.

    PubMed

    Trotta, T; Fasanella, A; Scaltrito, D; Gradoni, L; Mitolo, V; Brandonisio, O; Acquafredda, A; Panaro, M A

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, in terms of dog macrophage killing ability in vitro, a vaccine based on Leishmania infantum promastigote soluble antigen (LSA) formulated with three different adjuvants (BCG, AdjuPrime, MPL/TDM/CWS). A significant increase of the macrophage killing ability was observed in dogs vaccinated with LSA+MPL/TDM/CWS after 1 month from vaccination. A similar increase of macrophage parasitocidal ability was present only after 5 months in dogs vaccinated with LSA+BCG or LSA+AdjuPrime. In all dogs the augmented killing percentage was still present after 12 months from vaccination. Therefore, in particular LSA+MPL/TDM/CWS vaccine seems promising for further studies in dogs.

  7. Chew on this: Amoebic trogocytosis and host cell killing by Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Ralston, Katherine S.

    2015-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica was named “histolytica” (histo-: tissue; lytic-: dissolving) for its ability to destroy host tissues. Direct killing of host cells by the amoebae is likely to be the driving factor that underlies tissue destruction, but the mechanism was unclear. We recently showed that after attaching to host cells, amoebae bite off and ingest distinct host cell fragments, and that this contributes to cell killing. Here we review this process, termed “amoebic trogocytosis” (trogo-: nibble), and how this process interplays with phagocytosis, or whole cell ingestion, in this organism. “Nibbling” processes have been described in other microbes and in multicellular organisms. The discovery of amoebic trogocytosis in E. histolytica may also shed light on an evolutionarily conserved process for intercellular exchange. PMID:26070402

  8. Targeted Cytotoxic Therapy Kills Persisting HIV Infected Cells During ART

    PubMed Central

    Denton, Paul W.; Long, Julie M.; Wietgrefe, Stephen W.; Sykes, Craig; Spagnuolo, Rae Ann; Snyder, Olivia D.; Perkey, Katherine; Archin, Nancie M.; Choudhary, Shailesh K.; Yang, Kuo; Hudgens, Michael G.; Pastan, Ira; Haase, Ashley T.; Kashuba, Angela D.; Berger, Edward A.; Margolis, David M.; Garcia, J. Victor

    2014-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can reduce HIV levels in plasma to undetectable levels, but rather little is known about the effects of ART outside of the peripheral blood regarding persistent virus production in tissue reservoirs. Understanding the dynamics of ART-induced reductions in viral RNA (vRNA) levels throughout the body is important for the development of strategies to eradicate infectious HIV from patients. Essential to a successful eradication therapy is a component capable of killing persisting HIV infected cells during ART. Therefore, we determined the in vivo efficacy of a targeted cytotoxic therapy to kill infected cells that persist despite long-term ART. For this purpose, we first characterized the impact of ART on HIV RNA levels in multiple organs of bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT) humanized mice and found that antiretroviral drug penetration and activity was sufficient to reduce, but not eliminate, HIV production in each tissue tested. For targeted cytotoxic killing of these persistent vRNA+ cells, we treated BLT mice undergoing ART with an HIV-specific immunotoxin. We found that compared to ART alone, this agent profoundly depleted productively infected cells systemically. These results offer proof-of-concept that targeted cytotoxic therapies can be effective components of HIV eradication strategies. PMID:24415939

  9. Targeted cytotoxic therapy kills persisting HIV infected cells during ART.

    PubMed

    Denton, Paul W; Long, Julie M; Wietgrefe, Stephen W; Sykes, Craig; Spagnuolo, Rae Ann; Snyder, Olivia D; Perkey, Katherine; Archin, Nancie M; Choudhary, Shailesh K; Yang, Kuo; Hudgens, Michael G; Pastan, Ira; Haase, Ashley T; Kashuba, Angela D; Berger, Edward A; Margolis, David M; Garcia, J Victor

    2014-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can reduce HIV levels in plasma to undetectable levels, but rather little is known about the effects of ART outside of the peripheral blood regarding persistent virus production in tissue reservoirs. Understanding the dynamics of ART-induced reductions in viral RNA (vRNA) levels throughout the body is important for the development of strategies to eradicate infectious HIV from patients. Essential to a successful eradication therapy is a component capable of killing persisting HIV infected cells during ART. Therefore, we determined the in vivo efficacy of a targeted cytotoxic therapy to kill infected cells that persist despite long-term ART. For this purpose, we first characterized the impact of ART on HIV RNA levels in multiple organs of bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT) humanized mice and found that antiretroviral drug penetration and activity was sufficient to reduce, but not eliminate, HIV production in each tissue tested. For targeted cytotoxic killing of these persistent vRNA(+) cells, we treated BLT mice undergoing ART with an HIV-specific immunotoxin. We found that compared to ART alone, this agent profoundly depleted productively infected cells systemically. These results offer proof-of-concept that targeted cytotoxic therapies can be effective components of HIV eradication strategies.

  10. Combination of Antiretroviral Drugs and Radioimmunotherapy Specifically Kills Infected Cells from HIV-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Tsukrov, Dina; McFarren, Alicia; Morgenstern, Alfred; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Dolce, Eugene; Gorny, Miroslaw K.; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Berman, Joan W.; Schoenbaum, Ellie; Zingman, Barry S.; Casadevall, Arturo; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Eliminating virally infected cells is an essential component of any HIV eradication strategy. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT), a clinically established method for killing cells using radiolabeled antibodies, was recently applied to target HIV-1 gp41 antigen expressed on the surface of infected cells. Since gp41 expression by infected cells is likely downregulated in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), we evaluated the ability of RIT to kill ART-treated infected cells using both in vitro models and lymphocytes isolated from HIV-infected subjects. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were infected with HIV and cultured in the presence of two clinically relevant ART combinations. Scatchard analysis of the 2556 human monoclonal antibody to HIV gp41 binding to the infected and ART-treated cells demonstrated sufficient residual expression of gp41 on the cell surface to warrant subsequent RIT. This is the first time the quantification of gp41 post-ART is being reported. Cells were then treated with Bismuth-213-labeled 2556 antibody. Cell survival was quantified by Trypan blue and residual viremia by p24 ELISA. Cell surface gp41 expression was assessed by Scatchard analysis. The experiments were repeated using PBMCs isolated from blood specimens obtained from 15 HIV-infected individuals: 10 on ART and 5 ART-naïve. We found that 213Bi-2556 killed ART-treated infected PBMCs and reduced viral production to undetectable levels. ART and RIT co-treatment was more effective at reducing viral load in vitro than either therapy alone, indicating that gp41 expression under ART was sufficient to allow 213Bi-2556 to deliver cytocidal doses of radiation to infected cells. This study provides proof of concept that 213Bi-2556 may represent an innovative and effective targeting method for killing HIV-infected cells treated with ART and supports continued development of 213Bi-2556 for co-administration with ART toward an HIV eradication strategy. PMID:27725930

  11. Combination of Antiretroviral Drugs and Radioimmunotherapy Specifically Kills Infected Cells from HIV-Infected Individuals.

    PubMed

    Tsukrov, Dina; McFarren, Alicia; Morgenstern, Alfred; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Dolce, Eugene; Gorny, Miroslaw K; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Berman, Joan W; Schoenbaum, Ellie; Zingman, Barry S; Casadevall, Arturo; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Eliminating virally infected cells is an essential component of any HIV eradication strategy. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT), a clinically established method for killing cells using radiolabeled antibodies, was recently applied to target HIV-1 gp41 antigen expressed on the surface of infected cells. Since gp41 expression by infected cells is likely downregulated in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), we evaluated the ability of RIT to kill ART-treated infected cells using both in vitro models and lymphocytes isolated from HIV-infected subjects. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were infected with HIV and cultured in the presence of two clinically relevant ART combinations. Scatchard analysis of the 2556 human monoclonal antibody to HIV gp41 binding to the infected and ART-treated cells demonstrated sufficient residual expression of gp41 on the cell surface to warrant subsequent RIT. This is the first time the quantification of gp41 post-ART is being reported. Cells were then treated with Bismuth-213-labeled 2556 antibody. Cell survival was quantified by Trypan blue and residual viremia by p24 ELISA. Cell surface gp41 expression was assessed by Scatchard analysis. The experiments were repeated using PBMCs isolated from blood specimens obtained from 15 HIV-infected individuals: 10 on ART and 5 ART-naïve. We found that (213)Bi-2556 killed ART-treated infected PBMCs and reduced viral production to undetectable levels. ART and RIT co-treatment was more effective at reducing viral load in vitro than either therapy alone, indicating that gp41 expression under ART was sufficient to allow (213)Bi-2556 to deliver cytocidal doses of radiation to infected cells. This study provides proof of concept that (213)Bi-2556 may represent an innovative and effective targeting method for killing HIV-infected cells treated with ART and supports continued development of (213)Bi-2556 for co-administration with ART toward an HIV eradication strategy.

  12. Mitochondria: An intriguing target for killing tumour-initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bing; Dong, Lanfeng; Neuzil, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Tumour-initiating cells (TICs) play a pivotal role in cancer initiation, metastasis and recurrence, as well as in resistance to therapy. Therefore, development of drugs targeting TICs has become a focus of contemporary research. Mitochondria have emerged as a promising target of anti-cancer therapies due to their specific role in cancer metabolism and modulation of apoptotic pathways. Mitochondria of TICs possess special characteristics, some of which can be utilised to design drugs specifically targeting these cells. In this paper, we will review recent research on TICs and their mitochondria, and introduce drugs that kill these cells by way of mitochondrial targeting.

  13. Attachment of killed Mycoplasma gallisepticum cells and membranes to erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Banai, M.; Kahane, I.; Feldner, J.; Razin, S.

    1981-11-01

    To correlate viability with attachment capacity, Mycoplasma gallisepticum cells harvested at different growth phases and treated by various agents were tested for their capacity to attach to human erythrocytes. The results show that viability per se is not essential for M. gallisepticum attachment to erythrocytes, as cells killed by ultraviolet irradiation and membranes isolated by lysing M. gallisepticum cells by various means retained attachment capacity. However, treatment of the mycoplasmas by protein-denaturing agents, such as heart, glutaraldehyde, or prolonged exposure to low pH, drastically affected or even abolished attachment, supporting the protein nature of the mycoplasma membrane components responsible for specific binding to the sialoglycoprotein receptors on the erythrocytes.

  14. Nexavar/Stivarga and Viagra Interact to Kill Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tavallai, Mehrad; Hamed, Hossein A.; Roberts, Jane L.; Cruickshanks, Nichola; Chuckalovcak, John; Poklepovic, Andrew; Booth, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    We determined whether the multi‐kinase inhibitor sorafenib or its derivative regorafenib interacted with phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors such as Viagra (sildenafil) to kill tumor cells. PDE5 and PDGFRα/β were over‐expressed in liver tumors compared to normal liver tissue. In multiple cell types in vitro sorafenib/regorafenib and PDE5 inhibitors interacted in a greater than additive fashion to cause tumor cell death, regardless of whether cells were grown in 10 or 100% human serum. Knock down of PDE5 or of PDGFRα/β recapitulated the effects of the individual drugs. The drug combination increased ROS/RNS levels that were causal in cell killing. Inhibition of CD95/FADD/caspase 8 signaling suppressed drug combination toxicity. Knock down of ULK‐1, Beclin1, or ATG5 suppressed drug combination lethality. The drug combination inactivated ERK, AKT, p70 S6K, and mTOR and activated JNK. The drug combination also reduced mTOR protein expression. Activation of ERK or AKT was modestly protective whereas re‐expression of an activated mTOR protein or inhibition of JNK signaling almost abolished drug combination toxicity. Sildenafil and sorafenib/regorafenib interacted in vivo to suppress xenograft tumor growth using liver and colon cancer cells. From multiplex assays on tumor tissue and plasma, we discovered that increased FGF levels and ERBB1 and AKT phosphorylation were biomarkers that were directly associated with lower levels of cell killing by ‘rafenib + sildenafil. Our data are now being translated into the clinic for further determination as to whether this drug combination is a useful anti‐tumor therapy for solid tumor patients. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 2281–2298, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25704960

  15. Bystander Host Cell Killing Effects of Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Archana; Hendricks, Matthew R.; Bomberger, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) binds to claudin receptors, e.g., claudin-4, and then forms a pore that triggers cell death. Pure cultures of host cells that do not express claudin receptors, e.g., fibroblasts, are unaffected by pathophysiologically relevant CPE concentrations in vitro. However, both CPE-insensitive and CPE-sensitive host cells are present in vivo. Therefore, this study tested whether CPE treatment might affect fibroblasts when cocultured with CPE-sensitive claudin-4 fibroblast transfectants or Caco-2 cells. Under these conditions, immunofluorescence microscopy detected increased death of fibroblasts. This cytotoxic effect involved release of a toxic factor from the dying CPE-sensitive cells, since it could be reproduced using culture supernatants from CPE-treated sensitive cells. Supernatants from CPE-treated sensitive cells, particularly Caco-2 cells, were found to contain high levels of membrane vesicles, often containing a CPE species. However, most cytotoxic activity remained in those supernatants even after membrane vesicle depletion, and CPE was not detected in fibroblasts treated with supernatants from CPE-treated sensitive cells. Instead, characterization studies suggest that a major cytotoxic factor present in supernatants from CPE-treated sensitive cells may be a 10- to 30-kDa host serine protease or require the action of that host serine protease. Induction of caspase-3-mediated apoptosis was found to be important for triggering release of the cytotoxic factor(s) from CPE-treated sensitive host cells. Furthermore, the cytotoxic factor(s) in these supernatants was shown to induce a caspase-3-mediated killing of fibroblasts. This bystander killing effect due to release of cytotoxic factors from CPE-treated sensitive cells could contribute to CPE-mediated disease. PMID:27965452

  16. Cryptococcus gattii is killed by dendritic cells, but evades adaptive immunity by failing to induce dendritic cell maturation.

    PubMed

    Huston, Shaunna M; Li, Shu Shun; Stack, Danuta; Timm-McCann, Martina; Jones, Gareth J; Islam, Anowara; Berenger, Byron M; Xiang, Richard F; Colarusso, Pina; Mody, Christopher H

    2013-07-01

    During adaptive immunity to pathogens, dendritic cells (DCs) capture, kill, process, and present microbial Ags to T cells. Ag presentation is accompanied by DC maturation driven by appropriate costimulatory signals. However, current understanding of the intricate regulation of these processes remains limited. Cryptococcus gattii, an emerging fungal pathogen in the Pacific Northwest of Canada and the United States, fails to stimulate an effective immune response in otherwise healthy hosts leading to morbidity or death. Because immunity to fungal pathogens requires intact cell-mediated immunity initiated by DCs, we asked whether C. gattii causes dysregulation of DC functions. C. gattii was efficiently bound and internalized by human monocyte-derived DCs, trafficked to late phagolysosomes, and killed. Yet, even with this degree of DC activation, the organism evaded pathways leading to DC maturation. Despite the ability to recognize and kill C. gattii, immature DCs failed to mature; there was no increased expression of MHC class II, CD86, CD83, CD80, and CCR7, or decrease of CD11c and CD32, which resulted in suboptimal T cell responses. Remarkably, no increase in TNF-α was observed in the presence of C. gattii. However, addition of recombinant TNF-α or stimulation that led to TNF-α production restored DC maturation and restored T cell responses. Thus, despite early killing, C. gattii evades DC maturation, providing a potential explanation for its ability to infect immunocompetent individuals. We have also established that DCs retain the ability to recognize and kill C. gattii without triggering TNF-α, suggesting independent or divergent activation pathways among essential DC functions.

  17. Induced melanin reduces mutations and cell killing in mouse melanoma.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Hill, H Z

    1997-03-01

    When melanin absorbs light energy, it can produce potentially damaging active oxygen species. There is little doubt that constitutive pigment in dark-skinned individuals is photoprotective against skin cancer, but induced pigment-as in tanning-may not be. The first step in cancer induction is mutation in DNA. The most suitable systems for evaluating the role of melanin are those in which pigment can be varied and mutations can be measured. Several cell lines from Cloudman S91 mouse melanoma can be induced to form large quantities of melanin pigment after treatment with a number of different agents enabling comparison of mutant yields in the same cells differing principally in pigment concentration. In these studies, melanin was induced with synthetic alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and with isobutyl methyl xanthine in the cell line S91/mel. The former inducer produced about 50% more pigment than the latter. Survival and mutation induction at the Na+/K(+)-ATPase locus were studied using ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS), a standard mutagen and five UV lamps emitting near monochromatic and polychromatic UV light in the three wave-length ranges of UV. There was greater protection against killing and mutation induction in the more heavily pigmented cells after exposure to EMS and after irradiation with monochromatic UVC and UVB. There was significant protection against killing by polychromatic UVB + UVA (FS20), but the small degree of protection against mutation was not significant. No significant change in killing and mutation using the same protocol was seen in S91/amel, a related cell line that does not respond to these inducers. No mutants were produced by either monochromatic or polychromatic UVA at doses that killed 50% of the cells. Our results show that induced pigment-shown earlier to be eumelanin (K. A. Cieszka et al., Exp. Dermatol. 4, 192-198, 1995)-is photo- and chemoprotective, but it is less effective in protection against mutagenesis by polychromatic

  18. Colicin Killing: Foiled Cell Defense and Hijacked Cell Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Zamaroczy, Miklos; Chauleau, Mathieu

    The study of bacteriocins, notably those produced by E. coli (and named colicins), was initiated in 1925 by Gratia, who first discovered "un remarquable exemple d'antagonisme entre deux souches de colibacilles". Since this innovating observation, the production of toxic exoproteins has been widely reported in all major lineages of Eubacteria and in Archaebacteria. Bacteriocins belong to the most abundant and most diverse group of these bacterial defense systems. Paradoxically, these antimicrobial cytotoxins are actually powerful weapons in the intense battle for bacterial survival. They are also biotechnologically useful since several bacteriocins are used as preservatives in the food industry or as antibiotics or as potential antitumor agents in human health care. Most colicins kill bacteria in one of two ways. The first type is those that form pores in the phospholipid bilayer of the inner membrane. They are active immediately after their translocation across the outer membrane. The translocation pathway requires generally either the BtuB receptor and the Tol (OmpF/TolABQR) complex, or the FepA, FhuA, or Cir receptor and the Ton (TonB/ExbBD) system. The second type of colicins encodes specific endonuclease activities that target DNA, rRNA, or tRNAs in the cytoplasm. To be active, these colicins require translocation across both the outer and inner membranes. The molecular mechanisms implicated in the complex cascade of interactions, required for the transfers of colicin molecules from the extracellular medium through the different "cellular compartments" (outer membrane, periplasm, inner membrane, and cytoplasm), are still incompletely understood. It is clear, however, that the colicins "hijack" specific cellular functions to facilitate access to their target. In this chapter, following a general presentation of colicin biology, we describe, compare, and update several of the concepts related to colicin toxicity and discuss recent, often unexpected findings

  19. M-cell targeting of whole killed bacteria induces protective immunity against gastrointestinal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Chionh, Yok-Teng; Wee, Janet L K; Every, Alison L; Ng, Garrett Z; Sutton, Philip

    2009-07-01

    As the majority of human pathogens infect via a mucosal surface, delivery of killed vaccines by mucosal routes could potentially improve protection against many such organisms. Our ability to develop effective killed mucosal vaccines is inhibited by a lack of adjuvants that are safe and effective in humans. The Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) lectin specifically binds M cells lining the murine gastrointestinal tract. We explored the potential for M-cell-targeted vaccination of whole, killed Helicobacter pylori, the main causative agent of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, and Campylobacter jejuni, the most common cause of diarrhea. Oral delivery of UEA-I-agglutinated H. pylori or C. jejuni induced a significant increase in both serum and intestinal antibody levels. This elevated response (i) required the use of whole bacteria, as it did not occur with lysate; (ii) was not mediated by formation of particulate clumps, as agglutination with a lectin with a different glycan specificity had no effect; and (iii) was not due to lectin-mediated, nonspecific immunostimulatory activity, as UEA-I codelivery with nonagglutinated bacteria did not enhance the response. Vaccination with UEA-I-agglutinated, killed whole H. pylori induced a protective response against subsequent live challenge that was as effective as that induced by cholera toxin adjuvant. Moreover, vaccination against C. jejuni by this approach resulted in complete protection against challenge in almost all animals. We believe that this is the first demonstration that targeting of whole killed bacteria to mucosal M cells can induce protective immunity without the addition of an immunostimulatory adjuvant.

  20. M-Cell Targeting of Whole Killed Bacteria Induces Protective Immunity against Gastrointestinal Pathogens▿

    PubMed Central

    Chionh, Yok-Teng; Wee, Janet L. K.; Every, Alison L.; Ng, Garrett Z.; Sutton, Philip

    2009-01-01

    As the majority of human pathogens infect via a mucosal surface, delivery of killed vaccines by mucosal routes could potentially improve protection against many such organisms. Our ability to develop effective killed mucosal vaccines is inhibited by a lack of adjuvants that are safe and effective in humans. The Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) lectin specifically binds M cells lining the murine gastrointestinal tract. We explored the potential for M-cell-targeted vaccination of whole, killed Helicobacter pylori, the main causative agent of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, and Campylobacter jejuni, the most common cause of diarrhea. Oral delivery of UEA-I-agglutinated H. pylori or C. jejuni induced a significant increase in both serum and intestinal antibody levels. This elevated response (i) required the use of whole bacteria, as it did not occur with lysate; (ii) was not mediated by formation of particulate clumps, as agglutination with a lectin with a different glycan specificity had no effect; and (iii) was not due to lectin-mediated, nonspecific immunostimulatory activity, as UEA-I codelivery with nonagglutinated bacteria did not enhance the response. Vaccination with UEA-I-agglutinated, killed whole H. pylori induced a protective response against subsequent live challenge that was as effective as that induced by cholera toxin adjuvant. Moreover, vaccination against C. jejuni by this approach resulted in complete protection against challenge in almost all animals. We believe that this is the first demonstration that targeting of whole killed bacteria to mucosal M cells can induce protective immunity without the addition of an immunostimulatory adjuvant. PMID:19380476

  1. Low Temperature Plasma Kills SCaBER Cancer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barekzi, Nazir; van Way, Lucas; Laroussi, Mounir

    2013-09-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder is a rare type of bladder cancer that forms as a result of chronic irritation of the epithelial lining of the bladder. The cell line used in this study is SCaBER (ATCC® HTB-3™) derived from squamous cell carcinoma of the human urinary bladder. Current treatments of bladder cancer include surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. However, the cost of these treatments, the potential toxicity of the chemotherapeutic agents and the systemic side-effects warrant an alternative to current cancer treatment. This paper represents preliminary studies to determine the effects of biologically tolerant plasma (BTP) on a cell line of human bladder cancer cells. Previous work by our group using the plasma pencil revealed the efficacy of BTP on leukemia cells suspended in solution. Based on these earlier findings we hypothesized that the plasma exposure would elicit a similar programmed cell death in the SCaBER cells. Trypan blue exclusion and MTT assays revealed the cell killing after exposure to BTP. Our study indicates that low temperature plasma generated by ionizing helium gas and the reactive species may be a suitable and safe alternative for cancer therapy.

  2. Cloned transgenic farm animals produce a bispecific antibody for T cell-mediated tumor cell killing

    PubMed Central

    Grosse-Hovest, Ludger; Müller, Sigrid; Minoia, Rosa; Wolf, Eckhard; Zakhartchenko, Valeri; Wenigerkind, Hendrik; Lassnig, Caroline; Besenfelder, Urban; Müller, Mathias; Lytton, Simon D.; Jung, Gundram; Brem, Gottfried

    2004-01-01

    Complex recombinant antibody fragments for modulation of immune function such as tumor cell destruction have emerged at a rapid pace and diverse anticancer strategies are being developed to benefit patients. Despite improvements in molecule design and expression systems, the quantity and stability, e.g., of single-chain antibodies produced in cell culture, is often insufficient for treatment of human disease, and the costs of scale-up, labor, and fermentation facilities are prohibitive. The ability to yield mg/ml levels of recombinant antibodies and the scale-up flexibility make transgenic production in plants and livestock an attractive alternative to mammalian cell culture as a source of large quantities of biotherapeutics. Here, we report on the efficient production of a bispecific single-chain antibody in the serum of transgenic rabbits and a herd of nine cloned, transgenic cattle. The bispecific protein, designated r28M, is directed to a melanoma-associated proteoglycan and the human CD28 molecule on T cells. Purified from the serum of transgenic animals, the protein is stable and fully active in mediating target cell-restricted T cell stimulation and tumor cell killing. PMID:15105446

  3. The role of macrophages in the cytotoxic killing of tumour cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zembala, M.; Ptak, W.; Hanczakowska, Maria

    1973-01-01

    Lymph node and spleen cells from normal mice were cultured for 3 days with polyoma virus-induced tumour, Ehrlich's ascites tumour or leukaemia L 1210 cells. This resulted in in vitro immunization of the lymphocytes, which were then transferred to irradiated target cells labelled with 51Cr. Normal, i.e. non-immune thioglycollate-stimulated peritoneal macrophages were also added to some tubes. Non-immune macrophages mixed with immunized lymphocytes showed a significantly increased ability to destroy tumour cells as compared with macrophages in the absence of immunized lymphocytes. The immunized lymphocytes were almost entirely inactive alone. When the number of macrophages was kept constant the cytotoxicity was dependent on the number of viable immunized lymphocytes placed on the target cells. Immunized lymphocytes, in the presence of macrophages, only exhibited strong killing of the target cells against which they had been immunized; some lysis of `bystander' cells was, however, seen provided specific target cells were present. Macrophage monolayers exposed to immunized lymphocytes upon contact with specific antigen became `armed' and showed a significant cytotoxicity for specific target cells. When immunized lymphocytes and normal macrophages were treated with actinomycin D and puromycin, cytotoxicity was inhibited in the immunized lymphocytes but not in the macrophages. The possible mechanism of normal macrophage cooperation with immunized lymphocytes in the cytotoxic killing reaction is discussed. Results presented in this paper favour the view that immunologically specific cytophilic factor (presumptive cytophilic antibody) is involved in the macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity in the system studied. PMID:4356674

  4. Scheduling Chemotherapy: Catch 22 between Cell Kill and Resistance Evolution

    DOE PAGES

    Gardner, Shea N.

    2000-01-01

    Dose response curves show that prolonged drug exposure at a low concentration may kill more cells than short exposures at higher drug concentrations, particularly for cell cycle phase specific drugs. Applying drugs at low concentrations for prolonged periods, however, allows cells with partial resistance to evolve higher levels of resistance through stepwise processes such as gene amplification. Models are developed for cell cycle specific (CS) and cell cycle nonspecific (CNS) drugs to identify the schedule of drug application that balances this tradeoff. The models predict that a CS drug may be applied most effectively by splitting the cumulative dose intomore » many (>40) fractions applied by long-term chemotherapy, while CNS drugs may be better applied in fewer than 10 fractions applied over a shorter term. The model suggests that administering each fraction by continuous infusion may be more effective than giving the drug as a bolus, whether the drug is CS or CNS. In addition, tumors with a low growth fraction or slow rate of cell division are predicted to be controlled more easily with CNS drugs, while those with a high proliferative fraction or fast cell division rate may respond better to CS drugs.« less

  5. The ability of an antimicrobial agent to penetrate a biofilm is not correlated with its killing or removal efficiency.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Paula A; Mergulhão, Filipe; Melo, Luís; Simões, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The penetration ability of 12 antimicrobial agents, including antibiotics and biocides, was determined against biofilms of B. cereus and P. fluorescens using a colony biofilm assay. The surfactants benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), and the antibiotics ciprofloxacin and streptomycin were of interest due to their distinct activities. Erythromycin and CTAB were retarded by the presence of biofilms, whereas ciprofloxacin and BAC were not. The removal and killing efficacies of these four agents was additionally evaluated against biofilms formed in microtiter plates. The most efficient biocide was CTAB for both bacterial biofilms. Ciprofloxacin was the best antibiotic although none of the selected antimicrobial agents led to total biofilm removal and/or killing. Comparative analysis of the results obtained with colony biofilms and microtiter plate biofilms show that although extracellular polymeric substances and the biofilm structure are considered a determining factor in biofilm resistance, the ability of an antimicrobial agent to penetrate a biofilm is not correlated with its killing or removal efficiency. Also, the results reinforce the role of an appropriate antimicrobial selection as a key step in the design of disinfection processes for biofilm control.

  6. Imaging burst kinetics and spatial coordination during serial killing by single natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Paul J; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2013-04-16

    Cytotoxic lymphocytes eliminate virus-infected and cancerous cells by immune recognition and killing through the perforin-granzyme pathway. Traditional killing assays measure average target cell lysis at fixed times and high effector:target ratios. Such assays obscure kinetic details that might reveal novel physiology. We engineered target cells to report on granzyme activity, used very low effector:target ratios to observe potential serial killing, and performed low magnification time-lapse imaging to reveal time-dependent statistics of natural killer (NK) killing at the single-cell level. Most kills occurred during serial killing, and a single NK cell killed up to 10 targets over a 6-h assay. The first kill was slower than subsequent kills, especially on poor targets, or when NK signaling pathways were partially inhibited. Spatial analysis showed that sequential kills were usually adjacent. We propose that NK cells integrate signals from the previous and current target, possibly by simultaneous contact. The resulting burst kinetics and spatial coordination may control the activity of NK cells in tissues.

  7. A Sequential Model of Host Cell Killing and Phagocytosis by Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Sateriale, Adam; Huston, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is responsible for invasive intestinal and extraintestinal amebiasis. The virulence of Entamoeba histolytica is strongly correlated with the parasite's capacity to effectively kill and phagocytose host cells. The process by which host cells are killed and phagocytosed follows a sequential model of adherence, cell killing, initiation of phagocytosis, and engulfment. This paper presents recent advances in the cytolytic and phagocytic processes of Entamoeba histolytica in context of the sequential model. PMID:21331284

  8. Cancer immunotherapy based on killing of Salmonella-infected tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Avogadri, Francesca; Martinoli, Chiara; Petrovska, Liljana; Chiodoni, Claudia; Transidico, Pietro; Bronte, Vincenzo; Longhi, Renato; Colombo, Mario P; Dougan, Gordon; Rescigno, Maria

    2005-05-01

    A major obstacle for the development of effective immunotherapy is the ability of tumors to escape the immune system. The possibility to kill tumor cells because they are recognized as infected rather than as malignant could help overcome immune escape mechanisms. Here we report a conceptually new approach of cancer immunotherapy based on in vivo infection of tumors and killing of infected tumor cells. Attenuated but still invasive, Salmonella typhimurium can be successfully exploited to invade melanoma cells that can present antigenic determinants of bacterial origin and become targets for anti-Salmonella-specific T cells. However, to fully appreciate the anticancer therapeutic properties of S. typhimurium, tumor-bearing mice need to be vaccinated against S. typhimurium before intratumoral Salmonella injection. Tumor infection when coupled to anti-Salmonella vaccination leads to 50% to 100% tumor-free mice with a better outcome on larger tumors. Invasive Salmonella also exert an indirect toxic effect on tumor cells through the recruitment of inflammatory cells and the cross-presentation of tumor antigens, which allow induction of tumor-specific immune response. This is effective in retarding the growth of untreated established distant tumors and in protecting the mice from subsequent tumor challenges.

  9. Targeted killing of a mammalian cell based upon its specialized metabolic state.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Peter B; Wang, Jian; McKnight, Steven L

    2011-09-20

    Mouse ES cells use a mitochondrial threonine dehydrogenase (TDH) enzyme to catabolize threonine into glycine and acetyl-CoA. Measurements of mRNA abundance have given evidence that ES cells express upwards of 1,000-fold higher levels of TDH mRNA than any of seven other mouse tissues tested. When cell culture medium is deprived of threonine, ES cells rapidly discontinue DNA synthesis, arrest cell division, and eventually die. Such studies led to the conclusion that mouse ES cells exist in a threonine-dependent metabolic state. Proceeding with the assumption that the active TDH enzyme should be essential for the growth and viability of mouse ES cells, we performed a drug screen in search of specific inhibitors of the purified TDH enzyme. Such efforts led to the discovery of a class of quinazolinecarboxamide (Qc) compounds that inhibit the ability of the TDH enzyme to catabolize threonine into glycine and acetyl-CoA. Administration of Qc inhibitors of TDH to mouse ES cells impeded cell growth and resulted in the induction of autophagy. By contrast, the same chemicals failed to affect the growth of HeLa cells at concentrations 300-fold higher than that required to kill mouse ES cells. It was likewise observed that the Qc class of TDH inhibitors failed to affect the growth or viability of ES cell-derived embryoid body cells known to have extinguished TDH expression. These studies demonstrate how it is possible to kill a specific mammalian cell type on the basis of its specialized metabolic state.

  10. The pro-oxidative drug WF-10 inhibits serial killing by primary human cytotoxic T-cells.

    PubMed

    Wabnitz, G H; Balta, E; Schindler, S; Kirchgessner, H; Jahraus, B; Meuer, S; Samstag, Y

    2016-01-01

    Cytotoxic T-cells (CTLs) play an important role in many immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Targeting cytotoxicity of CTLs would allow to interfere with immune-mediated tissue destruction. Here we demonstrate that WF-10, a pro-oxidative compound, inhibits CTL-mediated cytotoxicity. WF-10 did not influence early steps of target-cell killing, but impaired the ability of CTLs to detach from the initial target cell and to move to a second target cell. This reduced serial killing was accompanied by stronger enrichment of the adhesion molecule LFA-1 in the cytolytic immune synapse. LFA-1 clustering requires activation of the actin-bundling protein L-plastin and was accordingly diminished in L-plastin knockdown cells. Interestingly, WF-10 likely acts through regulating L-plastin: (I) It induced L-plastin activation through phosphorylation leading to enhanced LFA-1-mediated cell adhesion, and, importantly, (II) WF-10 lost its influence on target-cell killing in L-plastin knockdown cells. Finally, we demonstrate that WF-10 can improve immunosuppression by conventional drugs. Thus, while cyclosporine A alone had no significant effect on cytotoxicity of CTLs, a combination of cyclosporine A and WF-10 blocked target-cell killing synergistically. Together, our findings suggest that WF-10 - either alone or in combination with conventional immunosuppressive drugs - may be efficient to control progression of diseases, in which CTLs are crucially involved.

  11. Targeting the Human Complement Membrane Attack Complex to Selectively Kill Prostate Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    1 AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0309 TITLE: Targeting the Human Complement Membrane Attack Complex to Selectively Kill Prostate...Attack Complex to Selectively Kill Prostate Cancer Cells 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0309 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Samuel R...leading to the lytic death of PSA- producing prostate cancer cells as well as a significant bystander effect and killing of non-PSA producing cancer

  12. Bioengineered viral vectors for targeting and killing prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai-xin; Jia, William; Rennie, Paul S

    2010-01-01

    Enabling the transduction of therapeutic gene expression exclusively in diseased sites is the key to developing more effective treatments for advanced prostate cancer using viral-based therapy. While prostate cancers that express high levels of HER-2 are resistant to the killing effects of trastuzumab, they can be targeted for selective gene expression and destruction by lentiviruses with envelope proteins engineered to bind to this therapeutic antibody. More importantly, after intravenous injection, this trastuzumab-bound lentivirus is able to target castration-resistant prostate tumor xenografts, albeit with low efficiency. This proof of principle opens up multiple possibilities for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer using a viral-based therapy. However, to be safe and more effective, the viral vectors must target prostate cancer cells more selectively and efficiently. A higher degree of specificity and efficiency of cancer cell targeting can be achieved by engineering viral vectors to bind to a specific cell surface marker and by controlling the expression of the therapeutic payload at transcriptional level, with a tissue-specific promoter, and at the translational level, with a regulatory sequences inserted into either the 5'UTR or 3'UTR regions of the therapeutic gene(s). The latter would be designed to ensure that translation of this mRNA occurs exclusively in malignant cells. Furthermore, in order to obtain a potent anti-tumor effect, viral vectors would be engineered to express pro-apoptotic genes, intra-cellar antibodies/nucleotide aptamers to block critical proteins, or siRNAs to knockdown essential cellular mRNAs. Alternatively, controlled expression of an essential viral gene would restore replication competence to the virus and enable selective oncolysis of tumor cells. Successful delivery of such bioengineered viruses may provide a more effective way to treat advanced prostate cancer.

  13. Antibody Fc engineering improves frequency and promotes kinetic boosting of serial killing mediated by NK cells.

    PubMed

    Romain, Gabrielle; Senyukov, Vladimir; Rey-Villamizar, Nicolas; Merouane, Amine; Kelton, William; Liadi, Ivan; Mahendra, Ankit; Charab, Wissam; Georgiou, George; Roysam, Badrinath; Lee, Dean A; Varadarajan, Navin

    2014-11-20

    The efficacy of most therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting tumor antigens results primarily from their ability to elicit potent cytotoxicity through effector-mediated functions. We have engineered the fragment crystallizable (Fc) region of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) mAb, HuM195, targeting the leukemic antigen CD33, by introducing the triple mutation Ser293Asp/Ala330Leu/Ile332Glu (DLE), and developed Time-lapse Imaging Microscopy in Nanowell Grids to analyze antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity kinetics of thousands of individual natural killer (NK) cells and mAb-coated target cells. We demonstrate that the DLE-HuM195 antibody increases both the quality and the quantity of NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity by endowing more NK cells to participate in cytotoxicity via accrued CD16-mediated signaling and by increasing serial killing of target cells. NK cells encountering targets coated with DLE-HuM195 induce rapid target cell apoptosis by promoting simultaneous conjugates to multiple target cells and induce apoptosis in twice the number of target cells within the same period as the wild-type mAb. Enhanced target killing was also associated with increased frequency of NK cells undergoing apoptosis, but this effect was donor-dependent. Antibody-based therapies targeting tumor antigens will benefit from a better understanding of cell-mediated tumor elimination, and our work opens further opportunities for the therapeutic targeting of CD33 in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.

  14. Antibody Fc engineering improves frequency and promotes kinetic boosting of serial killing mediated by NK cells

    PubMed Central

    Romain, Gabrielle; Senyukov, Vladimir; Rey-Villamizar, Nicolas; Merouane, Amine; Kelton, William; Liadi, Ivan; Mahendra, Ankit; Charab, Wissam; Georgiou, George; Roysam, Badrinath; Lee, Dean A.

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of most therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting tumor antigens results primarily from their ability to elicit potent cytotoxicity through effector-mediated functions. We have engineered the fragment crystallizable (Fc) region of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) mAb, HuM195, targeting the leukemic antigen CD33, by introducing the triple mutation Ser293Asp/Ala330Leu/Ile332Glu (DLE), and developed Time-lapse Imaging Microscopy in Nanowell Grids to analyze antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity kinetics of thousands of individual natural killer (NK) cells and mAb-coated target cells. We demonstrate that the DLE-HuM195 antibody increases both the quality and the quantity of NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity by endowing more NK cells to participate in cytotoxicity via accrued CD16-mediated signaling and by increasing serial killing of target cells. NK cells encountering targets coated with DLE-HuM195 induce rapid target cell apoptosis by promoting simultaneous conjugates to multiple target cells and induce apoptosis in twice the number of target cells within the same period as the wild-type mAb. Enhanced target killing was also associated with increased frequency of NK cells undergoing apoptosis, but this effect was donor-dependent. Antibody-based therapies targeting tumor antigens will benefit from a better understanding of cell-mediated tumor elimination, and our work opens further opportunities for the therapeutic targeting of CD33 in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:25232058

  15. CAR-T Cells Inflict Sequential Killing of Multiple Tumor Target Cells.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Alexander J; Jenkins, Misty R; Cross, Ryan S; Yong, Carmen S; Prince, H Miles; Ritchie, David S; Trapani, Joseph A; Kershaw, Michael H; Darcy, Phillip K; Neeson, Paul J

    2015-05-01

    Adoptive therapy with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells shows great promise clinically. However, there are important aspects of CAR-T-cell biology that have not been explored, particularly with respect to the kinetics of activation, immune synapse formation, and tumor cell killing. Moreover, the effects of signaling via the endogenous T-cell receptor (TCR) or CAR on killing kinetics are unclear. To address these issues, we developed a novel transgenic mouse (designated CAR.OT-I), in which CD8(+) T cells coexpressed the clonogenic OT-I TCR, recognizing the H-2K(b)-presented ovalbumin peptide SIINFEKL, and an scFv specific for human HER2. Primed CAR.OT-I T cells were mixed with SIINFEKL-pulsed or HER2-expressing tumor cells and visualized in real-time using time-lapse microscopy. We found that engagement via CAR or TCR did not affect cell death kinetics, except that the time from degranulation to CAR-T-cell detachment was faster when CAR was engaged. We showed, for the first time, that individual CAR.OT-I cells can kill multiple tumor cells ("serial killing"), irrespective of the mode of recognition. At low effector:target ratios, the tumor cell killing rate was similar via TCR or CAR ligation over the first 20 hours of coincubation. However, from 20 to 50 hours, tumor cell death mediated through CAR became attenuated due to CAR downregulation throughout the time course. Our study provides important insights into CAR-T-tumor cell interactions, with implications for single- or dual receptor-focused T-cell therapy.

  16. Nanotechnology for the detection and kill of circulating tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yang; Yuan, Zhou

    2014-09-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) represent a surrogate biomarker of hematogenous metastases and thus could be considered as a `liquid biopsy' which reveals metastasis in action. But it is absolutely a challenge to detect CTCs due to their extreme rarity. At present, the most common principle is to take advantage of the epithelial surface markers of CTCs which attach to a specific antibody. Antibody-magnetic nanobeads combine with the epithelial surface markers, and then the compound is processed by washing, separation, and detection. However, a proportion of CTC antigen expressions are down-regulated or lost in the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and thus, this part of CTCs cannot be detected by classical detection methods such as CellSearch. To resolve this problem, some multiple-marker CTC detections have been developed rapidly. Additionally, nanotechnology is a promising approach to kill CTCs with high efficiency. Implantable nanotubes coated with apoptosis-promoting molecules improve the disease-free survival and overall survival. The review introduces some novel CTC detection techniques and therapeutic methods by virtue of nanotechnology to provide a better knowledge of the progress about CTC study.

  17. Nanotechnology for the detection and kill of circulating tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) represent a surrogate biomarker of hematogenous metastases and thus could be considered as a ‘liquid biopsy’ which reveals metastasis in action. But it is absolutely a challenge to detect CTCs due to their extreme rarity. At present, the most common principle is to take advantage of the epithelial surface markers of CTCs which attach to a specific antibody. Antibody-magnetic nanobeads combine with the epithelial surface markers, and then the compound is processed by washing, separation, and detection. However, a proportion of CTC antigen expressions are down-regulated or lost in the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and thus, this part of CTCs cannot be detected by classical detection methods such as CellSearch. To resolve this problem, some multiple-marker CTC detections have been developed rapidly. Additionally, nanotechnology is a promising approach to kill CTCs with high efficiency. Implantable nanotubes coated with apoptosis-promoting molecules improve the disease-free survival and overall survival. The review introduces some novel CTC detection techniques and therapeutic methods by virtue of nanotechnology to provide a better knowledge of the progress about CTC study. PMID:25258614

  18. Stability of EcoRI restriction-modification enzymes in vivo differentiates the EcoRI restriction-modification system from other postsegregational cell killing systems.

    PubMed

    Ichige, Asao; Kobayashi, Ichizo

    2005-10-01

    Certain type II restriction modification gene systems can kill host cells when these gene systems are eliminated from the host cells. Such ability to cause postsegregational killing of host cells is the feature of bacterial addiction modules, each of which consists of toxin and antitoxin genes. With these addiction modules, the differential stability of toxin and antitoxin molecules in cells plays an essential role in the execution of postsegregational killing. We here examined in vivo stability of the EcoRI restriction enzyme (toxin) and modification enzyme (antitoxin), the gene system of which has previously been shown to cause postsegregational host killing in Escherichia coli. Using two different methods, namely, quantitative Western blot analysis and pulse-chase immunoprecipitation analysis, we demonstrated that both the EcoRI restriction enzyme and modification enzyme are as stable as bulk cellular proteins and that there is no marked difference in their stability. The numbers of EcoRI restriction and modification enzyme molecules present in a host cell during the steady-state growth were estimated. We monitored changes in cellular levels of the EcoRI restriction and modification enzymes during the postsegregational killing. Results from these analyses together suggest that the EcoRI gene system does not rely on differential stability between the toxin and the antitoxin molecules for execution of postsegregational cell killing. Our results provide insights into the mechanism of postsegregational killing by restriction-modification systems, which seems to be distinct from mechanisms of postsegregational killing by other bacterial addiction modules.

  19. Research on stress-induced apoptosis of natural killer cells and the alteration of their killing activity in mouse liver

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhen; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Xin; Yu, Hai-Long; Li, Ming-Qi; Tomiyama-Miyaji, Chikako; Abo, Toru; Bai, Xue-Feng

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the stress-induced apoptosis of natural killer (NK) cells and the changes in their killing activity in mouse livers. METHODS: A restraint stress model was established in mice. Flow cytometry was employed to measure the percentage of NK cells and the changes in their absolute number in mouse liver. The cytotoxicity of hepatic and splenic NK cells was assessed against YAC-1 target cells via a 4 h 51Cr-release assay. RESULTS: The restraint stress stimulation induced the apoptosis of NK cells in the liver and the spleen, which decreased the cell number. The number and percentage of NK cells in the spleen decreased. However, the number of NK cells in the liver decreased, whereas the percentage of NK cells was significantly increased. The apoptosis of NK cells increased gradually with prolonged stress time, and the macrophage-1 (Mac-1)+ NK cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than Mac-1- NK cells. Large numbers of Mac-1- NK cells in the liver, which are more resistant to stress-induced apoptosis, were observed than the Mac-1- NK cells in the spleen. The stress stimulation diminished the killing activity of NK cells in the spleen was significantly decreased, but the retention of numerous Mac-1- NK cells in the liver maintained the killing ability. CONCLUSION: Significant stress-induced apoptosis was observed among Mac-1+ NK cells, but not Mac-1- NK cells in the mouse liver. Stress stimulation markedly decreased the killing activity of NK cells in the spleen but remained unchanged in the liver. PMID:24115824

  20. Can dendritic cells improve whole cancer cell vaccines based on immunogenically killed cancer cells?

    PubMed

    Cicchelero, Laetitia; Denies, Sofie; Devriendt, Bert; de Rooster, Hilde; Sanders, Niek N

    2015-12-01

    Immunogenic cell death (ICD) offers interesting opportunities in cancer cell (CC) vaccine manufacture, as it increases the immunogenicity of the dead CC. Furthermore, fusion of CCs with dendritic cells (DCs) is considered a superior method for generating whole CC vaccines. Therefore, in this work, we determined in naive mice whether immunogenically killed CCs per se (CC vaccine) elicit an antitumoral immune response different from the response observed when immunogenically killed CCs are associated with DCs through fusion (fusion vaccine) or through co-incubation (co-incubation vaccine). After tumor inoculation, the type of immune response in the prophylactically vaccinated mice differed between the groups. In more detail, fusion vaccines elicited a humoral anticancer response, whereas the co-incubation and CC vaccine mainly induced a cellular response. Despite these differences, all three approaches offered a prophylactic protection against tumor development in the murine mammary carcinoma model. In summary, it can be concluded that whole CC vaccines based on immunogenically killed CCs may not necessarily require association with DCs to elicit a protective anticancer immune response. If this finding can be endorsed in other cancer models, the manufacture of CC vaccines would greatly benefit from this new insight, as production of DC-based vaccines is laborious, time-consuming and expensive.

  1. Can dendritic cells improve whole cancer cell vaccines based on immunogenically killed cancer cells?

    PubMed Central

    Cicchelero, Laetitia; Denies, Sofie; Devriendt, Bert; de Rooster, Hilde; Sanders, Niek N

    2015-01-01

    Immunogenic cell death (ICD) offers interesting opportunities in cancer cell (CC) vaccine manufacture, as it increases the immunogenicity of the dead CC. Furthermore, fusion of CCs with dendritic cells (DCs) is considered a superior method for generating whole CC vaccines. Therefore, in this work, we determined in naive mice whether immunogenically killed CCs per se (CC vaccine) elicit an antitumoral immune response different from the response observed when immunogenically killed CCs are associated with DCs through fusion (fusion vaccine) or through co-incubation (co-incubation vaccine). After tumor inoculation, the type of immune response in the prophylactically vaccinated mice differed between the groups. In more detail, fusion vaccines elicited a humoral anticancer response, whereas the co-incubation and CC vaccine mainly induced a cellular response. Despite these differences, all three approaches offered a prophylactic protection against tumor development in the murine mammary carcinoma model. In summary, it can be concluded that whole CC vaccines based on immunogenically killed CCs may not necessarily require association with DCs to elicit a protective anticancer immune response. If this finding can be endorsed in other cancer models, the manufacture of CC vaccines would greatly benefit from this new insight, as production of DC-based vaccines is laborious, time-consuming and expensive. PMID:26587315

  2. Glioma Stemlike Cells Enhance the Killing of Glioma Differentiated Cells by Cytotoxic Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bassoy, Esen Yonca; Chiusolo, Valentina; Jacquemin, Guillaume; Riccadonna, Cristina; Walker, Paul R.; Martinvalet, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive primary brain tumor, is maintained by a subpopulation of glioma cells with self-renewal properties that are able to recapitulate the entire tumor even after surgical resection or chemo-radiotherapy. This typifies the vast heterogeneity of this tumor with the two extremes represented on one end by the glioma stemlike cells (GSC) and on the other by the glioma differentiated cells (GDC). Interestingly, GSC are more sensitive to immune effector cells than the GDC counterpart. However, how GSC impact on the killing on the GDC and vice versa is not clear. Using a newly developed cytotoxicity assay allowing to simultaneously monitor cytotoxic lymphocytes-mediated killing of GSC and GDC, we found that although GSC were always better killed and that their presence enhanced the killing of GDC. In contrast, an excess of GDC had a mild protective effect on the killing of GSC, depending on the CTL type. Overall, our results suggest that during combination therapy, immunotherapy would be the most effective after prior treatment with conventional therapies. PMID:27073883

  3. The Alpha-Tocopherol Form of Vitamin E Boosts Elastase Activity of Human PMNs and Their Ability to Kill Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Bou Ghanem, Elsa N.; Lee, James N.; Joma, Basma H.; Meydani, Simin N.; Leong, John M.; Panda, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Despite the availability of vaccines, Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a leading cause of life-threatening infections, such as pneumonia, bacteremia and meningitis. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are a key determinant of disease course, because optimal host defense requires an initial robust pulmonary PMN response to control bacterial numbers followed by modulation of this response later in infection. The elderly, who manifest a general decline in immune function and higher basal levels of inflammation, are at increased risk of developing pneumococcal pneumonia. Using an aged mouse infection model, we previously showed that oral supplementation with the alpha-tocopherol form of vitamin E (α-Toc) decreases pulmonary inflammation, in part by modulating neutrophil migration across lung epithelium into alveolar spaces, and reverses the age-associated decline in resistance to pneumococcal pneumonia. The objective of this study was to test the effect of α-Toc on the ability of neutrophils isolated from young (22–35 years) or elderly (65–69 years) individuals to migrate across epithelial cell monolayers in response to S. pneumoniae and to kill complement-opsonized pneumococci. We found that basal levels of pneumococcal-induced transepithelial migration by PMNs from young or elderly donors were indistinguishable, suggesting that the age-associated exacerbation of pulmonary inflammation is not due to intrinsic properties of PMNs of elderly individuals but rather may reflect the inflammatory milieu of the aged lung. Consistent with its anti-inflammatory activity, α-Toc treatment diminished PMN migration regardless of donor age. Unexpectedly, unlike previous studies showing poor killing of antibody-opsonized bacteria, we found that PMNs of elderly donors were more efficient at killing complement-opsonized bacteria ex vivo than their younger counterparts. We also found that the heightened antimicrobial activity in PMNs from older donors correlated with increased

  4. Cell killing and mutation induction on Chinese hamster cells by photoradiations

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, C.K.C.

    1982-11-01

    Applying radiation directly on cells, far-uv is more effective than black light, and black light is more effective than white light in inducing proliferative death and in inducing resistance to 6-thioguanine (6-TG), ouabain and diptheria toxin (DT). Gold light has no killing and mutagenic effects on CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) cells. Use of filters showed that a small percentage of shorter wavelengths in the far-uv region is responsible for most of the killing and mutagenic effects in the unfiltered broad spectra of black and white light.

  5. Antigen presentation and cytotoxic T lymphocyte killing studied in individual, living cells.

    PubMed

    Hahn, K; DeBiasio, R; Tishon, A; Lewicki, H; Gairin, J E; LaRocca, G; Taylor, D L; Oldstone, M

    1994-06-01

    Interactions between individual, living fibroblasts and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones were analyzed by using video-enhanced differential interference contrast and fluorescence microscopy in a multimode configuration. Fibroblasts expressing known major histocompatibility complex I alleles (MC57: H-2b; Balb: H-2d) were sensitized for killing by incubating or microinjecting them with peptide fragments of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Previous determination of the CTL clones' specificity for these peptides and MHC-I alleles enabled us to study CTL killing of fibroblasts, and nonlethal CTL interaction with targets due to "mismatches" of the CTL, target, and/or peptide. During viral peptide-specific MHC-restricted CTL killing, distinct morphological alterations were observed (CTL shape changes, movements of granules in CTL cytoplasm, and target cell contraction and blebbing). When no killing occurred, CTL engaged in prolonged, nonrandom movement on the target cells. Alloreactive and virus-specific CTL displayed the same morphology during killing. To study antigen presentation further within individual, living cells, a LCMV glycoprotein peptide (aa 272-286, LSDSSGVENPGGYCL) was covalently labeled with tetramethylrhodamine. In 51Cr release assays, the labeled peptide specifically induced potent CTL killing, but neither labeled nor unlabeled peptide proved toxic for unsensitized targets. Microinjection of the labeled peptide into the cytoplasm of fibroblast cells led to CTL killing of those cells, yet nearby uninjected cells contacted by CTL were not killed, indicating that killing was due to presentation of microinjected peptide rather than binding of extracellular peptide to cell surface MHC. Peptide-injected target cells were killed only when combined with CTL specific for the peptide and for the MHC allele of the injected cell.

  6. A General Functional Response of Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-Mediated Killing of Target Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gadhamsetty, Saikrishna; Marée, Athanasius F.M.; Beltman, Joost B.; de Boer, Rob J.

    2014-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) kill virus-infected cells and tumor cells, and play a critical role in immune protection. Our knowledge of how the CTL killing efficiency varies with CTL and target cell numbers is limited. Here, we simulate a region of lymphoid tissue using a cellular Potts model to characterize the functional response of CTL killing of target cells, and find that the total killing rate saturates both with the CTL and the target cell densities. The relative saturation in CTL and target cell densities is determined by whether a CTL can kill multiple target cells at the same time, and whether a target cell can be killed by many CTLs together. We find that all the studied regimes can be well described by a double-saturation (DS) function with two different saturation constants. We show that this DS model can be mechanistically derived for the cases where target cells are killed by a single CTL. For the other cases, a biological interpretation of the parameters is still possible. Our results imply that this DS function can be used as a tool to predict the cellular interactions in cytotoxicity data. PMID:24739177

  7. A general functional response of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated killing of target cells.

    PubMed

    Gadhamsetty, Saikrishna; Marée, Athanasius F M; Beltman, Joost B; de Boer, Rob J

    2014-04-15

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) kill virus-infected cells and tumor cells, and play a critical role in immune protection. Our knowledge of how the CTL killing efficiency varies with CTL and target cell numbers is limited. Here, we simulate a region of lymphoid tissue using a cellular Potts model to characterize the functional response of CTL killing of target cells, and find that the total killing rate saturates both with the CTL and the target cell densities. The relative saturation in CTL and target cell densities is determined by whether a CTL can kill multiple target cells at the same time, and whether a target cell can be killed by many CTLs together. We find that all the studied regimes can be well described by a double-saturation (DS) function with two different saturation constants. We show that this DS model can be mechanistically derived for the cases where target cells are killed by a single CTL. For the other cases, a biological interpretation of the parameters is still possible. Our results imply that this DS function can be used as a tool to predict the cellular interactions in cytotoxicity data.

  8. Studies on the mechanisms of mammalian cell killing by a freeze-thaw cycle: conditions that prevent cell killing using nucleated freezing.

    PubMed

    Shier, W T

    1988-04-01

    Normally a freeze-thaw cycle is a very efficient method of killing mammalian cells. However, this report describes conditions that prevent killing of cultured mammalian cells by nucleated freezing at -24 degrees C. Optimal protection from cell killing at -24 degrees C was obtained in isotonic solutions containing an organic cryoprotectant such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; 10%, v/v), a saccharide such as sucrose over a broad concentration range from 50 to 150 mM, and glucose. Glycerol was also an effective cryoprotectant but other organic solvents were ineffective, although in some cases they appeared to protect cell membranes, while not protecting other vital components. A wide variety of saccharide structures were effective at protecting cells from freeze-thaw killing, with trehalose being particularly effective. The degree of resistance to killing by a freeze-thaw cycle under these conditions varied widely among different cell lines. If toxicity of DMSO was responsible for this variability of cryoprotection, it must have been due to short-term, not longer term, toxicity of DMSO. Studies on the mechanism by which cells are protected from killing under these conditions indicated that neither vitrification of the medium nor the concentrating of components during freezing were involved. One model not eliminated by the mechanistic studies proposes that the organic solvent cryoprotectant component acts by fluidizing membranes under the thawing conditions, so that any holes produced by ice crystals propagating through membranes can reseal during the thawing process. In this model one of the mechanisms by which the saccharide component could act is by entering the cells and stabilizing vital intracellular components. Consistent with this, a freeze-thaw cycle promoted the uptake of labeled sucrose into cultured cells.

  9. Studies on the mechanisms of mammalian cell killing by a freeze-thaw cycle: conditions that prevent cell killing using nucleated freezing

    SciTech Connect

    Shier, W.T.

    1988-04-01

    Normally a freeze-thaw cycle is a very efficient method of killing mammalian cells. However, this report describes conditions that prevent killing of cultured mammalian cells by nucleated freezing at -24 degrees C. Optimal protection from cell killing at -24 degrees C was obtained in isotonic solutions containing an organic cryoprotectant such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; 10%, v/v), a saccharide such as sucrose over a broad concentration range from 50 to 150 mM, and glucose. Glycerol was also an effective cryoprotectant but other organic solvents were ineffective, although in some cases they appeared to protect cell membranes, while not protecting other vital components. A wide variety of saccharide structures were effective at protecting cells from freeze-thaw killing, with trehalose being particularly effective. The degree of resistance to killing by a freeze-thaw cycle under these conditions varied widely among different cell lines. If toxicity of DMSO was responsible for this variability of cryoprotection, it must have been due to short-term, not longer term, toxicity of DMSO. Studies on the mechanism by which cells are protected from killing under these conditions indicated that neither vitrification of the medium nor the concentrating of components during freezing were involved. One model not eliminated by the mechanistic studies proposes that the organic solvent cryoprotectant component acts by fluidizing membranes under the thawing conditions, so that any holes produced by ice crystals propagating through membranes can reseal during the thawing process. In this model one of the mechanisms by which the saccharide component could act is by entering the cells and stabilizing vital intracellular components. Consistent with this, a freeze-thaw cycle promoted the uptake of labeled sucrose into cultured cells.

  10. Muscle precursor cells invade and repopulate freeze-killed muscles.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J E; Coulton, G R; Partridge, T A

    1987-10-01

    A problem with the use of muscle grafting as a therapeutic procedure is to produce a graft functionally adequate to replace a muscle of complex architecture, such as a sphincter muscle. We thought it might be possible to use dead cadaver muscles, repopulated by the patient's own muscle precursor cells (mpc), to reconstruct muscles whose anatomy would be imposed by the framework of dead muscle and whose genetic constitution would be determined by the mpc. Here we show, in the mouse, that an extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle, killed by repeated freezing and thawing, repopulated with mpc and grafted into a nu/nu or tolerant AKR host mouse, is capable of supporting muscle formation. By using the allotypic isoenzyme forms of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase as markers, we have shown that the newly regenerated muscle in such grafts is derived mainly from the implanted mpc, but also to some extent from the host mouse's own mpc. By 50-70 days after grafting, new muscle fibres were found to constitute up to 70% of the graft. Many fibres had assumed diameters in the normal range for mouse muscle, often having peripherally placed nuclei. These findings raise the possibility of the therapeutic use of such grafts. To our surprise, dead EDL muscle grafts into which no mpc had been implanted were also the site of good muscle regeneration. New-formed muscle in these grafts was shown to be derived entirely from mpc which must have migrated into the graft from the host. Investigation of the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon should further our knowledge of factors which regulate the proliferation and movement of dormant mpc in adult animals.

  11. Interactive effects of Na and K in killing by natural killer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schlichter, L.C.; MacCoubrey, I.C. )

    1989-09-01

    Contact-mediated lysis by human natural killer cells is inhibited by a number of drugs that block the predominant K channel. In this study the authors have further examined the role of the K channel and the interactions between passive K and Na transport in killing. Low external Na-inhibited killing and inhibition were not due to reduced inward current through the Na channels in the target cell. A role for the Na/H antiport is suggested since amiloride inhibited killing in a dose-dependent manner that was competitive with external Na. Depolarizing the killer cell with elevated external K did not inhibit killing. On the contrary, high K{sub 0} reduced the inhibition caused by low Na{sub 0} and by the K-channel blockers quinidine, verapamil, and retinoic acid. Hyperpolarizing the killer cell with low K{sub 0} or valinomycin inhibited killing. Hence, the primary role of the K channels during killing is not to maintain the negative membrane potential. On the contrary, depolarization may promote killing under conditions where killing is submaximal.

  12. Innate Immune Memory: Activation of Macrophage Killing Ability by Developmental Duties.

    PubMed

    Schneider, David; Tate, Ann Thomas

    2016-06-20

    Innate immune systems in many taxa exhibit hallmarks of memory in response to previous microbial exposure. A new study demonstrates that innate immune memory in Drosophila embryonic macrophages can also be induced by the successful engulfment of apoptotic cells, highlighting the importance of early exposure events for developing responsive immune systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated killing of human pancreatic islet cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Peter D; Estella, Eugene; Dudek, Nadine L; Jhala, Gaurang; Thomas, Helen E; Kay, Thomas W H; Mannering, Stuart I

    2008-09-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are believed to play an essential role in beta-cell destruction leading to development of type 1 diabetes and allogeneic islet graft failure. We aimed to identify the mechanisms used by CTL to kill human beta cells. CTL clones that recognize epitopes from influenza virus and Epstein-Barr virus restricted by human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A0201 and -B0801, respectively, were used to investigate the susceptibility of human beta cells to CTL. In a short-term (5-hour) assay, CTL killed human islet cells of the appropriate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I type that had been pulsed with viral peptides. Killing was increased by pretreating islets with interferon gamma that increases MHC class I on target cells. Killing was abolished by incubation of CTL with the perforin inhibitor concanamycin A. The Fas pathway did not contribute to killing because blocking with neutralizing anti-Fas ligand antibody did not significantly reduce beta-cell killing. In conclusion, we report a novel way of investigating the interaction between CTL and human islets. Human islets were rapidly killed in vitro by MHC class I-restricted CTL predominantly by the granule exocytosis pathway.

  14. BmKn-2 scorpion venom peptide for killing oral cancer cells by apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Tong-ngam, Pirut; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Sritanaudomchai, Hathaitip

    2015-01-01

    Scorpion venom peptides recently have attracted attention as alternative chemotherapeutic agents that may overcome the limitations of current drugs, providing specific cytotoxicity for cancer cells with an ability to bypass multidrug-resistance mechanisms, additive effects in combination therapy and safety. In the present study, BmKn-2 scorpion venom peptide and its derivatives were chosen for assessment of anticancer activities. BmKn-2 was identified as the most effective against human oral squamous cells carcinoma cell line (HSC-4) by screening assays with an IC50 value of 29 μg/ml. The BmKn-2 peptide killed HSC-4 cells through induction of apoptosis, as confirmed by phase contrast microscopy and RT-PCR techniques. Typical morphological features of apoptosis including cell shrinkage and rounding characteristics were observed in treated HSC-4 cells. The results were further confirmed by increased expression of pro-apoptotic genes such as caspase-3, -7, and -9 but decrease mRNA level of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 in BmKn-2 treated cells, as determined by RT-PCR assay. In summary, the BmKn-2 scorpion venom peptide demonstrates specific membrane binding, growth inhibition and apoptogenic activity against human oral cancer cells.

  15. Antibody–peptide–MHC fusion conjugates target non-cognate T cells to kill tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    King, Ben C.; Hamblin, Angela D.; Savage, Philip M.; Douglas, Leon R.; Hansen, Ted H.; Johnson, Peter W. M.; Glennie, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Attempts to generate robust anti-tumour cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses using immunotherapy are frequently thwarted by exhaustion and anergy of CTL recruited to tumour. One strategy to overcome this is to retarget a population of virus-specific CTL to kill tumour cells. Here, we describe a proof-of-principle study using a bispecific conjugate designed to retarget ovalbumin (OVA)-specific CTL to kill tumour cells via CD20. A single-chain trimer (SCT) consisting of MHCI H-2Kb/SI-INFEKL peptide/beta 2 microglobulin/BirA was expressed in bacteria, refolded and chemically conjugated to one (1:1; F2) or two (2:1; F3) anti-hCD20 Fab′ fragments. In vitro, the [SCT × Fab′] (F2 and F3) redirected SIINFEKL-specific OT-I CTL to kill CD20+ target cells, and in the presence of CD20+ target cells to provide crosslinking, they were also able to induce proliferation of OT-I cells. In vivo, activated OT-I CTL could be retargeted to kill [SCT × Fab′]-coated B cells from hCD20 transgenic (hCD20 Tg) mice and also EL4 and B16 mouse tumour cells expressing human CD20 (hCD20). Importantly, in a hCD20 Tg mouse model, [SCT × Fab′] administered systemically were able to retarget activated OT-I cells to deplete normal B cells, and their performance matched that of a bispecific antibody (BsAb) comprising anti-CD3 and anti-CD20. [SCT × Fab′] were also active therapeutically in an EL4 tumour model. Furthermore, measurement of serum cytokine levels suggests that [SCT × Fab′] are associated with a lower level of inflammatory cytokine release than the BsAb and so may be advantageous clinically in terms of reduced toxicity. PMID:23604105

  16. Interactions between neutrophils and macrophages promote macrophage killing of rat muscle cells in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hal X.; Tidball, James G.

    2003-01-01

    Current evidence indicates that the physiological functions of inflammatory cells are highly sensitive to their microenvironment, which is partially determined by the inflammatory cells and their potential targets. In the present investigation, interactions between neutrophils, macrophages and muscle cells that may influence muscle cell death are examined. Findings show that in the absence of macrophages, neutrophils kill muscle cells in vitro by superoxide-dependent mechanisms, and that low concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) protect against neutrophil-mediated killing. In the absence of neutrophils, macrophages kill muscle cells through a NO-dependent mechanism, and the presence of target muscle cells causes a three-fold increase in NO production by macrophages, with no change in the concentration of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Muscle cells that are co-cultured with both neutrophils and macrophages in proportions that are observed in injured muscle show cytotoxicity through a NO-dependent, superoxide-independent mechanism. Furthermore, the concentration of myeloid cells that is necessary for muscle killing is greatly reduced in assays that use mixed myeloid cell populations, rather than uniform populations of neutrophils or macrophages. These findings collectively show that the magnitude and mechanism of muscle cell killing by myeloid cells are modified by interactions between muscle cells and neutrophils, between muscle cells and macrophages and between macrophages and neutrophils.

  17. Interactions between neutrophils and macrophages promote macrophage killing of rat muscle cells in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hal X.; Tidball, James G.

    2003-01-01

    Current evidence indicates that the physiological functions of inflammatory cells are highly sensitive to their microenvironment, which is partially determined by the inflammatory cells and their potential targets. In the present investigation, interactions between neutrophils, macrophages and muscle cells that may influence muscle cell death are examined. Findings show that in the absence of macrophages, neutrophils kill muscle cells in vitro by superoxide-dependent mechanisms, and that low concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) protect against neutrophil-mediated killing. In the absence of neutrophils, macrophages kill muscle cells through a NO-dependent mechanism, and the presence of target muscle cells causes a three-fold increase in NO production by macrophages, with no change in the concentration of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Muscle cells that are co-cultured with both neutrophils and macrophages in proportions that are observed in injured muscle show cytotoxicity through a NO-dependent, superoxide-independent mechanism. Furthermore, the concentration of myeloid cells that is necessary for muscle killing is greatly reduced in assays that use mixed myeloid cell populations, rather than uniform populations of neutrophils or macrophages. These findings collectively show that the magnitude and mechanism of muscle cell killing by myeloid cells are modified by interactions between muscle cells and neutrophils, between muscle cells and macrophages and between macrophages and neutrophils.

  18. Mitogen-activated Tasmanian devil blood mononuclear cells kill devil facial tumour disease cells.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gabriella K; Tovar, Cesar; Cooray, Anne A; Kreiss, Alexandre; Darby, Jocelyn; Murphy, James M; Corcoran, Lynn M; Bettiol, Silvana S; Lyons, A Bruce; Woods, Gregory M

    2016-08-01

    Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) is a transmissible cancer that has brought the host species, the Tasmanian devil, to the brink of extinction. The cancer cells avoid allogeneic immune recognition by downregulating cell surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I expression. This should prevent CD8(+) T cell, but not natural killer (NK) cell, cytotoxicity. The reason why NK cells, normally reactive to MHC-negative cells, are not activated to kill DFTD cells has not been determined. The immune response of wild devils to DFTD, if it occurs, is uncharacterised. To investigate this, we tested 12 wild devils with DFTD, and found suggestive evidence of low levels of antibodies against DFTD cells in one devil. Eight of these devils were also analysed for cytotoxicity, however, none showed evidence for cytotoxicity against cultured DFTD cells. To establish whether mimicking activation of antitumour responses could induce cytotoxic activity against DFTD, Tasmanian devil peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were treated with either the mitogen Concanavalin A, the Toll-like receptor agonist polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid or recombinant Tasmanian devil IL-2. All induced the PBMC cells to kill cultured DFTD cells, suggesting that activation does not occur after encounter with DFTD cells in vivo, but can be induced. The identification of agents that activate cytotoxicity against DFTD target cells is critical for developing strategies to protect against DFTD. Such agents could function as adjuvants to induce functional immune responses capable of targeting DFTD cells and tumours in vivo.

  19. Dendritic cell tumor killing activity and its potential applications in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hanke, Neale; Alizadeh, Darya; Katsanis, Emmanuel; Larmonier, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Universally viewed as the sentinels and messengers of the immune system and traditionally referred to as professional antigen-presenting cells, dendritic cells (DCs) play a fundamental role in antitumor immunity. DCs are uniquely equipped with the ability to acquire, process, and present to T lymphocytes tumor-derived antigens. They can drive the differentiation of naive T cells into activated tumor-specific effector lymphocytes. DCs also dictate the type and regulate the strength and duration of T-cell responses. In addition, they contribute to natural killer and natural killer T-cell antitumoral function and to B-cell-mediated immunity. Besides this cardinal role as orchestrators of innate and adaptive immune responses, many studies have provided evidence that DCs can also function as direct cytotoxic effectors against tumors. This less conventional aspect of DC function has, however, raised controversy as it relates to the origin of these cells and the induction, regulation, and mechanisms underlying their tumoricidal activity. The possible impact of the cytotoxic function of DCs on their capability to present antigens also has been the focus of intensive research. This review examines these questions and discusses the biological significance of this nontraditional property and possible strategies to exploit the killing potential of DCs in cancer immunotherapy.

  20. Understanding the metabolic basis of drug resistance: therapeutic induction of the Warburg effect kills cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Lin, Zhao; Ko, Ying-Hui; Goldberg, Allison F; Flomenberg, Neal; Wang, Chenguang; Pavlides, Stephanos; Pestell, Richard G; Howell, Anthony; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2011-08-01

    Previously, we identified a form of epithelial-stromal metabolic coupling, in which cancer cells induce aerobic glycolysis in adjacent stromal fibroblasts, via oxidative stress, driving autophagy and mitophagy. In turn, these cancer-associated fibroblasts provide recycled nutrients to epithelial cancer cells, "fueling" oxidative mitochondrial metabolism and anabolic growth. An additional consequence is that these glycolytic fibroblasts protect cancer cells against apoptosis, by providing a steady nutrient stream of to mitochondria in cancer cells. Here, we investigated whether these interactions might be the basis of tamoxifen-resistance in ER(+) breast cancer cells. We show that MCF7 cells alone are Tamoxifen-sensitive, but become resistant when co-cultured with hTERT-immortalized human fibroblasts. Next, we searched for a drug combination (Tamoxifen + Dasatinib) that could over-come fibroblast-induced Tamoxifen-resistance. Importantly, we show that this drug combination acutely induces the Warburg effect (aerobic glycolysis) in MCF7 cancer cells, abruptly cutting off their ability to use their fuel supply, effectively killing these cancer cells. Thus, we believe that the Warburg effect in tumor cells is not the "root cause" of cancer, but rather it may provide the necessary clues to preventing chemo-resistance in cancer cells. Finally, we observed that this drug combination (Tamoxifen + Dasatinib) also had a generalized anti-oxidant effect, on both co-cultured fibroblasts and cancer cells alike, potentially reducing tumor-stroma co-evolution. Our results are consistent with the idea that chemo-resistance may be both a metabolic and stromal phenomenon that can be overcome by targeting mitochondrial function in epithelial cancer cells. Thus, simultaneously targeting both (1) the tumor stroma and (2) the epithelial cancer cells, with combination therapies, may be the most successful approach to anti-cancer therapy. This general strategy of combination therapy for

  1. Lithocholic bile acid selectively kills neuroblastoma cells, while sparing normal neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Alexander A.; Beach, Adam; Davies, Gerald F.; Harkness, Troy A. A.; LeBlanc, Andréa; Titorenko, Vladimir I.

    2011-01-01

    Aging is one of the major risk factors of cancer. The onset of cancer can be postponed by pharmacological and dietary anti-aging interventions. We recently found in yeast cellular models of aging that lithocholic acid (LCA) extends longevity. Here we show that, at concentrations that are not cytotoxic to primary cultures of human neurons, LCA kills the neuroblastoma (NB) cell lines BE(2)-m17, SK-n-SH, SK-n-MCIXC and Lan-1. In BE(2)-m17, SK-n-SH and SK-n-MCIXC cells, the LCA anti-tumor effect is due to apoptotic cell death. In contrast, the LCA-triggered death of Lan-1 cells is not caused by apoptosis. While low concentrations of LCA sensitize BE(2)-m17 and SK-n-MCIXC cells to hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptotic cell death controlled by mitochondria, these LCA concentrations make primary cultures of human neurons resistant to such a form of cell death. LCA kills BE(2)-m17 and SK-n-MCIXC cell lines by triggering not only the intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic cell death pathway driven by mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and initiator caspase-9 activation, but also the extrinsic (death receptor) pathway of apoptosis involving activation of the initiator caspase-8. Based on these data, we propose a mechanism underlying a potent and selective anti-tumor effect of LCA in cultured human NB cells. Moreover, our finding that LCA kills cultured human breast cancer and rat glioma cells implies that it has a broad anti-tumor effect on cancer cells derived from different tissues and organisms. PMID:21992775

  2. Trypanosoma brucei Co-opts NK Cells to Kill Splenic B2 B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, Deborah; Guirnalda, Patrick; Haynes, Carole; Bockstal, Viki; Magez, Stefan; Black, Samuel J.

    2016-01-01

    After infection with T. brucei AnTat 1.1, C57BL/6 mice lost splenic B2 B cells and lymphoid follicles, developed poor parasite-specific antibody responses, lost weight, became anemic and died with fulminating parasitemia within 35 days. In contrast, infected C57BL/6 mice lacking the cytotoxic granule pore-forming protein perforin (Prf1 -/-) retained splenic B2 B cells and lymphoid follicles, developed high-titer antibody responses against many trypanosome polypeptides, rapidly suppressed parasitemia and did not develop anemia or lose weight for at least 60 days. Several lines of evidence show that T. brucei infection-induced splenic B cell depletion results from natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity: i) B2 B cells were depleted from the spleens of infected intact, T cell deficient (TCR -/-) and FcγRIIIa deficient (CD16-/-) C57BL/6 mice excluding a requirement for T cells, NKT cell, or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity; ii) administration of NK1.1 specific IgG2a (mAb PK136) but not irrelevant IgG2a (myeloma M9144) prevented infection-induced B cell depletion consistent with a requirement for NK cells; iii) splenic NK cells but not T cells or NKT cells degranulated in infected C57BL/6 mice co-incident with B cell depletion evidenced by increased surface expression of CD107a; iv) purified NK cells from naïve C57BL/6 mice killed purified splenic B cells from T. brucei infected but not uninfected mice in vitro indicating acquisition of an NK cell activating phenotype by the post-infection B cells; v) adoptively transferred C57BL/6 NK cells prevented infection-induced B cell population growth in infected Prf1-/- mice consistent with in vivo B cell killing; vi) degranulated NK cells in infected mice had altered gene and differentiation antigen expression and lost cytotoxic activity consistent with functional exhaustion, but increased in number as infection progressed indicating continued generation. We conclude that NK cells in T. brucei infected

  3. Trypanosoma brucei Co-opts NK Cells to Kill Splenic B2 B Cells.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Deborah; Zhang, Fengqiu; Guirnalda, Patrick; Haynes, Carole; Bockstal, Viki; Radwanska, Magdalena; Magez, Stefan; Black, Samuel J

    2016-07-01

    After infection with T. brucei AnTat 1.1, C57BL/6 mice lost splenic B2 B cells and lymphoid follicles, developed poor parasite-specific antibody responses, lost weight, became anemic and died with fulminating parasitemia within 35 days. In contrast, infected C57BL/6 mice lacking the cytotoxic granule pore-forming protein perforin (Prf1-/-) retained splenic B2 B cells and lymphoid follicles, developed high-titer antibody responses against many trypanosome polypeptides, rapidly suppressed parasitemia and did not develop anemia or lose weight for at least 60 days. Several lines of evidence show that T. brucei infection-induced splenic B cell depletion results from natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity: i) B2 B cells were depleted from the spleens of infected intact, T cell deficient (TCR-/-) and FcγRIIIa deficient (CD16-/-) C57BL/6 mice excluding a requirement for T cells, NKT cell, or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity; ii) administration of NK1.1 specific IgG2a (mAb PK136) but not irrelevant IgG2a (myeloma M9144) prevented infection-induced B cell depletion consistent with a requirement for NK cells; iii) splenic NK cells but not T cells or NKT cells degranulated in infected C57BL/6 mice co-incident with B cell depletion evidenced by increased surface expression of CD107a; iv) purified NK cells from naïve C57BL/6 mice killed purified splenic B cells from T. brucei infected but not uninfected mice in vitro indicating acquisition of an NK cell activating phenotype by the post-infection B cells; v) adoptively transferred C57BL/6 NK cells prevented infection-induced B cell population growth in infected Prf1-/- mice consistent with in vivo B cell killing; vi) degranulated NK cells in infected mice had altered gene and differentiation antigen expression and lost cytotoxic activity consistent with functional exhaustion, but increased in number as infection progressed indicating continued generation. We conclude that NK cells in T. brucei infected mice

  4. T Cell Receptor Vβ Staining Identifies the Malignant Clone in Adult T cell Leukemia and Reveals Killing of Leukemia Cells by Autologous CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Aileen G; Witkover, Aviva; Melamed, Anat; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Cook, Lucy B M; Fields, Paul; Taylor, Graham P; Bangham, Charles R M

    2016-11-01

    There is growing evidence that CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses can contribute to long-term remission of many malignancies. The etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), human T lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1), contains highly immunogenic CTL epitopes, but ATL patients typically have low frequencies of cytokine-producing HTLV-1-specific CD8+ cells in the circulation. It remains unclear whether patients with ATL possess CTLs that can kill the malignant HTLV-1 infected clone. Here we used flow cytometric staining of TCRVβ and cell adhesion molecule-1 (CADM1) to identify monoclonal populations of HTLV-1-infected T cells in the peripheral blood of patients with ATL. Thus, we quantified the rate of CD8+-mediated killing of the putative malignant clone in ex vivo blood samples. We observed that CD8+ cells from ATL patients were unable to lyse autologous ATL clones when tested directly ex vivo. However, short in vitro culture restored the ability of CD8+ cells to kill ex vivo ATL clones in some donors. The capacity of CD8+ cells to lyse HTLV-1 infected cells which expressed the viral sense strand gene products was significantly enhanced after in vitro culture, and donors with an ATL clone that expressed the HTLV-1 Tax gene were most likely to make a detectable lytic CD8+ response to the ATL cells. We conclude that some patients with ATL possess functional tumour-specific CTLs which could be exploited to contribute to control of the disease.

  5. T Cell Receptor Vβ Staining Identifies the Malignant Clone in Adult T cell Leukemia and Reveals Killing of Leukemia Cells by Autologous CD8+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Witkover, Aviva; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Fields, Paul; Bangham, Charles R. M.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses can contribute to long-term remission of many malignancies. The etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), human T lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1), contains highly immunogenic CTL epitopes, but ATL patients typically have low frequencies of cytokine-producing HTLV-1-specific CD8+ cells in the circulation. It remains unclear whether patients with ATL possess CTLs that can kill the malignant HTLV-1 infected clone. Here we used flow cytometric staining of TCRVβ and cell adhesion molecule-1 (CADM1) to identify monoclonal populations of HTLV-1-infected T cells in the peripheral blood of patients with ATL. Thus, we quantified the rate of CD8+-mediated killing of the putative malignant clone in ex vivo blood samples. We observed that CD8+ cells from ATL patients were unable to lyse autologous ATL clones when tested directly ex vivo. However, short in vitro culture restored the ability of CD8+ cells to kill ex vivo ATL clones in some donors. The capacity of CD8+ cells to lyse HTLV-1 infected cells which expressed the viral sense strand gene products was significantly enhanced after in vitro culture, and donors with an ATL clone that expressed the HTLV-1 Tax gene were most likely to make a detectable lytic CD8+ response to the ATL cells. We conclude that some patients with ATL possess functional tumour-specific CTLs which could be exploited to contribute to control of the disease. PMID:27893842

  6. Protection of Candida parapsilosis from neutrophil killing through internalization by human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Kyle A; Longley, Sarah J; Bliss, Joseph M; Shaw, Sunil K

    2015-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis is a fungal pathogen that is associated with hematogenously disseminated disease in premature neonates, acutely ill or immunocompromised patients. In cell culture, C. parapsilosis cells are actively and avidly endocytosed by endothelial cells via actin polymerization mediated by N-WASP. Here we present evidence that C. parapsilosis that were internalized by endothelial cells remained alive, and avoided being acidified or otherwise damaged via the host cell. Internalized fungal cells reproduced intracellularly and eventually burst out of the host endothelial cell. When neutrophils were added to endothelium and C. parapsilosis, they patrolled the endothelial surface and efficiently killed most adherent fungal cells prior to endocytosis. But after endocytosis by endothelial cells, internalized fungal cells evaded neutrophil killing. Silencing endothelial N-WASP blocked endocytosis of C. parapsilosis and left fungal cells stranded on the cell surface, where they were susceptible to neutrophil killing. These observations suggest that for C. parapsilosis to escape from the bloodstream, fungi may adhere to and be internalized by endothelial cells before being confronted and phagocytosed by a patrolling leukocyte. Once internalized by endothelial cells, C. parapsilosis may safely replicate to cause further rounds of infection. Immunosurveillance of the intravascular lumen by leukocytes crawling on the endothelial surface and rapid killing of adherent yeast may play a major role in controlling C. parapsilosis dissemination and infected endothelial cells may be a significant reservoir for fungal persistence. PMID:26039751

  7. Ability of a proteinase inhibitor mixture to kill poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae in an in vitro feeding system.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, R; Nisbet, A J; Huntley, J F

    2006-11-05

    The development of a reliable in vitro feeding system has enabled the rapid testing of presumptive anti-mite factors, a mixture of protease inhibitors (PI), by incorporating these into the blood feed. Mites were collected from a caged-hen facility and underwent a regime of starvation under varying conditions of temperature and darkness to determine the optimum conditions that encouraged mites to feed in the in vitro system. The efficacy of two anti-coagulants, heparin (HS) and acid citrate glucose (ACD), on mite feeding rates and mortality was evaluated. The ability of a mixture of PI to kill mites was also evaluated. The rate of feeding was greater in mites that were starved and cooled for between 7 and 30 days compared with mites that were not starved or cooled. The percentage of mites that fed when presented with HS treated blood (70%) was greater when compared with ACD treated blood (48%). The mortality of mites fed blood treated with HS + PI increased to 45% compared with a mortality level of 5% in mites fed on blood treated with HS alone. A reliable in vitro method for feeding D. gallinae which has the potential to be used to rapidly screen blood-borne products for their efficacy in reducing mite numbers has been developed.

  8. Cell penetrating peptide TAT can kill cancer cells via membrane disruption after attachment of camptothecin.

    PubMed

    Song, Jingjing; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Jianbo; Yang, Xiaoli; Ma, Panpan; Zhang, Bangzhi; Liu, Beijun; Ni, Jingman; Wang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Attachment of traditional anticancer drugs to cell penetrating peptides is an effective strategy to improve their application in cancer treatment. In this study, we designed and synthesized the conjugates TAT-CPT and TAT-2CPT by attaching camptothecin (CPT) to the N-terminus of the cell penetrating peptide TAT. Interestingly, we found that TAT-CPT and especially TAT-2CPT could kill cancer cells via membrane disruption, which is similar to antimicrobial peptides. This might be because that CPT could perform as a hydrophobic residue to increase the extent of membrane insertion of TAT and the stability of the pores. In addition, TAT-CPT and TAT-2CPT could also kill cancer cells by the released CPT after they entered cells. Taken together, attachment of CPT could turn cell penetrating peptide TAT into an antimicrobial peptide with a dual mechanism of anticancer action, which presents a new strategy to develop anticancer peptides based on cell penetrating peptides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. LET and ion-species dependence for cell killing and mutation induction in normal human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Tsuruoka, Chizuru; Suzuki, Masao; Fujitaka, Kazunobu

    2003-10-01

    We have been studying LET and ion species dependence of RBE values in cell killing and mutation induction. Normal human skin fibroblasts were irradiated with heavy-ion beams such as carbon (290 Mev/u and 135 Mev/u), neon (230 Mev/u and 400 Mev/u), silicon (490 Mev/u) and iron (500 Mev/u) ion beams, generated by Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Cell killing effect was detected as reproductive cell death using a colony formation assay. Mutation induction in hprt locus was detected to measure 6-thioguanine resistant colonies. The RBE-LET curves of cell killing and mutation induction were different each ion beam. So, we plotted RBE for cell killing and mutation induction as function of Z*2/beta2 instead of LET. RBE-Z*2/beta2 curves of cell killing indicated that the discrepancy of RBE-LET curves was reconciled each ion species. But RBE-Z*2/beta2 curves of mutation induction didn't corresponded between carbon- and silicon-ion beams. These results suggested that different biological endpoints may be suitable for different physical parameter, which represent the track structure of energy deposition of ion beams.

  10. Combination of sulindac and dichloroacetate kills cancer cells via oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Ayyanathan, Kasirajan; Kesaraju, Shailaja; Dawson-Scully, Ken; Weissbach, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Sulindac is an FDA-approved non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with documented anticancer activities. Our recent studies showed that sulindac selectively enhanced the killing of cancer cells exposed to oxidizing agents via production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction. This effect of sulindac and oxidative stress on cancer cells could be related to the defect in respiration in cancer cells, first described by Warburg 50 years ago, known as the Warburg effect. We postulated that sulindac might enhance the selective killing of cancer cells when combined with any compound that alters mitochondrial respiration. To test this hypothesis we have used dichloroacetate (DCA), which is known to shift pyruvate metabolism away from lactic acid formation to respiration. One might expect that DCA, since it stimulates aerobic metabolism, could stress mitochondrial respiration in cancer cells, which would result in enhanced killing in the presence of sulindac. In this study, we have shown that the combination of sulindac and DCA enhances the selective killing of A549 and SCC25 cancer cells under the conditions used. As predicted, the mechanism of killing involves ROS production, mitochondrial dysfunction, JNK signaling and death by apoptosis. Our results suggest that the sulindac-DCA drug combination may provide an effective cancer therapy.

  11. Combination of Sulindac and Dichloroacetate Kills Cancer Cells via Oxidative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Dawson-Scully, Ken; Weissbach, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Sulindac is an FDA-approved non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with documented anticancer activities. Our recent studies showed that sulindac selectively enhanced the killing of cancer cells exposed to oxidizing agents via production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction. This effect of sulindac and oxidative stress on cancer cells could be related to the defect in respiration in cancer cells, first described by Warburg 50 years ago, known as the Warburg effect. We postulated that sulindac might enhance the selective killing of cancer cells when combined with any compound that alters mitochondrial respiration. To test this hypothesis we have used dichloroacetate (DCA), which is known to shift pyruvate metabolism away from lactic acid formation to respiration. One might expect that DCA, since it stimulates aerobic metabolism, could stress mitochondrial respiration in cancer cells, which would result in enhanced killing in the presence of sulindac. In this study, we have shown that the combination of sulindac and DCA enhances the selective killing of A549 and SCC25 cancer cells under the conditions used. As predicted, the mechanism of killing involves ROS production, mitochondrial dysfunction, JNK signaling and death by apoptosis. Our results suggest that the sulindac-DCA drug combination may provide an effective cancer therapy. PMID:22866174

  12. Antimicrobial design of titanium surface that kill sessile bacteria but support stem cells adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chen; Bao, Ni-Rong; Chen, Shuo; Zhao, Jian-Ning

    2016-12-01

    Implant-related bacterial infection is one of the most severe postoperative complications in orthopedic or dental surgery. In this context, from the perspective of surface modification, increasing efforts have been made to enhance the antibacterial capability of titanium surface. In this work, a hierarchical hybrid surface architecture was firstly constructed on titanium surface by two-step strategy of acid etching and H2O2 aging. Then silver nanoparticles were firmly immobilized on the hierarchical surface by ion implantation, showing no detectable release of silver ions from surface. The designed titanium surface showed good bioactivity. More importantly, this elaborately designed titanium surface can effectively inactivate the adherent S. aureus on surface by virtue of a contact-killing mode. Meanwhile, the designed titanium surface can significantly facilitate the initial adhesion and spreading behaviors of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on titanium. The results suggested that, the elaborately designed titanium surface might own a cell-favoring ability that can help mammalian cells win the initial adhesion race against bacteria. We hope the present study can provide a new insight for the better understanding and designing of antimicrobial titanium surface, and pave the way to satisfying clinical requirements.

  13. Engineering Salmonella as intracellular factory for effective killing of tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Eva María; Mesa-Pereira, Beatriz; Medina, Carlos; Flores, Amando; Santero, Eduardo

    2016-07-28

    Salmonella have many desirable properties as antitumour-agent due to its ability to proliferate inside tumours and induce tumour regression. Additionally, this bacterium can be genetically engineered to deliver therapeutic proteins intratumourally. The main limitation of this approach is the efficient release of therapeutic molecules from intratumoural bacteria. Here we have developed an inducible autolysis system based in the lysis operon of the lambda phage that, in response to anhydrotetracycline, lysates Salmonella thus releasing its content. The system was combined with a salicylate cascade system that allows efficient production of therapeutic molecules in response to aspirin and with a sifA mutation that liberates bacteria from the vacuoles to a cytosolic location. The combination of these three elements makes this strain a putative powerful instrument in cancer treatment. We have used this engineered strain for the intracellular production and delivery of Cp53 peptide. The engineered strain is able to sequentially produce and release the cytotoxic peptide while proliferating inside tumour cells, thus inducing host cell death. Our results show that temporal separation of protein production from protein release is essential to efficiently kill tumour cells. The combined system is a further step in the engineering of more efficient bacteria for cancer therapy.

  14. Engineering Salmonella as intracellular factory for effective killing of tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Eva María; Mesa-Pereira, Beatriz; Medina, Carlos; Flores, Amando; Santero, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella have many desirable properties as antitumour-agent due to its ability to proliferate inside tumours and induce tumour regression. Additionally, this bacterium can be genetically engineered to deliver therapeutic proteins intratumourally. The main limitation of this approach is the efficient release of therapeutic molecules from intratumoural bacteria. Here we have developed an inducible autolysis system based in the lysis operon of the lambda phage that, in response to anhydrotetracycline, lysates Salmonella thus releasing its content. The system was combined with a salicylate cascade system that allows efficient production of therapeutic molecules in response to aspirin and with a sifA mutation that liberates bacteria from the vacuoles to a cytosolic location. The combination of these three elements makes this strain a putative powerful instrument in cancer treatment. We have used this engineered strain for the intracellular production and delivery of Cp53 peptide. The engineered strain is able to sequentially produce and release the cytotoxic peptide while proliferating inside tumour cells, thus inducing host cell death. Our results show that temporal separation of protein production from protein release is essential to efficiently kill tumour cells. The combined system is a further step in the engineering of more efficient bacteria for cancer therapy. PMID:27464652

  15. Quantum dots modified with quaternized poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) for selective recognition and killing of bacteria over mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Tu, Qin; Ma, Chao; Tian, Chang; Yuan, Maosen; Han, Xiang; Wang, Dong-En; Cao, Chenyu; Wang, Jinyi

    2016-05-23

    Copper-free click chemistry has been used to graft quaternized poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (QPA) modified with azide to the quantum dots (QDs) derived with dibenzocyclooctynes (DBCO). The success of the quaternary ammonium polymer-modified QDs was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis), fluorescence spectroscopy, zeta (ζ) potential, size distribution, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The QPA-modified QDs exhibited properties of selective recognition and killing of bacteria. The novelty of this study lies in fact that the synthesis method of the antimicrobial QPA-modified QDs is simple. Moreover, from another standpoint, QPA-modified QDs simultaneously possess abilities of selective recognition and killing of bacteria over mammalian cells, which is very different from the currently designed multifunctional antimicrobial systems composed of complicated systematic compositions.

  16. Tumor necrosis factor: a potent effector molecule for tumor cell killing by activated macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Urban, J L; Shepard, H M; Rothstein, J L; Sugarman, B J; Schreiber, H

    1986-01-01

    Activated macrophages (aM phi) destroy more effectively cancer cells than normal cells. The mechanism by which macrophages destroy cancer cells is not known. We report here that tumor cells susceptible to aM phi were killed by recombinant (r) tumor necrosis factor type alpha (TNF-alpha), whereas variant tumor cells resistant to aM phi after selection in vitro or in vivo were resistant to killing by rTNF-alpha. The converse selection for rTNF-alpha-resistant variants resulted in cells that were also resistant to killing by aM phi. The sensitivity of macrophage-resistant variants was not changed to other tumoricidal cells or soluble mediators, except that the macrophage-resistant variants were also resistant to the effects of another cytotoxic protein, B-cell lymphotoxin, which is structurally related to rTNF-alpha. Similar results were obtained regardless of whether short-term or long-term cytotoxic effects of aM phi were measured. Finally, it was shown that killing of tumor cells by murine aM phi was completely inhibited with a polyclonal antibody that neutralizes the effects of murine TNF-alpha. These results suggest a major role for TNF-alpha in tumor cell destruction by aM phi in vitro and in vivo. PMID:3487788

  17. Inhibition of Amebic Lysosomal Acidification Blocks Amebic Trogocytosis and Cell Killing

    PubMed Central

    Gilmartin, Allissia A.; Ralston, Katherine S.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Entamoeba histolytica ingests fragments of live host cells in a nibbling-like process termed amebic trogocytosis. Amebic trogocytosis is required for cell killing and contributes to tissue invasion, which is a hallmark of invasive amebic colitis. Work done prior to the discovery of amebic trogocytosis showed that acid vesicles are required for amebic cytotoxicity. In the present study, we show that acidified lysosomes are required for amebic trogocytosis and cell killing. Interference with lysosome acidification using ammonium chloride, a weak base, or concanamycin A, a vacuolar H+ ATPase inhibitor, decreased amebic trogocytosis and amebic cytotoxicity. Our data suggest that the inhibitors do not impair the ingestion of an initial fragment but rather block continued trogocytosis and the ingestion of multiple fragments. The acidification inhibitors also decreased phagocytosis, but not fluid-phase endocytosis. These data suggest that amebic lysosomes play a crucial role in amebic trogocytosis, phagocytosis, and cell killing. PMID:28851845

  18. Efficient Killing of High Risk Neuroblastoma Using Natural Killer Cells Activated by Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cordeau, Martine; Belounis, Assila; Lelaidier, Martin; Cordeiro, Paulo; Sartelet, Hervé; Duval, Michel

    2016-01-01

    High-risk neuroblastoma (NB) remains a major therapeutic challenge despite the recent advent of disialoganglioside (GD2)-antibody treatment combined with interleukin (IL)-2 and granulocyte monocyte-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Indeed, more than one third of the patients still die from this disease. Here, we developed a novel approach to improve the current anti-GD2 immunotherapy based on NK cell stimulation using toll-like receptor (TLR)-activated plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). We demonstrated that this strategy led to the efficient killing of NB cells. When the expression of GD2 was heterogeneous on NB cells, the combination of pDC-mediated NK-cell activation and anti-GD2 treatment significantly increased the cytotoxicity of NK cells against NB cells. Activation by pDCs led to a unique NK-cell phenotype characterized by increased surface expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), with increased expression of CD69 on CD56dim cytotoxic cells, and strong interferon-γ production. Additionally, NB-cell killing was mediated by the TRAIL death-receptor pathway, as well as by the release of cytolytic granules via the DNAX accessory molecule 1 pathway. NK-cell activation and lytic activity against NB was independent of cell contact, depended upon type I IFN produced by TLR-9-activated pDCs, but was not reproduced by IFN-α stimulation alone. Collectively, these results highlighted the therapeutic potential of activated pDCs for patients with high-risk NB. PMID:27716850

  19. LuIII parvovirus selectively and efficiently targets, replicates in, and kills human glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Paglino, Justin C; Ozduman, Koray; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2012-07-01

    Because productive infection by parvoviruses requires cell division and is enhanced by oncogenic transformation, some parvoviruses may have potential utility in killing cancer cells. To identify the parvovirus(es) with the optimal oncolytic effect against human glioblastomas, we screened 12 parvoviruses at a high multiplicity of infection (MOI). MVMi, MVMc, MVM-G17, tumor virus X (TVX), canine parvovirus (CPV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), rat parvovirus 1A (RPV1A), and H-3 were relatively ineffective. The four viruses with the greatest oncolytic activity, LuIII, H-1, MVMp, and MVM-G52, were tested for the ability, at a low MOI, to progressively infect the culture over time, causing cell death at a rate higher than that of cell proliferation. LuIII alone was effective in all five human glioblastomas tested. H-1 progressively infected only two of five; MVMp and MVM-G52 were ineffective in all five. To investigate the underlying mechanism of LuIII's phenotype, we used recombinant parvoviruses with the LuIII capsid replacing the MVMp capsid or with molecular alteration of the P4 promoter. The LuIII capsid enhanced efficient replication and oncolysis in MO59J gliomas cells; other gliomas tested required the entire LuIII genome to exhibit enhanced infection. LuIII selectively infected glioma cells over normal glial cells in vitro. In mouse models, human glioblastoma xenografts were selectively infected by LuIII when administered intratumorally; LuIII reduced tumor growth by 75%. LuIII also had the capacity to selectively infect subcutaneous or intracranial gliomas after intravenous inoculation. Intravenous or intracranial LuIII caused no adverse effects. Intracranial LuIII caused no infection of mature mouse neurons or glia in vivo but showed a modest infection of developing neurons.

  20. LuIII Parvovirus Selectively and Efficiently Targets, Replicates in, and Kills Human Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Paglino, Justin C.; Ozduman, Koray

    2012-01-01

    Because productive infection by parvoviruses requires cell division and is enhanced by oncogenic transformation, some parvoviruses may have potential utility in killing cancer cells. To identify the parvovirus(es) with the optimal oncolytic effect against human glioblastomas, we screened 12 parvoviruses at a high multiplicity of infection (MOI). MVMi, MVMc, MVM-G17, tumor virus X (TVX), canine parvovirus (CPV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), rat parvovirus 1A (RPV1A), and H-3 were relatively ineffective. The four viruses with the greatest oncolytic activity, LuIII, H-1, MVMp, and MVM-G52, were tested for the ability, at a low MOI, to progressively infect the culture over time, causing cell death at a rate higher than that of cell proliferation. LuIII alone was effective in all five human glioblastomas tested. H-1 progressively infected only two of five; MVMp and MVM-G52 were ineffective in all five. To investigate the underlying mechanism of LuIII's phenotype, we used recombinant parvoviruses with the LuIII capsid replacing the MVMp capsid or with molecular alteration of the P4 promoter. The LuIII capsid enhanced efficient replication and oncolysis in MO59J gliomas cells; other gliomas tested required the entire LuIII genome to exhibit enhanced infection. LuIII selectively infected glioma cells over normal glial cells in vitro. In mouse models, human glioblastoma xenografts were selectively infected by LuIII when administered intratumorally; LuIII reduced tumor growth by 75%. LuIII also had the capacity to selectively infect subcutaneous or intracranial gliomas after intravenous inoculation. Intravenous or intracranial LuIII caused no adverse effects. Intracranial LuIII caused no infection of mature mouse neurons or glia in vivo but showed a modest infection of developing neurons. PMID:22553327

  1. Selective killing of cancer cells by Ashwagandha leaf extract and its component Withanone involves ROS signaling.

    PubMed

    Widodo, Nashi; Priyandoko, Didik; Shah, Navjot; Wadhwa, Renu; Kaul, Sunil C

    2010-10-21

    Ashwagandha is a popular Ayurvedic herb used in Indian traditional home medicine. It has been assigned a variety of health-promoting effects of which the mechanisms remain unknown. We previously reported the selective killing of cancer cells by leaf extract of Ashwagandha (i-Extract) and its purified component Withanone. In the present study, we investigated its mechanism by loss-of-function screening (abrogation of i-Extract induced cancer cell killing) of the cellular targets and gene pathways. Randomized ribozyme library was introduced into cancer cells prior to the treatment with i-Extract. Ribozymes were recovered from cells that survived the i-Extract treatment. Gene targets of the selected ribozymes (as predicted by database search) were analyzed by bioinformatics and pathway analyses. The targets were validated for their role in i-Extract induced selective killing of cancer cells by biochemical and molecular assays. Fifteen gene-targets were identified and were investigated for their role in specific cancer cell killing activity of i-Extract and its two major components (Withaferin A and Withanone) by undertaking the shRNA-mediated gene silencing approach. Bioinformatics on the selected gene-targets revealed the involvement of p53, apoptosis and insulin/IGF signaling pathways linked to the ROS signaling. We examined the involvement of ROS-signaling components (ROS levels, DNA damage, mitochondrial structure and membrane potential) and demonstrate that the selective killing of cancer cells is mediated by induction of oxidative stress. Ashwagandha leaf extract and Withanone cause selective killing of cancer cells by induction of ROS-signaling and hence are potential reagents that could be recruited for ROS-mediated cancer chemotherapy.

  2. Selective Killing of Cancer Cells by Ashwagandha Leaf Extract and Its Component Withanone Involves ROS Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Widodo, Nashi; Priyandoko, Didik; Shah, Navjot; Wadhwa, Renu; Kaul, Sunil C.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose Ashwagandha is a popular Ayurvedic herb used in Indian traditional home medicine. It has been assigned a variety of health-promoting effects of which the mechanisms remain unknown. We previously reported the selective killing of cancer cells by leaf extract of Ashwagandha (i-Extract) and its purified component Withanone. In the present study, we investigated its mechanism by loss-of-function screening (abrogation of i-Extract induced cancer cell killing) of the cellular targets and gene pathways. Methodology/Principal Findings Randomized ribozyme library was introduced into cancer cells prior to the treatment with i-Extract. Ribozymes were recovered from cells that survived the i-Extract treatment. Gene targets of the selected ribozymes (as predicted by database search) were analyzed by bioinformatics and pathway analyses. The targets were validated for their role in i-Extract induced selective killing of cancer cells by biochemical and molecular assays. Fifteen gene-targets were identified and were investigated for their role in specific cancer cell killing activity of i-Extract and its two major components (Withaferin A and Withanone) by undertaking the shRNA-mediated gene silencing approach. Bioinformatics on the selected gene-targets revealed the involvement of p53, apoptosis and insulin/IGF signaling pathways linked to the ROS signaling. We examined the involvement of ROS-signaling components (ROS levels, DNA damage, mitochondrial structure and membrane potential) and demonstrate that the selective killing of cancer cells is mediated by induction of oxidative stress. Conclusion Ashwagandha leaf extract and Withanone cause selective killing of cancer cells by induction of ROS-signaling and hence are potential reagents that could be recruited for ROS-mediated cancer chemotherapy. PMID:20975835

  3. Efficient killing of radioresistant breast cancer cells by cytokine-induced killer cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qingming; Zhu, Danni; Bu, Xiaocui; Wei, Xiaofang; Li, Changyou; Gao, Daiqing; Wei, Xiaoqiang; Ma, Xuezhen; Zhao, Peng

    2017-03-01

    Recurrence of breast cancer after radiotherapy may be partly explained by the presence of radioresistant cells. Thus, it would be desirable to develop an effective therapy against radioresistant cells. In this study, we demonstrated the intense antitumor activity of cytokine-induced killer cells against MCF-7 and radioresistant MCF-7 cells, as revealed by cytokine-induced killer-mediated cytotoxicity, tumor cell proliferation, and tumor invasion. Radioresistant MCF-7 cells were more susceptible to cytokine-induced killer cell killing. The stronger cytotoxicity of cytokine-induced killer cells against radioresistant MCF-7 cells was dependent on the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I polypeptide-related sequence A/B on radioresistant MCF-7 cells after exposure of cytokine-induced killer cells to sensitized targets. In addition, we demonstrated that cytokine-induced killer cell treatment sensitized breast cancer cells to chemotherapy via the downregulation of TK1, TYMS, and MDR1. These results indicate that cytokine-induced killer cell treatment in combination with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy may induce synergistic antitumor activities and represent a novel strategy for breast cancer.

  4. HAMLET kills tumor cells by apoptosis: structure, cellular mechanisms, and therapy.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Lotta; Hallgren, Oskar; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Pettersson, Jenny; Fischer, Walter; Aronsson, Annika; Svanborg, Catharina

    2005-05-01

    New cancer treatments should aim to destroy tumor cells without disturbing normal tissue. HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) offers a new molecular approach to solving this problem, because it induces apoptosis in tumor cells but leaves normal differentiated cells unaffected. After partial unfolding and binding to oleic acid, alpha-lactalbumin forms the HAMLET complex, which enters tumor cells and freezes their metabolic machinery. The cells proceed to fragment their DNA, and they disintegrate with apoptosis-like characteristics. HAMLET kills a wide range of malignant cells in vitro and maintains this activity in vivo in patients with skin papillomas. In addition, HAMLET has striking effects on human glioblastomas in a rat xenograft model. After convection-enhanced delivery, HAMLET diffuses throughout the brain, selectively killing tumor cells and controlling tumor progression without apparent tissue toxicity. HAMLET thus shows great promise as a new therapeutic with the advantage of selectivity for tumor cells and lack of toxicity.

  5. A Drosera-bioinspired hydrogel for catching and killing cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shihui; Chen, Niancao; Gaddes, Erin R.; Zhang, Xiaolong; Dong, Cheng; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A variety of bioinspired materials have been successfully synthesized to mimic the sophisticated structures or functions of biological systems. However, it is still challenging to develop materials with multiple functions that can be performed synergistically or sequentially. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate a novel bioinspired hydrogel that can interact with cancer cells, functionally similar to Drosera in catching and killing prey. This hydrogel had two layers with the top one functionalized with oligonucleotide aptamers and the bottom one functionalized with double-stranded DNA. The results show that the top hydrogel layer was able to catch target cells with high efficiency and specificity, and that the bottom hydrogel layer could sequester doxorubicin (Dox) for sustained drug release. Importantly, the released Dox could kill 90% of the cells after 1-h residence of the cells on the hydrogel. After the cell release, this bifunctional hydrogel could be regenerated for continuous cell catching and killing. Therefore, the data presented in this study has successfully demonstrated the potential of developing a material system with the functions of attracting, catching and killing diseased cells (e.g., circulating tumor cells) or even invading microorganisms (e.g., bacteria). PMID:26396063

  6. A Drosera-bioinspired hydrogel for catching and killing cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Shihui; Chen, Niancao; Gaddes, Erin R; Zhang, Xiaolong; Dong, Cheng; Wang, Yong

    2015-09-23

    A variety of bioinspired materials have been successfully synthesized to mimic the sophisticated structures or functions of biological systems. However, it is still challenging to develop materials with multiple functions that can be performed synergistically or sequentially. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate a novel bioinspired hydrogel that can interact with cancer cells, functionally similar to Drosera in catching and killing prey. This hydrogel had two layers with the top one functionalized with oligonucleotide aptamers and the bottom one functionalized with double-stranded DNA. The results show that the top hydrogel layer was able to catch target cells with high efficiency and specificity, and that the bottom hydrogel layer could sequester doxorubicin (Dox) for sustained drug release. Importantly, the released Dox could kill 90% of the cells after 1-h residence of the cells on the hydrogel. After the cell release, this bifunctional hydrogel could be regenerated for continuous cell catching and killing. Therefore, the data presented in this study has successfully demonstrated the potential of developing a material system with the functions of attracting, catching and killing diseased cells (e.g., circulating tumor cells) or even invading microorganisms (e.g., bacteria).

  7. Killed but metabolically active Leishmania infantum as a novel whole-cell vaccine for visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Kevin W; Birnbaum, Ron; Haskell, Jacquelyn; Vanchinathan, Veena; Greger, Stephanie; Narayan, Rupa; Chang, Pei-Lin; Tran, Thu Anh; Hickerson, Suzanne M; Beverley, Stephen M; Wilson, Mary E; Craft, Noah

    2012-04-01

    There are currently no effective vaccines for visceral leishmaniasis, the second most deadly parasitic infection in the world. Here, we describe a novel whole-cell vaccine approach using Leishmania infantum chagasi promastigotes treated with the psoralen compound amotosalen (S-59) and low doses of UV A radiation. This treatment generates permanent, covalent DNA cross-links within parasites and results in Leishmania organisms termed killed but metabolically active (KBMA). In this report, we characterize the in vitro growth characteristics of both KBMA L. major and KBMA L. infantum chagasi. Concentrations of S-59 that generate optimally attenuated parasites were identified. Like live L. infantum chagasi, KBMA L. infantum chagasi parasites were able to initially enter liver cells in vivo after intravenous infection. However, whereas live L. infantum chagasi infection leads to hepatosplenomegaly in mice after 6 months, KBMA L. infantum chagasi parasites were undetectable in the organs of mice at this time point. In vitro, KBMA L. infantum chagasi retained the ability to enter macrophages and induce nitric oxide production. These characteristics of KBMA L. infantum chagasi correlated with the ability to prophylactically protect mice via subcutaneous vaccination at levels similar to vaccination with live, virulent organisms. Splenocytes from mice vaccinated with either live L. infantum chagasi or KBMA L. infantum chagasi displayed similar cytokine patterns in vitro. These results suggest that KBMA technology is a potentially safe and effective novel vaccine strategy against the intracellular protozoan L. infantum chagasi. This approach may represent a new method for whole-cell vaccination against other complex intracellular pathogens.

  8. Controlled cell killing by a recombinant nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus.

    PubMed

    Parks, Griffith D; Young, Virginia A; Koumenis, Constantinos; Wansley, Elizabeth K; Layer, Jennifer L; Cooke, Kelly M

    2002-02-01

    In most tissue culture cell lines tested, infection with the paramyxovirus simian virus 5 (SV5) results in very little cell death. To determine if SV5 could be used as a vector for controlled killing of tumor cells, a recombinant SV5 (rSV5-TK) was constructed to encode the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (TK) gene. MDBK cells infected with rSV5-TK showed a time-dependent loss of viability when infected cells were cultured in the presence of the prodrug acyclovir (ACV) or ganciclovir (GCV) while no significant toxicity was observed in the absence of prodrug. Cells infected with a control rSV5 expressing GFP and cultured with prodrug showed only a slight reduction in growth rate and little cell death. Time-lapse video microscopy of rSV5-TK-infected MDBK cells that were cultured in the presence of ACV showed an accumulation of cells with morphological effects characteristic of apoptotic cell death. An MDBK cell line persistently infected with rSV5-TK retained long-term expression of TK and sensitivity to prodrug-mediated cell killing that were comparable to those found in an acute infection. Titration experiments showed that the rSV5-TK plus GCV combination resulted in cell death for all mouse and human cell lines tested, although the kinetics and efficiency of cell death varied between cell types. Our results demonstrating controlled cell killing by a recombinant paramyxovirus support the use of negative-strand RNA viruses as therapeutic vectors for targeted killing of cancer cells.

  9. Cell killing by Simian virus 40: protective effect of chloroquine.

    PubMed

    Norkin, L C; Einck, K H

    1978-12-01

    Treatment of CV-1 cells with chloroquine before infection by simian virus 40 resulted in the accumulation of fewer nonviable, trypan blue-stainable cells at 72 h. The drug did not affect the fraction of infected T-antigen-producing cells or the viral yields. It did diminish the apparent redistribution of lysosomal N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase from a particulate to a soluble cell fraction, and it caused an increase in the size and number of lysosomes.

  10. Cell Killing by Simian Virus 40: Protective Effect of Chloroquine

    PubMed Central

    Norkin, Leonard C.; Einck, Katie H.

    1978-01-01

    Treatment of CV-1 cells with chloroquine before infection by simian virus 40 resulted in the accumulation of fewer nonviable, trypan blue-stainable cells at 72 h. The drug did not affect the fraction of infected T-antigen-producing cells or the viral yields. It did diminish the apparent redistribution of lysosomal N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase from a particulate to a soluble cell fraction, and it caused an increase in the size and number of lysosomes. Images PMID:217304

  11. In vitro T cell-mediated killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. III. The role of suppressor T cells in nonresponder mice.

    PubMed

    Powderly, W G; Pier, G B; Markham, R B

    1986-01-01

    T lymphocytes from immune BALB/c mice can adoptively transfer protection against infection with the extracellular Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa to nonimmune recipients, and in vitro, immune T cells are able to kill these bacteria. Earlier studies indicated that this killing is mediated by a bactericidal lymphokine. The current studies demonstrate that T cells from immunized CB.20 mice, a strain congenic with BALB/c, fail to kill Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro. This nonresponsiveness is attributable to the activity of suppressor T cells of the Lyt-1-, 2,3+, I-J+ phenotype. CB.20 mice are known to differ from BALB/c mice only at a single locus, which includes the Igh-1 allotype CH genes. These results suggest a critical role for this locus or closely linked genes in the control of T cell killing of this extracellular bacterium.

  12. Bispecific T cell engager (BiTE®) antibody constructs can mediate bystander tumor cell killing

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Sandra L.; Sherman, Marika; McElroy, Patricia L.; Lofgren, Julie A.; Moody, Gordon; Baeuerle, Patrick A.; Coxon, Angela

    2017-01-01

    For targets that are homogenously expressed, such as CD19 on cells of the B lymphocyte lineage, immunotherapies can be highly effective. Targeting CD19 with blinatumomab, a CD19/CD3 bispecific antibody construct (BiTE®), or with chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T) has shown great promise for treating certain CD19-positive hematological malignancies. In contrast, solid tumors with heterogeneous expression of the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) may present a challenge for targeted therapies. To prevent escape of TAA-negative cancer cells, immunotherapies with a local bystander effect would be beneficial. As a model to investigate BiTE®-mediated bystander killing in the solid tumor setting, we used epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as a target. We measured lysis of EGFR-negative populations in vitro and in vivo when co-cultured with EGFR-positive cells, human T cells and an EGFR/CD3 BiTE® antibody construct. Bystander EGFR-negative cells were efficiently lysed by BiTE®-activated T cells only when proximal to EGFR-positive cells. Our mechanistic analysis suggests that cytokines released by BiTE®-activated T-cells induced upregulation of ICAM-1 and FAS on EGFR-negative bystander cells, contributing to T cell-induced bystander cell lysis. PMID:28837681

  13. Selective killing of cancer cells by nanoparticle-assisted ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kosheleva, Olga K; Lai, Tsung-Ching; Chen, Nelson G; Hsiao, Michael; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2016-06-14

    Intense ultrasound, such as that used for tumor ablation, does not differentiate between cancerous and normal cells. A method combining ultrasound and biocompatible gold or magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) was developed under in vitro conditions using human breast and lung epithelial cells, which causes ultrasound to preferentially destroy cancerous cells. Co-cultures of BEAS-2B normal lung cells and A549 cancerous lung cells labeled with green and red fluorescent proteins, respectively, were treated with focused ultrasound beams with the addition of gold and magnetic nanoparticles. There were significantly more necrotic A549 cells than BEAS-2 cells when gold nanoparticles were added to the culture medium [(50.6 ± 15.1) vs. (7.4 ± 2.9) %, respectively, P < 0.01]. This selective damage to cancer cells was also observed for MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells relative to MCF-10A normal breast cells after treatment with magnetic nanoparticles. The data obtained for different cell lines indicate that nanoparticle-assisted ultrasound therapy (NAUT) could be an effective new tool for cancer-specific treatment and could potentially be combined with conventional methods of cancer diagnosis and therapy to further increase the overall cancer cure rate.

  14. Alterations in target cell membrane phospholipids alter T cell but not NK cell killing.

    PubMed

    Harris, David T

    2013-01-01

    The ability of tumor cells to grow progressively in vivo despite the host immune response remains a major conundrum in tumor immunology. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain how tumors evade immune destruction. The work presented herein shows that simple alterations in plasma membrane phospholipid composition can alter susceptibility to immune lysis. The phospholipid composition of target cells was specifically altered by growth in medium containing choline analogs. Manipulation of membrane phospholipids was observed to alter cell susceptibility to murine CTL but not NK cell lysis. The effects of such changes in phospholipid composition on CTL-mediated lysis appeared to occur during the recognition phase of lysis. This mechanism could be a means by which tumor cells, as well as other pathogenic organisms, escape immune detection and destruction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Depolarization Controls TRAIL-Sensitization and Tumor-Selective Killing of Cancer Cells: Crosstalk with ROS

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki-Karasaki, Yoshihiro; Suzuki-Karasaki, Miki; Uchida, Mayumi; Ochiai, Toyoko

    2014-01-01

    Conventional genotoxic anti-cancer drugs target the proliferative advantage of tumor cells over normal cells. This kind of approach lacks the selectivity of treatment to cancer cells, because most of the targeted pathways are essential for the survival of normal cells. As a result, traditional cancer treatments are often limited by undesirable damage to normal cells (side-effects). Ideal anti-cancer drugs are expected to be highly effective against malignant tumor cells with minimal cytotoxicity toward normal cells. Such selective killing can be achieved by targeting pathways essential for the survival of cancer cells, but not normal cells. As cancer cells are characterized by their resistance to apoptosis, selective apoptosis induction is a promising approach for selective killing of cancer cells. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising tumor-selective anti-cancer drug. However, the congenital and acquired resistance of some cancer cell types, including malignant melanoma cells, currently impedes effective TRAIL therapy, and an innovative approach that can override TRAIL resistance is urgently required. Apoptosis is characterized by cell shrinkage caused by disruption of the maintenance of the normal physiological concentrations of K+ and Na+ and intracellular ion homeostasis. The disrupted ion homeostasis leads to depolarization and apoptosis. Recent evidence suggests that depolarization is an early and prerequisite event during TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Moreover, diverse natural products and synthetic chemicals capable of depolarizing the cell membrane exhibit tumor-selective killing and TRAIL-sensitizing effects. Here, we discuss the role of depolarization in selective killing of cancer cells in connection with the emerging concept that oxidative stress is a critical mediator of mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum dysfunctions and serves as a tumor-selective target in cancer treatment. PMID:24910845

  16. Inhibiting Mitophagy as a Novel Mechanism to Kill Prostate Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    mitochondrial-specific form of autophagy, to kill prostate cancer cells. Cancer cells become increasingly dependent on mitophagy as an energy source...cells. Key mediators of the mitophagic process, specifically Parkin, dynamin- related protein-1 ( Drp1 ), fission-1 (Fis1), and cyclophilin-D (CypD...and PC3 cells to the necrotic effects of doxorubicin. Finally, we found that Drp1 knockdown was sufficient to impair mitochondrial function, induce ROS

  17. Ex Vivo Expanded Adaptive NK Cells Effectively Kill Primary Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lisa L; Béziat, Vivien; Oei, Vincent Y S; Pfefferle, Aline; Schaffer, Marie; Lehmann, Sören; Hellström-Lindberg, Eva; Söderhäll, Stefan; Heyman, Mats; Grandér, Dan; Malmberg, Karl-Johan

    2017-08-01

    Manipulation of human natural killer (NK) cell repertoires promises more effective strategies for NK cell-based cancer immunotherapy. A subset of highly differentiated NK cells, termed adaptive NK cells, expands naturally in vivo in response to human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, carries unique repertoires of inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR), and displays strong cytotoxicity against tumor cells. Here, we established a robust and scalable protocol for ex vivo generation and expansion of adaptive NK cells for cell therapy against pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Culture of polyclonal NK cells together with feeder cells expressing HLA-E, the ligand for the activating NKG2C receptor, led to selective expansion of adaptive NK cells with enhanced alloreactivity against HLA-mismatched targets. The ex vivo expanded adaptive NK cells gradually obtained a more differentiated phenotype and were specific and highly efficient killers of allogeneic pediatric T- and precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) blasts, previously shown to be refractory to killing by autologous NK cells and the NK-cell line NK92 currently in clinical testing. Selective expansion of NK cells that express one single inhibitory KIR for self-HLA class I would allow exploitation of the full potential of NK-cell alloreactivity in cancer immunotherapy. In summary, our data suggest that adaptive NK cells may hold utility for therapy of refractory ALL, either as a bridge to transplant or for patients that lack stem cell donors. Cancer Immunol Res; 5(8); 654-65. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. In Vivo Killing Capacity of Cytotoxic T Cells Is Limited and Involves Dynamic Interactions and T Cell Cooperativity

    PubMed Central

    Halle, Stephan; Keyser, Kirsten Anja; Stahl, Felix Rolf; Busche, Andreas; Marquardt, Anja; Zheng, Xiang; Galla, Melanie; Heissmeyer, Vigo; Heller, Katrin; Boelter, Jasmin; Wagner, Karen; Bischoff, Yvonne; Martens, Rieke; Braun, Asolina; Werth, Kathrin; Uvarovskii, Alexey; Kempf, Harald; Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Arens, Ramon; Kremer, Melanie; Sutter, Gerd; Messerle, Martin; Förster, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    Summary According to in vitro assays, T cells are thought to kill rapidly and efficiently, but the efficacy and dynamics of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated killing of virus-infected cells in vivo remains elusive. We used two-photon microscopy to quantify CTL-mediated killing in mice infected with herpesviruses or poxviruses. On average, one CTL killed 2–16 virus-infected cells per day as determined by real-time imaging and by mathematical modeling. In contrast, upon virus-induced MHC class I downmodulation, CTLs failed to destroy their targets. During killing, CTLs remained migratory and formed motile kinapses rather than static synapses with targets. Viruses encoding the calcium sensor GCaMP6s revealed strong heterogeneity in individual CTL functional capacity. Furthermore, the probability of death of infected cells increased for those contacted by more than two CTLs, indicative of CTL cooperation. Thus, direct visualization of CTLs during killing of virus-infected cells reveals crucial parameters of CD8+ T cell immunity. PMID:26872694

  19. Doxorubicin loaded 17β-estradiol based SWNT dispersions for target specific killing of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Moumita; Das, Prasanta Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The present work reports the synthesis of a 17β-estradiol based amphiphiles comprising of polyethylene glycol (PEG) moiety linked through succinic acid that non-covalently dispersed (76%) the single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in water. The superior exfoliation of carbon nanotubes was characterized by microscopic and spectroscopic studies. Significant stability of these SWNT dispersions was observed in the presence of protein in cell culture media and the nanohybrids were highly biocompatible toward mammalian cells. Anticancer drug doxorubicin loaded on these nanohybrids was selectively delivered within estrogen receptor rich cancer cells, MCF7 (breast cancer cell) and A549 (lung cancer cell). Microscopic studies showed the localization of doxorubicin within the cancer cell nucleus whereas no such localization was observed in ER negative cells. Both these ER positive cancer cells were killed by ∼3 fold higher efficiency than that of ER negative MDA-MB-231 (advanced breast cancer cell) and HeLa cells that are deprived of estrogen receptors. Thus, judiciously designed estradiol based nanohybrids proved to be excellent tool for SWNT dispersion and also for selectively killing of ER positive cancer cells. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time non-covalently modified SWNTs by estradiol based amphiphilic dispersing agent have been used for selective killing of ER positive cancer cells by doxorubicin loaded on dispersed SWNTs. It holds immense promise to be exploited as a cancer therapeutic agent.

  20. Cytomegalovirus-Infected Cells Resist T Cell Mediated Killing in an HLA-Recognition Independent Manner.

    PubMed

    Proff, Julia; Walterskirchen, Christian; Brey, Charlotte; Geyeregger, Rene; Full, Florian; Ensser, Armin; Lehner, Manfred; Holter, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore the potential of HLA-independent T cell therapy for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections, we developed a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) directed against the HCMV encoded glycoprotein B (gB), which is expressed at high levels on the surface of infected cells. T cells engineered with this anti-gB CAR recognized HCMV-infected cells and released cytokines and cytotoxic granules. Unexpectedly, and in contrast to analogous approaches for HIV, Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C virus, we found that HCMV-infected cells were resistant to killing by the CAR-modified T cells. In order to elucidate whether this phenomenon was restricted to the use of CARs, we extended our experiments to T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated recognition of infected cells. To this end we infected fibroblasts with HCMV-strains deficient in viral inhibitors of antigenic peptide presentation and targeted these HLA-class I expressing peptide-loaded infected cells with peptide-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs). Despite strong degranulation and cytokine production by the T cells, we again found significant inhibition of lysis of HCMV-infected cells. Impairment of cell lysis became detectable 1 day after HCMV infection and gradually increased during the following 3 days. We thus postulate that viral anti-apoptotic factors, known to inhibit suicide of infected host cells, have evolved additional functions to directly abrogate T cell cytotoxicity. In line with this hypothesis, CAR-T cell cytotoxicity was strongly inhibited in non-infected fibroblasts by expression of the HCMV-protein UL37x1, and even more so by additional expression of UL36. Our data extend the current knowledge on Betaherpesviral evasion from T cell immunity and show for the first time that, beyond impaired antigen presentation, infected cells are efficiently protected by direct blockade of cytotoxic effector functions through viral proteins.

  1. Gemcitabine kills proliferating endothelial cells exclusively via acid sphingomyelinase activation.

    PubMed

    van Hell, Albert J; Haimovitz-Friedman, Adriana; Fuks, Zvi; Tap, William D; Kolesnick, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Gemcitabine is a widely-used anti-cancer drug with a well-defined mechanism of action in normal and transformed epithelial cells. However, its effect on endothelial cells is largely unknown. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) is highly expressed in endothelial cells, converting plasma membrane sphingomyelin to pro-apoptotic ceramide upon activation by diverse stresses. In the current study, we investigated gemcitabine impact in primary cultures of endothelial cells. We find baseline ASMase increases markedly in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) as they transit from a proliferative to a confluent growth-arrested state. Further, gemcitabine activates ASMase and induces release of a secretory ASMase form into the media only in proliferating endothelial cells. Additionally, proliferative, but not growth-arrested BAEC, are sensitive to gemcitabine-induced apoptotic death, an effect blocked by inhibiting ASMase with imipramine or by binding ceramide on the cell surface with an anti-ceramide Ab. Confluent growth-arrested BAEC can be re-sensitized to gemcitabine-induced apoptosis by provision of exogenous sphingomyelinase. A highly similar phenotype was observed in primary cultures of human coronary artery endothelial cells. These findings reveal a previously-unrecognized mechanism of gemcitabine cytotoxicity in endothelium that may well contribute to its clinical benefit, and suggest the potential for further improvement of its clinical efficacy via pharmacologic modulation of ASMase/ceramide signaling in proliferative tumor endothelium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Endocytosis of Cytotoxic Granules Is Essential for Multiple Killing of Target Cells by T Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsin-Fang; Bzeih, Hawraa; Schirra, Claudia; Chitirala, Praneeth; Halimani, Mahantappa; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Krause, Elmar; Rettig, Jens; Pattu, Varsha

    2016-09-15

    CTLs are serial killers that kill multiple target cells via exocytosis of cytotoxic granules (CGs). CG exocytosis is tightly regulated and has been investigated in great detail; however, whether CG proteins are endocytosed following exocytosis and contribute to serial killing remains unknown. By using primary CTLs derived from a knock-in mouse of the CG membrane protein Synaptobrevin2, we show that CGs are endocytosed in a clathrin- and dynamin-dependent manner. Following acidification, endocytosed CGs are recycled through early and late, but not recycling endosomes. CGs are refilled with granzyme B at the late endosome stage and polarize to subsequent synapses formed between the CTL and new target cells. Importantly, inhibiting CG endocytosis in CTLs results in a significant reduction of their cytotoxic activity. Thus, our data demonstrate that continuous endocytosis of CG membrane proteins is a prerequisite for efficient serial killing of CTLs and identify key events in this process.

  3. Salinomycin kills cancer stem cells by sequestering iron in lysosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Trang Thi; Hamaï, Ahmed; Hienzsch, Antje; Cañeque, Tatiana; Müller, Sebastian; Wicinski, Julien; Cabaud, Olivier; Leroy, Christine; David, Amandine; Acevedo, Verónica; Ryo, Akihide; Ginestier, Christophe; Birnbaum, Daniel; Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Codogno, Patrice; Mehrpour, Maryam; Rodriguez, Raphaël

    2017-10-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) represent a subset of cells within tumours that exhibit self-renewal properties and the capacity to seed tumours. CSCs are typically refractory to conventional treatments and have been associated to metastasis and relapse. Salinomycin operates as a selective agent against CSCs through mechanisms that remain elusive. Here, we provide evidence that a synthetic derivative of salinomycin, which we named ironomycin (AM5), exhibits a more potent and selective activity against breast CSCs in vitro and in vivo, by accumulating and sequestering iron in lysosomes. In response to the ensuing cytoplasmic depletion of iron, cells triggered the degradation of ferritin in lysosomes, leading to further iron loading in this organelle. Iron-mediated production of reactive oxygen species promoted lysosomal membrane permeabilization, activating a cell death pathway consistent with ferroptosis. These findings reveal the prevalence of iron homeostasis in breast CSCs, pointing towards iron and iron-mediated processes as potential targets against these cells.

  4. Cell-mediated killing of Listeria monocytogenes by leucocin C producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Takala, T M; Wan, X; Reunanen, J; Saris, P E J

    2013-06-12

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen causing listeriosis. Listeria in foods can be inhibited with bacteriocins or bacteriocin producing cultures. The aim of this study was to enhance the killing of L. monocytogenes by binding bacteriocin producing Escherichia coli cells to Listeria cells. Antilisterial E. coli was obtained by transferring leucocin C production from Leuconostoc carnosum 4010. For binding of E. coli cells to Listeria cells, the Listeria phage endolysin PlyP35 cell wall binding domain (CBD) was displayed on E. coli cell surface as FliC::CBD chimeric protein in flagella. CBD insertion in flagella was confirmed by Western analysis and enterokinase cleavage. By mixing isolated flagella with L. monocytogenes WSLC 1019 cells, the FliC::CBD flagella was shown to bind to Listeria cells. However, the wild type flagella also attached to Listeria cells masking putative additional binding mediated by the CBD. Yet, the cell-mediated leucocin C killing resulted in two-log reduction of Listeria, whereas the corresponding amount of leucocin C in spent culture medium could only inhibit growth without bacteriocidal effect. Cells binding Listeria and secreting antilisterial peptides may have applications in protection against listeriosis as they kill Listeria better than free antilisterial peptides. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. [Experiment research of natural killer cells amplification in vitro and the killing effect on ovarian cancer cells].

    PubMed

    Cheng, H Y; Ye, X; Ma, R Q; Chang, X H; Cui, H

    2017-08-25

    Objective: To amplify natural killer (NK) cells in vitro and explore its killing effect on ovarian cancer cells. Methods: (1) The separation of NK cells and identification. A total of 20 ml peripheral blood of one healthy volunteer was collected in Nov. 2015, Peking University People's Hospital. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells of normal volunteers were isolated, cultured in vitro and amplificated cultivation for 14 days with K562 cells transfected and expressing interleukin 21 (IL-21-K562) as nourish cells. The number and dynamic state of the growth cells were monitored during the cultured process. Cells were harvested and counted after 14 days cultured. The NK cells phenotypes were detected by flow cytometry. (2) The killing effect of NK cells on ovarian cancer cells: the ratio of effector cells (NK cells) and target cells (ovarian cancer cells and its control) was 50∶1, 20∶1, 10∶1, 5∶1 or 1∶1, NK cells killing effect on ovarian cancer cells was detected by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release experiments. Results: (1) The results of NK cells establishment and phenotypic characterization: the cells were induced in vitro for 14 days by amplification culture. With the extension of incubation time, the number of NK cells increased constantly, from 2.0×10(7) on day 0 to 5.1×10(9) on day 14. Obvious amplification of the total number of cells were detected for 255 times. Living cells unstained by trypan blue eventually reached 95% above. Before and after the induction and amplification in vitro, the percentage of NK cells(CD(3)(-)CD(5)(6+)cells) in CD(3)- cells were 2.33% and 85.32%, respectively (P<0.01), which covered the whole lymphocytes 1.06% and 69.42%, respectively (P<0.01), which showed that NK was the main cell type in the amplificated lymphocytes. (2) The killing rate of NK cells on ovarian cancer cells in vitro: the results detected by LDH release experiments showed that NK cells could performed strong nonspecific killing effect on

  6. Glutamine protects Chinese Hamster Ovary cells from radiation killing

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, R.; Matthews, R.; Ercal, N.; Krishnan, K. )

    1994-01-01

    Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were propagated in vitro and exposed to varying doses of ionizing radiation. The surviving fraction of cells was determined, being found to be a function of the radiation dose. The cell survival curves obtained as a function of radiation dose were modified by the inclusion of varying doses of glutamine in the medium, with glutamine demonstrating a radioprotective effect. The radioprotectant effect of glutamine for CHO cells was more pronounced at higher radiation doses. These results support the idea that glutamine protects body systems such as the gut more directly as a radioprotector as opposed to a more indirect route, such as preventing bacterial translocation from the gut. 16 refs.

  7. Single-Cell Analysis: The Differences That Kill.

    PubMed

    Tay, Savaş

    2015-09-10

    Using single-cell RNA sequencing, Avraham et al. investigate how variability in macrophage response to infection is controlled by variability within the pathogen population. They find that heterogeneous expression of the Salmonella virulence factor PhoP and subsequent cell-wall modifications lead to the bimodal induction of the interferon-response in infected macrophages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Active evasion of CTL mediated killing and low quality responding CD8+ T cells contribute to persistence of brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Durward, Marina; Radhakrishnan, Girish; Harms, Jerome; Bareiss, Claire; Magnani, Diogo; Splitter, Gary A

    2012-01-01

    Brucellosis is a common zoonotic disease that remains endemic in many parts of the world. Dissecting the host immune response during this disease provides insight as to why brucellosis is often difficult to resolve. We used a Brucella epitope specific in vivo killing assay to investigate the ability of CD8+ T cells to kill targets treated with purified pathogenic protein. Importantly, we found the pathogenic protein TcpB to be a novel effector of adaptive immune evasion by inhibiting CD8+ T cell killing of Brucella epitope specific target cells in mice. Further, BALB/c mice show active Brucella melitensis infection beyond one year, many with previously unreported focal infection of the urogenital area. A fraction of CD8+ T cells show a CD8+ Tmem phenotype of LFA-1hi, CD127hi, KLRG-1lo during the course of chronic brucellosis, while the CD8+ T cell pool as a whole had a very weak polyfunctional cytokine response with diminished co-expression of IFN-γ with TNFα and/or IL-2, a hallmark of exhaustion. When investigating the expression of these 3 cytokines individually, we observed significant IFN-γ expression at 90 and 180 days post-infection. TNFα expression did not significantly exceed or fall below background levels at any time. IL-2 expression did not significantly exceeded background, but, interestingly, did fall significantly below that of uninfected mice at 180 days post-infection. Brucella melitensis evades and blunts adaptive immunity during acute infection and our findings provide potential mechanisms for the deficit observed in responding CD8+ T cells during chronic brucellosis.

  9. Residual chromatin breaks as biodosimetry for cell killing by carbon ions.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, M; Kase, Y; Nakano, T; Kanai, T; Ando, K

    1998-01-01

    We have studied the relationship between cell killing and the induction of residual chromatin breaks on various human cell lines and primary cultured cells obtained by biopsy from patients irradiated with either X-rays or heavy-ion beams to identify potential bio-marker of radiosensitivity for radiation-induced cell killing. The carbon-ion beams were accelerated with the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). Six primary cultures obtained by biopsy from 6 patients with carcinoma of the cervix were irradiated with two different mono-LET beams (LET = 13 keV/micrometer, 76 keV/micrometer) and 200kV X rays. Residual chromatin breaks were measured by counting the number of non-rejoining chromatin fragments detected by the premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique after a 24 hour post-irradiation incubation period. The induction rate of residual chromatin breaks per cell per Gy was the highest for 76 keV/micrometer beams on all of the cells. Our results indicated that cell which was more sensitive to the cell killing was similarly more susceptible to induction of residual chromatin breaks. Furthermore there is a good correlation between these two end points in various cell lines and primary cultured cells. This suggests that the detection of residual chromatin breaks by the PCC technique may be useful as a predictive assay of tumor response to cancer radiotherapy.

  10. Residual chromatin breaks as biodosimetry for cell killing by carbon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, M.; Kase, Y.; Nakano, T.; Kanai, T.; Ando, K.

    1998-11-01

    We have studied the relationship between cell killing and the induction of residual chromatin breaks on various human cell lines and primary cultured cells obtained by biopsy from patients irradiated with either X-rays or heavy-ion beams to identify potential bio-marker of radiosensitivity for radiation-induced cell killing. The carbon-ion beams were accelerated with the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). Six primary cultures obtained by biopsy from 6 patients with carcinoma of the cervix were irradiated with two different mono-LET beams (LET = 13 keV/μm, 76 keV/μm) and 200kV X rays. Residual chromatin breaks were measured by counting the number of non-rejoining chromatin fragments detected by the premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique after a 24 hour post-irradiation incubation period. The induction rate of residual chromatin breaks per cell per Gy was the highest for 76 keV/μm beams on all of the cells. Our results indicated that cell which was more sensitive to the cell killing was similarly more susceptible to induction of residual chromatin breaks. Furthermore there is a good correlation between these two end points in various cell lines and primary cultured cells. This suggests that the detection of residual chromatin breaks by the PCC technique may be useful as a predictive assay of tumor response to cancer radiotherapy.

  11. Inhibition of Amebic Lysosomal Acidification Blocks Amebic Trogocytosis and Cell Killing.

    PubMed

    Gilmartin, Allissia A; Ralston, Katherine S; Petri, William A

    2017-08-29

    Entamoeba histolytica ingests fragments of live host cells in a nibbling-like process termed amebic trogocytosis. Amebic trogocytosis is required for cell killing and contributes to tissue invasion, which is a hallmark of invasive amebic colitis. Work done prior to the discovery of amebic trogocytosis showed that acid vesicles are required for amebic cytotoxicity. In the present study, we show that acidified lysosomes are required for amebic trogocytosis and cell killing. Interference with lysosome acidification using ammonium chloride, a weak base, or concanamycin A, a vacuolar H(+) ATPase inhibitor, decreased amebic trogocytosis and amebic cytotoxicity. Our data suggest that the inhibitors do not impair the ingestion of an initial fragment but rather block continued trogocytosis and the ingestion of multiple fragments. The acidification inhibitors also decreased phagocytosis, but not fluid-phase endocytosis. These data suggest that amebic lysosomes play a crucial role in amebic trogocytosis, phagocytosis, and cell killing.IMPORTANCEE. histolytica is a protozoan parasite that is prevalent in low-income countries, where it causes potentially fatal diarrhea, dysentery, and liver abscesses. Tissue destruction is a hallmark of invasive E. histolytica infection. The parasite is highly cytotoxic to a wide range of human cells, and parasite cytotoxic activity is likely to drive tissue destruction. E. histolytica is able to kill human cells through amebic trogocytosis. This process also contributes to tissue invasion. Trogocytosis has been observed in other organisms; however, little is known about the mechanism in any system. We show that interference with lysosomal acidification impairs amebic trogocytosis, phagocytosis, and cell killing, indicating that amebic lysosomes are critically important for these processes. Copyright © 2017 Gilmartin et al.

  12. Inhibiting Mitophagy as a Novel Mechanism to Kill Prostate Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    mitophagy, the mitochondrial-specific form of autophagy, to kill prostate cancer cells. Cancer cells become increasingly dependent on mitophagy as an energy...cancer cells. Key mediators of the mitophagic process, specifically Parkin, dynamin-related protein-1 ( Drp1 ), fission-1 (Fis1), and cyclophilin-D (CypD...and especially Drp1 maybe of therapeutic benefit as they were found to induce mitochondrial dysfunction and/or ROS production along with a

  13. Poliovirus protease 3C(pro) kills cells by apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Barco, A; Feduchi, E; Carrasco, L

    2000-01-20

    The tetracycline-based Tet-Off expression system has been used to analyze the effects of poliovirus protease 3C(pro) on human cells. Stable HeLa cell clones that express this poliovirus protease under the control of an inducible, tightly regulated promoter were obtained. Tetracycline removal induces synthesis of 3C protease, followed by drastic morphological alterations and cellular death. Degradation of cellular DNA in nucleosomes and generation of apoptotic bodies are observed from the second day after 3C(pro) induction. The cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, an enzyme involved in DNA repair, occurs after induction of 3C(pro), indicating caspase activation by this poliovirus protease. The 3C(pro)-induced apoptosis is blocked by the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Our findings suggest that the protease 3C is responsible for triggering apoptosis in poliovirus-infected cells by a mechanism that involves caspase activation. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  14. Preferential killing of cancer cells using silicon carbide quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Mognetti, Barbara; Barberis, Alessandro; Marino, Silvia; Di Carlo, Francesco; Lysenko, Vladimir; Marty, Olivier; Géloën, Alain

    2010-12-01

    Silicon carbide quantum dots are highly luminescent biocompatible nanoparticles whose properties might be of particular interest for biomedical applications. In this study we investigated Silicon Carbide Quantum Dots (3C-SiC QDs) cellular localisation and influence on viability and proliferation on oral squamous carcinoma (AT-84 and HSC) and immortalized cell lines (S-G). They clearly localize into the nuclei, but the presence of 3C-SiC QDs in culture medium provoke morphological changes in cultured cells. We demonstrate that 3C-SiC QDs display dose- and time-dependent selective cytotoxicity on cancer versus immortalized cells in vitro. Since one of the limitations of classical antineoplastic drugs is their lack of selectivity, these results open a new way in the search for antiproliferative drugs.

  15. A lipopeptide facilitate induction of Mycobacterium leprae killing in host cells.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yumi; Tamura, Toshiki; Fukutomi, Yasuo; Mukai, Tetsu; Kai, Masanori; Makino, Masahiko

    2011-11-01

    Little is known of the direct microbicidal activity of T cells in leprosy, so a lipopeptide consisting of the N-terminal 13 amino acids lipopeptide (LipoK) of a 33-kD lipoprotein of Mycobacterium leprae, was synthesized. LipoK activated M. leprae infected human dendritic cells (DCs) to induce the production of IL-12. These activated DCs stimulated autologous CD4+ or CD8+ T cells towards type 1 immune response by inducing interferon-gamma secretion. T cell proliferation was also evident from the CFSE labeling of target CD4+ or CD8+ T cells. The direct microbicidal activity of T cells in the control of M. leprae multiplication is not well understood. The present study showed significant production of granulysin, granzyme B and perforin from these activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells when stimulated with LipoK activated, M. leprae infected DCs. Assessment of the viability of M. leprae in DCs indicated LipoK mediated T cell-dependent killing of M. leprae. Remarkably, granulysin as well as granzyme B could directly kill M. leprae in vitro. Our results provide evidence that LipoK could facilitate M. leprae killing through the production of effector molecules granulysin and granzyme B in T cells.

  16. Heat-killed Lactobacillus spp. cells enhance survivals of Caenorhabditis elegans against Salmonella and Yersinia infections.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Choe, J; Kim, J; Oh, S; Park, S; Kim, S; Kim, Y

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the effect of feeding heat-killed Lactobacillus cells on the survival of Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes after Salmonella Typhimurium and Yersinia enterocolitica infection. The feeding of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum 133 (LP133) and Lactobacillus fermentum 21 (LP21) cells to nematodes was shown to significantly increase the survival rate as well as stimulate the expression of pmk-1 gene that key factor for C. elegans immunity upon infection compared with control nematodes that were only fed Escherichia coli OP50 (OP50) cells. These results suggest that heat-killed LP133 and LF21 cells exert preventive or protective effects against the Gram-negative bacteria Salm. Typhimurium and Y. enterocolitica. To better understand the mechanisms underlying the LF21-mediated and LP133-mediated protection against bacterial infection in nematodes, transcriptional profiling was performed for each experimental group. These experiments showed that genes related to energy generation and ageing, regulators of insulin/IGF-1-like signalling, DAF genes, oxidation and reduction processes, the defence response and/or the innate immune response, and neurological processes were upregulated in nematodes that had been fed heat-killed Lactobacillus cells compared with nematodes that had been fed E. coli cells. In this study, the feeding of heat-killed Lactobacillus bacteria to Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes was shown to decrease infection by Gram-negative bacteria and increase the host lifespan. C. elegans has a small, well-organized genome and is an excellent in vivo model organism; thus, these results will potentially shed light on important Lactobacillus-host interactions. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. A BH3 Mimetic for Killing Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Green, Douglas R

    2016-06-16

    Venetoclax is a BH3 mimetic approved for treating chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer cells are resistant to apoptosis but "primed for death" by elevated BCL-2, which binds to pro-apoptotic proteins and holds them in check. Venetoclax releases this antagonism and is the first approved drug to target a protein-protein interaction.

  18. EGFR-targeted magnetic nanoparticle heaters kill cancer cells without a perceptible temperature rise.

    PubMed

    Creixell, Mar; Bohórquez, Ana C; Torres-Lugo, Madeline; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2011-09-27

    It is currently believed that magnetic nanoparticle heaters (MNHs) can kill cancer cells only when the temperature is raised above 43 °C due to energy dissipation in an alternating magnetic field. On the other hand, simple heat conduction arguments indicate that in small tumors or single cells the relative rates of energy dissipation and heat conduction result in a negligible temperature rise, thus limiting the potential of MNHs in treating small tumors and metastatic cancer. Here we demonstrate that internalized MNHs conjugated to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and which target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) do result in a significant (up to 99.9%) reduction in cell viability and clonogenic survival in a thermal heat dose dependent manner, without the need for a perceptible temperature rise. The effect appears to be cell type specific and indicates that magnetic nanoparticles in alternating magnetic fields may effectively kill cancer cells under conditions previously considered as not possible.

  19. A novel bispecific antibody, S-Fab, induces potent cancer cell killing.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; He, Ping; Zhou, Changhua; Jing, Li; Dong, Bin; Chen, Siqi; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Yawei; Miao, Ji; Wang, Zhong; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies that engage immune cells to kill cancer cells have been actively studied in cancer immunotherapy. In this study, we present a novel bispecific format, S-Fab, fabricated by linking a single-domain anti-carcinoembryonic antigen VHH to a conventional anti-CD3 Fab. In contrast to most bispecific antibodies, the S-Fab bispecific antibody can be efficiently expressed and purified from bacteria. The purified S-Fab is stable in serum and is able to recruit T cells to drive potent cancer cell killing. In xenograft models, the S-Fab antibody suppresses tumor growth in the presence of human immune cells. Our study suggested that the bispecific S-Fab format can be applied to a wide range of immunotherapies.

  20. Syrosingopine sensitizes cancer cells to killing by metformin

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Don; Colombi, Marco; Hindupur, Sravanth K.; Betz, Charles; Lane, Heidi A.; El-Shemerly, Mahmoud Y. M.; Lu, Min; Quagliata, Luca; Terracciano, Luigi; Moes, Suzette; Sharpe, Timothy; Wodnar-Filipowicz, Aleksandra; Moroni, Christoph; Hall, Michael N.

    2016-01-01

    We report that the anticancer activity of the widely used diabetic drug metformin is strongly potentiated by syrosingopine. Synthetic lethality elicited by combining the two drugs is synergistic and specific to transformed cells. This effect is unrelated to syrosingopine’s known role as an inhibitor of the vesicular monoamine transporters. Syrosingopine binds to the glycolytic enzyme α-enolase in vitro, and the expression of the γ-enolase isoform correlates with nonresponsiveness to the drug combination. Syrosingopine sensitized cancer cells to metformin and its more potent derivative phenformin far below the individual toxic threshold of each compound. Thus, combining syrosingopine and codrugs is a promising therapeutic strategy for clinical application for the treatment of cancer. PMID:28028542

  1. Modeling of oxygen transport and cell killing in type-II photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Gkigkitzis, Ioannis; Feng, Yuanming; Yang, Chunmei; Lu, Jun Q; Hu, Xin-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) provides an effective option for treatment of tumors and other diseases in superficial tissues and attracts attention for in vitro study with cells. In this study, we present a significantly improved model of in vitro cell killing through Type-II PDT for simulation of the molecular interactions and cell killing in time domain in the presence of oxygen transport within a spherical cell. The self-consistency of the approach is examined by determination of conditions for obtaining positive definitive solutions of molecular concentrations. Decay constants of photosensitizers and unoxidized receptors are extracted as the key indices of molecular kinetics with different oxygen diffusion constants and permeability at the cell membrane. By coupling the molecular kinetics to cell killing, we develop a modeling method of PDT cytotoxicity caused by singlet oxygen and obtain the cell survival ratio as a function of light fluence or initial photosensitizer concentration with different photon density or irradiance of incident light and other parameters of oxygen transport. The results show that the present model of Type-II PDT yields a powerful tool to quantitate various events underlying PDT at the molecular and cellular levels and to interpret experimental results of in vitro cell studies. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  2. Fas-Fas ligand interactions are essential for the binding to and killing of activated macrophages by gamma delta T cells.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Jane E; Howell, Gareth; Pearson, Jayne; Scott, Phillip; Carding, Simon R

    2004-09-15

    Gammadelta T cells have a direct role in resolving the host immune response to infection by eliminating populations of activated macrophages. Macrophage reactivity resides within the Vgamma1/Vdelta6.3 subset of gammadelta T cells, which have the ability to kill activated macrophages following infection with Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). However, it is not known how gammadelta T cell macrophage cytocidal activity is regulated, or what effector mechanisms gammadelta T cells use to kill activated macrophages. Using a macrophage-T cell coculture system in which peritoneal macrophages from naive or Lm-infected TCRdelta-/- mice were incubated with splenocytes from wild-type and Fas ligand (FasL)-deficient mice (gld), the ability of Vgamma1 T cells to bind macrophages was shown to be dependent upon Fas-FasL interactions. Combinations of anti-TCR and FasL Abs completely abolished binding to and killing of activated macrophages by Vgamma1 T cells. In addition, confocal microscopy showed that Fas and the TCR colocalized on Vgamma1 T cells at points of contact with macrophages. Collectively, these studies identify an accessory or coreceptor-like function for Fas-FasL that is essential for the interaction of Vgamma1 T cells with activated macrophages and their elimination during the resolution stage of pathogen-induced immune responses. Copyright 2004 The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  3. Engineered Protease-resistant Antibodies with Selectable Cell-killing Functions*

    PubMed Central

    Kinder, Michelle; Greenplate, Allison R.; Grugan, Katharine D.; Soring, Keri L.; Heeringa, Katharine A.; McCarthy, Stephen G.; Bannish, Gregory; Perpetua, Meredith; Lynch, Frank; Jordan, Robert E.; Strohl, William R.; Brezski, Randall J.

    2013-01-01

    Molecularly engineered antibodies with fit-for-purpose properties will differentiate next generation antibody therapeutics from traditional IgG1 scaffolds. One requirement for engineering the most appropriate properties for a particular therapeutic area is an understanding of the intricacies of the target microenvironment in which the antibody is expected to function. Our group and others have demonstrated that proteases secreted by invasive tumors and pathological microorganisms are capable of cleaving human IgG1, the most commonly adopted isotype among monoclonal antibody therapeutics. Specific cleavage in the lower hinge of IgG1 results in a loss of Fc-mediated cell-killing functions without a concomitant loss of antigen binding capability or circulating antibody half-life. Proteolytic cleavage in the hinge region by tumor-associated or microbial proteases is postulated as a means of evading host immune responses, and antibodies engineered with potent cell-killing functions that are also resistant to hinge proteolysis are of interest. Mutation of the lower hinge region of an IgG1 resulted in protease resistance but also resulted in a profound loss of Fc-mediated cell-killing functions. In the present study, we demonstrate that specific mutations of the CH2 domain in conjunction with lower hinge mutations can restore and sometimes enhance cell-killing functions while still retaining protease resistance. By identifying mutations that can restore either complement- or Fcγ receptor-mediated functions on a protease-resistant scaffold, we were able to generate a novel protease-resistant platform with selective cell-killing functionality. PMID:23986451

  4. Hyperoxygenation enhances the direct tumor cell killing of photofrin-mediated photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zheng; Chen, Qun; Shakil, Abdus; Chen, Hua; Beckers, Jill; Shapiro, Howard; Hetzel, Fred W.

    2003-06-01

    Tumor hypoxia, either pre-existing or as a result of oxygen bleaching during Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) light irradiation, can significantly reduce the effectiveness of PDT induced cell killing. To overcome the effect of tumor hypoxia and improve tumor cell killing, we propose using supplemental hyperoxygenation during Photofrin PDT. Our previous study has demonstrated that, in an in vivo model, tumor control can be improved by normobaric or hyperbaric 100% oxygen supply. The mechanism for the tumor cure enhancement of the hyperoxygenation-PDT combined therapy is investigated in this study by using an in vivo/in vitro technique. A hypoxic tumor model was established by implanting mammary adenocarcinoma (MCA) in hind legs of C3H mice. Light irradiation (200 J/cm2 at either 75 or 150 mW/cm2), under various oxygen supplemental conditions (room air or carbogen or 100% normobaric or hyperbaric 100% oxygen), was delivered through an optical fiber with a microlens to animals who received 12.5 mg/kg Photofrin 24 hours prior to light irradiation. Tumors treated with PDT were harvested and grown in vitro for colony formation analysis. Treated tumors were also analyzed histologically. The results show that, when combined with hyperoxygenation, the cell killing rate immediately after a PDT treatment is significantly improved over that treated without hyperoxygenation, suggesting an enhanced direct cell killing. This study further confirms our earlier observation that when a PDT treatment is combined with hyperoxygenation, it can be more effective in controlling hypoxic tumors. H&E stain revealed that PDT induced tumor necrosis and hemorrhage. In conclusion, by using an in vivo/in vitro assay, we have shown that PDT combined with hyper-oxygenation can enhance direct cell killing and improve tumor cure.

  5. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 7 (VAMP-7) is essential for target cell killing in a natural killer cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Marcet-Palacios, Marcelo; Odemuyiwa, Solomon O.; Coughlin, Jason J.; Garofoli, Daniella; Ewen, Catherine; Davidson, Courtney E.; Ghaffari, Mazyar; Kane, Kevin P.; Lacy, Paige; Logan, Michael R.; Befus, A. Dean; Bleackley, R. Chris; Moqbel, Redwan

    2008-02-15

    Natural killer cells recognize and induce apoptosis in foreign, transformed or virus-infected cells through the release of perforin and granzymes from secretory lysosomes. Clinically, NK-cell mediated killing is a major limitation to successful allo- and xenotransplantation. The molecular mechanisms that regulate the fusion of granzyme B-containing secretory lysosomes to the plasma membrane in activated NK cells, prior to target cell killing, are not fully understood. Using the NK cell line YT-Indy as a model, we have investigated the expression of SNAP REceptors (SNAREs), both target (t-) and vesicular (v-) SNAREs, and their function in granzyme B-mediated target cell killing. Our data showed that YT-Indy cells express VAMP-7 and SNAP-23, but not VAMP-2. VAMP-7 was associated with granzyme B-containing lysosomal granules. Using VAMP-7 small interfering RNA (siRNA), we successfully knocked down the expression of VAMP-7 protein in YT-Indy to less than 10% of untreated cells in 24 h. VAMP7-deficient YT-Indy cells activated via co-culture with Jurkat cells released <1 ng/mL of granzyme B, compared to 1.5-2.5 {mu}g/mL from controls. Using Jurkat cells as targets, we showed a 7-fold reduction in NK cell-mediated killing by VAMP-7 deficient YT-Indy cells. Our results show that VAMP-7 is a crucial component of granzyme B release and target cell killing in the NK cell line YT-Indy. Thus, targeting VAMP-7 expression specifically with siRNA, following transplantation, may be a viable strategy for preventing NK cell-mediated transplant rejection, in vivo.

  6. Leukocytes from diabetic patients kill retinal endothelial cells: Effects of berberine

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Pei; Ge, Hongyan; Liu, Haitao; Kern, Timothy S.; Du, Lingling; Guan, Linan; Su, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Accumulating evidence in animals suggests that leukocytes are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. The present study was designed to investigate whether leukocytes from diabetic patients could kill retinal endothelial cells and whether that cytotoxicity could be inhibited in vivo by administration of berberine. Methods Human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) were cocultured (24 h) with leukocytes freshly isolated from nondiabetic and diabetic patients, and leukocyte-mediated death of HRECs was analyzed with flow cytometry. HRECs or leukocytes were incubated with antibodies against intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) or integrin beta-2, or with various concentrations of berberine. The protein expression levels of inflammatory factors were investigated using western blots, and activities of antioxidant enzymes and malondialdehyde content were examined as markers of oxidative stress. In addition, leukocytes were isolated from 28 diabetic patients with retinopathy and nondiabetic patients before and after 1 month in vivo therapy with berberine. The effects of the berberine on leukocyte-mediated killing of endothelial cells was again assessed. Results Leukocytes from diabetic patients induced more apoptosis of HRECs in a coculture system than did cells from nondiabetic patients, and this killing occurred primarily via direct cell–cell contact. Berberine inhibited the leukocyte-mediated killing of HRECs in vitro, the decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities, the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B, and the increase in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and malondialdehyde content in HRECs cultured in high glucose. Berberine also decreased integrin beta-2 expression of leukocytes in vitro and in vivo. Oral consumption of berberine for 1 month likewise inhibited the diabetes-induced increase in leukocyte-mediated killing of HRECs. Conclusions Our findings suggest that leukocytes

  7. Clonogenic assay of type a influenza viruses reveals noninfectious cell-killing (apoptosis-inducing) particles.

    PubMed

    Ngunjiri, John M; Sekellick, Margaret J; Marcus, Philip I

    2008-03-01

    Clonogenic (single-cell plating) assays were used to define and quantify subpopulations of two genetically closely related variants of influenza virus A/TK/OR/71 that differed primarily in the size of the NS1 gene product; they expressed a full-size (amino acids [aa] 1 to 230) or truncated (aa 1 to 124) NS1 protein. Monolayers of Vero cells were infected with different amounts of virus, monodispersed, and plated. Cell survival curves were generated from the fraction of cells that produced visible colonies as a function of virus multiplicity. The exponential loss of colony-forming capacity at low multiplicities demonstrated that a single virus particle sufficed to kill a cell. The ratios of cell-killing particles (CKP) to plaque-forming particles (PFP) were 1:1 and 7:1 in populations of variants NS1(1-124) and NS1(1-230), respectively. This study revealed a new class of particles in influenza virus populations-noninfectious CKP. Both infectious and noninfectious CKP were 6.3 times more resistant to UV radiation than PFP activity. Based on UV target theory, a functional polymerase subunit was implicated in a rate-limiting step in cell killing. Since influenza viruses kill cells by apoptosis (programmed cell death), CKP are functionally apoptosis-inducing particles. Noninfectious CKP are present in excess of PFP in virus populations with full-size NS1 and induce apoptosis that is temporally delayed and morphologically different than that initiated by infectious CKP present in the virus population expressing truncated NS1. The identification and quantification of both infectious and noninfectious CKP defines new phenotypes in influenza virus populations and presents a challenge to determine their role in regulating infectivity, pathogenesis, and vaccine efficacy.

  8. Phytosphingosine kills Candida albicans by disrupting its cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Veerman, Enno C I; Valentijn-Benz, Marianne; van't Hof, Wim; Nazmi, Kamran; van Marle, Jan; Amerongen, Arie V Nieuw

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of action of phytosphingosine (PHS), a member of the sphingosine family which has candidacidal activity when added externally, was investigated. Previously, it has been reported that the fungicidal activity of PHS is based on the induction of caspase-independent apoptosis. In contrast, we found that addition of PHS causes a direct permeabilization of the plasma membrane of yeast, highlighted by the influx of the membrane probe propidium iodide, and the efflux of small molecules (i.e., adenine nucleotides) as well as large cellular constituents such as proteins. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy revealed that PHS treatment causes severe damage of the plasma membrane of the cell, which seems to have lost its integrity completely. We also found that PHS reverts the azide-induced insensitivity to histatin 5 (Hst5) of Candida albicans. In a previous study, we had found that the decreased sensitivity to Hst5 of energy-depleted cells is due to rigidification of the plasma membrane, which could be reverted by the membrane fluidizer benzyl alcohol. In line with the increased membrane permeabilization and ultrastructural damage, this reversal of the azide-induced insensitivity by PHS also points to a direct interaction between PHS and the cytoplasmic membrane of C. albicans.

  9. Targeting BCL-2-like Proteins to Kill Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Cory, Suzanne; Roberts, Andrew W; Colman, Peter M; Adams, Jerry M

    2016-08-01

    Mutations that impair apoptosis contribute to cancer development and reduce the effectiveness of conventional anti-cancer therapies. These insights and understanding of how the B cell lymphoma (BCL)-2 protein family governs apoptosis have galvanized the search for a new class of cancer drugs that target its pro-survival members by mimicking their natural antagonists, the BCL-2 homology (BH)3-only proteins. Successful initial clinical trials of the BH3 mimetic venetoclax/ABT-199, specific for BCL-2, have led to its recent licensing for refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia and to multiple ongoing trials for other malignancies. Moreover, preclinical studies herald the potential of emerging BH3 mimetics targeting other BCL-2 pro-survival members, particularly myeloid cell leukemia (MCL)-1, for multiple cancer types. Thus, BH3 mimetics seem destined to become powerful new weapons in the arsenal against cancer. This review sketches the discovery of the BCL-2 family and its impact on cancer development and therapy; describes how interactions of family members trigger apoptosis; outlines the development of BH3 mimetic drugs; and discusses their potential to advance cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Human CD4low CD25high regulatory T cells indiscriminately kill autologous activated T cells

    PubMed Central

    Bryl, Ewa; Daca, Agnieszka; Jóźwik, Agnieszka; Witkowski, Jacek M

    2009-01-01

    The interest of the scientific community in regulatory CD4+ T cells has reached an enormously high level. Common agreement is that they inhibit not only the proliferation of CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes, but also the activities of natural killer cells and macrophages. However, very important issues concerning actual mechanism(s) and specificity of the action of regulatory T cells (Tregs) upon responder cells are still unsolved or vague. The best known marker for Tregs is the expression of transcription factor FoxP3, widely used for their enumeration. It is known that FoxP3 inhibits cytokine production so the most probable action of Tregs is direct. However, FoxP3 expression cannot be used for functional studies in humans. Therefore we identified human peripheral blood Tregs as a distinct, very well-defined population of peripheral blood T cells with reduced CD4 and high CD25 expression (CD4low CD25high), which fulfils the current phenotypic criteria identifying the Tregs by simultaneously expressing high amounts of FoxP3. We conclude that the definition of a CD4low CD25high phenotype is enough to unambiguously detect and study the regulatory function of these cells. On the functional level, the CD4low Tregs are able to non-specifically suppress the proliferation of autologous, previously polyclonally activated CD4+ and CD4− lymphocytes and to kill them by direct contact, probably utilizing intracellular granzyme B and perforin. PMID:19016909

  11. Human CD4low CD25high regulatory T cells indiscriminately kill autologous activated T cells.

    PubMed

    Bryl, Ewa; Daca, Agnieszka; Jóźwik, Agnieszka; Witkowski, Jacek M

    2009-09-01

    The interest of the scientific community in regulatory CD4(+) T cells has reached an enormously high level. Common agreement is that they inhibit not only the proliferation of CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes, but also the activities of natural killer cells and macrophages. However, very important issues concerning actual mechanism(s) and specificity of the action of regulatory T cells (Tregs) upon responder cells are still unsolved or vague. The best known marker for Tregs is the expression of transcription factor FoxP3, widely used for their enumeration. It is known that FoxP3 inhibits cytokine production so the most probable action of Tregs is direct. However, FoxP3 expression cannot be used for functional studies in humans. Therefore we identified human peripheral blood Tregs as a distinct, very well-defined population of peripheral blood T cells with reduced CD4 and high CD25 expression (CD4(low) CD25(high)), which fulfils the current phenotypic criteria identifying the Tregs by simultaneously expressing high amounts of FoxP3. We conclude that the definition of a CD4(low) CD25(high) phenotype is enough to unambiguously detect and study the regulatory function of these cells. On the functional level, the CD4(low) Tregs are able to non-specifically suppress the proliferation of autologous, previously polyclonally activated CD4(+) and CD4(-) lymphocytes and to kill them by direct contact, probably utilizing intracellular granzyme B and perforin.

  12. Mechanistic insights into selective killing of OXPHOS-dependent cancer cells by arctigenin.

    PubMed

    Brecht, Karin; Riebel, Virginie; Couttet, Philippe; Paech, Franziska; Wolf, Armin; Chibout, Salah-Dine; Pognan, Francois; Krähenbühl, Stephan; Uteng, Marianne

    2017-04-01

    Arctigenin has previously been identified as a potential anti-tumor treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer. However, the mechanism of how arctigenin kills cancer cells is not fully understood. In the present work we studied the mechanism of toxicity by arctigenin in the human pancreatic cell line, Panc-1, with special emphasis on the mitochondria. A comparison of Panc-1 cells cultured in glucose versus galactose medium was applied, allowing assessments of effects in glycolytic versus oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS)-dependent Panc-1 cells. For control purposes, the mitochondrial toxic response to treatment with arctigenin was compared to the anti-cancer drug, sorafenib, which is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor known for mitochondrial toxic off-target effects (Will et al., 2008). In both Panc-1 OXPHOS-dependent and glycolytic cells, arctigenin dissipated the mitochondrial membrane potential, which was demonstrated to be due to inhibition of the mitochondrial complexes II and IV. However, arctigenin selectively killed only the OXPHOS-dependent Panc-1 cells. This selective killing of OXPHOS-dependent Panc-1 cells was accompanied by generation of ER stress, mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and caspase activation leading to apoptosis and aponecrosis.

  13. Licensed to Kill: Mitochondria, Chloroplasts, and Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Van Aken, Olivier; Van Breusegem, Frank

    2015-11-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is crucial in plant organogenesis and survival. In this review the involvement of mitochondria and chloroplasts in PCD execution is critically assessed. Recent findings support a central role for mitochondria in PCD, with newly identified components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC), FOF1 ATP synthase, cardiolipins, and ATPase AtOM66. While chloroplasts received less attention, their contribution to PCD is well supported, suggesting that they possibly contribute by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the presence of light or even contribute through cytochrome f release. Finally we discuss two working models where mitochondria and chloroplasts could cooperatively execute PCD: mitochondria initiate the commitment steps and recruit chloroplasts for swift execution or, alternatively, mitochondria and chloroplasts could operate in parallel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Irradiated human endothelial progenitor cells induce bystander killing in human non-small cell lung and pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Turchan, William T; Shapiro, Ronald H; Sevigny, Garrett V; Chin-Sinex, Helen; Pruden, Benjamin; Mendonca, Marc S

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To investigate whether irradiated human endothelial progenitor cells (hEPC) could induce bystander killing in the A549 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and help explain the improved radiation-induced tumor cures observed in A549 tumor xenografts co-injected with hEPC. Materials and methods We investigated whether co-injection of CBM3 hEPC with A549 NSCLC cells would alter tumor xenograft growth rate or tumor cure after a single dose of 0 or 5 Gy of X-rays. We then utilized dual chamber Transwell dishes, to test whether medium from irradiated CBM3 and CBM4 hEPC would induce bystander cell killing in A549 cells, and as an additional control, in human pancreatic cancer MIA PaCa-2 cells. The CBM3 and CBM4 hEPC were plated into the upper Transwell chamber and the A549 or MIA PaCa-2 cells were plated in the lower Transwell chamber. The top inserts with the CBM3 or CBM4 hEPC cells were subsequently removed, irradiated, and then placed back into the Transwell dish for 3 h to allow for diffusion of any potential bystander factors from the irradiated hEPC in the upper chamber through the permeable membrane to the unirradiated cancer cells in the lower chamber. After the 3 h incubation, the cancer cells were re-plated for clonogenic survival. Results We found that co-injection of CBM3 hEPC with A549 NSCLC cells significantly increased the tumor growth rate compared to A549 cells alone, but paradoxically also increased A549 tumor cure after a single dose of 5 Gy of X-rays (p < 0.05). We hypothesized that irradiated hEPC may be inducing bystander killing in the A549 NSCLC cells in tumor xenografts, thus improving tumor cure. Bystander studies clearly showed that exposure to the medium from irradiated CBM3 and CBM4 hEPC induced significant bystander killing and decreased the surviving fraction of A549 and MIA PaCa-2 cells to 0.46 (46%) ± 0.22 and 0.74 ± 0.07 (74%) respectively (p < 0.005, p < 0.0001). In addition, antibody depletion

  15. Both necrosis and apoptosis contribute to HIV-1-induced killing of CD4 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plymale, D. R.; Tang, D. S.; Comardelle, A. M.; Fermin, C. D.; Lewis, D. E.; Garry, R. F.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data currently available on HIV-1-induced cytopathology is unclear regarding the mechanism of cell killing. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the extent to which apoptosis or necrosis is involved in HIV-1-induced cell death in view of conflicting existing data. METHODS: T lymphoblastoid cells or peripheral blood mononuclear cells were infected by various strains of HIV-1 and the numbers of apoptotic or necrotic cells were quantified at various times after infection using video-image analysis techniques; the results were compared with the amount of fragmented DNA using a quantitative method. Measurement of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (deltapsi(m)) and intracellular calcium concentrations [Ca2+]i was performed with fluorescent probes and fluorescence concentration analysis (FCA). RESULTS: Although lymphoblastoid and monocytoid cells acutely infected by HIV-1 had increased levels of fragmented DNA, a marker of apoptotic cell death, few (<12%) had condensed chromatin and fragmented nuclei, the morphological features of apoptosis. The predominant alterations in acutely infected cells were distended endoplasmic reticulum and abnormal mitochondria; these ultrastructural changes are consistent with necrosis, although some infected cells simultaneously displayed features of both necrosis and apoptosis. Viability of cells persistently infected by HIV-1 was only minimally reduced from that of uninfected cells. This reduction was accounted for by an increased propensity of the persistently infected cells to die by apoptosis. Alterations in [Ca2+]i and deltapsi(m) occurred in both acutely and persistently infected cells. CONCLUSION: Both necrosis and apoptosis contribute to HIV-1-induced killing of CD4 cells.

  16. Killing multiple myeloma cells with the small molecule 3-bromopyruvate: implications for therapy.

    PubMed

    Majkowska-Skrobek, Grażyna; Augustyniak, Daria; Lis, Paweł; Bartkowiak, Anna; Gonchar, Mykhailo; Ko, Young H; Pedersen, Peter L; Goffeau, Andre; Ułaszewski, Stanisław

    2014-07-01

    The small molecule 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP), which has emerged recently as the first member of a new class of potent anticancer agents, was tested for its capacity to kill multiple myeloma (MM) cancer cells. Human MM cells (RPMI 8226) begin to lose viability significantly within 8 h of incubation in the presence of 3-BP. The Km (0.3 mmol/l) for intracellular accumulation of 3-BP in MM cells is 24 times lower than that in control cells (7.2 mmol/l). Therefore, the uptake of 3-BP by MM cells is significantly higher than that by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Further, the IC50 values for human MM cells and control peripheral blood mononuclear cells are 24 and 58 µmol/l, respectively. Therefore, specificity and selectivity of 3-BP toward MM cancer cells are evident on the basis of the above. In MM cells the transcription levels of the gene encoding the monocarboxylate transporter MCT1 is significantly amplified compared with control cells. The level of intracellular ATP in MM cells decreases by over 90% within 1 h after addition of 100 µmol/l 3-BP. The cytotoxicity of 3-BP, exemplified by a marked decrease in viability of MM cells, is potentiated by the inhibitor of glutathione synthesis buthionine sulfoximine. In addition, the lack of mutagenicity and its superior capacity relative to Glivec to kill MM cancer cells are presented in this study.

  17. Both necrosis and apoptosis contribute to HIV-1-induced killing of CD4 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plymale, D. R.; Tang, D. S.; Comardelle, A. M.; Fermin, C. D.; Lewis, D. E.; Garry, R. F.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data currently available on HIV-1-induced cytopathology is unclear regarding the mechanism of cell killing. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the extent to which apoptosis or necrosis is involved in HIV-1-induced cell death in view of conflicting existing data. METHODS: T lymphoblastoid cells or peripheral blood mononuclear cells were infected by various strains of HIV-1 and the numbers of apoptotic or necrotic cells were quantified at various times after infection using video-image analysis techniques; the results were compared with the amount of fragmented DNA using a quantitative method. Measurement of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (deltapsi(m)) and intracellular calcium concentrations [Ca2+]i was performed with fluorescent probes and fluorescence concentration analysis (FCA). RESULTS: Although lymphoblastoid and monocytoid cells acutely infected by HIV-1 had increased levels of fragmented DNA, a marker of apoptotic cell death, few (<12%) had condensed chromatin and fragmented nuclei, the morphological features of apoptosis. The predominant alterations in acutely infected cells were distended endoplasmic reticulum and abnormal mitochondria; these ultrastructural changes are consistent with necrosis, although some infected cells simultaneously displayed features of both necrosis and apoptosis. Viability of cells persistently infected by HIV-1 was only minimally reduced from that of uninfected cells. This reduction was accounted for by an increased propensity of the persistently infected cells to die by apoptosis. Alterations in [Ca2+]i and deltapsi(m) occurred in both acutely and persistently infected cells. CONCLUSION: Both necrosis and apoptosis contribute to HIV-1-induced killing of CD4 cells.

  18. Mechanisms of Contact-Mediated Killing of Yeast Cells on Dry Metallic Copper Surfaces▿

    PubMed Central

    Quaranta, Davide; Krans, Travis; Santo, Christophe Espírito; Elowsky, Christian G.; Domaille, Dylan W.; Chang, Christopher J.; Grass, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    Surfaces made of copper or its alloys have strong antimicrobial properties against a wide variety of microorganisms. However, the molecular mode of action responsible for the antimicrobial efficacy of metallic copper is not known. Here, we show that dry copper surfaces inactivate Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae within minutes in a process called contact-mediated killing. Cellular copper ion homeostasis systems influenced the kinetics of contact-mediated killing in both organisms. Deregulated copper ion uptake through a hyperactive S. cerevisiae Ctr1p (ScCtr1p) copper uptake transporter in Saccharomyces resulted in faster inactivation of mutant cells than of wild-type cells. Similarly, lack of the C. albicans Crp1p (CaCrp1p) copper-efflux P-type ATPase or the metallothionein CaCup1p caused more-rapid killing of Candida mutant cells than of wild-type cells. Candida and Saccharomyces took up large quantities of copper ions as soon as they were in contact with copper surfaces, as indicated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis and by the intracellular copper ion-reporting dye coppersensor-1. Exposure to metallic copper did not cause lethality through genotoxicity, deleterious action on a cell's genetic material, as indicated by a mutation assay with Saccharomyces. Instead, toxicity mediated by metallic copper surfaces targeted membranes in both yeast species. With the use of Live/Dead staining, onset of rapid and extensive cytoplasmic membrane damage was observed in cells from copper surfaces. Fluorescence microscopy using the indicator dye DiSBaC2(3) indicated that cell membranes were depolarized. Also, during contact-mediated killing, vacuoles first became enlarged and then disappeared from the cells. Lastly, in metallic copper-stressed yeasts, oxidative stress in the cytoplasm and in mitochondria was elevated. PMID:21097600

  19. Short Communication: Preferential Killing of HIV Latently Infected CD4(+) T Cells by MALT1 Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongmei; He, Hui; Gong, Leyi; Fu, Mingui; Wang, Tony T

    2016-02-01

    We report that the addition of an host paracaspase MALT1 inhibitor, MI-2, to HIV latently infected ACH-2, Jurkat E4, and J-LAT cells accelerated cell death in the presence of cell stimuli or the protein kinase C agonist, bryostatin 1. MI-2-mediated cell death correlated with the induction of the cellular RNase MCPIP1 and requires the presence of viral component(s). Altogether, the combination of MI-2 and bryostatin 1 displays selective killing of HIV latently infected CD4(+) T cells.

  20. Short Communication: Preferential Killing of HIV Latently Infected CD4+ T Cells by MALT1 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongmei; He, Hui; Gong, Leyi; Fu, Mingui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We report that the addition of an host paracaspase MALT1 inhibitor, MI-2, to HIV latently infected ACH-2, Jurkat E4, and J-LAT cells accelerated cell death in the presence of cell stimuli or the protein kinase C agonist, bryostatin 1. MI-2-mediated cell death correlated with the induction of the cellular RNase MCPIP1 and requires the presence of viral component(s). Altogether, the combination of MI-2 and bryostatin 1 displays selective killing of HIV latently infected CD4+ T cells. PMID:26728103

  1. Killing of human myelomonocytic leukemia and lymphocytic cell lines by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, D L; Berthold, P; Taichman, N S

    1988-01-01

    The purified leukotoxin of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans kills human leukemic cell lines (e.g., HL-60, U937, and KG-1) and human T- and B-cell lines (e.g., JURKAT, MOLT-4, Daudi, and Raji) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The 50% effective doses for these cell lines are similar to those established for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes. In contrast, other human and nonhuman tumor cell lines are not susceptible to the leukotoxin. These human leukemia and lymphoid cell lines will serve as useful model systems with which to study the molecular specificity and mechanism(s) of action of the actinobacillus leukotoxin. Images PMID:3258584

  2. Mechanisms of Cancer Cell Killing by the Adenovirus E4orf4 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kleinberger, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    During adenovirus (Ad) replication the Ad E4orf4 protein regulates progression from the early to the late phase of infection. However, when E4orf4 is expressed alone outside the context of the virus it induces a non-canonical mode of programmed cell death, which feeds into known cell death pathways such as apoptosis or necrosis, depending on the cell line tested. E4orf4-induced cell death has many interesting and unique features including a higher susceptibility of cancer cells to E4orf4-induced cell killing compared with normal cells, caspase-independence, a high degree of evolutionary conservation of the signaling pathways, a link to perturbations of the cell cycle, and involvement of two distinct cell death programs, in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm. Several E4orf4-interacting proteins including its major partners, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and Src family kinases, contribute to induction of cell death. The various features of E4orf4-induced cell killing as well as studies to decipher the underlying mechanisms are described here. Many explanations for the cancer specificity of E4orf4-induced cell death have been proposed, but a full understanding of the reasons for the different susceptibility of cancer and normal cells to killing by E4orf4 will require a more detailed analysis of the complex E4orf4 signaling network. An improved understanding of the mechanisms involved in this unique mode of programmed cell death may aid in design of novel E4orf4-based cancer therapeutics. PMID:25961489

  3. Contact-dependent killing by Caulobacter crescentus via cell surface-associated, glycine zipper proteins

    PubMed Central

    García-Bayona, Leonor; Guo, Monica S; Laub, Michael T

    2017-01-01

    Most bacteria are in fierce competition with other species for limited nutrients. Some bacteria can kill nearby cells by secreting bacteriocins, a diverse group of proteinaceous antimicrobials. However, bacteriocins are typically freely diffusible, and so of little value to planktonic cells in aqueous environments. Here, we identify an atypical two-protein bacteriocin in the α-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus that is retained on the surface of producer cells where it mediates cell contact-dependent killing. The bacteriocin-like proteins CdzC and CdzD harbor glycine-zipper motifs, often found in amyloids, and CdzC forms large, insoluble aggregates on the surface of producer cells. These aggregates can drive contact-dependent killing of other organisms, or Caulobacter cells not producing the CdzI immunity protein. The Cdz system uses a type I secretion system and is unrelated to previously described contact-dependent inhibition systems. However, Cdz-like systems are found in many bacteria, suggesting that this form of contact-dependent inhibition is common. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24869.001 PMID:28323618

  4. Mechanisms of Enhanced Cell Killing at Low Doses: Implications for Radiation Risk

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Peter J. Johnston; Dr. George D. Wilson

    2003-10-15

    We have shown that cell lethality actually measured after exposure to low-doses of low-LET radiation, is markedly enhanced relative to the cell lethality previously expected by extrapolation of the high-dose cell-killing response. Net cancer risk is a balance between cell transformation and cell kill and such enhanced lethality may more than compensate for transformation at low radiation doses over a least the first 10 cGy of low-LET exposure. This would lead to a non-linear, threshold, dose-risk relationship. Therefore our data imply the possibility that the adverse effects of small radiation doses (<10 cGy) could be overestimated in specific cases. It is now important to research the mechanisms underlying the phenomenon of low-dose hypersensitivity to cell killing, in order to determine whether this can be generalized to safely allow an increase in radiation exposure limits. This would have major cost-reduction implications for the whole EM program.

  5. Contact-dependent killing by Caulobacter crescentus via cell surface-associated, glycine zipper proteins.

    PubMed

    García-Bayona, Leonor; Guo, Monica S; Laub, Michael T

    2017-03-21

    Most bacteria are in fierce competition with other species for limited nutrients. Some bacteria can kill nearby cells by secreting bacteriocins, a diverse group of proteinaceous antimicrobials. However, bacteriocins are typically freely diffusible, and so of little value to planktonic cells in aqueous environments. Here, we identify an atypical two-protein bacteriocin in the α-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus that is retained on the surface of producer cells where it mediates cell contact-dependent killing. The bacteriocin-like proteins CdzC and CdzD harbor glycine-zipper motifs, often found in amyloids, and CdzC forms large, insoluble aggregates on the surface of producer cells. These aggregates can drive contact-dependent killing of other organisms, or Caulobacter cells not producing the CdzI immunity protein. The Cdz system uses a type I secretion system and is unrelated to previously described contact-dependent inhibition systems. However, Cdz-like systems are found in many bacteria, suggesting that this form of contact-dependent inhibition is common.

  6. Killing Two Cells with One Stone: Pharmacologic BCL-2 Family Targeting for Cancer Cell Death and Immune Modulation.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Lindsey M; Nassin, Michele L; Hadji, Abbas; LaBelle, James L

    2016-01-01

    A crucial component of regulating organismal homeostasis is maintaining proper cell number and eliminating damaged or potentially malignant cells. Apoptosis, or programed cell death, is the mechanism responsible for this equilibrium. The intrinsic apoptotic pathway is also especially important in the development and maintenance of the immune system. Apoptosis is essential for proper positive and negative selection during B- and T-cell development and for efficient contraction of expanded lymphocytes following an immune response. Tight regulation of the apoptotic pathway is critical, as excessive cell death can lead to immunodeficiency while apoptotic resistance can lead to aberrant lymphoproliferation and autoimmune disease. Dysregulation of cell death is implicated in a wide range of hematological malignancies, and targeting various components of the apoptotic machinery in these cases is an attractive chemotherapeutic strategy. A wide array of compounds has been developed with the purpose of reactivating the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. These compounds, termed BH3 mimetics are garnering considerable attention as they gain greater clinical oncologic significance. As their use expands, it will be imperative to understand the effects these compounds have on immune homeostasis. Uncovering their potential immunomodulatory activity may allow for administration of BH3 mimetics for direct tumor cell killing as well as novel therapies for a wide range of immune-based directives. This review will summarize the major proteins involved in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and define their roles in normal immune development and disease. Clinical and preclinical BH3 mimetics are described within the context of what is currently known about their ability to affect immune function. Prospects for future antitumor immune amplification and immune modulation are then proposed.

  7. Killing Two Cells with One Stone: Pharmacologic BCL-2 Family Targeting for Cancer Cell Death and Immune Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Lindsey M.; Nassin, Michele L.; Hadji, Abbas; LaBelle, James L.

    2016-01-01

    A crucial component of regulating organismal homeostasis is maintaining proper cell number and eliminating damaged or potentially malignant cells. Apoptosis, or programed cell death, is the mechanism responsible for this equilibrium. The intrinsic apoptotic pathway is also especially important in the development and maintenance of the immune system. Apoptosis is essential for proper positive and negative selection during B- and T-cell development and for efficient contraction of expanded lymphocytes following an immune response. Tight regulation of the apoptotic pathway is critical, as excessive cell death can lead to immunodeficiency while apoptotic resistance can lead to aberrant lymphoproliferation and autoimmune disease. Dysregulation of cell death is implicated in a wide range of hematological malignancies, and targeting various components of the apoptotic machinery in these cases is an attractive chemotherapeutic strategy. A wide array of compounds has been developed with the purpose of reactivating the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. These compounds, termed BH3 mimetics are garnering considerable attention as they gain greater clinical oncologic significance. As their use expands, it will be imperative to understand the effects these compounds have on immune homeostasis. Uncovering their potential immunomodulatory activity may allow for administration of BH3 mimetics for direct tumor cell killing as well as novel therapies for a wide range of immune-based directives. This review will summarize the major proteins involved in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and define their roles in normal immune development and disease. Clinical and preclinical BH3 mimetics are described within the context of what is currently known about their ability to affect immune function. Prospects for future antitumor immune amplification and immune modulation are then proposed. PMID:28066751

  8. Agonist antibody that induces human malignant cells to kill one another.

    PubMed

    Yea, Kyungmoo; Zhang, Hongkai; Xie, Jia; Jones, Teresa M; Lin, Chih-Wei; Francesconi, Walter; Berton, Fulvia; Fallahi, Mohammad; Sauer, Karsten; Lerner, Richard A

    2015-11-10

    An attractive, but as yet generally unrealized, approach to cancer therapy concerns discovering agents that change the state of differentiation of the cancer cells. Recently, we discovered a phenomenon that we call "receptor pleiotropism" in which agonist antibodies against known receptors induce cell fates that are very different from those induced by the natural agonist to the same receptor. Here, we show that one can take advantage of this phenomenon to convert acute myeloblastic leukemic cells into natural killer cells. Upon induction with the antibody, these leukemic cells enter into a differentiation cascade in which as many as 80% of the starting leukemic cells can be differentiated. The antibody-induced killer cells make large amounts of perforin, IFN-γ, and granzyme B and attack and kill other members of the leukemic cell population. Importantly, induction of killer cells is confined to transformed cells, in that normal bone marrow cells are not induced to form killer cells. Thus, it seems possible to use agonist antibodies to change the differentiation state of cancer cells into those that attack and kill other members of the malignant clone from which they originate.

  9. Insufficient natural killer cell responses against retroviruses: how to improve NK cell killing of retrovirus-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Littwitz-Salomon, Elisabeth; Dittmer, Ulf; Sutter, Kathrin

    2016-11-08

    Natural killer (NK) cells belong to the innate immune system and protect against cancers and a variety of viruses including retroviruses by killing transformed or infected cells. They express activating and inhibitory receptors on their cell surface and often become activated after recognizing virus-infected cells. They have diverse antiviral effector functions like the release of cytotoxic granules, cytokine production and antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity. The importance of NK cell activity in retroviral infections became evident due to the discovery of several viral strategies to escape recognition and elimination by NK cells. Mutational sequence polymorphisms as well as modulation of surface receptors and their ligands are mechanisms of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 to evade NK cell-mediated immune pressure. In Friend retrovirus infected mice the virus can manipulate molecular or cellular immune factors that in turn suppress the NK cell response. In this model NK cells lack cytokines for optimal activation and can be functionally suppressed by regulatory T cells. However, these inhibitory pathways can be overcome therapeutically to achieve full activation of NK cell responses and ultimately control dissemination of retroviral infection. One effective approach is to modulate the crosstalk between NK cells and dendritic cells, which produce NK cell-stimulating cytokines like type I interferons (IFN), IL-12, IL-15, and IL-18 upon retrovirus sensing or infection. Therapeutic administration of IFNα directly increases NK cell killing of retrovirus-infected cells. In addition, IL-2/anti-IL-2 complexes that direct IL-2 to NK cells have been shown to significantly improve control of retroviral infection by NK cells in vivo. In this review, we describe novel approaches to improve NK cell effector functions in retroviral infections. Immunotherapies that target NK cells of patients suffering from viral infections might be a promising treatment option for the

  10. Fetal and adult multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells are killed by different pathways.

    PubMed

    Götherström, Cecilia; Lundqvist, Andreas; Duprez, Ida Rasmusson; Childs, Richard; Berg, Louise; le Blanc, Katarina

    2011-03-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, also known as mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), can be isolated from adult and fetal tissues. Recently, there has been considerable interest in MSC because they have features favorable for transplantation, namely their multipotency and non-immunogenic properties. We analyzed how human MSC derived from first-trimester fetal liver and adult bone marrow interact with naive and activated innate natural killer (NK) cells. NK cell function was studied by measuring killing of MSC, as well as degranulation (CD107a) induced by MSC. To assess the importance of NK cell killing, expression of surface epitopes was analyzed by flow cytometry on MSC before and after stimulation with interferon (IFN)γ. Fetal and adult MSC express several ligands to activating NK cell receptors as well as low levels of HLA class I, with large inter-individual variation. Naive peripheral blood NK cells did not lyse fetal or adult MSC, whereas interleukin (IL)2 activated allogeneic as well as autologous NK cells did. Pre-incubation of MSC with IFN-γ increased their levels of HLA class I, protecting them from NK cell recognition. Fetal and adult MSC were preferably killed via the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and Fas ligand (FasL) pathways, respectively. Blocking NKG2D reduced NK cell degranulation in both fetal and adult MSC. Fetal and adult MSC differ in their interactions with NK cells. Both fetal and adult MSC are susceptible to lysis by activated NK cells, which may have implications for the use of MSC in cell therapy.

  11. Loss of DNAM-1 ligand expression by acute myeloid leukemia cells renders them resistant to NK cell killing.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Conor J; Ramsbottom, Kelly M; Voskoboinik, Ilia; Darcy, Phillip K; Oliaro, Jane

    2016-08-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with poor natural killer (NK) cell function through aberrant expression of NK-cell-activating receptors and their ligands on tumor cells. These alterations are thought to promote formation of inhibitory NK-target cell synapses, in which killer cell degranulation is attenuated. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation can be effective in treating AML, through restoration of NK cell lytic activity. Similarly, agents that augment NK-cell-activating signals within the immunological synapse may provide some therapeutic benefit. However, the receptor-ligand interactions that critically dictate NK cell function in AML remain undefined. Here, we demonstrate that CD112/CD155 expression is required for DNAM-1-dependent killing of AML cells. Indeed, the low, or absent, expression of CD112/CD155 on multiple AML cell lines resulted in failure to stimulate optimal NK cell function. Importantly, isolated clones with low CD112/155 expression were resistant to NK cell killing while those expressing abundant levels of CD112/155 were highly susceptible. Attenuated NK cell killing in the absence of CD112/CD155 originated from decreased NK-target cell conjugation. Furthermore, we reveal by time-lapse microscopy, a significant increase in NK cell 'failed killing' in the absence of DNAM-1 ligands. Consequently, NK cells preferentially lysed ligand-expressing cells within heterogeneous populations, driving clonal selection of CD112/CD155-negative blasts upon NK cell attack. Taken together, we identify reduced CD155 expression as a major NK cell escape mechanism in AML and an opportunity for targeted immunotherapy.

  12. HIV-1 Vpu Downmodulates ICAM-1 Expression, Resulting in Decreased Killing of Infected CD4+ T Cells by NK Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sugden, Scott M.; Pham, Tram N. Q.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV-1 Vpu is known to alter the expression of numerous cell surface molecules. Given the ever-increasing list of Vpu targets identified to date, we undertook a proteomic screen to discover novel cell membrane proteins modulated by this viral protein. Plasma membrane proteome isolates from Vpu-inducible T cells were subjected to stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based mass spectrometry analysis, and putative targets were validated by infection of primary CD4+ T cells. We report here that while intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and ICAM-3 are upregulated by HIV-1 infection, expression of Vpu offsets this increase by downregulating these molecules from the cell surface. Specifically, we show that Vpu is sufficient to downregulate and deplete ICAM-1 in a manner requiring the Vpu transmembrane domain and a dual-serine (S52/S56) motif necessary for recruitment of the beta-transducin repeat-containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (β-TrCP) component of the Skp, Cullin, F-box (SCFβ-TrCP) E3 ubiquitin ligase. Vpu interacts with ICAM-1 to induce its proteasomal degradation. Interestingly, the E3 ubiquitin ligase component β-TrCP-1 is dispensable for ICAM-1 surface downregulation yet is necessary for ICAM-1 degradation. Functionally, Vpu-mediated ICAM-1 downregulation lowers packaging of this adhesion molecule into virions, resulting in decreased infectivity. Importantly, while Vpu-mediated downregulation of ICAM-3 has a limited effect on the conjugation of NK cells to HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells, downregulation of ICAM-1 by Vpu results in a reduced ability of NK cells to bind and kill infected T cells. Vpu-mediated ICAM-1 downregulation may therefore represent an evolutionary compromise in viral fitness by impeding the formation of cell-to-cell contacts between immune cells and infected T cells at the cost of decreased virion infectivity. IMPORTANCE The major barrier to eradicating HIV-1 infection is the establishment of

  13. Enhanced cell killing and apoptosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells with ultrasound in combination with cetuximab coated albumin microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Narihira, Kyoichi; Watanabe, Akiko; Sheng, Hong; Endo, Hitomi; Feril, Loreto B; Irie, Yutaka; Ogawa, Koichi; Moosavi-Nejad, Seyedeh; Kondo, Seiji; Kikuta, Toshihiro; Tachibana, Katsuro

    2017-08-25

    Targeted microbubbles have the potential to be used for ultrasound (US) therapy and diagnosis of various cancers. In the present study, US was irradiated to oral squamous cell carcinoma cells (HSC-2) in the presence of cetuximab-coated albumin microbubbles (CCAM). Cell killing rate with US treatment at 0.9 W/cm(2) and 1.0 W/cm(2) in the presence of CCAM was greater compared to non-targeted albumin microbubbles (p < .05). On the other hand, selective cell killing was not observed in human myelomonocytic lymphoma cell line (U937) that had no affinity to cetuximab. Furthermore, US irradiation in the presence of CCAM showed a fivefold increase of cell apoptotic rate for HSC-2 cells (21.0 ± 3.8%) as compared to U937 cells (4.0 ± 0.8%). Time-signal intensity curve in a tissue phantom demonstrated clear visualisation of CCAM with conventional US imaging device. Our experiment verifies the hypothesis that CCAM was selective to HSC-2 cells and may be applied as a novel therapeutic/diagnostic microbubble for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  14. Killing Range

    PubMed Central

    Asal, Victor; Rethemeyer, R. Karl; Horgan, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the Provisional Irish Republican Army's (PIRA) brigade level behavior during the Northern Ireland Conflict (1970-1998) and identifies the organizational factors that impact a brigade's lethality as measured via terrorist attacks. Key independent variables include levels of technical expertise, cadre age, counter-terrorism policies experienced, brigade size, and IED components and delivery methods. We find that technical expertise within a brigade allows for careful IED usage, which significantly minimizes civilian casualties (a specific strategic goal of PIRA) while increasing the ability to kill more high value targets with IEDs. Lethal counter-terrorism events also significantly affect a brigade's likelihood of killing both civilians and high-value targets but in different ways. Killing PIRA members significantly decreases IED fatalities but also significantly decreases the possibility of zero civilian IED-related deaths in a given year. Killing innocent Catholics in a Brigade's county significantly increases total and civilian IED fatalities. Together the results suggest the necessity to analyze dynamic situational variables that impact terrorist group behavior at the sub-unit level. PMID:25838603

  15. Polysaccharide nano-vesicular multidrug carriers for synergistic killing of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Pramod, P S; Shah, Ruchira; Chaphekar, Sonali; Balasubramanian, Nagaraj; Jayakannan, Manickam

    2014-10-21

    Multi-drug delivery based on polymer nano-scaffolds is an essential protocol to be developed for better administration of anticancer drugs to enhance their therapeutic efficacies against cancer cells. Here, we report dual delivery polysaccharide nano-vesicles that are capable of loading and delivering both water soluble and water insoluble drugs together in a single polymer scaffold. The selective rupture of the nano-vesicular assembly under intracellular enzyme conditions allowed the simultaneous delivery of a hydrophobic drug camptothecin (CPT) and hydrophilic drug doxorubicin (DOX) supporting their synergistic killing of breast and colon cancer cells. The polysaccharide nano-vesicles have allowed us to address a few important questions regarding the need for multiple drug administration in cancer cells including (a) the role of simultaneous drug release, (b) antagonistic versus synergistic effects of drug combinations and (c) how these are affected by the ratio of drugs. Further, evaluation of the role of caveolae in endocytosis of these polymer scaffolds was also made. The vesicular scaffolds were found to preserve and deliver DOX resulting in 50-60% better killing of cancer cells than the free drug. Additionally, dual loaded nano-vesicles when compared to drug cocktails with individual drugs in separate nano-vesicles (at comparable molar ratios) suggest the relative drug concentration following release and mode of delivery to be both important in cancer cell killing. Results from these experiments have revealed newly developed polysaccharide nano-vesicles loaded with DOX and CPT drugs as potential candidates for improved breast cancer cell killing. Thus, these custom-designed polysaccharide nano-vesicles provide a new perspective on multi-anticancer drug delivery systems and their efficacy.

  16. Failed CTL/NK cell killing and cytokine hypersecretion are directly linked through prolonged synapse time

    PubMed Central

    Rudd-Schmidt, Jesse A.; Lopez, Jamie A.; Ramsbottom, Kelly M.; Mannering, Stuart I.; Andrews, Daniel M.; Voskoboinik, Ilia

    2015-01-01

    Failure of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) or natural killer (NK) cells to kill target cells by perforin (Prf)/granzyme (Gzm)-induced apoptosis causes severe immune dysregulation. In familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, Prf-deficient infants suffer a fatal “cytokine storm” resulting from macrophage overactivation, but the link to failed target cell death is not understood. We show that prolonged target cell survival greatly amplifies the quanta of inflammatory cytokines secreted by CTLs/NK cells and that interferon-γ (IFN-γ) directly invokes the activation and secondary overproduction of proinflammatory IL-6 from naive macrophages. Furthermore, using live cell microscopy to visualize hundreds of synapses formed between wild-type, Prf-null, or GzmA/B-null CTLs/NK cells and their targets in real time, we show that hypersecretion of IL-2, TNF, IFN-γ, and various chemokines is linked to failed disengagement of Prf- or Gzm-deficient lymphocytes from their targets, with mean synapse time increased fivefold, from ∼8 to >40 min. Surprisingly, the signal for detachment arose from the dying target cell and was caspase dependent, as delaying target cell death with various forms of caspase blockade also prevented their disengagement from fully competent CTLs/NK cells and caused cytokine hypersecretion. Our findings provide the cellular mechanism through which failed killing by lymphocytes causes systemic inflammation involving recruitment and activation of myeloid cells. PMID:25732304

  17. Failed CTL/NK cell killing and cytokine hypersecretion are directly linked through prolonged synapse time.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Misty R; Rudd-Schmidt, Jesse A; Lopez, Jamie A; Ramsbottom, Kelly M; Mannering, Stuart I; Andrews, Daniel M; Voskoboinik, Ilia; Trapani, Joseph A

    2015-03-09

    Failure of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) or natural killer (NK) cells to kill target cells by perforin (Prf)/granzyme (Gzm)-induced apoptosis causes severe immune dysregulation. In familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, Prf-deficient infants suffer a fatal "cytokine storm" resulting from macrophage overactivation, but the link to failed target cell death is not understood. We show that prolonged target cell survival greatly amplifies the quanta of inflammatory cytokines secreted by CTLs/NK cells and that interferon-γ (IFN-γ) directly invokes the activation and secondary overproduction of proinflammatory IL-6 from naive macrophages. Furthermore, using live cell microscopy to visualize hundreds of synapses formed between wild-type, Prf-null, or GzmA/B-null CTLs/NK cells and their targets in real time, we show that hypersecretion of IL-2, TNF, IFN-γ, and various chemokines is linked to failed disengagement of Prf- or Gzm-deficient lymphocytes from their targets, with mean synapse time increased fivefold, from ∼8 to >40 min. Surprisingly, the signal for detachment arose from the dying target cell and was caspase dependent, as delaying target cell death with various forms of caspase blockade also prevented their disengagement from fully competent CTLs/NK cells and caused cytokine hypersecretion. Our findings provide the cellular mechanism through which failed killing by lymphocytes causes systemic inflammation involving recruitment and activation of myeloid cells.

  18. Gene expression profile of THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhi-De; Wei, Ting-Ting; Tang, Qing-Qin; Ma, Ning; Wang, Li-Li; Qin, Bao-Dong; Yin, Jian-Rong; Zhou, Lin; Zhong, Ren-Qian

    2016-05-01

    Mechanisms under immune response against Candida albicans (C. albicans) remain largely unknown. To better understand the mechanisms of innate immune response against C. albicans, we analyzed the gene expression profile of THP-1 cells stimulated with heat-killed C. albicans. THP-1 cells were stimulated with heat-killed C. albicans for 9 hours at a ratio of 1:1, and gene expression profile of the cells was analyzed using Whole Human Genome Oligo Microarray. Differentially expressed genes were defined as change folds more than 2 and with statistical significance. Gene ontology (GO) and pathway analysis were used to systematically identify biological connections of differentially expressed genes, as well as the pathways associated with the immune response against C. albicans. A total of 355 genes were up-regulated and 715 genes were down-regulated significantly. The up-regulated genes were particularly involved in biological process of RNA processing and pathway of the spliceosome. In case of down-regulated genes, the particularly involved immune-related pathways were G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway, calcium signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway and Ras pathway. We depict the gene expression profile of heat-killed C. albicans stimulated THP-1 cells, and identify the major pathways involved in immune response against C. albicans. These pathways are potential candidate targets for developing anti-C. albicans agent.

  19. Evaluation of Bystander Cell Killing Effects in Suicide Gene Therapy of Cancer: Engineered Thymidylate Kinase (TMPK)/AZT Enzyme-Prodrug Axis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takeya; Neschadim, Anton; Nakagawa, Ryo; Yanagisawa, Teruyuki; Medin, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Suicide gene therapy of cancer (SGTC) entails the introduction of a cDNA sequence into tumor cells whose polypeptide product is capable of either directly activating apoptotic pathways itself or facilitating the activation of pharmacologic agents that do so. The latter class of SGTC approaches is of the greater utility in cancer therapy owing to the ability of some small, activated cytotoxic compounds to diffuse from their site of activation into neighboring malignant cells, where they can also mediate destruction. This phenomenon, termed "bystander killing", can be highly advantageous in driving significant tumor regression in vivo without the requirement of transduction of each and every tumor cell with the suicide gene. We have developed a robust suicide gene therapy enzyme/prodrug system based on an engineered variant of the human thymidylate kinase (TMPK), which has been endowed with the ability to drive azidothymidine (AZT) activation. Delivery of this suicide gene sequence into tumors by means of recombinant lentivirus-mediated transduction embodies an SGTC strategy that successfully employs bystander cell killing as a mechanism to achieve significant ablation of solid tumors in vivo. Thus, this engineered TMPK/AZT suicide gene therapy axis holds great promise for clinical application in the treatment of inoperable solid tumors in the neoadjuvant setting. Here we present detailed procedures for the preparation of recombinant TMPK-based lentivirus, transduction of target cells, and various approaches for the evaluation of bystander cell killing effects in SGCT in both in vitro and in vivo models.

  20. Photo-oxidative killing of human colonic cancer cells using indocyanine green and infrared light

    PubMed Central

    Bäumler, W; Abels, C; Karrer, S; Weiß, T; Messmann, H; Landthaler, M; Szeimies, R-M

    1999-01-01

    Despite of the approval of Photofrin® in various countries, chemically defined sensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT) are still needed for the absorption of light in the infrared spectrum, which provides a maximal penetration of light into tissue. Therefore, both the efficacy and the mechanism of action of the clinically approved dye indocyanine green (ICG) and laser irradiation were investigated in vitro. For the investigation of phototoxic effects, HT-29 cells were incubated 24 h prior to irradiation by using different concentrations of ICG (10–500 μM). In each experiment, cells were irradiated using a continuous wave (cw)-diode laser (λex = 805 nm, 30 J cm−2, 40 mW cm−2). After laser irradiation, cell viability of dark control and of cells incubated with 500 μM ICG was 1.27 ± 0.11 or 0.28 ± 0.05 respectively. Using 100 μM ICG and D2O, cell viability was further decreased from 0.46 ± 0.03 (H2O) to 0.11 ± 0.01 (D2O). Using D2O and 100 μM ICG, the concentration of malondialdehyde, a marker of lipid peroxidation, increased from 0.89 ± 0.10 nmol 10−6 cells to 11.14 ± 0.11 nmol 10−6 cells. Using 100 μM ICG and laser irradiation sodium azide or histidine (50 mM), quenchers of singlet oxygen reduced the cell killing significantly. In contrast, when using mannitol, a quencher of superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical, cell killing was not inhibited. According to the present results, photoactivated ICG seems to kill colonic cancer cells due to the generation of singlet oxygen and the subsequent formation of lipid peroxides. Therefore, ICG might present a promising photosensitizer for PDT; first clinical results confirm these findings. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10408838

  1. TRAIL-R2-specific antibodies and recombinant TRAIL can synergise to kill cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tuthill, M H; Montinaro, A; Zinngrebe, J; Prieske, K; Draber, P; Prieske, S; Newsom-Davis, T; von Karstedt, S; Graves, J; Walczak, H

    2015-04-16

    Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in cancer cells while sparing normal tissues. Despite promising preclinical results, few patients responded to treatment with recombinant TRAIL (Apo2L/Dulanermin) or TRAIL-R2-specific antibodies, such as conatumumab (AMG655). It is unknown whether this was due to intrinsic TRAIL resistance within primary human cancers or insufficient agonistic activity of the TRAIL-receptor (TRAIL-R)-targeting drugs. Fcγ receptors (FcγR)-mediated crosslinking increases the cancer-cell-killing activity of TRAIL-R2-specific antibodies in vivo. We tested this phenomenon using FcγR-expressing immune cells from patients with ovarian cancer. However, even in the presence of high numbers of FcγR-expressing immune cells, as found in ovarian cancer ascites, AMG655-induced apoptosis was not enabled to any significant degree, indicating that this concept may not translate into clinical use. On the basis of these results, we next set out to determine whether AMG655 possibly interferes with apoptosis induction by endogenous TRAIL, which could be expressed by immune cells. To do so, we tested how AMG655 affected apoptosis induction by recombinant TRAIL. This, however, resulted in the surprising discovery of a striking synergy between AMG655 and non-tagged TRAIL (Apo2L/TRAIL) in killing cancer cells. This combination was as effective in killing cancer cells as highly active recombinant isoleucine-zipper-tagged TRAIL (iz-TRAIL). The increased killing efficiency was due to enhanced formation of the TRAIL death-inducing signalling complex, enabled by concomitant binding of Apo2L/TRAIL and AMG655 to TRAIL-R2. The synergy of AMG655 with Apo2L/TRAIL extended to primary ovarian cancer cells and was further enhanced by combination with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib or a second mitochondrial-derived activator of caspases (SMAC) mimetic. Importantly, primary human hepatocytes were not killed by the AMG655-Apo2L

  2. A Small-Molecule Inhibitor of BCL6 Kills DLBCL Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Cerchietti, L.C.; Ghetu, A.F.; Zhu, X.; Da Silva, G.F.; Zhong, S.; Matthews, M.; Bunting, K.L.; Polo, J.M.; Fares, C.; Arrowsmith, C.H.; Yang, S.N.; Garcia, M.; Coop, A.; Mackerell, A.D.; Prive, G.G.; Melnick, A.

    2010-09-22

    The BCL6 transcriptional repressor is the most frequently involved oncogene in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We combined computer-aided drug design with functional assays to identify low-molecular-weight compounds that bind to the corepressor binding groove of the BCL6 BTB domain. One such compound disrupted BCL6/corepressor complexes in vitro and in vivo, and was observed by X-ray crystallography and NMR to bind the critical site within the BTB groove. This compound could induce expression of BCL6 target genes and kill BCL6-positive DLBCL cell lines. In xenotransplantation experiments, the compound was nontoxic and potently suppressed DLBCL tumors in vivo. The compound also killed primary DLBCLs from human patients.

  3. Mink Cell Focus-Forming Murine Leukemia Virus Killing of Mink Cells Involves Apoptosis and Superinfection

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Fayth K.; Wang, Tao; Nanua, Suparna

    2001-01-01

    Induction of apoptosis by different types of pathogenic retroviruses is an important step in disease development. We have observed that infection of thymic lymphocytes by the mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia virus (MCF MLV) during the preleukemic period resulted in an enhancement of apoptosis of these cells. To further study the ability of MCF MLVs to induce apoptosis and the role of this process in viral pathogenesis, we have developed an in vitro system of virus-induced apoptosis. MCF13 MLV infection of mink epithelial cells resulted in the production of cytopathic foci. In contrast, infection of mink cells with the 4070A amphotropic MLV did not produce any cytopathic effects. Staining of MCF13 MLV-infected cells with propidium iodide and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate indicated that virus-induced cell death was due to apoptosis. At 6 days postinfection, the percentage of apoptotic MCF13 MLV-infected cells was 27% compared with 2 to 3% for mock- or amphotropic MLV-infected cells, representing a 9- to 14-fold difference. Assays for caspase-3 activation confirmed the detection by flow cytometry of apoptosis of MCF13 MLV-infected cells. Large amounts of unintegrated linear viral DNA were detectable by Southern blot analysis during the acute phase of infection, which indicated that MCF13 MLV is able to superinfect mink cells. Unintegrated viral DNA of only the linear form was detectable in thymic lymphocytes isolated from MCF13 MLV-inoculated mice during the preleukemic period. These results indicated that the ability of MCF13 MLV to induce apoptosis is correlated with its ability to superinfect cells and that this occurs as an early step in thymic lymphoma development. PMID:11390602

  4. Targeting the Human Complement Membrane Attack Complex to Selectively Kill Prostate Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Kill Prostate Cancer Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Samuel R. Denmeade, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Johns Hopkins University...Annual 3. DATES COVERED t 2011- 29 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER . Targeting the Human Complement Membrane Attack Complex to...Support: DOD Idea Award W81XWH-10-PCRP-IDA to SRD; DOD Predoctoral Fellowship W81XWH-09-1-0219 to MLM ; DOD Post-Doctoral Fellowship to MBK; Prostate

  5. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus kills stem-like tumor-initiating colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Susanne G; Haddad, Dana; Au, Joyce; Carson, Joshua S; O’Leary, Michael P; Lewis, Christina; Monette, Sebastien; Fong, Yuman

    2016-01-01

    Stem-like tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are implicated in cancer progression and recurrence, and can be identified by sphere-formation and tumorigenicity assays. Oncolytic viruses infect, replicate in, and kill a variety of cancer cells. In this study, we seek proof of principle that TICs are susceptible to viral infection. HCT8 human colon cancer cells were subjected to serum-free culture to generate TIC tumorspheres. Parent cells and TICs were infected with HSV-1 subtype NV1066. Cytotoxicity, viral replication, and Akt1 expression were assessed. TIC tumorigenicity was confirmed and NV1066 efficacy was assessed in vivo. NV1066 infection was highly cytotoxic to both parent HCT8 cells and TICs. In both populations, cell-kill of >80% was achieved within 3 days of infection at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1.0. However, the parent cells required 2-log greater viral replication to achieve the same cytotoxicity. TICs overexpressed Akt1 in vitro and formed flank tumors from as little as 100 cells, growing earlier, faster, larger, and with greater histologic atypia than tumors from parent cells. Treatment of TIC-induced tumors with NV1066 yielded tumor regression and slowed tumor growth. We conclude that colon TICs are selected for by serum-free culture, overexpress Akt1, and are susceptible to oncolytic viral infection. PMID:27347556

  6. Selective killing of human T cell lymphotropic virus type I-transformed cell lines by a damavaricin Fc derivative.

    PubMed

    Ito, S; Yamamoto, N; Nomoto, K; Sasaki, K; Onodera, K

    1989-05-01

    n-Pentyl ether of damavaricin Fc (n-pentyl DvFc) preferentially killed human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-transformed cell lines. The mechanism of action of the drug was investigated using MT-4 cells. Cytotoxic action was diminished by the removal of n-pentyl DvFc from the culture or by the addition of sulfhydryl compounds such as 2-mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol. The killing activity of n-pentyl DvFc was also diminished by membrane-acting agents including quinidine and diphenylhydantoin. Influx and subsequent efflux of Ca2+ were observed when either HTLV-I infected (MT-4 cells) or uninfected cells were treated with n-pentyl DvFc. An efflux of K+ was observed in HTLV-I infected MT-4 cells immediately after the exposure of the cells to n-pentyl DvFc. The K+ efflux, however, was not observed in the uninfected T cells. n-Pentyl DvFc seems to act primarily on the cell surface of MT-4 cells, leading to the perturbation of membrane function. The restoration of cell growth, however, is critically dependent on the presence of dithiothreitol and 2-mercaptoethanol, implying a role for a free sulfhydryl group in the killing activity.

  7. Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells Kill Chemo-surviving Melanoma Cancer Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Gammaitoni, Loretta; Giraudo, Lidia; Macagno, Marco; Leuci, Valeria; Mesiano, Giulia; Rotolo, Ramona; Sassi, Francesco; Sanlorenzo, Martina; Zaccagna, Alessandro; Pisacane, Alberto; Senetta, Rebecca; Cangemi, Michela; Cattaneo, Giulia; Martin, Valentina; Coha, Valentina; Gallo, Susanna; Pignochino, Ymera; Sapino, Anna; Grignani, Giovanni; Carnevale-Schianca, Fabrizio; Aglietta, Massimo; Sangiolo, Dario

    2017-05-01

    Purpose: The MHC-unrestricted activity of cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells against chemo-surviving melanoma cancer stem cells (mCSC) was explored, as CSCs are considered responsible for chemoresistance and relapses.Experimental Design: Putative mCSCs were visualized by engineering patient-derived melanoma cells (MC) with a lentiviral vector encoding eGFP under expression control by stemness gene promoter oct4 Their stemness potential was confirmed in vivo by limiting dilution assays. We explored the sensitivity of eGFP(+) mCSCs to chemotherapy (CHT), BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi) or CIK cells, as single agents or in sequence, in vitro First, we treated MCs in vitro with fotemustine or dabrafenib (BRAF-mutated cases); then, surviving MCs, enriched in mCSCs, were challenged with autologous CIK cells. CIK cell activity against chemoresistant mCSCs was confirmed in vivo in two distinct immunodeficient murine models.Results: We visualized eGFP(+) mCSCs (14% ± 2.1%) in 11 MCs. The tumorigenic precursor rate in vivo was higher within eGFP(+) MCs (1/42) compared with the eGFP(-) counterpart (1/4,870). In vitro mCSCs were relatively resistant to CHT and BRAFi, but killed by CIK cells (n = 11, 8/11 autologous), with specific lysis ranging from 95% [effector:tumor ratio (E:T), 40:1] to 20% (E:T 1:3). In vivo infusion of autologous CIK cells into mice bearing xenografts from three distinct melanomas demonstrated significant tumor responses involving CHT-spared eGFP(+) mCSCs (P = 0.001). Sequential CHT-immunotherapy treatment retained antitumor activity (n = 12, P = 0.001) reducing mCSC rates (P = 0.01).Conclusions: These findings are the first demonstration that immunotherapy with CIK cells is active against autologous mCSCs surviving CHT or BRAFi. An experimental platform for mCSC study and rationale for CIK cells in melanoma clinical study is provided. Clin Cancer Res; 23(9); 2277-88. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Adenanthin targets peroxiredoxin I/II to kill hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hou, J-K; Huang, Y; He, W; Yan, Z-W; Fan, L; Liu, M-H; Xiao, W-L; Sun, H-D; Chen, G-Q

    2014-09-04

    Adenanthin, a natural diterpenoid isolated from the leaves of Isodon adenanthus, has recently been reported to induce leukemic cell differentiation by targeting peroxiredoxins (Prx) I and II. On the other hand, increasing lines of evidence propose that these Prx proteins would become potential targets to screen drugs for the prevention and treatment of solid tumors. Therefore, it is of significance to explore the potential activities of adenanthin on solid tumor cells. Here, we demonstrate that Prx I protein is essential for the survival of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, and adenanthin can kill these malignant liver cells in vitro and xenografts. We also show that the cell death-inducing activity of adenanthin on HCC cells is mediated by the increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Furthermore, the silencing of Prx I or Prx II significantly enhances the cytotoxic activity of adenanthin on HCC, whereas the ectopic expression of Prx I and Prx II but not their mutants of adenanthin-bound cysteines can rescue adenanthin-induced cytotoxicity in Prxs-silenced HCC cells. Taken together, our results propose that adenanthin targets Prx I/II to kill HCC cells and its therapeutic significance warrants to be further explored in HCC patients.

  9. Adenanthin targets peroxiredoxin I/II to kill hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Hou, J-K; Huang, Y; He, W; Yan, Z-W; Fan, L; Liu, M-H; Xiao, W-L; Sun, H-D; Chen, G-Q

    2014-01-01

    Adenanthin, a natural diterpenoid isolated from the leaves of Isodon adenanthus, has recently been reported to induce leukemic cell differentiation by targeting peroxiredoxins (Prx) I and II. On the other hand, increasing lines of evidence propose that these Prx proteins would become potential targets to screen drugs for the prevention and treatment of solid tumors. Therefore, it is of significance to explore the potential activities of adenanthin on solid tumor cells. Here, we demonstrate that Prx I protein is essential for the survival of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, and adenanthin can kill these malignant liver cells in vitro and xenografts. We also show that the cell death-inducing activity of adenanthin on HCC cells is mediated by the increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Furthermore, the silencing of Prx I or Prx II significantly enhances the cytotoxic activity of adenanthin on HCC, whereas the ectopic expression of Prx I and Prx II but not their mutants of adenanthin-bound cysteines can rescue adenanthin-induced cytotoxicity in Prxs-silenced HCC cells. Taken together, our results propose that adenanthin targets Prx I/II to kill HCC cells and its therapeutic significance warrants to be further explored in HCC patients. PMID:25188510

  10. Vaccination against Legionella pneumophila: serum antibody correlates with protection induced by heat-killed or acetone-killed cells against intraperitoneal but not aerosol infection in guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Eisenstein, T K; Tamada, R; Meissler, J; Flesher, A; Oels, H C

    1984-01-01

    An aerosol model of Legionella infection has been established in guinea pigs. Infected animals showed growth of Legionella in their lungs, dissemination of organisms to the spleen, development of pneumonia and fever, and weight loss. Vaccination studies using heat-killed or acetone-killed cells were carried out, and guinea pigs were challenged intraperitoneally or by using the aerosol model of infection. Both vaccines were shown to give moderately high levels of protection against intraperitoneal challenge (28 to 145 50% lethal doses). Protection was found to be dose dependent and correlated with antibody levels as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to an outer membrane antigen and by indirect immunofluorescence to heat-killed cells. In contrast, the same vaccination regimens that protected against intraperitoneal challenge failed to protect guinea pigs against aerosol challenge with comparable doses of Legionella, despite the presence of serum antibody. The results are discussed in terms of the possible requirements for immunity to aerosolized Legionella, including secretory immunoglobulin or cell-mediated immunity. Images PMID:6469355

  11. Impact of Prolonged Fraction Delivery Times Simulating IMRT on Cultured Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cell Killing

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Xiaokang; Chen Longhua; Wang Wenjun; Ye Feng; Liu Jiabing; Li Qisheng; Sun Henwen

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact of prolonged fraction delivery times (FDTs) simulating intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) on cultured nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell killing. Methods and Material: Cultured NPC cell lines CNE1 and CNE2 were used in this study. The biological effectiveness of fractionated irradiation protocols simulating conventional external beam radiotherapy and IMRT (FDT of 15, 36, and 50 minutes) was estimated with standard colony assay, and the differences in cell surviving fractions after irradiation with different protocols were tested by use of the paired t test. The impact degree of prolonged FDTs (from 8 to 50 minutes) on cell killing was also assessed by the dose-modifying factors, which were estimated by comparing the effectiveness of intermittently delivered 2 Gy with that of continuously delivered 1.5 to 2 Gy. Results: The cell surviving fractions of both CNE1 and CNE2 after fractionated irradiation simulating IMRT were higher than those simulating conventional external beam radiotherapy (p < 0.05). The dose-modifying factors for a fraction dose of 2 Gy increased from 1.05 to 1.18 for CNE1 and from 1.05 to 1.11 for CNE2 with the FDT being prolonged from 15 to 50 minutes. Conclusions: This study showed that the prolonged FDTs simulating IMRT significantly decreased the cell killing in both CNE1 and CNE2 cell lines, and these negative effects increased with the FDT being prolonged from 15 to 50 minutes. These effects, if confirmed by in vivo and clinical studies, need to be considered in designing IMRT treatments for NPC.

  12. Hydrodynamic cavitation kills prostate cells and ablates benign prostatic hyperplasia tissue.

    PubMed

    Itah, Zeynep; Oral, Ozlem; Perk, Osman Yavuz; Sesen, Muhsincan; Demir, Ebru; Erbil, Secil; Dogan-Ekici, A Isin; Ekici, Sinan; Kosar, Ali; Gozuacik, Devrim

    2013-11-01

    Hydrodynamic cavitation is a physical phenomenon characterized by vaporization and bubble formation in liquids under low local pressures, and their implosion following their release to a higher pressure environment. Collapse of the bubbles releases high energy and may cause damage to exposed surfaces. We recently designed a set-up to exploit the destructive nature of hydrodynamic cavitation for biomedical purposes. We have previously shown that hydrodynamic cavitation could kill leukemia cells and erode kidney stones. In this study, we analyzed the effects of cavitation on prostate cells and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) tissue. We showed that hydrodynamic cavitation could kill prostate cells in a pressure- and time-dependent manner. Cavitation did not lead to programmed cell death, i.e. classical apoptosis or autophagy activation. Following the application of cavitation, we observed no prominent DNA damage and cells did not arrest in the cell cycle. Hence, we concluded that cavitation forces directly damaged the cells, leading to their pulverization. Upon application to BPH tissues from patients, cavitation could lead to a significant level of tissue destruction. Therefore similar to ultrasonic cavitation, we propose that hydrodynamic cavitation has the potential to be exploited and developed as an approach for the ablation of aberrant pathological tissues, including BPH.

  13. Menadione reduction by pharmacological doses of ascorbate induces an oxidative stress that kills breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Beck, Raphaël; Verrax, Julien; Dejeans, Nicolas; Taper, Henryk; Calderon, Pedro Buc

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress generated by ascorbate-driven menadione redox cycling kills MCF7 cells by a concerted mechanism including glycolysis inhibition, loss of calcium homeostasis, DNA damage and changes in mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) activities. Cell death is mediated by necrosis rather than apoptosis or macroautophagy. Neither 3-methyladenine nor Z-VAD affects cytotoxicity by ascorbate/menadione (Asc/Men). BAPTA-AM, by restoring cellular capacity to reduce MTT, underlines the role of calcium in the necrotic process. Oxidative stress-mediated cell death is shown by the opposite effects of N-acetylcysteine and 3-aminotriazole. Moreover, oxidative stress induces DNA damage (protein poly-ADP-ribosylation and gamma-H2AX phosphorylation) and inhibits glycolysis. Asc/Men deactivates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) while activating p38, suggesting an additional mechanism to kill MCF7 cells. Since ascorbate is taken up by cancer cells and, due to their antioxidant enzyme deficiency, oxidative stress should affect cancer cells to a greater extent than normal cells. This differential sensitivity may have clinical applications.

  14. Cell Intrinsic Galectin-3 Attenuates Neutrophil ROS-Dependent Killing of Candida by Modulating CR3 Downstream Syk Activation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sheng-Yang; Huang, Juin-Hua; Chen, Wen-Yu; Chan, Yi-Chen; Lin, Chun-Hung; Chen, Yee-Chun; Liu, Fu-Tong; Wu-Hsieh, Betty A.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis is a leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection. Neutrophils are the important effector cells in host resistance to candidiasis. To investigate the modulation of neutrophil fungicidal function will advance our knowledge on the control of candidiasis. While recombinant galectin-3 enhances neutrophil phagocytosis of Candida, we found that intracellular galectin-3 downregulates neutrophil fungicidal functions. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence staining reveal that cytosolic gal3 physically interacts with Syk in neutrophils after Candida stimulation. Gal3−/− neutrophils have higher level of Syk activation as well as greater abilities to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and kill Candida than gal3+/+ cells. While galectin-3 deficiency modulates neutrophil and macrophage activation and the recruitment of monocytes and dendritic cells, the deficiency does not affect the numbers of infiltrating neutrophils or macrophages. Galectin-3 deficiency ameliorates systemic candidiasis by reducing fungal burden, renal pathology, and mortality. Adoptive transfer experiments demonstrate that cell intrinsic galectin-3 negatively regulates neutrophil effector functions against candidiasis. Reducing galectin-3 expression or activity by siRNA or gal3 inhibitor TD139 enhances human neutrophil ROS production. Mice treated with TD139 have enhanced ability to clear the fungus. Our work unravels the mechanism by which galectin-3 regulates Syk-dependent neutrophil fungicidal functions and raises the possibility that blocking gal3 in neutrophils may be a promising therapeutic strategy for treating systemic candidiasis. PMID:28217127

  15. Fenugreek, a naturally occurring edible spice, kills MCF-7 human breast cancer cells via an apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Khoja, Kholoud K; Shaf, Gowhar; Hasan, Tarique N; Syed, Naveed Ahmed; Al-Khalifa, Abdrohman S; Al-Assaf, Abdullah H; Alshatwi, Ali A

    2011-01-01

    There is growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicines worldwide. Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek) is traditionally applied to treat disorders such as diabetes, high cholesterol, wounds, inflammation, and gastrointestinal ailments. Fenugreek is also reported to have anticancer properties due to its active beneficial chemical constituents. The mechanism of action of several anticancer drugs is based on their ability to induce apoptosis. The objective of the study was to characterize the downstream apoptotic genes targeted by FCE in MCF-7 human immortalized breast cells. FCE effectively killed MCF-7 cells through induction of apoptosis,confirmed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and RT-PCR assays. When cells were exposed to 50 μg/mL FCE for 24 hours, 23.2% apoptotic cells resulted, while a 48-hour exposure to 50 μg/mL caused 73.8% apoptosis. This was associated with increased expression of Caspase 3, 8, 9, p53, Fas, FADD, Bax and Bak in a time-and dose-dependent manner, as determined by real- time quantitative PCR. In summary, the induction of apoptosis by FCE is effected by its ability to increase the expression of pro-apoptotic genes and the spice holds promise for consideration in complementary therapy for breast cancer patients.

  16. Biodegradable polymeric micelle-encapsulated doxorubicin suppresses tumor metastasis by killing circulating tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Senyi; Wu, Qinjie; Zhao, Yuwei; Zheng, Xin; Wu, Ni; Pang, Jing; Li, Xuejing; Bi, Cheng; Liu, Xinyu; Yang, Li; Liu, Lei; Su, Weijun; Wei, Yuquan; Gong, Changyang

    2015-03-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) play a crucial role in tumor metastasis, but it is rare for any chemotherapy regimen to focus on killing CTCs. Herein, we describe doxorubicin (Dox) micelles that showed anti-metastatic activity by killing CTCs. Dox micelles with a small particle size and high encapsulation efficiency were obtained using a pH-induced self-assembly method. Compared with free Dox, Dox micelles exhibited improved cytotoxicity, apoptosis induction, and cellular uptake. In addition, Dox micelles showed a sustained release behavior in vitro, and in a transgenic zebrafish model, Dox micelles exhibited a longer circulation time and lower extravasation from blood vessels into surrounding tissues. Anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities of Dox micelles were investigated in transgenic zebrafish and mouse models. In transgenic zebrafish, Dox micelles inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing zebrafish. Furthermore, Dox micelles suppressed tumor metastasis by killing CTCs. In addition, improved anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities were also confirmed in mouse tumor models, where immunofluorescent staining of tumors indicated that Dox micelles induced more apoptosis and showed fewer proliferation-positive cells. There were decreased side effects in transgenic zebrafish and mice after administration of Dox micelles. In conclusion, Dox micelles showed stronger anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities and decreased side effects both in vitro and in vivo, which may have potential applications in cancer therapy.

  17. γδ T-cell killing of primary follicular lymphoma cells is dramatically potentiated by GA101, a type II glycoengineered anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Braza, Mounia Sabrina; Klein, Bernard; Fiol, Geneviève; Rossi, Jean-François

    2011-03-01

    Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies are major therapeutic agents for patients with follicular lymphoma and work through complement-mediated cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Optimization of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, in particular by amplifying its effectors, could further increase the efficacy of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies. We investigated the cytotoxic activity of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells against follicular lymphoma cells and whether this killing could be increased by promoting antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, in particular a type-II glycoengineered anti-CD20. Vγ9Vδ2 T cells were expanded in vitro in the presence of bromohydrin pyrophosphate (Phosphostim) and interleukin-2 and their ability to kill follicular lymphoma primary cells or cell lines was evaluated by flow cytometry cytotoxic T-lymphocyte assays in the presence or absence of three anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies: the afucosylated GA101, the chimeric rituximab or the humanized ofatumumab. The ability of these cells to release perforin/granzyme and secrete interferon-γ when co-cultured with follicular lymphoma primary cells or cell lines in the presence or not of the three anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies was also evaluated by CD107a staining and Elispot assays. Phosphostim and interleukin-2 expanded Vγ9Vδ2 T cells were cytotoxic to primary follicular lymphoma cells and their cytotoxic potential was dramatically increased by GA101, a type II glycoengineered anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, and to a lesser extent, by rituximab and ofatumumab. The increased cytotoxicity was associated with increased secretion of perforin/granzyme and interferon-γ. In-vitro expanded Vγ9Vδ2 T cells efficiently kill primary follicular lymphoma cells and express CD16; anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, in particular GA101, dramatically increase the cytotoxic activity of expanded Vγ9Vδ2 T cells. These preclinical results prompt the development

  18. Dynamic visualization the whole process of cytotoxic T lymphocytes killing the B16 tumor cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Shuhong; Zhang, Zhihong

    2016-03-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) played a key role in the immune system to destroy the tumor cells. Although some mechanisms of CTLs killing the tumor cells are revealed already, the dynamic information of CTLs interaction with tumor cells are still not known very clearly. Here we used confocal microscopy to visualize the whole process of CTLs killing the tumor cells in vitro. The imaging data showed that CTLs destroyed the target tumor cells rapidly and efficiently. Several CTLs surrounded one or some tumor cells and the average time for CTLs destroying one tumor cell is just a few minutes in vitro. The study displayed the temporal events of CTLs interacting with tumor cells at the beginning and finally killing them and directly presented the efficient tumor cell cytotoxicity of the CTLs. The results helped us to deeply understand the mechanism of the CTLs destroying the tumor cells and to develop the cancer immunotherapy.

  19. Trogocytosis and killing of IL-4-polarized monocytes by autologous NK cells.

    PubMed

    Poupot, Mary; Fournié, Jean-Jacques; Poupot, Rémy

    2008-11-01

    Cross-regulations between innate immune cells have been given more and more emphasis. Here, we address the question of bidirectional interactions between activated monocytes and autologous NK cells. Classically activated monocytes (class-monocytes), obtained by priming with IFN-gamma, drive an inflammatory immune response. On the contrary, alternatively activated monocytes (alt-monocytes), obtained by stimulation with IL-4 or IL-13, engage an anti-inflammatory immune response. We show that alt-monocytes inhibit proliferation and production of IFN-gamma by autologous, IL-2-activated NK cells, whereas class-monocytes do not inhibit these NK cell functions. Reciprocally, IL-2-activated NK cells interact and undertake intensive synaptic transfer with alt-monocytes, whereas interactions with class-monocytes are weaker. This strong trogocytosis correlates with an efficient killing of alt-monocytes, mediated by natural cytotoxicity receptors and a lowered killing of class-monocytes. These results suggest that interactions between NK cells and autologous-activated monocytes modulate inflammatory responses. This might be extended further in the elimination of tumor-associated macrophages, which actively promote solid tumor progression and metastasis.

  20. Selective killing of candidate AML stem cells by antibody targeting of IL1RAP.

    PubMed

    Askmyr, Maria; Ågerstam, Helena; Hansen, Nils; Gordon, Sandra; Arvanitakis, Alexandros; Rissler, Marianne; Juliusson, Gunnar; Richter, Johan; Järås, Marcus; Fioretos, Thoas

    2013-05-02

    IL1RAP, a co-receptor for interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-33 receptors, was previously found to be highly upregulated on candidate chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells, allowing for leukemia-selective killing using IL1RAP-targeting antibodies. We analyzed IL1RAP expression in a consecutive series of 29 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and, based on the level of expression in mononuclear cells (MNCs), we divided the samples into 3 groups: IL1RAP low (n = 6), IL1RAP intermediate (n = 11), and IL1RAP high (n = 12). Within the CD34+CD38- population, the intermediate and high groups expressed higher levels of IL1RAP than did corresponding normal cells. With the aim to target AML stem cells, an anti-IL1RAP monoclonal antibody was generated followed by isotype switching for improved antibody-dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity activity. Using this antibody, we achieved selective killing of AML MNC, CD34+CD38+, and CD34+CD38- cells. Our findings demonstrate that IL1RAP is a promising new therapeutic target in AML.

  1. Repurposing a Prokaryotic Toxin-Antitoxin System for the Selective Killing of Oncogenically Stressed Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Preston, Mark A; Pimentel, Belén; Bermejo-Rodríguez, Camino; Dionne, Isabelle; Turnbull, Alice; de la Cueva-Méndez, Guillermo

    2016-07-15

    Prokaryotes express intracellular toxins that pass unnoticed to carrying cells until coexpressed antitoxin partners are degraded in response to stress. Although not evolved to function in eukaryotes, one of these toxins, Kid, induces apoptosis in mammalian cells, an effect that is neutralized by its cognate antitoxin, Kis. Here we engineered this toxin-antitoxin pair to create a synthetic system that becomes active in human cells suffering a specific oncogenic stress. Inspired by the way Kid becomes active in bacterial cells, we produced a Kis variant that is selectively degraded in human cells expressing oncoprotein E6. The resulting toxin-antitoxin system functions autonomously in human cells, distinguishing those that suffer the oncogenic insult, which are killed by Kid, from those that do not, which remain protected by Kis. Our results provide a framework for developing personalized anticancer strategies avoiding off-target effects, a challenge that has been hardly tractable by other means thus far.

  2. Killing of targets by effector CD8 T cells in the mouse spleen follows the law of mass action

    SciTech Connect

    Ganusov, Vitaly V

    2009-01-01

    In contrast with antibody-based vaccines, it has been difficult to measure the efficacy of T cell-based vaccines and to correlate the efficacy of CD8 T cell responses with protection again viral infections. In part, this difficulty is due to poor understanding of the in vivo efficacy of CD8 T cells produced by vaccination. Using a: recently developed experimental method of in vivo cytotoxicity we have investigated quantitative aspects of killing of peptide-pulsed targets by effector and memory CD8 T cells, specific to three epitopes of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), in the mouse spleen. By analyzing data on killing of targets with varying number of epitope-specific effector and memory CD8 T cells, we find that killing of targets by effectors follows the law of mass-action, that is the death rate of peptide-pulsed targets is proportional to the frequency of CTLs in the spleen. In contrast, killing of targets by memory CD8 T cells does not follow the mass action law because the death rate of targets saturates at high frequencies of memory CD8 T cells. For both effector and memory cells, we also find little support for the killing term that includes the decrease of the death rate of targets with target cell density. Interestingly, our analysis suggests that at low CD8 T cell frequencies, memory CD8 T cells on the per capita basis are more efficient at killing peptide-pulsed targets than effectors, but at high frequencies, effectors are more efficient killers than memory T cells. Comparison of the estimated killing efficacy of effector T cells with the value that is predicted from theoretical physics and based on motility of T cells in lymphoid tissues, suggests that limiting step in the killing of peptide-pulsed targets is delivering the lethal hit and not finding the target. Our results thus form a basis for quantitative understanding of the process of killing of virus-infected cells by T cell responses in tissues and can be used to correlate the

  3. Tumor cell-specific photothermal killing by SELEX-derived DNA aptamer-targeted gold nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekaran, Ramya; Lee, Alexander Sheng Wei; Yap, Lim Wei; Jans, David A.; Wagstaff, Kylie M.; Cheng, Wenlong

    2015-12-01

    Despite widespread availability of cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents, the killing of tumour cells without affecting healthy surrounding tissue remains elusive, although recent developments in terms of plasmonic nanoparticles capable of photothermal killing have some promise. Here we describe novel DNA aptamer-tethered gold nanorods (GNRs) that act as efficient photothermal therapeutics against tumour cells, but not their isogenic normal cell counterparts. A modified Cell-SELEX process was developed to select a novel DNA aptamer (KW16-13) that specifically recognised and was internalised by cells of the MCF10CA1h human breast ductal carcinoma line but not by those of its isogenic normal counterpart (MCF10A). GNRs conjugated to KW16-13 were readily internalized by the MCF10CA1h tumour cells with minimal uptake by MCF10A normal cells. Upon near infrared (NIR) light irradiation, tumour cell death of >96%, could be effected, compared to <1% in the normal cells or cells incubated with GNRs alone, our KW16-13 aptamer-targeted GNRs thus showing >71-fold tumor cell death than GNRs-targeted with a previously described aptamer. This demonstrates the significant potential for aptamer functionalised-GNRs to be used effective and above all selective anti-cancer photothermal therapeutics.Despite widespread availability of cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents, the killing of tumour cells without affecting healthy surrounding tissue remains elusive, although recent developments in terms of plasmonic nanoparticles capable of photothermal killing have some promise. Here we describe novel DNA aptamer-tethered gold nanorods (GNRs) that act as efficient photothermal therapeutics against tumour cells, but not their isogenic normal cell counterparts. A modified Cell-SELEX process was developed to select a novel DNA aptamer (KW16-13) that specifically recognised and was internalised by cells of the MCF10CA1h human breast ductal carcinoma line but not by those of its isogenic normal

  4. Functional Interrelationships between Cell Membrane and Cell Wall in Antimicrobial Peptide-Mediated Killing of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yan Q.; Mukhopadhyay, Kasturi; Yeaman, Michael R.; Adler-Moore, Jill; Bayer, Arnold S.

    2005-01-01

    Perturbation of the Staphylococcus aureus cytoplasmic membrane (CM) is felt to play a key role in the microbicidal mechanism of many antimicrobial peptides (APs). However, it is not established whether membrane permeabilization (MP) alone is sufficient to kill susceptible staphylococci or if the cell wall (CW) and/or intracellular targets contribute to AP-induced lethality. We hypothesized that the relationships between MP and killing may differ for distinct APs. In this study, we investigated the association between AP-induced MP and lethality in S. aureus whole cells versus CW-free protoplasts, and in comparison to the MP of liposomes modeled after whole CMs in terms of phospholipid composition, fluidity and charge. Four APs with different structure-activity relationships were examined: thrombin-induced platelet microbicidal protein 1 (tPMP-1), human neutrophil protein 1 (hNP-1), gramicidin D, and polymyxin B. MP was quantified fluorometrically by calcein release. All APs tested, except polymyxin B, caused concentration-dependent MP and killing of whole cells, but not of protoplasts. The reduced AP susceptibility of protoplasts was associated with increased cardiolipin and lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol content and reduced fluidity of their CMs. However, liposomal MP induced by tPMP-1, hNP-1, and gramicidin D paralleled that of whole cells. Collectively, these results indicate that (i) structurally distinct APs likely exert their staphylocidal effects by differing mechanisms, (ii) MP is not the sole event leading to AP-induced staphylocidal activity, (iii) a complex interrelationship exists between the CM and CW in AP-induced killing, and (iv) liposomes modeled upon whole cell or protoplast CMs can recapitulate the respective susceptibilities to killing by distinct APs. PMID:16048912

  5. Troxerutin, a natural flavonoid binds to DNA minor groove and enhances cancer cell killing in response to radiation.

    PubMed

    Panat, Niranjan A; Singh, Beena G; Maurya, Dharmendra K; Sandur, Santosh K; Ghaskadbi, Saroj S

    2016-05-05

    Troxerutin, a flavonoid best known for its radioprotective and antioxidant properties is of considerable interest of study due to its broad pharmacological activities. The present study on troxerutin highlights its abilities to bind DNA and enhance cancer cell killing in response to radiation. Troxerutin showed strong binding with calf thymus DNA in vitro. Troxerutin-DNA interaction was confirmed by CD spectropolarimetry. The mode of binding of troxerutin to DNA was assessed by competing troxerutin with EtBr or DAPI, known DNA intercalator and a minor groove binder, respectively. DAPI fluorescence was drastically reduced with linear increase in troxerutin concentration suggesting possible binding of troxerutin to DNA minor groove. Further, computational studies of docking of troxerutin molecule on mammalian DNA also indicated possible troxerutin-DNA interaction at minor groove of DNA. Troxerutin was found to mainly localize in the nucleus of prostate cancer cells. It induced cytotoxicity in radioresistant (DU145) and sensitive (PC3) prostate cancer cells. When troxerutin pre-treated DU145 and PC3 cells were exposed to γ-radiation, cytotoxicity as estimated by MTT assay, was found to be further enhanced. In addition, the % subG1 population detected by propidium iodide staining also showed similar response when combined with radiation. A similar trend was observed in terms of ROS generation and DNA damage in DU145 cells when troxerutin and radiation were combined. DNA binding at minor groove by troxerutin may have contributed to strand breaks leading to increased radiation induced cell death.

  6. A Small Molecule Inhibitor of Human RAD51 Potentiates Breast Cancer Cell Killing by Therapeutic Agents in Mouse Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fei; Mazin, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    The homologous recombination pathway is responsible for the repair of DNA double strand breaks. RAD51, a key homologous recombination protein, promotes the search for homology and DNA strand exchange between homologous DNA molecules. RAD51 is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cells. Downregulation of RAD51 by siRNA increases radio- or chemo-sensitivity of cancer cells. We recently developed a specific RAD51 small molecule inhibitor, B02, which inhibits DNA strand exchange activity of RAD51 in vitro. In this study, we used human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 to investigate the ability of B02 to inhibit RAD51 and to potentiate an anti-cancer effect of chemotherapeutic agents including doxorubicin, etoposide, topotecan, and cisplatin. We found that the combination of B02 with cisplatin has the strongest killing effect on the cancer cells. We then tested the effect of B02 and cisplatin on the MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation in mouse xenografts. Our results showed that B02 significantly enhances the therapeutic effect of cisplatin on tumor cells in vivo. Our current data demonstrate that use of RAD51-specific small molecule inhibitor represents a feasible strategy of a combination anti-cancer therapy. PMID:24971740

  7. An Aqueous Extract of Marine Microalgae Exhibits Antimetastatic Activity through Preferential Killing of Suspended Cancer Cells and Anticolony Forming Activity

    PubMed Central

    Somasekharan, Syam Prakash; El-Naggar, Amal; Sorensen, Poul H.

    2016-01-01

    Research on marine natural products as potential anticancer agents is still limited. In the present study, an aqueous extract of a Canadian marine microalgal preparation was assessed for anticancer activities using various assays and cell lines of human cancers, including lung, prostate, stomach, breast, and pancreatic cancers, as well as an osteosarcoma. In vitro, the microalgal extract exhibited marked anticolony forming activity. In addition, it was more toxic, as indicated by increased apoptosis, to nonadherent cells (grown in suspension) than to adherent cells. In vivo, an antimetastatic effect of the extract was observed in NOD-SCID mice carrying subrenal capsule xenografts of PC3 prostate cancer cells. The results of the present study suggest that the antimetastatic effect of the aqueous microalgal extract is based on inhibition of colony forming ability of cancer cells and the preferential killing of suspended cancer cells. Further research aimed at identification of the molecular basis of the anticancer activities of the microalgal extract appears to be warranted. PMID:27656243

  8. An Aqueous Extract of Marine Microalgae Exhibits Antimetastatic Activity through Preferential Killing of Suspended Cancer Cells and Anticolony Forming Activity.

    PubMed

    Somasekharan, Syam Prakash; El-Naggar, Amal; Sorensen, Poul H; Wang, Yuzhuo; Cheng, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Research on marine natural products as potential anticancer agents is still limited. In the present study, an aqueous extract of a Canadian marine microalgal preparation was assessed for anticancer activities using various assays and cell lines of human cancers, including lung, prostate, stomach, breast, and pancreatic cancers, as well as an osteosarcoma. In vitro, the microalgal extract exhibited marked anticolony forming activity. In addition, it was more toxic, as indicated by increased apoptosis, to nonadherent cells (grown in suspension) than to adherent cells. In vivo, an antimetastatic effect of the extract was observed in NOD-SCID mice carrying subrenal capsule xenografts of PC3 prostate cancer cells. The results of the present study suggest that the antimetastatic effect of the aqueous microalgal extract is based on inhibition of colony forming ability of cancer cells and the preferential killing of suspended cancer cells. Further research aimed at identification of the molecular basis of the anticancer activities of the microalgal extract appears to be warranted.

  9. Eukaryotic expression vectors containing genes encoding plant proteins for killing of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Glinka, Elena M

    2013-12-01

    Gene therapy has attracted attention for its potential to specifically and efficiently target cancer cells with minimal toxicity to normal cells. At present, it offers a promising direction for the treatment of cancer patients. Numerous vectors have been engineered for the sole purpose of killing cancer cells, and some have successfully suppressed malignant tumours. Many plant proteins have anticancer properties; consequently, genes encoding some of these proteins are being used to design constructs for the inhibition of multiplying cancer cells. Data addressing the function of vectors harbouring genes specifically encoding ricin, saporin, lunasin, linamarase, and tomato thymidine kinase 1 under the control of different promoters are summarised here. Constructs employing genes to encode cytotoxic proteins as well as constructs employing genes of enzymes that convert a nontoxic prodrug into a toxic drug are considered here. Generation of eukaryotic expression vectors containing genes encoding plant proteins for killing of cancer cells may permit the broadening of cancer gene therapy strategy, particularly because of the specific mode of action of anticancer plant proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Vitamin D Deficiency Reduces the Immune Response, Phagocytosis Rate, and Intracellular Killing Rate of Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Onken, Marie Luise; Schütze, Sandra; Redlich, Sandra; Götz, Alexander; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Bertsch, Thomas; Ribes, Sandra; Hanenberg, Andrea; Schneider, Simon; Bollheimer, Cornelius; Sieber, Cornel; Nau, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Meningitis and meningoencephalitis caused by Escherichia coli are associated with high rates of mortality and neurological sequelae. A high prevalence of neurological disorders has been observed in geriatric populations at risk of hypovitaminosis D. Vitamin D has potent effects on human immunity, including induction of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and suppression of T-cell proliferation, but its influence on microglial cells is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of vitamin D deficiency on the phagocytosis rate, intracellular killing, and immune response of murine microglial cultures after stimulation with the Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists tripalmitoyl-S-glyceryl-cysteine (TLR1/2), poly(I·C) (TLR3), lipopolysaccharide (TLR4), and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (TLR9). Upon stimulation with high concentrations of TLR agonists, the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) was decreased in vitamin D-deficient compared to that in vitamin D-sufficient microglial cultures. Phagocytosis of E. coli K1 after stimulation of microglial cells with high concentrations of TLR3, -4, and -9 agonists and intracellular killing of E. coli K1 after stimulation with high concentrations of all TLR agonists were lower in vitamin D-deficient microglial cells than in the respective control cells. Our observations suggest that vitamin D deficiency may impair the resistance of the brain against bacterial infections. PMID:24686054

  11. Mast Cell IL-6 Improves Survival From Klebsiella Pneumonia and Sepsis by Enhancing Neutrophil Killing

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Rachel E.; Olsen, Joanna S.; McKinstry, Andrew; Villalta, S. Armando; Wolters, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    The pleiotropic cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) has favorable and harmful effects on survival from bacterial infections. While many innate immune cells produce IL-6, little is known about relevant sources in vivo and the nature of its contributions to host responses to severe bacterial infections. To examine these roles, we subjected mast cell-specific IL-6-deficient mice to the cecal ligation and puncture model of septic peritonitis, finding that survival in these mice is markedly worse than in controls. Following intranasal or intraperitoneal inoculation with Klebsiella pneumoniae, IL-6-/- mice are less likely to survive than wild-type controls and at the time of death have higher numbers of bacteria but not inflammatory cells in lungs and peritoneum. Similarly, mast cell-specific IL-6-deficient mice have diminished survival and higher numbers of K. pneumoniae following intraperitoneal infection. Neutrophils lacking IL-6 have greater numbers of live intracellular K. pneumonia, suggesting impaired intracellular killing contributes to reduced clearance in IL-6-/- mice. These results establish that mast cell IL-6 is a critical mediator of survival following K. pneumoniae infection and sepsis and suggest that IL-6 protects from death by augmenting neutrophil killing of bacteria. PMID:18832718

  12. Sulindac Enhances the Killing of Cancer Cells Exposed to Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti, Maria; Resnick, Lionel; Gamliel, Edna; Kesaraju, Shailaja; Weissbach, Herbert; Binninger, David

    2009-01-01

    Background Sulindac is an FDA-approved non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that affects prostaglandin production by inhibiting cyclooxygenases (COX) 1 and 2. Sulindac has also been of interest for more than decade as a chemopreventive for adenomatous colorectal polyps and colon cancer. Principal Findings Pretreatment of human colon and lung cancer cells with sulindac enhances killing by an oxidizing agent such as tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) or hydrogen peroxide. This effect does not involve cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition. However, under the conditions used, there is a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the cancer cells and a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting that cell death is due to apoptosis, which was confirmed by Tunel assay. In contrast, this enhanced killing was not observed with normal lung or colon cells. Significance These results indicate that normal and cancer cells handle oxidative stress in different ways and sulindac can enhance this difference. The combination of sulindac and an oxidizing agent could have therapeutic value. PMID:19503837

  13. Enhancement of the cell-killing effect of ultraviolet-C radiation by short-term exposure to a pulsed magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Gómez, Miguel J; Martínez-Morillo, Manuel

    2005-07-01

    To investigate whether low frequency pulsed magnetic field (PMF) exposures produce alterations in the cell killing induced by ultraviolet C (UVC) radiation. MCF-7 breast cancer cells of exponentially growing cultures were exposed to PMF (25 Hz, 0.75 mT) and UVC (from 6.6 J/m2 to 59.4 J/m2) in two different protocols: (a) cells were exposed to PMF for 30 min and then exposed to UVC at different doses; (b) cells were exposed to PMF for 30 min. After 15 min of the PMF exposure they were exposed simultaneously to PMF+different doses of UVC. After an additional time of 72 h of incubation, viability was measured by the neutral red stain cytotoxicity test. Both exposure protocols produced a significant decrease in the post UVC survival at 13.2 J/m2 and 19.8 J/m2, as compared to controls. The simultaneous exposition of PMF and UVC produced an additional increment in cell killing at 26.4 J/m2, being the greater effects obtained for this second exposure protocol. Results of the present study show that PMF in combination with UVC have the ability to augment the cell killing effects of UVC radiation. In addition, the effects appear to be greater when PMF and UVC are applied at the same time.

  14. LET and ion species dependence for cell killing in normal human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Tsuruoka, Chizuru; Suzuki, Masao; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Fujitaka, Kazunobu

    2005-05-01

    We studied the LET and ion species dependence of the RBE for cell killing to clarify the differences in the biological effects caused by the differences in the track structure that result from the different energy depositions for different ions. Normal human skin fibroblasts were irradiated with heavy-ion beams such as carbon, neon, silicon and iron ions that were generated by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) at the National Institute of Radiological Science (NIRS) in Japan. Cell killing was measured as reproductive cell death using a colony formation assay. The RBE-LET curves were different for carbon ions and for the other ions. The curve for carbon ions increased steeply up to around 98 keV/microm. The RBE of carbon ions at 98 keV/microm was 4.07. In contrast, the curves for neon, silicon and iron ions had maximum peaks around 180 keV/microm, and the RBEs at the peak position ranged from 3.03 to 3.39. When the RBEs were plotted as a function of Z*2/beta2 (where Z* is the effective charge and beta is the relative velocity of the ion) instead of LET, the discrepancies between the RBE-LET curves for the different ion beams were reduced, but branching of the RBE-Z*2/beta2 curves still remained. When the inactivation cross section was plotted as a function of either LET or Z*2/beta2, it increased with increasing LET. However, the inactivation cross section was always smaller than the geometrical cross section. These results suggest that the differences in the energy deposition track structures of the different ion sources have an effect on cell killing.

  15. Polyomavirus DNA is damaged in target cells during cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated killing

    SciTech Connect

    Sellins, K.S.; Cohen, J.J.

    1989-02-01

    Target cell DNA damage is an early event in cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTS)-mediated killing. It has been hypothesized that this DNA damage may serve as one mechanism of destroying viral genetic material inside infected cells. The authors directly examined the fate of viral DNA in target cells during CTL-mediated lysis. Polyomavirus DNA in transfected murine P815 mastocytoma targets was digested along with cellular DNA into oligonucleosome-sized fragments, although intact forms, possibly virion-associated DNA, were also present. In infected BALB/3T3 murine fibroblasts, which normally undergo single-stranded nicks when killed by CTL, polyomavirus DNA was converted to relaxed forms in the presence of CTL. These results suggest that the fate of the viral DNA depends on the stage of the viral life cycle and corresponds to the fate of the host cell DNA. Cleavage of the viral genome prior to assembly may thus be an important mechanism in specific antiviral immunity.

  16. Effective cancer cell killing by hydrophobic nanovoid-enhanced cavitation under safe low-energy ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Zhu, Yingchun; Fu, Jingke; Wang, Lianzhou

    2014-03-01

    β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD)-capped mesoporous silica nanoparticles with hydrophobic internal nanovoids were prepared and used for effective cancer cell killing in synergistic combination with low-energy ultrasound (≤1.0 W cm(-2) , 1 MHz). The water-dispersible nanoparticles with hydrophobic internal nanovoids can be taken up by cancer cells and subsequently evoke a remarkable cavitation effect under irradiation with mild low-energy ultrasound (≤1.0 W cm(-2) , 1 MHz). A significant cancer cell killing effect was observed in cancer cells and in a mouse xenograft tumor model treated with the nanoagents together with the low-energy ultrasound, showing a distinct dependence on the concentration of nanoagents and ultrasound intensity. By contrast, an antitumor effect was not observed when either low-energy ultrasound or nanoagents were applied alone. These findings are significant as the technique promises a safe, low-cost, and effective treatment for cancer therapy.

  17. Design Parameters for Granzyme-Mediated Cytotoxic Lymphocyte Target-Cell Killing and Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Woodsworth, Daniel J.; Dunsing, Valentin; Coombs, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Cytotoxic lymphocytes are key elements of the immune system that are primarily responsible for targeting cells infected with intracellular pathogens, or cells that have become malignantly transformed. Target cells are killed mainly via lymphocyte exocytosis of specialized lysosomes containing perforin, a pore-forming protein, and granzymes, which are proteases that induce apoptosis. Due to its central role in lymphocyte biology, as well as its implication in a host of pathologies from cancer to autoimmunity, the granzyme-perforin pathway has been the subject of extensive investigation. Nevertheless, the details of exactly how granzyme and perforin cooperate to induce target-cell death remain controversial. To further investigate this system, we developed a biophysical model of the immunological synapse between a cytotoxic lymphocyte and a target cell using a spatial stochastic simulation algorithm. We used this model to calculate the spatiotemporal evolution of granzyme B and perforin from the time of their exocytosis to granzyme internalization by the target cell. We used a metric of granzyme internalization to delineate which biological processes were critical for successful target-cell lysis. We found that the high aspect ratio of the immunological synapse was insufficient in this regard, and that molecular crowding within the synapse is critical to preserve sufficient concentrations of perforin and granzyme for consistent pore formation and granzyme transfer to target cells. However, even when pore formation occurs in our model, a large amount of both granzyme and perforin still escape from the synapse. We argue that a tight seal between the cytotoxic lymphocyte and its target cell is not required to avoid bystander killing. Instead, we propose that the requirement for spatiotemporal colocalization of granzyme and perforin acts as an effective bimolecular filter to ensure target specificity. PMID:26244730

  18. Activation of mislocalized opsin kills rod cells: a novel mechanism for rod cell death in retinal disease.

    PubMed

    Alfinito, Peter D; Townes-Anderson, Ellen

    2002-04-16

    Rod photoreceptors are highly compartmentalized sensory neurons that maintain strict ultrastructural and molecular polarity. Structural subdivisions include the outer segment, inner segment, cell body, and synaptic terminal. The visual pigment rhodopsin is found predominantly in membranes of the rod cell outer segment but becomes mislocalized, appearing throughout the plasma membrane of the cell in many retinal diseases and injuries. Currently, there is no known link between rhodopsin redistribution and rod cell death. We propose that activation of mislocalized rhodopsin kills rod cells by stimulating normally inaccessible signaling pathways. This hypothesis was tested in primary retinal cell cultures, which contain photoreceptors. In rod photoreceptors, opsin immunofluorescence occurred throughout the rod cell plasma membrane. Activation of this mislocalized opsin by photostimulation after formation of isorhodopsin or by incubation with beta-ionone (opsin agonist) killed 19-30% of rod cells. Rod cell death was apoptotic, as indicated by marked chromatin condensation and the requirement for caspase-3 activation. Rod cell death could be induced by forskolin (adenylate cyclase agonist), and conversely, beta-ionone-induced cell death could be blocked by cotreatment with SQ22536 (an adenylate cyclase inhibitor). Pertussis toxin (a G protein inhibitor) also blocked beta-ionone-induced cell death. The data support a mechanism by which activation of mislocalized opsin initiates apoptotic rod cell death through G protein stimulation of adenylate cyclase.

  19. DNA polymerase activity in heat killing and hyperthermic radiosensitization of mammalian cells as observed after fractionated heat treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Jorritsma, J.B.; Burgman, P.; Kampinga, H.H.; Konings, A.W.

    1986-03-01

    Possible relations between hyperthermic inactivation of alpha and beta DNA polymerase activity and hyperthermic cell killing or hyperthermic radiosensitization were investigated. Ehrlich Ascites Tumor (EAT) cells and HeLa S3 cells were treated with fractionated doses of hyperthermia. The heating schedules were chosen such that the initial heat treatment resulted in either thermotolerance or thermosensitization (step-down heating) for the second heat treatment. The results show that for DNA polymerase activity and heat radiosensitization (cell survival) no thermotolerance or thermosensitization is observed. Thus hyperthermic cell killing and DNA polymerase activity are not correlated. The correlation of hyperthermic radiosensitization and DNA polymerase activity was substantially less than observed in previous experiments with normotolerant and thermotolerant HeLa S3 cells. We conclude that alpha and beta DNA polymerase inactivation is not always the critical cellular process responsible for hyperthermic cell killing or hyperthermic radiosensitization. Other possible cellular systems that might determine these processes are discussed.

  20. CD8+NKT-like cells regulate the immune response by killing antigen-bearing DCs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Xi; Li, Zhengyuan; Chai, Yijie; Jiang, Yunfeng; Wang, Qian; Ji, Yewei; Zhu, Zhongli; Wan, Ying; Yuan, Zhenglong; Chang, Zhijie; Zhang, Minghui

    2015-01-01

    CD1d-dependent NKT cells have been extensively studied; however, the function of CD8+NKT-like cells, which are CD1d-independent T cells with NK markers, remains unknown. Here, we report that CD1d-independent CD8+NKT-like cells, which express both T cell markers (TCRβ and CD3) and NK cell receptors (NK1.1, CD49b and NKG2D), are activated and significantly expanded in mice immunized with GFP-expressing dendritic cells. Distinct from CD1d-dependent NKT cells, CD8+NKT-like cells possess a diverse repertoire of TCRs and secrete high levels of IFN-gamma but not IL-4. CD8+NKT-like cell development is normal in CD1d−/− mice, which suggests that CD8+NKT-like cells undergo a unique development pathway that differs from iNKT cells. Further functional analyses show that CD8+NKT-like cells suppress T-cell responses through elimination of dendritic cells in an antigen-specific manner. Adoptive transfer of antigen-specific CD8+NKT-like cells into RIP-OVA mice prevented subsequent development of diabetes in the animals induced by activated OT-I CD8 T cells. Our study suggests that CD8+NKT-like cells can function as antigen-specific suppressive cells to regulate the immune response through killing antigen-bearing DCs. Antigen-specific down regulation may provide an active and precise method for constraining an excessive immune response and avoiding bypass suppression of necessary immune responses to other antigens. PMID:26369936

  1. Selective Killing Of Malignant Cancer Cells By Suppression Of Geminin Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenge; DePamphilis, Melvin L.

    2009-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells normally restrict genome duplication to once per cell division. In metazoa, re-replication of DNA during a single S-phase appears to be prevented solely by suppressing CDT1 activity, a protein required for loading the replicative MCM DNA helicase. However, siRNA suppression of geminin (a specific inhibitor of CDT1) arrested proliferation only of cells derived from malignant cancers by inducing DNA re-replication and DNA damage that spontaneously triggered apoptosis. None of these effects were detected either in cells derived from normal human tissues, or in cells immortalized by a viral oncogene. To induce these effects in non-cancer cells required suppression of both geminin and cyclin A, another cell cycle regulator. Therefore, initiating DNA replication in some cancer cells is limited solely by regulating the level of CDT1 activity with geminin, whereas non-cancer cells contain additional safeguards that prevent DNA re-replication. These results demonstrate that inhibition of geminin activity could be used to selectively kill cancer cells without harming other cells. PMID:19487297

  2. Thiolated-2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine protected silver nanoparticles as novel photo-induced cell-killing agents.

    PubMed

    Sangsuwan, Arunee; Kawasaki, Hideya; Iwasaki, Yasuhiko

    2016-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have several medical applications as antimicrobial agents such as in drug delivery and cancer therapy. However, AgNPs are of limited use because of their toxicity, which may damage the surrounding healthy tissue. In this study, thiolated-2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC-SH) protected silver nanoparticles (MPC-AgNPs) are prepared as cell-killing agents under UV irradiation. MPC-AgNPs are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-visible spectrophotometry. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of MPC-AgNPs is observed at 404 nm, and the average diameter of the particles is determined at 13.4 ± 2.2 nm through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and at 18.4 nm (PDI=0.18) through dynamic light scattering (DLS). Cell viability in contact with MPC-AgNPs is relatively high, and MPC-AgNPs also exhibit a cell-killing effect under UV irradiation.

  3. Linker Immolation Determines Cell Killing Activity of Disulfide-Linked Pyrrolobenzodiazepine Antibody-Drug Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Donglu; Pillow, Thomas H; Ma, Yong; Cruz-Chuh, Josefa Dela; Kozak, Katherine R; Sadowsky, Jack D; Lewis Phillips, Gail D; Guo, Jun; Darwish, Martine; Fan, Peter; Chen, Jingtian; He, Changrong; Wang, Tao; Yao, Hui; Xu, Zijin; Chen, Jinhua; Wai, John; Pei, Zhonghua; Hop, Cornelis E C A; Khojasteh, S Cyrus; Dragovich, Peter S

    2016-11-10

    Disulfide bonds could be valuable linkers for a variety of therapeutic applications requiring tunable cleavage between two parts of a molecule (e.g., antibody-drug conjugates). The in vitro linker immolation of β-mercaptoethyl-carbamate disulfides and DNA alkylation properties of associated payloads were investigated to understand the determinant of cell killing potency of anti-CD22 linked pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD-dimer) conjugates. Efficient immolation and release of a PBD-dimer with strong DNA alkylation properties were observed following disulfide cleavage of methyl- and cyclobutyl-substituted disulfide linkers. However, the analogous cyclopropyl-containing linker did not immolate, and the associated thiol-containing product was a poor DNA alkylator. As predicted from these in vitro assessments, the related anti-CD22 ADCs showed different target-dependent cell killing activities in WSU-DLCL2 and BJAB cell lines. These results demonstrate how the in vitro immolation models can be used to help design efficacious ADCs.

  4. Activated Allogeneic NK Cells Preferentially Kill Poor Prognosis B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martínez, Diego; Lanuza, Pilar M; Gómez, Natalia; Muntasell, Aura; Cisneros, Elisa; Moraru, Manuela; Azaceta, Gemma; Anel, Alberto; Martínez-Lostao, Luis; Villalba, Martin; Palomera, Luis; Vilches, Carlos; García Marco, José A; Pardo, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Mutational status of TP53 together with expression of wild-type (wt) IGHV represents the most widely accepted biomarkers, establishing a very poor prognosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patients. Adoptive cell therapy using allogeneic HLA-mismatched Natural killer (NK) cells has emerged as an effective and safe alternative in the treatment of acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemias that do not respond to traditional therapies. We have described that allogeneic activated NK cells eliminate hematological cancer cell lines with multidrug resistance acquired by mutations in the apoptotic machinery. This effect depends on the activation protocol, being B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) the most effective stimulus to activate NK cells. Here, we have further analyzed the molecular determinants involved in allogeneic NK cell recognition and elimination of B-CLL cells, including the expression of ligands of the main NK cell-activating receptors (NKG2D and NCRs) and HLA mismatch. We present preliminary data suggesting that B-CLL susceptibility significantly correlates with HLA mismatch between NK cell donor and B-CLL patient. Moreover, we show that the sensitivity of B-CLL cells to NK cells depends on the prognosis based on TP53 and IGHV mutational status. Cells from patients with worse prognosis (mutated TP53 and wt IGHV) are the most susceptible to activated NK cells. Hence, B-CLL prognosis may predict the efficacy of allogenic activated NK cells, and, thus, NK cell transfer represents a good alternative to treat poor prognosis B-CLL patients who present a very short life expectancy due to lack of effective treatments.

  5. Activated Allogeneic NK Cells Preferentially Kill Poor Prognosis B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Martínez, Diego; Lanuza, Pilar M.; Gómez, Natalia; Muntasell, Aura; Cisneros, Elisa; Moraru, Manuela; Azaceta, Gemma; Anel, Alberto; Martínez-Lostao, Luis; Villalba, Martin; Palomera, Luis; Vilches, Carlos; García Marco, José A.; Pardo, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Mutational status of TP53 together with expression of wild-type (wt) IGHV represents the most widely accepted biomarkers, establishing a very poor prognosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patients. Adoptive cell therapy using allogeneic HLA-mismatched Natural killer (NK) cells has emerged as an effective and safe alternative in the treatment of acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemias that do not respond to traditional therapies. We have described that allogeneic activated NK cells eliminate hematological cancer cell lines with multidrug resistance acquired by mutations in the apoptotic machinery. This effect depends on the activation protocol, being B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) the most effective stimulus to activate NK cells. Here, we have further analyzed the molecular determinants involved in allogeneic NK cell recognition and elimination of B-CLL cells, including the expression of ligands of the main NK cell-activating receptors (NKG2D and NCRs) and HLA mismatch. We present preliminary data suggesting that B-CLL susceptibility significantly correlates with HLA mismatch between NK cell donor and B-CLL patient. Moreover, we show that the sensitivity of B-CLL cells to NK cells depends on the prognosis based on TP53 and IGHV mutational status. Cells from patients with worse prognosis (mutated TP53 and wt IGHV) are the most susceptible to activated NK cells. Hence, B-CLL prognosis may predict the efficacy of allogenic activated NK cells, and, thus, NK cell transfer represents a good alternative to treat poor prognosis B-CLL patients who present a very short life expectancy due to lack of effective treatments. PMID:27833611

  6. Hypofractionation results in reduced tumor cell kill compared to conventional fractionation for tumors with regions of hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, David J.; Keall, Paul J.; Loo, Billy W.; Chen, Zhe J.; Brown, J. Martin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Tumor hypoxia has been observed in many human cancers and is associated with treatment failure in radiation therapy. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect of different radiation fractionation schemes on tumor cell killing assuming a realistic distribution of tumor oxygenation. Method and Materials A probability density function for the partial pressure of oxygen in a tumor cell population is quantified as a function of radial distance from the capillary wall. Corresponding hypoxia reduction factors (HRFs) for cell killing are determined. The surviving fraction of a tumor consisting of maximally resistant cells, cells at intermediate levels of hypoxia, and normoxic cells is calculated as a function of dose per fraction for an equivalent tumor biological effective dose under normoxic conditions. Results Increasing hypoxia as a function of distance from blood vessels results in a decrease in tumor cell killing for a typical radiotherapy fractionation scheme by a factor of 105 over a distance of 130 μm. For head and neck and prostate cancer, the fraction of tumor clonogens killed over a full treatment course decreases by up to a factor of ~ 103 as the dose per fraction is increased from 2 to 24 Gy and from 2 to 18 Gy, respectively. Conclusion Hypofractionation of a radiotherapy regimen can result in a significant decrease in tumor cell killing compared to standard fractionation as a result of tumor hypoxia. There is a potential for large errors when calculating alternate fractionations using formalisms that do not account for tumor hypoxia. PMID:21183291

  7. Synergistic killing effect of chloroquine and androgen deprivation in LNCaP cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kaini, Ramesh R.; Hu, Chien-An A.

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chloroquine synergistically killed LNCaP cells during androgen deprivation treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chloroquine inhibited the function of autolysosomes and decreases the cytosolic ATP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chloroquine induced nuclear and DNA fragmentation in androgen deprived LNCaP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chloroquine may be an useful adjuvant in hormone ablation therapy in PCa patients. -- Abstract: Modulation of autophagy is a new paradigm in cancer therapeutics. Recently a novel function of chloroquine (CLQ) in inhibiting degradation of autophagic vesicles has been revealed, which raises the question whether CLQ can be used as an adjuvant in targeting autophagic pro-survival mechanism in prostate cancer (PCa). We previously showed that autophagy played a protective role during hormone ablation therapy, in part, by consuming lipid droplets in PCa cells. In addition, blocking autophagy by genetic and pharmacological means in the presence of androgen deprivation caused cell death in PCa cells. To further investigate the importance of autophagy in PCa survival and dissect the role of CLQ in PCa death, we treated hormone responsive LNCaP cells with CLQ in combination with androgen deprivation. We observed that CLQ synergistically killed LNCaP cells during androgen deprivation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We further confirmed that CLQ inhibited the maturation of autophagic vesicles and decreased the cytosolic ATP. Moreover, CLQ induced nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation, a hallmark of apoptosis, in androgen deprived LNCaP cells. Taken together, our finding suggests that CLQ may be an useful adjuvant in hormone ablation therapy to improve the therapeutic efficacy.

  8. PSMA-homing dsRNA chimeric protein vector kills prostate cancer cells and activates anti-tumor bystander responses

    PubMed Central

    Langut, Yael; Edinger, Nufar; Flashner-Abramson, Efrat; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Lebendiker, Mario; Levi-Kalisman, Yael; Klein, Shoshana; Levitzki, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of metastatic androgen-resistant prostate cancer remains a challenge. We describe a protein vector that selectively delivers synthetic dsRNA, polyinosinic/polycytidylic acid (polyIC), to prostate tumors by targeting prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), which is overexpressed on the surface of prostate cancer cells. The chimeric protein is built from the double stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding domain of PKR tethered to a single chain anti-PSMA antibody. When complexed with polyIC, the chimera demonstrates selective and efficient killing of prostate cancer cells. The treatment causes the targeted cancer cells to undergo apoptosis and to secrete toxic cytokines. In a bystander effect, these cytokines kill neighboring cancer cells that do not necessarily overexpress PSMA, and activate immune cells that enhance the killing effect. The strong effects of the targeted polyIC are demonstrated on both 2D cell cultures and 3D tumor spheroids. PMID:28445962

  9. Decitabine Treatment of Glioma-Initiating Cells Enhances Immune Recognition and Killing

    PubMed Central

    Riccadonna, Cristina; Yacoub Maroun, Céline; Vuillefroy de Silly, Romain; Boehler, Margaux; Calvo Tardón, Marta; Jueliger, Simone; Taverna, Pietro; Barba, Leticia; Marinari, Eliana; Pellegatta, Serena; Bassoy, Esen Yonca; Martinvalet, Denis; Dietrich, Pierre-Yves; Walker, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are aggressive brain tumours with very poor prognosis. The majority of glioma cells are differentiated (glioma-differentiated cells: GDCs), whereas the smaller population (glioma-initiating cells, GICs) is undifferentiated and resistant to conventional therapies. Therefore, to better target this pool of heterogeneous cells, a combination of diverse therapeutic approaches is envisaged. Here we investigated whether the immunosensitising properties of the hypomethylating agent decitabine can be extended to GICs. Using the murine GL261 cell line, we demonstrate that decitabine augments the expression of the death receptor FAS both on GDCs and GICs. Interestingly, it had a higher impact on GICs and correlated with an enhanced sensitivity to FASL-mediated cell death. Moreover, the expression of other critical molecules involved in cognate recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, MHCI and ICAM-1, was upregulated by decitabine treatment. Consequently, T-cell mediated killing of both GDCs and GICs was enhanced, as was T cell proliferation after reactivation. Overall, although GICs are described to resist classical therapies, our study shows that hypomethylating agents have the potential to enhance glioma cell recognition and subsequent destruction by immune cells, regardless of their differentiation status. These results support the development of combinatorial treatment modalities including epigenetic modulation together with immunotherapy in order to treat heterogenous malignancies such as glioblastoma. PMID:27579489

  10. Natural killer cells expressing the KIR2DS1-activating receptor efficiently kill T-cell blasts and dendritic cells: implications in haploidentical HSCT.

    PubMed

    Sivori, Simona; Carlomagno, Simona; Falco, Michela; Romeo, Elisa; Moretta, Lorenzo; Moretta, Alessandro

    2011-04-21

    In allogeneic HSCT, NK-cell alloreactivity is determined by the presence in the donor of NK cells expressing inhibitory killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs) that recognize HLA class I allotypes present in the donor but lacking in the recipient. Dominant KIR ligands are the C1 and C2 epitopes of HLA-C. All HLA-C allotypes have either the C1 epitope, the ligand for KIR2DL2/L3, or the C2 epitope, the ligand for KIR2DL1/S1. Here, we show that, in alloreactive NK-cell responses, KIR2DS1 expression represents a remarkable advantage as it allows efficient killing of C2/C2 or C1/C2 myelomonocitic dendritic cells (DCs) and T-cell blasts. When DCs or T-cell blasts were derived from C2/C2, Bw4/Bw4 donors, the activating signals delivered by KIR2DS1 could override the inhibition generated by NKG2A or KIR2DL2/L3 expressed on the same NK-cell clone. Furthermore, substantial lysis of C2/C2, Bw4/Bw6 targets was mediated by KIR2DS1(+) NK cells coexpressing KIR3DL1. Importantly, in the case of C1/C2 targets, KIR2DS1(+) NK cells were inhibited by the coexpression of KIR2DL2/L3 but not of NKG2A. Thus, KIR2DS1 expression in HSC donors may substantially increase the size of the alloreactive NK-cell subset leading to an enhanced ability to limit GVHD and improve engrafment.

  11. A CSPG4-specific immunotoxin kills rhabdomyosarcoma cells and binds to primary tumor tissues.

    PubMed

    Brehm, Hannes; Niesen, Judith; Mladenov, Radoslav; Stein, Christoph; Pardo, Alessa; Fey, Georg; Helfrich, Wijnand; Fischer, Rainer; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Barth, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    The treatment of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) remains challenging, with metastatic and alveolar RMS offering a particularly poor prognosis. Therefore, the identification and evaluation of novel antigens, which are suitable targets for immunotherapy, is one attractive possibility to improve the treatment of this disease. Here we show that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) is expressed on RMS cell lines and RMS patient material. We evaluated the immunotoxin (IT) αMCSP-ETA', which specifically recognizes CSPG4 on the RMS cell lines RD, FL-OH1, TE-671 and Rh30. It is internalized rapidly, induces apoptosis and thus kills RMS cells selectively. We also demonstrate the specific binding of this IT to RMS primary tumor material from three different patients.

  12. An Acidic Microenvironment Increases NK Cell Killing of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii by Enhancing Perforin Degranulation

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Anowara; Li, Shu Shun; Oykhman, Paul; Timm-McCann, Martina; Huston, Shaunna M.; Stack, Danuta; Xiang, Richard F.; Kelly, Margaret M.; Mody, Christopher H.

    2013-01-01

    Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans are encapsulated yeasts that can produce a solid tumor-like mass or cryptococcoma. Analogous to malignant tumors, the microenvironment deep within a cryptococcoma is acidic, which presents unique challenges to host defense. Analogous to malignant cells, NK cells kill Cryptococcus. Thus, as in tumor defense, NK cells must kill yeast cells across a gradient from physiologic pH to less than 6 in the center of the cryptococcoma. As acidic pH inhibits anti-tumor activities of NK cells, we sought to determine if there was a similar reduction in the anticryptococcal activity of NK cells. Surprisingly, we found that both primary human NK cells and the human NK cell line, YT, have preserved or even enhanced killing of Cryptococcus in acidic, compared to physiological, pH. Studies to explore the mechanism of enhanced killing revealed that acidic pH does not increase the effector to target ratio, binding of cytolytic cells to Cryptococcus, or the active perforin content in effector cells. By contrast, perforin degranulation was greater at acidic pH, and increased degranulation was preceded by enhanced ERK1/2 phosphorylation, which is essential for killing. Moreover, using a replication defective ras1 knockout strain of Cryptococcus increased degranulation occurred during more rapid replication of the organisms. Finally, NK cells were found intimately associated with C. gattii within the cryptococcoma of a fatal infection. These results suggest that NK cells have amplified signaling, degranulation, and greater killing at low pH and when the organisms are replicating quickly, which would help maintain microbicidal host defense despite an acidic microenvironment. PMID:23853583

  13. Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors Enhance Chemotherapy Killing in Gastrointestinal/Genitourinary Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Laurence; Roberts, Jane L.; Cruickshanks, Nichola; Conley, Adam; Durrant, David E.; Das, Anindita; Fisher, Paul B.; Kukreja, Rakesh C.; Grant, Steven; Poklepovic, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The present studies determined whether clinically relevant phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors interacted with clinically relevant chemotherapies to kill gastrointestinal/genitourinary cancer cells. In bladder cancer cells, regardless of H-RAS mutational status, at clinically achievable doses, PDE5 inhibitors interacted in a greater than additive fashion with doxorubicin/mitomycin C/gemcitabine/cisplatin/paclitaxel to cause cell death. In pancreatic tumor cells expressing mutant active K-RAS, PDE5 inhibitors interacted in a greater than additive fashion with doxorubicin/gemcitabine/paclitaxel to cause cell death. The most potent PDE5 inhibitor was sildenafil. Knock down of PDE5 expression recapitulated the combination effects of PDE5 inhibitor drugs with chemotherapy drugs. Expression of cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein-short did not significantly inhibit chemotherapy lethality but did significantly reduce enhanced killing in combination with sildenafil. Overexpression of B-cell lymphoma–extra large suppressed individual and combination drug toxicities. Knock down of CD95 or Fas-associated death domain protein suppressed drug combination toxicity. Combination toxicity was also abolished by necrostatin or receptor interacting protein 1 knock down. Treatment with PDE5 inhibitors and chemotherapy drugs promoted autophagy, which was maximal at ∼24 hour posttreatment, and 3-methyl adenine or knock down of Beclin1 suppressed drug combination lethality by ∼50%. PDE5 inhibitors enhanced and prolonged the induction of DNA damage as judged by Comet assays and γhistone 2AX (γH2AX) and checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2) phosphorylation. Knock down of ataxia telangiectasia mutated suppressed γH2AX and CHK2 phosphorylation and enhanced drug combination lethality. Collectively our data demonstrate that the combination of PDE5 inhibitors with standard of care chemotherapy agents for gastrointestinal/genitourinary cancers represents a novel modality. PMID:24353313

  14. Targeted Killing of Virally Infected Cells by Radiolabeled Antibodies to Viral Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dadachova, Ekaterina; Patel, Mahesh C; Toussi, Sima; Apostolidis, Christos; Morgenstern, Alfred; Brechbiel, Martin W; Gorny, Miroslaw K; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Casadevall, Arturo; Goldstein, Harris

    2006-01-01

    Background The HIV epidemic is a major threat to health in the developing and western worlds. A modality that targets and kills HIV-1-infected cells could have a major impact on the treatment of acute exposure and the elimination of persistent reservoirs of infected cells. The aim of this proof-of-principle study was to demonstrate the efficacy of a therapeutic strategy of targeting and eliminating HIV-1-infected cells with radiolabeled antibodies specific to viral proteins in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Findings Antibodies to HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins gp120 and gp41 labeled with radioisotopes bismuth 213 (213Bi) and rhenium 188 (188Re) selectively killed chronically HIV-1-infected human T cells and acutely HIV-1-infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) in vitro. Treatment of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice harboring HIV-1-infected hPBMCs in their spleens with a 213Bi- or 188Re-labeled monoclonal antibody (mAb) to gp41 resulted in a 57% injected dose per gram uptake of radiolabeled mAb in the infected spleens and in a greater than 99% elimination of HIV-1-infected cells in a dose-dependent manner. The number of HIV-1-infected thymocytes decreased 2.5-fold in the human thymic implant grafts of SCID mice treated with the 188Re-labeled antibody to gp41 compared with those treated with the 188Re-control mAb. The treatment did not cause acute hematologic toxicity in the treated mice. Conclusions The current study demonstrates the effectiveness of HIV-targeted radioimmunotherapy and may provide a novel treatment option in combination with highly active antiretroviral therapy for the eradication of HIV. PMID:17090209

  15. Adenovirus-mediated double suicide gene selectively kills gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xian-Run; Li, Jian-Sheng; Niu, Ying; Miao, Li

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the adenovirus-mediated double suicide gene (CD/TK) for selective killing of gastric cancer cells. Gastric cancer cells SCG7901 and normal gastric epithelial cell lines were infected by adenoviruses Ad-survivin/GFP and Ad-survivin/CD/TK. GFP expression and CD-TK were detected by fluorescence microscopy and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. After treatment of the infected cells with the pro-drugs ganciclovir (GCV) and/or 5-FC, the cell growth status was evaluated by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. Cell cycle changes were detected using flow cytometry. In nude mice bearing human gastric cancer, the recombinant adenovirus vector was injected directly into the tumor followed by an intraperitoneal injection of GCV and/or 5-FC. The subsequent tumor growth was then observed. The GFP gene driven by survivin could be expressed within the gastric cancer line SCG7901, but not in normal gastric epithelial cells. RT-PCR demonstrated the presence of the CD/TK gene product in the infected SCG7901 cells, but not in the infected normal gastric epithelial cells. The infected gastric cancer SCG7901, but not the gastric cells, was highly sensitive to the pro-drugs. The CD/TK fusion gene system showed significantly greater efficiency than either of the single suicide genes in killing the target cells (P<0.01). Treatment of the infected cells with the pro-drugs resulted in increased cell percentage in G0-Gl phase and decreased percentage in S phase. In nude mice bearing SCG7901 cells, treatment with the double suicide gene system significantly inhibited tumor growth, showing much stronger effects than either of the single suicide genes (P<0.01). The adenovirus-mediated CD/TK double suicide gene driven by survivin promoter combined with GCV an 5-FC treatment could be an effective therapy against experimental gastric cancer with much greater efficacy than the single suicide gene CD/TK combined

  16. OSU-03012 promotes caspase-independent but PERK-, cathepsin B-, BID-, and AIF-dependent killing of transformed cells.

    PubMed

    Yacoub, Adly; Park, Margaret A; Hanna, David; Hong, Young; Mitchell, Clint; Pandya, Aditi P; Harada, Hisashi; Powis, Garth; Chen, Ching-Shih; Koumenis, Costas; Grant, Steven; Dent, Paul

    2006-08-01

    We determined one mechanism by which the putative phosphoinositide-dependent kinase (PDK)-1 inhibitor 2-amino-N-{4-[5-(2-phenanthrenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]-phenyl}acetamide (OSU-03012) killed primary human glioma and other transformed cells. OSU-03012 caused a dose-dependent induction of cell death that was not altered by p53 mutation, expression of ERBB1 vIII, or loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 function. OSU-03012 promoted cell killing to a greater extent in glioma cells than in nontransformed astrocytes. OSU-03012 and ionizing radiation caused an additive, caspase-independent elevation in cell killing in 96-h viability assays and true radiosensitization in colony formation assays. In a cell type-specific manner, combined exposure to OSU-03012 with a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 inhibitor, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT inhibitors, or parallel molecular interventions resulted in a greater than additive induction of cell killing that was independent of AKT activity and caspase function. OSU-03012 lethality as a single agent or when combined with signaling modulators was not modified in cells lacking expression of BIM or of BAX/BAK. OSU-03012 promoted the release of cathepsin B from the lysosomal compartment and release of AIF from mitochondria. Loss of BH3-interacting domain (BID) function, overexpression of BCL(XL), and inhibition of cathepsin B function suppressed cell killing and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) release from mitochondria. In protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase-/- cells, the lethality of OSU-03012 was attenuated which correlated with reduced cleavage of BID and with suppression of cathepsin B and AIF release into the cytosol. Our data demonstrate that OSU-03012 promotes glioma cell killing that is dependent on endoplasmic reticulum stress, lysosomal dysfunction, and BID-dependent release of AIF from mitochondria, and whose lethality is enhanced by irradiation or by

  17. Elotuzumab enhances natural killer cell activation and myeloma cell killing through interleukin-2 and TNF-α pathways.

    PubMed

    Balasa, Balaji; Yun, Rui; Belmar, Nicole A; Fox, Melvin; Chao, Debra T; Robbins, Michael D; Starling, Gary C; Rice, Audie G

    2015-01-01

    Elotuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody specific for signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-F7 (SLAMF7, also known as CS1, CD319, or CRACC) that enhances natural killer (NK) cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of SLAMF7-expressing myeloma cells. This study explored the mechanisms underlying enhanced myeloma cell killing with elotuzumab as a single agent and in combination with lenalidomide, to support ongoing phase III trials in patients with relapsed/refractory or newly-diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM). An in vitro peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL)/myeloma cell co-culture model was developed to evaluate the combination of elotuzumab and lenalidomide. Expression of activation markers and adhesion receptors was evaluated by flow cytometry, cytokine expression by Luminex and ELISPOT assays, and cytotoxicity by myeloma cell counts. Elotuzumab activated NK cells and promoted myeloma cell death in PBL/myeloma cell co-cultures. The combination of elotuzumab plus lenalidomide demonstrated superior anti-myeloma activity on established MM xenografts in vivo and in PBL/myeloma cell co-cultures in vitro than either agent alone. The combination enhanced myeloma cell killing by modulating NK cell function that coincided with the upregulation of adhesion and activation markers, including interleukin (IL)-2Rα expression, IL-2 production by CD3(+)CD56(+) lymphocytes, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production. In co-culture assays, TNF-α directly increased NK cell activation and myeloma cell death with elotuzumab or elotuzumab plus lenalidomide, and neutralizing TNF-α decreased NK cell activation and myeloma cell death with elotuzumab. These results demonstrate that elotuzumab activates NK cells and induces myeloma cell death via NK cell-mediated ADCC, which is further enhanced when combined with lenalidomide.

  18. Killing of cancer cells through the use of eukaryotic expression vectors harbouring genes encoding nucleases and ribonuclease inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Glinka, Elena M

    2015-05-01

    Cancer gene therapy vectors are promising tools for killing cancer cells with the purpose of eradicating malignant tumours entirely. Different delivery methods of vectors into the cancer cells, including both non-viral and viral, as well as promoters for the targeted expression of genes encoding anticancer proteins were developed for effective and selective killing of cancer cells without harming healthy cells. Many vectors have been created to kill cancer cells, and some vectors suppress malignant tumours with high efficiency. This review is focused on vectors bearing genes for nucleases such as deoxyribonucleases (caspase-activated DNase, deoxyribonuclease I-like 3, endonuclease G) and ribonucleases (human polynucleotide phosphorylase, ribonuclease L, α-sarcin, barnase), as well as vectors harbouring gene encoding ribonuclease inhibitor. The data concerning the functionality and the efficacy of such vectors are presented.

  19. Metaxin deficiency alters mitochondrial membrane permeability and leads to resistance to TNF-induced cell killing.

    PubMed

    Ono, Koh; Wang, Xiaofei; Kim, Sung Ouk; Armstrong, Lucas C; Bornstein, Paul; Han, Jiahuai

    2010-02-01

    Metaxin, a mitochondrial outer membrane protein, is critical for TNF-induced cell death in L929 cells. Its deficiency, caused by retroviral insertion-mediated mutagenesis, renders L929 cells resistance to TNF killing. In this study, we further characterized metaxin deficiency-caused TNF resistance in parallel with Bcl-X(L) overexpression-mediated death resistance. We did not find obvious change in mitochondria membrane potential in metaxin-deficient (Met(mut)) and Bcl-X(L)-overexpressing cells, but we did find an increase in the release rate of the mitochondrial membrane potential probe rhodamine 123 (Rh123) that was preloaded into mitochondria. In addition, overexpression of a function-interfering mutant of metaxin (MetaΔTM/C) or Bcl-X(L) in MCF-7.3.28 cells also resulted in an acquired resistance to TNF killing and a faster rate of Rh123 release, indicating a close correlation between TNF resistance and higher rates of the dye release from the mitochondria. The release of Rh123 can be controlled by the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (PT) pore, as targeting an inner membrane component of the PT pore by cyclosporin A (CsA) inhibited Rh123 release. However, metaxin deficiency and Bcl-X(L) overexpression apparently affect Rh123 release from a site(s) different from that of CsA, as CsA can overcome their effect. Though both metaxin and Bcl-X(L) appear to function on the outer mitochondrial membrane, they do not interact with each other. They may use different mechanisms to increase the permeability of Rh123, since previous studies have suggested that metaxin may influence certain outer membrane porins while Bcl-X(L) may form pores on the outer membrane. The alteration of the mitochondrial outer membrane properties by metaxin deficiency and Bcl-X(L) overexpression, as indicated by a quicker Rh123 release, may be helpful in maintaining mitochondrial integrity.

  20. Mast cell TLR2 signaling is crucial for effective killing of Francisella tularensis.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Annette R; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Guentzel, M Neal; Navara, Christopher S; Klose, Karl E; Forsthuber, Thomas G; Chambers, James P; Berton, Michael T; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2012-06-01

    TLR signaling is critical for early host defense against pathogens, but the contributions of mast cell TLR-mediated mechanisms and subsequent effector functions during pulmonary infection are largely unknown. We have previously demonstrated that mast cells, through the production of IL-4, effectively control Francisella tularensis replication. In this study, the highly human virulent strain of F. tularensis SCHU S4 and the live vaccine strain were used to investigate the contribution of mast cell/TLR regulation of Francisella. Mast cells required TLR2 for effective bacterial killing, regulation of the hydrolytic enzyme cathepsin L, and for coordination and trafficking of MHC class II and lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2. Infected TLR2(-/-) mast cells, in contrast to wild-type and TLR4(-/-) cells, lacked detectable IL-4 and displayed increased cell death with a 2-3 log increase of F. tularensis replication, but could be rescued with rIL-4 treatment. Importantly, MHC class II and lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 localization with labeled F. tularensis in the lungs was greater in wild-type than in TLR2(-/-) mice. These results provide evidence for the important effector contribution of mast cells and TLR2-mediated signaling on early innate processes in the lung following pulmonary F. tularensis infection and provide additional insight into possible mechanisms by which intracellular pathogens modulate respiratory immune defenses.

  1. Selective killing of p53-deficient cancer cells by SP600125

    PubMed Central

    Jemaà, Mohamed; Vitale, Ilio; Kepp, Oliver; Berardinelli, Francesco; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Senovilla, Laura; Mariño, Guillermo; Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Rello-Varona, Santiago; Lissa, Delphine; Antoccia, Antonio; Tailler, Maximilien; Schlemmer, Frederic; Harper, Francis; Pierron, Gérard; Castedo, Maria; Kroemer, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The genetic or functional inactivation of p53 is highly prevalent in human cancers. Using high-content videomicroscopy based on fluorescent TP53+/+ and TP53−/− human colon carcinoma cells, we discovered that SP600125, a broad-spectrum serine/threonine kinase inhibitor, kills p53-deficient cells more efficiently than their p53-proficient counterparts, in vitro. Similar observations were obtained in vivo, in mice carrying p53-deficient and -proficient human xenografts. Such a preferential cytotoxicity could be attributed to the failure of p53-deficient cells to undergo cell cycle arrest in response to SP600125. TP53−/− (but not TP53+/+) cells treated with SP600125 became polyploid upon mitotic abortion and progressively succumbed to mitochondrial apoptosis. The expression of an SP600125-resistant variant of the mitotic kinase MPS1 in TP53−/− cells reduced SP600125-induced polyploidization. Thus, by targeting MPS1, SP600125 triggers a polyploidization program that cannot be sustained by TP53−/− cells, resulting in the activation of mitotic catastrophe, an oncosuppressive mechanism for the eradication of mitosis-incompetent cells. PMID:22438244

  2. Sorafenib/Regorafenib and Lapatinib interact to kill CNS tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Hamed, Hossein A.; Tavallai, Seyedmehrad; Grant, Steven; Poklepovic, Andrew; Dent, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The present studies were to determine whether the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib or its derivative regorafenib interacted with the ERBB1/ERBB2 inhibitor lapatinib to kill CNS tumor cells. In multiple CNS tumor cell types sorafenib and lapatinib interacted in a greater than additive fashion to cause tumor cell death. Tumor cells lacking PTEN, and anoikis or lapatinib resistant cells were as sensitive to the drug combination as cells expressing PTEN or parental cells, respectively. Similar data were obtained using regorafenib. Treatment of brain cancer cells with [sorafenib + lapatinib] enhanced radiation toxicity. The drug combination increased the numbers of LC3-GFP vesicles; this correlated with a reduction in endogenous LC3II, and p62 and LAMP2 degradation. Knock down of Beclin1 or ATG5 significantly suppressed drug combination lethality. Expression of c-FLIP-s, BCL-XL or dominant negative caspase 9 reduced drug combination toxicity; knock down of FADD or CD95 was protective. Expression of both activated AKT and activated MEK1 or activated mTOR was required to strongly suppress drug combination lethality. As both lapatinib and sorafenib are FDA approved agents, our data argue for further determination as to whether lapatinib and sorafenib is a useful glioblastoma therapy. PMID:24911215

  3. High CD46 receptor density determines preferential killing of tumor cells by oncolytic measles virus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Bambi D; Nakamura, Takafumi; Russell, Stephen J; Peng, Kah-Whye

    2004-07-15

    Live attenuated Edmonston B strain of measles virus (MV-Edm) is a potent and specific oncolytic agent, but the mechanism underlying its tumor selectivity is unknown. The virus causes cytopathic effects (CPEs) of extensive syncytial formation in tumor cells but minimal damage or cell killing in normal cells. The CPE is dependent on expression of viral proteins and the presence of CD46, the major cellular receptor of MV-Edm. Using a virally encoded soluble marker peptide to provide a quantitative readout of the level of viral gene expression, we determined that tumor cells and normal cells expressed comparable levels of viral proteins. CD46 mediates virus attachment, entry, and virus-induced cell-to-cell fusion. Using engineered cells expressing a range of CD46 densities, we determined that whereas virus entry increased progressively with CD46 density, cell fusion was minimal at low receptor densities but increased dramatically above a threshold density of CD46 receptors. It is well established that tumor cells express abundant CD46 receptors on their surfaces compared with their normal counterparts. Thus, at low CD46 densities typical of normal cells, infection occurs, but intercellular fusion is negligible. At higher densities typical of tumor cells, infection leads to extensive cell fusion. Intercellular fusion also results in enhancement of viral gene expression through recruitment of neighboring uninfected cells into the syncytium, further amplifying the CPE. Discrimination between high and low CD46 receptor density provides a compelling basis for the oncolytic specificity of MV-Edm and establishes MV-Edm as a promising CD46-targeted cancer therapeutic agent.

  4. A Numerical Investigation of the Electric and Thermal Cell Kill Distributions in Electroporation-Based Therapies in Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Paulo A.; Davalos, Rafael V.; Miklavcic, Damijan

    2014-01-01

    Electroporation-based therapies are powerful biotechnological tools for enhancing the delivery of exogeneous agents or killing tissue with pulsed electric fields (PEFs). Electrochemotherapy (ECT) and gene therapy based on gene electrotransfer (EGT) both use reversible electroporation to deliver chemotherapeutics or plasmid DNA into cells, respectively. In both ECT and EGT, the goal is to permeabilize the cell membrane while maintaining high cell viability in order to facilitate drug or gene transport into the cell cytoplasm and induce a therapeutic response. Irreversible electroporation (IRE) results in cell kill due to exposure to PEFs without drugs and is under clinical evaluation for treating otherwise unresectable tumors. These PEF therapies rely mainly on the electric field distributions and do not require changes in tissue temperature for their effectiveness. However, in immediate vicinity of the electrodes the treatment may results in cell kill due to thermal damage because of the inhomogeneous electric field distribution and high current density during the electroporation-based therapies. Therefore, the main objective of this numerical study is to evaluate the influence of pulse number and electrical conductivity in the predicted cell kill zone due to irreversible electroporation and thermal damage. Specifically, we simulated a typical IRE protocol that employs ninety 100-µs PEFs. Our results confirm that it is possible to achieve predominant cell kill due to electroporation if the PEF parameters are chosen carefully. However, if either the pulse number and/or the tissue conductivity are too high, there is also potential to achieve cell kill due to thermal damage in the immediate vicinity of the electrodes. Therefore, it is critical for physicians to be mindful of placement of electrodes with respect to critical tissue structures and treatment parameters in order to maintain the non-thermal benefits of electroporation and prevent unnecessary damage to

  5. An Fc engineering approach that modulates antibody-dependent cytokine release without altering cell-killing functions.

    PubMed

    Kinder, Michelle; Greenplate, Allison R; Strohl, William R; Jordan, Robert E; Brezski, Randall J

    2015-01-01

    Cytotoxic therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) often mediate target cell-killing by eliciting immune effector functions via Fc region interactions with cellular and humoral components of the immune system. Key functions include antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). However, there has been increased appreciation that along with cell-killing functions, the induction of antibody-dependent cytokine release (ADCR) can also influence disease microenvironments and therapeutic outcomes. Historically, most Fc engineering approaches have been aimed toward modulating ADCC, ADCP, or CDC. In the present study, we describe an Fc engineering approach that, while not resulting in impaired ADCC or ADCP, profoundly affects ADCR. As such, when peripheral blood mononuclear cells are used as effector cells against mAb-opsonized tumor cells, the described mAb variants elicit a similar profile and quantity of cytokines as IgG1. In contrast, although the variants elicit similar levels of tumor cell-killing as IgG1 with macrophage effector cells, the variants do not elicit macrophage-mediated ADCR against mAb-opsonized tumor cells. This study demonstrates that Fc engineering approaches can be employed to uncouple macrophage-mediated phagocytic and subsequent cell-killing functions from cytokine release.

  6. Enhancing effects of gamma interferon on phagocytic cell association with and killing of Trypanosoma cruzi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirth, J. J.; Kierszenbaum, F.; Sonnenfeld, G.; Zlotnik, A.

    1985-01-01

    Results are reported from a study of the influence gamma interferon (GIFN) and interleukin 2 (IL2) have on the capability of P388D1 cells and mouse resident peritoneal macrophages (MPM) to attach to the blood-resident parasites Trypanosoma cruzi and kill them. Cultures of trypomastigote forms of the Tulahuen strain of T. cruzi grown in bovine serum were introduced into peritoneal cells of mice, along with P388D1 cells incubated with GIFN, IL2 and both. Control cells were also maintained. Statistical analysis were then performed on data on counts of the number of dead T. Cruzi cells. The GIFN enhanced the interaction of MPM and P388D1 cells with the surface of T. Cruzi, provided the interaction was given over 12 hr to take place. A depression of the cytotoxicity of P388D1 cells was attributed to mediation by H2O2, an effect partially offset by incubation with the lymphokine GIFN.

  7. The role of DNA repair on cell killing by charged particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Murakami, M.; Itsukaichi, H.; Fukutsu, K.; Kanai, T.; Furusawa, Y.; Sato, K.; Ohara, H.; Yatagai, F.

    It can be noted that it is not simple double strand breaks (dsb) but the non-reparable breaks that are associated with high biological effectiveness in the cell killing effect for high LET radiation. Here, we have examined the effectiveness of fast neutrons and low (initial energy = 12 MeV/u) or high (135 MeV/u) energy charged particles on cell death in 19 mammalian cell lines including radiosensitive mutants. Some of the radiosensitive lines were deficient in DNA dsb repair such as LX830, M10, V3, and L5178Y-S cells and showed lower values of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for fast neutrons if compared with their parent cell lines. The other lines of human ataxia-telangiectasia fibroblasts, irs 1, irs 2, irs 3 and irs1SF cells, which were also radiosensitive but known as proficient in dsb repair, showed moderate RBEs. Dsb repair deficient mutants showed low RBE values for heavy ions. These experimental findings suggest that the DNA repair system does not play a major role against the attack of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiations. Therefore, we hypothesize that a main cause of cell death induced by high LET radiations is due to non-reparable dsb, which are produced at a higher rate compared to low LET radiations.

  8. Enhancing effects of gamma interferon on phagocytic cell association with and killing of Trypanosoma cruzi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirth, J. J.; Kierszenbaum, F.; Sonnenfeld, G.; Zlotnik, A.

    1985-01-01

    Results are reported from a study of the influence gamma interferon (GIFN) and interleukin 2 (IL2) have on the capability of P388D1 cells and mouse resident peritoneal macrophages (MPM) to attach to the blood-resident parasites Trypanosoma cruzi and kill them. Cultures of trypomastigote forms of the Tulahuen strain of T. cruzi grown in bovine serum were introduced into peritoneal cells of mice, along with P388D1 cells incubated with GIFN, IL2 and both. Control cells were also maintained. Statistical analysis were then performed on data on counts of the number of dead T. Cruzi cells. The GIFN enhanced the interaction of MPM and P388D1 cells with the surface of T. Cruzi, provided the interaction was given over 12 hr to take place. A depression of the cytotoxicity of P388D1 cells was attributed to mediation by H2O2, an effect partially offset by incubation with the lymphokine GIFN.

  9. Selective killing of cancer cells by leaf extract of Ashwagandha: components, activity and pathway analyses.

    PubMed

    Widodo, Nashi; Takagi, Yasuomi; Shrestha, Bhupal G; Ishii, Tetsuro; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu

    2008-04-08

    Ashwagandha, also called as "Queen of Ayurveda" and "Indian ginseng", is a commonly used plant in Indian traditional medicine, Ayurveda. Its roots have been used as herb remedy to treat a variety of ailments and to promote general wellness. However, scientific evidence to its effects is limited to only a small number of studies. We had previously identified anti-cancer activity in the leaf extract (i-Extract) of Ashwagandha and demonstrated withanone as a cancer inhibitory factor (i-Factor). In the present study, we fractionated the i-Extract to its components by silica gel column chromatography and subjected them to cell based activity analyses. We found that the cancer inhibitory leaf extract (i-Extract) has, at least, seven components that could cause cancer cell killing; i-Factor showed the highest selectivity for cancer cells and i-Factor rich Ashwagandha leaf powder was non-toxic and anti-tumorigenic in mice assays. We undertook a gene silencing and pathway analysis approach and found that i-Extract and its components kill cancer cells by at least five different pathways, viz. p53 signaling, GM-CFS signaling, death receptor signaling, apoptosis signaling and G2-M DNA damage regulation pathway. p53 signaling was most common. Visual analysis of p53 and mortalin staining pattern further revealed that i-Extract, fraction F1, fraction F4 and i-Factor caused an abrogation of mortalin-p53 interactions and reactivation of p53 function while the fractions F2, F3, F5 work through other mechanisms.

  10. Merocyanine 540 and Photofrin II as photosensitizers for in vitro killing of duck hepatitis B virus and human hepatoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tsung-I.; Shien, Yong-Shau; Kao, Ming-Chien

    1994-03-01

    The feasibility of using merocyanine 540 (MC 540) and Photofrin II (PII) as effective photodynamic therapeutic (PDT) agents for killing hepatoma cells and duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) in vitro was investigated. Cultured duck hepatocytes infected with DHBV and hepatoma cells, Hep 3B and HCC 36, were used as models. MC 540 and PII effectively inhibits the DHBV growth by 90 - 99% in a dose- and light-dependent manner. Photodynamic killing of MC 540 in the two hepatoma cell lines results in 94 - 99% growth inhibition. However, both photosensitizers exhibit dark cytotoxicity (37 - 56%). The present results suggest that MC 540 and PII could be promising and effective photodynamic agents for killing HBV and hepatoma cells.

  11. Radiation quality dependence of signal transmission and bystander induced cell killing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Bertolotti, Alessia; Facoetti, Angelica; Grande, Sveva; Mariotti, Luca; Ottolenghi, Andrea; Ranza, Elena; Simone, Giustina; Sorrentino, Eugenio; Antonella Tabocchini, Maria

    Low dose radiobiological studies have shown effects, observable in cells that are in the vicinity of irradiated cells, which are due to the release by irradiated cells of several cellular mediators among which Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species (ROS, NRS), and cytokines are likely to play a key role. Despite the large number in the literature of studies on bystander effects induced by ionizing radiation the results are still conflicting, and further studies are therefore needed on the possible underlying mechanisms. The dependence on radiation quality deserve particular attention because bystander mechanisms are probably more important with high-LET irradi-ations, where many cells are not hit (bystander). Moreover, due to the different patterns of energy deposition, the cellular response to low LET and high LET radiation can be different. Understanding whether these cells can contribute to the adverse effects of low radiation doses in a radiation quality-dependent fashion might have important implications in risk estimates for both cancer induction and non-cancer diseases. In this context, we addressed to the study of the bystander induced cell killing after incubation with "conditioned medium" from primary human fibroblasts irradiated with 0.1 and 0.5 Gy of α-particles or γ-rays. Medium transfer was performed after 1h incubation from irradiation. The results have confirmed a reduction in clonogenic survival after incubation with medium from α-irradiated cells, independently of the dose; similar results were obtained after γ-irradiation, although in this case a slight dose depen-dence could be envisaged. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels were measured in the conditioned medium collected up to 20 hours after irradiation with α-particles and γ-rays in the dose-range of 0.1-1.0 Gy, in parallel with evaluation of their receptor expression in irradi-ated and bystander cells. Concerning IL-6, we observed the strongest modulation of its release

  12. In vitro T cell-mediated killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. V. Generation of bactericidal T cells in nonresponder mice.

    PubMed

    Powderly, W G; Pier, G B; Markham, R B

    1987-04-01

    We have previously reported that BALB/c mice immunized with 10 micrograms of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa polysaccharide antigen (PS) and 100 micrograms vinblastine sulfate develop T cell-mediated protective immunity, but fail to generate an antibody response. Vinblastine functions in this system to remove a suppressor cell that normally inhibits expression of this form of immunity after PS immunization. T cells from CB.20 mice immunized with the 10 micrograms of PS and 100 micrograms vinblastine fail to kill P. aeruginosa in vitro. These mice are allotype congenic with BALB/c mice, differing at loci closely linked to the IgH-1 locus. Immunization of CB.20 mice with 10 micrograms PS and 100 micrograms vinblastine results in the appearance of T cells which suppress in vitro bactericidal activity of BALB/c T cells. In the current study we found that T cell-mediated bactericidal activity can be generated in CB.20 mice by increasing the dose of vinblastine given at the time of PS immunization. The phenotype of the CB.20 bactericidal T cell generated by high dose vinblastine is identical to that of the BALB/c bactericidal T cell, and the CB.20 bactericidal T cell can adoptively transfer protective immunity to granulocytopenic mice. After immunization of BALB/c and CB.20 mice with PS alone, approximately one log fewer CB.20 T cells than BALB/c T cells are required to suppress bacterial killing in vitro. Furthermore, the number of CB.20 T cells required to suppress in vitro bacterial killing is directly correlated with the dose of vinblastine administered at the time of immunization. Increasing the immunizing dose of PS overcomes suppressor activity and allows the generation of bactericidal T cells in BALB/c mice without a requirement for vinblastine. CB.20 mice fail to generate bactericidal T cells after immunization with high doses of PS. These results indicate that CB.20 and BALB/c mice both possess the full repertoire of T cells required to express bactericidal T cell

  13. CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Protein β Mediates the Killing of Toxoplasma gondii by Inducing Autophagy in Nonhematopoietic Cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanhui; Zhao, Na; An, Jiaqi; Zhang, Xichen

    2017-03-01

    Autophagy is a main defense strategy by which infected host cells can virtually induce the killing of parasite, including Toxoplasma gondii. However, the regulatory mechanisms of autophagy in T. gondii-infected nonhematopoietic cells are still unknown. Emerging evidence indicates that CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBP β) is associated with the regulation of autophagy. Herein, we hypothesized that C/EBP β plays roles in inducing autophagy in nonhematopoietic cells. Expression of C/EBP β was aberrantly regulated in endothelial cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells challenged by T. gondii. Inhibition of C/EBP β reduced the killing of T. gondii in nonhematopoietic cells, whereas C/EBP β overexpression resulted in the enhancement of killing of T. gondii as well as the increase in autophagy in infected cells. Furthermore, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation was found to be reduced by C/EBP β overexpression, but increased by C/EBP β inhibition. The increase in T. gondii killing induced by C/EBP β overexpression was blocked by the mTOR activator phosphatidic acid and was increased by the inhibitor AZD8055. In conclusion, we demonstrate that C/EBP β expression is increased in nonhematopoietic cells infected by T. gondii, resulting in the activation of autophagy in host cells by inhibiting mTOR pathway.

  14. Aurora kinase inhibition induces PUMA via NF-κB to kill colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Knickelbein, Kyle; He, Kan; Chen, Dongshi; Dudgeon, Crissy; Shu, Yongqian; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Lin

    2014-05-01

    Aurora kinases play a key role in mitosis and are frequently overexpressed in a variety of tumor cells. Inhibition of aurora kinases results in mitotic arrest and death of cancer cells, and has been explored as an anticancer strategy. However, how aurora inhibition kills cancer cells is poorly understood. In this study, we found that inhibition of aurora kinases by siRNA or small-molecule inhibitors led to induction of p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), a BH3-only Bcl-2 family protein, in colorectal cancer cells irrespective of p53 status. Deficiency in PUMA increased polyploidy, improved cell survival, and abrogated mitochondria-mediated apoptosis induced by aurora kinase inhibitors. In response to aurora kinase inhibition, PUMA was directly activated by p65 through the canonical NF-κB pathway following AKT inhibition. Furthermore, PUMA was necessary for the chemosensitization and in vivo antitumor effects of aurora kinase inhibitors in colon cancer cells. These results suggest that PUMA induction mediates the apoptotic response to mitotic arrest imposed by aurora kinase inhibition, and may be a useful indicator for the anticancer activity of aurora kinase inhibitors.

  15. Bipolar nanosecond electric pulses are less efficient at electropermeabilization and killing cells than monopolar pulses

    PubMed Central

    Ibey, Bennett L.; Ullery, Jody; Pakhomova, Olga N.; Roth, Caleb C.; Semenov, Iurri; Beier, Hope T.; Tarango, Melissa; Xiao, Shu; Schoenbach, Karl; Pakhomov, Andrei G.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple studies have shown that bipolar (BP) electric pulses in the microsecond range are more effective at permeabilizing cells while maintaining similar cell survival rates as compared to monopolar (MP) pulse equivalents. In this paper, we investigated whether the same advantage existed for BP nanosecond-pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) as compared to MP nsPEF. To study permeabilization effectiveness, MP or BP pulses were delivered to single Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and the response of three dyes, Calcium Green-1, Propidium Iodide (PI), and FM1-43, was measured by confocal microscopy. Results show that BP pulses were less effective at increasing intracellular calcium concentration or PI uptake and cause less membrane reorganization (FM1-43) than MP pulses. Twenty-four hour survival was measured in three cell lines (Jurkat, U937, CHO) and over ten times more BP pulses were required to induce death as compared to MP pulses of similar magnitude and duration. Flow cytometry analysis of CHO cells after exposure (15 minutes) revealed that to achieve positive FITC-Annexin V and PI expression, ten times more BP pulses were required than MP pulses. Overall, unlike longer pulse exposures, BP nsPEF exposures proved far less effective at both membrane permeabilization and cell killing than MP nsPEF. PMID:24332942

  16. Selective killing of K-ras mutant cancer cells by small molecule inducers of oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Alice T.; Winslow, Monte M.; Magendantz, Margaret; Ouyang, Chensi; Dowdle, James; Subramanian, Aravind; Lewis, Timothy A.; Maglathin, Rebecca L.; Tolliday, Nicola; Jacks, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    Activating K-RAS mutations are the most frequent oncogenic mutations in human cancer. Numerous downstream signaling pathways have been shown to be deregulated by oncogenic K-ras. However, to date there are still no effective targeted therapies for this genetically defined subset of patients. Here we report the results of a small molecule, synthetic lethal screen using mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from a mouse model harboring a conditional oncogenic K-rasG12D allele. Among the >50,000 compounds screened, we identified a class of drugs with selective activity against oncogenic K-ras–expressing cells. The most potent member of this class, lanperisone, acts by inducing nonapoptotic cell death in a cell cycle- and translation-independent manner. The mechanism of cell killing involves the induction of reactive oxygen species that are inefficiently scavenged in K-ras mutant cells, leading to oxidative stress and cell death. In mice, treatment with lanperisone suppresses the growth of K-ras–driven tumors without overt toxicity. Our findings establish the specific antitumor activity of lanperisone and reveal oxidative stress pathways as potential targets in Ras-mediated malignancies. PMID:21555567

  17. 220D-F2 from Rubus ulmifolius Kills Streptococcus pneumoniae Planktonic Cells and Pneumococcal Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Talekar, Sharmila J.; Chochua, Sopio; Nelson, Katie; Klugman, Keith P.; Quave, Cassandra L.; Vidal, Jorge E.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) forms organized biofilms to persist in the human nasopharynx. This persistence allows the pneumococcus to produce severe diseases such as pneumonia, otitis media, bacteremia and meningitis that kill nearly a million children every year. While bacteremia and meningitis are mediated by planktonic pneumococci, biofilm structures are present during pneumonia and otitis media. The global emergence of S. pneumoniae strains resistant to most commonly prescribed antibiotics warrants further discovery of alternative therapeutics. The present study assessed the antimicrobial potential of a plant extract, 220D-F2, rich in ellagic acid, and ellagic acid derivatives, against S. pneumoniae planktonic cells and biofilm structures. Our studies first demonstrate that, when inoculated together with planktonic cultures, 220D-F2 inhibited the formation of pneumococcal biofilms in a dose-dependent manner. As measured by bacterial counts and a LIVE/DEAD bacterial viability assay, 100 and 200 µg/ml of 220D-F2 had significant bactericidal activity against pneumococcal planktonic cultures as early as 3 h post-inoculation. Quantitative MIC’s, whether quantified by qPCR or dilution and plating, showed that 80 µg/ml of 220D-F2 completely eradicated overnight cultures of planktonic pneumococci, including antibiotic resistant strains. When preformed pneumococcal biofilms were challenged with 220D-F2, it significantly reduced the population of biofilms 3 h post-inoculation. Minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC)50 was obtained incubating biofilms with 100 µg/ml of 220D-F2 for 3 h and 6 h of incubation. 220D-F2 also significantly reduced the population of pneumococcal biofilms formed on human pharyngeal cells. Our results demonstrate potential therapeutic applications of 220D-F2 to both kill planktonic pneumococcal cells and disrupt pneumococcal biofilms. PMID:24823499

  18. EGFR-targeted diphtheria toxin stimulates TRAIL killing of glioblastoma cells by depleting anti-apoptotic proteins.

    PubMed

    Horita, Henrick; Thorburn, Jacqueline; Frankel, Arthur E; Thorburn, Andrew

    2009-11-01

    Current treatments for Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) involve surgery, radiotherapy, and cytotoxic chemotherapy; however, these treatments are not effective and there is an urgent need for better treatments. We investigated GBM cell killing by a novel drug combination involving DT-EGF, an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-targeted bacterial toxin, and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) or antibodies that activate the TRAIL receptors DR4 and DR5. DT-EGF kills GBM cells by a non apoptotic mechanism whereas TRAIL kills by inducing apoptosis. GBM cells treated with DT-EGF and TRAIL were killed in a synergistic fashion in vitro and the combination was more effective than either treatment alone in vivo. Tumor cell death with the combination occurred by caspase activation and apoptosis due to DT-EGF positively regulating TRAIL killing by depleting FLIP, a selective inhibitor of TRAIL receptor-induced apoptosis. These data provide a mechanism-based rationale for combining targeted toxins and TRAIL receptor agonists to treat GBM.

  19. Nitric Oxide-Mediated Inhibition of the Ability of Rickettsia prowazekii To Infect Mouse Fibroblasts and Mouse Macrophagelike Cells

    PubMed Central

    Turco, Jenifer; Liu, Hua; Gottlieb, Sheldon F.; Winkler, Herbert H.

    1998-01-01

    The role of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) pathway in inhibiting the ability of Rickettsia prowazekii to initially infect (invade) mouse cytokine-treated, fibroblastic L929 cells and macrophagelike RAW264.7 cells and the ability of nitric oxide (NO) to damage isolated rickettsiae were investigated. Substantial amounts of nitrite (a degradation product of NO) were produced and the initial rickettsial infection was suppressed in cultures of L929 cells treated with crude lymphokine preparations (LK) or with gamma interferon (IFN-γ) plus tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) but not in L929 cell cultures treated with IFN-γ alone or TNF-α alone. The NOS inhibitors NG-methyl-l-arginine and aminoguanidine both inhibited nitrite production and prevented the suppression of the initial rickettsial infection. Antibody-mediated neutralization of the IFN-γ in the LK also inhibited both nitrite production and suppression of the initial rickettsial infection. Cultures of RAW264.7 cells treated with IFN-γ plus lipopolysaccharide exhibited suppression of the initial rickettsial infection, and the suppression was relieved by aminoguanidine. Addition of oxyhemoglobin (a scavenger of extracellular NO) during the rickettsial infection alleviated the suppression of the initial rickettsial infection observed in appropriately treated L929 cells and RAW264.7 cells. In addition, the oxyhemoglobin restored the rickettsia-mediated, rapid killing of the treated RAW264.7 cells. Incubation of isolated rickettsiae with NO inhibited their ability to infect L929 and IFN-γ-treated RAW264.7 cells and to rapidly kill IFN-γ-treated RAW264.7 cells. In contrast, incubation of L929 cells with a solution that contained NO and/or degradation products of NO did not affect their ability to be infected by rickettsiae. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that NO released from appropriately stimulated potential host cells kills extracellular rickettsiae and thus prevents the rickettsiae from

  20. Tanshinone IIA enhances bystander cell killing of cancer cells expressing Drosophila melanogaster deoxyribonucleoside kinase in nuclei and mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haiyang; Zhao, Lei; Dong, Xiaoshen; He, Anning; Zheng, Caiwei; Johansson, Magnus; Karlsson, Anna; Zheng, Xinyu

    2015-09-01

    Heterologous expression of the Drosophila melanogaster multi-substrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase (Dm-dNK) increases the sensitivity of cancer cells to several cytotoxic nucleoside analogs. Thus, it may be used as a suicide gene in combined gene/chemotherapy treatment of cancer. To further characterize this potential suicide gene, we constructed two retroviral vectors that enabled the expression of Dm-dNK in cancer cells. One vector harbored the wild‑type enzyme that localized to the nucleus. The other vector harbored a mitochondrial localized mutant enzyme that was constructed by deleting the nuclear localization signal and fusing it to a mitochondrial import signal of cytochrome c oxidase. A thymidine kinase-deficient osteosarcoma cell line was transduced with the recombinant viruses. The sensitivity and bystander cell killing in the presence of pyrimidine nucleoside analogs (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)‑2'‑deoxyuridine and 1-β-D-arabinofuranosylthymine were investigated. Tanshinone IIA is a constituent of Danshen; a traditional Chinese medicine used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study also looked at the influence of Tanshinone IIA on the bystander effect and the underlying mechanisms. We showed that sensitivity of the osteosarcoma cell line to the nucleoside analogs and the efficiency of bystander cell killing were independent of the subcellular localization of Dm-dNK. The enhanced effect of tanshinone IIA on the bystander effect was related to the increased expression of Cx43 and Cx26.

  1. Absence of synergistic enhancement of non-thermal effects of ultrasound on cell killing induced by ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Kondo, T; Kano, E

    1987-10-01

    The present study was performed to elucidate the role of non-thermal effects (cavitation and direct effects) of ultrasound, in simultaneous combination with X-irradiation on the cytotoxicity of mouse L cells. Firstly, mouse L cells were exposed to X-rays and ultrasound (1 MHz continuous wave, spatial peak temporal average intensity; 3.7 W/cm2) simultaneously at 37 degrees C under O2 or Ar saturated conditions to examine the cavitational effect of ultrasound. Secondly, cells were exposed to X-rays and ultrasound at 37 degrees C under N2O saturated conditions, which suppresses the cavitation, to examine the direct effects of ultrasound. The cavitational effect under O2 and Ar saturated conditions induced an exponential decrease in cell survival, and resulted in an additive effect on cell killing with the combination of X-rays and ultrasound. The direct effect in the N2O conditions induced no cell killing and did not modify the cell killing induced by X-rays. These results suggested that the non-thermal effects of ultrasound did not interact synergistically with X-rays for cell killing.

  2. Reduction of radiation-induced cell cycle blocks by caffeine does not necessarily lead to increased cell killing

    SciTech Connect

    Musk, S.R. )

    1991-03-01

    The effect of caffeine upon the radiosensitivities of three human tumor lines was examined and correlated with its action upon the radiation-induced S-phase and G2-phase blocks. Caffeine was found to reduce at least partially the S-phase and G2-phase blocks in all the cell lines examined but potentiated cytotoxicity in only one of the three tumor lines. That reductions have been demonstrated to occur in the absence of increased cell killing provides supporting evidence for the hypothesis that reductions may not be causal in those cases when potentiation of radiation-induced cytotoxicity is observed in the presence of caffeine.

  3. PIM Kinase Inhibitors Kill Hypoxic Tumor Cells by Reducing Nrf2 Signaling and Increasing Reactive Oxygen Species.

    PubMed

    Warfel, Noel A; Sainz, Alva G; Song, Jin H; Kraft, Andrew S

    2016-07-01

    Intratumoral hypoxia is a significant obstacle to the successful treatment of solid tumors, and it is highly correlated with metastasis, therapeutic resistance, and disease recurrence in cancer patients. As a result, there is an urgent need to develop effective therapies that target hypoxic cells within the tumor microenvironment. The Proviral Integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus (PIM) kinases represent a prosurvival pathway that is upregulated in response to hypoxia, in a HIF-1-independent manner. We demonstrate that pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of PIM kinases is significantly more toxic toward cancer cells in hypoxia as compared with normoxia. Xenograft studies confirm that PIM kinase inhibitors impede tumor growth and selectively kill hypoxic tumor cells in vivo Experiments show that PIM kinases enhance the ability of tumor cells to adapt to hypoxia-induced oxidative stress by increasing the nuclear localization and activity of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which functions to increase the expression of antioxidant genes. Small molecule PIM kinase inhibitors prevent Nrf2 from accumulating in the nucleus, reducing the transcription of cytoprotective genes and leading to the build-up of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) to toxic levels in hypoxic tumor cells. This toxic effect of PIM inhibitors can be successfully blocked by ROS scavengers, including N-acetyl cystine and superoxide dismutase. Thus, inhibition of PIM kinases has the potential to oppose hypoxia-mediated therapeutic resistance and induce cell death in the hypoxic tumor microenvironment. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(7); 1637-47. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. A designed equine herpes thymidine kinase (EHV4 TK) variant improves ganciclovir-induced cell-killing.

    PubMed

    McSorley, Theresa; Ort, Stephan; Monnerjahn, Christian; Konrad, Manfred

    2014-02-01

    The limitations of the ganciclovir (GCV)/herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV1 TK: EC 2.7.1.21) system as a suicide gene therapy approach have been extensively studied over the years. In our study, we focused on improving the cytotoxic profile of the GCV/equine herpes virus-4 thymidine kinase (EHV4 TK: EC 2.7.1.21) system. Our approach involved the structure-guided mutagenesis of EHV4 TK in order to switch its ability to preferentially phosphorylate the natural substrate deoxythymidine (dT) to that of GCV. We performed steady-state kinetic analysis, genetic complementation in a thymidine kinase-deficient Escherichia coli strain, isothermal titration calorimetry, and analysis of GCV-induced cell killing through generation of HEK 293 stable cell-lines expressing EHV4 TK mutants and wild-type EHV4 TK. We found that the EHV4 TK S144H-GFP mutant preferentially phosphorylates GCV and confers increased GCV-induced cytotoxicity compared to wild-type EHV4 TK.

  5. Two-stage model of radon-induced malignant lung tumors in rats: effects of cell killing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebeck, E. G.; Curtis, S. B.; Cross, F. T.; Moolgavkar, S. H.

    1996-01-01

    A two-stage stochastic model of carcinogenesis is used to analyze lung tumor incidence in 3750 rats exposed to varying regimens of radon carried on a constant-concentration uranium ore dust aerosol. New to this analysis is the parameterization of the model such that cell killing by the alpha particles could be included. The model contains parameters characterizing the rate of the first mutation, the net proliferation rate of initiated cells, the ratio of the rates of cell loss (cell killing plus differentiation) and cell division, and the lag time between the appearance of the first malignant cell and the tumor. Data analysis was by standard maximum likelihood estimation techniques. Results indicate that the rate of the first mutation is dependent on radon and consistent with in vitro rates measured experimentally, and that the rate of the second mutation is not dependent on radon. An initial sharp rise in the net proliferation rate of initiated cell was found with increasing exposure rate (denoted model I), which leads to an unrealistically high cell-killing coefficient. A second model (model II) was studied, in which the initial rise was attributed to promotion via a step function, implying that it is due not to radon but to the uranium ore dust. This model resulted in values for the cell-killing coefficient consistent with those found for in vitro cells. An "inverse dose-rate" effect is seen, i.e. an increase in the lifetime probability of tumor with a decrease in exposure rate. This is attributed in large part to promotion of intermediate lesions. Since model II is preferable on biological grounds (it yields a plausible cell-killing coefficient), such as uranium ore dust. This analysis presents evidence that a two-stage model describes the data adequately and generates hypotheses regarding the mechanism of radon-induced carcinogenesis.

  6. Two-stage model of radon-induced malignant lung tumors in rats: effects of cell killing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebeck, E. G.; Curtis, S. B.; Cross, F. T.; Moolgavkar, S. H.

    1996-01-01

    A two-stage stochastic model of carcinogenesis is used to analyze lung tumor incidence in 3750 rats exposed to varying regimens of radon carried on a constant-concentration uranium ore dust aerosol. New to this analysis is the parameterization of the model such that cell killing by the alpha particles could be included. The model contains parameters characterizing the rate of the first mutation, the net proliferation rate of initiated cells, the ratio of the rates of cell loss (cell killing plus differentiation) and cell division, and the lag time between the appearance of the first malignant cell and the tumor. Data analysis was by standard maximum likelihood estimation techniques. Results indicate that the rate of the first mutation is dependent on radon and consistent with in vitro rates measured experimentally, and that the rate of the second mutation is not dependent on radon. An initial sharp rise in the net proliferation rate of initiated cell was found with increasing exposure rate (denoted model I), which leads to an unrealistically high cell-killing coefficient. A second model (model II) was studied, in which the initial rise was attributed to promotion via a step function, implying that it is due not to radon but to the uranium ore dust. This model resulted in values for the cell-killing coefficient consistent with those found for in vitro cells. An "inverse dose-rate" effect is seen, i.e. an increase in the lifetime probability of tumor with a decrease in exposure rate. This is attributed in large part to promotion of intermediate lesions. Since model II is preferable on biological grounds (it yields a plausible cell-killing coefficient), such as uranium ore dust. This analysis presents evidence that a two-stage model describes the data adequately and generates hypotheses regarding the mechanism of radon-induced carcinogenesis.

  7. Novel antioxidants are not toxic to normal tissues but effectively kill cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuk, Anna; Aladedunye, Felix; Rodriguez-Juarez, Rocio; Li, Dongping; Thomas, James; Kovalchuk, Olga; Przybylski, Roman

    2013-10-01

    Free radicals are formed as a result of cellular processes and play a key role in predisposition to and development of numerous diseases and of premature aging. Recently, we reported the syntheses of a number of novel phenolic antioxidants for possible application in food industry. In the present study, analyses of the cellular processes and molecular gene expression effects of some of the novel antioxidants in normal human tissues and in cancer cells were undertaken. Results indicated that whereas the examined antioxidants showed no effects on morphology and gene expression of normal human oral and gingival epithelial tissues, they exerted a profound cell killing effect on breast cancer cells, including on chemotherapy-resistant breast cancer cells and on oral squamous carcinoma cells. Among the tested antioxidants, N-decyl-N-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzyl)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) propanamide and N-decyl-N-(3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzyl)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) propanamide were the most promising, with excellent potential for cancer treatment. Moreover, our gene expression databases can be used as a roadmap for future analysis of mechanisms of antioxidant action.

  8. Novel antioxidants are not toxic to normal tissues but effectively kill cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kovalchuk, Anna; Aladedunye, Felix; Rodriguez-Juarez, Rocio; Li, Dongping; Thomas, James; Kovalchuk, Olga; Przybylski, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Free radicals are formed as a result of cellular processes and play a key role in predisposition to and development of numerous diseases and of premature aging. Recently, we reported the syntheses of a number of novel phenolic antioxidants for possible application in food industry. In the present study, analyses of the cellular processes and molecular gene expression effects of some of the novel antioxidants in normal human tissues and in cancer cells were undertaken. Results indicated that whereas the examined antioxidants showed no effects on morphology and gene expression of normal human oral and gingival epithelial tissues, they exerted a profound cell killing effect on breast cancer cells, including on chemotherapy-resistant breast cancer cells and on oral squamous carcinoma cells. Among the tested antioxidants, N-decyl-N-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzyl)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) propanamide and N-decyl-N-(3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzyl)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) propanamide were the most promising, with excellent potential for cancer treatment. Moreover, our gene expression databases can be used as a roadmap for future analysis of mechanisms of antioxidant action. PMID:23917379

  9. Nanovectorization of TRAIL with single wall carbon nanotubes enhances tumor cell killing.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Al Batoul; Picaud, Fabien; Rattier, Thibault; Pudlo, Marc; Dufour, Florent; Saviot, Lucien; Chassagnon, Rémi; Lherminier, Jeannine; Gharbi, Tijani; Micheau, Olivier; Herlem, Guillaume

    2015-02-11

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL or Apo2L) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. This type II transmembrane protein is able to bound specifically to cancer cell receptors (i.e., TRAIL-R1 (or DR4) and TRAIL-R2 (or DR5)) and to induce apoptosis without being toxic for healthy cells. Because membrane-bound TRAIL induces stronger receptor aggregation and apoptosis than soluble TRAIL, we proposed here to vectorize TRAIL using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to mimic membrane TRAIL. Owing to their exceptional and revolutional properties, carbon nanotubes, especially SWCNTs, are used in a wide range of physical or, now, medical applications. Indeed due to their high mechanical resistance, their high flexibility and their hydrophobicity, SWCNTs are known to rapidly diffuse in an aqueous medium such as blood, opening the way of development of new drug nanovectors (or nanocarriers). Our TRAIL-based SWCNTs nanovectors proved to be more efficient than TRAIL alone death receptors in triggering cancer cell killing. These NPTs increased TRAIL pro-apoptotic potential by nearly 20-fold in different Human tumor cell lines including colorectal, nonsmall cell lung cancer, or hepatocarcinomas. We provide thus a proof-of-concept that TRAIL nanovector derivatives based on SWCNT may be useful to future nanomedicine therapies.

  10. Safety and immunogenicity of oral killed whole cell recombinant B subunit cholera vaccine in Barranquilla, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Concha, A; Giraldo, A; Castañeda, E; Martínez, M; de la Hoz, F; Rivas, F; Depetris, A; Svennerholm, A M; Sack, D A

    1995-12-01

    In January and February 1992, an assessment was conducted of the safety and immunogenicity of two doses of a new oral cholera vaccine prepared from the recombinant B subunit of the toxin and from killed whole cells (rBS/WC) in 1,165 individuals between the ages of 12 months and 64 years in Barranquilla, Colombia. This was a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study. Participants received two doses of either the vaccine or a placebo (killed Escherichia coli K12) over a two-week interval. Few symptoms were detected during the three days following administration of the initial dose and even fewer following the second. Sera obtained upon administration of the first dose and two weeks after administration of the second were tested for Vibrio cholerae 01 Inaba vibriocidal antibodies and antitoxins. Geometric mean titers (GMT) of vibriocidal antibodies were found to increase two-fold in subjects receiving the vaccine. In the paired samples taken from vaccinated subjects, two-fold or greater increases were observed in 44% and four-fold or greater increases were observed in 34%, as compared to similar increases in 9.2% and 2.2% of the sera taken from those receiving the placebo (P < 0.05). The GMTs of IgG and IgA antitoxins, as determined by ELISA, increased by factors of 4 and 3.2, respectively, in those receiving the vaccine, as compared to factors of 1.1 and 1.1 in those given the placebo (P < 0.001 for IgG, P < 0.01 for IgA). Approximately 80% of the paired samples from the vaccinated group showed an increase of both IgG and IgA antitoxins > or = 1.5, as compared to only about 20% of those in the placebo group (P < 0.000001). Belonging to the O blood group did not significantly affect the immune response. Children under age four tended to show a weaker vibriocidal antibody response and a stronger antitoxin response than older subjects. The two doses of oral vaccine were found to be safe and without attributable side-effects. The vibriocidal antibody and

  11. Killing of Targets by CD8+ T Cells in the Mouse Spleen Follows the Law of Mass Action

    PubMed Central

    Ganusov, Vitaly V.; Barber, Daniel L.; De Boer, Rob J.

    2011-01-01

    It has been difficult to correlate the quality of CD8 T cell responses with protection against viral infections. To investigate the relationship between efficacy and magnitude of T cell responses, we quantify the rate at which individual CD8 effector and memory T cells kill target cells in the mouse spleen. Using mathematical modeling, we analyze recent data on the loss of target cells pulsed with three different peptides from the mouse lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) in mouse spleens with varying numbers of epitope-specific CD8 T cells. We find that the killing of targets follows the law of mass-action, i.e., the death rate of individual target cells remains proportional to the frequency (or the total number) of specific CD8 T cells in the spleen despite the fact that effector cell densities and effector to target ratios vary about a 1000-fold. The killing rate of LCMV-specific CD8 T cells is largely independent of T cell specificity and differentiation stage. Our results thus allow one to calculate the critical T cell concentration at which growth of a virus with a given replication rate can be prevented from the start of infection by memory CD8 T cell response. PMID:21283669

  12. Genetic modification of primary natural killer cells overcomes inhibitory signals and induces specific killing of leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Imai, Chihaya; Iwamoto, Shotaro; Campana, Dario

    2005-07-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells hold promise for improving the therapeutic potential of allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation, but their effectiveness is limited by inhibitory HLA types. We sought to overcome this intrinsic resistance by transducing CD56+CD3- NK cells with chimeric receptors directed against CD19, a molecule widely expressed by malignant B cells. An abundance of NK cells for transduction was secured by culturing peripheral blood mononuclear cells with K562 cells expressing the NK-stimulatory molecules 4-1BB ligand and interleukin 15, which yielded a median greater than 1000-fold expansion of CD56+CD3- cells at 3 weeks of culture, without T-lymphocyte expansion. Expression of anti-CD19 receptors linked to CD3zeta overcame NK resistance and markedly enhanced NK-cell-mediated killing of leukemic cells. This result was significantly improved by adding the 4-1BB costimulatory molecule to the chimeric anti-CD19-CD3zeta receptor; the cytotoxicity produced by NK cells expressing this construct uniformly exceeded that of NK cells whose signaling receptors lacked 4-1BB, even when natural cytotoxicity was apparent. Addition of 4-1BB was also associated with increased cell activation and production of interferon gamma and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Our findings indicate that enforced expression of signaling receptors by NK cells might circumvent inhibitory signals, providing a novel means to enhance the effectiveness of allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

  13. The Smac Mimetic BV6 Improves NK Cell-Mediated Killing of Rhabdomyosarcoma Cells by Simultaneously Targeting Tumor and Effector Cells.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Kyra; Tognarelli, Sara; Roesler, Stefanie; Boedicker, Cathinka; Schubert, Ralf; Steinle, Alexander; Klingebiel, Thomas; Bader, Peter; Fulda, Simone; Ullrich, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most common cancer of connective tissues in pediatrics, is often resistant to conventional therapies. One underlying mechanism of this resistance is the overexpression of Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins, leading to a dysfunctional cell death program within tumor cells. Smac mimetics (SM) are small molecules that can reactivate the cell death program by antagonizing IAP proteins and thereby compensating their overexpression. Here, we report that SM sensitize two RMS cell lines (RD and RH30) toward natural killer (NK) cell-mediated killing on the one hand, and increase the cytotoxic potential of NK cells on the other. The SM-induced sensitization of RH30 cells toward NK cell-mediated killing is significantly reduced through blocking tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) on NK cells prior to coculture. In addition, the presence of zVAD.fmk, a pancaspase inhibitor, rescues tumor cells from the increase in killing, indicating an apoptosis-dependent cell death. On the NK cell side, the presence of SM in addition to IL-2 during the ex vivo expansion leads to an increase in their cytotoxic activity against RH30 cells. This effect is mainly TNFα-dependent and partially mediated by NK cell activation, which is associated with transcriptional upregulation of NF-κB target genes such as IκBα and RelB. Taken together, our findings implicate that SM represent a novel double-hit strategy, sensitizing tumor and activating NK cells with one single drug.

  14. Pro-Oxidant Activity of Amine-Pyridine-Based Iron Complexes Efficiently Kills Cancer and Cancer Stem-Like Cells.

    PubMed

    González-Bártulos, Marta; Aceves-Luquero, Clara; Qualai, Jamal; Cussó, Olaf; Martínez, M Angeles; Fernández de Mattos, Silvia; Menéndez, Javier A; Villalonga, Priam; Costas, Miquel; Ribas, Xavi; Massaguer, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Differential redox homeostasis in normal and malignant cells suggests that pro-oxidant-induced upregulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) should selectively target cancer cells without compromising the viability of untransformed cells. Consequently, a pro-oxidant deviation well-tolerated by nonmalignant cells might rapidly reach a cell-death threshold in malignant cells already at a high setpoint of constitutive oxidative stress. To test this hypothesis, we took advantage of a selected number of amine-pyridine-based Fe(II) complexes that operate as efficient and robust oxidation catalysts of organic substrates upon reaction with peroxides. Five of these Fe(II)-complexes and the corresponding aminopyridine ligands were selected to evaluate their anticancer properties. We found that the iron complexes failed to display any relevant activity, while the corresponding ligands exhibited significant antiproliferative activity. Among the ligands, none of which were hemolytic, compounds 1, 2 and 5 were cytotoxic in the low micromolar range against a panel of molecularly diverse human cancer cell lines. Importantly, the cytotoxic activity profile of some compounds remained unaltered in epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT)-induced stable populations of cancer stem-like cells, which acquired resistance to the well-known ROS inducer doxorubicin. Compounds 1, 2 and 5 inhibited the clonogenicity of cancer cells and induced apoptotic cell death accompanied by caspase 3/7 activation. Flow cytometry analyses indicated that ligands were strong inducers of oxidative stress, leading to a 7-fold increase in intracellular ROS levels. ROS induction was associated with their ability to bind intracellular iron and generate active coordination complexes inside of cells. In contrast, extracellular complexation of iron inhibited the activity of the ligands. Iron complexes showed a high proficiency to cleave DNA through oxidative-dependent mechanisms, suggesting a likely mechanism of

  15. Pro-Oxidant Activity of Amine-Pyridine-Based Iron Complexes Efficiently Kills Cancer and Cancer Stem-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    González-Bártulos, Marta; Aceves-Luquero, Clara; Qualai, Jamal; Cussó, Olaf; Martínez, Mª Angeles; Fernández de Mattos, Silvia; Menéndez, Javier A.; Villalonga, Priam; Costas, Miquel; Ribas, Xavi; Massaguer, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Differential redox homeostasis in normal and malignant cells suggests that pro-oxidant-induced upregulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) should selectively target cancer cells without compromising the viability of untransformed cells. Consequently, a pro-oxidant deviation well-tolerated by nonmalignant cells might rapidly reach a cell-death threshold in malignant cells already at a high setpoint of constitutive oxidative stress. To test this hypothesis, we took advantage of a selected number of amine-pyridine-based Fe(II) complexes that operate as efficient and robust oxidation catalysts of organic substrates upon reaction with peroxides. Five of these Fe(II)-complexes and the corresponding aminopyridine ligands were selected to evaluate their anticancer properties. We found that the iron complexes failed to display any relevant activity, while the corresponding ligands exhibited significant antiproliferative activity. Among the ligands, none of which were hemolytic, compounds 1, 2 and 5 were cytotoxic in the low micromolar range against a panel of molecularly diverse human cancer cell lines. Importantly, the cytotoxic activity profile of some compounds remained unaltered in epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT)-induced stable populations of cancer stem-like cells, which acquired resistance to the well-known ROS inducer doxorubicin. Compounds 1, 2 and 5 inhibited the clonogenicity of cancer cells and induced apoptotic cell death accompanied by caspase 3/7 activation. Flow cytometry analyses indicated that ligands were strong inducers of oxidative stress, leading to a 7-fold increase in intracellular ROS levels. ROS induction was associated with their ability to bind intracellular iron and generate active coordination complexes inside of cells. In contrast, extracellular complexation of iron inhibited the activity of the ligands. Iron complexes showed a high proficiency to cleave DNA through oxidative-dependent mechanisms, suggesting a likely mechanism of

  16. Synergistically killing activity of aspirin and histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) on hepatocellular cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaofei; Zhu, Yanshuang; He, Huabin; Lou, Lianqing; Ye, Weiwei; Chen, Yongxin; Wang, Jinghe

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •Novel combination therapy using aspirin and valproic acid (VPA). •Combination of aspirin and VPA elicits synergistic cytotoxic effects. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly reduces the drug dosage required alone. •Combination of aspirin and VPA significantly inhibit tumor growth. •Lower dose of aspirin in combination therapy will minimize side effects of aspirin. -- Abstract: Aspirin and valproic acid (VPA) have been extensively studied for inducing various malignancies growth inhibition respectively, despite their severe side effects. Here, we developed a novel combination by aspirin and VPA on hepatocellular cancer cells (HCCs). The viability of HCC lines were analyzed by MTT assay, apoptotic analysis of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cell was performed. Real time-PCR and Western blotting were performed to determine the expression of apoptosis related genes and proteins such as Survivin, Bcl-2/Bax, Cyclin D1 and p15. Moreover, orthotopic xenograft tumors were challenged in nude mice to establish murine model, and then therapeutic effect was analyzed after drug combination therapy. The viability of HCC lines’ significantly decreased after drug combination treatment, and cancer cell apoptosis in combination group increasingly induced compared with single drug use. Therapeutic effect was significantly enhanced by combination therapy in tumor volume and tumor weight decrease. From the data shown here, aspirin and VPA combination have a synergistic killing effect on hepatocellular cancers cells proliferation and apoptosis.

  17. DNA lesions in hyperthermic cell killing: effects of thermotolerance, procaine, and erythritol.

    PubMed

    Jorritsma, J B; Konings, A W

    1986-04-01

    When HeLa S3 cells were subjected to 45 degrees C hyperthermia, DNA lesions were detected by the use of the alkaline unwinding/hydroxylapatite method. The number of lesions formed was not affected when the cells were made thermotolerant by either an acute (15 min 44 degrees C + 5 h 37 degrees C) or a chronic (5 h 42 degrees C) pretreatment before 45 degrees C hyperthermia. The presence of 10 mM procaine (heat sensitizer) or 0.5 M erythritol (heat protector) during hyperthermia also had no effect on the rate of formation of heat-induced alkali labile DNA lesions. These observations do not support a concept where DNA lesions are considered to be the ultimate cause of hyperthermic cell killing. Both drugs, however, influenced the rate of repair of radiation-induced strand breaks when present during preirradiation heat treatment. We conclude that the initial number of heat-induced alkali labile DNA lesions is not directly related to cell survival. It cannot be excluded, however, that differences in posthyperthermic repair of these lesions may lead to a positive correlation between residual DNA damage and survival after the different experimental conditions.

  18. HLA-E inhibitor enhances the killing of neuroblastoma stem cells by co-cultured dendritic cells and cytokine-induced killer cells loaded with membrane-based microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Zijun; Yang, Kaibin; Ye, Litong; You, Zhiyao; Chen, Rirong; Liu, Ying; He, Youjian

    2017-01-01

    Neuroblastoma stem cells (NSCs) can cause drug resistance and tumor recurrence. This study aimed to enhance the lytic effect of dendritic cells (DCs) co-cultured with cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells. NSCs were obtained by suspension culture, and DC-CIK cells were loaded with extracted NSC membrane-based microparticles (MMPs) before evaluating the lytic effect of DC-CIK cells on NSCs. After inhibiting the function or expression of human leukocyte antigen-E (HLA-E) in NSCs by anti-HLA-E monoclonal antibody or siRNA, the DC-CIK cell lytic effect on NSCs was re-assessed. NSC nestin expression was high, but glial fibrillary acid protein expression and class IIIβ-tubulin-1 expression were low. Moreover, NSCs exhibited strong tumorigenic ability in nude mice. Loading DCs with NSC-derived MMPs induced the differentiation of DCs and CIK cells and enhanced the killing of NSCs by DC-CIK cells. Inhibiting the function or expression of HLA-E in NSCs further enhanced the cytolytic capability of DC-CIK cells loaded with NSC-derived MMPs. HLA-E inhibitor can enhance the killing of NSC by DC-CIK cells loaded with NSC-derived MMPs. PMID:28337381

  19. Comparative Killing Rates of Fluoroquinolones and Cell Wall-Active Agents

    PubMed Central

    Fung-Tomc, Joan C.; Gradelski, Elizabeth; Valera, Lourdes; Kolek, Benjamin; Bonner, Daniel P.

    2000-01-01

    Killing rates of fluoroquinolones, β-lactams, and vancomycin were compared against Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus, pneumococci, streptococci, and Enterococcus faecalis. The times required for fluoroquinolones to decrease viability by 3 log10 were 1.5 h for Enterobacteriaceae, 4 to 6 h for staphylococci, and ≥6 h for streptococci and enterococci. Thus, the rate of killing by fluoroquinolones is organism group dependent; overall, they killed more rapidly than β-lactams and vancomycin. PMID:10770784

  20. Metformin-induced killing of triple-negative breast cancer cells is mediated by reduction in fatty acid synthase via miRNA-193b.

    PubMed

    Wahdan-Alaswad, Reema S; Cochrane, Dawn R; Spoelstra, Nicole S; Howe, Erin N; Edgerton, Susan M; Anderson, Steven M; Thor, Ann D; Richer, Jennifer K

    2014-12-01

    The anti-diabetic drug metformin (1,1-dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride) reduces both the incidence and mortality of several types of cancer. Metformin has been shown to selectively kill cancer stem cells, and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines are more sensitive to the effects of metformin as compared to luminal breast cancer. However, the mechanism underlying the enhanced susceptibility of TNBC to metformin has not been elucidated. Expression profiling of metformin-treated TNBC lines revealed fatty acid synthase (FASN) as one of the genes most significantly downregulated following 24 h of treatment, and a decrease in FASN protein was also observed. Since FASN is critical for de novo fatty acid synthesis and is important for the survival of TNBC, we hypothesized that FASN downregulation facilitates metformin-induced apoptosis. Profiling studies also exposed a rapid metformin-induced increase in miR-193 family members, and miR-193b directly targets the FASN 3'UTR. Addition of exogenous miR-193b mimic to untreated TNBC cells decreased FASN protein expression and increased apoptosis of TNBC cells, while spontaneously immortalized, non-transformed breast epithelial cells remained unaffected. Conversely, antagonizing miR-193 activity impaired the ability of metformin to decrease FASN and cause cell death. Further, the metformin-stimulated increase in miR-193 resulted in reduced mammosphere formation by TNBC lines. These studies provide mechanistic insight into metformin-induced killing of TNBC.

  1. Killing of myeloid APCs via HLA class I, CD2 and CD226 defines a novel mechanism of suppression by human Tr1 cells

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, Chiara F; Alberigo, Giada; Bacchetta, Rosa; Serafini, Giorgia; Andreani, Marco; Roncarolo, Maria Grazia; Gregori, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    IL-10-producing CD4+ type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells, defined based on their ability to produce high levels of IL-10 in the absence of IL-4, are major players in the induction and maintenance of peripheral tolerance. Tr1 cells inhibit T-cell responses mainly via cytokine-dependent mechanisms. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the suppression of APC by Tr1 cells are still not completely elucidated. Here, we defined that Tr1 cells specifically lyse myeloid APC through a granzyme B (GZB)- and perforin (PRF)-dependent mechanism that requires HLA class I recognition, CD54/lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 adhesion, and activation via killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs) and CD2. Notably, interaction between CD226 on Tr1 cells and their ligands on myeloid cells, leading to Tr1-cell activation, is necessary for defining Tr1-cell target specificity. We also showed that high frequency of GZB-expressing CD4+ T cells is detected in tolerant patients and correlates with elevated occurrence of IL-10-producing CD4+ T cells. In conclusion, the modulatory activities of Tr1 cells are not only due to suppressive cytokines but also to specific cell-to-cell interactions that lead to selective killing of myeloid cells and possibly bystander suppression. PMID:21469116

  2. High vancomycin MICs within the susceptible range in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia isolates are associated with increased cell wall thickness and reduced intracellular killing by human phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Falcón, Rocío; Martínez, Alba; Albert, Eliseo; Madrid, Silvia; Oltra, Rosa; Giménez, Estela; Soriano, Mario; Vinuesa, Víctor; Gozalbo, Daniel; Gil, María Luisa; Navarro, David

    2016-05-01

    Vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) at the upper end of the susceptible range for Staphylococcus aureus have been associated with poor clinical outcomes of bloodstream infections. We tested the hypothesis that high vancomycin MICs in S. aureus bacteraemia isolates are associated with increased cell wall thickness and suboptimal bacterial internalisation or lysis by human phagocytes. In total, 95 isolates were evaluated. Original vancomycin MICs were determined by Etest. The susceptibility of S. aureus isolates to killing by phagocytes was assessed in a human whole blood assay. Internalisation of bacterial cells by phagocytes was investigated by flow cytometry. Cell wall thickness was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. Genotypic analysis of S. aureus isolates was performed using a DNA microarray system. Vancomycin MICs were significantly higher (P=0.006) in isolates that were killed suboptimally (killing index <60%) compared with those killed efficiently (killing index >70%) and tended to correlate inversely (P=0.08) with the killing indices. Isolates in both killing groups were internalised by human neutrophils and monocytes with comparable efficiency. The cell wall was significantly thicker (P=0.03) in isolates in the low killing group. No genotypic differences were found between the isolates in both killing groups. In summary, high vancomycin MICs in S. aureus bacteraemia isolates were associated with increased cell wall thickness and reduced intracellular killing by phagocytes.

  3. Off to the Organelles - Killing Cancer Cells with Targeted Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kodiha, Mohamed; Wang, Yi Meng; Hutter, Eliza; Maysinger, Dusica; Stochaj, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are excellent tools for cancer cell imaging and basic research. However, they have yet to reach their full potential in the clinic. At present, we are only beginning to understand the molecular mechanisms that underlie the biological effects of AuNPs, including the structural and functional changes of cancer cells. This knowledge is critical for two aspects of nanomedicine. First, it will define the AuNP-induced events at the subcellular and molecular level, thereby possibly identifying new targets for cancer treatment. Second, it could provide new strategies to improve AuNP-dependent cancer diagnosis and treatment. Our review summarizes the impact of AuNPs on selected subcellular organelles that are relevant to cancer therapy. We focus on the nucleus, its subcompartments, and mitochondria, because they are intimately linked to cancer cell survival, growth, proliferation and death. While non-targeted AuNPs can damage tumor cells, concentrating AuNPs in particular subcellular locations will likely improve tumor cell killing. Thus, it will increase cancer cell damage by photothermal ablation, mechanical injury or localized drug delivery. This concept is promising, but AuNPs have to overcome multiple hurdles to perform these tasks. AuNP size, morphology and surface modification are critical parameters for their delivery to organelles. Recent strategies explored all of these variables, and surface functionalization has become crucial to concentrate AuNPs in subcellular compartments. Here, we highlight the use of AuNPs to damage cancer cells and their organelles. We discuss current limitations of AuNP-based cancer research and conclude with future directions for AuNP-dependent cancer treatment. PMID:25699096

  4. Therapies with diverse mechanisms of action kill cells by a similar exponential process in advanced cancers.

    PubMed

    Blagoev, Krastan B; Wilkerson, Julia; Stein, Wilfred D; Yang, James; Bates, Susan E; Fojo, Tito

    2014-09-01

    Successful cancer treatments are generally defined as those that decrease tumor quantity. In many cases, this decrease occurs exponentially, with deviations from a strict exponential being attributed to a growing fraction of drug-resistant cells. Deviations from an exponential decrease in tumor quantity can also be expected if drugs have a nonuniform spatial distribution inside the tumor, for example, because of interstitial pressure inside the tumor. Here, we examine theoretically different models of cell killing and analyze data from clinical trials based on these models. We show that the best description of clinical outcomes is by first-order kinetics with exponential decrease of tumor quantity. We analyzed the total tumor quantity in a diverse group of clinical trials with various cancers during the administration of different classes of anticancer agents and in all cases observed that the models that best fit the data describe the decrease of the sensitive tumor fraction exponentially. The exponential decrease suggests that all drug-sensitive cancer cells have a single rate-limiting step on the path to cell death. If there are intermediate steps in the path to cell death, they are not rate limiting in the observational time scale utilized in clinical trials--tumor restaging at 6- to 8-week intervals. On shorter time scales, there might be intermediate steps, but the rate-limiting step is the same. Our analysis, thus, points to a common pathway to cell death for cancer cells in patients. See all articles in this Cancer Research section, "Physics in Cancer Research."

  5. Off to the organelles - killing cancer cells with targeted gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kodiha, Mohamed; Wang, Yi Meng; Hutter, Eliza; Maysinger, Dusica; Stochaj, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are excellent tools for cancer cell imaging and basic research. However, they have yet to reach their full potential in the clinic. At present, we are only beginning to understand the molecular mechanisms that underlie the biological effects of AuNPs, including the structural and functional changes of cancer cells. This knowledge is critical for two aspects of nanomedicine. First, it will define the AuNP-induced events at the subcellular and molecular level, thereby possibly identifying new targets for cancer treatment. Second, it could provide new strategies to improve AuNP-dependent cancer diagnosis and treatment. Our review summarizes the impact of AuNPs on selected subcellular organelles that are relevant to cancer therapy. We focus on the nucleus, its subcompartments, and mitochondria, because they are intimately linked to cancer cell survival, growth, proliferation and death. While non-targeted AuNPs can damage tumor cells, concentrating AuNPs in particular subcellular locations will likely improve tumor cell killing. Thus, it will increase cancer cell damage by photothermal ablation, mechanical injury or localized drug delivery. This concept is promising, but AuNPs have to overcome multiple hurdles to perform these tasks. AuNP size, morphology and surface modification are critical parameters for their delivery to organelles. Recent strategies explored all of these variables, and surface functionalization has become crucial to concentrate AuNPs in subcellular compartments. Here, we highlight the use of AuNPs to damage cancer cells and their organelles. We discuss current limitations of AuNP-based cancer research and conclude with future directions for AuNP-dependent cancer treatment.

  6. Peptide B targets soluble guanylyl cyclase α1 and kills prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Gao, Shuai; Hsieh, Chen-Lin; Malla, Mamata; Shemshedini, Lirim

    2017-01-01

    Among androgen-regulated genes, soluble guanylyl cyclase α1 (sGCα1) is significant in promoting the survival and growth of prostate cancer cells and does so independent of nitric oxide (NO) signaling. Peptides were designed targeting sGCα1 to block its pro-cancer functions and one peptide is discussed here. Peptide B-8R killed both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate cancer cells that expressed sGCα1, but not cells that do not express this gene. Peptide B-8R induced apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. Importantly, Peptide B-8R does not affect nor its cytotoxicity depend on NO signaling, despite the fact that it associates with sGCα1, which dimerizes with sGCβ1 to form the sGC enzyme. Just as with a previously studied Peptide A-8R, Peptide B-8R induced elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in prostate cancer cells, but using a ROS-sequestering agent showed that ROS was not responsible the cytotoxic activity of Peptide B-8R. Interestingly, Peptide B-8R induced elevated levels of p53 and phosphorylated p38, but neither of these changes is the cause of the peptide's cytotoxicity. Additional drugs were used to alter levels of iron levels in cells and these studies showed that Peptide B-8R activity does not depend on Ferroptosis. Thus, future work will be directed at defining the mechanism of cytotoxic action of Peptide B-8R against prostate cancer cells.

  7. 40 CFR 180.1325 - Heat-killed Burkholderia spp. strain A396 cells and spent fermentation media exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... A396 cells and spent fermentation media exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1325 Section...-killed Burkholderia spp. strain A396 cells and spent fermentation media exemption from the requirement of...-killed Burkholderia spp. strain A396 cells and spent fermentation media in or on all food...

  8. Hypofractionation Results in Reduced Tumor Cell Kill Compared to Conventional Fractionation for Tumors With Regions of Hypoxia

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, David J.; Keall, Paul J.; Loo, Billy W.; Chen, Zhe J.; Brown, J. Martin

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: Tumor hypoxia has been observed in many human cancers and is associated with treatment failure in radiation therapy. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect of different radiation fractionation schemes on tumor cell killing, assuming a realistic distribution of tumor oxygenation. Methods and Materials: A probability density function for the partial pressure of oxygen in a tumor cell population is quantified as a function of radial distance from the capillary wall. Corresponding hypoxia reduction factors for cell killing are determined. The surviving fraction of a tumor consisting of maximally resistant cells, cells at intermediate levels of hypoxia, and normoxic cells is calculated as a function of dose per fraction for an equivalent tumor biological effective dose under normoxic conditions. Results: Increasing hypoxia as a function of distance from blood vessels results in a decrease in tumor cell killing for a typical radiotherapy fractionation scheme by a factor of 10{sup 5} over a distance of 130 {mu}m. For head-and-neck cancer and prostate cancer, the fraction of tumor clonogens killed over a full treatment course decreases by up to a factor of {approx}10{sup 3} as the dose per fraction is increased from 2 to 24 Gy and from 2 to 18 Gy, respectively. Conclusions: Hypofractionation of a radiotherapy regimen can result in a significant decrease in tumor cell killing compared to standard fractionation as a result of tumor hypoxia. There is a potential for large errors when calculating alternate fractionations using formalisms that do not account for tumor hypoxia.

  9. Hypofractionation results in reduced tumor cell kill compared to conventional fractionation for tumors with regions of hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Carlson, David J; Keall, Paul J; Loo, Billy W; Chen, Zhe J; Brown, J Martin

    2011-03-15

    Tumor hypoxia has been observed in many human cancers and is associated with treatment failure in radiation therapy. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect of different radiation fractionation schemes on tumor cell killing, assuming a realistic distribution of tumor oxygenation. A probability density function for the partial pressure of oxygen in a tumor cell population is quantified as a function of radial distance from the capillary wall. Corresponding hypoxia reduction factors for cell killing are determined. The surviving fraction of a tumor consisting of maximally resistant cells, cells at intermediate levels of hypoxia, and normoxic cells is calculated as a function of dose per fraction for an equivalent tumor biological effective dose under normoxic conditions. Increasing hypoxia as a function of distance from blood vessels results in a decrease in tumor cell killing for a typical radiotherapy fractionation scheme by a factor of 10(5) over a distance of 130 μm. For head-and-neck cancer and prostate cancer, the fraction of tumor clonogens killed over a full treatment course decreases by up to a factor of ∼10(3) as the dose per fraction is increased from 2 to 24 Gy and from 2 to 18 Gy, respectively. Hypofractionation of a radiotherapy regimen can result in a significant decrease in tumor cell killing compared to standard fractionation as a result of tumor hypoxia. There is a potential for large errors when calculating alternate fractionations using formalisms that do not account for tumor hypoxia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Differential timing of antibody-mediated phagocytosis and cell-free killing of invasive African Salmonella allows immune evasion.

    PubMed

    Siggins, Matthew K; O'Shaughnessy, Colette M; Pravin, John; Cunningham, Adam F; Henderson, Ian R; Drayson, Mark T; MacLennan, Calman A

    2014-04-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonellae commonly cause fatal bacteraemia in African children lacking anti-Salmonella antibodies. These are facultative intracellular bacteria capable of cell-free and intracellular survival within macrophages. To better understand the relationship between extracellular and intracellular infection in blood and general mechanisms of Ab-related protection against Salmonella, we used human blood and sera to measure kinetics of Ab and complement deposition, serum-mediated bactericidal killing and phagocytosis of invasive African Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium D23580. Binding of antibodies peaked by 30 s, but C3 deposition lagged behind, peaking after 2-4 min. C5b-9 deposition was undetectable until between 2 and 6 min and peaked after 10 min, after which time an increase in serum-mediated killing occurred. In contrast, intracellular, opsonized Salmonellae were readily detectable within 5 min. By 10 min, around half of monocytes and most neutrophils contained bacteria. The same kinetics of serum-mediated killing and phagocytosis were observed with S. enterica Typhimurium laboratory strain SL1344, and the S. enterica Enteritidis African invasive isolate D24954 and laboratory strain PT4. The differential kinetics between cell-free killing and phagocytosis of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella allows these bacteria to escape the blood and establish intracellular infection before they are killed by the membrane attack complex.

  11. Simultaneous inhibition of deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) and autophagy synergistically kills breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Coughlin, Kathleen; Scotti, Alessandra; Iizuka, Yoshie; Anchoori, Ravi; Roden, Richard B. S.; Marastoni, Mauro; Bazzaro, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death among women in the United States. Patients expressing the estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER and PR) and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER-2) tumor markers have favorable prognosis and efficacious therapeutic options. In contrast, tumors that are negative for these markers (triple-negative) have a disproportionate share of morbidity and mortality due to lack of a validated molecular target. Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) are a critical component of ubiquitin-proteasome-system degradation and have been shown to be differentially expressed and activated in a number of cancers, including breast, with their aberrant activity linked to cancer prognosis and clinical outcome. We evaluated the effect of the DUB inhibitors b-AP15 and RA-9 alone and in combination with early- and late-stage lysosomal inhibitors on cell viability in a panel of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines. Our results indicate small-molecule DUB inhibitors have a profound effect on TNBC viability and lead to activation of autophagy as a cellular mechanism to compensate for ubiquitin-proteasome-system stress. Treatment with sub-optimal doses of DUB and lysosome inhibitors synergistically kills TNBC cells. This supports the evaluation of DUB inhibition, in combination with lysosomal inhibition, as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of TNBC. PMID:25784654

  12. Bacterium-Derived Cell-Penetrating Peptides Deliver Gentamicin To Kill Intracellular Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Gomarasca, Marta; F. C. Martins, Thaynan; Greune, Lilo; Hardwidge, Philip R.; Schmidt, M. Alexander

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Commonly used antimicrobials show poor cellular uptake and often have limited access to intracellular targets, resulting in low antimicrobial activity against intracellular pathogens. An efficient delivery system to transport these drugs to the intracellular site of action is needed. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) mediate the internalization of biologically active molecules into the cytoplasm. Here, we characterized two CPPs, α1H and α2H, derived from the Yersinia enterocolitica YopM effector protein. These CPPs, as well as Tat (trans-activator of transcription) from HIV-1, were used to deliver the antibiotic gentamicin to target intracellular bacteria. The YopM-derived CPPs penetrated different endothelial and epithelial cells to the same extent as Tat. CPPs were covalently conjugated to gentamicin, and CPP-gentamicin conjugates were used to target infected cells to kill multiple intracellular Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, including Escherichia coli K1, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Shigella flexneri. Taken together, CPPs show great potential as delivery vehicles for antimicrobial agents and may contribute to the generation of new therapeutic tools to treat infectious diseases caused by intracellular pathogens. PMID:28096156

  13. Bacterium-Derived Cell-Penetrating Peptides Deliver Gentamicin To Kill Intracellular Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Gomarasca, Marta; F C Martins, Thaynan; Greune, Lilo; Hardwidge, Philip R; Schmidt, M Alexander; Rüter, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Commonly used antimicrobials show poor cellular uptake and often have limited access to intracellular targets, resulting in low antimicrobial activity against intracellular pathogens. An efficient delivery system to transport these drugs to the intracellular site of action is needed. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) mediate the internalization of biologically active molecules into the cytoplasm. Here, we characterized two CPPs, α1H and α2H, derived from the Yersinia enterocolitica YopM effector protein. These CPPs, as well as Tat (trans-activator of transcription) from HIV-1, were used to deliver the antibiotic gentamicin to target intracellular bacteria. The YopM-derived CPPs penetrated different endothelial and epithelial cells to the same extent as Tat. CPPs were covalently conjugated to gentamicin, and CPP-gentamicin conjugates were used to target infected cells to kill multiple intracellular Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, including Escherichia coli K1, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Shigella flexneri Taken together, CPPs show great potential as delivery vehicles for antimicrobial agents and may contribute to the generation of new therapeutic tools to treat infectious diseases caused by intracellular pathogens.

  14. Activity levels of cathepsins B and L in tumor cells are a biomarker for efficacy of reovirus-mediated tumor cell killing.

    PubMed

    Terasawa, Y; Hotani, T; Katayama, Y; Tachibana, M; Mizuguchi, H; Sakurai, F

    2015-03-01

    Reovirus has gained much attention as an anticancer agent; however, the mechanism of the tumor cell-specific replication of reovirus is not fully understood. Although Ras activation is known to be crucial for tumor cell-specific replication of reovirus, it remains controversial which cellular factors are required for the reovirus-mediated tumor cell killing. In this study, we systematically investigated which cellular factors determined the efficiencies of reovirus-mediated tumor cell killing in various human cultured cell lines. The efficiency of reovirus-mediated cell killing varied widely among the cell lines. Junction adhesion molecule-A, a reovirus receptor, was highly expressed in almost all cell lines examined. Ras activation levels were largely different between the cell lines; however, there were no apparent correlations among the reovirus-mediated cell killing efficiencies and Ras activation status. On the other hand, activity levels of the cysteine proteases cathepsins B and L, which are crucial for proteolytic disassembly of the outer capsid proteins of reovirus, showed a tendency to be correlated with the efficiency of reovirus-mediated cell killing. These results indicate that the activity of cathepsins B and L is the most suitable as a biomarker for the efficacy of reovirus-mediated oncolysis among the factors examined in this study.

  15. PD-L1 Expression on Retrovirus-Infected Cells Mediates Immune Escape from CD8+ T Cell Killing.

    PubMed

    Akhmetzyanova, Ilseyar; Drabczyk, Malgorzata; Neff, C Preston; Gibbert, Kathrin; Dietze, Kirsten K; Werner, Tanja; Liu, Jia; Chen, Lieping; Lang, Karl S; Palmer, Brent E; Dittmer, Ulf; Zelinskyy, Gennadiy

    2015-10-01

    Cytotoxic CD8+ T Lymphocytes (CTL) efficiently control acute virus infections but can become exhausted when a chronic infection develops. Signaling of the inhibitory receptor PD-1 is an important mechanism for the development of virus-specific CD8+ T cell dysfunction. However, it has recently been shown that during the initial phase of infection virus-specific CD8+ T cells express high levels of PD-1, but are fully competent in producing cytokines and killing virus-infected target cells. To better understand the role of the PD-1 signaling pathway in CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity during acute viral infections we analyzed the expression of the ligand on retrovirus-infected cells targeted by CTLs. We observed increased levels of PD-L1 expression after infection of cells with the murine Friend retrovirus (FV) or with HIV. In FV infected mice, virus-specific CTLs efficiently eliminated infected target cells that expressed low levels of PD-L1 or that were deficient for PD-L1 but the population of PD-L1high cells escaped elimination and formed a reservoir for chronic FV replication. Infected cells with high PD-L1 expression mediated a negative feedback on CD8+ T cells and inhibited their expansion and cytotoxic functions. These findings provide evidence for a novel immune escape mechanism during acute retroviral infection based on PD-L1 expression levels on virus infected target cells.

  16. Exploring the frontier between life and death in Escherichia coli: evaluation of different viability markers in live and heat- or UV-killed cells.

    PubMed

    Villarino, A; Bouvet, O M; Regnault, B; Martin-Delautre, S; Grimont PAD

    2000-11-01

    A number of methods have been proposed to assess the viability of cells without culture. Each method is based on criteria that reflect different levels of cellular integrity or functionality. As a consequence, the interpretation of viability is often ambiguous. The purposes of this work were to evaluate the capacity of current viability markers to distinguish between live and dead Escherichia coli K-12 cells. Methods that assess 'viability' by the demonstration of metabolic activities (esterase activity, active electron transport chain, transport of glucose), cellular integrity (membrane integrity, presence of nucleic acids) or the building up of cellular material (cell elongation) have been evaluated in live and UV- or heat-killed cells. With live cells, viability markers detected cells in counts similar to the colony count. However, these so-called viability markers could stain dead cells for some time after the lethal treatment. For the UV-killed cells, residual activities were detected even after 48 h of storage at 20 degrees C. However, for heat-treated cells, these activities disappeared within hours after heat treatment. Only a combination of fluorescence in situ hybridization with rRNA probes and cell elongation in response to nutrients (in the presence of an inhibitor of cell division) had the ability to differentiate live from dead cells. Problems in the definition of a viable but nonculturable state are in part due to the lack of a clear definition of bacterial death. We consider death as an irreversible state where no growth, cell elongation or protein synthesis may occur.

  17. Keyhole limpet hemocyanin augmented the killing activity, cytokine production and proliferation of NK cells, and inhibited the proliferation of Meth A sarcoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Md Moklesur Rahman; Zhong, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) is a popular tumor vaccine carrier protein and an immunostimulant. The present study aimed to investigate the immunoregulatory activity of KLH on cytotoxicity, cytokines production, and proliferation of natural killer (NK) cells. Moreover, antiproliferative activity of KLH on Meth A sarcoma cells was studied. Cytotoxicity was determined with killing ability of NK cells against yeast artificial chromosome (YAC)-1 cells. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) productions by NK cells were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Proliferations of NK and Meth A cells were determined by [(3)H]thymidine incorporated proliferation and 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) methods, respectively. KLH at 6.25, 12.5, and 25 μg/well augmented cytotoxicity of NK cells against YAC-1 cells by 2.5, three, and five-times, respectively. KLH at 25 μg/well enhanced IFN-γ and TNF-α productions by 17- and 23-folds, respectively. The proliferation of NK cells was three times stimulated by KLH. The proliferation of Meth A cells was markedly inhibited by all the doses; the highest (4-folds higher) inhibition was observed at a dose of KLH (25 μg/well). The study demonstrated the anticancer activity of KLH acting through the induction of NK cells and inhibition of cancer cells. KLH, therefore, may be a good candidate for an anticancer agent alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents.

  18. IL-2 augments the therapeutic efficacy of adoptively transferred B cells which directly kill tumor cells via the CXCR4/CXCL12 and perforin pathways

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Xia, Leiming; Zhou, Li; Wang, Yi; Bao, Yangyi; Huang, Shiang; Ren, Xiubao; Lundy, Steven K.; Dai, Fu; Li, Qiao; Chang, Alfred E.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that antitumor B cells directly kill tumor cells via the Fas/FasL pathway and are regulated by IL-10. In this study, we defined additional mechanisms involved in B cell antitumor immunity. Administration of IL-2 significantly augmented the therapeutic efficacy of adoptively transferred tumor-draining lymph node (TDLN) B cells which express IL- 2R. Culture supernatant of purified B splenocytes harvested from the mice that received adoptive transfer of 4T1 TDLN B cells plus IL-2 administration produced larger amounts of IgG which bound to 4T1, resulting in 4T1 lysis. Furthermore, we detected CXCR4 expression on 4T1 TDLN B cells, and 4T1 tumor cells produced its ligand CXCL12. Transwell experiments demonstrated the chemoattraction of CXCR4-expressing 4T1 TDLN B cells towards CXCL12- producing 4T1 cells. Blockade of CXCR4 using a CXCR4-specific inhibitor, AMD3100, significantly reduced the killing of 4T1 tumor cells by 4T1 TDLN B cells. Blockade of FasL and CXCR4 concurrently inhibited B cell-mediated direct killing of tumor cells in an additive manner, indicating that both Fas/FasL and CXCL12/CXCR4 pathways are involved in the direct killing of 4T1 cells by 4T1 TDLN B cells. TDLN B cells produced perforin. Additional transwell experiments showed that effector B cells could directly kill tumor cells in cell-cell contact via the Fas/FasL and CXCR4/CXCL12 pathways as well as perforin, while without cell contact, perforin secreted by B cells led to tumor cell cytotoxicity. These findings underscore the diversity of function by which B cells can play an important role in the host immune response to tumor. PMID:27528023

  19. IL-2 augments the therapeutic efficacy of adoptively transferred B cells which directly kill tumor cells via the CXCR4/CXCL12 and perforin pathways.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yang; Tao, Huimin; Hu, Yangyang; Chen, Quanning; Chen, Xin; Xia, Leiming; Zhou, Li; Wang, Yi; Bao, Yangyi; Huang, Shiang; Ren, Xiubao; Lundy, Steven K; Dai, Fu; Li, Qiao; Chang, Alfred E

    2016-09-13

    We previously reported that antitumor B cells directly kill tumor cells via the Fas/FasL pathway and are regulated by IL-10. In this study, we defined additional mechanisms involved in B cell antitumor immunity. Administration of IL-2 significantly augmented the therapeutic efficacy of adoptively transferred tumor-draining lymph node (TDLN) B cells which express IL- 2R. Culture supernatant of purified B splenocytes harvested from the mice that received adoptive transfer of 4T1 TDLN B cells plus IL-2 administration produced larger amounts of IgG which bound to 4T1, resulting in 4T1 lysis. Furthermore, we detected CXCR4 expression on 4T1 TDLN B cells, and 4T1 tumor cells produced its ligand CXCL12. Transwell experiments demonstrated the chemoattraction of CXCR4-expressing 4T1 TDLN B cells towards CXCL12- producing 4T1 cells. Blockade of CXCR4 using a CXCR4-specific inhibitor, AMD3100, significantly reduced the killing of 4T1 tumor cells by 4T1 TDLN B cells. Blockade of FasL and CXCR4 concurrently inhibited B cell-mediated direct killing of tumor cells in an additive manner, indicating that both Fas/FasL and CXCL12/CXCR4 pathways are involved in the direct killing of 4T1 cells by 4T1 TDLN B cells. TDLN B cells produced perforin. Additional transwell experiments showed that effector B cells could directly kill tumor cells in cell-cell contact via the Fas/FasL and CXCR4/CXCL12 pathways as well as perforin, while without cell contact, perforin secreted by B cells led to tumor cell cytotoxicity. These findings underscore the diversity of function by which B cells can play an important role in the host immune response to tumor.

  20. Immunological Activation of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils for Fungal Killing: Studies with Murine Cells and Blastomyces dermatitidis In Vitro,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The interaction of elicited murine polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and the thermally dimorphic fungal pathogen Blastomyces dermatitidis in vitro...albicans compared to normal PMN. Fungicidal activity was abrogated in the presence of catalase , implicating hydrogen peroxide generation as the killing mechanism in the activated cells.

  1. Enhanced apoptotic cancer cell killing after Foscan photodynamic therapy combined with fenretinide via de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Boppana, Nithin B; DeLor, Jeremy S; Van Buren, Eric; Bielawska, Alicja; Bielawski, Jacek; Pierce, Jason S; Korbelik, Mladen; Separovic, Duska

    2016-06-01

    We and others have shown that stresses, including photodynamic therapy (PDT), can disrupt the de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway, leading to changes in the levels of sphingolipids, and subsequently, modulation of cell death. The de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway includes a ceramide synthase-dependent reaction, giving rise to dihydroceramide, which is then converted in a desaturase-dependent reaction to ceramide. In this study we tested the hypothesis that combining Foscan-mediated PDT with desaturase inhibitor fenretinide (HPR) enhances cancer cell killing. We discovered that by subjecting SCC19 cells, a human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line, to PDT+HPR resulted in enhanced accumulation of C16-dihydroceramide, not ceramide. Concomitantly, mitochondrial depolarization was enhanced by the combined treatment. Enhanced activation of caspase-3 after PDT+HPR was inhibited by FB. Enhanced clonogenic cell death after the combination was sensitive to FB, as well as Bcl2- and caspase inhibitors. Treatment of mouse SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma tumors with PDT+HPR resulted in improved long-term tumor cures. Overall, our data showed that combining PDT with HPR enhanced apoptotic cancer cell killing and antitumor efficacy of PDT. The data suggest the involvement of the de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis pathway in enhanced apoptotic cell killing after PDT+HPR, and identify the combination as a novel more effective anticancer treatment than either treatment alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Diazepam inhibits phagocytosis and killing exerted by polymorphonuclear cells and monocytes from healthy donors. In vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Covelli, V; Decandia, P; Altamura, M; Jirillo, E

    1989-01-01

    The effect of a benzodiazepine (BDZ), diazepam on human polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) and monocyte phagocytosis and killing from healthy volunteers has been evaluated. Diazepam is able to inhibit in vitro both functions exerted by PMN and monocytes at 10(-5) and 10(-6) M concentrations/ 4 x 10(6) phagocytes. 10(-7) M concentration was not effective in all the instances. These results are discussed for their possible clinical implications, since previous studies have shown that in patients with phobic disorder there is evidence for reduced phagocytosis and killing capacities.

  3. The HDAC inhibitor AR42 interacts with pazopanib to kill trametinib/dabrafenib-resistant melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Laurence; Roberts, Jane L.; Sander, Cindy; Lee, John; Kirkwood, John M.; Poklepovic, Andrew; Dent, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Studies focused on the killing of activated B-RAF melanoma cells by the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor AR42. Compared to other tumor cell lines, PDX melanoma isolates were significantly more sensitive to AR42-induced killing. AR42 and the multi-kinase inhibitor pazopanib interacted to activate: an eIF2α–Beclin1 pathway causing autophagosome formation; an eIF2α–DR4/DR5/CD95 pathway; and an eIF2α-dependent reduction in the expression of c-FLIP-s, MCL-1 and BCL-XL. AR42 did not alter basal chaperone activity but increased the ability of pazopanib to inhibit HSP90, HSP70 and GRP78. AR42 and pazopanib caused HSP90/HSP70 dissociation from RAF-1 and B-RAF that resulted in reduced ‘RAF’ expression. The drug combination activated a DNA-damage-ATM-AMPK pathway that was associated with: NFκB activation; reduced mTOR S2448 and ULK-1 S757 phosphorylation; and increased ULK-1 S317 and ATG13 S318 phosphorylation. Knock down of PERK, eIF2α, Beclin1, ATG5 or AMPKα, or expression of IκB S32A S36A, ca-mTOR or TRX, reduced cell killing. AR42, via lysosomal degradation, reduced the protein expression of HDACs 2/5/6/10/11. In vivo, a 3-day exposure of dabrafenib/trametinib resistant melanoma cells to the AR42 pazopanib combination reduced tumor growth and enhanced survival from ∼25 to ∼40 days. Tumor cells that had adapted through therapy exhibited elevated HGF expression and the c-MET inhibitor crizotinib enhanced AR42 pazopanib lethality in this evolved drug-resistant population. PMID:28146421

  4. Enhancement of macrophage-mediated tumor cell killing by bacterial outer membrane proteins (porins).

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, J B; Ribi, E; Wheat, R W

    1983-01-01

    Various microbial products are known to influence the function of mouse peritoneal macrophages. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and certain lipid A-associated proteins are known to enhance the tumoricidal effects of macrophages. The purpose of this study was to determine whether porins (outer membrane proteins) of Salmonella typhimurium G30/C21 would influence the activity of macrophages from lipid A-responsive and -unresponsive mice. Porins, extracted by a combined sodium dodecyl sulfate-EDTA method from cell walls, were free of LPS as determined by Limulus amebocyte lysate assay and appeared as a band at approximately 36,000 molecular weight on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In tumor cell killing assays done under LPS-free conditions, the porins in doses of 1 to 10 ng/ml enhanced the tumoricidal effect of macrophages from bacillus Calmette-Guérin-infected C3H/HeN or C3H/HeJ mice. Protein-free LPS enhanced the tumoricidal activity of macrophages from bacillus Calmette-Guérin-infected C3H/HeN but not C3H/HeJ mice. The tumoricidal-enhancing activity of protein-free LPS was blocked by the lipid A-binding antibiotic polymyxin B sulfate, but the effects of porins were not altered by the polymyxin B sulfate. These results suggest that porins, proteins known to alter membrane function, may alter macrophage function by interaction with macrophage membranes. Images PMID:6311745

  5. Efficient killing of CD22{sup +} tumor cells by a humanized diabody-RNase fusion protein

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Juergen . E-mail: juergen.krauss@uni-essen.de; Arndt, Michaela A.E.; Vu, Bang K.; Newton, Dianne L.; Seeber, Siegfried; Rybak, Susanna M.

    2005-06-03

    We report on the generation of a dimeric immunoenzyme capable of simultaneously delivering two ribonuclease (RNase) effector domains on one molecule to CD22{sup +} tumor cells. As targeting moiety a diabody derived from the previously humanized scFv SGIII with grafted specificity of the murine anti-CD22 mAb RFB4 was constructed. Further engineering the interface of this construct (V{sub L}36{sub Leu{yields}}{sub Tyr}) resulted in a highly robust bivalent molecule that retained the same high affinity as the murine mAb RFB4 (K{sub D} 0.2 nM). A dimeric immunoenzyme comprising this diabody and Rana pipiens liver ribonuclease I (rapLRI) was generated, expressed as soluble protein in bacteria, and purified to homogeneity. The dimeric fusion protein killed several CD22{sup +} tumor cell lines with high efficacy (IC{sub 50} = 3-20 nM) and exhibited 9- to 48-fold stronger cytotoxicity than a monovalent rapLRI-scFv counterpart. Our results demonstrate that engineering of dimeric antibody-ribonuclease fusion proteins can markedly enhance their biological efficacy.

  6. Antibody production using a ciliate generates unusual antibody glycoforms displaying enhanced cell-killing activity

    PubMed Central

    Calow, Jenny; Bockau, Ulrike; Struwe, Weston B.; Nowaczyk, Marc M.; Loser, Karin; Crispin, Max

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antibody glycosylation is a key parameter in the optimization of antibody therapeutics. Here, we describe the production of the anti-cancer monoclonal antibody rituximab in the unicellular ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. The resulting antibody demonstrated enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, which we attribute to unusual N-linked glycosylation. Detailed chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis revealed afucosylated, oligomannose-type glycans, which, as a whole, displayed isomeric structures that deviate from the typical human counterparts, but whose branches were equivalent to fragments of metabolic intermediates observed in human glycoproteins. From the analysis of deposited crystal structures, we predict that the ciliate glycans adopt protein-carbohydrate interactions with the Fc domain that closely mimic those of native complex-type glycans. In addition, terminal glucose structures were identified that match biosynthetic precursors of human glycosylation. Our results suggest that ciliate-based expression systems offer a route to large-scale production of monoclonal antibodies exhibiting glycosylation that imparts enhanced cell killing activity. PMID:27594301

  7. Targeting SOD1 induces synthetic lethal killing in BLM- and CHEK2-deficient colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sajesh, Babu V; McManus, Kirk J

    2015-09-29

    Cancer is a major cause of death throughout the world, and there is a large need for better and more personalized approaches to combat the disease. Over the past decade, synthetic lethal approaches have been developed that are designed to exploit the aberrant molecular origins (i.e. defective genes) that underlie tumorigenesis. BLM and CHEK2 are two evolutionarily conserved genes that are somatically altered in a number of tumor types. Both proteins normally function in preserving genome stability through facilitating the accurate repair of DNA double strand breaks. Thus, uncovering synthetic lethal interactors of BLM and CHEK2 will identify novel candidate drug targets and lead chemical compounds. Here we identify an evolutionarily conserved synthetic lethal interaction between SOD1 and both BLM and CHEK2 in two distinct cell models. Using quantitative imaging microscopy, real-time cellular analyses, colony formation and tumor spheroid models we show that SOD1 silencing and inhibition (ATTM and LCS-1 treatments), or the induction of reactive oxygen species (2ME2 treatment) induces selective killing within BLM- and CHEK2-deficient cells relative to controls. We further show that increases in reactive oxygen species follow SOD1 silencing and inhibition that are associated with the persistence of DNA double strand breaks, and increases in apoptosis. Collectively, these data identify SOD1 as a novel candidate drug target in BLM and CHEK2 cancer contexts, and further suggest that 2ME2, ATTM and LCS-1 are lead therapeutic compounds warranting further pre-clinical study.

  8. A nitroimidazole derivative, PR-350, enhances the killing of pancreatic cancer cells exposed to high-dose irradiation under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Mizumoto, Kazuhiro; Qian, Li-Wu; Zhang, Li; Nagai, Eishi; Kura, Shinobu; Tanaka, Masao

    2002-03-01

    The radiosensitizing effects of PR-350, a nitroimidazole derivative, were examined concerning the cell killing of human pancreatic cancer cell lines exposed to high doses of gamma-ray irradiation in vitro. The percentages of dead cells were analyzed with a multiwell plate reader to measure the fluorescence intensity of propidium iodide before and after a digitonin treatment. The sensitizing effect of PR-350 on cell killing by high-dose irradiation was confirmed by time-course, dose-dependency, and microscopic observations. In five of seven pancreatic cancer cell lines in which the number of dead cells was determined 5 days after 30 Gy irradiation in the presence of PR-350, the number was significantly increased under hypoxic conditions, but not under aerobic conditions. The selective radiosensitive effect of PR-350 on hypoxic cells was also confirmed by flow cytometry. The results indicate that PR-350 can enhance the killing of pancreatic cancer cells by high-dose irradiation under hypoxia, which supports its clinical radiosensitizing effects when administered during intraoperative irradiation to pancreatic cancer.

  9. T-Cell Warriors—Equipped to Kill Cancer Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    When the body recognizes tumor cells as foreign, a natural immune response arises to attack them. Unfortunately, tumors have ways to evade immune surveillance systems and antitumor responses are often too weak to defeat the disease. Rather than relying on the body’s natural response, scientists can now manipulate a patient’s own immune cells so that they latch on to tumor cells by recognizing specific proteins on their surface. A type of immune cell that has been explored for this purpose is the killer (cytotoxic) T cell, which eliminates cells infected by viruses, damaged cells, and tumor cells.

  10. Selective killing of cancer cells by β-lapachone: Direct checkpoint activation as a strategy against cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Youzhi; Sun, Xiangao; LaMont, J. Thomas; Pardee, Arthur B.; Li, Chiang J.

    2003-01-01

    Most chemotherapeutic drugs kill cancer cells by indirectly activating checkpoint-mediated apoptosis after creating nonselective damage to DNA or microtubules, which accounts for their toxicity toward normal cells. We seek to target cancer cells by directly activating checkpoint regulators without creating such damage. Here, we show that β-lapachone selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells without causing the death of nontransformed cells in culture. This unusual selectivity against cancer cells is preceded by activation of S-phase checkpoint and selective induction of E2F1, a regulator of checkpoint-mediated apoptosis. This study suggests direct checkpoint activation as a strategy against cancer. PMID:12598645

  11. The use of chelated radionuclide (samarium-153-ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonate) to modulate phenotype of tumor cells and enhance T cell-mediated killing.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Mala; Wansley, Elizabeth K; Carrasquillo, Jorge A; Yu, Sarah; Paik, Chang H; Camphausen, Kevin; Becker, Michael D; Goeckeler, William F; Schlom, Jeffrey; Hodge, James W

    2008-07-01

    Exposing human tumor cells to sublethal doses of external beam radiation up-regulates expression of tumor antigen and accessory molecules, rendering tumor cells more susceptible to killing by antigen-specific CTLs. This study explored the possibility that exposure to palliative doses of a radiopharmaceutical agent could alter the phenotype of tumor cells to render them more susceptible to T cell-mediated killing. Here, 10 human tumor cell lines (4 prostate, 2 breast, and 4 lung) were exposed to increasing doses of the radiopharmaceutical samarium-153-ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonate ((153)Sm-EDTMP) used in cancer patients to treat pain due to bone metastasis. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and quantitative real-time PCR analysis for expression of five surface molecules and several tumor-associated antigens involved in prostate cancer were done. LNCaP human prostate cancer cells were exposed to (153)Sm-EDTMP and incubated with tumor-associated antigen-specific CTL in a CTL killing assay to determine whether exposure to (153)Sm-EDTMP rendered LNCaP cells more susceptible to T cell-mediated killing. Tumor cells up-regulated the surface molecules Fas (100% of cell lines up-regulated Fas), carcinoembryonic antigen (90%), mucin-1 (60%), MHC class I (50%), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (40%) in response to (153)Sm-EDTMP. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed additional up-regulated tumor antigens. Exposure to (153)Sm-EDTMP rendered LNCaP cells more susceptible to killing by CTLs specific for prostate-specific antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen, and mucin-1. Doses of (153)Sm-EDTMP equivalent to palliative doses delivered to bone alter the phenotype of tumor cells, suggesting that (153)Sm-EDTMP may work synergistically with immunotherapy to increase the susceptibility of tumor cells to CTL killing.

  12. Sensitivity of hyperthermia-treated human cells to killing by ultraviolet or gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchel, R.E.; Smith, B.P.; Wheatly, N.; Chan, A.; Child, S.; Paterson, M.C.

    1985-11-01

    Human xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) or Fanconi anemia (FA) fibroblasts displayed shouldered 45/sup 0/C heat survival curves not significantly different from normal fibroblasts, a result similar to that previously found for ataxia telangiectasia (AT) cells, indicating heat resistance is not linked to either uv or low-LET ionizing radiation resistance. Hyperthermia (45/sup 0/C) sensitized normal and XP fibroblasts to killing by gamma radiation but failed to sensitize the cells to the lethal effects of 254 nm uv radiation. Thermal inhibition of repair of ionizing radiation lesions but not uv-induced lesions appears to contribute synergistically to cell death. The thermal enhancement ratio (TER) for the synergistic interaction of hyperthermia (45/sup 0/C, 30 min) and gamma radiation was significantly lower in one FA and two strains (TER = 1.7-1.8) than that reported previously for three normal strains (TER = 2.5-3.0). These XP and FA strains may be more gamma sensitive than normal human fibroblasts. Since hyperthermia treatment only slightly increases the gamma-radiation sensitivity of ataxia telangiectasia (AT) fibroblasts compared to normal strains, it is possible that the degree of thermal enhancement attainable reflects the genetically inherent ionizing radiation repair capacity of the cells. The data indicate that both repair inhibition and particular lesion types are required for lethal synergism between heat and radiation. We therefore postulate that the transient thermal inhibition of repair results in the conversion of gamma-induced lesions to irrepairable lethal damage, while uv-type damage can remain unaltered during this period.

  13. Enzyme-Instructed Self-Assembly of Small D-Peptides as a Multiple-Step Process for Selectively Killing Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Du, Xuewen; Yamagata, Natsuko; Xu, Bing

    2016-03-23

    Selective inhibition of cancer cells remains a challenge in chemotherapy. Here we report the molecular and cellular validation of enzyme-instructed self-assembly (EISA) as a multiple step process for selectively killing cancer cells that overexpress alkaline phosphatases (ALPs). We design and synthesize two kinds of D-tetrapeptide containing one or two phosphotyrosine residues and with the N-terminal capped by a naphthyl group. Upon enzymatic dephosphorylation, these D-tetrapeptides turn into self-assembling molecules to form nanofibers in water. Incubating these D-tetrapeptides with several cancer cell lines and one normal cell line, the unphosphorylated D-tetrapeptides are innocuous to all the cell lines, the mono- and diphosphorylated D-tetrapeptides selectively inhibit the cancer cells, but not the normal cell. The monophosphorylated D-tetrapeptides exhibit more potent inhibitory activity than the diphosphorylated D-tetrapeptides do; the cancer cell lines express higher level of ALPs are more susceptible to inhibition by the phosphorylated D-tetrapeptides; the precursors of D-tetrapeptides that possess higher self-assembling abilities exhibit higher inhibitory activities. These results confirm the important role of enzymatic reaction and self-assembly. Using uncompetitive inhibitors of ALPs and fluorescent D-tetrapeptides, we delineate that the enzyme catalyzed dephosphorylation and the self-assembly steps, together, result in the localization of the nanofibers of D-tetrapeptides for killing the cancer cells. We find that the cell death modality likely associates with the cell type and prove the interactions between nanofibers and the death receptors. This work illustrates a paradigm-shifting and biomimetic approach and contributes useful molecular insights for the development of spatiotemporal defined supramolecular processes/assemblies as potential anticancer therapeutics.

  14. Enzyme-Instructed Self-Assembly of Small d-Peptides as a Multiple-Step Process for Selectively Killing Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Selective inhibition of cancer cells remains a challenge in chemotherapy. Here we report the molecular and cellular validation of enzyme-instructed self-assembly (EISA) as a multiple step process for selectively killing cancer cells that overexpress alkaline phosphatases (ALPs). We design and synthesize two kinds of d-tetrapeptide containing one or two phosphotyrosine residues and with the N-terminal capped by a naphthyl group. Upon enzymatic dephosphorylation, these d-tetrapeptides turn into self-assembling molecules to form nanofibers in water. Incubating these d-tetrapeptides with several cancer cell lines and one normal cell line, the unphosphorylated d-tetrapeptides are innocuous to all the cell lines, the mono- and diphosphorylated d-tetrapeptides selectively inhibit the cancer cells, but not the normal cell. The monophosphorylated d-tetrapeptides exhibit more potent inhibitory activity than the diphosphorylated d-tetrapeptides do; the cancer cell lines express higher level of ALPs are more susceptible to inhibition by the phosphorylated d-tetrapeptides; the precursors of d-tetrapeptides that possess higher self-assembling abilities exhibit higher inhibitory activities. These results confirm the important role of enzymatic reaction and self-assembly. Using uncompetitive inhibitors of ALPs and fluorescent d-tetrapeptides, we delineate that the enzyme catalyzed dephosphorylation and the self-assembly steps, together, result in the localization of the nanofibers of d-tetrapeptides for killing the cancer cells. We find that the cell death modality likely associates with the cell type and prove the interactions between nanofibers and the death receptors. This work illustrates a paradigm-shifting and biomimetic approach and contributes useful molecular insights for the development of spatiotemporal defined supramolecular processes/assemblies as potential anticancer therapeutics. PMID:26966844

  15. Atorvastatin prolongs the lifespan of radiation‑induced reactive oxygen species in PC-3 prostate cancer cells to enhance the cell killing effect.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hao; Sun, Shao-Qian; Gu, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Wen; Gao, Xian-Shu

    2017-04-01

    Studies have reported that atorvastatin (ATO) may increase the radiosensitivity of malignant cells. However, the influence of ATO on reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels before and after irradiation has not been fully illustrated. In the present study, radiosensitivity was evaluated by a clonogenic assay and a cell survival curve and cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. ROS were detected by a laser scanning confocal microscope and flow cytometry with a DCFH-DA probe. NADPH oxidases (NOXs) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) proteins were detected by immunoblotting, and total SOD activity was measured using an SOD kit. We also conducted transient transfection of NOX2 and NOX4 genes to increase intracellular ROS generation and applied SOD mimetic tempol to enhance ROS elimination ability. Our results demonstrated that, with ATO-alone treatment, the survival fractions of irradiated PC-3 cells were significantly decreased. Meanwhile, the apoptosis rate of the irradiated cells increased significantly (P<0.05). The ROS levels of the study group decreased obviously before irradiation (P<0.01), however, the radiation-induced ROS of the study group was at a high level even when irradiation had been terminated for 2 h (P<0.01). Moreover, NOX2 and NOX4 levels and total SOD activity decreased (P<0.01), while the levels of SOD1 were stably maintained (P>0.05). On the other hand, the decreased survival fractions and high radiation-induced ROS levels were abrogated by increasing the level of NOXs by gene transfection or by enhancing the ability of SOD utilizing the addition of tempol. In conclusion, ATO enhanced the cell killing effect of irradiation by reducing endogenous ROS levels and prolonging the lifespan of radiation‑induced ROS via a decrease in the level of NOXs and SOD activity.

  16. Impact of prolonged fraction dose-delivery time modeling intensity-modulated radiation therapy on hepatocellular carcinoma cell killing

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiao-Kang; Chen, Long-Hua; Yan, Xiao; Wang, Hong-Mei

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the impact of prolonged fraction dose-delivery time modeling intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) on cell killing of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HepG2 and Hep3B cell lines. METHODS: The radiobiological characteristics of human HCC HepG2 and Hep3b cell lines were studied with standard clonogenic assays, using standard linear-quadratic model and incomplete repair model to fit the dose-survival curves. The identical methods were also employed to investigate the biological effectiveness of irradiation protocols modeling clinical conventional fractionated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT, fraction delivery time 3 min) and IMRT with different prolonged fraction delivery time (15, 30, and 45 min). The differences of cell surviving fraction irradiated with different fraction delivery time were tested with paired t-test. Factors determining the impact of prolonged fraction delivery time on cell killing were analyzed. RESULTS: The α/β and repair half-time (T1/2) of HepG2 and Hep3b were 3.1 and 7.4 Gy, and 22 and 19 min respectively. The surviving fraction of HepG2 irradiated modeling IMRT with different fraction delivery time was significantly higher than irradiated modeling EBRT and the cell survival increased more pronouncedly with the fraction delivery time prolonged from 15 to 45 min, while no significant differences of cell survival in Hep3b were found between different fraction delivery time protocols. CONCLUSION: The prolonged fraction delivery time modeling IMRT significantly decreased the cell killing in HepG2 but not in Hep3b. The capability of sub-lethal damage repair was the predominant factor determining the cell killing decrease. These effects, if confirmed by clinical studies, should be considered in designing IMRT treatments for HCC. PMID:15770720

  17. Immune response to Vi polysaccharide, heat-killed whole cells, and outer membrane protein of Salmonella typhi.

    PubMed

    Hosny, Alaa El-Din Shawky; Diab, Mohamed Reda; Khattab, Rania Abdelmonem; Awad, Heba Osama

    2015-07-04

    Salmonella typhiVi capsular polysaccharide (ViCPS) is a licensed vaccine against typhoid fever in many countries; in Egypt, the killed whole-cell vaccine is still used. In this study, mice were used as an animal model to evaluate the immune response to ViCPS and other S. typhi antigens such as heat-killed whole cells and outer membrane protein (OMP). The three antigens were laboratory prepared, injected into mice groups, and the humoral response was evaluated using the indirect whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sensitivity of this assay was investigated using in situ or pre-heated whole cells as coating antigens. In addition, the effect of the immunization route for ViCPS was examined. Immunizing doses of heat-killed whole cells as well as ViCPS, 2 and 4 µg given subcutaneously (SC) and 4 µg given intraperitoneally (IP), showed significant immune response compared to controls. However, the responses to these doses were not significantly different from each other. The OMP showed a higher significant response. The sensitivity of indirect whole-cell ELISA was enhanced significantly by in situ heat treatment of the coating antigen rather than the pre-heated coating antigen. The three antigens showed significant immune response. The immune response to OMP was higher. Though heat-killed whole cells and ViCPS are almost similar in immunizing level, ViCPS is recommended. The SC route was more immunizing than the IP one. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the indirect whole-cell ELISA technique could be enhanced by in situ heat inactivation of the coating cells.

  18. Killing defect of natural killer cells with the absence of natural killer cytotoxic factors in a child with Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Komiyama, A.; Kawai, H.; Yamada, S.; Kato, M.; Yanagisawa, M.; Miyagawa, Y.; Akabane, T.

    1987-06-01

    A killing defect of natural killer (NK) cells in the absence of NK cytotoxic factors (NKCF) was first demonstrated in a child with Hodgkin's disease. The patient lacked detectable NK cell activity in every phase of the disease as measured by a four-hour /sup 51/Cr-release assay using K562 cells as a target. The percent lysis at a 40:1 effector:target ratio by the patient's lymphocytes was persistently below 0.3% as compared with the normal lymphocyte value of 46.2% +/- 5.8% (mean +/- SD). NK cell activity was not detectable at effector:target ratios of 10:1 to 80:1 and by prolongation of the incubation time, and the NK cell defect was not restored or improved by lymphocyte stimulation with polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid, interferon (IFN)-alpha, or interleukin 2 (IL 2). The numbers of Leu-7+ cells and Leu-11+ cells were normal as counted by flow cytometry. A single cell-in-agarose assay demonstrated normal numbers of target binding cells (TBCs), and they showed the morphology of large granular lymphocytes. However, there were no TBCs with dead targets. These results indicated that the patient's lymphocytes contained normal numbers of NK cells that were capable of recognizing and binding to a target but were incapable of killing the bound target cell. The patient's lymphocytes were then studied for their release of NKCF upon interaction with K562 cells. The patient's cells did not release NKCF, and the NK cell defect was not restored or improved by stimulation of the cells with IFN or IL 2. It is suggested that the deficient release of NKCF may have been related to the killing defect of the NK cells in this patient.

  19. Killing Coyotes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Conger, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Presents different viewpoints concerning the federal government's Animal Damage Control (ADC) Program cited as responsible for killing millions of predators. Critics provide evidence of outdated and inhumane methods exemplified in the coyote killings. The ADC emphasizes new, nonlethal methods of controlling animals cited as "noxious."…

  20. Specific CEA-producing colorectal carcinoma cell killing with recombinant adenoviral vector containing cytosine deaminase gene

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Li-Zong; Wu, Wen-Xi; Xu, De-Hua; Zheng, Zhong-Cheng; Liu, Xin-Yuan; Ding, Qiang; Hua, Yi-Bing; Yao, Kun

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To kill CEA positive colorectal carcinoma cells specifically using the E coli cytosine deaminase (CD) suicide gene, a new replication-deficient recombinant adenoviral vector was constructed in which CD gene was controlled under CEA promoter and its in vitro cytotoxic effects were evaluated. METHODS: Shuttle plasmid containing CD gene and regulatory sequence of the CEA gene was constructed and recombined with the right arm of adenovirus genome DNA in 293 cell strain. Dot blotting and PCR were used to identify positive plaques. The purification of adenovirus was performed with ultra-concentration in CsCl step gradients and the titration was measured with plaque formation assay. Cytotoxic effects were assayed with MTT method, The fifty percent inhibition concentration (IC50) of 5-FC was calculated using a curve-fitting parameter. The human colorectal carcinoma cell line, which was CEA-producing, and the CEA-nonproducing Hela cell line were applied in cytological tests. An established recombinant adenovirus vector AdCMVCD, in which the CD gene was controlled under CMV promoter, was used as virus control. Quantitative results were expressed as the mean ± SD of the mean. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA test. RESULTS: The desired recombinant adenovirus vector was named AdCEACD. The results of dot blotting and PCR showed that the recombinant adenovirus contained CEA promoter and CD gene. Virus titer was about 5.0 × 1014 pfu/L-1 after purification. The CEA-producing Lovo cells were sensitive to 5-FC and had the same cytotoxic effect after infection with AdCEACD and AdCMVCD (The IC50 values of 5-FC in parent Lovo cells, Lovo cells infected with 100 M.O.I AdCEACD and Lovo cells infected with 10 M.O.I AdCMVCD were > 15000, 216.5 ± 38.1 and 128.8 ± 25.4 μmol•L⁻¹, P < 0.001, respectively), and the cytotoxicity of 5-FC increased accordingly when the M.O.I of adenoviruses were enhanced (The value of IC50 of 5-FC was reduced to 27.9 ± 4.2 μmol•L-1

  1. Mechanical cell competition kills cells via induction of lethal p53 levels

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, Laura; Goschorska, Maja; Kozyrska, Kasia; Duclos, Guillaume; Kucinski, Iwo; Chessel, Anatole; Hampton-O'Neil, Lea; Bradshaw, Charles R.; Allen, George E.; Rawlins, Emma L.; Silberzan, Pascal; Carazo Salas, Rafael E.; Piddini, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Cell competition is a quality control mechanism that eliminates unfit cells. How cells compete is poorly understood, but it is generally accepted that molecular exchange between cells signals elimination of unfit cells. Here we report an orthogonal mechanism of cell competition, whereby cells compete through mechanical insults. We show that MDCK cells silenced for the polarity gene scribble (scribKD) are hypersensitive to compaction, that interaction with wild-type cells causes their compaction and that crowding is sufficient for scribKD cell elimination. Importantly, we show that elevation of the tumour suppressor p53 is necessary and sufficient for crowding hypersensitivity. Compaction, via activation of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) and the stress kinase p38, leads to further p53 elevation, causing cell death. Thus, in addition to molecules, cells use mechanical means to compete. Given the involvement of p53, compaction hypersensitivity may be widespread among damaged cells and offers an additional route to eliminate unfit cells. PMID:27109213

  2. Elimination of Babesia microti Is Dependent on Intraerythrocytic Killing and CD4(+) T Cells.

    PubMed

    Skariah, Sini; Arnaboldi, Paul; Dattwyler, Raymond J; Sultan, Ali A; Gaylets, Corey; Walwyn, Odaelys; Mulhall, Hannah; Wu, Xia; Dargham, Soha R; Mordue, Dana G

    2017-07-15

    Babesiosis is a tick-borne zoonosis caused by protozoans of the genus Babesia, apicomplexan parasites that replicate within erythrocytes. However, unlike related Plasmodium species, the pathogenesis of Babesia infection remains poorly understood. The primary etiological agent of babesiosis in the United States is B. microti. In healthy individuals, tick-transmitted infection with Babesia causes no specific clinical manifestations, with many having no symptoms at all. However, even in asymptomatic people, a Babesia carriage state can be established that can last up to a year or more. Current blood bank screening methods do not identify infected donors, and Babesia parasites survive blood-banking procedures and storage. Thus, Babesia can also be transmitted by infected blood, and it is currently the number one cause of reportable transfusion-transmitted infection in the United States. Despite a significant impact on human health, B. microti remains understudied. In this study, we evaluated the course of Babesia infection in three strains of mice, C57BL/6J, BALB/cJ, and C3H-HeJ, and examined the contribution of multiple immune parameters, including TLRs, B cells, CD4(+) cells, IFN-γ, and NO, on the level of parasitemia and parasite clearance during acute babesiosis. We found that B. microti reaches high parasitemia levels during the first week of infection in all three mice strains before resolving spontaneously. Our results indicate that resolution of babesiosis requires CD4 T cells and a novel mechanism of parasite killing within infected erythrocytes. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  3. Functionalized fullerenes mediate photodynamic killing of cancer cells: Type I versus Type II photochemical mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Mroz, Pawel; Pawlak, Anna; Satti, Minahil; Lee, Haeryeon; Wharton, Tim; Gali, Hariprasad; Sarna, Tadeusz; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) employs the combination of non-toxic photosensitizers (PS) and harmless visible light to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and kill cells. Most clinically studied PS are based on the tetrapyrrole structure of porphyrins, chlorins and related molecules, but new non-tetrapyrrole PS are being sought. Fullerenes are soccer-ball shaped molecules composed of sixty or seventy carbon atoms and have attracted interest in connection with the search for biomedical applications of nanotechnology. Fullerenes are biologically inert unless derivatized with functional groups, whereupon they become soluble and can act as PS. We have compared the photodynamic activity of six functionalized fullerenes with 1, 2, or 3 hydrophilic or 1, 2, or 3 cationic groups. The octanol-water partition coefficients were determined and the relative contributions of Type I photochemistry (photogeneration of superoxide in the presence of NADH) and Type II photochemistry (photogeneration of singlet oxygen) were studied by measurement of oxygen consumption, 1270-nm luminescence and EPR spin-trapping of the superoxide product. We studied three mouse cancer cell lines: (J774, LLC and CT26) incubated for 24 h with fullerenes and illuminated with white light. The order of effectiveness as PS was inversely proportional to the degree of substitution of the fullerene nucleus for both the neutral and cationic series. The mono-pyrrolidinium fullerene was the most active PS against all cell lines and induced apoptosis 4–6 hours after illumination. It produced diffuse intracellular fluorescence when dichlorodihydrofluorescein was added as an ROS probe suggesting a Type I mechanism for phototoxicity. We conclude that certain functionalized fullerenes have potential as novel PDT agents and phototoxicity may be mediated both by superoxide and by singlet oxygen. PMID:17664135

  4. Heat-killed Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG modulates urocortin and cytokine release in primary trophoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Bloise, E; Torricelli, M; Novembri, R; Borges, L E; Carrarelli, P; Reis, F M; Petraglia, F

    2010-10-01

    A number of studies are showing that probiotic treatment induces an anti-inflammatory state. Intrauterine infection can lead to preterm delivery by modulating immune function and efforts to prevent this condition are ongoing nowadays. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) is a probiotic known to ameliorate inflammation by increasing local anti-inflammatory mediators in urinary and gastrointestinal tracts. The present study then analyzed the effect of heat-killed LGG over β-hCG, progesterone, interleukins (IL) 4 and 10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and urocortin (Ucn) release by primary trophoblast cells. Normal human term placentas (n = 6) were collected and purified trophoblast cells were incubated in the presence of LGG, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or either LGG + LPS during 3 h, after which the target substances were quantified by ELISA and real-time PCR. LGG did not affect β-hCG, progesterone, or CRH secretion. Conversely, LGG increased IL-4 protein and mRNA expression (P < 0.05) while IL-10 and Ucn secretion were increased in a dose dependent manner and the highest dose of LGG increased significantly IL-10 mRNA (P < 0.05). LGG did not alter TNF-α, while LPS exposure increased TNF-α protein (P < 0.001) and mRNA expression (P < 0.01). Conversely, LGG treatment reversed LPS-induced TNF-α release at both protein (P < 0.01) and mRNA levels (P < 0.05) in a dose dependent fashion. In conclusion, LGG stimulates IL-4, IL-10 and Ucn expression and reverses LPS-induced TNF-α release from trophoblast cells, with no change in β-hCG or progesterone release, suggesting that this probiotic may play a role as an immunomodulatory agent in human placenta without altering basic trophoblast functions. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Urine disinfection and in situ pathogen killing using a Microbial Fuel Cell cascade system

    PubMed Central

    Ieropoulos, Ioannis; Greenman, John

    2017-01-01

    Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) are emerging as an effective means of treating different types of waste including urine and wastewater. However, the fate of pathogens in an MFC-based system remains unknown, and in this study we investigated the effect of introducing the enteric pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis in an MFC cascade system. The MFCs continuously fed with urine showed high disinfecting potential. As part of two independent trials, during which the bioluminescent S. enteritidis strain was introduced into the MFC cascade, the number of viable counts and the level of bioluminescence were reduced by up to 4.43±0.04 and 4.21±0.01 log-fold, respectively. The killing efficacy observed for the MFCs operating under closed-circuit conditions, were higher by 1.69 and 1.72 log-fold reduction than for the open circuit MFCs, in both independent trials. The results indicated that the bactericidal properties of a well performing anode were dependent on power performance and the oxidation-reduction potential recorded for the MFCs. This is the first time that the fate of pathogenic bacteria has been investigated in continuously operating MFC systems. PMID:28463976

  6. Ultrasound-induced killing of monocytic U937 cells enhanced by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Feril, Loreto B; Tsuda, Yuko; Kondo, Takashi; Zhao, Qing-Li; Ogawa, Ryohei; Cui, Zheng-Guo; Tsukada, Kazuhiro; Riesz, Peter

    2004-02-01

    To determine the effect of 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) on ultrasound (US)-induced cell killing, human monocytic leukemia cells (U937) were incubated at various temperatures (25.0, 37.0 and 40.0 degrees C) for 1 min in air-saturated phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) containing 50 mM AAPH before exposure to nonthermal 1 MHz US for 1 min at an intensity of 2.0 W/cm(2). Cell viability was determined by means of the Trypan blue dye exclusion test immediately after sonication. Apoptosis was measured after 6-h incubation post-sonication by flow cytometry. Free radicals generated by AAPH, a temperature-dependent free radical generator, or US or both were also investigated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping. The results showed that US-induced cell lysis and apoptosis were enhanced in the presence of AAPH regardless of the temperature at the time of sonication. At 40.0 degrees C, US alone induced increased cell killing, while AAPH alone is capable of inducing significant but minimal apoptosis at this temperature. Although free radicals were increased in the combined treatment, this increase did not correlate well with cell killing. The mechanism of enhancement points to the increased uptake of the agent during sonication rather than potentiation by AAPH. These findings suggest the clinical potential of temperature-dependent free radical generators in cancer therapy with therapeutic US.

  7. Interaction between human interleukin-2-activated natural killer cells and heat-killed germ tube forms of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Arancia, G; Stringaro, A; Crateri, P; Torosantucci, A; Ramoni, C; Urbani, F; Ausiello, C M; Cassone, A

    1998-05-25

    Human interleukin-2-activated natural killer (LAK) cells are able to recognize and to bind to both live and heat-killed germ tube forms of Candida albicans, establishing a wide and intimate contact as revealed by electron microscopic observations. Following the interaction, LAK cells are activated: an increased expression of some cytokine mRNA (in particular, TNF-alpha, GM-CSF, and IFN-gamma) has been revealed by RT-PCR and perforin secretion has been suggested by immunofluorescence microscopy. Nonetheless, neither morphological damage or growth inhibition of fungal target cells have been detected. Instead, evident signs of cell damage could be noticed in interacting LAK cells. Moreover, the observation by transmission electron microscopy of LAK cell-germ tube conjugates revealed the presence of apoptotic cells. The analysis of LAK cell cytotoxic activity against DAUDI cells showed that the lymphocytic effector underwent a significant reduction in its lytic capability after the interaction with C. albicans. The results obtained in this in vitro study seem to indicate that in such an interaction LAK cells cannot directly inhibit or kill the fungal pathogen by using their lytic machinery but they secrete those cytokines which have stimulatory effects on phagocytic cells. The ultimate results are the programmed death of LAK cells and the enhancement of the fungicidal activity exerted by competent cells.

  8. The DNA damage-induced cell death response: a roadmap to kill cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Matt, Sonja; Hofmann, Thomas G

    2016-08-01

    Upon massive DNA damage cells fail to undergo productive DNA repair and trigger the cell death response. Resistance to cell death is linked to cellular transformation and carcinogenesis as well as radio- and chemoresistance, making the underlying signaling pathways a promising target for therapeutic intervention. Diverse DNA damage-induced cell death pathways are operative in mammalian cells and finally culminate in the induction of programmed cell death via activation of apoptosis or necroptosis. These signaling routes affect nuclear, mitochondria- and plasma membrane-associated key molecules to activate the apoptotic or necroptotic response. In this review, we highlight the main signaling pathways, molecular players and mechanisms guiding the DNA damage-induced cell death response.

  9. Integrating Enzymatic Self-Assembly and Mitochondria Targeting for Selectively Killing Cancer Cells without Acquired Drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huaimin; Feng, Zhaoqianqi; Wang, Youzhi; Zhou, Rong; Yang, Zhimou; Xu, Bing

    2016-12-14

    Targeting organelles by modulating the redox potential of mitochondria is a promising approach to kill cancer cells that minimizes acquired drug resistance. However, it lacks selectivity because mitochondria perform essential functions for (almost) all cells. We show that enzyme-instructed self-assembly (EISA), a bioinspired molecular process, selectively generates the assemblies of redox modulators (e.g., triphenyl phosphinium (TPP)) in the pericellular space of cancer cells for uptake, which allows selectively targeting the mitochondria of cancer cells. The attachment of TPP to a pair of enantiomeric, phosphorylated tetrapeptides produces the precursors (L-1P or D-1P) that form oligomers. Upon dephosphorylation catalyzed by ectophosphatases (e.g., alkaline phosphatase (ALP)) overexpressed on cancer cells (e.g., Saos2), the oligomers self-assemble to form nanoscale assemblies only on the surface of the cancer cells. The cancer cells thus uptake these assemblies of TPP via endocytosis, mainly via a caveolae/raft-dependent pathway. Inside the cells, the assemblies of TPP-peptide conjugates escape from the lysosome, induce dysfunction of mitochondria to release cytochrome c, and result in cell death, while the controls (i.e., omitting TPP motif, inhibiting ALP, or removing phosphate trigger) hardly kill the Saos2 cells. Most importantly, the repeated stimulation of the cancers by the precursors, unexpectedly, sensitizes the cancer cells to the precursors. As the first example of the integration of subcellular targeting with cell targeting, this study validates the spatial control of the assemblies of nonspecific cytotoxic agents by EISA as a promising molecular process for selectively killing cancer cells without inducing acquired drug resistance.

  10. TAT-mediated photochemical internalization results in cell killing by causing the release of calcium into the cytosol of cells

    PubMed Central

    Muthukrishnan, Nandhini; Johnson, Gregory A.; Lim, Jongdoo; Simanek, Eric E.; Pellois, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Background Lysis of endocytic organelles is a necessary step in many cellular delivery methodologies. This is achieved efficiently in the photochemical internalization approach but the cell death that accompanies this process remains a problem. Methods We investigate the mechanisms of cell death that accompanies photochemical internalization of the fluorescent peptide TMR-TAT. Results TMR-TAT kills cells after endocytosis and light irradiation. The lysis of endocytic organelles by TMR-TAT causes a rapid increase in the concentration of calcium in the cytosol. TMR-TAT co-localizes with endocytic organelles containing calcium prior to irradiation and photochemical internalization leads to the release of the lumenal content of these organelles. Ruthenium red and cyclosporin A, inhibitors of calcium import in mitochondria and of the mitochondria permeability transition pore, inhibit cell death. Conclusions TMR-TAT mediated photochemical internalization leads to a disruption of calcium homeostasis. The subsequent import of calcium in mitochondria is a causative factor of the cell death that accompanies photochemical internalization. General Significance Understanding how the lysis of endocytic organelles affects cellular physiology and causes cell death is crucial to the development of optimal delivery methodologies. PMID:22771830

  11. BIM mediates synergistic killing of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells by BCL-2 and MEK inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Korfi, K; Smith, M; Swan, J; Somervaille, T C P; Dhomen, N; Marais, R

    2016-04-07

    B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is an aggressive hematological disease that kills ~50% of adult patients. With the exception of some BCR-ABL1(+) patients who benefit from tyrosine kinase inhibitors, there are no effective targeted therapies for adult B-ALL patients and chemotherapy remains first-line therapy despite adverse side effects and poor efficacy. We show that, although the MEK/ERK pathway is activated in B-ALL cells driven by different oncogenes, MEK inhibition does not suppress B-ALL cell growth. However, MEK inhibition synergized with BCL-2/BCL-XL family inhibitors to suppress proliferation and induce apoptosis in B-ALL cells. We show that this synergism is mediated by the pro-apoptotic factor BIM, which is dephosphorylated as a result of MEK inhibition, allowing it to bind to and neutralize MCL-1, thereby enhancing BCL-2/BCL-XL inhibitor-induced cell death. This cooperative effect is observed in B-ALL cells driven by a range of genetic abnormalities and therefore has significant therapeutic potential.

  12. Pharmacological assessment of ibuprofen arginate on platelet aggregation and colon cancer cell killing.

    PubMed

    Ahmetaj-Shala, B; Tesfai, A; Constantinou, C; Leszczynski, R; Chan, M V; Gashaw, H; Galaris, G; Mazi, S; Warner, T D; Kirkby, N S; Mitchell, J A

    2017-03-18

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including ibuprofen, are amongst the most commonly used medications and produce their anti-inflammatory and analgesic benefits by blocking cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. These drugs also have the potential to prevent and treat cancer and some members of the class including ibuprofen can produce anti-platelet effects. Despite their utility, all NSAIDs are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular side effects which our recent work suggests could be mediated by increased levels of the endogenous NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) leading to reduced endothelial NOS activity and associated endothelial cell dysfunction. ADMA is a cardiotoxic hormone and biomarker of cardiovascular risk whose effects can be prevented by l-arginine. The ibuprofen salt, ibuprofen arginate (Spididol(®)) was created to increase drug solubility but we have previously established that it not only effectively blocks COX-2 but also provides an arginine source able to reverse the effects of ADMA in vitro and in vivo. Here we have gone on to explore whether the formulation of ibuprofen with arginine influences the potency and efficacy of the parent molecule using a range of simple in vitro assays designed to test the effects of NSAIDs on (i) platelet aggregation and (iii) colon cancer cell killing. Our findings demonstrate that ibuprofen arginate retains these key functional effects of NSAIDs with similar or increased potency compared to ibuprofen sodium, further illustrating the potential of ibuprofen arginate as an efficacious drug with the possibility of improved cardiovascular safety.

  13. The Smac Mimetic BV6 Improves NK Cell-Mediated Killing of Rhabdomyosarcoma Cells by Simultaneously Targeting Tumor and Effector Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Kyra; Tognarelli, Sara; Roesler, Stefanie; Boedicker, Cathinka; Schubert, Ralf; Steinle, Alexander; Klingebiel, Thomas; Bader, Peter; Fulda, Simone; Ullrich, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most common cancer of connective tissues in pediatrics, is often resistant to conventional therapies. One underlying mechanism of this resistance is the overexpression of Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins, leading to a dysfunctional cell death program within tumor cells. Smac mimetics (SM) are small molecules that can reactivate the cell death program by antagonizing IAP proteins and thereby compensating their overexpression. Here, we report that SM sensitize two RMS cell lines (RD and RH30) toward natural killer (NK) cell-mediated killing on the one hand, and increase the cytotoxic potential of NK cells on the other. The SM-induced sensitization of RH30 cells toward NK cell-mediated killing is significantly reduced through blocking tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) on NK cells prior to coculture. In addition, the presence of zVAD.fmk, a pancaspase inhibitor, rescues tumor cells from the increase in killing, indicating an apoptosis-dependent cell death. On the NK cell side, the presence of SM in addition to IL-2 during the ex vivo expansion leads to an increase in their cytotoxic activity against RH30 cells. This effect is mainly TNFα-dependent and partially mediated by NK cell activation, which is associated with transcriptional upregulation of NF-κB target genes such as IκBα and RelB. Taken together, our findings implicate that SM represent a novel double-hit strategy, sensitizing tumor and activating NK cells with one single drug. PMID:28326081

  14. Structural Factors and Mechanisms Underlying the Improved Photodynamic Cell Killing with Silicon Phthalocyanine Photosensitizers Directed to Lysosomes Versus Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Myriam E.; Zhang, Ping; Azizuddin, Kashif; Delos Santos, Grace B.; Chiu, Song-mao; Xue, Liang-yan; Berlin, Jeffery C.; Peng, Xinzhan; Wu, Hongqiao; Lam, Minh; Nieminen, Anna-Liisa; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Oleinick, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    The phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 has been shown to bind preferentially to mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Upon photoirradiation of Pc 4-loaded cells, membrane components, especially Bcl-2, are photodamaged and apoptosis, as indicated by activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, is triggered. A series of analogs of Pc 4 were synthesized, and the results demonstrate that Pcs with the aminopropylsiloxy ligand of Pc 4 or a similar one on one side of the Pc ring and a second large axial ligand on the other side of the ring have unexpected properties, including enhanced cell uptake, greater monomerization resulting in greater intracellular fluorescence and three-fold higher affinity constants for liposomes. The hydroxyl-bearing axial ligands tend to reduce aggregation of the Pc and direct it to lysosomes, resulting in four to six times more killing of cells, as defined by loss of clonogenicity, than with Pc 4. Whereas Pc 4-PDT photodamages Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, Pc 181-PDT causes much less photodamage to Bcl-2 over the same dose–response range relative to cell killing, with earlier cleavage of Bid and slower caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Therefore, within this series of photosensitizers, these hydroxyl-bearing axial ligands are less aggregated than is Pc 4, tend to localize to lysosomes and are more effective in overall cell killing than is Pc 4, but induce apoptosis more slowly and by a modified pathway. PMID:19508642

  15. Structural factors and mechanisms underlying the improved photodynamic cell killing with silicon phthalocyanine photosensitizers directed to lysosomes versus mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Myriam E; Zhang, Ping; Azizuddin, Kashif; Delos Santos, Grace B; Chiu, Song-mao; Xue, Liang-yan; Berlin, Jeffery C; Peng, Xinzhan; Wu, Hongqiao; Lam, Minh; Nieminen, Anna-Liisa; Kenney, Malcolm E; Oleinick, Nancy L

    2009-01-01

    The phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 has been shown to bind preferentially to mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Upon photoirradiation of Pc 4-loaded cells, membrane components, especially Bcl-2, are photodamaged and apoptosis, as indicated by activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, is triggered. A series of analogs of Pc 4 were synthesized, and the results demonstrate that Pcs with the aminopropylsiloxy ligand of Pc 4 or a similar one on one side of the Pc ring and a second large axial ligand on the other side of the ring have unexpected properties, including enhanced cell uptake, greater monomerization resulting in greater intracellular fluorescence and three-fold higher affinity constants for liposomes. The hydroxyl-bearing axial ligands tend to reduce aggregation of the Pc and direct it to lysosomes, resulting in four to six times more killing of cells, as defined by loss of clonogenicity, than with Pc 4. Whereas Pc 4-PDT photodamages Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, Pc 181-PDT causes much less photodamage to Bcl-2 over the same dose-response range relative to cell killing, with earlier cleavage of Bid and slower caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Therefore, within this series of photosensitizers, these hydroxyl-bearing axial ligands are less aggregated than is Pc 4, tend to localize to lysosomes and are more effective in overall cell killing than is Pc 4, but induce apoptosis more slowly and by a modified pathway.

  16. Lapatinib and Obatoclax Kill Breast Cancer Cells through Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Endoplasmic Reticulum StressS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshanks, Nichola; Tang, Yong; Booth, Laurence; Hamed, Hossein; Grant, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies showed that lapatinib and obatoclax interact in a greater-than-additive fashion to cause cell death and do so through a toxic form of autophagy. The present studies sought to extend our analyses. Lapatinib and obatoclax killed multiple tumor cell types, and cells lacking phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) function were relatively resistant to drug combination lethality; expression of PTEN in PTEN-null breast cancer cells restored drug sensitivity. Coadministration of lapatinib with obatoclax elicited autophagic cell death that was attributable to the actions of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Wild-type cells but not mitochondria-deficient rho-zero cells were radiosensitized by lapatinib and obatoclax treatment. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) by the drug combination was enhanced by radiation, and signaling by p38 MAPK and JNK1/2 promoted cell killing. In immunohistochemical analyses, the autophagosome protein p62 was determined to be associated with protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) and inositol-requiring enzyme 1, as well as with binding immunoglobulin protein/78-kDa glucose-regulated protein, in drug combination-treated cells. Knockdown of PERK suppressed drug-induced autophagy and protected tumor cells from the drug combination. Knockdown of PERK suppressed the reduction in Mcl-1 expression after drug combination exposure, and overexpression of Mcl-1 protected cells. Our data indicate that mitochondrial function plays an essential role in cell killing by lapatinib and obatoclax, as well as radiosensitization by this drug combination. PMID:22989520

  17. Targeted Killings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    American territory in history. Two aircraft torpedoed into the Twin Towers in New York City at speeds of over 490mph killing 2,595 people . Shortly...bomb exploded in the World Trade Center in New York City, killing a half-dozen people and wounding over a thousand. Over the next three years Al...executed his most incredible attack killing close to 3,000 people . President Bush announced to the world that, “U.S. troops will hunt down terrorists and

  18. Ability of four potential topoisomerase II inhibitors to enhance the cytotoxicity of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) in Chinese hamster ovary cells and in an epipodophyllotoxin-resistant subline.

    PubMed

    Eder, J P; Teicher, B A; Holden, S A; Senator, L; Cathcart, K N; Schnipper, L E

    1990-01-01

    Four drugs known to interact with topoisomerase II were assessed for their ability to enhance the cytotoxicity of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines sensitive and resistant to VM-26. The combination treatments were analyzed by isobologram methodology. On 24 h exposure, there was no significant difference in the cytotoxicity of novobiocin or ciprofloxacin toward either cell line. The resistant cells were approximately 9-fold more resistant to 4'-(9-acridinylamino)methanesulfon-m-anisidide (m-AMSA) and approximately 170-fold more resistant to etoposide after a 24-h exposure. The combination of novobiocin and cisplatin produced greater than additive cell kill over the entire dose range of cisplatin tested in both cell lines. m-AMSA and CDDP produced cell kill that fell within the envelope of additivity. Etoposide and CDDP resulted in cytotoxicity that was slightly greater than additive at low CDDP concentrations and additive at the highest concentration of CDDP tested in the parental cell line and was slightly greater than additive in the resistant cell line. Ciprofloxacin and CDDP, like novobiocin, resulted in greater than additive cell kill in both cell lines. The enhancement of CDDP cytotoxicity by novobiocin that was seen in exponentially growing cells was lost in stationary-phase cultures. In these studies, novobiocin and, to a lesser degree, ciprofloxacin produced greater than additive cell kill in combination with CDDP in parental and epipodophyllotoxin-resistant CHO cells.

  19. Cell cycle arrest and clonogenic tumor cell kill by divergent chemotherapeutic drugs.

    PubMed

    Mastbergen, S C; Duivenvoorden, I; Versteegh, R T; Geldof, A A

    2000-01-01

    Regulators of cell cycle phase transitions could be important targets for cancer treatment using cytostatic chemotherapy. Therefore, the extent of cell cycle arrest induced by different cytostatic agents has to be correlated with ultimate clonogenic tumor cell death. Especially the value of early cell cycle perturbations as indicators for the clinical efficacy of drugs should be a matter of investigation. In vitro PC-3 human prostate carcinoma cells were incubated for 24 hours with a panel of six different chemotherapeutic drugs in various concentrations (Aplidine, Cisplatin, Isohomohalichondrin B (IHB), Taxol, Vincristine and Vinorelbine). The short term effects on the cell cycle distribution were determined by DNA flowcytometry while the clonogenic capacity of these cells was quantitated to measure the cytotoxic treatment efficacy. Significant decreases of clonogenic survival proved to be strongly correlated with cell cycle perturbations. IHB, Taxol, Vincristine and Vinorelbine resulted in accumulation (up to 87-92%) in the G2M phase, while Cisplatin and Aplidine led to increases in the S-phase fraction and in both G2M- as well as S-phase fractions, respectively. Cell cycle phase perturbations appear to be suitable, early markers for cytotoxic drug efficacy.

  20. Killing Breast Cancer Cells With a VEGF-Triggered Cell Death Receptor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    patients. We are pursuing a totally different approach to targeting VEGF: rather than inhibit VEGF our goal is to convert VEGF to act as a cell death factor...cell lines in vitro. These studies suggest that a receptor such as R2Fas which converts VEGF to act as a cell death factor could yield a new and more aggressive approach to targeting overexpressed VEGF in breast cancer....Toward this aim we created a chimeric receptor (R2Fas) composed of domains from VEGF receptor 2 fused to the intracellular domain of the Fas cell

  1. Multidrug-resistant hela cells overexpressing MRP1 exhibit sensitivity to cell killing by hyperthermia: Interactions with etoposide

    SciTech Connect

    Souslova, Tatiana; Averill-Bates, Diana A. . E-mail: averill.diana@uqam.ca

    2004-12-01

    Purpose: Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains one of the primary obstacles in cancer chemotherapy and often involves overexpression of drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1). Regional hyperthermia is undergoing clinical investigation in combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. This study evaluates whether hyperthermia can reverse MDR mediated by MRP1 in human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa) cells. Methods and materials: Cytotoxicity of hyperthermia and/or etoposide was evaluated using sulforhodamine-B in HeLa cells overexpressing MRP1 and their drug-sensitive counterparts. Glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were quantified by spectrophotometry. GST isoenzymes were quantified by immunodetection. Caspase activation was evaluated by fluorometry and chromatin condensation by fluorescence microscopy using Hoechst 33258. Necrosis was determined using propidium iodide. Results: The major finding is that HeLa and HeLaMRP cells are both sensitive to cytotoxicity of hyperthermia (41-45 deg C). Hyperthermia induced activation of caspase 3 and chromatin condensation. Although total levels of cell killing were similar, there was a switch from apoptotic to necrotic cell death in MDR cells. This could be explained by decreased glutathione and GPx in MDR cells. MDR cells also contained very low levels of GST and were resistant to etoposide-induced apoptosis. Hyperthermia caused a modest increase in etoposide-induced apoptosis in HeLa and HeLaMRP cells, which required appropriate heat-drug scheduling. Conclusions: Hyperthermia could be useful in eliminating MDR cells that overexpress MRP1.

  2. Modeling Dynamics of Cell-to-Cell Variability in TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis Explains Fractional Killing and Predicts Reversible Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Bertaux, François; Stoma, Szymon; Drasdo, Dirk; Batt, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Isogenic cells sensing identical external signals can take markedly different decisions. Such decisions often correlate with pre-existing cell-to-cell differences in protein levels. When not neglected in signal transduction models, these differences are accounted for in a static manner, by assuming randomly distributed initial protein levels. However, this approach ignores the a priori non-trivial interplay between signal transduction and the source of this cell-to-cell variability: temporal fluctuations of protein levels in individual cells, driven by noisy synthesis and degradation. Thus, modeling protein fluctuations, rather than their consequences on the initial population heterogeneity, would set the quantitative analysis of signal transduction on firmer grounds. Adopting this dynamical view on cell-to-cell differences amounts to recast extrinsic variability into intrinsic noise. Here, we propose a generic approach to merge, in a systematic and principled manner, signal transduction models with stochastic protein turnover models. When applied to an established kinetic model of TRAIL-induced apoptosis, our approach markedly increased model prediction capabilities. One obtains a mechanistic explanation of yet-unexplained observations on fractional killing and non-trivial robust predictions of the temporal evolution of cell resistance to TRAIL in HeLa cells. Our results provide an alternative explanation to survival via induction of survival pathways since no TRAIL-induced regulations are needed and suggest that short-lived anti-apoptotic protein Mcl1 exhibit large and rare fluctuations. More generally, our results highlight the importance of accounting for stochastic protein turnover to quantitatively understand signal transduction over extended durations, and imply that fluctuations of short-lived proteins deserve particular attention. PMID:25340343

  3. Intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis after macrophage cell death leads to serial killing of host cells.

    PubMed

    Mahamed, Deeqa; Boulle, Mikael; Ganga, Yashica; Mc Arthur, Chanelle; Skroch, Steven; Oom, Lance; Catinas, Oana; Pillay, Kelly; Naicker, Myshnee; Rampersad, Sanisha; Mathonsi, Colisile; Hunter, Jessica; Wong, Emily B; Suleman, Moosa; Sreejit, Gopalkrishna; Pym, Alexander S; Lustig, Gila; Sigal, Alex

    2017-01-28

    A hallmark of pulmonary tuberculosis is the formation of macrophage-rich granulomas. These may restrict Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) growth, or progress to central necrosis and cavitation, facilitating pathogen growth. To determine factors leading to Mtb proliferation and host cell death, we used live cell imaging to track Mtb infection outcomes in individual primary human macrophages. Internalization of Mtb aggregates caused macrophage death, and phagocytosis of large aggregates was more cytotoxic than multiple small aggregates containing similar numbers of bacilli. Macrophage death did not result in clearance of Mtb. Rather, it led to accelerated intracellular Mtb growth regardless of prior activation or macrophage type. In contrast, bacillary replication was controlled in live phagocytes. Mtb grew as a clump in dead cells, and macrophages which internalized dead infected cells were very likely to die themselves, leading to a cell death cascade. This demonstrates how pathogen virulence can be achieved through numbers and aggregation states.

  4. UV-inactivated HSV-1 potently activates NK cell killing of leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Samudio, Ismael; Rezvani, Katayoun; Shaim, Hila; Hofs, Elyse; Ngom, Mor; Bu, Luke; Liu, Guoyu; Lee, Jason T C; Imren, Suzan; Lam, Vivian; Poon, Grace F T; Ghaedi, Maryam; Takei, Fumio; Humphries, Keith; Jia, William; Krystal, Gerald

    2016-05-26

    Herein we demonstrate that oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) potently activates human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to lyse leukemic cell lines and primary acute myeloid leukemia samples, but not healthy allogeneic lymphocytes. Intriguingly, we found that UV light-inactivated HSV-1 (UV-HSV-1) is equally effective in promoting PBMC cytolysis of leukemic cells and is 1000- to 10 000-fold more potent at stimulating innate antileukemic responses than UV-inactivated cytomegalovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, reovirus, or adenovirus. Mechanistically, UV-HSV-1 stimulates PBMC cytolysis of leukemic cells, partly via Toll-like receptor-2/protein kinase C/nuclear factor-κB signaling, and potently stimulates expression of CD69, degranulation, migration, and cytokine production in natural killer (NK) cells, suggesting that surface components of UV-HSV-1 directly activate NK cells. Importantly, UV-HSV-1 synergizes with interleukin-15 (IL-15) and IL-2 in inducing activation and cytolytic activity of NK cells. Additionally, UV-HSV-1 stimulates glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation-dependent oxygen consumption in NK cells, but only glycolysis is required for their enhanced antileukemic activity. Last, we demonstrate that T cell-depleted human PBMCs exposed to UV-HSV-1 provide a survival benefit in a murine xenograft model of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Taken together, our results support the preclinical development of UV-HSV-1 as an adjuvant, alone or in combination with IL-15, for allogeneic donor mononuclear cell infusions to treat AML.

  5. UV-inactivated HSV-1 potently activates NK cell killing of leukemic cells

    PubMed Central

    Samudio, Ismael; Rezvani, Katayoun; Shaim, Hila; Hofs, Elyse; Ngom, Mor; Bu, Luke; Liu, Guoyu; Lee, Jason T. C.; Imren, Suzan; Lam, Vivian; Poon, Grace F. T.; Ghaedi, Maryam; Takei, Fumio; Humphries, Keith; Jia, William

    2016-01-01

    Herein we demonstrate that oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) potently activates human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to lyse leukemic cell lines and primary acute myeloid leukemia samples, but not healthy allogeneic lymphocytes. Intriguingly, we found that UV light–inactivated HSV-1 (UV-HSV-1) is equally effective in promoting PBMC cytolysis of leukemic cells and is 1000- to 10 000-fold more potent at stimulating innate antileukemic responses than UV-inactivated cytomegalovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, reovirus, or adenovirus. Mechanistically, UV-HSV-1 stimulates PBMC cytolysis of leukemic cells, partly via Toll-like receptor-2/protein kinase C/nuclear factor-κB signaling, and potently stimulates expression of CD69, degranulation, migration, and cytokine production in natural killer (NK) cells, suggesting that surface components of UV-HSV-1 directly activate NK cells. Importantly, UV-HSV-1 synergizes with interleukin-15 (IL-15) and IL-2 in inducing activation and cytolytic activity of NK cells. Additionally, UV-HSV-1 stimulates glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation–dependent oxygen consumption in NK cells, but only glycolysis is required for their enhanced antileukemic activity. Last, we demonstrate that T cell–depleted human PBMCs exposed to UV-HSV-1 provide a survival benefit in a murine xenograft model of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Taken together, our results support the preclinical development of UV-HSV-1 as an adjuvant, alone or in combination with IL-15, for allogeneic donor mononuclear cell infusions to treat AML. PMID:26941401

  6. Selective killing of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells by three-dimensional nanographene nanoparticles based on triptycene.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiaoqin; Gan, Lu; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Chun; Yong, Tuying; Wang, Ziyi; Xu, Huibi; Yang, Xiangliang

    2015-03-12

    Carbon-based materials have been widely used in the biomedical fields including drug delivery and cancer therapies. In this paper, a recently synthesized three-dimensional nanographene (NG) based on triptycene self-assembles into nanoparticles which selectively kill human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells as compared to human normal liver HL7702 cells. Obvious differences in cellular accumulation, the endocytic pathway and intracellular trafficking of NG nanoparticles are observed in HepG2 cells and HL7702 cells. Further studies reveal that NG nanoparticles significantly increase the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HepG2 cells, but not in HL7702 cells. NG nanoparticle-induced ROS result in apoptosis induction and the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 cells. Moreover, IKK/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling is found to be activated by NG nanoparticle-induced ROS and serves to antagonize NG nanoparticle-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Our studies show that the distinct behaviors of cellular uptake and ROS-mediated cytotoxicity are responsible for the selective killing of HepG2 cells. This study provides a foundation for understanding the mechanism of selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells by NG nanoparticles and designing more effective chemotherapeutical agents.

  7. Caspase-, cathepsin-, and PERK-dependent regulation of MDA-7/IL-24-induced cell killing in primary human glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Yacoub, Adly; Park, Margaret A; Gupta, Pankaj; Rahmani, Mohammed; Zhang, Guo; Hamed, Hossein; Hanna, David; Sarkar, Devanand; Lebedeva, Irina V; Emdad, Luni; Sauane, Moira; Vozhilla, Nicollaq; Spiegel, Sarah; Koumenis, Costas; Graf, Martin; Curiel, David T; Grant, Steven; Fisher, Paul B; Dent, Paul

    2008-02-01

    Melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24) is a novel cytokine displaying selective apoptosis-inducing activity in transformed cells without harming normal cells. The present studies focused on defining the mechanism(s) by which a GST-MDA-7 fusion protein inhibits cell survival of primary human glioma cells in vitro. GST-MDA-7 killed glioma cells with diverse genetic characteristics that correlated with inactivation of ERK1/2 and activation of JNK1-3. Activation of JNK1-3 was dependent on protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), and GST-MDA-7 lethality was suppressed in PERK-/- cells. JNK1-3 signaling activated BAX, whereas inhibition of JNK1-3, deletion of BAX, or expression of dominant-negative caspase-9 suppressed lethality. GST-MDA-7 also promoted a PERK-, JNK-, and cathepsin B-dependent cleavage of BID; loss of BID function promoted survival. GST-MDA-7 suppressed BAD and BIM phosphorylation and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression. GST-MDA-7 caused PERK-dependent vacuolization of LC3-expressing endosomes whose formation was suppressed by incubation with 3-methyladenine, expression of HSP70 or BiP/GRP78, or knockdown of ATG5 or Beclin-1 expression but not by inhibition of the JNK1-3 pathway. Knockdown of ATG5 or Beclin-1 expression or overexpression of HSP70 reduced GST-MDA-7 lethality. Our data show that GST-MDA-7 induces an endoplasmic reticulum stress response that is causal in the activation of multiple proapoptotic pathways, which converge on the mitochondrion and highlight the complexity of signaling pathways altered by mda-7/IL-24 in glioma cells that ultimately culminate in decreased tumor cell survival.

  8. Structural basis of human β-cell killing by CD8+ T cells in Type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bulek, Anna M.; Cole, David K.; Skowera, Ania; Dolton, Garry; Gras, Stephanie; Madura, Florian; Fuller, Anna; Miles, John J.; Gostick, Emma; Price, David A.; Drijfhout, Jan W.; Knight, Robin R.; Huang, Guo C.; Lissin, Nikolai; Molloy, Peter E.; Wooldridge, Linda; Jakobsen, Bent K.; Rossjohn, Jamie; Peakman, Mark; Rizkallah, Pierre J.; Sewell, Andrew K.

    2011-01-01

    The structural characteristics of autoreactive-T cell receptor (TCR) engagement of major histocompatability (MHC) class II-restricted self-antigens is established, but how autoimmune-TCRs interact with self-MHC class I has been unclear. We examined how CD8+ T cells kill human islet β-cells, in Type-1 diabetes, via autoreactive-TCR (1E6) recognition of an HLA-A*0201-restricted glucose-sensitive preproinsulin peptide. Rigid ‘lock-and-key’ binding underpinned the 1E6-HLA-A*0201-peptide interaction, whereby 1E6 docked similarly to most MHCI-restricted TCRs. However, this interaction was extraordinarily weak, due to limited contacts with MHCI. TCR binding was highly peptide-centric, dominated by two CDR3-loop-encoded residues, acting as an ‘aromatic-cap’, over the peptide MHCI (pMHCI). Thus, highly focused peptide-centric interactions associated with suboptimal TCR-pMHCI binding affinities might lead to thymic escape and potential CD8+ T cell-mediated autoreactivity. PMID:22245737

  9. Intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis after macrophage cell death leads to serial killing of host cells

    PubMed Central

    Mahamed, Deeqa; Boulle, Mikael; Ganga, Yashica; Mc Arthur, Chanelle; Skroch, Steven; Oom, Lance; Catinas, Oana; Pillay, Kelly; Naicker, Myshnee; Rampersad, Sanisha; Mathonsi, Colisile; Hunter, Jessica; Wong, Emily B; Suleman, Moosa; Sreejit, Gopalkrishna; Pym, Alexander S; Lustig, Gila; Sigal, Alex

    2017-01-01

    A hallmark of pulmonary tuberculosis is the formation of macrophage-rich granulomas. These may restrict Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) growth, or progress to central necrosis and cavitation, facilitating pathogen growth. To determine factors leading to Mtb proliferation and host cell death, we used live cell imaging to track Mtb infection outcomes in individual primary human macrophages. Internalization of Mtb aggregates caused macrophage death, and phagocytosis of large aggregates was more cytotoxic than multiple small aggregates containing similar numbers of bacilli. Macrophage death did not result in clearance of Mtb. Rather, it led to accelerated intracellular Mtb growth regardless of prior activation or macrophage type. In contrast, bacillary replication was controlled in live phagocytes. Mtb grew as a clump in dead cells, and macrophages which internalized dead infected cells were very likely to die themselves, leading to a cell death cascade. This demonstrates how pathogen virulence can be achieved through numbers and aggregation states. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22028.001 PMID:28130921

  10. Assessment of attachment, ingestion, and killing of Escherichia coli by bovine polymorphonuclear cells with combined micromethods.

    PubMed

    Rainard, P

    1985-11-01

    A set of microassays separately measuring attachment, ingestion, and overall killing of Escherichia coli by bovine granulocytes was devised and its analytical potential used to test the effect of drugs which block intracellular killing: sodium azide, phenylbutazone, chloroquine phosphate were all inactive, suggesting that O2-dependent systems were not the sole pathway involved in the killing of E.coli by granulocytes. The microtechniques were also used to investigate the opsonic requirements for phagocytosis of two E.coli strains. Absorption of normal bovine serum with the homologous and the heterologous strains showed that specific antibodies were necessary to induce attachment of bacteria to phagocytes. Once bound to granulocytes, the unencapsulated strain P4 was engulfed, whereas for the encapsulated strain B117, complement was required for the internalization step of phagocytosis. With immune serum the need for complement was not absolute.

  11. Developmental ability of trophoblast stem cells in uniparental mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, H; Shindo, N; Kumagai, T; Usami, Y; Shikanai, M; Jonwn, K; Fukuda, A; Kawahara, M; Sotomaru, Y; Tanaka, S; Arima, T; Kono, T

    2009-05-01

    Neither parthenogenetic (PG) nor androgenetic (AG) mouse embryos survive after day 9.5 of pregnancy, owing to the inadequate growth of extraembryonic tissues, including the placenta. At day 9.5 of pregnancy, the placental structures are poorly developed in PG embryos, while trophoblast giant cells are abundant at the implantation site in AG embryos. These findings suggest that both parental genomes are required for placental development. To gain further insight into the trophoblast lineage in PG and AG embryos, we attempted to derive trophoblast stem (TS)-like cell lines from uniparental embryos. Furthermore, we sought to assess their ability to differentiate into cells of the trophoblast lineage by using gene expression analysis. Three cell lines that expressed marker genes for undifferentiated TS cells (Cdx2 and Errbeta) were derived from AG embryos. Under differentiation conditions, these cells expressed the trophoblast giant cell-specific genes, but did not express the spongiotrophoblast-specific genes. In contrast, none of the four cell lines from PG embryos expressed marker genes for undifferentiated TS cells, but they expressed Oct3/4, a marker gene for embryonic stem cells. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that PG blastocysts expressed Oct3/4 and Cdx2 specifically in inner cell mass and the trophectoderm respectively. These results suggest that PG embryos do not possess TS cells, because of the lack of the developmental ability of trophoblast cells.

  12. T(H)17 cells promote microbial killing and innate immune sensing of DNA via interleukin 26.

    PubMed

    Meller, Stephan; Di Domizio, Jeremy; Voo, Kui S; Friedrich, Heike C; Chamilos, Georgios; Ganguly, Dipyaman; Conrad, Curdin; Gregorio, Josh; Le Roy, Didier; Roger, Thierry; Ladbury, John E; Homey, Bernhard; Watowich, Stanley; Modlin, Robert L; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Liu, Yong-Jun; Arold, Stefan T; Gilliet, Michel

    2015-09-01

    Interleukin 17-producing helper T cells (T(H)17 cells) have a major role in protection against infections and in mediating autoimmune diseases, yet the mechanisms involved are incompletely understood. We found that interleukin 26 (IL-26), a human T(H)17 cell-derived cytokine, is a cationic amphipathic protein that kills extracellular bacteria via membrane-pore formation. Furthermore, T(H)17 cell-derived IL-26 formed complexes with bacterial DNA and self-DNA released by dying bacteria and host cells. The resulting IL-26-DNA complexes triggered the production of type I interferon by plasmacytoid dendritic cells via activation of Toll-like receptor 9, but independently of the IL-26 receptor. These findings provide insights into the potent antimicrobial and proinflammatory function of T(H)17 cells by showing that IL-26 is a natural human antimicrobial that promotes immune sensing of bacterial and host cell death.

  13. Efficient Killing of Murine Pluripotent Stem Cells by Natural Killer (NK) Cells Requires Activation by Cytokines and Partly Depends on the Activating NK Receptor NKG2D.

    PubMed

    Gröschel, Carina; Hübscher, Daniela; Nolte, Jessica; Monecke, Sebastian; Sasse, André; Elsner, Leslie; Paulus, Walter; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Polić, Bojan; Mansouri, Ahmed; Guan, Kaomei; Dressel, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role as cytotoxic effector cells, which scan the organism for infected or tumorigenic cells. Conflicting data have been published whether NK cells can also kill allogeneic or even autologous pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) and which receptors are involved. A clarification of this question is relevant since an activity of NK cells against PSCs could reduce the risk of teratoma growth after transplantation of PSC-derived grafts. Therefore, the hypothesis has been tested that the activity of NK cells against PSCs depends on cytokine activation and specifically on the activating NK receptor NKG2D. It is shown that a subcutaneous injection of autologous iPSCs failed to activate NK cells against these iPSCs and can give rise to teratomas. In agreement with this result, several PSC lines, including two iPSC, two embryonic stem cell (ESC), and two so-called multipotent adult germline stem cell (maGSC) lines, were largely resistant against resting NK cells although differences in killing were found at low level. All PSC lines were killed by interleukin (IL)-2-activated NK cells, and maGSCs were better killed than the other PSC types. The PSCs expressed ligands of the activating NK receptor NKG2D and NKG2D-deficient NK cells from Klrk1(-)(/)(-) mice were impaired in their cytotoxic activity against PSCs. The low-cytotoxic activity of resting NK cells was almost completely dependent on NKG2D. The cytotoxic activity of IL-2-activated NKG2D-deficient NK cells against PSCs was reduced, indicating that also other activating receptors on cytokine-activated NK cells must be engaged by ligands on PSCs. Thus, NKG2D is an important activating receptor involved in killing of murine PSCs. However, NK cells need to be activated by cytokines before they efficiently target PSCs and then also other NK receptors become relevant. These features of NK cells might be relevant for transplantation of PSC-derived grafts since NK cells have the capability

  14. Effect of biomimetic shear stress on intracellular uptake and cell-killing efficiency of doxorubicin in a free and liposomal formulation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Taehee; Cho, Younhee; Park, Chulhun; Kim, Soo-Dong; Oh, Euichaul; Cui, Jing-Hao; Cao, Qing-Ri; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2016-08-20

    Shear stress could be considered in the context of cellular uptake and cell-killing efficiency. Thus, mimicking the dynamic characteristics of in vivo environment is important in targeted drug delivery. We investigated the intracellular uptake and cell-killing efficiency of doxorubicin (DOX) in a free and liposomal form (Doxil(®)) under biomimetic shear stress to mimic in vivo environment. In this dynamic environment, cells demonstrated significantly higher fluorescence intensity than that of the static environment, and fluorescence microscopy images indicated increased intracellular uptake of DOX in the presence of fluidic shear stress. In cells treated with free DOX and liposomal Doxil(®), cell-killing efficiency was affected by shear stress. Taken together, shear stress, affecting drug uptake and cell-killing efficiency, is important in intracellular drug targeting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Paradoxical cytotoxicity of tert-butylhydroquinone in vitro: What kills the untreated cells?

    PubMed

    Braeuning, Albert; Vetter, Silvia; Orsetti, Silvia; Schwarz, Michael

    2012-09-01

    At high concentrations, tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), a phenolic antioxidant frequently used as a food preservative, exerts cytotoxic effects, which are closely linked to its ability to form reactive oxygen species as a consequence of redox cycling processes. Here we describe that treatment of murine 3T3 cells with 300 μg/ml of tBHQ in 96-well culture plates induces the death of untreated cells in neighboring wells on the same plate. The mechanisms underlying that effect were investigated. Death of the seemingly untreated neighboring cells was caused by the more toxic and volatile tBHQ oxidation product tert-butyl-p-benzoquinone (tBQ) present at up to 3 μg/ml in the untreated neighboring wells. tBQ was formed from tBHQ in a non-enzymatic process involving copper ions and oxygen. The unexpected perturbation of cytotoxicity testing following treatment with tBHQ by its volatile metabolite tBQ shows that not only metabolic processes but also non-enzymatic mechanisms have to be considered as important parameters for in vitro assays. Furthermore, our data show that even cells several wells away from the treated wells do not necessarily constitute proper "untreated" controls when cells are treated with the frequently used compound tBHQ. This might lead to an underestimation of the effects observed on the Nrf2 signaling pathway, where tBHQ is frequently used as an inductor in vitro.

  16. Combinatorial BTK and MALT1 inhibition augments killing of CD79 mutant diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Daniel; Bognar, Miriam; Eitelhuber, Andrea C; Kutzner, Kerstin; Vincendeau, Michelle; Krappmann, Daniel

    2015-12-08

    Survival of activated B cell-subtype (ABC) of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is driven by chronic B cell receptor (BCR) signaling that activates the canonical NF-κB pathway. Inhibition of BTK by Ibrutinib has been shown to kill ABC DLBCL cells that carry activating mutations in the BCR adaptor CD79. However, mutations in BTK or in downstream components such as CARMA1/CARD11 can render lymphomas Ibrutinib resistant. Therefore, we assessed here the simultaneous inhibition of BTK and the protease MALT1 that acts downstream of CARMA1 and is essential for ABC DLBCL tumor growth. We show that in CD79 mutant cells BTK is a crucial upstream regulator of MALT1, but dispensable in CARMA1 mutant ABC DLBCL. Combined inhibition of BTK by Ibrutinib and MALT1 by S-Mepazine additively impaired MALT1 cleavage activity and expression of NF-κB pro-survival factors. Thereby, combinatorial Ibrutinib and S-Mepazine treatment enhanced killing of CD79 mutant ABC DLBCL cells. Moreover, while expression of oncogenic CARMA1 in CD79 mutant cells conferred Ibrutinib resistance, double mutant cells were still sensitive to MALT1 inhibition by S-Mepazine. Thus, based on the genetic background combinatorial BTK and MALT1 inhibition may improve effectiveness of therapeutic treatment and reduce the chances for the development of drug resistances.

  17. Melatonin protects human cells from clustered DNA damages, killing and acquisition of soft agar growth induced by X-rays or 970 MeV/n Fe ions.

    PubMed

    Das, Birajalaxmi; Bennett, Paula V; Cutter, Noelle C; Sutherland, John C; Sutherland, Betsy M

    2011-06-01

    We tested the ability of melatonin (N-acetyl-5 methoxytryptamine), a highly effective radical scavenger and human hormone, to protect DNA in solution and in human cells against induction of complex DNA clusters and biological damage induced by low or high linear energy transfer radiation (100 kVp X-rays, 970 MeV/nucleon Fe ions). Plasmid DNA in solution was treated with increasing concentrations of melatonin (0.0-3.5 mM) and were irradiated with X-rays. Human cells (28SC monocytes) were also irradiated with X-rays and Fe ions with and without 2 mM melatonin. Agarose plugs containing genomic DNA were subjected to Contour Clamped Homogeneous Electrophoretic Field (CHEF) followed by imaging and clustered DNA damages were measured by using Number Average length analysis. Transformation experiments on human primary fibroblast cells using soft agar colony assay were carried out which were irradiated with Fe ions with or without 2 mM melatonin. In plasmid DNA in solution, melatonin reduced the induction of single- and double-strand breaks. Pretreatment of human 28SC cells for 24 h before irradiation with 2 mM melatonin reduced the level of X-ray induced double-strand breaks by ∼50%, of abasic clustered damages about 40%, and of Fe ion-induced double-strand breaks (41% reduction) and abasic clusters (34% reduction). It decreased transformation to soft agar growth of human primary cells by a factor of 10, but reduced killing by Fe ions only by 20-40%. Melatonin's effective reduction of radiation-induced critical DNA damages, cell killing, and striking decrease of transformation suggest that it is an excellent candidate as a countermeasure against radiation exposure, including radiation exposure to astronaut crews in space travel.

  18. Melatonin Protects Human Cells from Clustered DNA Damages, Killing and Acquisition of Soft Agar Growth Induced by X-rays or 970 MeV/n Fe ions

    SciTech Connect

    Das, B.; Sutherland, B.; Bennett, P. V.; Cutter, N. C.; Sutherland, J. C.

    2011-06-01

    We tested the ability of melatonin (N-acetyl-5 methoxytryptamine), a highly effective radical scavenger and human hormone, to protect DNA in solution and in human cells against induction of complex DNA clusters and biological damage induced by low or high linear energy transfer radiation (100 kVp X-rays, 970 MeV/nucleon Fe ions). Plasmid DNA in solution was treated with increasing concentrations of melatonin (0.0-3.5 mM) and were irradiated with X-rays. Human cells (28SC monocytes) were also irradiated with X-rays and Fe ions with and without 2 mM melatonin. Agarose plugs containing genomic DNA were subjected to Contour Clamped Homogeneous Electrophoretic Field (CHEF) followed by imaging and clustered DNA damages were measured by using Number Average length analysis. Transformation experiments on human primary fibroblast cells using soft agar colony assay were carried out which were irradiated with Fe ions with or without 2 mM melatonin. In plasmid DNA in solution, melatonin reduced the induction of single- and double-strand breaks. Pretreatment of human 28SC cells for 24 h before irradiation with 2 mM melatonin reduced the level of X-ray induced double-strand breaks by {approx}50%, of abasic clustered damages about 40%, and of Fe ion-induced double-strand breaks (41% reduction) and abasic clusters (34% reduction). It decreased transformation to soft agar growth of human primary cells by a factor of 10, but reduced killing by Fe ions only by 20-40%. Melatonin's effective reduction of radiation-induced critical DNA damages, cell killing, and striking decrease of transformation suggest that it is an excellent candidate as a countermeasure against radiation exposure, including radiation exposure to astronaut crews in space travel.

  19. Few-Layer Graphene Kills Selectively Tumor Cells from Myelomonocytic Leukemia Patients.

    PubMed

    Russier, Julie; León, Verónica; Orecchioni, Marco; Hirata, Eri; Virdis, Patrizia; Fozza, Claudio; Sgarrella, Francesco; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Prato, Maurizio; Vázquez, Ester; Bianco, Alberto; Delogu, Lucia G

    2017-03-06

    In the cure of cancer, a major cause of today's mortality, chemotherapy is the most common treatment, though serious frequent challenges are encountered by current anticancer drugs. We discovered that few-layer graphene (FLG) dispersions have a specific killer action on monocytes, showing neither toxic nor activation effects on other immune cells. We confirmed the therapeutic application of graphene on an aggressive type of cancer that is myelomonocytic leukemia, where the monocytes are in their malignant form. We demonstrated that graphene has the unique ability to target and boost specifically the necrosis of monocytic cancer cells. Moreover, the comparison between FLG and a common chemotherapeutic drug, etoposide, confirmed the higher specificity and toxicity of FLG. Since current chemotherapy treatments of leukemia still cause serious problems, these findings open the way to new and safer therapeutic approaches.

  20. Cell killing and chromatid damage in primary human bronchial epithelial cells irradiated with accelerated 56Fe ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, M.; Piao, C.; Hall, E. J.; Hei, T. K.

    2001-01-01

    We examined cell killing and chromatid damage in primary human bronchial epithelial cells irradiated with high-energy 56Fe ions. Cells were irradiated with graded doses of 56Fe ions (1 GeV/nucleon) accelerated with the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The survival curves for cells plated 1 h after irradiation (immediate plating) showed little or no shoulder. However, the survival curves for cells plated 24 h after irradiation (delayed plating) had a small initial shoulder. The RBE for 56Fe ions compared to 137Cs gamma rays was 1.99 for immediate plating and 2.73 for delayed plating at the D10. The repair ratio (delayed plating/immediate plating) was 1.67 for 137Cs gamma rays and 1.22 for 56Fe ions. The dose-response curves for initially measured and residual chromatid fragments detected by the Calyculin A-mediated premature chromosome condensation technique showed a linear response. The results indicated that the induction frequency for initially measured fragments was the same for 137Cs gamma rays and 56Fe ions. On the other hand, approximately 85% of the fragments induced by 137Cs gamma rays had rejoined after 24 h of postirradiation incubation; the corresponding amount for 56Fe ions was 37%. Furthermore, the frequency of chromatid exchanges induced by gamma rays measured 24 h after irradiation was higher than that induced by 56Fe ions. No difference in the amount of chromatid damage induced by the two types of radiations was detected when assayed 1 h after irradiation. The results suggest that high-energy 56Fe ions induce a higher frequency of complex, unrepairable damage at both the cellular and chromosomal levels than 137Cs gamma rays in the target cells for radiation-induced lung cancers.

  1. Cell killing and chromatid damage in primary human bronchial epithelial cells irradiated with accelerated 56Fe ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, M.; Piao, C.; Hall, E. J.; Hei, T. K.

    2001-01-01

    We examined cell killing and chromatid damage in primary human bronchial epithelial cells irradiated with high-energy 56Fe ions. Cells were irradiated with graded doses of 56Fe ions (1 GeV/nucleon) accelerated with the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The survival curves for cells plated 1 h after irradiation (immediate plating) showed little or no shoulder. However, the survival curves for cells plated 24 h after irradiation (delayed plating) had a small initial shoulder. The RBE for 56Fe ions compared to 137Cs gamma rays was 1.99 for immediate plating and 2.73 for delayed plating at the D10. The repair ratio (delayed plating/immediate plating) was 1.67 for 137Cs gamma rays and 1.22 for 56Fe ions. The dose-response curves for initially measured and residual chromatid fragments detected by the Calyculin A-mediated premature chromosome condensation technique showed a linear response. The results indicated that the induction frequency for initially measured fragments was the same for 137Cs gamma rays and 56Fe ions. On the other hand, approximately 85% of the fragments induced by 137Cs gamma rays had rejoined after 24 h of postirradiation incubation; the corresponding amount for 56Fe ions was 37%. Furthermore, the frequency of chromatid exchanges induced by gamma rays measured 24 h after irradiation was higher than that induced by 56Fe ions. No difference in the amount of chromatid damage induced by the two types of radiations was detected when assayed 1 h after irradiation. The results suggest that high-energy 56Fe ions induce a higher frequency of complex, unrepairable damage at both the cellular and chromosomal levels than 137Cs gamma rays in the target cells for radiation-induced lung cancers.

  2. Docosahexaenoic acid and disulfiram act in concert to kill cancer cells: a mutual enhancement of their anticancer actions.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yang; Hannafon, Bethany N; Zhang, Roy R; Fung, Kar-Ming; Ding, Wei-Qun

    2017-03-14

    We previously reported a synergistic anticancer action of clioquinol and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in human cancer cells. However, clioquinol has been banned from the clinic due to its neurotoxicity. This study identified disulfiram (DSF) as a substitute compound to clioquinol, acting in concert with DHA to more effectively kill cancer cells and suppress tumor growth. Treatment with DSF and DHA induced greater apoptotic cell death and suppression of tumor growth in vitro and in vivo, as compared to DSF and DHA used alone. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that DSF enhances DHA-induced cellular oxidative stress as evidenced by up-regulation of Nrf2-mediated heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) gene transcription. On the other hand, DHA was found to enhance DSF-induced suppression of mammosphere formation and stem cell frequency in a selected cancer model system, indicating that alterations to cancer cell stemness are involved in the combinatory anticancer action of DSF and DHA. Thus, DHA and DSF, both clinically approved drugs, act in concert to more effectively kill cancer cells. This combinatory action involves an enhancement of cellular oxidative stress and suppression of cancer cell stemness.

  3. Docosahexaenoic acid and disulfiram act in concert to kill cancer cells: a mutual enhancement of their anticancer actions

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yang; Hannafon, Bethany N.; Zhang, Roy R.; Fung, Kar-Ming; Ding, Wei-Qun

    2017-01-01

    We previously reported a synergistic anticancer action of clioquinol and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in human cancer cells. However, clioquinol has been banned from the clinic due to its neurotoxicity. This study identified disulfiram (DSF) as a substitute compound to clioquinol, acting in concert with DHA to more effectively kill cancer cells and suppress tumor growth. Treatment with DSF and DHA induced greater apoptotic cell death and suppression of tumor growth in vitro and in vivo, as compared to DSF and DHA used alone. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that DSF enhances DHA-induced cellular oxidative stress as evidenced by up-regulation of Nrf2-mediated heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) gene transcription. On the other hand, DHA was found to enhance DSF-induced suppression of mammosphere formation and stem cell frequency in a selected cancer model system, indicating that alterations to cancer cell stemness are involved in the combinatory anticancer action of DSF and DHA. Thus, DHA and DSF, both clinically approved drugs, act in concert to more effectively kill cancer cells. This combinatory action involves an enhancement of cellular oxidative stress and suppression of cancer cell stemness. PMID:28107189

  4. Susceptibility to CD8 T-cell-mediated killing influences the reservoir of latently HIV-1-infected CD4 T cells.

    PubMed

    Buzon, Maria J; Yang, Yue; Ouyang, Zhengyu; Sun, Hong; Seiss, Katherine; Rogich, Jerome; Le Gall, Sylvie; Pereyra, Florencia; Rosenberg, Eric S; Yu, Xu G; Lichterfeld, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 establishes a lifelong infection in the human body, but host factors that influence viral persistence remain poorly understood. Cell-intrinsic characteristics of CD4 T cells, the main target cells for HIV-1, may affect the composition of the latent viral reservoir by altering the susceptibility to CD8 T-cell-mediated killing. We observed that susceptibilities of CD4 T cells to CD8 T-cell-mediated killing, as determined in direct ex vivo assays, were significantly higher in persons with natural control of HIV-1 (elite controllers) than in individuals effectively treated with antiretroviral therapy. These differences were most pronounced in naive and in terminally differentiated CD4 T cells and corresponded to a reduced viral reservoir size in elite controllers. Interestingly, the highest susceptibility to CD8 T-cell-mediated killing and lowest reservoirs of cell-associated HIV-1 DNA was consistently observed in elite controllers expressing the protective HLA class I allele B57. These data suggest that the functional responsiveness of host CD4 T cells to cytotoxic effects of HIV-1-specific CD8 T cells can contribute to shaping the structure and composition of the latently infected CD4 T-cell pool.

  5. IL-2 signalling in T and natural killer (NK) cells associated with their class I-non-restricted killing activity

    PubMed Central

    YONEDA, K; OSAKI, T; YAMAMOTO, T

    1996-01-01

    The signal transduction of IL-2 in NK cells and T cells was compared. On 5 min incubation of these cells with IL-2, we observed tyrosine phosphorylation of 105-kD and 110-kD proteins in NK cells and of 95-kD and 110-kD proteins in T cells. The phosphorylation reached maximal levels in 15 min in both NK and T cells, but the levels were higher in NK cells, which showed superior killing against Daudi cells. With this phosphorylation, p52shc was also tyrosine-phosphorylated and p21ras was activated by the short term (10 min) treatment of NK and T cells with IL-2. These signals were completely suppressed by anti-IL-2Rβ MoAb, but only slightly suppressed by anti-IL-2Rα MoAb, correlated with the suppression of the class-I-non-restricted cytotoxic activity of NK and T cells by these MoAbs. When tyrosine phosphorylation was inhibited by herbimycin A and genistein, the cytotoxic activities of NK and T cells were nearly completely suppressed. In addition, the tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK3 by IL-2 was more prominent in NK cells than in T cells, but JAK1, JAK2, STAT1α, STAT2 and STAT3 were not phosphorylated. These results indicate that the IL-2 signal flows downstream via both ras-dependent and ras-independent pathways and that the superior killing activity of NK cells depends on their high susceptibility to protein tyrosine phosphorylation by IL-2. PMID:8870717

  6. Fluorescent target array killing assay: a multiplex cytotoxic T-cell assay to measure detailed T-cell antigen specificity and avidity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Quah, Benjamin J C; Wijesundara, Danushka K; Ranasinghe, Charani; Parish, Christopher R

    2012-08-01

    Here we describe a multiplex, fluorescence-based, in vivo cytotoxic T-cell assay using the three vital dyes carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester, cell trace violet, and cell proliferation dye efluor 670. When used to label cells in combination, these dyes can discriminate >200 different target cell populations in the one animal due to each target population having a unique fluorescence signature based on fluorescence intensity and the different emission wavelengths of the dyes. This allows the simultaneous measurement of the in vivo killing of target cells pulsed with numerous peptides at different concentrations and the inclusion of many replicates. This fluorescent target array killing assay can be used to measure the fine antigen specificity and avidity of polyclonal cytotoxic T-cell responses in vivo, immunological parameters that were previously impossible to monitor.

  7. Photodynamic killing of cancer cells by a Platinum(II) complex with cyclometallating ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Rachel E.; Sazanovich, Igor V.; McKenzie, Luke K.; Stasheuski, Alexander S.; Coyle, Rachel; Baggaley, Elizabeth; Bottomley, Sarah; Weinstein, Julia A.; Bryant, Helen E.

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy that uses photosensitizers which only become toxic upon light-irradiation provides a strong alternative to conventional cancer treatment due to its ability to selectively target tumour material without affecting healthy tissue. Transition metal complexes are highly promising PDT agents due to intense visible light absorption, yet the majority are toxic even without light. This study introduces a small, photostable, charge-neutral platinum-based compound, Pt(II) 2,6-dipyrido-4-methyl-benzenechloride, complex 1, as a photosensitizer, which works under visible light. Activation of the new photosensitizer at low concentrations (0.1–1 μM) by comparatively low dose of 405 nm light (3.6 J cm‑2) causes significant cell death of cervical, colorectal and bladder cancer cell lines, and, importantly, a cisplatin resistant cell line EJ-R. The photo-index of the complex is 8. We demonstrate that complex 1 induces irreversible DNA single strand breaks following irradiation, and that oxygen is essential for the photoinduced action. Neither light, nor compound alone led to cell death. The key advantages of the new drug include a remarkably fast accumulation time (diffusion-controlled, minutes), and photostability. This study demonstrates a highly promising new agent for photodynamic therapy, and attracts attention to photostable metal complexes as viable alternatives to conventional chemotherapeutics, such as cisplatin.

  8. Photodynamic killing of cancer cells by a Platinum(II) complex with cyclometallating ligand

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Rachel E.; Sazanovich, Igor V.; McKenzie, Luke K.; Stasheuski, Alexander S.; Coyle, Rachel; Baggaley, Elizabeth; Bottomley, Sarah; Weinstein, Julia A.; Bryant, Helen E.

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy that uses photosensitizers which only become toxic upon light-irradiation provides a strong alternative to conventional cancer treatment due to its ability to selectively target tumour material without affecting healthy tissue. Transition metal complexes are highly promising PDT agents due to intense visible light absorption, yet the majority are toxic even without light. This study introduces a small, photostable, charge-neutral platinum-based compound, Pt(II) 2,6-dipyrido-4-methyl-benzenechloride, complex 1, as a photosensitizer, which works under visible light. Activation of the new photosensitizer at low concentrations (0.1–1 μM) by comparatively low dose of 405 nm light (3.6 J cm−2) causes significant cell death of cervical, colorectal and bladder cancer cell lines, and, importantly, a cisplatin resistant cell line EJ-R. The photo-index of the complex is 8. We demonstrate that complex 1 induces irreversible DNA single strand breaks following irradiation, and that oxygen is essential for the photoinduced action. Neither light, nor compound alone led to cell death. The key advantages of the new drug include a remarkably fast accumulation time (diffusion-controlled, minutes), and photostability. This study demonstrates a highly promising new agent for photodynamic therapy, and attracts attention to photostable metal complexes as viable alternatives to conventional chemotherapeutics, such as cisplatin. PMID:26940077

  9. Photodynamic killing of cancer cells by a Platinum(II) complex with cyclometallating ligand.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Rachel E; Sazanovich, Igor V; McKenzie, Luke K; Stasheuski, Alexander S; Coyle, Rachel; Baggaley, Elizabeth; Bottomley, Sarah; Weinstein, Julia A; Bryant, Helen E

    2016-03-04

    Photodynamic therapy that uses photosensitizers which only become toxic upon light-irradiation provides a strong alternative to conventional cancer treatment due to its ability to selectively target tumour material without affecting healthy tissue. Transition metal complexes are highly promising PDT agents due to intense visible light absorption, yet the majority are toxic even without light. This study introduces a small, photostable, charge-neutral platinum-based compound, Pt(II) 2,6-dipyrido-4-methyl-benzenechloride, complex 1, as a photosensitizer, which works under visible light. Activation of the new photosensitizer at low concentrations (0.1-1 μM) by comparatively low dose of 405 nm light (3.6 J cm(-2)) causes significant cell death of cervical, colorectal and bladder cancer cell lines, and, importantly, a cisplatin resistant cell line EJ-R. The photo-index of the complex is 8. We demonstrate that complex 1 induces irreversible DNA single strand breaks following irradiation, and that oxygen is essential for the photoinduced action. Neither light, nor compound alone led to cell death. The key advantages of the new drug include a remarkably fast accumulation time (diffusion-controlled, minutes), and photostability. This study demonstrates a highly promising new agent for photodynamic therapy, and attracts attention to photostable metal complexes as viable alternatives to conventional chemotherapeutics, such as cisplatin.

  10. Serial killing of tumor cells by cytotoxic T cells redirected with a CD19-/CD3-bispecific single-chain antibody construct.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Patrick; Hofmeister, Robert; Brischwein, Klaus; Brandl, Christian; Crommer, Sandrine; Bargou, Ralf; Itin, Christian; Prang, Nadja; Baeuerle, Patrick A

    2005-05-20

    Certain bispecific antibodies exhibit an extraordinary potency and efficacy for target cell lysis by eliciting a polyclonal T-cell response. One example is a CD19-/CD3-bispecific single-chain antibody construct (bscCD19xCD3), which at femtomolar concentrations can redirect cytotoxic T cells to eliminate human B lymphocytes, B lymphoma cell lines and patient-derived malignant B cells. Here we have further explored the basis for this high potency. Using video-assisted microscopy, bscCD19xCD3 was found to alter the motility and activity of T cells from a scanning to a killing mode. Individual T cells could eliminate multiple target cells within a 9 hr time period, resulting in nuclear fragmentation and membrane blebbing of target cells. Complete target cell elimination was observed within 24 hr at effector-to-target cell ratios as low as 1:5. Under optimal conditions, cell killing started within minutes after addition of bscCD19xCD3, suggesting that the rate of serial killing was mostly determined by T-cell movement and target cell scanning and lysis. At all times, T cells remained highly motile, and no clusters of T and target cells were induced by the bispecific antibody. Bystanding target-negative cells were not detectably affected. Repeated target cell lysis by bscCD19xCD3-activated T cells increased the proportion of CD19/CD3 double-positive T cells, which was most likely a consequence of transfer of CD19 from B to T cells during cytolytic synapse formation. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that a bispecific antibody can sustain multiple rounds of target cell lysis by T cells.

  11. Cell killing by simian virus 40: impairment of membrane formation and function.

    PubMed

    Norkin, L C

    1977-03-01

    Simian virus 40 infection of the CV-1 line of green monkey kidney cells results in the release of mitochondrial malic dehydrogenase as early as 24 h. Released malic dehydrogenase is detected in the cytoplasm prior to its appearance in the overlay medium. Infected cells lose the ability to consume oxygen between 48 and 56 h, and damage to the elctron transport system is indicated. Nevertheless, cellular ATP levels remain high as late as 72 h. Infection leads to a stimulation of membrane phospholipid synthesis, which reaches a peak at about 32 h. This is followed by a severe decline in new membrane synthesis, which correlates in time with the release of cytoplasmic lactic dehydrogenase into the overlay media. Lactic dehydrogenase release precedes the accumulation of trypan blue-stainable cells by about 6 h. Infection had no effect on the turnover of prelabeled membrane phospholipids. An early simian virus 40 mutant, tsA58, and a late mutant, tsB11, are both less effective than wild-type virus at causing reduced levels of phospholipid synthesis, enzyme release, and the accumulation of trypan blue-stainable cells. Another late mutant, tsB8, is similar to wild-type virus in these respects. At 64 h, there is no detectable cell-associated lactic dehydrogenase and nearly all the cells are trypan blue stainable. Nevertheless, at concentrations of deoxyglucose in the medium below the transport Km, deoxyglucose uptake was similar in infected and control cultures. With higher concentrations of deoxyglucose in the medium, uptake by the infected cultures exceeded that by the control cultures.

  12. Cell killing by simian virus 40: impairment of membrane formation and function.

    PubMed Central

    Norkin, L C

    1977-01-01

    Simian virus 40 infection of the CV-1 line of green monkey kidney cells results in the release of mitochondrial malic dehydrogenase as early as 24 h. Released malic dehydrogenase is detected in the cytoplasm prior to its appearance in the overlay medium. Infected cells lose the ability to consume oxygen between 48 and 56 h, and damage to the elctron transport system is indicated. Nevertheless, cellular ATP levels remain high as late as 72 h. Infection leads to a stimulation of membrane phospholipid synthesis, which reaches a peak at about 32 h. This is followed by a severe decline in new membrane synthesis, which correlates in time with the release of cytoplasmic lactic dehydrogenase into the overlay media. Lactic dehydrogenase release precedes the accumulation of trypan blue-stainable cells by about 6 h. Infection had no effect on the turnover of prelabeled membrane phospholipids. An early simian virus 40 mutant, tsA58, and a late mutant, tsB11, are both less effective than wild-type virus at causing reduced levels of phospholipid synthesis, enzyme release, and the accumulation of trypan blue-stainable cells. Another late mutant, tsB8, is similar to wild-type virus in these respects. At 64 h, there is no detectable cell-associated lactic dehydrogenase and nearly all the cells are trypan blue stainable. Nevertheless, at concentrations of deoxyglucose in the medium below the transport Km, deoxyglucose uptake was similar in infected and control cultures. With higher concentrations of deoxyglucose in the medium, uptake by the infected cultures exceeded that by the control cultures. PMID:191651

  13. Mitochondrial dysfunction is an essential step for killing of non-small cell lung carcinomas resistant to conventional treatment.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Bertrand; Marchetti, Philippe; Formstecher, Pierre; Kroemer, Guido; Lewensohn, Rolf; Zhivotovsky, Boris

    2002-01-03

    Apoptosis, a tightly controlled multi-step mechanism of cell death, is important for anti-cancer therapy-based elimination of tumor cells. However, this process is not always efficient. Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells display different susceptibility to undergo apoptosis induced by anticancer treatment. In contrast to SCLC, NSCLC cells are cross-resistant to a broad spectrum of apoptotic stimuli, including receptor stimulation, cytotoxic drugs and gamma-radiation. Since resistance of tumor cells to treatment often accounts for the failure of traditional forms of cancer therapy, in the present study attempts to find a potent broad-range apoptosis inductor, which can kill therapy-resistant NSCLC cells were undertaken and the mechanism of apoptosis induction by this drug was investigated in detail. We found that staurosporine (STS) had cell killing effect on both types of lung carcinomas. Release of cytochrome c, activation of apical and effector caspases followed by cleavage of their nuclear substrates and morphological changes specific for apoptosis were observed in STS-treated cells. In contrast to treatment with radiation or chemotherapy drugs, STS induces mitochondrial dysfunction followed by translocation of AIF into the nuclei. These events preceded the activation of nuclear apoptosis. Thus, in lung carcinomas two cell death pathways, caspase-dependent and caspase-independent, coexist. In NSCLC cells, where the caspase-dependent pathway is less efficient, the triggering of an AIF-mediated caspase-independent mechanism circumvents the resistance of these cells to treatment.

  14. NK cell killing of AML and ALL blasts by Killer-Immunoglobulin Receptor (KIR) negative NK cells after NKG2A and LIR-1 blockade

    PubMed Central

    Godal, Robert; Bachanova, Veronika; Gleason, Michelle; McCullar, Valarie; Yun, Gong H.; Cooley, Sarah; Verneris, Michael R.; McGlave, Philip B.; Miller, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Although NK cell alloreactivity has been dominated by studies of KIR, we hypothesized that NKG2A and LIR-1, present on 53±13% and 36±18% of normal NK cells, plays a role in NK cell killing of primary leukemia targets. KIR− cells, which comprise nearly half of the circulating NK cell population, exhibited tolerance to primary leukemia targets, suggesting signaling through other inhibitory receptors. Both AML and ALL targets could be rendered susceptible to lysis by fresh resting KIR− NK cells when inhibitory receptor-MHC class I interactions were blocked by pan-HLA antibodies demonstrating that these cells were functionally competent. Blockade of a single inhibitory receptor resulted in slight increases in killing, while combined LIR-1 and NKG2A blockade consistently resulted in increased NK cell cytotoxicity. Dual blockade of NKG2A and LIR-1 led to significant killing of targets by resting KIR− NK cells showing that this population is not hyporesponsive. Together these results suggest that alloreactivity of a significant fraction of KIR− NK cells is determined by NKG2A and LIR-1. Thus strategies to interrupt NKG2A and LIR-1 in combination with anti-KIR blockade hold promise for exploiting NK cell therapy in acute leukemia. PMID:20139023

  15. Synthetic lethal targeting of superoxide dismutase 1 selectively kills RAD54B-deficient colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sajesh, Babu V; Bailey, Melanie; Lichtensztejn, Zelda; Hieter, Philip; McManus, Kirk J

    2013-11-01

    Synthetic lethality is a rational approach to identify candidate drug targets for selective killing of cancer cells harboring somatic mutations that cause chromosome instability (CIN). To identify a set of the most highly connected synthetic lethal partner genes in yeast for subsequent testing in mammalian cells, we used the entire set of 692 yeast CIN genes to query the genome-wide synthetic lethal datasets. Hierarchical clustering revealed a highly connected set of synthetic lethal partners of yeast genes whose human orthologs are somatically mutated in colorectal cancer. Testing of a small matrix of synthetic lethal gene pairs in mammalian cells suggested that members of a pathway that remove reactive oxygen species that cause DNA damage would be excellent candidates for further testing. We show that the synthetic lethal interaction between budding yeast rad54 and sod1 is conserved within a human colorectal cancer context. Specifically, we demonstrate RAD54B-deficient cells are selectively killed relative to controls via siRNA-based silencing and chemical inhibition and further demonstrate that this interaction is conserved in an unrelated cell type. We further show that the DNA double strand breaks, resulting from increased reactive oxygen species following SOD1 inhibition, persist within the RAD54B-deficient cells and result in apoptosis. Collectively, these data identify SOD1 as a novel candidate cancer drug target and suggest that SOD1 inhibition may have broad-spectrum applicability in a variety of tumor types exhibiting RAD54B deficiencies.

  16. AKT Axis, miR-21, and RECK Play Pivotal Roles in Dihydroartemisinin Killing Malignant Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Ying-Ying; Zhang, Tao-Lan; Wu, Lan-Xiang; Zou, He-Cun; Li, Shuang; Huang, Jin; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2017-01-01

    Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin, is known to play important roles in inhibiting proliferation rate, inducing apoptosis, as well as hindering the metastasis and invasion of glioma cells, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear so far. In this study, methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT), colony-forming, wound healing, invasion, and apoptosis assays were performed to investigate the effect of DHA on malignant glioma cells. Results showed that DHA induced apoptosis of malignant glioma cells through Protein Kinase B (AKT) axis, induced death of malignant glioma cells by downregulating miR-21, and inhibited the invasion of malignant glioma cells corresponding with up-regulation of the reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK). These results revealed that AKT axis, miR-21, and RECK play pivotal roles in DHA killing malignant glioma cells, suggesting that DHA is a potential agent for treating glioma. PMID:28208619

  17. Real-time dynamic optical imaging of ACC-M tumor cells killed by HSV-tk/ACV system.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Tao; Li, Yongjin; Li, Zhiyang; Xie, Xiangmo; Lu, Lisha

    2013-01-01

    HSV-tk/ACV induced and killed human adenoid cystic carcinoma cell (ACC-M) in vivo and in vitro, which were observed through optical imaging and green fluorescence protein (GFP) tagging technique. ACC-M was transfected with TK-GFP, and the single clone cell ACC-M-TK-GFP was selected by G418. With fluorescent stereomicroscope, whole-body fluorescent imaging system and fluorescent microscope, we could observe ACV treated ACC-M-TK-GFP cells in cell level and nude mice. The therapies of tumor were visualized clearly with optical imaging. This study proves that optical imaging is a very good approach for studying the effect of HSV-tk/ACV on the ACC-M tumor cells and decreasing the amount of vessel about tumors cell. Optical imaging will become a visual groundwork for monitoring tumor growth and evaluating in vivo curative effect of antitumor drugs.

  18. A comparison of cell killing by heat and/or X rays in Chinese hamster V79 cells, Friend erythroleukemia mouse cells, and human thymocyte MOLT-4 cells.

    PubMed

    Raaphorst, G P; Szekely, J; Lobreau, A; Azzam, E I

    1983-05-01

    The radiation and/or heat sensitivity of Chinese hamster V79 cells, Friend erythroleukemia (FELC) mouse cells, and MOLT-4 human transformed thymocytes were compared. MOLT-4 cells were more radiosensitive (D0 = 0.50 Gy) than FELC (D0 = 0.65 Gy) and V79 cells (D0 = 1.43 Gy). Arrhenius analysis showed that MOLT-4 cells were more heat sensitive than FELC or V79 cells below 42.0 degrees C, but more heat resistant at higher temperatures. In addition, the MOLT-4 cells showed a single-heat inactivation energy between 41.0 and 45.0 degrees C, while FELC and V79 cells both showed a transition in the inactivation energy at about 43.0 and 43.5 degrees C, respectively. These differences may be related to the fact that the upper temperature limit for the development of thermal tolerance during continuous heating was lower for MOLT-4 cells than for FELC or V79 cells. Killing of FELC and V79 cells was dependent on the sequence in which heat and X rays were applied, but the greatest effect was obtained when both treatments were given simultaneously. Recovery occurred when treatments were separated by incubation at 37.0 degrees C. The MOLT-4 cells did not show a sequence dependence for heating and irradiation. Survival of MOLT-4 cells after heating and/or irradiation was compared using trypan blue dye exclusion or colony formation. Both assays showed similar qualitative responses, but survival levels measured by the trypan blue assay were much higher than those determined from the colony-forming assay.

  19. Immune evasion of mantle cell lymphoma: expression of B7-H1 leads to inhibited T-cell response to and killing of tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijuan; Qian, Jianfei; Lu, Yong; Li, Haiyan; Bao, Hanying; He, Donghua; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Yuhuan; He, Jin; Li, Yi; Neelapu, Sattva; Yang, Jing; Kwak, Larry W; Yi, Qing; Cai, Zhen

    2013-09-01

    Clinical trials of immunotherapy in mantle cell lymphoma have not yet delivered desirable results, partly because of the inhibitory machinery of the tumor and its microenvironment. Here we investigated the role of B7-H1, a member of the B7 family of co-stimulatory/co-inhibitory ligands, in mantle cell lymphoma-mediated immunosuppression. Allogeneic CD3(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were purified and co-cultured with irradiated mantle cell lymphoma cells. Mantle cell lymphoma-reactive T-cell lines from HLA-A*0201(+) healthy blood donors were generated after in vitro restimulation, and were subjected to functional tests. We found that B7-H1 expressed on mantle cell lymphoma cells was able to inhibit T-cell proliferation induced by the tumor cells, impair the generation of antigen-specific T-cell responses, and render mantle cell lymphoma cells resistant to T-cell-mediated cytolysis. Blocking or knocking down B7-H1 on mantle cell lymphoma cells enhanced T-cell responses and restored tumor-cell sensitivity to T-cell-mediated killing in vitro and in vivo. Knocking down B7-H1 on mantle cell lymphoma cells primed more CD4(+) or CD8(+) memory effector T cells. Our study demonstrates for the first time that lymphoma cell-expressed B7-H1 may lead to the suppression of host anti-tumor immune responses in mantle cell lymphoma and targeting tumor cell B7-H1 may represent a novel approach to improve the efficacy of immunotherapy in patients with mantle cell lymphoma.

  20. Selective killing of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells by three-dimensional nanographene nanoparticles based on triptycene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiaoqin; Gan, Lu; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Chun; Yong, Tuying; Wang, Ziyi; Xu, Huibi; Yang, Xiangliang

    2015-03-01

    Carbon-based materials have been widely used in the biomedical fields including drug delivery and cancer therapies. In this paper, a recently synthesized three-dimensional nanographene (NG) based on triptycene self-assembles into nanoparticles which selectively kill human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells as compared to human normal liver HL7702 cells. Obvious differences in cellular accumulation, the endocytic pathway and intracellular trafficking of NG nanoparticles are observed in HepG2 cells and HL7702 cells. Further studies reveal that NG nanoparticles significantly increase the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HepG2 cells, but not in HL7702 cells. NG nanoparticle-induced ROS result in apoptosis induction and the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 cells. Moreover, IKK/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling is found to be activated by NG nanoparticle-induced ROS and serves to antagonize NG nanoparticle-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Our studies show that the distinct behaviors of cellular uptake and ROS-mediated cytotoxicity are responsible for the selective killing of HepG2 cells. This study provides a foundation for understanding the mechanism of selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells by NG nanoparticles and designing more effective chemotherapeutical agents.Carbon-based materials have been widely used in the biomedical fields including drug delivery and cancer therapies. In this paper, a recently synthesized three-dimensional nanographene (NG) based on triptycene self-assembles into nanoparticles which selectively kill human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells as compared to human normal liver HL7702 cells. Obvious differences in cellular accumulation, the endocytic pathway and intracellular trafficking of NG nanoparticles are observed in HepG2 cells and HL7702 cells. Further studies reveal that NG nanoparticles significantly increase the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HepG2 cells, but not in HL7702

  1. Killing fetuses and killing newborns.

    PubMed

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2013-05-01

    The argument for the moral permissibility of killing newborns is a challenge to liberal positions on abortion because it can be considered a reductio of their defence of abortion. Here I defend the liberal stance on abortion by arguing that the argument for the moral permissibility of killing newborns on ground of the social, psychological and economic burden on the parents recently put forward by Giubilini and Minerva is not valid; this is because they fail to show that newborns cannot be harmed and because there are morally relevant differences between fetuses and newborns.

  2. Chemotherapy-induced immunogenic modulation of tumor cells enhances killing by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and is distinct from immunogenic cell death.

    PubMed

    Hodge, James W; Garnett, Charlie T; Farsaci, Benedetto; Palena, Claudia; Tsang, Kwong-Yok; Ferrone, Soldano; Gameiro, Sofia R

    2013-08-01

    Certain chemotherapeutic regimens trigger cancer cell death while inducing dendritic cell maturation and subsequent immune responses. However, chemotherapy-induced immunogenic cell death (ICD) has thus far been restricted to select agents. In contrast, several chemotherapeutic drugs modulate antitumor immune responses, despite not inducing classic ICD. In addition, in many cases tumor cells do not die after treatment. Here, using docetaxel, one of the most widely used cancer chemotherapeutic agents, as a model, we examined phenotypic and functional consequences of tumor cells that do not die from ICD. Docetaxel treatment of tumor cells did not induce ATP or high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) secretion, or cell death. However, calreticulin (CRT) exposure was observed in all cell lines examined after chemotherapy treatment. Killing by carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), MUC-1, or PSA-specific CD8(+) CTLs was significantly enhanced after docetaxel treatment. This killing was associated with increases in components of antigen-processing machinery, and mediated largely by CRT membrane translocation, as determined by functional knockdown of CRT, PERK, or CRT-blocking peptide. A docetaxel-resistant cell line was selected (MDR-1(+), CD133(+)) by continuous exposure to docetaxel. These cells, while resistant to direct cytostatic effects of docetaxel, were not resistant to the chemomodulatory effects that resulted in enhancement of CTL killing. Here, we provide an operational definition of "immunogenic modulation," where exposure of tumor cells to nonlethal/sublethal doses of chemotherapy alters tumor phenotype to render the tumor more sensitive to CTL killing. These observations are distinct and complementary to ICD and highlight a mechanism whereby chemotherapy can be used in combination with immunotherapy. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  3. Identification and Structural Analysis of an l-Asparaginase Enzyme from Guinea Pig with Putative Tumor Cell Killing Properties*

    PubMed Central

    Schalk, Amanda M.; Nguyen, Hien-Anh; Rigouin, Coraline; Lavie, Arnon

    2014-01-01

    The initial observation that guinea pig serum kills lymphoma cells marks the serendipitous discovery of a new class of anti-cancer agents. The serum cell killing factor was shown to be an enzyme with l-asparaginase (ASNase) activity. As a direct result of this observation, several bacterial l-asparaginases were developed and are currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of the subset of hematological malignancies that are dependent on the extracellular pool of the amino acid asparagine. As drugs, these enzymes act to hydrolyze asparagine to aspartate, thereby starving the cancer cells of this amino acid. Prior to the work presented here, the precise identity of this guinea pig enzyme has not been reported in the peer-reviewed literature. We discovered that the guinea pig enzyme annotated as H0W0T5_CAVPO, which we refer to as gpASNase1, has the required low Km property consistent with that possessed by the cell-killing guinea pig serum enzyme. Elucidation of the ligand-free and aspartate complex gpASNase1 crystal structures allows a direct comparison with the bacterial enzymes and serves to explain the lack of l-glutaminase activity in the guinea pig enzyme. The structures were also used to generate a homology model for the human homolog hASNase1 and to help explain its vastly different kinetic properties compared with gpASNase1, despite a 70% sequence identity. Given that the bacterial enzymes frequently present immunogenic and other toxic side effects, this work suggests that gpASNase1 could be a promising alternative to these bacterial enzymes. PMID:25320094

  4. Selective Killing Effects of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma with NO Induced Dysfunction of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Om, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Yong-Hee; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP)-induced radicals on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is overexpressed by oral squamous cell carcinoma, to determine the underlying mechanism of selective killing. CAP-induced highly reactive radicals were observed in both plasma plume and cell culture media. The selective killing effect was observed in oral squamous cell carcinoma compared with normal human gingival fibroblast. Degradation and dysfunction of EGFRs were observed only in the EGFR-overexpressing oral squamous cell carcinoma and not in the normal cell. Nitric oxide scavenger pretreatment in cell culture media before CAP treatment rescued above degradation and dysfunction of the EGFR as well as the killing effect in oral squamous cell carcinoma. CAP may be a promising cancer treatment method by inducing EGFR dysfunction in EGFR-overexpressing oral squamous cell carcinoma via nitric oxide radicals. PMID:26919318

  5. Selective Killing Effects of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma with NO Induced Dysfunction of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Om, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Yong-Hee; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Choi, Eun-Ha; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP)-induced radicals on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is overexpressed by oral squamous cell carcinoma, to determine the underlying mechanism of selective killing. CAP-induced highly reactive radicals were observed in both plasma plume and cell culture media. The selective killing effect was observed in oral squamous cell carcinoma compared with normal human gingival fibroblast. Degradation and dysfunction of EGFRs were observed only in the EGFR-overexpressing oral squamous cell carcinoma and not in the normal cell. Nitric oxide scavenger pretreatment in cell culture media before CAP treatment rescued above degradation and dysfunction of the EGFR as well as the killing effect in oral squamous cell carcinoma. CAP may be a promising cancer treatment method by inducing EGFR dysfunction in EGFR-overexpressing oral squamous cell carcinoma via nitric oxide radicals.

  6. Defining the Molecular Signature of Chemotherapy-Mediated Lung Tumor Phenotype Modulation and Increased Susceptibility to T-Cell Killing

    PubMed Central

    Gameiro, Sofia R.; Caballero, Jorge A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Chemotherapy with platinum doublets, including cisplatin plus vinorelbine, is standard of care for non–small-cell lung cancer. Sublethal exposure to certain chemotherapeutic agents has been demonstrated to alter the phenotype or biology of human tumor cells, rendering them more susceptible to cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)–mediated lysis. The effects of cisplatin/vinorelbine on tumor sensitivity to T-cell cytotoxicity and its molecular mechanisms, however, have not been fully elucidated. We examined the effect of this chemotherapy on growth, cell-surface phenotype, and CTL-mediated lysis of five distinct human lung carcinoma cell lines in vitro and examined the molecular mechanisms associated with enhanced CTL sensitivity. These studies demonstrate that sublethal exposure of human lung tumor cells to the platinum doublet modulates tumor cell phenotype and increases sensitivity to major histocompatibility complex–restricted perforin/granzyme–mediated CTL killing. These studies also demonstrate that exposure to chemotherapy markedly decreased the protein secretion ratio of transforming growth factor-β/interleukin (IL)-8. We examined the gene expression profile of two lung tumor cell lines to identify a shared gene signature in response to sublethal cisplatin/vinorelbine and found coordinate expression of only 16 transcripts, including those for cytokine/chemokine expression and apoptosis such as tumor necrosis factor-α, IL8, CXCL5, and B cell lymphoma-2–like genes (BCL-2). Overall, these results suggest that sublethal exposure to cisplatin/vinorelbine increases sensitivity to perforin/granzyme–mediated CTL killing by modulation of (a) tumor phenotype, (b) cytokine/chemokine milieu, and (c) the proapoptotic/antiapoptotic gene ratio. The data presented here propose a complex mechanism that is distinct from and complementary to that of immunogenic cell death. This molecular signature may be useful in predicting responses to immunotherapy as well as

  7. Specificity redirection by CAR with human VEGFR-1 affinity endows T lymphocytes with tumor-killing ability and anti-angiogenic potency.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Ma, Y; Li, J; Shi, H-S; Wang, L-Q; Guo, F-C; Zhang, J; Li, D; Mo, B-H; Wen, F; Liu, T; Liu, Y-T; Wang, Y-S; Wei, Y-Q

    2013-10-01

    Immunotherapy that is based on adoptive transfer of T lymphocytes, which are genetically modified to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) that recognize tumor-associated antigens, has been demonstrated to be an efficient cancer therapy. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), a vital molecule involved in tumor growth and angiogenesis, has not been targeted by CAR-modified T lymphocytes. In this study, we generated CAR-modified T lymphocytes with human VEGFR-1 specificity (V-1 CAR) by electroporation. V-1 CAR-modified T lymphocytes were demonstrated to elicit lytic cytotoxicity to target cells in a VEGFR-1-dependent manner. The adoptive transfer of V-1 CAR T lymphocytes delayed tumor growth and formation and inhibited pulmonary metastasis in xenograft models and such efficacies were enhanced by cotransfer of T lymphocytes that expressed interleukin-15 (IL-15). Moreover, V-1 CAR-modified T lymphocytes lysed primary endothelial cells and impaired tube formation, in vitro. These data demonstrated the antitumor and anti-angiogenesis ability of V-1 CAR-modified T lymphocytes. Our study provides the rationale for the clinical translation of CAR-modified T lymphocytes with VEGFR-1 specificity.

  8. The use of therapeutic peptides to target and to kill cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Boohaker, R J; Lee, M W; Vishnubhotla, P; Perez, J M; Khaled, A R

    2012-01-01

    Peptide therapeutics is a promising field for emerging anti-cancer agents. Benefits include the ease and rapid synthesis of peptides and capacity for modifications. An existing and vast knowledge base of protein structure and function can be exploited for novel peptide design. Current research focuses on developing peptides that can (1) serve as tumor targeting moieties and (2) permeabilize membranes with cytotoxic consequences. A survey of recent findings reveals significant trends. Amphiphilic peptides with clusters of hydrophobic and cationic residues are features of anti-microbial peptides that confer the ability to eradicate microbes and show considerable anti-cancer toxicity. Peptides that assemble and form pores can disrupt cell or organelle membranes and cause apoptotic or necrotic death. Cell permeable and tumor-homing peptides can carry biologically active cargo to tumors or tumor vasculature. The challenge lies in developing the clinical application of therapeutic peptides. Improving delivery to tumors, minimizing non-specific toxic effects and discerning pharmacokinetic properties are high among the needs to produce a powerful therapeutic peptide for cancer treatment.

  9. The Use of Therapeutic Peptides to Target and to Kill Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Boohaker, R.J.; Lee, M.W.; Vishnubhotla, P.; Perez, J.M.; Khaled, A.R.

    2015-01-01

    Peptide therapeutics is a promising field for emerging anti-cancer agents. Benefits include the ease and rapid synthesis of peptides and capacity for modifications. An existing and vast knowledge base of protein structure and function can be exploited for novel peptide design. Current research focuses on developing peptides that can (1) serve as tumor targeting moieties and (2) permeabilize membranes with cytotoxic consequences. A survey of recent findings reveals significant trends. Amphiphilic peptides with clusters of hydrophobic and cationic residues are features of anti-microbial peptides that confer the ability to eradicate microbes and show considerable anti-cancer toxicity. Peptides that assemble and form pores can disrupt cell or organelle membranes and cause apoptotic or necrotic death. Cell permeable and tumor-homing peptides can carry biologically active cargo to tumors or tumor vasculature. The challenge lies in developing the clinical application of therapeutic peptides. Improving delivery to tumors, minimizing non-specific toxic effects and discerning pharmacokinetic properties are high among the needs to produce a powerful therapeutic peptide for cancer treatment. PMID:22725698

  10. Heavier ions with a different linear energy transfer spectrum kill more cells due to similar interference with the Ku-dependent DNA repair pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Ya

    2014-10-01

    Ionizing radiation kills cells mainly due to the generation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). High-linear energy transfer (LET) ionizing radiation induces more cell death and generates a higher relative biological effect (RBE) than low-LET ionizing radiation (such as X or γ ray). Although it is known that interference with the Ku-dependent nonhomologous ending-joining (NHEJ) pathway appears to be the major cause of iron-ion- and carbon-ion-induced cell death, it remains unclear whether other ions with a similar or different LET and higher RBE in terms of cell killing are controlled in the same way. In this study, we compared the clonogenic survival frequency of Ku80+/+ (NHEJ-proficient) and Ku80-/- (NHEJ-deficient) cells after exposure to iron (175 keV/μm), silicon (75 keV/μm), oxygen (25 keV/μm) and X ray (low-LET). The results showed that Ku80-/- cells had the same RBE value of 1 for cell killing for all types of ionizing radiation, whereas Ku80+/+ cells had different RBE values for cell killing that depended on the specific type of ionizing radiation. The results indicate that the Ku-dependent NHEJ is the major repair pathway that heavier ions interfere with, resulting in higher RBE for cell killing. These results provide useful information for followup studies that will focus on improving high-LET protection or heavier ion radiotherapy in the near future.

  11. IL-17A and complement contribute to killing of pneumococci following immunization with a pneumococcal whole cell vaccine.

    PubMed

    Campos, Ivana B; Herd, Muriel; Moffitt, Kristin L; Lu, Ying-Jie; Darrieux, Michelle; Malley, Richard; Leite, Luciana C C; Gonçalves, Viviane M

    2017-03-01

    The pneumococcal whole cell vaccine (PWCV) has been investigated as an alternative to polysaccharide-based vaccines currently in use. It is a non-encapsulated killed vaccine preparation that induces non-capsular antibodies protecting mice against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and reducing nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage via IL-17A activation of mouse phagocytes. Here, we show that PWCV induces antibody and IL-17A production to protect mice against challenge in a fatal aspiration-sepsis model after only one dose. We observed protection even with a boiled preparation, attesting to the stability and robustness of the vaccine. PWCV antibodies were shown to bind to different encapsulated strains, but complement deposition on the pneumococcal surface was observed only on serotype 3 strains; using flow cytometer methodology, variations in PWCV quality, as in the boiled vaccine, were detected. Moreover, anti-PWCV induces phagocytosis of different pneumococcal serotypes by murine peritoneal cells in the presence of complement or IL-17A. These findings suggest that complement and IL-17A may participate in the process of phagocytosis induced by PWCV antibodies. IL-17A can stimulate phagocytic cells to kill pneumococcus and this is enhanced in the presence of PWCV antibodies bound to the bacterial cell surface. Our results provide further support for the PWCV as a broad-range vaccine against all existing serotypes, potentially providing protection for humans against NP colonization and IPD. Additionally, we suggest complement deposition assay as a tool to detect subtle differences between PWCV lots.

  12. A new design immunotoxin for killing high-grade glioma U87 cells: from in vitro to in vivo.

    PubMed

    Luqiu, Zhou; Yiquan, Ke; Gengqiang, Ling; Yijing, Liu; Xiaodan, Jiang; Yingqian, Cai

    2012-01-01

    A new wave of engineered antibodies, leading to increased effectiveness of functions such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity or complement-dependent cytotoxicity, is being evaluated in clinical settings. Several, such as immunotoxins, are expected to receive approval for usage soon. In this study, using a cognate heavy framework region (HFR2), two complementarity-determining regions (CDRs, i.e., LCDR1 and HCDR3) were fused to the first 388 amino acid residues of diphtheria toxin (DT388) to establish the immunotoxin IT-87. It was found that the mimetics of LCDR1-HFR2-HCDR3 retained the antigen recognition of their parent antibody. The immunotoxin IT-87 could especially kill the U87 MG glioblastoma cell line, the targets of the parent antibody, in vitro; however, the IT-87 could not kill Rajicells. In SCID mice bearing both U87 and Raji cells, the IT-87 directly targeted the U87-induced tumors (via tumor-specific surface markers) and inhibited the growth of the cells in vivo over a 20-day daily IT-87 treatment period. It is believed that the design of this particular immunotoxin could be the basis for even more promising molecules to be used in the treatment of human cancers.

  13. Anti-tumor activity of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum BF-LP284 on Meth-A tumor cells in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ryoichi; Itoh, Yukie; Kataoka, Motoyuki; Iino-Miura, Shiori; Miura, Ryosuke; Mizutani, Takeo; Fujisawa, Tomohiko

    2016-09-01

    Probiotics exert numerous effects on human well-being. Here, heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum BF-LP284 (H-Lp) was isolated as a potent immuno-modulator among 15 strains of lactobacilli in terms of TNF-α induction ability in peritoneal macrophages. In vitro TNF-α and IFN-γ induction in Peyer's patch (PP) cells was higher when incubated with H-Lp than with live L. plantarum BF-LP284 (L-Lp). Suppression of syngeneic Meth-A tumors in a murine model by oral administration of H-Lp was also greater than that of L-Lp and of controls. H-Lp stimulated IFN-γ production in spleen cells, which displayed inhibited tumor growth in Winn assays when treated with H-Lp. Moreover, H-Lp increased the ratio of CD3(+ )cells among peripheral blood mononuclear cells in Meth-A tumor-bearing mice, suggesting an H-Lp-mediated anti-tumor mechanism whereby immune cells that are activated by H-Lp in PP and acquire anti-tumor activity in the spleen migrate to tumor sites through lymphocyte homing to inhibit tumor growth.

  14. In vivo activation of latent HIV with a synthetic bryostatin analog effects both latent cell "kick" and "kill" in strategy for virus eradication.

    PubMed

    Marsden, Matthew D; Loy, Brian A; Wu, Xiaomeng; Ramirez, Christina M; Schrier, Adam J; Murray, Danielle; Shimizu, Akira; Ryckbosch, Steven M; Near, Katherine E; Chun, Tae-Wook; Wender, Paul A; Zack, Jerome A

    2017-09-01

    The ability of HIV to establish a long-lived latent infection within resting CD4+ T cells leads to persistence and episodic resupply of the virus in patients treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART), thereby preventing eradication of the disease. Protein kinase C (PKC) modulators such as bryostatin 1 can activate these latently infected cells, potentially leading to their elimination by virus-mediated cytopathic effects, the host's immune response and/or therapeutic strategies targeting cells actively expressing virus. While research in this area has focused heavily on naturally-occurring PKC modulators, their study has been hampered by their limited and variable availability, and equally significantly by sub-optimal activity and in vivo tolerability. Here we show that a designed, synthetically-accessible analog of bryostatin 1 is better-tolerated in vivo when compared with the naturally-occurring product and potently induces HIV expression from latency in humanized BLT mice, a proven and important model for studying HIV persistence and pathogenesis in vivo. Importantly, this induction of virus expression causes some of the newly HIV-expressing cells to die. Thus, designed, synthetically-accessible, tunable, and efficacious bryostatin analogs can mediate both a "kick" and "kill" response in latently-infected cells and exhibit improved tolerability, therefore showing unique promise as clinical adjuvants for HIV eradication.

  15. Differential Ability of Bovine Antimicrobial Cathelicidins to Mediate Nucleic Acid Sensing by Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Arnaud; Kiener, Mirjam Susanna; Haigh, Brendan; Perreten, Vincent; Summerfield, Artur

    2017-01-01

    Cathelicidins encompass a family of cationic peptides characterized by antimicrobial activity and other functions, such as the ability to enhance the sensing of nucleic acids by the innate immune system. The present study aimed to investigate the ability of the bovine cathelicidins indolicidin, bactenecin (Bac)1, Bac5, bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide (BMAP)-27, BMAP-28, and BMAP-34 to inhibit the growth of bacteria and to enhance the sensing of nucleic acid by the host’s immune system. BMAP-27 was the most effective at killing Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, and Escherichia coli, and this was dependent on its amphipathic structure and cationic charge. Although most cathelicidins possessed DNA complexing activity, only the alpha-helical BMAP cathelicidins and the cysteine-rich disulfide-bridged Bac1 were able to enhance the sensing of nucleic acids by primary epithelial cells. We also compared these responses with those mediated by neutrophils. Activation of neutrophils with phorbol myristate acetate resulted in degranulation and release of cathelicidins as well as bactericidal activity in the supernatants. However, only supernatants from unstimulated neutrophils were able to promote nucleic acid sensing in epithelial cells. Collectively, the present data support a role for certain bovine cathelicidins in helping the innate immune system to sense nucleic acids. The latter effect is observed at concentrations clearly below those required for direct antimicrobial functions. These findings are relevant in development of future strategies to promote protection at mucosal surfaces against pathogen invasion. PMID:28203238

  16. Preparation of Conjugated Polymer Grafted with H2O2-Sensitive Prodrug for Cell Imaging and Tumor Cell Killing.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Li, Shengliang; Chen, Hui; Hu, Rong; Liu, Libing; Lv, Fengting; Wang, Shu

    2016-01-13

    In this work, a new conjugated polymer poly(fluorene-co-phenylene) derivative containing pendent quaternized chlormethine (PFP-Chl) was synthesized by covalent linking small molecular prodrug groups onto conjugated polymer side chains. H2O2-sensitive prodrug with an eight-member-cyclic boronate ester structure could suffer from H2O2-triggered nitrogen mustard release and further DNA cross-linking and alkylation. PFP-Chl combines therapeutic characteristic with excellent optical property of conjugated polymers. It is found that PFP-Chl could enter into cells by endocytosis to simultaneously exhibit abilities of fluorescent imaging and tumor cell inhibition.

  17. Cell-killing Effect by Sonodynamic therapy in vitro and their Clinical use for Patients with Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Yuichi

    2005-03-01

    Inhibition of tumour growth by a combination of porphyrins and ultrasound in experimental studies is well known. However, intracellular change after this treatment has not been investigated yet. Heat-shock proteins were used in this experimental study to evaluate cell damage. This treatment was then tested clinically in 3 patients with recurrent cancer. In the in vitro study, SDT induced dose-dependent cancer cell damage, and exhibited expression of HSP at low doses range. In the clinical study, none of the side effects of SDT were observed. Two of the three patients showed reduction of tumour volume or slight decrement of serum CEA level, and the remaining patient showed a change in tumour shape after SDT. Thus, enhancement of cell killing by ultrasound in the presence of porphyrin was showed. Expression of heat shock protein indicated that the cell damaging effect of DST was immediate. Further investigation is necessary for the clinical use of SDT.

  18. Rapid dimerization of quercetin through an oxidative mechanism in the presence of serum albumin decreases its ability to induce cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Anh; Bortolazzo, Anthony; White, J. Brandon

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quercetin cannot be detected intracellularly despite killing MDA-MB-231 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quercetin forms a heterodimer through oxidation in media with serum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The quercetin heterodimer does not kill MDA-MB-231 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ascorbic acid stabilizes quercetin increasing cell death in quercetin treated cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quercetin, and not a modified form, is responsible for apoptosis and cell death. -- Abstract: Quercetin is a member of the flavonoid family and has been previously shown to have a variety of anti-cancer activities. We and others have reported anti-proliferation, cell cycle arrest, and induction of apoptosis of cancer cells after treatment with quercetin. Quercetin has also been shown to undergo oxidation. However, it is unclear if quercetin or one of its oxidized forms is responsible for cell death. Here we report that quercetin rapidly oxidized in cell culture media to form a dimer. The quercetin dimer is identical to a dimer that is naturally produced by onions. The quercetin dimer and quercetin-3-O-glucopyranoside are unable to cross the cell membrane and do not kill MDA-MB-231 cells. Finally, supplementing the media with ascorbic acid increases quercetin's ability to induce cell death probably by reduction oxidative dimerization. Our results suggest that an unmodified quercetin is the compound that elicits cell death.

  19. Patient-derived glioblastoma stem cells are killed by CD133-specific CAR T cells but induce the T cell aging marker CD57

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuekai; Prasad, Shruthi; Gaedicke, Simone; Hettich, Michael; Firat, Elke; Niedermann, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The AC133 epitope of CD133 is a cancer stem cell (CSC) marker for many tumor entities, including the highly malignant glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We have developed an AC133-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) and show that AC133-CAR T cells kill AC133+ GBM stem cells (GBM-SCs) both in vitro and in an orthotopic tumor model in vivo. Direct contact with patient-derived GBM-SCs caused rapid upregulation of CD57 on the CAR T cells, a molecule known to mark terminally or near-terminally differentiated T cells. However, other changes associated with terminal T cell differentiation could not be readily detected. CD57 is also expressed on tumor cells of neural crest origin and has been preferentially found on highly aggressive, undifferentiated, multipotent CSC-like cells. We found that CD57 was upregulated on activated T cells only upon contact with CD57+ patient-derived GBM-SCs, but not with conventional CD57-negative glioma lines. However, CD57 was not downregulated on the GBM-SCs upon their differentiation, indicating that this molecule is not a bona fide CSC marker for GBM. Differentiated GBM cells still induced CD57 on CAR T cells and other activated T cells. Therefore, CD57 can apparently be upregulated on activated human T cells by mere contact with CD57+ target cells. PMID:25426558

  20. Patient-derived glioblastoma stem cells are killed by CD133-specific CAR T cells but induce the T cell aging marker CD57.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuekai; Prasad, Shruthi; Gaedicke, Simone; Hettich, Michael; Firat, Elke; Niedermann, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The AC133 epitope of CD133 is a cancer stem cell (CSC) marker for many tumor entities, including the highly malignant glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We have developed an AC133-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) and show that AC133-CAR T cells kill AC133+ GBM stem cells (GBM-SCs) both in vitro and in an orthotopic tumor model in vivo. Direct contact with patient-derived GBM-SCs caused rapid upregulation of CD57 on the CAR T cells, a molecule known to mark terminally or near-terminally differentiated T cells. However, other changes associated with terminal T cell differentiation could not be readily detected. CD57 is also expressed on tumor cells of neural crest origin and has been preferentially found on highly aggressive, undifferentiated, multipotent CSC-like cells. We found that CD57 was upregulated on activated T cells only upon contact with CD57+ patient-derived GBM-SCs, but not with conventional CD57-negative glioma lines. However, CD57 was not downregulated on the GBM-SCs upon their differentiation, indicating that this molecule is not a bona fide CSC marker for GBM. Differentiated GBM cells still induced CD57 on CAR T cells and other activated T cells. Therefore, CD57 can apparently be upregulated on activated human T cells by mere contact with CD57+ target cells.

  1. Clinical-scale laser-based scanning and processing of live cells: selective photothermal killing of fluorescent tumor targets for autologous stem cell transplantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koller, Manfred R.; Hanania, Elie G.; Eisfeld, Timothy; O'Neal, Robert A.; Khovananth, Kevin M.; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2001-04-01

    High-dose chemotherapy, followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation, is widely used for the treatment of cancer. However, contaminating tumor cells within HSC harvests continue to be of major concern since re-infused tumor cells have proven to contribute to disease relapse. Many tumor purging methods have been evaluated, but all leave detectable tumor cells in the transplant and result in significant loss of HSCs. These shortcomings cause engraftment delays and compromise the therapeutic value of purging. A novel approach integrating automated scanning cytometry, image analysis, and selective laser-induced killing of labeled cells within a cell mixture is described here. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) cells were spiked into cell mixtures, and fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies were used to label tumor cells within the mixture. Cells were then allowed to settle on a surface, and as the surface was scanned with a fluorescence excitation source, a laser pulse was fired at every detected tumor cell using high-speed beam steering mirrors. Tumor cells were selectively killed with little effect on adjacent non-target cells, demonstrating the feasibility of this automated cell processing approach. This technology has many potential research and clinical applications, one example of which is tumor cell purging for autologous HSC transplantation.

  2. Nitric oxide prodrug JS-K inhibits ubiquitin E1 and kills tumor cells retaining wild-type p53.

    PubMed

    Kitagaki, J; Yang, Y; Saavedra, J E; Colburn, N H; Keefer, L K; Perantoni, A O

    2009-01-29

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a major effector molecule in cancer prevention. A number of studies have shown that NO prodrug JS-K (O(2)-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) 1-[(4-ethoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate) induces apoptotic cell death in vitro and in vivo, indicating that it is a promising new therapeutic for cancer. However, the mechanism of its tumor-killing activity remains unclear. Ubiquitin plays an important role in the regulation of tumorigenesis and cell apoptosis. Our earlier report has shown that inactivation of the ubiquitin system through blocking E1 (ubiquitin-activating enzyme) activity preferentially induces apoptosis in p53-expressing transformed cells. As E1 has an active cysteine residue that could potentially interact with NO, we hypothesized that JS-K could inactivate E1 activity. E1 activity was evaluated by detecting ubiquitin-E1 conjugates through immunoblotting. JS-K strikingly inhibits the ubiquitin-E1 thioester formation in cells in a dose-dependent manner with an IC(50) of approximately 2 microM, whereas a JS-K analog that cannot release NO did not affect these levels in cells. Moreover, JS-K decreases total ubiquitylated proteins and increases p53 levels, which is mainly regulated by ubiquitin and proteasomal degradation. Furthermore, JS-K preferentially induces cell apoptosis in p53-expressing transformed cells. These findings indicate that JS-K inhibits E1 activity and kills transformed cells harboring wild-type p53.

  3. The Use of Chelated Radionuclide (Samarium-153-Ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonate) to Modulate Phenotype of Tumor Cells and Enhance T Cell–Mediated Killing

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Mala; Wansley, Elizabeth K.; Carrasquillo, Jorge A.; Yu, Sarah; Paik, Chang H.; Camphausen, Kevin; Becker, Michael D.; Goeckeler, William F.; Schlom, Jeffrey; Hodge, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Exposing human tumor cells to sublethal doses of external beam radiation up-regulates expression of tumor antigen and accessory molecules, rendering tumor cells more susceptible to killing by antigen-specific CTLs. This study explored the possibility that exposure to palliative doses of a radiopharmaceutical agent could alter the phenotype of tumor cells to render them more susceptible to T cell – mediated killing. Experimental Design Here, 10 human tumor cell lines (4 prostate, 2 breast, and 4 lung) were exposed to increasing doses of the radiopharmaceutical samarium-153-ethylenediaminetetrame-thylenephosphonate (153Sm-EDTMP) used in cancer patients to treat pain due to bone metastasis. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and quantitative real-time PCR analysis for expression of five surface molecules and several tumor-associated antigens involved in prostate cancer were done. LNCaP human prostate cancer cells were exposed to153Sm-EDTMP and incubated with tumor-associated antigen-specific CTL in a CTL killing assay to determine whether exposure to 153Sm-EDTMP rendered LNCaP cells more susceptible to T cell – mediated killing. Results Tumor cells up-regulated the surface molecules Fas (100% of cell lines up-regulated Fas), carcinoembryonic antigen (90%), mucin-1 (60%), MHC class I (50%), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (40%) in response to 153Sm-EDTMP. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed additional up-regulated tumor antigens. Exposure to 153Sm-EDTMP rendered LNCaP cells more susceptible to killing by CTLs specific for prostate-specific antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen, and mucin-1. Conclusions Doses of 153Sm-EDTMP equivalent to palliative doses delivered to bone alter the phenotype of tumor cells, suggesting that153Sm-EDTMP may work synergistically with immuno-therapy to increase the susceptibility of tumor cells to CTL killing. PMID:18594006

  4. Effect of electroporation on cell killing by boron neutron capture therapy using borocaptate sodium (10B-BSH).

    PubMed

    Ono, K; Kinashi, Y; Masunaga, S; Suzuki, M; Takagaki, M

    1998-12-01

    The cell membrane permeability of 10B-enriched borocaptate sodium (BSH) and the extent to which BSH is accumulated in cells are controversial. To elucidate these points and to enhance the accumulation of BSH in cells, the effect of electroporation on boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using BSH was investigated. The first group of SCCVII tumor cells was incubated in culture medium with 10B-BSH or 10B-enriched boric acid, and exposed to neutrons from the heavy water facility of the Kyoto University Reactor. More than 99% of neutrons were thermal neutrons at flux base. The second group was pretreated with electroporation in combination with 10B-BSH, and thereafter the cells were irradiated with neutrons. The cell-killing effect of BNCT was measured by colony formation assay. The surviving cell fraction decreased exponentially with neutron fluence, and addition of BSH significantly enhanced the cell-killing effect of NCT depending on 10B concentration and the preincubation time of cells in the BSH-containing culture medium. The electroporation of cells with BSH markedly enhanced the BNCT effect in comparison with that obtained with preincubation alone. The effect of BSH-BNCT with electroporation was almost equal to that of BNCT using 10B-boric acid at the same 10B concentration. The effect of BNCT on cells pretreated with BSH and electroporation was not reduced by repeated washing of the cells before neutron irradiation. Decrease of the effect of BSH-BNCT plus electroporation with increase in the waiting time between the electroporation and the neutron irradiation could be explained in terms of the extent of cell growth during that time. These data suggest that BSH penetrates the cells slowly and remains after washing. Electroporation can introduce BSH into the cells very efficiently, and BSH thus introduced stays in the cells and is not lost in spite of the intensive washing of the cells. Therefore, if electroporation is applied to tumors after BSH injection, 10B

  5. EGFR‐targeted Chimeras of Pseudomonas ToxA released into the extracellular milieu by attenuated Salmonella selectively kill tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, David; Carrafa, Jamie; Vincent, Lena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tumor‐targeted Salmonella VNP20009 preferentially replicate within tumor tissue and partially suppress tumor growth in murine tumor models. These Salmonella have the ability to locally induce apoptosis when they are in direct contact with cancer cells but they lack significant bystander killing, which may correlate with their overall lack of antitumor activity in human clinical studies. In order to compensate for this deficiency without enhancing overall toxicity, we engineered the bacteria to express epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)‐targeted cytotoxic proteins that are released into the extracellular milieu. In this study, we demonstrate the ability of the Salmonella strain VNP20009 to produce three different forms of the Pseudomonas exotoxin A (ToxA) chimeric with a tumor growth factor alpha (TGFα) which results in its producing culture supernatants that are cytotoxic and induce apoptosis in EGFR positive cancer cells as measured by the tetrazolium dye reduction, and Rhodamine 123 and JC‐10 mitochondrial depolarization assays. In addition, exchange of the ToxA REDLK endoplasmic reticulum retention signal for KDEL and co‐expression of the ColE3 lysis protein resulted in an overall increased cytotoxicity compared to the wild type toxin. This approach has the potential to significantly enhance the antitumor activity of VNP20009 while maintaining its previously established safety profile. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2698–2711. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27260220

  6. Selective killing of human bladder cancer cells by combined treatment with A and B chain ricin antibody conjugates.

    PubMed

    Thiesen, H J; Juhl, H; Arndt, R

    1987-01-15

    The monoclonal antibody 486P 3-12-1 raised against transitional bladder carcinoma cells was coupled to either the ricin A or B chain. The toxicity of A chain conjugates could be enhanced by addition of either free ricin B chain or by ricin B chain coupled to 486P 3-12-1 or to antibodies conjugated to ricin B and directed against the mouse monoclonal antibody. Using a two-step procedure where the A and B chains of ricin were delivered separately, the appropriate target cells 486P and 647V were killed, while the pancreatic cell line QGP-1 was not affected. The efficiency of killing by immunotoxin was independent whether free or coupled B chain was used, but B chain was essential for mediating the toxicity of the A chain. The two-step procedure enhances the selectivity of immunotoxin treatment by reducing nonspecific toxicity. Such a procedure could be applicable in vivo by direct administration to the bladder cavity.

  7. TCR-like antibody drug conjugates mediate killing of tumor cells with low peptide/HLA targets.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Devin B; Bivens, Camille K; Mobley, Alexis S; Herrera, Christian E; McCormick, Amanda L; Wichner, Timea; Sabnani, Manoj K; Wood, Laurence M; Weidanz, Jon A

    The currently marketed antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) destabilize microtubule assembly in cancer cells and initiate apoptosis in patients. However, few tumor antigens (TA) are expressed at high densities on cancer lesions, potentially minimizing the therapeutic index of current ADC regimens. The peptide/human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex can be specifically targeted by therapeutic antibodies (designated T cell receptor [TCR]-like antibodies) and adequately distinguish malignant cells, but has not been the focus of ADC development. We analyzed the killing potential of TCR-like ADCs when cross-linked to the DNA alkylating compound duocarmycin. Our data comprise proof-of-principle results that TCR-like ADCs mediate potent tumor cytotoxicity, particularly under common scenarios of low TA/HLA density, and support their continued development alongside agents that disrupt DNA replication. Additionally, TCR-like antibody ligand binding appears to play an important role in ADC functionality and should be addressed during therapy development to avoid binding patterns that negate ADC killing efficacy.

  8. Human endothelial cells are activated by interferon-γ plus tumour necrosis factor-α to kill intracellular Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    De Assis, M C; Da Costa, A O; Barja-Fidalgo, T C; Plotkowski, M C

    2000-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines have been shown to activate endothelial cells. To investigate the effect of cytokines on the interaction of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, cells were treated with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) plus tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) for 24 hr and exposed to P. aeruginosa suspension for 1 hr. Light microscopy showed that activated cells internalized significantly more bacteria than control cells. To ascertain the effect of cytokines on the microbicidal activity of HUVEC, the concentrations of viable intracellular (IC) bacteria in control and activated cells were determined, at 1 and 5 hr postinfection, by the gentamicin exclusion assay. In control cells, no significant decrease in the concentration of bacteria was detected 5 hr postinfection. In contrast, in activated cells the concentration of viable bacteria at 5 hr was significantly lower. Concentrations of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide detected in supernatants of activated cells were significantly higher than in control cell supernatants. HUVEC anti-P. aeruginosa activity was insensitive to the antioxidants superoxide dismutase, dimethylthiourea and allopurinol as well as to the l-arginine analogues aminoguanidine and NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA), but was significantly inhibited by catalase. Our results indicate that HUVEC can be activated by IFN-γ plus TNF-α to kill IC P. aeruginosa and suggest a role for reactive oxygen radicals, notably hydrogen peroxide, in HUVEC antibacterial activity. PMID:11012781

  9. Enhanced EJ Cell Killing of 125I Radiation by Combining with Cytosine Deaminase Gene Therapy Regulated by Synthetic Radio-Responsive Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling; Kang, Lei; Wang, Rong-Fu; Yan, Ping; Zhao, Qian; Yin, Lei; Guo, Feng-qin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aim: To investigate the enhancing effect of radionuclide therapy by the therapeutic gene placed under the control of radio-responsive promoter. Methods: The recombinant lentivirus E8-codA-GFP, including a synthetic radiation-sensitive promoter E8, cytosine deaminase (CD) gene, and green fluorescent protein gene, was constructed. The gene expression activated by 125I radiation was assessed by observation of green fluorescence. The ability of converting 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to 5-fluorourial (5-FU) by CD enzyme was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The viability of the infected cells exposed to 125I in the presence of 5-FC was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the infected cells exposed to 125I alone served as negative control and 5-FU as positive control. Results: The recombinant lentiviral vector was constructed successfully. On exposure of infected cells to 125I, green fluorescence can be observed and 5-FU can be detected. MTT assay showed that the survival rate for infected cells treated with 125I was lower compared with the 125I control group, but higher than the positive control group. Conclusion: The synthetic promoter E8 can induce the expression of downstream CD gene under 125I radiation, and the tumor killing effect of 125I can be enhanced by combining CD gene therapy with radiosensitive promoter. PMID:26382009

  10. T cells engineered with a T cell receptor against the prostate antigen TARP specifically kill HLA-A2+ prostate and breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hillerdal, Victoria; Nilsson, Berith; Carlsson, Björn; Eriksson, Fredrik; Essand, Magnus

    2012-09-25

    To produce genetically engineered T cells directed against prostate and breast cancer cells, we have cloned the T-cell receptor recognizing the HLA-A2-restricted T-cell receptor γ-chain alternate reading-frame protein (TARP)(4-13) epitope. TARP is a protein exclusively expressed in normal prostate epithelium and in adenocarcinomas of the prostate and breast. Peripheral blood T cells transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding the TARP-TCR proliferated well when exposed to peptide-specific stimuli. These cells exerted peptide-specific IFN-γ production and cytotoxic activity. Importantly, HLA-A2(+) prostate and breast cancer cells expressing TARP were also killed, demonstrating that the TARP(4-13) epitope is a physiologically relevant target for T-cell therapy of prostate and breast cancer. In conclusion, we present the cloning of a T cell receptor (TCR) directed against a physiologically relevant HLA-A2 epitope of TARP. To our knowledge this report on engineering of T cells with a TCR directed against an antigen specifically expressed by prostate cells is unique.

  11. Influence of metronidazole and some electron acceptors on the chlorin e6 photosensitized killing of Ehrlich carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekulayev, V.; Shevchuk, Igor; Mihkelsoo, Virgo T.; Kallikorm, A. P.

    1992-06-01

    A decrease in the effectiveness of photosensitized killing of neoplasm cells was observed in the presence of chlorin-e6 at a reduced concentration of oxygen. But when metronidazole (MZ) was injected in vitro as well as in vivo, a significant increase in the photosensitized killing of Ehrlich carcinoma cells by chlorin-e6 was observed. Moreover, contrary to the hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD), MZ increases the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) by using chlorin-e6 not only in the hypoxic but also in the aerobic conditions. The interaction between MZ and the excited photosensitizer may account for an increased phototoxicity of chlorin-e6. The formation of cytotoxic nitroimidazole radicals as a result of photochemical processes of type 1 is discussed. This property of the photosensitizer may be successfully used in working out a method of potentiating PDT in combination not only with nitroimidazoles, but also with other electron acceptor compounds (EACp), e.g., quinone antitumor antibiotics.

  12. Hyaluronic Acid-Modified Multifunctional Q-Graphene for Targeted Killing of Drug-Resistant Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yanan; Cai, Xiaoli; Li, He; Lin, Yuehe; Du, Dan

    2016-02-17

    Considering the urgent need to explore multifunctional drug delivery system for overcoming multidrug resistance, we prepared a new nanocarbon material Q-Graphene as a nanocarrier for killing drug-resistant lung cancer cells. Attributing to the introduction of hyaluronic acid and rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC), the Q-Graphene-based drug delivery system was endowed with dual function of targeted drug delivery and fluorescence imaging. Additionally, doxorubicin (DOX) as a model drug was loaded on the surface of Q-Graphene via π-π stacking. Interestingly, the fluorescence of DOX was quenched by Q-Graphene due to its strong electron-accepting capability, and a significant recovery of fluorescence was observed, while DOX was released from Q-Graphene. Because of the RBITC labeling and the effect of fluorescence quenching/restoring of Q-Graphene, the uptake of nanoparticles and intracellular DOX release can be tracked. Overall, a highly promising multifunctional nanoplatform was developed for tracking and monitoring targeted drug delivery for efficiently killing drug-resistant cancer cells.

  13. Actinomycin D enhances killing of cancer cells by immunotoxin RG7787 through activation of the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiu Fen; Xiang, Laiman; Zhou, Qi; Carralot, Jean-Philippe; Prunotto, Marco; Niederfellner, Gerhard; Pastan, Ira

    2016-01-01

    RG7787 is a mesothelin-targeted immunotoxin designed to have low-immunogenicity, high-cytotoxic activity and fewer side effects. RG7787 kills many types of mesothelin-expressing cancer cells lines and causes tumor regressions in mice. Safety and immunogenicity of RG7787 is now being assessed in a phase I trial. To enhance the antitumor activity of RG7787, we screened for clinically used drugs that can synergize with RG7787. Actinomycin D is a potent transcription inhibitor that is used for treating several cancers. We report here that actinomycin D and RG7787 act synergistically to kill many mesothelin-positive cancer cell lines and produce major regressions of pancreatic and stomach cancer xenografts. Analyses of RNA expression show that RG7787 or actinomycin D alone and together increase levels of TNF/TNFR family members and NF-κB–regulated genes. Western blots revealed the combination changed apoptotic protein levels and enhanced cleavage of Caspases and PARP. PMID:27601652

  14. Shigella flexneri transformants expressing type 1 (mannose-specific) fimbriae bind to, activate, and are killed by phagocytic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gbarah, A; Mirelman, D; Sansonetti, P J; Verdon, R; Bernhard, W; Sharon, N

    1993-01-01

    Shigella flexneri M90T (invasive) and BS176 (noninvasive) are typical nonfimbriated organisms that do not bind to or activate phagocytic cells. We demonstrate that S. flexneri M90Tp and BS176p, obtained by transformation of the strains named above with the cluster of genes encoding type 1 (mannose-specific) fimbriae of Escherichia coli, express the functional fimbriae, as shown by electron microscopy, by binding of antifimbria antibodies and by yeast cell aggregation. The transformants, but not the parental strains, bound to human granulocytes and mouse peritoneal macrophages. This binding was inhibited by methyl alpha-D-mannoside but not by methyl alpha-D-galactoside. The bound bacteria induced oxidative burst activation and degranulation of the granulocytes in vitro. With mouse peritoneal macrophages, the binding of the fimbriated bacteria induced degranulation in vitro. Injection of the bacteria into mouse peritoneum also induced degranulation of the macrophages in vivo; no such effect was observed with the nonfimbriated strains. The bound fimbriated transformants were effectively killed by the human granulocytes in vitro in the absence of opsonins or after opsonization with human anti-S. flexneri antiserum. The nonfimbriated strains were killed only after opsonization. These results provide further evidence for the role of type 1 fimbriae in lectin-mediated nonopsonic phagocytosis. Images PMID:8097492

  15. RECK overexpression reduces invasive ability in ameloblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qi-xiang; Liang, Yan-can; Xu, Zhi-ying; Chen, Wei-liang; Xie, Hong-liang; Zhang, Bin

    2014-09-01

    Ameloblastoma is a frequent odontogenic neoplasm characterized by local invasiveness and high risk of recurrence. Reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK) is a tumor suppressor that inhibits metastasis and angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of RECK overexpression on invasive potential in ameloblastoma cells. Lentiviral vectors containing human RECK gene were created and subsequently stably transfected into immortalized ameloblastoma cell line hTERT(+) -AM. Functional characteristics of hTERT(+) -AM cells with stable RECK overexpression included proliferation, migration, invasion, and regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2, MMP-9 measured by zymography or commercially available assays. The stable and higher expression of RECK mRNA and protein (P < 0.01) was detected in RECK-transfected hTERT(+) -AM cells. RECK overexpression caused a decrease in migration and invasion (P < 0.01) for hTERT(+) -AM cells and a decrease in activity of MMP-2, MMP-9 (P < 0.01). Proliferation was not affected by RECK overexpression (P > 0.05). Overexpression of RECK gene significantly inhibited cell invasive ability of hTERT(+) -AM cells, suggesting RECK may be a new target for ameloblastoma treatment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Paramecium species ingest and kill the cells of the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Frager, Shalom Z; Chrisman, Cara J; Shakked, Rachel; Casadevall, Arturo

    2010-08-01

    A fundamental question in the field of medical mycology is the origin of virulence in those fungal pathogens acquired directly from the environment. In recent years, it was proposed that the virulence of certain environmental animal-pathogenic microbes, such as Cryptococcus neoformans, originated from selection pressures caused by species-specific predation. In this study, we analyzed the interaction of C. neoformans with three Paramecium spp., all of which are ciliated mobile protists. In contrast to the interaction with amoebae, some Paramecium spp. rapidly ingested C. neoformans and killed the fungus. This study establishes yet another type of protist-fungal interaction supporting the notion that animal-pathogenic fungi in the environment are under constant selection by predation.

  17. Cytokine-induced killer cells efficiently kill stem-like cancer cells of nasopharyngeal carcinoma via the NKG2D-ligands recognition

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Li-Ting; Wang, Hui-Yan; Qin, Yu-Juan; Chen, Lin; Shen, Hong-Fen; Lin, Xiao-Lin; Yang, Jie; Yang, Sheng; Hao, Wei-Chao; Chen, Yan; Xiao, Sheng-Jun; Zhou, Hui-Rong; Lin, Tao-Yan; Chen, Yu-Shuang; Sun, Yan; Yao, Kai-Tai; Xiao, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered to be the root cause for cancer treatment failure. Thus, there remains an urgent need for more potent and safer therapies against CSCs for curing cancer. In this study, the antitumor activity of cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells against putative CSCs of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) was fully evaluated in vitro and in vivo. To visualize putative CSCs in vitro by fluorescence imaging, and image and quantify putative CSCs in tumor xenograft-bearing mice by in vivo bioluminescence imaging, NPC cells were engineered with CSC detector vector encoding GFP and luciferase (Luc) under control of Nanog promoter. Our study reported in vitro intense tumor-killing activity of CIK cells against putative CSCs of NPC, as revealed by percentage analysis of side population cells, tumorsphere formation assay and Nanog-promoter-GFP-Luc reporter gene strategy plus time-lapse recording. Additionally, time-lapse imaging firstly illustrated that GFP-labeled or PKH26-labeled putative CSCs or tumorspheres were usually attacked simultaneously by many CIK cells and finally killed by CIK cells, suggesting the necessity of achieving sufficient effector-to-target ratios. We firstly confirmed that NKG2D blockade by anti-NKG2D antibody significantly but partially abrogated CIK cell-mediated cytolysis against putative CSCs. More importantly, intravenous infusion of CIK cells significantly delayed tumor growth in NOD/SCID mice, accompanied by a remarkable reduction in putative CSC number monitored by whole-body bioluminescence imaging. Taken together, our findings suggest that CIK cells demonstrate the intense tumor-killing activity against putative CSCs of NPC, at least in part, by NKG2D-ligands recognition. These results indicate that CIK cell-based therapeutic strategy against CSCs presents a promising and safe approach for cancer treatment. PMID:26418951

  18. CD8+CD122+CD49dlow regulatory T cells maintain T-cell homeostasis by killing activated T cells via Fas/FasL-mediated cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Akane, Kazuyuki; Kojima, Seiji; Mak, Tak W; Shiku, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Haruhiko

    2016-03-01

    The Fas/FasL (CD95/CD178) system is required for immune regulation; however, it is unclear in which cells, when, and where Fas/FasL molecules act in the immune system. We found that CD8(+)CD122(+) cells, which are mostly composed of memory T cells in comparison with naïve cells in the CD8(+)CD122(-) population, were previously shown to include cells with regulatory activity and could be separated into CD49d(low) cells and CD49d(high) cells. We established in vitro and in vivo experimental systems to evaluate the regulatory activity of CD122(+) cells. Regulatory activity was observed in CD8(+)CD122(+)CD49d(low) but not in CD8(+)CD122(+)CD49d(high) cells, indicating that the regulatory cells in the CD8(+)CD122(+) population could be narrowed down to CD49d(low) cells. CD8(+)CD122(-) cells taken from lymphoproliferation (lpr) mice were resistant to regulation by normal CD122(+) Tregs. CD122(+) Tregs taken from generalized lymphoproliferative disease (gld) mice did not regulate wild-type CD8(+)CD122(-) cells, indicating that the regulation by CD122(+) Tregs is Fas/FasL-dependent. CD122(+