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Sample records for cell preserving brain

  1. Histone deacetylase inhibitors are neuroprotective and preserve NGF-mediated cell survival following traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jie; Frerich, Jason M.; Turtzo, L. Christine; Li, Siqi; Chiang, Jeffrey; Yang, Chunzhang; Wang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Chao; Wu, Chenxi; Sun, Zhongchan; Niu, Gang; Zhuang, Zhengping; Brady, Roscoe O.; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2013-01-01

    Acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with long-term cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. In vivo studies have shown histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) to be neuroprotective following TBI in rodent models. HDACis are intriguing candidates because they are capable of provoking widespread genetic changes and modulation of protein function. By using known HDACis and a unique small-molecule pan-HDACi (LB-205), we investigated the effects and mechanisms associated with HDACi-induced neuroprotection following CNS injury in an astrocyte scratch assay in vitro and a rat TBI model in vivo. We demonstrate the preservation of sufficient expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and activation of the neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 1 (TrkA) pathway following HDACi treatment to be crucial in stimulating the survival of CNS cells after TBI. HDACi treatment up-regulated the expression of NGF, phospho-TrkA, phospho-protein kinase B (p-AKT), NF-κB, and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) cell survival factors while down-regulating the expression of p75 neurotrophin receptor (NTR), phospho-JNK, and Bcl-2–associated X protein apoptosis factors. HDACi treatment also increased the expression of the stem cell biomarker nestin, and decreased the expression of reactive astrocyte biomarker GFAP within damaged tissue following TBI. These findings provide further insight into the mechanisms by which HDACi treatment after TBI is neuroprotective and support the continued study of HDACis following acute TBI. PMID:23754423

  2. Scaling Brain Size, Keeping Timing: Evolutionary Preservation of Brain Rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Buzsáki, György; Logothetis, Nikos; Singer, Wolf

    2014-01-01

    Despite the several-thousand-fold increase of brain volume during the course of mammalian evolution, the hierarchy of brain oscillations remains remarkably preserved, allowing for multiple-time-scale communication within and across neuronal networks at approximately the same speed, irrespective of brain size. Deployment of large-diameter axons of long-range neurons could be a key factor in the preserved time management in growing brains. We discuss the consequences of such preserved network constellation in mental disease, drug discovery, and interventional therapies. PMID:24183025

  3. Scaling brain size, keeping timing: evolutionary preservation of brain rhythms.

    PubMed

    Buzsáki, György; Logothetis, Nikos; Singer, Wolf

    2013-10-30

    Despite the several-thousand-fold increase of brain volume during the course of mammalian evolution, the hierarchy of brain oscillations remains remarkably preserved, allowing for multiple-time-scale communication within and across neuronal networks at approximately the same speed, irrespective of brain size. Deployment of large-diameter axons of long-range neurons could be a key factor in the preserved time management in growing brains. We discuss the consequences of such preserved network constellation in mental disease, drug discovery, and interventional therapies.

  4. Preservation of cell structures in a medieval infant brain: a paleohistological, paleogenetic, radiological and physico-chemical study.

    PubMed

    Papageorgopoulou, Christina; Rentsch, Katharina; Raghavan, Maanasa; Hofmann, Maria Ines; Colacicco, Giovanni; Gallien, Véronique; Bianucci, Raffaella; Rühli, Frank

    2010-04-15

    Cerebral tissues from archaeological human remains are extremely rare findings. Hereby, we report a multidisciplinary study of a unique case of a left cerebral hemisphere from a 13th century AD child, found in north-western France. The cerebral tissue-reduced by ca. 80% of its original weight-had been fixed in formalin since its discovery. However, it fully retained its gross anatomical characteristics such as sulci, and gyri; the frontal, temporal and occipital lobe as well as grey and white matter could be readily recognised. Neuronal remains near the hippocampus area and Nissl bodies from the motor cortex area were observed (Nissl, Klüver-Barrera staining). Also, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (T1, proton density, ultra short echo time sequences) were feasible. They produced high quality morpho-diagnostic images. Both histological and radiological examinations could not confirm the pathologist's previously suggested diagnosis of cerebral haemorrhage as the cause of death. Reproducible cloned mtDNA sequences were recovered from the skeleton but not from the brain itself. This was most likely due to the combined effect of formaldehyde driven DNA-DNA and/or DNA-protein cross-linking, plus hydrolytic fragmentation of the DNA. The chemical profile of the brain tissue, from gas-chromatography/mass-spectroscopy analysis, suggested adipocerous formation as the main aetiology of the mummification process. The hereby presented child brain is a unique paleo-case of well-preserved neuronal cellular tissue, which is a conditio sine qua non for any subsequent study addressing wider perspectives in neuroscience research, such as the evolution of brain morphology and pathology. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of vitro preservation on mechanical properties of brain tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Yi-fan; Liu, Li-fu; Niu, Ying; Ma, Jian-li; Wu, Cheng-wei

    2017-05-01

    To develop the protective devices for preventing traumatic brain injuries, it requires the accurate characterization of the mechanical properties of brain tissue. For this, it necessary to elucidate the effect of vitro preservation on the mechanical performance of brain tissue as usually the measurements are carried out in vitro. In this paper, the thermal behavior of brain tissue preserved for various period of time was first investigated and the mechanical properties were also measured. Both reveals the deterioration with prolonged preservation duration. The observations of brain tissue slices indicates the brain tissue experiences karyorrhexis and karyorrhexis in sequence, which accounts for the deterioration phenomena.

  6. Preservation of memory with conformal avoidance of the hippocampal neural stem-cell compartment during whole-brain radiotherapy for brain metastases (RTOG 0933): a phase II multi-institutional trial.

    PubMed

    Gondi, Vinai; Pugh, Stephanie L; Tome, Wolfgang A; Caine, Chip; Corn, Ben; Kanner, Andrew; Rowley, Howard; Kundapur, Vijayananda; DeNittis, Albert; Greenspoon, Jeffrey N; Konski, Andre A; Bauman, Glenn S; Shah, Sunjay; Shi, Wenyin; Wendland, Merideth; Kachnic, Lisa; Mehta, Minesh P

    2014-12-01

    Hippocampal neural stem-cell injury during whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) may play a role in memory decline. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy can be used to avoid conformally the hippocampal neural stem-cell compartment during WBRT (HA-WBRT). RTOG 0933 was a single-arm phase II study of HA-WBRT for brain metastases with prespecified comparison with a historical control of patients treated with WBRT without hippocampal avoidance. Eligible adult patients with brain metastases received HA-WBRT to 30 Gy in 10 fractions. Standardized cognitive function and quality-of-life (QOL) assessments were performed at baseline and 2, 4, and 6 months. The primary end point was the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised Delayed Recall (HVLT-R DR) at 4 months. The historical control demonstrated a 30% mean relative decline in HVLT-R DR from baseline to 4 months. To detect a mean relative decline ≤ 15% in HVLT-R DR after HA-WBRT, 51 analyzable patients were required to ensure 80% statistical power with α = 0.05. Of 113 patients accrued from March 2011 through November 2012, 42 patients were analyzable at 4 months. Mean relative decline in HVLT-R DR from baseline to 4 months was 7.0% (95% CI, -4.7% to 18.7%), significantly lower in comparison with the historical control (P < .001). No decline in QOL scores was observed. Two grade 3 toxicities and no grade 4 to 5 toxicities were reported. Median survival was 6.8 months. Conformal avoidance of the hippocampus during WBRT is associated with preservation of memory and QOL as compared with historical series. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  7. Preserved retinotopic brain connectivity in macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Haak, Koen V; Morland, Antony B; Rubin, Gary S; Cornelissen, Frans W

    2016-05-01

    The eye disease macular degeneration (MD) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. There is no cure for MD, but several promising treatments aimed at restoring vision at the level of the retina are currently under investigation. These treatments assume that the patient's brain can still process appropriately the retinal input once it is restored, but whether this assumption is correct has yet to be determined. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and connective field modelling to determine whether the functional connectivity between the input-deprived portions of primary visual cortex (V1) and early extrastriate areas (V2/3) is still retinotopically organised. Specifically, in both patients with juvenile macular degeneration and age-matched controls with simulated retinal lesions, we assessed the extent to which the V1-referred connective fields of extrastriate voxels, as estimated on the basis of spontaneous fMRI signal fluctuations, adhered to retinotopic organisation. We found that functional connectivity between the input-deprived portions of visual areas V1 and extrastriate cortex is still largely retinotopically organised in MD, although on average less so than in controls. Patients with stable fixation exhibited normal retinotopic connectivity, however, suggesting that for the patients with unstable fixation, eye-movements resulted in spurious, homogeneous signal modulations across the entire input-deprived cortex, which would have hampered our ability to assess their spatial structure of connectivity. Despite the prolonged loss of visual input due to MD, the cortico-cortical connections of input-deprived visual cortex remain largely intact. This suggests that the restoration of sight in macular degeneration can rely on a largely unchanged retinotopic representation in early visual cortex following loss of central retinal function. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of

  8. Preservational Pathways of Corresponding Brains of a Cambrian Euarthropod.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoya; Edgecombe, Gregory D; Hou, Xianguang; Goral, Tomasz; Strausfeld, Nicholas J

    2015-11-16

    The record of arthropod body fossils is traceable back to the "Cambrian explosion," marked by the appearance of most major animal phyla. Exceptional preservation provides crucial evidence for panarthropod early radiation. However, due to limited representation in the fossil record of internal anatomy, particularly the CNS, studies usually rely on exoskeletal and appendicular morphology. Recent studiesshow that despite extreme morphological disparities, euarthropod CNS evolution appears to have been remarkably conservative. This conclusion is supported by descriptions from Cambrian panarthropods of neural structures that contribute to understanding early evolution of nervous systems and resolving controversies about segmental homologies. However, the rarity of fossilized CNSs, even when exoskeletons and appendages show high levels of integrity, brought into question data reproducibility because all but one of the aforementioned studies were based on single specimens. Foremost among objections is the lack of taphonomic explanation for exceptional preservation of a tissue that some see as too prone to decay to be fossilized. Here we describe newly discovered specimens of the Chengjiang euarthropod Fuxianhuia protensa with fossilized brains revealing matching profiles, allowing rigorous testing of the reproducibility of cerebral structures. Their geochemical analyses provide crucial insights of taphonomic pathways for brain preservation, ranging from uniform carbon compressions to complete pyritization, revealing that neural tissue was initially preserved as carbonaceous film and subsequently pyritized. This mode of preservation is consistent with the taphonomic pathways of gross anatomy, indicating that no special mode is required for fossilization of labile neural tissue.

  9. Interaction of ARC and Daxx: A Novel Endogenous Target to Preserve Motor Function and Cell Loss after Focal Brain Ischemia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Donath, Stefan; An, Junfeng; Lee, Sabrina Lin Lin; Gertz, Karen; Datwyler, Anna Lena; Harms, Ulrike; Müller, Susanne; Farr, Tracy Deanne; Füchtemeier, Martina; Lättig-Tünnemann, Gisela; Lips, Janet; Foddis, Marco; Mosch, Larissa; Bernard, René; Grittner, Ulrike; Balkaya, Mustafa; Kronenberg, Golo; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Endres, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the signaling and neuroprotective effect of transactivator of transcription (TAT) protein transduction of the apoptosis repressor with CARD (ARC) in in vitro and in vivo models of cerebral ischemia in mice. In mice, transient focal cerebral ischemia reduced endogenous ARC protein in neurons in the ischemic striatum at early reperfusion time points, and in primary neuronal cultures, RNA interference resulted in greater neuronal susceptibility to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD). TAT.ARC protein delivery led to a dose-dependent better survival after OGD. Infarct sizes 72 h after 60 min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) were on average 30 ± 8% (mean ± SD; p = 0.005; T2-weighted MRI) smaller in TAT.ARC-treated mice (1 μg intraventricularly during MCAo) compared with controls. TAT.ARC-treated mice showed better performance in the pole test compared with TAT.β-Gal-treated controls. Importantly, post-stroke treatment (3 h after MCAo) was still effective in affording reduced lesion volume by 20 ± 7% (mean ± SD; p < 0.05) and better functional outcome compared with controls. Delayed treatment in mice subjected to 30 min MCAo led to sustained neuroprotection and functional behavior benefits for at least 28 d. Functionally, TAT.ARC treatment inhibited DAXX–ASK1–JNK signaling in the ischemic brain. ARC interacts with DAXX in a CARD-dependent manner to block DAXX trafficking and ASK1–JNK activation. Our work identifies for the first time ARC–DAXX binding to block ASK1–JNK activation as an ARC-specific endogenous mechanism that interferes with neuronal cell death and ischemic brain injury. Delayed delivery of TAT.ARC may present a promising target for stroke therapy. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Up to now, the only successful pharmacological target of human ischemic stroke is thrombolysis. Neuroprotective pharmacological strategies are needed to accompany therapies aiming to achieve reperfusion. We describe that apoptosis

  10. Preservation of organs from brain dead donors with hyperbaric oxygen.

    PubMed

    Bayrakci, Benan

    2008-08-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is a technology that involves oxygen treatment at supra-atmospheric pressures in high concentrations, generating increased levels of physically dissolved oxygen in blood plasma. This form of transported oxygen, compared with oxygen chemically bound to hemoglobin, is able to enter tissues with minimal or almost no blood flow. Experimental studies have suggested that hyperoxemia provided by hyperbaric oxygen may be beneficial in the treatment of reperfusion injury. Organs procured from brain-dead hyperbaric oxygen-treated donors may have less cellular injury from ischemia, reperfusion, and no-reflow phenomenon, thus yielding organs in an optimized state for transplantation. This current report consists of a gratifying experience about hyperbaric oxygen treatment playing a possible role on preservation of donor organs in vivo. In the siblings reported here, improved organ function prior to transplantation and the successful organ functioning after transplantation suggests the possible beneficial effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment on the ischemic insult generated from brain death and repetitive cardiac arrests. Hyperbaric oxygen seems to be a promising candidate as a bridge to transplantation, keeping the donated organs viable until the harvesting procedure can take place for potential brain dead donors. This experience may lead to further investigations on hyperbaric oxygen's role in donor organ preservation.

  11. Intracranial mechanisms for preserving brain blood flow in health and disease.

    PubMed

    McBryde, F D; Malpas, S C; Paton, J F R

    2017-01-01

    The brain is an exceptionally energetically demanding organ with little metabolic reserve, and multiple systems operate to protect and preserve the brain blood supply. But how does the brain sense its own perfusion? In this review, we discuss how the brain may harness the cardiovascular system to counter threats to cerebral perfusion sensed via intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral oxygenation and ischaemia. Since the work of Cushing over 100 years ago, the existence of brain baroreceptors capable of eliciting increases in sympathetic outflow and blood pressure has been hypothesized. In the clinic, this response has generally been thought to occur only in extremis, to perfuse the severely ischaemic brain as cerebral autoregulation fails. We review evidence that pressor responses may also occur with smaller, physiologically relevant increases in ICP. The incoming brain oxygen supply is closely monitored by the carotid chemoreceptors; however, hypoxia and other markers of ischaemia are also sensed intrinsically by astrocytes or other support cells within brain tissue itself and elicit reactive hyperaemia. Recent studies suggest that astrocytic oxygen signalling within the brainstem may directly affect sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure. We speculate that local cerebral oxygen tension is a major determinant of the mean level of arterial pressure and discuss recent evidence that this may be the case. We conclude that intrinsic intra- and extra-cranial mechanisms sense and integrate information about hypoxia/ischaemia and ICP and play a major role in determining the long-term level of sympathetic outflow and arterial pressure, to optimize cerebral perfusion.

  12. Platonin preserves blood-brain barrier integrity in septic rats.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chia-Tse; Kao, Ming-Chang; Chen, Cay-Huyen; Huang, Chun-Jen

    2015-03-01

    Platonin possesses potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidative capacities. Because systemic inflammation and oxidative stress are crucial in mediating sepsis-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity loss, this study elucidated the effects of platonin on preserving BBB integrity in septic rats. A total of 72 adult male rats (200-250 g) were randomized to receive cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), CLP plus platonin, sham operation, or sham operation plus platonin (n = 18 in each group). Systemic inflammation and oxidation levels and BBB integrity in the surviving rats were determined after 24-hour monitoring. Plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and malondialdehyde (MDA)-markers of systemic inflammation and oxidation-and the grading of Evans blue staining of the brains, BBB permeability to Evans blue dye, and brain edema levels-markers of BBB integrity-in rats that received CLP were significantly higher than rats that received sham operation (all p < 0.001). By contrast, the plasma levels of IL-6 (p < 0.001) and MDA (p < 0.001), and the grading of Evans blue staining (p = 0.015), BBB permeability to Evans blue dye (p = 0.043), and brain edema levels (p = 0.034) in rats that received CLP plus platonin were significantly lower than rats that received CLP. Experimental data further revealed that the concentration of tight junction protein claudin-5, a major structural component of BBB, in rats that received CLP was significantly lower than rats that received CLP plus platonin (p = 0.023). Platonin could attenuate sepsis-induced BBB integrity loss in rats. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Endothelial cell preservation at hypothermic to normothermic conditions using clinical and experimental organ preservation solutions.

    PubMed

    Post, Ivo C J H; de Boon, Wadim M I; Heger, Michal; van Wijk, Albert C W A; Kroon, Jeffrey; van Buul, Jaap D; van Gulik, Thomas M

    2013-10-15

    Endothelial barrier function is pivotal for the outcome of organ transplantation. Since hypothermic preservation (gold standard) is associated with cold-induced endothelial damage, endothelial barrier function may benefit from organ preservation at warmer temperatures. We therefore assessed endothelial barrier integrity and viability as function of preservation temperature and perfusion solution, and hypothesized that endothelial cell preservation at subnormothermic conditions using metabolism-supporting solutions constitute optimal preservation conditions. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were preserved at 4-37°C for up to 20 h using Ringer's lactate, histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution, University of Wisconsin (UW) solution, Polysol, or endothelial cell growth medium (ECGM). Following preservation, the monolayer integrity, metabolic capacity, and ATP content were determined as positive parameters of endothelial cell viability. As negative parameters, apoptosis, necrosis, and cell activation were assayed. A viability index was devised on the basis of these parameters. HUVEC viability and barrier integrity was compromised at 4°C regardless of the preservation solution. At temperatures above 20°C, the cells' metabolic demands outweighed the preservation solutions' supporting capacity. Only UW maintained HUVEC viability up to 20°C. Despite high intracellular ATP content, none of the solutions were capable of sufficiently preserving HUVEC above 20°C except for ECGM. Optimal HUVEC preservation is achieved with UW up to 20°C. Only ECGM maintains HUVEC viability at temperatures above 20°C. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Human Retinal Progenitor Cell Transplantation Preserves Vision*

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jing; Baranov, Petr; Patel, Sherrina; Ouyang, Hong; Quach, John; Wu, Frances; Qiu, Austin; Luo, Hongrong; Hicks, Caroline; Zeng, Jing; Zhu, Jing; Lu, Jessica; Sfeir, Nicole; Wen, Cindy; Zhang, Meixia; Reade, Victoria; Patel, Sara; Sinden, John; Sun, Xiaodong; Shaw, Peter; Young, Michael; Zhang, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Cell transplantation is a potential therapeutic strategy for retinal degenerative diseases involving the loss of photoreceptors. However, it faces challenges to clinical translation due to safety concerns and a limited supply of cells. Human retinal progenitor cells (hRPCs) from fetal neural retina are expandable in vitro and maintain an undifferentiated state. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of hRPCs transplanted into a Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat model of retinal degeneration. At 12 weeks, optokinetic response showed that hRPC-grafted eyes had significantly superior visual acuity compared with vehicle-treated eyes. Histological evaluation of outer nuclear layer (ONL) characteristics such as ONL thickness, spread distance, and cell count demonstrated a significantly greater preservation of the ONL in hRPC-treated eyes compared with both vehicle-treated and control eyes. The transplanted hRPCs arrested visual decline over time in the RCS rat and rescued retinal morphology, demonstrating their potential as a therapy for retinal diseases. We suggest that the preservation of visual acuity was likely achieved through host photoreceptor rescue. We found that hRPC transplantation into the subretinal space of RCS rats was well tolerated, with no adverse effects such as tumor formation noted at 12 weeks after treatment. PMID:24407289

  15. Preservation of frozen yeast cells by trehalose.

    PubMed

    Diniz-Mendes, L; Bernardes, E; de Araujo, P S; Panek, A D; Paschoalin, V M

    1999-12-05

    Two different methods commonly used to preserve intact yeast cells-freezing and freeze-drying-were compared. Different yeast cells submitted to these treatments were stored for 28 days and cell viability assessed during this period. Intact yeast cells showed to be less tolerant to freeze-drying than to freezing. The rate of survival for both treatments could be enhanced by exogenous trehalose (10%) added during freezing and freeze-drying treatments or by a combination of two procedures: a pre-exposure of cells to 40 degrees C for 60 min and addition of trehalose. A maximum survival level of 71.5 +/- 6.3% after freezing could be achieved at the end of a storage period of 28 days, whereas only 25.0 +/- 1.4% showed the ability to tolerate freeze-drying treatment, if both low-temperature treatments were preceded by a heat exposure and addition of trehalose to yeast cells. Increased survival ability was also obtained when the pre-exposure treatment of yeast cells was performed at 10 degrees C for 3 h and trehalose was added: these treatments enhanced cell survival following freezing from 20.5 +/- 7. 7% to 60.0 +/- 3.5%. Although both mild cold and heat shock treatments could enhance cell tolerance to low temperature, only the heat treatment was able to increase the accumulation of intracellular trehalose whereas, during cold shock exposure, the intracellular amount of trehalose remained unaltered. Intracellular trehalose levels seemed not to be the only factor contributing to cell tolerance against freezing and freeze-drying treatments; however, the protection that this sugar confers to cells can be exerted only if it is to be found on both sides of the plasma membrane.

  16. Roles of PINK1, mTORC2, and mitochondria in preserving brain tumor-forming stem cells in a noncanonical Notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu-Sun; Wu, Zhihao; Song, Yan; Mitra, Siddhartha S; Feroze, Abdullah H; Cheshier, Samuel H; Lu, Bingwei

    2013-12-15

    The self-renewal versus differentiation choice of Drosophila and mammalian neural stem cells (NSCs) requires Notch (N) signaling. How N regulates NSC behavior is not well understood. Here we show that canonical N signaling cooperates with a noncanonical N signaling pathway to mediate N-directed NSC regulation. In the noncanonical pathway, N interacts with PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) to influence mitochondrial function, activating mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2)/AKT signaling. Importantly, attenuating noncanonical N signaling preferentially impaired the maintenance of Drosophila and human cancer stem cell-like tumor-forming cells. Our results emphasize the importance of mitochondria to N and NSC biology, with important implications for diseases associated with aberrant N signaling.

  17. Preserving cell shape under environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Cook, Boaz; Hardy, Robert W; McConnaughey, William B; Zuker, Charles S

    2008-03-20

    Maintaining cell shape and tone is crucial for the function and survival of cells and tissues. Mechanotransduction relies on the transformation of minuscule mechanical forces into high-fidelity electrical responses. When mechanoreceptors are stimulated, mechanically sensitive cation channels open and produce an inward transduction current that depolarizes the cell. For this process to operate effectively, the transduction machinery has to retain integrity and remain unfailingly independent of environmental changes. This is particularly challenging for poikilothermic organisms, where changes in temperature in the environment may impact the function of mechanoreceptor neurons. Thus, we wondered how insects whose habitat might quickly vary over several tens of degrees of temperature manage to maintain highly effective mechanical senses. We screened for Drosophila mutants with defective mechanical responses at elevated ambient temperatures, and identified a gene, spam, whose role is to protect the mechanosensory organ from massive cellular deformation caused by heat-induced osmotic imbalance. Here we show that Spam protein forms an extracellular shield that guards mechanosensory neurons from environmental insult. Remarkably, heterologously expressed Spam protein also endowed other cells with superb defence against physically and chemically induced deformation. We studied the mechanical impact of Spam coating and show that spam-coated cells are up to ten times stiffer than uncoated controls. Together, these results help explain how poikilothermic organisms preserve the architecture of critical cells during environmental stress, and illustrate an elegant and simple solution to such challenge.

  18. Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Detect Preserved Function in a Preterm Infant with Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Herzmann, Charlotte; Zubiaurre-Elorza, Leire; Wild, Conor J; Linke, Annika C; Han, Victor K; Lee, David S C; Cusack, Rhodri

    2017-10-01

    We studied developmental plasticity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a preterm infant with brain injury on structural MRI. fMRI showed preserved brain function and subsequent neurodevelopment was within the normal range. Multimodal neuroimaging including fMRI can improve understanding of neural plasticity after preterm birth and brain injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reorganization and preservation of motor control of the brain in spinal cord injury: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kokotilo, Kristen J; Eng, Janice J; Curt, Armin

    2009-11-01

    Reorganization of brain function in people with CNS damage has been identified as one of the fundamental mechanisms involved in the recovery of sensorimotor function. Spinal cord injury (SCI) brain mapping studies during motor tasks aim for assessing the reorganization and preservation of brain networks involved in motor control. Revealing the activation of cortical and subcortical brain areas in people with SCI can indicate principal patterns of brain reorganization when the neurotrauma is distal to the brain. This review assessed brain activation after SCI in terms of intensity, volume, and somatotopic localization, as well as preservation of activation during attempted and/or imagined movements. Twenty-five studies meeting the inclusion criteria could be identified in Medline (1980 to January 2008). Relevant characteristics of studies (level of lesion, time after injury, motor task) and mapping techniques varied widely. Changes in brain activation were found in both cortical and subcortical areas of individuals with SCI. In addition, several studies described a shift in the region of brain activation. These patterns appeared to be dynamic and influenced by the level, completeness, and time after injury, as well as extent of clinical recovery. In addition, several aspects of reorganization of brain function following SCI resembled those reported in stroke. This review demonstrates that brain networks involved in different demands of motor control remain responsive even in chronic paralysis. These findings imply that therapeutic strategies aimed at restoring spinal cord function, even in people with chronic SCI, can build on preserved competent brain control.

  20. Pediatric brain tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingying; Margol, Ashley; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Erdreich-Epstein, Anat

    2015-02-01

    Pediatric brain tumors as a group, including medulloblastomas, gliomas, and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT) are the most common solid tumors in children and the leading cause of death from childhood cancer. Brain tumor-derived cell lines are critical for studying the biology of pediatric brain tumors and can be useful for initial screening of new therapies. Use of appropriate brain tumor cell lines for experiments is important, as results may differ depending on tumor properties, and can thus affect the conclusions and applicability of the model. Despite reports in the literature of over 60 pediatric brain tumor cell lines, the majority of published papers utilize only a small number of these cell lines. Here we list the approximately 60 currently-published pediatric brain tumor cell lines and summarize some of their central features as a resource for scientists seeking pediatric brain tumor cell lines for their research.

  1. P7C3 Neuroprotective Chemicals Block Axonal Degeneration and Preserve Function after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Terry C.; Britt, Jeremiah K.; De Jesús-Cortés, Héctor; Lu, Yuan; Genova, Rachel M.; Khan, Michael Z.; Voorhees, Jaymie R.; Shao, Jianqiang; Katzman, Aaron C.; Huntington, Paula J.; Wassink, Cassie; McDaniel, Latisha; Newell, Elizabeth A.; Dutca, Laura M.; Naidoo, Jacinth; Cui, Huxing; Bassuk, Alexander G.; Harper, Matthew M.; McKnight, Steven L.; Ready, Joseph M.; Pieper, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The P7C3 class of neuroprotective aminopropyl carbazoles has been shown to block neuronal cell death in models of neurodegeneration. We now show that P7C3 molecules additionally preserve axonal integrity after injury, before neuronal cell death occurs, in a rodent model of blast-mediated traumatic brain injury (TBI). This protective quality may be linked to the ability of P7C3 molecules to activate nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide salvage. Initiation of daily treatment with our recently reported lead agent, P7C3-S243, one day after blast-mediated TBI blocks axonal degeneration and preserves normal synaptic activity, learning and memory, and motor coordination in mice. We additionally report persistent neurologic deficits and acquisition of an anxiety-like phenotype in untreated animals eight months after blast exposure. Optimized variants of P7C3 thus offer hope for identifying neuroprotective agents for conditions involving axonal damage, neuronal cell death, or both, such as occurs in TBI. PMID:25220467

  2. P7C3 neuroprotective chemicals block axonal degeneration and preserve function after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Yin, Terry C; Britt, Jeremiah K; De Jesús-Cortés, Héctor; Lu, Yuan; Genova, Rachel M; Khan, Michael Z; Voorhees, Jaymie R; Shao, Jianqiang; Katzman, Aaron C; Huntington, Paula J; Wassink, Cassie; McDaniel, Latisha; Newell, Elizabeth A; Dutca, Laura M; Naidoo, Jacinth; Cui, Huxing; Bassuk, Alexander G; Harper, Matthew M; McKnight, Steven L; Ready, Joseph M; Pieper, Andrew A

    2014-09-25

    The P7C3 class of neuroprotective aminopropyl carbazoles has been shown to block neuronal cell death in models of neurodegeneration. We now show that P7C3 molecules additionally preserve axonal integrity after injury, before neuronal cell death occurs, in a rodent model of blast-mediated traumatic brain injury (TBI). This protective quality may be linked to the ability of P7C3 molecules to activate nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide salvage. Initiation of daily treatment with our recently reported lead agent, P7C3-S243, 1 day after blast-mediated TBI blocks axonal degeneration and preserves normal synaptic activity, learning and memory, and motor coordination in mice. We additionally report persistent neurologic deficits and acquisition of an anxiety-like phenotype in untreated animals 8 months after blast exposure. Optimized variants of P7C3 thus offer hope for identifying neuroprotective agents for conditions involving axonal damage, neuronal cell death, or both, such as occurs in TBI.

  3. Light microscopic localization of brain opiate receptors: a general autoradiographic method which preserves tissue quality

    SciTech Connect

    Herkenham, M.; Pert, C.B.

    1982-08-01

    A general technique is described for using slide-mounted unfixed tissue sections to characterize and visualize drug and neurotransmitter receptors in brain or other tissues. The preparation of material, from fresh frozen, unfixed brain to dried sections securely attached to slides, is described in detail. The tissue can be kept intact during incubation at varying temperatures in solutions containing radiolabeled ligand, ions, buffers, and allosteric effectors. Strategies are described for determining optimal stereospecific binding with highest signal-to-noise ratios and for determining that a meaningful receptor is being studied. Dry formaldehyde fixation by vapors from heated paraformaldehyde preserves the tissue quality and traps the ligand near its site on the receptor, permitting subsequent histological processing through alcohols, solvents, and aqueous media, including liquid nuclear track emulsion. Visualization of (/sup 3/H)naloxone- or (/sup 3/H)enkephalin-labeled opiate receptor distributions in rat and human brains is achieved by tritium-sensitive film or by classical wet emulsion autoradiography. The advantages of the film include its ease of use and the ability to quantify receptor density by densitometry which can be computer-assisted. The advantage of the emulsion is the greater resolution and the concomitant appearance of morphology in cell-stained sections. Examples of correlations of opiate receptor distributions which underlying cytoarchitecture illustrate the potential for receptor localization studies.

  4. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis inhibits apoptosis and preserves the blood-brain barrier after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Cheng; Yu, Hongwei; Yan, Cong; Zhao, Wenyang; Liu, Yao; Zhang, Dongdong; Li, Jingwei; Liu, Nan

    2017-01-01

    Early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) strongly determines the prognosis of patients suffering from an aneurysm rupture, and apoptosis is associated with early brain injury after SAH. This study was designed to explore the role of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) in early brain injury following SAH. The expression of XIAP was detected using western blotting and real-time RT-PCR in an autologous blood injection model of SAH. We also studied the role of XIAP in early brain injury and detected apoptosis-related proteins. The results showed that XIAP was significantly up-regulated in the cortex and hippocampus and that XIAP was mainly expressed in neuronal cells following SAH. The inhibition of endogenous XIAP aggravated blood-brain barrier disruption, neurological deficits and brain edema. Recombinant XIAP preserved the blood-brain barrier, improved the neurological scores and ameliorated brain edema. Recombinant XIAP treatment also decreased the expression of cleaved caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9, whereas there was no effect on the expression of p53, apoptosis-inducing factor or cytochrome c. These results show that XIAP acts as an endogenous neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic agent following SAH. The effects of XIAP on early brain injury was associated with the inhibition of the caspase-dependent apoptosis pathway. PMID:28327595

  5. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis inhibits apoptosis and preserves the blood-brain barrier after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Gao, Cheng; Yu, Hongwei; Yan, Cong; Zhao, Wenyang; Liu, Yao; Zhang, Dongdong; Li, Jingwei; Liu, Nan

    2017-03-22

    Early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) strongly determines the prognosis of patients suffering from an aneurysm rupture, and apoptosis is associated with early brain injury after SAH. This study was designed to explore the role of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) in early brain injury following SAH. The expression of XIAP was detected using western blotting and real-time RT-PCR in an autologous blood injection model of SAH. We also studied the role of XIAP in early brain injury and detected apoptosis-related proteins. The results showed that XIAP was significantly up-regulated in the cortex and hippocampus and that XIAP was mainly expressed in neuronal cells following SAH. The inhibition of endogenous XIAP aggravated blood-brain barrier disruption, neurological deficits and brain edema. Recombinant XIAP preserved the blood-brain barrier, improved the neurological scores and ameliorated brain edema. Recombinant XIAP treatment also decreased the expression of cleaved caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9, whereas there was no effect on the expression of p53, apoptosis-inducing factor or cytochrome c. These results show that XIAP acts as an endogenous neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic agent following SAH. The effects of XIAP on early brain injury was associated with the inhibition of the caspase-dependent apoptosis pathway.

  6. Reorganization and Preservation of Motor Control of the Brain in Spinal Cord Injury: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kokotilo, Kristen J; Eng, Janice J; Curt, Armin

    2011-01-01

    Reorganization of brain function in people with CNS damage has been identified as one of the fundamental mechanisms involved in the recovery of sensori-motor function. Spinal cord injury (SCI) brain mapping studies during motor tasks aim for assessing the reorganization and preservation of brain networks involved in motor control. Revealing the activation of cortical and sub-cortical brain areas in people with SCI can indicate principal patterns of brain reorganization when the neurotrauma is distal to the brain. This review assessed brain activation after SCI in terms of intensity, volume, and somatotopic localization, as well as preservation of activation during attempted and/or imagined movements. Twenty-five studies meeting the inclusion criteria could be identified in MEDLINE (1980 to January 2008). Relevant characteristics of studies (level of lesion, time after injury, motor task) and mapping techniques varied widely. Changes in brain activation were found in both cortical and subcortical areas of individuals with SCI. In addition, several studies described a shift in the region of brain activation. These patterns appeared to be dynamic and influenced by the level, completeness and time after injury, as well as extent of clinical recovery. In addition, several aspects of reorganization of brain function following SCI resembled those reported in stroke. This review demonstrates that brain networks involved in different demands of motor control remain responsive even in chronic paralysis. These findings imply that therapeutic strategies aiming for restoring spinal cord function even in people with chronic SCI can build on a preserved competent brain control. PMID:19604097

  7. Preservation of cell structures in permafrost: a model for exobiology.

    PubMed

    Soina, V S; Vorobiova, E A; Zvyagintsev, D G; Gilichinsky, D A

    1995-03-01

    The present report is the first contribution toward a comprehensive fine-structural study of microbial cells from permafrost. Prokaryotes with a variety of cell wall types demonstrate high stability of cell structure after long-term cryopreservation in frozen soils and sediments of the Arctic. The surface capsular layers that were a salient feature of the cells both in situ and on nutrient media may be an adaptation to low temperature. To the extent that permafrost regions on Earth approximate Martian conditions, preservation of cell structure there can serve as the basis for predictions about preservation in Martian permafrost sediments.

  8. PHA-543613 preserves blood-brain barrier integrity after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice.

    PubMed

    Krafft, Paul R; Caner, Basak; Klebe, Damon; Rolland, William B; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2013-06-01

    Blood-brain barrier disruption and consequent vasogenic edema formation codetermine the clinical course of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This study examined the effect of PHA-543613, a novel α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, on blood-brain barrier preservation after ICH. Male CD-1 mice, subjected to intrastriatal blood infusion, received PHA-543613 alone or in combination with α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin. PHA-543613 alone, but not in combination with methyllycaconitine or wortmannin, inhibited glycogen synthase kinase-3β, thus, stabilizing β-catenin and tight junction proteins, which was paralleled by improved blood-brain barrier stability and ameliorated neurofunctional deficits in ICH animals. PHA-543613 preserved blood-brain barrier integrity after ICH, possibly through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt-induced inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β and β-catenin stabilization.

  9. PRMT7 Preserves Satellite Cell Regenerative Capacity.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Roméo Sébastien; Vogel, Gillian; Chen, Taiping; Crist, Colin; Richard, Stéphane

    2016-02-16

    Regeneration of skeletal muscle requires the continued presence of quiescent muscle stem cells (satellite cells), which become activated in response to injury. Here, we report that whole-body protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT7(-/-) adult mice and mice conditionally lacking PRMT7 in satellite cells using Pax7-CreERT2 both display a significant reduction in satellite cell function, leading to defects in regenerative capacity upon muscle injury. We show that PRMT7 is preferentially expressed in activated satellite cells and, interestingly, PRMT7-deficient satellite cells undergo cell-cycle arrest and premature cellular senescence. These defects underlie poor satellite cell stem cell capacity to regenerate muscle and self-renew after injury. PRMT7-deficient satellite cells express elevated levels of the CDK inhibitor p21CIP1 and low levels of its repressor, DNMT3b. Restoration of DNMT3b in PRMT7-deficient cells rescues PRMT7-mediated senescence. Our findings define PRMT7 as a regulator of the DNMT3b/p21 axis required to maintain muscle stem cell regenerative capacity.

  10. Preserved brains from the Spanish Civil War mass grave (1936) at La Pedraja1, Burgos, Spain.

    PubMed

    Serrulla, Fernando; Herrasti, Lourdes; Navarro, Carmen; Cascallana, Jose Luis; Bermejo, Ana Maria; Marquez-Grant, Nicholas; Etxeberria, Francisco

    2016-12-01

    During the excavation of the Spanish Civil War mass grave at La Pedraja (Burgos, Spain), 104 individuals were found interred within it, 45 of which displayed brains that were preserved but dehydrated and reduced in size. This exceptional finding has resulted in the formation of a multidisciplinary team, with the aim of obtaining as much information as possible and to primarily understand the taphonomic phenomena that has led to the preservation of these brains. The following types of analyses were undertaken on three of these brains: macroscopy, histology, radiology, chemical-toxicology, genetics, chemical analysis of the soil and 3D modelling for stereolithography. The historical context was considered, plus all archaeological and other forensic data provided by the investigation of the mass grave. The results of the analyses on these morphologically identifiable human brains confirmed the presence of nerve structures, fatty acids, and in one case ante-mortem evidence for an intracranial haemorrhage. The fatty acid profile corresponds to the process of saponification. Therefore, the interpretation is that the preservation of these brains at the mass grave of La Pedraja was due to the saponification process, which was influenced by the manner and cause of death, the chemical composition of the brain, the physicochemical properties of the soil and the meteorological conditions at the time. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Peroxide detoxification by brain cells.

    PubMed

    Dringen, Ralf; Pawlowski, Petra G; Hirrlinger, Johannes

    Peroxides are generated continuously in cells that consume oxygen. Among the different peroxides, hydrogen peroxide is the molecule that is formed in highest quantities. In addition, organic hydroperoxides are synthesized as products of cellular metabolism. Generation and disposal of peroxides is a very important process in the human brain, because cells of this organ consume 20% of the oxygen used by the body. To prevent cellular accumulation of peroxides and damage generated by peroxide-derived radicals, brain cells contain efficient antioxidative defense mechanisms that dispose of peroxides and protect against oxidative damage. Cultured brain cells have been used frequently to investigate peroxide metabolism of neural cells. Efficient disposal of exogenous hydrogen peroxide was found for cultured astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglial cells, and neurons. Comparison of specific peroxide clearance rates revealed that cultured oligodendrocytes dispose of the peroxide quicker than the other neural cell cultures. Both catalase and the glutathione system contribute to the clearance of hydrogen peroxide by brain cells. For efficient glutathione-dependent reduction of peroxides, neural cells contain glutathione in high concentration and have substantial activity of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and enzymes that supply the NADPH required for the glutathione reductase reaction. This article gives an overview on the mechanisms involved in peroxide detoxification in brain cells and on the capacity of the different types of neural cells to dispose of peroxides.

  12. Preserved pontine glucose metabolism in Alzheimer disease: A reference region for functional brain image (PET) analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Minoshima, Satoshi; Frey, K.A.; Foster, N.L.; Kuhl, D.W.

    1995-07-01

    Our goal was to examine regional preservation of energy metabolism in Alzheimer disease (AD) and to evaluate effects of PET data normalization to reference regions. Regional metabolic rates in the pons, thalamus, putamen, sensorimotor cortex, visual cortex, and cerebellum (reference regions) were determined stereotaxically and examined in 37 patients with probable AD and 22 normal controls based on quantitative {sup 18}FDG-PET measurements. Following normalization of metabolic rates of the parietotemporal association cortex and whole brain to each reference region, distinctions of the two groups were assessed. The pons showed the best preservation of glucose metabolism in AD. Other reference regions showed relatively preserved metabolism compared with the parietotemporal association cortex and whole brain, but had significant metabolic reduction. Data normalization to the pons not only enhanced statistical significance of metabolic reduction in the parietotemporal association cortex, but also preserved the presence of global cerebral metabolic reduction indicated in analysis of the quantitative data. Energy metabolism in the pons in probable AD is well preserved. The pons is a reliable reference for data normalization and will enhance diagnostic accuracy and efficiency of quantitative and nonquantitative functional brain imaging. 39 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Toward Rare Blood Cell Preservation for RNA Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Vickovic, Sanja; Ahmadian, Afshin; Lewensohn, Rolf; Lundeberg, Joakim

    2015-07-01

    Cancer is driven by various events leading to cell differentiation and disease progression. Molecular tools are powerful approaches for describing how and why these events occur. With the growing field of next-generation DNA sequencing, there is an increasing need for high-quality nucleic acids derived from human cells and tissues-a prerequisite for successful cell profiling. Although advances in RNA preservation have been made, some of the largest biobanks still do not employ RNA blood preservation as standard because of limitations in low blood-input volume and RNA stability over the whole gene body. Therefore, we have developed a robust protocol for blood preservation and long-term storage while maintaining RNA integrity. Furthermore, we explored the possibility of using the protocol for preserving rare cell samples, such as circulating tumor cells. The results of our study confirmed that gene expression was not impacted by the preservation procedure (r(2) > 0.88) or by long-term storage (r(2) = 0.95), with RNA integrity number values averaging over 8. Similarly, cell surface antigens were still available for antibody selection (r(2) = 0.95). Lastly, data mining for fusion events showed that it was possible to detect rare tumor cells among a background of other cells present in blood irrespective of fixation. Thus, the developed protocol would be suitable for rare blood cell preservation followed by RNA sequencing analysis. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Intravenous administration of xenogenic adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSC) and ADMSC-derived exosomes markedly reduced brain infarct volume and preserved neurological function in rat after acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Christopher Glenn; Yuen, Chun-Man; Kao, Gour-Shenq; Chen, Yi-Ling; Shao, Pei-Lin; Chen, Yung-Lung; Chai, Han-Tan; Lin, Kun-Chen; Liu, Chu-Feng; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Lee, Mel S.; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that combined xenogenic (from mini-pig) adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC) and ADMSC-derived exosome therapy could reduce brain-infarct zone (BIZ) and enhance neurological recovery in rat after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) induced by 50-min left middle cerebral artery occlusion. Adult-male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 60) were divided equally into group 1 (sham-control), group 2 (AIS), group 3 [AIS-ADMSC (1.2×106 cells)], group 4 [AIS-exosome (100μg)], and group 5 (AIS-exosome-ADMSC). All therapies were provided intravenously at 3h after AIS procedure. BIZ determined by histopathology (by day-60) and brain MRI (by day-28) were highest in group 2, lowest in group 1, higher in groups 3 and 4 than in group 5, but they showed no difference between groups 3 and 4 (all p < 0.0001). By day-28, sensorimotor functional results exhibited an opposite pattern to BIZ among the five groups (p < 0.005). Protein expressions of inflammatory (inducible nitric oxide synthase/tumor necrosis factor-α/nuclear factor-κB/interleukin-1β/matrix metalloproteinase-9/plasminogen activator inhibitor-1/RANTES), oxidative-stress (NOX-1/NOX-2/oxidized protein), apoptotic (caspase-3/ Poly-ADP-ribose polymerase), and fibrotic (Smad3/transforming growth factor-β) biomarkers, and cellular expressions of brain-damaged (γ-H2AX+/ XRCC1-CD90+/p53BP1-CD90+), inflammatory (CD11+/CD68+/glial fibrillary acid protein+) and brain-edema (aquaporin-4+) markers showed a similar pattern of BIZ among the groups (all n < 0.0001). In conclusion, xenogenic ADMSC/ADMSC-derived exosome therapy was safe and offered the additional benefit of reducing BIZ and improving neurological function in rat AIS. PMID:27793019

  15. Functional neuroimaging after severe anoxic brain injury in children may reveal preserved, yet covert, cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Owen, Adrian M

    2017-10-01

    A growing body of evidence has confirmed that, after severe brain injury in adults, motoric and task-dependent factors that are essential for reliable communication, frequently interfere with an accurate assessment of cognitive status. In the current study, resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in children who have sustained an anoxic brain injury following a near drowning incident suggests a similar pattern; preserved cognition amidst severe motoric impairment that effectively precludes accurate clinical diagnosis at the bedside. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4832-4833, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effects of tissue preservation temperature on high strain-rate material properties of brain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiangyue; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Guan, Yabo; Shender, Barry; Paskoff, Glenn; Laud, Purushottam

    2011-02-03

    Postmortem preservation conditions may be one of factors contributing to wide material property variations in brain tissues in literature. The objective of present study was to determine the effects of preservation temperatures on high strain-rate material properties of brain tissues using the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB). Porcine brains were harvested immediately after sacrifice, sliced into 2 mm thickness, preserved in ice cold (group A, 10 samples) and 37°C (group B, 9 samples) saline solution and warmed to 37°C just prior to the test. A SHPB with tube aluminum transmission bar and semi-conductor strain gauges were used to enhance transmitted wave signals. Data were gathered using a digital acquisition system and processed to obtain stress-strain curves. All tests were conducted within 4 h postmortem. The mean strain-rate was 2487±72 s(-1). A repeated measures model with specimen-level random effects was used to analyze log transformed stress-strain responses through the entire loading range. The mean stress-strain curves with ±95% confidence bands demonstrated typical power relationships with the power value of 2.4519 (standard error, 0.0436) for group A and 2.2657 (standard error, 0.0443) for group B, indicating that responses for the two groups are significantly different. Stresses and tangent moduli rose with increasing strain levels in both groups. These findings indicate that storage temperatures affected brain tissue material properties and preserving tissues at 37°C produced a stiffer response at high strain-rates. Therefore, it is necessary to incorporate material properties obtained from appropriately preserved tissues to accurately predict the responses of brain using stress analyses models, such as finite element simulations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Clinical guide to fertility preservation in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Joshi, S; Savani, B N; Chow, E J; Gilleece, M H; Halter, J; Jacobsohn, D A; Pidala, J; Quinn, G P; Cahn, J-Y; Jakubowski, A A; Kamani, N R; Lazarus, H M; Rizzo, J D; Schouten, H C; Socie, G; Stratton, P; Sorror, M L; Warwick, A B; Wingard, J R; Loren, A W; Majhail, N S

    2014-04-01

    With broadening indications, more options for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and improvement in survival, the number of long-term HCT survivors is expected to increase steadily. Infertility is a frequent problem that long-term HCT survivors and their partners face and it can negatively impact on the quality of life. The most optimal time to address fertility issues is before the onset of therapy for the underlying disease; however, fertility preservation should also be addressed before HCT in all children and patients of reproductive age, with referral to a reproductive specialist for patients interested in fertility preservation. In vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo cryopreservation, oocyte cryopreservation and ovarian tissue banking are acceptable methods for fertility preservation in adult women/pubertal females. Sperm banking is the preferred method for adult men/pubertal males. Frequent barriers to fertility preservation in HCT recipients may include the perception of lack of time to preserve fertility given an urgency to move ahead with transplant, lack of patient-physician discussion because of several factors (for example, time constraints, lack of knowledge), inadequate access to reproductive specialists, and costs and lack of insurance coverage for fertility preservation. There is a need to raise awareness in the medical community about fertility preservation in HCT recipients.

  18. Influence of preservation temperature on the measured mechanical properties of brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Badar; Destrade, Michel; Gilchrist, Michael D

    2013-04-26

    The large variability in experimentally measured mechanical properties of brain tissue is due to many factors including heterogeneity, anisotropy, age dependence and post-mortem time. Moreover, differences in test protocols also influence these measured properties. This paper shows that the temperature at which porcine brain tissue is stored or preserved prior to testing has a significant effect on the mechanical properties of brain tissue, even when tests are conducted at the same temperatures. Three groups of brain tissue were stored separately for at least 1h at three different preservation temperatures, i.e., ice cold, room temperature (22 °C) and body temperature (37 °C), prior to them all being tested at room temperature (~22 °C). Significant differences in the corresponding initial elastic shear modulus μ (Pa) (at various amounts of shear, 0≤K≤1.0) were observed. The initial elastic moduli were 1043±271 Pa, 714±210 Pa and 497±156 Pa (mean±SD) at preservation temperatures of ice cold, 22 °C and 37 °C, respectively. Based on this investigation, it is strongly recommended that brain tissue samples must be preserved at an ice-cold temperature prior to testing in order to minimize the difference between the measured in vitro test results and the in vivo properties. A by-product of the study is that simple shear tests allow for large, almost perfectly homogeneous deformation of brain matter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Searching for the philosopher's stone: promising links between meditation and brain preservation.

    PubMed

    Luders, Eileen; Cherbuin, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    In the context of an aging population and increased prevalence of dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases, developing strategies to decrease the negative effects of aging is imperative. The scientific study of meditation as a potential tool to downregulate processes implicated in brain aging is an emerging field, and a growing body of research suggests that mindfulness practices are beneficial for cerebral resilience. Adding further evidence to this notion, an increasing number of imaging studies report effects of meditation on brain structure that are consistent with our understanding of neuroprotection. Here, we review the published findings in this field of research addressing the question of whether meditation diminishes age-related brain degeneration. Altogether, although analyses are still sparse and based on cross-sectional data, study outcomes suggest that meditation might be beneficial for brain preservation-both with respect to gray and white matter-possibly by slowing down the natural (age-related) decrease of brain tissue. Nevertheless, it should also be recognized that, until robust longitudinal data become available, there is no evidence for causation between meditation and brain preservation. This review includes a comprehensive commentary on limitations of the existing research and concludes with implications and directions for future studies.

  20. Purine and pyrimidine nucleosides preserve human astrocytoma cell adenylate energy charge under ischemic conditions.

    PubMed

    Balestri, Francesco; Giannecchini, Michela; Sgarrella, Francesco; Carta, Maria Caterina; Tozzi, Maria Grazia; Camici, Marcella

    2007-02-01

    The brain depends on both glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for maintenance of ATP pools. Astrocytes play an integral role in brain functions providing trophic supports and energy substrates for neurons. In this paper, we report that human astrocytoma cells (ADF) undergoing ischemic conditions may use both purine and pyrimidine nucleosides as energy source to slow down cellular damage. The cells are subjected to metabolic stress conditions by exclusion of glucose and incubation with oligomycin (an inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation). This treatment brings about a depletion of the ATP pool, with a concomitant increase in the AMP levels, which results in a significant decrease of the adenylate energy charge. The presence of purine nucleosides in the culture medium preserves the adenylate energy charge, and improves cell viability. Besides purine nucleosides, also pyrimidine nucleosides, such as uridine and, to a lesser extent, cytidine, are able to preserve the ATP pool. The determination of lactate in the incubation medium indicates that nucleosides can preserve the ATP pool through anaerobic glycolysis, thus pointing to a relevant role of the phosphorolytic cleavage of the N-glycosidic bond of nucleosides which generates, without energy expense, the phosphorylated pentose, which through the pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis can be converted to energetic intermediates also in the absence of oxygen. In fact, ADF cells possess both purine nucleoside phosphorylase and uridine phosphorylase activities.

  1. Preserving human cells for regenerative, reproductive, and transfusion medicine

    PubMed Central

    Asghar, Waseem; Assal, Rami El; Shafiee, Hadi; Anchan, Raymond M.; Demirci, Utkan

    2014-01-01

    Cell cryopreservation enables maintaining cellular life at sub-zero temperatures by slowing down biochemical processes. Various cell types are routinely cryopreserved in modern reproductive, regenerative, and transfusion medicine. Current cell cryopreservation methods involve freezing (slow/rapid) or vitrifying cells in the presence of a cryoprotective agent (CPA). Although these methods are clinically utilized, cryo-injury due to ice crystals, osmotic shock, and CPA toxicity cause loss of cell viability and function. Recent approaches using minimum volume vitrification provide alternatives to the conventional cryopreservation methods. Minimum volume vitrification provides ultra-high cooling and rewarming rates that enable preserving cells without ice crystal formation. Herein, we review recent advances in cell cryopreservation technology and provide examples of techniques that are utilized in oocyte, stem cell, and red blood cell cryopreservation. PMID:24995723

  2. Caloric restriction increases ketone bodies metabolism and preserves blood flow in aging brain

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Xiaoli; Watts, Lora

    2015-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase the life span and health span of a broad range of species. However, CR effects on in vivo brain functions are far from explored. In this study, we used multimetric neuroimaging methods to characterize the CR-induced changes of brain metabolic and vascular functions in aging rats. We found that old rats (24 months of age) with CR diet had reduced glucose uptake and lactate concentration, but increased ketone bodies level, compared with the age-matched and young (5 months of age) controls. The shifted metabolism was associated with preserved vascular function: old CR rats also had maintained cerebral blood flow relative to the age-matched controls. When investigating the metabolites in mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle, we found that citrate and α-ketoglutarate were preserved in the old CR rats. We suggest that CR is neuroprotective; ketone bodies, cerebral blood flow, and α-ketoglutarate may play important roles in preserving brain physiology in aging. PMID:25896951

  3. Preservation of mitochondrial functional integrity in mitochondria isolated from small cryopreserved mouse brain areas.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Daniela; de Bari, Lidia; De Filippis, Bianca; Ricceri, Laura; Vacca, Rosa Anna

    2014-01-01

    Studies of mitochondrial bioenergetics in brain pathophysiology are often precluded by the need to isolate mitochondria immediately after tissue dissection from a large number of brain biopsies for comparative studies. Here we present a procedure of cryopreservation of small brain areas from which mitochondrial enriched fractions (crude mitochondria) with high oxidative phosphorylation efficiency can be isolated. Small mouse brain areas were frozen and stored in a solution containing glycerol as cryoprotectant. Crude mitochondria were isolated by differential centrifugation from both cryopreserved and freshly explanted brain samples and were compared with respect to their ability to generate membrane potential and produce ATP. Intactness of outer and inner mitochondrial membranes was verified by polarographic ascorbate and cytochrome c tests and spectrophotometric assay of citrate synthase activity. Preservation of structural integrity and oxidative phosphorylation efficiency was successfully obtained in crude mitochondria isolated from different areas of cryopreserved mouse brain samples. Long-term cryopreservation of small brain areas from which intact and phosphorylating mitochondria can be isolated for the study of mitochondrial bioenergetics will significantly expand the study of mitochondrial defects in neurological pathologies, allowing large comparative studies and favoring interlaboratory and interdisciplinary analyses.

  4. The preservation of living cells with biocompatible microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing; Zhu, Yingnan; Xu, Tong; Pan, Chao; Cai, Nana; Huang, He; Zhang, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Biomedical applications of living cells have rapidly expanded in many fields such as toxic detection, drug screening, and regenerative medicine, etc. Efficient methods to support cell survival and maintain activity in vitro have become increasingly important. However, traditional cryopreservation for living cell-based applications is limited by several problems. Here, we report that magnetic hydrogel microparticles can physically assemble into a 3D environment for efficient cell preservation in physiological conditions, avoiding any chemical reactions that would damage the cells. Two representative cell lines (loosely and firmly adherent) were tested to evaluate the versatility of this method. The results showed that cell longevity was significantly extended to at least 15 days, while the control cell samples without microparticles quickly died within 3 days. Moreover, after preservation, cells can be easily retrieved by applying a magnet to separate the magnetic particles. This strategy can also inhibit cell over-proliferation while avoiding the use of temperature extremes or toxic cryoprotectants that are essential in cryopreservation.

  5. The preservation of living cells with biocompatible microparticles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Zhu, Yingnan; Xu, Tong; Pan, Chao; Cai, Nana; Huang, He; Zhang, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Biomedical applications of living cells have rapidly expanded in many fields such as toxic detection, drug screening, and regenerative medicine, etc. Efficient methods to support cell survival and maintain activity in vitro have become increasingly important. However, traditional cryopreservation for living cell-based applications is limited by several problems. Here, we report that magnetic hydrogel microparticles can physically assemble into a 3D environment for efficient cell preservation in physiological conditions, avoiding any chemical reactions that would damage the cells. Two representative cell lines (loosely and firmly adherent) were tested to evaluate the versatility of this method. The results showed that cell longevity was significantly extended to at least 15 days, while the control cell samples without microparticles quickly died within 3 days. Moreover, after preservation, cells can be easily retrieved by applying a magnet to separate the magnetic particles. This strategy can also inhibit cell over-proliferation while avoiding the use of temperature extremes or toxic cryoprotectants that are essential in cryopreservation.

  6. Preservation of General Intelligence following Traumatic Brain Injury: Contributions of the Met66 Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor

    PubMed Central

    Barbey, Aron K.; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick; Forbes, Chad; Krueger, Frank; Goldman, David; Grafman, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes survival and synaptic plasticity in the human brain. The Val66Met polymorphism of the BDNF gene interferes with intracellular trafficking, packaging, and regulated secretion of this neurotrophin. The human prefrontal cortex (PFC) shows lifelong neuroplastic adaption implicating the Val66Met BDNF polymorphism in the recovery of higher-order executive functions after traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study, we examined the effect of this BDNF polymorphism on the preservation of general intelligence following TBI. We genotyped a sample of male Vietnam combat veterans (n = 156) consisting of a frontal lobe lesion group with focal penetrating head injuries for the Val66Met BDNF polymorphism. Val/Met did not differ from Val/Val genotypes in general cognitive ability before TBI. However, we found substantial average differences between these groups in general intelligence (≈ half a standard deviation or 8 IQ points), verbal comprehension (6 IQ points), perceptual organization (6 IQ points), working memory (8 IQ points), and processing speed (8 IQ points) after TBI. These results support the conclusion that Val/Met genotypes preserve general cognitive functioning, whereas Val/Val genotypes are largely susceptible to TBI. PMID:24586380

  7. An enkephalin degrading aminopeptidase of human brain preserved during the vertebrate phylogeny.

    PubMed

    de Souza, A N; Bruno, J A; Carvalho, K M

    1991-01-01

    1. A soluble human brain aminopeptidase which hydrolyses the Tyr-Gly bond of Met-enkephalin and Leu-enkephalin was identified in the brains of the following vertebrates: mammals (Callithrix jacchus and Rattus norvegicus), bird (Gallus domesticus), reptile (Tupinambis teguixin), amphibia (Bufo paracnemis), fish (Sarotherdon niloticus) and elasmobranchy (Galeocerdo cuvieri). 2. The properties of this enzyme are: molecular weight near 100,000 Da, isoelectric point near 4.9, optimum pH near 7.5, activation by dithiothreitol, strong inhibition by Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, puromycin and bacitracin, hydrolysis of enkephalins and basic and neutral aminoacid-beta-naphythylamide substrates. 3. The results indicate the preservation of this human brain aminopeptidase during the course of vertebrate phylogeny.

  8. Making progress: preserving beta cells in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Mary Pat; Goland, Robin S; Greenbaum, Carla J

    2011-12-01

    The clinical care of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) has greatly improved over the past few decades; however, it remains impossible to completely normalize blood sugar utilizing currently available tools. Research is underway with a goal to improve the care and, ultimately, to cure T1D by preserving beta cells. This review will outline the progress that has been made in trials aimed at preserving insulin secretion in T1D by modifying the immune assault on the pancreatic beta cell. Although not yet ready for clinical use, successful trials have been conducted in new-onset T1D that demonstrated utility of three experimental agents with disparate modes of action (anti-T cell, anti-B cell, and costimulation blockade) to preserve insulin secretion. In contrast, prevention studies have so far failed to produce positive results but have shown that such studies are feasible and have identified new promising agents for study. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Effects of benzalkonium chloride-preserved, polyquad-preserved, and sofZia-preserved topical glaucoma medications on human ocular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ammar, David A; Noecker, Robert J; Kahook, Malik Y

    2010-11-01

    INTRODUCTION|: To investigate potentially adverse effects of different topical glaucoma medications and preservatives on cultured ocular epithelial cells. METHODS|: Confluent cultures of human corneal (10.014 pRSV-T) and conjunctival cells (1-5c-4) were assayed with 100 μL of different glaucoma medications for 25 minutes at 37°C and 5% CO₂. We also tested the preservative sofZia® (Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, TX, USA), as well as a range of concentrations of the preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAK; 0.001% to 0.050%). Balanced salt solution was used as the "live" control and a solution containing 70% methanol and 0.2% saponin was used as a "dead" control. The LIVE/DEAD viability/cytotoxicity kit (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) was used to determine the percentage of dead and live cells via ethidium homodimer and calcein fluorescence, respectively. RESULTS|: The toxicity of the prostaglandin analogs latanoprost, tafluprost and travoprost preserved with BAK was similar to the toxicity observed in their respective BAK concentrations. The prostaglandin analog travoprost (0.004%) preserved with the oxidizing preservative sofZia had much greater corneal and conjunctival cell survival than travoprost preserved with BAK. Travoprost (0.004%) containing polyquad also performed statistically better than its BAK-preserved formulation. CONCLUSION|: Ocular surface side effects have previously been demonstrated with chronic, long-term exposure to intraocular pressure-lowering medications containing the common preservative BAK. BAK alone has significant in-vitro cytotoxicity to cultured ocular epithelial cells. Substitution of BAK with polyquad or sofZia resulted in significantly higher percentages of live conjunctival and corneal cells. Further studies are needed to understand the- clinical implications of these findings.

  10. Primary Posterior Fossa Lesions and Preserved Supratentorial Cerebral Blood Flow: Implications for Brain Death Determination.

    PubMed

    Varelas, Panayiotis N; Brady, Paul; Rehman, Mohammed; Afshinnik, Arash; Mehta, Chandan; Abdelhak, Tamer; Wijdicks, Eelco F

    2017-08-21

    Patients with primary posterior fossa catastrophic lesions may clinically meet brain death criteria, but may retain supratentorial brain function or blood flow. These patients could be declared brain-dead in the United Kingdom (UK), but not in the United States of America (USA). We report the outcome of adult patients with primary posterior fossa lesions without concurrent major supratentorial injury. Henry Ford Hospital database was reviewed over a period of 88 months in order to identify all adult patients with isolated brainstem or posterior fossa lesions. We excluded patients with concurrent significant supratentorial pathology potentially confounding the clinical brain death examination. One more patient from a different hospital meeting these criteria was also included. Three patients out of 161 met inclusion criteria (1.9% of all brain deaths during this period). With the addition of a fourth patient from another hospital, 4 patients were analyzed. All four patients had catastrophic brainstem and cerebellar injuries meeting the clinical criteria of brain death with positive apnea test in the UK. All had preserved supratentorial blood flow, which after a period of 2 h to 6 days disappeared on repeat testing, allowing declaration of brain death by US criteria in all four. One patient became an organ donor. Patients with primary posterior fossa catastrophic lesions, who clinically seem to be brain-dead, evolve from retaining to losing supratentorial blood flow. If absent cerebral blood flow is used as an additional criterion for the declaration of death by neurological criteria, these patients are not different than those who become brain death due to supratentorial lesions.

  11. PCR amplification of microsatellites from single cells of Karenia brevis preserved in Lugol's iodine solution.

    PubMed

    Henrichs, D W; Renshaw, M A; Santamaria, C A; Richardson, B; Gold, J R; Campbell, L

    2008-01-01

    A simple and effective protocol is described for multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of single cells of Karenia brevis. The protocol requires minimum processing, avoids additions that might dilute target DNA template, and can be used on cells preserved in Lugol's iodine preservative. Destaining of Lugol's-preserved cells with sodium thiosulfate allowed successful amplification of single-copy, nuclear-encoded microsatellites in single cells of K. brevis that have been preserved for up to 6 years.

  12. Ebselen Preserves Tissue-Engineered Cell Sheets and their Stem Cells in Hypothermic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Katori, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Ryuhei; Kobayashi, Yuki; Kobayashi, Eiji; Nishida, Kohji

    2016-01-01

    Clinical trials have been performed using autologous tissue-engineered epithelial cell sheets for corneal regenerative medicine. To improve stem cell-based therapy for convenient clinical practice, new techniques are required for preserving reconstructed tissues and their stem/progenitor cells until they are ready for use. In the present study, we screened potential preservative agents and developed a novel medium for preserving the cell sheets and their stem/progenitor cells; the effects were evaluated with a luciferase-based viability assay. Nrf2 activators, specifically ebselen, could maintain high ATP levels during preservation. Ebselen also showed a strong influence on maintenance of the viability, morphology, and stem cell function of the cell sheets preserved under hypothermia by protecting them from reactive oxygen species-induced damage. Furthermore, ebselen drastically improved the preservation performance of human cornea tissues and their stem cells. Therefore, ebselen shows good potential as a useful preservation agent in regenerative medicine as well as in cornea transplantation. PMID:27966584

  13. Selective cerebral perfusion: real-time evidence of brain oxygen and energy metabolism preservation.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Jorge D; Coleman, Ryan D; Griffith, Stephen; McNeil, Jeffrey D; Steigelman, Megan; Young, Haven; Hensler, Bart; Dixon, Patricia; Calhoon, John; Serrano, Faridis; DiGeronimo, Robert

    2009-07-01

    Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) is commonly used for complex cardiac operations in children, often with selective cerebral perfusion (SCP). Little data exist concerning the real-time effects of DHCA with or without SCP on cerebral metabolism. Our objective was to better define these effects, focusing on brain oxygenation and energy metabolism. Piglets undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass were assigned to either 60 minutes of DHCA at 18 degrees C (n = 9) or DHCA with SCP at 18 degrees C (n = 8), using pH-stat management. SCP was administered at 10 mL/kg/min. A cerebral microdialysis catheter was implanted into the cortex for monitoring of cellular ischemia and energy stores. Cerebral oxygen tension and intracranial pressure also were monitored. After DHCA with or without SCP, animals were recovered for 4 hours off cardiopulmonary bypass. With SCP, brain oxygen tension was preserved in contrast to DHCA alone (p < 0.01). Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest was associated with marked elevations of lactate (p < 0.01), glycerol (p < 0.01), and the lactate to pyruvate ratio (p < 0.001), as well as profound depletion of the energy substrates glucose (p < 0.001) and pyruvate (p < 0.001). These changes persisted well into recovery. With SCP, no significant cerebral microdialysis changes were observed. A strong correlation was demonstrated between cerebral oxygen levels and cerebral microdialysis markers (p < 0.001). Selective cerebral perfusion preserves cerebral oxygenation and attenuates derangements in cerebral metabolism associated with DHCA. Cerebral microdialysis provides real-time metabolic feedback that correlates with changes in brain tissue oxygenation. This model enables further study and refinement of strategies aiming to limit brain injury in children requiring complex cardiac operations.

  14. Apicobasal polarity of brain endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Worzfeld, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Normal brain homeostasis depends on the integrity of the blood–brain barrier that controls the access of nutrients, humoral factors, and immune cells to the CNS. The blood–brain barrier is composed mainly of brain endothelial cells. Forming the interface between two compartments, they are highly polarized. Apical/luminal and basolateral/abluminal membranes differ in their lipid and (glyco-)protein composition, allowing brain endothelial cells to secrete or transport soluble factors in a polarized manner and to maintain blood flow. Here, we summarize the basic concepts of apicobasal cell polarity in brain endothelial cells. To address potential molecular mechanisms underlying apicobasal polarity in brain endothelial cells, we draw on investigations in epithelial cells and discuss how polarity may go awry in neurological diseases. PMID:26661193

  15. Brain May Prime Metastatic Cell Growth.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Metastasizing tumor cells lose expression of the tumor suppressor PTEN at a much higher rate when they enter the brain compared to other organs, suggesting that the brain's unique microenvironment may prime metastatic cells for aggressive growth, a recent study reports. The findings may have implications for developing targeted therapies for brain metastases. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Featured Article: Pyruvate preserves antiglycation defenses in porcine brain after cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Scott, Gary F; Nguyen, Anh Q; Cherry, Brandon H; Hollrah, Roger A; Salinas, Isabella; Williams, Arthur G; Ryou, Myoung-Gwi; Mallet, Robert T

    2017-05-01

    Cardiac arrest (CA) and cardiocerebral resuscitation (CCR)-induced ischemia-reperfusion imposes oxidative and carbonyl stress that injures the brain. The ischemic shift to anaerobic glycolysis, combined with oxyradical inactivation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), provokes excessive formation of the powerful glycating agent, methylglyoxal. The glyoxalase (GLO) system, comprising the enzymes glyoxalase 1 (GLO1) and GLO2, utilizes reduced glutathione (GSH) supplied by glutathione reductase (GR) to detoxify methylglyoxal resulting in reduced protein glycation. Pyruvate, a natural antioxidant that augments GSH redox status, could sustain the GLO system in the face of ischemia-reperfusion. This study assessed the impact of CA-CCR on the cerebral GLO system and pyruvate's ability to preserve this neuroprotective system following CA. Domestic swine were subjected to 10 min CA, 4 min closed-chest CCR, defibrillation and 4 h recovery, or to a non-CA sham protocol. Sodium pyruvate or NaCl control was infused (0.1 mmol/kg/min, intravenous) throughout CCR and the first 60 min recovery. Protein glycation, GLO1 content, and activities of GLO1, GR, and GAPDH were analyzed in frontal cortex biopsied at 4 h recovery. CA-CCR produced marked protein glycation which was attenuated by pyruvate treatment. GLO1, GR, and GAPDH activities fell by 86, 55, and 30%, respectively, after CA-CCR with NaCl infusion. Pyruvate prevented inactivation of all three enzymes. CA-CCR sharply lowered GLO1 monomer content with commensurate formation of higher molecular weight immunoreactivity; pyruvate preserved GLO1 monomers. Thus, ischemia-reperfusion imposed by CA-CCR disabled the brain's antiglycation defenses. Pyruvate preserved these enzyme systems that protect the brain from glycation stress. Impact statement Recent studies have demonstrated a pivotal role of protein glycation in brain injury. Methylglyoxal, a by-product of glycolysis and a powerful glycating agent in

  17. In Vitro Effects of Preservative-free and Preserved Prostaglandin Analogs on Primary Cultured Human Conjunctival Fibroblast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Joo; Kim, Yeoun-Hee; Kang, Sun-Hee; Lee, Kyoo Won

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Long-term use of topical medication is needed for glaucoma treatment. One of the most commonly prescribed classes of hypotensive agents are prostaglandin analogs (PGs) used as both first-line monotherapy; as well as in combination therapy with other hypotensive agents. Several side effects of eye drops can be caused by preservatives. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of PGs with varying concentrations of benzalkonium chloride (BAC), alternative preservatives, or no preservatives on human conjunctival fibroblast cells. Methods Primary human conjunctival fibroblast cells were used in these experiments. Cells were exposed to the following drugs: BAC at different concentrations, bimatoprost 0.01% (with BAC 0.02%), latanoprost 0.005% (with BAC 0.02%), tafluprost 0.0015% with/without 0.001% BAC and travoprost 0.004% (with 0.001% Polyquad) for 15 and 30 minutes. Cell cytotoxicity was evaluated by phase-contrast microscopy to monitor morphological changes of cells, Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay to cell viability, and fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis to measure apoptosis. Results BAC caused cell shrinkage and detachment from the plate in a dose-dependent manner. Morphological changes were observed in cells treated with bimatoprost 0.01% and latanoprost 0.005%. However, mild cell shrinkage was noted in cells treated with tafluprost 0.0015%, while a non-toxic effect was noted with travoprost 0.004% and preservative-free tafluprost 0.0015%. CCK-8 assay and FACS analysis showed all groups had a significantly decreased cell viability and higher apoptosis rate compared with the control group. However, travoprost 0.004% and preservative-free tafluprost 0.0015% showed lower cytotoxicity and apoptosis rate than other drugs. Conclusions This in vitro study revealed that BAC-induced cytotoxicity is dose-dependent, although it is important to emphasize that the clinical significance of toxicity differences observed among the different PGs

  18. Preservation of structural brain network hubs is associated with less severe post-stroke aphasia.

    PubMed

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Kocher, Madison; Nesland, Travis; Rorden, Chris; Fridriksson, Julius; Bonilha, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Post-stroke aphasia is typically associated with ischemic damage to cortical areas or with loss of connectivity among spared brain regions. It remains unclear whether the participation of spared brain regions as networks hubs affects the severity of aphasia. We evaluated language performance and magnetic resonance imaging from 44 participants with chronic aphasia post-stroke. The individual structural brain connectomes were constructed from diffusion tensor. Hub regions were defined in accordance with the rich club classification and studied in relation with language performance. Number of remaining left hemisphere rich club nodes was associated with aphasia, including comprehension, repetition and naming sub-scores. Importantly, among participants with relative preservation of regions of interest for language, aphasia severity was lessened if the region was not only spared, but also participated in the remaining network as a rich club node: Brodmann area (BA) 44/45 - repetition (p = 0.009), BA 39 - repetition (p = 0.045) and naming (p <  0.01), BA 37 - fluency (p <  0.001), comprehension (p = 0.025), repetition (p <  0.001) and naming (p <  0.001). Disruption of language network structural hubs is directly associated with aphasia severity after stroke.

  19. Specimen Sample Preservation for Cell and Tissue Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeker, Gabrielle; Ronzana, Karolyn; Schibner, Karen; Evans, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The era of the International Space Station with its longer duration missions will pose unique challenges to microgravity life sciences research. The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) is responsible for addressing these challenges and defining the science requirements necessary to conduct life science research on-board the International Space Station. Space Station will support a wide range of cell and tissue culture experiments for durations of 1 to 30 days. Space Shuttle flights to bring experimental samples back to Earth for analyses will only occur every 90 days. Therefore, samples may have to be retained for periods up to 60 days. This presents a new challenge in fresh specimen sample storage for cell biology. Fresh specimen samples are defined as samples that are preserved by means other than fixation and cryopreservation. The challenge of long-term storage of fresh specimen samples includes the need to suspend or inhibit proliferation and metabolism pending return to Earth-based laboratories. With this challenge being unique to space research, there have not been any ground based studies performed to address this issue. It was decided hy SSBRP that experiment support studies to address the following issues were needed: Fixative Solution Management; Media Storage Conditions; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Mammalian Cell/Tissue Cultures; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Plant Cell/Tissue Cultures; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Aquatic Cell/Tissue Cultures; and Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Microbial Cell/Tissue Cultures. The objective of these studies was to derive a set of conditions and recommendations that can be used in a long duration microgravity environment such as Space Station that will permit extended storage of cell and tissue culture specimens in a state consistent with zero or minimal growth, while at the same time maintaining their stability and viability.

  20. [Stem cells of mammalian brain: biology of the stem cells in vivo and in vitro].

    PubMed

    Viktorov, I V

    2001-01-01

    Stem cells are totipotent cells of the blastocyst (embryonal stem cells) and multipotent germinative cells of ento-, ecto-, and mesoderm that give rise to all tissues during embryogenesis. The stem cells have high proliferation activity and an unlimited capacity for self-production by symmetrical mitosis. Asymmetrical mitosis of the stem cells generates daughter cells ("progenitor cells") with unlimited proliferation potential. During differentiation, the progenitor cells give rise to definitive somatic cells. The stem and progenitor cells are preserved in most tissues of adult organism and provide for the constant replacement of the cells after their physiological death and damage. At the end of last century, stem cells were found in the brain of the adult mouse and rat and later in the brain of other mammals including humans. The subependymal zone of the lateral ventricles is considered the site of stem cells localization; however, there are indications of stem cells origination from ependyma while the subependymal zone serves as a collector of the progenitor cells where these cells divide. The problem of the localization of stem cells in a mature brain has not yet been resolved and is actively discussed. The stem and progenitor cells, as well as neuro- and gliogenesis, are most explored in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. The progenitor cells migrate to the olfactory bulb from the subependymal zone of the lateral ventricles via a rostral migratory stream formed by the astrocytes, and then they differentiate to neural and glial cells. In the hippocampus, the neurons are formed in the subgranular zone of dentate gyrus. The discovery of stem and progenitor cells in the mature brain and their subsequent investigation point to an ongoing neuro- and gliogenesis in all periventricular sections of the brain and spinal cord during the whole animal or human lifespan. These processes proved to be related to the functional condition of CNS, and the de novo formed neural

  1. Structural and functional brain rewiring clarifies preserved interhemispheric transfer in humans born without the corpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Monteiro, Myriam; Andrade, Juliana; Bramati, Ivanei E.; Vianna-Barbosa, Rodrigo; Marins, Theo; Rodrigues, Erika; Dantas, Natalia; Behrens, Timothy E. J.; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Moll, Jorge; Lent, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Why do humans born without the corpus callosum, the major interhemispheric commissure, lack the disconnection syndrome classically described in callosotomized patients? This paradox was discovered by Nobel laureate Roger Sperry in 1968, and has remained unsolved since then. To tackle the hypothesis that alternative neural pathways could explain this puzzle, we investigated patients with callosal dysgenesis using structural and functional neuroimaging, as well as neuropsychological assessments. We identified two anomalous white-matter tracts by deterministic and probabilistic tractography, and provide supporting resting-state functional neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence for their functional role in preserved interhemispheric transfer of complex tactile information, such as object recognition. These compensatory pathways connect the homotopic posterior parietal cortical areas (Brodmann areas 39 and surroundings) via the posterior and anterior commissures. We propose that anomalous brain circuitry of callosal dysgenesis is determined by long-distance plasticity, a set of hardware changes occurring in the developing brain after pathological interference. So far unknown, these pathological changes somehow divert growing axons away from the dorsal midline, creating alternative tracts through the ventral forebrain and the dorsal midbrain midline, with partial compensatory effects to the interhemispheric transfer of cortical function. PMID:24821757

  2. Structural and functional brain rewiring clarifies preserved interhemispheric transfer in humans born without the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Monteiro, Myriam; Andrade, Juliana; Bramati, Ivanei E; Vianna-Barbosa, Rodrigo; Marins, Theo; Rodrigues, Erika; Dantas, Natalia; Behrens, Timothy E J; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Moll, Jorge; Lent, Roberto

    2014-05-27

    Why do humans born without the corpus callosum, the major interhemispheric commissure, lack the disconnection syndrome classically described in callosotomized patients? This paradox was discovered by Nobel laureate Roger Sperry in 1968, and has remained unsolved since then. To tackle the hypothesis that alternative neural pathways could explain this puzzle, we investigated patients with callosal dysgenesis using structural and functional neuroimaging, as well as neuropsychological assessments. We identified two anomalous white-matter tracts by deterministic and probabilistic tractography, and provide supporting resting-state functional neuroimaging and neuropsychological evidence for their functional role in preserved interhemispheric transfer of complex tactile information, such as object recognition. These compensatory pathways connect the homotopic posterior parietal cortical areas (Brodmann areas 39 and surroundings) via the posterior and anterior commissures. We propose that anomalous brain circuitry of callosal dysgenesis is determined by long-distance plasticity, a set of hardware changes occurring in the developing brain after pathological interference. So far unknown, these pathological changes somehow divert growing axons away from the dorsal midline, creating alternative tracts through the ventral forebrain and the dorsal midbrain midline, with partial compensatory effects to the interhemispheric transfer of cortical function.

  3. Neural stem cell transplantation in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jean-Pyo; McKercher, Scott; Muller, Franz-Josef; Snyder, Evan Y

    2008-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are the most primordial, least committed cells of the nervous system, and transplantation of these multipotent cells holds the promise of regenerative therapy for many central nervous system (CNS) diseases. This unit describes methods for NSC transplantation into neonatal mouse pups, embryonic mouse brain, and adult mouse brain. A description of options for detection of labeled donor cells in engrafted mouse brain is provided along with an example protocol for detecting lacZ-expressing cells in situ. Also included is a protocol for preparing NSCs for transplantation.

  4. 2-Methoxystypandrone ameliorates brain function through preserving BBB integrity and promoting neurogenesis in mice with acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Chern, Chang-Ming; Wang, Yea-Hwey; Liou, Kuo-Tong; Hou, Yu-Chang; Chen, Chien-Chih; Shen, Yuh-Chiang

    2014-02-01

    2-Methoxystypandrone (2-MS), a naphthoquinone, has been shown to display an immunomodulatory effect in a cellular model. To explore whether 2-MS could protect mice against cerebral ischemic/reperfusion (I/R)-induced brain injury, we evaluated 2-MS's protective effects on an acute ischemic stroke by inducing a middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO) injury in murine model. Treatment of mice that have undergone I/R injury with 2-MS (10-100 μg/kg, i.v.) at 2 h after MCAO enhanced survival rate and ameliorated neurological deficits, brain infarction, neural dysfunction and massive oxidative stress, due to an enormous production of free radicals and breakdown of blood-brain barrier (BBB) by I/R injury; this primarily occurred with extensive infiltration of CD11b-positive inflammatory cells and upexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 and p65 nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). All of these pathological changes were diminished by 2-MS; 2-MS also intensively limited cortical infarction and promoted upexpression of neurodevelopmental genes near peri-infarct cortex and endogenous neurogenesis near subgranular zone of hippocampal dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone, most possibly by inactivation of GSK3β which in turn upregulating β-catenin, Bcl-2 adam11 and adamts20. We conclude that 2-MS blocks inflammatory responses by impairing NF-κB signaling to limit the inflammation and oxidative stress for preservation of BBB integrity; 2-MS also concomitantly promotes neurodevelopmental protein expression and endogenous neurogenesis through inactivation of GSK3β to enhance β-catenin signaling for upexpression of neuroprotective genes and proteins.

  5. Early Shifts of Brain Metabolism by Caloric Restriction Preserve White Matter Integrity and Long-Term Memory in Aging Mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Janet; Bakshi, Vikas; Lin, Ai-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of brain integrity with age is highly associated with lifespan determination. Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase longevity and healthspan in various species; however, its effects on preserving living brain functions in aging remain largely unexplored. In the study, we used multimodal, non-invasive neuroimaging (PET/MRI/MRS) to determine in vivo brain glucose metabolism, energy metabolites, and white matter structural integrity in young and old mice fed with either control or 40% CR diet. In addition, we determined the animals' memory and learning ability with behavioral assessments. Blood glucose, blood ketone bodies, and body weight were also measured. We found distinct patterns between normal aging and CR aging on brain functions - normal aging showed reductions in brain glucose metabolism, white matter integrity, and long-term memory, resembling human brain aging. CR aging, in contrast, displayed an early shift from glucose to ketone bodies metabolism, which was associated with preservations of brain energy production, white matter integrity, and long-term memory in aging mice. Among all the mice, we found a positive correlation between blood glucose level and body weight, but an inverse association between blood glucose level and lifespan. Our findings suggest that CR could slow down brain aging, in part due to the early shift of energy metabolism caused by lower caloric intake, and we were able to identify the age-dependent effects of CR non-invasively using neuroimaging. These results provide a rationale for CR-induced sustenance of brain health with extended longevity.

  6. Early Shifts of Brain Metabolism by Caloric Restriction Preserve White Matter Integrity and Long-Term Memory in Aging Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Janet; Bakshi, Vikas; Lin, Ai-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of brain integrity with age is highly associated with lifespan determination. Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase longevity and healthspan in various species; however, its effects on preserving living brain functions in aging remain largely unexplored. In the study, we used multimodal, non-invasive neuroimaging (PET/MRI/MRS) to determine in vivo brain glucose metabolism, energy metabolites, and white matter structural integrity in young and old mice fed with either control or 40% CR diet. In addition, we determined the animals’ memory and learning ability with behavioral assessments. Blood glucose, blood ketone bodies, and body weight were also measured. We found distinct patterns between normal aging and CR aging on brain functions – normal aging showed reductions in brain glucose metabolism, white matter integrity, and long-term memory, resembling human brain aging. CR aging, in contrast, displayed an early shift from glucose to ketone bodies metabolism, which was associated with preservations of brain energy production, white matter integrity, and long-term memory in aging mice. Among all the mice, we found a positive correlation between blood glucose level and body weight, but an inverse association between blood glucose level and lifespan. Our findings suggest that CR could slow down brain aging, in part due to the early shift of energy metabolism caused by lower caloric intake, and we were able to identify the age-dependent effects of CR non-invasively using neuroimaging. These results provide a rationale for CR-induced sustenance of brain health with extended longevity. PMID:26617514

  7. Low temperature cell pausing: an alternative short-term preservation method for use in cell therapies including stem cell applications.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Nathalie J; Picken, Andrew; Coopman, Karen

    2014-02-01

    Encouraging advances in cell therapies have produced a requirement for an effective short-term cell preservation method, enabling time for quality assurance testing and transport to their clinical destination. Low temperature pausing of cells offers many advantages over cryopreservation, including the ability to store cells at scale, reduced cost and a simplified procedure with increased reliability. This review will focus on the importance of developing a short-term cell preservation platform as well highlighting the major successes of cell pausing and the key challenges which need addressing, to enable application of the process to therapeutically relevant cells.

  8. Melatonin Preserves Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity and Permeability via Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Alluri, Himakarnika; Wilson, Rickesha L.; Anasooya Shaji, Chinchusha; Wiggins-Dohlvik, Katie; Patel, Savan; Liu, Yang; Peng, Xu; Beeram, Madhava R.; Davis, Matthew L.; Huang, Jason H.; Tharakan, Binu

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular hyperpermeability that occurs at the level of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) often leads to vasogenic brain edema and elevated intracranial pressure following traumatic brain injury (TBI). At a cellular level, tight junction proteins (TJPs) between neighboring endothelial cells maintain the integrity of the BBB via TJ associated proteins particularly, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) that binds to the transmembrane TJPs and actin cytoskeleton intracellularly. The pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) as well as the proteolytic enzymes, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are key mediators of trauma-associated brain edema. Recent studies indicate that melatonin a pineal hormone directly binds to MMP-9 and also might act as its endogenous inhibitor. We hypothesized that melatonin treatment will provide protection against TBI-induced BBB hyperpermeability via MMP-9 inhibition. Rat brain microvascular endothelial cells grown as monolayers were used as an in vitro model of the BBB and a mouse model of TBI using a controlled cortical impactor was used for all in vivo studies. IL-1β (10 ng/mL; 2 hours)-induced endothelial monolayer hyperpermeability was significantly attenuated by melatonin (10 μg/mL; 1 hour), GM6001 (broad spectrum MMP inhibitor; 10 μM; 1 hour), MMP-9 inhibitor-1 (MMP-9 specific inhibitor; 5 nM; 1 hour) or MMP-9 siRNA transfection (48 hours) in vitro. Melatonin and MMP-9 inhibitor-1 pretreatment attenuated IL-1β-induced MMP-9 activity, loss of ZO-1 junctional integrity and f-actin stress fiber formation. IL-1β treatment neither affected ZO-1 protein or mRNA expression or cell viability. Acute melatonin treatment attenuated BBB hyperpermeability in a mouse controlled cortical impact model of TBI in vivo. In conclusion, one of the protective effects of melatonin against BBB hyperpermeability occurs due to enhanced BBB integrity via MMP-9 inhibition. In addition, acute melatonin treatment provides protection against BBB

  9. Neuron-specific caveolin-1 overexpression improves motor function and preserves memory in mice subjected to brain trauma.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Junji; Schilling, Jan M; Cui, Weihua; Posadas, Edmund; Sawada, Atsushi; Alas, Basheer; Zemljic-Harpf, Alice E; Fannon-Pavlich, McKenzie J; Mandyam, Chitra D; Roth, David M; Patel, Hemal H; Patel, Piyush M; Head, Brian P

    2017-08-01

    Studies in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that membrane/lipid rafts and caveolin (Cav) organize progrowth receptors, and, when overexpressed specifically in neurons, Cav-1 augments neuronal signaling and growth and improves cognitive function in adult and aged mice; however, whether neuronal Cav-1 overexpression can preserve motor and cognitive function in the brain trauma setting is unknown. Here, we generated a neuron-targeted Cav-1-overexpressing transgenic (Tg) mouse [synapsin-driven Cav-1 (SynCav1 Tg)] and subjected it to a controlled cortical impact model of brain trauma and measured biochemical, anatomic, and behavioral changes. SynCav1 Tg mice exhibited increased hippocampal expression of Cav-1 and membrane/lipid raft localization of postsynaptic density protein 95, NMDA receptor, and tropomyosin receptor kinase B. When subjected to a controlled cortical impact, SynCav1 Tg mice demonstrated preserved hippocampus-dependent fear learning and memory, improved motor function recovery, and decreased brain lesion volume compared with wild-type controls. Neuron-targeted overexpression of Cav-1 in the adult brain prevents hippocampus-dependent learning and memory deficits, restores motor function after brain trauma, and decreases brain lesion size induced by trauma. Our findings demonstrate that neuron-targeted Cav-1 can be used as a novel therapeutic strategy to restore brain function and prevent trauma-associated maladaptive plasticity.-Egawa, J., Schilling, J. M., Cui, W., Posadas, E., Sawada, A., Alas, B., Zemljic-Harpf, A. E., Fannon-Pavlich, M. J., Mandyam, C. D., Roth, D. M., Patel, H. H., Patel, P. M., Head, B. P. Neuron-specific caveolin-1 overexpression improves motor function and preserves memory in mice subjected to brain trauma. © FASEB.

  10. Chronic exercise preserves brain function in masters athletes when compared to sedentary counterparts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Emily; Tranovich, Michael J; DeAngelo, Ron; Kontos, Anthony P; Wright, Vonda J

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is beneficial for both the body and the mind, and it has been associated with protective neurocognitive effects, such as increased levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurogenesis. These effects are linked to the attenuation of age-related mental decline and the preservation of mental capacities in older, physically active adults. This study evaluated whether masters athletes, a highly active population, have better cognitive function compared to age-matched non-athletes based on the Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) tool. Masters athletes and sedentary controls were recruited and screened for eligibility. All subjects were excluded if they had preexisting neurological diseases, psychiatric disorders, substance abuse disorders, learning disorders, and/or a history of traumatic brain injury, and in addition, control subjects were excluded if they performed >1 h/week of aerobic exercise. All participants completed a health and activity survey which includes the SF-12 and the ImPACT neurocognitive test which measures verbal and visual memory as well as reaction time. Differences between masters athletes and the control population were determined by ImPACT score composites. 51 pairs of athletes and non-athletes were analyzed. Athletes had significantly higher verbal memory scores (85.9 ± 7.7 vs 79.9 ± 13.9, p = 0.01) and faster reaction times (0.71 ± 0.12 vs 0.76 ± 0.15 s, p = 0.04) on the ImPACT test. Athletes also scored significantly higher on the physical components summary score of the SF-12 (55.0 ± 3.3 vs 51.8 ± 6.7, p = 0.004). Masters athletes performed better on verbal memory and reaction time test, as well as on physical function as evaluated by the SF-12, compared to non-athlete controls. Chronic physical activity may preserve neurocognitive processes and increase physical health, which are protective factors for the negative effects of the aging process.

  11. Identification of human brain tumour initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sheila K; Hawkins, Cynthia; Clarke, Ian D; Squire, Jeremy A; Bayani, Jane; Hide, Takuichiro; Henkelman, R Mark; Cusimano, Michael D; Dirks, Peter B

    2004-11-18

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis suggests that neoplastic clones are maintained exclusively by a rare fraction of cells with stem cell properties. Although the existence of CSCs in human leukaemia is established, little evidence exists for CSCs in solid tumours, except for breast cancer. Recently, we prospectively isolated a CD133+ cell subpopulation from human brain tumours that exhibited stem cell properties in vitro. However, the true measures of CSCs are their capacity for self renewal and exact recapitulation of the original tumour. Here we report the development of a xenograft assay that identified human brain tumour initiating cells that initiate tumours in vivo. Only the CD133+ brain tumour fraction contains cells that are capable of tumour initiation in NOD-SCID (non-obese diabetic, severe combined immunodeficient) mouse brains. Injection of as few as 100 CD133+ cells produced a tumour that could be serially transplanted and was a phenocopy of the patient's original tumour, whereas injection of 10(5) CD133- cells engrafted but did not cause a tumour. Thus, the identification of brain tumour initiating cells provides insights into human brain tumour pathogenesis, giving strong support for the CSC hypothesis as the basis for many solid tumours, and establishes a previously unidentified cellular target for more effective cancer therapies.

  12. The PPARalpha Agonist Fenofibrate Preserves Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Inhibits Microglial Activation After Whole-Brain Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanan, Sriram; Kooshki, Mitra; Zhao Weiling; Hsu, F.-C.; Riddle, David R.; Robbins, Mike E.

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: Whole-brain irradiation (WBI) leads to cognitive impairment months to years after radiation. Numerous studies suggest that decreased hippocampal neurogenesis and microglial activation are involved in the pathogenesis of WBI-induced brain injury. The goal of this study was to investigate whether administration of the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha agonist fenofibrate would prevent the detrimental effect of WBI on hippocampal neurogenesis. Methods and Materials: For this study, 129S1/SvImJ wild-type and PPARalpha knockout mice that were fed either regular or 0.2% wt/wt fenofibrate-containing chow received either sham irradiation or WBI (10-Gy single dose of {sup 137}Cs gamma-rays). Mice were injected intraperitoneally with bromodeoxyuridine to label the surviving cells at 1 month after WBI, and the newborn neurons were counted at 2 months after WBI by use of bromodeoxyuridine/neuronal nuclei double immunofluorescence. Proliferation in the subgranular zone and microglial activation were measured at 1 week and 2 months after WBI by use of Ki-67 and CD68 immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results: Whole-brain irradiation led to a significant decrease in the number of newborn hippocampal neurons 2 months after it was performed. Fenofibrate prevented this decrease by promoting the survival of newborn cells in the dentate gyrus. In addition, fenofibrate treatment was associated with decreased microglial activation in the dentate gyrus after WBI. The neuroprotective effects of fenofibrate were abolished in the knockout mice, indicating a PPARalpha-dependent mechanism or mechanisms. Conclusions: These data highlight a novel role for PPARalpha ligands in improving neurogenesis after WBI and offer the promise of improving the quality of life for brain cancer patients receiving radiotherapy.

  13. Stem cell therapies for perinatal brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Vawda, Reaz; Woodbury, Jennifer; Covey, Matthew; Levison, Steven W; Mehmet, Huseyin

    2007-08-01

    This chapter reviews four groups of paediatric brain injury. The pathophysiology of these injuries is discussed to establish which cells are damaged and therefore which cells represent targets for cell replacement. Next, we review potential sources of cellular replacements, including embryonic stem cells, fetal and neonatal neural stem cells and a variety of mesenchymal stem cells. The advantages and disadvantages of each source are discussed. We review published studies to illustrate where stem cell therapies have been evaluated for therapeutic gain and discuss the hurdles that will need to be overcome to achieve therapeutic benefit. Overall, we conclude that children with paediatric brain injuries or inherited genetic disorders that affect the brain are worthy candidates for stem cell therapeutics.

  14. Key issues relating to the genetic stability and preservation of cells and cell banks.

    PubMed

    Simione, F P

    1992-01-01

    The long term maintenance of genetically stable cells is important for ensuring reproducible results and continuity in the advance of microbiology, cell biology and biotechnology. As actively growing cultures, cells are constantly at risk of changing, and the necessity for subculturing living materials increases the chances for genetic change and contamination. Many techniques are available for stabilizing living cells; the method employed must be compatible with the intended use of the culture. The most commonly utilized means of preserving living cells are by freezing to cryogenic temperatures, and freeze-drying. Master stocks are usually maintained at liquid nitrogen or comparable temperatures, while working stocks can be frozen or freeze-dried, and maintained at more economical and easily managed temperatures where possible. However, low temperature techniques may cause damage that can result in genetic change, or potential selection when only a small portion of the population survives. Therefore, a good preservation program must include a comprehensive cell characterization regimen that is applied both before and after preserving the cells to ensure that changes are detected when they do occur. Assurance of long term stability necessitates well designed safekeeping and security measures that include minimizing specimen handling through well designed inventory systems, validation and monitoring of storage temperatures, provisions for backup inventory, and training of personnel. Cell banking also requires good cataloguing and data management practices to avoid duplication and misidentification, and to ensure proper tracking of specimens and ease of access.

  15. New Nerve Cells for the Adult Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempermann, Gerd; Gage, Fred H.

    1999-01-01

    Contrary to dogma, the human brain does produce new nerve cells in adulthood. The mature human brain spawns neurons routinely in the hippocampus, an area important to memory and learning. This research can make it possible to ease any number of disorders involving neurological damage and death. (CCM)

  16. Analysis of the brain mural cell transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    He, Liqun; Vanlandewijck, Michael; Raschperger, Elisabeth; Andaloussi Mäe, Maarja; Jung, Bongnam; Lebouvier, Thibaud; Ando, Koji; Hofmann, Jennifer; Keller, Annika; Betsholtz, Christer

    2016-01-01

    Pericytes, the mural cells of blood microvessels, regulate microvascular development and function and have been implicated in many brain diseases. However, due to a paucity of defining markers, pericyte identification and functional characterization remain ambiguous and data interpretation problematic. In mice carrying two transgenic reporters, Pdgfrb-eGFP and NG2-DsRed, we found that double-positive cells were vascular mural cells, while the single reporters marked additional, but non-overlapping, neuroglial cells. Double-positive cells were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and analyzed by RNA sequencing. To reveal defining patterns of mural cell transcripts, we compared the RNA sequencing data with data from four previously published studies. The meta-analysis provided a conservative catalogue of 260 brain mural cell-enriched gene transcripts. We validated pericyte-specific expression of two novel markers, vitronectin (Vtn) and interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (Ifitm1), using fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. We further analyzed signaling pathways and interaction networks of the pericyte-enriched genes in silico. This work provides novel insight into the molecular composition of brain mural cells. The reported gene catalogue facilitates identification of brain pericytes by providing numerous new candidate marker genes and is a rich source for new hypotheses for future studies of brain mural cell physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:27725773

  17. Tibolone Preserves Mitochondrial Functionality and Cell Morphology in Astrocytic Cells Treated with Palmitic Acid.

    PubMed

    González-Giraldo, Yeimy; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Echeverria, Valentina; Barreto, George E

    2017-06-30

    Obesity has been associated with increased chronic neuroinflammation and augmented risk of neurodegeneration. This is worsened during the normal aging process when the levels of endogenous gonadal hormones are reduced. In this study, we have assessed the protective actions of tibolone, a synthetic steroid with estrogenic actions, on T98G human astrocytic cells exposed to palmitic acid, a saturated fatty acid used to mimic obesity in vitro. Tibolone improved cell survival, and preserved mitochondrial membrane potential in palmitic acid-treated astrocytic cells. Although we did not find significant actions of tibolone on free radical production, it modulated astrocytic morphology after treatment with palmitic acid. These data suggest that tibolone protects astrocytic cells by preserving both mitochondrial functionality and morphological complexity.

  18. Effects of formalin fixation, paraffin embedding, and time of storage on DNA preservation in brain tissue: a BrainNet Europe study.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Isidre; Armstrong, Judith; Capellari, Sabina; Parchi, Piero; Arzberger, Thomas; Bell, Jeanne; Budka, Herbert; Ströbel, Thomas; Giaccone, Giorgio; Rossi, Giacomina; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Fakai, Peter; Schmitt, Andrea; Riederers, Peter; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Ravid, Rivka; Kretzschmar, Hans

    2007-07-01

    There is a large amount of tissue stored in brain collections and brain banks, but little is known about whether formalin-fixed tissues and paraffin blocks stored for years in brain banks are suitable for the retrospective genetic studies. The study was carried out in order to: (i) compare DNA preservation in frozen, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues stored for different periods; (ii) study point mutations and triplet expansions in frozen, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded material stored for variable periods, and using different fixative solutions; (iii) compare different methods to optimize DNA extraction and DNA amplification from suboptimally preserved brain tissue. DNA preservation is suitable for genetic studies in samples stored at -80 degrees C for several years. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue was inferior to frozen tissue, but did yield adequate results in many cases depending on the type of fixative solution and time of fixation before embedding. Prolonged fixation in formalin rarely yielded useful DNA. Similar results were obtained in samples from prion diseases. The best results were obtained by using the Qiagen kits (QIAmp DNA Micro) in frozen material, paraffin blocks and formalin-fixed tissue. Genomiphi and TaKaRa Ex Taq methods were also assayed in paraffin blocks and in formalin-fixed samples with limited success.

  19. Preserving GABAergic interneurons in acute brain slices of mice using the N-methyl-D-glucamine-based artificial cerebrospinal fluid method.

    PubMed

    Pan, Geng; Li, Yue; Geng, Hong-Yan; Yang, Jian-Ming; Li, Ke-Xin; Li, Xiao-Ming

    2015-04-01

    Defects in the function and development of GABAergic interneurons have been linked to psychiatric disorders, so preservation of these interneurons in brain slices is important for successful electrophysiological recording in various ex vivo methods. However, it is difficult to maintain the activity and morphology of neurons in slices from mice of >30 days old. Here we evaluated the N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG)-based artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) method for the preservation of interneurons in slices from mice of up to ∼6 months old and discussed the steps that may affect their quality during slicing. We found that the NMDG-aCSF method rescued more cells than sucrose-aCSF and successfully preserved different types of interneurons including parvalbumin- and somatostatin-positive interneurons. In addition, both the chemical and electrical synaptic signaling of interneurons were maintained. These results demonstrate that the NMDG-aCSF method is suitable for the preservation of interneurons, especially in studies of gap junctions.

  20. Histological Architecture Underlying Brain-Immune Cell-Cell Interactions and the Cerebral Response to Systemic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Atsuyoshi; Hasegawa-Ishii, Sanae

    2017-01-01

    Although the brain is now known to actively interact with the immune system under non-inflammatory conditions, the site of cell-cell interactions between brain parenchymal cells and immune cells has been an open question until recently. Studies by our and other groups have indicated that brain structures such as the leptomeninges, choroid plexus stroma and epithelium, attachments of choroid plexus, vascular endothelial cells, cells of the perivascular space, circumventricular organs, and astrocytic endfeet construct the histological architecture that provides a location for intercellular interactions between bone marrow-derived myeloid lineage cells and brain parenchymal cells under non-inflammatory conditions. This architecture also functions as the interface between the brain and the immune system, through which systemic inflammation-induced molecular events can be relayed to the brain parenchyma at early stages of systemic inflammation during which the blood-brain barrier is relatively preserved. Although brain microglia are well known to be activated by systemic inflammation, the mechanism by which systemic inflammatory challenge and microglial activation are connected has not been well documented. Perturbed brain-immune interaction underlies a wide variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders including ischemic brain injury, status epilepticus, repeated social defeat, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Proinflammatory status associated with cytokine imbalance is involved in autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, and depression. In this article, we propose a mechanism connecting systemic inflammation, brain-immune interface cells, and brain parenchymal cells and discuss the relevance of basic studies of the mechanism to neurological disorders with a special emphasis on sepsis-associated encephalopathy and preterm brain injury.

  1. Youthful Brains in Older Adults: Preserved Neuroanatomy in the Default Mode and Salience Networks Contributes to Youthful Memory in Superaging

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Felicia W.; Stepanovic, Michael R.; Andreano, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Decline in cognitive skills, especially in memory, is often viewed as part of “normal” aging. Yet some individuals “age better” than others. Building on prior research showing that cortical thickness in one brain region, the anterior midcingulate cortex, is preserved in older adults with memory performance abilities equal to or better than those of people 20–30 years younger (i.e., “superagers”), we examined the structural integrity of two large-scale intrinsic brain networks in superaging: the default mode network, typically engaged during memory encoding and retrieval tasks, and the salience network, typically engaged during attention, motivation, and executive function tasks. We predicted that superagers would have preserved cortical thickness in critical nodes in these networks. We defined superagers (60–80 years old) based on their performance compared to young adults (18–32 years old) on the California Verbal Learning Test Long Delay Free Recall test. We found regions within the networks of interest where the cerebral cortex of superagers was thicker than that of typical older adults, and where superagers were anatomically indistinguishable from young adults; hippocampal volume was also preserved in superagers. Within the full group of older adults, thickness of a number of regions, including the anterior temporal cortex, rostral medial prefrontal cortex, and anterior midcingulate cortex, correlated with memory performance, as did the volume of the hippocampus. These results indicate older adults with youthful memory abilities have youthful brain regions in key paralimbic and limbic nodes of the default mode and salience networks that support attentional, executive, and mnemonic processes subserving memory function. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Memory performance typically declines with age, as does cortical structural integrity, yet some older adults maintain youthful memory. We tested the hypothesis that superagers (older individuals with

  2. Youthful Brains in Older Adults: Preserved Neuroanatomy in the Default Mode and Salience Networks Contributes to Youthful Memory in Superaging.

    PubMed

    Sun, Felicia W; Stepanovic, Michael R; Andreano, Joseph; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Touroutoglou, Alexandra; Dickerson, Bradford C

    2016-09-14

    Decline in cognitive skills, especially in memory, is often viewed as part of "normal" aging. Yet some individuals "age better" than others. Building on prior research showing that cortical thickness in one brain region, the anterior midcingulate cortex, is preserved in older adults with memory performance abilities equal to or better than those of people 20-30 years younger (i.e., "superagers"), we examined the structural integrity of two large-scale intrinsic brain networks in superaging: the default mode network, typically engaged during memory encoding and retrieval tasks, and the salience network, typically engaged during attention, motivation, and executive function tasks. We predicted that superagers would have preserved cortical thickness in critical nodes in these networks. We defined superagers (60-80 years old) based on their performance compared to young adults (18-32 years old) on the California Verbal Learning Test Long Delay Free Recall test. We found regions within the networks of interest where the cerebral cortex of superagers was thicker than that of typical older adults, and where superagers were anatomically indistinguishable from young adults; hippocampal volume was also preserved in superagers. Within the full group of older adults, thickness of a number of regions, including the anterior temporal cortex, rostral medial prefrontal cortex, and anterior midcingulate cortex, correlated with memory performance, as did the volume of the hippocampus. These results indicate older adults with youthful memory abilities have youthful brain regions in key paralimbic and limbic nodes of the default mode and salience networks that support attentional, executive, and mnemonic processes subserving memory function. Memory performance typically declines with age, as does cortical structural integrity, yet some older adults maintain youthful memory. We tested the hypothesis that superagers (older individuals with youthful memory performance) would exhibit

  3. Antibiotic impregnated catheter coverage of deep brain stimulation leads facilitates lead preservation after hardware infection.

    PubMed

    Dlouhy, Brian J; Reddy, Ambur; Dahdaleh, Nader S; Greenlee, Jeremy D W

    2012-10-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a reliable and effective treatment for many disorders. However, the risk of long-term hardware-related complications is notable, and most concerning is hardware-related infections. Given the risk of hardware removal in the setting of infection, we retrospectively examined the implementation of a novel technique using antibiotic covered catheter protection of DBS leads after infection. The effect on hardware salvage and ease of reimplantation of the DBS extension and implantable pulse generator (IPG) was examined. A total of nine (9%) out of 100 DBS patients met the inclusion criteria with 11 DBS hardware-related infections at either the frontal, parietal, or IPG sites, from June 2003 to November 2010, at our institution. Subsequent to the initial patient in the series, a total of eight patients had placement of a short segment (approx. 4 cm long) of antibiotic impregnated catheter (Bactiseal, Codman, Johnson & Johnson, Raynham, MA, USA) over the distal end of the DBS leads at the parietal incision. Seven of these eight patients presented with pus and deep tissue infections around the hardware at either the frontal, parietal, or chest incisions. In seven of these eight patients (87.5%) we were able to protect and salvage their DBS leads without need for removal. In conclusion, this novel technique provides a simple reimplantation operation, with a decreased risk of DBS lead damage. It may improve the preservation of DBS leads when hardware infection occurs, is inexpensive, and confers no additional risks to patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Should deciduous teeth be preserved in adult patients? How about stem cells? Is it reasonable to preserve them?

    PubMed

    Consolaro, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    When seeking orthodontic treatment, many adolescents and adult patients present with deciduous teeth. Naturally, deciduous teeth will inevitably undergo exfoliation at the expected time or at a later time. Apoptosis is the biological trigger of root resorption. In adult patients, deciduous teeth should not be preserved, as they promote: infraocclusion, traumatic occlusion, occlusal trauma, diastemata and size as well as morphology discrepancy malocclusion. Orthodontic movement speeds root resorption up, and so do restoring or recontouring deciduous teeth in order to establish esthetics and function. Deciduous teeth cells are dying as a result of apoptosis, and their regeneration potential, which allows them to act as stem cells, is limited. On the contrary, adult teeth cells have a greater proliferative potential. All kinds of stem cell therapies are laboratory investigative non authorized trials.

  5. Should deciduous teeth be preserved in adult patients? How about stem cells? Is it reasonable to preserve them?

    PubMed Central

    Consolaro, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Abstract When seeking orthodontic treatment, many adolescents and adult patients present with deciduous teeth. Naturally, deciduous teeth will inevitably undergo exfoliation at the expected time or at a later time. Apoptosis is the biological trigger of root resorption. In adult patients, deciduous teeth should not be preserved, as they promote: infraocclusion, traumatic occlusion, occlusal trauma, diastemata and size as well as morphology discrepancy malocclusion. Orthodontic movement speeds root resorption up, and so do restoring or recontouring deciduous teeth in order to establish esthetics and function. Deciduous teeth cells are dying as a result of apoptosis, and their regeneration potential, which allows them to act as stem cells, is limited. On the contrary, adult teeth cells have a greater proliferative potential. All kinds of stem cell therapies are laboratory investigative non authorized trials. PMID:27275612

  6. Safe orthotopic transplantation of hearts harvested 24 hours after brain death and preserved for 24 hours

    PubMed Central

    Steen, Stig; Paskevicius, Audrius; Liao, Qiuming; Sjöberg, Trygve

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. The aim of this study was to demonstrate safe orthotopic transplantation of porcine donor hearts harvested 24 hours after brain death and preserved for 24 hours before transplantation. Design. Circulatory normalization of brain dead (decapitated) pigs was obtained using a new pharmacological regimen (n = 10). The donor hearts were perfused at 8 °C in cycles of 15 min perfusion followed by 60 min without perfusion. The perfusate consisted of an albumin-containing hyperoncotic cardioplegic nutrition solution with hormones and erythrocytes. Orthotopic transplantation was done in 10 recipient pigs after 24 hours’ preservation. Transplanted pigs were monitored for 24 hours, then an adrenaline stress test was done. Results. All transplanted pigs were stable throughout the 24-hour observation period with mean aortic pressure around 80 mmHg and normal urine production. Mean right and left atrial pressures were in the range of 3–6 and 5–10 mmHg, respectively. Blood gases at 24 hours did not differ from baseline values. The adrenaline test showed a dose dependent response, with aortic pressure increasing from 98/70 to 220/150 mmHg and heart rate from 110 to 185 beats/min. Conclusion. Orthotopic transplantation of porcine hearts harvested 24 hours after brain death and preserved for 24 hours can be done safely. PMID:26882241

  7. Chronic alcoholism in rats induces a compensatory response, preserving brain thiamine diphosphate, but the brain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenases are inactivated despite unchanged coenzyme levels.

    PubMed

    Parkhomenko, Yulia M; Kudryavtsev, Pavel A; Pylypchuk, Svetlana Yu; Chekhivska, Lilia I; Stepanenko, Svetlana P; Sergiichuk, Andrej A; Bunik, Victoria I

    2011-06-01

    Thiamine-dependent changes in alcoholic brain were studied using a rat model. Brain thiamine and its mono- and diphosphates were not reduced after 20 weeks of alcohol exposure. However, alcoholism increased both synaptosomal thiamine uptake and thiamine diphosphate synthesis in brain, pointing to mechanisms preserving thiamine diphosphate in the alcoholic brain. In spite of the unchanged level of the coenzyme thiamine diphosphate, activities of the mitochondrial 2-oxoglutarate and pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes decreased in alcoholic brain. The inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was caused by its increased phosphorylation. The inactivation of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDHC) correlated with a decrease in free thiols resulting from an elevation of reactive oxygen species. Abstinence from alcohol following exposure to alcohol reactivated OGDHC along with restoration of the free thiol content. However, restoration of enzyme activity occurred before normalization of reactive oxygen species levels. Hence, the redox status of cellular thiols mediates the action of oxidative stress on OGDHC in alcoholic brain. As a result, upon chronic alcohol consumption, physiological mechanisms to counteract the thiamine deficiency and silence pyruvate dehydrogenase are activated in rat brain, whereas OGDHC is inactivated due to impaired antioxidant ability.

  8. Ceftriaxone Preserves Glutamate Transporters and Prevents Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Vulnerability to Brain Excitotoxic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jagadapillai, Rekha; Mellen, Nicholas M.; Sachleben, Leroy R.; Gozal, Evelyne

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia alters cellular metabolism and although the effects of sustained hypoxia (SH) have been extensively studied, less is known about chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH), commonly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and stroke. We hypothesize that impaired glutamate homeostasis after chronic IH may underlie vulnerability to stroke-induced excitotoxicity. P16 organotypic hippocampal slices, cultured for 7 days were exposed for 7 days to IH (alternating 2 min 5% O2 - 15 min 21% O2), SH (5% O2) or RA (21% O2), then 3 glutamate challenges. The first and last exposures were intended as a metabolic stimulus (200 µM glutamate, 15 min); the second emulated excitotoxicity (10 mM glutamate, 10 min). GFAP, MAP2, and EAAT1, EAAT2 glutamate transporters expression were assessed after exposure to each hypoxic protocol. Additionally, cell viability was determined at baseline and after each glutamate challenge, in presence or absence of ceftriaxone that increases glutamate transporter expression. GFAP and MAP2 decreased after 7 days IH and SH. Long-term IH but not SH decreased EAAT1 and EAAT2. Excitotoxic glutamate challenge decreased cell viability and the following 200 µM exposure further increased cell death, particularly in IH-exposed slices. Ceftriaxone prevented glutamate transporter decrease and improved cell viability after IH and excitotoxicity. We conclude that IH is more detrimental to cell survival and glutamate homeostasis than SH. These findings suggest that impaired regulation of extracellular glutamate levels is implicated in the increased brain susceptibility to excitotoxic insult after long-term IH. PMID:25014412

  9. Bio-inspired Cryo-ink Preserves Red Blood Cell Phenotype and Function during Nanoliter Vitrification

    PubMed Central

    Assal, Rami El; Guven, Sinan; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Gozen, Irep; Shafiee, Hadi; Dalbeyber, Sedef; Abdalla, Noor; Thomas, Gawain; Fuld, Wendy; Illigens, Ben M.W.; Estanislau, Jessica; Khoory, Joseph; Kaufman, Richard; Zylberberg, Claudia; Lindeman, Neal; Wen, Qi; Ghiran, Ionita; Demirci, Utkan

    2014-01-01

    Current red blood cell cryopreservation methods utilize bulk volumes, causing cryo-injury of cells, which results in irreversible disruption of cell morphology, mechanics, and function. An innovative approach to preserve human red blood cell morphology, mechanics, and function following vitrification in nanoliter volumes is developed using a novel cryo-ink integrated with a bio-printing approach. PMID:25047246

  10. A cell transportation solution that preserves live circulating tumor cells in patient blood samples.

    PubMed

    Stefansson, Steingrimur; Adams, Daniel L; Ershler, William B; Le, Huyen; Ho, David H

    2016-05-06

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are typically collected into CellSave fixative tubes, which kills the cells, but preserves their morphology. Currently, the clinical utility of CTCs is mostly limited to their enumeration. More detailed investigation of CTC biology can be performed on live cells, but obtaining live CTCs is technically challenging, requiring blood collection into biocompatible solutions and rapid isolation which limits transportation options. To overcome the instability of CTCs, we formulated a sugar based cell transportation solution (SBTS) that stabilizes cell viability at ambient temperature. In this study we examined the long term viability of human cancer cell lines, primary cells and CTCs in human blood samples in the SBTS for transportation purposes. Four cell lines, 5 primary human cells and purified human PBMCs were tested to determine the viability of cells stored in the transportation solution at ambient temperature for up to 7 days. We then demonstrated viability of MCF-7 cells spiked into normal blood with SBTS and stored for up to 7 days. A pilot study was then run on blood samples from 3 patients with metastatic malignancies stored with or without SBTS for 6 days. CTCs were then purified by Ficoll separation/microfilter isolation and identified using CTC markers. Cell viability was assessed using trypan blue or CellTracker™ live cell stain. Our results suggest that primary/immortalized cell lines stored in SBTS remain ~90% viable for > 72 h. Further, MCF-7 cells spiked into whole blood remain viable when stored with SBTS for up to 7 days. Finally, live CTCs were isolated from cancer patient blood samples kept in SBTS at ambient temperature for 6 days. No CTCs were isolated from blood samples stored without SBTS. In this proof of principle pilot study we show that viability of cell lines is preserved for days using SBTS. Further, this solution can be used to store patient derived blood samples for eventual isolation of viable CTCs after

  11. Topology preserving non-rigid image registration using time-varying elasticity model for MRI brain volumes.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sahar; Khan, Muhammad Faisal

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we present a new non-rigid image registration method that imposes a topology preservation constraint on the deformation. We propose to incorporate the time varying elasticity model into the deformable image matching procedure and constrain the Jacobian determinant of the transformation over the entire image domain. The motion of elastic bodies is governed by a hyperbolic partial differential equation, generally termed as elastodynamics wave equation, which we propose to use as a deformation model. We carried out clinical image registration experiments on 3D magnetic resonance brain scans from IBSR database. The results of the proposed registration approach in terms of Kappa index and relative overlap computed over the subcortical structures were compared against the existing topology preserving non-rigid image registration methods and non topology preserving variant of our proposed registration scheme. The Jacobian determinant maps obtained with our proposed registration method were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. The results demonstrated that the proposed scheme provides good registration accuracy with smooth transformations, thereby guaranteeing the preservation of topology.

  12. Standardized experimental brain death model for studies of intracranial dynamics, organ preservation, and organ transplantation in the pig.

    PubMed

    Purins, Karlis; Sedigh, Amir; Molnar, Christian; Jansson, Leif; Korsgren, Olle; Lorant, Tomas; Tufveson, Gunnar; Wennberg, Lars; Wiklund, Lars; Lewén, Anders; Enblad, Per

    2011-03-01

    Brain death impairs organ function and outcome after transplantation. There is a need for a brain death model to allow studies of organ viability and preservation. For neurointensive care research, it is also of interest to have a relevant brain death model for studies of intracranial dynamics and evaluation of cerebral monitoring devices. Therefore, the objective was to develop a standardized clinically relevant brain death model. Six pigs of both sexes (10-12 wks old; mean weight, 24.5±1.4 kg) were included. Mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, intracranial pressure, intracranial compliance, cerebral perfusion pressure, and brain tissue oxygenation (BtiPo2) were recorded during stepwise elevation of intracranial pressure by inflation of an epidural balloon catheter with saline (1 mL/20 mins). Brain death criteria were decided to be reached when cerebral perfusion pressure was <0 mm Hg for 60 mins and at least 10 mL saline was inflated epidurally. BtiPo2 and arterial injections of microspheres were used for confirmation of brain death. A gradual volume-dependent elevation of intracranial pressure was observed. After 10 mL of balloon infusion, mean intracranial pressure was 89.8±9.7 (sd) mm Hg. Intracranial compliance decreased from 0.137±0.069 mL/mm Hg to 0.007±0.001 mL/mm Hg. The mean arterial pressure decreased and the heart rate increased when the intracranial volume was increased to between 5 and 6 mL. All animals showed cerebral perfusion pressure≤0 after 7 to 10 mL of infusion. In all animals, the criteria for brain death with negative cerebral perfusion pressure and BtiPo2 ∼0 mm Hg were achieved. Only a negligible amount of microspheres were found in the cerebrum, confirming brain death. The kidneys showed small foci of acute tubular necrosis. The standardized brain death model designed in pigs simulates the clinical development of brain death in humans with a classic pressure-volume response and systemic cardiovascular reactions. Brain death

  13. A standardized model of brain death, donor treatment, and lung transplantation for studies on organ preservation and reconditioning.

    PubMed

    Valenza, Franco; Coppola, Silvia; Froio, Sara; Ruggeri, Giulia Maria; Fumagalli, Jacopo; Villa, Alessandro Maria; Rosso, Lorenzo; Mendogni, Paolo; Conte, Grazia; Lonati, Caterina; Carlin, Andrea; Leonardi, Patrizia; Gatti, Stefano; Stocchetti, Nino; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2014-12-01

    We set a model of brain death, donor management, and lung transplantation for studies on lung preservation and reconditioning before transplantation. Ten pigs (39.7 ± 5.9 Kg) were investigated. Five animals underwent brain death and were treated as organ donors; the lungs were then procured and cold stored (Ischemia). Five recipients underwent left lung transplantation and post-reperfusion follow-up (Graft). Cardiorespiratory and metabolic parameters were collected. Lung gene expression of cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon gamma (IFNγ), high mobility group box-1 (HMGB-1)), chemokines (chemokine CC motif ligand-2 (CCL2-MCP-1), chemokine CXC motif ligand-10 (CXCL-10), interleukin-8 (IL-8)), and endothelial activation markers (endothelin-1 (EDN-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), selectin-E (SELE)) was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Tachycardia and hypertension occurred during brain death induction; cardiac output rose, systemic vascular resistance dropped (P < 0.05), and diabetes insipidus occurred. Lung-protective ventilation strategy was applied: 9 h after brain death induction, PaO2 was 192 ± 12 mmHg at positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 8.0 ± 1.8 cmH2O and FiO2 of 40%; wet-to-dry ratio (W/D) was 5.8 ± 0.5, and extravascular lung water (EVLW) was 359 ± 80 mL. Procured lungs were cold-stored for 471 ± 24 min (Ischemia) at the end of which W/D was 6.1 ± 0.9. Left lungs were transplanted and reperfused (warm ischemia 98 ± 14 min). Six hours after controlled reperfusion, PaO2 was 192 ± 23 mmHg (PEEP 8.7 ± 1.5 cmH2O, FiO2 40%), W/D was 5.6 ± 0.4, and EVLW was 366 ± 117 mL. Levels of IL-8 rose at the end of donor management (BD, P < 0.05); CCL2-MCP-1, IL-8, HMGB-1, and SELE were significantly altered after reperfusion (Graft, P < 0

  14. Photobiomodulation preserves behaviour and midbrain dopaminergic cells from MPTP toxicity: evidence from two mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Moro, Cécile; Torres, Napoleon; El Massri, Nabil; Ratel, David; Johnstone, Daniel M; Stone, Jonathan; Mitrofanis, John; Benabid, Alim-Louis

    2013-03-27

    We have shown previously that near-infrared light (NIr) treatment or photobiomodulation neuroprotects dopaminergic cells in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) from degeneration induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in Balb/c albino mice, a well-known model for Parkinson's disease. The present study explores whether NIr treatment offers neuroprotection to these cells in C57BL/6 pigmented mice. In addition, we examine whether NIr influences behavioural activity in both strains after MPTP treatment. We tested for various locomotive parameters in an open-field test, namely velocity, high mobility and immobility. Balb/c (albino) and C57BL/6 (pigmented) mice received injections of MPTP (total of 50 mg/kg) or saline and NIr treatments (or not) over 48 hours. After each injection and/or NIr treatment, the locomotor activity of the mice was tested. After six days survival, brains were processed for TH (tyrosine hydroxylase) immunochemistry and the number of TH⁺ cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) was estimated using stereology. Results showed higher numbers of TH⁺ cells in the MPTP-NIr groups of both strains, compared to the MPTP groups, with the protection greater in the Balb/c mice (30% vs 20%). The behavioural tests revealed strain differences also. For Balb/c mice, the MPTP-NIr group showed greater preservation of locomotor activity than the MPTP group. Behavioural preservation was less evident in the C57BL/6 strain however, with little effect of NIr being recorded in the MPTP-treated cases of this strain. Finally, there were differences between the two strains in terms of NIr penetration across the skin and fur. Our measurements indicated that NIr penetration was considerably less in the pigmented C57BL/6, compared to the albino Balb/c mice. In summary, our results revealed the neuroprotective benefits of NIr treatment after parkinsonian insult at both cellular and behavioural levels and suggest that Balb/c strain, due to

  15. Endothelial Progenitor Cells Physiology and Metabolic Plasticity in Brain Angiogenesis and Blood-Brain Barrier Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Malinovskaya, Natalia A.; Komleva, Yulia K.; Salmin, Vladimir V.; Morgun, Andrey V.; Shuvaev, Anton N.; Panina, Yulia A.; Boitsova, Elizaveta B.; Salmina, Alla B.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is a considerable interest to the assessment of blood-brain barrier (BBB) development as a part of cerebral angiogenesis developmental program. Embryonic and adult angiogenesis in the brain is governed by the coordinated activity of endothelial progenitor cells, brain microvascular endothelial cells, and non-endothelial cells contributing to the establishment of the BBB (pericytes, astrocytes, neurons). Metabolic and functional plasticity of endothelial progenitor cells controls their timely recruitment, precise homing to the brain microvessels, and efficient support of brain angiogenesis. Deciphering endothelial progenitor cells physiology would provide novel engineering approaches to establish adequate microfluidically-supported BBB models and brain microphysiological systems for translational studies. PMID:27990124

  16. Oscar Wilde and the brain cell.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Elisha

    2013-01-01

    This chapter considers Oscar Wilde's interest in the brain cell as an aesthetic object. Offering an account of Wilde's career that analyzes his early interest in physiology and philosophy, this chapter argues that Wilde's uniquely aesthetic take on the brain suggests that he rejects an account of the self as autonomous or self-determining. For many late Victorians brain science threatened both the freedom of human action and the legitimacy of beauty because it had the potential to invalidate conscious experience. But writers whose work Wilde knew, like John Ruskin, W. K. Clifford, and John Tyndall, avoided the despair of materialism by using aesthetic terms in their own discussions of life's invisible materials. Wilde's art collaborates with the contemporary sciences. His depictions of the cell direct the senses to a new field of being that emphasizes the molecular life all humans have in common, in which individual responsibility and activity matter less than the necessity of beauty.

  17. Supercooling as a viable non-freezing cell preservation method of rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Usta, O Berk; Kim, Yeonhee; Ozer, Sinan; Bruinsma, Bote G; Lee, Jungwoo; Demir, Esin; Berendsen, Tim A; Puts, Catheleyne F; Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Uygun, Korkut; Uygun, Basak E; Yarmush, Martin L

    2013-01-01

    Supercooling preservation holds the potential to drastically extend the preservation time of organs, tissues and engineered tissue products, and fragile cell types that do not lend themselves well to cryopreservation or vitrification. Here, we investigate the effects of supercooling preservation (SCP at -4(o)C) on primary rat hepatocytes stored in cryovials and compare its success (high viability and good functional characteristics) to that of static cold storage (CS at +4(o)C) and cryopreservation. We consider two prominent preservation solutions a) Hypothermosol (HTS-FRS) and b) University of Wisconsin solution (UW) and a range of preservation temperatures (-4 to -10 (o)C). We find that there exists an optimum temperature (-4(o)C) for SCP of rat hepatocytes which yields the highest viability; at this temperature HTS-FRS significantly outperforms UW solution in terms of viability and functional characteristics (secretions and enzymatic activity in suspension and plate culture). With the HTS-FRS solution we show that the cells can be stored for up to a week with high viability (~56%); moreover we also show that the preservation can be performed in large batches (50 million cells) with equal or better viability and no loss of functionality as compared to smaller batches (1.5 million cells) performed in cryovials.

  18. Supercooling as a Viable Non-Freezing Cell Preservation Method of Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Usta, O. Berk; Kim, Yeonhee; Ozer, Sinan; Bruinsma, Bote G.; Lee, Jungwoo; Demir, Esin; Berendsen, Tim A.; Puts, Catheleyne F.; Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Uygun, Korkut; Uygun, Basak E.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2013-01-01

    Supercooling preservation holds the potential to drastically extend the preservation time of organs, tissues and engineered tissue products, and fragile cell types that do not lend themselves well to cryopreservation or vitrification. Here, we investigate the effects of supercooling preservation (SCP at -4oC) on primary rat hepatocytes stored in cryovials and compare its success (high viability and good functional characteristics) to that of static cold storage (CS at +4oC) and cryopreservation. We consider two prominent preservation solutions a) Hypothermosol (HTS-FRS) and b) University of Wisconsin solution (UW) and a range of preservation temperatures (-4 to -10 oC). We find that there exists an optimum temperature (-4oC) for SCP of rat hepatocytes which yields the highest viability; at this temperature HTS-FRS significantly outperforms UW solution in terms of viability and functional characteristics (secretions and enzymatic activity in suspension and plate culture). With the HTS-FRS solution we show that the cells can be stored for up to a week with high viability (~56%); moreover we also show that the preservation can be performed in large batches (50 million cells) with equal or better viability and no loss of functionality as compared to smaller batches (1.5 million cells) performed in cryovials. PMID:23874947

  19. Spermatogonial stem cells as a therapeutic alternative for fertility preservation of prepubertal boys

    PubMed Central

    Galuppo, Andrea Giannotti

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spermatogonial stem cells, which exist in the testicles since birth, are progenitors cells of male gametes. These cells are critical for the process of spermatogenesis, and not able to produce mature sperm cells before puberty due to their dependency of hormonal stimuli. This characteristic of the reproductive system limits the preservation of fertility only to males who are able to produce an ejaculate. This fact puts some light on the increase in survival rates of childhood cancer over the past decades because of improvements in the diagnosis and effective treatment in pediatric cancer patients. Therefore, we highlight one of the most important challenges concerning male fertility preservation that is the toxic effect of cancer therapy on reproductive function, especially the spermatogenesis. Currently, the experimental alternative for fertility preservation of prepubertal boys is the testicular tissue cryopreservationfor, for future isolation and spermatogonial stem cells transplantation, in order to restore the spermatogenesis. We present a brief review on isolation, characterization and culture conditions for the in vitro proliferation of spermatogonial stem cells, as well as the future perspectives as an alternative for fertility preservation in prepubertal boys. The possibility of restoring male fertility constitutes a research tool with an huge potential in basic and applied science. The development of these techniques may be a hope for the future of fertility preservation in cases that no other options exist, e.g, pediatric cancer patients. PMID:26761559

  20. P2X7 Receptor Suppression Preserves Blood-Brain Barrier through Inhibiting RhoA Activation after Experimental Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hengli; Zhang, Xuan; Dai, Zhiqiang; Feng, Yang; Li, Qiang; Zhang, John H; Liu, Xin; Chen, Yujie; Feng, Hua

    2016-03-16

    Blockading P2X7 receptor(P2X7R) provides neuroprotection toward various neurological disorders, including stroke, traumatic brain injury, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, whether and how P2X7 receptor suppression protects blood-brain barrier(BBB) after intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH) remains unexplored. In present study, intrastriatal autologous-blood injection was used to mimic ICH in rats. Selective P2X7R inhibitor A438079, P2X7R agonist BzATP, and P2X7R siRNA were administrated to evaluate the effects of P2X7R suppression. Selective RhoA inhibitor C3 transferase was administered to clarify the involvement of RhoA. Post-assessments, including neurological deficits, Fluoro-Jade C staining, brain edema, Evans blue extravasation and fluorescence, western blot, RhoA activity assay and immunohistochemistry were performed. Then the key results were verified in collagenase induced ICH model. We found that endogenous P2X7R increased at 3 hrs after ICH with peak at 24 hrs, then returned to normal at 72 hrs after ICH. Enhanced immunoreactivity was observed on the neurovascular structure around hematoma at 24 hrs after ICH, along with perivascular astrocytes and endothelial cells. Both A438079 and P2X7R siRNA alleviated neurological deficits, brain edema, and BBB disruption after ICH, in association with RhoA activation and down-regulated endothelial junction proteins. However, BzATP abolished those effects. In addition, C3 transferase reduced brain injury and increased endothelial junction proteins' expression after ICH. These data indicated P2X7R suppression could preserve BBB integrity after ICH through inhibiting RhoA activation.

  1. A Lesion-Proof Brain? Multidimensional Sensorimotor, Cognitive, and Socio-Affective Preservation Despite Extensive Damage in a Stroke Patient

    PubMed Central

    García, Adolfo M.; Sedeño, Lucas; Herrera Murcia, Eduar; Couto, Blas; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report an unusual case of mutidimensional sensorimotor, cognitive, and socio-affective preservation in an adult with extensive, acquired bilateral brain damage. At age 43, patient CG sustained a cerebral hemorrhage and a few months later, she suffered a second (ischemic) stroke. As a result, she exhibited extensive damage of the right hemisphere (including frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital regions), left Sylvian and striatal areas, bilateral portions of the insula and the amygdala, and the splenium. However, against all probability, she was unimpaired across a host of cognitive domains, including executive functions, attention, memory, language, sensory perception (e.g., taste recognition and intensity discrimination), emotional processing (e.g., experiencing of positive and negative emotions), and social cognition skills (prosody recognition, theory of mind, facial emotion recognition, and emotional evaluation). Her functional integrity was further confirmed through neurological examination and contextualized observation of her performance in real-life tasks. In sum, CG's case resists straightforward classifications, as the extent and distribution of her lesions would typically produce pervasive, multidimensional deficits. We discuss the rarity of this patient against the backdrop of other reports of atypical cognitive preservation, expound the limitations of several potential accounts, and highlight the challenges that the case poses for current theories of brain organization and resilience. PMID:28119603

  2. Bio-inspired cryo-ink preserves red blood cell phenotype and function during nanoliter vitrification.

    PubMed

    El Assal, Rami; Guven, Sinan; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Gozen, Irep; Shafiee, Hadi; Dalbeyler, Sedef; Abdalla, Noor; Thomas, Gawain; Fuld, Wendy; Illigens, Ben M W; Estanislau, Jessica; Khoory, Joseph; Kaufman, Richard; Zylberberg, Claudia; Lindeman, Neal; Wen, Qi; Ghiran, Ionita; Demirci, Utkan

    2014-09-03

    Current red-blood-cell cryopreservation methods utilize bulk volumes, causing cryo-injury of cells, which results in irreversible disruption of cell morphology, mechanics, and function. An innovative approach to preserve human red-blood-cell morphology, mechanics, and function following vitrification in nanoliter volumes is developed using a novel cryo-ink integrated with a bioprinting approach. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Treatment of Severe Adult Traumatic Brain Injury Using Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells.

    PubMed

    Cox, Charles S; Hetz, Robert A; Liao, George P; Aertker, Benjamin M; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Juranek, Jenifer; Savitz, Sean I; Jackson, Margaret L; Romanowska-Pawliczek, Anna M; Triolo, Fabio; Dash, Pramod K; Pedroza, Claudia; Lee, Dean A; Worth, Laura; Aisiku, Imoigele P; Choi, Huimahn A; Holcomb, John B; Kitagawa, Ryan S

    2017-04-01

    Preclinical studies using bone marrow derived cells to treat traumatic brain injury have demonstrated efficacy in terms of blood-brain barrier preservation, neurogenesis, and functional outcomes. Phase 1 clinical trials using bone marrow mononuclear cells infused intravenously in children with severe traumatic brain injury demonstrated safety and potentially a central nervous system structural preservation treatment effect. This study sought to confirm the safety, logistic feasibility, and potential treatment effect size of structural preservation/inflammatory biomarker mitigation in adults to guide Phase 2 clinical trial design. Adults with severe traumatic brain injury (Glasgow Coma Scale 5-8) and without signs of irreversible brain injury were evaluated for entry into the trial. A dose escalation format was performed in 25 patients: 5 controls, followed 5 patients in each dosing cohort (6, 9, 12 ×10(6) cells/kg body weight), then 5 more controls. Bone marrow harvest, cell processing to isolate the mononuclear fraction, and re-infusion occurred within 48 hours after injury. Patients were monitored for harvest-related hemodynamic changes, infusional toxicity, and adverse events. Outcome measures included magnetic resonance imaging-based measurements of supratentorial and corpus callosal volumes as well as diffusion tensor imaging-based measurements of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity of the corpus callosum and the corticospinal tract at the level of the brainstem at 1 month and 6 months postinjury. Functional and neurocognitive outcomes were measured and correlated with imaging data. Inflammatory cytokine arrays were measured in the plasma pretreatment, posttreatment, and at 1 and 6 month follow-up. There were no serious adverse events. There was a mild pulmonary toxicity of the highest dose that was not clinically significant. Despite the treatment group having greater injury severity, there was structural preservation of critical regions of interest

  4. Distribution of Brain Metastases in Relation to the Hippocampus: Implications for Neurocognitive Functional Preservation

    SciTech Connect

    Ghia, Amol; Tome, Wolfgang A.; Thomas, Sayana; Cannon, George; Khuntia, Deepak; Kuo, John S.; Mehta, Minesh P. . E-mail: mehta@humonc.wisc.edu

    2007-07-15

    Purpose: With the advent of intensity-modulated radiotherapy, the ability to limit the radiation dose to normal tissue offers an avenue to limit side effects. This study attempted to delineate the distribution of brain metastases with relation to the hippocampus for the purpose of exploring the viability of tomotherapy-guided hippocampal sparing therapy potentially to reduce neurocognitive deficits from radiation. Methods and Materials: The pre-radiotherapy T1-weighted, postcontrast axial MR images of 100 patients who received whole brain radiotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, or a radiosurgical boost following whole brain radiotherapy between 2002 and 2006 were examined. We contoured brain metastases as well as hippocampi with 5-, 10-, and 15-mm expansion envelopes. Results: Of the 272 identified metastases, 3.3% (n = 9) were within 5 mm of the hippocampus, and 86.4% of metastases were greater than 15 mm from the hippocampus (n = 235). The most common location for metastatic disease was the frontal lobe (31.6%, n = 86). This was followed by the cerebellum (24.3%, n = 66), parietal lobe (16.9%, n = 46), temporal lobe (12.9%, n = 35), occipital lobe (7.7%, n = 21), deep brain nuclei (4.0%, n = 11), and brainstem (2.6%, n = 7). Conclusions: Of the 100 patients, 8 had metastases within 5 mm of the hippocampus. Hence, a 5-mm margin around the hippocampus for conformal avoidance whole brain radiotherapy represents an acceptable risk, especially because these patients in the absence of any other intracranial disease could be salvaged using stereotactic radiosurgery. Moreover, we developed a hippocampal sparing tomotherapy plan as proof of principle to verify the feasibility of this therapy in the setting of brain metastases.

  5. Strategies for preservation of memory function in patients with brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Dye, Nicholas B; Gondi, Vinai; Mehta, Minesh P

    2015-06-01

    Cognitive decline, particularly in memory, is a side effect seen in patients with brain metastases and when severe, can have a significant impact on their quality of life. It is most often the result of multiple intersecting etiologic factors, including the use of whole brain radiation therapy, effects of which, in part, are mediated by damage within the hippocampus. A variety of clinical factors and comorbidities may impact the likelihood and severity of this cognitive decline, and affected patients should be considered for evaluation in a comprehensive neuro-rehabilitation or "brain fitness" program. Avoiding WBRT is warranted for some patients with brain metastases; particularly those <50 years old. However, when WBRT is clinically indicated, hippocampal avoidance WBRT (HA-WBRT) has been shown to significantly reduce memory decline compared to historical controls without compromising treatment efficacy. Additionally, the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockers have shown promise as neuroprotective agents that could be used prophylactically with radiation. After the onset of neurocognitive decline the treatment is largely symptom-driven, however simply screening for and treating depression, fatigue, anxiety, cognitive slowing, and other processes may alleviate some impairment. Stimulants such as methylphenidate may be useful in treating symptoms of fatigue and cognitive slowing. Other treatments including donepezil and cognitive rehabilitation have been extensively tested in the population at risk for dementia, although they have not been adequately studied in patients following cranial radiotherapy. An innovative hypothetical approach is the use of intranasal metabolic stimulants such as low dose insulin, which could be valuable in improving cognition and memory, by reversing impaired brain metabolic activity. Prevention of neurocognitive decline in patients with brain metastases requires a multimodal approach

  6. Language in the aging brain: the network dynamics of cognitive decline and preservation.

    PubMed

    Shafto, Meredith A; Tyler, Lorraine K

    2014-10-31

    Language is a crucial and complex lifelong faculty, underpinned by dynamic interactions within and between specialized brain networks. Whereas normal aging impairs specific aspects of language production, most core language processes are robust to brain aging. We review recent behavioral and neuroimaging evidence showing that language systems remain largely stable across the life span and that both younger and older adults depend on dynamic neural responses to linguistic demands. Although some aspects of network dynamics change with age, there is no consistent evidence that core language processes are underpinned by different neural networks in younger and older adults.

  7. Acid fibroblast growth factor preserves blood-brain barrier integrity by activating the PI3K-Akt-Rac1 pathway and inhibiting RhoA following traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fenzan; Chen, Zaifeng; Tang, Chonghui; Zhang, Jinjing; Cheng, Li; Zuo, Hongxia; Zhang, Hongyu; Chen, Daqing; Xiang, Liping; Xiao, Jian; Li, Xiaokun; Xu, Xinlong; Wei, Xiaojie

    2017-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays important roles in the recovery of traumatic brain injury (TBI) which is a major factor contributing to cerebral edema. Acid fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) contributes to maintain vascular integrity and restores nerve function. However, whether aFGF protects BBB following TBI remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether exogenous aFGF preserves BBB integrity by activating the PI3K-Akt-Rac1 pathway and inhibiting RhoA after TBI. BBB permeability was assessed using evans blue dye and fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran fluorescence. Neurofunctional tests, such as the garcia test, were conducted in a blinded fashion, and protein expression was evaluated via western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. Our results showed that aFGF improved neurofunctional deficits, preserved BBB integrity, and up-regulated tight junction proteins and adherens junction proteins 24 h after experimental TBI. However, the PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 reversed the protective effects of aFGF on neurofunctional deficits and junction protein expression and significantly suppressed p-Akt and GTP-Rac1 activity. Furthermore, aFGF administration significantly decreased GTP-RhoA expression in the treated group compared with the vehicle group, while PI3K/Akt inhibition increased GTP-RhoA expression. Similar results were observed in vitro, as aFGF exerted protective effects on endothelial cell integrity by up-regulating junction proteins and PI3K-Akt-Rac1 pathway and down-regulating RhoA expression under oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD) conditions. These data suggest that exogenous aFGF reduces RhoA activity in part by activating the PI3K-Akt-Rac1 signaling pathway, thus improving neurofunctional deficits and preserving BBB integrity after TBI. PMID:28386321

  8. Human memory CD8 T cell effector potential is epigenetically preserved during in vivo homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Abdelsamed, Hossam A; Moustaki, Ardiana; Fan, Yiping; Dogra, Pranay; Ghoneim, Hazem E; Zebley, Caitlin C; Triplett, Brandon M; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Youngblood, Ben

    2017-06-05

    Antigen-independent homeostasis of memory CD8 T cells is vital for sustaining long-lived T cell-mediated immunity. In this study, we report that maintenance of human memory CD8 T cell effector potential during in vitro and in vivo homeostatic proliferation is coupled to preservation of acquired DNA methylation programs. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of primary human naive, short-lived effector memory (TEM), and longer-lived central memory (TCM) and stem cell memory (TSCM) CD8 T cells identified effector molecules with demethylated promoters and poised for expression. Effector-loci demethylation was heritably preserved during IL-7- and IL-15-mediated in vitro cell proliferation. Conversely, cytokine-driven proliferation of TCM and TSCM memory cells resulted in phenotypic conversion into TEM cells and was coupled to increased methylation of the CCR7 and Tcf7 loci. Furthermore, haploidentical donor memory CD8 T cells undergoing in vivo proliferation in lymphodepleted recipients also maintained their effector-associated demethylated status but acquired TEM-associated programs. These data demonstrate that effector-associated epigenetic programs are preserved during cytokine-driven subset interconversion of human memory CD8 T cells. © 2017 Abdelsamed et al.

  9. Preserved Self-Awareness following Extensive Bilateral Brain Damage to the Insula, Anterior Cingulate, and Medial Prefrontal Cortices

    PubMed Central

    Khalsa, Sahib S.; Damasio, Antonio; Tranel, Daniel; Landini, Gregory; Williford, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that self-awareness (SA), a multifaceted phenomenon central to human consciousness, depends critically on specific brain regions, namely the insular cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Such a proposal predicts that damage to these regions should disrupt or even abolish SA. We tested this prediction in a rare neurological patient with extensive bilateral brain damage encompassing the insula, ACC, mPFC, and the medial temporal lobes. In spite of severe amnesia, which partially affected his “autobiographical self”, the patient's SA remained fundamentally intact. His Core SA, including basic self-recognition and sense of self-agency, was preserved. His Extended SA and Introspective SA were also largely intact, as he has a stable self-concept and intact higher-order metacognitive abilities. The results suggest that the insular cortex, ACC and mPFC are not required for most aspects of SA. Our findings are compatible with the hypothesis that SA is likely to emerge from more distributed interactions among brain networks including those in the brainstem, thalamus, and posteromedial cortices. PMID:22927899

  10. A calorie-restricted diet decreases brain iron accumulation and preserves motor performance in old rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Kastman, EK; Willette, AA; Coe, CL; Bendlin, BB; Kosmatka, KJ; McLaren, DG; Xu, G; Canu, E; Field, AS; Alexander, AL; Voytko, ML; Beasley, TM; Colman, RJ; Weindruch, R; Johnson, SC

    2010-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) reduces the pathological effects of aging and extends the lifespan in many species, including nonhuman primates, although the effect on the brain is less well characterized. We used two common indicators of aging, motor performance speed and brain iron deposition measured in vivo using MRI, to determine the potential effect of CR on elderly rhesus macaques eating restricted (n = 24, 13 males, 11 females) and standard diets (n= 17, 8 males, 9 females). Both the CR and control monkeys showed age-related increases in iron concentrations in globus pallidus (GP) and substantia nigra (SN), although the CR group had significantly less iron deposition in the GP, SN, red nucleus and temporal cortex. A Diet x Age interaction revealed that CR modified age-related brain changes, evidenced as attenuation in the rate of iron accumulation in basal ganglia and parietal, temporal, and perirhinal cortex. Additionally, control monkeys had significantly slower fine motor performance on the Movement Assessment Panel, which was negatively correlated with iron accumulation in left SN and parietal lobe, although CR animals did not show this relationship. Our observations suggest that the CR induced benefit of reduced iron deposition and preserved motor function may indicate neural protection similar to effects described previously in aging rodent and primate species. PMID:20534842

  11. The consequence of delayed fixation on subsequent preservation of urine cells.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Hussain G; Tom, Murtada Am

    2011-01-01

    Degenerative changes caused by delays in urine preservation contribute to false-negative and false-positive interpretation of urothelial disease in cytology. The aim of this study is to assess whether the delay of fixation of urine samples makes any significant difference to urine cytology and morphology, and the limit of acceptability of delay for routine use in the hospital laboratory. Three cell collection fluids were evaluated by analyzing the preservation and degeneration of cells in urine samples. In this study, 50 voided urine specimens were taken at random from females complaining of vaginal discharge. Each specimen was divided into three sterile containers. The first was immediately centrifugated and the deposit was smeared onto a cleaned micro slide and immediately fixed into 95% ethyl alcohol for 15 minutes. The remaining two were prepared in the same manner, however, the second after two hours of collection and the third after four hours of collection. The degree of degeneration and thus the preservation were assessed by a table of chosen criteria, then ranked and analyzed using Friedman's nonparametric test, at p=0.05. The results showed a significant difference between the preservation and the delay in urine fixation, p<0.0001. Any delay in fixation of urine specimen for cytology affects the preservation of cells, which may result in miss diagnosis. It is recommended that urine samples for cytology should be fixed immediately after collection.

  12. Suppressor cell function is preserved in pemphigus and pemphigoid

    SciTech Connect

    King, A.J.; Schwartz, S.A.; Lopatin, D.; Voorhees, J.J.; Diaz, L.A.

    1982-09-01

    Human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) are activated to become suppressor T cells (S-T-C) by incubation with Concanavalin-A (Con-A). This has become the standard method for evaluation of suppressor function in patients. S-T-C function has been found to be impaired in several autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Using this assay, we have investigated suppressor-cell function in 2 autoimmune disorders, bullous pemphigoid (BP) and pemphigus vulgaris (PV), studying 6 patients from each group. Three patients with active SLE (positive controls), and 11 normal donors (negative controls) were also included. None of these patients had received systemic therapy with the exception of 2 patients with PV who were treated with gold in the past. PBL from these patients were incubated with and without 40 micrograms/ml Con-A for 72 hr to generate suppressor cells. Both groups of PBL were then irradiated wih 1500 r cobalt. Co-cultures were set up in sextuplicate using normal PBL as responders. Responder PBL were stimulated with 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 micrograms/ml of phytohemagglutin (PHA) and 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 micrograms/ml of Con-A. Cultures were pulsed on day 3 with /sup 3/H-thymidine and harvested on day 4. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test. S-T-C function was found to be significantly impaired in SLE vs normal (p . 0.0316). No statistically significant difference was seen in BP (p . 0.5883) and PV (p . 0.0921) as compared with normals. A defect in suppressor cell function may still be present in patients with PV and BP for the defect may be antigen-specific and therefore remain undetected by the Con-A suppressor assay.

  13. Relationships among Cell Size, Membrane Permeability, and Preservative Resistance in Yeast Species

    PubMed Central

    Warth, Alan D.

    1989-01-01

    The rate of uptake of propanoic acid and the cell dimensions were measured for 23 yeasts differing in their resistance to weak-acid-type preservatives. Relationships between reciprocal uptake rate, reciprocal permeability, cell volume, cell area, volume/area, and the MICs of benzoic acid and propanoic acid for the yeasts were tested by correlation analysis on pairs of parameters. The MIC of methylparaben, which is not a weak-acid-type preservative, was included. The most significant relationships found were between both reciprocal uptake rate and reciprocal permeability and the MICs of propanoic and benzoic acids Cell volume, area, and volume/area were each individually correlated with propanoic and benzoic acid MICs, but less strongly. In multiple regression analyses, inclusion of terms for volume, area, or volume/area did not markedly increase the significance. The MIC of methylparaben was unrelated to the uptake and permeability parameters, but did show a correlation with cell volume/area. Schizosaccharomyces pombe was anomalous in having very low permeability. Exclusion of these outlying data revealed particularly strong relationships (P < 0.001) between both reciprocal uptake rate and reciprocal permeability and the benzoic acid MIC. MICs for Zygosaccharomyces bailii isolates were substantially higher than for the other species, and therefore Z. baillii isolates had a large influence on the regressions. However, the relationships observed remained significant even after removal of the Z. bailii data. In showing a correlation between the rate at which propanoic acid enters yeast cells and the ability of the cells to tolerate this and other weak-acid-type preservatives, but not methylparaben, the results suggest that the resistance mechanism, in which preservative is continuously removed from the cell, is a common and major determinant of the preservative tolerance of yeast species. PMID:16348060

  14. Relationships among Cell Size, Membrane Permeability, and Preservative Resistance in Yeast Species.

    PubMed

    Warth, A D

    1989-11-01

    The rate of uptake of propanoic acid and the cell dimensions were measured for 23 yeasts differing in their resistance to weak-acid-type preservatives. Relationships between reciprocal uptake rate, reciprocal permeability, cell volume, cell area, volume/area, and the MICs of benzoic acid and propanoic acid for the yeasts were tested by correlation analysis on pairs of parameters. The MIC of methylparaben, which is not a weak-acid-type preservative, was included. The most significant relationships found were between both reciprocal uptake rate and reciprocal permeability and the MICs of propanoic and benzoic acids Cell volume, area, and volume/area were each individually correlated with propanoic and benzoic acid MICs, but less strongly. In multiple regression analyses, inclusion of terms for volume, area, or volume/area did not markedly increase the significance. The MIC of methylparaben was unrelated to the uptake and permeability parameters, but did show a correlation with cell volume/area. Schizosaccharomyces pombe was anomalous in having very low permeability. Exclusion of these outlying data revealed particularly strong relationships (P < 0.001) between both reciprocal uptake rate and reciprocal permeability and the benzoic acid MIC. MICs for Zygosaccharomyces bailii isolates were substantially higher than for the other species, and therefore Z. baillii isolates had a large influence on the regressions. However, the relationships observed remained significant even after removal of the Z. bailii data. In showing a correlation between the rate at which propanoic acid enters yeast cells and the ability of the cells to tolerate this and other weak-acid-type preservatives, but not methylparaben, the results suggest that the resistance mechanism, in which preservative is continuously removed from the cell, is a common and major determinant of the preservative tolerance of yeast species.

  15. Functional aspects of early brain development are preserved in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) epileptogenic lesions.

    PubMed

    Ruffolo, Gabriele; Iyer, Anand; Cifelli, Pierangelo; Roseti, Cristina; Mühlebner, Angelika; van Scheppingen, Jackelien; Scholl, Theresa; Hainfellner, Johannes A; Feucht, Martha; Krsek, Pavel; Zamecnik, Josef; Jansen, Floor E; Spliet, Wim G M; Limatola, Cristina; Aronica, Eleonora; Palma, Eleonora

    2016-11-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare multi-system genetic disease characterized by several neurological disorders, the most common of which is the refractory epilepsy caused by highly epileptogenic cortical lesions. Previous studies suggest an alteration of GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission in TSC brain indicating an unbalance of excitation/inhibition that can explain, at least in part, the high incidence of epilepsy in these patients. Here we investigate whether TSC cortical tissues could retain GABAA and AMPA receptors at early stages of human brain development thus contributing to the generation and recurrence of seizures. Given the limited availability of pediatric human brain specimens, we used the microtransplantation method of injecting Xenopus oocytes with membranes from TSC cortical tubers and control brain tissues. Moreover, qPCR was performed to investigate the expression of GABAA and AMPA receptor subunits (GABAA α1-5, β3, γ2, δ; GluA1, GluA2) and cation chloride co-transporters NKCC1 and KCC2. The evaluation of nine human cortical brain samples, from 15 gestation weeks to 15years old, showed a progressive shift towards more hyperpolarized GABAA reversal potential (EGABA). This shift was associated with a differential expression of the chloride cotransporters NKCC1 and KCC2. Furthermore, the GluA1/GluA2 mRNA ratio of expression paralleled the development process. On the contrary, in oocytes micro-transplanted with epileptic TSC tuber tissue from seven patients, neither the GABAA reversal potential nor the GluA1/GluA2 expression showed similar developmental changes. Our data indicate for the first time, that in the same cohort of TSC patients, the pattern of both GABAAR and GluA1/GluA2 functions retains features that are typical of an immature brain. These observations support the potential contribution of altered receptor function to the epileptic disorder of TSC and may suggest novel therapeutic approaches. Furthermore, our findings

  16. Imaging studies in congenital anophthalmia reveal preservation of brain architecture in 'visual' cortex.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Holly; Cowey, Alan; Ragge, Nicola; Watkins, Kate

    2009-12-01

    The functional specialization of the human brain means that many regions are dedicated to processing a single sensory modality. When a modality is absent, as in congenital total blindness, 'visual' regions can be reliably activated by non-visual stimuli. The connections underlying this functional adaptation, however, remain elusive. In this study, using structural and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the structural differences in the brains of six bilaterally anophthalmic subjects compared with sighted subjects. Surprisingly, the gross structural differences in the brains were small, even in the occipital lobe where only a small region of the primary visual cortex showed a bilateral reduction in grey matter volume in the anophthalmic subjects compared with controls. Regions of increased cortical thickness were apparent on the banks of the Calcarine sulcus, but not in the fundus. Subcortically, the white matter volume around the optic tract and internal capsule in anophthalmic subjects showed a large decrease, yet the optic radiation volume did not differ significantly. However, the white matter integrity, as measured with fractional anisotropy showed an extensive reduction throughout the brain in the anophthalmic subjects, with the greatest difference in the optic radiations. In apparent contradiction to the latter finding, the connectivity between the lateral geniculate nucleus and primary visual cortex measured with diffusion tractography did not differ between the two populations. However, these findings can be reconciled by a demonstration that at least some of the reduction in fractional anisotropy in the optic radiation is due to an increase in the strength of fibres crossing the radiations. In summary, the major changes in the 'visual' brain in anophthalmic subjects may be subcortical, although the evidence of decreased fractional anisotropy and increased crossing fibres could indicate considerable re-organization.

  17. Altered glucose metabolism and preserved energy charge and neuronal structures in the brain of mouse intermittently exposed to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Furong; Xie, Shengnan; Guo, Miao; Fang, Haixia; Li, Xin; Yin, Juanjuan; Lu, Guowei; Li, Yaohua; Ji, Xunming; Yu, Shun

    2011-09-01

    The key for an animal to survive prolonged hypoxia is to avoid rapid decline in ATP levels in vital organs such as the brain. This can be well achieved by a very few of hypoxia-tolerant animals such as freshwater turtles and newborn animals, since these animals can substantially suppress their metabolic levels by coordinated regulation of ATP-producing and ATP-demanding pathways. However, most animals, especially adult mammals, can only tolerate a short period of hypoxia since they are unable to maintain constant ATP levels and energy charge in vital organs during prolonged hypoxic exposure. Here, we described a special mouse model, in which a hypoxia intolerant adult mouse gradually built up an ability to survive prolonged hypoxia after intermittent hypoxic exposures. This increased ability was accompanied by reductions in body temperature and O(2) consumption as well as transient variations in blood pCO(2), pO(2) and pH. The glucose and energy metabolism in the brain of the mouse altered similarly to those reported in the brain of hypoxic turtles. Activities of phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase, the two rate-limiting enzymes controlling the rate of glycolysis decreased to baseline levels after a short period of increase. In contrast, the activity of complex I, the major enzyme complex controlling oxidative phosphorylation, was kept inhibited. These alterations in the ATP-producing pathway suggest the occurrence of reverse Pasteur effect, indicating that the animal had entered a hypometabolic state favoring maintenance of ATP level and energy charge in hypoxic conditions. In supporting this idea, the ATP levels and energy charge as well as neuronal structures in the brain were well preserved. This study provides evidence for a possibility that a hypoxic intolerant animal can build up an ability to survive prolonged hypoxia through regulation of its glucose and energy metabolism after an appropriate hypoxic training, which deserves further investigation

  18. Reorganization of syntactic processing following left-hemisphere brain damage: does right-hemisphere activity preserve function?

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Paul; Randall, Billi; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which the human brain shows evidence of functional plasticity across the lifespan has been addressed in the context of pathological brain changes and, more recently, of the changes that take place during healthy ageing. Here we examine the potential for plasticity by asking whether a strongly left-lateralized system can successfully reorganize to the right-hemisphere following left-hemisphere brain damage. To do this, we focus on syntax, a key linguistic function considered to be strongly left-lateralized, combining measures of tissue integrity, neural activation and behavioural performance. In a functional neuroimaging study participants heard spoken sentences that differentially loaded on syntactic and semantic information. While healthy controls activated a left-hemisphere network of correlated activity including Brodmann areas 45/47 and posterior middle temporal gyrus during syntactic processing, patients activated Brodmann areas 45/47 bilaterally and right middle temporal gyrus. However, voxel-based morphometry analyses showed that only tissue integrity in left Brodmann areas 45/47 was correlated with activity and performance; poor tissue integrity in left Brodmann area 45 was associated with reduced functional activity and increased syntactic deficits. Activity in the right-hemisphere was not correlated with damage in the left-hemisphere or with performance. Reduced neural integrity in the left-hemisphere through brain damage or healthy ageing results in increased right-hemisphere activation in homologous regions to those left-hemisphere regions typically involved in the young. However, these regions do not support the same linguistic functions as those in the left-hemisphere and only indirectly contribute to preserved syntactic capacity. This establishes the unique role of the left hemisphere in syntax, a core component in human language. PMID:20870779

  19. Reorganization of syntactic processing following left-hemisphere brain damage: does right-hemisphere activity preserve function?

    PubMed

    Tyler, Lorraine K; Wright, Paul; Randall, Billi; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A

    2010-11-01

    The extent to which the human brain shows evidence of functional plasticity across the lifespan has been addressed in the context of pathological brain changes and, more recently, of the changes that take place during healthy ageing. Here we examine the potential for plasticity by asking whether a strongly left-lateralized system can successfully reorganize to the right-hemisphere following left-hemisphere brain damage. To do this, we focus on syntax, a key linguistic function considered to be strongly left-lateralized, combining measures of tissue integrity, neural activation and behavioural performance. In a functional neuroimaging study participants heard spoken sentences that differentially loaded on syntactic and semantic information. While healthy controls activated a left-hemisphere network of correlated activity including Brodmann areas 45/47 and posterior middle temporal gyrus during syntactic processing, patients activated Brodmann areas 45/47 bilaterally and right middle temporal gyrus. However, voxel-based morphometry analyses showed that only tissue integrity in left Brodmann areas 45/47 was correlated with activity and performance; poor tissue integrity in left Brodmann area 45 was associated with reduced functional activity and increased syntactic deficits. Activity in the right-hemisphere was not correlated with damage in the left-hemisphere or with performance. Reduced neural integrity in the left-hemisphere through brain damage or healthy ageing results in increased right-hemisphere activation in homologous regions to those left-hemisphere regions typically involved in the young. However, these regions do not support the same linguistic functions as those in the left-hemisphere and only indirectly contribute to preserved syntactic capacity. This establishes the unique role of the left hemisphere in syntax, a core component in human language.

  20. Immune interventions to preserve β cell function in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Mario R

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease that leads to destruction of pancreatic β cells, lifelong dependence on insulin, and increased morbidity and mortality from diabetes-related complications. Preservation of residual β cells at diagnosis is a major goal because higher levels of endogenous insulin secretion are associated with better short- and long-term outcomes. For the past 3 decades, a variety of immune interventions have been evaluated in the setting of new-onset T1D, including nonspecific immunosuppression, pathway-specific immune modulation, antigen-specific therapies, and cellular therapies. To date, no single intervention has produced durable remission off therapy in most treated patients, but the field has gained valuable insights into disease mechanisms and potential immunologic correlates of success. In particular, T-cell–directed therapies, including therapies that lead to partial depletion or modulation of effector T cells and preservation or augmentation of regulatory T cells, have shown the most success and will likely form the backbone of future approaches. The next phase will see evaluation of rational combinations, comprising one or more of the following: an effector T-depleting or -modulating drug, a cytokine-based tolerogenic (regulatory T-cells–promoting) agent, and an antigen-specific component. The long term goal is to reestablish immunologic tolerance to β cells, thereby preserving residual β cells early after diagnosis or enabling restoration of β-cell mass from autologous stem cells or induced neogenesis in patients with established T1D.

  1. A new system for cutting brain tissue preserving vessels: water jet cutting.

    PubMed

    Terzis, A J; Nowak, G; Rentzsch, O; Arnold, H; Diebold, J; Baretton, G

    1989-01-01

    The water jet cutting system allows transaction and dissection of biological structures with little bleeding. Structures of higher tissue rigidity remain unchanged while softer tissues are mechanically dissected. In brain tissue, all vessels larger than 20 microns are left intact after the passage of the jet stream with a pressure of up to 5 bar, and therefore vessels can be isolated selectively from the surrounding tissue. Oedema is present adjacent to the cut and no increase of temperature occurs.

  2. Hypothermia and amiloride preserve energetics in a neonatal brain slice model.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Nicola J; Bhakoo, Kishore; Puri, Basant K; Edwards, A David; Cox, I Jane

    2005-08-01

    A period of secondary energy failure consisting of a decline in phosphocreatine/inorganic phosphate (PCr/Pi), a rise in brain lactate, and alkaline intracellular pH (pH(i)) has been described in infants with neonatal encephalopathy. Strategies that ameliorate this energy failure may be neuroprotective. We hypothesized that a neonatal rat brain slice model undergoes a progressive decline in energetics, which can be ameliorated with hypothermia or amiloride. Interleaved phosphorus ((31)P) and proton ((1)H) magnetic resonance (MR) spectra were obtained from 350 microm neonatal rat brain slices over 8 h in a bicarbonate buffer at 37 degrees C and at 32 degrees C in 7- and 14-d models. (31)P MR spectra were obtained with amiloride in a bicarbonate-free buffer at 37 degrees C in the 14-d model. Findings were similar in 7- and 14-d models. In the 14-d model, there was a Pi doublet structure corresponding to alkaline pH(i) values of 7.50 +/- 0.02 and 7.21 +/- 0.04. Compared with the stabilized baseline of 100, at 5 h PCr/Pi was 65 +/- 6.3 and lactate/NAA was 187 +/- 3 at 37 degrees C, but PCr/Pi and lactate/NAA were not significantly different from baseline at 32 degrees C. Nucleotide triphosphate (NTP)/phosphomonoester (PME) was 0.93 +/- 0.23 at 37 degrees C and 1.81 +/- 0.21 at 32 degrees C at 5 h. With amiloride exposure in the 14-d model, baseline pH(i) values were 7.25 +/- 0.09 and 6.98 +/- 0.02 and NTP/PME was 1.81 +/- 0.05; these parameters were not significantly different at 5 h. Our interpretation of these findings is that the brain slice model underwent secondary energy failure, which was delayed with hypothermia or amiloride.

  3. Braque and Kokoschka: Brain Tissue Injury and Preservation of Artistic Skill

    PubMed Central

    Zaidel, D. W.

    2017-01-01

    The neural underpinning of art creation can be gleaned following brain injury in professional artists. Any alteration to their artistic productivity, creativity, skills, talent, and genre can help understand the neural underpinning of art expression. Here, two world-renown and influential artists who sustained brain injury in World War I are the focus, namely the French artist Georges Braque and the Austrian artist Oskar Kokoschka. Braque is particularly associated with Cubism, and Kokoschka with Expressionism. Before enlisting, they were already well-known and highly regarded. Both were wounded in the battlefield where they lost consciousness and treated in European hospitals. Braque’s injury was in the left hemisphere while Kokoschka’s was in the right hemisphere. After the injury, Braque did not paint again for nearly a whole year while Kokoschka commenced his artistic works when still undergoing hospital treatment. Their post-injury art retained the same genre as their pre-injury period, and their artistic skills, talent, creativity, and productivity remained unchanged. The quality of their post-injury artworks remained highly regarded and influential. These neurological cases suggest widely distributed and diffuse neural control by the brain in the creation of art. PMID:28825632

  4. Association of fish oil supplement use with preservation of brain volume and cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Daiello, Lori A.; Gongvatana, Assawin; Dunsiger, Shira; Cohen, Ronald A.; Ott, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of fish oil supplements (FOSs) is associated with concomitant reduction in cognitive decline and brain atrophy in older adults. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study to examine the relationship between FOS use during the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and indicators of cognitive decline. Older adults (229 cognitively normal individuals, 397 patients with mild cognitive impairment, and 193 patients with Alzheimer’s disease) were assessed with neuropsychological tests and brain magnetic resonance imaging every 6 months. Primary outcomes included (1) global cognitive status and (2) cerebral cortex gray matter and hippocampus and ventricular volumes. Results FOS use during follow-up was associated with significantly lower mean cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale and higher Mini-Mental State Examination scores among those with normal cognition. Associations between FOS use and the outcomes were observed only in APOE ε4–negative participants. FOS use during the study was also associated with less atrophy in one or more brain regions of interest. PMID:24954371

  5. Braque and Kokoschka: Brain Tissue Injury and Preservation of Artistic Skill.

    PubMed

    Zaidel, D W

    2017-08-19

    The neural underpinning of art creation can be gleaned following brain injury in professional artists. Any alteration to their artistic productivity, creativity, skills, talent, and genre can help understand the neural underpinning of art expression. Here, two world-renown and influential artists who sustained brain injury in World War I are the focus, namely the French artist Georges Braque and the Austrian artist Oskar Kokoschka. Braque is particularly associated with Cubism, and Kokoschka with Expressionism. Before enlisting, they were already well-known and highly regarded. Both were wounded in the battlefield where they lost consciousness and treated in European hospitals. Braque's injury was in the left hemisphere while Kokoschka's was in the right hemisphere. After the injury, Braque did not paint again for nearly a whole year while Kokoschka commenced his artistic works when still undergoing hospital treatment. Their post-injury art retained the same genre as their pre-injury period, and their artistic skills, talent, creativity, and productivity remained unchanged. The quality of their post-injury artworks remained highly regarded and influential. These neurological cases suggest widely distributed and diffuse neural control by the brain in the creation of art.

  6. Alginate-Encapsulation for the Improved Hypothermic Preservation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Swioklo, Stephen; Constantinescu, Andrei; Connon, Che J

    2016-03-01

    Despite considerable progress within the cell therapy industry, unmet bioprocessing and logistical challenges associated with the storage and distribution of cells between sites of manufacture and the clinic exist. We examined whether hypothermic (4°C-23°C) preservation of human adipose-derived stem cells could be improved through their encapsulation in 1.2% calcium alginate. Alginate encapsulation improved the recovery of viable cells after 72 hours of storage. Viable cell recovery was highly temperature-dependent, with an optimum temperature of 15°C. At this temperature, alginate encapsulation preserved the ability for recovered cells to attach to tissue culture plastic on rewarming, further increasing its effect on total cell recovery. On attachment, the cells were phenotypically normal, displayed normal growth kinetics, and maintained their capacity for trilineage differentiation. The number of cells encapsulated (up to 2 × 10(6) cells per milliliter) did not affect viable cell recovery nor did storage of encapsulated cells in a xeno-free, serum-free,current Good Manufacturing Practice-grade medium. We present a simple, low-cost system capable of enhancing the preservation of human adipose-derived stem cells stored at hypothermic temperatures, while maintaining their normal function. The storage of cells in this manner has great potential for extending the time windows for quality assurance and efficacy testing, distribution between the sites of manufacture and the clinic, and reducing the wastage associated with the limited shelf life of cells stored in their liquid state. ©AlphaMed Press.

  7. Heat shock treatment protects osmotic stress–induced dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier through preservation of tight junction proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Tzong-Shi; Chen, Hsiang-Wen; Huang, Maw-Hsiung; Wang, Shu-Jung; Yang, Rei-Cheng

    2004-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a specialized structure in the central nervous system (CNS), which participates in maintenance of a state of cerebrospinal fluid homeostasis. The endothelial cells of the cerebral capillaries and the tight junctions between them form the basis of the BBB. Research has shown that destruction of the BBB is associated with diseases of the CNS. However, there is little research on how the BBB might be protected. In this study, we used a high osmotic solution (1.6 M d-mannitol) to open the BBB of rats and Evans blue dye as a macromolecular marker. The effect of heat shock treatment was evaluated. The results show that increased synthesis of heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) was induced in the heated group only. BBB permeability was significantly less in the heat shock–treated group after hyperosmotic shock. The major tight junction proteins, occludin and zonula occludens (ZO)-1, were significantly decreased after d-mannitol treatment in the nonheated group, whereas they were preserved in the heated group. The coimmunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that Hsp72 could be detected in the precipitates of brain extract interacting with anti–ZO-1 antibodies as well as those interacting with anti–occludin antibodies in the heated group. We conclude that the integrity of tight junctions could be maintained by previous heat shock treatment, which might be associated with the increased production of Hsp72. PMID:15633295

  8. Breast Cancer Cells May Change When They Spread to Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Cells May Change When They Spread to Brain: Study Finding might lead to better treatment, researchers ... HealthDay News) -- When breast cancer spreads to the brain, important molecular changes may occur in the cancer, ...

  9. Brain repair: cell therapy in stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kalladka, Dheeraj; Muir, Keith W

    2014-01-01

    Stroke affects one in every six people worldwide, and is the leading cause of adult disability. Some spontaneous recovery is usual but of limited extent, and the mechanisms of late recovery are not completely understood. Endogenous neurogenesis in humans is thought to contribute to repair, but its extent is unknown. Exogenous cell therapy is promising as a means of augmenting brain repair, with evidence in animal stroke models of cell migration, survival, and differentiation, enhanced endogenous angiogenesis and neurogenesis, immunomodulation, and the secretion of trophic factors by stem cells from a variety of sources, but the potential mechanisms of action are incompletely understood. In the animal models of stroke, both mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and neural stem cells (NSCs) improve functional recovery, and MSCs reduce the infarct volume when administered acutely, but the heterogeneity in the choice of assessment scales, publication bias, and the possible confounding effects of immunosuppressants make the comparison of effects across cell types difficult. The use of adult-derived cells avoids the ethical issues around embryonic cells but may have more restricted differentiation potential. The use of autologous cells avoids rejection risk, but the sources are restricted, and culture expansion may be necessary, delaying treatment. Allogeneic cells offer controlled cell numbers and immediate availability, which may have advantages for acute treatment. Early clinical trials of both NSCs and MSCs are ongoing, and clinical safety data are emerging from limited numbers of selected patients. Ongoing research to identify prognostic imaging markers may help to improve patient selection, and the novel imaging techniques may identify biomarkers of recovery and the mechanism of action for cell therapies. PMID:24627643

  10. Human brain glial cells synthesize thrombospondin.

    PubMed Central

    Asch, A S; Leung, L L; Shapiro, J; Nachman, R L

    1986-01-01

    Thrombospondin, a 450-kDa multinodular glycoprotein with lectin-type activity, is found in human platelets, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, monocytes, and granular pneumocytes. Thrombospondin interacts with heparin, fibrinogen, fibronectin, collagen, histidine-rich glycoprotein, and plasminogen. Recently, thrombospondin synthesis by smooth muscle cells has been reported to be augmented by platelet-derived growth factor. We present evidence that thrombospondin is present within and synthesized by astrocytic neuroglial cells. Heparin-Sepharose affinity chromatography of material derived from a human brain homogenate yielded a protein that, when reduced, had an apparent size of 180 kDa and comigrated with reduced platelet thrombospondin on NaDodSO4/PAGE. Immunoblot analysis with monospecific anti-thrombospondin confirmed the presence of immunoreactive thrombospondin. Indirect immunofluorescence of cultured human glial cells indicated the presence of thrombospondin. Metabolic labeling of glial cell cultures with [35S]methionine followed by immunoprecipitation with monospecific anti-thrombospondin revealed synthesis of a 180-kDa polypeptide that comigrated with platelet thrombospondin on NaDodSO4/PAGE. Cultured human glial cells were incubated for 48 hr in serum-free medium with purified platelet-derived growth factor at concentrations up to 50 ng/ml. Aliquots taken at intervals were analyzed by a quantitative double-antibody ELISA. The growth factor stimulated the release of thrombospondin into the culture medium by as much as 10-fold over control cultures. The presence of thrombospondin within glial cells of the central nervous system and the augmentation of its synthesis by platelet-derived growth factor suggest that thrombospondin may play an important role in regulating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions during periods of cell division and growth. Images PMID:2939460

  11. [Trehalose loading red blood cells and freeze-drying preservation].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Lu, Zhi-Gang; Han, Ying

    2006-06-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the feasibility of cryopreserving red blood cells (RBCs) by loading with trehalose and to evaluate the effect of trehalose on lyophilized RBCs. Based on the thermal properties of RBC plasma membrane, the RBCs were incubated in 0.8 mol/L trehalose solution at 37 degrees C for 7 hours, and RBCs incubated in phosphate-buffered saline were used as control. The morphology of RBCs was observed by light and scanning electron microscopy, the hemolysis rate of loaded RBCs was detected by using cyanohemoglobin kit, the intracellular trehalose levels were assayed by sulfate anthrone method, the intracellular ATP and 2, 3-DPG levels were determined by bioluminescence assay and 2, 3-DPG kit respectively, meanwhile the deformation and osmotic fragility of RBCs were measured. The results showed that the intracellular trehalose concentration was 36.56 +/- 7.95 mmol/L, the electronical microscopic images of trehalose-loaded RBCs showed the membrane integrity, the hemolysis rate in trehalose-loaded RBCs was 15.663 +/- 3.848%, while hemolysis rate in controlled RBC was 5.03 +/- 1.85% (P < 0.05). Maximum index of deformation in trehalose-loaded RBC was 0.0289 +/- 0.00738, while maximum index of deformation in control group was 0.1200 +/- 0.0121 (P < 0.05), The level of ATP in trehalose-loaded RBC was 2.67 +/- 0.54 micromol/gHb, while the level of ATP in control group was 5.22 +/- 1.10 micromol/gHb (P > 0.05). Osmotic fragility data showed that trehalose exerted osmotic protection on RBC. During loading period the level of 2, 3-DPG in trehalose-loaded RBC was maintained close to the level in control. When trehalose-loaded RBCs were lyophilized and rehydrated, the recovery rate of hemoglobin was about 46.44 +/- 4.14% and that in control was 8.33 +/- 2.34% (P < 0.001). The recovery rate of hemoglobin of trehalose-loaded RBC was higher than that of control. It is concluded that trehalose can be integrated in the membrane of RBC in lyophilization state

  12. Extraction of nucleic acids from yeast cells and plant tissues using ethanol as medium for sample preservation and cell disruption.

    PubMed

    Linke, Bettina; Schröder, Kersten; Arter, Juliane; Gasperazzo, Tatiana; Woehlecke, Holger; Ehwald, Rudolf

    2010-09-01

    Here we report that dehydrated ethanol is an excellent medium for both in situ preservation of nucleic acids and cell disruption of plant and yeast cells. Cell disruption was strongly facilitated by prior dehydration of the ethanol using dehydrated zeolite. Following removal of ethanol, nucleic acids were extracted from the homogenate pellet using denaturing buffers. The method provided DNA and RNA of high yield and integrity. Whereas cell wall disruption was essential for extraction of DNA and large RNA molecules, smaller molecules such as tRNAs could be selectively extracted from undisrupted, ethanol-treated yeast cells. Our results demonstrate the utility of absolute ethanol for sample fixation, cell membrane and cell wall disruption, as well as preservation of nucleic acids during sample storage.

  13. Endothelial Cell Viability of Donor Corneas Preserved in Eusol-C Corneal Storage Medium.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Bora; Uzunel, Umut Duygu; Küsbeci, Tuncay

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of Eusol-C as a corneal storage medium on the survival of donor endothelium. Twenty-seven corneas not suitable for transplant were included in this study. All donor corneas were stored in Eusol-C at 4°C. Daily donor corneal endothelial cell counting was performed with an eye bank specular microscope. All corneas were discarded after the study process. Mean donor age was 51.3 ± 18.8 years (range, 25-94 y). The mean duration between death and corneal excision was 9.5 ± 6.7 hours (range, 3-23 h). Mean endothelial cell density was 2195 ± 383 cells/mm² at the beginning of the preservation (range, 1361-2899 cells/mm²). Donor endothelial cell density was between 1500 to 2000 cells/mm² in 9 corneas, 2000 to 2500 in 11 corneas, 2500 to 3000 in 5, and higher than 3000 in 2 corneas at baseline. Mean endothelial cell density was found 1658 cells/mm² on the eighth day of storage, with a mean endothelial cell loss rate of 24.5%. Corneas stored 9 to 24 days in Eusol-C had a rate of endothelial cell damage of 3.1% per day. Although our results revealed a higher endothelial cell loss than previous reports, overall performance of Eusol-C in preserving the donor endothelium may be satisfactory for clinical use.

  14. Intranasal Delivery of A Novel Amnion Cell Secretome Prevents Neuronal Damage and Preserves Function In A Mouse Multiple Sclerosis Model

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Reas S.; Dine, Kimberly; Bauman, Bailey; Lorentsen, Michael; Lin, Lisa; Brown, Helayna; Hanson, Leah R.; Svitak, Aleta L.; Wessel, Howard; Brown, Larry; Shindler, Kenneth S.

    2017-01-01

    The ability of a novel intranasally delivered amnion cell derived biologic to suppress inflammation, prevent neuronal damage and preserve neurologic function in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis animal model of multiple sclerosis was assessed. Currently, there are no existing optic nerve treatment methods for disease or trauma that result in permanent vision loss. Demyelinating optic nerve inflammation, termed optic neuritis, induces permanent visual dysfunction due to retinal ganglion cell damage in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. ST266, the biological secretome of Amnion-derived Multipotent Progenitor cells, contains multiple anti-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. Intranasally administered ST266 accumulated in rodent eyes and optic nerves, attenuated visual dysfunction, and prevented retinal ganglion cell loss in experimental optic neuritis, with reduced inflammation and demyelination. Additionally, ST266 reduced retinal ganglion cell death in vitro. Neuroprotective effects involved oxidative stress reduction, SIRT1-mediated mitochondrial function promotion, and pAKT signaling. Intranasal delivery of neuroprotective ST266 is a potential novel, noninvasive therapeutic modality for the eyes, optic nerves and brain. The unique combination of biologic molecules in ST266 provides an innovative approach with broad implications for suppressing inflammation in autoimmune diseases, and for preventing neuronal damage in acute neuronal injury and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis. PMID:28139754

  15. Cell specific DNA-labelling in the repairing blood-brain barrier of the insect Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Swales, L S; Howes, E A; Smith, P J

    1992-03-01

    This study uses a recently developed technique for preserving the ultrastructure of cells in the insect CNS during immunohistochemical processing for 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine incorporation into newly synthesised DNA. The results allow us to identify the proliferating cell classes in the regenerating blood-brain barrier. High resistance barrier cells do not label with the antibody but sheath cells clearly do. Intermediate cell types appearing during repair are identified. It is hypothesised that these cells generate matrix molecules for neural lamella repair and may represent transitional forms as invasive blood cells transdifferentiate into functional sheath cells.

  16. Individual Case Analysis of Postmortem Interval Time on Brain Tissue Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Jeffrey A.; Wang, Chunyu; Hernandez, Damarys; Siedlak, Sandra L.; Rodgers, Mark S.; Achar, Rojan K.; Fahmy, Lara M.; Torres, Sandy L.; Petersen, Robert B.; Zhu, Xiongwei; Casadesus, Gemma; Lee, Hyoung-gon

    2016-01-01

    At autopsy, the time that has elapsed since the time of death is routinely documented and noted as the postmortem interval (PMI). The PMI of human tissue samples is a parameter often reported in research studies and comparable PMI is preferred when comparing different populations, i.e., disease versus control patients. In theory, a short PMI may alleviate non-experimental protein denaturation, enzyme activity, and other chemical changes such as the pH, which could affect protein and nucleic acid integrity. Previous studies have compared PMI en masse by looking at many different individual cases each with one unique PMI, which may be affected by individual variance. To overcome this obstacle, in this study human hippocampal segments from the same individuals were sampled at different time points after autopsy creating a series of PMIs for each case. Frozen and fixed tissue was then examined by Western blot, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry to evaluate the effect of extended PMI on proteins, nucleic acids, and tissue morphology. In our results, immunostaining profiles for most proteins remained unchanged even after PMI of over 50 h, yet by Western blot distinctive degradation patterns were observed in different protein species. Finally, RNA integrity was lower after extended PMI; however, RNA preservation was variable among cases suggesting antemortem factors may play a larger role than PMI in protein and nucleic acid integrity. PMID:26982086

  17. Individual Case Analysis of Postmortem Interval Time on Brain Tissue Preservation.

    PubMed

    Blair, Jeffrey A; Wang, Chunyu; Hernandez, Damarys; Siedlak, Sandra L; Rodgers, Mark S; Achar, Rojan K; Fahmy, Lara M; Torres, Sandy L; Petersen, Robert B; Zhu, Xiongwei; Casadesus, Gemma; Lee, Hyoung-Gon

    2016-01-01

    At autopsy, the time that has elapsed since the time of death is routinely documented and noted as the postmortem interval (PMI). The PMI of human tissue samples is a parameter often reported in research studies and comparable PMI is preferred when comparing different populations, i.e., disease versus control patients. In theory, a short PMI may alleviate non-experimental protein denaturation, enzyme activity, and other chemical changes such as the pH, which could affect protein and nucleic acid integrity. Previous studies have compared PMI en masse by looking at many different individual cases each with one unique PMI, which may be affected by individual variance. To overcome this obstacle, in this study human hippocampal segments from the same individuals were sampled at different time points after autopsy creating a series of PMIs for each case. Frozen and fixed tissue was then examined by Western blot, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry to evaluate the effect of extended PMI on proteins, nucleic acids, and tissue morphology. In our results, immunostaining profiles for most proteins remained unchanged even after PMI of over 50 h, yet by Western blot distinctive degradation patterns were observed in different protein species. Finally, RNA integrity was lower after extended PMI; however, RNA preservation was variable among cases suggesting antemortem factors may play a larger role than PMI in protein and nucleic acid integrity.

  18. Stem Cell-Mediated Regeneration of the Adult Brain

    PubMed Central

    Jessberger, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Acute or chronic injury of the adult mammalian brain is often associated with persistent functional deficits as its potential for regeneration and capacity to rebuild lost neural structures is limited. However, the discovery that neural stem cells (NSCs) persist throughout life in discrete regions of the brain, novel approaches to induce the formation of neuronal and glial cells, and recently developed strategies to generate tissue for exogenous cell replacement strategies opened novel perspectives how to regenerate the adult brain. Here, we will review recently developed approaches for brain repair and discuss future perspectives that may eventually allow for developing novel treatment strategies in acute and chronic brain injury. PMID:27781019

  19. Preserving cortico-striatal function: deep brain stimulation in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Sean J; Machado, Andre G; Gale, John T; Lobel, Darlene A; Pandya, Mayur

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease characterized by the triad of chorea, cognitive dysfunction and psychiatric disturbances. Since the discovery of the HD gene, the pathogenesis has been outlined, but to date a cure has not been found. Disease modifying therapies are needed desperately to improve function, alleviate suffering, and provide hope for symptomatic patients. Deep brain stimulation (DBS), a proven therapy for managing the symptoms of some neurodegenerative movement disorders, including Parkinson's disease, has been reported as a palliative treatment in select cases of HD with debilitating chorea with variable success. New insights into the mechanism of action of DBS suggest it may have the potential to circumvent other manifestations of HD including cognitive deterioration. Furthermore, because DBS is already widely used, reversible, and has a risk profile that is relatively low, new studies can be initiated. In this article we contend that new clinical trials be considered to test the effects of DBS for HD.

  20. Communication of brain network core connections altered in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia but possibly preserved in early-onset Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daianu, Madelaine; Jahanshad, Neda; Mendez, Mario F.; Bartzokis, George; Jimenez, Elvira E.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-03-01

    Diffusion imaging and brain connectivity analyses can assess white matter deterioration in the brain, revealing the underlying patterns of how brain structure declines. Fiber tractography methods can infer neural pathways and connectivity patterns, yielding sensitive mathematical metrics of network integrity. Here, we analyzed 1.5-Tesla wholebrain diffusion-weighted images from 64 participants - 15 patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), 19 with early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD), and 30 healthy elderly controls. Using whole-brain tractography, we reconstructed structural brain connectivity networks to map connections between cortical regions. We evaluated the brain's networks focusing on the most highly central and connected regions, also known as hubs, in each diagnostic group - specifically the "high-cost" structural backbone used in global and regional communication. The high-cost backbone of the brain, predicted by fiber density and minimally short pathways between brain regions, accounted for 81-92% of the overall brain communication metric in all diagnostic groups. Furthermore, we found that the set of pathways interconnecting high-cost and high-capacity regions of the brain's communication network are globally and regionally altered in bvFTD, compared to healthy participants; however, the overall organization of the high-cost and high-capacity networks were relatively preserved in EOAD participants, relative to controls. Disruption of the major central hubs that transfer information between brain regions may impair neural communication and functional integrity in characteristic ways typical of each subtype of dementia.

  1. A survey of human brain transcriptome diversity at the single cell level.

    PubMed

    Darmanis, Spyros; Sloan, Steven A; Zhang, Ye; Enge, Martin; Caneda, Christine; Shuer, Lawrence M; Hayden Gephart, Melanie G; Barres, Ben A; Quake, Stephen R

    2015-06-09

    The human brain is a tissue of vast complexity in terms of the cell types it comprises. Conventional approaches to classifying cell types in the human brain at single cell resolution have been limited to exploring relatively few markers and therefore have provided a limited molecular characterization of any given cell type. We used single cell RNA sequencing on 466 cells to capture the cellular complexity of the adult and fetal human brain at a whole transcriptome level. Healthy adult temporal lobe tissue was obtained during surgical procedures where otherwise normal tissue was removed to gain access to deeper hippocampal pathology in patients with medical refractory seizures. We were able to classify individual cells into all of the major neuronal, glial, and vascular cell types in the brain. We were able to divide neurons into individual communities and show that these communities preserve the categorization of interneuron subtypes that is typically observed with the use of classic interneuron markers. We then used single cell RNA sequencing on fetal human cortical neurons to identify genes that are differentially expressed between fetal and adult neurons and those genes that display an expression gradient that reflects the transition between replicating and quiescent fetal neuronal populations. Finally, we observed the expression of major histocompatibility complex type I genes in a subset of adult neurons, but not fetal neurons. The work presented here demonstrates the applicability of single cell RNA sequencing on the study of the adult human brain and constitutes a first step toward a comprehensive cellular atlas of the human brain.

  2. Brain mesenchymal stem cells: The other stem cells of the brain?

    PubMed

    Appaix, Florence; Nissou, Marie-France; van der Sanden, Boudewijn; Dreyfus, Matthieu; Berger, François; Issartel, Jean-Paul; Wion, Didier

    2014-04-26

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), have the potential to differentiate into cells of the mesenchymal lineage and have non-progenitor functions including immunomodulation. The demonstration that MSCs are perivascular cells found in almost all adult tissues raises fascinating perspectives on their role in tissue maintenance and repair. However, some controversies about the physiological role of the perivascular MSCs residing outside the bone marrow and on their therapeutic potential in regenerative medicine exist. In brain, perivascular MSCs like pericytes and adventitial cells, could constitute another stem cell population distinct to the neural stem cell pool. The demonstration of the neuronal potential of MSCs requires stringent criteria including morphological changes, the demonstration of neural biomarkers expression, electrophysiological recordings, and the absence of cell fusion. The recent finding that brain cancer stem cells can transdifferentiate into pericytes is another facet of the plasticity of these cells. It suggests that the perversion of the stem cell potential of pericytes might play an even unsuspected role in cancer formation and tumor progression.

  3. Nanomedicine Approaches to Modulate Neural Stem Cells in Brain Repair.

    PubMed

    Santos, Tiago; Boto, Carlos; Saraiva, Cláudia M; Bernardino, Liliana; Ferreira, Lino

    2016-06-01

    We explore the concept of modulating neural stem cells and their niches for brain repair using nanotechnology-based approaches. These approaches include stimulating cell proliferation, recruitment, and differentiation to functionally recover damaged areas. Nanoscale-engineered materials potentially overcome limited crossing of the blood-brain barrier, deficient drug delivery, and cell targeting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Adult human brain cell culture for neuroscience research.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Hannah M; Dragunow, Mike

    2010-06-01

    Studies of the brain have progressed enormously through the use of in vivo and in vitro non-human models. However, it is unlikely such studies alone will unravel the complexities of the human brain and so far no neuroprotective treatment developed in animals has worked in humans. In this review we discuss the use of adult human brain cell culture methods in brain research to unravel the biology of the normal and diseased human brain. The advantages of using adult human brain cells as tools to study human brain function from both historical and future perspectives are discussed. In particular, studies using dissociated cultures of adult human microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons are described and the applications of these types of study are evaluated. Alternative sources of human brain cells such as adult neural stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells and slice cultures of adult human brain tissue are also reviewed. These adult human brain cell culture methods could benefit basic research and more importantly, facilitate the translation of basic neuroscience research to the clinic for the treatment of brain disorders.

  5. Immune Interventions to Preserve Beta Cell Function in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Mario R.

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease that leads to destruction of pancreatic beta cells, lifelong dependence on insulin, and increased morbidity and mortality from diabetes-related complications. Preservation of residual beta cells at diagnosis is a major goal because higher levels of endogenous insulin secretion are associated with better short- and long-term outcomes. Over the past 3 decades, a variety of immune interventions have been evaluated in the setting of new-onset T1D, including nonspecific immunosuppression, pathway-specific immune modulation, antigen-specific therapies, and cellular therapies. To date, no single intervention has produced durable remission off-therapy in the majority of treated patients, but the field has gained valuable insights into disease mechanisms and potential immunologic correlates of success. In particular, T cell-directed therapies, including therapies that lead to partial depletion or modulation of effector T (Teff) cells and preservation or augmentation of regulatory T (Treg) cells, have shown the most success and will likely form the backbone of future approaches. The next phase will see evaluation of rational combinations, comprising one or more of the following: a Teff-depleting or modulating drug, a cytokine-based tolerogenic (Treg-promoting) agent, and an antigen-specific component. The long-term goal is to reestablish immunologic tolerance to beta cells, thereby preserving residual beta cells early after diagnosis or enabling restoration of beta cell mass from autologous stem cells or induced neogenesis in patients with established T1D. PMID:26225763

  6. Enhanced Translation of Heme Oxygenase-2 Preserves Human Endothelial Cell Viability during Hypoxia*

    PubMed Central

    He, Jeff Z.; Ho, J. J. David; Gingerich, Sheena; Courtman, David W.; Marsden, Philip A.; Ward, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    Heme oxygenases (HOs) -1 and -2 catalyze the breakdown of heme to release carbon monoxide, biliverdin, and ferrous iron, which may preserve cell function during oxidative stress. HO-1 levels decrease in endothelial cells exposed to hypoxia, whereas the effect of hypoxia on HO-2 expression is unknown. The current study was carried out to determine if hypoxia alters HO-2 protein levels in human endothelial cells and whether this enzyme plays a role in preserving their viability during hypoxic stress. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs), and human blood outgrowth endothelial cells were exposed to 21% or 1% O2 for 48 or 16 h in the presence or absence of tumor necrosis factor-α (10 ng/ml) or H2O2 (100 μm). In all three endothelial cell types HO-1 mRNA and protein levels were decreased following hypoxic incubation, whereas HO-2 protein levels were unaltered. In HUVECs HO-2 levels were maintained during hypoxia despite a 57% reduction in steady-state HO-2 mRNA level and a 43% reduction in total protein synthesis. Polysome profiling revealed increased HO-2 transcript association with polysomes during hypoxia consistent with enhanced translation of these transcripts. Importantly, inhibition of HO-2 expression by small interference RNA increased oxidative stress, exacerbated mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and enhanced caspase activation and apoptotic cell death in cells incubated under hypoxic but not normoxic conditions. These data indicate that HO-2 is important in maintaining endothelial viability and may preserve local regulation of vascular tone, thrombosis, and inflammatory responses during reductions in systemic oxygen delivery. PMID:20118244

  7. Hydrogen inhalation ameliorated mast cell mediated brain injury after ICH in mice

    PubMed Central

    Manaenko, Anatol; Lekic, Tim; Ma, Qingyi; Zhang, John H.; Tang, Jiping

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Hydrogen inhalation was neuroprotective in several brain injury models. Its mechanisms are believed to be related to anti-oxidative stress. We investigated the potential neurovascular protective effect of hydrogen inhalation especially effect on mast cell activation in a mouse model of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). DESIGN Controlled in vivo laboratory study. SETTING Animal research laboratory SUBJECTS 171, 8 weeks old male CD-1 mice were used. INTERVENTIONS Collagenase-induced ICH model in 8 weeks old, male, CD-1 mice was used. Hydrogen was administrated via spontaneous inhalation. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and neurological deficits were investigated at 24 and 72 hours after ICH. Mast cell activation was evaluated by Western blot and immuno-staining. The effects of hydrogen inhalation on mast cell activation were confirmed in an autologous blood injection model ICH. MEASURMENT AND MAIN RESULTS At 24 and 72 hours post-ICH, animals showed BBB disruption, brain edema, neurological deficits, accompanied with phosphorylation of Lyn kinase and release of tryptase, indicating mast cell activation. Hydrogen treatment diminished phosphorylation of Lyn kinase and release of tryptase, decreased accumulation and degranulation of mast cells, attenuated BBB disruption and improved neurobehavioral function. CONCLUSION Activation of mast cells following ICH contributed to increase of BBB permeability and brain edema. Hydrogen inhalation preserved BBB disruption by prevention of mast cell activation after ICH. PMID:23388512

  8. Donor Satellite Cell Engraftment is Significantly Augmented When the Host Niche is Preserved and Endogenous Satellite Cells are Incapacitated

    PubMed Central

    Boldrin, Luisa; Neal, Alice; Zammit, Peter S; Muntoni, Francesco; Morgan, Jennifer E

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation is already in clinical practice for certain genetic diseases and is a promising therapy for dystrophic muscle. We used the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy to investigate the effect of the host satellite cell niche on the contribution of donor muscle stem cells (satellite cells) to muscle regeneration. We found that incapacitation of the host satellite cells and preservation of the muscle niche promote donor satellite cell contribution to muscle regeneration and functional reconstitution of the satellite cell compartment. But, if the host niche is not promptly refilled, or is filled by competent host satellite cells, it becomes nonfunctional and donor engraftment is negligible. Application of this regimen to aged host muscles also promotes efficient regeneration from aged donor satellite cells. In contrast, if the niche is destroyed, yet host satellite cells remain proliferation-competent, donor-derived engraftment is trivial. Thus preservation of the satellite cell niche, concomitant with functional impairment of the majority of satellite cells within dystrophic human muscles, may improve the efficiency of stem cell therapy. Stem Cells2012;30:1971–1984 PMID:22730231

  9. Stem cells in cardiovascular regeneration: from preservation of endogenous repair to future cardiovascular therapies.

    PubMed

    Templin, Christian; Kränkel, Nicolle; Lüscher, Thomas F; Landmesser, Ulf

    2011-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed countries. This review summarizes current pre-clinical and clinical evidence for the potential role and mechanisms of action of stem and progenitor cells in vascular and cardiac repair and regeneration. Apart from cell transplantation strategies, approaches to maintain stem cell niche function and targeting mobilization/recruitment of specific stem/progenitor cell populations may aid in preserving vascular and cardiac function. Moreover, with the use of patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells, the field of regenerative medicine is entering a new era. Potential applications of induced pluripotent stem cells and direct reprogrammed cells as well as recent developments in tissue engineering are discussed.

  10. Preservation of Ocular Epithelial Limbal Stem Cells: The New Frontier in Regenerative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Lužnik, Zala; Bertolin, Marina; Breda, Claudia; Ferrari, Barbara; Barbaro, Vanessa; Schollmayer, Petra; Ferrari, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in the field of ocular regenerative medicine. Promising stem cell-based therapeutic strategies have been translated into the clinical practice over the last few decades. These new stem cell-based therapies offer the possibility of permanently restoring corneal epithelium in patients with severe disabling and blinding ocular surface disease. The European Union has already classified stem cell-based therapies as "medicinal products". Therefore, manipulation is strictly regulated according to the defined conditions of good manufacturing practice, with the production of stem cell therapeutics at only accredited production sites authorized by the national regulatory agencies. In this regard, as first medical products are licensed for commercial use in Europe enabling a more widespread access to a stem cell-based therapy, the need for safe, validated and reproducible techniques for ex vivo cultured tissue preservation and distribution are coming to the forefront of research. However, these provide various new challenges for biobanking industry such as the retention of viability, good functionality of stem cells and sterility issues. This chapter provides an overview of the current advances in the field of corneal/limbal epithelial stem cell culture preservation techniques using either hypothermic storage or cryopreservation methods, that were used in different culturing steps (from stem cell isolation to the ex vivo epithelial graft preparation), with the reported impact on the post-thawing product recovery.

  11. Donor satellite cell engraftment is significantly augmented when the host niche is preserved and endogenous satellite cells are incapacitated.

    PubMed

    Boldrin, Luisa; Neal, Alice; Zammit, Peter S; Muntoni, Francesco; Morgan, Jennifer E

    2012-09-01

    Stem cell transplantation is already in clinical practice for certain genetic diseases and is a promising therapy for dystrophic muscle. We used the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy to investigate the effect of the host satellite cell niche on the contribution of donor muscle stem cells (satellite cells) to muscle regeneration. We found that incapacitation of the host satellite cells and preservation of the muscle niche promote donor satellite cell contribution to muscle regeneration and functional reconstitution of the satellite cell compartment. But, if the host niche is not promptly refilled, or is filled by competent host satellite cells, it becomes nonfunctional and donor engraftment is negligible. Application of this regimen to aged host muscles also promotes efficient regeneration from aged donor satellite cells. In contrast, if the niche is destroyed, yet host satellite cells remain proliferation-competent, donor-derived engraftment is trivial. Thus preservation of the satellite cell niche, concomitant with functional impairment of the majority of satellite cells within dystrophic human muscles, may improve the efficiency of stem cell therapy.

  12. [Generation of new nerve cells in the adult human brain].

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Frantz Rom; Meyer, Morten; Rasmussen, Jens Zimmer

    2003-03-31

    Generation of new nerve cells (neurogenesis) is normally considered to be limited to the fetal and early postnatal period. Thus, damaged nerve cells are not expected to be replaced by generation of new cells. The brain is, however, more plastic than previously assumed. This also includes neurogenesis in the adult human brain. In particular two brain regions show continuous division of neural stem and progenitor cells generating neurons and glial cells, namely the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zones of the lateral ventricles. From the latter region newly generated neuroblasts (immature nerve cells) migrate toward the olfactory bulb where they differentiate into neurons. In the dentate gyrus the newly generated neurons become functionally integrated in the granule cell layer, where they are believed to be of importance to learning and memory. It is at present not known whether neurogenesis in the adult human brain can be manipulated for specific repair after brain damage.

  13. Brain Resting-State Functional Connectivity Is Preserved Under Sevoflurane Anesthesia in Patients with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Venkatraghavan, Lakshmikumar; Bharadwaj, Suparna; Wourms, Vincent; Tan, Audrey; Jurkiewicz, Michael T; Mikulis, David J; Crawley, Adrian P

    2017-05-01

    Functional connectivity studies play a huge role in understanding the relationship between the network connections and the behavioral phenotype of patients with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Some patients with PDD may not be able to tolerate the imaging procedure while they are awake, and, hence, they often need general anesthesia. General anesthesia is a confounding factor in functional imaging studies due to its effect on the functional connectivity. The objective of this study is to look at the resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) under sevoflurane anesthesia in patients with PDDs. Thirteen adults with PDD scheduled for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain under general anesthesia were recruited for the study. Resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) scans were acquired at 1 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane. Spontaneous blood oxygenation level-dependent fluctuations were measured, and a seed-voxel analysis was done to identify the resting-state networks. Subjects' data were compared with data from 16 nonanesthetized healthy controls. Six networks (default mode network [DMN], executive control network [ECN], salience network [SN], auditory, visual, and sensorimotor) were investigated. At 1 MAC sevoflurane anesthesia, RS-FC was preserved in all the networks. Secondary analysis of connectivity showed a decrease in connectivity within the thalamus and an increase in DMN-ECN and DMN-SN cross-network connectivity in the anesthetized patient group compared to healthy controls. Previous reports suggested that even mild levels of anesthesia could reduce overall fluctuation levels in the major brain. However, our results provide strong evidence that most networks can sustain detectable levels of activity in patients with PDDs even under deep levels of anesthesia.

  14. Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Protect the Fetal Brain After Hypoxia-Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Ophelders, Daan R M G; Wolfs, Tim G A M; Jellema, Reint K; Zwanenburg, Alex; Andriessen, Peter; Delhaas, Tammo; Ludwig, Anna-Kristin; Radtke, Stefan; Peters, Vera; Janssen, Leon; Giebel, Bernd; Kramer, Boris W

    2016-06-01

    Preterm neonates are susceptible to perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, for which no treatment is available. In a preclinical animal model of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in ovine fetuses, we have demonstrated the neuroprotective potential of systemically administered mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). The mechanism of MSC treatment is unclear but suggested to be paracrine, through secretion of extracellular vesicles (EVs). Therefore, we investigated in this study the protective effects of mesenchymal stromal cell-derived extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs) in a preclinical model of preterm hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Ovine fetuses were subjected to global hypoxia-ischemia by transient umbilical cord occlusion, followed by in utero intravenous administration of MSC-EVs. The therapeutic effects of MSC-EV administration were assessed by analysis of electrophysiological parameters and histology of the brain. Systemic administration of MSC-EVs improved brain function by reducing the total number and duration of seizures, and by preserving baroreceptor reflex sensitivity. These functional protections were accompanied by a tendency to prevent hypomyelination. Cerebral inflammation remained unaffected by the MSC-EV treatment. Our data demonstrate that MSC-EV treatment might provide a novel strategy to reduce the neurological sequelae following hypoxic-ischemic injury of the preterm brain. Our study results suggest that a cell-free preparation comprising neuroprotective MSC-EVs could substitute MSCs in the treatment of preterm neonates with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, thereby circumventing the potential risks of systemic administration of living cells. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) show promise in treating hypoxic-ischemic injury of the preterm brain. Study results suggest administration of extracellular vesicles, rather than intact MSCs, is sufficient to exert therapeutic effects and avoids potential concerns associated with administration

  15. In Vitro Effects of Preserved and Unpreserved Anti-Allergic Drugs on Human Corneal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Patricia; Ropero, Inés; Pintor, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Treatment with topical eye drops for long-standing ocular diseases like allergy can induce detrimental side effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro cytotoxicity of commercially preserved and unpreserved anti-allergic eye drops on the viability and barrier function of monolayer and stratified human corneal-limbal epithelial cells. Methods: Cells were treated with unpreserved ketotifen solution, benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-containing anti-allergic drugs (ketotifen, olopatadine, levocabastine) as well as BAC alone. 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine cell viability. Effects of compounds on barrier function were analyzed measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) to determine paracellular permeability and rose bengal assays to evaluate transcellular barrier formation. Results: The BAC-preserved anti-allergic formulations and BAC alone significantly reduced cell viability, monolayer cultures being more sensitive to damage by these solutions. Unpreserved ketotifen induced the least diminution in cell viability. The extent of decrease of cell viability was clearly dependent of BAC presence, but it was also affected by the different types of drugs when the concentration of BAC was low and the short time of exposure. Treatment with BAC-containing anti-allergic drugs and BAC alone resulted in increased paracellular permeability and loss of transcellular barrier function as indicated by TEER measurement and rose bengal assays. Conclusions: The presence of the preservative BAC in anti-allergic eye drop formulations contributes importantly to the cytotoxic effects induced by these compounds. Stratified cell cultures seem to be a more relevant model for toxicity evaluation induced on the ocular surface epithelia than monolayer cultures. PMID:25100331

  16. Interleaved programming of subthalamic deep brain stimulation to avoid adverse effects and preserve motor benefit in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Zamora, Adolfo; Kahn, Max; Campbell, Joannalee; DeLaCruz, Priscilla; Pilitsis, Julie G

    2015-03-01

    Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is the most common surgical treatment for managing motor complications in Parkinson's disease (PD). Ultimately, outcomes depend on a variety of factors including lead location, access and expertize in programming and PD medical management. Nevertheless, achieving ideal programming settings can be difficult in certain patients, leading to suboptimal control of symptoms and stimulation-induced side effects, notably dysarthria and dyskinesia. Interleaved stimulation (ILS) is a newer programming technique that attempts to optimize the stimulation field, improving control of symptoms while minimizing stimulation-induced adverse effects. A retrospective chart review was performed on PD patients receiving STN DBS over the past 12 months. Clinical and demographic data were collected from patients identified as having received ILS. The rationale and clinical efficacy of ILS was analyzed. Nine patients received ILS due to incomplete PD symptom control or stimulation-induced side effects after attempting multiple programming options. Appropriate lead location was confirmed with postoperative MRI except in one case. Following ILS, patients reported improvement in symptoms and resolution of side effects, while preserving adequate control in Parkinsonism with a mean improvement in UPDRS-MOTOR scores of 51.2 %. ILS continues to emerge as a safe and effective programming strategy for maximizing symptom control in PD while diminishing stimulation-induced side effects.

  17. Vibrational Profiling of Brain Tumors and Cells.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Sultan L; Proctor, Dustin T; Ghasemloonia, Ahmad; Lama, Sanju; Zareinia, Kourosh; Ahn, Younghee; Al-Saiedy, Mustafa R; Green, Francis Hy; Amrein, Matthias W; Sutherland, Garnette R

    2017-01-01

    This study reports vibration profiles of neuronal cells and tissues as well as brain tumor and neocortical specimens. A contact-free method and analysis protocol was designed to convert an atomic force microscope into an ultra-sensitive microphone with capacity to record and listen to live biological samples. A frequency of 3.4 Hz was observed for both cultured rat hippocampal neurons and tissues and vibration could be modulated pharmacologically. Malignant astrocytoma tissue samples obtained from operating room, transported in artificial cerebrospinal fluid, and tested within an hour, vibrated with a much different frequency profile and amplitude, compared to meningioma or lateral temporal cortex providing a quantifiable measurement to accurately distinguish the three tissues in real-time. Vibration signals were converted to audible sound waves by frequency modulation, thus demonstrating, acoustic patterns unique to meningioma, malignant astrocytoma and neocortex.

  18. Vibrational Profiling of Brain Tumors and Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Sultan L; Proctor, Dustin T; Ghasemloonia, Ahmad; Lama, Sanju; Zareinia, Kourosh; Ahn, Younghee; Al-Saiedy, Mustafa R; Green, Francis HY; Amrein, Matthias W; Sutherland, Garnette R

    2017-01-01

    This study reports vibration profiles of neuronal cells and tissues as well as brain tumor and neocortical specimens. A contact-free method and analysis protocol was designed to convert an atomic force microscope into an ultra-sensitive microphone with capacity to record and listen to live biological samples. A frequency of 3.4 Hz was observed for both cultured rat hippocampal neurons and tissues and vibration could be modulated pharmacologically. Malignant astrocytoma tissue samples obtained from operating room, transported in artificial cerebrospinal fluid, and tested within an hour, vibrated with a much different frequency profile and amplitude, compared to meningioma or lateral temporal cortex providing a quantifiable measurement to accurately distinguish the three tissues in real-time. Vibration signals were converted to audible sound waves by frequency modulation, thus demonstrating, acoustic patterns unique to meningioma, malignant astrocytoma and neocortex. PMID:28744324

  19. Immunoelectron Microscopic Studies Indicate the Existence of a Cell Shape Preserving Cytoskeleton in Prokaryotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, F.; Vogt, B.; Poc, C.

    1998-06-01

    , Ralstonia eutropha, Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes, T. thermosaccharolyticum, and Methanococcus jannaschii. Substantial label also in the cytoplasm was observed in Bacillus sp., Methanococcus voltae, and Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. Only very minor amounts of label were found in the nucleoid region of the cells. Whole-mount immunogold studies, combined with negative staining, revealed the existence of an intracellular network of fibrils which could be labeled by anti-actin antibodies. This network is assumed to be located below the cytoplasmic membrane all around the cytoplasm. It appears to have properties that would allow its function as a cytoskeletonlike structure preserving cell shape.

  20. The aged brain: genesis and fate of residual progenitor cells in the subventricular zone

    PubMed Central

    Capilla-Gonzalez, Vivian; Herranz-Pérez, Vicente; García-Verdugo, Jose Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) persist in the adult mammalian brain through life. The subventricular zone (SVZ) is the largest source of stem cells in the nervous system, and continuously generates new neuronal and glial cells involved in brain regeneration. During aging, the germinal potential of the SVZ suffers a widespread decline, but the causes of this turn down are not fully understood. This review provides a compilation of the current knowledge about the age-related changes in the NSC population, as well as the fate of the newly generated cells in the aged brain. It is known that the neurogenic capacity is clearly disrupted during aging, while the production of oligodendroglial cells is not compromised. Interestingly, the human brain seems to primarily preserve the ability to produce new oligodendrocytes instead of neurons, which could be related to the development of neurological disorders. Further studies in this matter are required to improve our understanding and the current strategies for fighting neurological diseases associated with senescence. PMID:26441536

  1. Combination cell therapy with mesenchymal stem cells and neural stem cells for brain stroke in rats.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba; Farahmandnia, Mohammad; Razi, Zahra; Delavari, Somayeh; Shakibajahromi, Benafsheh; Sarvestani, Fatemeh Sabet; Kazemi, Sepehr; Semsar, Maryam

    2015-05-01

    Brain stroke is the second most important events that lead to disability and morbidity these days. Although, stroke is important, there is no treatment for curing this problem. Nowadays, cell therapy has opened a new window for treating central nervous system disease. In some previous studies the Mesenchymal stem cells and neural stem cells. In this study, we have designed an experiment to assess the combination cell therapy (Mesenchymal and Neural stem cells) effects on brain stroke. The Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from adult rat bone marrow and the neural stem cells were isolated from ganglion eminence of rat embryo 14 days. The Mesenchymal stem cells were injected 1 day after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and the neural stem cells transplanted 7 day after MCAO. After 28 days, the neurological outcomes and brain lesion volumes were evaluated. Also, the activity of Caspase 3 was assessed in different groups. The group which received combination cell therapy had better neurological examination and less brain lesion. Also the combination cell therapy group had the least Caspase 3 activity among the groups. The combination cell therapy is more effective than Mesenchymal stem cell therapy and neural stem cell therapy separately in treating the brain stroke in rats.

  2. UW is superior to Celsior and HTK in the protection of human liver endothelial cells against preservation injury.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Hermann; Janssen, Petra H E; Broelsch, Christoph E

    2004-12-01

    Celsior solution (CS), a new preservation solution in thoracic organ transplantation, was evaluated for its efficacy in cold preservation of human liver endothelial cells (HLEC) and was compared to University of Wisconsin solution (UW) and histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution (HTK, Custodiol). HLEC cultures were preserved at 4 degrees C in CS, UW, and HTK, for 2, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours, with 6 hours of reperfusion. Levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) were measured after each interval of ischemia and the respective phase of reperfusion. Preservation injury of HLEC as measured by LDH release, intracellular ATP level, and MTT reduction were overall significantly (P preservation. Furthermore, cold preservation remains the main cause of preservation injury of HLEC regardless of the preservation solution used. Additionally, the maintenance of a high intracellular ATP level of HLEC after ischemia and reperfusion, as shown by UW, could be taken as a beneficial effect, particularly in long-term ischemia. In conclusion, our cell culture model reveals the order of efficacy to protect HLEC against preservation injury as: UW > CS > HTK.

  3. Cell diversity and network dynamics in photosensitive human brain organoids.

    PubMed

    Quadrato, Giorgia; Nguyen, Tuan; Macosko, Evan Z; Sherwood, John L; Min Yang, Sung; Berger, Daniel R; Maria, Natalie; Scholvin, Jorg; Goldman, Melissa; Kinney, Justin P; Boyden, Edward S; Lichtman, Jeff W; Williams, Ziv M; McCarroll, Steven A; Arlotta, Paola

    2017-05-04

    In vitro models of the developing brain such as three-dimensional brain organoids offer an unprecedented opportunity to study aspects of human brain development and disease. However, the cells generated within organoids and the extent to which they recapitulate the regional complexity, cellular diversity and circuit functionality of the brain remain undefined. Here we analyse gene expression in over 80,000 individual cells isolated from 31 human brain organoids. We find that organoids can generate a broad diversity of cells, which are related to endogenous classes, including cells from the cerebral cortex and the retina. Organoids could be developed over extended periods (more than 9 months), allowing for the establishment of relatively mature features, including the formation of dendritic spines and spontaneously active neuronal networks. Finally, neuronal activity within organoids could be controlled using light stimulation of photosensitive cells, which may offer a way to probe the functionality of human neuronal circuits using physiological sensory stimuli.

  4. FACS purification of immunolabeled cell types from adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Guez-Barber, Danielle; Fanous, Sanya; Harvey, Brandon K; Zhang, Yongqing; Lehrmann, Elin; Becker, Kevin G; Picciotto, Marina R; Hope, Bruce T

    2012-01-15

    Molecular analysis of brain tissue is greatly complicated by having many different classes of neurons and glia interspersed throughout the brain. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) has been used to purify selected cell types from brain tissue. However, its use has been limited to brain tissue from embryos or transgenic mice with promoter-driven reporter genes. To overcome these limitations, we developed a FACS procedure for dissociating intact cell bodies from adult wild-type rat brains and sorting them using commercially available antibodies against intracellular and extracellular proteins. As an example, we isolated neurons using a NeuN antibody and confirmed their identity using microarray and real time PCR of mRNA from the sorted cells. Our FACS procedure allows rapid, high-throughput, quantitative assays of molecular alterations in identified cell types with widespread applications in neuroscience. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. FACS purification of immunolabeled cell types from adult rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Guez-Barber, Danielle; Fanous, Sanya; Harvey, Brandon K; Zhang, Yongqing; Lehrmann, Elin; Becker, Kevin G; Picciotto, Marina R; Hope, Bruce T

    2011-01-01

    Molecular analysis of brain tissue is greatly complicated by having many different classes of neurons and glia interspersed throughout the brain. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) has been used to purify selected cell types from brain tissue. However, its use has been limited to brain tissue from embryos or transgenic mice with promoter-driven reporter genes. To overcome these limitations, we developed a FACS procedure for dissociating intact cell bodies from adult wild-type rat brains and sorting them using commercially available antibodies against intracellular and extracellular proteins. As an example, we isolated neurons using a NeuN antibody and confirmed their identity using microarray and real time PCR of mRNA from the sorted cells. Our FACS procedure allows rapid, high-throughput, quantitative assays of molecular alterations in identified cell types with widespread applications in neuroscience. PMID:21911005

  6. Blood cell mRNAs and microRNAs: optimized protocols for extraction and preservation.

    PubMed

    Eikmans, Michael; Rekers, Niels V; Anholts, Jacqueline D H; Heidt, Sebastiaan; Claas, Frans H J

    2013-03-14

    Assessing messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA levels in peripheral blood cells may complement conventional parameters in clinical practice. Working with small, precious samples requires optimal RNA yields and minimal RNA degradation. Several procedures for RNA extraction and complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis were compared for their efficiency. The effect on RNA quality of freeze-thawing peripheral blood cells and storage in preserving reagents was investigated. In terms of RNA yield and convenience, quality quantitative polymerase chain reaction signals per nanogram of total RNA and using NucleoSpin and mirVana columns is preferable. The SuperScript III protocol results in the highest cDNA yields. During conventional procedures of storing peripheral blood cells at -180°C and thawing them thereafter, RNA integrity is maintained. TRIzol preserves RNA in cells stored at -20°C. Detection of mRNA levels significantly decreases in degraded RNA samples, whereas microRNA molecules remain relatively stable. When standardized to reference targets, mRNA transcripts and microRNAs can be reliably quantified in moderately degraded (quality index 4-7) and severely degraded (quality index <4) RNA samples, respectively. We describe a strategy for obtaining high-quality and quantity RNA from fresh and stored cells from blood. The results serve as a guideline for sensitive mRNA and microRNA expression assessment in clinical material.

  7. Nucleic Acid Encoding A Lectin-Derived Progenitor Cell Preservation Factor

    DOEpatents

    Colucci, M. Gabriella; Chrispeels, Maarten J.; Moore, Jeffrey G.

    2001-10-30

    The invention relates to an isolated nucleic acid molecule that encodes a protein that is effective to preserve progenitor cells, such as hematopoietic progenitor cells. The nucleic acid comprises a sequence defined by SEQ ID NO:1, a homolog thereof, or a fragment thereof. The encoded protein has an amino acid sequence that comprises a sequence defined by SEQ ID NO:2, a homolog thereof, or a fragment thereof that contains an amino acid sequence TNNVLQVT. Methods of using the encoded protein for preserving progenitor cells in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo are also described. The invention, therefore, include methods such as myeloablation therapies for cancer treatment wherein myeloid reconstitution is facilitated by means of the specified protein. Other therapeutic utilities are also enabled through the invention, for example, expanding progenitor cell populations ex vivo to increase chances of engraftation, improving conditions for transporting and storing progenitor cells, and facilitating gene therapy to treat and cure a broad range of life-threatening hematologic diseases.

  8. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue or testicular cell suspensions: a pivotal step in fertility preservation

    PubMed Central

    Onofre, J.; Baert, Y.; Faes, K.; Goossens, E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Germ cell depletion caused by chemical or physical toxicity, disease or genetic predisposition can occur at any age. Although semen cryopreservation is the first reflex for preserving male fertility, this cannot help out prepubertal boys. Yet, these boys do have spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) that able to produce sperm at the start of puberty, which allows them to safeguard their fertility through testicular tissue (TT) cryopreservation. SSC transplantation (SSCT), TT grafting and recent advances in in vitro spermatogenesis have opened new possibilities to restore fertility in humans. However, these techniques are still at a research stage and their efficiency depends on the amount of SSCs available for fertility restoration. Therefore, maintaining the number of SSCs is a critical step in human fertility preservation. Standardizing a successful cryopreservation method for TT and testicular cell suspensions (TCSs) is most important before any clinical application of fertility restoration could be successful. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE This review gives an overview of existing cryopreservation protocols used in different animal models and humans. Cell recovery, cell viability, tissue integrity and functional assays are taken into account. Additionally, biosafety and current perspectives in male fertility preservation are discussed. SEARCH METHODS An extensive PubMED and MEDline database search was conducted. Relevant studies linked to the topic were identified by the search terms: cryopreservation, male fertility preservation, (immature)testicular tissue, testicular cell suspension, spermatogonial stem cell, gonadotoxicity, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. OUTCOMES The feasibility of fertility restoration techniques using frozen-thawed TT and TCS has been proven in animal models. Efficient protocols for cryopreserving human TT exist and are currently applied in the clinic. For TCSs, the highest post-thaw viability reported after vitrification is 55.6 ± 23

  9. An epigenetic gateway to brain tumor cell identity.

    PubMed

    Mack, Stephen C; Hubert, Christopher G; Miller, Tyler E; Taylor, Michael D; Rich, Jeremy N

    2016-01-01

    Precise targeting of genetic lesions alone has been insufficient to extend brain tumor patient survival. Brain cancer cells are diverse in their genetic, metabolic and microenvironmental compositions, accounting for their phenotypic heterogeneity and disparate responses to therapy. These factors converge at the level of the epigenome, representing a unified node that can be disrupted by pharmacologic inhibition. Aberrant epigenomes define many childhood and adult brain cancers, as demonstrated by widespread changes to DNA methylation patterns, redistribution of histone marks and disruption of chromatin structure. In this Review, we describe the convergence of genetic, metabolic and microenvironmental factors on mechanisms of epigenetic deregulation in brain cancer. We discuss how aberrant epigenetic pathways identified in brain tumors affect cell identity, cell state and neoplastic transformation, as well as addressing the potential to exploit these alterations as new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of brain cancer.

  10. The preservative effect of Thai propolis extract on the viability of human periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Prueksakorn, Attaporn; Puasiri, Subin; Ruangsri, Supanigar; Makeudom, Anupong; Sastraruji, Thanapat; Krisanaprakornkit, Suttichai; Chailertvanitkul, Pattama

    2016-12-01

    Tooth avulsion causes an injury to the periodontal ligament (PDL). The success of tooth replantation depends on the quantity and quality of PDL cells. The aim of this study was to examine the preservative and proliferative effects of Thai propolis extract, previously shown to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, on human PDL cells. Ninety-six premolars were left to air dry for 30 min and stored in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), milk, or various concentrations of propolis extract from 0.25 to 10 mg ml(-1) for 3 h. PDL cells were isolated by collagenase and trypsin digestion, and their viability was determined by a trypan blue dye exclusion assay. PDL tissues were also scraped off the root surface and cultured to determine cell growth and morphology. The alamarBlue(®) and BrdU assays were performed to determine the cytotoxic and proliferative effects of the extract on cultured PDL cells, respectively. A non-toxic dose of 2.5 mg ml(-1) of propolis extract yielded the greatest percentage of cell viability (78.84 ± 3.34%), which was significantly higher than those of the other concentrations (P < 0.001). Nevertheless, this percentage was not significantly different from that of HBSS (80.14 ± 2.44%; P = 1.00), but was significantly higher than that of milk (71.27 ± 2.79%; P < 0.001). The cells grown from PDL explants looked like fibroblasts. However, 2.5 mg ml(-1) of the extract did not induce PDL cell proliferation. Thai propolis extract at 2.5 mg ml(-1) appears to be the most effective dose for preserving the viability of PDL cells, and this was comparable to HBSS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Optimized lysis buffer reagents for solubilization and preservation of proteins from cells and tissues.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Byeong Hee; Tsai, Kenneth Y; Mitragotri, Samir

    2013-10-01

    Reagents that facilitate solubilization of cells and tissues while preserving the biological activity of their constituents play a major role in various applications including drug delivery. Such reagents are necessary for the accurate determination of cellular and tissue concentrations of proteins, peptides, and nucleic acids, and to measure therapeutic efficacy of drug delivery technologies. Surfactant-based reagents are commonly used for this purpose; however, their utility is marred either by limited ability to solubilize or tendency to denature the proteins during solubilization. Here, we report on the screening and identification of combinations of nonionic and zwitterionic surfactants that possess excellent ability to solubilize mechanically strong and elastic tissues such as skin, while preserving its protein constituents. The leading combination, comprising an equi-mass mixture of 3-(N,N-dimethyl myristyl ammonio) propanesulfonate (TPS, CAS number:14933-09-6) and polyoxyethylene(10) cetyl ether (Brij® C10, CAS number: 9004-95-9) with a total surfactant concentration 0.5 % w/v, solubilized keratinocytes and preserved the activity of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) enzyme in its extracts at room temperature for 7 days. The ability of this mixture to preserve GAPDH activity far exceeded that of a commonly used reagent, Triton-X100. The same mixture also helped solubilize mouse skin to extract proteins and maintain detectable activity of GAPDH in the extract for 1 day. Several other mixtures of nonionic and zwitterionic surfactants were studied. These mixtures provide new reagents for solubilization of cells and tissues for research as well as technological applications.

  12. Ratio of total traction force to projected cell area is preserved in differentiating adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Abuhattum, Shada; Gefen, Amit; Weihs, Daphne

    2015-10-01

    During obesity development, preadipocytes proliferate and differentiate into new mature adipocytes, to increase the storage capacity of triglycerides. The morphology of the cells changes during differentiation from an elongated spindle-shape preadipocyte into a rounded, differentiated adipocyte. That change allows efficient packing of spheroidal (triglyceride) lipid droplets in the cells, also reducing their ability to proliferate and migrate. The change in preadipocyte morphology is well known. However, little is known about the dynamic mechanical interactions of the cells with their microenvironment, and specifically the forces applied by the cells during and following differentiation. In this study, we evaluated changes in the morphology concurrently with the magnitude and location of forces applied by the cells onto a compliant gel-substrate. We found that the elongated preadipocytes applied forces concentrated at the poles of the cell, yet during differentiation the forces become more uniformly distributed around the cell and mostly at its perimeter. Furthermore, we observed that the total traction force per cell area is preserved, remaining essentially unchanged between preadipocytes and differentiated cells 3-14 days post-differentiation. At differentiation times longer than 8 days we also observed an increasing subset of cells that indent the gels, as opposed to merely applying horizontal traction forces. Our work provides insights into the dynamic mechanobiology of the adipogenesis process.

  13. Preserving and Using Germplasm and Dissociated Embryonic Cells for Conserving Caribbean and Pacific Coral

    PubMed Central

    Hagedorn, Mary; Carter, Virginia; Martorana, Kelly; Paresa, Malia K.; Acker, Jason; Baums, Iliana B.; Borneman, Eric; Brittsan, Michael; Byers, Michael; Henley, Michael; Laterveer, Michael; Leong, Jo-Ann; McCarthy, Megan; Meyers, Stuart; Nelson, Brian D.; Petersen, Dirk; Tiersch, Terrence; Uribe, Rafael Cuevas; Woods, Erik; Wildt, David

    2012-01-01

    Coral reefs are experiencing unprecedented degradation due to human activities, and protecting specific reef habitats may not stop this decline, because the most serious threats are global (i.e., climate change), not local. However, ex situ preservation practices can provide safeguards for coral reef conservation. Specifically, modern advances in cryobiology and genome banking could secure existing species and genetic diversity until genotypes can be introduced into rehabilitated habitats. We assessed the feasibility of recovering viable sperm and embryonic cells post-thaw from two coral species, Acropora palmata and Fungia scutaria that have diffferent evolutionary histories, ecological niches and reproductive strategies. In vitro fertilization (IVF) of conspecific eggs using fresh (control) spermatozoa revealed high levels of fertilization (>90% in A. palmata; >84% in F. scutaria; P>0.05) that were unaffected by tested sperm concentrations. A solution of 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at cooling rates of 20 to 30°C/min most successfully cryopreserved both A. palmata and F. scutaria spermatozoa and allowed producing developing larvae in vitro. IVF success under these conditions was 65% in A. palmata and 53% in F. scutaria on particular nights; however, on subsequent nights, the same process resulted in little or no IVF success. Thus, the window for optimal freezing of high quality spermatozoa was short (∼5 h for one night each spawning cycle). Additionally, cryopreserved F. scutaria embryonic cells had∼50% post-thaw viability as measured by intact membranes. Thus, despite some differences between species, coral spermatozoa and embryonic cells are viable after low temperature (−196°C) storage, preservation and thawing. Based on these results, we have begun systematically banking coral spermatozoa and embryonic cells on a large-scale as a support approach for preserving existing bio- and genetic diversity found in reef systems. PMID:22413020

  14. Comparative Toxicity of Preservatives on Immortalized Corneal and Conjunctival Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ahdoot, Michael; Marcus, Edward; Asbell, Penny A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Nearly all eye drops contain preservatives to decrease contamination. Nonpreservatives such as disodium-ethylene diamine tetra-acetate (EDTA) and phosphate-buffered saline are also regularly added as buffering agents. These components can add to the toxicity of eye drops and cause ocular surface disease. To evaluate the potential toxicity of these common components and their comparative effects on the ocular surface, a tissue culture model utilizing immortalized corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells was utilized. Methods Immortalized human conjunctival and corneal epithelial cells were grown. At confluency, medium was replaced with 100 μL of varying concentrations of preservatives: benzalkonium chloride (BAK), methyl paraben (MP), sodium perborate (SP), chlorobutanol (Cbl), and stabilized thimerosal (Thi); varying concentrations of buffer: EDTA; media (viable control); and formalin (dead control). After 1 h, solutions were replaced with 150 μL of MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazonium bromide). After 4 h, solutions decanted, 100 μL of acid isopropanol added, and the optical density determined at 572 nm to evaluate cell viability. Results Conjunctival and corneal cell toxicity was seen with all preservatives. Depending upon concentration, BAK exhibited from 56% to 89% toxicity. In comparison, Cbl exhibited from 50% to 86%, MP from 30% to 76%, SP from 23% to 59%, and Thi from 70% to 95%. EDTA with minimal toxicity (from 6% to 59%) was indistinguishable from SP. Conclusions Generally, the order of decreasing toxicity at the most commonly used concentrations: Thi (0.0025%) > BAK (0.025%) > Cbl (0.25%) > MP (0.01%) > SP (0.0025%) ≈ EDTA (0.01%). Even at low concentration, these agents will cause some degree of ocular tissue damage. PMID:19284328

  15. Application of cell sheet technology to bone marrow stromal cell transplantation for rat brain infarct.

    PubMed

    Ito, Masaki; Shichinohe, Hideo; Houkin, Kiyohiro; Kuroda, Satoshi

    2017-02-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) transplantation enhances functional recovery after cerebral infarct, but the optimal delivery route is undetermined. This study was aimed to assess whether a novel cell-sheet technology non-invasively serves therapeutic benefits to ischemic stroke. First, the monolayered cell sheet was engineered by culturing rat BMSCs on a temperature-responsive dish. The cell sheet was analysed histologically and then transplanted onto the ipsilateral neocortex of rats subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion at 7 days after the insult. Their behaviours and histology were compared with those in the animals treated with direct injection of BMSCs or vehicle over 4 weeks post-transplantation. The cell sheet was 27.9 ± 8.0 μm thick and was composed of 9.8 ± 2.4 × 10(5) cells. Cell sheet transplantation significantly improved motor function when compared with the vehicle-injected animals. Histological analysis revealed that the BMSCs were densely distributed to the neocortex adjacent to the cerebral infarct and expressed neuronal phenotype in the cell sheet-transplanted animals. These findings were almost equal to those for the animals treated with direct BMSC injection. The attachment of the BMSC sheet to the brain surface did not induce reactive astrocytes in the adjacent neocortex, although direct injection of BMSCs profoundly induced reactive astrocytes around the injection site. These findings suggest that the BMSCs in cell sheets preserve their biological capacity of migration and neural differentiation. Cell-sheet technology may enhance functional recovery after ischaemic stroke, using a less invasive method. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Long-Term Impact of Radiation on the Stem Cell and Oligodendrocyte Precursors in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Panagiotakos, Georgia; Alshamy, George; Chan, Bill; Abrams, Rory; Greenberg, Edward; Saxena, Amit; Bradbury, Michelle; Edgar, Mark; Gutin, Philip; Tabar, Viviane

    2007-01-01

    Background The cellular basis of long term radiation damage in the brain is not fully understood. Methods and Findings We administered a dose of 25Gy to adult rat brains while shielding the olfactory bulbs. Quantitative analyses were serially performed on different brain regions over 15 months. Our data reveal an immediate and permanent suppression of SVZ proliferation and neurogenesis. The olfactory bulb demonstrates a transient but remarkable SVZ-independent ability for compensation and maintenance of the calretinin interneuron population. The oligodendrocyte compartment exhibits a complex pattern of limited proliferation of NG2 progenitors but steady loss of the oligodendroglial antigen O4. As of nine months post radiation, diffuse demyelination starts in all irradiated brains. Counts of capillary segments and length demonstrate significant loss one day post radiation but swift and persistent recovery of the vasculature up to 15 months post XRT. MRI imaging confirms loss of volume of the corpus callosum and early signs of demyelination at 12 months. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrates progressive degradation of myelin sheaths with axonal preservation. Areas of focal necrosis appear beyond 15 months and are preceded by widespread demyelination. Human white matter specimens obtained post-radiation confirm early loss of oligodendrocyte progenitors and delayed onset of myelin sheath fragmentation with preserved capillaries. Conclusions This study demonstrates that long term radiation injury is associated with irreversible damage to the neural stem cell compartment in the rodent SVZ and loss of oligodendrocyte precursor cells in both rodent and human brain. Delayed onset demyelination precedes focal necrosis and is likely due to the loss of oligodendrocyte precursors and the inability of the stem cell compartment to compensate for this loss. PMID:17622341

  17. Uptake and metabolism of iron oxide nanoparticles in brain cells.

    PubMed

    Petters, Charlotte; Irrsack, Ellen; Koch, Michael; Dringen, Ralf

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are used for various applications in biomedicine, for example as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging, for cell tracking and for anti-tumor treatment. However, IONPs are also known for their toxic effects on cells and tissues which are at least in part caused by iron-mediated radical formation and oxidative stress. The potential toxicity of IONPs is especially important concerning the use of IONPs for neurobiological applications as alterations in brain iron homeostasis are strongly connected with human neurodegenerative diseases. Since IONPs are able to enter the brain, potential adverse consequences of an exposure of brain cells to IONPs have to be considered. This article describes the pathways that allow IONPs to enter the brain and summarizes the current knowledge on the uptake, the metabolism and the toxicity of IONPs for the different types of brain cells in vitro and in vivo.

  18. Brain Cancer Stem Cells Display Preferential Sensitivity to Akt Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Eyler, Christine E.; Foo, Wen-Chi; LaFiura, Katherine M.; McLendon, Roger E.; Hjelmeland, Anita B.; Rich, Jeremy N.

    2009-01-01

    Malignant brain tumors are among the most lethal cancers, and conventional therapies are largely limited to palliation. Novel therapies targeted against specific molecular pathways may offer improved efficacy and reduced toxicity compared to conventional therapies, but initial clinical trials of molecular targeted agents in brain cancer therapy have been frequently disappointing. In brain tumors and other cancers, subpopulations of tumor cells have recently been characterized by their ability to self-renew and initiate tumors. Although these cancer stem cells, or tumor initiating cells, are often only present in small numbers in human tumors, mounting evidence suggests that cancer stem cells contribute to tumor maintenance and therapeutic resistance. Thus, the development of therapies that target cancer stem cell signal transduction and biologies may improve brain tumor patient survival. We now demonstrate that populations enriched for cancer stem cells are preferentially sensitive to an inhibitor of Akt, a prominent cell survival and invasion signaling node. Treatment with an Akt inhibitor more potently reduced the numbers of viable brain cancer stem cells relative to matched non-stem cancer cells associated with a preferential induction of apoptosis and a suppression of neurosphere formation. Akt inhibition also reduced the motility and invasiveness of all tumor cells but had a greater impact on cancer stem cell behaviors. Furthermore, inhibition of Akt activity in cancer stem cells increased survival of immunocompromised mice bearing human glioma xenografts in vivo. Together, these results suggest that Akt inhibitors may function as effective anti-cancer stem cell therapies. PMID:18802038

  19. Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx with subglottic extension: is larynx preservation possible?

    PubMed

    Levy, A; Blanchard, P; Temam, S; Maison, M-M; Janot, F; Mirghani, H; Bidault, F; Guigay, J; Lusinchi, A; Bourhis, J; Daly-Schveitzer, N; Tao, Y

    2014-07-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of larynx with subglottic extension (sSCC) is a rare location described to carry a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to analyze outcomes and feasibility of larynx preservation in sSCC patients. Between 1996 and 2012, 197 patients with sSCC were treated at our institution and included in the analysis. Stage III-IV tumors accounted for 76%. Patients received surgery (62%), radiotherapy (RT) (18%), or induction chemotherapy (CT) (20%) as front-line therapy. The 5-year actuarial overall survival (OS), locoregional control (LRC), and distant control rate were 59% (95% CI 51-68), 83% (95% CI 77-89), and 88% (95% CI 83-93), respectively, with a median follow-up of 54.4 months. There was no difference in OS and LRC according to front-line treatments or between primary subglottic cancer and glottosupraglottic cancers with subglottic extension. In the multivariate analysis, age > 60 years and positive N stage were the only predictors for OS (HR 2, 95% CI 1.2-3.6; HR1.9, 95% CI 1-3.5, respectively). A lower LRC was observed for T3 patients receiving a larynx preservation protocol as compared with those receiving a front-line surgery (HR 14.1, 95% CI 2.5-136.7; p = 0.02); however, no difference of ultimate LRC was observed according to the first therapy when including T3 patients who underwent salvage laryngectomy (p = 0.6). In patients receiving a larynx preservation protocol, the 5-year larynx-preservation rate was 55% (95% CI 43-68), with 36% in T3 patients. The 5-year larynx preservation rate was 81% (95% CI 65-96) and 35% (95% CI 20-51) for patients who received RT or induction CT as a front-line treatment, respectively. Outcomes of sSCC are comparable with other laryngeal cancers when managed with modern therapeutic options. Larynx-preservation protocols could be a suitable option in T1-T2 (RT or chemo-RT) and selected T3 sSCC patients (induction CT).

  20. Detrimental consequences of brain injury on peripheral cells.

    PubMed

    Catania, Anna; Lonati, Caterina; Sordi, Andrea; Gatti, Stefano

    2009-10-01

    Acute brain injury and brain death exert detrimental effects on peripheral host cells. Brain-induced impairment of immune function makes patients more vulnerable to infections that are a major cause of morbidity and mortality after stroke, trauma, or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Systemic inflammation and organ dysfunction are other harmful consequences of CNS injury. Brain death, the most severe consequence of brain injury, causes inflammatory changes in peripheral organs that can contribute to the inferior outcome of organs transplanted from brain-dead donors. Understanding of the mechanisms underlying the detrimental effects of brain injury on peripheral organs remains incomplete. However, it appears that sympathetic nervous system (SNS)-activation contributes to elicit both inflammation and immunodepression. Indeed, norepinephrine (NE)-induced production of chemokines in liver and other organs likely participates in local and systemic inflammatory changes. Conversely, catecholamine-stimulated interleukin-10 (IL-10) production by blood monocytes exerts immunosuppressive effects. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) by increased inflammatory cytokines within the brain is a significant component in the CNS-induced immune function inhibition. Non-neurologic consequences of brain injury show impressive similarities regardless of the brain insult and appear to depend on altered neuroimmune circuits. Modulation of these circuits could reduce extra-brain damage and improve patient outcome in both vascular and traumatic brain injury.

  1. Rescuing Perishable Neuroanatomical Information from a Threatened Biodiversity Hotspot: Remote Field Methods for Brain Tissue Preservation Validated by Cytoarchitectonic Analysis, Immunohistochemistry, and X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Daniel F; Walker, Ellen M; Gignac, Paul M; Martinez, Anais; Negishi, Kenichiro; Lieb, Carl S; Greenbaum, Eli; Khan, Arshad M

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity hotspots, which harbor more endemic species than elsewhere on Earth, are increasingly threatened. There is a need to accelerate collection efforts in these regions before threatened or endangered species become extinct. The diverse geographical, ecological, genetic, morphological, and behavioral data generated from the on-site collection of an individual specimen are useful for many scientific purposes. However, traditional methods for specimen preparation in the field do not permit researchers to retrieve neuroanatomical data, disregarding potentially useful data for increasing our understanding of brain diversity. These data have helped clarify brain evolution, deciphered relationships between structure and function, and revealed constraints and selective pressures that provide context about the evolution of complex behavior. Here, we report our field-testing of two commonly used laboratory-based techniques for brain preservation while on a collecting expedition in the Congo Basin and Albertine Rift, two poorly known regions associated with the Eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot. First, we found that transcardial perfusion fixation and long-term brain storage, conducted in remote field conditions with no access to cold storage laboratory equipment, had no observable impact on cytoarchitectural features of lizard brain tissue when compared to lizard brain tissue processed under laboratory conditions. Second, field-perfused brain tissue subjected to prolonged post-fixation remained readily compatible with subsequent immunohistochemical detection of neural antigens, with immunostaining that was comparable to that of laboratory-perfused brain tissue. Third, immersion-fixation of lizard brains, prepared under identical environmental conditions, was readily compatible with subsequent iodine-enhanced X-ray microcomputed tomography, which facilitated the non-destructive imaging of the intact brain within its skull. In summary, we have validated

  2. Rescuing Perishable Neuroanatomical Information from a Threatened Biodiversity Hotspot: Remote Field Methods for Brain Tissue Preservation Validated by Cytoarchitectonic Analysis, Immunohistochemistry, and X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Daniel F.; Walker, Ellen M.; Gignac, Paul M.; Martinez, Anais; Negishi, Kenichiro; Lieb, Carl S.; Greenbaum, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity hotspots, which harbor more endemic species than elsewhere on Earth, are increasingly threatened. There is a need to accelerate collection efforts in these regions before threatened or endangered species become extinct. The diverse geographical, ecological, genetic, morphological, and behavioral data generated from the on-site collection of an individual specimen are useful for many scientific purposes. However, traditional methods for specimen preparation in the field do not permit researchers to retrieve neuroanatomical data, disregarding potentially useful data for increasing our understanding of brain diversity. These data have helped clarify brain evolution, deciphered relationships between structure and function, and revealed constraints and selective pressures that provide context about the evolution of complex behavior. Here, we report our field-testing of two commonly used laboratory-based techniques for brain preservation while on a collecting expedition in the Congo Basin and Albertine Rift, two poorly known regions associated with the Eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot. First, we found that transcardial perfusion fixation and long-term brain storage, conducted in remote field conditions with no access to cold storage laboratory equipment, had no observable impact on cytoarchitectural features of lizard brain tissue when compared to lizard brain tissue processed under laboratory conditions. Second, field-perfused brain tissue subjected to prolonged post-fixation remained readily compatible with subsequent immunohistochemical detection of neural antigens, with immunostaining that was comparable to that of laboratory-perfused brain tissue. Third, immersion-fixation of lizard brains, prepared under identical environmental conditions, was readily compatible with subsequent iodine-enhanced X-ray microcomputed tomography, which facilitated the non-destructive imaging of the intact brain within its skull. In summary, we have validated

  3. Germ cell transplantation in felids: a potential approach to preserving endangered species.

    PubMed

    Silva, Robson C; Costa, Guilherme M J; Lacerda, Samyra M S N; Batlouni, Sérgio R; Soares, Jaqueline M; Avelar, Gleide F; Böttger, Karin B; Silva, Silvério F; Nogueira, Maria S; Andrade, Leonardo M; França, Luiz R

    2012-01-01

    With the exception of the domestic cat, all members of the family Felidae are considered either endangered or threatened. Although not yet used for this purpose, spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) transplantation has a high potential to preserve the genetic stock of endangered species. However, this technique has not previously been established in felids. Therefore, we developed the necessary procedures to perform syngeneic and xenogeneic SSC transplants (eg, germ cell [GC] depletion in the recipient domestic cats, enrichment and labeling of donor cell suspension, and the transplantation method) in order to investigate the feasibility of the domestic cat as a recipient for the preservation and propagation of male germ plasm from wild felids. In comparison with busulfan treatment, local x-ray fractionated radiation was a more effective approach to depleting endogenous spermatogenesis. The results of both syngeneic and xenogeneic transplants revealed that SSCs were able to successfully colonize and differentiate in the recipient testis, generating elongated spermatids several weeks posttransplantation. Specifically, ocelot spermatozoa were observed in the cat epididymis 13 weeks following transplantation. As donor GCs from domestic cats and ocelots were able to develop and form mature GCs in the recipient environment seminiferous tubules, these findings indicate that the domestic cat is a suitable recipient for SSC transplantation. Moreover, as modern cats descended from a medium-size cat that existed approximately 10 to 11 million years ago, these results strongly suggest that the domestic cat could be potentially used as a recipient for generating and propagating the genome of wild felids.

  4. Tricellulin expression in brain endothelial and neural cells.

    PubMed

    Mariano, Cibelle; Palmela, Inês; Pereira, Pedro; Fernandes, Adelaide; Falcão, Ana Sofia; Cardoso, Filipa Lourenço; Vaz, Ana Rita; Campos, Alexandre Rainha; Gonçalves-Ferreira, António; Kim, Kwang Sik; Brites, Dora; Brito, Maria Alexandra

    2013-03-01

    Tricellulin is a tight junction (TJ) protein, which is not only concentrated at tricellular contacts but also present at bicellular contacts between epithelial tissues. We scrutinized the brain for tricellulin expression in endothelial and neural cells by using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot and immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical analysis of cultured brain cells and paraffin sections of brain. Tricellulin mRNA was detected in primary cultures and in a cell line of human brain microvascular endothelial cells. Protein expression was confirmed by Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis, which further highlighted the localization of tricellulin in the cell membrane at tricellular and along bicellular contacts, and in the nucleus and perinuclear region. Compared with the well-studied TJ protein, zonula occludens-1, tricellulin expression was less marked at the cell membrane but more evident in the nuclear and perinuclear regions. The presence of tricellulin in cultured endothelial cells was corroborated by immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence staining in brain blood vessels, where it was colocalized with another TJ protein, claudin-5. Tricellulin mRNA was detected in neurons and astrocytes, whereas protein expression was observed in astrocytes but not in neurons, as shown by immunofluorescence analysis. This study reveals the presence and subcellular distribution of tricellulin in brain endothelial cells, both in vitro and in situ and its colocalization with other relevant TJ proteins. Moreover, it demonstrates the expression of the protein in astrocytes opening new avenues for future research to establish the biological significance of tricellulin expression in glial cells.

  5. Cell-based therapy for traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Gennai, S; Monsel, A; Hao, Q; Liu, J; Gudapati, V; Barbier, E L; Lee, J W

    2015-08-01

    Traumatic brain injury is a major economic burden to hospitals in terms of emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and utilization of intensive care units. Current guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injuries are primarily supportive, with an emphasis on surveillance (i.e. intracranial pressure) and preventive measures to reduce morbidity and mortality. There are no direct effective therapies available. Over the last fifteen years, pre-clinical studies in regenerative medicine utilizing cell-based therapy have generated enthusiasm as a possible treatment option for traumatic brain injury. In these studies, stem cells and progenitor cells were shown to migrate into the injured brain and proliferate, exerting protective effects through possible cell replacement, gene and protein transfer, and release of anti-inflammatory and growth factors. In this work, we reviewed the pathophysiological mechanisms of traumatic brain injury, the biological rationale for using stem cells and progenitor cells, and the results of clinical trials using cell-based therapy for traumatic brain injury. Although the benefits of cell-based therapy have been clearly demonstrated in pre-clinical studies, some questions remain regarding the biological mechanisms of repair and safety, dose, route and timing of cell delivery, which ultimately will determine its optimal clinical use.

  6. Activated Brain Endothelial Cells Cross-Present Malaria Antigen.

    PubMed

    Howland, Shanshan W; Poh, Chek Meng; Rénia, Laurent

    2015-06-01

    In the murine model of cerebral malaria caused by P. berghei ANKA (PbA), parasite-specific CD8+ T cells directly induce pathology and have long been hypothesized to kill brain endothelial cells that have internalized PbA antigen. We previously reported that brain microvessel fragments from infected mice cross-present PbA epitopes, using reporter cells transduced with epitope-specific T cell receptors. Here, we confirm that endothelial cells are the population responsible for cross-presentation in vivo, not pericytes or microglia. PbA antigen cross-presentation by primary brain endothelial cells in vitro confers susceptibility to killing by CD8+ T cells from infected mice. IFNγ stimulation is required for brain endothelial cross-presentation in vivo and in vitro, which occurs by a proteasome- and TAP-dependent mechanism. Parasite strains that do not induce cerebral malaria were phagocytosed and cross-presented less efficiently than PbA in vitro. The main source of antigen appears to be free merozoites, which were avidly phagocytosed. A human brain endothelial cell line also phagocytosed P. falciparum merozoites. Besides being the first demonstration of cross-presentation by brain endothelial cells, our results suggest that interfering with merozoite phagocytosis or antigen processing may be effective strategies for cerebral malaria intervention.

  7. Bone marrow–derived stem cells preserve cone vision in retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lois E.H.

    2004-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa is a heritable group of blinding diseases resulting from loss of photoreceptors, primarily rods and secondarily cones, that mediate central vision. Loss of retinal vasculature is a presumed metabolic consequence of photoreceptor degeneration. A new study shows that autologous bone marrow–derived lineage-negative hematopoietic stem cells, which incorporate into the degenerating blood vessels in two murine models of retinitis pigmentosa, rd1 and rd10, prevent cone loss. The use of autologous bone marrow might avoid problems with rejection while preserving central cone vision in a wide variety of genetically disparate retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:15372096

  8. Presence of Germ Cells in Disorders of Sex Development: Implications for Fertility Potential and Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Finlayson, Courtney; Fritsch, Michael K.; Johnson, Emilie K.; Rosoklija, Ilina; Gosiengfiao, Yasmin; Yerkes, Elizabeth; Madonna, Mary Beth; Woodruff, Teresa K.; Cheng, Earl

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We sought to determine the presence of germ cells in the gonads of patients with disorders of sex development to establish whether preservation of germ cells for future fertility potential is possible. We hypothesized that germ cells are present but vary by age and diagnosis. Materials and Methods We reviewed histology from patients with disorders of sex development who underwent gonadectomy/biopsy from 2002 to 2014 at a single institution for pathological classification of the gonad, composition of gonadal stroma and germ cell presence. Results A total of 44 patients were identified and germ cells were present in 68%. The presence and average number of germ cells per mm2 were analyzed by gonad type and diagnosis. By gonad type all ovotestes, most testes, ovaries and dysgenetic testes, and 15% of streak gonads had germ cells present. By diagnosis germ cells were present in all patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome, Denys-Drash syndrome, SRY mutation, mixed gonadal dysgenesis, ovotesticular conditions and StAR (steroid acute regulatory protein) deficiency, in some patients with persistent müllerian duct syndrome, XO/XY Turner syndrome and disorders of sex development not otherwise specified, and in none with complete or partial gonadal dysgenesis. Germ cells were present in the gonads of 88% of patients 0 to 3 years old, 50% of those 4 to 11 years old and 43% of those older than 12 years. Conclusions Germ cells were present in the majority of our cohort and the presence decreased with age. This novel, fertility driven evaluation of germ cell quantity in a variety of disorders of sex development suggests that fertility potential may be greater than previously thought. Further studies must be done to evaluate a larger population and examine germ cell quality to determine the viability of these germ cells. PMID:27840018

  9. Presence of Germ Cells in Disorders of Sex Development: Implications for Fertility Potential and Preservation.

    PubMed

    Finlayson, Courtney; Fritsch, Michael K; Johnson, Emilie K; Rosoklija, Ilina; Gosiengfiao, Yasmin; Yerkes, Elizabeth; Madonna, Mary Beth; Woodruff, Teresa K; Cheng, Earl

    2017-03-01

    We sought to determine the presence of germ cells in the gonads of patients with disorders of sex development to establish whether preservation of germ cells for future fertility potential is possible. We hypothesized that germ cells are present but vary by age and diagnosis. We reviewed histology from patients with disorders of sex development who underwent gonadectomy/biopsy from 2002 to 2014 at a single institution for pathological classification of the gonad, composition of gonadal stroma and germ cell presence. A total of 44 patients were identified and germ cells were present in 68%. The presence and average number of germ cells per mm(2) were analyzed by gonad type and diagnosis. By gonad type all ovotestes, most testes, ovaries and dysgenetic testes, and 15% of streak gonads had germ cells present. By diagnosis germ cells were present in all patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome, Denys-Drash syndrome, SRY mutation, mixed gonadal dysgenesis, ovotesticular conditions and StAR (steroid acute regulatory protein) deficiency, in some patients with persistent müllerian duct syndrome, XO/XY Turner syndrome and disorders of sex development not otherwise specified, and in none with complete or partial gonadal dysgenesis. Germ cells were present in the gonads of 88% of patients 0 to 3 years old, 50% of those 4 to 11 years old and 43% of those older than 12 years. Germ cells were present in the majority of our cohort and the presence decreased with age. This novel, fertility driven evaluation of germ cell quantity in a variety of disorders of sex development suggests that fertility potential may be greater than previously thought. Further studies must be done to evaluate a larger population and examine germ cell quality to determine the viability of these germ cells. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy and limitations of salvage gamma knife radiosurgery for brain metastases of small-cell lung cancer after whole-brain radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nakazaki, Kiyoshi; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Nagano, Osamu; Serizawa, Toru

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy and limitations of salvage gamma knife surgery (GKS) have not been thoroughly described. This study evaluated the efficacy of GKS for treating brain metastases associated with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) after whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) as the first-line radiation therapy. Forty-four patients with recurrent or new SCLC-associated brain metastases underwent GKS after receiving WBRT (median age, 62 years; median duration between WBRT and first GKS, 8.8 months). The median Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score was 100 (range, 40-100), and the median number of brain metastases at the first GKS was five. Ten patients who partially or completely responded to chemotherapy received prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) for limited disease. The median prescribed dose and number of lesions treated with the initial GKS were 20.0 Gy and 3.5, respectively, and the tumor control rate was 95.8 % (median follow-up period, 4.0 months). The 6-month new lesion-free survival, functional preservation rates, and overall survival were 50.0 %, 94.7 %, and 5.8 months, respectively. Neurological death occurred in 17.9 % of cases. The poor prognostic factors for new lesion-free survival time and functional preservation were >5 brain metastases and carcinomatous meningitis, respectively. Poor prognostic factors for survival time were KPS <70, >10 brain metastases, diameter of the largest tumor >20 mm, and carcinomatous meningitis. Median overall survival time from brain metastasis diagnosis was 16.9 months. GKS may be an effective option for controlling SCLC-associated brain metastases after WBRT and for preventing neurological death in patients without carcinomatous meningitis.

  11. Preexisting high frequencies of memory CD8+ T cells favors rapid memory differentiation and preservation of proliferative potential upon boosting

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Kathryn A.; Schenkel, Jason M.; Jameson, Stephen C.; Vezys, Vaiva; Masopust, David

    2014-01-01

    Summary Memory CD8+ T cell quantity and quality determine protective efficacy against reinfection. Heterologous prime boost vaccination minimizes contraction of anamnestic effectors and maximizes memory CD8+ T cell quantity, but reportedly erodes proliferative potential and protective efficacy. This study exploited heterologous prime boost vaccination to discover parameters regulating effector CD8+ T cell contraction and memory differentiation. When abundant memory T cells were established, boosting induced only 5-8 cell divisions, unusually rapid memory T cell differentiation as measured by phenotype and mitochondrial bioenergetic function, long-lived survival of 50% of effector T cells, and preservation of proliferative potential. Conversely, boosting in situations of low memory CD8+ T cell frequencies induced many cell divisions, increased contraction of effector cells, and caused senescence, low mitochondrial membrane potential, and poorly protective memory. Thus, anamnestic memory T cell differentiation is flexible, and abundant quantity can be achieved while maximizing protective efficacy and preserving proliferative potential. PMID:23890070

  12. Electroporation of Brain Endothelial Cells on Chip toward Permeabilizing the Blood-Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Bonakdar, Mohammad; Wasson, Elisa M.; Lee, Yong W.; Davalos, Rafael V.

    2016-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier, mainly composed of brain microvascular endothelial cells, poses an obstacle to drug delivery to the brain. Controlled permeabilization of the constituent brain endothelial cells can result in overcoming this barrier and increasing transcellular transport across it. Electroporation is a biophysical phenomenon that has shown potential in permeabilizing and overcoming this barrier. In this study we developed a microengineered in vitro model to characterize the permeabilization of adhered brain endothelial cells to large molecules in response to applied pulsed electric fields. We found the distribution of affected cells by reversible and irreversible electroporation, and quantified the uptaken amount of naturally impermeable molecules into the cells as a result of applied pulse magnitude and number of pulses. We achieved 81 ± 1.7% (N = 6) electroporated cells with 17 ± 8% (N = 5) cell death using an electric-field magnitude of ∼580 V/cm and 10 pulses. Our results provide the proper range for applied electric-field intensity and number of pulses for safe permeabilization without significantly compromising cell viability. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to permeabilize the endothelial cells of the BBB in a controlled manner, therefore lending to the feasibility of using pulsed electric fields to increase drug transport across the BBB through the transcellular pathway. PMID:26789772

  13. Electroporation of Brain Endothelial Cells on Chip toward Permeabilizing the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    PubMed

    Bonakdar, Mohammad; Wasson, Elisa M; Lee, Yong W; Davalos, Rafael V

    2016-01-19

    The blood-brain barrier, mainly composed of brain microvascular endothelial cells, poses an obstacle to drug delivery to the brain. Controlled permeabilization of the constituent brain endothelial cells can result in overcoming this barrier and increasing transcellular transport across it. Electroporation is a biophysical phenomenon that has shown potential in permeabilizing and overcoming this barrier. In this study we developed a microengineered in vitro model to characterize the permeabilization of adhered brain endothelial cells to large molecules in response to applied pulsed electric fields. We found the distribution of affected cells by reversible and irreversible electroporation, and quantified the uptaken amount of naturally impermeable molecules into the cells as a result of applied pulse magnitude and number of pulses. We achieved 81 ± 1.7% (N = 6) electroporated cells with 17 ± 8% (N = 5) cell death using an electric-field magnitude of ∼580 V/cm and 10 pulses. Our results provide the proper range for applied electric-field intensity and number of pulses for safe permeabilization without significantly compromising cell viability. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to permeabilize the endothelial cells of the BBB in a controlled manner, therefore lending to the feasibility of using pulsed electric fields to increase drug transport across the BBB through the transcellular pathway.

  14. Culture and isolation of brain tumor initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Lenkiewicz, Monika; Li, Na; Singh, Sheila K

    2009-10-01

    This unit describes protocols for the culture and isolation of brain tumor initiating cells (BTIC). The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis suggests that tumors are maintained exclusively by a rare fraction of cells that have stem cell properties. We applied culture conditions and assays originally used for normal neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro to a variety of brain tumors. The BTIC were isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting for the neural precursor cell surface marker CD133. Only the CD133(+) brain tumor fraction contains cells capable of sphere formation and sustained self-renewal in vitro, and tumor initiation in NOD-SCID mouse brains. Therefore, CD133(+) BTICs satisfy the definition of cancer stem cells in that they are able to generate a replica of the patient's tumor and they exhibit self-renewal ability through serial retransplantation. This established that only a rare subset of brain tumor cells with stem cell properties are tumor-initiating, and, in this unit, we describe their culture and isolation.

  15. Self-renewal and differentiation capacity of urine-derived stem cells after urine preservation for 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Lang, Ren; Liu, Guihua; Shi, Yingai; Bharadwaj, Shantaram; Leng, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Xiaobo; Liu, Hong; Atala, Anthony; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    Despite successful approaches to preserve organs, tissues, and isolated cells, the maintenance of stem cell viability and function in body fluids during storage for cell distribution and transportation remains unexplored. The aim of this study was to characterize urine-derived stem cells (USCs) after optimal preservation of urine specimens for up to 24 hours. A total of 415 urine specimens were collected from 12 healthy men (age range 20-54 years old). About 6 × 10(4) cells shed off from the urinary tract system in 24 hours. At least 100 USC clones were obtained from the stored urine specimens after 24 hours and maintained similar biological features to fresh USCs. The stored USCs had a "rice grain" shape in primary culture, and expressed mesenchymal stem cell surface markers, high telomerase activity, and normal karyotypes. Importantly, the preserved cells retained bipotent differentiation capacity. Differentiated USCs expressed myogenic specific proteins and contractile function when exposed to myogenic differentiation medium, and they expressed urothelial cell-specific markers and barrier function when exposed to urothelial differentiation medium. These data demonstrated that up to 75% of fresh USCs can be safely persevered in urine for 24 hours and that these cells stored in urine retain their original stem cell properties, indicating that preserved USCs could be available for potential use in cell-based therapy or clinical diagnosis.

  16. Self-Renewal and Differentiation Capacity of Urine-Derived Stem Cells after Urine Preservation for 24 Hours

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yingai; Bharadwaj, Shantaram; Leng, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Xiaobo; Liu, Hong; Atala, Anthony; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    Despite successful approaches to preserve organs, tissues, and isolated cells, the maintenance of stem cell viability and function in body fluids during storage for cell distribution and transportation remains unexplored. The aim of this study was to characterize urine-derived stem cells (USCs) after optimal preservation of urine specimens for up to 24 hours. A total of 415 urine specimens were collected from 12 healthy men (age range 20–54 years old). About 6×104 cells shed off from the urinary tract system in 24 hours. At least 100 USC clones were obtained from the stored urine specimens after 24 hours and maintained similar biological features to fresh USCs. The stored USCs had a “rice grain” shape in primary culture, and expressed mesenchymal stem cell surface markers, high telomerase activity, and normal karyotypes. Importantly, the preserved cells retained bipotent differentiation capacity. Differentiated USCs expressed myogenic specific proteins and contractile function when exposed to myogenic differentiation medium, and they expressed urothelial cell-specific markers and barrier function when exposed to urothelial differentiation medium. These data demonstrated that up to 75% of fresh USCs can be safely persevered in urine for 24 hours and that these cells stored in urine retain their original stem cell properties, indicating that preserved USCs could be available for potential use in cell-based therapy or clinical diagnosis. PMID:23349776

  17. Preservation of diffusion tensor properties during spatial normalization by use of tensor imaging and fibre tracking on a normal brain database.

    PubMed

    Müller, H-P; Unrath, A; Ludolph, A C; Kassubek, J

    2007-03-21

    White matter connectivity in the human brain can be mapped by diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI). After reconstruction, the diffusion tensors, the diffusion amplitude and the diffusion direction can be displayed on a morphological background. Consequently, diffusion tensor fibre tracking can be applied as a non-invasive in vivo technique for the delineation and quantification of specific white matter pathways. The aim of this study was to show that normalization to the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) stereotaxic standard space preserves specific diffusion features. Therefore, techniques for tensor imaging and fibre tracking were applied to the normalized brains as well as to the group averaged brain data. A normalization step of individual data was included by registration to a scanner- and sequence-specific DTI template data set which was created from a normal database transformed to MNI space. The algorithms were tested and validated for a group of 13 healthy controls.

  18. Salvage surgery for locoregional recurrences of advanced pharyngolaryngeal squamous cell carcinoma after organ preservation failure.

    PubMed

    López Delgado, I; Riestra Ayora, J; Arenas Brítez, O; García López, I; Martínez Guirado, T; Scola Yurrita, B

    2014-12-01

    Organ preservation treatment for advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is associated with poor outcomes due to locoregional recurrences. Salvage surgery is the main therapeutic option for some of these patients. The aim of this study was to analyse the results of salvage surgery for advanced pharyngolaryngeal squamous cell carcinoma previously treated with radiochemotherapy. We performed a retrospective study on 38 patients (36 men, 2 women). The median age at diagnosis was 60 years with a mean follow-up period of 49.8 months. Recurrences were diagnosed at a mean of 395 days after finalising organ preservation treatment. Patients went under different salvage surgeries, including 22 total laryngectomies, 6 partial laryngectomies (3 transoral laser surgeries and 3 opened surgeries), 8 functional neck dissections and 2 tongue base surgeries. Nineteen patients had no postoperative complications after a mean hospital stay of 2 weeks. However, 5 patients died of significant recurrent bleedings. There were 4 salivary fistulas that responded to conservative management, while 7 patients had important pharyngostomas that required reconstruction with either regional or free flaps. The mean hospital stay was of 61.60 days for all patients. Five-year overall survival from diagnosis, overall survival after salvage surgery and survival after salvage surgery were 44.20, 37.90 and 45.70%, respectively. In summary, we conclude that salvage surgery is an optimal treatment for pharyngolaryngeal and regional recurrences and provides improvement in locoregional control and survival, despite the severe complications.

  19. Investigations on the change of texture of plant cells due to preservative treatments by digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vora, Priyanka; Anand, Arun

    2014-10-01

    Texture change is observed in preserved fruits and vegetables. Responsible factors for texture change during preservative treatments are cell morphology, cell wall structure, cell turger, water content and some biochemical components, and also the environmental conditions. Digital Holographic microscopy (DHM) is a quantitative phase contrast imaging technique, which provides three dimensional optical thickness profiles of transparent specimen. Using DHM the morphology of plant cells preserved by refrigeration or stored in vinegar or in sodium chloride can be obtained. This information about the spatio-temporal evolution of optical volume and thickness can be an important tool in area of food processing. Also from the three dimensional images, the texture of the cell can be retrieved and can be investigated under varying conditions.

  20. Effects of fluoroquinolone eye solutions without preservatives on human corneal epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Oum, Boo Sup; Kim, Na Mi; Lee, Jong Soo; Park, Young Min

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the biologic effects of fluoroquinolone eye solutions without preservatives on cultured human corneal epithelial cells in vitro. We studied the effect of diverse generations of topical fluoroquinolones such as ofloxacin 0.3%, levofloxacin 0.5%, tosufloxacin 0.3%, moxifloxacin 0.5% and gatifloxacin 0.3% on cultured human corneal epithelial cells. MTT-based calorimetric assay, lactate dehydrogenase leakage (LDH) assay and scratch wound test were performed. Corneal epithelial cell morphologies were examined by performing inverted light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In all topical fluoroquinolones, the metabolic activity of the corneal epithelial cells decreased in a time-dependent fashion and the LDH titer increased with longer exposure times. Especially, the LDH titers significantly increased after exposure to moxifloxacin 0.5% and gatifloxacin 0.3% compared with controls. The migration rates of the corneal epithelial cells were faster in ofloxacin 0.3% or levofloxacin 0.5% than other fluoroquinolones. Severe cellular morphological damage was observed after exposure to moxifloxacin 0.5% and gatifloxacin 0.3%. As moxifloxacin 0.5% and gatifloxacin 0.3% induced the toxic effect to the corneal epithelial cells, compared with other fluoroquinolones, the 4th fluoroquinolone eye solutions should be carefully used in case of the corneal epithelium is damaged by long duration of treatment or overdosage. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Preparation and preservation of viable Akkermansia muciniphila cells for therapeutic interventions.

    PubMed

    Ouwerkerk, J P; Aalvink, S; Belzer, C; De Vos, W M

    2017-01-24

    The anaerobic gut bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila is a well-characterised member of the mucosal microbiota and has shown to be a gut symbiont in human. A. muciniphila has been negatively associated with obesity and its associated metabolic disorders in various human cohorts while treatment with A. muciniphila cells reversed highfat diet-induced obesity and its associated metabolic disorders in mouse models. Therefore, administration of A. muciniphila has been suggested as a possible new therapeutic treatment for these omnipresent diseases. Here we describe a potentially scalable workflow for the preparation and preservation of high numbers of viable cells of A. muciniphila obtained from 1 l laboratory scale growth under strict anaerobic conditions for therapeutic interventions. This resulted in viable A. muciniphila cells with high yields and very high stability, with up to 97.9±4.5% survival for a time period of 1 year at -80 °C in glycerol-amended medium. Moreover, various quality assessment and control procedures were developed to ensure the use of viable cells of A. muciniphila. Several microscopic, culturing, and molecular approaches were applied to monitor the presence, abundance and recovery of A. muciniphila before, during, and after its administration to high-fat treated mice. We show that viable A. muciniphila cells can be recovered from caecal and colon content (up to 1×10(10) cells/g), testifying for the efficiency of the described workflow.

  2. Preservation of epithelial progenitor cells from collagenase-digested oral mucosa during ex vivo cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Yi-Jen; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Lai, Jui-Yang; Ma, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Hung-Chi; Wu, Sung-En; Wang, Tze-Kai; Sun, Chi-Chin; Ma, Kevin Sheng-Kai; Chen, Jan-Kan; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Ma, David Hui-Kang

    2016-01-01

    To avoid xenogeneic infection, we report a novel protocol for producing animal-derived component-free oral mucosal epithelial cells (OMECs) sheet for transplantation, in which collagenase was used to replace dispase II/trypsin-EDTA for digesting oral mucosal tissue, and human platelet-derived PLTMax to replace fetal bovine serum. The resulting epithelial aggregates were expanded on de-epithelialized amniotic membranes without 3T3 feeder cells, and serum-free EpiLife was used to reduce contamination by submucosal mesenchymal cells. The OMEC sheets thus generated showed similar positive keratin 3/76-positive and keratin 8-negative staining patterns compared with those generated by the original protocol. Colony formation efficiency assay, BrdU label retention assay, and p63 and p75NTR immunostaining results indicated that higher proliferative potentials and more progenitor cells were preserved by the modified protocol. TaqMan array analysis revealed that the transcription of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) was up-regulated along with an increase in β-catenin signaling and its downstream cell cycle modulators, cyclin D1 and p27KIP1. Furthermore, ILK silencing led to the inhibition of nuclear β-catenin accumulation, suppressed p63 expression, and reduced the expression of cyclin D1 and p27KIP1; these observations suggest that ILK/β-catenin pathway may be involved in cell proliferation regulation during the ex vivo expansion of OMECs for transplantation purposes. PMID:27824126

  3. The Eye Drop Preservative Benzalkonium Chloride Potently Induces Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Preferentially Affects LHON Mutant Cells.

    PubMed

    Datta, Sandipan; Baudouin, Christophe; Brignole-Baudouin, Francoise; Denoyer, Alexandre; Cortopassi, Gino A

    2017-04-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most commonly used eye drop preservative. Benzalkonium chloride has been associated with toxic effects such as "dry eye" and trabecular meshwork degeneration, but the underlying biochemical mechanism of ocular toxicity by BAK is unclear. In this study, we propose a mechanistic basis for BAK's adverse effects. Mitochondrial O2 consumption rates of human corneal epithelial primary cells (HCEP), osteosarcoma cybrid cells carrying healthy (control) or Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) mutant mtDNA [11778(G>A)], were measured before and after acute treatment with BAK. Mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis and cell viability were also measured in the BAK-treated control: LHON mutant and human-derived trabecular meshwork cells (HTM3). Benzalkonium chloride inhibited mitochondrial ATP (IC50, 5.3 μM) and O2 consumption (IC50, 10.9 μM) in a concentration-dependent manner, by directly targeting mitochondrial complex I. At its pharmaceutical concentrations (107-667 μM), BAK inhibited mitochondrial function >90%. In addition, BAK elicited concentration-dependent cytotoxicity to cybrid cells (IC50, 22.8 μM) and induced apoptosis in HTM3 cells at similar concentrations. Furthermore, we show that BAK directly inhibits mitochondrial O2 consumption in HCEP cells (IC50, 3.8 μM) at 50-fold lower concentrations than used in eye drops, and that cells bearing mitochondrial blindness (LHON) mutations are further sensitized to BAK's mitotoxic effect. Benzalkonium chloride inhibits mitochondria of human corneal epithelial cells and cells bearing LHON mutations at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, and we suggest this is the basis of BAK's ocular toxicity. Prescribing BAK-containing eye drops should be avoided in patients with mitochondrial deficiency, including LHON patients, LHON carriers, and possibly primary open-angle glaucoma patients.

  4. Clear cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: clinical characteristics and feasibility of fertility-preserving treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiang; Jin, Ying; Li, Yan; Huang, Hui-Fang; Wu, Ming; Shen, Keng; Pan, Ling-Ya

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to analyze the clinical characteristics and prognosis of clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA) in the post-diethylstilbestrol (DES) era and to evaluate the feasibility of fertility-preserving treatment. The records of 32 patients with CCAs who were treated at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from August 1986 to June 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Three of the patients had undergone fertility-preserving treatment. The incidence of CCA among cervical adenocarcinomas was 15.2%. The median age was 38 years: 11 patients (34.4%) were diagnosed before 30 years of age and two (6.3%) after 70 years of age. Ten patients (31.2%) were nulliparous. No patient had been exposed to DES. Twenty-nine patients (90.6%) presented with obvious symptoms, and the cervix appeared abnormal in 26 patients (81.3%). Cervical Papanicolaou (Pap) tests were abnormal in all four patients in whom they were performed (three had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and one had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance). The distribution by stage was 56.3% stage I, 34.4% stage II, 6.3% stage III, and 3.1% stage IV. Treatments mainly included surgery for patients with stage I to IIA CCA and radiochemotherapy for patients with advanced CCA. The overall 5-year progression-free survival was 72.2%. Patients with stage I to IIA CCA had better 5-year progression-free survival than did patients with stage IIB to IV CCA (81.5% versus 40.0%, P=0.003). The three patients who had undergone fertility-preserving treatment had no recurrences. CCA may also affect adolescents and children without prior DES exposure, who are often misdiagnosed as having functional uterine bleeding. Radiotherapy appears to be effective for local control but to have no effect on distant recurrences. In our study, the prognosis of patients with early-stage CCA, including those who had undergone fertility-preserving treatment, was not inferior to that of patients with

  5. Expansion of Multipotent Stem Cells from the Adult Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Murrell, Wayne; Palmero, Emily; Bianco, John; Stangeland, Biljana; Joel, Mrinal; Paulson, Linda; Thiede, Bernd; Grieg, Zanina; Ramsnes, Ingunn; Skjellegrind, Håvard K.; Nygård, Ståle; Brandal, Petter; Sandberg, Cecilie; Vik-Mo, Einar; Palmero, Sheryl; Langmoen, Iver A.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of stem cells in the adult human brain has revealed new possible scenarios for treatment of the sick or injured brain. Both clinical use of and preclinical research on human adult neural stem cells have, however, been seriously hampered by the fact that it has been impossible to passage these cells more than a very few times and with little expansion of cell numbers. Having explored a number of alternative culturing conditions we here present an efficient method for the establishment and propagation of human brain stem cells from whatever brain tissue samples we have tried. We describe virtually unlimited expansion of an authentic stem cell phenotype. Pluripotency proteins Sox2 and Oct4 are expressed without artificial induction. For the first time multipotency of adult human brain-derived stem cells is demonstrated beyond tissue boundaries. We characterize these cells in detail in vitro including microarray and proteomic approaches. Whilst clarification of these cells’ behavior is ongoing, results so far portend well for the future repair of tissues by transplantation of an adult patient’s own-derived stem cells. PMID:23967194

  6. Brain mast cell relationship to neurovasculature during development.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mona; Ronda, Jocelyn; Weintraub, Michael; Jain, Kim; Silver, Rae; Silverman, Ann-Judith

    2007-09-26

    Mast cells, derived from the hematopoietic stem cell, are present in the brain from birth. During development, mast cells occur in two locations, namely the pia and the brain parenchyma. The current hypothesis regarding their origin states that brain mast cells (or their precursors) enter the pia and access the thalamus by traveling along the abluminal wall of penetrating blood vessels. The population in the pia reaches a maximum at postnatal (PN) day 11, and declines rapidly thereafter. Chromatin fragmentation suggests that this cell loss is due to apoptosis. In contrast, the thalamic population expands from PN8 to reach adult levels at PN30. Stereological analysis demonstrates that mast cells home to blood vessels. More than 96% of mast cells are inside the blood-brain barrier, with ~90% contacting the blood vessel wall or its extracellular matrix. Mast cells express alpha4 integrins -- a potential mechanism for adhesion to the vascular wall. Despite the steady increase in the volume of microvasculature, at all ages studied, mast cells are preferentially located on large diameter vessels (>16 microm; possibly arteries), and contact only those maturing blood vessels that are ensheathed by astroglial processes. Mast cells not only home to large vessels but also maintain a preferential position at branch points, sites of vessel growth. This observation presents the possibility that mast cells participate in and/or regulate vasculature growth or differentiation. The biochemical and molecular signals that induce mast cell homing in the CNS is an area of active investigation.

  7. NMR imaging of cell phone radiation absorption in brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Gultekin, David H; Moeller, Lothar

    2013-01-02

    A method is described for measuring absorbed electromagnetic energy radiated from cell phone antennae into ex vivo brain tissue. NMR images the 3D thermal dynamics inside ex vivo bovine brain tissue and equivalent gel under exposure to power and irradiation time-varying radio frequency (RF) fields. The absorbed RF energy in brain tissue converts into Joule heat and affects the nuclear magnetic shielding and the Larmor precession. The resultant temperature increase is measured by the resonance frequency shift of hydrogen protons in brain tissue. This proposed application of NMR thermometry offers sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to characterize the hot spots from absorbed cell phone radiation in aqueous media and biological tissues. Specific absorption rate measurements averaged over 1 mg and 10 s in the brain tissue cover the total absorption volume. Reference measurements with fiber optic temperature sensors confirm the accuracy of the NMR thermometry.

  8. NMR imaging of cell phone radiation absorption in brain tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gultekin, David H.; Moeller, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    A method is described for measuring absorbed electromagnetic energy radiated from cell phone antennae into ex vivo brain tissue. NMR images the 3D thermal dynamics inside ex vivo bovine brain tissue and equivalent gel under exposure to power and irradiation time-varying radio frequency (RF) fields. The absorbed RF energy in brain tissue converts into Joule heat and affects the nuclear magnetic shielding and the Larmor precession. The resultant temperature increase is measured by the resonance frequency shift of hydrogen protons in brain tissue. This proposed application of NMR thermometry offers sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to characterize the hot spots from absorbed cell phone radiation in aqueous media and biological tissues. Specific absorption rate measurements averaged over 1 mg and 10 s in the brain tissue cover the total absorption volume. Reference measurements with fiber optic temperature sensors confirm the accuracy of the NMR thermometry. PMID:23248293

  9. Cell lineage analysis in human brain using endogenous retroelements

    PubMed Central

    Evrony, Gilad D.; Lee, Eunjung; Mehta, Bhaven K.; Benjamini, Yuval; Johnson, Robert M.; Cai, Xuyu; Yang, Lixing; Haseley, Psalm; Lehmann, Hillel S.; Park, Peter J.; Walsh, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Somatic mutations occur during brain development and are increasingly implicated as a cause of neurogenetic disease. However, the patterns in which somatic mutations distribute in the human brain are unknown. We used high-coverage whole-genome sequencing of single neurons from a normal individual to identify spontaneous somatic mutations as clonal marks to track cell lineages in human brain. Somatic mutation analyses in >30 locations throughout the nervous system identified multiple lineages and sub-lineages of cells marked by different LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposition events and subsequent mutation of poly-A microsatellites within L1. One clone contained thousands of cells limited to the left middle frontal gyrus, whereas a second distinct clone contained millions of cells distributed over the entire left hemisphere. These patterns mirror known somatic mutation disorders of brain development, and suggest that focally distributed mutations are also prevalent in normal brains. Single-cell analysis of somatic mutation enables tracing of cell lineage clones in human brain. PMID:25569347

  10. Rhinovirus Load Is High despite Preserved Interferon-β Response in Cystic Fibrosis Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cammisano, Maria; Chen, He; Singh, Sareen; Kooi, Cora; Leigh, Richard; Beaudoin, Trevor; Rousseau, Simon; Lands, Larry C.

    2015-01-01

    Lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) is often exacerbated following acute upper respiratory tract infections caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Pathophysiology of these exacerbations is presently unclear and may involve deficient innate antiviral or exaggerated inflammatory responses in CF airway epithelial cells. Furthermore, responses of CF cells to HRV may be adversely affected by pre-exposure to virulence factors of Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa, the microorganism that frequently colonizes CF airways. Here we examined production of antiviral cytokine interferon-β and inflammatory chemokine interleukin-8, expression of the interferon-responsive antiviral gene 2’-5’-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1), and intracellular virus RNA load in primary CF (delF508 CFTR) and healthy airway epithelial cells following inoculation with HRV16. Parallel cells were exposed to virulence factors of P. aeruginosa prior to and during HRV16 inoculation. CF cells exhibited production of interferon-β and interleukin-8, and expression of OAS1 at levels comparable to those in healthy cells, yet significantly higher HRV16 RNA load during early hours post-inoculation with HRV16. In line with this, HRV16 RNA load was higher in the CFBE41o- dF cell line overexpessing delF508 CFTR, compared with the isogenic control CFBE41o- WT (wild-type CFTR). Pre-exposure to virulence factors of P. aeruginosa did not affect OAS1 expression or HRV16 RNA load, but potentiated interleukin-8 production. In conclusion, CF cells demonstrate elevated HRV RNA load despite preserved interferon-β and OAS1 responses. High HRV load in CF airway epithelial cells appears to be due to deficiencies manifesting early during HRV infection, and may not be related to interferon-β. PMID:26599098

  11. beta-cell failure in diabetes and preservation by clinical treatment.

    PubMed

    Wajchenberg, Bernardo L

    2007-04-01

    There is a progressive deterioration in beta-cell function and mass in type 2 diabetics. It was found that islet function was about 50% of normal at the time of diagnosis, and a reduction in beta-cell mass of about 60% was shown at necropsy. The reduction of beta-cell mass is attributable to accelerated apoptosis. The major factors for progressive loss of beta-cell function and mass are glucotoxicity, lipotoxicity, proinflammatory cytokines, leptin, and islet cell amyloid. Impaired beta-cell function and possibly beta-cell mass appear to be reversible, particularly at early stages of the disease where the limiting threshold for reversibility of decreased beta-cell mass has probably not been passed. Among the interventions to preserve or "rejuvenate" beta-cells, short-term intensive insulin therapy of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes will improve beta-cell function, usually leading to a temporary remission time. Another intervention is the induction of beta-cell "rest" by selective activation of ATP-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) channels, using drugs such as diazoxide. A third type of intervention is the use of antiapoptotic drugs, such as the thiazolidinediones (TZDs), and incretin mimetics and enhancers, which have demonstrated significant clinical evidence of effects on human beta-cell function. The TZDs improve insulin secretory capacity, decrease beta-cell apoptosis, and reduce islet cell amyloid with maintenance of neogenesis. The TZDs have indirect effects on beta-cells by being insulin sensitizers. The direct effects are via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation in pancreatic islets, with TZDs consistently improving basal beta-cell function. These beneficial effects are sustained in some individuals with time. There are several trials on prevention of diabetes with TZDs. Incretin hormones, which are released from the gastrointestinal tract in response to nutrient ingestion to enhance glucose-dependent insulin secretion from the pancreas, aid the

  12. The topographical properties of silica nanoparticle film preserve the osteoblast-like cell characteristics in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Wooyoung; Lee, Seung Yun; Kim, Hyo-Sop; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2016-07-01

    The Transplantation of osteoblasts, along with an artificial implant, is experimentally considered as a therapeutics for degenerative bone diseases. However, osteoblasts have several limitations for application of transplantation in therapeutics, including a low-efficiency for bone mineralization and easy loss of characteristics in in vitro culture condition. In this study, we fabricated silica nano-particle (SNP) films using particles of different sizes to culture osteoblast-like cells for analysis the effect of topography on cellular behavior and characteristics. The physical parameters of films, such as intervals, height and roughness, were proportionally increased depending on the SNP diameter. When osteoblast-like cells were cultured on the various SNP films, the cell attachment rate on SNP-300 and SNP-700 was significantly decreased when it compared to tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) group. In addition, the genes responsible for cell adhesion showed differential expression profiles in SNP films. The expression and activity of alkaline phosphatase were elevated in SNP-300 and SNP-700, and the extra-cellular matrix and osteoblast marker showed increased gene expression in these SNP films when compared to TCPS group. In the present study, we demonstrate that the topographical property of a nano-scale structure preserves the characteristics of osteoblast-like cells, and regulates the cellular behavior.

  13. Regulatory T cells ameliorate tissue plasminogen activator-induced brain haemorrhage after stroke.

    PubMed

    Mao, Leilei; Li, Peiying; Zhu, Wen; Cai, Wei; Liu, Zongjian; Wang, Yanling; Luo, Wenli; Stetler, Ruth A; Leak, Rehana K; Yu, Weifeng; Gao, Yanqin; Chen, Jun; Chen, Gang; Hu, Xiaoming

    2017-07-01

    studies demonstrated that regulatory T cells completely abolished the tPA-induced elevation of MMP9 and CCL2 after stroke. Using MMP9 and CCL2 knockout mice, we discovered that both molecules partially contributed to the protective actions of regulatory T cells. In an in vitro endothelial cell-based model of the blood-brain barrier, we confirmed that regulatory T cells inhibited tPA-induced endothelial expression of CCL2 and preserved blood-brain barrier integrity after an ischaemic challenge. Lentivirus-mediated CCL2 knockdown in endothelial cells completely abolished the blood-brain barrier protective effect of regulatory T cells in vitro. Altogether, our studies suggest that regulatory T cell adoptive transfer may alleviate thrombolytic treatment-induced haemorrhage in stroke victims. Furthermore, regulatory T cell-afforded protection in the tPA-treated stroke model is mediated by two inhibitory mechanisms involving CCL2 and MMP9. Thus, regulatory T cell adoptive transfer may be useful as a cell-based therapy to improve the efficacy and safety of thrombolytic treatment for ischaemic stroke. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Biopsy-proven mantle cell lymphoma in brain parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, Justin M.; Cooper, Barry; Krause, John R.; Stone, Marvin J.

    2011-01-01

    Brain parenchymal involvement by mantle cell lymphoma is rare and confers a grim prognosis. More commonly, patients with central nervous system manifestations of mantle cell lymphoma have leptomeningeal involvement on radiographic studies with malignant cells found in the cerebrospinal fluid. Risk factors for central nervous system involvement include a high proliferation index, bone marrow involvement, and blastoid morphology. We present an unusual case of a biopsy-proven mantle cell lymphoma mass lesion in the brain parenchyma as the presentation of relapse 6 months after diagnosis. PMID:21307976

  15. Cell fusion in the brain: two cells forward, one cell back.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Kevin; Wilkins, Alastair; Scolding, Neil

    2014-11-01

    Adult stem cell populations, notably those which reside in the bone marrow, have been shown to contribute to several neuronal cell types in the rodent and human brain. The observation that circulating bone marrow cells can migrate into the central nervous system and fuse with, in particular, cerebellar Purkinje cells has suggested, at least in part, a potential mechanism behind this process. Experimentally, the incidence of cell fusion in the brain is enhanced with age, radiation exposure, inflammation, chemotherapeutic drugs and even selective damage to the neurons themselves. The presence of cell fusion, shown by detection of increased bi-nucleated neurons, has also been described in a variety of human central nervous system diseases, including both multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Accumulating evidence is therefore raising new questions into the biological significance of cell fusion, with the possibility that it represents an important means of cell-mediated neuroprotection or rescue of highly complex neurons that cannot be replaced in adult life. Here, we discuss the evidence behind this phenomenon in the rodent and human brain, with a focus on the subsequent research investigating the physiological mechanisms of cell fusion underlying this process. We also highlight how these studies offer new insights into endogenous neuronal repair, opening new exciting avenues for potential therapeutic interventions against neurodegeneration and brain injury.

  16. Stem cells for brain repair and recovery after stroke.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Fernández, María; Rodríguez-Frutos, Berta; Ramos-Cejudo, Jaime; Otero-Ortega, Laura; Fuentes, Blanca; Díez-Tejedor, Exuperio

    2013-11-01

    Stroke is a major worldwide cause of death and disability. Currently, intravenous thrombolysis and reperfusion therapies, but not the so-called neuroprotectant drugs, have been shown to be effective for acute ischemic stroke. Thus, new strategies to promote brain plasticity are necessary. Stem cell administration is an attractive future therapeutic approach. Brain protection and repair mechanisms are activated after stroke. This article is focused on the capacity of stem cell-based therapy to enhance this postinfarct brain plasticity and recovery. Future therapeutic considerations and prospects for stroke are discussed. Although cell therapy is promising in stroke treatment, mechanisms of action need to be characterized in detail. Further, the different mechanisms of axonal plasticity and remodeling involucrated in brain repair, not only in the gray but also in white matter, must be investigated through noninvasive techniques, and a multidisciplinary approach is fundamental in this.

  17. High-Throughput Single-Cell Manipulation in Brain Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Steinmeyer, Joseph D.; Yanik, Mehmet Fatih

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of neurons and neuronal circuits in brain tissue requires the genetic manipulation, labeling, and tracking of single cells. However, current methods for manipulating cells in brain tissue are limited to either bulk techniques, lacking single-cell accuracy, or manual methods that provide single-cell accuracy but at significantly lower throughputs and repeatability. Here, we demonstrate high-throughput, efficient, reliable, and combinatorial delivery of multiple genetic vectors and reagents into targeted cells within the same tissue sample with single-cell accuracy. Our system automatically loads nanoliter-scale volumes of reagents into a micropipette from multiwell plates, targets and transfects single cells in brain tissues using a robust electroporation technique, and finally preps the micropipette by automated cleaning for repeating the transfection cycle. We demonstrate multi-colored labeling of adjacent cells, both in organotypic and acute slices, and transfection of plasmids encoding different protein isoforms into neurons within the same brain tissue for analysis of their effects on linear dendritic spine density. Our platform could also be used to rapidly deliver, both ex vivo and in vivo, a variety of genetic vectors, including optogenetic and cell-type specific agents, as well as fast-acting reagents such as labeling dyes, calcium sensors, and voltage sensors to manipulate and track neuronal circuit activity at single-cell resolution. PMID:22536416

  18. High-throughput single-cell manipulation in brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Steinmeyer, Joseph D; Yanik, Mehmet Fatih

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of neurons and neuronal circuits in brain tissue requires the genetic manipulation, labeling, and tracking of single cells. However, current methods for manipulating cells in brain tissue are limited to either bulk techniques, lacking single-cell accuracy, or manual methods that provide single-cell accuracy but at significantly lower throughputs and repeatability. Here, we demonstrate high-throughput, efficient, reliable, and combinatorial delivery of multiple genetic vectors and reagents into targeted cells within the same tissue sample with single-cell accuracy. Our system automatically loads nanoliter-scale volumes of reagents into a micropipette from multiwell plates, targets and transfects single cells in brain tissues using a robust electroporation technique, and finally preps the micropipette by automated cleaning for repeating the transfection cycle. We demonstrate multi-colored labeling of adjacent cells, both in organotypic and acute slices, and transfection of plasmids encoding different protein isoforms into neurons within the same brain tissue for analysis of their effects on linear dendritic spine density. Our platform could also be used to rapidly deliver, both ex vivo and in vivo, a variety of genetic vectors, including optogenetic and cell-type specific agents, as well as fast-acting reagents such as labeling dyes, calcium sensors, and voltage sensors to manipulate and track neuronal circuit activity at single-cell resolution.

  19. Immune heterogeneity in neuroinflammation: dendritic cells in the brain.

    PubMed

    Colton, Carol A

    2013-03-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are critical to an integrated immune response and serve as the key link between the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Under steady state conditions, brain DC's act as sentinels, continually sampling their local environment. They share this function with macrophages derived from the same basic hemopoietic (bone marrow-derived) precursor and with parenchymal microglia that arise from a unique non-hemopoietic origin. While multiple cells may serve as antigen presenting cells (APCs), dendritic cells present both foreign and self-proteins to naïve T cells that, in turn, carry out effector functions that serve to protect or destroy. The resulting activation of the adaptive response is a critical step to resolution of injury or infection and is key to survival. In this review we will explore the critical roles that DCs play in the brain's response to neuroinflammatory disease with emphasis on how the brain's microenvironment impacts these actions.

  20. Stem cells for brain repair in neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Chicha, L; Smith, T; Guzman, R

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic insults are a significant cause of pediatric encephalopathy, developmental delays, and spastic cerebral palsy. Although the developing brain's plasticity allows for remarkable self-repair, severe disruption of normal myelination and cortical development upon neonatal brain injury are likely to generate life-persisting sensory-motor and cognitive deficits in the growing child. Currently, no treatments are available that can address the long-term consequences. Thus, regenerative medicine appears as a promising avenue to help restore normal developmental processes in affected infants. Stem cell therapy has proven effective in promoting functional recovery in animal models of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury and therefore represents a hopeful therapy for this unmet medical condition. Neural stem cells derived from pluripotent stem cells or fetal tissues as well as umbilical cord blood and mesenchymal stem cells have all shown initial success in improving functional outcomes. However, much still remains to be understood about how those stem cells can safely be administered to infants and what their repair mechanisms in the brain are. In this review, we discuss updated research into pathophysiological mechanisms of neonatal brain injury, the types of stem cell therapies currently being tested in this context, and the potential mechanisms through which exogenous stem cells might interact with and influence the developing brain.

  1. A novel perivascular cell population in the zebrafish brain

    PubMed Central

    Galanternik, Marina Venero; Castranova, Daniel; Gore, Aniket V; Blewett, Nathan H; Jung, Hyun Min; Stratman, Amber N; Kirby, Martha R; Iben, James; Miller, Mayumi F; Kawakami, Koichi; Maraia, Richard J; Weinstein, Brant M

    2017-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier is essential for the proper homeostasis and function of the CNS, but its mechanism of function is poorly understood. Perivascular cells surrounding brain blood vessels are thought to be important for blood-brain barrier establishment, but their roles are not well defined. Here, we describe a novel perivascular cell population closely associated with blood vessels on the zebrafish brain. Based on similarities in their morphology, location, and scavenger behavior, these cells appear to be the zebrafish equivalent of cells variably characterized as Fluorescent Granular Perithelial cells (FGPs), perivascular macrophages, or ‘Mato Cells’ in mammals. Despite their macrophage-like morphology and perivascular location, zebrafish FGPs appear molecularly most similar to lymphatic endothelium, and our imaging studies suggest that these cells emerge by differentiation from endothelium of the optic choroidal vascular plexus. Our findings provide the first report of a perivascular cell population in the brain derived from vascular endothelium. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24369.001 PMID:28395729

  2. Brain tissue banking for stem cells for our future

    PubMed Central

    Palmero, Emily; Palmero, Sheryl; Murrell, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    In our lab we study neurogenesis and the development of brain tumors. We work towards treatment strategies for glioblastoma and towards using autologous neural stem cells for tissue regeneration strategies for brain damage and neurodegenerative disorders. It has been our policy to try to establish living cell cultures from all human biopsy material that we obtain. We hypothesized that small pieces of brain tissue could be cryopreserved and that live neural stem cells could be recovered at a later time. DMSO has been shown to possess a remarkable ability to diffuse through cell membranes and pass into cell interiors. Its chemical properties prevent the formation of damaging ice crystals thus allowing cell storage at or below −180 C. We report here a protocol for successful freezing of small pieces of tissue derived from human brain and human brain tumours. Virtually all specimens could be successfully revived. Assays of phenotype and behaviour show that the cell cultures derived were equivalent to those cultures previously derived from fresh tissue. PMID:27991551

  3. Lessons from nature for preservation of mammalian cells, tissues, and organs.

    PubMed

    Brockbank, Kelvin G M; Campbell, Lia H; Greene, Elizabeth D; Brockbank, Matthew C G; Duman, John G

    2011-03-01

    The study of mechanisms by which animals tolerate environmental extremes may provide strategies for preservation of living mammalian materials. Animals employ a variety of compounds to enhance their survival, including production of disaccharides, glycerol, and antifreeze compounds. The cryoprotectant glycerol was discovered before its role in amphibian survival. In the last decade, trehalose has made an impact on freezing and drying methods for mammalian cells. Investigation of disaccharides was stimulated by the variety of organisms that tolerate dehydration stress by accumulation of disaccharides. Several methods have been developed for the loading of trehalose into mammalian cells, including inducing membrane lipid-phase transitions, genetically engineered pores, endocytosis, and prolonged cell culture with trehalose. In contrast, the many antifreeze proteins (AFPs) identified in a variety of organisms have had little impact. The first AFPs to be discovered were found in cold water fish; their AFPs have not found a medical application. Insect AFPs function by similar mechanisms, but they are more active and recombinant AFPs may offer the best opportunity for success in medical applications. For example, in contrast to fish AFPs, transgenic organisms expressing insect AFPs exhibit reduced ice nucleation. However, we must remember that nature's survival strategies may include production of AFPs, antifreeze glycolipids, ice nucleators, polyols, disaccharides, depletion of ice nucleators, and partial desiccation in synchrony with the onset of winter. We anticipate that it is only by combining several natural low temperature survival strategies that the full potential benefits for mammalian cell survival and medical applications can be achieved.

  4. Metabolites of flavonoid compounds preserve indices of endothelial cell nitric oxide bioavailability under glucotoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Qian, Y; Babu, P V A; Symons, J D; Jalili, T

    2017-09-11

    We hypothesized that metabolites of dietary flavonoids attenuate impairments in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability evoked by glucotoxic conditions mimicking Type 1 or 2 diabetes. To test this, human aortic endothelial cells were treated with either vehicle control, quercetin-3-O-glucoronide, piceatannol or 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionoic acid for 24 h. These are metabolites of quercetin, resveratrol and proanthocyanidin, respectively. Next, cells were exposed to control (5 mM) or high (25 mM) glucose conditions for 48 h, followed by insulin treatment (100 nM, 10 min) to stimulate NO production. In control glucose conditions NO production, phosphorylated to total endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS(ser1177): eNOS), and phosphorylated to total Akt (p-Akt(Ser473): Akt) were all increased by insulin stimulation. This response was abolished during high glucose conditions. Pretreatment of cells with flavonoid metabolites prior to high glucose challenge preserved insulin stimulated increases in NO production, p-Akt(Ser473): Akt and p-eNOS(Ser1177): eNOS. These effects may be secondary to oxidative stress as pretreatment with all flavonoid metabolites prevented elevations in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in response to high glucose. These data support the hypothesis that beneficial effects of flavonoids on endothelial cell function in the context of glucotoxicity, at least in part, are secondary to their metabolites.

  5. Interactions between melatonin and nicotinamide nucleotide: NADH preservation in cells and in cell-free systems by melatonin.

    PubMed

    Tan, Dun-Xian; Manchester, Lucien C; Sainz, Rosa M; Mayo, Juan C; Leon, Josefa; Hardeland, Ruediger; Poeggeler, Burkhard; Reiter, Russel J

    2005-09-01

    Interactions of melatonin and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) have been studied in different experimental models including NADH-promoted oxyhemoglobin oxidation, vanadate-induced NADH oxidation and paraquat-induced NADH depletion in cultured PC12 cells. Our findings indicate that melatonin preserves NADH levels under oxidative stress both in cell-free systems and in cultured PC12 cells. These interactions likely involve electron donation by melatonin and reduction of the NAD radical. As a result, the NAD radical is recycled to NADH and melatonin is oxidized to N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK). NADH is a central molecule at the crossroads between energy metabolism and the antioxidant defense system in organisms. Recycling of NADH by melatonin might improve the efficiency of NADH as an energy carrier and as an antioxidant. Interactions between melatonin and NADH may be implicated in mitochondrial metabolism.

  6. Human brain endothelial cell-derived COX-2 facilitates extravasation of breast cancer cells across the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyue Yim; Kim, Youn-Jae; Yoo, Heon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Park, Jong Bae; Kim, Ho Jin

    2011-12-01

    With improvements in systemic control, metastasis to the brain has been more frequently found in patients with breast cancer. In order to gain access to the brain, breast cancer cells must overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a highly selective filter against cellular and soluble substances. Human brain endothelial cells (HBECs) comprise a major element of the BBB, and breast cancer cells first encounter and pass through them for extravasation. To date, however, the precise role of HBECs in metastasis to the brain is unknown. In this study, we examined how HBECs take part in the extravasation process. In an established in vitro model of the BBB, unexpectedly, the transmigration of breast cancer cells was markedly enhanced in the presence of HBECs than in their absence, suggesting that HBECs facilitate the transmigration of breast cancer cells rather than acting as a barrier against them. We then showed that cyclooxygenase (COX-2) induced from HBECs rather than that from breast cancer cells plays a key role in the transmigration. Moreover, expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2) mediating the transmigration was induced in HBECs by COX-2 after co-culture with breast cancer cells. Taken together, our results suggest that COX-2 and MMP-2 produced from HBECs facilitate the extravasation of breast cancer cells across the BBB.

  7. Recellularization of Well-Preserved Acellular Kidney Scaffold Using Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bonandrini, Barbara; Figliuzzi, Marina; Papadimou, Evangelia; Morigi, Marina; Perico, Norberto; Casiraghi, Federica; Sangalli, Fabio; Conti, Sara; Benigni, Ariela; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    For chronic kidney diseases, there is little chance that the vast majority of world's population will have access to renal replacement therapy with dialysis or transplantation. Tissue engineering would help to address this shortcoming by regeneration of damaged kidney using naturally occurring scaffolds seeded with precursor renal cells. The aims of the present study were to optimize the production of three-dimensional (3D) rat whole-kidney scaffolds by shortening the duration of organ decellularization process using detergents that avoid nonionic compounds, to investigate integrity of extracellular matrix (ECM) structure and to enhance the efficacy of scaffold cellularization using physiological perfusion method. Intact rat kidneys were successfully decellularized after 17 h perfusion with sodium dodecyl sulfate. The whole-kidney scaffolds preserved the 3D architecture of blood vessels, glomeruli, and tubuli as shown by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Micro-computerized tomography (micro-CT) scan confirmed integrity, patency, and connection of the vascular network. Collagen IV, laminin, and fibronectin staining of decellularized scaffolds were similar to those of native kidney tissues. After infusion of whole-kidney scaffolds with murine embryonic stem (mES) cells through the renal artery, and pressure-controlled perfusion with recirculating cell medium for 24 and 72 h, seeded cells were almost completely retained into the organ and uniformly distributed in the vascular network and glomerular capillaries without major signs of apoptosis. Occasionally, mES cells reached peritubular capillary and tubular compartment. We observed the loss of cell pluripotency and the start of differentiation toward meso-endodermal lineage. Our findings indicate that, with the proposed optimized protocol, rat kidneys can be efficiently decellularized to produce renal ECM scaffolds in a relatively short time, and rapid recellularization of vascular structures and

  8. Recellularization of well-preserved acellular kidney scaffold using embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bonandrini, Barbara; Figliuzzi, Marina; Papadimou, Evangelia; Morigi, Marina; Perico, Norberto; Casiraghi, Federica; Dipl, Chemistry; Sangalli, Fabio; Conti, Sara; Benigni, Ariela; Remuzzi, Andrea; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    For chronic kidney diseases, there is little chance that the vast majority of world's population will have access to renal replacement therapy with dialysis or transplantation. Tissue engineering would help to address this shortcoming by regeneration of damaged kidney using naturally occurring scaffolds seeded with precursor renal cells. The aims of the present study were to optimize the production of three-dimensional (3D) rat whole-kidney scaffolds by shortening the duration of organ decellularization process using detergents that avoid nonionic compounds, to investigate integrity of extracellular matrix (ECM) structure and to enhance the efficacy of scaffold cellularization using physiological perfusion method. Intact rat kidneys were successfully decellularized after 17 h perfusion with sodium dodecyl sulfate. The whole-kidney scaffolds preserved the 3D architecture of blood vessels, glomeruli, and tubuli as shown by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Micro-computerized tomography (micro-CT) scan confirmed integrity, patency, and connection of the vascular network. Collagen IV, laminin, and fibronectin staining of decellularized scaffolds were similar to those of native kidney tissues. After infusion of whole-kidney scaffolds with murine embryonic stem (mES) cells through the renal artery, and pressure-controlled perfusion with recirculating cell medium for 24 and 72 h, seeded cells were almost completely retained into the organ and uniformly distributed in the vascular network and glomerular capillaries without major signs of apoptosis. Occasionally, mES cells reached peritubular capillary and tubular compartment. We observed the loss of cell pluripotency and the start of differentiation toward meso-endodermal lineage. Our findings indicate that, with the proposed optimized protocol, rat kidneys can be efficiently decellularized to produce renal ECM scaffolds in a relatively short time, and rapid recellularization of vascular structures and

  9. Excipients of preservative-free latanoprost induced inflammatory response and cytotoxicity in immortalized human HCE-2 corneal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Smedowski, Adrian; Paterno, Jussi J.; Toropainen, Elisa; Sinha, Debasish; Wylegala, Edward; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Various preservative-free eye drop formulations for glaucoma treatment have been marketed intending to decrease ocular surface side effects and improve tolerability. However, preservative-free eye drops including different solubilizers to dissolve the antiglaucoma drugs may induce detrimental effects in the eye. In this study, we exposed human corneal epithelial cells (HCE-2) for 1, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours to the first preservative-free (PF) tafluprost (Taflotan®), the recently-launched preservative-free (PF) latanoprost (Monoprost®), preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAK) and the excipient macrogolglycerol hydroxystearate 40 (MGHS40) using dilutions 0.1%, 0.3%, 1.0%, 3.0% and 10.0% of the original products. The cells also were exposed to undiluted PF tafluprost and PF latanoprost once a day for 9 days. Cellular morphology was examined by light microscopy and cell proliferation by Ki-67 fluorescent staining with cell viability being determined by erythrosine staining and the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Mitochondrial metabolic activity was evaluated with the colorimetric MTT assay. The secretion of interleukin 6 (IL-6) was measured with ELISA. HCE-2 cells displayed no significant morphological changes after PF tafluprost treatment, but PF latanoprost caused clear cell loss. Moreover, PF latanoprost, BAK and MGHS40 evoked cellular damage and inflammation with increasing concentrations and time. Furthermore, undiluted daily PF latanoprost application significantly increased LDH release and IL-6 secretion as compared to PF tafluprost. MGHS40 was observed to be associated with the toxicity of PF latanoprost. Excipients in ocular drops should receive more attention in the future, since they seem to trigger similar detrimental effects in cells as preservatives. PMID:25530926

  10. Effects of benzalkonium chloride- or polyquad-preserved fixed combination glaucoma medications on human trabecular meshwork cells

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the potential short and long-term effects in cultured human trabecular meshwork (TM) cells of various topical glaucoma formulations containing different preservatives. Methods We tested the fixed combination medications 0.004% travoprost plus 0.5% timolol preserved with either 0.015% benzalkonium chloride (BAK; DuoTrav®), or with 0.001% polyquad (PQ; DuoTrav® BAK-free); and 0.005% latanoprost plus 0.5% timolol preserved with 0.020% BAK (Xalacom®). Also tested was a range of BAK concentrations (0.001%–0.020%) in balanced salt solution (BSS). Cells were treated for 25 min at 37 °C with solutions diluted 1:10 and 1:100 to mimic the reduced penetration of topical preparations to the anterior chamber. The percentage of live cells was determined immediately after treatment through the uptake of the fluorescent vital dye calcein-AM. To determine any long-term effects, we assayed release of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and apoptosis 24 h after treatments. Results BAK demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction in TM cell viability, ranging from 71±5% live cells at 0.001% BAK (diluted 1:10) to 33±3% live cells at 0.020% BAK (diluted 1:10). Travoprost (0.004%) plus 0.5% timolol preserved with 0.015% BAK had statistically fewer live TM cells (79±7%) than the same preparation preserved with 0.001% polyquad® (PQ; 93±1%; p<0.001). Latanoprost plus timolol preserved with 0.020% BAK (29±9% live cells) was similar to the 0.020% BAK (33±3%) treatment. However, travoprost plus timolol preserved in 0.015% BAK had significantly more live cells (83±12%) than the 1:10 dilution of 0.015% BAK (49±10%). We also found 0.020% BAK (diluted 1:100) resulted in elevated levels of extracellular MMP-9 at 24 h. Conclusions These results demonstrate that the substitution of the preservative BAK from topical ophthalmic drugs results in greater in vitro viability of TM cells. Travoprost with timolol, but not latanoprost with timolol, countered some of the toxic

  11. Hypoxia induces angiogenic factors in brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, J; Martinez, J; Yin, X; Sanchez, A; Tripathy, D; Grammas, P

    2012-03-01

    Hypoxia is increasingly recognized as an important contributing factor to the development of brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the periphery, hypoxia is a powerful regulator of angiogenesis. However, vascular endothelial cells are remarkably heterogeneous and little is known about how brain endothelial cells respond to hypoxic challenge. The objective of this study is to characterize the effect of hypoxic challenge on the angiogenic response of cultured brain-derived microvascular endothelial cells. Brain endothelial cell cultures were initiated from isolated rat brain microvessels and subjected to hypoxia (1% O(2)) for various time periods. The results showed that hypoxia induced rapid (≤ 0.5h) expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and that cell viability, assessed by MTT assay, was unaffected within the first 8h. Examination of brain endothelial cell cultures for pro- and anti-angiogenic proteins by western blot, RT-PCR and ELISA revealed that within 0.5 to 2h of hypoxia levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and endothelin-1 mRNA and protein were elevated. The expression of heme oxygenase-1 also increased but only after 8h of hypoxia. In contrast, similar hypoxia exposure evoked a decrease in endothelial nitric oxide synthase and thrombospondin-2 levels. Exposure of brain endothelial cell cultures to hypoxia resulted in a significant (p<0.001) decrease (94%) in tube length, an in vitro index of angiogenesis, compared to control cultures. The data indicate that, despite a shift toward a pro-angiogenic phenotype, hypoxia inhibited vessel formation in brain endothelial cells. These results suggest that in brain endothelial cells expression of angiogenic factors is not sufficient for the development of new vessels. Further work is needed to determine what factors/conditions prevent hypoxia-induced angiogenic changes from culminating in the formation of new brain blood vessels and what role this may play in the pathologic

  12. Training stem cells for treatment of malignant brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengwen Calvin; Kabeer, Mustafa H; Vu, Long T; Keschrumrus, Vic; Yin, Hong Zhen; Dethlefs, Brent A; Zhong, Jiang F; Weiss, John H; Loudon, William G

    2014-09-26

    The treatment of malignant brain tumors remains a challenge. Stem cell technology has been applied in the treatment of brain tumors largely because of the ability of some stem cells to infiltrate into regions within the brain where tumor cells migrate as shown in preclinical studies. However, not all of these efforts can translate in the effective treatment that improves the quality of life for patients. Here, we perform a literature review to identify the problems in the field. Given the lack of efficacy of most stem cell-based agents used in the treatment of malignant brain tumors, we found that stem cell distribution (i.e., only a fraction of stem cells applied capable of targeting tumors) are among the limiting factors. We provide guidelines for potential improvements in stem cell distribution. Specifically, we use an engineered tissue graft platform that replicates the in vivo microenvironment, and provide our data to validate that this culture platform is viable for producing stem cells that have better stem cell distribution than with the Petri dish culture system.

  13. Your brain under the microscope: the promise of stem cells.

    PubMed

    Marchetto, Maria C; Gage, Fred H

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, scientists primarily worked with two kinds of stem cells from animals and humans: embryonic stem cells and non-embryonic "somatic" or "adult" stem cells. Scientists are just now beginning to improve their understanding of a third kind: induced pluripotent stem cells. Our authors describe how they were discovered, what they are, and why a growing number of researchers and clinicians believe that they may be one of the keys in helping address various brain disorders.

  14. Mast Cell - Glia Dialogue in Chronic Pain and Neuropathic Pain: Blood-Brain Barrier Implications.

    PubMed

    Skaper, Stephen D

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells and microglia, working singly and in partnership, produce proinflammatory agents which play key roles in a wide array of nervous system disorders. Such neuroinflammatory settings may compromise integrity of both the blood-nerve barrier and blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-spinal cord barrier. While both belong to the innate immune system mast cells are far more ubiquitous, are resident in peripheral nerves and the central nervous system, and can influence blood-nerve barrier characteristics. Mast cells, being near the perivasculature especially within the dura, on the brain side of the BBB, are strategically located to play havoc with the BBB. Mast cells and glia are endowed with homeostatic mechanisms/molecules which come into play following tissue damage. These include the N-acylethanolamine family, especially N-palmitoylethanolamine, which is posited to be a key player in maintaining cellular homeostasis against external stressors provoking, for example, inflammation. This review is intended as an overview covering the pathobiology of neuroinflammation in the context of mast cells and microglia, their role in BBB integrity, and therapeutic perspectives in targeting these cells to preserve BBB function.

  15. Could cord blood cell therapy reduce preterm brain injury?

    PubMed

    Li, Jingang; McDonald, Courtney A; Fahey, Michael C; Jenkin, Graham; Miller, Suzanne L

    2014-01-01

    Major advances in neonatal care have led to significant improvements in survival rates for preterm infants, but this occurs at a cost, with a strong causal link between preterm birth and neurological deficits, including cerebral palsy (CP). Indeed, in high-income countries, up to 50% of children with CP were born preterm. The pathways that link preterm birth and brain injury are complex and multifactorial, but it is clear that preterm birth is strongly associated with damage to the white matter of the developing brain. Nearly 90% of preterm infants who later develop spastic CP have evidence of periventricular white matter injury. There are currently no treatments targeted at protecting the immature preterm brain. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) contains a diverse mix of stem and progenitor cells, and is a particularly promising source of cells for clinical applications, due to ethical and practical advantages over other potential therapeutic cell types. Recent studies have documented the potential benefits of UCB cells in reducing brain injury, particularly in rodent models of term neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. These studies indicate that UCB cells act via anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory effects, and release neurotrophic growth factors to support the damaged and surrounding brain tissue. The etiology of brain injury in preterm-born infants is less well understood than in term infants, but likely results from episodes of hypoperfusion, hypoxia-ischemia, and/or inflammation over a developmental period of white matter vulnerability. This review will explore current knowledge about the neuroprotective actions of UCB cells and their potential to ameliorate preterm brain injury through neonatal cell administration. We will also discuss the characteristics of UCB-derived from preterm and term infants for use in clinical applications.

  16. Could Cord Blood Cell Therapy Reduce Preterm Brain Injury?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingang; McDonald, Courtney A.; Fahey, Michael C.; Jenkin, Graham; Miller, Suzanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Major advances in neonatal care have led to significant improvements in survival rates for preterm infants, but this occurs at a cost, with a strong causal link between preterm birth and neurological deficits, including cerebral palsy (CP). Indeed, in high-income countries, up to 50% of children with CP were born preterm. The pathways that link preterm birth and brain injury are complex and multifactorial, but it is clear that preterm birth is strongly associated with damage to the white matter of the developing brain. Nearly 90% of preterm infants who later develop spastic CP have evidence of periventricular white matter injury. There are currently no treatments targeted at protecting the immature preterm brain. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) contains a diverse mix of stem and progenitor cells, and is a particularly promising source of cells for clinical applications, due to ethical and practical advantages over other potential therapeutic cell types. Recent studies have documented the potential benefits of UCB cells in reducing brain injury, particularly in rodent models of term neonatal hypoxia–ischemia. These studies indicate that UCB cells act via anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory effects, and release neurotrophic growth factors to support the damaged and surrounding brain tissue. The etiology of brain injury in preterm-born infants is less well understood than in term infants, but likely results from episodes of hypoperfusion, hypoxia–ischemia, and/or inflammation over a developmental period of white matter vulnerability. This review will explore current knowledge about the neuroprotective actions of UCB cells and their potential to ameliorate preterm brain injury through neonatal cell administration. We will also discuss the characteristics of UCB-derived from preterm and term infants for use in clinical applications. PMID:25346720

  17. Effectiveness of early intensive therapy on β-cell preservation in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, Bruce; Beck, Roy W; Ruedy, Katrina J; Cheng, Peiyao; Kollman, Craig; Weinzimer, Stuart A; DiMeglio, Linda A; Bremer, Andrew A; Slover, Robert; Tamborlane, William V

    2013-12-01

    To assess effectiveness of inpatient hybrid closed-loop control (HCLC) followed by outpatient sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy initiated within 7 days of diagnosis of type 1 diabetes on the preservation of β-cell function at 1 year. Sixty-eight individuals (mean age 13.3 ± 5.7 years; 35% female, 92% Caucasian) were randomized to HCLC followed by SAP therapy (intensive group; N = 48) or to the usual-care group treated with multiple daily injections or insulin pump therapy (N = 20). Primary outcome was C-peptide concentrations during mixed-meal tolerance tests at 12 months. Intensive-group participants initiated HCLC a median of 6 days after diagnosis for a median duration of 71.3 h, during which median participant mean glucose concentration was 140 mg/dL (interquartile range 134-153 mg/dL). During outpatient SAP, continuous glucose monitor (CGM) use decreased over time, and at 12 months, only 33% of intensive participants averaged sensor use ≥6 days/week. In the usual-care group, insulin pump and CGM use were initiated prior to 12 months by 15 and 5 participants, respectively. Mean HbA1c levels were similar in both groups throughout the study. At 12 months, the geometric mean (95% CI) of C-peptide area under the curve was 0.43 (0.34-0.52) pmol/mL in the intensive group and 0.52 (0.32-0.75) pmol/mL in the usual-care group (P = 0.49). Thirty-seven (79%) intensive and 16 (80%) usual-care participants had a peak C-peptide concentration ≥0.2 pmol/mL (P = 0.30). In new-onset type 1 diabetes, HCLC followed by SAP therapy did not provide benefit in preserving β-cell function compared with current standards of care.

  18. Ischaemia-related cell damage in extracorporeal preserved tissue - new findings with a novel perfusion model.

    PubMed

    Taeger, Christian D; Müller-Seubert, Wibke; Horch, Raymund E; Präbst, Konstantin; Münch, Frank; Geppert, Carol I; Birkholz, Torsten; Dragu, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    Tissue undergoing free transfer in transplant or reconstructive surgery always is at high risk of ischaemia-related cell damage. This study aims at assessing different procedures using an extracorporeal perfusion and oxygenation system to investigate the expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1-α as marker for hypoxia and of the pro-apoptotic protein Caspase-3 in skeletal muscle to elucidate potential improvements in tissue conservation. Twenty-four porcine rectus abdominis muscles were assigned to five different groups and examined after they had been extracorporeally preserved for 60 min. time. Group I was left untreated (control), group II was perfused with a cardioplegic solution, group III was flushed with 10 ml of a cardioplegic solution and then left untreated. Group IV and V were perfused and oxygenated with either an isotone crystalloid solution or a cardioplegic solution. Among others, immunohistochemistry (Caspase-3 and HIF-1-α) of muscle samples was performed. Furthermore, oxygen partial pressure in the perfusate at the arterial and venous branch was measured. Expression of Caspase-3 after 60 min. was reduced in all groups compared to the control group. Furthermore, all groups (except group III) expressed less HIF-1-α than the control group. Oxygenation leads to higher oxygen levels at the venous branch compared to groups without oxygenation. Using an extracorporeal perfusion and oxygenation system cell damage could be reduced as indicated by stabilized expressions of Caspase-3 and HIF-1-α for 60 min. of tissue preservation. Complete depletion of oxygen at the venous branch can be prevented by oxygenation of the perfusate with ambient air.

  19. Cell Proliferation and Neurogenesis in Adult Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Bordiuk, Olivia L.; Smith, Karen; Morin, Peter J.; Semënov, Mikhail V.

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenesis, the formation of new neurons, can be observed in the adult brain of many mammalian species, including humans. Despite significant progress in our understanding of adult neurogenesis, we are still missing data about the extent and location of production of neural precursors in the adult mammalian brain. We used 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) to map the location of proliferating cells throughout the entire adult mouse brain and found that neurogenesis occurs at two locations in the mouse brain. The larger one we define as the main proliferative zone (MPZ), and the smaller one corresponds to the subgranular zone of the hippocampus. The MPZ can be divided into three parts. The caudate migratory stream (CMS) occupies the middle part of the MPZ. The cable of proliferating cells emanating from the most anterior part of the CMS toward the olfactory bulbs forms the rostral migratory stream. The thin layer of proliferating cells extending posteriorly from the CMS forms the midlayer. We have not found any additional aggregations of proliferating cells in the adult mouse brain that could suggest the existence of other major neurogenic zones in the adult mouse brain. PMID:25375658

  20. Nuclear organization of cholinergic, putative catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems in the brain of the African pygmy mouse (Mus minutoides): organizational complexity is preserved in small brains.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Jean-Leigh; Patzke, Nina; Fuxe, Kjell; Bennett, Nigel C; Manger, Paul R

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated the nuclear organization of four immunohistochemically identifiable neural systems (cholinergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic and orexinergic) within the brain of the African pygmy mouse (Mus minutoides). The African pygmy mice studied had a brain mass of around 275 mg, making these the smallest rodent brains to date in which these neural systems have been investigated. In contrast to the assumption that in this small brain there would be fewer subdivisions of these neural systems, we found that all nuclei generally observed for these systems in other rodent brains were also present in the brain of the African pygmy mouse. As with other rodents previously studied in the subfamily Murinae, we observed the presence of cortical cholinergic neurons and a compactly organized locus coeruleus. These two features of these systems have not been observed in the non-Murinae rodents studied to date. Thus, the African pygmy mouse displays what might be considered a typical Murinae brain organization, and despite its small size, the brain does not appear to be any less complexly organized than other rodent brains, even those that are over 100 times larger such as the Cape porcupine brain. The results are consistent with the notion that changes in brain size do not affect the evolution of nuclear organization of complex neural systems. Thus, species belonging to the same order generally have the same number and complement of the subdivisions, or nuclei, of specific neural systems despite differences in brain size, phenotype or time since evolutionary divergence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Silica bioreplication preserves three-dimensional spheroid structures of human pluripotent stem cells and HepG2 cells

    DOE PAGES

    Lou, Yan-Ru; Kanninen, Liisa; Kaehr, Bryan; ...

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures produce more in vivo-like multicellular structures such as spheroids that cannot be obtained in two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. Thus, they are increasingly employed as models for cancer and drug research, as well as tissue engineering. It has proven challenging to stabilize spheroid architectures for detailed morphological examination. Here we overcome this issue using a silica bioreplication (SBR) process employed on spheroids formed from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells cultured in the nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) hydrogel. The cells in the spheroids are more round and tightly interacting with each other than thosemore » in 2D cultures, and they develop microvilli-like structures on the cell membranes as seen in 2D cultures. Furthermore, SBR preserves extracellular matrix-like materials and cellular proteins. In conclusion, these findings provide the first evidence of intact hPSC spheroid architectures and similar fine structures to 2D-cultured cells, providing a pathway to enable our understanding of morphogenesis in 3D cultures.« less

  2. Silica bioreplication preserves three-dimensional spheroid structures of human pluripotent stem cells and HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Yan-Ru; Kanninen, Liisa; Kaehr, Bryan; Townson, Jason L.; Niklander, Johanna; Harjumäki, Riina; Jeffrey Brinker, C.; Yliperttula, Marjo

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures produce more in vivo-like multicellular structures such as spheroids that cannot be obtained in two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. Thus, they are increasingly employed as models for cancer and drug research, as well as tissue engineering. It has proven challenging to stabilize spheroid architectures for detailed morphological examination. Here we overcome this issue using a silica bioreplication (SBR) process employed on spheroids formed from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells cultured in the nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) hydrogel. The cells in the spheroids are more round and tightly interacting with each other than those in 2D cultures, and they develop microvilli-like structures on the cell membranes as seen in 2D cultures. Furthermore, SBR preserves extracellular matrix-like materials and cellular proteins. These findings provide the first evidence of intact hPSC spheroid architectures and similar fine structures to 2D-cultured cells, providing a pathway to enable our understanding of morphogenesis in 3D cultures. PMID:26323570

  3. Silica bioreplication preserves three-dimensional spheroid structures of human pluripotent stem cells and HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lou, Yan-Ru; Kanninen, Liisa; Kaehr, Bryan; Townson, Jason L.; Niklander, Johanna; Harjumäki, Riina; Jeffrey Brinker, C.; Yliperttula, Marjo

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures produce more in vivo-like multicellular structures such as spheroids that cannot be obtained in two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. Thus, they are increasingly employed as models for cancer and drug research, as well as tissue engineering. It has proven challenging to stabilize spheroid architectures for detailed morphological examination. Here we overcome this issue using a silica bioreplication (SBR) process employed on spheroids formed from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells cultured in the nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) hydrogel. The cells in the spheroids are more round and tightly interacting with each other than those in 2D cultures, and they develop microvilli-like structures on the cell membranes as seen in 2D cultures. Furthermore, SBR preserves extracellular matrix-like materials and cellular proteins. In conclusion, these findings provide the first evidence of intact hPSC spheroid architectures and similar fine structures to 2D-cultured cells, providing a pathway to enable our understanding of morphogenesis in 3D cultures.

  4. Preservation of cranial nerves during removal of the brain for an enhanced student experience in neuroanatomy classes.

    PubMed

    Long, Jennifer; Roberts, David J H; Pickering, James D

    2014-01-01

    Neuroanatomy teaching at the University of Leeds includes the examination of isolated brains by students working in small groups. This requires the prosected brains to exhibit all 12 pairs of cranial nerves. Traditional methods of removing the brain from the skull involve elevating the frontal lobes and cutting each cranial nerve as the brain is reflected posteriorly. This can leave a substantial length of each nerve attached to the skull base rather than to the removed brain. We have found a posterior approach more successful. In this study, five adult heads were disarticulated at the level of the thyroid cartilage and placed, prone, in a head stand. A wedge of bone from the occipital region was removed before the cerebellum and brainstem were elevated to visualize the cranial nerves associated with the medulla oblongata, cerebellopontine angle and mesencephalic-pontine junction prior to cutting them as close to the skull as possible. Five brains were successfully removed from the skull, each having a full complement of cranial nerves of good length attached to them. This approach significantly increases the length and number of cranial nerves remaining attached to the brain, which supports student education. For integration into head and neck dissection courses, careful consideration will be required to ensure the necks are suitably dissected and to decide whether the cranial nerves are best left attached to the skull base or brain. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The preservative polyquaternium-1 increases cytoxicity and NF-kappaB linked inflammation in human corneal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Paimela, Tuomas; Ryhänen, Tuomas; Kauppinen, Anu; Marttila, Liisa; Salminen, Antero

    2012-01-01

    Purpose In numerous clinical and experimental studies, preservatives present in eye drops have had detrimental effects on ocular epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to compare the cytotoxic and inflammatory effects of the preservative polyquaternium-1 (PQ-1) containing Travatan (travoprost 0.004%) and Systane Ultra eye drops with benzalkonium chloride (BAK) alone or BAK-preserved Xalatan (0.005% latanoprost) eye drops in HCE-2 human corneal epithelial cell culture. Methods HCE-2 cells were exposed to the commercial eye drops Travatan, Systane Ultra, Xalatan, and the preservative BAK. Cell viability was determined using colorimetric MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyldiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and by release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Induction of apoptosis was measured with a using a colorimetric caspase-3 assay kit. DNA binding of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcription factor, and productions of the proinflammatory cytokines, interleukins IL-6 and IL-8, were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Results Cell viability, as measured by the MTT assay, declined by up to 50% after exposure to Travatan or Systane Ultra solutions which contain 0.001% PQ-1. BAK at 0.02% rather than at 0.001% concentration evoked total cell death signs on HCE-2 cells. In addition, cell membrane permeability, as measured by LDH release, was elevated by sixfold with Travatan and by a maximum threefold with Systane Ultra. Interestingly, Travatan and Systane Ultra activated NF-κB and elevated the secretion of inflammation markers IL-6 by 3 to eightfold and IL-8 by 1.5 to 3.5 fold, respectively, as analyzed with ELISA. Conclusions Eye drops containing PQ-1 evoke cytotoxicity and enhance the NF-κB driven inflammation reaction in cultured HCE-2 cells. Our results indicate that these harmful effects of ocular solutions preserved with PQ-1 should be further evaluated in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22605930

  6. Amplification of neural stem cell proliferation by intermediate progenitor cells in Drosophila brain development.

    PubMed

    Bello, Bruno C; Izergina, Natalya; Caussinus, Emmanuel; Reichert, Heinrich

    2008-02-19

    In the mammalian brain, neural stem cells divide asymmetrically and often amplify the number of progeny they generate via symmetrically dividing intermediate progenitors. Here we investigate whether specific neural stem cell-like neuroblasts in the brain of Drosophila might also amplify neuronal proliferation by generating symmetrically dividing intermediate progenitors. Cell lineage-tracing and genetic marker analysis show that remarkably large neuroblast lineages exist in the dorsomedial larval brain of Drosophila. These lineages are generated by brain neuroblasts that divide asymmetrically to self renew but, unlike other brain neuroblasts, do not segregate the differentiating cell fate determinant Prospero to their smaller daughter cells. These daughter cells continue to express neuroblast-specific molecular markers and divide repeatedly to produce neural progeny, demonstrating that they are proliferating intermediate progenitors. The proliferative divisions of these intermediate progenitors have novel cellular and molecular features; they are morphologically symmetrical, but molecularly asymmetrical in that key differentiating cell fate determinants are segregated into only one of the two daughter cells. Our findings provide cellular and molecular evidence for a new mode of neurogenesis in the larval brain of Drosophila that involves the amplification of neuroblast proliferation through intermediate progenitors. This type of neurogenesis bears remarkable similarities to neurogenesis in the mammalian brain, where neural stem cells as primary progenitors amplify the number of progeny they generate through generation of secondary progenitors. This suggests that key aspects of neural stem cell biology might be conserved in brain development of insects and mammals.

  7. [Human trabecular cells and apoptosis: in vitro evaluation of the effect of betaxolol with or without preservative].

    PubMed

    Hamard, P; Debbasch, C; Blondin, C; Brignole, F; Loison-Dayma, K; Warnet, J M; Baudouin, C

    2002-10-01

    Trabecular meshwork, which is involved in aqueous outflow resistance, is deeply modified in glaucoma patients, with a decrease in the trabecular cell number. Trabecular toxicity of antiglaucoma medications cannot be excluded. On a human cultured trabecular cell line, we investigated the potential proapoptotic effect of a beta-blocker with or without preservative, benzalkonium chloride (0.01% BAC), by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. and A human immortalized trabecular cell line (HTM-5) obtained from a normal donor was cultured under normal conditions. Preserved 0.25% betaxolol suspension (betaxolol BAC +), unpreserved 0.25% betaxolol suspension, and 0.01% BAC were respectively added to the culture medium in a 1/10 or 1/100 dilution for 15 minutes. After a 24-hour recovery period in normal culture conditions, cell size and the expression of an apoptotic marker, Apo 2.7, were evaluated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Untreated trabecular cells were used as control cells. Preserved and unpreserved betaxolol in a 1/10 dilution induced a significant decrease in trabecular cell size compared to controls. However, this cell size decrease was less pronounced than that induced by BAC at the same dilution. Similar results were obtained with betaxolol and BAC in a 1/100 dilution. Trabecular cell Apo 2.7 expression was significantly increased after treatment with betaxolol BAC + and BAC- in a 1/10 dilution compared to controls (36.8%, 28.1%, and 15.4%, respectively p<0.005). However, this proapoptotic activity was much less pronounced than that induced by BAC- at the same dilution (96.9%, p<10(-4)). Unpreserved betaxolol in a 1/100 dilution had no apoptotic activity on trabecular cells. Trabecular cell Apo 2.7 expression slightly increased with betaxolol BAC + at a 1/100 dilution (24.9%, p=0.04), while it was greatly increased with BAC at the same dilution (39.9%; p<10(-4)). In our model, unpreserved betaxolol at a low concentration displayed no proapoptotic

  8. Preservation of perisomatic inhibitory input of granule cells in the epileptic human dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Wittner, L; Maglóczky, Z; Borhegyi, Z; Halász, P; Tóth, S; Eross, L; Szabó, Z; Freund, T F

    2001-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is known to be associated with hyperactivity that is likely to be generated or amplified in the hippocampal formation. The majority of granule cells, the principal cells of the dentate gyrus, are found to be resistant to damage in epilepsy, and may serve as generators of seizures if their inhibition is impaired. Therefore, the parvalbumin-containing subset of interneurons, known to provide the most powerful inhibitory input to granule cell somata and axon initial segments, were examined in human control and epileptic dentate gyrus. A strong reduction in the number of parvalbumin-containing cells was found in the epileptic samples especially in the hilar region, although in some patches of the granule cell layer parvalbumin-positive terminals that form vertical clusters characteristic of axo-axonic cells were more numerous than in controls. Analysis of the postsynaptic target elements of parvalbumin-positive axon terminals showed that they form symmetric synapses with somata, dendrites, axon initial segments and spines as in the control, but the ratio of axon initial segment synapses was increased in the epileptic tissue (control: 15.9%, epileptic: 31.3%). Furthermore, the synaptic coverage of granule cell axon initial segments increased more than three times (control: 0.52, epileptic: 2.10 microm synaptic length/100 microm axon initial segment membrane) in the epileptic samples, whereas the amount of somatic symmetric synapses did not change significantly. Although the number of parvalbumin-positive interneurons is decreased, the perisomatic inhibitory input of dentate granule cells is preserved in temporal lobe epilepsy. Basket and axo-axonic cell terminals - whether positive or negative for parvalbumin - are present, moreover, the axon collaterals targeting axon initial segments sprout in the epileptic dentate gyrus. We suggest that perisomatic inhibitory interneurons survive in epilepsy, but their somadendritic compartment and partly the

  9. Thyroid hormones are essential to preserve non-proliferative cells of adult neurogenesis of the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Huerta, K; García-Martínez, Y; Vergara, P; Segovia, J; Pacheco-Rosado, J

    2016-10-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) regulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a process that involves both cell populations that dynamically switch between pools of proliferative and quiescent cells, and cells that definitely leave the cell cycle to maturate into granular neurons. This investigation was carried out to determine the role of THs on the mitotic activity of specific proliferative cell populations and the preservation of non-proliferative cells participating in the neurogenic process of the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. Hypothyroidism was induced in male adult Wistar rats with methimazole for 28days. We quantified the total number of proliferative cells (BrdU+), proliferative type 1 (BrdU+/GFAP+), and 2b and 3 (BrdU+/DCX+) cells. Early non-proliferative cells (BrdU-/DCX+ cells lacking dendritic process), postmitotic neuroblasts (Tuj 1+ cells lacking dendritic process), and immature granular neurons (IGN; DCX+ or Tuj 1+ and the presence of dendritic processes into granular or molecular layer) were also included. The evidence showed that the proliferation of Type 1, 2b and 3 cells is not modified by hypothyroidism. In contrast, hypothyroidism reduced the number of early non-proliferative cells and also leads to a decrement in the number of IGN. Our results show that proliferative cells of the DG are not sensitive to thyroid perturbations. However, THs are essential to preserve cell populations that leave the cell cycle in the DG of the hippocampus.

  10. Brain and atrial natriuretic peptides bind to common receptors in brain capillary endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, R A; Frank, H J; Levin, E; Pedram, A

    1991-08-01

    The recent discovery of brain natriuretic peptides (BNP) that stimulates natriuresis, diuresis, and vascular smooth muscle relaxation in a manner similar to that of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) suggests the possibility that these endocrine hormones function via some common mechanism. Indirect evidence from several laboratories suggests that BNP and ANP may bind to the same receptors. We examined whether ANP and BNP bind to a common set of receptors in cultured bovine brain capillary endothelial cells and in bovine aortic endothelial cells. Scatchard plot analysis of binding data shows a similar dissociation constant (KD) of approximately 0.3 nM and a maximal binding capacity (Bmax) of 50 fmol/mg protein for both natriuretic peptides in brain capillary cells and 0.6 nM and 80 fmol/mg protein, respectively, in the aortic endothelial cells. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the affinity cross-linked receptor-ligand complex shows a strongly labeled 65-kDa receptor and a 125-kDa band that is likely to be a receptor of the guanylate cyclase type. ANP and BNP cross compete equally for binding to the two receptors identified on the gels. ANP and BNP also stimulate guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate production in these cells, consistent with the presence of a functional guanylate cyclase-linked B receptor. We conclude that ANP and BNP share common receptors in brain capillary and aortic endothelial cells.

  11. Fluorescence-activated sorting of fixed nuclei: a general method for studying nuclei from specific cell populations that preserves post-translational modifications.

    PubMed

    Marion-Poll, Lucile; Montalban, Enrica; Munier, Annie; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine

    2014-04-01

    Long-lasting brain alterations that underlie learning and memory are triggered by synaptic activity. How activity can exert long-lasting effects on neurons is a major question in neuroscience. Signalling pathways from cytoplasm to nucleus and the resulting changes in transcription and epigenetic modifications are particularly relevant in this context. However, a major difficulty in their study comes from the cellular heterogeneity of brain tissue. A promising approach is to directly purify identified nuclei. Using mouse striatum we have developed a rapid and efficient method for isolating cell type-specific nuclei from fixed adult brain (fluorescence-activated sorting of fixed nuclei; FAST-FIN). Animals are quickly perfused with a formaldehyde fixative that stops enzymatic reactions and maintains the tissue in the state it was at the time of death, including nuclear localisation of soluble proteins such as GFP and differences in nuclear size between cell types. Tissue is subsequently dissociated with a Dounce homogeniser and nuclei prepared by centrifugation in an iodixanol density gradient. The purified fixed nuclei can then be immunostained with specific antibodies and analysed or sorted by flow cytometry. Simple criteria allow distinction of neurons and non-neuronal cells. Immunolabelling and transgenic mice that express fluorescent proteins can be used to identify specific cell populations, and the nuclei from these populations can be efficiently isolated, even rare cell types such as parvalbumin-expressing interneurons. FAST-FIN allows the preservation and study of dynamic and labile post-translational protein modifications. It should be applicable to other tissues and species, and allow study of DNA and its modifications.

  12. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Anwarul; Deeb, George; Rahal, Rahaf; Atwi, Khairallah; Mondello, Stefania; Marei, Hany Elsayed; Gali, Amr; Sleiman, Eliana

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by a disruption in the normal function of the brain due to an injury following a trauma, which can potentially cause severe physical, cognitive, and emotional impairment. The primary insult to the brain initiates secondary injury cascades consisting of multiple complex biochemical responses of the brain that significantly influence the overall severity of the brain damage and clinical sequelae. The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) offers huge potential for application in the treatment of TBI. MSCs have immunosuppressive properties that reduce inflammation in injured tissue. As such, they could be used to modulate the secondary mechanisms of injury and halt the progression of the secondary insult in the brain after injury. Particularly, MSCs are capable of secreting growth factors that facilitate the regrowth of neurons in the brain. The relative abundance of harvest sources of MSCs also makes them particularly appealing. Recently, numerous studies have investigated the effects of infusion of MSCs into animal models of TBI. The results have shown significant improvement in the motor function of the damaged brain tissues. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the application of MSCs in the treatment of TBI. The review starts with a brief introduction of the pathophysiology of TBI, followed by the biology of MSCs, and the application of MSCs in TBI treatment. The challenges associated with the application of MSCs in the treatment of TBI and strategies to address those challenges in the future have also been discussed.

  13. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Anwarul; Deeb, George; Rahal, Rahaf; Atwi, Khairallah; Mondello, Stefania; Marei, Hany Elsayed; Gali, Amr; Sleiman, Eliana

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by a disruption in the normal function of the brain due to an injury following a trauma, which can potentially cause severe physical, cognitive, and emotional impairment. The primary insult to the brain initiates secondary injury cascades consisting of multiple complex biochemical responses of the brain that significantly influence the overall severity of the brain damage and clinical sequelae. The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) offers huge potential for application in the treatment of TBI. MSCs have immunosuppressive properties that reduce inflammation in injured tissue. As such, they could be used to modulate the secondary mechanisms of injury and halt the progression of the secondary insult in the brain after injury. Particularly, MSCs are capable of secreting growth factors that facilitate the regrowth of neurons in the brain. The relative abundance of harvest sources of MSCs also makes them particularly appealing. Recently, numerous studies have investigated the effects of infusion of MSCs into animal models of TBI. The results have shown significant improvement in the motor function of the damaged brain tissues. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the application of MSCs in the treatment of TBI. The review starts with a brief introduction of the pathophysiology of TBI, followed by the biology of MSCs, and the application of MSCs in TBI treatment. The challenges associated with the application of MSCs in the treatment of TBI and strategies to address those challenges in the future have also been discussed. PMID:28265255

  14. Recruited brain tumor-derived mesenchymal stem cells contribute to brain tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Behnan, Jinan; Isakson, Pauline; Joel, Mrinal; Cilio, Corrado; Langmoen, Iver A; Vik-Mo, Einar O; Badn, Wiaam

    2014-05-01

    The identity of the cells that contribute to brain tumor structure and progression remains unclear. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have recently been isolated from normal mouse brain. Here, we report the infiltration of MSC-like cells into the GL261 murine glioma model. These brain tumor-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BT-MSCs) are defined with the phenotype (Lin-Sca-1+CD9+CD44+CD166+/-) and have multipotent differentiation capacity. We show that the infiltration of BT-MSCs correlates to tumor progression; furthermore, BT-MSCs increased the proliferation rate of GL261 cells in vitro. For the first time, we report that the majority of GL261 cells expressed mesenchymal phenotype under both adherent and sphere culture conditions in vitro and that the non-MSC population is nontumorigenic in vivo. Although the GL261 cell line expressed mesenchymal phenotype markers in vitro, most BT-MSCs are recruited cells from host origin in both wild-type GL261 inoculated into green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transgenic mice and GL261-GFP cells inoculated into wild-type mice. We show the expression of chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CXCR6 on different recruited cell populations. In vivo, the GL261 cells change marker profile and acquire a phenotype that is more similar to cells growing in sphere culture conditions. Finally, we identify a BT-MSC population in human glioblastoma that is CD44+CD9+CD166+ both in freshly isolated and culture-expanded cells. Our data indicate that cells with MSC-like phenotype infiltrate into the tumor stroma and play an important role in tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Thus, we suggest that targeting BT-MSCs could be a possible strategy for treating glioblastoma patients. © 2013 AlphaMed Press.

  15. Expression of arginine decarboxylase in brain regions and neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Iyo, Abiye H.; Zhu, Meng-Yang; Ordway, Gregory A.; Regunathan, Soundar

    2010-01-01

    After our initial report of a mammalian gene for arginine decarboxylase, an enzyme for the synthesis of agmatine from arginine, we have determined the regional expression of ADC in rat. We have analyzed the expression of ADC in rat brain regions by activity, protein and mRNA levels, and the regulation of expression in neuronal cells by RNA interference. In rat brain, ADC was widely expressed in major brain regions, with a substantial amount in hypothalamus, followed by cortex, and with least amounts in locus coeruleus and medulla. ADC mRNA was detected in primary astrocytes and C6 glioma cells. While no ADC message was detected in fresh neurons (3 days old), significant message appeared in differentiated neurons (3 weeks old). PC12 cells, treated with nerve growth factor, had higher ADC mRNA compared with naive cells. The siRNA mixture directed towards the N-terminal regions of ADC cDNA down-regulated the levels of mRNA and protein in cultured neurons/C6 glioma cells and these cells produced lower agmatine. Thus, this study demonstrates that ADC message is expressed in rat brain regions, that it is regulated in neuronal cells and that the down-regulation of ADC activity by specific siRNA leads to lower agmatine production. PMID:16445852

  16. Flow cytometric determination of residual white blood cell levels in preserved samples from leukoreduced blood products.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Douglas S; Birch, Paul; O'Toole, Joan; Henderson, Deborah; Scalia, Vito

    2008-01-01

    In preparation for a proposed consolidated testing service, Canadian Blood Services undertook the evaluation of a commercial test kit for the enumeration by flow cytometry of residual white blood cells (rWBCs) present in preserved samples recovered from leukoreduced (LR) blood and platelet products. The stability of preserved WBCs, the equivalency of WBCs used for spiking, test method precision, specificity, reliability, accuracy, and sensitivity were investigated. For comparative purposes, WBC counts were also determined by Nageotte as well as by flow cytometry. WBCs were stable up to 4 weeks at room temperature for all components by either method. Within methods, no differences were observed due to the source of WBC used for spiking purposes. By either method, test precision was acceptable (<20% coefficient of variation) and of similar reliability at a target value of 10 +/- 5 WBCs per microL. The flow cytometric method was shown to be more specific and accurate than the Nageotte method. Sensitivity by either method was 0.1 WBCs per microL. On average, Nageotte counts were lower than those observed by flow cytometry. These results demonstrate that WBCs in WBC stabilizing solution-treated samples from LR blood components were stabilized up to 4 weeks at room temperature and that rWBC determinations made with a WBC enumeration kit by flow cytometry have the required precision, specificity, reliability, and accuracy in the relevant test range. This validated WBC stabilization and flow cytometric counting method is considered acceptable as part of a quality control program for leukoreduced blood products.

  17. Impulsive pressurization of neuronal cells for traumatic brain injury study.

    PubMed

    Nienaber, Matthew; Lee, Jeong Soon; Feng, Ruqiang; Lim, Jung Yul

    2011-10-12

    A novel impulsive cell pressurization experiment has been developed using a Kolsky bar device to investigate blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI). We demonstrate in this video article how blast TBI-relevant impulsive pressurization is applied to the neuronal cells in vitro. This is achieved by using well-controlled pressure pulse created by a specialized Kolsky bar device, with complete pressure history within the cell pressurization chamber recorded. Pressurized neuronal cells are inspected immediately after pressurization, or further incubated to examine the long-term effects of impulsive pressurization on neurite/axonal outgrowth, neuronal gene expression, apoptosis, etc. We observed that impulsive pressurization at about 2 MPa induces distinct neurite loss relative to unpressurized cells. Our technique provides a novel method to investigate the molecular/cellular mechanisms of blast TBI, via impulsive pressurization of brain cells at well-controlled pressure magnitude and duration.

  18. Cell Delivery System for Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-21

    Task 1). Task 1: Differentiate Adult Stem Cells into Neurons. Each of three different adult stem cell types (ADSCs, MSCs and amniotic - derived ...cultured in 3D collagen scaffolds at high cell seeding densities. • Most of the work in this grant was done on MSCs and not on adipose derived stem ...Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells (subsequently referred to in this report as MSCs). Three different differentiation protocols have been examined in

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of biological systems: Applications to liver preservation and metabolism in cultured pituitary tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fralix, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    This study centers on applications of both {sup 31}P and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to two different biological systems. The first application utilizes {sup 31}P NMR to study mobile phospholipids in the MMQ cell line, a pituitary tumor cell line. These measurements characterize membrane phospholipids thought to be part of a RNA-proteolipid complex unique to cellular transformation. The second application utilizes both {sup 31}P and {sup 13}C spectroscopy to study liver preservation and transplantation an a rat model. In this work, several questions were addressed: (1) to what extent do successful preservation solutions slow ATP breakdown (2) can clinically successful preservation conditions ameliorate total nucleotide breakdown (3) to what extent is energy reconstitution following cold storage correlated with transport success and (4) can any spectroscopic parameter be used as a diagnostic indicator of tissue viability

  20. Preservation of Cell Structure, Metabolism, and Biotransformation Activity of Liver-On-Chip Organ Models by Hypothermic Storage.

    PubMed

    Gröger, Marko; Dinger, Julia; Kiehntopf, Michael; Peters, Frank T; Rauen, Ursula; Mosig, Alexander S

    2017-09-27

    The liver is a central organ in the metabolization of nutrition, endogenous and exogenous substances, and xenobiotic drugs. The emerging organ-on-chip technology has paved the way to model essential liver functions as well as certain aspects of liver disease in vitro in liver-on-chip models. However, a broader use of this technology in biomedical research is limited by a lack of protocols that enable the short-term preservation of preassembled liver-on-chip models for stocking or delivery to researchers outside the bioengineering community. For the first time, this study tested the ability of hypothermic storage of liver-on-chip models to preserve cell viability, tissue morphology, metabolism and biotransformation activity. In a systematic study with different preservation solutions, liver-on-chip function can be preserved for up to 2 d using a derivative of the tissue preservation solution TiProtec, containing high chloride ion concentrations and the iron chelators LK614 and deferoxamine, supplemented with polyethylene glycol (PEG). Hypothermic storage in this solution represents a promising method to preserve liver-on-chip function for at least 2 d and allows an easier access to liver-on-chip technology and its versatile and flexible use in biomedical research. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Red blood cell preservation by droplet freezing with polyvinyl pyrrolidone or sucrose/dextrose and by bulk freezing with glycerol

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Pirmin; Huvard, Michael J.; Lee-Stroka, A. Hallie; Lee, Jae Y.; Byrne, Karen M.; Flegel, Willy A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Red blood cell (RBC) preservation is essential to transfusion medicine. Many blood group reference laboratories need a method to preserve rare blood samples for serologic testing at a later date. This study offers a comparison of three common cryoprotective agents and protocols used today: bulk preservation with glycerol and droplet freezing with sucrose/dextrose (S+D) or polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). Study design and methods Human blood from 14 volunteers was collected and frozen at set intervals over two weeks with PVP, S+D, or glycerol. The frozen RBCs were later thawed and the percentage of surviving RBCs was determined. Detailed protocols and an instructional video are supplied. Results Over a two week period, RBCs preserved with glycerol and thawed with a widely used protocol showed a recovery of 41 ± 16 % (mean ± standard deviation) while those thawed with a modified glycerol protocol showed a recovery of 76 ± 8 %. RBCs preserved by droplet freezing with S+D showed a recovery of 56 ± 11 % while those preserved by droplet freezing with PVP showed a recovery of 85 ± 6 %. Recovery values were similar with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or heparin anticoagulants, differing freezing rates, and varying droplet volumes. Conclusion Droplet freezing with PVP offered the greatest recovery. While bulk freezing with glycerol can be effective too, droplet freezing may be a more convenient method overall. It requires less effort to thaw, needs much less storage room, and allows blood group laboratories to be frugal with thawing rare samples. PMID:21790629

  2. Dimensionality reduction based on distance preservation to local mean for symmetric positive definite matrices and its application in brain-computer interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoudi, Alireza; Shiry Ghidary, Saeed; Sadatnejad, Khadijeh

    2017-06-01

    Objective. In this paper, we propose a nonlinear dimensionality reduction algorithm for the manifold of symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrices that considers the geometry of SPD matrices and provides a low-dimensional representation of the manifold with high class discrimination in a supervised or unsupervised manner. Approach. The proposed algorithm tries to preserve the local structure of the data by preserving distances to local means (DPLM) and also provides an implicit projection matrix. DPLM is linear in terms of the number of training samples. Main results. We performed several experiments on the multi-class dataset IIa from BCI competition IV and two other datasets from BCI competition III including datasets IIIa and IVa. The results show that our approach as dimensionality reduction technique—leads to superior results in comparison with other competitors in the related literature because of its robustness against outliers and the way it preserves the local geometry of the data. Significance. The experiments confirm that the combination of DPLM with filter geodesic minimum distance to mean as the classifier leads to superior performance compared with the state of the art on brain-computer interface competition IV dataset IIa. Also the statistical analysis shows that our dimensionality reduction method performs significantly better than its competitors.

  3. Connecting Malfunctioning Glial Cells and Brain Degenerative Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kaminsky, Natalie; Bihari, Ofer; Kanner, Sivan; Barzilai, Ari

    2016-06-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) is a complex biological system activated by different types of DNA damage. Mutations in certain components of the DDR machinery can lead to genomic instability disorders that culminate in tissue degeneration, premature aging, and various types of cancers. Intriguingly, malfunctioning DDR plays a role in the etiology of late onset brain degenerative disorders such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's diseases. For many years, brain degenerative disorders were thought to result from aberrant neural death. Here we discuss the evidence that supports our novel hypothesis that brain degenerative diseases involve dysfunction of glial cells (astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes). Impairment in the functionality of glial cells results in pathological neuro-glial interactions that, in turn, generate a "hostile" environment that impairs the functionality of neuronal cells. These events can lead to systematic neural demise on a scale that appears to be proportional to the severity of the neurological deficit.

  4. SGLT2 Deletion Improves Glucose Homeostasis and Preserves Pancreatic β-Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Jurczak, Michael J.; Lee, Hui-Young; Birkenfeld, Andreas L.; Jornayvaz, Francois R.; Frederick, David W.; Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Zhao, Xiaoxian; Moeckel, Gilbert W.; Samuel, Varman T.; Whaley, Jean M.; Shulman, Gerald I.; Kibbey, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Inhibition of the Na+-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) is currently being pursued as an insulin-independent treatment for diabetes; however, the behavioral and metabolic consequences of SGLT2 deletion are unknown. Here, we used a SGLT2 knockout mouse to investigate the effect of increased renal glucose excretion on glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and pancreatic β-cell function. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS SGLT2 knockout mice were fed regular chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 4 weeks, or backcrossed onto the db/db background. The analysis used metabolic cages, glucose tolerance tests, euglycemic and hyperglycemic clamps, as well as isolated islet and perifusion studies. RESULTS SGLT2 deletion resulted in a threefold increase in urine output and a 500-fold increase in glucosuria, as well as compensatory increases in feeding, drinking, and activity. SGLT2 knockout mice were protected from HFD-induced hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance and had reduced plasma insulin concentrations compared with controls. On the db/db background, SGLT2 deletion prevented fasting hyperglycemia, and plasma insulin levels were also dramatically improved. Strikingly, prevention of hyperglycemia by SGLT2 knockout in db/db mice preserved pancreatic β-cell function in vivo, which was associated with a 60% increase in β-cell mass and reduced incidence of β-cell death. CONCLUSIONS Prevention of renal glucose reabsorption by SGLT2 deletion reduced HFD- and obesity-associated hyperglycemia, improved glucose intolerance, and increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vivo. Taken together, these data support SGLT2 inhibition as a viable insulin-independent treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:21357472

  5. Environmentally Friendly Carbon-Preserving Recovery of Noble Metals From Supported Fuel Cell Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Latsuzbaia, R; Negro, E; Koper, G J M

    2015-06-08

    The dissolution of noble-metal catalysts under mild and carbon-preserving conditions offers the possibility of in situ regeneration of the catalyst nanoparticles in fuel cells or other applications. Here, we report on the complete dissolution of the fuel cell catalyst, platinum nanoparticles, under very mild conditions at room temperature in 0.1 M HClO4 and 0.1 M HCl by electrochemical potential cycling between 0.5-1.1 V at a scan rate of 50 mV s(-1) . Dissolution rates as high as 22.5 μg cm(-2) per cycle were achieved, which ensured a relatively short dissolution timescale of 3-5 h for a Pt loading of 0.35 mg cm(-2) on carbon. The influence of chloride ions and oxygen in the electrolyte on the dissolution was investigated, and a dissolution mechanism is proposed on the basis of the experimental observations and available literature results. During the dissolution process, the corrosion of the carbon support was minimal, as observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Endotoxin-induced lung alveolar cell injury causes brain cell damage

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-González, Raquel; Ramos-Nuez, Ángela; Martín-Barrasa, José Luis; López-Aguilar, Josefina; Baluja, Aurora; Álvarez, Julián; Rocco, Patricia RM; Pelosi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is the most common cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome, a severe lung inflammatory disorder with an elevated morbidity and mortality. Sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome involve the release of inflammatory mediators to the systemic circulation, propagating the cellular and molecular response and affecting distal organs, including the brain. Since it has been reported that sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome contribute to brain dysfunction, we investigated the brain-lung crosstalk using a combined experimental in vitro airway epithelial and brain cell injury model. Conditioned medium collected from an in vitro lipopolysaccharide-induced airway epithelial cell injury model using human A549 alveolar cells was subsequently added at increasing concentrations (no conditioned, 2%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 25%, and 50%) to a rat mixed brain cell culture containing both astrocytes and neurons. Samples from culture media and cells from mixed brain cultures were collected before treatment, and at 6 and 24 h for analysis. Conditioned medium at 15% significantly increased apoptosis in brain cell cultures 24 h after treatment, whereas 25% and 50% significantly increased both necrosis and apoptosis. Levels of brain damage markers S100 calcium binding protein B and neuron-specific enolase, interleukin-6, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, as well as matrix metalloproteinase-9 increased significantly after treating brain cells with ≥2% conditioned medium. Our findings demonstrated that human epithelial pulmonary cells stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide release inflammatory mediators that are able to induce a translational clinically relevant and harmful response in brain cells. These results support a brain-lung crosstalk during sepsis and sepsis-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:25135986

  7. Neural stem cell-based gene therapy for brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung U

    2011-03-01

    Advances in gene-based medicine since 1990s have ushered in new therapeutic strategy of gene therapy for inborn error genetic diseases and cancer. Malignant brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme and medulloblastoma remain virtually untreatable and lethal. Currently available treatment for brain tumors including radical surgical resection followed by radiation and chemotherapy, have substantially improved the survival rate in patients suffering from these brain tumors; however, it remains incurable in large proportion of patients. Therefore, there is substantial need for effective, low-toxicity therapies for patients with malignant brain tumors, and gene therapy targeting brain tumors should fulfill this requirement. Gene therapy for brain tumors includes many therapeutic strategies and these strategies can be grouped in two major categories: molecular and immunologic. The widely used molecular gene therapy approach is suicide gene therapy based on the conversion of non-toxic prodrugs into active anticancer agents via introduction of enzymes and genetic immunotherapy involves the gene transfer of immune-stimulating cytokines including IL-4, IL-12 and TRAIL. For both molecular and immune gene therapy, neural stem cells (NSCs) can be used as delivery vehicle of therapeutic genes. NSCs possess an inherent tumor tropism that supports their use as a reliable delivery vehicle to target therapeutic gene products to primary brain tumors and metastatic cancers throughout the brain. Significance of the NSC-based gene therapy for brain tumor is that it is possible to exploit the tumor-tropic property of NSCs to mediate effective, tumor-selective therapy for primary and metastatic cancers in the brain and outside, for which no tolerated curative treatments are currently available.

  8. Stem cell therapy for neonatal brain injury: perspectives and challenges.

    PubMed

    Titomanlio, Luigi; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Dalous, Jeremie; Mani, Shyamala; El Ghouzzi, Vincent; Heijnen, Cobi; Baud, Olivier; Gressens, Pierre

    2011-11-01

    Cerebral palsy is a major health problem caused by brain damage during pregnancy, delivery, or the immediate postnatal period. Perinatal stroke, intraventricular hemorrhage, and asphyxia are the most common causes of neonatal brain damage. Periventricular white matter damage (periventricular leukomalacia) is the predominant form in premature infants and the most common antecedent of cerebral palsy. Stem cell treatment has proven effective in restoring injured organs and tissues in animal models. The potential of stem cells for self-renewal and differentiation translates into substantial neuroprotection and neuroregeneration in the animal brain, with minimal risks of rejection and side effects. Stem cell treatments described to date have used neural stem cells, embryonic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, umbilical cord stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. Most of these treatments are still experimental. In this review, we focus on the efficacy of stem cell therapy in animal models of cerebral palsy, and discuss potential implications for current and future clinical trials. Copyright © 2011 American Neurological Association.

  9. The Effect of Underwater Blast on Aggregating Brain Cell Cultures.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Thomas W; Lee, Julian J; Villanueva, Mercy; Wang, Yushan; Nelson, Peggy; Song, Yanfeng; Fan, Chengyang; Barnes, Julia; McLaws, Lori

    2017-01-15

    Although the deleterious effects of primary blast on gas-filled organs are well accepted, the effect of blast-induced shock waves on the brain is less clear because of factors that complicate the interpretation of clinical and experimental data. Brain cell aggregate cultures are comprised of multiple differentiated brain cell types and were used to examine the effects of underwater blast. Suspensions of these cultures encased in dialysis tubing were exposed to explosive-generated underwater blasts of low (∼300 kPa), medium (∼2,700 kPa), or high (∼14,000 kPa) intensities and harvested at 1-28 days post-exposure. No changes in gross morphology were noted immediately or weeks after blast wave exposure, and no increases in either apoptotic (caspase-3) or necrotic (lactate dehydrogenase) cell death were observed. Changes in neuronal (neurofilament H, acetylcholinesterase, and choline acetyltransferase) and glial (glial fibrillary acidic protein, glutamine synthetase) endpoints did not occur. However, significant time- and pressure-related increases in Akt (protein kinase B) phosphorylation were noted, as well as declines in vascular endothelial growth factor levels, implicating pathways involved in cellular survival mechanisms. The free-floating nature of the aggregates during blast wave exposure, coupled with their highly hydrolyzed dialysis tubing containment, results in minimized boundary effects, thus enabling accurate assessment of brain cell response to a simplified shock-induced stress wave. This work shows that, at its simplest, blast-induced shock waves produce subtle changes in brain tissue. This study has mechanistic implications for the study of primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury and supports the thesis that underwater blast may cause subtle changes in the brains of submerged individuals.

  10. Flow cytometric analysis of inflammatory cells in ischemic rat brain.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Marilena; Sciorati, Clara; Tarozzo, Glauco; Beltramo, Massimiliano

    2002-02-01

    Inflammation plays a key role in cerebral ischemia through activation of microglia and infiltration by leukocytes. Flow cytometry is a well-established method for quantitative and qualitative analysis of inflammatory cells. However, this technique has not been applied to the study of cerebral ischemia inflammation. The aim of this study was to establish a flow cytometric method to measure inflammatory cells in ischemic brain. To perform flow cytometry on brain tissue, we developed 2 cell-isolation methods based on different mechanical dissociation and Percoll gradient separation techniques. The methods were tested on a rat model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Morphological and immunophenotypic analyses, with the use of anti-CD11b, anti-CD45, and alphabeta T-cell receptor antibodies, were employed to identify and quantify inflammatory cells. Both methods gave consistent results in terms of yield and reproducibility. The cell suspension contained granulocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes, and neural cells. Morphological and immunophenotypic analyses enabled the identification of a cell-scatter gate (R1a) enriched in inflammatory cells. With both methods, a higher number of events in R1a were recorded in the ischemic hemisphere than in the nonischemic hemisphere (P< or =0.001). CD11b, CD45, and alphabeta T-cell receptor staining confirmed that this augmentation was a reflection of the increase in the number of granulocytes, cells of the monocytic lineage, and lymphocytes. Quantitative flow cytometric analysis of ischemic rat brain is feasible and provides a reliable and rapid assay to assess neuroinflammation in experimental models of brain ischemia.

  11. Neuroprotection in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury targeting glial cells.

    PubMed

    Herrera, María Inés; Mucci, Sofia; Barreto, George E; Kolliker-Frers, Rodolfo; Capani, Francisco

    2017-07-27

    Brain injury constitutes a disabling health condition of several etiologies. One of the major causes of brain injury is hypoxia-ischemia. Until recently, pharmacological treatments were solely focused on neurons. In the last decades, glial cells started to be considered as alternative targets for neuroprotection. Novel treatments for hypoxia-ischemia intend to modulate reactive forms of glial cells, and/or potentiate their recovery response. In this review, we summarize these neuroprotective strategies in hypoxia-ischemia and discuss their mechanisms of action. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Brain tumor stem cells: the cancer stem cell hypothesis writ large.

    PubMed

    Dirks, Peter B

    2010-10-01

    Brain tumors, which are typically very heterogeneous at the cellular level, appear to have a stem cell foundation. Recently, investigations from multiple groups have found that human as well as experimental mouse brain tumors contain subpopulations of cells that functionally behave as tumor stem cells, driving tumor growth and generating tumor cell progeny that form the tumor bulk, but which then lose tumorigenic ability. In human glioblastomas, these tumor stem cells express neural precursor markers and are capable of differentiating into tumor cells that express more mature neural lineage markers. In addition, modeling brain tumors in mice suggests that neural precursor cells more readily give rise to full blown tumors, narrowing potential cells of origin to those rarer brain cells that have a proliferative potential. Applying stem cell concepts and methodologies is giving fresh insight into brain tumor biology, cell of origin and mechanisms of growth, and is offering new opportunities for development of more effective treatments. The field of brain tumor stem cells remains very young and there is much to be learned before these new insights are translated into new patient treatments. Copyright © 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Radial glia cells in the developing human brain.

    PubMed

    Howard, Brian M; Zhicheng Mo; Filipovic, Radmila; Moore, Anna R; Antic, Srdjan D; Zecevic, Nada

    2008-10-01

    Human radial glia (RG) share many of the features described in rodents, but also have a number of characteristics unique to the human brain. Results obtained from different mammalian species including human and non-human primates reveal differences in the involvement of RG in neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis and in the timing of the initial expression of typical RG immunomarkers. A common problem in studying the human brain is that experimental procedures using modern molecular and genetic methods, such as in vivo transduction with retroviruses or creation of knockout or transgenic mutants, are not possible. Nevertheless, abundant and valuable information about the development of the human brain has been revealed using postmortem human material. Additionally, a combination and spectrum of in vitro techniques are used to gain knowledge about normal developmental processes in the human brain, including better understanding of RG as progenitor cells. Molecular and functional characterization of multipotent progenitors, such as RG, is important for future cell replacement therapies in neurological and psychiatric disorders, which are often resistant to conventional treatments. The protracted time of development and larger size of the human brain could provide insight into processes that may go unnoticed in the much smaller rodent cortex, which develops over a much shorter period. With that in mind, we summarize results on the role of RG in the human fetal brain.

  14. DHA but Not EPA Emulsions Preserve Neurological and Mitochondrial Function after Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia in Neonatal Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sosunov, Sergey A.; Williams, Jill J.; Zirpoli, Hylde; Vlasakov, Iliyan; Deckelbaum, Richard J.; Ten, Vadim S.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Treatment with triglyceride emulsions of docosahexaenoic acid (tri-DHA) protected neonatal mice against hypoxia-ischemia (HI) brain injury. The mechanism of this neuroprotection remains unclear. We hypothesized that administration of tri-DHA enriches HI-brains with DHA/DHA metabolites. This reduces Ca2+-induced mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and attenuates brain injury. Methods 10-day-old C57BL/6J mice following HI-brain injury received tri-DHA, tri-EPA or vehicle. At 4–5 hours of reperfusion, mitochondrial fatty acid composition and Ca2+ buffering capacity were analyzed. At 24 hours and at 8–9 weeks of recovery, oxidative injury, neurofunctional and neuropathological outcomes were evaluated. In vitro, hyperoxia-induced mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca2+ buffering capacity were measured in the presence or absence of DHA or EPA. Results Only post-treatment with tri-DHA reduced oxidative damage and improved short- and long-term neurological outcomes. This was associated with increased content of DHA in brain mitochondria and DHA-derived bioactive metabolites in cerebral tissue. After tri-DHA administration HI mitochondria were resistant to Ca2+-induced membrane permeabilization. In vitro, hyperoxia increased mitochondrial ROS production and reduced Ca2+ buffering capacity; DHA, but not EPA, significantly attenuated these effects of hyperoxia. Conclusions Post-treatment with tri-DHA resulted in significant accumulation of DHA and DHA derived bioactive metabolites in the HI-brain. This was associated with improved mitochondrial tolerance to Ca2+-induced permeabilization, reduced oxidative brain injury and permanent neuroprotection. Interaction of DHA with mitochondria alters ROS release and improves Ca2+ buffering capacity. This may account for neuroprotective action of post-HI administration of tri-DHA. PMID:27513579

  15. DHA but Not EPA Emulsions Preserve Neurological and Mitochondrial Function after Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia in Neonatal Mice.

    PubMed

    Mayurasakorn, Korapat; Niatsetskaya, Zoya V; Sosunov, Sergey A; Williams, Jill J; Zirpoli, Hylde; Vlasakov, Iliyan; Deckelbaum, Richard J; Ten, Vadim S

    2016-01-01

    Treatment with triglyceride emulsions of docosahexaenoic acid (tri-DHA) protected neonatal mice against hypoxia-ischemia (HI) brain injury. The mechanism of this neuroprotection remains unclear. We hypothesized that administration of tri-DHA enriches HI-brains with DHA/DHA metabolites. This reduces Ca2+-induced mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and attenuates brain injury. 10-day-old C57BL/6J mice following HI-brain injury received tri-DHA, tri-EPA or vehicle. At 4-5 hours of reperfusion, mitochondrial fatty acid composition and Ca2+ buffering capacity were analyzed. At 24 hours and at 8-9 weeks of recovery, oxidative injury, neurofunctional and neuropathological outcomes were evaluated. In vitro, hyperoxia-induced mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca2+ buffering capacity were measured in the presence or absence of DHA or EPA. Only post-treatment with tri-DHA reduced oxidative damage and improved short- and long-term neurological outcomes. This was associated with increased content of DHA in brain mitochondria and DHA-derived bioactive metabolites in cerebral tissue. After tri-DHA administration HI mitochondria were resistant to Ca2+-induced membrane permeabilization. In vitro, hyperoxia increased mitochondrial ROS production and reduced Ca2+ buffering capacity; DHA, but not EPA, significantly attenuated these effects of hyperoxia. Post-treatment with tri-DHA resulted in significant accumulation of DHA and DHA derived bioactive metabolites in the HI-brain. This was associated with improved mitochondrial tolerance to Ca2+-induced permeabilization, reduced oxidative brain injury and permanent neuroprotection. Interaction of DHA with mitochondria alters ROS release and improves Ca2+ buffering capacity. This may account for neuroprotective action of post-HI administration of tri-DHA.

  16. Brain mesenchymal stem cells: physiology and pathological implications.

    PubMed

    Pombero, Ana; Garcia-Lopez, Raquel; Martinez, Salvador

    2016-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are defined as progenitor cells that give rise to a number of unique, differentiated mesenchymal cell types. This concept has progressively evolved towards an all-encompassing concept including multipotent perivascular cells of almost any tissue. In central nervous system, pericytes are involved in blood-brain barrier, and angiogenesis and vascular tone regulation. They form the neurovascular unit (NVU) together with endothelial cells, astrocytes and neurons. This functional structure provides an optimal microenvironment for neural proliferation in the adult brain. Neurovascular niche include both diffusible signals and direct contact with endothelial and pericytes, which are a source of diffusible neurotrophic signals that affect neural precursors. Therefore, MSCs/pericyte properties such as differentiation capability, as well as immunoregulatory and paracrine effects make them a potential resource in regenerative medicine.

  17. A novel Gfer-Drp1 link in preserving mitochondrial dynamics and function in pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Todd, Lance R; Gomathinayagam, Rohini; Sankar, Uma

    2010-08-01

    Mitochondria, the dynamic energy powerhouses of the cell, have vital roles in a multitude of cellular processes including differentiation and cell survival. Tight regulation of mitochondrial dynamics, integrity and function is indispensible for preservation of homeostasis in all cells, including pluripotent stem cells. The ability to proliferate and self-renew indefinitely bestows the pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) with immense curative potential. Mechanisms that preserve mitochondrial well-being, and therefore maintain "stemness," are vital in realizing the full potential of ESCs in therapeutic regenerative medicine. However, virtually nothing is known regarding the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and function and the relationship thereof to overall cell fate and function in pluripotent ESCs or other somatic stem cells. Using loss- and gain-of-function approaches, we show that growth factor erv1-like (Gfer) plays an essential pro-survival role in the maintenance of murine ESC pluripotency by preserving the structural and functional integrity of their mitochondria, through modulation of the key mitochondrial fission factor Drp1.

  18. Use of refrigeration as a practical means to preserve viability of in vitro-cultured IDE8 tick cells.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Camila V; das Vasconcelos, Maria Mercês C; Ribeiro, Múcio Flávio B; Passos, Lygia M Friche

    2006-01-01

    In vitro cultivation of the IDE8 cell line, derived from embryonic Ixodes scapularis ticks, constitutes an important system for the study of tick-borne pathogens, as these cells support growth of rickettsial species which are not normally transmitted by this tick. However, since cryopreservation of IDE8 cells is not always successful, there is a need to develop alternative ways to preserve these cells. In the present study, a suspension of IDE8 cells in culture medium was kept under refrigeration at 4 degrees C for up to 60 days. Every 15 days, the suspension was mixed and aliquots were re-cultured in 2-ml tubes, under standardized conditions. In addition, three techniques for cryopreservation, using two different cryoprotectants (DMSO and glycerol), were evaluated. Medium changes were carried out every week and subculturing every 2 weeks. The development of cultures and their respective subcultures, after returning to standard culture temperature, was evaluated by percentage viability and by cellular morphology evaluated in Giemsa-stained cytocentrifuge smears. All cultures and subcultures appeared healthy, showing growth rates comparable to cultures that had not been kept under refrigeration. The results demonstrated that storage under refrigeration at 4 degrees C is an efficient method for preservation of IDE8 cells for up to 60 days and that refrigeration may be preferable to cryopreservation for short-term preservation of IDE8 cells.

  19. Increased osmolarity and cell clustering preserve canine notochordal cell phenotype in culture.

    PubMed

    Spillekom, Sandra; Smolders, Lucas A; Grinwis, Guy C M; Arkesteijn, Irene T M; Ito, Keita; Meij, Björn P; Tryfonidou, Marianna A

    2014-08-01

    Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) is associated with a loss of notochordal cells (NCs) from the nucleus pulposus (NP) and their replacement by chondrocyte-like cells. NCs are known to maintain extracellular matrix quality and stimulate the chondrocyte-like NP cells, making NCs attractive for designing new tissue engineering approaches for IVD regeneration. However, optimal conditions, such as osmolarity and other characteristics of the culture media, for long-term culture of NCs are not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different culture media and osmolarity on the physiology of NCs in vitro. NC clusters isolated from canine IVDs were suspended in alginate beads and cultured at 37°C under normoxic conditions for 28 days. Three different culture conditions were investigated; (1) Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM)/F12 (300 mOsm/L), (2) α-MEM (300 mOsm/L), and (3) α-MEM adjusted to 400 mOsm/L to mimic a hyperosmolar environment. NC morphology, expression of genes related to NC markers, matrix production and remodeling, and DNA- and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) analyses were performed on 1, 7, 14, and 28 days in culture. Large, vesicle-containing cells organized in clusters, characterized as NCs, remained present during 28 days for all culture conditions. However, the proportion of the NC clusters decreased over time, whereas the proportion of spindle-shaped cells increased. Gene expression profiling at 7, 14, and 28 days in culture compared to day 1 indicated a initial loss of NC phenotype followed by some recovery of brachyury and aggrecan gene expression after 28 days of culture supporting a potential recovery of NC phenotype. NCs cultured in α-MEM adjusted to 400 mOsm/L showed the highest gene expression of brachyury, cytokeratin 18, and aggrecan, the highest GAG production, and the lowest collagen 1α1 gene expression. In conclusion, NCs cultured in alginate in native cell clusters, partially retained their

  20. Spatial organization and correlations of cell nuclei in brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yang; Berman, Hal; Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Torquato, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    Accepting the hypothesis that cancers are self-organizing, opportunistic systems, it is crucial to understand the collective behavior of cancer cells in their tumorous heterogeneous environment. In the present paper, we ask the following basic question: Is this self-organization of tumor evolution reflected in the manner in which malignant cells are spatially distributed in their heterogeneous environment? We employ a variety of nontrivial statistical microstructural descriptors that arise in the theory of heterogeneous media to characterize the spatial distributions of the nuclei of both benign brain white matter cells and brain glioma cells as obtained from histological images. These descriptors, which include the pair correlation function, structure factor and various nearest neighbor functions, quantify how pairs of cell nuclei are correlated in space in various ways. We map the centroids of the cell nuclei into point distributions to show that while commonly used local spatial statistics (e.g., cell areas and number of neighboring cells) cannot clearly distinguish spatial correlations in distributions of normal and abnormal cell nuclei, their salient structural features are captured very well by the aforementioned microstructural descriptors. We show that the tumorous cells pack more densely than normal cells and exhibit stronger effective repulsions between any pair of cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that brain gliomas are organized in a collective way rather than randomly on intermediate and large length scales. The existence of nontrivial spatial correlations between the abnormal cells strongly supports the view that cancer is not an unorganized collection of malignant cells but rather a complex emergent integrated system.

  1. Spatial Organization and Correlations of Cell Nuclei in Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yang; Berman, Hal; Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Torquato, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    Accepting the hypothesis that cancers are self-organizing, opportunistic systems, it is crucial to understand the collective behavior of cancer cells in their tumorous heterogeneous environment. In the present paper, we ask the following basic question: Is this self-organization of tumor evolution reflected in the manner in which malignant cells are spatially distributed in their heterogeneous environment? We employ a variety of nontrivial statistical microstructural descriptors that arise in the theory of heterogeneous media to characterize the spatial distributions of the nuclei of both benign brain white matter cells and brain glioma cells as obtained from histological images. These descriptors, which include the pair correlation function, structure factor and various nearest neighbor functions, quantify how pairs of cell nuclei are correlated in space in various ways. We map the centroids of the cell nuclei into point distributions to show that while commonly used local spatial statistics (e.g., cell areas and number of neighboring cells) cannot clearly distinguish spatial correlations in distributions of normal and abnormal cell nuclei, their salient structural features are captured very well by the aforementioned microstructural descriptors. We show that the tumorous cells pack more densely than normal cells and exhibit stronger effective repulsions between any pair of cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that brain gliomas are organized in a collective way rather than randomly on intermediate and large length scales. The existence of nontrivial spatial correlations between the abnormal cells strongly supports the view that cancer is not an unorganized collection of malignant cells but rather a complex emergent integrated system. PMID:22110626

  2. Transport systems of serine at the brain barriers and in brain parenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Yasuyuki; Tachikawa, Masanori; Hirose, Shirou; Akanuma, Shin-ichi; Hosoya, Ken-ichi

    2011-07-01

    D-Serine is a co-agonist for NMDA-type glutamate receptors. Although D-serine levels in CSF and interstitial fluid (ISF) affect CNS function, the regulatory system remains to be fully understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate d-serine transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB) and in brain parenchymal cells. D-Serine microinjected into the cerebrum was not eliminated, suggesting a negligible contribution of D-serine efflux transport at the BBB. In contrast, D-serine was taken up from the circulating blood across the BBB via a carrier-mediated process. D-Serine elimination clearance from CSF was fourfold greater than that of d-mannitol, which is considered to reflect CSF bulk flow. The characteristics of D-serine uptake by isolated choroid plexus were consistent with those of Na(+)-independent alanine-serine-cysteine transporter 1 (asc-1). Uptake of D-serine by brain slices appeared to occur predominantly via asc-1 and Na(+)-dependent alanine-serine-cysteine transporter 2. These findings suggest that the regulatory system of D-serine levels in ISF and CSF involves (i) asc-1 at the BCSFB, acting as a major pathway of D-serine elimination from the CSF, (ii) blood-to-brain and blood-to-CSF influx transport of D-serine across the BBB and BCSFB, and (iii) concentrative uptake of D-serine by brain parenchymal cells.

  3. Taurine treatment preserves brain and liver mitochondrial function in a rat model of fulminant hepatic failure and hyperammonemia.

    PubMed

    Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Heidari, Reza; Abasvali, Mozhgan; Zarei, Mehdi; Ommati, Mohammad Mehdi; Abdoli, Narges; Khodaei, Forouzan; Yeganeh, Yasaman; Jafari, Faezeh; Zarei, Azita; Latifpour, Zahra; Mardani, Elnaz; Azarpira, Negar; Asadi, Behnam; Najibi, Asma

    2017-02-01

    Ammonia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and energy crisis is known as a critical consequence of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Hence, mitochondria are potential targets of therapy in HE. The current investigation was designed to evaluate the role of taurine treatment on the brain and liver mitochondrial function in a rat model of hepatic encephalopathy and hyperammonemia. The animals received thioacetamide (400mg/kg, i.p, for three consecutive days at 24-h intervals) as a model of acute liver failure and hyperammonemia. Several biochemical parameters were investigated in the serum, while the animals' cognitive function and locomotor activity were monitored. Mitochondria was isolated from the rats' brain and liver and several indices were assessed in isolated mitochondria. Liver failure led to cognitive dysfunction and impairment in locomotor activity in the rats. Plasma and brain ammonia was high and serum markers of liver injury were drastically elevated in the thioacetamide-treated group. An assessment of brain and liver mitochondrial function in the thioacetamide-treated animals revealed an inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase activity (SDA), collapsed mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial swelling, and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, a significant decrease in mitochondrial ATP was detected in the brain and liver mitochondria isolated from thioacetamide-treated animals. Taurine treatment (250, 500, and 1000mg/kg) decreased mitochondrial swelling, ROS, and LPO. Moreover, the administration of this amino acid restored brain and liver mitochondrial ATP. These data suggest taurine to be a potential protective agent with therapeutic capability against hepatic encephalopathy and hyperammonemia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and energy crisis.

  4. Growth hormone (GH), brain development and neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Waters, M J; Blackmore, D G

    2011-12-01

    A range of observations support a role for GH in development and function of the brain. These include altered brain structure in GH receptor null mice, and impaired cognition in GH deficient rodents and in a subgroup of GH receptor defective patients (Laron dwarfs). GH has been shown to alter neurogenesis, myelin synthesis and dendritic branching, and both the GH receptor and GH itself are expressed widely in the brain. We have found a population of neural stem cells which are activated by GH infusion, and which give rise to neurons in mice. These stem cells are activated by voluntary exercise in a GH-dependent manner. Given the findings that local synthesis of GH occurs in the hippocampus in response to a memory task, and that GH replacement improves memory and cognition in rodents and humans, these new observations warrant a reappraisal of the clinical importance of GH replacement in GH deficient states.

  5. Culture and Isolation of Brain Tumor Initiating Cells.

    PubMed

    Vora, Parvez; Venugopal, Chitra; McFarlane, Nicole; Singh, Sheila K

    2015-08-03

    Brain tumors are typically composed of heterogeneous cells that exhibit distinct phenotypic characteristics and proliferative potentials. Only a relatively small fraction of cells in the tumor with stem cell properties, termed brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs), possess an ability to differentiate along multiple lineages, self-renew, and initiate tumors in vivo. This unit describes protocols for the culture and isolation BTICs. We applied culture conditions and assays originally used for normal neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro to a variety of brain tumors. Using fluorescence-activated cell sorting for the neural precursor cell surface marker CD133/CD15, BTICs can be isolated and studied prospectively. Isolation of BTICs from GBM bulk tumor will enable examination of dissimilar morphologies, self-renewal capacities, tumorigenicity, and therapeutic sensitivities. As cancer is also considered a disease of unregulated self-renewal and differentiation, an understanding of BTICs is fundamental to understanding tumor growth. Ultimately, it will lead to novel drug discovery approaches that strategically target the functionally relevant BTIC population. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Identification of a cancer stem cell in human brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sheila K; Clarke, Ian D; Terasaki, Mizuhiko; Bonn, Victoria E; Hawkins, Cynthia; Squire, Jeremy; Dirks, Peter B

    2003-09-15

    Most current research on human brain tumors is focused on the molecular and cellular analysis of the bulk tumor mass. However, there is overwhelming evidence in some malignancies that the tumor clone is heterogeneous with respect to proliferation and differentiation. In human leukemia, the tumor clone is organized as a hierarchy that originates from rare leukemic stem cells that possess extensive proliferative and self-renewal potential, and are responsible for maintaining the tumor clone. We report here the identification and purification of a cancer stem cell from human brain tumors of different phenotypes that possesses a marked capacity for proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation. The increased self-renewal capacity of the brain tumor stem cell (BTSC) was highest from the most aggressive clinical samples of medulloblastoma compared with low-grade gliomas. The BTSC was exclusively isolated with the cell fraction expressing the neural stem cell surface marker CD133. These CD133+ cells could differentiate in culture into tumor cells that phenotypically resembled the tumor from the patient. The identification of a BTSC provides a powerful tool to investigate the tumorigenic process in the central nervous system and to develop therapies targeted to the BTSC.

  7. Red blood cell storage in additive solution-7 preserves energy and redox metabolism: a metabolomics approach.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Angelo; Nemkov, Travis; Hansen, Kirk C; Szczepiorkowski, Zbigniew M; Dumont, Larry J

    2015-12-01

    Storage and transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) has a huge medical and economic impact. Routine storage practices can be ameliorated through the implementation of novel additive solutions (ASs) that tackle the accumulation of biochemical and morphologic lesion during routine cold liquid storage in the blood bank, such as the recently introduced alkaline solution AS-7. Here we hypothesize that AS-7 might exert its beneficial effects through metabolic modulation during routine storage. Apheresis RBCs were resuspended either in control AS-3 or experimental AS-7, before ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomics analysis. Unambiguous assignment and relative quantitation was achieved for 229 metabolites. AS-3 and AS-7 results in many similar metabolic trends over storage, with AS-7 RBCs being more metabolically active in the first storage week. AS-7 units had faster fueling of the pentose phosphate pathway, higher total glutathione pools, and increased flux through glycolysis as indicated by higher levels of pathway intermediates. Metabolite differences are especially observed at 7 days of storage, but were still maintained throughout 42 days. AS-7 formulation (chloride free and bicarbonate loading) appears to improve energy and redox metabolism in stored RBCs in the early storage period, and the differences, though diminished, are still appreciable by Day 42. Energy metabolism and free fatty acids should be investigated as potentially important determinants for preservation of RBC structure and function. Future studies will be aimed at identifying metabolites that correlate with in vitro and in vivo circulation times. © 2015 AABB.

  8. Increased mitochondrial biogenesis preserves intestinal stem cell homeostasis and contributes to longevity in Indy mutant flies.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Ryan P; Rogina, Blanka

    2014-04-01

    The Drosophila Indy (I'm Not Dead Yet) gene encodes a plasma membrane transporter of Krebs cycle intermediates, with robust expression in tissues associated with metabolism. Reduced INDY alters metabolism and extends longevity in a manner similar to caloric restriction (CR); however, little is known about the tissue specific physiological effects of INDY reduction. Here we focused on the effects of INDY reduction in the Drosophila midgut due to the importance of intestinal tissue homeostasis in healthy aging and longevity. The expression of Indy mRNA in the midgut changes in response to aging and nutrition. Genetic reduction of Indy expression increases midgut expression of the mitochondrial regulator spargel/dPGC-1, which is accompanied by increased mitochondrial biogenesis and reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS). These physiological changes in the Indy mutant midgut preserve intestinal stem cell (ISC) homeostasis and are associated with healthy aging. Genetic studies confirm that dPGC-1 mediates the regulatory effects of INDY, as illustrated by lack of longevity extension and ISC homeostasis in flies with mutations in both Indy and dPGC1. Our data suggest INDY may be a physiological regulator that modulates intermediary metabolism in response to changes in nutrient availability and organismal needs by modulating dPGC-1.

  9. Preservation of Lymphopoietic Potential and Virus Suppressive Capacity by CD8+ T Cells in HIV-2-Infected Controllers.

    PubMed

    Angin, Mathieu; Wong, Glenn; Papagno, Laura; Versmisse, Pierre; David, Annie; Bayard, Charles; Charmeteau-De Muylder, Bénédicte; Besseghir, Amel; Thiébaut, Rodolphe; Boufassa, Faroudy; Pancino, Gianfranco; Sauce, Delphine; Lambotte, Olivier; Brun-Vézinet, Françoise; Matheron, Sophie; Rowland-Jones, Sarah L; Cheynier, Rémi; Sáez-Cirión, Asier; Appay, Victor

    2016-10-01

    Compared with HIV-1, HIV-2 infection is characterized by a larger proportion of slow or nonprogressors. A better understanding of HIV-2 pathogenesis should open new therapeutic avenues to establish control of HIV-1 replication in infected patients. In this study, we studied the production of CD8(+) T cells and their capacity for viral control in HIV-2 controllers from the French ANRS CO5 HIV-2 cohort. HIV-2 controllers display a robust capacity to support long-term renewal of the CD8(+) T cell compartment by preserving immune resources, including hematopoietic progenitors and thymic activity, which could contribute to the long-term maintenance of the CD8(+) T cell response and the avoidance of premature immune aging. Our data support the presence of HIV-2 Gag-specific CD8(+) T cells that display an early memory differentiation phenotype and robust effector potential in HIV-2 controllers. Accordingly, to our knowledge, we show for the first time that HIV-2 controllers possess CD8(+) T cells that show an unusually strong capacity to suppress HIV-2 infection in autologous CD4(+) T cells ex vivo, an ability that likely depends on the preservation of host immune resources. This effective and durable antiviral response probably participates in a virtuous circle, during which controlled viral replication permits the preservation of potent immune functions, thus preventing HIV-2 disease progression. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. Watercress-based electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds enhance proliferation and stemness preservation of human adipose-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Dadashpour, Mehdi; Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Younes; Mohammadi, Seyed Abolghasem; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Pourhassan-Moghaddam, Mohammad; Alizadeh, Effat; Jafar Maleki, Mohammad; Firouzi-Amandi, Akram; Nouri, Mohammad

    2017-07-11

    The present study describes the effects of Watercress extract (WE) based electrospun nanofibrous mats on the regulation of adhesion, proliferation, cytoprotection and stemness preservation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) is one of the most important medicinal plant with a board spectrum of biological functions. For this purpose, WE-loaded PCL-PEG nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning and characterized using FE-SEM and FTIR. Adhesion, proliferation and cytoprotection of ADSCs on the nanofibers was investigated using FE-SEM and MTT assays. Analysis of cell cycle was carried out by flow-cytometry. Finally, qPCR was applied to measure the expression levels of cell cycle-regulated genes and stemness markers of ADSCs grown on the nanofibers. In this study, we found that WE-loaded PCL-PEG nanofibers had great antioxidant potential and exhibited higher cytoprotection, better adhesion, and significantly increased proliferation of ADSCs. The greater proliferation and preserving stemness ability of ADSCs on WE based nanofibers was further confirmed by higher expression levels of cell cycle-regulated genes and stemness markers. These results demonstrate that WE-loaded PCL-PEG electrospun nanofibrous mats appear suitable to support ADSCs adhesion and proliferation while concurrently preserving the cell stemness, therefore representing a hopeful approach for applying in stem cell based regenerative medicine.

  11. Brain microvascular endothelium induced-annexin A1 secretion contributes to small cell lung cancer brain metastasis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Liu, Yong-Shuo; Wu, Peng-Fei; Li, Qiang; Dai, Wu-Min; Yuan, Shuai; Xu, Zhi-Hua; Liu, Ting-Ting; Miao, Zi-Wei; Fang, Wen-Gang; Chen, Yu-Hua; Li, Bo

    2015-09-01

    Small cell lung cancer is the most aggressive histologic subtype of lung cancer, with a strong predilection for metastasizing to brain early. However, the cellular and molecular basis is poorly known. Here, we provided evidence to reveal the role of annexin A1 in small cell lung cancer metastasis to brain. Firstly, the elevated annexin A1 serum levels in small cell lung cancer patients were associated with brain metastasis. The levels of annexin A1 were also upregulated in NCI-H446 cells, a small cell lung cancer cell line, upon migration into the mice brain. More interestingly, annexin A1 was secreted by NCI-H446 cells in a time-dependent manner when co-culturing with human brain microvascular endothelial cells, which was identified with the detections of annexin A1 in the co-cultured cellular supernatants by ELISA and western blot. Further results showed that blockage of annexin A1 in the co-cultured cellular supernatants using a neutralized antibody significantly inhibited NCI-H446 cells adhesion to brain endothelium and its transendothelial migration. Conversely, the addition of Ac2-26, an annexin A1 mimic peptide, enhanced these effects. Furthermore, knockdown of annexin A1 in NCI-H446 cells prevented its transendothelial migration in vitro and metastasis to mice brain in vivo. Our data showed that small cell lung cancer cell in brain microvasculature microenvironment could express much more annexin A1 and release it outside, which facilitated small cell lung cancer cell to gain malignant properties of entry into brain. These findings provided a potential target for the management of SCLC brain metastasis.

  12. Cold preservation of endothelial cells in sucrose-based solution (SbS) and University of Wisconsin (UW) solutions: comparison of normoxic or hypoxic storage.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, M; Sales, K M; Dijk, S; Fuller, B

    2005-01-01

    Cold preservation of endothelial cells was studied, comparing primary endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells - HUVECs) and a continuously growing cell line (ECV304 cells). Viability at the end of 24h cold preservation was measured by dye exclusion, whilst metabolism was assessed by Alamar blue conversion. Two preservation solutions were studied (UW solution) and sucrose-based (SbS) in both cell types. The response was similar in both cell types to preservation under normoxic conditions (with percentage dye exclusion maintained at about 80 percent in both preservation solutions) whereas under hypoxic conditions ECV304 were more sensitive to preservation in UW solution (dye exclusion reduced to 43.5+/-1.4 percent versus 73.6+/-14 percent (P<0.01). Metabolism assessed by Alamar blue conversion after cold preservation and rewarming was similar in both ECV304 and HUVECs after storage under normoxic conditions in UW solution, but in both cell types, metabolism was higher in SbS (P<0.05 and p<0.01) than in UW solution. Under hypoxic conditions, both cell types showed similar recovery of metabolism after storage in either UW or SbS. If the cells (in this case ECV304 under aerobic conditions) were stored for 24h and then allowed to rewarm in either of the respective preservation solutions (UW or SbS for 1h) before the Alamar blue test, metabolism was higher (p less than 0.01) in those exposed to SbS. UW solution and SbS provide similar protection for endothelial cells under hypoxic conditions, but SbS has some advantages under normoxic storage or if the cells experience variable temperatures in the presence of residual preservation solution at the end of cold preservation period.

  13. Two sexually dimorphic cell groups in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Allen, L S; Hines, M; Shryne, J E; Gorski, R A

    1989-02-01

    A quantitative analysis of the volume of 4 cell groups in the preoptic-anterior hypothalamic area (PO-AHA) and of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the human brain was performed in 22 age-matched male and female individuals. We suggest the term Interstitial Nuclei of the Anterior Hypothalamus (INAH 1-4) to identify these 4 previously undescribed cell groups in the PO-AHA. While 2 INAH and the SON were not sexually dimorphic, gender-related differences were found in the other 2 cell groups. One nucleus (INAH-3) was 2.8 times larger in the male brain than in the female brain irrespective of age. The other cell group (INAH-2) was twice as large in the male brain, but also appeared to be related in women to circulating steroid hormone levels. Since the PO-AHA influences gonadotropin secretion, maternal behavior, and sexual behavior in several mammalian species, these results suggest that functional sex differences in the hypothalamus may be related to sex differences in neural structure.

  14. Small caliber arterial endothelial cells calcium signals elicited by PAR2 are preserved from endothelial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hennessey, John C; Stuyvers, Bruno D; McGuire, John J

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial cell (EC)-dependent vasodilation by proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is preserved in small caliber arteries in disease states where vasodilation by muscarinic receptors is decreased. In this study, we identified and characterized the PAR2-mediated intracellular calcium (Ca2+)-release mechanisms in EC from small caliber arteries in healthy and diseased states. Mesenteric arterial EC were isolated from PAR2 wild-type (WT) and null mice, after saline (controls) or angiotensin II (AngII) infusion, for imaging intracellular calcium and characterizing the calcium-release system by immunofluorescence. EC Ca2+ signals comprised two forms of Ca2+-release events that had distinct spatial-temporal properties and occurred near either the plasmalemma (peripheral) or center of EC. In healthy EC, PAR2-dependent increases in the densities and firing rates of both forms of Ca2+-release were abolished by inositol 1,4,5- trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) inhibitor, but partially reduced by transient potential vanilloid channels inhibitor ruthenium red (RR). Acetylcholine (ACh)-induced less overall Ca2+-release than PAR2 activation, but enhanced selectively the incidence of central events. PAR2-dependent Ca2+-activity, inhibitors sensitivities, IP3R, small- and intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channels expressions were unchanged in EC from AngII WT. However, the same cells exhibited decreases in ACh-induced Ca2+-release, RR sensitivity, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression, indicating AngII-induced dysfunction was differentiated by receptor, Ca2+-release, and downstream targets of EC activation. We conclude that PAR2 and muscarinic receptors selectively elicit two elementary Ca2+ signals in single EC. PAR2-selective IP3R-dependent peripheral Ca2+-release mechanisms are identical between healthy and diseased states. Further study of PAR2-selective Ca2+-release for eliciting pathological and/or normal EC functions is warranted. PMID:25729579

  15. Alterations of natural killer cells in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiao-Dong; Bai, Sheng; Chen, Xin; Wei, Hui-Jie; Jin, Wei-Na; Li, Min-Shu; Yan, Yaping; Shi, Fu-Dong

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between natural killer (NK) cells and traumatic brain injury (TBI), we tracked an established phenotype of circulating NK cells at several time points in patients with different grades of TBI. In serial peripheral blood samples, NK cells were prospectively measured by flow cytometry of CD3(-) CD56(+) lymphocytes. Compared to healthy controls, TBI patients had reductions in both the percentage and the absolute number of NK cells. Furthermore, the magnitude of NK cell reduction correlated with the degree of TBI severity at several time points. That is, NK cell population size was independently associated with lower Glasgow Coma Scale scores. In addition, at some time points, a positive correlation was found between the NK cell counts and Glasgow Outcome Scale scores. Our results indicate that TBI induces a reduction in the number of NK cells, and the magnitude of the reduction appears to parallel the severity of TBI.

  16. High-resolution single-cell imaging for functional studies in the whole brain and spinal cord and thick tissue blocks using light-emitting diode illumination

    PubMed Central

    Safronov, Boris V.; Pinto, Vitor; Derkach, Victor A.

    2009-01-01

    Functional studies of neuronal networks require recordings from visually identified neurons in their natural environment, preservation of which may demand experimenting with a tissue of a significant depth or the entire brain. Here we describe a new technique of single-cell imaging and visually controlled patch-clamp recordings in both brain slices of unlimited thickness and the whole brain or spinal cord preparations with a cut upper surface. It utilizes an upright microscope and ultra bright light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as a source of oblique illumination. This technique provided high quality images of superficial cells regardless of slice thickness or the presence of opaque structures, like metal plate or bone, below the tissue, when conventional differential interference contrast (DIC) optics became powerless. The technique opens broad possibilities for a single-cell imaging and visually guided recordings from intact neuronal networks in the entire brain or spinal cord. PMID:17586052

  17. Clonal preservation of human pancreatic cell line derived from primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, R M; Li, Y; Mohamed, A N; Pettit, G R; Adsay, V; Vaitkevicius, V K; Al-Katib, A M; Sarkar, F H

    1999-11-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the pancreas generally remains an incurable disease by available treatment modalities, demanding the development of a suitable cell-culture/animal model and the discovery and evaluation of novel therapeutic agents. We report the clonal preservation of a human pancreatic cell line (KCI-MOH1) established from a 74-year-old African-American man diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. Initially the human primary tumor was grown as a xenograft in SCID mice and, subsequently, a cell line was established from tumors grown as a xenograft as reported in our earlier publication. The molecular characterization of the primary tumor, the tumors grown as xenograft, and the cell line all revealed similar genotypic properties. By using an automated DNA sequencer, a K-ras mutation (codon 12, GGT to CGT, Gly to Arg) was detected in the pancreatic tumor tissue taken from the patient, whereas no p53 mutation was detected. The same K-ras mutation and unaltered p53 was also found in the xenograft tumor and in the KCI-MOH1 cell line. Chromosome analysis of the cultured cells revealed: 42,XY,add(3)(p11.2),der(7)t(7;12) (p22;q12),-10,-12,add (14)(p11),-18,add (20)(q13),-22/84, idemx2, which is the same chromosome complement found in xenograft tumors. The KCI-MOH1 cell line grows well in tissue culture and forms tumors in the SCID mice when implanted subcutaneously, as well as in orthotopic sites. The KCI-MOH1 cell line-derived SCID mouse xenograft model was used for efficacy evaluation of bryostatin 1, auristatin-PE, spongistatin 1, and gemcitabine alone and in combination. Tumor growth inhibition (T/C expressed as percentage), tumor growth delay (T - C), and log 10 kill for these agents were 38%, 22 days, and 0.53; 15%, 30 days, and 0.80; 24%, 25 days, and 0.66; and 10%, 33 days, and 0.90, respectively. When given in combination, two of seven gemcitabine + auristatin-PE-treated animals were free of tumors for 150 days and were considered cured. Animals treated with a

  18. Gene regulatory networks in embryonic stem cells and brain development

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Dhimankrishna; Yan, Xiaowei; Tian, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are endowed with the ability to generate multiple cell lineages and carries great therapeutic potentials in regenerative medicines. Future application of ESCs in human health and diseases will embark on the delineation of molecular mechanisms that define the biology of ESCs. Here we discuss how the finite ESC components mediate the intriguing task of brain development and exhibits biomedical potentials to cure diverse neurological disorders. PMID:19530135

  19. Purification of endothelial cells from rodent brain by immunopanning.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lu; Sohet, Fabien; Daneman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This protocol describes the use of immunopanning to purify endothelial cells from the rodent brain. Immunopanning permits the prospective isolation of endothelial cells from nervous tissue by relying on the binding of the endothelial cells to an anti-CD31 antibody adhered to a Petri dish. The cells are viable at the end of this gentle procedure, and they can be analyzed acutely for gene expression or cultured alone or in coculture with other central nervous system (CNS) cell types, including CNS pericytes and CNS astrocytes. This procedure can be used to isolate endothelial cells from either rat or mouse. We have suggested specific antibodies that work for each species. Note that endothelial cells from rats and mice have different morphologies; in general, rat CNS endothelial cells are longer and thinner than mouse CNS endothelial cells. This procedure can also be used to purify endothelial cells from different regions of the CNS, including brain and optic nerve. Dissociation procedures must be optimized for each tissue.

  20. Stereotactic radiosurgery for merkel cell carcinoma brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Arun T; Alexandru-Abrams, Daniela; Abrams, Eric M; Lee, John Y K

    2015-09-01

    In this report we propose a novel approach to treat merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) brain metastases and present a review of the literature in an attempt to establish a treatment algorithm and provide prognosis. MCC is a rare neuroendocrine malignancy affecting the aging population. This malignancy has a very aggressive behavior with frequent metastases. We report a 61-year-old man with a prior history of MCC who presented with diplopia. Brain MRI revealed a single right thalamic lesion consistent with metastasis. In the two weeks following GammaKnife stereotactic radiosurgery (Elekta, Stockholm, Sweden) the diplopia improved. A brain MRI demonstrated shrinkage of the tumor. From our literature search we found only six other patients with MCC brain metastases. The majority of these patients were treated with whole brain radiation in conjunction with chemotherapy. We propose that stereotactic radiosurgery can be used as a first line therapy for patients with MCC metastatic brain disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrophysiological Properties of Subventricular Zone Cells in Adult Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Bin; Mao, Xiao Ou; Xie, Lin; Chang, Su-Youne; Xiong, Zhi-Gang; Jin, Kunlin; Greenberg, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The subventricular zone (SVZ) is a principal site of adult neurogenesis and appears to participate in the brain’s response to injury. Thus, measures that enhance SVZ neurogenesis may have a role in treatment of neurological disease. To better characterize SVZ cells and identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention, we studied electrophysiological properties of SVZ cells in adult mouse brain slices using patch-clamp techniques. Electrophysiology was correlated with immunohistochemical phenotype by injecting cells with lucifer yellow and by studying transgenic mice carrying green fluorescent protein under control of the doublecortin (DCX) or glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter. We identified five types of cells in the adult mouse SVZ: type 1 cells, with 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)/tetraethylammonium (TEA)-sensitive and CdCl2-sensitive inward currents; type 2 cells, with Ca2+-sensitive K+ and both 4-AP/TEA-sensitive and -insensitive currents; type 3 cells, with 4-AP/TEA-sensitive and -insensitive and small Na+ currents; type 4 cells, with slowly activating, large linear outward current and sustained outward current without fast-inactivating component; and type 5 cells, with a large outward rectifying current with a fast inactivating component. Type 2 and 3 cells expressed DCX, types 4 and 5 cells expressed GFAP, and type 1 cells expressed neither. We propose that SVZ neurogenesis involves a progression of electrophysiological cell phenotypes from types 4 and 5 cells (astrocytes) to type 1 cells (neuronal progenitors) to types 2 and 3 cells (nascent neurons), and that drugs acting on. ion channels expressed during neurogenesis might promote therapeutic neurogenesis in the injured brain. PMID:20434436

  2. Cortical Bone Stem Cell Therapy Preserves Cardiac Structure and Function After Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Thomas E; Schena, Giana J; Hoachlandr-Hobby, Alexander R; Starosta, Timothy; Berretta, Remus M; Wallner, Markus; Borghetti, Giulia; Gross, Polina; Yu, Daohai; Johnson, Jaslyn; Feldsott, Eric A; Trappanese, Danielle M; Toib, Amir; Rabinowitz, Joseph E; George, Jon C; Kubo, Hajime; Mohsin, Sadia; Houser, Steven R

    2017-09-14

    Rationale: Cortical bone stem cells (CBSCs) have been shown to reduce ventricular remodeling and improve cardiac function in a murine myocardial infarction (MI) model. These effects were superior to other stem cell types that have been used in recent early stage clinical trials. However, CBSC efficacy has not been tested in a preclinical large animal model using approaches that could be applied to patients. Objective: To determine if post-MI transendocardial injection of allogeneic CBSCs reduces pathological structural and functional remodeling and prevents the development of heart failure in a swine MI model. Methods and Results: Female Göttingen swine underwent left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion, followed by reperfusion (ischemia-reperfusion MI). Animals received, in a randomized, blinded manner, 1:1 ratio, CBSCs (n = 9) (2x10(7) cells total) or placebo (vehicle; VEH, n = 9) through NOGA® guided transendocardial injections. 5-ethynyl-2'deoxyuridine (EdU), a thymidine analog, containing minipumps were inserted at the time of MI induction. At 72hrs (n=8) initial injury and cell retention were assessed. At 3 Months post-MI, cardiac structure and function was evaluated by serial echocardiography, and terminal invasive hemodynamics. CBSCs were present in the MI border zone and proliferating at 72hrs post-MI but had no effect on initial cardiac injury or structure. At 3 months, CBSC-treated hearts had significantly reduced scar size, smaller myocytes and increased myocyte nuclear density. Noninvasive echocardiographic measurements showed that left ventricular (LV) volumes and ejection fraction were significantly more preserved in CBSC-treated hearts and invasive hemodynamic measurements documented improved cardiac structure and functional reserve. The number of EdU(+) cardiac myocytes was increased in CBSC- vs. VEH- treated animals. Conclusions: CBSC administration into the MI border zone reduces pathological cardiac structural and functional

  3. Retrovirus-mediated transduction of a cytosine deaminase gene preserves the stemness of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Sung; Chang, Da-Young; Kim, Ji-Hoi; Jung, Jin Hwa; Park, JoonSeong; Kim, Se-Hyuk; Lee, Young-Don; Kim, Sung-Soo; Suh-Kim, Haeyoung

    2013-02-22

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as attractive cellular vehicles to deliver therapeutic genes for ex-vivo therapy of diverse diseases; this is, in part, because they have the capability to migrate into tumor or lesion sites. Previously, we showed that MSCs could be utilized to deliver a bacterial cytosine deaminase (CD) suicide gene to brain tumors. Here we assessed whether transduction with a retroviral vector encoding CD gene altered the stem cell property of MSCs. MSCs were transduced at passage 1 and cultivated up to passage 11. We found that proliferation and differentiation potentials, chromosomal stability and surface antigenicity of MSCs were not altered by retroviral transduction. The results indicate that retroviral vectors can be safely utilized for delivery of suicide genes to MSCs for ex-vivo therapy. We also found that a single retroviral transduction was sufficient for sustainable expression up to passage 10. The persistent expression of the transduced gene indicates that transduced MSCs provide a tractable and manageable approach for potential use in allogeneic transplantation.

  4. Preservation of Bacillus firmus strain 37 and optimization of cyclodextrin biosynthesis by cells immobilized on loofa sponge.

    PubMed

    Pazzetto, Rúbia; Ferreira, Sabrina Barbosa de Souza; Santos, Elder James Silva; Moriwaki, Cristiane; Guedes, Teresinha Aparecida; Matioli, Graciette

    2012-08-08

    The preservation of Bacillus firmus strain 37 cells by lyophilization was evaluated and response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) production by cells immobilized on loofa sponge. Interactions were studied with the variables temperature, pH and dextrin concentration using a central composite design (CCD). Immobilization time influence on β-CD production was also investigated. B. firmus strain 37 cells remained viable after one year of storage, showing that the lyophilization is a suitable method for preservation of the microorganism. From the three-dimensional diagrams and contour plots, the best conditions for β-CD production were determined: temperature 60 °C, pH 8, and 18% dextrin. Considering that the amount of dextrin was high, a new assay was carried out, in which dextrin concentrations of 10, 15, and 18% were tested and the temperature of 60 °C and pH 8 were maintained. The results achieved showed very small differences and therefore, for economic reasons, the use of 10% dextrin is suggested. Increasing the immobilization time of cells immobilized on synthetic sponge the β-CD production decreased and did not change for cells immobilized on loofa sponge. The results of this research are important for microorganism preservation and essential in the optimization of the biosynthesis of CD.

  5. Human brain endothelial barrier cells are distinctly less vulnerable to silver nanoparticles toxicity than human blood vessel cells: A cell-specific mechanism of the brain barrier?

    PubMed

    Sokołowska, Paulina; Białkowska, Kamila; Siatkowska, Małgorzata; Rosowski, Marcin; Kucińska, Magdalena; Komorowski, Piotr; Makowski, Krzysztof; Walkowiak, Bogdan

    2017-10-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) constitutes a distinctive and tightly regulated interface between the brain and the peripheral circulation. The objective of studies was to compare responses of human endothelial cells representing the model of blood vessels - EA.hy926 and HUVEC cells and the model of the brain endothelial barrier - HBEC5i cells to silver nanoparticles (SNPs). A contact of SNPs with endothelial cells resulted in a formation of SNP agglomerates. Consequently, the SNPs uptake by endothelial cells affected cell viability and membrane integrity however observed responses were different. Brain endothelial barrier HBEC5i cells were much less vulnerable to SNPs toxicity comparing to EA.hy926 and HUVEC cells. It can be ascribed to the presence of specialized cellular components of the brain barrier, protecting HBEC5i cells against toxic SNPs. Fundamental understanding of SNPs inducing the BBB dysfunction may initiate engineering novel SNPs which are safe for the BBB and thereby safe for the brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Brain morphology in children with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shiohama, Tadashi; Fujii, Katsunori; Miyashita, Toshiyuki; Mizuochi, Hiromi; Uchikawa, Hideki; Shimojo, Naoki

    2017-04-01

    Brain morphology is tightly regulated by diverse signaling pathways. Hedgehog signaling is a candidate pathway considered responsible for regulating brain morphology. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), caused by a PTCH1 mutation in the hedgehog signaling pathway, occasionally exhibits macrocephaly and medulloblastoma. Although cerebellar enlargement occurs in ptch1 heterozygous-deficient mice, its impact on human brain development remains unknown. We investigated the brain morphological characteristics of children with NBCCS. We evaluated brain T1-weighted images from nine children with NBCCS and 15 age-matched normal control (NC) children (mean [standard deviation], 12.2 [2.8] vs. 11.6 [2.3] years old). The diameters of the cerebrum, corpus callosum, and brain stem and the cerebellar volume were compared using two-tailed t-tests with Welch's correction. The transverse diameters (150.4 [9.9] vs. 136.0 [5.5] mm, P = 0.002) and longitudinal diameters (165.4 [8.0] vs. 151.3 [8.7] mm, P = 0.0007) of the cerebrum, cross-sectional area of the cerebellar vermis (18.7 [2.6] vs. 11.8 [1.7] cm(2) , P = 0.0001), and total volume of the cerebellar hemispheres (185.1 [13.0] vs. 131.9 [10.4] cm(3) , P = 0.0001) were significantly larger in the children with NBCCS than in NC children. Thinning of the corpus callosum and ventricular enlargement were also confirmed in children with NBCCS. We demonstrate that, on examination of the brain morphology, an increase in the size of the cerebrum, cerebellum, and cerebral ventricles is revealed in children with NBCCS compared to NC children. This suggests that constitutively active hedgehog signaling affects human brain morphology and the PI3K/AKT and RAS/MAPK pathways.

  7. Computational neuroanatomy: mapping cell-type densities in the mouse brain, simulations from the Allen Brain Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grange, Pascal

    2015-09-01

    The Allen Brain Atlas of the adult mouse (ABA) consists of digitized expression profiles of thousands of genes in the mouse brain, co-registered to a common three-dimensional template (the Allen Reference Atlas).This brain-wide, genome-wide data set has triggered a renaissance in neuroanatomy. Its voxelized version (with cubic voxels of side 200 microns) is available for desktop computation in MATLAB. On the other hand, brain cells exhibit a great phenotypic diversity (in terms of size, shape and electrophysiological activity), which has inspired the names of some well-studied cell types, such as granule cells and medium spiny neurons. However, no exhaustive taxonomy of brain cell is available. A genetic classification of brain cells is being undertaken, and some cell types have been chraracterized by their transcriptome profiles. However, given a cell type characterized by its transcriptome, it is not clear where else in the brain similar cells can be found. The ABA can been used to solve this region-specificity problem in a data-driven way: rewriting the brain-wide expression profiles of all genes in the atlas as a sum of cell-type-specific transcriptome profiles is equivalent to solving a quadratic optimization problem at each voxel in the brain. However, the estimated brain-wide densities of 64 cell types published recently were based on one series of co-registered coronal in situ hybridization (ISH) images per gene, whereas the online ABA contains several image series per gene, including sagittal ones. In the presented work, we simulate the variability of cell-type densities in a Monte Carlo way by repeatedly drawing a random image series for each gene and solving the optimization problem. This yields error bars on the region-specificity of cell types.

  8. Doublecortin in Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells in the Adult Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Boulanger, Jenna J.; Messier, Claude

    2017-01-01

    Key Points Oligodendrocyte precursor cells express doublecortin, a microtubule-associated protein.Oligodendrocyte precursor cells express doublecortin, but at a lower level of expression than in neuronal precursor.Doublecortin is not associated with a potential immature neuronal phenotype in Oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) are glial cells that differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes during embryogenesis and early stages of post-natal life. OPCs continue to divide throughout adulthood and some eventually differentiate into oligodendrocytes in response to demyelinating lesions. There is growing evidence that OPCs are also involved in activity-driven de novo myelination of previously unmyelinated axons and myelin remodeling in adulthood. Considering these roles in the adult brain, OPCs are likely mobile cells that can migrate on some distances before they differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes. A number of studies have noted that OPCs express doublecortin (DCX), a microtubule-associated protein expressed in neural precursor cells and in migrating immature neurons. Here we describe the distribution of DCX in OPCs. We found that almost all OPCs express DCX, but the level of expression appears to be much lower than what is found in neural precursor. We found that DCX is downregulated when OPCs start expressing mature oligodendrocyte markers and is absent in myelinating oligodendrocytes. DCX does not appear to signal an immature neuronal phenotype in OPCs in the adult mouse brain. Rather, it could be involved either in cell migration, or as a marker of an immature oligodendroglial cell phenotype. PMID:28400715

  9. Radiopotentiation of human brain tumor cells by sodium phenylacetate.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, T; Lu, R M; Hu, L J; Lamborn, K R; Prados, M D; Deen, D F

    1999-08-03

    Phenylacetate (PA) inhibits the growth of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo and shows promise as a relatively nontoxic agent for cancer treatment. A recent report shows that prolonged exposure of cells to low concentrations of PA can enhance the radiation response of brain tumor cells in vitro, opening up the possibility of using this drug to improve the radiation therapy of brain tumor patients. We investigated the cytotoxicity produced by sodium phenylacetate (NaPA) alone and in combination with X-rays in SF-767 human glioblastoma cells and in two medulloblastoma cell lines, Masden and Daoy. Exposure of all three cell lines to relatively low concentrations of NaPA for up to 5 days did not enhance the subsequent cell killing produced by X-irradiation. However, enhanced cell killing was achieved by exposing either oxic or hypoxic cells to relatively high drug concentrations ( > 50-70 mM) for 1 h immediately before X-irradiation. Because central nervous system toxicity can occur in humans at serum concentrations of approximately 6 mM PA, translation of these results into clinical trials will likely require local drug-delivery strategies to achieve drug concentrations that can enhance the radiation response. The safety of such an approach with this drug has not been demonstrated.

  10. Internally and externally generated emotions in people with acquired brain injury: preservation of emotional experience after right hemisphere lesions.

    PubMed

    Salas Riquelme, Christian E; Radovic, Darinka; Castro, Osvaldo; Turnbull, Oliver H

    2015-01-01

    The study of emotional changes after brain injury has contributed enormously to the understanding of the neural basis of emotion. However, little attention has been placed on the methods used to elicit emotional responses in people with brain damage. Of particular interest are subjects with right hemisphere [RH] cortical lesions, who have been described as presenting impairment in emotional processing. In this article, an internal and external mood induction procedure [MIP] was used to trigger positive and negative emotions, in a sample of 10 participants with RH damage, and 15 healthy controls. Emotional experience was registered by using a self-report questionnaire. As observed in previous studies, internal and external MIPs were equally effective in eliciting the target emotion, but the internal procedure generated higher levels of intensity. Remarkably, participants with RH lesions were equally able to experience both positive and negative affect. The results are discussed in relation to the role of the RH in the capacity to experience negative emotions.

  11. Evaluation of brain-targeted chitosan nanoparticles through blood-brain barrier cerebral microvessel endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Adem; Yoyen-Ermis, Digdem; Caban-Toktas, Secil; Horzum, Utku; Aktas, Yesim; Couvreur, Patrick; Esendagli, Gunes; Capan, Yilmaz

    2017-09-13

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the major problem for the treatment of central nervous system diseases. A previous study from our group showed that the brain-targeted chitosan nanoparticles-loaded with large peptide moieties can rapidly cross the barrier and provide neuroprotection. The present study aims to determine the efficacy of the brain-targeted chitosan nanoparticles' uptake by the human BBB cerebral microvessel endothelial cells (hCMECs) and to investigate the underlying mechanisms for enhanced cellular entry. Fluorescently labelled nanoparticles either conjugated with antibodies recognising human transferrin receptor (anti-TfR mAb) or not were prepared, characterised and their interaction with cerebral endothelial cells was evaluated. The antibody decoration of chitosan nanoparticles significantly increased their entry into hCMEC/D3 cell line. Inhibition of cellular uptake by chlorpromazine indicated that the anti-TfR mAb-conjugated nanoparticles were preferentially cell internalised through receptor-mediated endocytosis pathway. Alternatively, as primarily observed with control chitosan nanoparticles, aggregation of nanoparticles may also have induced macropinocytosis.

  12. Transcellular transport of CCL2 across brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ge, Shujun; Song, Li; Serwanski, David R; Kuziel, William A; Pachter, Joel S

    2008-03-01

    The means by which the chemokine CCL2 produced in the brain parenchyma can recruit leukocytes lying behind the highly impervious endothelium of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) has remained a paradox. As other chemokines have been evidenced to stimulate their own synthesis and release by peripheral microvascular endothelial cells, and/or undergo transcytosis in the abluminal-to-luminal direction, we determined whether CCL2 experiences similar fates across brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC). Using cultured BMEC as a paradigm of the BBB, it was observed that exogenous unlabeled CCL2 actually depressed the release of endogenous CCL2, and further caused diminished CCL2 mRNA levels in these cells. On the other hand, exogenous (125)I-labeled CCL2 exhibited transport across BMEC in a manner that was sensitive to temperature, competition by excess unlabeled CCL2 but not unlabeled CCL3, knockdown of caveolin-1/caveolae, and elimination of the cognate CCL2 receptor CCR2. These results implied a facet of CCL2 transport by a transcellular mechanism partly involving binding of CCL2 to CCR2, and subsequent transfer to caveolae vesicles for transcytosis. This notion was supported by double-label immuno-electronmicroscopy, which revealed co-localization of caveolin-1 with exogenous CCL2, during this chemokine's transit across BMEC. Collectively, these findings provide a rationale by which CCL2, deposited on the abluminal side of the brain microvasculature during inflammatory episodes, can be relayed across the BBB to foster leukocyte recruitment.

  13. Cell proliferation and cell death are disturbed during prenatal and postnatal brain development after uranium exposure.

    PubMed

    Legrand, M; Elie, C; Stefani, J; N Florès; Culeux, C; Delissen, O; Ibanez, C; Lestaevel, P; Eriksson, P; Dinocourt, C

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is more susceptible to neurotoxic compounds than adult brain. It is also well known that disturbances during brain development cause neurological disorders in adulthood. The brain is known to be a target organ of uranium (U) exposure and previous studies have noted that internal U contamination of adult rats induces behavioral disorders as well as affects neurochemistry and neurophysiological properties. In this study, we investigated whether depleted uranium (DU) exposure affects neurogenesis during prenatal and postnatal brain development. We examined the structural morphology of the brain, cell death and finally cell proliferation in animals exposed to DU during gestation and lactation compared to control animals. Our results showed that DU decreases cell death in the cortical neuroepithelium of gestational day (GD) 13 embryos exposed at 40mg/L and 120mg/L and of GD18 fetuses exposed at 120mg/L without modification of the number of apoptotic cells. Cell proliferation analysis showed an increase of BrdU labeling in the dentate neuroepithelium of fetuses from GD18 at 120mg/L. Postnatally, cell death is increased in the dentate gyrus of postnatal day (PND) 0 and PND5 exposed pups at 120mg/L and is associated with an increase of apoptotic cell number only at PND5. Finally, a decrease in dividing cells is observed in the dentate gyrus of PND21 rats developmentally exposed to 120mg/L DU, but not at PND0 and PND5. These results show that DU exposure during brain development causes opposite effects on cell proliferation and cell death processes between prenatal and postnatal development mainly at the highest dose. Although these modifications do not have a major impact in brain morphology, they could affect the next steps of neurogenesis and thus might disrupt the fine organization of the neuronal network.

  14. Classification of subpopulations of cells within human primary brain tumors by single cell gene expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Möllerström, Elin; Rydenhag, Bertil; Andersson, Daniel; Lebkuechner, Isabell; Puschmann, Till B; Chen, Meng; Wilhelmsson, Ulrika; Ståhlberg, Anders; Malmgren, Kristina; Pekny, Milos

    2015-02-01

    Brain tumors are heterogeneous with respect to genetic and histological properties of cells within the tumor tissue. To study subpopulations of cells, we developed a protocol for obtaining viable single cells from freshly isolated human brain tissue for single cell gene expression profiling. We evaluated this technique for characterization of cell populations within brain tumor and tumor penumbra. Fresh tumor tissue was obtained from one astrocytoma grade IV and one oligodendroglioma grade III tumor as well as the tumor penumbra of the latter tumor. The tissue was dissociated into individual cells and the expression of 36 genes was assessed by reverse transcription quantitative PCR followed by data analysis. We show that tumor cells from both the astrocytoma grade IV and oligodendroglioma grade III tumor constituted cell subpopulations defined by their gene expression profiles. Some cells from the oligodendroglioma grade III tumor proper shared molecular characteristics with the cells from the penumbra of the same tumor suggesting that a subpopulation of cells within the oligodendroglioma grade III tumor consisted of normal brain cells. We conclude that subpopulations of tumor cells can be identified by using single cell gene expression profiling.

  15. Long-term cognitive effects of human stem cell transplantation in the irradiated brain.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Munjal M; Martirosian, Vahan; Christie, Lori-Ann; Limoli, Charles L

    2014-09-01

    Radiotherapy remains a primary treatment modality for the majority of central nervous system tumors, but frequently leads to debilitating cognitive dysfunction. Given the absence of satisfactory solutions to this serious problem, we have used human stem cell therapies to ameliorate radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Here, past studies have been extended to determine whether engrafted cells provide even longer-term benefits to cognition. Athymic nude rats were cranially irradiated (10 Gy) and subjected to intrahippocampal transplantation surgery 2 days later. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) or human neural stem cells (hNSC) were transplanted, and animals were subjected to cognitive testing on a novel place recognition task 8 months later. Grafting of hNSC was found to provide long lasting cognitive benefits over an 8-month post-irradiation interval. At this protracted time, hNSC grafting improved behavioral performance on a novel place recognition task compared to irradiated animals not receiving stem cells. Engrafted hESC previously shown to be beneficial following a similar task, 1 and 4 months after irradiation, were not found to provide cognitive benefits at 8 months. Our findings suggest that hNSC transplantation promotes the long-term recovery of the irradiated brain, where intrahippocampal stem cell grafting helps to preserve cognitive function.

  16. Tomographic brain imaging with nucleolar detail and automatic cell counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieber, Simone E.; Bikis, Christos; Khimchenko, Anna; Schweighauser, Gabriel; Hench, Jürgen; Chicherova, Natalia; Schulz, Georg; Müller, Bert

    2016-09-01

    Brain tissue evaluation is essential for gaining in-depth insight into its diseases and disorders. Imaging the human brain in three dimensions has always been a challenge on the cell level. In vivo methods lack spatial resolution, and optical microscopy has a limited penetration depth. Herein, we show that hard X-ray phase tomography can visualise a volume of up to 43 mm3 of human post mortem or biopsy brain samples, by demonstrating the method on the cerebellum. We automatically identified 5,000 Purkinje cells with an error of less than 5% at their layer and determined the local surface density to 165 cells per mm2 on average. Moreover, we highlight that three-dimensional data allows for the segmentation of sub-cellular structures, including dendritic tree and Purkinje cell nucleoli, without dedicated staining. The method suggests that automatic cell feature quantification of human tissues is feasible in phase tomograms obtained with isotropic resolution in a label-free manner.

  17. Tomographic brain imaging with nucleolar detail and automatic cell counting

    PubMed Central

    Hieber, Simone E.; Bikis, Christos; Khimchenko, Anna; Schweighauser, Gabriel; Hench, Jürgen; Chicherova, Natalia; Schulz, Georg; Müller, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Brain tissue evaluation is essential for gaining in-depth insight into its diseases and disorders. Imaging the human brain in three dimensions has always been a challenge on the cell level. In vivo methods lack spatial resolution, and optical microscopy has a limited penetration depth. Herein, we show that hard X-ray phase tomography can visualise a volume of up to 43 mm3 of human post mortem or biopsy brain samples, by demonstrating the method on the cerebellum. We automatically identified 5,000 Purkinje cells with an error of less than 5% at their layer and determined the local surface density to 165 cells per mm2 on average. Moreover, we highlight that three-dimensional data allows for the segmentation of sub-cellular structures, including dendritic tree and Purkinje cell nucleoli, without dedicated staining. The method suggests that automatic cell feature quantification of human tissues is feasible in phase tomograms obtained with isotropic resolution in a label-free manner. PMID:27581254

  18. Implications of aneuploidy for stem cell biology and brain therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Devalle, Sylvie; Sartore, Rafaela C.; Paulsen, Bruna S.; Borges, Helena L.; Martins, Rodrigo A. P.; Rehen, Stevens K.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the cellular basis of neurological disorders have advanced at a slow pace, especially due to the extreme invasiveness of brain biopsying and limitations of cell lines and animal models that have been used. Since the derivation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), a novel source of cells for regenerative medicine and disease modeling has become available, holding great potential for the neurology field. However, safety for therapy and accurateness for modeling have been a matter of intense debate, considering that genomic instability, including the gain and loss of chromosomes (aneuploidy), has been repeatedly observed in those cells. Despite the fact that recent reports have described some degree of aneuploidy as being normal during neuronal differentiation and present in healthy human brains, this phenomenon is particularly controversial since it has traditionally been associated with cancer and disabling syndromes. It is therefore necessary to appreciate, to which extent, aneuploid pluripotent stem cells are suitable for regenerative medicine and neurological modeling and also the limits that separate constitutive from disease-related aneuploidy. In this review, recent findings regarding chromosomal instability in PSCs and within the brain will be discussed. PMID:22973193

  19. Selective preservation of a lexical category in aphasia: dissociations in comprehension of body parts and geographical place names following focal brain lesion.

    PubMed

    Goodglass, H; Wingfield, A

    1993-12-01

    The selective dissociation of memory for proper names is discussed in the context of a review of dissociations involving broadly defined vs narrowly defined semantic categories in brain damaged adults. Two narrowly defined categories for which dissociations have been reported are body parts (selectively impaired in comprehension) and geographical place names (selectively preserved in comprehension). In this study, 167 aphasic patients were tested for their ability to correctly identify body parts and map locations from spoken names, relative to a baseline for correct responses on general word discrimination (object identification). Wernicke's aphasics and Global aphasics both had significantly more success in pointing to named map locations and significantly worse performance in pointing to named body parts than they had in selecting other objects from multiple choice. Anomic aphasics showed precisely the opposite pattern of results. Other aphasic subgroups (Broca's aphasics, Mixed Nonfluent aphasics, Conduction aphasics, Transcortical Motor and Transcortical Sensory aphasics, and Mixed Fluent aphasics) did not show significant deviations in either direction. We suggest that the selective preservation for place names may be related to their status as proper names.

  20. Wnt signaling in the niche enforces hematopoietic stem cell quiescence and is necessary to preserve self-renewal in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Heather E; Janzen, Viktor; Celso, Cristina Lo; Guo, Jun; Leahy, Kathleen M; Kronenberg, Henry M; Scadden, David T

    2010-01-01

    Summary Wingless (Wnt) is a potent morphogen demonstrated in multiple cell lineages to promote the expansion and maintenance of stem and progenitor cell populations. Pharmacologic modification of Wnt signaling has been shown to increase hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). We explored the impact of Wnt signaling in vivo, specifically within the context of the HSC niche. Using an osteoblast-specific promoter to drive the expression of a pan-inhibitor of canonical Wnt signaling, Dickkopf1 (Dkk1), we noted changes in trabecular bone and in HSC. Wnt signaling was inhibited in HSC and the cells exhibited reduced p21Cip1 expression, increased cell cycling and a progressive decline in regenerative function after transplantation. This effect was microenvironment-determined, but irreversible if the cells were transferred to a normal host. Wnt pathway activation in the niche is required to preserve the reconstituting function of endogenous hematopoietic stem cells. PMID:18371452

  1. Comparison of electroporation and Chariot™ for delivery of β-galactosidase into mammalian cells: strategies to use trehalose in cell preservation.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Lia H; Brockbank, Kelvin G M

    2011-03-01

    There are many compounds that can and have been used as cryoprotectants including disaccharides such as trehalose. Many organisms in nature use trehalose to help protect themselves at colder temperatures. Trehalose has also been used to a limited extent for the preservation of mammalian cells and tissues, but mainly as a supplement to other cryoprotectants like dimethyl sulfoxide. Recently, the use of trehalose as the primary cryoprotectant has gained much interest because of its low-potential cytotoxicity. Trehalose does not readily pass through mammalian cells membranes and research has shown that it is most effective when present on both sides of the cell membrane prior to preservation. Different strategies for introducing disaccharide sugars into cells have been investigated with limited success. In this study, two separate strategies are investigated for the introduction of disaccharide sugars into cells. Electroporation using an electric pulse to create temporary holes in the membrane so that molecules could pass through and a transport peptide (Chariot™) that covalently binds to the molecule of interest and then moves it across the membrane. Both strategies have the potential to load disaccharide sugars into cells at concentrations that would provide ample protection during preservation. In preparation for cryopreservation studies, smooth muscle cells that are difficult to cryopreserve using conventional preservation protocols were used to evaluate and compare the translocation potential of these two strategies using β-galactosidase. Assessment of each loading strategy was done by measuring viability and the presence of β-galactosidase inside the cells. The results indicate that both methods appear feasible as potential delivery systems and that treatment cytotoxicity can be minimized. The next step is definition of the best loading strategy to introduce trehalose into cells followed by preservation by freezing.

  2. Preservation of beta cell function after pancreatic islet autotransplantation: University of Chicago experience.

    PubMed

    Savari, Omid; Golab, Karolina; Wang, Ling-Jia; Schenck, Lindsay; Grose, Randall; Tibudan, Martin; Ramachandran, Sabarinathan; Chon, W James; Posner, Mitchell C; Millis, J Michael; Matthews, Jeffrey B; Gelrud, Andres; Witkowski, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the rate of insulin independence in patients after total pancreatectomy (TP) and islet autotransplantation in our center. TP followed by islet autotransplantation was performed in 10 patients. Severe unrelenting pain associated with chronic pancreatitis was the major indication for surgery. Islets were isolated using the modified Ricordi method and infused through the portal vein. Exogenous insulin therapy was implemented for at least two months posttransplant to support islet engraftment and was subsequently weaned off, if possible. Median follow-up was 26 months (range, 2 to 60 months). Median islet yield was 158,860 islet equivalents (IEQ) (range, 40,203 to 330,472 IEQ) with an average islet yield of 2,478 IEQ/g (range, 685 to 6,002 IEQ/g) of processed pancreas. One patient developed transient partial portal vein thrombosis, which resolved without sequela. Five (50%) patients are currently off insulin with excellent glucose control and HbA1c below 6. Patients who achieved and maintained insulin independence were transplanted with significantly more islets (median, 202,291 IEQ; range, 145,000 to 330,474 IEQ) than patients who required insulin support (64,348 IEQ; range, 40,203 to 260,476 IEQ; P < 0.05). Patient body mass index and time of chronic pancreatitis prior transplant procedure did not correlate with the outcome. The remaining five patients, who require insulin support, had present C-peptide in blood and experience good glucose control without incidence of severe hypoglycemic episodes. Islet autotransplantation efficiently preserved beta cell function in selected patients with chronic pancreatitis and the outcome correlated with transplanted islet mass.

  3. Melatonin Treatment Improves Mesenchymal Stem Cells Therapy by Preserving Stemness during Long-term In Vitro Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Shuai, Yi; Liao, Li; Su, Xiaoxia; Yu, Yang; Shao, Bingyi; Jing, Huan; Zhang, Xinjing; Deng, Zhihong; Jin, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for tissue regeneration and disease treatment. However, long-term in vitro passaging leads to stemness loss of MSCs, resulting in failure of MSCs therapy. Here, we report a melatonin-based strategy to improve cell therapy of in vitro cultured MSCs. Among four small molecules with anti-aging and stem cell-protection properties (rapamycin, resveratrol, quercetin and melatonin), colony forming, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation assay showed that melatonin was the most efficient to preserve self-renewal and differentiation properties of rat bone marrow MSCs (BMMSCs) after long-term passaging. Functional assays confirmed melatonin treatment did not affect the colony forming, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMMSCs cultured for 1 or 4 passages, but largely prevented the decline of self-renew and differentiation capacity of BMMSCs cultured for 15 passages in vitro. Furthermore, heterotopic osteogenesis assay, critical size calvarial defects repair assay, osteoporosis treatment and experimental colitis therapy assay strongly certified that melatonin preserved the therapeutic effect of long-term passaged BMMSCs on bone regeneration and immunotherapy in vivo. Mechanistically, melatonin functioned by activating antioxidant defense system, inhibiting the pathway of cell senescence, and preserving the expression of gene governing the stemness. Taken together, our findings showed that melatonin treatment efficiently prevented the dysfunction and therapeutic failure of BMMSCs after long-term passaging, providing a practical strategy to improve the application of BMMSCs in tissue engineering and cytotherapy. PMID:27570559

  4. The stem cell secretome and its role in brain repair.

    PubMed

    Drago, Denise; Cossetti, Chiara; Iraci, Nunzio; Gaude, Edoardo; Musco, Giovanna; Bachi, Angela; Pluchino, Stefano

    2013-12-01

    Compelling evidence exists that non-haematopoietic stem cells, including mesenchymal (MSCs) and neural/progenitor stem cells (NPCs), exert a substantial beneficial and therapeutic effect after transplantation in experimental central nervous system (CNS) disease models through the secretion of immune modulatory or neurotrophic paracrine factors. This paracrine hypothesis has inspired an alternative outlook on the use of stem cells in regenerative neurology. In this paradigm, significant repair of the injured brain may be achieved by injecting the biologics secreted by stem cells (secretome), rather than implanting stem cells themselves for direct cell replacement. The stem cell secretome (SCS) includes cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, and has gained increasing attention in recent years because of its multiple implications for the repair, restoration or regeneration of injured tissues. Thanks to recent improvements in SCS profiling and manipulation, investigators are now inspired to harness the SCS as a novel alternative therapeutic option that might ensure more efficient outcomes than current stem cell-based therapies for CNS repair. This review discusses the most recent identification of MSC- and NPC-secreted factors, including those that are trafficked within extracellular membrane vesicles (EVs), and reflects on their potential effects on brain repair. It also examines some of the most convincing advances in molecular profiling that have enabled mapping of the SCS.

  5. The stem cell secretome and its role in brain repair

    PubMed Central

    Drago, Denise; Cossetti, Chiara; Iraci, Nunzio; Gaude, Edoardo; Musco, Giovanna; Bachi, Angela; Pluchino, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Compelling evidence exists that non-haematopoietic stem cells, including mesenchymal (MSCs) and neural/progenitor stem cells (NPCs), exert a substantial beneficial and therapeutic effect after transplantation in experimental central nervous system (CNS) disease models through the secretion of immune modulatory or neurotrophic paracrine factors. This paracrine hypothesis has inspired an alternative outlook on the use of stem cells in regenerative neurology. In this paradigm, significant repair of the injured brain may be achieved by injecting the biologics secreted by stem cells (secretome), rather than implanting stem cells themselves for direct cell replacement. The stem cell secretome (SCS) includes cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, and has gained increasing attention in recent years because of its multiple implications for the repair, restoration or regeneration of injured tissues. Thanks to recent improvements in SCS profiling and manipulation, investigators are now inspired to harness the SCS as a novel alternative therapeutic option that might ensure more efficient outcomes than current stem cell-based therapies for CNS repair. This review discusses the most recent identification of MSC- and NPC-secreted factors, including those that are trafficked within extracellular membrane vesicles (EVs), and reflects on their potential effects on brain repair. It also examines some of the most convincing advances in molecular profiling that have enabled mapping of the SCS. PMID:23827856

  6. Preserving elemental content in adherent mammalian cells for analysis by synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qiaoling; Paunesku, Tatjana; Lai, Barry; Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte; Chen, S I; Finney, Lydia; Vine, David; Vogt, Stefan; Woloschak, Gayle; Jacobsen, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Trace metals play important roles in biological function, and x-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) provides a way to quantitatively image their distribution within cells. The faithfulness of these measurements is dependent on proper sample preparation. Using mouse embryonic fibroblast NIH/3T3 cells as an example, we compare various approaches to the preparation of adherent mammalian cells for XFM imaging under ambient temperature. Direct side-by-side comparison shows that plunge-freezing-based cryoimmobilization provides more faithful preservation than conventional chemical fixation for most biologically important elements including P, S, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and possibly Ca in adherent mammalian cells. Although cells rinsed with fresh media had a great deal of extracellular background signal for Cl and Ca, this approach maintained cells at the best possible physiological status before rapid freezing and it does not interfere with XFM analysis of other elements. If chemical fixation has to be chosen, the combination of 3% paraformaldehyde and 1.5 % glutaraldehyde preserves S, Fe, Cu and Zn better than either fixative alone. When chemically fixed cells were subjected to a variety of dehydration processes, air drying was proved to be more suitable than other drying methods such as graded ethanol dehydration and freeze drying. This first detailed comparison for x-ray fluorescence microscopy shows how detailed quantitative conclusions can be affected by the choice of cell preparation method. 2016 The Authors. Journal of Microscopy published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Microscopical Society.

  7. Preserving elemental content in adherent mammalian cells for analysis by synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Qiaoling; Paunesku, Tatjana; Lai, Barry; Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte; Chen, Si; Finney, Lydia; Vine, David; Vogt, Stefan; Woloschak, Gayle; Jacobsen, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Trace metals play important roles in biological function, and x-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) provides a way to quantitatively image their distribution within cells. The faithfulness of these measurements is dependent on proper sample preparation. Using mouse embryonic fibroblast NIH/3T3 cells as an example, we compare various approaches to the preparation of adherent mammalian cells for XFM imaging under ambient temperature. Direct side-by-side comparison shows that plunge-freezing-based cryoimmobilization provides more faithful preservation than conventional chemical fixation for most biologically important elements including P, S, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and possibly Ca in adherent mammalian cells. Although cells rinsed with fresh media had a great deal of extracellular background signal for Cl and Ca, this approach maintained cells at the best possible physiological status before rapid freezing and it does not interfere with XFM analysis of other elements. If chemical fixation has to be chosen, the combination of 3% paraformaldehyde and 1.5 % glutaraldehyde preserves S, Fe, Cu and Zn better than either fixative alone. When chemically fixed cells were subjected to a variety of dehydration processes, air drying was proved to be more suitable than other drying methods such as graded ethanol dehydration and freeze drying. This first detailed comparison for x-ray fluorescence microscopy shows how detailed quantitative conclusions can be affected by the choice of cell preparation method

  8. Preserving elemental content in adherent mammalian cells for analysis by synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Jin, Qiaoling; Paunesku, Tatjana; Lai, Barry; ...

    2016-08-31

    Trace metals play important roles in biological function, and x-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) provides a way to quantitatively image their distribution within cells. The faithfulness of these measurements is dependent on proper sample preparation. Using mouse embryonic fibroblast NIH/3T3 cells as an example, we compare various approaches to the preparation of adherent mammalian cells for XFM imaging under ambient temperature. Direct side-by-side comparison shows that plunge-freezing-based cryoimmobilization provides more faithful preservation than conventional chemical fixation for most biologically important elements including P, S, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and possibly Ca in adherent mammalian cells. Although cells rinsed with freshmore » media had a great deal of extracellular background signal for Cl and Ca, this approach maintained cells at the best possible physiological status before rapid freezing and it does not interfere with XFM analysis of other elements. If chemical fixation has to be chosen, the combination of 3% paraformaldehyde and 1.5 % glutaraldehyde preserves S, Fe, Cu and Zn better than either fixative alone. Lastly, when chemically fixed cells were subjected to a variety of dehydration processes, air drying was proved to be more suitable than other drying methods such as graded ethanol dehydration and freeze drying. This first detailed comparison for x-ray fluorescence microscopy shows how detailed quantitative conclusions can be affected by the choice of cell preparation method.« less

  9. Preserving elemental content in adherent mammalian cells for analysis by synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Qiaoling; Paunesku, Tatjana; Lai, Barry; Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte; Chen, Si; Finney, Lydia; Vine, David; Vogt, Stefan; Woloschak, Gayle; Jacobsen, Chris

    2016-08-31

    Trace metals play important roles in biological function, and x-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) provides a way to quantitatively image their distribution within cells. The faithfulness of these measurements is dependent on proper sample preparation. Using mouse embryonic fibroblast NIH/3T3 cells as an example, we compare various approaches to the preparation of adherent mammalian cells for XFM imaging under ambient temperature. Direct side-by-side comparison shows that plunge-freezing-based cryoimmobilization provides more faithful preservation than conventional chemical fixation for most biologically important elements including P, S, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and possibly Ca in adherent mammalian cells. Although cells rinsed with fresh media had a great deal of extracellular background signal for Cl and Ca, this approach maintained cells at the best possible physiological status before rapid freezing and it does not interfere with XFM analysis of other elements. If chemical fixation has to be chosen, the combination of 3% paraformaldehyde and 1.5 % glutaraldehyde preserves S, Fe, Cu and Zn better than either fixative alone. Lastly, when chemically fixed cells were subjected to a variety of dehydration processes, air drying was proved to be more suitable than other drying methods such as graded ethanol dehydration and freeze drying. This first detailed comparison for x-ray fluorescence microscopy shows how detailed quantitative conclusions can be affected by the choice of cell preparation method.

  10. Preserving elemental content in adherent mammalian cells for analysis by synchrotron‐based x‐ray fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    JIN, QIAOLING; PAUNESKU, TATJANA; LAI, BARRY; GLEBER, SOPHIE‐CHARLOTTE; CHEN, SI; FINNEY, LYDIA; VINE, DAVID; VOGT, STEFAN; WOLOSCHAK, GAYLE

    2016-01-01

    Summary Trace metals play important roles in biological function, and x‐ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) provides a way to quantitatively image their distribution within cells. The faithfulness of these measurements is dependent on proper sample preparation. Using mouse embryonic fibroblast NIH/3T3 cells as an example, we compare various approaches to the preparation of adherent mammalian cells for XFM imaging under ambient temperature. Direct side‐by‐side comparison shows that plunge‐freezing‐based cryoimmobilization provides more faithful preservation than conventional chemical fixation for most biologically important elements including P, S, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and possibly Ca in adherent mammalian cells. Although cells rinsed with fresh media had a great deal of extracellular background signal for Cl and Ca, this approach maintained cells at the best possible physiological status before rapid freezing and it does not interfere with XFM analysis of other elements. If chemical fixation has to be chosen, the combination of 3% paraformaldehyde and 1.5 % glutaraldehyde preserves S, Fe, Cu and Zn better than either fixative alone. When chemically fixed cells were subjected to a variety of dehydration processes, air drying was proved to be more suitable than other drying methods such as graded ethanol dehydration and freeze drying. This first detailed comparison for x‐ray fluorescence microscopy shows how detailed quantitative conclusions can be affected by the choice of cell preparation method. PMID:27580164

  11. Uptake and utilization of CDP-choline in primary brain cell cultures from fetal brain.

    PubMed

    Vecchini, A; Binaglia, L; Floridi, A; Palmerini, C A; Procellati, G

    1983-03-01

    The utilization of double-labeled CDP-choline by cultured brain cells has been studied. CDP-choline is demonstrated to be rapidly hydrolysed into CMP and choline phosphate. The fragments, or their hydrolysis products, penetrate into the cells and are utilized for lipid synthesis. At short times after the isotope administration a rapid labeling of phosphatidylcholine was detected, when cells were incubated with CDP-choline. The same was not seen when cells were incubated with labeled choline. From these observations it can be inferred that either CDP- choline can penetrate the cell membrane or that some mechanism involving CDP-choline and leading to phospholipid synthesis can work at the external surface of the plasma membranes.

  12. Derivation of blood-brain barrier endothelial cells from human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lippmann, Ethan S; Azarin, Samira M; Kay, Jennifer E; Nessler, Randy A; Wilson, Hannah K; Al-Ahmad, Abraham; Palecek, Sean P; Shusta, Eric V

    2012-08-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is crucial to the health of the brain and is often compromised in neurological disease. Moreover, because of its barrier properties, this endothelial interface restricts uptake of neurotherapeutics. Thus, a renewable source of human BBB endothelium could spur brain research and pharmaceutical development. Here we show that endothelial cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) acquire BBB properties when co-differentiated with neural cells that provide relevant cues, including those involved in Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The resulting endothelial cells have many BBB attributes, including well-organized tight junctions, appropriate expression of nutrient transporters and polarized efflux transporter activity. Notably, they respond to astrocytes, acquiring substantial barrier properties as measured by transendothelial electrical resistance (1,450 ± 140 Ω cm2), and they possess molecular permeability that correlates well with in vivo rodent blood-brain transfer coefficients.

  13. Targeting brain microvascular endothelial cells: a therapeutic approach to neuroprotection against stroke

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qi-jin; Tao, Hong; Wang, Xin; Li, Ming-chang

    2015-01-01

    Brain microvascular endothelial cells form the interface between nervous tissue and circulating blood, and regulate central nervous system homeostasis. Brain microvascular endothelial cells differ from peripheral endothelial cells with regards expression of specific ion transporters and receptors, and contain fewer fenestrations and pinocytotic vesicles. Brain microvascular endothelial cells also synthesize several factors that influence blood vessel function. This review describes the morphological characteristics and functions of brain microvascular endothelial cells, and summarizes current knowledge regarding changes in brain microvascular endothelial cells during stroke progression and therapies. Future studies should focus on identifying mechanisms underlying such changes and developing possible neuroprotective therapeutic interventions. PMID:26807131

  14. Early intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids preserves brain structure and function in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Arnoldussen, Ilse A C; Zerbi, Valerio; Wiesmann, Maximilian; Noordman, Rikko H J; Bolijn, Simone; Mutsaers, Martina P C; Dederen, Pieter J W C; Kleemann, Robert; Kooistra, Teake; van Tol, Eric A F; Gross, Gabriele; Schoemaker, Marieke H; Heerschap, Arend; Wielinga, Peter Y; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2016-04-01

    Worldwide, the incidence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate, and the number of children with obesity is especially worrisome. These developments raise concerns about the physical, psychosocial and cognitive consequences of obesity. It was shown that early dietary intake of arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can reduce the detrimental effects of later obesogenic feeding on lipid metabolism and adipogenesis in an animal model of mild obesity. In the present study, the effects of early dietary ARA and DHA on cognition and brain structure were examined in mildly obesogenic ApoE*3Leiden mouse model. We used cognitive tests and neuroimaging during early and later life. During their early development after weaning (4-13weeks of age), mice were fed a chow diet or ARA and DHA diet for 8 weeks and then switched to a high-fat and high-carbohydrate (HFHC) diet for 12weeks (14-26weeks of age). An HFHC-diet led to increased energy storage in white adipose tissue, increased cholesterol levels, decreased triglycerides levels, increased cerebral blood flow and decreased functional connectivity between brain regions as well as cerebrovascular and gray matter integrity. ARA and DHA intake reduced the HFHC-diet-induced increase in body weight, attenuated plasma triglycerides levels and improved cerebrovasculature, gray matter integrity and functional connectivity in later life. In conclusion, an HFHC diet causes adverse structural brain and metabolic adaptations, most of which can be averted by dietary ARA and DHA intake early in life supporting metabolic flexibility and cerebral integrity later in life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The physical chemistry of brain and neural cell membranes: an overview.

    PubMed

    Robertson, D S

    2010-05-01

    The formation of cell membranes through the physical-chemical interaction of two hydrophilic colloidal fluids is applied to the formation of the membranes of brain and neural cells. Also described is the membrane mechanism of transfer of ions and compounds necessary for brain and neural cell functions into the cerebrospinal fluid through the blood-brain barrier. Changes in the cerebrospinal fluid giving rise to degradation of brain and neural cells and the formation of precipitates within the brain are considered. Monitoring of electrolyte changes in metabolic fluids is shown to be a possible method of predicting the onset of degenerate brain conditions.

  16. Methamphetamine disrupts blood-brain barrier function by induction of oxidative stress in brain endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Servio H; Potula, Raghava; Fan, Shongshan; Eidem, Tess; Papugani, Anil; Reichenbach, Nancy; Dykstra, Holly; Weksler, Babette B; Romero, Ignacio A; Couraud, Pierre O; Persidsky, Yuri

    2009-12-01

    Methamphetamine (METH), a potent stimulant with strong euphoric properties, has a high abuse liability and long-lasting neurotoxic effects. Recent studies in animal models have indicated that METH can induce impairment of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), thus suggesting that some of the neurotoxic effects resulting from METH abuse could be the outcome of barrier disruption. In this study, we provide evidence that METH alters BBB function through direct effects on endothelial cells and explore possible underlying mechanisms leading to endothelial injury. We report that METH increases BBB permeability in vivo, and exposure of primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) to METH diminishes the tightness of BMVEC monolayers in a dose- and time-dependent manner by decreasing the expression of cell membrane-associated tight junction (TJ) proteins. These changes were accompanied by the enhanced production of reactive oxygen species, increased monocyte migration across METH-treated endothelial monolayers, and activation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in BMVEC. Antioxidant treatment attenuated or completely reversed all tested aspects of METH-induced BBB dysfunction. Our data suggest that BBB injury is caused by METH-mediated oxidative stress, which activates MLCK and negatively affects the TJ complex. These observations provide a basis for antioxidant protection against brain endothelial injury caused by METH exposure.

  17. Bioregulators of stem and progenitor cells in preservation solution reduce cold ischemia-reperfusion injury of isolated rat livers.

    PubMed

    Cherkashina, Daria V; Sosimchyk, Irina A; Semenchenko, Olga A; Semenchenko, Alexander Yu; Volina, Victoria V; Petrenko, Alexander Yu

    2016-05-01

    The effects of bioregulators of stem and progenitor cells (BSPC) of fetal tissue cytosol on rat liver during 24h hypothermic storage (HS) and following normothermic reperfusion (NR) were investigated. It was shown that BSPC presence in the preservation medium stabilized pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance impaired in liver after HS and NR, prevented the uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and ATP level decline. These consequences led to significant improvement of hepatic morphological integrity and functional state. Powerful protective effect of BSPC on liver at sub-zero temperatures can serve as basis for new approaches to extend safe time for organ preservation and foster understanding of pathways of stem and progenitor cell paracrine action. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(3):287-295, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  18. Transcranial amelioration of inflammation and cell death after brain injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Theodore L.; Nayak, Debasis; Atanasijevic, Tatjana; Koretsky, Alan P.; Latour, Lawrence L.; McGavern, Dorian B.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is increasingly appreciated to be highly prevalent and deleterious to neurological function. At present, no effective treatment options are available, and little is known about the complex cellular response to TBI during its acute phase. To gain insights into TBI pathogenesis, we developed a novel murine closed-skull brain injury model that mirrors some pathological features associated with mild TBI in humans and used long-term intravital microscopy to study the dynamics of the injury response from its inception. Here we demonstrate that acute brain injury induces vascular damage, meningeal cell death, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that ultimately breach the glial limitans and promote spread of the injury into the parenchyma. In response, the brain elicits a neuroprotective, purinergic-receptor-dependent inflammatory response characterized by meningeal neutrophil swarming and microglial reconstitution of the damaged glial limitans. We also show that the skull bone is permeable to small-molecular-weight compounds, and use this delivery route to modulate inflammation and therapeutically ameliorate brain injury through transcranial administration of the ROS scavenger, glutathione. Our results shed light on the acute cellular response to TBI and provide a means to locally deliver therapeutic compounds to the site of injury.

  19. Stereotaxic implantation of dispersed cell suspensions into brain. A systematic appraisal of cell placement and survival

    SciTech Connect

    Plunkett, R.J.; Weber, R.J.; Oldfield, E.H.

    1988-08-01

    The application of several recent advances in cell biology, brain implantation, and cell-mediated tumor immunotherapy requires successful and reproducible placement of viable cell suspensions into brain. Stereotaxic implantation is being used to inject cytotoxic lymphocytes into gliomas and to replace dopaminergic cells in parkinsonian models. Systematic assessment of the factors that influence success in implantation of cell suspensions into solid tissues is needed. A model was developed for investigation of stereotaxic implantation using radiolabeled rat lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. Anesthetized rats received microliter injections of cell suspension into the right caudate nucleus. The injection volume, cell concentration, infusion rate, and needle size were varied systematically. The animals were sacrificed 1 hour after injection; the brain was removed and sectioned, and the radioactivity was counted. Three aliquots of the suspension were injected into counting tubes for control analysis. Recovery of radioactivity was expressed as the percent of mean counts per minute (cpm) in the right frontal lobe/mean cpm in the three control tubes. To assess the viability of implanted cells, the right frontal region was mechanically dissociated in media and centrifuged, and the pellet and supernatant were counted. By using small needles and slow infusion of volumes of 10 microliters or less, 85% to 90% of the radioactivity was recovered in the caudate nucleus. At least half of the implanted cells were viable. Consistent, accurate implantation of dispersed cells into brain over a range of volumes, cell concentrations, infusion rates, and needle sizes was achieved.

  20. The organ preservation and enhancement of donation success ratio effect of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in circulatory unstable brain death donor.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaoli; Chen, Zhiquan; Nasralla, David; Zeng, Xianpeng; Yang, Jing; Ye, Shaojun; Zhang, Yi; Peng, Guizhu; Wang, Yanfeng; Ye, Qifa

    2016-10-01

    Between 2010 and 2013, we recorded 66 cases of failed organ donation after brain death (DBD) due to the excessive use of the vasoactive drugs resulting in impaired hepatic and/or renal function. To investigate the effect of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in donor management, ECMO was used to provide support for DBD donors with circulatory and/or respiratory failure from 2013 to 2015. A retrospective cohort study between circulatory non-stable DBD with vasoactive drugs (DBD-drug) and circulatory non-stable DBD with ECMO (DBD-ECMO) was designed to compare the transplant outcomes. A total of 19 brain death donors were supported by ECMO. The incidence rate of post-transplant liver primary non-function (PNF) was 10% (two of 20) in DBD-drug group and zero in DBD-ECMO group. Kidney function indicators, including creatinine clearance and urine production, were significantly better in DBD-ECMO group, as well as the kidney delayed graft function (DGF) rate was found to be decreased by the use of ECMO in our study. Donation success rate increased steadily from 47.8% in 2011 to 84.6% in 2014 after the ECMO intervention. The use of ECMO in assisting circulatory and respiratory function of DBD can reduce liver and kidney injury from vasoactive drugs, thereby improving organ quality and reducing the organ discard rates.

  1. Internally and externally generated emotions in people with acquired brain injury: preservation of emotional experience after right hemisphere lesions

    PubMed Central

    Salas Riquelme, Christian E.; Radovic, Darinka; Castro, Osvaldo; Turnbull, Oliver H.

    2015-01-01

    The study of emotional changes after brain injury has contributed enormously to the understanding of the neural basis of emotion. However, little attention has been placed on the methods used to elicit emotional responses in people with brain damage. Of particular interest are subjects with right hemisphere [RH] cortical lesions, who have been described as presenting impairment in emotional processing. In this article, an internal and external mood induction procedure [MIP] was used to trigger positive and negative emotions, in a sample of 10 participants with RH damage, and 15 healthy controls. Emotional experience was registered by using a self-report questionnaire. As observed in previous studies, internal and external MIPs were equally effective in eliciting the target emotion, but the internal procedure generated higher levels of intensity. Remarkably, participants with RH lesions were equally able to experience both positive and negative affect. The results are discussed in relation to the role of the RH in the capacity to experience negative emotions. PMID:25762951

  2. Wnt signaling in the niche enforces hematopoietic stem cell quiescence and is necessary to preserve self-renewal in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Heather E; Janzen, Viktor; Lo Celso, Cristina; Guo, Jun; Leahy, Kathleen M; Kronenberg, Henry M; Scadden, David T

    2008-03-06

    Wingless (Wnt) is a potent morphogen demonstrated in multiple cell lineages to promote the expansion and maintenance of stem and progenitor cell populations. Wnt effects are highly context dependent, and varying effects of Wnt signaling on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have been reported. We explored the impact of Wnt signaling in vivo, specifically in the context of the HSC niche by using an osteoblast-specific promoter driving expression of the paninhibitor of canonical Wnt signaling, Dickkopf1 (Dkk1). Here we report that Wnt signaling was markedly inhibited in HSCs and, unexpectedly given prior reports, reduction in HSC Wnt signaling resulted in reduced p21Cip1 expression, increased cell cycling, and a progressive decline in regenerative function after transplantation. This effect was microenvironment determined, but irreversible if the cells were transferred to a normal host. Wnt pathway activation in the niche is required to limit HSC proliferation and preserve the reconstituting function of endogenous hematopoietic stem cells.

  3. Tight regulation of ubiquitin-mediated DNA damage response by USP3 preserves the functional integrity of hematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Lancini, Cesare; van den Berk, Paul C.M.; Vissers, Joseph H.A.; Gargiulo, Gaetano; Song, Ji-Ying; Hulsman, Danielle; Serresi, Michela; Tanger, Ellen; Blom, Marleen; Vens, Conchita; van Lohuizen, Maarten; Jacobs, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Histone ubiquitination at DNA breaks is required for activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair. How the dynamic removal of this modification by deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) impacts genome maintenance in vivo is largely unknown. To address this question, we generated mice deficient for Ub-specific protease 3 (USP3; Usp3Δ/Δ), a histone H2A DUB which negatively regulates ubiquitin-dependent DDR signaling. Notably, USP3 deletion increased the levels of histone ubiquitination in adult tissues, reduced the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) reserves over time, and shortened animal life span. Mechanistically, our data show that USP3 is important in HSC homeostasis, preserving HSC self-renewal, and repopulation potential in vivo and proliferation in vitro. A defective DDR and unresolved spontaneous DNA damage contribute to cell cycle restriction of Usp3Δ/Δ HSCs. Beyond the hematopoietic system, Usp3Δ/Δ animals spontaneously developed tumors, and primary Usp3Δ/Δ cells failed to preserve chromosomal integrity. These findings broadly support the regulation of chromatin ubiquitination as a key pathway in preserving tissue function through modulation of the response to genotoxic stress. PMID:25113974

  4. A silk platform that enables electrophysiology and targeted drug delivery in brain astroglial cells

    PubMed Central

    Benfenati, Valentina; Toffanin, Stefano; Capelli, Raffaella; Camassa, Laura M. A.; Ferroni, Stefano; Kaplan, David L.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.; Muccini, Michele; Zamboni, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Astroglial cell survival and ion channel activity are relevant molecular targets for the mechanistic study of neural cell interactions with biomaterials and/or electronic interfaces. Astrogliosis is the most typical reaction to in-vivo brain implants and needs to be avoided by developing biomaterials that preserve astroglial cell physiological function. This cellular phenomenon is characterized by a proliferative state and altered expression of astroglial potassium (K+) channels. Silk is a natural polymer with potential for new biomedical applications due to its ability to support in vitro growth and differentiation of many cell types. We report on silk interactions with cultured neocortical astroglial cells. Astrocytes survival is similar when plated on silk-coated glass and on poly-D-lysine (PDL), a well-known polyionic substrate used to promote astroglial cell adhesion to glass surfaces. Comparative analyses of whole-cell and single-cell patch-clamp experiments reveal that silk- and PDL-coated cells display depolarized resting membrane potentials (∼ -40 mV), very high input resistance, and low specific conductance, with values similar to those of undifferentiated glial cells. Analysis of K+ channel conductance reveals that silk-astrocytes express large outwardly delayed rectifying K+ current (KDR). The magnitude of KDR in PDL- and silk-coated astrocytes is similar, indicating that silk does not alter the resting K+ current. We also demonstrate that guanosine-(GUO) embedded silk enables the direct modulation of astroglial K+ conductance in vitro. Astrocytes plated on GUO-embedded silk are more hyperpolarized and express inward rectifying K+ conductance (Kir). The K+ inward current increase and this is paralleled by upregulation and membrane-polarization of Kir4.1 protein signal. Collectively these results indicate that silk is a suitable biomaterial platform for the in vitro studies of astroglial ion channel responses and related physiology. PMID:20688390

  5. Antioxidative effects of Panax notoginseng saponin in brain cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ningna; Tang, Yang; Keep, Richard F.; Ma, Xiaoxia; Xiang, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress resulting from accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in cell death associated with neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer’s disease and traumatic brain injury. Antioxidant compounds that improve endogenous antioxidant defenses have been proposed for neural protection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential protective effects of total saponin in leaves of Panax notoginseng (LPNS) on oxidative stress and cell death in brain cells in vitro. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay indicated that LPNS (5μg/ml) reduced H2O2-induced cell death in primary rat cortical astrocytes (23±8% reduction in LDH release vs. control). Similar protection was found in oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation induced SH-SY5Y (a human neuroblastoma cell line) cell damage (78±7% reduction vs.control). The protective effects of LPNS in astrocytes were associated with attenuation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. These effects involved activation of Nrf2 (nuclear translocation) and upregulation of downstream antioxidant systems including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1). These results demonstrate for the first time that LPNS has antioxidative effects which may be neuroprotectionin neurological disorders. PMID:24916704

  6. Preservation of Neuronal Number Despite Age-Related Cortical Brain Atrophy In Elderly Subjects Without Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Stefanie H.; Kandel, Ruth; Cruz, Luis; Rozkalne, Anete; Newell, Kathy; Frosch, Matthew P.; Hedley-Whyte, E. Tessa; Locascio, Joseph J.; Lipsitz, Lewis; Hyman, Bradley T.

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral volume loss has long been associated with normal aging but whether this is due to aging itself or to age-related diseases including incipient Alzheimer disease (AD) is uncertain. To understand the changes that occur in the aging brain, we examined the cerebral cortex of 27 normal individuals ranging in age from 56 to 103 years. None fulfilled the criteria for the neuropathological diagnosis of AD or other neurodegenerative disease. Seventeen of the elderly participants had cognitive testing an average of 6.7 months prior to death. We used quantitative approaches to analyze cortical thickness, neuronal number, and density. Frontal and temporal neocortical regions had clear evidence of cortical thinning with age but total neuronal numbers in frontal and temporal neocortical regions remained relatively constant over a 50-year age range. These data suggest that loss of neuronal and dendritic architecture, rather than loss of neurons, underlies neocortical volume loss with increasing age in the absence of AD. PMID:19018241

  7. The role of maintenance proteins in the preservation of epithelial cell identity during mammary gland remodeling and breast cancer initiation.

    PubMed

    Coradini, Danila; Oriana, Saro

    2014-02-01

    During normal postnatal mammary gland development and adult remodeling related to the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and lactation, ovarian hormones and peptide growth factors contribute to the delineation of a definite epithelial cell identity. This identity is maintained during cell replication in a heritable but DNA-independent manner. The preservation of cell identity is fundamental, especially when cells must undergo changes in response to intrinsic and extrinsic signals. The maintenance proteins, which are required for cell identity preservation, act epigenetically by regulating gene expression through DNA methylation, histone modification, and chromatin remodeling. Among the maintenance proteins, the Trithorax (TrxG) and Polycomb (PcG) group proteins are the best characterized. In this review, we summarize the structures and activities of the TrxG and PcG complexes and describe their pivotal roles in nuclear estrogen receptor activity. In addition, we provide evidence that perturbations in these epigenetic regulators are involved in disrupting epithelial cell identity, mammary gland remodeling, and breast cancer initiation.

  8. The effects of preservation procedures on amniotic membrane's ability to serve as a substrate for cultivation of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Niknejad, Hassan; Deihim, Tina; Solati-Hashjin, Mehran; Peirovi, Habibollah

    2011-12-01

    Amniotic membrane (AM) has been used as a scaffold for the ex vivo expansion of different types of cells and a cell delivery matrix in regenerative medicine. Since the preservation procedures can influence the AM properties for experimental and clinical purposes, this study was established to investigate the feasibility of using the AM after different preservation methods to serve as substrates for endothelial cell expansion ex vivo. The effects of cryopreservation and lyophilization were evaluated on mechanical and histological characteristics of the AM, and the results were compared with the fresh AM. The ECM components of the basement membrane were well conserved in all groups. Although lyophilization resulted in more histological changes and lower level of physical variables including thickness, F(max), elongation at break and suture retention than the fresh and cryopreserved AM, endothelial cells grown on the lyophilized AM were better attached to the basement membrane. Cytotoxicity assay by MTT showed that the lyophilized AM is a compatible substrate for endothelial cells cultivation. The findings of this study suggest that the lyophilized AM is a suitable matrix for cultivation of endothelial cells due to this fact that lyophilization led to exposure of basement membrane of the AM.

  9. Preservation of Essential Odor-Guided Behaviors and Odor-Based Reversal Learning after Targeting Adult Brain Serotonin Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Kaitlin S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) is considered a powerful modulator of sensory system organization and function in a wide range of animals. The olfactory system is innervated by midbrain 5-HT neurons into both its primary and secondary odor-processing stages. Facilitated by this circuitry, 5-HT and its receptors modulate olfactory system function, including odor information input to the olfactory bulb. It is unknown, however, whether the olfactory system requires 5-HT for even its most basic behavioral functions. To address this question, we established a conditional genetic approach to specifically target adult brain tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2), encoding the rate-limiting enzyme in brain 5-HT synthesis, and nearly eliminate 5-HT from the mouse forebrain. Using this novel model, we investigated the behavior of 5-HT–depleted mice during performance in an olfactory go/no-go task. Surprisingly, the near elimination of 5-HT from the forebrain, including the olfactory bulbs, had no detectable effect on the ability of mice to perform the odor-based task. Tph2-targeted mice not only were able to learn the task, but also had levels of odor acuity similar to those of control mice when performing coarse odor discrimination. Both groups of mice spent similar amounts of time sampling odors during decision-making. Furthermore, odor reversal learning was identical between 5-HT–depleted and control mice. These results suggest that 5-HT neurotransmission is not necessary for the most essential aspects of olfaction, including odor learning, discrimination, and certain forms of cognitive flexibility. PMID:27896310

  10. Biochemical, electron microscopic and immunohistological observations of cationic detergent-extracted cells: detection and improved preservation of microextensions and ultramicroextensions

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Fumihiko

    2001-01-01

    Background Filopodia, retraction fibers and microvilli, are fragile microextensions of the plasma membrane that are easily damaged by mechanical force during specimen preparation for microscopy. To preserve these structures for electron microscopy glutaraldehyde is generally used, but it often causes antigen masking. By contrast, formaldehyde is generally used for immunofluorescence light microscopy, but few studies have been concerned with the loss of microextensions. Results We demonstrate in biochemical experiments that cultured cells needed to be kept in 4% formaldehyde for at least 60 min at room temperature or for 20 min at 37°C to irreversibly crosslink most of the polypeptides. Also, fragmentation of fragile microextensions was observed after Triton X-100 extraction depending on concentration and extent of crosslinking. We also report on a novel fixation procedure that includes the cationic detergent dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DOTMAC). Treatment of NIH3T3 cells with DOTMAC resulted in complete removal of membrane lipids and in good preservation of the cytoskeleton in microextensions as well as preservation of ultramicroextensions of <0.05μm in diameter that have not been observed previously unless glutaraldehyde was used. Stress fibers and microextensions of DOTMAC-extracted cells were readily stained with anti-β-actin antibodies, and antibodies to vinculin and moesin stained focal contacts and microextensions, respectively. Conclusions Some microextensions were fragmented by the standard Triton X-100 permeabilization method. By contrast, DOTMAC completely extracted membrane lipids while maintaining the cytoskeleton of microextensions. Thus, DOTMAC treatment may provide a valuable new tool for the reliable visualization of previously undetectable or poorly detectable antigens while preserving the actin cytoskeleton of microextensions. PMID:11425343

  11. What cell biologists should know about the National Institutes of Health BRAIN Initiative.

    PubMed

    Insel, Thomas R; Koroshetz, Walter

    2015-12-15

    The BRAIN (Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies) Initiative is an ambitious project to develop innovative tools for a deeper understanding of how the brain functions in health and disease. Early programs in the National Institutes of Health BRAIN Initiative focus on tools for next-generation imaging and recording, studies of cell diversity and cell census, and integrative approaches to circuit function. In all of these efforts, cell biologists can play a leading role.

  12. Acetaminophen protects brain endothelial cells against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Debjani; Grammas, Paula

    2009-05-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that acetaminophen has unappreciated anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Drugs that affect oxidant and inflammatory stress in the brain are of interest because both processes are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease. The objective of this study is to determine whether acetaminophen affects the response of brain endothelial cells to oxidative stress. Cultured brain endothelial cells are pre-treated with acetaminophen and then exposed to the superoxide-generating compound menadione (25 microM). Cell survival, inflammatory protein expression, and anti-oxidant enzyme activity are measured. Menadione causes a significant (p<0.001) increase in endothelial cell death as well as an increase in RNA and protein levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1, macrophage inflammatory protein alpha, and RANTES. Menadione also evokes a significant (p<0.001) increase in the activity of the anti-oxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). Pre-treatment of endothelial cell cultures with acetaminophen (25-100 microM) increases endothelial cell survival and inhibits menadione-induced expression of inflammatory proteins and SOD activity. In addition, we document, for the first time, that acetaminophen increases expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2. Suppressing Bcl2 with siRNA blocks the pro-survival effect of acetaminophen. These data show that acetaminophen has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects on the cerebrovasculature and suggest a heretofore unappreciated therapeutic potential for this drug in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease that are characterized by oxidant and inflammatory stress.

  13. Acetaminophen protects brain endothelial cells against oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Debjani; Grammas, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that acetaminophen has unappreciated anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Drugs that affect oxidant and inflammatory stress in the brain are of interest because both processes are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease. The objective of this study is to determine whether acetaminophen affects the response of brain endothelial cells to oxidative stress. Cultured brain endothelial cells are pretreated with acetaminophen and then exposed to the superoxide-generating compound menadione (25 µM). Cell survival, inflammatory protein expression, and antioxidant enzyme activity are measured. Menadione causes a significant (p<0.001) increase in endothelial cell death as well as an increase in RNA and protein levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1, macrophage inflammatory protein alpha, and RANTES. Menadione also evokes a significant (p<0.001) increase in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). Pretreatment of endothelial cell cultures with acetaminophen (25–100 µM) increases endothelial cell survival and inhibits menadione-induced expression of inflammatory proteins and SOD activity. In addition, we document, for the first time, that acetaminophen increases expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2. Suppressing Bcl2 with siRNA blocks the pro-survival effect of acetaminophen. These data show that acetaminophen has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects on the cerebrovasculature and suggest a heretofore unappreciated therapeutic potential for this drug in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease that are characterized by oxidant and inflammatory stress. PMID:19265712

  14. Wood preservation

    Treesearch

    Kevin Archer; Stan Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood preservation can be interpreted to mean protection from fire, chemical degradation, mechanical wear, weathering, as well as biological attack. In this chapter, the term preservation is applied more restrictively to protection from biological hazards.

  15. Brain self-protection: the role of endogenous neural progenitor cells in adult brain after cerebral cortical ischemia.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Piao, Chun-Shu; Liu, Xiao-Yun; Guo, Wen-Ping; Xue, Yue-Qiang; Duan, Wei-Ming; Gonzalez-Toledo, Maria E; Zhao, Li-Ru

    2010-04-23

    Convincing evidence has shown that brain ischemia causes the proliferation of neural stem cells/neural progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs) in both the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of adult brain. The role of brain ischemia-induced NSC/NPC proliferation, however, has remained unclear. Here we have determined whether brain ischemia-induced amplification of the NSCs/NPCs in adult brain is required for brain self-protection. The approach of intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C), an inhibitor for cell proliferation, for the first 7days after brain ischemia was used to block ischemia-induced NSC/NPC proliferation. We observed that ICV infusion of Ara-C caused a complete blockade of NSC/NPC proliferation in the SVZ and a dramatic reduction of NSC/NPC proliferation in the SGZ. Additionally, as a result of the inhibition of ischemia-induced NSC/NPC pool amplification, the number of neurons in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 was significantly reduced, the infarction size was significantly enlarged, and neurological deficits were significantly worsened after focal brain ischemia. We also found that an NSC/NPC-conditioned medium showed neuroprotective effects in vitro and that adult NSC/NPC-released brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are required for NSC/NPC-conditioned medium-induced neuroprotection. These data suggest that NSC/NPC-generated trophic factors are neuroprotective and that brain ischemia-triggered NSC/NPC proliferation is crucial for brain protection. This study provides insights into the contribution of endogenous NSCs/NPCs to brain self-protection in adult brain after ischemia injury.

  16. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of endothelial cell coverage and quality in large vessels from multi-organ donors: effects of preservation on endothelial cell integrity.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, E B; Molema, G; van Luyn, M J; de Jong, K P; Dijk, F; Slooff, M J; Ruiters, M H; van der Meer, J

    2000-06-01

    Endothelial cell integrity (coverage and quality) of large donor vessels is important because these vessels are used for vascular reconstructions in solid-organ transplantation. Disruption of the endothelial cell monolayer will initiate blood coagulation and may lead to thrombosis of large vessels, often resulting in the loss of the transplanted organ. Iliac arteries and veins, removed from 10 heart-beating multi-organ donors at the end of the donor procedure, were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy at three different time points of preservation. Endothelial cell coverage and quality were determined immediately after removal from the donor, after 10 h (time of transplantation) and 7 d storage in 'University of Wisconsin' cold preservation solution (UW). Endothelial cell coverage decreased during the preservation of arteries, but was maintained in veins. Storage of the veins for 7 d in plastic bags showed a decreased endothelial cell coverage compared to storage in glass vials. Early removal of the blood vessels and proper storage, free floating and in clean UW, may improve maintenance of the endothelial cell integrity. These findings may be important in order to reduce the risk of thrombosis and, consequently, organ failure after transplantation. Furthermore, vessels with maintained endothelial cell integrity after 7 d may be used for in vitro research.

  17. Stem Cells for Ischemic Brain Injury: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Terry C.; Verfaillie, Catherine M.; Low, Walter C.

    2014-01-01

    No effective therapy is currently available to promote recovery following ischemic stroke. Stem cells have been proposed as a potential source of new cells to replace those lost due to central nervous system injury, as well as a source of trophic molecules to minimize damage and promote recovery. We undertook a detailed review of data from recent basic science and preclinical studies to investigate the potential application of endogenous and exogenous stem cell therapies for treatment of cerebral ischemia. To date, spontaneous endogenous neurogenesis has been observed in response to ischemic injury, and can be enhanced via infusion of appropriate cytokines. Exogenous stem cells from multiple sources can generate neural cells that survive and form synaptic connections after transplantation in the stroke-injured brain. Stem cells from multiple sources cells also exhibit neuroprotective properties that may ameliorate stroke deficits. In many cases, functional benefits observed are likely independent of neural differentiation, though exact mechanisms remain poorly understood. Future studies of neuroregeneration will require the demonstration of function in endogenously born neurons following focal ischemia. Further, methods are currently lacking to definitively demonstrate the therapeutic effect of newly introduced neural cells. Increased plasticity following stroke may facilitate the functional integration of new neurons, but the loss of appropriate guidance cues and supporting architecture in the infarct cavity will likely impede the restoration of lost circuitry. As such careful investigation of the mechanisms underlying trophic benefits will be essential. Evidence to date suggest that continued development of stem cell therapies may ultimately lead to viable treatment options for ischemic brain injury. PMID:19399885

  18. Intermittent Hypoxia and Stem Cell Implants Preserve Breathing Capacity in a Rodent Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Nicole L.; Gowing, Genevieve; Satriotomo, Irawan; Nashold, Lisa J.; Dale, Erica A.; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Avalos, Pablo; Mulcrone, Patrick L.; McHugh, Jacalyn

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating motor neuron disease causing paralysis and death from respiratory failure. Strategies to preserve and/or restore respiratory function are critical for successful treatment. Although breathing capacity is maintained until late in disease progression in rodent models of familial ALS (SOD1G93A rats and mice), reduced numbers of phrenic motor neurons and decreased phrenic nerve activity are observed. Decreased phrenic motor output suggests imminent respiratory failure. Objectives: To preserve or restore phrenic nerve activity in SOD1G93A rats at disease end stage. Methods: SOD1G93A rats were injected with human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) bracketing the phrenic motor nucleus before disease onset, or exposed to acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) at disease end stage. Measurements and Main Results: The capacity to generate phrenic motor output in anesthetized rats at disease end stage was: (1) transiently restored by a single presentation of AIH; and (2) preserved ipsilateral to hNPC transplants made before disease onset. hNPC transplants improved ipsilateral phrenic motor neuron survival. Conclusions: AIH-induced respiratory plasticity and stem cell therapy have complementary translational potential to treat breathing deficits in patients with ALS. PMID:23220913

  19. Nonlinear Dynamic Theory of Acute Cell Injuries and Brain Ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Doaa; Anggraini, Fika; Degracia, Donald; Huang, Zhi-Feng

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral ischemia in the form of stroke and cardiac arrest brain damage affect over 1 million people per year in the USA alone. In spite of close to 200 clinical trials and decades of research, there are no treatments to stop post-ischemic neuron death. We have argued that a major weakness of current brain ischemia research is lack of a deductive theoretical framework of acute cell injury to guide empirical studies. A previously published autonomous model based on the concept of nonlinear dynamic network was shown to capture important facets of cell injury, linking the concept of therapeutic to bistable dynamics. Here we present an improved, non-autonomous formulation of the nonlinear dynamic model of cell injury that allows multiple acute injuries over time, thereby allowing simulations of both therapeutic treatment and preconditioning. Our results are connected to the experimental data of gene expression and proteomics of neuron cells. Importantly, this new model may be construed as a novel approach to pharmacodynamics of acute cell injury. The model makes explicit that any pro-survival therapy is always a form of sub-lethal injury. This insight is expected to widely influence treatment of acute injury conditions that have defied successful treatment to date. This work is supported by NIH NINDS (NS081347) and Wayne State University President's Research Enhancement Award.

  20. Brain microvascular endothelial cell transplantation ameliorates ischemic white matter damage.

    PubMed

    Puentes, Sandra; Kurachi, Masashi; Shibasaki, Koji; Naruse, Masae; Yoshimoto, Yuhei; Mikuni, Masahiko; Imai, Hideaki; Ishizaki, Yasuki

    2012-08-21

    Ischemic insults affecting the internal capsule result in sensory-motor disabilities which adversely affect the patient's life. Cerebral endothelial cells have been reported to exert a protective effect against brain damage, so the transplantation of healthy endothelial cells might have a beneficial effect on the outcome of ischemic brain damage. In this study, endothelin-1 (ET-1) was injected into the rat internal capsule to induce lacunar infarction. Seven days after ET-1 injection, microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) were transplanted into the internal capsule. Meningeal cells or 0.2% bovine serum albumin-Hank's balanced salt solution were injected as controls. Two weeks later, the footprint test and histochemical analysis were performed. We found that MVEC transplantation improved the behavioral outcome based on recovery of hind-limb rotation angle (P<0.01) and induced remyelination (P<0.01) compared with the control groups. Also the inflammatory response was repressed by MVEC transplantation, judging from fewer ED-1-positive activated microglial cells in the MVEC-transplanted group than in the other groups. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which MVECs ameliorate ischemic damage of the white matter may provide important information for the development of effective therapies for white matter ischemia.

  1. Mitochondrial control by DRP1 in brain tumor initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qi; Wu, Qiulian; Horbinski, Craig M; Flavahan, William A; Yang, Kailin; Zhou, Wenchao; Dombrowski, Stephen M; Huang, Zhi; Fang, Xiaoguang; Shi, Yu; Ferguson, Ashley N; Kashatus, David F; Bao, Shideng; Rich, Jeremy N

    2015-04-01

    Brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs) co-opt the neuronal high affinity glucose transporter, GLUT3, to withstand metabolic stress. We investigated another mechanism critical to brain metabolism, mitochondrial morphology, in BTICs. BTIC mitochondria were fragmented relative to non-BTIC tumor cell mitochondria, suggesting that BTICs increase mitochondrial fission. The essential mediator of mitochondrial fission, dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), showed activating phosphorylation in BTICs and inhibitory phosphorylation in non-BTIC tumor cells. Targeting DRP1 using RNA interference or pharmacologic inhibition induced BTIC apoptosis and inhibited tumor growth. Downstream, DRP1 activity regulated the essential metabolic stress sensor, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and targeting AMPK rescued the effects of DRP1 disruption. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) phosphorylated DRP1 to increase its activity in BTICs, whereas Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 2 (CAMK2) inhibited DRP1 in non-BTIC tumor cells, suggesting that tumor cell differentiation induces a regulatory switch in mitochondrial morphology. DRP1 activation correlated with poor prognosis in glioblastoma, suggesting that mitochondrial dynamics may represent a therapeutic target for BTICs.

  2. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Preserve Working Memory in the 3xTg-AD Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ruzicka, Jiri; Kulijewicz-Nawrot, Magdalena; Rodrigez-Arellano, Jose Julio; Jendelova, Pavla; Sykova, Eva

    2016-01-25

    The transplantation of stem cells may have a therapeutic effect on the pathogenesis and progression of neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, we transplanted human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into the lateral ventricle of a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (3xTg-AD) at the age of eight months. We evaluated spatial reference and working memory after MSC treatment and the possible underlying mechanisms, such as the influence of transplanted MSCs on neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the expression levels of a 56 kDa oligomer of amyloid β (Aβ*56), glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate transporters (Glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) and Glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1)) in the entorhinal and prefrontal cortices and the hippocampus. At 14 months of age we observed the preservation of working memory in MSC-treated 3xTg-AD mice, suggesting that such preservation might be due to the protective effect of MSCs on GS levels and the considerable downregulation of Aβ*56 levels in the entorhinal cortex. These changes were observed six months after transplantation, accompanied by clusters of proliferating cells in the SVZ. Since the grafted cells did not survive for the whole experimental period, it is likely that the observed effects could have been transiently more pronounced at earlier time points than at six months after cell application.

  3. Transient activation of Hedgehog pathway rescued irradiation-induced hyposalivation by preserving salivary stem/progenitor cells and parasympathetic innervation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhenhua; Zhao, Qingguo; Shangguan, Lei; Ti, Xinyu; Zhao, Yanqiu; Kim, Sangroh; Rangaraj, Dharanipathy; Liu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine effects and mechanisms of transient activation of Hedgehog pathway on rescuing radiotherapy-induced hyposalivation in head and neck cancer survivors. Experimental Design Mouse salivary glands and cultured human salivary epithelial cells were irradiated by single 15Gy dose. Hedgehog pathway was transiently activated in mouse salivary glands by shortly over-expressing Sonic hedgehog (Shh) transgene or administrating Smoothened Agonist and in human salivary epithelial cells by infecting with adenovirus encoding Gli1. Activity of Hedgehog signaling was examined by expression of Ptch1-lacZ reporter and endogenous Hedgehog target genes. Salivary flow rate was measured following pilocarpine stimulation. Salivary stem/progenitor cells (SSPCs), parasympathetic innervation and expression of related genes were examined by flow cytometry, salisphere assay, IHC, quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot and ELISA. Results Irradiation does not activate Hedgehog signaling in mouse salivary glands. Transient Shh over-expression activated Hedgehog pathway in ductal epithelia and that after irradiation rescued salivary function in male mice, which is related with preservation of functional SSPCs and parasympathetic innervation. The preservation of SSPCs was likely mediated by rescue of signaling activities of Bmi1 and Chrm1/HB-EGF pathways. The preservation of parasympathetic innervation was related with rescue of expression of neurotrophic factors such as Bdnf and Nrtn. The expression of genes related with maintenance of salivary stem/progenitor cells and parasympathetic innervation in female salivary glands and cultured human salivary epithelial cells was similarly affected by irradiation and transient Hedgehog activation. Conclusions These findings suggest that transient activation of Hedgehog pathway has the potential to restore irradiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. PMID:24150232

  4. Bone marrow-derived stem cell therapy for metastatic brain cancers.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Yuji; Tajiri, Naoki; Staples, Meaghan; Reyes, Stephanny; Lozano, Diego; Sanberg, Paul R; Freeman, Thomas B; van Loveren, Harry; Kim, Seung U; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2015-01-01

    We propose that stem cell therapy may be a potent treatment for metastatic melanoma in the brain. Here we discuss the key role of a leaky blood-brain barrier (BBB) that accompanies the development of brain metastases. We review the need to characterize the immunological and inflammatory responses associated with tumor-derived BBB damage in order to reveal the contribution of this brain pathological alteration to the formation and growth of brain metastatic cancers. Next, we discuss the potential repair of the BBB and attenuation of brain metastasis through transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells with the endothelial progenitor cell phenotype. In particular, we review the need for evaluation of the efficacy of stem cell therapy in repairing a disrupted BBB in an effort to reduce neuroinflammation, eventually attenuating brain metastatic cancers. The demonstration of BBB repair through augmented angiogenesis and vasculogenesis will be critical to establishing the potential of stem cell therapy for the treatment/prevention of metastatic brain tumors. The overarching hypothesis we advanced here is that BBB breakdown is closely associated with brain metastatic cancers of melanoma, exacerbating the inflammatory response of the brain during metastasis, and ultimately worsening the outcome of metastatic brain cancers. Abrogating this leaky BBB-mediated inflammation via stem cell therapy represents a paradigm-shifting approach to treating brain cancer. This review article discusses the pros and cons of cell therapy for melanoma brain metastases.

  5. Decreased brain dopamine cell numbers in human cocaine users.

    PubMed

    Little, Karley Y; Ramssen, Eric; Welchko, Ryan; Volberg, Vitaly; Roland, Courtney J; Cassin, Bader

    2009-08-15

    Cocaine use diminishes striatal and midbrain dopamine neuronal components in both post-mortem and in vivo human experiments. The diffuse nature of these declines suggests the possibility that cocaine use might cause a loss of dopamine neurons in humans. Previous rodent studies have not detected cocaine-induced dopamine cell damage. The present experiment involved counting midbrain dopamine neurons utilizing both melanin and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity. Well-preserved blocks ranging from +38 mm obex to +45 mm obex were examined in 10 cocaine users and 9 controls. Sections were also examined for signs of acute pathological injury by counting activated macrophages and microglia. Melanized cells at six midbrain levels were significantly reduced in cocaine users by both drug exposures. The estimated total number of melanized dopamine cells in the anterior midbrain was significantly reduced in cocaine users by 16%. Results with tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity were less conclusive because of variability in staining. Both activated macrophages and activated microglia were significantly increased among cocaine users. Cocaine exposure may have neurotoxic effects on dopamine neurons in humans. The infiltration of phagocytic cells suggests that the lower number of dopamine cells found in cocaine users was a relatively recent effect. The loss of dopamine cells could contribute to and intensify cocaine dependence, as well as anhedonic and depressive symptoms, in some cocaine users. Further efforts at clarifying the pathophysiological mechanisms involved may help explain treatment refractoriness, and identify targets for therapeutic intervention.

  6. Preservation of high glycolytic phenotype by establishing new acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines at physiologic oxygen concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Sheard, Michael A.; Ghent, Matthew V.; Cabral, Daniel J.; Lee, Joanne C.; Khankaldyyan, Vazgen; Ji, Lingyun; Wu, Samuel Q.; Kang, Min H.; and others

    2015-05-15

    Cancer cells typically exhibit increased glycolysis and decreased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and they continue to exhibit some elevation in glycolysis even under aerobic conditions. However, it is unclear whether cancer cell lines employ a high level of glycolysis comparable to that of the original cancers from which they were derived, even if their culture conditions are changed to physiologically relevant oxygen concentrations. From three childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients we established three new pairs of cell lines in both atmospheric (20%) and physiologic (bone marrow level, 5%) oxygen concentrations. Cell lines established in 20% oxygen exhibited lower proliferation, survival, expression of glycolysis genes, glucose consumption, and lactate production. Interestingly, the effects of oxygen concentration used during cell line initiation were only partially reversible when established cell cultures were switched from one oxygen concentration to another for eight weeks. These observations indicate that ALL cell lines established at atmospheric oxygen concentration can exhibit relatively low levels of glycolysis and these levels are semi-permanent, suggesting that physiologic oxygen concentrations may be needed from the time of cell line initiation to preserve the high level of glycolysis commonly exhibited by leukemias in vivo. - Highlights: • Establishing new ALL cell lines in 5% oxygen resulted in higher glycolytic expression and function. • Establishing new ALL cell lines in 5% oxygen resulted in higher proliferation and lower cell death. • The divergent metabolic phenotypes selected in 5% and 20% oxygen are semi-permanent.

  7. Amantadine preserves dopamine level and attenuates depression-like behavior induced by traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Tan, Liang; Ge, Hongfei; Tang, Jun; Fu, Chuhua; Duanmu, Wangsheng; Chen, Yujie; Hu, Rong; Sui, Jianfeng; Liu, Xin; Feng, Hua

    2015-02-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often results in multiple neuropsychiatric sequelae, including cognitive, emotional, and behavioral problems. Among them, depression is a common psychiatric symptom, and links to poorer recovery. Amantadine, as an antiparkinsonian, increases dopamine release, and blocks dopamine reuptake, but has recently received attention for its effectiveness as an antidepressant. In the present study, we first induced a post-TBI depression rat model to probe the efficacy of amantadine therapy in reducing post-TBI depression. The DA concentration in the striatum of the injured rats, as well as the degeneration and apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), were checked along with the depression-like behavior. The results showed that amantadine therapy could significantly ameliorate the depression-like behavior, improving the DA level in the striatum and decreasing the degeneration and apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons in the SN. The results indicated that the anti-depression effect may result from the increase of extracellular DA concentration in the striatum and/or the indirect neuroprotection on the dopaminergic neurons in the SN. We conclude that DA plays a critical role in post-TBI depression, and that amantadine shows its potential value in anti-depression treatment for TBI.

  8. Anticancer and antioxidant properties of terpinolene in rat brain cells.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Elanur; Türkez, Hasan; Taşdemir, Sener

    2013-09-01

    Terpinolene (TPO) is a natural monoterpene present in essential oils of many aromatic plant species. Although various biological activities of TPO have been demonstrated, its neurotoxicity has never been explored. In this in vitro study we investigated TPO's antiproliferative and/or cytotoxic properties using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test, genotoxic damage potential using the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE), and oxidative effects through total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidative stress (TOS) in cultured primary rat neurons and N2a neuroblastoma cells. Dose-dependent effects of TPO (at 10 mg L(-1), 25 mg L(-1), 50 mg L(-1), 100 mg L(-1), 200 mg L(-1), and 400 mg L(-1)) were tested in both cell types. Significant (P<0.05) decrease in cell proliferation were observed in cultured primary rat neurons starting with the dose of 100 mg L(-1) and in N2a neuroblastoma cells starting with 50 mg L(-1). TPO was not genotoxic in either cell type. In addition, TPO treatment at 10 mg L(-1), 25 mg L(-1), and 50 mg L(-1) increased TAC in primary rat neurons, but not in N2a cells. However, at concentrations above 50 mg L(-1) it increased TOS in both cell types. Our findings clearly demonstrate that TPO is a potent antiproliferative agent for brain tumour cells and may have potential as an anticancer agent, which needs to be further studied.

  9. The dance of the perivascular and endothelial cells: mechanisms of brain response to immune signaling.

    PubMed

    Saper, Clifford B

    2010-01-14

    The mechanisms underlying the brain response to systemic inflammation remain unclear. In this issue of Neuron, Serrats and colleagues demonstrate that two cell types that produce prostaglandins that act on the brain, perivascular and endothelial cells, have an unexpectedly complex interaction in regulating the timing and types of brain responses that occur.

  10. Neutral amino acid transport across brain microvessel endothelial cell monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Audus, K.L.; Borchardt, R.T.

    1986-03-01

    Brain microvessel endothelial cells (BMEC) which form the blood-brain barrier (BBB) possess an amino acid carrier specific for large neutral amino acids (LNAA). The carrier is important for facilitating the delivery of nutrient LNAA's and centrally acting drugs that are LNAA's, to the brain. Bovine BMEC's were isolated and grown up to complete monolayers on regenerated cellulose-membranes in primary culture. To study the transendothelial transport of leucine, the monolayers were placed in a side-by-side diffusion cell, and transport across the monolayers followed with (/sup 3/H)-leucine. The transendothelial transport of leucine in this in vitro model was determined to be bidirectional, and time-, temperature-, and concentration-dependent. The transport of leucine was saturable and the apparent K/sub m/ and V/sub max/, 0.18 mM and 6.3 nmol/mg/min, respectively. Other LNAA's, including the centrally acting drugs, ..cap alpha..-methyldopa, L-DOPA, ..cap alpha..-methyl-tyrosine, and baclofen, inhibited leucine transport. The leucine carrier was also found to be stereospecific and not sensitive to inhibitors of active transport. These results are consistent with previous in vitro and in vivo studies. Primary cultures of BMEC's appear to be a potentially important tool for investigating at the cellular level, the transport mechanisms of the BBB.

  11. Brain preservation with selective cerebral perfusion for operations requiring circulatory arrest: protection at 25 degrees C is similar to 18 degrees C with shorter operating times.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Jorge; Coleman, Ryan; Griffith, Stephen; McNeil, Jeffrey; Young, Haven; Calhoon, John; Serrano, Faridis; DiGeronimo, Robert

    2009-09-01

    Hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) is employed for aortic arch and other complex operations, often with selective cerebral perfusion (SCP). Our previous work has demonstrated real-time evidence of improved brain protection using SCP at 18 degrees C. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of SCP at warmer temperatures (25 degrees C) and its impact on operating times. Piglets undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and 60 min of HCA were assigned to three groups: 18 degrees C without SCP, 18 degrees C with SCP and 25 degrees C with SCP (n=8 animals per group). CPB flows were 100 ml kg(-1) min(-1) using pH-stat management. SCP flows were 10 ml kg(-1) min(-1) via the innominate artery. Cerebral oxygenation was monitored using NIRS (near-infrared spectroscopy). A microdialysis probe placed into the cerebral cortex had samples collected every 15 min. Animals were recovered for 4h after separation from CPB. All data are presented as mean+/-standard deviation (SD; p<0.05, significant). Cerebral oxygenation was preserved during deep and tepid HCA with SCP, in contrast to deep HCA without SCP (p<0.05). Deep HCA at 18 degrees C without SCP resulted in significantly elevated brain lactate (p<0.01) and glycerol (p<0.01), while the energy substrates glucose (p<0.001) and pyruvate (p<0.001) were significantly depleted. These derangements were prevented with SCP at 18 degrees C and 25 degrees C. The lactate/pyruvate ratio (L/P) was profoundly elevated following HCA alone (p<0.001) and remained persistently elevated throughout recovery (p<0.05). Piglets given SCP during HCA at 18 degrees C and 25 degrees C maintained baseline L/P ratios. Mean operating times were significantly shorter in the 25 degrees C group compared to both 18 degrees C groups (p<0.05) without evidence of significant acidemia. HCA results in cerebral hypoxia, energy depletion and ischaemic injury, which are attenuated with the use of SCP at both 18 degrees C and 25 degrees C. Procedures

  12. Transient oxygen-glucose deprivation sensitizes brain capillary endothelial cells to rtPA at 4h of reoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, Mélanie; Mysiorek, Caroline; Pétrault, Olivier; Boucau, Marie-Christine; Aijjou, Rachid; Uzbekov, Rustem; Bérézowski, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Thrombolysis treatment of acute ischemic stroke is limited by the pro-edematous and hemorrhagic effects exerted by reperfusion, which disrupts the blood-brain barrier (BBB) capillary endothelium in the infarct core. Most studies of the ischemic BBB overlook the complexity of the penumbral area, where the affected brain cells are still viable following deprivation. Our present objective was to examine in vitro the kinetic impact of reoxygenation on the integrity of ischemic BBB cells after oxygen-glucose deprivation. Through the use of a co-culture of brain capillary endothelial cells and glial cells, we first showed that the transendothelial permeability increase induced by deprivation can occur with both preserved cell viability and interendothelial tight junction network. The subtle and heterogeneous alteration of the tight junctions was observable only through electron microscopy. A complete permeability recovery was then found after reoxygenation, when Vimentin and Actin networks were reordered. However, still sparse ultrastructural alterations of tight junctions suggested an acquired vulnerability. Endothelial cells were then exposed to recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA) to define a temporal profile for the toxic effect of this thrombolytic on transendothelial permeability. Interestingly, the reoxygenated BBB broke down with aggravated tight junction disruption when exposed to rtPA only at 4h after reoxygenation. Moreover, this breakdown was enhanced by 50% when ischemic glial cells were present during the first hours of reoxygenation. Our results suggest that post-stroke reoxygenation enables retrieval of the barrier function of brain capillary endothelium when in a non-necrotic environment, but may sensitize it to rtPA at the 4-hour time point, when both endothelial breakdown mechanisms and glial secretions could be identified and targeted in a therapeutical perspective.

  13. Neural stem cells sustain natural killer cells that dictate recovery from brain inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiang; Sanai, Nader; Jin, Wei-Na; La Cava, Antonio; Van Kaer, Luc; Shi, Fu-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Recovery from organ-specific autoimmune diseases largely relies on the mobilization of endogenous repair mechanisms and local factors that control them. Natural killer (NK) cells are swiftly mobilized to organs targeted by autoimmunity and typically undergo numerical contraction when inflammation wanes. We report the unexpected finding that NK cells are retained in the brain subventricular zone (SVZ) during the chronic phase of multiple sclerosis in humans and its animal model in mice. These NK cells were found preferentially in close proximity to SVZ neural stem cells (NSCs) that produce interleukin-15 and sustain functionally competent NK cells. Moreover, NK cells limited the reparative capacity of NSCs following brain inflammation. These findings reveal that reciprocal interactions between NSCs and NK cells regulate neurorepair. PMID:26752157

  14. Serpins Promote Cancer Cell Survival and Vascular Cooption in Brain Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Valiente, Manuel; Obenauf, Anna C.; Jin, Xin; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Xiang H.-F.; Lee, Derek J.; Chaft, Jamie E.; Kris, Mark G.; Huse, Jason T.; Brogi, Edi; Massagué, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Brain metastasis is an ominous complication of cancer, yet most cancer cells that infiltrate the brain die of unknown causes. Here we identify plasmin from the reactive brain stroma as a defense against metastatic invasion, and plasminogen activator (PA) inhibitory serpins in cancer cells as a shield against this defense. Plasmin suppresses brain metastasis in two ways: by converting membrane-bound astrocytic FasL into a paracrine death signal for cancer cells, and by inactivating the axon pathfinding molecule L1CAM that metastatic cells express for spreading along brain capillaries and for metastatic outgrowth. Brain metastatic cells from lung cancer and breast cancer express high levels of anti-PA serpins, including neuroserpin and serpin B2, to prevent plasmin generation and its deleterious consequences. By protecting cancer cells from death signals and fostering vascular cooption, anti-PA serpins provide a unifying mechanism for the initiation of brain metastasis in lung and breast cancers. PMID:24581498

  15. Preserved ex vivo inflammatory status in decidual cells from women with preterm labor and subclinical intrauterine infection.

    PubMed

    Castro-Leyva, Violeta; Espejel-Nuñez, Aurora; Barroso, Gerardo; Zaga-Clavellina, Veronica; Flores-Pliego, Arturo; Morales-Mendez, Iyari; Giono-Cerezo, Silvia; Walsh, Scott W; Estrada-Gutierrez, Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    To compare the inflammatory response preserved ex vivo by decidual cells isolated from women who experienced preterm labor with and without subclinical intrauterine infection. Fetal membranes were obtained after cesarean section from 35 women who delivered before 37 weeks of gestation following spontaneous preterm labor, with no clinical evidence of intrauterine infection. Decidua was microbiologically tested and cultured. Concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-10), pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-8, MMP-9) were measured in the supernatants using Bio-Plex, and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) was measured by enzyme immunoassay. Subclinical infection was confirmed in 10 women (28.5%). Microorganisms isolated were Ureaplasma urealyticum (4), group B streptococci (3), Gardnerella vaginalis (1), and Escherichia coli (2). We found a significant increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a significant decrease of anti-inflammatory cytokines in supernatants from decidual cells obtained from women with preterm labor and subclinical intrauterine infection compared to women without infection. Secretion of MMP-1, MMP-8, MMP-9 and PGE(2) was significantly higher in infected women. Secretion of IL-8 by decidual cells from infected women persisted upon repeated in vitro culture passages. Almost 30% of idiopathic preterm labor cases were associated with subclinical intrauterine infection, and decidual cells isolated from these cases preserved an ex vivo inflammatory status after in vivo bacterial exposure.

  16. Stem cell transplantation enhances endogenous brain repair after experimental stroke.

    PubMed

    Horie, Nobutaka; Hiu, Takeshi; Nagata, Izumi

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation for stroke treatment has been a promising therapy in small and large animal models, and many clinical trials are ongoing to establish this strategy in a clinical setting. However, the mechanism underlying functional recovery after stem cell transplantation has not been fully established and there is still a need to determine the ideal subset of stem cells for such therapy. We herein reviewed the recent evidences showing the underlying mechanism of functional recovery after cell transplantation, focusing on endogenous brain repair. First, angiogenesis/neovascularization is promoted by trophic factors including vascular endothelial growth factor secreted from stem cells, and stem cells migrated to the lesion along with the vessels. Second, axonal sprouting, dendritic branching, and synaptogenesis were enhanced altogether in the both ipsilateral and contralateral hemisphere remapping the pyramidal tract across the board. Finally, endogenous neurogenesis was also enhanced although little is known how much these neurogenesis contribute to the functional recovery. Taken together, it is clear that stem cell transplantation provides functional recovery via endogenous repair enhancement from multiple ways. This is important to maximize the effect of stem cell therapy after stroke, although it is still undetermined which repair mechanism is mostly contributed.

  17. Evaluation of Commercial off the Shelf Materials for the Preservation of Gram Positive Vegetative Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-01

    Ward, E.M.; Hales, T.R. Bacillus anthracis Contamination and Inhalational Anthrax in a Mail Processing and Distribution Center. J. Appl. Microbiol...work was started in October 2015 and completed in October 2016. The use of either trade or manufacturers ’ names in this report does not...preserved or stabilized to minimize decay and optimize viability and fidelity. Typically, this is accomplished through refrigeration or other types of

  18. Induction of Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cell Urokinase Expression by Cryptococcus neoformans Facilitates Blood-Brain Barrier Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Stie, Jamal; Fox, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The invasive ability of the blood-borne fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans can be enhanced through interactions with host plasma components, such as plasminogen. Previously we showed by in vitro studies that plasminogen coats the surface of C. neoformans and is converted to the active serine protease, plasmin, by host plasminogen activators. Viable, but not formaldehyde- or sodium azide-killed, cryptococcal strains undergo brain microvascular endothelial cell-dependent plasminogen-to-plasmin activation, which results in enhanced, plasmin-dependent cryptococcal invasion of primary bovine brain microvascular endothelial cells and fungal ability to degrade plasmin substrates. In the present work, brain microvascular endothelial cells cultured with viable, but not killed, cryptococcal strains led to significant increases in both urokinase mRNA transcription and cell-associated urokinase protein expression. Soluble urokinase was also detected in conditioned medium from brain microvascular endothelial cells cultured with viable, but not killed, C. neoformans. Exposure of plasminogen pre-coated viable C. neoformans to conditioned medium from strain-matched brain microvascular endothelial cell-fungal co-cultures resulted in plasminogen-to-plasmin activation and plasmin-dependent cryptococcal invasion. siRNA-mediated silencing of urokinase gene expression or the use of specific inhibitors of urokinase activity abrogated both plasminogen-to-plasmin activation on C. neoformans and cryptococcal-brain microvascular endothelial cell invasion. Our results suggest that pathogen exploitation of the host urokinase-plasmin(ogen) system may contribute to C. neoformans virulence during invasive cryptococcosis. PMID:23145170

  19. Isolation of primary murine brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ruck, Tobias; Bittner, Stefan; Epping, Lisa; Herrmann, Alexander M; Meuth, Sven G

    2014-11-14

    The blood-brain-barrier is ultrastructurally assembled by a monolayer of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) interconnected by a junctional complex of tight and adherens junctions. Together with other cell-types such as astrocytes or pericytes, they form the neurovascular unit (NVU), which specifically regulates the interchange of fluids, molecules and cells between the peripheral blood and the CNS. Through this complex and dynamic system BMECs are involved in various processes maintaining the homeostasis of the CNS. A dysfunction of the BBB is observed as an essential step in the pathogenesis of many severe CNS diseases. However, specific and targeted therapies are very limited, as the underlying mechanisms are still far from being understood. Animal and in vitro models have been extensively used to gain in-depth understanding of complex physiological and pathophysiological processes. By reduction and simplification it is possible to focus the investigation on the subject of interest and to exclude a variety of confounding factors. However, comparability and transferability are also reduced in model systems, which have to be taken into account for evaluation. The most common animal models are based on mice, among other reasons, mainly due to the constantly increasing possibilities of methodology. In vitro studies of isolated murine BMECs might enable an in-depth analysis of their properties and of the blood-brain-barrier under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Further insights into the complex mechanisms at the BBB potentially provide the basis for new therapeutic strategies. This protocol describes a method to isolate primary murine microvascular endothelial cells by a sequence of physical and chemical purification steps. Special considerations for purity and cultivation of MBMECs as well as quality control, potential applications and limitations are discussed.

  20. Hypofractionated Whole-Brain Radiotherapy for Multiple Brain Metastases From Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk; Meyners, Thekla; Veninga, Theo; Stalpers, Lukas J.A.; Schild, Steven E.

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: Brain metastases in bladder cancer patients are extremely rare. Most patients with multiple lesions receive longer-course whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) with 10 x 3 Gy/2 weeks or 20 x 2 Gy/4 weeks. Because its radiosensitivity is relatively low, metastases from bladder cancer may be treated better with hypofractionated radiotherapy. This study compared short-course hypofractionated WBRT (5 x 4 Gy/1 week) to longer-course WBRT. Methods and Materials: Data for 33 patients receiving WBRT alone for multiple brain metastases from transitional cell bladder carcinoma were retrospectively analyzed. Short-course WBRT with 5 x 4 Gy (n = 12 patients) was compared to longer-course WBRT with 10 x 3 Gy/20 x 2 Gy (n = 21 patients) for overall survival (OS) and local (intracerebral) control (LC). Five additional potential prognostic factors were investigated: age, gender, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), number of brain metastases, and extracranial metastases. The Bonferroni correction for multiple tests was used to adjust the p values derived from the multivariate analysis. p values of <0.025 were considered significant. Results: At 6 months, OS was 42% after 5 x 4 Gy and 24% after 10 x 3/20 x 2 Gy (p = 0.31). On univariate analysis, improved OS was associated with less than four brain metastases (p = 0.021) and almost associated with a lack of extracranial metastases (p = 0.057). On multivariate analysis, both factors were not significant. At 6 months, LC was 83% after 5 x 4 Gy and 27% after 10 x 3/20 x 2 Gy (p = 0.035). Improved LC was almost associated with a KPS of {>=}70 (p = 0.051). On multivariate analysis, WBRT regimen was almost significant (p = 0.036). KPS showed a trend (p = 0.07). Conclusions: Short-course WBRT with 5 x 4 Gy should be seriously considered for most patients with multiple brain metastases from bladder cancer, as it resulted in improved LC.

  1. Stabilization of polymer lipid complexes prepared with lipids of lactic acid bacteria upon preservation and internalization into eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Alves, P; Hugo, A A; Szymanowski, F; Tymczyszyn, E E; Pérez, P F; Coelho, J F J; Simões, P N; Gómez-Zavaglia, A

    2014-11-01

    The physicochemical characterization of polymer liposome complexes (PLCs) prepared with lipids of lactic acid bacteria and poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) covalently bound to cholesterol (CHO-PDMAEMA) was carried out in an integrated approach, including their stability upon preservation and incorporation into eukaryotic cells. PLCs were prepared with different polymer:lipid molar ratios (0, 0.05 and 0.10). Zeta potential, particle size distribution and polydispersity index were determined. The optimal polymer:lipid ratio and the stability of both bare liposomes and PLCs were evaluated at 37 °C and at different pHs, as well as after storage at 4 °C, -80 °C and freeze-drying in the presence or absence of trehalose 250 mM. Internalization of PLCs by eukaryotic cells was assessed to give a complete picture of the system. Incorporation of CHO-PDMAEMA onto bacterial lipids (ratio 0.05 and 0.10) led to stabilization at 37 °C and pH 7. A slight decrease of pH led to their strong destabilization. Bacteria PLCs showed to be more stable than lecithin (LEC) PLCs (used for comparison) upon preservation at 4 and -80 °C. The harmful nature of the preservation processes led to a strong decrease in the stability of PLCs, bacterial formulations being more stable than LEC PLCs. The addition of trehalose to the suspension of liposomes stabilized LEC PLC and did not have effect on bacterial PLCs. In vitro studies on Raw 264.7 and Caco-2/TC7 cells demonstrated an efficient incorporation of PLCs into the cells. Preparations with higher stability were the ones that showed a better cell-uptake. The nature of the lipid composition is determinant for the stability of PLCs. Lipids from lactic acid bacteria are composed of glycolipids and phospholipids like cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol. The presence of negatively charged lipids strongly improves the interaction with the positively charged CHO-PDMAEMA, thus stabilizing liposomes. In addition, glycolipids and

  2. A Child's Brain. Part II. The Human Brain: How Every Single Cell is Organized for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    1982-01-01

    The second in a series of three articles concerning children's brain development focuses on the organization of the brain. Aspects of the brain's vertical, neocortex, and temporal organization are discussed and references for further reading are provided. (CJ)

  3. HIV Nef expression favors the relative preservation of CD4+ T regulatory cells that retain some important suppressive functions.

    PubMed

    Chrobak, Pavel; Afkhami, Soheila; Priceputu, Elena; Poudrier, Johanne; Meunier, Clémence; Hanna, Zaher; Sparwasser, Tim; Jolicoeur, Paul

    2014-02-15

    HIV-1 infection causes depletion and/or dysfunction of distinct CD4(+) T cell subsets and may affect these differently. Using the CD4C/HIV-1(Nef) transgenic (Tg) mice as a model, we report that HIV-1 Nef causes depletion of total CD4(+) T cells, but preserves and relatively enriches CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Treg). We found that Nef-mediated CD4(+) Treg enrichment is the direct result of Nef expression in CD4(+) T cells, occurs independently of Nef-induced lymphopenia, and most likely results from multiple mechanisms: lower apoptosis, enhanced cell division, and increased generation from precursors. Interestingly, Tg Treg relative enrichment could be reversed by enhancing Lck activity. Most importantly, we show that, in contrast to Tg helper CD4(+) T cells that have lost their function, Nef-expressing CD4(+) Treg retain their regulatory function in vitro and also in vivo, under some settings. In particular, we found that Treg prevent expansion of Tg B and non-Treg T cells in vivo. Our study reveals that Nef affects distinct CD4(+) T cell subsets differently and uncovers the high proliferative potential of B and non-Treg T cells in this mouse model.

  4. Brain Invasion by Mouse Hepatitis Virus Depends on Impairment of Tight Junctions and Beta Interferon Production in Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bleau, Christian; Filliol, Aveline; Samson, Michel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Coronaviruses (CoVs) have shown neuroinvasive properties in humans and animals secondary to replication in peripheral organs, but the mechanism of neuroinvasion is unknown. The major aim of our work was to evaluate the ability of CoVs to enter the central nervous system (CNS) through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Using the highly hepatotropic mouse hepatitis virus type 3 (MHV3), its attenuated variant, 51.6-MHV3, which shows low tropism for endothelial cells, and the weakly hepatotropic MHV-A59 strain from the murine coronavirus group, we investigated the virus-induced dysfunctions of BBB in vivo and in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) in vitro. We report here a MHV strain-specific ability to cross the BBB during acute infection according to their virulence for liver. Brain invasion was observed only in MHV3-infected mice and correlated with enhanced BBB permeability associated with decreased expression of zona occludens protein 1 (ZO-1), VE-cadherin, and occludin, but not claudin-5, in the brain or in cultured BMECs. BBB breakdown in MHV3 infection was not related to production of barrier-dysregulating inflammatory cytokines or chemokines by infected BMECs but rather to a downregulation of barrier protective beta interferon (IFN-β) production. Our findings highlight the importance of IFN-β production by infected BMECs in preserving BBB function and preventing access of blood-borne infectious viruses to the brain. IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses (CoVs) infect several mammals, including humans, and are associated with respiratory, gastrointestinal, and/or neurological diseases. There is some evidence that suggest that human respiratory CoVs may show neuroinvasive properties. Indeed, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), causing severe acute respiratory syndrome, and the CoVs OC43 and 229E were found in the brains of SARS patients and multiple sclerosis patients, respectively. These findings suggest that hematogenously spread

  5. Asymptotic-Preserving Particle-In-Cell methods for the Vlasov-Maxwell system in the quasi-neutral limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degond, P.; Deluzet, F.; Doyen, D.

    2017-02-01

    In this article, we design Asymptotic-Preserving Particle-In-Cell methods for the Vlasov-Maxwell system in the quasi-neutral limit, this limit being characterized by a Debye length negligible compared to the space scale of the problem. These methods are consistent discretizations of the Vlasov-Maxwell system which, in the quasi-neutral limit, remain stable and are consistent with a quasi-neutral model (in this quasi-neutral model, the electric field is computed by means of a generalized Ohm law). The derivation of Asymptotic-Preserving methods is not straightforward since the quasi-neutral model is a singular limit of the Vlasov-Maxwell model. The key step is a reformulation of the Vlasov-Maxwell system which unifies the two models in a single set of equations with a smooth transition from one to another. As demonstrated in various and demanding numerical simulations, the Asymptotic-Preserving methods are able to treat efficiently both quasi-neutral plasmas and non-neutral plasmas, making them particularly well suited for complex problems involving dense plasmas with localized non-neutral regions.

  6. Evaluation of zinc salt based fixatives for preserving antigenic determinants for immunohistochemical demonstration of murine immune system cell markers.

    PubMed

    Hicks, D J; Johnson, L; Mitchell, S M; Gough, J; Cooley, W A; La Ragione, R M; Spencer, Y I; Wangoo, A

    2006-01-01

    Conventional aldehyde based fixatives produce good morphological preservation. However, owing to their cross-linking mechanism of action, epitope loss may occur during fixation compromising the tissue for subsequent immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. IHC is an important tool for characterizing antigen, cytokine and cytomorphological markers. The increasing use of mouse models for study of pathogenesis has highlighted the need to investigate alternative fixatives. In the study reported here, tissue samples from RIII mice with immune mediated lesions, Mycobacterium bovis infected mice, and uninfected control mice were fixed in either zinc salt fixative or buffered formalin, then tested for IHC using a panel of antibodies (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45, CD54, F4/80, Interferon-gamma and MIP2). Zinc salt fixation preserved processing-sensitive murine cell markers (CD4, CD8 and CD54) and improved the intensity of immunolabeling for CD45, F4/80 and CD3. Buffered formalin failed to preserve any of the processing-sensitive murine epitopes for demonstration by subsequent IHC.

  7. Effect of red blood cell preservation by droplet freezing with non-permeable cryoprotective agents in blood group antigen reactivity.

    PubMed

    Chagas, M A B; Chaves, D G; Haddad, S K; Ubiali, E M A; Schmidt, L C; Silva-Malta, M C F

    2017-04-01

    In the last few decades, various red blood cell (RBC) freezing techniques have been developed and improved to enable the preservation of erythrocytes for future use in pre-transfusion tests in reference immunohaematology laboratories. However, not all these techniques have been sufficiently evaluated for the preservation of blood group antigens. In this study, we evaluated the antigenic pattern of RBCs preserved by droplet freezing in liquid nitrogen in a blood bank context. Blood samples were evaluated for the reactivity of blood group antigens after droplet freezing using the non-permeable cryoprotective agent polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and sucrose-dextrose (S + D) solutions. No qualitative changes were observed in RBC reactivity after freezing and thawing for the antigens Fy(b) , Le(b) , C, E, C(w) , Lu(a) , Lu(b) , Kp(a) , Kp(b) and Di(a) . However, cryopreservation using PVP resulted in a significant increase in reactivity of Fy(b) antigen on comparing fresh and frozen samples (P < 0·001). The establishment of detailed protocols for cryopreservation of RBCs, which take into account the maintenance of antigenic characteristics, is necessary to increase security in pre-transfusion testing using frozen RBCs. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  8. Neural Stem Cell Delivery of Therapeutic Antibodies to Treat Breast Cancer Brain Metastases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    cell numbers, and brain metastatic growth was monitored by non-invasive bioluminescence imaging . Figure 5 shows that, surprisingly, the ALDH1 negative...the brains of SCID mice and lesion growth followed by non- invasive bioluminescence imaging over time (x-axis in the graph denotes days after...mouse brain. Histological analysis of brain lesions 60 days after implanting 500 tumor cells of each subpopulation. Each image represents one mouse

  9. Space Invaders: Brain Tumor Exploitation of the Stem Cell Niche.

    PubMed

    Sinnaeve, Justine; Mobley, Bret C; Ihrie, Rebecca A

    2017-10-09

    Increasing evidence indicates that the adult neurogenic niche of the ventricular sub-ventricular zone (V-SVZ), beyond serving as a potential site of origin, affects the outcome of malignant brain cancers. Glioma contact with this niche predicts worse prognosis, suggesting a supportive role for the V-SVZ environment in tumor initiation or progression. In this review, we describe unique components of the V-SVZ that may permit or promote tumor growth within the region. Cell-cell interactions, soluble factors, and extracellular matrix composition are discussed, and the role of the niche in future therapies is explored. The purpose of this review is to highlight niche intrinsic factors that may promote or support malignant cell growth and maintenance, as well as point out how we might leverage these features to improve patient outcome. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Characterization of brain cell nuclei with decondensed chromatin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ping; McKinney, Elizabeth C; Kandasamy, Muthugapatti M; Albert, Alexandria L; Meagher, Richard B

    2015-07-01

    Although multipotent cell types have enlarged nuclei with decondensed chromatin, this property has not been exploited to enhance the characterization of neural progenitor cell (NPC) populations in the brain. We found that mouse brain cell nuclei that expressed exceptionally high levels of the pan neuronal marker NeuN/FOX3 (NeuN-High) had decondensed chromatin relative to most NeuN-Low or NeuN-Neg (negative) nuclei. Purified NeuN-High nuclei expressed significantly higher levels of transcripts encoding markers of neurogenesis, neuroplasticity, and learning and memory (ARC, BDNF, ERG1, HOMER1, NFL/NEF1, SYT1), subunits of chromatin modifying machinery (SIRT1, HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC11, KAT2B, KAT3A, KAT3B, KAT5, DMNT1, DNMT3A, Gadd45a, Gadd45b) and markers of NPC and cell cycle activity (BRN2, FOXG1, KLF4, c-MYC, OCT4, PCNA, SHH, SOX2) relative to neuronal NeuN-Low or to mostly non-neuronal NeuN-Neg nuclei. NeuN-High nuclei expressed higher levels of HDAC1, 2, 4, and 5 proteins. The cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, thalamus, and nucleus accumbens contained high percentages of large decondensed NeuN-High nuclei, while the cerebellum, and pons contained very few. NeuN-High nuclei have the properties consistent with their being derived from extremely active neurons with elevated rates of chromatin modification and/or NPC-like cells with multilineage developmental potential. The further analysis of decondensed neural cell nuclei should provide novel insights into neurobiology and neurodegenerative disease.

  11. Preservation of perceptual integration improves temporal stability of bimanual coordination in the elderly: an evidence of age-related brain plasticity.

    PubMed

    Blais, Mélody; Martin, Elodie; Albaret, Jean-Michel; Tallet, Jessica

    2014-12-15

    Despite the apparent age-related decline in perceptual-motor performance, recent studies suggest that the elderly people can improve their reaction time when relevant sensory information are available. However, little is known about which sensory information may improve motor behaviour itself. Using a synchronization task, the present study investigates how visual and/or auditory stimulations could increase accuracy and stability of three bimanual coordination modes produced by elderly and young adults. Neurophysiological activations are recorded with ElectroEncephaloGraphy (EEG) to explore neural mechanisms underlying behavioural effects. Results reveal that the elderly stabilize all coordination modes when auditory or audio-visual stimulations are available, compared to visual stimulation alone. This suggests that auditory stimulations are sufficient to improve temporal stability of rhythmic coordination, even more in the elderly. This behavioural effect is primarily associated with increased attentional and sensorimotor-related neural activations in the elderly but similar perceptual-related activations in elderly and young adults. This suggests that, despite a degradation of attentional and sensorimotor neural processes, perceptual integration of auditory stimulations is preserved in the elderly. These results suggest that perceptual-related brain plasticity is, at least partially, conserved in normal aging.

  12. Detraining differentially preserved beneficial effects of exercise on hypertension: effects on blood pressure, cardiac function, brain inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Deepmala; Dange, Rahul B; Vila, Jorge; Otamendi, Arturo J; Francis, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the effects of physical detraining on blood pressure (BP) and cardiac morphology and function in hypertension, and on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (PICs and AIC) and oxidative stress within the brain of hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by delivering AngiotensinII for 42 days using implanted osmotic minipumps. Rats were randomized into sedentary, trained, and detrained groups. Trained rats underwent moderate-intensity exercise (ExT) for 42 days, whereas, detrained groups underwent 28 days of exercise followed by 14 days of detraining. BP and cardiac function were evaluated by radio-telemetry and echocardiography, respectively. At the end, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was analyzed by Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot. ExT in AngII-infused rats caused delayed progression of hypertension, reduced cardiac hypertrophy, and improved diastolic function. These results were associated with significantly reduced PICs, increased AIC (interleukin (IL)-10), and attenuated oxidative stress in the PVN. Detraining did not abolish the exercise-induced attenuation in MAP in hypertensive rats; however, detraining failed to completely preserve exercise-mediated improvement in cardiac hypertrophy and function. Additionally, detraining did not reverse exercise-induced improvement in PICs in the PVN of hypertensive rats; however, the improvements in IL-10 were abolished. These results indicate that although 2 weeks of detraining is not long enough to completely abolish the beneficial effects of regular exercise, continuing cessation of exercise may lead to detrimental effects.

  13. CD146 coordinates brain endothelial cell-pericyte communication for blood-brain barrier development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianan; Luo, Yongting; Hui, Hui; Cai, Tanxi; Huang, Hongxin; Yang, Fuquan; Feng, Jing; Zhang, Jingjing; Yan, Xiyun

    2017-09-05

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) establishes a protective interface between the central neuronal system and peripheral blood circulation and is crucial for homeostasis of the CNS. BBB formation starts when the endothelial cells (ECs) invade the CNS and pericytes are recruited to the nascent vessels during embryogenesis. Despite the essential function of pericyte-EC interaction during BBB development, the molecular mechanisms coordinating the pericyte-EC behavior and communication remain incompletely understood. Here, we report a single cell receptor, CD146, that presents dynamic expression patterns in the cerebrovasculature at the stages of BBB induction and maturation, coordinates the interplay of ECs and pericytes, and orchestrates BBB development spatiotemporally. In mouse brain, CD146 is first expressed in the cerebrovascular ECs of immature capillaries without pericyte coverage; with increased coverage of pericytes, CD146 could only be detected in pericytes, but not in cerebrovascular ECs. Specific deletion of Cd146 in mice ECs resulted in reduced brain endothelial claudin-5 expression and BBB breakdown. By analyzing mice with specific deletion of Cd146 in pericytes, which have defects in pericyte coverage and BBB integrity, we demonstrate that CD146 functions as a coreceptor of PDGF receptor-β to mediate pericyte recruitment to cerebrovascular ECs. Moreover, we found that the attached pericytes in turn down-regulate endothelial CD146 by secreting TGF-β1 to promote further BBB maturation. These results reveal that the dynamic expression of CD146 controls the behavior of ECs and pericytes, thereby coordinating the formation of a mature and stable BBB.

  14. Effect of Erythropoietin and Stem Cells on Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Tunc Ata, Melek; Turgut, Günfer; Akbulut, Metin; Kocyigit, Ali; Karabulut, Aysun; Senol, Hande; Turgut, Sebahat

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the healing effects of erythropoietin (EPO) and stem cells (SCs) in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Twenty-nine Wistar albino rats were used and separated into the following groups: control (C), EPO, SC, and SC+EPO. Group C received a TBI only, with no treatment. In the EPO group, 1000 U/kg EPO was given intraperitoneally at 30 minutes after TBI. In SC group, immediately after formation of TBI, 3 × 10,000 CD34(+) stem cells were injected into the affected area. In the SC+EPO group, half an hour after TBI and the injection of stem cells, 1000 U/kg EPO was injected. Before and after injury, trauma coordination performance was measured by the rotarod and inclined plane tests. Seven weeks after trauma, rat brains were examined by radiology and histology. Rotarod performance test did not change remarkably, even after the injury. Compared with group C, the SC+EPO group was found to have significant differences in the inclined plane test results. Separately given, SCs and EPO have a positive effect on TBI, and our findings suggest that their coadministration is even more powerful. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 3D brain Organoids derived from pluripotent stem cells: promising experimental models for brain development and neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Ting; Bendriem, Raphael M; Wu, Wells W; Shen, Rong-Fong

    2017-08-20

    Three-dimensional (3D) brain organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), appear to recapitulate the brain's 3D cytoarchitectural arrangement and provide new opportunities to explore disease pathogenesis in the human brain. Human iPSC (hiPSC) reprogramming methods, combined with 3D brain organoid tools, may allow patient-derived organoids to serve as a preclinical platform to bridge the translational gap between animal models and human clinical trials. Studies using patient-derived brain organoids have already revealed novel insights into molecular and genetic mechanisms of certain complex human neurological disorders such as microcephaly, autism, and Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, the combination of hiPSC technology and small-molecule high-throughput screening (HTS) facilitates the development of novel pharmacotherapeutic strategies, while transcriptome sequencing enables the transcriptional profiling of patient-derived brain organoids. Finally, the addition of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing provides incredible potential for personalized cell replacement therapy with genetically corrected hiPSCs. This review describes the history and current state of 3D brain organoid differentiation strategies, a survey of applications of organoids towards studies of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders, and the challenges associated with their use as in vitro models of neurological disorders.

  16. Noninvasive photodetachment of stem cells on tunable conductive polymer nano thin films: selective harvesting and preserved differentiation capacity.

    PubMed

    You, Jungmok; Heo, June Seok; Kim, Jeonghun; Park, Teahoon; Kim, Byeonggwan; Kim, Han-Soo; Choi, Youjeong; Kim, Hyun Ok; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2013-05-28

    Viable mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were efficiently and selectively harvested by near-infrared (NIR) light using the photothermal effect of a conductive polymer nano thin film. The poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) (PEDOT)-coated cell culture surfaces were prepared via a simple and fast solution-casting polymerization (SCP) technique. The absorption of PEDOT thin films in the NIR region was effectively triggered cell harvesting upon exposure to an NIR source. By controlling the NIR absorption of the PEDOT film through electrochemical doping or growing PEDOT with different thin film thickness from 70 to 300 nm, the proliferation and harvesting of MSCs on the PEDOT surface were controlled quantitatively. This light-induced cell detachment method based on PEDOT films provides the temporal and spatial control of cell harvesting, as well as cell patterning. The harvested stem cells were found to be alive and well proliferated despite the use of temperature increase by NIR. More importantly, the harvested MSCs by this method preserved their intrinsic characteristics as well as multilineage differentiation capacities. This PEDOT surfaces could be used for repetitive culture and detachment of MSCs or for efficient selection or depletion of a specific subset from heterogeneous population during culture of various tissue-derived cells because there were no photodegradation and photobreakage in the PEDOT films by NIR exposure.

  17. Intermittent Fasting Preserves Beta-Cell Mass in Obesity-induced Diabetes via the Autophagy-Lysosome Pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiyan; Javaheri, Ali; Godar, Rebecca J; Murphy, John; Ma, Xiucui; Rohatgi, Nidhi; Mahadevan, Jana; Hyrc, Krzysztof; Saftig, Paul; Marshall, Connie; McDaniel, Michael L; Remedi, Maria S; Razani, Babak; Urano, Fumihiko; Diwan, Abhinav

    2017-08-30

    Obesity-induced diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and progressive beta cell failure. In islets of mice with obesity-induced diabetes, we observe increased beta cell death and impaired autophagic flux. We hypothesized that intermittent fasting, a clinically sustainable therapeutic strategy, stimulates autophagic flux to ameliorate obesity-induced diabetes. Our data show that despite continued high-fat intake, intermittent fasting restores autophagic flux in islets and improves glucose tolerance by enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, beta cell survival, and nuclear expression of NEUROG3, a marker of pancreatic regeneration. In contrast, intermittent fasting does not rescue beta-cell death or induce NEUROG3 expression in obese mice with lysosomal dysfunction secondary to deficiency of the lysosomal membrane protein, LAMP2 or haplo-insufficiency of BECN1/Beclin-1, a protein critical for autophagosome formation. Moreover, intermittent fasting is sufficient to provoke beta cell death in non-obese lamp2 null mice, attesting to a critical role for lysosome function in beta cell homeostasis under fasting conditions. Beta cells in intermittently-fasted LAMP2- or BECN1-deficient mice exhibit markers of autophagic failure with accumulation of damaged mitochondria and upregulation of oxidative stress. Thus, intermittent fasting preserves organelle quality via the autophagy-lysosome pathway to enhance beta cell survival and stimulates markers of regeneration in obesity-induced diabetes.

  18. Effects of rewarming on nuclear factor-kappaB and interleukin 8 expression in cold-preserved alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kunihiko; Suzuki, Satoshi; Kubo, Hiroshi; Ishida, Itaru; Ueda, Shinsaku; Kondo, Takashi

    2003-07-27

    Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and interleukin (IL)-8 play important roles in the pathophysiology of acute lung injury after lung transplantation. Because alveolar epithelium is one of the most important sites at which IL-8 production takes place after reperfusion of donor lungs, we examined the effects of cold/rewarming on NF-kappaB and IL-8 expression in alveolar epithelial cells. A549 cells were preserved at 4 degrees C for 5 hr and then rewarmed for up to 20 hr. NF-kappaB was analyzed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. IL-8 mRNA expression was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. IL-8 concentration in the cell culture medium after rewarming was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. NF-kappaB was increased in the nuclear extracts as early as 30 min after rewarming. There was a marked increase in the IL-8 mRNA expression at 1 and 3 hr after rewarming. IL-8 concentration in the cell culture medium was progressively increased during 20 hr following rewarming. The cell culture medium inhibited apoptosis of neutrophils significantly. The cold/rewarming-induced IL-8 production was reduced to approximately 50% by introducing an antisense oligonucleotide for the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB and by treatment with N-acetyl-leucinyl-leucinyl-norleucinal and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. The effect of dexamethasone treatment was dose dependent (reduced to approximately 30% at 10-5 M dexamethasone). Our results indicate that rewarming of cold-preserved alveolar epithelial cells itself may be an important initiator of the inflammatory cascades, including NF-kappaB activation and IL-8 release. Inhibition of NF-kappaB would be worth trying to control unnecessary IL-8 production and the inflammatory response in the donor lungs.

  19. Amburana cearensis seed extract protects brain mitochondria from oxidative stress and cerebellar cells from excitotoxicity induced by glutamate.

    PubMed

    Lima Pereira, Érica Patrícia; Santos Souza, Cleide; Amparo, Jessika; Short Ferreira, Rafael; Nuñez-Figueredo, Yanier; Gonzaga Fernandez, Luzimar; Ribeiro, Paulo Roberto; Braga-de-Souza, Suzana; Amaral da Silva, Victor Diogenes; Lima Costa, Silvia

    2017-09-14

    Amburana cearensis (Allemao) A.C.Sm. is a medicinal plant of the Brazilian Caatinga reported to present antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of the extracts obtained from the seeds of A. cearensis in primary cultures of cerebellar cells subjected to excitotoxicity induced by glutamate and brain mitochondria submitted to oxidative stress. and methods: Primary cultures of cerebellar cells were treated with the ethanol (ETAC), hexane (EHAC), dichloromethane (EDAC) and ethyl acetate (EAAC) extracts of the seeds of A.cearensis and subjected to excitotoxicity induced by glutamate (10µM). Mitochondria isolated from rat brains were submitted to oxidative stress and treated with ETAC. Only the EHAC extract reduced cell viability by 30% after 72h of treatment. Morphological analyses by Immunofluorescence showed positive staining for glutamine synthetase, β-III tubulin, GFAP and IBA1 similar to control cultures, indicating a better preservation of astrocytes, neurons and microglia, after excitotoxic damage induced by glutamate in cerebellar cultures treated with the extracts. The ETAC extract also protected mitochondria isolated from rat brains from oxidative stress, reducing the swelling, dissipation of the membrane potential, ROS production and calcium influx. Thus, this study suggests that the seed extracts from A. Cearensis exhibit neuroprotective potential against oxidative stress and excitotoxicity induced by glutamate and can be considered a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Immune cell trafficking from the brain maintains CNS immune tolerance.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Mohammad G; Tsai, Vicky W W; Ruitenberg, Marc J; Hassanpour, Masoud; Li, Hui; Hart, Prue H; Breit, Samuel N; Sawchenko, Paul E; Brown, David A

    2014-03-01

    In the CNS, no pathway dedicated to immune surveillance has been characterized for preventing the anti-CNS immune responses that develop in autoimmune neuroinflammatory disease. Here, we identified a pathway for immune cells to traffic from the brain that is associated with the rostral migratory stream (RMS), which is a forebrain source of newly generated neurons. Evaluation of fluorescently labeled leukocyte migration in mice revealed that DCs travel via the RMS from the CNS to the cervical LNs (CxLNs), where they present antigen to T cells. Pharmacologic interruption of immune cell traffic with the mononuclear cell-sequestering drug fingolimod influenced anti-CNS T cell responses in the CxLNs and modulated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) severity in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Fingolimod treatment also induced EAE in a disease-resistant transgenic mouse strain by altering DC-mediated Treg functions in CxLNs and disrupting CNS immune tolerance. These data describe an immune cell pathway that originates in the CNS and is capable of dampening anti-CNS immune responses in the periphery. Furthermore, these data provide insight into how fingolimod treatment might exacerbate CNS neuroinflammation in some cases and suggest that focal therapeutic interventions, outside the CNS have the potential to selectively modify anti-CNS immunity.

  1. A glucose fuel cell for implantable brain-machine interfaces.

    PubMed

    Rapoport, Benjamin I; Kedzierski, Jakub T; Sarpeshkar, Rahul

    2012-01-01

    We have developed an implantable fuel cell that generates power through glucose oxidation, producing 3.4 μW cm(-2) steady-state power and up to 180 μW cm(-2) peak power. The fuel cell is manufactured using a novel approach, employing semiconductor fabrication techniques, and is therefore well suited for manufacture together with integrated circuits on a single silicon wafer. Thus, it can help enable implantable microelectronic systems with long-lifetime power sources that harvest energy from their surrounds. The fuel reactions are mediated by robust, solid state catalysts. Glucose is oxidized at the nanostructured surface of an activated platinum anode. Oxygen is reduced to water at the surface of a self-assembled network of single-walled carbon nanotubes, embedded in a Nafion film that forms the cathode and is exposed to the biological environment. The catalytic electrodes are separated by a Nafion membrane. The availability of fuel cell reactants, oxygen and glucose, only as a mixture in the physiologic environment, has traditionally posed a design challenge: Net current production requires oxidation and reduction to occur separately and selectively at the anode and cathode, respectively, to prevent electrochemical short circuits. Our fuel cell is configured in a half-open geometry that shields the anode while exposing the cathode, resulting in an oxygen gradient that strongly favors oxygen reduction at the cathode. Glucose reaches the shielded anode by diffusing through the nanotube mesh, which does not catalyze glucose oxidation, and the Nafion layers, which are permeable to small neutral and cationic species. We demonstrate computationally that the natural recirculation of cerebrospinal fluid around the human brain theoretically permits glucose energy harvesting at a rate on the order of at least 1 mW with no adverse physiologic effects. Low-power brain-machine interfaces can thus potentially benefit from having their implanted units powered or recharged by

  2. Methamphetamine is not Toxic but Disrupts the Cell Cycle of Blood-Brain Barrier Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Fisher, D; Gamieldien, K; Mafunda, P S

    2015-07-01

    The cytotoxic effects of methamphetamine (MA) are well established to be caused via induced oxidative stress which in turn compromises the core function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by reducing its ability to regulate the homeostatic environment of the brain. While most studies were conducted over a period of 24-48 h, this study investigated the mechanisms by which chronic exposure of MA adversely affect the endothelial cells of BBB over an extended period of 96 h. MA induced significant depression of cell numbers at 96 h. This result was supported by flow cytometric data on the cell cycle which showed that brain endothelial cells (bEnd5) at 96 h were significantly suppressed in the S-phase of the cell cycle. In contrast, at 24-72 h control cell numbers for G1, S and G2-M phases were similar to MA-exposed cells. MA (0-1,000 µM) did not, however, statistically affect the viability and cytotoxicity of the bEnd5 cells, and the profile of ATP production and DNA synthesis (BrdU) across 96 h did not provide a rationale for the suppression of cell division. Our study reports for the first time that chronic exposure to MA results in long-term disruption of the cell cycle phases which eventuates in the attenuation of brain capillary endothelial cell growth after 96 h, compounding and contributing to the already well-known adverse short-term permeability effects of MA exposure on the BBB.

  3. Ruta 6 selectively induces cell death in brain cancer cells but proliferation in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes: A novel treatment for human brain cancer.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Sen; Multani, Asha S; Banerji, Pratip; Banerji, Prasanta

    2003-10-01

    Although conventional chemotherapies are used to treat patients with malignancies, damage to normal cells is problematic. Blood-forming bone marrow cells are the most adversely affected. It is therefore necessary to find alternative agents that can kill cancer cells but have minimal effects on normal cells. We investigated the brain cancer cell-killing activity of a homeopathic medicine, Ruta, isolated from a plant, Ruta graveolens. We treated human brain cancer and HL-60 leukemia cells, normal B-lymphoid cells, and murine melanoma cells in vitro with different concentrations of Ruta in combination with Ca3(PO4)2. Fifteen patients diagnosed with intracranial tumors were treated with Ruta 6 and Ca3(PO4)2. Of these 15 patients, 6 of the 7 glioma patients showed complete regression of tumors. Normal human blood lymphocytes, B-lymphoid cells, and brain cancer cells treated with Ruta in vitro were examined for telomere dynamics, mitotic catastrophe, and apoptosis to understand the possible mechanism of cell-killing, using conventional and molecular cytogenetic techniques. Both in vivo and in vitro results showed induction of survival-signaling pathways in normal lymphocytes and induction of death-signaling pathways in brain cancer cells. Cancer cell death was initiated by telomere erosion and completed through mitotic catastrophe events. We propose that Ruta in combination with Ca3(PO4)2 could be used for effective treatment of brain cancers, particularly glioma.

  4. CYP24 inhibition preserves 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 anti-proliferative signaling in lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiuhong; Kanterewicz, Beatriz; Buch, Shama; Petkovich, Martin; Parise, Robert; Beumer, Jan; Lin, Yan; Diergaarde, Brenda; Hershberger, Pamela A.

    2012-01-01

    Human lung tumors aberrantly express the 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3)-catabolizing enzyme, CYP24. We hypothesized that CYP24 reduces 1,25(OH)2D3-mediated transcription and allows lung cancer cells to escape its growth-inhibitory action. To test this, H292 lung cancer cells and the CYP24-selective inhibitor CTA091 were utilized. In H292 cells, CTA091 reduces 1,25(OH)2D3 catabolism, significantly increases 1,25(OH)2D3-mediated growth inhibition, and increases 1,25(OH)2D3 effects on induced and repressed genesin gene expression profiling studies. Pathway mapping of repressed genes uncovered cell cycle as a predominant 1,25(OH)2D3 target. In H292 cells, 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly decreases cyclin E2 levels and induces G0/G1 arrest. A broader set of cyclins is down-regulated when 1,25(OH)2D3 is combined with CTA091, and cell cycle arrest further increases. Effects of CTA091 on 1,25(OH)2D3 signaling are vitamin D receptor-dependent. These data provide evidence that CYP24 limits 1,25(OH)2D3 anti-proliferative signaling in cancer cells, and suggest that CTA091 may be beneficial in preserving 1,25(OH)2D3 action in lung cancer. PMID:22386975

  5. Xenografting of sheep testis tissue and isolated cells as a model for preservation of genetic material from endangered ungulates.

    PubMed

    Arregui, Lucía; Rathi, Rahul; Megee, Susan O; Honaramooz, Ali; Gomendio, Montserrat; Roldan, Eduardo R S; Dobrinski, Ina

    2008-07-01

    Recovery of germ cells could be an option for preservation of the genetic pool of endangered animals. In immature males, xenografting of testis tissue provides the opportunity to recover sperm from these animals. In adult animals, xenografting has been less successful, but de novo morphogenesis of functional testis tissue from dissociated testis cells could be an alternative. To assess the potential use of these techniques in endangered bovid species, the domestic sheep was used as a model. Testes from 2-week-old lambs were grafted as tissue fragments or cell suspensions into nude mice. Grafts were recovered at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks post grafting. For isolated cells, two additional time points at 35 and 40 weeks after grafting were added. In addition, to analyse the possible effect of social stress among mice within a group on the development of the grafts, testis tissue grafts were recovered 13 weeks post grafting from mice housed individually and in groups. Complete spermatogenesis occurred in sheep testis xenografts at 12 weeks, similar to the situation in situ. Isolated sheep testis cells were able to reorganize and form functional testicular tissue de novo. Housing mice individually or in groups did not have any effect on the development of xenografts. Xenografting of testis tissue might be useful to obtain sperm from immature endangered ungulates that die prematurely. Testis tissue de novo morphogenesis from isolated cells could open interesting options to recover germ cells from mature males with impaired spermatogenesis.

  6. No attenuation of ischemic and reperfusion injury in Kupffer cell-depleted, cold-preserved rat livers.

    PubMed

    Reinders, M E; van Wagensveld, B A; van Gulik, T M; Corssmit, N P; Frederiks, W M; Chamuleau, R A; van Rooijen, N; Obertop, H

    1997-02-15

    Activated Kupffer cells (KC) have been implicated in the damage sustained by preserved liver grafts during ischemia and reperfusion. The aim of this study was to compare ischemia/reperfusion injury in preserved, KC-depleted rat livers and preserved control livers, with special regard to sinusoidal endothelial cell (SEC) injury. Wistar rats were injected with liposome-encapsulated dichloromethylene diphosphonate, 48 hr before hepatectomy, to eliminate KC, or were withheld this pretreatment (controls). Livers were flushed with cold University of Wisconsin solution and after 0, 8, 16, or 24 hr of storage at 4 degrees C, were reperfused in a recirculation system with 200 ml of oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit solution at 37 degrees C for 90 min. Damage to SEC was measured by the uptake of hyaluronic acid (HA) from the perfusate and release of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP). Perfusate samples were, furthermore, analyzed for aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Carbon particles were infused in the perfusate to determine the phagocytotic capacity of KC. Biopsies were taken for histological examination and sections were stained with ED2 monoclonal antibodies to confirm the absence of KC. After 90 min of reperfusion, immediately after cold flush (t0), the uptake of HA was 72.2+/-2.3% and 69.3+/-1.3% in KC-depleted livers and in control livers, respectively (n.s.). After 8 hr of storage, HA uptake was 21.6+/-4.5% and 34.6+/-8.0%, respectively (n.s.). After 16 and 24 hr of storage and reperfusion, no uptake of HA was found in either KC-depleted or control livers, indicating abolished SEC function. PNP activities in the perfusate were higher in control livers (after 8 and 24 hr of storage), presumably due to release from damaged KC. No difference was found in AST and no tumor necrosis factor-alpha was measured in the perfusates of normal and KC-depleted livers. Electron microscopic studies showed that after 8 and 24 hr of storage and reperfusion

  7. Purkinje cell vulnerability to mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, K; Aihara, N; Sagar, S M; Sharp, F R; Pitts, L H; Honkaniemi, J; Noble, L J

    1996-05-01

    In this study we examined the cerebellar response to mild traumatic brain injury by assessing microglial activation and Purkinje cell loss. Activated microglia were identified using the antibodies OX-42 and ED-1 as well as isolectin B4. The anti-Purkinje cell antibody PEP-19 was used to evaluate Purkinje cell loss after injury. The mechanism of cell injury was examined using a monoclonal antibody to the inducible 72-kDa heat shock protein. A monoclonal antibody to the N-terminal sequence of Fos was used as a marker for neuronal activation. There was progressive activation of microglia in the cerebellar vermis within a few days after forebrain injury. In coronal sections the processes of activated microglia were oriented in "stripes" perpendicular to the cortical surface. In sagittal sections the activated microglia were in irregularly shaped clusters or in a fan-like distribution that radiated from the Purkinje cell layer toward the cortical surface. There was a significant loss of Purkinje cells 7 days postinjury as compared to the control group. There was no evidence of induction of heat shock protein in the cerebellum. In addition, there was no evidence of induction of c-Fos protein in either the cerebellar cortex or inferior olivary nuclei within the first 3 h after injury. These studies demonstrate that a fluid percussive impact to the forebrain results in cerebellar damage. The close anatomical association between activated microglia and Purkinje cells suggests that Purkinje cell injury is the cause of the microglial activation. The mechanism of Purkinje cell death, however, remains unclear.

  8. Intracellular uptake of macromolecules by brain lymphatic endothelial cells during zebrafish embryonic development.

    PubMed

    van Lessen, Max; Shibata-Germanos, Shannon; van Impel, Andreas; Hawkins, Thomas A; Rihel, Jason; Schulte-Merker, Stefan

    2017-05-12

    The lymphatic system controls fluid homeostasis and the clearance of macromolecules from interstitial compartments. In mammals brain lymphatics were only recently discovered, with significant implications for physiology and disease. We examined zebrafish for the presence of brain lymphatics and found loosely connected endothelial cells with lymphatic molecular signature covering parts of the brain without forming endothelial tubular structures. These brain lymphatic endothelial cells (BLECs) derive from venous endothelium, are distinct from macrophages, and are sensitive to loss of Vegfc. BLECs endocytose macromolecules in a selective manner, which can be blocked by injection of mannose receptor ligands. This first report on brain lymphatic endothelial cells in a vertebrate embryo identifies cells with unique features, including the uptake of macromolecules at a single cell level. Future studies will address whether this represents an uptake mechanism that is conserved in mammals and how these cells affect functions of the embryonic and adult brain.

  9. Robust methods for purification of histones from cultured mammalian cells with the preservation of their native modifications.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Collazo, Pedro; Leuba, Sanford H; Zlatanova, Jordanka

    2009-06-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histones play a role in modifying chromatin structure for DNA-templated processes in the eukaryotic nucleus, such as transcription, replication, recombination and repair; thus, histone PTMs are considered major players in the epigenetic control of these processes. Linking specific histone PTMs to gene expression is an arduous task requiring large amounts of highly purified and natively modified histones to be analyzed by various techniques. We have developed robust and complementary procedures, which use strong protein denaturing conditions and yield highly purified core and linker histones from unsynchronized proliferating, M-phase arrested and butyrate-treated cells, fully preserving their native PTMs without using enzyme inhibitors. Cell hypotonic swelling and lysis, nuclei isolation/washing and chromatin solubilization under mild conditions are bypassed to avoid compromising the integrity of histone native PTMs. As controls for our procedures, we tested the most widely used conventional methodologies and demonstrated that they indeed lead to drastic histone dephosphorylation. Additionally, we have developed methods for preserving acid-labile histone modifications by performing non-acid extractions to obtain highly purified H3 and H4. Importantly, isolation of histones H3, H4 and H2A/H2B is achieved without the use of HPLC. Functional supercoiling assays reveal that both hyper- and hypo-phosphorylated histones can be efficiently assembled into polynucleosomes. Notably, the preservation of fully phosphorylated mitotic histones and their assembly into polynucleosomes should open new avenues to investigate an important but overlooked question: the impact of mitotic phosphorylation in chromatin structure and function.

  10. Developmental and cell type-specific expression of thyroid hormone transporters in the mouse brain and in primary brain cells.

    PubMed

    Braun, Doreen; Kinne, Anita; Bräuer, Anja U; Sapin, Remy; Klein, Marc O; Köhrle, Josef; Wirth, Eva K; Schweizer, Ulrich

    2011-03-01

    Cellular thyroid hormone uptake and efflux are mediated by transmembrane transport proteins. One of these, monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is mutated in Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome, a severe mental retardation associated with abnormal thyroid hormone constellations. Since mice deficient in Mct8 exhibit a milder neurological phenotype than patients, we hypothesized that alternative thyroid hormone transporters may compensate in murine brain cells for the lack of Mct8. Using qPCR, Western Blot, and immunocytochemistry, we investigated the expression of three different thyroid hormone transporters, i.e., Mct8 and L-type amino acid transporters Lat1 and Lat2, in mouse brain. All three thyroid hormone transporters are expressed from corticogenesis and peak around birth. Primary cultures of neurons and astrocytes express Mct8, Lat1, and Lat2. Microglia specifically expresses Mct10 and Slco4a1 in addition to high levels of Lat2 mRNA and protein. As in vivo, a brain microvascular endothelial cell line expressed Mct8 and Lat1. 158N, an oligodendroglial cell line expressed Mct8 protein, consistent with delayed myelination in MCT8-deficient patients. Functional T(3)- and T(4)-transport assays into primary astrocytes showed K(M) values of 4.2 and 3.7 μM for T(3) and T(4). Pharmacological inhibition of L-type amino acid transporters by BCH and genetic inactivation of Lat2 reduced astrocytic T(3) uptake to the same extent. BSP, a broad spectrum inhibitor, including Mct8, reduced T(3) uptake further suggesting the cooperative activity of several T(3) transporters in astrocytes.

  11. Ultrasound fails to induce proliferation of human brain and mouse endothelial cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodemer, Claus; Jenne, Jürgen; Fatar, Marc; Hennerici, Michael G.; Meairs, Stephen

    2012-11-01

    Both in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that ultrasound (US) is capable of inducing angiogenesis. There is no information, however, on whether ultrasound can induce proliferation of brain endothelial cells. We therefore explored the angiogenic potential of ultrasound on a novel immortalised human brain endothelial cell line (hCMEC/D3) and on mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (bEND3). Ultrasound failed to enhance cell proliferation in both cell lines at all acoustic pressures studied. Endothelial cell damage occurred at 0.24 MPa with significantly slower proliferation. Cells growing in Opticell{trade mark, serif} dishes did not show damage or reduced proliferation at these pressures.

  12. Alkamides from Echinacea angustifolia Interact with P-glycoprotein of primary brain capillary endothelial cells isolated from porcine brain blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Mahringer, Anne; Ardjomand-Woelkart, Karin; Bauer, Rudolf; Fricker, Gert; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    The blood-brain barrier prevents the passage of toxic compounds from blood circulation into brain tissue. Unfortunately, drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, brain tumors, and other diseases also do not cross the blood-brain barrier. In the present investigation, we used isolated porcine brain capillary endothelial cells and a flow cytometric calcein-AM assay to analyze inhibition of P-glycoprotein, a major constituent of the blood-brain barrier. We tested 8 alkamides isolated from Echinacea angustifolia and found that four of them inhibited P-glycoprotein-mediated calcein transport in porcine brain capillary endothelial cells.

  13. Human Blood-Brain Barrier Endothelial Cells Derived from Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lippmann, Ethan S.; Azarin, Samira M.; Kay, Jennifer E.; Nessler, Randy A.; Wilson, Hannah K.; Al-Ahmad, Abraham; Palecek, Sean P.; Shusta, Eric V.

    2012-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role in brain health and is often compromised in disease. Moreover, as a result of its significant barrier properties, this endothelial interface restricts neurotherapeutic uptake. Thus, a renewable source of human BBB endothelium could prove enabling for brain research and pharmaceutical development. Herein, we demonstrate that endothelial cells generated from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can be specified to possess many BBB attributes, including well-organized tight junctions, expression of nutrient transporters, and polarized efflux transporter activity. Importantly, hPSC-derived BBB endothelial cells respond to astrocytic cues yielding impressive barrier properties as measured by transendothelial electrical resistance (1450±140 Ωxcm2) and molecular permeability that correlates well with in vivo brain uptake. In addition, specification of hPSC-derived BBB endothelial cells occurs in concert with neural cell co-differentiation via Wnt/β-catenin signaling, consistent with previous transgenic studies. This study represents the first example of organ-specific endothelial differentiation from hPSCs. PMID:22729031

  14. Transplantation of multipotent Isl1+ cardiac progenitor cells preserves infarcted heart function in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunpeng; Tian, Shuo; Lei, Ienglam; Liu, Liu; Ma, Peter; Wang, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Cell-based cardiac therapy is a promising therapeutic strategy to restore heart function after myocardial infarction (MI). However, the cell type selection and ensuing effects remain controversial. Here, we intramyocardially injected Isl1+ cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) derived from EGFP/luciferase double-tagged mouse embryonic stem (dt-mES) cells with vehicle (fibrin gel) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) into the infarcted area in nude mice to assess the contribution of CPCs to the recovery of cardiac function post-MI. Our results showed that Isl1+ CPCs differentiated normally into three cardiac lineages (cardiomyocytes (CMs), endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells) both on cell culture plates and in fibrin gel. Cell retention was significantly increased when the transplanted cells were injected with vehicle. Importantly, 28 days after injection, CPCs were observed to differentiate into CMs within the infarcted area. Moreover, numerous CD31+ endothelial cells derived from endogenous revascularization and differentiation of the injected CPCs were detected. SMMHC-, Ki67- and CX-43-positive cells were identified in the injected CPC population, further demonstrating the proliferation, differentiation and integration of the transplanted CPCs in host cells. Furthermore, animal hearts injected with CPCs showed increased angiogenesis, decreased infarct size, and improved heart function. In conclusion, our studies showed that Isl1+ CPCs, when combined with a suitable vehicle, can produce notable therapeutic effects in the infarcted heart, suggesting that CPCs might be an ideal cell source for cardiac therapy.

  15. Transplantation of multipotent Isl1+ cardiac progenitor cells preserves infarcted heart function in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunpeng; Tian, Shuo; Lei, Ienglam; Liu, Liu; Ma, Peter; Wang, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Cell-based cardiac therapy is a promising therapeutic strategy to restore heart function after myocardial infarction (MI). However, the cell type selection and ensuing effects remain controversial. Here, we intramyocardially injected Isl1+ cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) derived from EGFP/luciferase double-tagged mouse embryonic stem (dt-mES) cells with vehicle (fibrin gel) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) into the infarcted area in nude mice to assess the contribution of CPCs to the recovery of cardiac function post-MI. Our results showed that Isl1+ CPCs differentiated normally into three cardiac lineages (cardiomyocytes (CMs), endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells) both on cell culture plates and in fibrin gel. Cell retention was significantly increased when the transplanted cells were injected with vehicle. Importantly, 28 days after injection, CPCs were observed to differentiate into CMs within the infarcted area. Moreover, numerous CD31+ endothelial cells derived from endogenous revascularization and differentiation of the injected CPCs were detected. SMMHC-, Ki67- and CX-43-positive cells were identified in the injected CPC population, further demonstrating the proliferation, differentiation and integration of the transplanted CPCs in host cells. Furthermore, animal hearts injected with CPCs showed increased angiogenesis, decreased infarct size, and improved heart function. In conclusion, our studies showed that Isl1+ CPCs, when combined with a suitable vehicle, can produce notable therapeutic effects in the infarcted heart, suggesting that CPCs might be an ideal cell source for cardiac therapy. PMID:28386378

  16. Therapeutic Approaches for Preserving or Restoring Pancreatic β-Cell Function and Mass

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyong Yeun; Kim, Kyoung Min

    2014-01-01

    The goal for the treatment of patients with diabetes has today shifted from merely reducing glucose concentrations to preventing the natural decline in β-cell function and delay the progression of disease. Pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and decreased β-cell mass are crucial in the development of diabetes. The β-cell defects are the main pathogenesis in patients with type 1 diabetes and are associated with type 2 diabetes as the disease progresses. Recent studies suggest that human pancreatic β-cells have a capacity for increased proliferation according to increased demands for insulin. In humans, β-cell mass has been shown to increase in patients showing insulin-resistance states such as obesity or in pregnancy. This capacity might be useful for identifying new therapeutic strategies to reestablish a functional β-cell mass. In this context, therapeutic approaches designed to increase β-cell mass might prove a significant way to manage diabetes and prevent its progression. This review describes the various β-cell defects that appear in patients with diabetes and outline the mechanisms of β-cell failure. We also review common methods for assessing β-cell function and mass and methodological limitations in vivo. Finally, we discuss the current therapeutic approaches to improve β-cell function and increase β-cell mass. PMID:25541605

  17. Mitochondrial Control by DRP1 in Brain Tumor Initiating Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qi; Wu, Qiulian; Horbinski, Craig M.; Flavahan, William A.; Yang, Kailin; Zhou, Wenchao; Dombrowski, Stephen M.; Huang, Zhi; Fang, Xiaoguang; Shi, Yu; Ferguson, Ashley N.; Kashatus, David F.; Bao, Shideng; Rich, Jeremy N.

    2015-01-01

    Brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs) coopt the neuronal high affinity GLUT3 glucose transporter to withstand metabolic stress. Here, we investigated another mechanism critical to brain metabolism, mitochondrial morphology. BTICs displayed mitochondrial fragmentation relative to non-BTICs, suggesting that BTICs have increased mitochondrial fission. The essential mediator of mitochondrial fission, dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1), was activated in BTICs and inhibited in non-BTICs. Targeting DRP1 using RNA interference or pharmacologic inhibition induced BTIC apoptosis and inhibited tumor growth. Downstream, DRP1 activity regulated the essential metabolic stress sensor, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and AMPK targeting rescued the effects of DRP1 disruption. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) phosphorylated DRP1 to increase its activity in BTICs, whereas Ca2+–calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 2 (CAMK2) inhibited DRP1 in non-BTICs, suggesting tumor cell differentiation induces a regulatory switch in mitochondrial morphology. DRP1 activation correlates with poor prognosis in glioblastoma, suggesting mitochondrial dynamics may represent a therapeutic target for BTICs. PMID:25730670

  18. Thermoresponsive substrates used for the expansion of human mesenchymal stem cells and the preservation of immunophenotype.

    PubMed

    Nash, Maria E; Fan, Xingliang; Carroll, William M; Gorelov, Alexander V; Barry, Frank P; Shaw, Georgina; Rochev, Yury A

    2013-04-01

    The facile regeneration of undifferentiated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) from thermoresponsive surfaces facilitates the collection of stem cells avoiding the use of animal derived cell detachment agents commonly used in cell culture. This communication proposes a procedure to fabricate coatings from commercially available pNIPAm which is both affordable and a significant simplification on alternative approaches used elsewhere. Solvent casting was used to produce films in the micrometer range and successful cell adhesion and proliferation was highly dependent on the thickness of the coating produced with 1 μm thick coatings supporting cells to confluence. 3T3 cell sheets and hMSCs were successfully detached from the cast coatings upon temperature reduction. Furthermore, results indicate that the hMSCs remained undifferentiated as the surface receptor profile of hMSCs was not altered when cells were detached in this manner.

  19. Isolation and Perivascular Localization of Mesenchymal Stem Cells From Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seok-Gu; Shinojima, Naoki; Hossain, Anwar; Gumin, Joy; Yong, Raymund L.; Colman, Howard; Marini, Frank; Andreeff, Michael; Lang, Frederick F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although originally isolated from the bone marrow, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have recently been detected in other tissues. However, little is known about MSCs in the brain. OBJECTIVE To determine the extent to which cells with the features of MSCs exist in normal brain tissue and to determine the location of these cells in the brain. METHODS Single-cell suspensions from mouse brains were cultured according to the same methods used for culturing bone marrow–derived MSCs (BM-MSCs). These brain-derived cells were analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting for surface markers associated with BM-MSCs (stem cell antigen 1 [Sca-1+], CD9+, CD45−, CD11b−, and CD31−). Brain-derived cells were exposed to mesenchymal differentiation conditions. To determine the locations of these cells within the brain, sections of normal brains were analyzed by immunostaining for Sca-1, CD31, and nerve/glial antigen 2. RESULTS Cells morphologically similar to mouse BM-MSCs were identified and called brain-derived MSCs (Br-MSCs). Fluorescence-activated cell sorting indicated that the isolated cells had a surface marker profile similar to BM-MSCs, ie, Sca-1+, CD9+, CD45−, and CD11b−. Like BM-MSCs, Br-MSCs were capable of differentiation into adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. Immunostaining indicated that Sca-1+ Br-MSCs are located around blood vessels and may represent progenitor cells that serve as a source of mesenchymal elements (eg, pericytes) within the brain. CONCLUSION Our results indicate that cells similar to BM-MSCs exist in the brain. These Br-MSCs appear to be located within the vascular niche and may provide the mesenchymal elements of this niche. Because MSCs may be part of the cellular response to tissue injury, Br-MSCs may represent targets in the therapy of pathological processes such as stroke, trauma, and tumorigenesis. PMID:20651630

  20. Cell cavities increase tortuosity in brain extracellular space.

    PubMed

    Tao, A; Tao, L; Nicholson, C

    2005-06-21

    Brain extracellular space (ECS) forms hindered pathways for molecular diffusion in chemical signaling and drug delivery. Hindra