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Sample records for cell powerplant system

  1. Status of commercial fuel cell powerplant system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshay, Marvin

    1987-01-01

    The primary focus is on the development of commercial Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) powerplant systems because the PAFC, which has undergone extensive development, is currently the closest fuel cell system to commercialization. Shorter discussions are included on the high temperature fuel cell systems which are not as mature in their development, such as the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) and the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). The alkaline and the Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell systems, are also included, but their discussions are limited to their prospects for commercial development. Currently, although the alkaline fuel cell continues to be used for important space applications there are no commercial development programs of significant size in the USA and only small efforts outside. The market place for fuel cells and the status of fuel cell programs in the USA receive extensive treatment. The fuel cell efforts outside the USA, especially the large Japanese programs, are also discussed.

  2. Status of commercial fuel cell powerplant system development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warshay, Marvin

    The primary focus is on the development of commercial Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) powerplant systems because the PAFC, which has undergone extensive development, is currently the closest fuel cell system to commercialization. Shorter discussions are included on the high temperature fuel cell systems which are not as mature in their development, such as the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) and the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). The alkaline and the Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell systems, are also included, but their discussions are limited to their prospects for commercial development. Currently, although the alkaline fuel cell continues to be used for important space applications there are no commercial development programs of significant size in the USA and only small efforts outside. The market place for fuel cells and the status of fuel cell programs in the USA receive extensive treatment. The fuel cell efforts outside the USA, especially the large Japanese programs, are also discussed.

  3. Advanced-capability alkaline fuel cell powerplant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deronck, Henry J.

    The alkaline fuel cell powerplant utilized in the Space Shuttle Orbiter has established an excellent performance and reliability record over the past decade. Recent AFC technology programs have demonstrated significant advances in cell durability and power density. These capabilities provide the basis for substantial improvement of the Orbiter powerplant, enabling new mission applications as well as enhancing performance in the Orbiter. Improved durability would extend the powerplant's time between overhaul fivefold, and permit longer-duration missions. The powerplant would also be a strong candidate for lunar/planetary surface power systems. Higher power capability would enable replacement of the Orbiter's auxiliary power units with electric motors, and benefits mass-critical applications such as the National AeroSpace Plane.

  4. Characterization Testing of the Teledyne Passive Breadboard Fuel Cell Powerplant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loyselle, Patricia; Prokopius, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) is tasked with the development of enabling and enhancing technologies for NASA's exploration missions. As part of that initiative, the return to the Moon requires a reliable, efficient, and lightweight fuel cell powerplant system to provide power to the Altair Lunar Lander and for lunar surface systems. Fuel cell powerplants are made up of two basic parts; the fuel cell itself and the supporting ancillary subsystem. This subsystem is designed to deliver reactants to the fuel cell and remove product water and waste heat from the fuel cell. Typically, fuel cell powerplant ancillary subsystems rely upon pumps and active water separation techniques to accomplish these tasks for closed hydrogen/oxygen systems. In a typical system, these components are the largest contributors to the overall parasitic power load of the fuel cell powerplant. A potential step towards the development of an efficient lightweight power system is to maximize the use of "passive" or low-power ancillary components as a replacement to these high-power load components

  5. Teledyne Energy Systems, Inc., Proton Exchange Member (PEM) Fuel Cell Engineering Model Powerplant. Test Report: Initial Benchmark Tests in the Original Orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loyselle, Patricia; Prokopius, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell technology is the leading candidate to replace the alkaline fuel cell technology, currently used on the Shuttle, for future space missions. During a 5-yr development program, a PEM fuel cell powerplant was developed. This report details the initial performance evaluation test results of the powerplant.

  6. Coal-Based Fuel-Cell Powerplants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferral, J. F.; Pappano, A. W.; Jennings, C. N.

    1986-01-01

    Report assesses advanced technologyy design alternatives for integrated coal-gasifier/fuel-cell powerplants. Various gasifier, cleanup, and fuelcell options evaluated. Evaluation includes adjustments to assumed performances and costs of proposed technologies where required. Analysis identifies uncertainties remaining in designs and most promising alternatives and research and development required to develop these technologies. Bulk of report summary and detailed analysis of six major conceptual designs and variations of each. All designs for plant that uses Illinois No. 6 coal and produces 675 MW of net power.

  7. Technology development for phosphoric acid fuel cell powerplant (phase 2). [on site integrated energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christner, L.

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported in the development of material, cell components, and reformers for on site integrated energy systems. Internal resistance and contact resistance were improved. Dissolved gases (O2, N2, and CO2) were found to have no effect on the electrochemical corrosion of phenolic composites. Stack performance was increased by 100 mV over the average 1979 level.

  8. Carbonate fuel cell powerplant development and commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.C.

    1997-04-01

    CFC powerplants offer the potential for ultrahigh efficiency energy conversion and the enhancement of the quality of our environment. Since combustion is not utilized, CFCs generate very low amounts of NOx. CFC powerplants have been exempt from air permitting requirements in California, Massachusetts. CFC is attractive for both polluted urban areas and remote applications. It is ideal as a distributed generator (sited at or near the electricity user). The US CFC developers enjoy the support of user groups (utility, other end-user members). DOE cooperates with GRI and EPRI in funding the US CFC program.

  9. Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cell Powerplants Developed and Tested for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoberecht, Mark A.; Pham, Nang T.

    2005-01-01

    Proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology has received major attention for terrestrial applications, such as the automotive and residential markets, for the past 20 years. This attention has significantly advanced the maturity of the technology, resulting in ever more compact, efficient, reliable, and inexpensive PEMFC designs. In comparison to the terrestrial operating environment, the space operating environment is much more demanding. Microgravity to high-gravity loads and the need to use pure oxygen (rather than air) as the fuel cell oxidizer place more stringent demands on PEMFC technology. NASA and its partners from industry are leveraging terrestrial PEMFC advancements by conducting parallel space technology development for future exploration missions. A team from the NASA Glenn Research Center, NASA Johnson Space Center, and NASA Kennedy Space Center recently completed the first phase of a PEMFC powerplant development effort for exploration missions. The industry partners for this phase of the development effort were ElectroChem, Inc., and Teledyne Energy Systems, Inc. Under contract to Glenn, both of these industry partners successfully designed, fabricated, and tested a breadboard PEMFC powerplant in the 1- to 5-kW power range. These powerplants were based on existing company-proprietary fuel cell stack designs, combined with off-the-shelf components, which formed the balance of the powerplant design. Subsequent to the contractor development efforts, both powerplants were independently tested at Johnson to verify operational and performance characteristics, and to determine suitability for further technology development in the second phase of the NASA-led effort. Following the independent NASA testing, Teledyne Energy Systems, Inc., was selected to develop an engineering model PEMFC powerplant. This effort was initiated by the 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Program Office in 2001; it transitioned to the Next Generation Launch

  10. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Engineering Model Powerplant. Test Report: Benchmark Tests in Three Spatial Orientations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loyselle, Patricia; Prokopius, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell technology is the leading candidate to replace the aging alkaline fuel cell technology, currently used on the Shuttle, for future space missions. This test effort marks the final phase of a 5-yr development program that began under the Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Program, transitioned into the Next Generation Launch Technologies (NGLT) Program, and continued under Constellation Systems in the Exploration Technology Development Program. Initially, the engineering model (EM) powerplant was evaluated with respect to its performance as compared to acceptance tests carried out at the manufacturer. This was to determine the sensitivity of the powerplant performance to changes in test environment. In addition, a series of tests were performed with the powerplant in the original standard orientation. This report details the continuing EM benchmark test results in three spatial orientations as well as extended duration testing in the mission profile test. The results from these tests verify the applicability of PEM fuel cells for future NASA missions. The specifics of these different tests are described in the following sections.

  11. Technology Development for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Powerplant, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christner, L.

    1980-01-01

    The technology development for materials, cells, and reformers for on site integrated energy systems is described. The carbonization of 25 cu cm, 350 cu cm, and 1200 cu cm cell test hardware was accomplished and the performance of 25 cu cm fuel cells was improved. Electrochemical corrosion rates of graphite/phenolic resin composites in phosphoric acid were determined. Three cells (5 in by 15 in stacks) were operated for longer than 7000 hours. Specified endurance stacks completed a total of 4000 hours. An electrically heated reformer was tested and is to provide hydrogen for 23 cell fuel cell stack.

  12. Technology development for phosphoric acid fuel cell powerplant (phase 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christner, L.

    1979-01-01

    The status of technology for the manufacturing and testing of 1200 sq. cm cell materials, components, and stacks for on-site integrated energy systems is assessed. Topics covered include: (1) preparation of thin layers of silicon carbide; (2) definition and control schemes for volume changes in phosphoric acid fuel cells; (3) preparation of low resin content graphite phenolic resin composites; (4) chemical corrosion of graphite-phenolic resin composites in hot phosphoric acid; (5) analysis of electrical resistance of composite materials for fuel cells; and (6) fuel cell performance and testing.

  13. Technology development for phosphoric acid fuel cell powerplant, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christner, L.

    1981-01-01

    The development of materials, cell components, and reformers for on site integrated energy systems is described. Progress includes: (1) heat-treatment of 25 sq cm, 350 sq cm and 1200 sq cm cell test hardware was accomplished. Performance of fuel cells is improved by using this material; (2) electrochemical and chemical corrosion rates of heat-treated and as-molded graphite/phenolic resin composites in phosphoric acid were determined; (3) three cell, 5 in. x 15 in. stacks operated for up to 10,000 hours and 12 in. x 17 in. five cell stacks were tested for 5,000 hours; (4) a three cell 5 in. x 15 in. stack with 0.12 mg Pt/sq cm anodes and 0.25 mg Pt/sq cm cathodes was operated for 4,500 hours; and (5) an ERC proprietary high bubble pressure matrix, MAT-1, was tested for up to 10,000 hours.

  14. Study of fuel cell powerplant with heat recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, J. M.; Grasso, A. P.; Clausi, J. V.

    1975-01-01

    It was shown that heat can be recovered from fuel cell power plants by replacing the air-cooled heat exchangers in present designs with units which transfer the heat to the integrated utility system. Energy availability for a 40-kW power plant was studied and showed that the total usable energy at rated power represents 84 percent of the fuel lower heating value. The effects of design variables on heat availability proved to be small. Design requirements were established for the heat recovery heat exchangers, including measurement of the characteristics of two candidate fuel cell coolants after exposure to fuel cell operating conditions. A heat exchanger test program was defined to assess fouling and other characteristics of fuel cell heat exchangers needed to confirm heat exchanger designs for heat recovery.

  15. Nuclear Powerplant Safety: Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Powerplant systems and procedures that ensure the day-to-day health and safety of people in and around the plant is referred to as operational safety. This safety is the result of careful planning, good engineering and design, strict licensing and regulation, and environmental monitoring. Procedures that assure operational safety at nuclear…

  16. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the electrical power generation/fuel cell powerplant subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, K. L.; Bertsch, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. This report documents the independent analysis results corresponding to the Orbiter Electrical Power Generation (EPG)/Fuel Cell Powerplant (FCP) hardware. The EPG/FCP hardware is required for performing functions of electrical power generation and product water distribution in the Orbiter. Specifically, the EPG/FCP hardware consists of the following divisions: (1) Power Section Assembly (PSA); (2) Reactant Control Subsystem (RCS); (3) Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS); and (4) Water Removal Subsystem (WRS). The IOA analysis process utilized available EPG/FCP hardware drawings and schematics for defining hardware assemblies, components, and hardware items. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode.

  17. 14 CFR 23.939 - Powerplant operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... General § 23.939 Powerplant operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine powerplant operating... engine. (c) For turbine engines, the air inlet system must not, as a result of airflow distortion during normal operation, cause vibration harmful to the engine....

  18. 14 CFR 23.939 - Powerplant operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... General § 23.939 Powerplant operating characteristics. (a) Turbine engine powerplant operating... engine. (c) For turbine engines, the air inlet system must not, as a result of airflow distortion during normal operation, cause vibration harmful to the engine....

  19. Nuclear Powerplant Safety: Design and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    The most important concern in the design, construction and operation of nuclear powerplants is safety. Nuclear power is one of the major contributors to the nation's supply of electricity; therefore, it is important to assure its safe use. Each different type of powerplant has special design features and systems to protect health and safety. One…

  20. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Assessment of the electrical power generation/fuel cell powerplant subsystem FMEA/CIL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, K. L.; Bertsch, P. J.

    1987-01-01

    Results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA effort first completed an analysis of the Electrical Power Generation/Fuel Cell Powerplant (EPG/FCP) hardware, generating draft failure modes and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The IOA results were then compared to the proposed Post 51-L NASA FMEA/CIL baseline. A resolution of each discrepancy from the comparison was provided through additional analysis as required. This report documents the results of that comparison for the Orbiter EPG/FCP hardware.

  1. Compliance problems of small utility systems with the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978: volume II - appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    A study of the problems of compliance with the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 experienced by electric utility systems which have a total generating capacity of less than 2000 MW is presented. This volume presents the following appendices: (A) case studies (Farmington, New Mexico; Lamar, Colorado; Dover, Delaware; Wolverine Electric Cooperative, Michigan; Central Telephone and Utilities, Kansas; Sierra Pacific Power Company, Nevada; Vero Beach, Florida; Lubbock, Texas; Western Farmers Cooperative, Oklahoma; and West Texas Utilities Company, Texas); (B) contacts and responses to study; (C) joint action legislation chart; (D) Texas Municipal Power Agency case study; (E) existing generating units jointly owned with small utilities; (F) future generating units jointly owned with small utilities; (G) Federal Register Notice of April 17, 1980, and letter of inquiry to utilities; (H) small utility responses; and (I) Section 744, PIFUA. (WHK)

  2. Coal gasifier cogeneration powerplant project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shure, L. I.; Bloomfield, H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Industrial cogeneration and utility pr systems were analyzed and a conceptual design study was conducted to evaluate the economic feasibility of a coal gasifier power plant for NASA Lewis Research Center. Site location, plant size, and electric power demand were considered in criteria developed for screening and selecting candidates that could use a wide variety of coals, including that from Ohio. A fluidized bed gasifier concept was chosen as the baseline design and key components of the powerplant were technically assessed. No barriers to environmental acceptability are foreseen. If funded, the powerplant will not only meet the needs of the research center, but will reduce the commercial risk for utilities and industries by fully verifying and demonstrating the technology, thus accelerating commercialization.

  3. Exposure of thermoelectric power-plant workers to volatile organic compounds from fuel oil: genotoxic and cytotoxic effects in buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Garcia, P V; Linhares, D; Amaral, A F S; Rodrigues, A S

    2012-09-18

    Thermoelectric power-plant workers are constantly exposed to high levels of potentially genotoxic gaseous substances, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the combustion of fuel oil or the processing of naphtha. The aim of the present study was to estimate the association between such occupational exposure and the frequency of micronucleated cells and cells with other nuclear anomalies. Buccal epithelial cells were collected from a total of 44 power-plant workers (exposed group) and 47 administrative workers (non-exposed group), and examined for the frequency of micronucleated cells (MNC) and of cells with other nuclear anomalies (ONA: pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis) by means of the micronucleus assay. The frequencies of MNC and ONA per 1000 cells in the exposed group (1.8‰ and 82.4‰, respectively) were significantly higher than in the non-exposed group (0.2‰ and 58.3‰, respectively). The exposed group had a twelve-fold increase in risk for formation of MNC compared with non-exposed individuals (RR=12.1; 95% CI, 5.0-29.2; P<0.001). The confounding factors analyzed (age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and mouthwash use) did not show any significant association with the frequency of MNC or ONA. The findings of this study show that workers from power plants exposed to VOCs have a significantly elevated risk for DNA damage. Therefore, bio-monitoring of DNA damage is recommended for this group of workers.

  4. 14 CFR 25.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Powerplant accessories. (a) Each engine mounted accessory must— (1) Be approved for mounting on the engine involved; (2) Use the provisions on the engine for mounting; and (3) Be sealed to prevent contamination of the engine oil system and the accessory system. (b) Electrical equipment subject to arcing or...

  5. Legionnaires' Disease Bacterium in power-plant cooling systems: Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, S.W.; Solomon, J.A.; Gough, S.B.; Tyndall, R.L.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1983-06-01

    A survey was undertaken of the distribution, density, viability, and infectivity of Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria (Legionella) in power plant cooling systems. Water samples were collected during each of the four seasons at various locations within each of nine power plants and from ambient waters at each site. Measurements of a number of physical and chemical characteristics were made, and Legionella profiles (density, viability, and infectivity for guinea pigs) were obtained. Legionella were detected in nearly all samples. Water from closed-cycle cooling systems frequently had lower densities of Legionella than the ambient water. Nonetheless, infectious Legionella, as defined by their isolation from inoculated guinea pigs, were significantly more likely to be found in samples from the plant-exposed water of closed-cycle plants than in samples from once-through plants or in ambient samples. A new species (L. oakridgensis) was initially isolated from two of the sites, and it has since been found to have a widespread distribution. Two other organisms found to cause illness in guinea pigs may also be new species. Phase II of the project involves investigating possible cause/effect relationships between physicochemical variables and Legionella. This work may contribute toward eventual control techniques for this pathogen.

  6. Nuclear powerplants for mobile applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Mobile nuclear powerplants for applications other than large ships and submarines will require compact, lightweight reactors with especially stringent impact-safety design. This paper examines the technical and economic feasibility that the broadening role of civilian nuclear power, in general, (land-based nuclear electric generating plants and nuclear ships) can extend to lightweight, safe mobile nuclear powerplants. The paper discusses technical experience, identifies potential sources of technology for advanced concepts, cites the results of economic studies of mobile nuclear powerplants, and surveys future technical capabilities needed by examining the current use and projected needs for vehicles, machines, and habitats that could effectively use mobile nuclear reactor powerplants.

  7. Powerplant productivity improvements and regulatory incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, D; Brown, D

    1980-10-27

    The purpose of this study was to examine the benefits to be gained from increased powerplant productivity and to validate and demonstrate the use of incentives within the regulatory process to promote the improvement of powerplant productivity. The system-wide costs savings to be gained from given productivity improvement scenarios are estimated in both the short and long term. Numerous reports and studies exist which indicate that productivity improvements at the powerplant level are feasible and cost effective. The efforts of this study widen this focus and relate system-wide productivity improvements with system-wide cost savings. The initial thrust of the regulatory section of this study is to validate the existence of reasonable incentive procedures which would enable regulatory agencies to better motivate electric utilities to improve productivity on both the powerplant and system levels. The voluntary incentive format developed in this study was designed to facilitate the link between profit and efficiency which is typically not clear in most regulated market environments. It is concluded that at the present time, many electric utilities in this country could significantly increase the productivity of their base load units, and the adoption of an incentive program of the general type recommended in this study would add to rate of return regulation the needed financial incentives to enable utilities to make such improvements without losing long-run profit. In light of the upcoming oil import target levels and mandatory cutbacks of oil and gas as boiler fuels for electric utilities, the use of incentive programs to encourage more efficient utilization of coal and nuclear base load capacity will become far more inviting over the next two decades.

  8. Modeling, design and energy management of fuel cell systems for aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Thomas Heenan

    Fuel cell powered aircraft have been of long term interest to the aviation community because of their potential for improved performance and environmental compatibility. Only recently have improvements in the technological readiness of fuel cell powerplants enabled the first aviation applications of fuel cell technology. Based on the results of conceptual design studies and a few technology demonstration projects, there has emerged a widespread understanding of the importance of fuel cell powerplants for near-term and future aviation applications. Despite this, many aspects of the performance, design and construction of robust and optimized fuel cell powered aircraft have not been fully explored. This goal of this research then is to develop an improved understanding of the performance, design characteristics, design tradeoffs and viability of fuel cell powerplants for aviation applications. To accomplish these goals, new modeling, design, and experimental tools are developed, validated and applied to the design of fuel cell powered unmanned aerial vehicles. First, a general sub-system model of fuel cell powerplant performance, mass and geometry is derived from experimental and theoretical investigations of a fuel cell powerplant that is developed in hardware. These validated fuel cell subsystem models are then incorporated into a computer-based, application-integrated, parametric, and optimizeable design environment that allows for the concurrent design of the aircraft and fuel cell powerplant. The advanced modeling and design techniques required for modern aircraft design (including multi-disciplinary analysis, performance optimization under uncertainty and system performance validation), are applied at the fuel cell subsystem level and are linked to aircraft performance and design metrics. These tools and methods are then applied to the analysis and design of fuel cell powered aircraft in a series of case studies and design experiments. Based on the results of

  9. 14 CFR 25.1337 - Powerplant instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Powerplant instruments. 25.1337 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Instruments: Installation § 25.1337 Powerplant instruments. (a) Instruments and instrument lines. (1) Each powerplant and auxiliary power unit...

  10. Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of R-4360-18 Power-Plant Installation for XR60 Airplane. 3; Performance of Induction and Exhaust Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, David T.; Hawkins, W. Kent

    1947-01-01

    A study has been made of the performance of the induction and the exhaust systems on the XR60 power-plant installation as part of an investigation conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel. Altitude flight conditions from 5000 to 30,000 feet were simulated for a range of engine powers from 750 to 3000 brake horsepower. Slipstream rotation prevented normal pressure recoveries in the right side of the main duct in the region of the right intercooler cooling-air duct inlet. Total-pressure losses in the charge-air flow between the turbosupercharger and the intercoolers were as high as 2.1 inches of mercury. The total-pressure distribution of the charge air at the intercooler inlets was irregular and varied as much as 1.0 inch of mercury from the average value at extreme conditions, Total-pressure surveys at the carburetor top deck showed a variation from the average value of 0.3 inch of mercury at take-off power and 0.05 inch of mercury at maximum cruising power, The carburetor preheater system increased the temperature of the engine charge air a maximum of about 82 F at an average cowl-inlet air temperature of 9 F, a pressure altitude of 5000 feet, and a brake horsepower of 1240.

  11. Research, development and demonstration of a fuel cell/battery powered bus system. Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1990-02-28

    Purpose of the Phase I effort was to demonstrate feasibility of the fuel cell/battery system for powering a small bus (under 30 ft or 9 m) on an urban bus route. A brassboard powerplant was specified, designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate feasibility in the laboratory. The proof-of-concept bus, with a powerplant scaled up from the brassboard, will be demonstrated under Phase II.

  12. Technology for Bayton-cycle powerplants using solar and nuclear energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Brayton cycle gas turbines have the potential to use either solar heat or nuclear reactors for generating from tens of kilowatts to tens of megawatts of power in space, all this from a single technology for the power generating system. Their development for solar energy dynamic power generation for the space station could be the first step in an evolution of such powerplants for a very wide range of applications. At the low power level of only 10 kWe, a power generating system has already demonstrated overall efficiency of 0.29 and operated 38 000 hr. Tests of improved components show that these components would raise that efficiency to 0.32, a value twice that demonstrated by any alternate concept. Because of this high efficiency, solar Brayton cycle power generators offer the potential to increase power per unit of solar collector area to levels exceeding four times that from photovoltaic powerplants using present technology for silicon solar cells. The technologies for solar mirrors and heat receivers are reviewed and assessed. This Brayton technology for solar powerplants is equally suitable for use with the nuclear reactors. The available long time creep data on the tantalum alloy ASTAR-811C show that such Brayton cycles can evolve to cycle peak temperatures of 1500 K (2240 F). And this same technology can be extended to generate 10 to 100 MW in space by exploiting existing technology for terrestrial gas turbines in the fields of both aircraft propulsion and stationary power generation.

  13. Summary of Recent Hybrid Torpedo Powerplant Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    Powerplant Studies by Jonathan A. Peters Technical Report No. 07-004 December 2007 Supported by: E. G. Liszka, Director Office of Naval Research...To) 11/30/2007 Technical Report I 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Summary of Recent Hybrid Torpedo Powerplant Studies N00014-05-G-0106 5b...releasable Technical Report version to follow. 15 The THERMHYB package has been used successfully to support a number of powerplant development

  14. Development of advanced fuel cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grevstad, P. E.

    1972-01-01

    Weight, life and performance characteristics optimization of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell power systems were considered. A promising gold alloy cathode catalyst was identified and tested in a cell for 5,000 hours. The compatibility characteristics of candidate polymer structural materials were measured after exposure to electrolyte and water vapor for 8,000 hours. Lightweight cell designs were prepared and fabrication techniques to produce them were developed. Testing demonstrated that predicted performance was achieved. Lightweight components for passive product water removal and evaporative cooling of cells were demonstrated. Systems studies identified fuel cell powerplant concepts for meeting the requirements of advanced spacecraft.

  15. Loading concepts for Hoover Powerplant to optimize plant operating efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Stitt, S.C.

    1983-08-01

    Plant efficiency gains that could be realized at Hoover Powerplant by the use of an algorithm to optimize plant efficiency are given. Comparisons are shown between the present plant operating conditions modeled on a digital computer, and the plant with the proposed unified bus operating under control of a GELA (Generator Efficiency Loading Algorithm) system. The basic concepts of that algorithm are given.

  16. Application of fuel cells with heat recovery for integrated utility systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, V.; King, J. M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of fuel cell powerplants with heat recovery for use in an integrated utility system. Such a design provides for a low pollution, noise-free, highly efficient integrated utility. Use of the waste heat from the fuel cell powerplant in an integrated utility system for the village center complex of a new community results in a reduction in resource consumption of 42 percent compared to conventional methods. In addition, the system has the potential of operating on fuels produced from waste materials (pyrolysis and digester gases); this would provide further reduction in energy consumption.

  17. Water consumption by nuclear powerplants and some hydrological implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giusti, Ennio V.; Meyer, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    Published data show that estimated water consumption varies with the cooling system adopted, being least in once-through cooling (about 18 cubic feet per second per 1,000 megawatts electrical) and greatest in closed cooling with mechanical draft towers (about 30 cubic feet per second per 1,000 megawatts electrical). When freshwater is used at this magnitude, water-resources economy may be affected in a given region. The critical need for cooling water at all times by the nuclear powerplant industry, coupled with the knowledge that water withdrawal in the basin will generally increase with time and will be at a maximum during low-flow periods, indicates a need for reexamination of the design low flow currently adopted and the methods used to estimate it. The amount of power generated, the name of the cooling water source, and the cooling method adopted for all nuclear powerplants projected to be in operation by 1985 in the United States are tabulated and the estimated annual evaporation at each powerplant site is shown on a map of the conterminous United States. Another map is presented that shows all nuclear powerplants located on river sites as well as stream reaches in the United States where the 7-day, 10-year low flow is at least 300 cubic feet per second or where this amount of flow can be developed with storage. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Aircraft Power-Plant Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sontag, Harcourt; Brombacher, W G

    1934-01-01

    This report supersedes NACA-TR-129 which is now obsolete. Aircraft power-plant instruments include tachometers, engine thermometers, pressure gages, fuel-quantity gages, fuel flow meters and indicators, and manifold pressure gages. The report includes a description of the commonly used types and some others, the underlying principle utilized in the design, and some design data. The inherent errors of the instrument, the methods of making laboratory tests, descriptions of the test apparatus, and data in considerable detail in the performance of commonly used instruments are presented. Standard instruments and, in cases where it appears to be of interest, those used as secondary standards are described. A bibliography of important articles is included.

  19. 14 CFR 25.1337 - Powerplant instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....1337 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Instruments: Installation § 25.1337 Powerplant... hazard. (b) Fuel quantity indicator. There must be means to indicate to the flight crewmembers,...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1337 - Powerplant instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....1337 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Instruments: Installation § 25.1337 Powerplant... hazard. (b) Fuel quantity indicator. There must be means to indicate to the flight crewmembers,...

  1. Improved Round Trip Efficiency for Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-15

    cell powerplant, an electrolysis system for recharging the reactants, and reactant storage. These water - Page 1 of 5 N00014-10-C-0369 Proton...will work for both water polishing and as the hydrogen recovery reactor . Parts were ordered and received. Chemical modification of the reactor media...refurbishment is proceeding on schedule. A prototype design for the hydrogen recovery reactor has been developed for procurement of parts and the

  2. Development of advanced fuel cell system, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, L. M.; Meyer, A. P.; Bell, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    A multiple task research and development program was performed to improve the weight, life, and performance characteristics of hydrogen-oxygen alkaline fuel cells for advanced power systems. Development and characterization of a very stable gold alloy catalyst was continued from Phase I of the program. A polymer material for fabrication of cell structural components was identified and its long term compatibility with the fuel cell environment was demonstrated in cell tests. Full scale partial cell stacks, with advanced design closed cycle evaporative coolers, were tested. The characteristics demonstrated in these tests verified the feasibility of developing the engineering model system concept into an advanced lightweight long life powerplant.

  3. General Motors automotive fuel cell program

    SciTech Connect

    Fronk, M.H.

    1995-08-01

    The objectives of the second phase of the GM/DOE fuel cell program is to develop and test a 30 kW fuel cell powerplant. This powerplant will be based on a methanol fuel processor and a proton exchange membrane PM fuel cell stack. In addition, the 10 kW system developed during phase I will be used as a {open_quotes}mule{close_quotes} to test automotive components and other ancillaries, needed for transient operation.

  4. 10 CFR 504.9 - Environmental requirements for certifying powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... use of natural gas or petroleum, or both, as a primary energy source in any certifying powerplant... fuel as a primary energy source in a certifying powerplant. (a) NEPA compliance. Except as provided in... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental requirements for certifying powerplants....

  5. 10 CFR 504.9 - Environmental requirements for certifying powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... use of natural gas or petroleum, or both, as a primary energy source in any certifying powerplant... fuel as a primary energy source in a certifying powerplant. (a) NEPA compliance. Except as provided in... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental requirements for certifying powerplants....

  6. 10 CFR 504.9 - Environmental requirements for certifying powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... use of natural gas or petroleum, or both, as a primary energy source in any certifying powerplant... fuel as a primary energy source in a certifying powerplant. (a) NEPA compliance. Except as provided in... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental requirements for certifying powerplants....

  7. 14 CFR 65.87 - Powerplant rating; additional privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.87... certificated mechanic with a powerplant rating may approve and return to service a powerplant or propeller or... and return it to service. (b) A certificated mechanic with a powerplant rating can approve and...

  8. 14 CFR 65.87 - Powerplant rating; additional privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.87... certificated mechanic with a powerplant rating may approve and return to service a powerplant or propeller or... and return it to service. (b) A certificated mechanic with a powerplant rating can approve and...

  9. 14 CFR 65.87 - Powerplant rating; additional privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.87... certificated mechanic with a powerplant rating may approve and return to service a powerplant or propeller or... and return it to service. (b) A certificated mechanic with a powerplant rating can approve and...

  10. 14 CFR 65.87 - Powerplant rating; additional privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.87... certificated mechanic with a powerplant rating may approve and return to service a powerplant or propeller or... and return it to service. (b) A certificated mechanic with a powerplant rating can approve and...

  11. 14 CFR 65.87 - Powerplant rating; additional privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.87... certificated mechanic with a powerplant rating may approve and return to service a powerplant or propeller or... and return it to service. (b) A certificated mechanic with a powerplant rating can approve and...

  12. 14 CFR 27.1141 - Powerplant controls: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... open and fully closed position. (e) For turbine engine powered rotorcraft, no single failure or... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories... creep due to control loads or vibration. (d) Controls of powerplant valves required for safety must...

  13. 14 CFR 27.1141 - Powerplant controls: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... open and fully closed position. (e) For turbine engine powered rotorcraft, no single failure or... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories... creep due to control loads or vibration. (d) Controls of powerplant valves required for safety must...

  14. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 147 - Powerplant Curriculum Subjects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Powerplant Curriculum Subjects D Appendix D... Appendix D to Part 147—Powerplant Curriculum Subjects This appendix lists the subjects required in at least 750 hours of each powerplant curriculum, in addition to at least 400 hours in general...

  15. 10 CFR 504.9 - Environmental requirements for certifying powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental requirements for certifying powerplants. 504.9 Section 504.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS § 504.9... fuel as a primary energy source in a certifying powerplant. (a) NEPA compliance. Except as provided...

  16. Nuclear Powerplant Safety: Source Terms. Nuclear Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    There has been increased public interest in the potential effects of nuclear powerplant accidents since the Soviet reactor accident at Chernobyl. People have begun to look for more information about the amount of radioactivity that might be released into the environment as a result of such an accident. When this issue is discussed by people…

  17. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Have torque limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established... approved as part of the powerplant driving the gearbox must— (1) Have torque limiting means to prevent the torque limits established for the affected drive from being exceeded; (2) Use the provisions on...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Have torque limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established... approved as part of the powerplant driving the gearbox must— (1) Have torque limiting means to prevent the torque limits established for the affected drive from being exceeded; (2) Use the provisions on...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Have torque limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established... approved as part of the powerplant driving the gearbox must— (1) Have torque limiting means to prevent the torque limits established for the affected drive from being exceeded; (2) Use the provisions on...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Have torque limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established... approved as part of the powerplant driving the gearbox must— (1) Have torque limiting means to prevent the torque limits established for the affected drive from being exceeded; (2) Use the provisions on...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1163 - Powerplant accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Have torque limiting means on all accessory drives in order to prevent the torque limits established... approved as part of the powerplant driving the gearbox must— (1) Have torque limiting means to prevent the torque limits established for the affected drive from being exceeded; (2) Use the provisions on...

  2. A reliability and mass perspective of SP-100 Stirling cycle lunar-base powerplant designs

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomfield, H.S.

    1991-06-01

    The purpose was to obtain reliability and mass perspectives on selection of space power system conceptual designs based on SP-100 reactor and Stirling cycle power-generation subsystems. The approach taken was to: (1) develop a criterion for an acceptable overall reliability risk as a function of the expected range of emerging technology subsystem unit reliabilities; (2) conduct reliability and mass analyses for a diverse matrix of 800-kWe lunar-base design configurations employing single and multiple powerplants with both full and partial subsystem redundancy combinations; and (3) derive reliability and mass perspectives on selection of conceptual design configurations that meet an acceptable reliability criterion with the minimum system mass increase relative to reference powerplant design. The developed perspectives provided valuable insight into the considerations required to identify and characterize high-reliability and low-mass lunar-base powerplant conceptual design.

  3. A reliability and mass perspective of SP-100 Stirling cycle lunar-base powerplant designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose was to obtain reliability and mass perspectives on selection of space power system conceptual designs based on SP-100 reactor and Stirling cycle power-generation subsystems. The approach taken was to: (1) develop a criterion for an acceptable overall reliability risk as a function of the expected range of emerging technology subsystem unit reliabilities; (2) conduct reliability and mass analyses for a diverse matrix of 800-kWe lunar-base design configurations employing single and multiple powerplants with both full and partial subsystem redundancy combinations; and (3) derive reliability and mass perspectives on selection of conceptual design configurations that meet an acceptable reliability criterion with the minimum system mass increase relative to reference powerplant design. The developed perspectives provided valuable insight into the considerations required to identify and characterize high-reliability and low-mass lunar-base powerplant conceptual design.

  4. Conceptual design study of a coal gasification combined-cycle powerplant for industrial cogeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Nelson, S. G.; Straight, H. F.; Subramaniam, T. K.; Winklepleck, R. G.

    1981-03-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to assess technical feasibility, environmental characteristics, and economics of coal gasification. The feasibility of a coal gasification combined cycle cogeneration powerplant was examined in response to energy needs and to national policy aimed at decreasing dependence on oil and natural gas. The powerplant provides the steam heating and baseload electrical requirements while serving as a prototype for industrial cogeneration and a modular building block for utility applications. The following topics are discussed: (1) screening of candidate gasification, sulfur removal and power conversion components; (2) definition of a reference system; (3) quantification of plant emissions and waste streams; (4) estimates of capital and operating costs; and (5) a procurement and construction schedule. It is concluded that the proposed powerplant is technically feasible and environmentally superior.

  5. Conceptual design study of a coal gasification combined-cycle powerplant for industrial cogeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Nelson, S. G.; Straight, H. F.; Subramaniam, T. K.; Winklepleck, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to assess technical feasibility, environmental characteristics, and economics of coal gasification. The feasibility of a coal gasification combined cycle cogeneration powerplant was examined in response to energy needs and to national policy aimed at decreasing dependence on oil and natural gas. The powerplant provides the steam heating and baseload electrical requirements while serving as a prototype for industrial cogeneration and a modular building block for utility applications. The following topics are discussed: (1) screening of candidate gasification, sulfur removal and power conversion components; (2) definition of a reference system; (3) quantification of plant emissions and waste streams; (4) estimates of capital and operating costs; and (5) a procurement and construction schedule. It is concluded that the proposed powerplant is technically feasible and environmentally superior.

  6. Strip cell test and evaluation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gitlow, B.; Bell, W. F.; Martin, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The performance characteristics of alkaline fuel cells to be used for space power systems were tested. Endurance tests were conducted on the cells during energy conversion operations. A feature of the cells fabricated and tested was the capability to evaporate the product water formed during the energy conversion reaction directly to space vacuum. A fuel cell powerplant incorporating these cells does not require a condenser and a hydrogen recirculating pump water separator to remove the product water. This simplified the fuel cell powerplant system, reduced the systems weight, and reduced the systems parasite power.

  7. Large and small photovoltaic powerplants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormode, Daniel

    The installed base of photovoltaic power plants in the United States has roughly doubled every 1 to 2 years between 2008 and 2015. The primary economic drivers of this are government mandates for renewable power, falling prices for all PV system components, 3rd party ownership models, and a generous tariff scheme known as net-metering. Other drivers include a desire for decreasing the environmental impact of electricity generation and a desire for some degree of independence from the local electric utility. The result is that in coming years, PV power will move from being a minor niche to a mainstream source of energy. As additional PV power comes online this will create challenges for the electric grid operators. We examine some problems related to large scale adoption of PV power in the United States. We do this by first discussing questions of reliability and efficiency at the PV system level. We measure the output of a fleet of small PV systems installed at Tucson Electric Power, and we characterize the degradation of those PV systems over several years. We develop methods to predict energy output from PV systems and quantify the impact of negatives such as partial shading, inverter inefficiency and malfunction of bypass diodes. Later we characterize the variability from large PV systems, including fleets of geographically diverse utility scale power plants. We also consider the power and energy requirements needed to smooth those systems, both from the perspective of an individual system and as a fleet. Finally we report on experiments from a utility scale PV plus battery hybrid system deployed near Tucson, Arizona where we characterize the ability of this system to produce smoothly ramping power as well as production of ancillary energy services such as frequency response.

  8. 14 CFR 121.253 - Powerplant fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Powerplant fire protection. 121.253 Section... Powerplant fire protection. (a) Designated fire zones must be protected from fire by compliance with §§ 121.255 through 121.261. (b) Designated fire zones are— (1) Engine accessory sections; (2)...

  9. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 147 - Powerplant Curriculum Subjects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Powerplant Curriculum Subjects D Appendix D... (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES AVIATION MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN SCHOOLS Pt. 147, App. D Appendix D to Part 147—Powerplant Curriculum Subjects This appendix lists the subjects required in at...

  10. 14 CFR 29.1141 - Powerplant controls: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 29.1141 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Controls and... required for safety must have— (1) For manual valves, positive stops or in the case of fuel valves...

  11. Performance retention of the RB211 powerplant in service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Astridge, B. L.; Pinder, J. T.

    1981-01-01

    An understanding of the mechanisms of deterioration is essential in order that features to counteract performance degradation can be built into the basic design of an engine and nacelle. Furthermore, the interpretation must be continued in service for effective feedback to provide modifications which may be necessary in maintaining a satisfactory performance retention program. The in service assessment must be accurate as to magnitude and causes and this requires consideration of: (1) the powerplant as a complete entity, i.e., the engine components and nacelle including the thrust reverser; (2) measurement of performance in flight rather than by sole reliance on the scaling of test cell data to flight conditions (although some correlation should be possible); and (3) the relationship of engine parts condition to overhaul performance and in flight deterioration level of that engine. These aspects are addressed by consideration of the RB211 engine in service in both the Lockheed L1011 Tristar and Boeing 747 aircraft.

  12. Seasonal issues can chill powerplant profits

    SciTech Connect

    Swanekamp, R.

    1996-07-01

    Profitable operation requires minimizing the seasonal constraints imposed by weather. This article describes how forward-thinking operators review their plans for winterization and hot-weather operation--before the thermometer darts toward either extreme. new cooling towers (CTs) are no longer oversized, leaving little room for fouling that can shoot up in hot weather. Also, powerplants are no longer being designed with surplus heat exchangers and redundant pumps--features that can help a plant get through extreme temperatures. And at a growing list of plants, the CTs are eliminated altogether, in favor of air-cooled (AC) condensers--which can have their own trouble holding condenser vacuum when the outdoor thermometer skyrockets; and, like their CT cousins, can suffer serious failures if improperly operated in winter`s freeze. Although design margins are being stretched thin, seasoned operations and maintenance (O and M) teams can minimize the constraints imposed by mother nature.

  13. Advanced Control Systems for Aircraft Powerplants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    injecteurs directs employ~s norma - lement dans les brfileurs de chaudi~re de chauffage central Maihenreusement, ce type d’injecteur n’a de bonnes...Alir Temperature, to2npd_’rature statique oxt(ric,.ure APA Power Lever Angle , angle, On lev&or des gas sozr acteur PT2 Pres~sion to tale entr*e so tour

  14. Fuel cell on-site integrated energy system parametric analysis of a residential complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, S. N.

    1977-01-01

    The use of phosphoric acid fuel cell powerplant to provide all the electricity required by an 81-unit garden apartment complex is studied. Byproduct heat is recovered and provides some of the heat required by the complex. The onsite integrated energy system contains energy conversion equipment including combinations of compression and absorption chillers, heat pumps, electric resistance heaters, and thermal storage. The annual fuel requirement for several onsite integrated energy systems as well as the fuel cell breakeven cost for one specific system were calculated. It is found that electrical efficiency cannot be traded off against thermal efficiency without paying a penalty in system efficiency.

  15. Technology for Brayton-cycle space powerplants using solar and nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    English, R.E.

    1986-02-01

    Brayton-cycle gas turbines have the potential to use either solar heat or nuclear reactors to generate from tens of kilowatts to tens of megawatts of power in space, all this from a single technology for the power-generating system. Their development for solar-energy dynamic power generation for the space station could be the first step in an evolution of such powerplants for a very wide range of applications. At the low power level of only 10 kWe, a power-generating system has already demonstrated overall efficiency of 0.29 and operated for 38,000 hr. Tests of improved components show that, if installed in the power-generating system, these components would raise that efficiency to 0.32; this efficiency is twice that so far demonstrated by any alternate concept, a characteristic especially important for solar power systems. Because of this high efficiency, solar-heat Brayton-cycle power generators offer the potential to increase power per unit of solar-collector area to levels exceeding four times that from photovoltaic powerplants based on present technology for silicon solar cells. For the heat source, paraboloidal mirrors have been assembled from sectors here on Earth. One mirror, 1.5-m diameter, had a standard error for its surface of only 1 arc-min and a specific mass of only 1.3 kg/m 2. A heavier mirror (nearly 5 kg/m{sup 2}), assembled from 12 sectors, had a standard surface error of 3 arc-min but was 6 m in diameter. Either of these mirrors is sufficiently accurate for use with the Brayton cycle, but the techniques for actually assembling large mirrors in space must yet be worked out. For use during the shadow period of a low Earth orbit (LEO), heat could be stored in LiF, a salt that melts at 1121 K (1558{degrees}F) and whose latent heat of fusion exceeds 1 MJ/kg. Because of the prior experience with its fabrication and of its tolerance of the thermal cycling in LEO, Nb-1Zr was selected to contain the LiF.

  16. Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Robert L.; Simmons, Mary Ann; McKinstry, Craig A.; Simmons, Carver S.; Cook, Chris B.; Brown, Richard S.; Tano, Daniel K.; Thorsten, Susan L.; Faber, Derrek M.; Lecaire, Richard; Francis, Stephen

    2005-02-25

    This report documents the fourth year of a four-year study to assess the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and rainbow trout (O. mykiss) in the forebay to the third powerplant at Grand Coulee Dam. This work was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in conjunction with the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes).

  17. Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Mary Ann; Johnson, Robert L.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Simmons, Carver S.; Cook, Chris B.; Brown, Richard S.; Tano, Daniel K.; Thorsten, Susan L.; Faber, Derrek M.; Lecaire, Richard; Francis, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the third year of a four-year study to assess the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and rainbow trout (O. mykiss) in the forebay to the third powerplant at Grand Coulee Dam. This work was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in conjunction with the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes).

  18. Economic competitiveness of fuel cell onsite integrated energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenbacher, G.

    1983-01-01

    The economic competitiveness of fuel cell onsite integrated energy systems (OS/IES) in residential and commercial buildings is examined. The analysis is carried out for three different buildings with each building assumed to be at three geographic locations spanning a range of climatic conditions. Numerous design options and operating strategies are evaluated and two economic criteria are used to measure economic performance. In general the results show that fuel cell OS/IES's are competitive in most regions of the country if the OS/IES is properly designed. The preferred design is grid connected, makes effective use of the fuel cell's thermal output, and has a fuel cell powerplant sized for the building's base electrical load.

  19. Enabling Technology for Monitoring & Predicting Gas Turbine Health & Performance in IGCC Powerplants

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth A. Yackly

    2005-12-01

    The ''Enabling & Information Technology To Increase RAM for Advanced Powerplants'' program, by DOE request, was re-directed, de-scoped to two tasks, shortened to a 2-year period of performance, and refocused to develop, validate and accelerate the commercial use of enabling materials technologies and sensors for coal/IGCC powerplants. The new program was re-titled ''Enabling Technology for Monitoring & Predicting Gas Turbine Health & Performance in IGCC Powerplants''. This final report summarizes the work accomplished from March 1, 2003 to March 31, 2004 on the four original tasks, and the work accomplished from April 1, 2004 to July 30, 2005 on the two re-directed tasks. The program Tasks are summarized below: Task 1--IGCC Environmental Impact on high Temperature Materials: The first task was refocused to address IGCC environmental impacts on high temperature materials used in gas turbines. This task screened material performance and quantified the effects of high temperature erosion and corrosion of hot gas path materials in coal/IGCC applications. The materials of interest included those in current service as well as advanced, high-performance alloys and coatings. Task 2--Material In-Service Health Monitoring: The second task was reduced in scope to demonstrate new technologies to determine the inservice health of advanced technology coal/IGCC powerplants. The task focused on two critical sensing needs for advanced coal/IGCC gas turbines: (1) Fuel Quality Sensor to rapidly determine the fuel heating value for more precise control of the gas turbine, and detection of fuel impurities that could lead to rapid component degradation. (2) Infra-Red Pyrometer to continuously measure the temperature of gas turbine buckets, nozzles, and combustor hardware. Task 3--Advanced Methods for Combustion Monitoring and Control: The third task was originally to develop and validate advanced monitoring and control methods for coal/IGCC gas turbine combustion systems. This task was

  20. Groundwater impact assessment report for the 284-WB Powerplant Ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.; Johnson, V.G.; Lindsey, K.A.

    1993-09-01

    As required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-17-00A), this report assesses the impact of wastewater discharged to the 284-WB Powerplant Ponds on groundwater quality. The assessment reported herein expands upon the initial analysis conducted between 1989 and 1990 for the Liquid Effluent Study Final Project Plan.

  1. 14 CFR 23.939 - Powerplant operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant... range of operating limitations of the airplane and of the engine. (b) Turbocharged reciprocating engine... emergency operation of the engine(s) throughout the range of operating limitations of both airplane...

  2. 14 CFR 23.939 - Powerplant operating characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant... range of operating limitations of the airplane and of the engine. (b) Turbocharged reciprocating engine... emergency operation of the engine(s) throughout the range of operating limitations of both airplane...

  3. Overcoming Present-Day Powerplant Limitations Via Unconventional Engine Configurations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    an excellent chance of achieving Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition ( HCCI ), the holy grail of piston engine research. Most important, the...1 OVERCOMING PRESENT-DAY POWERPLANT LIMITATIONS VIA UNCONVENTIONAL ENGINE CONFIGURATIONS P.L. Meitner* Army Research Laboratory—Vehicle...development of three unconventional engine concepts - two intermittent combustion (IC) engines and one turbine engine (via SBIR (Small Business

  4. 18 CFR 287.101 - Determination of powerplant design capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 1978, a powerplant's design capacity shall be determined as follows: (a) Steam-electric generating unit. The design capacity of a steam-electric generating unit shall be maximum generator nameplate rating... for site elevation, and the maximum generator nameplate rating measured in kilowatts of the...

  5. 18 CFR 287.101 - Determination of powerplant design capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 1978, a powerplant's design capacity shall be determined as follows: (a) Steam-electric generating unit. The design capacity of a steam-electric generating unit shall be maximum generator nameplate rating... for site elevation, and the maximum generator nameplate rating measured in kilowatts of the...

  6. 18 CFR 287.101 - Determination of powerplant design capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 1978, a powerplant's design capacity shall be determined as follows: (a) Steam-electric generating unit. The design capacity of a steam-electric generating unit shall be maximum generator nameplate rating... adjusted for site elevation, and the maximum generator nameplate rating measured in kilowatts of the...

  7. 18 CFR 287.101 - Determination of powerplant design capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of powerplant design capacity. 287.101 Section 287.101 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... site elevation. (c) Combined cycle unit. The design capacity of a combined cycle shall be the sum...

  8. 18 CFR 287.101 - Determination of powerplant design capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of powerplant design capacity. 287.101 Section 287.101 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... unit's site elevation. (c) Combined cycle unit. The design capacity of a combined cycle shall be...

  9. Design of power-plant installations pressure-loss characteristics of duct components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, John R

    1944-01-01

    A correlation of what are believed to be the most reliable data available on duct components of aircraft power-plant installations is presented. The information is given in a convenient form and is offered as an aid in designing duct systems and, subject to certain qualifications, as a guide in estimating their performance. The design and performance data include those for straight ducts; simple bends of square, circular, and elliptical cross sections; compound bends; diverging and converging bends; vaned bends; diffusers; branch ducts; internal inlets; and an angular placement of heat exchangers. Examples are included to illustrate methods of applying these data in analyzing duct systems. (author)

  10. Status of commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshay, M.

    1987-01-01

    A technology development and commercial feasibility evaluation is presented for phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) applicable to electric utility operations. The correction of identified design deficiencies in the control card and water treatment subsystems is projected to be able to substantially increase average powerplant availability from the 63 percent achieved in recent field tests of a PAFC system. Current development work is proceeding under NASA research contracts at the output levels of a multimegawatt facility for electric utility use, a multikilowatt on-site integrated energy generation facility, and advanced electrocatalysts applicable to PAFCs.

  11. Characterisation of a hybrid, fuel-cell-based propulsion system for small unmanned aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraete, D.; Lehmkuehler, K.; Gong, A.; Harvey, J. R.; Brian, G.; Palmer, J. L.

    2014-03-01

    Advanced hybrid powerplants combining a fuel cell and battery can enable significantly higher endurance for small, electrically powered unmanned aircraft systems, compared with batteries alone. However, detailed investigations of the static and dynamic performance of such systems are required to address integration challenges. This article describes a series of tests used to characterise the Horizon Energy Systems' AeroStack hybrid, fuel-cell-based powertrain. The results demonstrate that a significant difference can exist between the dynamic performance of the fuel-cell system and its static polarisation curve, confirming the need for detailed measurements. The results also confirm that the AeroStack's lithium-polymer battery plays a crucial role in its response to dynamic load changes and protects the fuel cell from membrane dehydration and fuel starvation. At low static loads, the AeroStack fuel cell recharges the battery with currents up to 1 A, which leads to further differences with the polarisation curve.

  12. Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1981-03-01

    This annual report was prepared for the Congress by the Secretary of the Department of Energy (DOE) in conjunction with the Acting Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as required by Section 806 of the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 (FUA), Public Law 95-620, enacted November 9, 1978. This annual report describes actions taken under the legislation, which was enacted to promote national energy self-sufficiency and encourage the use of the alternate energy resources in electric powerplants and major industrial fuel-burning installations (MFBI's) in the utility, industrial and Federal governmental sectors. Annual FUA implementation activities are discussed and legislative requirements are satisfied that the annual report discuss: actions taken under FUA and under Section 2 of the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974 (ESECA) Public Law 93-319 during the preceding calendar year; and the effectiveness of the provisions of both laws in achieving their purposes.

  13. Comparison of financing costs for wind turbine and fossil powerplants

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, E.

    1995-02-01

    This paper compares the financing costs of wind turbine powerplants with those of fossil powerplants. The goal of this examination is to determine the extent to which these costs differ and what the sources of such differences may be. The discussion is organized in the following fashion. Section 2 introduces basic terminology and concepts from finance, as they apply in the powerplant setting. Section 3 reviews available data from a variety of sources to estimate the magnitude of the variables identified in Section 2. In Section 4 we examine the effect of the production tax credit enacted in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 on the financing of wind turbine projects. Conclusions are offered in Section 5. In the past two years there have been only two wind turbine projects that have been financed, so the basis for broad conclusions is limited. Nonetheless, there appears to be a significant advantage in financing costs for conventional projects compared to wind turbines. The two sources of disadvantage to wind power are first, the cost of equity capital is significantly more expensive, and second, the capital structure of wind projects has a much greater fraction of expensive equity than conventional alternatives.

  14. Development and experimental characterization of a fuel cell powered aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Thomas H.; Moffitt, Blake A.; Mavris, Dimitri N.; Parekh, David E.

    This paper describes the characteristics and performance of a fuel cell powered unmanned aircraft. The aircraft is novel as it is the largest compressed hydrogen fuel cell powered airplane built to date and is currently the only fuel cell aircraft whose design and test results are in the public domain. The aircraft features a 500 W polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell with full balance of plant and compressed hydrogen storage incorporated into a custom airframe. Details regarding the design requirements, implementation and control of the aircraft are presented for each major aircraft system. The performances of the aircraft and powerplant are analyzed using data from flights and laboratory tests. The efficiency and component power consumption of the fuel cell propulsion system are measured at a variety of flight conditions. The performance of the aircraft powerplant is compared to other 0.5-1 kW-scale fuel cell powerplants in the literature and means of performance improvement for this aircraft are proposed. This work represents one of the first studies of fuel cell powered aircraft to result in a demonstration aircraft. As such, the results of this study are of practical interest to fuel cell powerplant and aircraft designers.

  15. Speculations on future opportunities to evolve Brayton powerplants aboard the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station provides a unique, low-risk environment in which to evolve new capabilities. In this way, the Space Station will grow in capacity, in its range of capabilities, and its economy of operation as a laboratory and as a center for space operations. Although both Rankine and Brayton cycles, two concepts for solar dynamic power generation, now compete to power the station, this paper confines its attention to the Brayton cycle using a mixture of He and Xe as its working fluid. Such a Brayton powerplant to supply the station's increasing demands for both electric power and heat has the potential to gradually evolve higher and higher performance by exploiting already-evolved materials (ASTAR-811C and molten-Li heat storage), its peak cycle temperature rising ultimately to 1500 K. Adapting the station to exploit long tethers (200 to 300 km long) could yield increases in payloads to LEO, to GEO, and to distant destinations in the solar system. Such tethering of the Space Station would not only require additional power for electric propulsion but also would so increase nuclear safety that nuclear powerplants might provide this power. From an 8000-kWt SP-100 reactor, thermoelectric power generation could produce 300 kWe, or adapted solar-Brayton cycle, 2400 to 2800 kWe.

  16. Speculations on future opportunities to evolve Brayton powerplants aboard the space station

    SciTech Connect

    English, R.E.

    1994-09-01

    The Space Station provides a unique, low-risk environment in which to evolve new capabilities. In this way, the Station will grow in capacity, in its range of capabilities, and in its economy of operation as a laboratory, as a center for materials processing, and as a center for space operations. Although both Rankine and Brayton cycles, two concepts for solar-dynamic power generation, now compete to power the Station, this paper confines its attention to the Brayton cycle using a mixture of He and Xe as its working fluid. Such a Brayton powerplant to supply the Station`s increasing demands for both electric power and heat has the potential to gradually evolve higher and higher performance by exploiting already-evolved materials (ASTAR-811C and molten-Li heat storage), its peak cycle temperature rising ultimately to 1500 K. Adapting the Station to exploit long tethers (200 to 300 km long) could yield large increases in payloads to LEO, to GEO, and to distant destinations in the solar system. Such tethering of the Space Station would not only require additional power for electric propulsion but also would so increase nuclear safety that nuclear powerplants might provide this power. From an 8000-kWt SP-100 reactor, thermoelectric power generation could produce 300 kWe, or adapted solar-Brayton cycle, 2400 to 2800 kWe.

  17. Development of Advanced Fuel Cell System (Phase 4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, A. P.; Bell, W. F.

    1976-01-01

    A multiple-task research and development program was performed to improve the weight, life, and performance characteristics of hydrogen-oxygen alkaline fuel cells for advanced power systems. During Phase 4, the lowest stabilized degradation rate observed in all the testing completed during four phases of the program, 1 microvolt/hour, was demonstrated. This test continues after 5,000 hours of operation. The cell incorporates a PPf anode, a 90Au/10Pt cathode, a hybrid frame, and a Fybex matrix. These elements were developed under this program to extend cell life. The result demonstrated that the 80Au/20Pt cathode is as stable as a 90Au/10Pt cathode of twice the precious metal loading, was confirmed in full-scale cells. A hybrid frame two-cell plaque with dedicated flow fields and manifolds for all fluids was demonstrated to prevent the cell-to cell electrolyte transfer that limited the endurance of multicell plaques. At the conclusion of Phase 4, more than 90,900 hours of testing had been completed and twelve different cell designs had been evaluated. A technology base has been established which is ready for evaluation at the powerplant level.

  18. 14 CFR 27.1521 - Powerplant limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... engine torque. For rotorcraft with main rotors driven by turboshaft engines, and that do not have a torque limiting device in the transmission system, the following apply: (1) A limit engine torque must be established if the maximum torque that the engine can exert is greater than— (i) The torque that the...

  19. 14 CFR 27.1521 - Powerplant limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... engine torque. For rotorcraft with main rotors driven by turboshaft engines, and that do not have a torque limiting device in the transmission system, the following apply: (1) A limit engine torque must be established if the maximum torque that the engine can exert is greater than— (i) The torque that the...

  20. 14 CFR 27.1521 - Powerplant limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... engine torque. For rotorcraft with main rotors driven by turboshaft engines, and that do not have a torque limiting device in the transmission system, the following apply: (1) A limit engine torque must be established if the maximum torque that the engine can exert is greater than— (i) The torque that the...

  1. 14 CFR 27.1521 - Powerplant limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... engine torque. For rotorcraft with main rotors driven by turboshaft engines, and that do not have a torque limiting device in the transmission system, the following apply: (1) A limit engine torque must be established if the maximum torque that the engine can exert is greater than— (i) The torque that the...

  2. 14 CFR 27.1521 - Powerplant limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... engine torque. For rotorcraft with main rotors driven by turboshaft engines, and that do not have a torque limiting device in the transmission system, the following apply: (1) A limit engine torque must be established if the maximum torque that the engine can exert is greater than— (i) The torque that the...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1305 - Powerplant instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...: (i) That continuously indicates, to the pilot, the fuel pressure or fuel flow; or (ii) That continuously monitors the fuel system and warns the pilot of any fuel flow trend that could lead to engine... strainer or filter required by § 23.997 to indicate the occurrence of contamination of the strainer...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1305 - Powerplant instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...: (i) That continuously indicates, to the pilot, the fuel pressure or fuel flow; or (ii) That continuously monitors the fuel system and warns the pilot of any fuel flow trend that could lead to engine... strainer or filter required by § 23.997 to indicate the occurrence of contamination of the strainer...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1305 - Powerplant instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...: (i) That continuously indicates, to the pilot, the fuel pressure or fuel flow; or (ii) That continuously monitors the fuel system and warns the pilot of any fuel flow trend that could lead to engine... strainer or filter required by § 23.997 to indicate the occurrence of contamination of the strainer...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1305 - Powerplant instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...: (i) That continuously indicates, to the pilot, the fuel pressure or fuel flow; or (ii) That continuously monitors the fuel system and warns the pilot of any fuel flow trend that could lead to engine... strainer or filter required by § 23.997 to indicate the occurrence of contamination of the strainer...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1305 - Powerplant instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: (i) That continuously indicates, to the pilot, the fuel pressure or fuel flow; or (ii) That continuously monitors the fuel system and warns the pilot of any fuel flow trend that could lead to engine... strainer or filter required by § 23.997 to indicate the occurrence of contamination of the strainer...

  8. 14 CFR 27.1305 - Powerplant instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... condition with respect to cooling. (c) A fuel pressure indicator, for each pump-fed engine. (d) A fuel... system. (m) Means to indicate to the flightcrew the failure of any fuel pump installed to show compliance...; (2) Permits retrieval of the recorded data; (3) Can be reset only by ground maintenance...

  9. 14 CFR 27.1305 - Powerplant instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... condition with respect to cooling. (c) A fuel pressure indicator, for each pump-fed engine. (d) A fuel... system. (m) Means to indicate to the flightcrew the failure of any fuel pump installed to show compliance...; (2) Permits retrieval of the recorded data; (3) Can be reset only by ground maintenance...

  10. 14 CFR 29.1305 - Powerplant instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... system which supplies that engine does not employ any pumps, filters, or other components subject to... flightcrew the failure of any fuel pump installed to show compliance with § 29.955; (23) Warning or caution... the recorded data; (iii) Can be reset only by ground maintenance personnel; and (iv) Has a means...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1305 - Powerplant instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... system which supplies that engine does not employ any pumps, filters, or other components subject to... flightcrew the failure of any fuel pump installed to show compliance with § 29.955; (23) Warning or caution... the recorded data; (iii) Can be reset only by ground maintenance personnel; and (iv) Has a means...

  12. Effects of emission reductions at the Hayden powerplant on precipitation, snowpack, and surface-water chemistry in the Mount Zirkel Wilderness Area, Colorado, 1995-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M. Alisa; Campbell, Donald H.; Ingersoll, George P.

    2005-01-01

    Precipitation, snowpack, and surface-water samples collected during 1995-2003 were analyzed to evaluate the effects of emission reductions at the Hayden powerplant on water chemistry in the Mount Zirkel Wilderness Area. The Hayden powerplant, one of two large coal-fired powerplants in the Yampa Valley, was retrofitted with control systems during late 1998 and 1999 to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide--the primary precursors of haze and acidic precipitation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, evaluated three water-chemistry data sets: wet-only precipitation chemistry from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program, snowpack chemistry from the Rocky Mountain snowpack network, and surface-water chemistry from a U.S. Geological Survey long-term lakes monitoring program. Concentrations and deposition rates of selected constituents were compared for the periods before and after emission reductions at the Hayden powerplant. Data collected during 1995-98 were used to represent the pre-control period, and data collected during 2000-2003 were used to represent the post-control period. Ten stations in the National Atmospheric Deposition Program were evaluated including two that were directly downwind from the Hayden powerplant (Dry Lake and Buffalo Pass) and eight that were upwind or more distant (more than 100 kilometers) from the powerplant. Precipitation amount at all 10 precipitation stations was lower in the post-control period than the pre-control period as a result of a regional drought that persisted during the post-control period. In contrast to precipitation amount, there was no consistent pattern of change in sulfate concentrations between periods, indicating that the drought did not have a concentrating effect on sulfate or that trends in regional sulfur dioxide emissions masked its influence. Sulfate concentrations increased at three stations between periods, remained the

  13. Overcoming Present-Day Powerplant Limitations Via Unconventional Engine Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meitner, Peter L.

    2006-01-01

    The Army Research Laboratory s Vehicle Technology Directorate is sponsoring the prototype development of three unconventional engine concepts - two intermittent combustion (IC) engines and one turbine engine (via SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research) contracts). The IC concepts are the Nutating Engine and the Bonner Engine, and the turbine concept is the POWER Engine. Each of the three engines offers unique and greatly improved capabilities (which cannot be achieved by present-day powerplants), while offering significant reductions in size and weight. This paper presents brief descriptions of the physical characteristics of the three engines, and discusses their performance potentials, as well as their development status.

  14. Emerging needs for mobile nuclear powerplants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Incentives for broadening the present role of civilian nuclear power to include mobile nuclear power plants that are compact, lightweight, and safe are examined. Specifically discussed is the growing importance of: (1) a new international cargo transportation capability, and (2) the capability for development of resources in previously remote regions of the earth including the oceans and the Arctic. This report surveys present and potential systems (vehicles, remote stations, and machines) that would both provide these capabilities and require enough power to justify using mobile nuclear reactor power plants.

  15. 10 CFR 501.51 - Prohibitions by order-electing powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prohibitions by order-electing powerplants. 501.51 Section 501.51 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Prohibition Rules and Orders § 501.51 Prohibitions by order—electing powerplants. (a) OFE may prohibit...

  16. 10 CFR 501.51 - Prohibitions by order-electing powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prohibitions by order-electing powerplants. 501.51 Section 501.51 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Prohibition Rules and Orders § 501.51 Prohibitions by order—electing powerplants. (a) OFE may prohibit...

  17. 10 CFR 501.51 - Prohibitions by order-electing powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prohibitions by order-electing powerplants. 501.51 Section 501.51 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Prohibition Rules and Orders § 501.51 Prohibitions by order—electing powerplants. (a) OFE may prohibit...

  18. 10 CFR 503.6 - Cost calculations for new powerplants and installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... accounting principles consistently applied. (9) The scope of the estimates of relevant costs (as discussed... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost calculations for new powerplants and installations... Requirements for Exemptions § 503.6 Cost calculations for new powerplants and installations. (a) General....

  19. 10 CFR 501.52 - Prohibitions by order-certifying powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 501.52 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND... prohibit by order the use of petroleum or natural gas as a primary energy source or in amounts in excess of... reasonable fuel efficiency in an existing powerplant if the owner or operator of the powerplant...

  20. 10 CFR 501.52 - Prohibitions by order-certifying powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 501.52 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND... prohibit by order the use of petroleum or natural gas as a primary energy source or in amounts in excess of... reasonable fuel efficiency in an existing powerplant if the owner or operator of the powerplant...

  1. 10 CFR 501.52 - Prohibitions by order-certifying powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 501.52 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND... prohibit by order the use of petroleum or natural gas as a primary energy source or in amounts in excess of... reasonable fuel efficiency in an existing powerplant if the owner or operator of the powerplant...

  2. Deer Creek Dam, Hydroelectric Powerplant, 868 feet/291 degrees from intersection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Deer Creek Dam, Hydroelectric Powerplant, 868 feet/291 degrees from intersection of dam complex access road with U.S. Highway 189, 1,340 feet/352 degrees from the dam spillway overpass, Charleston, Wasatch County, UT

  3. Comparisons of four alternative powerplant types for future general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickenheiser, T. J.; Knip, G.; Plencner, R. M.; Strack, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    Recently completed NASA sponsored conceptual studies were culminated in the identification of promising new technologies for future spark ignition, diesel, rotary, and turbine engines. The results of a NASA in-house preliminary assessment study that compares these four powerplants types in several general aviation applications are reported. The evaluation consisted of installing each powerplant type in rubberized aircraft which are sized to accomplish fixed missions. The primary evaluation criteria include projected aircraft cost, total ownership cost, and mission fuel.

  4. Technology development for phosphoric acid fuel cell powerplant, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christner, L.

    1979-01-01

    A technique for producing an acid inventory control member by spraying FEP onto a partially screened carbon paper backing is discussed. Theoretical analysis of the acid management indicates that the vapor composition of 103% H3PO4 is approximately 1.0 ppm P4O10. An SEM evaluation of corrosion resistance of phenolic resins and graphite/phenolic resin composites in H3PO4 at 185 C shows specific surface etching. Carbonization of graphite/phenolic bipolar plates is achieved without blistering.

  5. Technology development for phosphoric acid fuel cell powerplant, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christner, L.

    1979-01-01

    Component development has resulted in routine molding of 12 in. by 17 in. bipolar plates with 80 percent acceptance. A 5 C per hour post-cure heating cycle for these plates was found to give blister free materials. Lowering the resin in a bipolar plate content from 32 percent to 22 percent decreases the resistivity more than 50 percent. Evaluation of the corrosion resistance of Novolak and Resol resins at 185 C in phosphoric acid indicates a slow etch. aerosol modified phenolics, however, decompose rapidly. Estimates of acid loss by the use of analytical expressions known as Margule, van Laar, and Wilson equations were not satisfactory. Experimental evaluation of the P4O10 vapor concentration of 103 wt percent acid at 191 C provided a value of 2 ppm. This value is based on a single experiment.

  6. The NASA fuel cell upgrade program for the Space Shuttle Orbiter

    SciTech Connect

    Warshay, M.; Prokopius, P.; Le, M.; Voecks, G.

    1997-12-31

    As part of NASA`s overall efforts to improve the Space Shuttle operations, a program to upgrade the existing fuel cell powerplant has begun. The upgrade will involve replacing the alkaline fuel cell (AFC) system with a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system, resulting in a much lower life cycle cost of the powerplant. The program is being implemented by a team comprised of NASA/JSC, NASA/LeRC, and JPL personnel, with support from NASA/KSC. With extremely high annual maintenance costs and subsystem replacement costs, the need for a lower cost Orbiter fuel cell powerplant is obvious. Earlier NASA plant to upgrade the shuttle fuel cell were not adequately funded and only focused upon upgrading the existing AFC. For the current program, the PEM fuel cell system will be implemented because the projected long life (10,000 hrs. vs. 2,000 hrs. for AFC), high power density (PEM projected to produce 50% more power), and enhanced system reliability and safety all lead to significantly lower life cycle powerplant costs. And in addition to the Orbiter application, PEM fuel cell development would support a number of important space applications that the AFC would not, such as Lunar/Mars transportation, the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), Space Station emergency power and/or future energy storage applications, and various portable applications. NASA is also leveraging all of the large scale PEM fuel cell development activities that are ongoing for DOE, DOD, and commercial applications. There is no activity in the AFC area. The Shuttle Fuel Cell Upgrade plan of the JSC/LeRC/JPL team includes the following key elements: (1) Systems Analyses to assure compatibility/maximum utilization by shuttle of the best PEM fuel cell characteristics; (2) Short Stack Testing of the leading PEM fuel cell contractors` hardware; (3) Detailed Task Objective (DTO) Flight Experiment to verify PEM system water management and thermal management under zero-g operation; (4) A Downselect to the best

  7. Implications of environmental externalities assessments for solar thermal powerplants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, A. D.; Baechler, M. C.

    1991-03-01

    Externalities are those impacts of one activity on other activities that are not priced in the marketplace. An externality is said to exist when two conditions hold: (1) the utility or operations of one economic agent, A, include nonmonetary variables whose values are chosen by another economic agent, B, without regard to the effects on A, and (2) B does not pay A compensation equal to the incremental costs inflicted on A. Electricity generation involves a wide range of potential and actual environmental impacts. Legislative, permitting, and regulatory requirements directly or indirectly control certain environmental impacts, implicitly causing them to become internalized in the cost of electricity generation. Electricity generation, however, often produces residual environmental impacts that meet the definition of an externality. Mechanisms have been developed by several states to include the costs associated with externalities in the cost-effectiveness analyses of new powerplants. This paper examines these costs for solar thermal plants and applies two states' scoring methodologies to estimate how including externalities would affect the levelized costs of power from a solar plant in the Pacific Northwest. It concludes that including externalities in the economics can reduce the difference between the levelized cost of a coal and solar plant by between 0.74 and 2.42 cents/kWh.

  8. Analysis and Test of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Power System for Space Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Arturo; Varanauski, Donald; Clark, Robert, Jr.

    2000-01-01

    An effort is underway to develop a prototype Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell breadboard system for fuhlre space applications. This prototype will be used to develop a comprehensive design basis for a space-rated PEM fuel cell powerplant. The prototype system includes reactant pressure regulators, ejector-based reactant pumps, a 4-kW fuel cell stack and cooling system, and a passive, membranebased oxygen / water separator. A computer model is being developed concurrently to analytically predict fluid flow in the oxidant reactant system. Fuel cells have historically played an important role in human-rated spacecraft. The Gemini and Apollo spacecraft used fuel cells for vehicle electrical power. The Space Shuttle currently uses three Alkaline Fuel Cell Powerplants (AFCP) to generate all of the vehicle's 15-20kW electrical power. Engineers at the Johnson Space Center have leveraged off the development effort ongoing in the commercial arena to develop PEM fuel cel ls for terrestrial uses. The prototype design originated from efforts to develop a PEM fuel cell replacement for the current Space Shuttle AFCP' s. In order to improve on the life and an already excellent hi storical record of reliability and safety, three subsystems were focused on. These were the fuel cell stack itself, the reactant circulation devices, and reactant / product water separator. PEM fuel cell stack performance is already demonstrating the potential for greater than four times the useful life of the current Shuttle's AFCP. Reactant pumping for product water removal has historically been accomplished with mechanical pumps. Ejectors offer an effective means of reactant pumping as well as the potential for weight reduction, control simplification, and long life. Centrifugal water separation is used on the current AFCP. A passive, membrane-based water separator offers compatibility with the micro-gravity environment of space, and the potential for control simplification, elimination of

  9. FAA certification requirements for future fuels, fuel systems and powerplants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horeff, T. C.

    1983-01-01

    The current FAA procedures for approving fuels, along with a comment or two as to what might be done relative to assuring the safety of using these alternative fuels, whatever they may be are addressed.

  10. Membrane separation principle used for gas drying processes in fuel cells and life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigsch, H. A.; Fleck, W. U.

    1991-07-01

    Different membrane separation principles as applied to fuel cell powerplants and ECLSS are described. A new separator type that enables smaller weight and geometries and requires less energy than conventional mechanical separator techniques for space applications is presented. Module optimization and investigations concerning ECLSS applications are discussed.

  11. Membrane separation principle used for gas drying processes in fuel cells and life support systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nigsch, H.A.; Fleck, W.U. )

    1991-07-01

    Different membrane separation principles as applied to fuel cell powerplants and ECLSS are described. A new separator type that enables smaller weight and geometries and requires less energy than conventional mechanical separator techniques for space applications is presented. Module optimization and investigations concerning ECLSS applications are discussed. 5 refs.

  12. Fuel cells - from the laboratory to the road

    SciTech Connect

    Fronk, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    The polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell faces stiff competition from existing automotive powerplants and other Hybrid APUs. To be successful, the Fuel Cell will have to demonstrate real customer advantages such as fuel economy and emissions. The PEM technology has an inherent advantage over other powerplants in both thermal efficiency and emission performance, and as such fits in very well with the future regulations that strive to clean up the environment. In addition, it will need to be cost competitive and provide acceptable performance. The majority of development activity on PEM Fuel Cells to date has concentrated primarily in the area of Stack refinement and optimization with improvements coming in higher power densities and higher specific power. To make the Fuel Cell compatible with an automotive environment the entire system will need to be analyzed, understood, and then engineered to work together in an efficient manner.

  13. Potential Role of Land Use and Land Cover Information in Powerplant Siting: Example of Three Mile Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Selecting a site for a nuclear powerplant can be helped by digitizing land use and land cover data, population data, and other pertinent data sets, and then placing them in a geographic information system. Such a system begins with a set of standardized maps for location reference and then provides for retrieval and analysis of spatial data keyed to the maps. This makes possible thematic mapping by computer, or interactive visual display for decisionmaking. It also permits correlating land use area measurements with census and other data (such as fallout dosages), and the updating of all data sets. The system is thus a tool for dealing with resource management problems and for analyzing the interaction between people and their environment. An explanation of a computer-plotted map of land use and cover for Three Mile Island and vicinity is given.

  14. External flow radiators for reduced space powerplant temperatures. Technical information report

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear space powerplants can operate at temperatures below 900 K and use stainless steel construction without a weight penalty if new radiator concepts can achieve radiator weights of 1-3 kg/m{sup 2}. Conventional tube-and-fin radiators weight about 10 kg/m{sup 2} because of heavy tube walls to prevent meteroid puncture. Radiator designs that do not require meteroid protection are possible; they operate with fluids of low vapor pressure that can be exposed directly to space in external-flow radiators. An example is the {open_quotes}rotating disk radiator{close_quotes} in which centrifugal force drives a liquid film radially outward across a thin rotating metal disk; meteroid punctures cause no loss of fluid other than from evaporation, which can be small. An even lighter concept is the liquid drop radiator in which heat is radiated directly from moving liquid drops. Such radiator concepts look practical, and they may be much easier to develop than the high-temperature, refractory-metal power systems necessitated by conventional radiators.

  15. 10 CFR 504.8 - Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures-certifying powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural...) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS § 504.8 Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas... use of petroleum or natural gas in such powerplant in amounts exceeding the minimum amount...

  16. 10 CFR 504.8 - Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures-certifying powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural...) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS § 504.8 Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas... use of petroleum or natural gas in such powerplant in amounts exceeding the minimum amount...

  17. 10 CFR 504.8 - Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures-certifying powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural...) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS § 504.8 Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas... use of petroleum or natural gas in such powerplant in amounts exceeding the minimum amount...

  18. 10 CFR 504.8 - Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures-certifying powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural...) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS § 504.8 Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas... use of petroleum or natural gas in such powerplant in amounts exceeding the minimum amount...

  19. Cell Maintenance Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Living human cells require attachment to a suitable surface and special culture conditions in order to grow. These requirements are modified and amplified when cells are taken into a weightless environment. Special handling and maintenance systems are required for routine laboratory procedures conducted in the Orbiter and in the Spacelab. Methods were developed to maintain cells in special incubators designed for the Orbiter middeck, however, electrophoresis and other experiments require cells to be harvested off of the culture substrate before they can be processed or used. The cell transport assembly (CTA) was flown on STS-8, and results show that improvements are required to maintain adequate numbers of cells in this device longer than 48 hours. The life sciences middeck centrifuge probably can be used, but modifications will be required to transfer cells from the CTA and keep the cells sterile. Automated systems such as the Skylab SO-15 flight hardware and crew operated systems are being evaluated for use on the Space Shuttle, Spacelab, and Space Station research modules.

  20. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel Cell for Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, William C., III; Vasquez, Arturo; Lazaroff, Scott M.; Downey, Michael G.

    1999-01-01

    Development of a PEM fuel cell powerplant (PFCP) for use in the Space Shuttle offers multiple benefits to NASA. A PFCP with a longer design life than is delivered currently from the alkaline fuel will reduce Space Shuttle Program maintenance costs. A PFCP compatible with zero-gravity can be adapted for future NASA transportation and exploration programs. Also, the commercial PEM fuel cell industry ensures a competitive environment for select powerplant components. Conceptual designs of the Space Shuttle PFCP have resulted in identification of key technical areas requiring resolution prior to development of a flight system. Those technical areas include characterization of PEM fuel cell stack durability under operational conditions and water management both within and external to the stack. Resolution of the above issues is necessary to adequately control development, production, and maintenance costs for a PFCP.

  1. Cell Radiation Experiment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    2010-01-01

    The cell radiation experiment system (CRES) is a perfused-cell culture apparatus, within which cells from humans or other animals can (1) be maintained in homeostasis while (2) being exposed to ionizing radiation during controlled intervals and (3) being monitored to determine the effects of radiation and the repair of radiation damage. The CRES can be used, for example, to determine effects of drug, radiation, and combined drug and radiation treatments on both normal and tumor cells. The CRES can also be used to analyze the effects of radiosensitive or radioprotectant drugs on cells subjected to radiation. The knowledge gained by use of the CRES is expected to contribute to the development of better cancer treatments and of better protection for astronauts, medical-equipment operators, and nuclear-power-plant workers, and others exposed frequently to ionizing radiation.

  2. Fuel cell system

    DOEpatents

    Early, Jack; Kaufman, Arthur; Stawsky, Alfred

    1982-01-01

    A fuel cell system is comprised of a fuel cell module including sub-stacks of series-connected fuel cells, the sub-stacks being held together in a stacked arrangement with cold plates of a cooling means located between the sub-stacks to function as electrical terminals. The anode and cathode terminals of the sub-stacks are connected in parallel by means of the coolant manifolds which electrically connect selected cold plates. The system may comprise a plurality of the fuel cell modules connected in series. The sub-stacks are designed to provide a voltage output equivalent to the desired voltage demand of a low voltage, high current DC load such as an electrolytic cell to be driven by the fuel cell system. This arrangement in conjunction with switching means can be used to drive a DC electrical load with a total voltage output selected to match that of the load being driven. This arrangement eliminates the need for expensive voltage regulation equipment.

  3. Empirical expressions for estimating length and weight of axial-flow components of VTOL powerplants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagerser, D. A.; Lieblein, S.; Krebs, R. P.

    1971-01-01

    Simplified equations are presented for estimating the length and weight of major powerplant components of VTOL aircraft. The equations were developed from correlations of lift and cruise engine data. Components involved include fan, fan duct, compressor, combustor, turbine, structure, and accessories. Comparisons of actual and calculated total engine weights are included for several representative engines.

  4. Application of automotive engine control technology to general aviation aircraft powerplants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennant, Christopher John

    1997-10-01

    The general aviation industry has lagged behind the automotive industry in powerplant development due to depressed economic conditions in their marketplace. Recent efforts to revitalize the industry have encountered the hindrance of thirty-year-old engine technology. Current automotive engine control technology has been reviewed for its potential for transfer to existing general aviation powerplants. Current automotive engine control technology was classified into basic, correction, and feedback elements for the control of fuel flow and ignition timing. The value of each element was assessed for application to a general aviation powerplant in terms of an aviation duty cycle. An extensive database produced from tests of a 1.9 liter Saturn automotive engine was used to quantify potential benefits by providing information about engine operation over a wide range of air/fuel ratios and ignition timings. It was assumed that compliance with future emissions regulations for aircraft was a serious concern. A method for quantifying the effects of some controller elements that took into account emissions, thermal efficiency and power output of the engine was developed. The study concluded that all existing automotive engine control elements offer benefits to aviation powerplants, the most predominant of which are those that control fuel delivery.

  5. 10 CFR 501.51 - Prohibitions by order-electing powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibitions by order-electing powerplants. 501.51 Section 501.51 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS... order the use of petroleum or natural gas as a primary energy source or in amounts in excess of...

  6. 10 CFR 501.52 - Prohibitions by order-certifying powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibitions by order-certifying powerplants. 501.52 Section 501.52 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND... prohibit by order the use of petroleum or natural gas as a primary energy source or in amounts in excess...

  7. Evaluation of nonpotable ground water in the desert area of southeastern California for powerplant cooling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinemann, Anne C.

    1989-01-01

    Powerplant siting is dependent upon many factors; in southern California the prevailing physical constraint is water availability. Increasing land-use and other environmental concerns preclude further sites along the coast. A review of available hydrologic data was made of 142 ground-water basins in the southeast California desert area to ascertain if any could be feasible sources of nonpotable powerplant cooling water. Feasibility implies the capacity to sustain a typical 1,000-megawatt electrical-power generating plant for 30 years with an ample supply of ground water for cooling. Of the 142 basins reviewed, 5 met or exceeded established hydrologic criteria for supplying the water demands of a typical powerplant. These basins are: (1) middle Amargosa valley, (2) Soda Lake valley, (3) Caves Canyon valley, (4) Chuckwalla Valley, and (5) Calzona-Vidal Valley. Geohydrologic evaluations of these five basins assessed the occurrence and suitability of ground water and effects of long-term pumping. An additional six basins met or exceeded hydrologic criteria, with qualifications, for providing powerplant cooling water. The remaining 131 basins either did not meet the criteria, or available data were insufficient to determine if the basins would meet the criteria.

  8. Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine System Design for High Altitude Long Endurance Aerospace Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himansu, Ananda; Freeh, Joshua E.; Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.; Tornabene, Robert T.; Wang, Xiao-Yen J.

    2006-01-01

    A system level analysis, inclusive of mass, is carried out for a cryogenic hydrogen fueled hybrid solid oxide fuel cell and bottoming gas turbine (SOFC/GT) power system. The system is designed to provide primary or secondary electrical power for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) over a high altitude, long endurance mission. The net power level and altitude are parametrically varied to examine their effect on total system mass. Some of the more important technology parameters, including turbomachinery efficiencies and the SOFC area specific resistance, are also studied for their effect on total system mass. Finally, two different solid oxide cell designs are compared to show the importance of the individual solid oxide cell design on the overall system. We show that for long mission durations of 10 days or more, the fuel mass savings resulting from the high efficiency of a SOFC/GT system more than offset the larger powerplant mass resulting from the low specific power of the SOFC/GT system. These missions therefore favor high efficiency, low power density systems, characteristics typical of fuel cell systems in general.

  9. Fuel cell system combustor

    DOEpatents

    Pettit, William Henry

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode and cathode effluents. The combustor includes a turbulator section at its input end for intimately mixing the anode and cathode effluents before they contact the combustors primary catalyst bed. The turbulator comprises at least one porous bed of mixing media that provides a tortuous path therethrough for creating turbulent flow and intimate mixing of the anode and cathode effluents therein.

  10. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard

    2016-12-20

    The present invention includes an integrated planar, series connected fuel cell system having electrochemical cells electrically connected via interconnects, wherein the anodes of the electrochemical cells are protected against Ni loss and migration via an engineered porous anode barrier layer.

  11. Apparatus and method for suppressing sound in a gas turbine engine powerplant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wynosky, Thomas A. (Inventor); Mischke, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for suppressing jet noise in a gas turbine engine powerplant 10 is disclosed. Various construction details are developed for providing sound suppression at sea level take-off operative conditions and not providing sound suppression at cruise operative conditions. In one embodiment, the powerplant 10 has a lobed mixer 152 between a primary flowpath 44 and a second flowpath 46, a diffusion region downstream of the lobed mixer region (first mixing region 76), and a deployable ejector/mixer 176 in the diffusion region which forms a second mixing region 78 having a diffusion flowpath 72 downstream of the ejector/mixer and sound absorbing structure 18 bounding the flowpath throughout the diffusion region. The method includes deploying the ejector/mixer 176 at take-off and stowing the ejector/mixer at cruise.

  12. The numerical simulation of the delayed load rejection of a pump-turbine powerplant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Y. J.; Koutnik, J.

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents results of a numerical simulation of the transient behaviour of a 4×320MW pump-turbine powerplant, where all 4 units are connected on the same headrace tunnel, the same surge tank tail water side and the same tailrace tunnel. The minimum allowable pressure at draft tube entrance during the transient will be discussed at the beginning. The simulation reveals a severe pressure drop down to -30mwc in the draft tube of the last unit, if this is load rejected app. 5 seconds later than the other 3 units. Possible active countermeasures (asynchronous guide vane closing, stepped closing of spherical valve, or limiting the operation of the powerplant) as well as the structural (passive) countermeasure (hillchart modification through new PT hydraulic design) for mitigation of this problem will be discussed and investigated in detail.

  13. Enabling Technology for Monitoring & Predicting Gas Turbine Health & Performance in COAL IGCC Powerplants

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth A. Yackly

    2004-09-30

    The ''Enabling & Information Technology To Increase RAM for Advanced Powerplants'' program, by DOE request, has been re-directed, de-scoped to two tasks, shortened to a 2-year period of performance, and refocused to develop, validate and accelerate the commercial use of enabling materials technologies and sensors for Coal IGCC powerplants. The new program has been re-titled as ''Enabling Technology for Monitoring & Predicting Gas Turbine Health & Performance in IGCC Powerplants'' to better match the new scope. This technical progress report summarizes the work accomplished in the reporting period April 1, 2004 to August 31, 2004 on the revised Re-Directed and De-Scoped program activity. The program Tasks are: Task 1--IGCC Environmental Impact on high Temperature Materials: This first materials task has been refocused to address Coal IGCC environmental impacts on high temperature materials use in gas turbines and remains in the program. This task will screen material performance and quantify the effects of high temperature erosion and corrosion of hot gas path materials in Coal IGCC applications. The materials of interest will include those in current service as well as advanced, high-performance alloys and coatings. Task 2--Material In-Service Health Monitoring: This second task develops and demonstrates new sensor technologies to determine the in-service health of advanced technology Coal IGCC powerplants, and remains in the program with a reduced scope. Its focus is now on only two critical sensor need areas for advanced Coal IGCC gas turbines: (1) Fuel Quality Sensor for detection of fuel impurities that could lead to rapid component degradation, and a Fuel Heating Value Sensor to rapidly determine the fuel heating value for more precise control of the gas turbine, and (2) Infra-Red Pyrometer to continuously measure the temperature of gas turbine buckets, nozzles, and combustor hardware.

  14. Integrated Fuel Cell/Coal Gasifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrall, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Powerplant design with low-temperature coal gasifier coupled to highly-exothermic fuel cell for efficient production of dc power eliminates need for oxygen in gasifier and achieves high fuel efficiency with recycling of waste heat from fuel cell.

  15. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 147 - Powerplant Curriculum Subjects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... systems (2) 14. Identify and select lubricants. (2) 15. Repair engine lubrication system components. (3...) 34. Identify and select propeller lubricants. (1) 35. Balance propellers. (2) 36. Repair...

  16. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 147 - Powerplant Curriculum Subjects

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... instrument systems (2) 9. Troubleshoot, service, and repair electrical and mechanical fluid rate-of-flow indicating systems. (3) 10. Inspect, check, service, troubleshoot, and repair electrical and mechanical.... engine electrical systems (2) 12. Repair engine electrical system components. (3) 13. Install, check,...

  17. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at the Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, M.; McKinstry, C.; Cook, C.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1995, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes) have managed the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. Project objectives have focused on understanding natural production of kokanee (a land-locked sockeye salmon) and other fish stocks in the area above Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams on the Columbia River. A 42-month investigation from 1996 to 1999 determined that from 211,685 to 576,676 fish were entrained annually at Grand Coulee Dam. Analysis of the entrainment data found that 85% of the total entrainment occurred at the dam's third powerplant. These numbers represent a significant loss to the tribal fisheries upstream of the dam. In response to a suggestion by the NWPPC Independent Scientific Review Panel, the scope of work for the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was expanded to include a multiyear pilot test of a strobe light system to help mitigate fish entrainment. This report details the work conducted during the third year of the strobe light study by researchers of the Colville Confederated Tribes in collaboration with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The objective of the study is to determine the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee and rainbow trout under field conditions. The prototype system consists of six strobe lights affixed to an aluminum frame suspended 15 m vertically underwater from a barge secured in the center of the entrance to the third powerplant forebay. The lights, controlled by a computer, illuminate a region directly upstream of the barge. The 2003 study period extended from June 16 through August 1. Three light treatments were used: all six lights on for 24 hours, all lights off for 24 hours, and three of six lights cycled on and off every hour for 24 hours. These three treatment conditions were assigned randomly within a

  18. Assessment of disk MHD generators for a base load powerplant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, D. L.; Retallick, F. D.; Lu, C. L.; Stella, M.; Teare, J. D.; Loubsky, W. J.; Louis, J. F.; Misra, B.

    1981-01-01

    Results from a study of the disk MHD generator are presented. Both open and closed cycle disk systems were investigated. Costing of the open cycle disk components (nozzle, channel, diffuser, radiant boiler, magnet and power management) was done. However, no detailed costing was done for the closed cycle systems. Preliminary plant design for the open cycle systems was also completed. Based on the system study results, an economic assessment of the open cycle systems is presented. Costs of the open cycle disk conponents are less than comparable linear generator components. Also, costs of electricity for the open cycle disk systems are competitive with comparable linear systems. Advantages of the disk design simplicity are considered. Improvements in the channel availability or a reduction in the channel lifetime requirement are possible as a result of the disk design.

  19. Fuel cell gas management system

    DOEpatents

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur

    2000-01-11

    A fuel cell gas management system including a cathode humidification system for transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell equal to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  20. 14 CFR 25.1201 - Fire extinguishing system materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire extinguishing system materials. 25... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1201 Fire extinguishing system materials. (a) No material in any fire extinguishing...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1201 - Fire extinguishing system materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire extinguishing system materials. 25... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1201 Fire extinguishing system materials. (a) No material in any fire extinguishing...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1201 - Fire extinguishing systems materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1201 Fire extinguishing systems materials. For all airplanes with... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire extinguishing systems materials....

  3. 14 CFR 25.1201 - Fire extinguishing system materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire extinguishing system materials. 25... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1201 Fire extinguishing system materials. (a) No material in any fire extinguishing...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1201 - Fire extinguishing system materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire extinguishing system materials. 25... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1201 Fire extinguishing system materials. (a) No material in any fire extinguishing...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1201 - Fire extinguishing systems materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 23.1201 Fire extinguishing systems materials. For all airplanes with... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire extinguishing systems materials....

  6. 14 CFR 25.1201 - Fire extinguishing system materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire extinguishing system materials. 25... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1201 Fire extinguishing system materials. (a) No material in any fire extinguishing...

  7. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard

    2015-09-29

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  8. Modeling Fault Diagnosis Performance on a Marine Powerplant Simulator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    institute of technology a unit of the university system georgia atlanta, georgia 30332 Thu doument hm ber ampo~ w . puW . , md a"Mle I (15 11 12 089...for Man- Machine Systems Research for their friendship and stimulating discus- sions: John Hammer, Richard Henneman , Mike Lewis, Janet Fath and Wan Yoon...training and cost. The . . . % . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . " q zI, 1 w w .- 12 high point of very diminishing expensive retsurnq.. / !- transfez cost

  9. Configuration and performance of fuel cell-combined cycle options

    SciTech Connect

    Rath, L.K.; Le, P.H.; Sudhoff, F.A.

    1995-12-31

    The natural gas, indirect-fired, carbonate fuel-cell-bottomed, combined cycle (NG-IFCFC) and the topping natural-gas/solid-oxide fuel-cell combined cycle (NG-SOFCCC) are introduced as novel power-plant systems for the distributed power and on-site markets in the 20-200 mega-watt (MW) size range. The novel NG-IFCFC power-plant system configures the ambient pressure molten-carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) with a gas turbine, air compressor, combustor, and ceramic heat exchanger: The topping solid-oxide fuel-cell (SOFC) combined cycle is not new. The purpose of combining a gas turbine with a fuel cell was to inject pressurized air into a high-pressure fuel cell and to reduce the size, and thereby, to reduce the cost of the fuel cell. Today, the SOFC remains pressurized, but excess chemical energy is combusted and the thermal energy is utilized by the Carnot cycle heat engine to complete the system. ASPEN performance results indicate efficiencies and heat rates for the NG-IFCFC or NG-SOFCCC are better than conventional fuel cell or gas turbine steam-bottomed cycles, but with smaller and less expensive components. Fuel cell and gas turbine systems should not be viewed as competitors, but as an opportunity to expand to markets where neither gas turbines nor fuel cells alone would be commercially viable. Non-attainment areas are the most likely markets.

  10. ECAS Phase I fuel cell results. [Energy Conservation Alternatives Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshay, M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper summarizes and discusses the fuel cell system results of Phase I of the Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS). Ten advanced electric powerplant systems for central-station baseload generation using coal were studied by NASA in ECAS. Three types of low-temperature fuel cells (solid polymer electrolyte, SPE, aqueous alkaline, and phosphoric acid) and two types of high-temperature fuel cells (molten carbonate, MC, and zirconia solid electrolyte, SE) were studied. The results indicate that (1) overall efficiency increases with fuel cell temperature, and (2) scale-up in powerplant size can produce a significant reduction in cost of electricity (COE) only when it is accompanied by utilization of waste fuel cell heat through a steam bottoming cycle and/or integration with a gasifier. For low-temperature fuel cell systems, the use of hydrogen results in the highest efficiency and lowest COE. In spite of higher efficiencies, because of higher fuel cell replacement costs integrated SE systems have higher projected COEs than do integrated MC systems. Present data indicate that life can be projected to over 30,000 hr for MC fuel cells, but data are not yet sufficient for similarly projecting SE fuel cell life expectancy.

  11. Dummy Cell Would Improve Performance Of Fuel-Cell Stack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suljak, G. T.

    1993-01-01

    Interposition of dummy cell between stack of alkaline fuel cells and accessory section of fuel-cell powerplant proposed to overcome operational deficiencies plaguing end-most active cell. Cell in combination with additional hydrogen/coolant separator plate keeps end cell warmer and drier. End cell 96th in stack of fuel cells.

  12. Fluidization characteristics of power-plant fly ashes and fly ash-charcoal mixtures. [MS Thesis; 40 references

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, C.T.

    1980-03-01

    As a part of the continuing research on aluminum recovery from fly ash by HiChlor process, a plexiglass fluidization column system was constructed for measurement of fluidization parameters for power-plant fly ashes and fly ash-charcoal mixtures. Several bituminous and subbituminous coal fly ashes were tested and large differences in fluidization characteristics were observed. Fly ashes which were mechanically collected fluidized uniformly at low gas flow rates. Most fly ashes which were electrostatically precipitated exhibited channeling tendency and did not fluidize uniformly. Fluidization characteristics of electrostatically collected ashes improve when the finely divided charcoal powder is added to the mixture. The fluidization of the mixture was aided initially by a mechanical stirrer. Once the fluidization had succeeded, the beds were ready to fluidize without the assistance of a mechanical action. Smooth fluidization and large bed expansion were usually observed. The effects of charcoal size and aspect ratio on fluidization characteristics of the mixtures were also investigated. Fluidization characteristics of a fly ash-coal mixture were tested. The mixture fluidized only after being oven-dried for a few days.

  13. 14 CFR 25.1161 - Fuel jettisoning system controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel jettisoning system controls. 25.1161 Section 25.1161 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1161 - Fuel jettisoning system controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel jettisoning system controls. 25.1161 Section 25.1161 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1161 - Fuel jettisoning system controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel jettisoning system controls. 25.1161 Section 25.1161 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1195 - Fire extinguishing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 25.1195 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1195 Fire... reignition. An individual “one-shot” system may be used for auxiliary power units, fuel burning heaters,...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1161 - Fuel jettisoning system controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel jettisoning system controls. 25.1161 Section 25.1161 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls...

  18. The stellate cell system (vitamin A-storing cell system).

    PubMed

    Senoo, Haruki; Mezaki, Yoshihiro; Fujiwara, Mutsunori

    2017-03-15

    Past, present, and future research into hepatic stellate cells (HSCs, also called vitamin A-storing cells, lipocytes, interstitial cells, fat-storing cells, or Ito cells) are summarized and discussed in this review. Kupffer discovered black-stained cells in the liver using the gold chloride method and named them stellate cells (Sternzellen in German) in 1876. Wake rediscovered the cells in 1971 using the same gold chloride method and various modern histological techniques including electron microscopy. Between their discovery and rediscovery, HSCs disappeared from the research history. Their identification, the establishment of cell isolation and culture methods, and the development of cellular and molecular biological techniques promoted HSC research after their rediscovery. In mammals, HSCs exist in the space between liver parenchymal cells (PCs) or hepatocytes and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) of the hepatic lobule, and store 50-80% of all vitamin A in the body as retinyl ester in lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. SCs also exist in extrahepatic organs such as pancreas, lung, and kidney. Hepatic (HSCs) and extrahepatic stellate cells (EHSCs) form the stellate cell (SC) system or SC family; the main storage site of vitamin A in the body is HSCs in the liver. In pathological conditions such as liver fibrosis, HSCs lose vitamin A, and synthesize a large amount of extracellular matrix (ECM) components including collagen, proteoglycan, glycosaminoglycan, and adhesive glycoproteins. The morphology of these cells also changes from the star-shaped HSCs to that of fibroblasts or myofibroblasts.

  19. Pathogenic amoebae in power-plant cooling lakes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tyndall, R.L.; Willaert, E.; Stevens, A.R.

    1981-06-01

    Cooling waters and associated algae and sediments from four northern and four southern/western electric power plants were tested for the presence of pathogenic amoebae. Unheated control waters and algae/sediments from four northern and five southern/western sites were also tested. When comparing results from the test versus control sites, a significantly higher proportion (P less than or equal to 0.05) of the samples from the test sites were positive for thermophilic amoeba, thermophilic Naegleria and pathogenic Naegleria. The difference in number of samples positive for thermophilic Naegleria between heated and unheated waters, however, was attributable predominantly to the northern waters and algae/sediments. While two of four northern test sites yielded pathogenic Naegleria, seven of the eight isolates were obtained from one site. Seasonality effects relative to the isolation of the pathogen were also noted at this site. One pathogen was isolated from a southwestern test site. Pathogens were not isolated from any control sites. Some of the pathogenic isolates were analyzed serologically and classified as pathogenic Naegleria fowleri. Salinity, pH, conductivity, and bacteriological profiles did not obviously correlate with the presence or absence of pathogenic Naegleria. While thermal addition was significantly associated with the presence of thermophilic Naegleria (P less than or equal to 0.05), the data implicate other as yet undefined parameters associated with the presence of the pathogenic thermophile. Until further delineation of these parameters is effected, generalizations cannot be made concerning the effect of thermal impact on the growth of pathogenic amoeba in a particular cooling system.

  20. Compliant fuel cell system

    DOEpatents

    Bourgeois, Richard Scott; Gudlavalleti, Sauri

    2009-12-15

    A fuel cell assembly comprising at least one metallic component, at least one ceramic component and a structure disposed between the metallic component and the ceramic component. The structure is configured to have a lower stiffness compared to at least one of the metallic component and the ceramic component, to accommodate a difference in strain between the metallic component and the ceramic component of the fuel cell assembly.

  1. Information and issues related to the quantification of environmental externalities for new powerplants

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.D.; Callaway, J.M.; Glantz, C.S.; Baechler, M.C.; Foley, L.O.

    1990-10-01

    This report provides background information for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) in its efforts to quantify the environmental externalities associated with new electricity resources. A more detailed companion document has been provided to Bonneville for internal use. This report defines what is meant by externalities, particularly in the context of electricity resources. It outlines the economics issues associated with assigning an economic value, such as cents per kilowatt hour, to the residual environmental impacts of electricity powerplants. It examines two generic theoretical approaches for estimating such values and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. The report also addresses the need to include relevant stages in the fuel cycle in estimating the costs of externalities. The fuel-cycle concept is defined and its importance is discussed. The approaches used by several states to quantify externalities are described. A review of the valuation efforts of various states and utilities indicates that three states have actually developed methodologies for assigning economic values to externalities. Information that Bonneville may need to request from resource developers to quantify externalities is discussed, and an appendix presents suggested forms for obtaining the required information. Summary information also is presented on models for analyzing the dispersion of powerplant plumes for the purpose of estimating environmental externality costs. 34 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  2. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at the Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Cook, C.

    2005-02-01

    This report documents a four-year study(a) to assess the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi) and rainbow trout (O. mykiss) at the entrance to the forebay of the third powerplant at Grand Coulee Dam. The work was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in conjunction with the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes). In this report, emphasis is placed on the methodology and results associated with the fourth project year and compared with findings from the previous years to provide an overall project summary. Since 1995, the Colville Confederated Tribes have managed the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project as part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council Fish and Wildlife Program. Project objectives have focused on understanding natural production of kokanee (a land-locked sockeye salmon) and other fish stocks in the area above Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams on the Columbia River (Figure S.1). A 42-month investigation from 1996 to 1999 determined that from 211,685 to 576,676 fish, including kokanee and rainbow trout, were entrained annually at Grand Coulee Dam. Analysis of the data found that 85% of the total entrainment occurred at the dam's third powerplant. Because these entrainment rates represent a significant loss to the tribal fisheries upstream of the dam, they have been judged unacceptable to fishery managers responsible for perpetuating the fishery in Lake Roosevelt. In an effort to reduce fish entrainment rates, the scope of work for the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was modified in 2001 to include a multiyear study of the efficacy of using strobe lights to deter fish from entering the third powerplant forebay. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory initiated the four-year study in collaboration with Colville Tribal

  3. 14 CFR 23.1123 - Exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 23.1123 Exhaust system. (a) Each exhaust system must be fireproof and corrosion-resistant, and must have means...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1123 - Exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 23.1123 Exhaust system. (a) Each exhaust system must be fireproof and corrosion-resistant, and must have means...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1123 - Exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 23.1123 Exhaust system. (a) Each exhaust system must be fireproof and corrosion-resistant, and must have means...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1123 - Exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 23.1123 Exhaust system. (a) Each exhaust system must be fireproof and corrosion-resistant, and must have means...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1123 - Exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 23.1123 Exhaust system. (a) Each exhaust system must be fireproof and corrosion-resistant, and must have means...

  8. Fuel cell system configurations

    DOEpatents

    Kothmann, Richard E.; Cyphers, Joseph A.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel cell stack configurations having elongated polygonal cross-sectional shapes and gaskets at the peripheral faces to which flow manifolds are sealingly affixed. Process channels convey a fuel and an oxidant through longer channels, and a cooling fluid is conveyed through relatively shorter cooling passages. The polygonal structure preferably includes at least two right angles, and the faces of the stack are arranged in opposite parallel pairs.

  9. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard; Delaforce, Philip Mark

    2016-03-08

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having an interconnect that reduces or eliminates diffusion (leakage) of fuel and oxidant by providing an increased densification, by forming the interconnect as a ceramic/metal composite.

  10. 14 CFR 25.979 - Pressure fueling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....979 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.979 Pressure fueling system. For pressure fueling systems, the following apply: (a) Each pressure fueling system fuel...

  11. 10 CFR 504.5 - Prohibitions by order (certifying powerplants under section 301 of FUA, as amended).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... section 301 of the Act, as amended, the use of petroleum or natural gas as a primary energy source where... feasibility to use coal or another alternate fuel as a primary energy source in the unit. The informational... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prohibitions by order (certifying powerplants...

  12. 10 CFR 504.5 - Prohibitions by order (certifying powerplants under section 301 of FUA, as amended).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... section 301 of the Act, as amended, the use of petroleum or natural gas as a primary energy source where... feasibility to use coal or another alternate fuel as a primary energy source in the unit. The informational... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prohibitions by order (certifying powerplants...

  13. 10 CFR 504.5 - Prohibitions by order (certifying powerplants under section 301 of FUA, as amended).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... section 301 of the Act, as amended, the use of petroleum or natural gas as a primary energy source where... feasibility to use coal or another alternate fuel as a primary energy source in the unit. The informational... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prohibitions by order (certifying powerplants...

  14. 10 CFR 504.5 - Prohibitions by order (certifying powerplants under section 301 of FUA, as amended).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... section 301 of the Act, as amended, the use of petroleum or natural gas as a primary energy source where... feasibility to use coal or another alternate fuel as a primary energy source in the unit. The informational... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prohibitions by order (certifying powerplants...

  15. 10 CFR 504.8 - Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures-certifying powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... petroleum or natural gas and coal or another alternate fuel as a primary energy source, for purposes of this... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibitions against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures-certifying powerplants. 504.8 Section 504.8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  16. 10 CFR 504.5 - Prohibitions by order (certifying powerplants under section 301 of FUA, as amended).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... feasibility to use coal or another alternate fuel as a primary energy source in the unit. The informational... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibitions by order (certifying powerplants under section 301 of FUA, as amended). 504.5 Section 504.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED)...

  17. 77 FR 74473 - Notice of Filing of Self-Certification of Coal Capability Under the Powerplant and Industrial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... coal or another alternate fuel as a primary energy source. Pursuant to FUA in order to meet the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Notice of Filing of Self-Certification of Coal Capability Under the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use...

  18. 10 CFR 504.7 - Prohibition against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures-electing powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... fuel as its primary energy source, OFP may prohibit, by order, the use in that unit of petroleum or... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures-electing powerplants. 504.7 Section 504.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  19. 10 CFR 500.3 - Electric regions-electric region groupings for reliability measurements under the Powerplant and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electric regions-electric region groupings for reliability measurements under the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978. 500.3 Section 500.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS DEFINITIONS § 500.3 Electric regions—electric region groupings...

  20. 78 FR 26337 - Notice of Filing of Self-Certification of Coal Capability Under the Powerplant and Industrial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... of Filing of Self-Certification of Coal Capability Under the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act... a coal capability self- certification to the Department of Energy (DOE) pursuant to Sec. 201(d) of... 501.60, 61. FUA and regulations thereunder require DOE to publish a notice of filing of...

  1. 10 CFR 504.7 - Prohibition against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures-electing powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prohibition against excessive use of petroleum or natural...) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS § 504.7 Prohibition against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas... technically and financially feasible for a unit to use a mixture of petroleum or natural gas and an...

  2. 10 CFR 504.7 - Prohibition against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures-electing powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prohibition against excessive use of petroleum or natural...) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS § 504.7 Prohibition against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas... technically and financially feasible for a unit to use a mixture of petroleum or natural gas and an...

  3. 10 CFR 504.7 - Prohibition against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures-electing powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prohibition against excessive use of petroleum or natural...) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS § 504.7 Prohibition against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas... technically and financially feasible for a unit to use a mixture of petroleum or natural gas and an...

  4. 10 CFR 504.7 - Prohibition against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas in mixtures-electing powerplants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prohibition against excessive use of petroleum or natural...) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS § 504.7 Prohibition against excessive use of petroleum or natural gas... technically and financially feasible for a unit to use a mixture of petroleum or natural gas and an...

  5. White blood cell counting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  6. Ambient pressure fuel cell system

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    2000-01-01

    An ambient pressure fuel cell system is provided with a fuel cell stack formed from a plurality of fuel cells having membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) that are hydrated with liquid water and bipolar plates with anode and cathode sides for distributing hydrogen fuel gas and water to a first side of each one of the MEAs and air with reactant oxygen gas to a second side of each one of the MEAs. A pump supplies liquid water to the fuel cells. A recirculating system may be used to return unused hydrogen fuel gas to the stack. A near-ambient pressure blower blows air through the fuel cell stack in excess of reaction stoichiometric amounts to react with the hydrogen fuel gas.

  7. Unitized regenerative fuel cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell system uses heat pipes to convey waste heat from the fuel cell stack to the reactant storage tanks. The storage tanks act as heat sinks/sources and as passive radiators of the waste heat from the fuel cell stack. During charge up, i.e., the electrolytic process, gases are conveyed to the reactant storage tanks by way of tubes that include dryers. Reactant gases moving through the dryers give up energy to the cold tanks, causing water vapor in with the gases to condense and freeze on the internal surfaces of the dryer. During operation in its fuel cell mode, the heat pipes convey waste heat from the fuel cell stack to the respective reactant storage tanks, thereby heating them such that the reactant gases, as they pass though the respective dryers on their way to the fuel cell stacks retrieve the water previously removed.

  8. Some issues in the seismic design of nuclear power-plant facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjian, A.H.; Iwan, W.D.

    1980-09-01

    This paper summarizes the major issues discussed by an international panel of experts during the post-SMIRT (Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology) Seminar on Extreme Load Design of Nuclear Power-Plant Facilities, which was held in Berlin, Aug. 20-21, 1979. The emphasis of the deliberations was on the state of the art of seismic-response calculations to predict the expected performance of structures and equipment during earthquakes. Four separate panels discussed issues on (1) soil-structure interaction and structural response, (2) modeling, materials, and boundary conditions, (3) damping in structures and equipment, and (4) fragility levels of equipment. The international character of the seminar was particularly helpful in the cross-pollination of ideas regarding the issues and the steps required to enhance the cause of safety of nuclear plants.

  9. Fuel cell manifold sealing system

    DOEpatents

    Grevstad, Paul E.; Johnson, Carl K.; Mientek, Anthony P.

    1980-01-01

    A manifold-to-stack seal and sealing method for fuel cell stacks. This seal system solves the problem of maintaining a low leak rate manifold seal as the fuel cell stack undergoes compressive creep. The seal system eliminates the problem of the manifold-to-stack seal sliding against the rough stack surface as the stack becomes shorter because of cell creep, which relative motion destroys the seal. The seal system described herein utilizes a polymer seal frame firmly clamped between the manifold and the stack such that the seal frame moves with the stack. Thus, as the stack creeps, the seal frame creeps with it, and there is no sliding at the rough, tough to seal, stack-to-seal frame interface. Here the sliding is on a smooth easy to seal location between the seal frame and the manifold.

  10. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results

  11. Computer-based phosphoric acid fuel cell analytical tools Descriptions and usages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, C.; Presler, A. F.

    1987-01-01

    Simulation models have been developed for the prediction of phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) powerplant system performance under both transient and steady operation conditions, as well as for the design of component configurations and for optimal systems synthesis. These models, which are presently computer-implemented, are an engineering and a system model; the former being solved by the finite difference method to determine the balances and properties of different sections, and the latter using thermodynamic balances to set up algebraic equations that yield physical and chemical properties of the stream for one operating condition.

  12. 14 CFR 25.1105 - Induction system screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 25.1105 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1105 Induction system... (d) It must be impossible for fuel to strike any screen....

  13. 14 CFR 29.1105 - Induction system screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 29.1105 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1105 Induction system... (d) It must be impossible for fuel to strike any screen....

  14. 14 CFR 25.1105 - Induction system screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 25.1105 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1105 Induction system... (d) It must be impossible for fuel to strike any screen....

  15. 14 CFR 29.1105 - Induction system screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 29.1105 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1105 Induction system... (d) It must be impossible for fuel to strike any screen....

  16. High density cell culture system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An annular culture vessel for growing mammalian cells is constructed in a one piece integral and annular configuration with an open end which is closed by an endcap. The culture vessel is rotatable about a horizontal axis by use of conventional roller systems commonly used in culture laboratories. The end wall of the endcap has tapered access ports to frictionally and sealingly receive the ends of hypodermic syringes. The syringes permit the introduction of fresh nutrient and withdrawal of spent nutrients. The walls are made of conventional polymeric cell culture material and are subjected to neutron bombardment to form minute gas permeable perforations in the walls.

  17. Fuel Cells Vehicle Systems Analysis (Fuel Cell Freeze Investigation)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G.; Markel, T.; Wipke, K.

    2005-05-01

    Presentation on Fuel Cells Vehicle Systems Analysis (Fuel Cell Freeze Investigation) for the 2005 Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Annual Review held in Arlington, Virginia on May 23-26, 2005.

  18. Fuel cell technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A fuel cell technology program was established to advance the state-of-the-art of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells using low temperature, potassium hydroxide electrolyte technology as the base. Program tasks are described consisting of baseline cell design and stack testing, hydrogen pump design and testing, and DM-2 powerplant testing and technology extension efforts. A baseline cell configuration capable of a minimum of 2000 hours of life was defined. A 6-cell prototype stack, incorporating most of the scheme cell features, was tested for a total of 10,497 hours. A 6-cell stack incorporating all of the design features was tested. The DM-2 powerplant with a 34 cell stack, an accessory section packaged in the basic configuration anticipated for the space shuttle powerplant and a powerplant control unit, was defined, assembled, and tested. Cells were used in the stack and a drag-type hydrogen pump was installed in the accessory section. A test program was established, in conjunction with NASA/JSC, based on space shuttle orbiter mission. A 2000-hour minimum endurance test and a 5000-hour goal were set and the test started on August 8, 1972. The 2000-hour milestone was completed on November 3, 1972. On 13 March 1973, at the end of the thirty-first simulated seven-day mission and 5072 load hours, the test was concluded, all goals having been met. At this time, the DM-2 was in excellent condition and capable of additional endurance.

  19. Fuel cell-fuel cell hybrid system

    DOEpatents

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Williams, Mark C.

    2003-09-23

    A device for converting chemical energy to electricity is provided, the device comprising a high temperature fuel cell with the ability for partially oxidizing and completely reforming fuel, and a low temperature fuel cell juxtaposed to said high temperature fuel cell so as to utilize remaining reformed fuel from the high temperature fuel cell. Also provided is a method for producing electricity comprising directing fuel to a first fuel cell, completely oxidizing a first portion of the fuel and partially oxidizing a second portion of the fuel, directing the second fuel portion to a second fuel cell, allowing the first fuel cell to utilize the first portion of the fuel to produce electricity; and allowing the second fuel cell to utilize the second portion of the fuel to produce electricity.

  20. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project; Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at the Grand Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Simmons, C.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1995, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville Confederated Tribes) have managed the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. Project objectives have focused on understanding natural production of kokanee (a land-locked sockeye salmon) and other fish stocks in the area above Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams on the Columbia River. A 42-month investigation concluded that entrainment at Grand Coulee Dam ranged from 211,685 to 576,676 fish annually. Further analysis revealed that 85% of the total entrainment occurred at the dam's third powerplant. These numbers represent a significant loss to the tribal fisheries upstream of the dam. In response to a suggestion by the NWPPC Independent Scientific Review Panel, the scope of work for the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was expanded to include a multiyear pilot test of a strobe light system to help mitigate fish entrainment. This report details the work conducted during the second year of the study by researchers of the Colville Confederated Tribes in collaboration with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The 2002 study period extended from May 18 through July 30. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee and rainbow trout. The prototype system consisted of six strobe lights affixed to an aluminum frame suspended vertically underwater from a barge secured in the center of the entrance to the third powerplant forebay. The lights, controlled by a computer, were aimed to illuminate a specific region directly upstream of the barge. Three light level treatments were used: 6 of 6 lights on, 3 of 6 lights on, and all lights off. These three treatment conditions were applied for an entire 24-hr day and were randomly assigned within a 3-day block throughout the study period. A seven-transducer splitbeam

  1. Responsive systems for cell sheet detachment.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nikul G; Zhang, Ge

    2013-01-01

    Cell sheet engineering has been progressing rapidly during the past few years and has emerged as a novel approach for cell based therapy. Cell sheet harvest technology enables fabrication of viable, transplantable cell sheets for various tissue engineering applications. Currently, the majority of cell sheet studies use thermo-responsive systems for cell sheet detachment. However, other responsive systems began showing their potentials for cell sheet harvest. This review provides an overview of current techniques in creating cell sheets using different types of responsive systems including thermo-responsive, electro-responsive, photo-responsive, pH-responsive and magnetic systems. Their mechanism, approach, as well as applications for cell detachment have been introduced. Further development of these responsive systems will allow efficient cell sheet harvesting and patterning of cells to reconstruct complex tissue for broad clinical applications.

  2. Unitized regenerative fuel cell systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mitlitsky, F; Molter, T M; Myers, B; Weisberg, A H

    1998-09-10

    Energy storage systems with extremely high specific energy (>400 Wh/kg) have been designed that use lightweight pressure vessels to contain the gases generated by reversible (unitized) regenerative fuel cells (URFCs).[1] URFC systems are being designed and developed for a variety of applications, including high altitude long endurance (HALE) solar rechargeable aircraft (SRA), zero emission vehicles (ZEVs), hybrid energy storage/propulsion systems for spacecraft, energy storage for remote (off-grid) power sources, and peak shaving for on-grid applications.[1-10] Energy storage for HALE SRA was the original application for this set of innovations, and a prototype solar powered aircraft (Pathfinder-Plus) recently set another altitude record for all propeller-driven aircraft on August 6, 1998, when it flew to 80,285 feet (24.47 km).[11

  3. Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project : Strobe Light Deterrent Efficacy Test and Fish Behavior Determination at Grond Coulee Dam Third Powerplant Forebay.

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, M.A.; McKinstry, C.A.; Simmons, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1995, the Colville Confederated Tribes have managed the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. Project objectives have focused on understanding natural production of kokanee (a land-locked sockeye salmon) and other fish stocks in the area above Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams on the Columbia River. A 42-month investigation concluded that entrainment at Grand Coulee Dam ranged from 211,685 to 576,676 fish annually. Further analysis revealed that 85% of the total entrainment occurred at the dam's third powerplant. These numbers represent a significant loss to the tribal fisheries upstream of the dam. In response to a suggestion by the NWPPC's Independent Scientific Review Panel, the scope of work for the Chief Joseph Kokanee Enhancement Project was expanded to include a multiyear pilot test of a strobe light system to help mitigate fish entrainment. This report details the work conducted during the first year of the study by researchers of the Colville Confederated Tribes in collaboration with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of a prototype strobe light system to elicit a negative phototactic response in kokanee and rainbow trout. Analysis of the effect of strobe lights on the distribution (numbers) and behavior of kokanee and rainbow trout was based on 51, 683 fish targets detected during the study period (June 30 through August 1, 2001). Study findings include the following: (1) Analysis of the count data indicated that significantly more fish were present when the lights were on compared to off. This was true for both the 24-hr tests as well as the 1-hr tests. Powerplant discharge, distance from lights, and date were significant factors in the analysis. (2) Behavioral results indicated that fish within 14 m of the lights were trying to avoid the lights by swimming across the lighted region or

  4. Reliability improvements of the Guri Hydroelectric Power Plant computer control system AGC and AVC

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, F.; Pescina, M. ); Llort, G. )

    1992-09-01

    This paper describes the computer control system of a large hydroelectric powerplant and the reliability improvements made to the automatic generation control (AGC) and automatic voltage control (AVC) programs. hardware and software modifications were required to improve the interface between the powerplant and the regional load dispatch office. These modifications, and their impact on the AGC and AVC reliability, are also discussed. The changes that have been implemented are recommended for inclusion in new powerplant computer control systems, and as an upgrade feature for existing control systems.

  5. Fuel-cell engine stream conditioning system

    DOEpatents

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur

    2002-01-01

    A stream conditioning system for a fuel cell gas management system or fuel cell engine. The stream conditioning system manages species potential in at least one fuel cell reactant stream. A species transfer device is located in the path of at least one reactant stream of a fuel cell's inlet or outlet, which transfer device conditions that stream to improve the efficiency of the fuel cell. The species transfer device incorporates an exchange media and a sorbent. The fuel cell gas management system can include a cathode loop with the stream conditioning system transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell related to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  6. Comparison of two U.S. power-plant carbon dioxide emissions data sets.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Katherine V; Sundquist, Eric T

    2008-08-01

    Estimates of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions are needed to address a variety of climate-change mitigation concerns over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. We compared two data sets that report power-plant CO2 emissions in the conterminous U.S. for 2004, the most recent year reported in both data sets. The data sets were obtained from the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) and the Environmental Protection Agency's eGRID database. Conterminous U.S. total emissions computed from the data sets differed by 3.5% for total plant emissions (electricity plus useful thermal output) and 2.3% for electricity generation only. These differences are well within previous estimates of uncertainty in annual U.S. fossil-fuel emissions. However, the corresponding average absolute differences between estimates of emissions from individual power plants were much larger, 16.9% and 25.3%, respectively. By statistical analysis, we identified several potential sources of differences between EIA and eGRID estimates for individual plants. Estimates that are based partly or entirely on monitoring of stack gases (reported by eGRID only) differed significantly from estimates based on fuel consumption (as reported by EIA). Differences in accounting methods appear to explain differences in estimates for emissions from electricity generation from combined heat and power plants, and for total and electricity generation emissions from plants that burn nonconventional fuels (e.g., biomass). Our analysis suggests the need for care in utilizing emissions data from individual power plants, and the need for transparency in documenting the accounting and monitoring methods used to estimate emissions.

  7. Comparison of two U.S. power-plant carbon dioxide emissions data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, K.V.; Sundquist, E.T.

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions are needed to address a variety of climate-change mitigation concerns over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. We compared two data sets that report power-plant CO 2 emissions in the conterminous U.S. for 2004, the most recent year reported in both data sets. The data sets were obtained from the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) and the Environmental Protection Agency's eGRID database. Conterminous U.S. total emissions computed from the data sets differed by 3.5% for total plant emissions (electricity plus useful thermal output) and 2.3% for electricity generation only. These differences are well within previous estimates of uncertainty in annual U.S. fossil-fuel emissions. However, the corresponding average absolute differences between estimates of emissions from individual power plants were much larger, 16.9% and 25.3%, respectively. By statistical analysis, we identified several potential sources of differences between EIA and eGRID estimates for individual plants. Estimates that are based partly or entirely on monitoring of stack gases (reported by eGRID only) differed significantly from estimates based on fuel consumption (as reported by EIA). Differences in accounting methods appear to explain differences in estimates for emissions from electricity generation from combined heat and power plants, and for total and electricity generation emissions from plants that burn nonconventional fuels (e.g., biomass). Our analysis suggests the need for care in utilizing emissions data from individual power plants, and the need for transparency in documenting the accounting and monitoring methods used to estimate emissions.

  8. Battery Cell Balancing System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A battery cell balancing system is operable to utilize a relatively small number of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells to selectively charge the battery cells. Windings of the transformers are simultaneously driven with a plurality of waveforms whereupon selected battery cells or groups of cells are selected and charged. A transformer drive circuit is operable to selectively vary the waveforms to thereby vary a weighted voltage associated with each of the battery cells.

  9. Electrochemical cell operation and system

    DOEpatents

    Maru, Hansraj C.

    1980-03-11

    Thermal control in fuel cell operation is affected through sensible heat of process gas by providing common input manifolding of the cell gas flow passage in communication with the cell electrolyte and an additional gas flow passage which is isolated from the cell electrolyte and in thermal communication with a heat-generating surface of the cell. Flow level in the cell gas flow passage is selected based on desired output electrical energy and flow level in the additional gas flow passage is selected in accordance with desired cell operating temperature.

  10. Lithium/bromine cell systems

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, W.G.; Skarstad, P.M.; Hayes, T.G.; Owens, B.B.

    1980-01-01

    Bromine is attractive as a cathode material because cells with a high energy density and high cell voltage are theoretically possible. The addition of small amounts of certain salts or organic compounds results in bromine solutions of sufficient conductivity for cathode applications. However, given these highly conductive bromine cathodes, lithium/bromine cells are limited in rate and practical available capacity by the high resistivity of the discharge product. The rate of resistance increase for the best bromine cells in this study is more than one order of magnitude greater than that observed for corresponding lithium/iodine cells. Lithium/bromine cells can function at pacemaker rates and they may be superior to cells used in early pacemakers. However, the authors have not found the lithium/bromine cells described to be superior to existing lithium/iodine cells available for cardiac pacemakers. 17 refs.

  11. Development of advanced fuel cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gitlow, B.; Meyer, A. P.; Bell, W. F.; Martin, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted continuing the development effort to improve the weight, life, and performance characteristics of hydrogen-oxygen alkaline fuel cells for advanced power systems. These advanced technology cells operate with passive water removal which contributes to a lower system weight and extended operating life. Endurance evaluation of two single cells and two, two-cell plaques was continued. Three new test articles were fabricated and tested. A single cell completed 7038 hours of endurance testing. This cell incorporated a Fybex matrix, hybrid-frame, PPF anode, and a 90 Au/10 Pt cathode. This configuration was developed to extend cell life. Two cell plaques with dedicated flow fields and manifolds for all fluids did not exhibit the cell-to-cell electrolyte transfer that limited the operating life of earlier multicell plaques.

  12. Cell boundary fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2009-05-05

    A method determines a nodal fault along the boundary, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell boundaries communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  13. Regenerative fuel cell systems for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoberecht, M. A.; Sheibley, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    Regenerative fuel cell (RFC) systems are the leading energy storage candidates for Space Station. Key design features are the advanced state of technology readiness and high degree of system level design flexibility. Technology readiness was demonstrated through testing at the single cell, cell stack, mechanical ancillary component, subsystem, and breadboard levels. Design flexibility characteristics include independent sizing of power and energy storage portions of the system, integration of common reactants with other space station systems, and a wide range of various maintenance approaches. The design features led to selection of a RFC system as the sole electrochemical energy storage technology option for the space station advanced development program.

  14. Multiple beam laser cell micropatterning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, Sriram V.; Goodwin, Richard L.; Borg, Thomas K.; Dawson, Darren M.; Gao, Bruce Z.

    2004-10-01

    The various cell mechanisms, including cell-cell interactions, in native tissue could be better understood by engineering a cell coculture with a micro environment that closely mimics the natural cell arrangement. To this end, we developed a cell micropatterning system that uses a weakly focused laser beam to trap individual cells at the center of the beam and propel them forward onto an appropriate substrate. The optimal methods of introducing different cell types to be patterned into the patterning system and preventing cells from randomly falling onto the pattern were issues to be addressed with this system. Here, we report the development of a multi-chamber, multi-beam laser cell micropatterning system, in which the delivery of specific cells into the beam can be controlled using secondary laser beams. This permits consecutive creation of a pattern involving multiple cell types at specific relative positions. As examples, various patterns of fibroblasts have been created on collagen coated coverslips. In addition, two asynchronously beating clusters of cardiomyocytes were connected with fibroblasts of cardiac origin, yielding a deeper insight into the electrophysiological role of fibroblasts in conduction of the action potentials among cardiomyocytes.

  15. Electrochemical cell for rebalancing REDOX flow system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    An electrically rechargeable REDOX cell or battery system including one of more rebalancing cells is described. Each rebalancing cell is divided into two chambers by an ion permeable membrane. The first chamber is fed with gaseous hydrogen and a cathode fluid which is circulated through the cathode chamber of the REDOX cell is also passed through the second chamber of the rebalancing cell. Electrochemical reactions take place on the surface of insert electrodes in the first and second chambers to rebalance the electrochemical capacity of the anode and cathode fluids of the REDOX system.

  16. Operation of the 25 kW NASA Lewis Solar Regenerative Fuel Cell Testbed Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Voecks, G.E.; Rohatgi, N.K.; Moore, S.H.

    1996-12-31

    Assembly of the NASA Lewis Research Center Solar Regenerative Fuel Cell Testbed Facility has recently been completed and system testing is in progress. This facility includes the integration of 50 kW photovoltaic solar cell arrays, a 25 kW proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis unit, four 5 kW PEM fuel cells, high pressure hydrogen and oxygen storage vessels, high purity water storage containers, and computer monitoring, control and data acquisition. The purpose of this facility is multi-faceted, but was originally intended to serve as a testbed for evaluating a closed-loop powerplant for future NASA extended life support operations, such as a Lunar outpost, and also as a terrestrial powerplant example for remote or continuous back-up support operations. The fuel cell and electrolyzer subsystems design and assembly were conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), the photovoltaic arrays and electrical interconnect to the electrolyzer were provided by the US Navy/China Lake Naval Weapons Center, and testing and operations are being carried out by JPL.

  17. Cell or Cell Membrane-Based Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Songwei; Wu, Tingting; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    Natural cells have been explored as drug carriers for a long period. They have received growing interest as a promising drug delivery system (DDS) until recently along with the development of biology and medical science. The synthetic materials, either organic or inorganic, are found to be with more or less immunogenicity and/or toxicity. The cells and extracellular vesicles (EVs), are endogenous and thought to be much safer and friendlier. Furthermore, in view of their host attributes, they may achieve different biological effects and/or targeting specificity, which can meet the needs of personalized medicine as the next generation of DDS. In this review, we summarized the recent progress in cell or cell membrane-based DDS and their fabrication processes, unique properties and applications, including the whole cells, EVs and cell membrane coated nanoparticles. We expect the continuing development of this cell or cell membrane-based DDS will promote their clinic applications. PMID:26000058

  18. Cell boundary fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2011-04-19

    An apparatus and program product determine a nodal fault along the boundary, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell boundaries communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  19. Fuel cell stack monitoring and system control

    DOEpatents

    Keskula, Donald H.; Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2004-02-17

    A control method for monitoring a fuel cell stack in a fuel cell system in which the actual voltage and actual current from the fuel cell stack are monitored. A preestablished relationship between voltage and current over the operating range of the fuel cell is established. A variance value between the actual measured voltage and the expected voltage magnitude for a given actual measured current is calculated and compared with a predetermined allowable variance. An output is generated if the calculated variance value exceeds the predetermined variance. The predetermined voltage-current for the fuel cell is symbolized as a polarization curve at given operating conditions of the fuel cell.

  20. Development of USES Specific Aptitude Test Battery S-111R84 for Airframe-and-Powerplant Mechanic (Aircraft-Aerospace Mfg.; Air Trans.) 621.281-014.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Human Resources, Salem.

    This report is designed to provide information required to evaluate the Specific Aptitude Test Battery (SATB) for Airframe-and-Powerplant Mechanic from three points of view: (1) technical adequacy of the research, (2) fairness to minorities, and (3) usefulness of the battery to Employment Service staff and employers in selecting individuals for…

  1. Demonstration of a PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    John C. Trocciola; Thomas N. Pompa; Linda S. Boyd

    2004-09-01

    This project involved the installation of a 200kW PC25C{trademark} phosphoric-acid fuel cell power plant at Orgenergogaz, a Gazprom industrial site in Russia. In April 1997, a PC25C{trademark} was sold by ONSI Corporation to Orgenergogaz, a subsidiary of the Russian company ''Gazprom''. Due to instabilities in the Russian financial markets, at that time, the unit was never installed and started by Orgenergogaz. In October of 2001 International Fuel Cells (IFC), now known as UTC Fuel Cells (UTCFC), received a financial assistance award from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) entitled ''Demonstration of PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia''. Three major tasks were part of this award: the inspection of the proposed site and system, start-up assistance, and installation and operation of the powerplant.

  2. PEM fuel cell monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Meltser, Mark Alexander; Grot, Stephen Andreas

    1998-01-01

    Method and apparatus for monitoring the performance of H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 PEM fuel cells. Outputs from a cell/stack voltage monitor and a cathode exhaust gas H.sub.2 sensor are corrected for stack operating conditions, and then compared to predetermined levels of acceptability. If certain unacceptable conditions coexist, an operator is alerted and/or corrective measures are automatically undertaken.

  3. Innate immune system cells in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Sánchez, Luis; Espinosa-Luna, Jose E; Chávez-Rueda, Karina; Legorreta-Haquet, María V; Montoya-Díaz, Eduardo; Blanco-Favela, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall characterized by innate and adaptive immune system involvement. A key component of atherosclerotic plaque inflammation is the persistence of different innate immune cell types including mast cells, neutrophils, natural killer cells, monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. Several endogenous signals such as oxidized low-density lipoproteins, and exogenous signals such as lipopolysaccharides, trigger the activation of these cells. In particular, these signals orchestrate the early and late inflammatory responses through the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and contribute to plaque evolution through the formation of foam cells, among other events. In this review we discuss how innate immune system cells affect atherosclerosis pathogenesis.

  4. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-11-25

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into the fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  5. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  6. Reduction of HCl, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions of powerplants using organic salts of calcium

    SciTech Connect

    Levendis, Y.A.; Courtemanch, B.; Steciak, J.; Wise, D.L.

    1998-04-01

    Results from laboratory investigations are described that show the benefits in using organic salts of calcium to control emissions of powerplants. These salts include calcium formate (CF, Ca(COOH){sub 2}), calcium acetate (CA, Ca(CH{sub 2}COOH){sub 2}), calcium magnesium acetate (CMA, CaMg{sub 2}(CH{sub 2}COOH){sub 6}), calcium propionate (CP, Ca(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COOH){sub 2}) and calcium benzoate (CB, Ca(C{sub 6}H{sub 4}COOH){sub 2})- Such calcium-containing chemicals are sprayed in the post-combustion region of furnaces to control emissions of SO{sub 2}, HCl and NO{sub x}.

  7. Lensless imaging system to quantify cell proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinjimore Kesavan, S.; Allier, C. P.; Navarro, F.; Mittler, F.; Chalmond, B.; Dinten, J.-M.

    2013-02-01

    Owing to its simplicity, lensless imaging system is adept at continuous monitoring of adherent cells inside the incubator. The setup consists of a CMOS sensor with pixel pitch of 2.2 μm and field of view of 24 mm2, LED with a dominating wavelength of 525 nm, along with a pinhole of 150 μm as the source of illumination. The in-line hologram obtained from cells depends on the degree of cell-substrate adhesion. Drastic difference is observed between the holographic patterns of floating and adherent cells. In addition, the well-established fact of reduction of cell-substrate contact during cell division is observed with our system based on corresponding spontaneous transition in the holographic pattern. Here, we demonstrate that by recognizing this specific holographic pattern, number of cells undergoing mitosis in a cell culture with a population of approximately 5000 cells, can be estimated in real-time. The method is assessed on comparison with Edu-based proliferation assay. The approach is straightforward and it eliminates the use of markers to estimate the proliferation rate of a given cell culture. Unlike most proliferation assays, the cells are not harvested enabling continuous monitoring of cell culture.

  8. Stem cell systems and regeneration in planaria.

    PubMed

    Rink, Jochen C

    2013-03-01

    Planarians are members of the Platyhelminthes (flatworms). These animals have evolved a remarkable stem cell system. A single pluripotent adult stem cell type ("neoblast") gives rise to the entire range of cell types and organs in the planarian body plan, including a brain, digestive-, excretory-, sensory- and reproductive systems. Neoblasts are abundantly present throughout the mesenchyme and divide continuously. The resulting stream of progenitors and turnover of differentiated cells drive the rapid self-renewal of the entire animal within a matter of weeks. Planarians grow and literally de-grow ("shrink") by the food supply-dependent adjustment of organismal turnover rates, scaling body plan proportions over as much as a 50-fold size range. Their dynamic body architecture further allows astonishing regenerative abilities, including the regeneration of complete and perfectly proportioned animals even from tiny tissue remnants. Planarians as an experimental system, therefore, provide unique opportunities for addressing a spectrum of current problems in stem cell research, including the evolutionary conservation of pluripotency, the dynamic organization of differentiation lineages and the mechanisms underlying organismal stem cell homeostasis. The first part of this review focuses on the molecular biology of neoblasts as pluripotent stem cells. The second part examines the fascinating mechanistic and conceptual challenges posed by a stem cell system that epitomizes a universal design principle of biological systems: the dynamic steady state.

  9. Baculovirus-insect cell expression systems.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Donald L

    2009-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the first-published reports of baculovirus-mediated foreign gene expression stimulated great interest in the use of baculovirus-insect cell systems for recombinant protein production. Initially, this system appeared to be the first that would be able to provide the high production levels associated with bacterial systems and the eukaryotic protein processing capabilities associated with mammalian systems. Experience and an increased understanding of basic insect cell biology have shown that these early expectations were not completely realistic. Nevertheless, baculovirus-insect cell expression systems have the capacity to produce many recombinant proteins at high levels and they also provide significant eukaryotic protein processing capabilities. Furthermore, important technological advances over the past 20 years have improved upon the original methods developed for the isolation of baculovirus expression vectors, which were inefficient, required at least some specialized expertise and, therefore, induced some frustration among those who used the original baculovirus-insect cell expression system. Today, virtually any investigator with basic molecular biology training can relatively quickly and efficiently isolate a recombinant baculovirus vector and use it to produce their favorite protein in an insect cell culture. This chapter will begin with background information on the basic baculovirus-insect cell expression system and will then focus on recent developments that have greatly facilitated the ability of an average investigator to take advantage of its attributes.

  10. [Cell polarity in the cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Haller, C; Kübler, W

    1999-05-01

    The importance of cell polarity as a fundamental biological principle is increasingly recognized in the cardiovascular system. Polar cell mechanisms underlie not only the development of the heart and blood vessels, but also play a major role in the adult organism for polarized endothelial functions such as the separation of the intra- and extravascular compartment and the vectorial exchange of substances between these compartments. Endothelial cells are connected through intercellular junctions which separate the functionally and structurally distinct luminal and abluminal cell surfaces. The luminal plasma membrane is in contact with the blood and takes part in the regulation of hemostasis. The abluminal cell membrane connects the endothelial cell with the basement membrane and modulates blood flow through the release of vasoactive substances. Results from epithelial model systems have shown that the polarized cell phenotype is generated by specific protein sorting and regulated protein trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the cell surface. The polarized distribution of cell membrane proteins is maintained by anchorage with the cytoskeleton and limitation of lateral diffusion by tight junctions. Disturbances of cell polarity may contribute to the pathogenesis of disease states, including ischemic and radiocontrast-induced acute renal failure and carcinomas. Recent results have demonstrated the importance of cholesterol for protein traffic from the trans-Golgi network to the apical cell membrane. This novel intracellular function of cholesterol could point to a connection between cell polarity and the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis. The polarity of the endothelium also has to be taken into account when developing gene-therapeutic strategies, since therapeutic success will not only depend on the efficient expression of the desired gene product, but also on its correct cellular location or secretion into the correct extracellular compartment. These

  11. Fuel cell stack monitoring and system control

    DOEpatents

    Keskula, Donald H.; Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2005-01-25

    A control method for monitoring a fuel cell stack in a fuel cell system in which the actual voltage and actual current from the fuel cell stack are monitored. A preestablished relationship between voltage and current over the operating range of the fuel cell is established. A variance value between the actual measured voltage and the expected voltage magnitude for a given actual measured current is calculated and compared with a predetermined allowable variance. An output is generated if the calculated variance value exceeds the predetermined variance. The predetermined voltage-current for the fuel cell is symbolized as a polarization curve at given operating conditions of the fuel cell. Other polarization curves may be generated and used for fuel cell stack monitoring based on different operating pressures, temperatures, hydrogen quantities.

  12. Microfluidics and cancer analysis: cell separation, cell/tissue culture, cell mechanics, and integrated analysis systems.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Dimitri

    2016-01-21

    Among the growing number of tools available for cancer studies, microfluidic systems have emerged as a promising analytical tool to elucidate cancer cell and tumor function. Microfluidic methods to culture cells have created approaches to provide a range of environments from single-cell analysis to complex three-dimensional devices. In this review we discuss recent advances in tumor cell culture, cancer cell analysis, and advanced studies enabled by microfluidic systems.

  13. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Wotzak; Chellappa Balan; Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2003-08-01

    The pre-baseline configuration for an Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) system has been developed. This case uses current gasification, clean-up, gas turbine, and bottoming cycle technologies together with projected large planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology. This pre-baseline case will be used as a basis for identifying the critical factors impacting system performance and the major technical challenges in implementing such systems. Top-level system requirements were used as the criteria to evaluate and down select alternative sub-systems. The top choice subsystems were subsequently integrated to form the pre-baseline case. The down-selected pre-baseline case includes a British Gas Lurgi (BGL) gasification and cleanup sub-system integrated with a GE Power Systems 6FA+e gas turbine and the Hybrid Power Generation Systems planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) sub-system. The overall efficiency of this system is estimated to be 43.0%. The system efficiency of the pre-baseline system provides a benchmark level for further optimization efforts in this program.

  14. Direct methanol feed fuel cell and system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Improvements to non acid methanol fuel cells include new formulations for materials. The platinum and ruthenium are more exactly mixed together. Different materials are substituted for these materials. The backing material for the fuel cell electrode is specially treated to improve its characteristics. A special sputtered electrode is formed which is extremely porous. The fuel cell system also comprises a fuel supplying part including a meter which meters an amount of fuel which is used by the fuel cell, and controls the supply of fuel based on said metering.

  15. Regenerative fuel cell systems R and D

    SciTech Connect

    Mitlitsky, F.; Myers, B.; Weisberg, A.H.

    1998-08-01

    Regenerative fuel cell (RFC) systems produce power and electrolytically regenerate their reactants using stacks of electrochemical cells. Energy storage systems with extremely high specific energy (> 400 Wh/kg) have been designed that use lightweight pressure vessels to contain the gases generated by reversible (unitized) regenerative fuel cells (URFCs). Progress is reported on the development, integration, and operation of rechargeable energy storage systems with such high specific energy. Lightweight pressure vessels that enable high specific energies have been designed with performance factors (burst pressure/internal volume/tank weight) > 50 km (2.0 million inches), and a vessel with performance factor of 40 km (1.6 million inches) was fabricated. New generations of both advanced and industry-supplied hydrogen tankage are under development. A primary fuel cell test rig with a single cell (46 cm{sup 2} active area) has been modified and operated reversibly as a URFC (for up to 2010 cycles on a single cell). This URFC uses bifunctional electrodes (oxidation and reduction electrodes reverse roles when switching from charge to discharge, as with a rechargeable battery) and cathode feed electrolysis (water is fed from the hydrogen side of the cell). Recent modifications also enable anode feed electrolysis (water is fed from the oxygen side of the cell). Hydrogen/halogen URFCs, capable of higher round-trip efficiency than hydrogen/oxygen URFCs, have been considered, and will be significantly heavier. Progress is reported on higher performance hydrogen/oxygen URFC operation with reduced catalyst loading.

  16. Origin of Fibrosing Cells in Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ebmeier, Sarah; Horsley, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Systemic sclerosis (SSc), an autoimmune disease of unknown origin, is characterized by progressive fibrosis that can affect all organs of the body. To date, there are no effective therapies for the disease. This paucity of treatment options is primarily due to limited understanding of the processes that initiate and promote fibrosis in general and a lack of animal models that specifically emulate the chronic nature of systemic sclerosis. Most models capitulate acute injury-induced fibrosis in specific organs. Regardless of the model however, a major outstanding question in the field is the cellular origin of fibrosing cells. Recent findings A multitude of origins have been proposed in a variety of tissues, including resident tissue stroma, fibrocytes, pericytes, adipocytes, epithelial cells, and endothelial cells. Developmentally derived fibroblast lineages have recently been elucidated with fibrosing potential in injury models. Increasing data supports the pericyte as a fibrosing cell origin in diverse fibrosis models and adipocytes have recently been proposed. Fibrocytes, epithelial cells, and endothelial cells have been examined, though data does not as strongly support these possible origins. Summary In this review, we discuss recent evidence arguing in favor of and against proposed origins of fibrosing cells in diverse models of fibrosis. We highlight outstanding controversies and propose how future research may elucidate how fibrosing cells arise and what processes can be targeted in order to treat systemic sclerosis. PMID:26352735

  17. Single cell microfluidics for systems oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Rong

    2012-02-01

    The singular term ``cancer'' is never one kind of disease, but deceivingly encompasses a large number of heterogeneous disease states, which makes it impossible to completely treat cancer using a generic approach. Rather systems approaches are urgently required to assess cancer heterogeneity, stratify patients and enable the most effective, individualized treatment. The heterogeneity of tumors at the single cell level is reflected by the hierarchical complexity of the tumor microenvironment. To identify all the cellular components, including both tumor and infiltrating immune cells, and to delineate the associated cell-to-cell signaling network that dictates tumor initiation, progression and metastasis, we developed a single cell microfluidics chip that can analyze a panel of proteins that are potentially associated inter-cellular signaling network in tumor microenvironment from hundreds of single cells in parallel. This platform integrates two advanced technologies -- microfluidic single cell handling and ultra-high density protein array. This device was first tested for highly multiplexed profiling of secreted proteins including tumor-immune signaling molecules from monocytic leukemia cells. We observed profound cellular heterogeneity with all functional phenotypes quantitatively identified. Correlation analysis further indicated the existence of an intercellular cytokine network in which TNFα-induced secondary signaling cascades further increased functional cellular diversity. It was also exploited to evaluate polyfunctionality of tumor antigen-specific T cells from melanoma patients being treated with adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy. This platform could be further extended to analyze both solid tumor cells (e.g. human lung carcinoma cells) and infiltrating immune cells (e.g. macrophages) so as to enable systems analysis of the complex tumor microenvironment from small amounts of clinical specimens, e.g. skinny needle biopsies. Thus, it could potentially

  18. Fuel cell power system for utility vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, M.; Barbir, F.; Marken, F.; Nadal, M.

    1996-12-31

    Based on the experience of designing and building the Green Car, a fuel cell/battery hybrid vehicle, and Genesis, a hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell powered transporter, Energy Partners has developed a fuel cell power system for propulsion of an off-road utility vehicle. A 10 kW hydrogen/air fuel cell stack has been developed as a prototype for future mass production. The main features of this stack are discussed in this paper. Design considerations and selection criteria for the main components of the vehicular fuel cell system, such as traction motor, air compressor and compressor motor, hydrogen storage and delivery, water and heat management, power conditioning, and control and monitoring subsystem are discussed in detail.

  19. Cancer stem cells in nervous system tumors.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sheila K; Clarke, Ian D; Hide, Takuichiro; Dirks, Peter B

    2004-09-20

    Most current research on human brain tumors is focused on the molecular and cellular analysis of the bulk tumor mass. However, evidence in leukemia and more recently in solid tumors such as breast cancer suggests that the tumor cell population is heterogeneous with respect to proliferation and differentiation. Recently, several groups have described the existence of a cancer stem cell population in human brain tumors of different phenotypes from both children and adults. The finding of brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) has been made by applying the principles for cell culture and analysis of normal neural stem cells (NSCs) to brain tumor cell populations and by identification of cell surface markers that allow for isolation of distinct tumor cell populations that can then be studied in vitro and in vivo. A population of brain tumor cells can be enriched for BTSCs by cell sorting of dissociated suspensions of tumor cells for the NSC marker CD133. These CD133+ cells, which also expressed the NSC marker nestin, but not differentiated neural lineage markers, represent a minority fraction of the entire brain tumor cell population, and exclusively generate clonal tumor spheres in suspension culture and exhibit increased self-renewal capacity. BTSCs can be induced to differentiate in vitro into tumor cells that phenotypically resembled the tumor from the patient. Here, we discuss the evidence for and implications of the discovery of a cancer stem cell in human brain tumors. The identification of a BTSC provides a powerful tool to investigate the tumorigenic process in the central nervous system and to develop therapies targeted to the BTSC. Specific genetic and molecular analyses of the BTSC will further our understanding of the mechanisms of brain tumor growth, reinforcing parallels between normal neurogenesis and brain tumorigenesis.

  20. Cell partition in two phase polymer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    Aqueous phase-separated polymer solutions can be used as support media for the partition of biological macromolecules, organelles and cells. Cell separations using the technique have proven to be extremely sensitive to cell surface properties but application of the systems are limited to cells or aggregates which do not significantly while the phases are settling. Partition in zero g in principle removes this limitation but an external driving force must be applied to induce the phases to separate since their density difference disappears. We have recently shown that an applied electric field can supply the necessary driving force. We are proposing to utilize the NASA FES to study field-driven phase separation and cell partition on the ground and in zero g to help define the separation/partition process, with the ultimate goal being to develop partition as a zero g cell separation technique.

  1. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system ducts and air duct systems... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1103 Induction system ducts and air duct systems. (a) Each induction system duct upstream of the...

  2. Low Cost Reversible fuel cell systems

    SciTech Connect

    Technology Management Inc.

    2003-12-30

    This final report summarizes a 3-phase program performed from March 2000 through September 2003 with a particular focus on Phase III. The overall program studied TMI's reversible solid oxide stack, system concepts, and potential applications. The TMI reversible (fuel cell-electrolyzer) system employs a stack of high temperature solid-oxide electrochemical cells to produce either electricity (from a fuel and air or oxygen) or hydrogen (from water and supplied electricity). An atmospheric pressure fuel cell system operates on natural gas (or other carbon-containing fuel) and air. A high-pressure reversible electrolyzer system is used to make high-pressure hydrogen and oxygen from water and when desired, operates in reverse to generate electricity from these gases.

  3. Gradient systems on coupled cell networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoel, Miriam; Roberts, Mark

    2015-10-01

    For networks of coupled dynamical systems we characterize admissible functions, that is, functions whose gradient is an admissible vector field. The schematic representation of a gradient network dynamical system is of an undirected cell graph, and we use tools from graph theory to deduce the general form of such functions, relating it to the topological structure of the graph defining the network. The coupling of pairs of dynamical systems cells is represented by edges of the graph, and from spectral graph theory we detect the existence and nature of equilibria of the gradient system from the critical points of the coupling function. In particular, we study fully synchronous and 2-state patterns of equilibria on regular graphs. These are two special types of equilibrium configurations for gradient networks. We also investigate equilibrium configurations of {{\\mathbf{S}}1} -invariant admissible functions on a ring of cells.

  4. Mammalian Cell-Based Sensor System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Pratik; Franz, Briana; Bhunia, Arun K.

    Use of living cells or cellular components in biosensors is receiving increased attention and opens a whole new area of functional diagnostics. The term "mammalian cell-based biosensor" is designated to biosensors utilizing mammalian cells as the biorecognition element. Cell-based assays, such as high-throughput screening (HTS) or cytotoxicity testing, have already emerged as dependable and promising approaches to measure the functionality or toxicity of a compound (in case of HTS); or to probe the presence of pathogenic or toxigenic entities in clinical, environmental, or food samples. External stimuli or changes in cellular microenvironment sometimes perturb the "normal" physiological activities of mammalian cells, thus allowing CBBs to screen, monitor, and measure the analyte-induced changes. The advantage of CBBs is that they can report the presence or absence of active components, such as live pathogens or active toxins. In some cases, mammalian cells or plasma membranes are used as electrical capacitors and cell-cell and cell-substrate contact is measured via conductivity or electrical impedance. In addition, cytopathogenicity or cytotoxicity induced by pathogens or toxins resulting in apoptosis or necrosis could be measured via optical devices using fluorescence or luminescence. This chapter focuses mainly on the type and applications of different mammalian cell-based sensor systems.

  5. Megawatt Fuel Cell Systems Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    ELECTE JUN1 I 3I FiOAL IPST VS TF E PIOW SIPTEIER 111 To AT 1112 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION WNLINITED A. k Propulsion Laboratory Air Force...Wright Aeronautical Laboratories Air Force System Comnd Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. 4433 8 " 06 13 Q1 - M P M M FIR Wham, Goer-mmst *avg.j...06074 - 1I. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Aero Propulsion Laboratory (AFWAL/POOtC) February 1983 Air Force Wright Aeronautical

  6. Fuel cell using a hydrogen generation system

    DOEpatents

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Crowell, Jeffrey A. W.

    2010-10-19

    A system is described for storing and generating hydrogen and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  7. Stem cell genome-to-systems biology.

    PubMed

    Chia, Na-Yu; Ng, Huck-Hui

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells are capable of extended proliferation and concomitantly differentiating into a plethora of specialized cell types that render them apropos for their usage as a form of regenerative medicine for cell replacement therapies. The molecular processes that underlie the ability for stem cells to self-renew and differentiate have been intriguing, and elucidating the intricacies within the genome is pertinent to enhance our understanding of stem cells. Systems biology is emerging as a crucial field in the study of the sophisticated nature of stem cells, through the adoption of multidisciplinary approaches which couple high-throughput experimental techniques with computational and mathematical analysis. This allows for the determination of the molecular constituents that govern stem cell characteristics and conjointly with functional validations via genetic perturbation and protein location binding analysis necessitate the construction of the complex transcriptional regulatory network. With the elucidation of protein-protein interaction, protein-DNA regulation, microRNA involvement as well as the epigenetic modifications, it is possible to comprehend the defining features of stem cells at the system level.

  8. New Polymer Electrolyte Cell Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyrl, William H.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent; Pappenfus, T.; Henderson, W.

    2004-01-01

    PAPERS PUBLISHED: 1. Pappenfus, Ted M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; Smyrl, William H. Complexes of Lithium Imide Salts with Tetraglyme and Their Polyelectrolyte Composite Materials. Journal of the Electrochemical Society (2004), 15 1 (2), A209-A2 15. 2. Pappenfus, Ted M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; Smyrl, William H. Ionic-liquidlpolymer electrolyte composite materials for electrochemical device applications. Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering (2003), 88 302. 3. Pappenfus, Ted R.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Owens, Boone B.; Mann, Kent R.; and Smyrl, William H. Ionic Conductivity of a poly(vinylpyridinium)/Silver Iodide Solid Polymer Electrolyte System. Solid State Ionics (in press 2004). 4. Pappenfus Ted M.; Mann, Kent R; Smyrl, William H. Polyelectrolyte Composite Materials with LiPFs and Tetraglyme. Electrochemical and Solid State Letters, (2004), 7(8), A254.

  9. Water injected fuel cell system compressor

    DOEpatents

    Siepierski, James S.; Moore, Barbara S.; Hoch, Martin Monroe

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

  10. Carbonate fuel cell power plant systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinstrom, R. M.

    1981-12-01

    Carbonate fuel cells are an attractive means of developing highly efficient power plants capable of achieving low atmospheric emissions. Because carbonate fuel cells can be used with coal derived fuel gases and their operating temperatures allow the use of turbomachinery bottoming cycles, they are well suited for large installations like central utility stations. Presently, system development activity is directed toward evaluating the readiness of gasifier and fuel processor technology, defining candidate cycle configurations, and calculating projected plant efficiencies.

  11. Solid oxide fuel cell power system development

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, Rick; Wall, Mark; Sullivan, Neal

    2015-06-26

    This report summarizes the progress made during this contractual period in achieving the goal of developing the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cell and stack technology to be suitable for use in highly-efficient, economically-competitive, commercially deployed electrical power systems. Progress was made in further understanding cell and stack degradation mechanisms in order to increase stack reliability toward achieving a 4+ year lifetime, in cost reduction developments to meet the SECA stack cost target of $175/kW (in 2007 dollars), and in operating the SOFC technology in a multi-stack system in a real-world environment to understand the requirements for reliably designing and operating a large, stationary power system.

  12. Redox flow cell energy storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    NASA-Redox systems are electrochemical storage devices that use two fully soluble Redox couples, anode and cathode fluids, as active electrode materials separated by a highly selective ion exchange membrane. The reactants are contained in large storage tanks and pumped through a stack of Redox flow cells where the electrochemical reactions (reduction and oxidation) take place at porous carbon felt electrodes. A string or stack of these power producing cells is connected in series in a bipolar manner. Redox energy storage systems promise to be inexpensive and possess many features that provide for flexible design, long life, high reliability and minimal operation and maintenance costs. These features include independent sizing of power and storage capacity requirements and inclusion within the cell stack of a cell that monitors the state of charge of the system as a whole, and a rebalance cell which permits continuous correction to be made for minor side reactions that would tend to result in the anode fluid and cathode fluids becoming electrochemically out of balance. These system features are described and discussed.

  13. 14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction systems ducts and air duct... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1103 Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. (a) Each induction system duct upstream of the...

  14. High throughput solar cell ablation system

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John; Viatella, John

    2014-10-14

    A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

  15. High throughput solar cell ablation system

    DOEpatents

    Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John; Viatella, John

    2012-09-11

    A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

  16. High voltage solar cell power generating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, E., Jr.; Opjorden, R. W.; Hoffman, A. C.

    1974-01-01

    A laboratory solar power system regulated by on-panel switches has been delivered for operating high power (3 kW), high voltage (15,000 volt) loads (communication tubes, ion thrusters). The modular system consists of 26 solar arrays, each with an integral light source and cooling system. A typical array contains 2,560 series-connected cells. Each light source consists of twenty 500-watt tungsten iodide lamps providing plus or minus 5 percent uniformity at one solar constant. An array temperature of less than 40 C is achieved using an infrared filter, a water-cooled plate, a vacuum hold-down system, and air flushing.

  17. Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell System Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Jakupca, Ian

    2003-01-01

    A Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell (URFC) Energy Storage System is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This URFC system is unique in that it uses the surface area of the hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks as radiating heat surfaces for overall thermal control of the system. The tank surfaces also play an important role in the temperature control of regenerative gas dryers/humidifiers used to dry the hydrogen and oxygen gases produced by electrolysis during the charging and also used to humidify the hydrogen and oxygen gases used by fuel cell during the discharging of the URFCS. A bi- directional pressure controller is used to control the pressure of the oxygen and hydrogen gas inside the URFC stack during both charging and discharging of the URFC system. A water storage accumulator is used to store water reactant and control water pressure inside the URFC stack.

  18. Presence of pathogenic microorganisms in power-plant cooling waters. Final report, October 1, 1981-June 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1983-07-01

    Air was sampled at the point of discharge and at short distances downwind and upwind from industrial and power-plant cooling towers. Both high-volume electrostatic and impinger type samplers were used. Concentrates of the air samples were analyzed for Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria (LDB). In some cases, the samples were also tested for the presence of free-living amoebae. The concentrations of LDB in the air samples were well below the minimal infectious dose for guinea pigs and precluded testing of the samples for infectious LDB. Results of LDB analysis were related to the meteorological conditions at the time of sampling. Generally, the concentrations of LDB in the air at the discharge of the cooling towers were 1 x 10/sup -6/ to 1 x 10/sup -7/ of that found in comparable volumes of tower basin water. During periods of high humidity and wind speed, LDB was detected in a few downwind samples and one upwind sample. One site with extensive construction and excavation activity had higher LDB concentrations in air samples relative to other sites. Nonpathogenic Naegleria were present in one of two air samples taken in the mist at the base of a natural-draft cooling tower.

  19. Assessing inundation hazards to nuclear powerplant sites using geologically extended histories of riverine floods, tsunamis, and storm surges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, Jim; Atwater, Brian F.; Cohn, Timothy A.; Cronin, Thomas M.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Smith, Christopher G.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    A screening of the 104 nuclear powerplants in the United States licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (at 64 sites) indicates several sites for which paleoflood studies likely would provide additional flood-frequency information. Two sites—Duane Arnold, Iowa, on the Cedar River; and David-Besse, Ohio, on the Toussaint River—have geologic conditions suitable for creating and preserving stratigraphic records of flooding and few upstream dams that may complicate flood-frequency analysis. One site—Crystal River, Florida1, on the Withlacoochee River and only 4 kilometers from the coast—has high potential as a candidate for assessing riverine and marine inundation hazards. Several sites on the Mississippi River have high geologic potential, but upstream dams almost certainly now regulate peak flows. Nevertheless, studies on the Mississippi River to evaluate long-term flood frequency may provide results applicable to a wide spectrum of regional hazard issues. Several sites in the southeastern United States have high geologic potential, and studies at these sites also may be helpful in evaluating hazards from outburst floods from landslide dams (river blockages formed by mass movements), which may be a regional hazard. For all these sites, closer investigation and field reconnaissance would be needed to confirm suitable deposits and settings for a complete paleoflood analysis. Similar screenings may help identify high-potential sites for geologic investigations of tsunami and storm-surge hazards.

  20. Gas cooled fuel cell systems technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feret, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The first phase of a planned multiphase program to develop a Phosphoric is addressed. This report describes the efforts performed that culminated in the: (1) Establishment of the preliminary design requirements and system conceptual design for the nominally rated 375 kW PAFC module and is interfacing power plant systems; (2) Establishment of PAFC component and stack performance, endurance, and design parameter data needed for design verification for power plant application; (3) Improvement of the existing PAFC materials data base and establishment of materials specifications and process procedes for the cell components; and (4) Testing of 122 subscale cell atmospheric test for 110,000 cumulative test hours, 12 subscale cell pressurized tests for 15,000 cumulative test hours, and 12 pressurized stack test for 10,000 cumulative test hours.

  1. Fuel cell system for transportation applications

    DOEpatents

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1993-09-28

    A propulsion system is described for a vehicle having pairs of front and rear wheels and a fuel tank. An electrically driven motor having an output shaft operatively connected to at least one of said pair of wheels is connected to a fuel cell having a positive electrode and a negative electrode separated by an electrolyte for producing dc power to operate the motor. A partial oxidation reformer is connected both to the fuel tank and to the fuel cell and receives hydrogen-containing fuel from the fuel tank and uses water and air for partially oxidizing and reforming the fuel in the presence of an oxidizing catalyst and a reforming catalyst to produce a hydrogen-containing gas. The hydrogen-containing gas is sent from the partial oxidation reformer to the fuel cell negative electrode while air is transported to the fuel cell positive electrode to produce dc power for operating the electric motor. 3 figures.

  2. Fuel cell system for transportation applications

    DOEpatents

    Kumar, Romesh; Ahmed, Shabbir; Krumpelt, Michael; Myles, Kevin M.

    1993-01-01

    A propulsion system for a vehicle having pairs of front and rear wheels and a fuel tank. An electrically driven motor having an output shaft operatively connected to at least one of said pair of wheels is connected to a fuel cell having a positive electrode and a negative electrode separated by an electrolyte for producing dc power to operate the motor. A partial oxidation reformer is connected both to the fuel tank and to the fuel cell receives hydrogen-containing fuel from the fuel tank and water and air and for partially oxidizing and reforming the fuel with water and air in the presence of an oxidizing catalyst and a reforming catalyst to produce a hydrogen-containing gas. The hydrogen-containing gas is sent from the partial oxidation reformer to the fuel cell negative electrode while air is transported to the fuel cell positive electrode to produce dc power for operating the electric motor.

  3. Cell-based bioassays in microfluidic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itle, Laura J.; Zguris, Jeanna C.; Pishko, Michael V.

    2004-12-01

    The development of cell-based bioassays for high throughput drug screening or the sensing of biotoxins is contingent on the development of whole cell sensors for specific changes in intracellular conditions and the integration of those systems into sample delivery devices. Here we show the feasibility of using a 5-(and-6)-carboxy SNARF-1, acetoxymethyl ester, acetate, a fluorescent dye capable of responding to changes in intracellular pH, as a detection method for the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide. We used photolithography to entrap cells with this dye within poly(ethylene) glyocol diacrylate hydrogels in microfluidic channels. After 18 hours of exposure to lipopolysaccharide, we were able to see visible changes in the fluorescent pattern. This work shows the feasibility of using whole cell based biosensors within microfluidic networks to detect cellular changes in response to exogenous agents.

  4. The spatial structure of cell signaling systems

    PubMed Central

    Nussinov, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    The spatial structure of the cell is highly organized at all levels: from small complexes and assemblies, to local nano- and micro-clusters, to global, micrometer scales across and between cells. We suggest that this multiscale spatial cell organization also organizes signaling and coordinates cellular behavior. We propose a new view of the spatial structure of cell signaling systems. This new view describes cell signaling in terms of dynamic allosteric interactions within and among distinct, spatially organized transient clusters. The clusters vary over time and space and are on length scales from nanometers to micrometers. When considered across these length-scales, primary factors in the spatial organization are cell membrane domains and the actin cytoskeleton, both also highly dynamic. A key challenge is to understand the interplay across these multiple scales, link it to the physicochemical basis of the conformational behavior of single molecules, and ultimately relate it to cellular function. Overall, our premise is that at these scales, cell signaling should be thought of not primarily as a sequence of diffusion-controlled molecular collisions, but instead transient, allostery-driven cluster re-forming interactions. PMID:23913102

  5. Fuel cell technology for prototype logistic fuel cell mobile systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sederquist, R.A.; Garow, J.

    1995-08-01

    Under the aegis of the Advanced Research Project Agency`s family of programs to develop advanced technology for dual use applications, International Fuel Cells Corporation (IFC) is conducting a 39 month program to develop an innovative system concept for DoD Mobile Electric Power (MEP) applications. The concept is to integrate two technologies, the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) with an auto-thermal reformer (ATR), into an efficient fuel cell power plant of nominally 100-kilowatt rating which operates on logistic fuels (JP-8). The ATR fuel processor is the key to meeting requirements for MEP (including weight, volume, reliability, maintainability, efficiency, and especially operation on logistic fuels); most of the effort is devoted to ATR development. An integrated demonstration test unit culminates the program and displays the benefits of the fuel cell system, relative to the standard 100-kilowatt MEP diesel engine generator set. A successful test provides the basis for proceeding toward deployment. This paper describes the results of the first twelve months of activity during which specific program aims have remained firm.

  6. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    SciTech Connect

    Chellappa Balan; Debashis Dey; Sukru-Alper Eker; Max Peter; Pavel Sokolov; Greg Wotzak

    2004-01-31

    This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by gasified coal. System concepts that integrate a coal gasifier with a SOFC, a gas turbine, and a steam turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 200 MW. Two alternative integration configurations were selected with projected system efficiency of over 53% on a HHV basis, or about 10 percentage points higher than that of the state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The initial cost of both selected configurations was found to be comparable with the IGCC system costs at approximately $1700/kW. An absorption-based CO2 isolation scheme was developed, and its penalty on the system performance and cost was estimated to be less approximately 2.7% and $370/kW. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  7. Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    2003-01-01

    Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cells (URFC) have recently been developed by several fuel cell manufacturers. These manufacturers have concentrated their efforts on the development of the cell stack technology itself, and have not up to this point devoted much effort to the design and development of the balance of plant. A fuel cell technology program at the Glenn Research Center (GRC) that has as its goal the definition and feasibility testing of the URFC system balance of plant. Besides testing the feasibility, the program also intends to minimize the system weight, volume, and parasitic power as its goal. The design concept currently being developed uses no pumps to circulate coolant or reactants, and minimizes the ancillary components to only the oxygen and hydrogen gas storage tanks, a water storage tank, a loop heat pipe to control the temperature and two pressure control devices to control the cell stack pressures during operation. The information contained in this paper describes the design and operational concepts employed in this concept. The paper also describes the NASA Glenn research program to develop this concept and test its feasibility.

  8. Constructing a High Density Cell Culture System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An annular culture vessel for growing mammalian cells is constructed in a one piece integral and annular configuration with an open end which is closed by an endcap. The culture vessel is rotatable about a horizontal axis by use of conventional roller systems commonly used in culture laboratories. The end wall of the endcap has tapered access ports to frictionally and sealingly receive the ends of hypodermic syringes. The syringes permit the introduction of fresh nutrient and withdrawal of spent nutrients. The walls are made of conventional polymeric cell culture material and are subjected to neutron bombardment to form minute gas permeable perforations in the walls.

  9. 14 CFR 25.979 - Pressure fueling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pressure fueling system. 25.979 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.979 Pressure fueling system. For pressure fueling systems, the following apply: (a) Each pressure fueling system fuel...

  10. 14 CFR 25.979 - Pressure fueling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pressure fueling system. 25.979 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.979 Pressure fueling system. For pressure fueling systems, the following apply: (a) Each pressure fueling system fuel...

  11. 14 CFR 25.979 - Pressure fueling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pressure fueling system. 25.979 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.979 Pressure fueling system. For pressure fueling systems, the following apply: (a) Each pressure fueling system fuel...

  12. 14 CFR 25.979 - Pressure fueling system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pressure fueling system. 25.979 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.979 Pressure fueling system. For pressure fueling systems, the following apply: (a) Each pressure fueling system fuel...

  13. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems PVL Line

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Shearer - Stark State College; Gregory Rush - Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems

    2012-05-01

    In July 2010, Stark State College (SSC), received Grant DE-EE0003229 from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Golden Field Office, for the development of the electrical and control systems, and mechanical commissioning of a unique 20kW scale high-pressure, high temperature, natural gas fueled Stack Block Test System (SBTS). SSC worked closely with subcontractor, Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) over a 13 month period to successfully complete the project activities. This system will be utilized by RRFCS for pre-commercial technology development and training of SSC student interns. In the longer term, when RRFCS is producing commercial products, SSC will utilize the equipment for workforce training. In addition to DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies program funding, RRFCS internal funds, funds from the state of Ohio, and funding from the DOE Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program have been utilized to design, develop and commission this equipment. Construction of the SBTS (mechanical components) was performed under a Grant from the State of Ohio through Ohio's Third Frontier program (Grant TECH 08-053). This Ohio program supported development of a system that uses natural gas as a fuel. Funding was provided under the Department of Energy (DOE) Solid-state Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program for modifications required to test on coal synthesis gas. The subject DOE program provided funding for the electrical build, control system development and mechanical commissioning. Performance testing, which includes electrical commissioning, was subsequently performed under the DOE SECA program. Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems is developing a megawatt-scale solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stationary power generation system. This system, based on RRFCS proprietary technology, is fueled with natural gas, and operates at elevated pressure. A critical success factor for development of the full scale system is the capability to

  14. Performance and operational economics estimates for a coal gasification combined-cycle cogeneration powerplant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nainiger, J. J.; Burns, R. K.; Easley, A. J.

    1982-03-01

    A performance and operational economics analysis is presented for an integrated-gasifier, combined-cycle (IGCC) system to meet the steam and baseload electrical requirements. The effect of time variations in steam and electrial requirements is included. The amount and timing of electricity purchases from sales to the electric utility are determined. The resulting expenses for purchased electricity and revenues from electricity sales are estimated by using an assumed utility rate structure model. Cogeneration results for a range of potential IGCC cogeneration system sizes are compared with the fuel consumption and costs of natural gas and electricity to meet requirements without cogeneration. The results indicate that an IGCC cogeneration system could save about 10 percent of the total fuel energy presently required to supply steam and electrical requirements without cogeneration. Also for the assumed future fuel and electricity prices, an annual operating cost savings of 21 percent to 26 percent could be achieved with such a cogeneration system. An analysis of the effects of electricity price, fuel price, and system availability indicates that the IGCC cogeneration system has a good potential for economical operation over a wide range in these assumptions.

  15. Performance and operational economics estimates for a coal gasification combined-cycle cogeneration powerplant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nainiger, J. J.; Burns, R. K.; Easley, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    A performance and operational economics analysis is presented for an integrated-gasifier, combined-cycle (IGCC) system to meet the steam and baseload electrical requirements. The effect of time variations in steam and electrial requirements is included. The amount and timing of electricity purchases from sales to the electric utility are determined. The resulting expenses for purchased electricity and revenues from electricity sales are estimated by using an assumed utility rate structure model. Cogeneration results for a range of potential IGCC cogeneration system sizes are compared with the fuel consumption and costs of natural gas and electricity to meet requirements without cogeneration. The results indicate that an IGCC cogeneration system could save about 10 percent of the total fuel energy presently required to supply steam and electrical requirements without cogeneration. Also for the assumed future fuel and electricity prices, an annual operating cost savings of 21 percent to 26 percent could be achieved with such a cogeneration system. An analysis of the effects of electricity price, fuel price, and system availability indicates that the IGCC cogeneration system has a good potential for economical operation over a wide range in these assumptions.

  16. Endothelial cells and the IGF system.

    PubMed

    Bach, Leon A

    2015-02-01

    Endothelial cells line blood vessels and modulate vascular tone, thrombosis, inflammatory responses and new vessel formation. They are implicated in many disease processes including atherosclerosis and cancer. IGFs play a significant role in the physiology of endothelial cells by promoting migration, tube formation and production of the vasodilator nitric oxide. These actions are mediated by the IGF1 and IGF2/mannose 6-phosphate receptors and are modulated by a family of high-affinity IGF binding proteins. IGFs also increase the number and function of endothelial progenitor cells, which may contribute to protection from atherosclerosis. IGFs promote angiogenesis, and dysregulation of the IGF system may contribute to this process in cancer and eye diseases including retinopathy of prematurity and diabetic retinopathy. In some situations, IGF deficiency appears to contribute to endothelial dysfunction, whereas IGF may be deleterious in others. These differences may be due to tissue-specific endothelial cell phenotypes or IGFs having distinct roles in different phases of vascular disease. Further studies are therefore required to delineate the therapeutic potential of IGF system modulation in pathogenic processes.

  17. Advanced technology lightweight fuel cell program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of the alkaline electrolyte fuel cell as the power source in a multi hundred kilowatt orbital energy storage system was studied. The total system weight of an electrolysis cell energy storage system was determined. The tests demonstrated: (1) the performance stability of a platinum on carbon anode catalyst configuration after 5000 hours of testing has no loss in performance; (2) capability of the alkaline fuel cell to operate to a cyclical load profile; (3) suitability of a lightweight graphite electrolyte reservoir plate for use in the alkaline fuel cell; (4) long life potential of a hybrid polysulfone cell edge frame construction; and (5) long term stability of a fiber reinforced potassium titanate matrix structure. The power section tested operates with passive water removal eliminating the requirement for a dynamic hydrogen pump water separator thereby allowing a powerplant design with reduced weight, lower parasite power, and a potential for high reliability and extended endurance. It is concluded that two perovskites are unsuitable for use as a catalyst or as a catalyst support at the cathode of an alkaline fuel cell.

  18. Flexible fuel cell gas manifold system

    DOEpatents

    Cramer, Michael; Shah, Jagdish; Hayes, Richard P.; Kelley, Dana A.

    2005-05-03

    A fuel cell stack manifold system in which a flexible manifold body includes a pan having a central area, sidewall extending outward from the periphery of the central area, and at least one compound fold comprising a central area fold connecting adjacent portions of the central area and extending between opposite sides of the central area, and a sidewall fold connecting adjacent portions of the sidewall. The manifold system further includes a rail assembly for attachment to the manifold body and adapted to receive pins by which dielectric insulators are joined to the manifold assembly.

  19. Oxygenation of intensive cell-culture system.

    PubMed

    Emery, A N; Jan, D C; al-Rubeai, M

    1995-11-01

    The abilities of various methods of oxygenation to meet the demands of high-cell-density culture were investigated using a spin filter perfusion system in a bench-top bioreactor. Oxygen demand at high cell density could not be met by sparging with air inside a spin filter (oxygen transfer values in this condition were comparable with those for surface aeration). Sparging with air outside a spin filter gave adequate oxygen transfer for the support of cell concentrations above 10(7) ml-1 in fully aerobic conditions but the addition of antifoam to control foaming caused blockage of the spinfilter mesh. Bubble-free aeration through immersed silicone tubing with pure oxygen gave similar oxygen transfer rates to that of sparging with air but without the problems of bubble damage and fouling of the spin filter. A supra-optimal level of dissolved oxygen (478% air saturation) inhibited cell growth. However, cells could recover from this stress and reach high density after reduction of the dissolved oxygen level to 50% air saturation.

  20. System for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack system for improved fuel cell stability

    DOEpatents

    Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J; Weissman, Jeffrey G

    2013-08-13

    A system for adding sulfur to a reformate stream feeding a fuel cell stack, having a sulfur source for providing sulfur to the reformate stream and a metering device in fluid connection with the sulfur source and the reformate stream. The metering device injects sulfur from the sulfur source to the reformate stream at a predetermined rate, thereby providing a conditioned reformate stream to the fuel cell stack. The system provides a conditioned reformate stream having a predetermined sulfur concentration that gives an acceptable balance of minimal drop in initial power with the desired maximum stability of operation over prolonged periods for the fuel cell stack.

  1. Endurance Test and Evaluation of Alkaline Water Electrolysis Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, Andrew J.; Schubert, Franz H.; Chang, B. J.; Larkins, Jim T.

    1985-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is to assess the state of alkaline water electrolysis cell technology and its potential as part of a Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS) of a multikilowatt orbiting powerplant. The program evaluates the endurance capabilities of alkaline electrolyte water electrolysis cells under various operating conditions, including constant condition testing, cyclic testing and high pressure testing. The RFCS demanded the scale-up of existing cell hardware from 0.1 sq ft active electrode area to 1.0 sq ft active electrode area. A single water electrolysis cell and two six-cell modules of 1.0 sq ft active electrode area were designed and fabricated. The two six-cell 1.0 sq ft modules incorporate 1.0 sq ft utilized cores, which allow for minimization of module assembly complexity and increased tolerance to pressure differential. A water electrolysis subsystem was designed and fabricated to allow testing of the six-cell modules. After completing checkout, shakedown, design verification and parametric testing, a module was incorporated into the Regenerative Fuel Cell System Breadboard (RFCSB) for testing at Life Systems, Inc., and at NASA JSC.

  2. Translation in cell-free systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jagus, R.

    1987-01-01

    The simplest, unambiguous identification of a particular mRNA is the identification of its protein product. This can be established by translation of the mRNA of interest in a cell-free protein-synthesizing system. Messenger RNA protein product identification is important in the isolation of a particular mRNA species for cDNA cloning and in the identification of positive cDNA clones. The two high-activity translation systems in common use are those prepared from rabbit reticulocytes and from wheat germ. Both systems are easy to prepare, and both are available commercially. Each has advantages and disadvantages over the other and a choice between the two will depend on the type of mRNAs to be translated, the prejudices of experience, and availability. The main disadvantage of the reticulocyte system is that it requires removal of endogenous mRNA. However, this is a relatively simple procedure. The wheat germ system does not require removal of endogenous mRNA and may translate weakly initiating mRNAs more efficiently. However, ionic optima for translation in the wheat germ system are more sensitive to the nature and concentration of mRNA and may need to be determined for each template. The biggest problem with the use of the wheat germ system is its tendency to produce incomplete translation products due to premature termination.

  3. 14 CFR 23.994 - Fuel system components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel system components. 23.994 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 23.994 Fuel system components. Fuel system components in an engine nacelle or in the...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1105 - Induction system screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system screens. 23.1105 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1105 Induction system screens. If induction system screens are used— (a) Each screen must...

  5. 14 CFR 29.1105 - Induction system screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system screens. 29.1105 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1105 Induction system screens. If induction system screens are used— (a) Each screen must be upstream of the carburetor; (b)...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1105 - Induction system screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system screens. 25.1105 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1105 Induction system screens. If induction system screens are used— (a) Each screen must be upstream of the carburetor; (b)...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1105 - Induction system screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system screens. 23.1105 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1105 Induction system screens. If induction system screens are used— (a) Each screen must...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system ducts. 23.1103 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1103 Induction system ducts. (a) Each induction system duct must have a drain to prevent...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1091 - Air induction system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction system. 23.1091 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 23.1091 Air induction system. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power...

  10. 14 CFR 25.1105 - Induction system screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system screens. 25.1105 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1105 Induction system screens. If induction system screens are used— (a) Each screen must be upstream of the carburetor; (b)...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1105 - Induction system screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system screens. 29.1105 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1105 Induction system screens. If induction system screens are used— (a) Each screen must be upstream of the carburetor; (b)...

  12. 14 CFR 23.953 - Fuel system independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel system independence. 23.953 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 23.953 Fuel system independence. (a) Each fuel system for a multiengine airplane must be arranged so...

  13. 14 CFR 25.994 - Fuel system components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system components. 25.994 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.994 Fuel system components. Fuel system components in an engine nacelle or in the fuselage must be protected from...

  14. 14 CFR 25.953 - Fuel system independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system independence. 25.953 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.953 Fuel system independence. Each fuel system must meet the requirements of § 25.903(b) by— (a) Allowing the supply of fuel to...

  15. 14 CFR 23.953 - Fuel system independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel system independence. 23.953 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 23.953 Fuel system independence. (a) Each fuel system for a multiengine airplane must be arranged so...

  16. 14 CFR 25.954 - Fuel system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system lightning protection. 25.954... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.954 Fuel system lightning protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel...

  17. 14 CFR 23.953 - Fuel system independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system independence. 23.953 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 23.953 Fuel system independence. (a) Each fuel system for a multiengine airplane must be arranged so...

  18. 14 CFR 27.953 - Fuel system independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system independence. 27.953 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.953 Fuel system independence. (a) Each fuel system for multiengine rotorcraft must allow fuel to be supplied to each engine through...

  19. 14 CFR 23.994 - Fuel system components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system components. 23.994 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 23.994 Fuel system components. Fuel system components in an engine nacelle or in the...

  20. 14 CFR 25.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 25.999 Section 25.999... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.999 Fuel system drains. (a) Drainage of the fuel system must be accomplished by the use of fuel strainer and fuel tank sump drains....

  1. 14 CFR 27.954 - Fuel system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system lightning protection. 27.954... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.954 Fuel system lightning protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 25.1021 Section 25.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 25.1021 Section 25.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  4. 14 CFR 27.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 27.1021 Section 27.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be accessible; and...

  5. 14 CFR 27.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 27.1021 Section 27.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be accessible; and...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each...

  7. 14 CFR 29.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 29.1021 Section 29.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 23.1021 Section 23.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each...

  11. 14 CFR 27.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 27.1021 Section 27.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be accessible; and...

  12. 14 CFR 27.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil system drains. 27.1021 Section 27.1021... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be accessible; and...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 25.1021 Section 25.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil system drains. 25.1021 Section 25.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil system drains. 29.1021 Section 29.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1021 - Oil system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil system drains. 29.1021 Section 29.1021... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1021 Oil system drains. A drain (or drains) must be provided to allow safe drainage of the oil system. Each drain must— (a) Be...

  17. 14 CFR 27.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 27.999 Section 27.999... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 27.999 Fuel system drains. (a) There must be at least one accessible drain at the lowest point in each fuel system to completely...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1027 - Propeller feathering system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller feathering system. 23.1027... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1027 Propeller feathering system. (a) If the propeller feathering system uses...

  19. Orbiter fuel cell performance constraints. STS/OPS Pratt Whitney fuel cells. Operating limits for mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolkhorst, H. E.

    1980-01-01

    The orbiter fuel cell powerplant (FCP) performance constraints listed in the Shuttle Operational Data Book (SODB) were analyzed using the shuttle environmental control requirements evaluation tool. The effects of FCP lifetime, coolant loops, and FCP voltage output were considered. Results indicate that the FCP limits defined in the SODB are not valid.

  20. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system

    DOEpatents

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Springer, Thomas E.; Huff, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  1. Alkaline regenerative fuel cell systems for energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, F.H.; Reid, M.A.; Martin, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary design study of a Regenerative Fuel Cell Energy Storage system for application to future low-earth orbit space missions. This high energy density storage system is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte cell technology and incorporates dedicated fuel cell and electrolysis cell modules. 11 refs.

  2. Acoustic agglomeration of power-plant fly ash. A comprehensive semi-annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Reethof, G.

    1980-02-01

    Results obtained during the reporting period are presented. The agglomeration of submicron fly ash particles has been studied as a function of sound pressure level, sound frequency, loading, and exposure time. A second generation model of the agglomeration process is being developed. A high-frequency, high-intensity variable speed siren delivering at least 600 W at frequencies up to 4000 Hz has been developed and tested. Details on the design and operation are presented. The agglomeration chamber has been completely cleaned and the aerosol generating system has been rebuilt. A mathematical model of the acoustics of agglomeration is being developed. Preliminary results of computerized electron microscopic scanning of fly ash particles during agglomeration are presented. (DMC)

  3. Gravisensing in single-celled systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, M.; Limbach, C.

    Single-celled systems are favourable cell types for studying several aspects of gravisensing and gravitropic responses. Whether and how actin is involved in both processes in higher plant statocytes is still a matter of intensive debate. In single-celled and tip-growing characean rhizoids and protonemata, however, there is clear evidence that actin is a central keyplayer controlling polarized growth and the mechanisms of gravity sensing and growth reorientation. Both cell types exhibit a unique actin polymerization in the extending tip, strictly colocalized with the prominent ER-aggregate in the center of the Spitzenkoerper. The local accumulation of ADF and profilin in this central array suggest that actin polymerization is controlled by these actin-binding proteins, which can be regulated by calcium, pH and a variety of other parameters. Distinct actin filaments extend even into the outermost tip and form a dense meshwork in the apical and subapical region, before they become bundled by villin to form two populations of thick actin cables that generate rotational cytoplasmic streaming in the basal region. Actomyosin not only mediates the delivery of secretory vesicles to the growing tip and controls the incorporation pattern of cell wall material, but also coordinates the tip-focused distribution pattern of calcium channels in the apical membrane. They establish the tip-high calcium gradient, a prerequisite for exocytosis. Microgravity experiments have added much to our understanding that both cell types use an efficient actomyosin-based system to control and correct the position of their statoliths and to direct sedimenting statoliths to confined graviperception sites at the plasma membrane. Actin's involvement in the graviresponses is more indirect. The upward growth of negatively gravitropic protonemata was shown to be preceded by a statolith-induced relocalization the Ca2+-calcium gradient to the upper flank that does not occur in positively gravitropic

  4. Long-term maintenance of human induced pluripotent stem cells by automated cell culture system

    PubMed Central

    Konagaya, Shuhei; Ando, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Toshiaki; Suemori, Hirofumi; Iwata, Hiroo

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, are regarded as new sources for cell replacement therapy. These cells can unlimitedly expand under undifferentiated conditions and be differentiated into multiple cell types. Automated culture systems enable the large-scale production of cells. In addition to reducing the time and effort of researchers, an automated culture system improves the reproducibility of cell cultures. In the present study, we newly designed a fully automated cell culture system for human iPS maintenance. Using an automated culture system, hiPS cells maintained their undifferentiated state for 60 days. Automatically prepared hiPS cells had a potency of differentiation into three germ layer cells including dopaminergic neurons and pancreatic cells. PMID:26573336

  5. Gas Transport and Control in Thick-Liquid Inertial Fusion PowerPlants

    SciTech Connect

    Debonnel, Christophe Sylvain

    2006-01-01

    Among the numerous potential routes to a commercial fusion power plant, the inertial path with thick-liquid protection is explored in this doctoral dissertation. Gas dynamics phenomena in such fusion target chambers have been investigated since the early 1990s with the help of a series of simulation codes known as TSUNAMI. For this doctoral work, the code was redesigned and rewritten entirely to enable the use of modern programming techniques, languages and software; improve its user-friendliness; and refine its ability to model thick-liquid protected chambers. The new ablation and gas dynamics code is named “Visual Tsunami” to emphasize its graphics-based pre- and post-processors. It is aimed at providing a versatile and user-friendly design tool for complex systems for which transient gas dynamics phenomena play a key role. Simultaneously, some of these improvements were implemented in a previous version of the code; the resulting code constitutes the version 2.8 of the TSUNAMI series. Visual Tsunami was used to design and model the novel Condensation Debris Experiment (CDE), which presents many aspects of a typical Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) system and has therefore been used to exercise the code. Numerical and experimental results are in good agreement. In a heavy-ion IFE target chamber, proper beam and target propagation set stringent requirements for the control of ablation debris transport in the target chamber and beam tubes. When the neutralized ballistic transport mode is employed, the background gas density should be adequately low and the beam tube metallic surfaces upstream of the neutralizing region should be free of contaminants. TSUNAMI 2.8 was used for the first simulation of gas transport through the complex geometry of the liquid blanket of a hybrid target chamber and beam lines. Concurrently, the feasibility of controlling the gas density was addressed with a novel beam tube design, which introduces magnetic shutters and a long low

  6. "We Burn to Learn" About Fuel-Air Mixing Within Aircraft Powerplants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Heidi N.

    2004-01-01

    I am working with my branch s advanced diagnostics team to investigate fuel-air mixing in jet-fueled gas turbine combustors and jet-fuel reformers. Our data acquisition begins with bench-top experiments which will help with calibration of equipment for facility testing. While conducting the bench-top experiments I learned to align laser and optical equipment to collect data, to use the data acquisition software, and to process the data into graphs and images. which jet he1 is to be reformed into hydrogen. Testing will commence shortly, after which we will obtain and analyze data and meet a critical milestone for the end of September. I am also designing the layout for a Schlieren system that will be used during that time frame. A Schlieren instrument records changes in the refractive index distribution of transparent media like air flows. The refractive index distribution can then be related to density, temperature, or pressure distributions within the flow. I am working on a scheme to quantify this information and add to the knowledge of the fuel-air mixing process.

  7. Heat-Rate Improvement Obtained by Retubing Power-Plant Condenser Enhanced Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-21

    A utility will only retube a condenser with enhanced tubes if the incremental cost of the enhanced tubes can be offset with reduced fuel costs. The reduced fuel cost is obtained for some units because of the higher heat-transfer coefficient of enhanced tubes. They lead to improved condenser performance measured by a lower condenser pressure and therefore a more efficient power plant. However, the higher haet-transfer coefficients do not always guarantee that enhanced tubes will be more cost effective. Other issues must be considered such as the cooling-water flow reduction due to the increased pressure drop, the low-pressure turbine heat-rate variation with backpressure, and the cooling-water pump and system characteristics. These and other parameters must be considered to calculate the efficiency improvement of the power plant as commonly measured by the quantity known as the heat rate. Knowing the heat-rate improvement, the fuel cost, and the incremental increase of the enhanced tubes from the supplier, the payback time can be determined. This program calculates the heat-rate improvement that can be obtained by retubing a power plant condenser with enhanced tubes of a particular type called Korodense LPD made by Wolverine Tube, Inc. The fuel savings are easily established knowing the heat-rate improvement. All electrical utilities are potential users because a condenser is used as the heat sink for every power plant.

  8. HTRATE; Heat-Rate Improvement Obtained by Retubing Power-Plant Condenser Enhanced Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Rabas, T.J.

    1990-06-01

    A utility will only retube a condenser with enhanced tubes if the incremental cost of the enhanced tubes can be offset with reduced fuel costs. The reduced fuel cost is obtained for some units because of the higher heat-transfer coefficient of enhanced tubes. They lead to improved condenser performance measured by a lower condenser pressure and therefore a more efficient power plant. However, the higher haet-transfer coefficients do not always guarantee that enhanced tubes will be more cost effective. Other issues must be considered such as the cooling-water flow reduction due to the increased pressure drop, the low-pressure turbine heat-rate variation with backpressure, and the cooling-water pump and system characteristics. These and other parameters must be considered to calculate the efficiency improvement of the power plant as commonly measured by the quantity known as the heat rate. Knowing the heat-rate improvement, the fuel cost, and the incremental increase of the enhanced tubes from the supplier, the payback time can be determined. This program calculates the heat-rate improvement that can be obtained by retubing a power plant condenser with enhanced tubes of a particular type called Korodense LPD made by Wolverine Tube, Inc. The fuel savings are easily established knowing the heat-rate improvement. All electrical utilities are potential users because a condenser is used as the heat sink for every power plant.

  9. Exploratory studies on some electrochemical cell systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, Srikumar; Guha, D.

    Exploratory studies were conducted on cell systems with different metal anodes, and iodine and sulphur mixed with graphite powder in a polymer matrix as cathodes, using different electrolytes in non-aqueous and aqueous media as ionic charge carriers. The electrical conductance of the electrolyte solutions in aqueous and non-aqueous solvents, the open circuit voltage (OCV) and short circuit current (SCC) for the different cell systems were measured. To date, the non-aqueous solvents used in our studies were dimethylformamide, formamide, dioxan, and nitrobenzene, and the electrolytes used were potassium iodide, caustic potash, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and calcium chloride. These electrolytes were used in both non-aqueous and aqueous media. In general, aqueous electrolyte solutions gave a better performance than non-aqueous electrolyte solutions. Of the aqueous electrolytes, the highest conductance was shown by potassium chloride solution in water (conductance=0.0334 mho). However, the best OCV and SCC were shown by aluminium as anode and iodine as cathode with a saturated solution of caustic potash in water. The OCV was 1.85 V and the SCC was 290 mA cm -2. The highest conductance among the non-aqueous systems was shown by caustic potash in formamide. (Conductance=0.013 mho.) The best OCV and SCC, however, were shown by a zinc anode and iodine cathode with saturated potassium chloride in formamide, having an OCV of 1.55 V and an SCC of 150 mA cm -2. Further studies are in progress to obtain detailed performance data and recharging characteristics of some of the more promising systems reported here.

  10. Dynamic cell culture system (7-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogoli, Augusto

    1992-01-01

    This experiment is one of the Biorack experiments being flown on the International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (MIL-1) mission as part of an investigation studying cell proliferation and performance in space. One of the objectives of this investigation is to assess the potential benefits of bioprocessing in space with the ultimate goal of developing a bioreactor for continuous cell cultures in space. This experiment will test the operation of an automated culture chamber that was designed for use in a Bioreactor in space. The device to be tested is called the Dynamic Cell Culture System (DCCS). It is a simple device in which media are renewed or chemicals are injected automatically, by means of osmotic pumps. This experiment uses four Type I/O experiment containers. One DCCS unit, which contains a culture chamber with renewal of medium and a second chamber without a medium supply fits in each container. Two DCCS units are maintained under zero gravity conditions during the on-orbit period. The other two units are maintained under 1 gh conditions in a 1 g centrifuge. The schedule for incubator transfer is given.

  11. 14 CFR 23.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 23.999 Section 23.999... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 23.999 Fuel system drains. (a) There must be at least one drain to allow safe drainage of the...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 25.1093... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 25.1093... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction...

  14. 14 CFR 23.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 23.999 Section 23.999... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 23.999 Fuel system drains. (a) There must be at least one drain to allow safe drainage of the...

  15. 14 CFR 29.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 29.999 Section 29.999 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 29.999 Fuel system drains....

  16. 14 CFR 25.953 - Fuel system independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel system independence. 25.953 Section 25.953 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.953 Fuel system...

  17. 14 CFR 29.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 29.999 Section 29.999 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 29.999 Fuel system drains....

  18. 14 CFR 29.953 - Fuel system independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel system independence. 29.953 Section 29.953 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.953 Fuel system...

  19. 14 CFR 25.953 - Fuel system independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel system independence. 25.953 Section 25.953 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.953 Fuel system...

  20. 14 CFR 25.953 - Fuel system independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel system independence. 25.953 Section 25.953 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.953 Fuel system...

  1. 14 CFR 29.953 - Fuel system independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system independence. 29.953 Section 29.953 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.953 Fuel system...

  2. 14 CFR 29.953 - Fuel system independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel system independence. 29.953 Section 29.953 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.953 Fuel system...

  3. 14 CFR 29.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 29.999 Section 29.999 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 29.999 Fuel system drains....

  4. 14 CFR 29.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 29.999 Section 29.999 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 29.999 Fuel system drains....

  5. 14 CFR 25.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 25.999 Section 25.999 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.999 Fuel system drains....

  6. 14 CFR 25.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 25.999 Section 25.999 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.999 Fuel system drains....

  7. 14 CFR 25.953 - Fuel system independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system independence. 25.953 Section 25.953 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.953 Fuel system...

  8. 14 CFR 29.953 - Fuel system independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system independence. 29.953 Section 29.953 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.953 Fuel system...

  9. 14 CFR 25.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 25.999 Section 25.999 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.999 Fuel system drains....

  10. 14 CFR 25.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 25.999 Section 25.999 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.999 Fuel system drains....

  11. 14 CFR 29.953 - Fuel system independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel system independence. 29.953 Section 29.953 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.953 Fuel system...

  12. 14 CFR 29.999 - Fuel system drains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system drains. 29.999 Section 29.999 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 29.999 Fuel system drains....

  13. 14 CFR 23.1097 - Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity... Powerplant Induction System § 23.1097 Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity. (a) The capacity of each... operation. (b) If the available preheat exceeds 50 °F. but is less than 100 °F., the capacity of the...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1097 - Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity... Powerplant Induction System § 23.1097 Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity. (a) The capacity of each... operation. (b) If the available preheat exceeds 50 °F. but is less than 100 °F., the capacity of the...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1097 - Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity... Powerplant Induction System § 23.1097 Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity. (a) The capacity of each... operation. (b) If the available preheat exceeds 50 °F. but is less than 100 °F., the capacity of the...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1097 - Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity... Powerplant Induction System § 23.1097 Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity. (a) The capacity of each... operation. (b) If the available preheat exceeds 50 °F. but is less than 100 °F., the capacity of the...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1097 - Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity... Powerplant Induction System § 23.1097 Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity. (a) The capacity of each... operation. (b) If the available preheat exceeds 50 °F. but is less than 100 °F., the capacity of the...

  18. Systems biology for organotypic cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Grego, Sonia; Dougherty, Edward R; Alexander, Francis J; Auerbach, Scott S; Berridge, Brian R; Bittner, Michael L; Casey, Warren; Cooley, Philip C; Dash, Ajit; Ferguson, Stephen S; Fennell, Timothy R; Hawkins, Brian T; Hickey, Anthony J; Kleensang, Andre; Liebman, Michael N J; Martin, Florian; Maull, Elizabeth A; Paragas, Jason; Qiao, Guilin Gary; Ramaiahgari, Sreenivasa; Sumner, Susan J; Yoon, Miyoung

    2016-11-14

    Translating in vitro biological data into actionable information related to human health holds the potential to improve disease treatment and risk assessment of chemical exposures. While genomics has identified regulatory pathways at the cellular level, translation to the organism level requires a multiscale approach accounting for intra-cellular regulation, inter-cellular interaction, and tissue/organ-level effects. Tissue-level effects can now be probed in vitro thanks to recently developed systems of three-dimensional (3D), multicellular, "organotypic" cell cultures, which mimic functional responses of living tissue. However, there remains a knowledge gap regarding interactions across different biological scales, complicating accurate prediction of health outcomes from molecular/genomic data and tissue responses. Systems biology aims at mathematical modeling of complex, non-linear biological systems. We propose to apply a systems biology approach to achieve a computational representation of tissue-level physiological responses by integrating empirical data derived from organotypic culture systems with computational models of intracellular pathways to better predict human responses. Successful implementation of this integrated approach will provide a powerful tool for faster, more accurate and cost-effective screening of potential toxicants and therapeutics. On September 11, 2015, an interdisciplinary group of scientists, engineers, and clinicians gathered for a workshop in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, to discuss this ambitious goal. Participants represented laboratory-based and computational modeling approaches to pharmacology and toxicology, as well as the pharmaceutical industry, government, non-profits, and academia. Discussions focused on identifying critical system perturbations to model, the computational tools required, and the experimental approaches best suited to generating key data.

  19. Systems Biology for Organotypic Cell Cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Grego, Sonia; Dougherty, Edward R.; Alexander, Francis J.; Auerbach, Scott S.; Berridge, Brian R.; Bittner, Michael L.; Casey, Warren; Cooley, Philip C.; Dash, Ajit; Ferguson, Stephen S.; Fennell, Timothy R.; Hawkins, Brian T.; Hickey, Anthony J.; Kleensang, Andre; Liebman, Michael N.; Martin, Florian; Maull, Elizabeth A.; Paragas, Jason; Qiao, Guilin; Ramaiahgari, Sreenivasa; Sumner, Susan J.; Yoon, Miyoung

    2016-08-04

    Translating in vitro biological data into actionable information related to human health holds the potential to improve disease treatment and risk assessment of chemical exposures. While genomics has identified regulatory pathways at the cellular level, translation to the organism level requires a multiscale approach accounting for intra-cellular regulation, inter-cellular interaction, and tissue/organ-level effects. Tissue-level effects can now be probed in vitro thanks to recently developed systems of three-dimensional (3D), multicellular, “organotypic” cell cultures, which mimic functional responses of living tissue. However, there remains a knowledge gap regarding interactions across different biological scales, complicating accurate prediction of health outcomes from molecular/genomic data and tissue responses. Systems biology aims at mathematical modeling of complex, non-linear biological systems. We propose to apply a systems biology approach to achieve a computational representation of tissue-level physiological responses by integrating empirical data derived from organotypic culture systems with computational models of intracellular pathways to better predict human responses. Successful implementation of this integrated approach will provide a powerful tool for faster, more accurate and cost-effective screening of potential toxicants and therapeutics. On September 11, 2015, an interdisciplinary group of scientists, engineers, and clinicians gathered for a workshop in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, to discuss this ambitious goal. Participants represented laboratory-based and computational modeling approaches to pharmacology and toxicology, as well as the pharmaceutical industry, government, non-profits, and academia. Discussions focused on identifying critical system perturbations to model, the computational tools required, and the experimental approaches best suited to generating key data. This consensus report summarizes the discussions held.

  20. Towards a Minimal System for Cell Division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwille, Petra

    We have entered the "omics" era of the life sciences, meaning that our general knowledge about biological systems has become vast, complex, and almost impossible to fully comprehend. Consequently, the challenge for quantitative biology and biophysics is to identify appropriate procedures and protocols that allow the researcher to strip down the complexity of a biological system to a level that can be reliably modeled but still retains the essential features of its "real" counterpart. The virtue of physics has always been the reductionist approach, which allowed scientists to identify the underlying basic principles of seemingly complex phenomena, and subject them to rigorous mathematical treatment. Biological systems are obviously among the most complex phenomena we can think of, and it is fair to state that our rapidly increasing knowledge does not make it easier to identify a small set of fundamental principles of the big concept of "life" that can be defined and quantitatively understood. Nevertheless, it is becoming evident that only by tight cooperation and interdisciplinary exchange between the life sciences and quantitative sciences, and by applying intelligent reductionist approaches also to biology, will we be able to meet the intellectual challenges of the twenty-first century. These include not only the collection and proper categorization of the data, but also their true understanding and harnessing such that we can solve important practical problems imposed by medicine or the worldwide need for new energy sources. Many of these approaches are reflected by the modern buzz word "synthetic biology", therefore I briefly discuss this term in the first section. Further, I outline some endeavors of our and other groups to model minimal biological systems, with particular focus on the possibility of generating a minimal system for cell division.

  1. Drug delivery system and breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colone, Marisa; Kaliappan, Subramanian; Calcabrini, Annarica; Tortora, Mariarosaria; Cavalieri, Francesca; Stringaro, Annarita

    2016-06-01

    Recently, nanomedicine has received increasing attention for its ability to improve the efficacy of cancer therapeutics. Nanosized polymer therapeutic agents offer the advantage of prolonged circulation in the blood stream, targeting to specific sites, improved efficacy and reduced side effects. In this way, local, controlled delivery of the drug will be achieved with the advantage of a high concentration of drug release at the target site while keeping the systemic concentration of the drug low, thus reducing side effects due to bioaccumulation. Various drug delivery systems such as nanoparticles, liposomes, microparticles and implants have been demonstrated to significantly enhance the preventive/therapeutic efficacy of many drugs by increasing their bioavailability and targetability. As these carriers significantly increase the therapeutic effect of drugs, their administration would become less cost effective in the near future. The purpose of our research work is to develop a delivery system for breast cancer cells using a microvector of drugs. These results highlight the potential uses of these responsive platforms suited for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. At the request of all authors of the paper an updated version was published on 12 July 2016. The manuscript was prepared and submitted without Dr. Francesca Cavalieri's contribution and her name was added without her consent. Her name has been removed in the updated and re-published article.

  2. Direct hydrogen fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.

    Hybridizing a fuel cell system with an energy storage system offers an opportunity to improve the fuel economy of the vehicle through regenerative braking and possibly to increase the specific power and decrease the cost of the combined energy conversion and storage systems. Even in a hybrid configuration it is advantageous to operate the fuel cell system in a load-following mode and use the power from the energy storage system when the fuel cell alone cannot meet the power demand. This paper discusses an approach for designing load-following fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles and illustrates it by applying it to pressurized, direct hydrogen, polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems for a mid-size family sedan. The vehicle level requirements relative to traction power, response time, start-up time and energy conversion efficiency are used to select the important parameters for the PEFC stack, air management system, heat rejection system and the water management system.

  3. Heat recovery subsystem and overall system integration of fuel cell on-site integrated energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mougin, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    The best HVAC (heating, ventilating and air conditioning) subsystem to interface with the Engelhard fuel cell system for application in commercial buildings was determined. To accomplish this objective, the effects of several system and site specific parameters on the economic feasibility of fuel cell/HVAC systems were investigated. An energy flow diagram of a fuel cell/HVAC system is shown. The fuel cell system provides electricity for an electric water chiller and for domestic electric needs. Supplemental electricity is purchased from the utility if needed. An excess of electricity generated by the fuel cell system can be sold to the utility. The fuel cell system also provides thermal energy which can be used for absorption cooling, space heating and domestic hot water. Thermal storage can be incorporated into the system. Thermal energy is also provided by an auxiliary boiler if needed to supplement the fuel cell system output. Fuel cell/HVAC systems were analyzed with the TRACE computer program.

  4. Heat recovery subsystem and overall system integration of fuel cell on-site integrated energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mougin, L. J.

    1983-07-01

    The best HVAC (heating, ventilating and air conditioning) subsystem to interface with the Engelhard fuel cell system for application in commercial buildings was determined. To accomplish this objective, the effects of several system and site specific parameters on the economic feasibility of fuel cell/HVAC systems were investigated. An energy flow diagram of a fuel cell/HVAC system is shown. The fuel cell system provides electricity for an electric water chiller and for domestic electric needs. Supplemental electricity is purchased from the utility if needed. An excess of electricity generated by the fuel cell system can be sold to the utility. The fuel cell system also provides thermal energy which can be used for absorption cooling, space heating and domestic hot water. Thermal storage can be incorporated into the system. Thermal energy is also provided by an auxiliary boiler if needed to supplement the fuel cell system output. Fuel cell/HVAC systems were analyzed with the TRACE computer program.

  5. Hybrid regenerative fuel cell systems for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saucier, David R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a hybrid regenerative fuel cell (RFC) system for space application, which is made up of an alkaline fuel cell (Space Shuttle fuel cell) and an acid electrolysis unit (solid polymer electrolyte). In the RFC, gas produced from the acid electrolysis unit and water produced by the alkaline fuel cell are repeatedly reacted in the other unit. The results of RFC's tests indicate that the system is feasible in terms of fluid/unit compatibility. In addition, the fuel cell thermal-control system proved capable of controlling fuel cell temperatures throughout long open-circuit periods. Diagrams of the RFC and its subsystems are included.

  6. Analysis of power and energy for fuel cell systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Kim; R. Landgrebe, Albert

    The relationship between power and energy for a fuel cell system consisting of a fuel cell stack and reactant storage subsystem, and operating at constant power or variable power, was analyzed. The characteristic parameters of the fuel cell stack and the reactant subsystem are considered to be independent variables, which are functions of the power and energy of the fuel cell cystem, respectively. Mathematical expressions were derived for determining the minimum weight of the fuel cell system when the cells operate at constant power and the cell voltage varies linearly with the current density. The relationship between the weight of a fuel cell system and variable power levels was also determined. These mathematical models were used to analyze the experimental results reported in the literature for an alkaline fuel cell and a polymer electrolyte fuel cell.

  7. Laser scribing system for amorphous silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Youliang; Shi, Yaling; Su, Xiaorong; Yan, Shuming; Xu, Hong

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a laser scribing system for the fabrication of a-Si solar cells. Additionally, we provide a theoretical analysis of the system. The system was used to scribe the TCO and a-Si films.

  8. Fuel cell systems for personal and portable power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fateen, S. A.

    2001-01-01

    Fuel cells are devices that electrochemically convert fuel, usually hydrogen gas, to directly produce electricity. Fuel cells were initially developed for use in the space program to provide electricity and drinking water for astronauts. Fuel cells are under development for use in the automobile industry to power cars and buses with the advantage of lower emissions and higher efficiency than internal combustion engines. Fuel cells also have great potential to be used in portable consumer products like cellular phones and laptop computers, as well as military applications. In fact, any products that use batteries can be powered by fuel cells. In this project, we examine fuel cell system trade-offs between fuel cell type and energy storage/hydrogen production for portable power generation. The types of fuel cells being examined include stored hydrogen PEM (polymer electrolyte), direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) and indirect methanol fuel cells, where methanol is reformed producing hydrogen. These fuel cells systems can operate at or near ambient conditions, which make them potentially optimal for use in manned personal power applications. The expected power production for these systems is in the range of milliwatts to 500 watts of electrical power for either personal or soldier field use. The fuel cell system trade-offs examine hydrogen storage by metal hydrides, carbon nanotubes, and compressed hydrogen tanks. We examine the weights each system, volume, fuel storage, system costs, system peripherals, power output, and fuel cell feasibility in portable devices.

  9. Compact Fuel-Cell System Would Consume Neat Methanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Kindler, Andrew; Valdez, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    In a proposed direct methanol fuel-cell electric-power-generating system, the fuel cells would consume neat methanol, in contradistinction to the dilute aqueous methanol solutions consumed in prior direct methanol fuel-cell systems. The design concept of the proposed fuel-cell system takes advantage of (1) electro-osmotic drag and diffusion processes to manage the flows of hydrogen and water between the anode and the cathode and (2) evaporative cooling for regulating temperature. The design concept provides for supplying enough water to the anodes to enable the use of neat methanol while ensuring conservation of water for the whole fuel-cell system.

  10. PEM Fuel Cell System Replacement for BA-559O Battery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    H Power Corp. developed a fuel cell system to demonstrate that fuel cells can be effectively designed for missions requiring a high degree of...equivalent in size to that of a BA-5590 battery. The system comprised an air-cooled fuel cell stack, a metal-hydride-based fuel storage section, and a

  11. Simplified Load-Following Control for a Fuel Cell System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    A simplified load-following control scheme has been proposed for a fuel cell power system. The scheme could be used to control devices that are important parts of a fuel cell system but are sometimes characterized as parasitic because they consume some of the power generated by the fuel cells.

  12. Integrated photoelectrochemical cell and system having a liquid electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Deng, Xunming; Xu, Liwei

    2010-07-06

    An integrated photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell generates hydrogen and oxygen from water while being illuminated with radiation. The PEC cell employs a liquid electrolyte, a multi-junction photovoltaic electrode, and a thin ion-exchange membrane. A PEC system and a method of making such PEC cell and PEC system are also disclosed.

  13. Single module pressurized fuel cell turbine generator system

    DOEpatents

    George, Raymond A.; Veyo, Stephen E.; Dederer, Jeffrey T.

    2001-01-01

    A pressurized fuel cell system (10), operates within a common pressure vessel (12) where the system contains fuel cells (22), a turbine (26) and a generator (98) where preferably, associated oxidant inlet valve (52), fuel inlet valve (56) and fuel cell exhaust valve (42) are outside the pressure vessel.

  14. Tracking stem cells in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Chemaly, Elie R; Yoneyama, Ryuichi; Frangioni, John V; Hajjar, Roger J

    2005-11-01

    Stem cells are a promising approach to cardiovascular therapeutics. Animal experiments have assessed the fate of injected stem cells through ex vivo methods on sacrificed animals. Approaches are needed for in vivo tracking of stem cells. Various imaging techniques and contrast agents for stem cell tracking will be reviewed.

  15. 14 CFR 25.952 - Fuel system analysis and test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel system analysis and test. 25.952 Section 25.952 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.952 Fuel...

  16. 14 CFR 25.994 - Fuel system components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel system components. 25.994 Section 25.994 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.994 Fuel...

  17. 14 CFR 29.993 - Fuel system lines and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel system lines and fittings. 29.993 Section 29.993 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components §...

  18. 14 CFR 25.993 - Fuel system lines and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel system lines and fittings. 25.993 Section 25.993 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components §...

  19. 14 CFR 25.952 - Fuel system analysis and test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel system analysis and test. 25.952 Section 25.952 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.952 Fuel...

  20. 14 CFR 29.993 - Fuel system lines and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system lines and fittings. 29.993 Section 29.993 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components §...

  1. 14 CFR 25.952 - Fuel system analysis and test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system analysis and test. 25.952 Section 25.952 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.952 Fuel...

  2. 14 CFR 25.993 - Fuel system lines and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system lines and fittings. 25.993 Section 25.993 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components §...

  3. 14 CFR 25.952 - Fuel system analysis and test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel system analysis and test. 25.952 Section 25.952 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.952 Fuel...

  4. 14 CFR 25.994 - Fuel system components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel system components. 25.994 Section 25.994 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.994 Fuel...

  5. 14 CFR 29.993 - Fuel system lines and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel system lines and fittings. 29.993 Section 29.993 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components §...

  6. 14 CFR 25.993 - Fuel system lines and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel system lines and fittings. 25.993 Section 25.993 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components §...

  7. 14 CFR 29.993 - Fuel system lines and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel system lines and fittings. 29.993 Section 29.993 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components §...

  8. 14 CFR 25.994 - Fuel system components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system components. 25.994 Section 25.994 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.994 Fuel...

  9. 14 CFR 25.993 - Fuel system lines and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel system lines and fittings. 25.993 Section 25.993 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components §...

  10. 14 CFR 25.994 - Fuel system components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel system components. 25.994 Section 25.994 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.994 Fuel...

  11. 14 CFR 25.952 - Fuel system analysis and test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system analysis and test. 25.952 Section 25.952 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.952 Fuel...

  12. 14 CFR 25.937 - Turbopropeller-drag limiting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....937 Section 25.937 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.937 Turbopropeller-drag limiting systems. Turbopropeller power airplane propeller-drag limiting systems must be...

  13. 14 CFR 25.937 - Turbopropeller-drag limiting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....937 Section 25.937 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.937 Turbopropeller-drag limiting systems. Turbopropeller power airplane propeller-drag limiting systems must be...

  14. 14 CFR 25.937 - Turbopropeller-drag limiting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....937 Section 25.937 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.937 Turbopropeller-drag limiting systems. Turbopropeller power airplane propeller-drag limiting systems must be...

  15. 14 CFR 25.937 - Turbopropeller-drag limiting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....937 Section 25.937 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.937 Turbopropeller-drag limiting systems. Turbopropeller power airplane propeller-drag limiting systems must be...

  16. 14 CFR 25.937 - Turbopropeller-drag limiting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....937 Section 25.937 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.937 Turbopropeller-drag limiting systems. Turbopropeller power airplane propeller-drag limiting systems must be...

  17. Pump-turbine performance test, Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Powerplant and Forebay Dam, Unit 1, Fryingpan-Arkansas project, Colorado. Flow measurement by the salt-velocity method

    SciTech Connect

    Lewey, A.B.; Favero, J.F.

    1984-12-01

    On September 13, 14, 22, and 23, 1982, a performance test was conducted on the vertical-shaft, single-impeller, pump-turbine designated Unit 1 at Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Powerplant and Forebay Dam. The operating characteristics were determined in the pump and turbine modes.

  18. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25... between the air duct source and the airplane unit served by the air. (e) Each auxiliary power unit... other compartment or area of the airplane in which a hazard would be created resulting from the entry...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25... between the air duct source and the airplane unit served by the air. (e) Each auxiliary power unit... other compartment or area of the airplane in which a hazard would be created resulting from the entry...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25... between the air duct source and the airplane unit served by the air. (e) Each auxiliary power unit... other compartment or area of the airplane in which a hazard would be created resulting from the entry...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25... between the air duct source and the airplane unit served by the air. (e) Each auxiliary power unit... other compartment or area of the airplane in which a hazard would be created resulting from the entry...

  2. Software aided automatic cell optoporation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunig, Hans Georg; Batista, Ana; Uchugonova, Aisada; König, Karsten

    2015-03-01

    Optoporation, the laser-induced transient cell membrane perforation, has emerged as a powerful non-invasive and highly efficient cell-transfection technique. It is usually done by targeting individual cells manually which significantly limits number of addressable cells. We present an experimental setup with custom-made software control for automated cell optoporation experiments. The automated software evaluates contrast edges in bright-field sample images to identify cell locations for laser illumination and controls the hardware to transiently laser-illuminate these positions. By software controlled stitching together of several microscopic field-of-views in principle all cells in a culture dish can be targeted without further user interaction. The software-based automation allows to significantly increase the number of treatable cells compared to a manual approach. We illustrate the experimental capabilities in CHO-cell optoporation experiments with highly focused beam-shaped sub-15 fs pulses.

  3. Stem Cells in the Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado-Soto, Angel R.; Oakley, Derek H.; Wichterle, Hynek; Stein, Joel; Doetsch, Fiona K.; Henderson, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Given their capacity to regenerate cells lost through injury or disease, stem cells offer new vistas into possible treatments for degenerative diseases and their underlying causes. As such, stem cell biology is emerging as a driving force behind many studies in the field of regenerative medicine. This review focuses on our current understanding of the applications of stem cells in treating ailments of the human brain, with an emphasis on neurodegenerative diseases. Two types of neural stem cells are discussed: endogenous neural stem cells residing within the adult brain, and pluripotent stem cells capable of forming neural cells in culture. Endogenous neural stem cells give rise to neurons throughout life, but they are restricted to specialized regions in the brain. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms regulating these cells is key in determining their therapeutic potential, as well as finding mechanisms to activate dormant stem cells outside of these specialized microdomains. In parallel, patient-derived stem cells can be used to generate neural cells in culture, providing new tools for disease modeling, drug testing and cell-based therapies. Turning these technologies into viable treatments will require the integration of basic science with clinical skills in rehabilitation. PMID:24800720

  4. Interactions between mesenchymal stem cells and the immune system.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Hua, Jinlian

    2017-02-18

    In addition to being multi-potent, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess immunomodulatory functions that have been investigated as potential treatments in various immune disorders. MSCs can robustly interact with cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems, either through direct cell-cell contact or through their secretome. In this review, we discuss current findings regarding the interplay between MSCs and different immune cell subsets. We also draw attention to the mechanisms involved.

  5. An Experimental System to Study Cell Differentiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozzone, Donna M.

    1994-01-01

    Uses Dictyostelium discoideum to aid in introducing cell differentiation to students. Students engage in a laboratory exercise that allows them to investigate the means by which embryonic cells choose developmental pathways. (ZWH)

  6. Cell death in the nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Bredesen, Dale E.; Rao, Rammohan V.; Mehlen, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease trigger neuronal cell death through endogenous suicide pathways. Surprisingly, although the cell death itself may occur relatively late in the course of the degenerative process, the mediators of the underlying cell-death pathways have shown promise as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:17051206

  7. Solar cell system having alternating current output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. C., Jr. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A monolithic multijunction solar cell was modified by fabricating an integrated circuit inverter on the back of the cell to produce a device capable of generating an alternating current output. In another embodiment, integrated curcuit power conditioning electronics was incorporated in a module containing a solar cell power supply.

  8. The Corticostriatal System in Dissociated Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Fiona E.; Garcia-Munoz, Marianela; Vickers, Catherine; Schock, Sarah C.; Staines, William A.; Arbuthnott, Gordon W.

    2011-01-01

    The sparse connectivity within the striatum in vivo makes the investigation of individual corticostriatal synapses very difficult. Most studies of the corticostriatal input have been done using electrical stimulation under conditions where it is hard to identify the precise origin of the cortical input. We have employed an in vitro dissociated cell culture system that allows the identification of individual corticostriatal pairs and have been developing methods to study individual neuron inputs to striatal neurons. In mixed corticostriatal cultures, neurons had resting activity similar to the system in vivo. Up/down states were obvious and seemed to encompass the entire culture. Mixed cultures of cortical neurons from transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein with striatal neurons from wild-type mice of the same developmental stage allowed visual identification of individual candidate corticostriatal pairs. Recordings were performed between 12 and 37 days in vitro (DIV). To investigate synaptic connections we recorded from 69 corticostriatal pairs of which 44 were connected in one direction and 25 reciprocally. Of these connections 41 were corticostriatal (nine inhibitory) and 53 striatocortical (all inhibitory). The observed excitatory responses were of variable amplitude (−10 to −370 pA, n = 32). We found the connections very secure – with negligible failures on repeated stimulation (approximately 1 Hz) of the cortical neuron. Inhibitory corticostriatal responses were also observed (−13 to −314 pA, n = 9). Possibly due to the mixed type of culture we found an inhibitory striatocortical response (−14 to −598 pA, n = 53). We are now recording from neurons in separate compartments to more closely emulate neuroanatomical conditions but still with the possibility of the easier identification of the connectivity. PMID:21743806

  9. Advanced Fuel Cell System Thermal Management for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing advanced passive thermal management technology to reduce the mass and improve the reliability of space fuel cell systems for the NASA exploration program. An analysis of a state-of-the-art fuel cell cooling systems was done to benchmark the portion of a fuel cell system s mass that is dedicated to thermal management. Additional analysis was done to determine the key performance targets of the advanced passive thermal management technology that would substantially reduce fuel cell system mass.

  10. Technical and economic feasibility study of solar/fossil hybrid power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Calogeras, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Results show that new hybrid systems utilizing fossil fuel augmentation of solar energy can provide significant capital and energy cost benefits when compared with solar thermal systems requiring thermal storage. These benefits accrue from a reduction of solar collection area that results from both the use of highly efficient gas and combined cycle energy conversion subsystems and elimination of the requirement for long-term energy storage subsystems. Technical feasibility and fuel savings benefits of solar hybrid retrofit to existing fossil-fired, gas and vapor cycle powerplants was confirmed; however, economic viability of steam cycle retrofit was found to be dependent on the thermodynamic and operational characteristics of the existing powerplant.

  11. Cost Analysis of Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Compressed Hydrogen and PEM Fuel Cell System

    SciTech Connect

    Eric J. Carlson

    2004-10-20

    PEMFC technology for transportation must be competitive with internal combustion engine powertrains in a number of key metrics, including performance, life, reliability, and cost. Demonstration of PEMFC cost competitiveness has its own challenges because the technology has not been applied to high volume automotive markets. The key stack materials including membranes, electrodes, bipolar plates, and gas diffusion layers have not been produced in automotive volumes to the exacting quality requirements that will be needed for high stack yields and to the evolving property specifications of high performance automotive stacks. Additionally, balance-of-plant components for air, water, and thermal management are being developed to meet the unique requirements of fuel cell systems. To address the question of whether fuel cells will be cost competitive in automotive markets, the DOE has funded this project to assess the high volume production cost of PEM fuel cell systems. In this report a historical perspective of our efforts in assessment of PEMFC cost for DOE is provided along with a more in-depth assessment of the cost of compressed hydrogen storage is provided. Additionally, the hydrogen storage costs were incorporated into a system cost update for 2004. Assessment of cost involves understanding not only material and production costs, but also critical performance metrics, i.e., stack power density and associated catalyst loadings that scale the system components. We will discuss the factors influencing the selection of the system specification (i.e., efficiency, reformate versus direct hydrogen, and power output) and how these have evolved over time. The reported costs reflect internal estimates and feedback from component developers and the car companies. Uncertainty in the cost projection was addressed through sensitivity analyses.

  12. Cell fate control in the developing central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Guérout, Nicolas; Li, Xiaofei; Barnabé-Heider, Fanie

    2014-02-01

    The principal neural cell types forming the mature central nervous system (CNS) are now understood to be diverse. This cellular subtype diversity originates to a large extent from the specification of the earlier proliferating progenitor populations during development. Here, we review the processes governing the differentiation of a common neuroepithelial cell progenitor pool into mature neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and adult stem cells. We focus on studies performed in mice and involving two distinct CNS structures: the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex. Understanding the origin, specification and developmental regulators of neural cells will ultimately impact comprehension and treatments of neurological disorders and diseases. - Highlights: • Similar mechanisms regulate cell fate in different CNS cell types and structures. • Cell fate regulators operate in a spatial–temporal manner. • Different neural cell types rely on the generation of a diversity of progenitor cells. • Cell fate decision is dictated by the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic signals.

  13. Multi-stage fuel cell system method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    George, Thomas J.; Smith, William C.

    2000-01-01

    A high efficiency, multi-stage fuel cell system method and apparatus is provided. The fuel cell system is comprised of multiple fuel cell stages, whereby the temperatures of the fuel and oxidant gas streams and the percentage of fuel consumed in each stage are controlled to optimize fuel cell system efficiency. The stages are connected in a serial, flow-through arrangement such that the oxidant gas and fuel gas flowing through an upstream stage is conducted directly into the next adjacent downstream stage. The fuel cell stages are further arranged such that unspent fuel and oxidant laden gases too hot to continue within an upstream stage because of material constraints are conducted into a subsequent downstream stage which comprises a similar cell configuration, however, which is constructed from materials having a higher heat tolerance and designed to meet higher thermal demands. In addition, fuel is underutilized in each stage, resulting in a higher overall fuel cell system efficiency.

  14. Economics of Direct Hydrogen Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mahadevan, Kathyayani

    2011-10-04

    Battelle's Economic Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems project was initiated in 2003 to evaluate the technology and markets that are near-term and potentially could support the transition to fuel cells in automotive markets. The objective of Battelle?s project was to assist the DOE in developing fuel cell systems for pre-automotive applications by analyzing the technical, economic, and market drivers of direct hydrogen PEM fuel cell adoption. The project was executed over a 6-year period (2003 to 2010) and a variety of analyses were completed in that period. The analyses presented in the final report include: Commercialization scenarios for stationary generation through 2015 (2004); Stakeholder feedback on technology status and performance status of fuel cell systems (2004); Development of manufacturing costs of stationary PEM fuel cell systems for backup power markets (2004); Identification of near-term and mid-term markets for PEM fuel cells (2006); Development of the value proposition and market opportunity of PEM fuel cells in near-term markets by assessing the lifecycle cost of PEM fuel cells as compared to conventional alternatives used in the marketplace and modeling market penetration (2006); Development of the value proposition of PEM fuel cells in government markets (2007); Development of the value proposition and opportunity for large fuel cell system application at data centers and wastewater treatment plants (2008); Update of the manufacturing costs of PEM fuel cells for backup power applications (2009).

  15. 14 CFR 27.923 - Rotor drive system and control mechanism tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rotor drive system and control mechanism... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.923 Rotor drive system and control mechanism tests. (a) Each part tested as prescribed in this...

  16. 14 CFR 29.923 - Rotor drive system and control mechanism tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rotor drive system and control mechanism... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.923 Rotor drive system and control mechanism tests. (a) Endurance tests, general. Each rotor...

  17. 14 CFR 29.923 - Rotor drive system and control mechanism tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rotor drive system and control mechanism... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.923 Rotor drive system and control mechanism tests. (a) Endurance tests, general. Each rotor...

  18. 14 CFR 27.923 - Rotor drive system and control mechanism tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rotor drive system and control mechanism... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.923 Rotor drive system and control mechanism tests. (a) Each part tested as prescribed in this...

  19. 14 CFR 27.923 - Rotor drive system and control mechanism tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rotor drive system and control mechanism... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.923 Rotor drive system and control mechanism tests. (a) Each part tested as prescribed in this...

  20. 14 CFR 27.923 - Rotor drive system and control mechanism tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor drive system and control mechanism... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.923 Rotor drive system and control mechanism tests. (a) Each part tested as prescribed in this...

  1. 14 CFR 27.923 - Rotor drive system and control mechanism tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rotor drive system and control mechanism... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.923 Rotor drive system and control mechanism tests. (a) Each part tested as prescribed in this...

  2. Microfluidics-based laser cell-micropatterning system.

    PubMed

    Erdman, Nick; Schmidt, Lucas; Qin, Wan; Yang, Xiaoqi; Lin, Yongliang; DeSilva, Mauris N; Gao, Bruce Z

    2014-09-01

    The ability to place individual cells into an engineered microenvironment in a cell-culture model is critical for the study of in vivo relevant cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Microfluidics provides a high-throughput modality to inject various cell types into a microenvironment. Laser guided systems provide the high spatial and temporal resolution necessary for single-cell micropatterning. Combining these two techniques, the authors designed, constructed, tested and evaluated (1) a novel removable microfluidics-based cell-delivery biochip and (2) a combined system that uses the novel biochip coupled with a laser guided cell-micropatterning system to place individual cells into both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) arrays. Cell-suspensions of chick forebrain neurons and glial cells were loaded into their respective inlet reservoirs and traversed the microfluidic channels until reaching the outlet ports. Individual cells were trapped and guided from the outlet of a microfluidic channel to a target site on the cell-culture substrate. At the target site, 2D and 3D pattern arrays were constructed with micron-level accuracy. Single-cell manipulation was accomplished at a rate of 150 μm s(-1) in the radial plane and 50 μm s(-1) in the axial direction of the laser beam. Results demonstrated that a single-cell can typically be patterned in 20-30 s, and that highly accurate and reproducible cellular arrays and systems can be achieved through coupling the microfluidics-based cell-delivery biochip with the laser guided system.

  3. Microfluidics-Based Laser Guided Cell-Micropatterning System

    PubMed Central

    Erdman, Nick; Schmidt, Lucas; Qin, Wan; Yang, Xiaoqi; Lin, Yongliang; DeSilva, Mauris N; Gao, Bruce Z.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to place individual cells into an engineered microenvironment in a cell-culture model is critical for the study of in vivo-relevant cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Microfluidics provides a high-throughput modality to inject various cell types into a microenvironment. Laser guided systems provide the high spatial and temporal resolution necessary for single-cell micropatterning. Combining these two techniques, the authors designed, constructed, tested, and evaluated 1) a novel removable microfluidics-based cell-delivery biochip and 2) a combined system that uses the novel biochip coupled with a laser guided cell-micropatterning system to place individual cells into both 2D and 3D arrays. Cell-suspensions of chick forebrain neurons and glial cells were loaded into their respective inlet reservoirs and traversed the microfluidic channels until reaching the outlet ports. Individual cells were trapped and guided from the outlet of a microfluidic channel to a target site on the cell-culture substrate. At the target site, 2D and 3D pattern arrays were constructed with micron-level accuracy. Single-cell manipulation was accomplished at a rate of 150 μm/s in the radial plane and 50 μm/s in the axial direction of the laser beam. Results demonstrated that a single-cell can typically be patterned in 20-30 seconds, and that highly accurate and reproducible cellular arrays and systems can be achieved through coupling the microfluidics-based cell-delivery biochip with the laser guided system. PMID:25190714

  4. Fuel-Cell-Powered Electric Motor Drive Analyzed for a Large Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Choi, Benjamin B.

    2005-01-01

    Because of its high efficiency, fuel cell technology may be used to launch a new generation of more-electric aeropropulsion and power systems for future aircraft. Electric-motor-driven airplanes using fuel-cell powerplants would be beneficial to the environment because of fuel savings, low noise, and zero carbon-dioxide emissions. In spite of the fuel cell s efficiency benefit, to produce the same shaft drive power, a fuel cell- powered electric-drive system must be definitely heavier than a turbine-drive system. However, the fuel-cell system s overall efficiency from fuel-to-shaft power is higher than for a turbine-drive system. This means that the fuel consumption rate could be lower than for a conventional system. For heavier, fuel-laden planes for longer flights, we might achieve substantial fuel savings. In the airplane industry, in fact, an efficiency gain of even a few percentage points can make a major economic difference in operating costs.

  5. Design of gasifiers to optimize fuel cell systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The objective of this project is to configure coal gasification/carbonate fuel cell systems that can significantly improve the economics, performance, and efficiency of electric power generation systems. (VC)

  6. Advances in Materials and System Technology for Portable Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the materials and systems engineering used for portable fuel cells. The contents include: 1) Portable Power; 2) Technology Solution; 3) Portable Hydrogen Systems; 4) Direct Methanol Fuel Cell; 5) Direct Methanol Fuel Cell System Concept; 6) Overview of DMFC R&D at JPL; 7) 300-Watt Portable Fuel Cell for Army Applications; 8) DMFC units from Smart Fuel Cell Inc, Germany; 9) DMFC Status and Prospects; 10) Challenges; 11) Rapid Screening of Well-Controlled Catalyst Compositions; 12) Screening of Ni-Zr-Pt-Ru alloys; 13) Issues with New Membranes; 14) Membranes With Reduced Methanol Crossover; 15) Stacks; 16) Hybrid DMFC System; 17) Small Compact Systems; 18) Durability; and 19) Stack and System Parameters for Various Applications.

  7. The role of fuel cells in NASA's space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Been, J. F.

    1979-01-01

    A history of the fuel cell technology is presented and compared with NASA's increasing space power requirements. The role of fuel cells is discussed in perspective with other energy storage systems applicable for space using such criteria as type of mission, weight, reliability, costs, etc. Potential applications of space fuel cells with projected technology advances were examined.

  8. Fuel cell systems program plan: Fiscal year 1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1988-05-01

    The DOE fuel cell program supports high-risk, high-payoff technology development. This provides industry with the capability to develop and apply fuel cell systems that use conventional and alternative hydrocarbon fuels. The principal DOE fuel cell program goal is to develop cost effective, efficient, and environmentally benign fuel cell systems which will operate on coal-based fuels (and dual fuels: coal and gas) in multiple end use sectors. In the near-term, and as an interim step in achieving this goal, distillate fuel and natural fuel cell system technologies will also be developed. This interim step is a logical progression to the more complex coal-fueled systems and provides a marketable gas-fueled technology. The specific near- to mid-term (mid-1990s) objectives are to develop the key fuel cell technology for phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cell systems, and to evaluate and conduct research on more advanced fuel cell concepts that would further improve technical and economic performance. Advanced fuel cell concepts may in the long-term (post 2000) offer potential for use in additional applications such as in the transportation and residential sectors. In these applications oil could be displaced by fuel cell systems using fuels derived from coal.

  9. System for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack system for improved fuel cell stability

    DOEpatents

    Mukerjee, Subhasish [Pittsford, NY; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J; Weissman, Jeffrey G [West Henrietta, NY

    2012-03-06

    A system for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack, having a reformer adapted to reform a hydrocarbon fuel stream containing sulfur contaminants, thereby providing a reformate stream having sulfur; a sulfur trap fluidly coupled downstream of the reformer for removing sulfur from the reformate stream, thereby providing a desulfurized reformate stream; and a metering device in fluid communication with the reformate stream upstream of the sulfur trap and with the desulfurized reformate stream downstream of the sulfur trap. The metering device is adapted to bypass a portion of the reformate stream to mix with the desulfurized reformate stream, thereby producing a conditioned reformate stream having a predetermined sulfur concentration that gives an acceptable balance of minimal drop in initial power with the desired maximum stability of operation over prolonged periods for the fuel cell stack.

  10. Comparative analysis of eukaryotic cell-free expression systems.

    PubMed

    Hartsough, Emily M; Shah, Pankti; Larsen, Andrew C; Chaput, John C

    2015-09-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) allows researchers to rapidly generate functional proteins independent of cell culture. Although advances in eukaryotic lysates have increased the amount of protein that can be produced, the nuances of different translation systems lead to variability in protein production. To help overcome this problem, we have compared the relative yield and template requirements for three commonly used commercial cell-free translation systems: wheat germ extract (WGE), rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL), and HeLa cell lysate (HCL). Our results provide a general guide for researchers interested in using cell-free translation to generate recombinant protein for biomedical applications.

  11. Autologous stem cell transplantation for systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Farge, Dominique; Nash, Richard; Laar, Jacob M

    2008-12-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a generalised autoimmune disease, of yet unknown origin, with two major clinical subsets: the limited (lcSSc) and the diffuse cutaneous (dcSSc) forms, which can be distinguished by the extent of skin involvement, the autoantibody profile and the pattern of organ involvement. With an incidence of 1/10(5), SSc affects around 250,000 people in Europe and is responsible for significant morbidity with a 5-year mortality rate of at least 30% of all patients. In patients with rapidly progressive dcSSc, the 5-year mortality is estimated to be 40-50%. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), mostly autologous but also allogeneic in some specific cases, has been employed worldwide since 1996 as a new therapeutic strategy in patients with a poor prognosis. In 2007, 150 HSCT procedures have been reported in the EBMT data base. We review herein both the short and the long-term reports from the various European and North American phase I-II studies, which have shown that autologous HSCT in selected patients with severe dcSSc results in sustained improvement of skin thickening and stabilisation of organ function up to seven years after transplantation. Based on these promising results, ongoing phase III trials have been designed in parallel, both in Europe (ASTIS) and in North America (SCOTT) aiming to analyse the respective benefits from autologous HSCT respectively without or with high dose irradiation. This review reports the current data concerning the effects of HSCT on survival, skin, and major organ function in patients with severe dcSSc.

  12. A single cell penetration system by ultrasonic driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhaoying; Xiao, Mingfei; Yang, Xing; Wu, Ting

    2008-12-01

    The researches of single cell's control and operation are the hotspots in whole world. Among the various technologies, the transmission of ectogenic genetic materials between cell membrane is very significant. Imitating the Chinese traditional acupuncture therapy, a new ultrasonic resonance driving method, is imported to drive a cell's penetration probe. A set of the single cell penetration system was established to perform this function. This system includes four subsystems: driving part, micromanipulation part, observation and measurement part, and actuation part. Some fish egg experiments indicate that this system is workable and effective.

  13. A methanol/air fuel cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asher, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    High power-density, self-regulating fuel cell develops electrical power from catalyzed reaction between methanol and atmospheric oxygen. Cells such as these are of particular interest, because they may one day offer an emission-free, extremely efficient alternative to internal-combustion engines as power source.

  14. Direct methanol feed fuel cell and system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Improvements to non acid methanol fuel cells include new formulations for materials. The platinum and ruthenium are more exactly mixed together. Different materials are substituted for these materials. The backing material for the fuel cell electrode is specially treated to improve its characteristics. A special sputtered electrode is formed which is extremely porous.

  15. Direct methanol feed fuel cell and system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Improvements to non acid methanol fuel cells include new formulations for materials. The platinum and ruthenium are more exactly mixed together. Different materials are substituted for these materials. The backing material for the fuel cell electrode is specially treated to improve its characteristics. A special sputtered electrode is formed which is extremely porous.

  16. Direct methanol feed fuel cell and system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Improvements to non acid methanol fuel cells include new formulations for materials. The platinum and ruthenium are more exactly mixed together. Different materials are substituted for these materials. The backing material for the fuel cell electrode is specially treated to improve its characteristics. A special sputtered electrode is formed which is extremely porous.

  17. Direct methanol feed fuel cell and system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Improvements to non-acid methanol fuel cells include new formulations for materials. The platinum and ruthenium are more exactly mixed together. Different materials are substituted for these materials. The backing material for the fuel cell electrode is specially treated to improve its characteristics. A special sputtered electrode is formed which is extremely porous.

  18. Systems analysis of electricity production from coal using fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, D. K.

    1983-01-01

    Gasifiers, heat transfer, gas stability, quench, water-gas shift reaction, reforming-methanation, other catalytic reactions, compressors and expanders, acid-gas removal, the fuel cell, and catalytic combustors are described. System pressure drops, efficiency of rotating power equipment, heat exchangers, chemical reactions, steam systems, and the fuel cell subsystems are discussed.

  19. Improved Round Trip Efficiency for Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-04

    advanced membrane materials that enable higher efficiency electrolysis , substantially improving the practical energy density for regenerative fuel cell... electrolysis system for recharging the reactants, and reactant storage. These water- based energy storage systems have been shown to perform...catalyst materials will enable higher efficiency electrolysis , substantially improving the practical energy density for regenerative fuel cell applications

  20. Single-cell technologies to study the immune system.

    PubMed

    Proserpio, Valentina; Mahata, Bidesh

    2016-02-01

    The immune system is composed of a variety of cells that act in a coordinated fashion to protect the organism against a multitude of different pathogens. The great variability of existing pathogens corresponds to a similar high heterogeneity of the immune cells. The study of individual immune cells, the fundamental unit of immunity, has recently transformed from a qualitative microscopic imaging to a nearly complete quantitative transcriptomic analysis. This shift has been driven by the rapid development of multiple single-cell technologies. These new advances are expected to boost the detection of less frequent cell types and transient or intermediate cell states. They will highlight the individuality of each single cell and greatly expand the resolution of current available classifications and differentiation trajectories. In this review we discuss the recent advancement and application of single-cell technologies, their limitations and future applications to study the immune system.

  1. 14 CFR 23.1107 - Induction system filters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System... material particles in the induction air supply— (a) Each air filter must be capable of withstanding the... service and maintenance; and (b) Each air filter shall have a design feature to prevent material...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System... duct and entering any other compartment of the airplane in which a hazard would be created by the entry of the hot gases; (3) Constructed of materials suitable to the environmental conditions expected...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1107 - Induction system filters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System... material particles in the induction air supply— (a) Each air filter must be capable of withstanding the... service and maintenance; and (b) Each air filter shall have a design feature to prevent material...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System... duct and entering any other compartment of the airplane in which a hazard would be created by the entry of the hot gases; (3) Constructed of materials suitable to the environmental conditions expected...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1107 - Induction system filters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System... material particles in the induction air supply— (a) Each air filter must be capable of withstanding the... service and maintenance; and (b) Each air filter shall have a design feature to prevent material...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System... duct and entering any other compartment of the airplane in which a hazard would be created by the entry of the hot gases; (3) Constructed of materials suitable to the environmental conditions expected...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1103 - Induction system ducts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System... duct and entering any other compartment of the airplane in which a hazard would be created by the entry of the hot gases; (3) Constructed of materials suitable to the environmental conditions expected...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1107 - Induction system filters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System... material particles in the induction air supply— (a) Each air filter must be capable of withstanding the... service and maintenance; and (b) Each air filter shall have a design feature to prevent material...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1107 - Induction system filters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System... material particles in the induction air supply— (a) Each air filter must be capable of withstanding the... service and maintenance; and (b) Each air filter shall have a design feature to prevent material...

  10. Neutrophils and Macrophages: the Main Partners of Phagocyte Cell Systems

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Manuel T.; Correia-Neves, Margarida

    2012-01-01

    Biological cellular systems are groups of cells sharing a set of characteristics, mainly key function and origin. Phagocytes are crucial in the host defense against microbial infection. The previously proposed phagocyte cell systems including the most recent and presently prevailing one, the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), grouped mononuclear cells but excluded neutrophils, creating an unacceptable situation. As neutrophils are archetypical phagocytes that must be members of comprehensive phagocyte systems, Silva recently proposed the creation of a myeloid phagocyte system (MYPS) that adds neutrophils to the MPS. The phagocytes grouped in the MYPS include the leukocytes neutrophils, inflammatory monocytes, macrophages, and immature myeloid DCs. Here the justifications behind the inclusion of neutrophils in a phagocyte system is expanded and the MYPS are further characterized as a group of dedicated phagocytic cells that function in an interacting and cooperative way in the host defense against microbial infection. Neutrophils and macrophages are considered the main arms of this system. PMID:22783254

  11. Miniature Bioreactor System for Long-Term Cell Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Kleis, Stanley J.; Geffert, Sandara K.

    2010-01-01

    A prototype miniature bioreactor system is designed to serve as a laboratory benchtop cell-culturing system that minimizes the need for relatively expensive equipment and reagents and can be operated under computer control, thereby reducing the time and effort required of human investigators and reducing uncertainty in results. The system includes a bioreactor, a fluid-handling subsystem, a chamber wherein the bioreactor is maintained in a controlled atmosphere at a controlled temperature, and associated control subsystems. The system can be used to culture both anchorage-dependent and suspension cells, which can be either prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Cells can be cultured for extended periods of time in this system, and samples of cells can be extracted and analyzed at specified intervals. By integrating this system with one or more microanalytical instrument(s), one can construct a complete automated analytical system that can be tailored to perform one or more of a large variety of assays.

  12. Fuel cell systems program plan, Fiscal year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    Goal of the fuel cell program is to increase energy efficiency and economic effectiveness through development and commercialization of fuel cell systems which operate on fossil fuels in multiple end use sectors. DOE is participating with the private sector in sponsoring development of molten carbonate fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cells for application in the utility, commercial, and industrial sectors. Commercialization of phosphoric acid fuel cells is well underway. Besides the introduction, this document is divided into: goal/objectives, program strategy, technology description, technical status, program description/implementation, coordinated fuel cell activities, and international activities.

  13. Fuel Cells: Power System Option for Space Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaneeth, M.; Mohanty, Surajeet

    2012-07-01

    Fuel Cells are direct energy conversion devices and, thereby, they deliver electrical energy at very high efficiency levels. Hydrogen and Oxygen gases are electrochemically processed, producing clean electric power with water as the only by product. A typical, Fuel Cell based power system involve a Electrochemical power converter, gas storage and management systems, thermal management systems and relevant control units. While there exists different types of Fuel cells, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells are considered as the most suitable one for portable applications. Generally, Fuel Cells are considered as the primary power system option in space missions requiring high power ( > 5kW) and long durations and also where water is a consumable, such as manned missions. This is primarily due to the advantage that fuel cell based power systems offer, in terms of specific energy. Fuel cells have the potential to attain specific energy > 500Wh/kg, specific power >500W/kg, energy density > 400Whr/L and also power density > 200 W/L. This apart, a fuel cell system operate totally independent of sun light, whereas as battery based system is fully dependent on the same. This uniqueness provides added flexibility and capabilities to the missions and modularity for power system. High power requiring missions involving reusable launch vehicles, manned missions etc are expected to be richly benefited from this. Another potential application of Fuel Cell would be interplanetary exploration. Unpredictable and dusty atmospheres of heavenly bodies limits sun light significantly and there fuel cells of different types, eg, Bio-Fuel Cells, PEMFC, DMFCs would be able to work effectively. Manned or unmanned lunar out post would require continuous power even during extra long lunar nights and high power levels are expected. Regenerative Fuel Cells, a combination of Fuel Cells and Electrolysers, are identified as strong candidate. While application of Fuel Cells in high power

  14. Microfluidic systems for stem cell-based neural tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mahdi; Bahrami, Sajad; Mirshekari, Hamed; Basri, Seyed Masoud Moosavi; Nik, Amirala Bakhshian; Aref, Amir R; Akbari, Mohsen; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-07-05

    Neural tissue engineering aims at developing novel approaches for the treatment of diseases of the nervous system, by providing a permissive environment for the growth and differentiation of neural cells. Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems provide a closer biomimetic environment, and promote better cell differentiation and improved cell function, than could be achieved by conventional two-dimensional (2D) culture systems. With the recent advances in the discovery and introduction of different types of stem cells for tissue engineering, microfluidic platforms have provided an improved microenvironment for the 3D-culture of stem cells. Microfluidic systems can provide more precise control over the spatiotemporal distribution of chemical and physical cues at the cellular level compared to traditional systems. Various microsystems have been designed and fabricated for the purpose of neural tissue engineering. Enhanced neural migration and differentiation, and monitoring of these processes, as well as understanding the behavior of stem cells and their microenvironment have been obtained through application of different microfluidic-based stem cell culture and tissue engineering techniques. As the technology advances it may be possible to construct a "brain-on-a-chip". In this review, we describe the basics of stem cells and tissue engineering as well as microfluidics-based tissue engineering approaches. We review recent testing of various microfluidic approaches for stem cell-based neural tissue engineering.

  15. Two-dimensional diffusion limited system for cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Hlatky, L.

    1985-11-01

    A new cell system, the ''sandwich'' system, was developed to supplement multicellular spheroids as tumor analogues. Sandwiches allow new experimental approaches to questions of diffusion, cell cycle effects and radiation resistance in tumors. In this thesis the method for setting up sandwiches is described both theoretically and experimentally followed by its use in x-ray irradiation studies. In the sandwich system, cells are grown in a narrow gap between two glass slides. Where nutrients and waste products can move into or out of the local environment of the cells only by diffusing through the narrow gap between the slides. Due to the competition between cells, self-created gradients of nutrients and metabolic products are set up resulting in a layer of cells which resembles a living spheroid cross section. Unlike the cells of the spheroid, however, cells in all regions of the sandwich are visible. Therefore, the relative sizes of the regions and their time-dependent growth can be monitored visually without fixation or sectioning. The oxygen and nutrient gradients can be ''turned off'' at any time without disrupting the spatial arrangement of the cells by removing the top slide of the assembly and subsequently turned back on if desired. Removal of the top slide also provides access to all the cells, including those near the necrotic center, of the sandwich. The cells can then be removed for analysis outside the sandwich system. 61 refs., 17 figs.

  16. A novel multilayer immunoisolating encapsulation system overcoming protrusion of cells.

    PubMed

    Bhujbal, Swapnil V; de Haan, Bart; Niclou, Simone P; de Vos, Paul

    2014-10-31

    Application of alginate-microencapsulated therapeutic cells is a promising approach for diseases that require a local and constant supply of therapeutic molecules. However most conventional alginate microencapsulation systems are associated with low mechanical stability and protrusion of cells which is associated with higher surface roughness and limits their clinical application. Here we have developed a novel multilayer encapsulation system that prevents cells from protruding from capsules. The system was tested using a therapeutic protein with anti-tumor activity overexpressed in mammalian cells. The cell containing core of the multilayer capsule was formed by flexible alginate, creating a cell sustaining environment. Surrounded by a poly-L-lysine layer the flexible core was enveloped in a high-G alginate matrix that is less flexible and has higher mechanical stability, which does not support cell survival. The cells in the core of the multilayer capsule did not show growth impairment and protein production was normal for periods up to 70 days in vitro. The additional alginate layer also lowered the surface roughness compared to conventional cell containing alginate-PLL capsules. Our system provides a solution for two important, often overlooked phenomena in cell encapsulation: preventing cell protrusion and improving surface roughness.

  17. Advanced Solar Cells for Satellite Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Dennis J.; Weinberg, Irving

    1994-01-01

    The multiple natures of today's space missions with regard to operational lifetime, orbital environment, cost and size of spacecraft, to name just a few, present such a broad range of performance requirements to be met by the solar array that no single design can suffice to meet them all. The result is a demand for development of specialized solar cell types that help to optimize overall satellite performance within a specified cost range for any given space mission. Historically, space solar array performance has been optimized for a given mission by tailoring the features of silicon solar cells to account for the orbital environment and average operating conditions expected during the mission. It has become necessary to turn to entirely new photovoltaic materials and device designs to meet the requirements of future missions, both in the near and far term. This paper will outline some of the mission drivers and resulting performance requirements that must be met by advanced solar cells, and provide an overview of some of the advanced cell technologies under development to meet them. The discussion will include high efficiency, radiation hard single junction cells; monolithic and mechanically stacked multiple bandgap cells; and thin film cells.

  18. Peroxisystem: harnessing systems cell biology to study peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Schuldiner, Maya; Zalckvar, Einat

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, high-throughput experimentation with quantitative analysis and modelling of cells, recently dubbed systems cell biology, has been harnessed to study the organisation and dynamics of simple biological systems. Here, we suggest that the peroxisome, a fascinating dynamic organelle, can be used as a good candidate for studying a complete biological system. We discuss several aspects of peroxisomes that can be studied using high-throughput systematic approaches and be integrated into a predictive model. Such approaches can be used in the future to study and understand how a more complex biological system, like a cell and maybe even ultimately a whole organism, works.

  19. Alkaline fuel cells for the regenerative fuel cell energy storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the alkaline Regenerative Fuel Cell System, whose fuel cell module would be a derivative of the 12-kW fuel cell power plant currently being produced for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, is reviewed. Long-term endurance testing of full-size fuel cell modules has demonstrated: (1) the extended endurance capability of potassium titanate matrix cells, (2) the long-term performance stability of the anode catalyst, and (3) the suitability of a lightweight graphite structure for use at the anode. These approaches, developed in the NASA-sponsored fuel cell technology advancement program, would also reduce cell weight by nearly one half.

  20. Alkaline fuel cells for the regenerative fuel cell energy storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. E.

    The development of the alkaline Regenerative Fuel Cell System, whose fuel cell module would be a derivative of the 12-kW fuel cell power plant currently being produced for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, is reviewed. Long-term endurance testing of full-size fuel cell modules has demonstrated: (1) the extended endurance capability of potassium titanate matrix cells, (2) the long-term performance stability of the anode catalyst, and (3) the suitability of a lightweight graphite structure for use at the anode. These approaches, developed in the NASA-sponsored fuel cell technology advancement program, would also reduce cell weight by nearly one half.

  1. Programmed cell death in the plant immune system.

    PubMed

    Coll, N S; Epple, P; Dangl, J L

    2011-08-01

    Cell death has a central role in innate immune responses in both plants and animals. Besides sharing striking convergences and similarities in the overall evolutionary organization of their innate immune systems, both plants and animals can respond to infection and pathogen recognition with programmed cell death. The fact that plant and animal pathogens have evolved strategies to subvert specific cell death modalities emphasizes the essential role of cell death during immune responses. The hypersensitive response (HR) cell death in plants displays morphological features, molecular architectures and mechanisms reminiscent of different inflammatory cell death types in animals (pyroptosis and necroptosis). In this review, we describe the molecular pathways leading to cell death during innate immune responses. Additionally, we present recently discovered caspase and caspase-like networks regulating cell death that have revealed fascinating analogies between cell death control across both kingdoms.

  2. Technology Status and Expected Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Battery, Plug-In Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipman, Timothy E.

    2011-11-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) of various types are experiencing a commercial renaissance but of uncertain ultimate success. Many new electric-drive models are being introduced by different automakers with significant technical improvements from earlier models, particularly with regard to further refinement of drivetrain systems and important improvements in battery and fuel cell systems. The various types of hybrid and all-electric vehicles can offer significant greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions when compared to conventional vehicles on a full fuel-cycle basis. In fact, most EVs used under most condition are expected to significantly reduce lifecycle GHG emissions. This paper reviews the current technology status of EVs and compares various estimates of their potential to reduce GHGs on a fuel cycle basis. In general, various studies show that battery powered EVs reduce GHGs by a widely disparate amount depending on the type of powerplant used and the particular region involved, among other factors. Reductions typical of the United States would be on the order of 20-50%, depending on the relative level of coal versus natural gas and renewables in the powerplant feedstock mix. However, much deeper reductions of over 90% are possible for battery EVs running on renewable or nuclear power sources. Plug-in hybrid vehicles running on gasoline can reduce emissions by 20-60%, and fuel cell EV reduce GHGs by 30-50% when running on natural gas-derived hydrogen and up to 95% or more when the hydrogen is made (and potentially compressed) using renewable feedstocks. These are all in comparison to what is usually assumed to be a more advanced gasoline vehicle "baseline" of comparison, with some incremental improvements by 2020 or 2030. Thus, the emissions from all of these EV types are highly variable depending on the details of how the electric fuel or hydrogen is produced.

  3. 60-WATT HYDRAZINE-AIR FUEL CELL SYSTEM.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    fuel cell system as presented in our Design Plan. Prior to preparation of the Design Plan, a systems analysis of the basic electrochemical system was made. From the results of this analysis, the operating parameters of the support equipment were defined and an initial selection of components made. System components defined were: the cell stack, electrolyte tank, hydrazine feed system, cooling and chemical air blowers, voltage regulator, and thermal control system. A package design was then made for these components and the final detail design completed.

  4. Gas cooled fuel cell systems technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canton, M. H.; Chepanoske, W. A.; Feret, J. M.; France, L. L.; Haines, N. L.; Heberling, C. F.; Holman, R. R.; Kelly, J. L.; Kochka, E. L.

    1992-03-01

    The development is reported of a Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) for electric utility or industrial power plant applications. Results of this effort include: (1) development of a baseline rolled electrode technology; (2) advancement of fuel cell technology through improvements in the areas of acid management, catalyst selection, electrode and plate materials and processes, components designs, and quality assurance programs; (3) demonstration of improved fuel cell and stack performance and endurance; (4) successful scaleup of cell and stack design features into fun height 100 kill stacks; and (5) demonstration of combining stacks into a 400 kill module that will be the building block for power plants, including the development of testing facilities and operating procedures applicable to plant operations.

  5. Gas cooled fuel cell systems technology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-03-01

    This report documents in detail the work performed by Westinghouse Electric Corporation and the Energy Research Corporation during the fourth phase of a planned multiphase program to develop a Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) for electric utility or industrial power plant applications. The results of this effort include (1) development of a baseline rolled electrode technology; (2) advancement of fuel cell technology through innovative improvements in the areas of acid management, catalyst selection, electrode and plate materials and processes, component designs, and quality assurance programs; (3) demonstration of improved fuel cell and stack performance and endurance; (4) successful scaleup of cell and stack design features into full height 100 kW stacks; and (5) demonstration of combining stacks into a 400 kW module that will be the building block for power plants, including the development of testing facilities and operating procedures applicable to plant operations.

  6. A web-server of cell type discrimination system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anyou; Zhong, Yan; Wang, Yanhua; He, Qianchuan

    2014-01-01

    Discriminating cell types is a daily request for stem cell biologists. However, there is not a user-friendly system available to date for public users to discriminate the common cell types, embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and somatic cells (SCs). Here, we develop WCTDS, a web-server of cell type discrimination system, to discriminate the three cell types and their subtypes like fetal versus adult SCs. WCTDS is developed as a top layer application of our recent publication regarding cell type discriminations, which employs DNA-methylation as biomarkers and machine learning models to discriminate cell types. Implemented by Django, Python, R, and Linux shell programming, run under Linux-Apache web server, and communicated through MySQL, WCTDS provides a friendly framework to efficiently receive the user input and to run mathematical models for analyzing data and then to present results to users. This framework is flexible and easy to be expended for other applications. Therefore, WCTDS works as a user-friendly framework to discriminate cell types and subtypes and it can also be expended to detect other cell types like cancer cells.

  7. Cell Delivery System for Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-21

    from collagen sponges using the dish test method (Figure 16B). The advantage of the dish test over the diffusion cells test is that samples can be...composite mat with collagen fibers and some chitosan fibers as well as globules but were not able to test for cell response to these matrices...dimensional collagen scaffold. MSCs cultured in monolayer and on a three- dimensional collagen sponge were treated with retinoic acid (RA) for up to

  8. Environmental tests of metallization systems for terrestrial photovoltaic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, P., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Seven different solar cell metallization systems were subjected to temperature cycling tests and humidity tests. Temperature cycling excursions were -50 deg C to 150 deg C per cycle. Humidity conditions were 70 deg C at 98% relative humidity. The seven metallization systems were: Ti/Ag, Ti/Pd/Ag, Ti/Pd/Cu, Ni/Cu, Pd/Ni/Solder, Cr/Pd/Ag, and thick film Ag. All metallization systems showed a slight to moderate decrease in cell efficiencies after subjection to 1000 temperature cycles. Six of the seven metallization systems also evidenced slight increases in cell efficiencies after moderate numbers of cycles, generally less than 100 cycles. The copper based systems showed the largest decrease in cell efficiencies after temperature cycling. All metallization systems showed moderate to large decreases in cell efficiencies after 123 days of humidity exposure. The copper based systems again showed the largest decrease in cell efficiencies after humidity exposure. Graphs of the environmental exposures versus cell efficiencies are presented for each metallization system, as well as environmental exposures versus fill factors or series resistance.

  9. A single-cell and feeder-free culture system for monkey embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ono, Takashi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Kato, Yosuke; Fujita, Risako; Araki, Toshihiro; Yamashita, Tomoko; Kato, Hidemasa; Torii, Ryuzo; Sato, Naoya

    2014-01-01

    Primate pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), including embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), hold great potential for research and application in regenerative medicine and drug discovery. To maximize primate PSC potential, a practical system is required for generating desired functional cells and reproducible differentiation techniques. Much progress regarding their culture systems has been reported to date; however, better methods would still be required for their practical use, particularly in industrial and clinical fields. Here we report a new single-cell and feeder-free culture system for primate PSCs, the key feature of which is an originally formulated serum-free medium containing FGF and activin. In this culture system, cynomolgus monkey ESCs can be passaged many times by single-cell dissociation with traditional trypsin treatment and can be propagated with a high proliferation rate as a monolayer without any feeder cells; further, typical PSC properties and genomic stability can be retained. In addition, it has been demonstrated that monkey ESCs maintained in the culture system can be used for various experiments such as in vitro differentiation and gene manipulation. Thus, compared with the conventional culture system, monkey ESCs grown in the aforementioned culture system can serve as a cell source with the following practical advantages: simple, stable, and easy cell maintenance; gene manipulation; cryopreservation; and desired differentiation. We propose that this culture system can serve as a reliable platform to prepare primate PSCs useful for future research and application.

  10. Alkaline regenerative fuel cell systems for energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Reid, M. A.; Martin, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    A description is presented of the results of a preliminary design study of a regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for application to future low-earth orbit space missions. The high energy density storage system is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte cell technology and incorporates dedicated fuel cell and electrolysis cell modules. In addition to providing energy storage, the system can provide hydrogen and oxygen for attitude control of the satellite and for life support. During the daylight portion of the orbit the electrolysis module uses power provided by the solar array to generate H2 and O2 from the product water produced by the fuel cell module. The fuel cell module supplies electrical power during the dark period of the orbit.

  11. System and method for charging electrochemical cells in series

    DOEpatents

    DeLuca, William H.; Hornstra, Jr, Fred; Gelb, George H.; Berman, Baruch; Moede, Larry W.

    1980-01-01

    A battery charging system capable of equalizing the charge of each individual cell at a selected full charge voltage includes means for regulating charger current to first increase current at a constant rate until a bulk charging level is achieved or until any cell reaches a safe reference voltage. A system controller then begins to decrease the charging rate as long as any cell exceeds the reference voltage until an equalization current level is reached. At this point, the system controller activates a plurality of shunt modules to permit shunting of current around any cell having a voltage exceeding the reference voltage. Leads extending between the battery of cells and shunt modules are time shared to permit alternate shunting of current and voltage monitoring without the voltage drop caused by the shunt current. After each cell has at one time exceeded the reference voltage, the charging current is terminated.

  12. Investigation of the photovoltaic cell/ thermoelectric element hybrid system performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotfas, D. T.; Cotfas, P. A.; Machidon, O. M.; Ciobanu, D.

    2016-06-01

    The PV/TEG hybrid system, consisting of the photovoltaic cells and thermoelectric element, is presented in the paper. The dependence of the PV/TEG hybrid system parameters on the illumination levels and the temperature is analysed. The maxim power values of the photovoltaic cell, of the thermoelectric element and of the PV/TEG system are calculated and a comparison between them is presented and analysed. An economic analysis is also presented.

  13. 14 CFR 23.934 - Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.934 Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests. Thrust reverser systems of turbojet or turbofan engines must meet the requirements of § 33.97 of...

  14. 14 CFR 23.934 - Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.934 Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests. Thrust reverser systems of turbojet or turbofan engines must meet the requirements of § 33.97 of...

  15. 14 CFR 23.934 - Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.934 Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests. Thrust reverser systems of turbojet or turbofan engines must meet the requirements of § 33.97 of...

  16. 14 CFR 23.934 - Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.934 Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests. Thrust reverser systems of turbojet or turbofan engines must meet the requirements of § 33.97 of...

  17. 14 CFR 23.934 - Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.934 Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests. Thrust reverser systems of turbojet or turbofan engines must meet the requirements of § 33.97 of...

  18. Antigen presentation for priming T cells in central system.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Shaoni; Dasgupta, Subhajit

    2017-01-01

    Generation of myelin antigen-specific T cells is a major event in neuroimmune responses that causes demyelination. The antigen-priming of T cells and its location is important in chronic and acute inflammation. In autoimmune multiple sclerosis, the effector T cells are considered to generate in periphery. However, the reasons for chronic relapsing-remitting events are obscure. Considering mechanisms, a feasible aim of research is to investigate the role of antigen-primed T cells in lupus cerebritis. Last thirty years of investigations emphasize the relevance of microglia and infiltrated dendritic cells/macrophages as antigen presenting cells in the central nervous system. The recent approach towards circulating B-lymphocytes is an important area in the context. Here, we analyze the existing findings on antigen presentation in the central nervous system. The aim is to visualize signaling events of myelin antigen presentation to T cells and lead to the strategy of future goals on immunotherapy research.

  19. Process simulation of a PEM fuel cell system

    SciTech Connect

    Ledjeff-Hey, K.; Roes, J.; Formanski, V.; Gieshoff, J.; Vogel, B.

    1996-01-01

    The thermodynamic performance of a PEM fuel cell system for producing electrical power from natural gas is investigated by considering the flows of energy and energy through the various steps of the whole system. The flows of energy are evaluated using a computer code for energy and energy analyses. The fuel cell system is designed to produce a hydrogen volumetric flow of nearly 5.0 m{sup 3} {sub NTP}/h, provided to the fuel cell at an absolute pressure of 2.9 bar. The fuel cell itself is working with an efficiency of about 60 % at an operating temperature of 65 - 75{degrees} C with an air ratio of four and provides a maximum electric power of 9 kW. Taking into consideration only the produced electric power as useful output of the fuel cell system a total efficiency of 42.2 % is calculated using the simulation results.

  20. Fostering synergy between cell biology and systems biology.

    PubMed

    Eddy, James A; Funk, Cory C; Price, Nathan D

    2015-08-01

    In the shared pursuit of elucidating detailed mechanisms of cell function, systems biology presents a natural complement to ongoing efforts in cell biology. Systems biology aims to characterize biological systems through integrated and quantitative modeling of cellular information. The process of model building and analysis provides value through synthesizing and cataloging information about cells and molecules, predicting mechanisms and identifying generalizable themes, generating hypotheses and guiding experimental design, and highlighting knowledge gaps and refining understanding. In turn, incorporating domain expertise and experimental data is crucial for building towards whole cell models. An iterative cycle of interaction between cell and systems biologists advances the goals of both fields and establishes a framework for mechanistic understanding of the genome-to-phenome relationship.