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Sample records for cell tight junctions

  1. Germ cell migration across Sertoli cell tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Benjamin E; Braun, Robert E

    2012-11-09

    The blood-testis barrier includes strands of tight junctions between somatic Sertoli cells that restricts solutes from crossing the paracellular space, creating a microenvironment within seminiferous tubules and providing immune privilege to meiotic and postmeiotic cells. Large cysts of germ cells transit the Sertoli cell tight junctions (SCTJs) without compromising their integrity. We used confocal microscopy to visualize SCTJ components during germ cell cyst migration across the SCTJs. Cysts become enclosed within a network of transient compartments fully bounded by old and new tight junctions. Dissolution of the old tight junctions releases the germ cells into the adluminal compartment, thus completing transit across the blood-testis barrier. Claudin 3, a tight junction protein, is transiently incorporated into new tight junctions and then replaced by claudin 11.

  2. Ouabain modulates epithelial cell tight junction

    PubMed Central

    Larre, Isabel; Lazaro, Amparo; Contreras, Ruben G.; Balda, Maria S.; Matter, Karl; Flores-Maldonado, Catalina; Ponce, Arturo; Flores-Benitez, David; Rincon-Heredia, Ruth; Padilla-Benavides, Teresita; Castillo, Aída; Shoshani, Liora; Cereijido, Marcelino

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial cells treated with high concentrations of ouabain (e.g., 1 μM) retrieve molecules involved in cell contacts from the plasma membrane and detach from one another and their substrates. On the basis of this observation, we suggested that ouabain might also modulate cell contacts at low, nontoxic levels (10 or 50 nM). To test this possibility, we analyzed its effect on a particular type of cell–cell contact: the tight junction (TJ). We demonstrate that at concentrations that neither inhibit K+ pumping nor disturb the K+ balance of the cell, ouabain modulates the degree of sealing of the TJ as measured by transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and the flux of neutral 3 kDa dextran (JDEX). This modulation is accompanied by changes in the levels and distribution patterns of claudins 1, 2, and 4. Interestingly, changes in TER, JDEX, and claudins behavior are mediated through signal pathways containing ERK1/2 and c-Src, which have distinct effects on each physiological parameter and claudin type. These observations support the theory that at low concentrations, ouabain acts as a modulator of cell–cell contacts. PMID:20534449

  3. Androgen-Dependent Sertoli Cell Tight Junction Remodeling Is Mediated by Multiple Tight Junction Components

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Papia; William Buaas, F.; Sharma, Manju; Smith, Benjamin E.; Greenlee, Anne R.; Eacker, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Sertoli cell tight junctions (SCTJs) of the seminiferous epithelium create a specialized microenvironment in the testis to aid differentiation of spermatocytes and spermatids from spermatogonial stem cells. SCTJs must be chronically broken and rebuilt with high fidelity to allow the transmigration of preleptotene spermatocytes from the basal to adluminal epithelial compartment. Impairment of androgen signaling in Sertoli cells perturbs SCTJ remodeling. Claudin (CLDN) 3, a tight junction component under androgen regulation, localizes to newly forming SCTJs and is absent in Sertoli cell androgen receptor knockout (SCARKO) mice. We show here that Cldn3-null mice do not phenocopy SCARKO mice: Cldn3−/− mice are fertile, show uninterrupted spermatogenesis, and exhibit fully functional SCTJs based on imaging and small molecule tracer analyses, suggesting that other androgen-regulated genes must contribute to the SCARKO phenotype. To further investigate the SCTJ phenotype observed in SCARKO mutants, we generated a new SCARKO model and extensively analyzed the expression of other tight junction components. In addition to Cldn3, we identified altered expression of several other SCTJ molecules, including down-regulation of Cldn13 and a noncanonical tight junction protein 2 isoform (Tjp2iso3). Chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to demonstrate direct androgen receptor binding to regions of these target genes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that CLDN13 is a constituent of SCTJs and that TJP2iso3 colocalizes with tricellulin, a constituent of tricellular junctions, underscoring the importance of androgen signaling in the regulation of both bicellular and tricellular Sertoli cell tight junctions. PMID:24825397

  4. Tight Junction Proteins in Human Schwann Cell Autotypic Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Alanne, Maria H.; Pummi, Kati; Heape, Anthony M.; Grènman, Reidar; Peltonen, Juha; Peltonen, Sirkku

    2009-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) form physical barriers in various tissues and regulate paracellular transport of ions, water, and molecules. Myelinating Schwann cells form highly organized structures, including compact myelin, nodes of Ranvier, paranodal regions, Schmidt-Lanterman incisures, periaxonal cytoplasmic collars, and mesaxons. Autotypic TJs are formed in non-compacted myelin compartments between adjacent membrane lamellae of the same Schwann cell. Using indirect immunofluorescence and RT-PCR, we analyzed the expression of adherens junction (E-cadherin) and TJ [claudins, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, occludin] components in human peripheral nerve endoneurium, showing clear differences with published rodent profiles. Adult nerve paranodal regions contained E-cadherin, claudin-1, claudin-2, and ZO-1. Schmidt-Lanterman incisures contained E-cadherin, claudin-1, claudin-2, claudin-3, claudin-5, ZO-1, and occludin. Mesaxons contained E-cadherin, claudin-1, claudin-2, claudin-3, ZO-1, and occludin. None of the proteins studied were associated with nodal inter-Schwann cell junctions. Fetal nerve expression of claudin-1, claudin-3, ZO-1, and occludin was predominantly punctate, with a mesaxonal labeling pattern, but paranodal (ZO-1, claudin-3) and Schmidt-Lanterman incisure (claudins-1 and -3) expression profiles typical of compact myelin were visible by gestational week 37. The clear differences observed between human and published rodent nerve profiles emphasize the importance of human studies when translating the results of animal models to human diseases. (J Histochem Cytochem 57:523–529, 2009) PMID:19153196

  5. Interplay between tight junctions & adherens junctions.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Hannah K; Maiers, Jessica L; DeMali, Kris A

    2017-09-01

    Cell-cell adhesions are critical for the development and maintenance of tissues. Present at sites of cell-cell contact are the adherens junctions and tight junctions. The adherens junctions mediate cell-cell adhesion via the actions of nectins and cadherins. The tight junctions regulate passage of ions and small molecules between cells and establish cell polarity. Historically, the adherens and tight junctions have been thought of as discrete complexes. However, it is now clear that a high level of interdependency exists between the two junctional complexes. The adherens junctions and tight junctions are physically linked, by the zonula occludens proteins, and linked via signaling molecules including several polarity complexes and actin cytoskeletal modifiers. This review will first describe the individual components of both the adherens and tight junctions and then discuss the coupling of the two complexes with an emphasis on the signaling links and physical interactions between the two junctional complexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A proposed route to independent measurements of tight junction conductance at discrete cell junctions

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lushan; Zeng, Yuhan; Baker, Lane A; Hou, Jianghui

    2015-01-01

    Direct recording of tight junction permeability is of pivotal importance to many biologic fields. Previous approaches bear an intrinsic disadvantage due to the difficulty of separating tight junction conductance from nearby membrane conductance. Here, we propose the design of Double whole-cell Voltage Clamp - Ion Conductance Microscopy (DVC-ICM) based on previously demonstrated potentiometric scanning of local conductive pathways. As proposed, DVC-ICM utilizes two coordinated whole-cell patch-clamps to neutralize the apical membrane current during potentiometric scanning, which in models described here will profoundly enhance the specificity of tight junction recording. Several potential pitfalls are considered, evaluated and addressed with alternative countermeasures. PMID:26716077

  7. Tricellulin deficiency affects tight junction architecture and cochlear hair cells

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Gowri; Lee, Sue I.; Yousaf, Rizwan; Edelmann, Stephanie E.; Trincot, Claire; Van Itallie, Christina M.; Sinha, Ghanshyam P.; Rafeeq, Maria; Jones, Sherri M.; Belyantseva, Inna A.; Anderson, James M.; Forge, Andrew; Frolenkov, Gregory I.; Riazuddin, Saima

    2013-01-01

    The two compositionally distinct extracellular cochlear fluids, endolymph and perilymph, are separated by tight junctions that outline the scala media and reticular lamina. Mutations in TRIC (also known as MARVELD2), which encodes a tricellular tight junction protein known as tricellulin, lead to nonsyndromic hearing loss (DFNB49). We generated a knockin mouse that carries a mutation orthologous to the TRIC coding mutation linked to DFNB49 hearing loss in humans. Tricellulin was absent from the tricellular junctions in the inner ear epithelia of the mutant animals, which developed rapidly progressing hearing loss accompanied by loss of mechanosensory cochlear hair cells, while the endocochlear potential and paracellular permeability of a biotin-based tracer in the stria vascularis were unaltered. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy revealed disruption of the strands of intramembrane particles connecting bicellular and tricellular junctions in the inner ear epithelia of tricellulin-deficient mice. These ultrastructural changes may selectively affect the paracellular permeability of ions or small molecules, resulting in a toxic microenvironment for cochlear hair cells. Consistent with this hypothesis, hair cell loss was rescued in tricellulin-deficient mice when generation of normal endolymph was inhibited by a concomitant deletion of the transcription factor, Pou3f4. Finally, comprehensive phenotypic screening showed a broader pathological phenotype in the mutant mice, which highlights the non-redundant roles played by tricellulin. PMID:23979167

  8. Tricellulin deficiency affects tight junction architecture and cochlear hair cells.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Gowri; Lee, Sue I; Yousaf, Rizwan; Edelmann, Stephanie E; Trincot, Claire; Van Itallie, Christina M; Sinha, Ghanshyam P; Rafeeq, Maria; Jones, Sherri M; Belyantseva, Inna A; Anderson, James M; Forge, Andrew; Frolenkov, Gregory I; Riazuddin, Saima

    2013-09-01

    The two compositionally distinct extracellular cochlear fluids, endolymph and perilymph, are separated by tight junctions that outline the scala media and reticular lamina. Mutations in TRIC (also known as MARVELD2), which encodes a tricellular tight junction protein known as tricellulin, lead to nonsyndromic hearing loss (DFNB49). We generated a knockin mouse that carries a mutation orthologous to the TRIC coding mutation linked to DFNB49 hearing loss in humans. Tricellulin was absent from the tricellular junctions in the inner ear epithelia of the mutant animals, which developed rapidly progressing hearing loss accompanied by loss of mechanosensory cochlear hair cells, while the endocochlear potential and paracellular permeability of a biotin-based tracer in the stria vascularis were unaltered. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy revealed disruption of the strands of intramembrane particles connecting bicellular and tricellular junctions in the inner ear epithelia of tricellulin-deficient mice. These ultrastructural changes may selectively affect the paracellular permeability of ions or small molecules, resulting in a toxic microenvironment for cochlear hair cells. Consistent with this hypothesis, hair cell loss was rescued in tricellulin-deficient mice when generation of normal endolymph was inhibited by a concomitant deletion of the transcription factor, Pou3f4. Finally, comprehensive phenotypic screening showed a broader pathological phenotype in the mutant mice, which highlights the non-redundant roles played by tricellulin.

  9. Characterization of Tight Junction Proteins in Cultured Human Urothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rickard, Alice; Dorokhov, Nikolay; Ryerse, Jan; Klumpp, David J.; McHowat, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are essential for normal function of epithelia, restricting paracellular diffusion and contributing to the maintainance of cell surface polarity. Superficial cells of the urothelium develop TJs, the basis for the paracellular permeability barrier of the bladder against diffusion of urinary solutes. Focusing on the superficial cell layer of stratified cell cultures of an immortalized human ureteral cell line, TEU-2 cells, we have examined the presence of TJ and TJ-associated proteins. TEU-2 cells were treated with calcium chloride and fetal bovine serum culture conditions used to induce stratification that resembles the normal transitional epithelial phenotype. Cultures were examined for TJ and TJ-associated proteins by confocal immuno-fluorescence microscopy and evaluated for TJ mRNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR). TEU-2 cultures exhibited immunoreactivity at intercellular margins for claudins 1, 4, 5, 7, 14 and 16 whereas claudins 2, 8 and 12 were intracellular. RT-PCR corroborated the presence of these claudins at the mRNA level. The TJ-associated proteins occludin, JAM-1, and zonula occludens (ZO-1, ZO-2 and ZO-3) were localized at cell margins. We have found that numerous TJs and TJ-associated proteins are expressed in stratified TEU-2 cultures. Further, we propose TEU-2s provide a useful ureteral model for future studies on the involvement of TJs proteins in the normal and pathological physiology of the human urinary system. PMID:18553212

  10. Fibrinogen Induces Alterations of Endothelial Cell Tight Junction Proteins

    PubMed Central

    PATIBANDLA, PHANI K.; TYAGI, NEETU; DEAN, WILLIAM L.; TYAGI, SURESH C.; ROBERTS, ANDREW M.; LOMINADZE, DAVID

    2009-01-01

    We previously showed that an elevated content of fibrinogen (Fg) increased formation of filamentous actin and enhanced endothelial layer permeability. In the present work we tested the hypothesis that Fg binding to endothelial cells (ECs) alters expression of actin-associated endothelial tight junction proteins (TJP). Rat cardiac microvascular ECs were grown in gold plated chambers of an electrical cell-substrate impedance system, 8-well chambered, or in 12-well plates. Confluent ECs were treated with Fg (2 or 4 mg/ml), Fg (4 mg/ml) with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) kinase inhibitors (PD98059 or U0126), Fg (4 mg/ml) with anti-ICAM-1 antibody or BQ788 (endothelin type B receptor blocker), endothelin-1, endothelin-1 with BQ788, or medium alone for 24 h. Fg induced a dose-dependent decrease in EC junction integrity as determined by transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER). Western blot analysis and RT-PCR data showed that the higher dose of Fg decreased the contents of TJPs, occludin, zona occluden-1 (ZO-1), and zona occluden-2 (ZO-2) in ECs. Fg-induced decreases in contents of the TJPs were blocked by PD98059, U0126, or anti-ICAM-1 antibody. While BQ788 inhibited endothelin-1-induced decrease in TEER, it did not affect Fg-induced decrease in TEER. These data suggest that Fg increases EC layer permeability via the MEK kinase signaling pathway by affecting occludin, ZO-1, and ZO-2, TJPs, which are bound to actin filaments. Therefore, increased binding of Fg to its major EC receptor, ICAM-1, during cardiovascular diseases may increase microvascular permeability by altering the content and possibly subcellular localization of endothelial TJPs. PMID:19507189

  11. Tight junctions as regulators of tissue remodelling.

    PubMed

    Balda, Maria S; Matter, Karl

    2016-10-01

    Formation of tissue barriers by epithelial and endothelial cells requires neighbouring cells to interact via intercellular junctions, which includes tight junctions. Tight junctions form a semipermeable paracellular diffusion barrier and act as signalling hubs that guide cell behaviour and differentiation. Components of tight junctions are also expressed in cell types not forming tight junctions, such as cardiomyocytes, where they associate with facia adherens and/or gap junctions. This review will focus on tight junction proteins and their importance in tissue homeostasis and remodelling with a particular emphasis on what we have learned from animal models and human diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Behavior of tight-junction, adherens-junction and cell polarity proteins during HNF-4{alpha}-induced epithelial polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Satohisa, Seiro; Chiba, Hideki . E-mail: hidchiba@sapmed.ac.jp; Osanai, Makoto; Ohno, Shigeo; Kojima, Takashi; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Sawada, Norimasa

    2005-10-15

    We previously reported that expression of tight-junction molecules occludin, claudin-6 and claudin-7, as well as establishment of epithelial polarity, was triggered in mouse F9 cells expressing hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4{alpha} [H. Chiba, T. Gotoh, T. Kojima, S. Satohisa, K. Kikuchi, M. Osanai, N. Sawada. Hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4{alpha} triggers formation of functional tight junctions and establishment of polarized epithelial morphology in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells, Exp. Cell Res. 286 (2003) 288-297]. Using these cells, we examined in the present study behavior of tight-junction, adherens-junction and cell polarity proteins and elucidated the molecular mechanism behind HNF-4{alpha}-initiated junction formation and epithelial polarization. We herein show that not only ZO-1 and ZO-2, but also ZO-3, junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-B, JAM-C and cell polarity proteins PAR-3, PAR-6 and atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) accumulate at primordial adherens junctions in undifferentiated F9 cells. In contrast, CRB3, Pals1 and PATJ appeared to exhibit distinct subcellular localization in immature cells. Induced expression of HNF-4{alpha} led to translocation of these tight-junction and cell polarity proteins to beltlike tight junctions, where occludin, claudin-6 and claudin-7 were assembled, in differentiated cells. Interestingly, PAR-6, aPKC, CRB3 and Pals1, but not PAR-3 or PATJ, were also concentrated on the apical membranes in differentiated cells. These findings indicate that HNF-4{alpha} provokes not only expression of tight-junction adhesion molecules, but also modulation of subcellular distribution of junction and cell polarity proteins, resulting in junction formation and epithelial polarization.

  13. Tight Junctions Go Viral!

    PubMed

    Torres-Flores, Jesús M; Arias, Carlos F

    2015-09-23

    Tight junctions (TJs) are highly specialized membrane domains involved in many important cellular processes such as the regulation of the passage of ions and macromolecules across the paracellular space and the establishment of cell polarity in epithelial cells. Over the past few years there has been increasing evidence that different components of the TJs can be hijacked by viruses in order to complete their infectious cycle. Viruses from at least nine different families of DNA and RNA viruses have been reported to use TJ proteins in their benefit. For example, TJ proteins such as JAM-A or some members of the claudin family of proteins are used by members of the Reoviridae family and hepatitis C virus as receptors or co-receptors during their entry into their host cells. Reovirus, in addition, takes advantage of the TJ protein Junction Adhesion Molecule-A (JAM-A) to achieve its hematogenous dissemination. Some other viruses are capable of regulating the expression or the localization of TJ proteins to induce cell transformation or to improve the efficiency of their exit process. This review encompasses the importance of TJs for viral entry, replication, dissemination, and egress, and makes a clear statement of the importance of studying these proteins to gain a better understanding of the replication strategies used by viruses that infect epithelial and/or endothelial cells.

  14. ZO-2, a tight junction scaffold protein involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Mariscal, Lorenza; Bautista, Pablo; Lechuga, Susana; Quiros, Miguel

    2012-06-01

    ZO-2 is a membrane-associated guanylate kinase homologue (MAGUK) tight protein associated with the cytoplasmic surface of tight junctions. Here, we describe how ZO-2 is a multidomain molecule that binds to a variety of cell signaling proteins, to the actin cytoskeleton, and to gap, tight, and adherens junction proteins. In sparse cultures, ZO-2 is present at the nucleus and associates with molecules active in gene transcription and pre-mRNA processing. ZO-2 inhibits the Wnt signaling pathway, reduces cell proliferation, and promotes apoptosis; its absence, mutation, or overexpression is present in various human diseases, including deafness and cancer. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Chitosan encapsulation modulates the effect of capsaicin on the tight junctions of MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, M; Pereira, S; Pohl, L; Ketelhut, S; Kemper, B; Gorzelanny, C; Galla, H-J; Moerschbacher, B M; Goycoolea, F M

    2015-05-13

    Capsaicin has known pharmacological effects including the ability to reversibly open cellular tight junctions, among others. The aim of this study was to develop a strategy to enhance the paracellular transport of a substance with low permeability (FITC-dextran) across an epithelial cell monolayer via reversible opening of cellular tight junctions using a nanosystem comprised by capsaicin and of chitosan. We compared the biophysical properties of free capsaicin and capsaicin-loaded chitosan nanocapsules, including their cytotoxicity towards epithelial MDCK-C7 cells and their effect on the integrity of tight junctions, membrane permeability and cellular uptake. The cytotoxic response of MDCK-C7 cells to capsaicin at a concentration of 500 μM, which was evident for the free compound, is not observable following its encapsulation. The interaction between nanocapsules and the tight junctions of MDCK-C7 cells was investigated by impedance spectroscopy, digital holographic microscopy and structured illumination fluorescence microscopy. The nanocapsules modulated the interaction between capsaicin and tight junctions as shown by the different time profile of trans-epithelial electrical resistance and the enhanced permeability of monolayers incubated with FITC-dextran. Structured illumination fluorescence microscopy showed that the nanocapsules were internalized by MDCK-C7 cells. The capsaicin-loaded nanocapsules could be further developed as drug nanocarriers with enhanced epithelial permeability.

  16. Regulation of epithelial cell tight junctions by protease-activated receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Enjoji, Shuhei; Ohama, Takashi; Sato, Koichi

    2014-09-01

    A layer of epithelial cells prevents the invasion of bacteria and the entry of foreign substances into the underlying tissue. The disruption of epithelial tight junctions initiates and exacerbates inflammation. However, the precise mechanism underlying the disruption of the epithelial tight junction remains unclear. The activation of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) by serine proteases produced by some bacteria and mast cells contributes to inflammation in many tissues. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that PAR2 activation affects the structure and function of tight junctions in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Although the application of a PAR2-activating peptide, PAR2-AP, from the apical side of MDCK cells failed to modify the transepithelial resistance (TER), its application from the basal side markedly suppressed the TER. In 3-dimensional cultures of MDCK cells expressing the mCherry-tagged PAR2, a lateral localization of PAR2 was observed. The application of PAR2-AP from the basal side changed the localization of the tight junctional protein, zonula occludin-1. Furthermore, PAR2-AP induced the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase. A p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, SB202190, inhibited PAR2-AP-induced changes in TER. Our results suggest that the activation of PAR2 leads to the disruption of tight junctions and increases the barrier permeability through the activation of p38 MAPK, which may cause the initiation and exacerbation of inflammation.

  17. Chitosan encapsulation modulates the effect of capsaicin on the tight junctions of MDCK cells

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, M.; Pereira, S.; Pohl, L.; Ketelhut, S.; Kemper, B.; Gorzelanny, C.; Galla, H. -J.; Moerschbacher, B. M.; Goycoolea, F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Capsaicin has known pharmacological effects including the ability to reversibly open cellular tight junctions, among others. The aim of this study was to develop a strategy to enhance the paracellular transport of a substance with low permeability (FITC-dextran) across an epithelial cell monolayer via reversible opening of cellular tight junctions using a nanosystem comprised by capsaicin and of chitosan. We compared the biophysical properties of free capsaicin and capsaicin-loaded chitosan nanocapsules, including their cytotoxicity towards epithelial MDCK-C7 cells and their effect on the integrity of tight junctions, membrane permeability and cellular uptake. The cytotoxic response of MDCK-C7 cells to capsaicin at a concentration of 500 μM, which was evident for the free compound, is not observable following its encapsulation. The interaction between nanocapsules and the tight junctions of MDCK-C7 cells was investigated by impedance spectroscopy, digital holographic microscopy and structured illumination fluorescence microscopy. The nanocapsules modulated the interaction between capsaicin and tight junctions as shown by the different time profile of trans-epithelial electrical resistance and the enhanced permeability of monolayers incubated with FITC-dextran. Structured illumination fluorescence microscopy showed that the nanocapsules were internalized by MDCK-C7 cells. The capsaicin-loaded nanocapsules could be further developed as drug nanocarriers with enhanced epithelial permeability. PMID:25970096

  18. Sodium caprate as an enhancer of macromolecule permeation across tricellular tight junctions of intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Krug, Susanne M; Amasheh, Maren; Dittmann, Isabel; Christoffel, Ilya; Fromm, Michael; Amasheh, Salah

    2013-01-01

    Sodium caprate is a promising candidate for inducing drug absorption enhancement. The mechanism of that uptake-enhancing effect is not fully understood so far. We investigated how caprate acts in an established human intestinal cell line, HT-29/B6, on the transient opening of transcellular (across the cell membranes) and paracellular (across the tight junction) pathways. Sodium caprate (10 mm) caused a rapid and reversible decrease of transepithelial resistance which is based, as measured by two-path impedance spectroscopy, exclusively on resistance changes of the paracellular pathway. Measurements of paracellular marker fluxes revealed an increased permeability for fluorescein (330 Da) and FITC-dextran (4 and 10 kDa), indicating an opening of the paracellular barrier. Confocal microscopy revealed a marked reduction of tricellulin in tricellular tight junctions and of claudin-5 in bicellular tight junctions. This was not due to altered protein expression, as occludin, claudins or tricellulin were not significantly changed in Western blots. Visualization of the translocation site of the cell membrane-impermeable marker molecule sulpho-NHS-SS-biotin (607 Da) indicated the tricellular tight junction to be the predominant pathway. We suggest that caprate's known enhancing effect on intestinal drug uptake is based on increased permeability in tricellular cell contacts, mediated by reversible removal of tricellulin from the tricellular tight junction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tight junction proteins: from barrier to tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Runkle, E Aaron; Mu, David

    2013-08-28

    The tight junction is a multi-protein complex and is the apical most junctional complex in certain epithelial and endothelial cells. A great deal of attention has been devoted to the understanding of these proteins in contributing to the barrier function - that is, regulating the paracellular flux or permeability between adjacent cells. However, tight junction proteins are now recognized as having functions beyond the barrier. The focus of this review is to discuss the barrier function of the tight junction and to summarize the literature with a focus on the role of tight junction proteins in proliferation, transformation, and metastasis.

  20. Tight Junction Proteins: From Barrier to Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Runkle, E. Aaron; Mu, David

    2013-01-01

    The tight junction is a multi-protein complex and is the apical most junctional complex in certain epithelial and endothelial cells. A great deal of attention has been devoted to the understanding of these proteins in contributing to the barrier function - that is, regulating the paracellular flux or permeability between adjacent cells. However, tight junction proteins are now recognized as having functions beyond the barrier. The focus of this review is to discuss the barrier function of the tight junction and to summarize the literature with a focus on the role of tight junction proteins in proliferation, transformation, and metastasis. PMID:23743355

  1. Contrasting effects of ERK on tight junction integrity in differentiated and under-differentiated Caco-2 cell monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Sudhir; Suzuki, Takuya; Taylor, William L.; Bhargava, Aditi; Rao, Radhakrishna K.

    2013-01-01

    ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) activation leads to disruption of tight junctions in some epithelial monolayers, whereas it prevents disruption of tight junctions in other epithelia. The factors responsible for such contrasting influences of ERK on tight junction integrity are unknown. The present study investigated the effect of the state of cell differentiation on ERK-mediated regulation of tight junctions in Caco-2 cell monolayers. EGF (epidermal growth factor) potentiated H2O2-induced tight junction disruption in under-differentiated cell monolayers, which was attenuated by the MEK [MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK kinase] inhibitor U0126. In contrast, EGF prevented H2O2-induced disruption of tight junctions in differentiated cell monolayers, which was also attenuated by U0126. Knockdown of ERK1/2 enhanced tight junction integrity and accelerated assembly of tight junctions in under-differentiated cell monolayers, whereas it had the opposite effect in differentiated cell monolayers. Regulated expression of wild-type and constitutively active MEK1 disrupted tight junctions, and the expression of dominant-negative MEK1 enhanced tight junction integrity in under-differentiated cells, whereas contrasting responses were recorded in differentiated cells. EGF prevented both H2O2-induced association of PP2A (protein phosphatase 2A), and loss of association of PKCζ (protein kinase Cζ), with occludin by an ERK-dependent mechanism in differentiated cell monolayers, but not in under-differentiated cell monolayers. Active ERK was distributed in the intracellular compartment in under-differentiated cell monolayers, whereas it was localized mainly in the perijunctional region in differentiated cell monolayers. Thus ERK may exhibit its contrasting influences on tight junction integrity in under-differentiated and differentiated epithelial cells by virtue of differences in its subcellular distribution and ability to regulate the association of PKCζ and

  2. Diesel exhaust particles modulate the tight junction protein occludin in lung cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Andrea D; Blank, Fabian; Baum, Oliver; Gehr, Peter; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara M

    2009-01-01

    Background Using an in vitro triple cell co-culture model consisting of human epithelial cells (16HBE14o-), monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells, it was recently demonstrated that macrophages and dendritic cells create a transepithelial network between the epithelial cells to capture antigens without disrupting the epithelial tightness. The expression of the different tight junction proteins in macrophages and dendritic cells, and the formation of tight junction-like structures with epithelial cells has been demonstrated. Immunofluorescent methods combined with laser scanning microscopy and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to investigate if exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) (0.5, 5, 50, 125 μg/ml), for 24 h, can modulate the expression of the tight junction mRNA/protein of occludin, in all three cell types. Results Only the highest dose of DEP (125 μg/ml) seemed to reduce the occludin mRNA in the cells of the defence system however not in epithelial cells, although the occludin arrangement in the latter cell type was disrupted. The transepithelial electrical resistance was reduced in epithelial cell mono-cultures but not in the triple cell co-cultures, following exposure to high DEP concentration. Cytotoxicity was not found, in either epithelial mono-cultures nor in triple cell co-cultures, after exposure to the different DEP concentrations. Conclusion We concluded that high concentrations of DEP (125 μg/ml) can modulate the tight junction occludin mRNA in the cells of the defence system and that those cells play an important role maintaining the epithelial integrity following exposure to particulate antigens in lung cells. PMID:19814802

  3. Reversible Opening of Intercellular Junctions of Intestinal Epithelial and Brain Endothelial Cells With Tight Junction Modulator Peptides.

    PubMed

    Bocsik, Alexandra; Walter, Fruzsina R; Gyebrovszki, Andrea; Fülöp, Lívia; Blasig, Ingolf; Dabrowski, Sebastian; Ötvös, Ferenc; Tóth, András; Rákhely, Gábor; Veszelka, Szilvia; Vastag, Monika; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Deli, Mária A

    2016-02-01

    The intercellular junctions restrict the free passage of hydrophilic compounds through the paracellular clefts. Reversible opening of the tight junctions of biological barriers is investigated as one of the ways to increase drug delivery to the systemic circulation or the central nervous system. Six peptides, ADT-6, HAV-6, C-CPE, 7-mer (FDFWITP, PN-78), AT-1002, and PN-159, acting on different integral membrane and linker junctional proteins were tested on Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell line and a coculture model of the blood-brain barrier. All peptides tested in nontoxic concentrations showed a reversible tight junctions modulating effect and were effective to open the paracellular pathway for the marker molecules fluorescein and albumin. The change in the structure of cell-cell junctions was verified by immunostaining for occludin, claudin-4,-5, ZO-1, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. Expression levels of occludin and claudins were measured in both models. We could demonstrate a selectivity of C-CPE, ADT-6, and HAV-6 peptides for epithelial cells and 7-mer and AT-1002 peptides for brain endothelial cells. PN-159 was the most effective modulator of junctional permeability in both models possibly acting via claudin-1 and -5. Our results indicate that these peptides can be effectively and selectively used as potential pharmaceutical excipients to improve drug delivery across biological barriers. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Alcohol increases the permeability of airway epithelial tight junctions in Beas-2B and NHBE cells.

    PubMed

    Simet, Samantha M; Wyatt, Todd A; DeVasure, Jane; Yanov, Daniel; Allen-Gipson, Diane; Sisson, Joseph H

    2012-03-01

    Tight junctions form a continuous belt-like structure between cells and act to regulate paracellular signaling. Protein kinase C (PKC) has been shown to regulate tight junction assembly and disassembly and is activated by alcohol. Previous research has shown that alcohol increases the permeability of tight junctions in lung alveolar cells. However, little is known about alcohol's effect on tight junctions in epithelium of the conducting airways. We hypothesized that long-term alcohol exposure reduces zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1) and claudin-1 localization at the cell membrane and increases permeability through a PKC-dependent mechanism. To test this hypothesis, we exposed normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells, cells from a human bronchial epithelial transformed cell line (Beas-2B), and Beas-2B expressing a PKCα dominant negative (DN) to alcohol (20, 50, and 100 mM) for up to 48 hours. Immunofluorescence was used to assess changes in ZO-1, claudin-1, claudin-5, and claudin-7 localization. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing was used to measure the permeability of tight junctions between monolayers of NHBE, Beas-2B, and DN cells. Alcohol increased tight junction permeability in a concentration-dependent manner and decreased ZO-1, claudin-1, claudin-5, and claudin-7 localization at the cell membrane. To determine a possible signaling mechanism, we measured the activity of PKC isoforms (alpha, delta, epsilon, and zeta). PKCα activity significantly increased in Beas-2B cells from 1 to 6 hours of 100 mM alcohol exposure, while PKCζ activity significantly decreased at 1 hour and increased at 3 hours. Inhibiting PKCα with Gö-6976 prevented the alcohol-induced protein changes in both ZO-1 and claudin-1 at the cell membrane. PKCα DN Beas-2B cells were resistant to alcohol-induced protein alterations. These results suggest that alcohol disrupts ZO-1, claudin-1, claudin-5, and claudin-7 through the activation of PKCα, leading to an alcohol-induced "leakiness

  5. Analysis of Tight Junction Formation and Integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Karakaya, Mahmut; Kerekes, Ryan A; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Foster, Carmen M; Retterer, Scott T

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study segmentation of tight junctions and analyze the formation and integrity of tight junctions in large-scale confocal image stacks, a challenging biological problem because of the low spatial resolution images and the presence of breaks in tight junction structure. We present an automated, three-step processing approach for tight junction analysis. In our approach, we first localize each individual nucleus in the image by using thresholding, morphological filters and active contours. By using each nucleus position as a seed point, we automatically segment the cell body based on the active contour. We then use an intensity-based skeletonization algorithm to generate the boundary regions for each cell, and features are extracted from tight junctions associated with each cell to assess tight junction continuity. Based on qualitative results and quantitative comparisons, we show that we are able to automatically segment tight junctions and compute relevant features that provide a quantitative measure of tight junction formation to which the permeability of the cell monolayer can ultimately be correlated.

  6. Human alveolar epithelial cells expressing tight junctions to model the air-blood barrier.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Anna; Kletting, Stephanie; de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz, Cristiane; Repnik, Urska; Griffiths, Gareth; Fischer, Ulrike; Meese, Eckart; Huwer, Hanno; Wirth, Dagmar; May, Tobias; Schneider-Daum, Nicole; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a new human alveolar epithelial cell line (hAELVi - human Alveolar Epithelial Lentivirus immortalized) with type I-like characteristics and functional tight junctions, suitable to model the air-blood barrier of the peripheral lung. Primary human alveolar epithelial cells were immortalized by a novel regimen, grown as monolayers on permeable filter supports and characterized morphologically, biochemically and biophysically. hAELVi cells maintain the capacity to form tight intercellular junctions, with high trans-epithelial electrical resistance (> 1000 Ω*cm²). The cells could be kept in culture over several days, up to passage 75, under liquid-liquid as well as air-liquid conditions. Ultrastructural analysis and real time PCR revealed type I-like cell properties, such as the presence of caveolae, expression of caveolin-1, and absence of surfactant protein C. Accounting for the barrier properties, inter-digitations sealed with tight junctions and desmosomes were also observed. Low permeability of the hydrophilic marker sodium fluorescein confirmed the suitability of hAELVi cells for in vitro transport studies across the alveolar epithelium. These results suggest that hAELVi cells reflect the essential features of the air-blood barrier, as needed for an alternative to animal testing to study absorption and toxicity of inhaled drugs, chemicals and nanomaterials.

  7. Conditioned medium from LS 174T goblet cells treated with oxyresveratrol strengthens tight junctions in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Dahyun; Jo, HyunA; Hwang, Seonwook; Kim, Jeong-Keun; Kim, In-Ho; Lim, Young-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Strengthening of intestinal tight junctions provides an effective barrier from the external environment. Goblet cell-derived trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) increases transepithelial resistance by upregulating the expression of tight junction proteins. Oxyresveratrol (OXY) is a hydroxyl-substituted stilbene found in the roots, leaves, stems, and fruit of many plants and known to have various biological activities. In this study, we investigated the strengthening effect of OXY on intestinal tight junctions through stimulation of TFF production in goblet cells. We prepared conditioned medium from LS 174T goblet cells treated with OXY (GCO-CM) and investigated the effect of GCO-CM on strengthening tight junctions of Caco-2 cells. The mRNA and protein expression levels of major tight junction components (claudin-1, occludin, and ZO-1) were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. Transepithelial electric resistance (TEER) was measured using an ohm/V meter. Monolayer permeability was evaluated by paracellular transport of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran. OXY showed a strong antioxidant activity. It significantly increased the expression level of TFF3 in LS 174T goblet cells. GCO-CM prepared by treatment with 2.5, 5, and 10μg/ml OXY did not show cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells. GCO-CM increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of claudin-1, occludin, and ZO-1. It also significantly increased tight junction integrity and reduced permeability in a dose-dependent manner. OXY stimulates the expression of TFF3 in goblet cells, which might increase the integrity of the intestinal tight junction barrier. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Brain barriers: Crosstalk between complex tight junctions and adherens junctions.

    PubMed

    Tietz, Silvia; Engelhardt, Britta

    2015-05-25

    Unique intercellular junctional complexes between the central nervous system (CNS) microvascular endothelial cells and the choroid plexus epithelial cells form the endothelial blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the epithelial blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), respectively. These barriers inhibit paracellular diffusion, thereby protecting the CNS from fluctuations in the blood. Studies of brain barrier integrity during development, normal physiology, and disease have focused on BBB and BCSFB tight junctions but not the corresponding endothelial and epithelial adherens junctions. The crosstalk between adherens junctions and tight junctions in maintaining barrier integrity is an understudied area that may represent a promising target for influencing brain barrier function. © 2015 Tietz and Engelhardt.

  9. Effects of adenine nucleotide and sterol depletion on tight junction structure and function in MDCK cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ladino, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    The antitumor agent Hadacidin (H), N-formyl-hydroxyamino-acetic acid, reversibly inhibited the multiplication of clone 4 Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells at a 4 mM concentration within 24-48 hours. Treated cells were arrested in the S phase of the cell cycle. Accompanying this action was a 16-fold increase in the area occupied b the cells and a refractoriness to trypsin treatment. To test whether this effect was due to an increase in tight junction integrity, electrical resistance (TER) was measured across H-treated monolayers. Addition of H at the onset of junction formation reversibly prevented the development of TER. ATP and cAMP levels were decreased by H, as well as the rate of ({sup 3}H)-leucine incorporation into protein. When 1 mM dibutyryl-cAMP (d.cAMP) and theophylline were added, H had no effect on cell division or protein synthesis, and TER was partially restored. The addition of 1 mM d.cAMP and 1 mM theophylline to control cultures decreased TER, indicating a biphasic effect on TER development/maintenance. In a separate study, the effect of sterol depletion on tight junctions formation/maintenance in wild-type MDCK cells was investigated.

  10. Cell-Cell Interaction Proteins (Gap Junctions, Tight Junctions, and Desmosomes) and Water Transporter Aquaporin 4 in Meningothelial Cells of the Human Optic Nerve.

    PubMed

    Zeleny, Thi Ngoc Co; Kohler, Corina; Neutzner, Albert; Killer, Hanspeter E; Meyer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Meningothelial cells (MECs) play a central role in the maintenance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) homeostasis and in physiological and pathophysiological processes within the subarachnoid space (SAS) linking them to optic nerve (ON) pathologies. Still, not much is known about their structural properties that might enable MECs to perform specific functions within the ON microenvironment. For closer characterization of the structural properties of the human MEC layer in the arachnoid, we performed immunohistological analyses to evaluate the presence of cell-cell interaction markers, namely, markers for tight junctions (JAM1, Occludin, and Claudin 5), gap junctions (Connexin 26 and 43), and desmosomes (Desmoplakin) as well as for water channel marker aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in retrobulbar, midorbital, and intracanalicular human ON sections. MECs displayed immunopositivity for markers of tight junctions (JAM1, Occludin, and Claudin 5) and gap junctions (Connexin 26 and 43) as well as for AQP4 water channels. However, no immunopositivity was found for Desmoplakin. MECs are connected via tight junctions and gap junctions, and they possess AQP4 water channels. The presence of these proteins emphasizes the important function of MECs within the ON microenvironment as part of the meningeal barrier. Beyond this barrier function, the expression of these proteins by MECs supports a broader role of these cells in signal transduction and CSF clearance pathways within the ON microenvironment.

  11. Effect of cAMP derivates on assembly and maintenance of tight junctions in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Beese, Michaela; Wyss, Kristin; Haubitz, Marion; Kirsch, Torsten

    2010-09-07

    Endothelial tight and adherens junctions control a variety of physiological processes like adhesion, paracellular transport of solutes or trafficking of activated leukocytes. Formation and maintenance of endothelial junctions largely depend on the microenvironment of the specific vascular bed and on interactions of the endothelium with adjacent cell types. Consequently, primary cultures of endothelial cells often lose their specific junctional pattern and fail to establish tight monolayer in vitro. This is also true for endothelial cells isolated from the vein of human umbilical cords (HUVEC) which are widely used as model for endothelial cell-related studies. We here compared the effect of cyclic 3'-5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and its derivates on formation and stabilization of tight junctions and on alterations in paracellular permeability in HUVEC. We demonstrated by light and confocal laser microscopy that for shorter time periods the sodium salt of 8-bromoadenosine-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP/Na) and for longer incubation periods 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP (pCPT-cAMP) exerted the greatest effects of all compounds tested here on formation of continuous tight junction strands in HUVEC. We further demonstrated that although all compounds induced protein kinase A-dependent expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-5 and occludin only pCPT-cAMP slightly enhanced paracellular barrier functions. Moreover, we showed that pCPT-cAMP and 8-Br-cAMP/Na induced expression and membrane translocation of tricellulin. pCPT-cAMP and, to a lesser extend, 8-Br-cAMP/Na improved formation of continuous tight junction strands and decreased paracellular permeability in primary HUVEC. We concluded that under these conditions HUVEC represent a feasible in vitro model to study formation and disassembly of endothelial tight junctions and to characterize tight junction-associated proteins.

  12. Effect of cAMP derivates on assembly and maintenance of tight junctions in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Endothelial tight and adherens junctions control a variety of physiological processes like adhesion, paracellular transport of solutes or trafficking of activated leukocytes. Formation and maintenance of endothelial junctions largely depend on the microenvironment of the specific vascular bed and on interactions of the endothelium with adjacent cell types. Consequently, primary cultures of endothelial cells often lose their specific junctional pattern and fail to establish tight monolayer in vitro. This is also true for endothelial cells isolated from the vein of human umbilical cords (HUVEC) which are widely used as model for endothelial cell-related studies. Results We here compared the effect of cyclic 3'-5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and its derivates on formation and stabilization of tight junctions and on alterations in paracellular permeability in HUVEC. We demonstrated by light and confocal laser microscopy that for shorter time periods the sodium salt of 8-bromoadenosine-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP/Na) and for longer incubation periods 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP (pCPT-cAMP) exerted the greatest effects of all compounds tested here on formation of continuous tight junction strands in HUVEC. We further demonstrated that although all compounds induced protein kinase A-dependent expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-5 and occludin only pCPT-cAMP slightly enhanced paracellular barrier functions. Moreover, we showed that pCPT-cAMP and 8-Br-cAMP/Na induced expression and membrane translocation of tricellulin. Conclusions pCPT-cAMP and, to a lesser extend, 8-Br-cAMP/Na improved formation of continuous tight junction strands and decreased paracellular permeability in primary HUVEC. We concluded that under these conditions HUVEC represent a feasible in vitro model to study formation and disassembly of endothelial tight junctions and to characterize tight junction-associated proteins PMID:20822540

  13. Epidermal cell turnover across tight junctions based on Kelvin's tetrakaidecahedron cell shape

    PubMed Central

    Yokouchi, Mariko; Atsugi, Toru; van Logtestijn, Mark; Tanaka, Reiko J; Kajimura, Mayumi; Suematsu, Makoto; Furuse, Mikio; Amagai, Masayuki; Kubo, Akiharu

    2016-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, cells adopt various shapes, from flattened sheets of endothelium to dendritic neurons, that allow the cells to function effectively. Here, we elucidated the unique shape of cells in the cornified stratified epithelia of the mammalian epidermis that allows them to achieve homeostasis of the tight junction (TJ) barrier. Using intimate in vivo 3D imaging, we found that the basic shape of TJ-bearing cells is a flattened Kelvin's tetrakaidecahedron (f-TKD), an optimal shape for filling space. In vivo live imaging further elucidated the dynamic replacement of TJs on the edges of f-TKD cells that enables the TJ-bearing cells to translocate across the TJ barrier. We propose a spatiotemporal orchestration model of f-TKD cell turnover, where in the classic context of 'form follows function', cell shape provides a fundamental basis for the barrier homeostasis and physical strength of cornified stratified epithelia. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19593.001 PMID:27894419

  14. Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase causes transient disruption of tight junctions and downregulation of PAR-2 in human nasal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes chronic respiratory disease, and the elastase enzyme that it produces increases the permeability of airway epithelial cells owing to the disruption of tight junctions. P. aeruginosa is also implicated in prolonged chronic rhinosinusitis. However, the effects of P. aeruginosa elastase (PE) against the barrier formed by human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) remain unknown. Methods To investigate the mechanisms involved in the disruption of tight junctions by PE in HNECs, primary cultures of HNECs transfected with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT-HNECs) were used. The hTERT-HNECs were pretreated with inhibitors of various signal transduction pathways, PKC, MAPK, p38MAPK, PI3K, JNK, NF-κB, EGF receptor, proteasome, COX1 and COX2 before treatment with PE. Some cells were pretreated with siRNA and agonist of protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) before treatment with PE. Expression and structures of tight junctions were determined by Western blotting, real-time PCR, immunostaining and freeze-fracture. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) was examined as the epithelial barrier function. Results PE treatment transiently disrupted the epithelial barrier and downregulated the transmembrane proteins claudin-1 and -4, occludin, and tricellulin, but not the scaffold PDZ-expression proteins ZO-1 and -2 and adherens junction proteins E-cadherin and β-catenin. The transient downregulation of tight junction proteins was controlled via distinct signal transduction pathways such as the PKC, MAPK, PI3K, p38 MAPK, JNK, COX-1 and -2, and NF-κB pathways. Furthermore, treatment with PE transiently decreased PAR-2 expression, which also regulated the expression of the tight junction proteins. Treatment with a PAR-2 agonist prevented the downregulation of the tight junction proteins after PE treatment in HNECs. Conclusions PE transiently disrupts tight junctions in HNECs and downregulates PAR-2. The transient disruption of tight

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase causes transient disruption of tight junctions and downregulation of PAR-2 in human nasal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Kazuaki; Obata, Kazufumi; Keira, Takashi; Miyata, Ryo; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Takano, Ken-ichi; Kohno, Takayuki; Sawada, Norimasa; Himi, Tetsuo; Kojima, Takashi

    2014-02-18

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes chronic respiratory disease, and the elastase enzyme that it produces increases the permeability of airway epithelial cells owing to the disruption of tight junctions. P. aeruginosa is also implicated in prolonged chronic rhinosinusitis. However, the effects of P. aeruginosa elastase (PE) against the barrier formed by human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) remain unknown. To investigate the mechanisms involved in the disruption of tight junctions by PE in HNECs, primary cultures of HNECs transfected with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT-HNECs) were used. The hTERT-HNECs were pretreated with inhibitors of various signal transduction pathways, PKC, MAPK, p38MAPK, PI3K, JNK, NF-κB, EGF receptor, proteasome, COX1 and COX2 before treatment with PE. Some cells were pretreated with siRNA and agonist of protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) before treatment with PE. Expression and structures of tight junctions were determined by Western blotting, real-time PCR, immunostaining and freeze-fracture. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) was examined as the epithelial barrier function. PE treatment transiently disrupted the epithelial barrier and downregulated the transmembrane proteins claudin-1 and -4, occludin, and tricellulin, but not the scaffold PDZ-expression proteins ZO-1 and -2 and adherens junction proteins E-cadherin and β-catenin. The transient downregulation of tight junction proteins was controlled via distinct signal transduction pathways such as the PKC, MAPK, PI3K, p38 MAPK, JNK, COX-1 and -2, and NF-κB pathways. Furthermore, treatment with PE transiently decreased PAR-2 expression, which also regulated the expression of the tight junction proteins. Treatment with a PAR-2 agonist prevented the downregulation of the tight junction proteins after PE treatment in HNECs. PE transiently disrupts tight junctions in HNECs and downregulates PAR-2. The transient disruption of tight junctions by PE might occur repeatedly

  16. Lipoxin A4 prevents tight junction disruption and delays the colonization of cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cells by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Gerard; Fustero Torre, Coral; Tyrrell, Jean; McNally, Paul; Harvey, Brian J; Urbach, Valerie

    2016-06-01

    The specialized proresolution lipid mediator lipoxin A4 (LXA4) is abnormally produced in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways. LXA4 increases the CF airway surface liquid height and stimulates airway epithelial repair and tight junction formation. We report here a protective effect of LXA4 (1 nM) against tight junction disruption caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial challenge together with a delaying action against bacterial invasion in CF airway epithelial cells from patients with CF and immortalized cell lines. Bacterial invasion and tight junction integrity were measured by gentamicin exclusion assays and confocal fluorescence microscopy in non-CF (NuLi-1) and CF (CuFi-1) bronchial epithelial cell lines and in primary CF cultures, grown under an air/liquid interface, exposed to either a clinical or laboratory strains of P. aeruginosa LXA4 delayed P. aeruginosa invasion and transepithelial migration in CF and normal bronchial epithelial cell cultures. These protective effects of LXA4 were inhibited by the ALX/FPR2 lipoxin receptor antagonist BOC-2. LXA4 prevented the reduction in mRNA biosynthesis and protein abundance of the tight junction protein ZO-1 and reduced tight junction disruption induced by P. aeruginsosa inoculation. In conclusion, LXA4 plays a protective role in bronchial epithelium by stimulating tight junction repair and by delaying and reducing the invasion of CF bronchial epithelial cells by P. aeruginsosa. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Yogurt inhibits intestinal barrier dysfunction in Caco-2 cells by increasing tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Putt, Kelley K; Pei, Ruisong; White, Heather M; Bolling, Bradley W

    2017-01-25

    Chronic inflammation disrupts intestinal barrier function and may contribute to the pathology of obesity and other diseases. The goal of this study was to determine the mechanism by which yogurt improves intestinal barrier function. Caco-2 cells were differentiated on Transwell inserts and used as a model of intestinal barrier permeability. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and flux of 4 kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FD) and lucifer yellow (LY) were used as indicators of monolayer integrity and paracellular permeability. Immunofluorescence microscopy and real time quantitative polymerase chain were used to assess the localization and expression of tight junction proteins known to regulate intestinal permeability. Differentiated cells were treated with a vehicle control (C), inflammatory stimulus (I) (interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, and lipopolysaccharide), or I and 0.03 g mL(-1) yogurt (IY). After 48 h, I reduced Caco-2 TEER by 46%, while IY reduced TEER by only 27% (P < 0.0001). FD and LY flux reflected TEER measurements, with IY having significantly lower permeability than I (P < 0.05). Yogurt also improved localization of occludin and zona occludens protein 1 (ZO-1) at tight junctions of differentiated Caco-2 cells. IY increased Caco-2 claudin-1, ZO-1, and occludin mRNA relative to I (P < 0.05). In a simulated digestion, the barrier-improving bioactivity of yogurt was maintained through the gastric phase, but was reduced to the level of I after intestinal digestion (P < 0.05). Therefore, yogurt improved inflammation-disrupted intestinal barrier function in a Caco-2 model by increasing tight junctions, but the beneficial effect on barrier function was reduced at latter stages of digestion.

  18. The tight junction: a multifunctional complex.

    PubMed

    Schneeberger, Eveline E; Lynch, Robert D

    2004-06-01

    Multicellular organisms are separated from the external environment by a layer of epithelial cells whose integrity is maintained by intercellular junctional complexes composed of tight junctions, adherens junctions, and desmosomes, whereas gap junctions provide for intercellular communication. The aim of this review is to present an updated overview of recent developments in the area of tight junction biology. In a relatively short time, our knowledge of the tight junction has evolved from a relatively simple view of it being a permeability barrier in the paracellular space and a fence in the plane of the plasma membrane to one of it acting as a multicomponent, multifunctional complex that is involved in regulating numerous and diverse cell functions. A group of integral membrane proteins-occludin, claudins, and junction adhesion molecules-interact with an increasingly complex array of tight junction plaque proteins not only to regulate paracellular solute and water flux but also to integrate such diverse processes as gene transcription, tumor suppression, cell proliferation, and cell polarity.

  19. Remodeling of the tight junction during recovery from exposure to hydrogen peroxide in kidney epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Jeannette E.; DiGeronimo, Robert J.; Arthur, D’Ann E.; King, Jonathan M.

    2009-01-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury results in oxidative stress-induced alterations in barrier function. Activation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway during recovery from oxidative stress may be an effector of oxidant-induced tight junction reorganization. We hypothesized that tight junction composition and barrier function would be perturbed during recovery from oxidative stress. We developed a model of short-term H2O2 exposure followed by recovery using Madin Darby Canine Kidney cells (MDCK II). H2O2 perturbs barrier function without a significant cytotoxic effect except in significant doses. ERK-1/2 and p38, both enzymes of the MAP kinase pathway, were activated within minutes of exposure to H2O2. Transient exposure to H2O2 produced a biphasic response in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). An initial drop in TER at 6 hours was followed by a significant increase at 24 hours. Inhibition of ERK-1/2 activation attenuated the increase in TER observed at 24 hours. Expression of occludin initially decreased followed by partial recovery at 24 hours. In contrast, claudin-1 levels decreased and failed to recover at 24 hours. Claudin-2 levels markedly decreased at 24 hours; however, inhibition of ERK-1/2 activation was protective. Occludin and claudin-1 localization at the apical membrane on immunofluorescent images was fragmented at 6 hours after H2O2 exposure with subsequent recovery of appropriate localization by 24 hours. MDCK II cell recovery after H2O2 exposure is associated with functional and structural modification of the tight junction that are mediated in part by activation of the MAP kinase enzymes, ERK-1/2 and p38. PMID:19733232

  20. Langerhans cells and lymph node dendritic cells express the tight junction component claudin-1.

    PubMed

    Zimmerli, Simone C; Hauser, Conrad

    2007-10-01

    Claudin-1 is a critical structural component of tight junctions that have an important role in adhesive properties, barrier function, and paracellular transport of epithelia and other nonhematopoietic tissues. We found claudin-1 in murine CD207+ Langerhans cells (LC) residing in epidermis. Claudin-1 was not detected in other skin dendritic cells (DC). LC expressed claudin-1 in steady state and inflamed skin. Claudin-1 was demonstrated further in lymph node LC under steady state and inflammatory conditions, including after direct tracking with tetramethylrhodamine-isothiocyanate (TRITC). All subsets of skin draining lymph node DC defined by CD205, CD11b, CD11c, and CD8, including a presumably blood-borne lymph node resident CD8+CD207+ LC population, were claudin-1+. TRITC tracking demonstrated claudin-1 in CD207- skin migrant DC in the lymph node, suggesting upregulation of this molecule during migration or once arrived in the lymph node. Claudin-1 expression in CD207+ cells was confirmed at the protein and mRNA levels. Transforming growth factor-beta, a factor critical for the induction of LC in vitro and in vivo, stimulated the accumulation of claudin-1 mRNA and protein when added to bone marrow cells cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4. Claudin-1 may thus have an important function in adhesion and/or migration of LC.

  1. Expression of Tight Junction Components in Hepatocyte-Like Cells Differentiated from Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Erdélyi-Belle, Boglárka; Török, György; Apáti, Ágota; Sarkadi, Balázs; Schaff, Zsuzsa; Kiss, András; Homolya, László

    2015-09-01

    Human embryonic stem cells can be differentiated in vitro into a wide variety of progeny cells by addition of different morphogens and growth factors. Our aim was to monitor the expression pattern of tight junction (TJ) components and various cellular markers during differentiation of stem cell lines toward the hepatic lineage. Human embryonic stem cell lines (HUES1, HUES9) were differentiated into endoderm-like cells, and further differentiated to hepatocyte-like cells. Gene expressions of Oct3/4, Nanog, alpha-fetoprotein, albumin, cytokeratins (CK-7, CK-8, CK-18, CK-19), ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (ABCC2, ABCC7, ABCG2), and various TJ components, including claudin-1, claudin-4, claudin-5, claudin-7, and tricellulin, as well as an extracellular matrix component, agrin were monitored during hepatic differentiation by real-time quantitative PCR. The differentiated cells exhibit epithelial morphology and functional assessments similar to that of hepatocytes. The expression level of stem cell marker genes (Oct3/4 and Nanog) significantly and gradually decreased, while liver-associated genes (alpha-fetoprotein, albumin) reached their highest expression at the end of the differentiation. The endoderm-like cells expressed claudin-1, which declined eventually. The expression levels of cholangiocyte markers including claudin-4, CK-7, CK-19, and agrin gradually increased and reached their highest level at the final stage of differentiation. In contrast, these cells did not express notable level of claudin-7, CK-8 and tricellulin. The marker set used for monitoring differentiation revealed both hepatocyte and cholangiocyte characteristics of the differentiated cells at the final stage. This is the first report describing the expression level changes of various TJ components, and underlining their importance in hepatic differentiation.

  2. Giardia disrupts the arrangement of tight, adherens and desmosomal junction proteins of intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Maia-Brigagão, C; Morgado-Díaz, J A; De Souza, W

    2012-06-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a parasitic protozoan that causes diarrhea and other symptoms which together constitute a disease known as giardiasis. Although the disease has been well defined, the mechanisms involving the establishment of the infection have not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we show that after 24h of interaction between parasites and intestinal Caco-2 cells, there was an alteration of the paracellular permeability, as observed by an approximate 42% of reduction in the transepithelial electrical resistance and permeation to ruthenium red, which was concomitant with ultrastructural changes. Nevertheless, epithelium viability was not affected. We also demonstrate that there was no change in expression of junctional proteins (tight and adherens) but that the distribution of these proteins in Caco-2 cells after parasite adhesion was significantly altered, as observed via laser scanning confocal microscopy 3D reconstruction. The present work shows that adhesion of Giardia duodenalis trophozoites to intestinal cells in vitro induces disturbances of the tight, adherens and desmosomal junctions.

  3. Nuclear localization of the tight junction protein ZO-2 in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Islas, Socorro; Vega, Jesús; Ponce, Lissette; González-Mariscal, Lorenza

    2002-03-10

    The tight junction constitutes the major barrier to solute and water flow through the paracellular space of epithelia and endothelia. It is formed by transmembrane proteins and submembranous molecules such as the MAGUKs ZOs. We have previously found that several MAGUKs, including those of the tight (ZO-1, ZO-2, and ZO-3) and septate junction (tamou and Dlg), contain one or two nuclear sorting signals located at their first PDZ and GK domains. Now we show that these proteins also contain a nuclear export signal and focus our study on the nuclear membrane shuttling of ZO-2. In sparse cultures this molecule concentrates at the nucleus in clusters, where it partially colocalizes with splicing factor SC35. Nuclear staining diminishes as the monolayer acquires confluence through a process sensitive to the nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B. Nuclear localization can be induced by impairing cell-cell contacts, by mechanical injury. ZO-2 that shuttles from the cell periphery into the nucleus is not newly synthesized but originates from a preexistent pool. The movement of this protein is mediated by the actin cytoskeleton.

  4. MarvelD3 couples tight junctions to the MEKK1-JNK pathway to regulate cell behavior and survival.

    PubMed

    Steed, Emily; Elbediwy, Ahmed; Vacca, Barbara; Dupasquier, Sébastien; Hemkemeyer, Sandra A; Suddason, Tesha; Costa, Ana C; Beaudry, Jean-Bernard; Zihni, Ceniz; Gallagher, Ewen; Pierreux, Christophe E; Balda, Maria S; Matter, Karl

    2014-03-03

    MarvelD3 is a transmembrane component of tight junctions, but there is little evidence for a direct involvement in the junctional permeability barrier. Tight junctions also regulate signaling mechanisms that guide cell proliferation; however, the transmembrane components that link the junction to such signaling pathways are not well understood. In this paper, we show that MarvelD3 is a dynamic junctional regulator of the MEKK1-c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. Loss of MarvelD3 expression in differentiating Caco-2 cells resulted in increased cell migration and proliferation, whereas reexpression in a metastatic tumor cell line inhibited migration, proliferation, and in vivo tumor formation. Expression levels of MarvelD3 inversely correlated with JNK activity, as MarvelD3 recruited MEKK1 to junctions, leading to down-regulation of JNK phosphorylation and inhibition of JNK-regulated transcriptional mechanisms. Interplay between MarvelD3 internalization and JNK activation tuned activation of MEKK1 during osmotic stress, leading to junction dissociation and cell death in MarvelD3-depleted cells. MarvelD3 thus couples tight junctions to the MEKK1-JNK pathway to regulate cell behavior and survival.

  5. Exercise regulation of intestinal tight junction proteins.

    PubMed

    Zuhl, Micah; Schneider, Suzanne; Lanphere, Katherine; Conn, Carole; Dokladny, Karol; Moseley, Pope

    2014-06-01

    Gastrointestinal distress, such as diarrhoea, cramping, vomiting, nausea and gastric pain are common among athletes during training and competition. The mechanisms that cause these symptoms are not fully understood. The stress of heat and oxidative damage during exercise causes disruption to intestinal epithelial cell tight junction proteins resulting in increased permeability to luminal endotoxins. The endotoxin moves into the blood stream leading to a systemic immune response. Tight junction integrity is altered by the phosphoylation state of the proteins occludin and claudins, and may be regulated by the type of exercise performed. Prolonged exercise and high-intensity exercise lead to an increase in key phosphorylation enzymes that ultimately cause tight junction dysfunction, but the mechanisms are different. The purpose of this review is to (1) explain the function and physiology of tight junction regulation, (2) discuss the effects of prolonged and high-intensity exercise on tight junction permeability leading to gastrointestinal distress and (3) review agents that may increase or decrease tight junction integrity during exercise.

  6. Slit Diaphragms Contain Tight Junction Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fukasawa, Hirotaka; Bornheimer, Scott; Kudlicka, Krystyna; Farquhar, Marilyn G.

    2009-01-01

    Slit diaphragms are essential components of the glomerular filtration apparatus, as changes in these junctions are the hallmark of proteinuric diseases. Slit diaphragms, considered specialized adherens junctions, contain both unique membrane proteins (e.g., nephrin, podocin, and Neph1) and typical adherens junction proteins (e.g., P-cadherin, FAT, and catenins). Whether slit diaphragms also contain tight junction proteins is unknown. Here, immunofluorescence, immunogold labeling, and cell fractionation demonstrated that rat slit diaphragms contain the tight junction proteins JAM-A (junctional adhesion molecule A), occludin, and cingulin. We found these proteins in the same protein complexes as nephrin, podocin, CD2AP, ZO-1, and Neph1 by cosedimentation, coimmunoprecipitation, and pull-down assays. PAN nephrosis increased the protein levels of JAM-A, occludin, cingulin, and ZO-1 several-fold in glomeruli and loosened their attachment to the actin cytoskeleton. These data extend current information about the molecular composition of slit diaphragms by demonstrating the presence of tight junction proteins, although slit diaphragms lack the characteristic morphologic features of tight junctions. The contribution of these proteins to the assembly of slit diaphragms and potential signaling cascades requires further investigation. PMID:19478094

  7. Particulate matter air pollution disrupts endothelial cell barrier via calpain-mediated tight junction protein degradation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is a significant risk factor for increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. The mechanism of PM-mediated pathophysiology remains unknown. However, PM is proinflammatory to the endothelium and increases vascular permeability in vitro and in vivo via ROS generation. Objectives We explored the role of tight junction proteins as targets for PM-induced loss of lung endothelial cell (EC) barrier integrity and enhanced cardiopulmonary dysfunction. Methods Changes in human lung EC monolayer permeability were assessed by Transendothelial Electrical Resistance (TER) in response to PM challenge (collected from Ft. McHenry Tunnel, Baltimore, MD, particle size >0.1 μm). Biochemical assessment of ROS generation and Ca2+ mobilization were also measured. Results PM exposure induced tight junction protein Zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) relocation from the cell periphery, which was accompanied by significant reductions in ZO-1 protein levels but not in adherens junction proteins (VE-cadherin and β-catenin). N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, 5 mM) reduced PM-induced ROS generation in ECs, which further prevented TER decreases and atteneuated ZO-1 degradation. PM also mediated intracellular calcium mobilization via the transient receptor potential cation channel M2 (TRPM2), in a ROS-dependent manner with subsequent activation of the Ca2+-dependent protease calpain. PM-activated calpain is responsible for ZO-1 degradation and EC barrier disruption. Overexpression of ZO-1 attenuated PM-induced endothelial barrier disruption and vascular hyperpermeability in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions These results demonstrate that PM induces marked increases in vascular permeability via ROS-mediated calcium leakage via activated TRPM2, and via ZO-1 degradation by activated calpain. These findings support a novel mechanism for PM-induced lung damage and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:22931549

  8. Current trends in salivary gland tight junctions

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Olga J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tight junctions form a continuous intercellular barrier between epithelial cells that is required to separate tissue spaces and regulate selective movement of solutes across the epithelium. They are composed of strands containing integral membrane proteins (e.g., claudins, occludin and tricellulin, junctional adhesion molecules and the coxsackie adenovirus receptor). These proteins are anchored to the cytoskeleton via scaffolding proteins such as ZO-1 and ZO-2. In salivary glands, tight junctions are involved in polarized saliva secretion and barrier maintenance between the extracellular environment and the glandular lumen. This review seeks to provide an overview of what is currently known, as well as the major questions and future research directions, regarding tight junction expression, organization and function within salivary glands. PMID:27583188

  9. The discovery of epidermal tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Toshiyuki; Sugawara, Koji; Tsuruta, Daisuke

    2014-06-01

    It was previously thought that the skin barrier is composed singly by the stratum corneum. However, this concept was overturned by the report of Tsukita's group in 2002. They convinced us that tight junctions exist in the stratum granulosum of the epidermis, with the constituent proteins being occludin, claudin-1 and claudin-4. However, more than 30 years before this, Hashimoto et al. described the possible existence of tight junctions in the epidermis in 'Intercellular spaces of the human epidermis as demonstrated with lanthanum' in 1971. Dr. Hashimoto observed lanthanum nitrate-injected human skin by electron microscopy. He discovered that the injected lanthanum penetrated the intercellular spaces of the basal and spinous layers of the epidermis and then moved towards the skin surface until penetration was halted in the granular cell layer near the stratum corneum. He described the cell-to-cell adhesion structures that blocked the movement of lanthanum as 'truly tight junctions'. Thus, this was the first description of the existence of tight junctions in the epidermis. However, the presence of these structures was denied by others and was forgotten. Thanks to the discovery of claudin, the existence of tight junctions between epidermal keratinocytes was finally confirmed. It is interesting that Hashimoto's finding was eventually proved to be correct three decades later as a result of progress in molecular biology. This article encourages us to recognize the importance of careful observation in the molecular biology era. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Tight junctions in skin inflammation.

    PubMed

    Bäsler, Katja; Brandner, Johanna M

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation of the skin is found after various external stimuli, e.g., UV radiation, allergen uptake, microbial challenge, or contact with irritants, as well as due to intrinsic, not always well-defined, stimuli, e.g., in autoimmune responses. Often, it is also triggered by a combination of both. The specific processes, which mean the kind of cytokines and immune cells involved and the extent of the reaction, depend not only on the trigger but also on the predisposition of the individual. Tight junctions (TJs) in the skin have been shown to form a barrier in the granular cell layer of the epidermis. Furthermore, TJ proteins were found in several additional epidermal layers. Besides barrier function, TJ proteins have been shown to be involved in proliferation, differentiation, cell-cell adhesion, and apoptosis in keratinocytes. In inflamed skin, TJ proteins are often affected. We summarize here the impact of skin inflammation on TJs, e.g., in various forms of dermatitis including atopic dermatitis, in skin infection, and in UV-irradiated skin, and discuss the role of TJs in these inflammatory processes.

  11. Effect of FCCP on tight junction permeability and cellular distribution of ZO-1 protein in epithelial (MDCK) cells.

    PubMed

    Li, C X; Poznansky, M J

    1990-12-14

    The effect of the uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, FCCP (carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone), on the tight junction of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells was examined. FCCP induced an abrupt decrease in the transepithelial electrical resistance of the confluent monolayers over a period of 20 s. When FCCP was withdrawn from the incubation medium, the monolayer resistance recovered to close to the original level in less than 2 h. Staining of the tight junction-associated protein ZO-1 showed that the changes in transepithelial electrical resistance were accompanied by a diffusing of the protein away from cell peripheries and a reconcentration to the tight junction areas following resistance recovery. Intracellular pH was decreased by FCCP on a similar time-scale with no obvious changes in ATP levels over this time-course. These data suggest that the uncoupler FCCP has a profound effect on tight junction permeability and cellular distribution of the tight junction protein ZO-1 in the epithelial cells and that it probably acts by breaking down proton gradients and altering intracellular pH.

  12. Crumbs 3b promotes tight junctions in an ezrin-dependent manner in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Tilston-Lünel, Andrew M.; Haley, Kathryn E.; Schlecht, Nicolas F.; Wang, Yanhua; Chatterton, Abigail L.D.; Moleirinho, Susana; Watson, Ailsa; Hundal, Harinder S.; Prystowsky, Michael B.; Gunn-Moore, Frank J.; Reynolds, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Crumbs 3 (CRB3) is a component of epithelial junctions, which has been implicated in apical-basal polarity, apical identity, apical stability, cell adhesion, and cell growth. CRB3 undergoes alternative splicing to yield two variants: CRB3a and CRB3b. Here, we describe novel data demonstrating that, as with previous studies on CRB3a, CRB3b also promotes the formation of tight junctions (TJs). However, significantly we demonstrate that the 4.1-ezrin–radixin–moesin-binding motif of CRB3b is required for CRB3b functionality and that ezrin binds to the FBM of CRB3b. Furthermore, we show that ezrin contributes to CRB3b functionality and the correct distribution of TJ proteins. We demonstrate that both CRB3 isoforms are required for the production of functionally mature TJs and also the localization of ezrin to the plasma membrane. Finally, we demonstrate that reduced CRB3b expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) correlates with cytoplasmic ezrin, a biomarker for aggressive disease, and shows evidence that while CRB3a expression has no effect, low CRB3b and high cytoplasmic ezrin expression combined may be prognostic for HNSCC. PMID:27190314

  13. TIGHT JUNCTION PROTEIN EXPRESSION AND BARRIER PROPERTIES OF IMMORTALIZED MOUSE BRAIN MICROVESSEL ENDOTHELIAL CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rachel C.; Morris, Andrew P.; O’Neil, Roger G.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms regulating the blood-brain barrier is aided by in vitro model systems. Many studies have used primary cultures of brain microvessel endothelial cells for this purpose. However, primary cultures limit the generation of material for molecular and biochemical assays since cells grow slowly, are prone to contamination by other neurovascular unit cells, and lose blood-brain barrier characteristics when passaged. To address these issues, immortalized cell lines have been generated. In these studies, we assessed the suitability of the immortalized mouse brain endothelial cell line, bEnd3, as a blood-brain barrier model. RT-PCR and immunofluorescence indicated expression of multiple tight junction proteins. bEnd3 cells formed barriers to radiolabeled sucrose, and responded like primary cultures to disrupting stimuli. Exposing cells to serum-free media on their basolateral side significantly decreased paracellular permeability; astrocyte-conditioned media did not enhance barrier properties. The serum-free media-induced decrease in permeability was correlated with an increase in claudin-5 and zonula occludens-1 immunofluorescence at cell-cell contracts. We conclude that bEnd3 cells are an attractive candidate as a model of the blood-brain barrier due to their rapid growth, maintenance of blood-brain barrier characteristics over repeated passages, formation of functional barriers and amenability to numerous molecular interventions. PMID:17169347

  14. Tight junction protein expression and barrier properties of immortalized mouse brain microvessel endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel C; Morris, Andrew P; O'Neil, Roger G

    2007-01-26

    Understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms regulating the blood-brain barrier is aided by in vitro model systems. Many studies have used primary cultures of brain microvessel endothelial cells for this purpose. However, primary cultures limit the generation of material for molecular and biochemical assays since cells grow slowly, are prone to contamination by other neurovascular unit cells, and lose blood-brain barrier characteristics when passaged. To address these issues, immortalized cell lines have been generated. In these studies, we assessed the suitability of the immortalized mouse brain endothelial cell line, bEnd3, as a blood-brain barrier model. RT-PCR and immunofluorescence indicated expression of multiple tight junction proteins. bEnd3 cells formed barriers to radiolabeled sucrose, and responded like primary cultures to disrupting stimuli. Exposing cells to serum-free media on their basolateral side significantly decreased paracellular permeability; astrocyte-conditioned media did not enhance barrier properties. The serum-free media-induced decrease in permeability was correlated with an increase in claudin-5 and zonula occludens-1 immunofluorescence at cell-cell contracts. We conclude that bEnd3 cells are an attractive candidate as a model of the blood-brain barrier due to their rapid growth, maintenance of blood-brain barrier characteristics over repeated passages, formation of functional barriers and amenability to numerous molecular interventions.

  15. Interleukin-34 Restores Blood–Brain Barrier Integrity by Upregulating Tight Junction Proteins in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shijie; Sonobe, Yoshifumi; Kawanokuchi, Jun; Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Cheng, Yi; Wang, Yue; Mizuno, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Hideyuki; Suzumura, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-34 (IL-34) is a newly discovered cytokine as an additional ligand for colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R), and its functions are expected to overlap with colony stimulating factor-1/macrophage-colony stimulating factor. We have previously shown that the IL-34 is primarily produced by neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and induces proliferation and neuroprotective properties of microglia which express CSF1R. However, the functions of IL-34 in the CNS are still elucidative. Here we show that CNS capillary endothelial cells also express CSF1R. IL-34 protected blood–brain barrier integrity by restored expression levels of tight junction proteins, which were downregulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. The novel function of IL-34 on the blood–brain barrier may give us a clue for new therapeutic strategies in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25535736

  16. Interleukin-34 restores blood-brain barrier integrity by upregulating tight junction proteins in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shijie; Sonobe, Yoshifumi; Kawanokuchi, Jun; Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Cheng, Yi; Wang, Yue; Mizuno, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Hideyuki; Suzumura, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-34 (IL-34) is a newly discovered cytokine as an additional ligand for colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R), and its functions are expected to overlap with colony stimulating factor-1/macrophage-colony stimulating factor. We have previously shown that the IL-34 is primarily produced by neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and induces proliferation and neuroprotective properties of microglia which express CSF1R. However, the functions of IL-34 in the CNS are still elucidative. Here we show that CNS capillary endothelial cells also express CSF1R. IL-34 protected blood-brain barrier integrity by restored expression levels of tight junction proteins, which were downregulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. The novel function of IL-34 on the blood-brain barrier may give us a clue for new therapeutic strategies in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Molecular organization of tricellular tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Furuse, Mikio; Izumi, Yasushi; Oda, Yukako; Higashi, Tomohito; Iwamoto, Noriko

    2014-01-01

    When the apicolateral border of epithelial cells is compared with a polygon, its sides correspond to the apical junctional complex, where cell adhesion molecules assemble from the plasma membranes of two adjacent cells. On the other hand, its vertices correspond to tricellular contacts, where the corners of three cells meet. Vertebrate tricellular contacts have specialized structures of tight junctions, termed tricellular tight junctions (tTJs). tTJs were identified by electron microscopic observations more than 40 years ago, but have been largely forgotten in epithelial cell biology since then. The identification of tricellulin and angulin family proteins as tTJ-associated membrane proteins has enabled us to study tTJs in terms of not only the paracellular barrier function but also unknown characteristics of epithelial cell corners via molecular biological approaches.

  18. Calcium Channels and Oxidative Stress Mediate a Synergistic Disruption of Tight Junctions by Ethanol and Acetaldehyde in Caco-2 Cell Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Samak, Geetha; Gangwar, Ruchika; Meena, Avtar S.; Rao, Roshan G.; Shukla, Pradeep K.; Manda, Bhargavi; Narayanan, Damodaran; Jaggar, Jonathan H.; Rao, RadhaKrishna

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol is metabolized into acetaldehyde in most tissues. In this study, we investigated the synergistic effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde on the tight junction integrity in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Expression of alcohol dehydrogenase sensitized Caco-2 cells to ethanol-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction, whereas aldehyde dehydrogenase attenuated acetaldehyde-induced tight junction disruption. Ethanol up to 150 mM did not affect tight junction integrity or barrier function, but it dose-dependently increased acetaldehyde-mediated tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. Src kinase and MLCK inhibitors blocked this synergistic effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde on tight junction. Ethanol and acetaldehyde caused a rapid and synergistic elevation of intracellular calcium. Calcium depletion by BAPTA or Ca2+-free medium blocked ethanol and acetaldehyde-induced barrier dysfunction and tight junction disruption. Diltiazem and selective knockdown of TRPV6 or CaV1.3 channels, by shRNA blocked ethanol and acetaldehyde-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. Ethanol and acetaldehyde induced a rapid and synergistic increase in reactive oxygen species by a calcium-dependent mechanism. N-acetyl-L-cysteine and cyclosporine A, blocked ethanol and acetaldehyde-induced barrier dysfunction and tight junction disruption. These results demonstrate that ethanol and acetaldehyde synergistically disrupt tight junctions by a mechanism involving calcium, oxidative stress, Src kinase and MLCK. PMID:27958326

  19. Calcium Channels and Oxidative Stress Mediate a Synergistic Disruption of Tight Junctions by Ethanol and Acetaldehyde in Caco-2 Cell Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Samak, Geetha; Gangwar, Ruchika; Meena, Avtar S; Rao, Roshan G; Shukla, Pradeep K; Manda, Bhargavi; Narayanan, Damodaran; Jaggar, Jonathan H; Rao, RadhaKrishna

    2016-12-13

    Ethanol is metabolized into acetaldehyde in most tissues. In this study, we investigated the synergistic effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde on the tight junction integrity in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Expression of alcohol dehydrogenase sensitized Caco-2 cells to ethanol-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction, whereas aldehyde dehydrogenase attenuated acetaldehyde-induced tight junction disruption. Ethanol up to 150 mM did not affect tight junction integrity or barrier function, but it dose-dependently increased acetaldehyde-mediated tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. Src kinase and MLCK inhibitors blocked this synergistic effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde on tight junction. Ethanol and acetaldehyde caused a rapid and synergistic elevation of intracellular calcium. Calcium depletion by BAPTA or Ca(2+)-free medium blocked ethanol and acetaldehyde-induced barrier dysfunction and tight junction disruption. Diltiazem and selective knockdown of TRPV6 or CaV1.3 channels, by shRNA blocked ethanol and acetaldehyde-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. Ethanol and acetaldehyde induced a rapid and synergistic increase in reactive oxygen species by a calcium-dependent mechanism. N-acetyl-L-cysteine and cyclosporine A, blocked ethanol and acetaldehyde-induced barrier dysfunction and tight junction disruption. These results demonstrate that ethanol and acetaldehyde synergistically disrupt tight junctions by a mechanism involving calcium, oxidative stress, Src kinase and MLCK.

  20. HGF and the regulation of tight junctions in human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Martin, Tracey A; Mason, Malcolm D; Jiang, Wen G

    2014-07-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) may impact the metastasis of prostate cancer via its action on prostate stem cells or their progeny. Tight junctions (TJs) are crucial to the process of metastasis and have been previously shown to be regulated by HGF. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of HGF on the function of TJs in human prostate epithelial, prostate stem cell-like and prostate cancer cell lines. Four human prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3, DU-145, PZHPV-7, CaHPV-10), normal adult prostate parental epithelial cells (RWPE-1) and a stem cell-like derivative of RWPE-1 (WPE-STEM) were used to assess HGF-induced changes in TJs. A significant difference was noted in the behaviour between the WPE-STEM, RWPE-1 and the cancer cell lines which was HGF concentration-dependent. However, in the WPE-STEM cells, the effect was biphasic, with the cells seemingly resistant to HGF-modulated TJ disruption. Closer examination revealed that HGF affected the redistribution of ZO-1, ZO-2 and ZO-3 away from the TJs of confluent cells with concurrent loss of claudin-1 and claudin-5, and western blot analysis revealed a loss in TJ protein expression of ZO-1 and ZO-2. We demonstrated for the first time that HGF regulates TJ function in human prostate cells. Moreover, this regulation was dependent on the tumourigenicity of the cells, with the most aggressive cells most susceptible and the stem cell-like cells least susceptible. These data offer an intriguing glimpse of how TJs affect the behaviour of prostate cancer cells and how HGF modulates the expression and function of the molecules maintaining TJ structure and function.

  1. Claudin-11 and occludin are major contributors to Sertoli cell tight junction function, in vitro

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Mark J; Foo, Caroline FH; Dinger, Marcel E; Smooker, Peter M; Stanton, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    The Sertoli cell tight junction (TJ) is the key component of the blood-testis barrier, where it sequesters developing germ cells undergoing spermatogenesis within the seminiferous tubules. Hormonally regulated claudin-11 is a critical transmembrane protein involved in barrier function and its murine knockout results in infertility. We aimed to assess quantitatively the significance of the contribution of claudin-11 to TJ function, in vitro, using siRNA-mediated gene silencing. We also conducted an analysis of the contribution of occludin, another intrinsic transmembrane protein of the TJ. Silencing of claudin-11 and/or occludin was conducted using siRNA in an immature rat Sertoli cell culture model. Transepithelial electrical resistance was used to assess quantitatively TJ function throughout the culture. Two days after siRNA treatment, cells were fixed for immunocytochemical localization of junction proteins or lyzed for RT-PCR assessment of mRNA expression. Silencing of claudin-11, occludin, or both resulted in significant decreases in TJ function of 55% (P < 0.01), 51% (P < 0.01), and 62% (P < 0.01), respectively. Data were concomitant with significant decreases in mRNA expression and marked reductions in the localization of targeted proteins to the Sertoli cell TJ. We provide quantitative evidence that claudin-11 contributes significantly (P < 0.01) to Sertoli cell TJ function in vitro. Interestingly, occludin, which is hormonally regulated but not implicated in infertility until late adulthood, is also a significant (P < 0.01) contributor to barrier function. Our data are consistent with in vivo studies that clearly demonstrate a role for these proteins in maintaining normal TJ barrier structure and function. PMID:26585695

  2. Density-enhanced Phosphatase 1 Regulates Phosphorylation of Tight Junction Proteins and Enhances Barrier Function of Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Sallee, Jennifer L.; Burridge, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Cell-cell adhesion is a dynamic process that can activate multiple signaling pathways. These signaling pathways can be regulated through reversible tyrosine phosphorylation events. The level of tyrosine phosphorylation of junctional proteins reflects the balance between protein-tyrosine kinase and protein-tyrosine phosphatase activity. The receptor-tyrosine phosphatase DEP-1 (CD148/PTP-η) has been implicated in cell growth and differentiation as well as in regulating phosphorylation of junctional proteins. However, the role of DEP-1 in regulating tight junction phosphorylation and the integrity of cell-cell junctions is still under investigation. In this study, we used a catalytically dead substrate-trapping mutant of DEP-1 to identify potential substrates at cell-cell junctions. We have shown that in epithelial cells the trapping mutant of DEP-1 interacts with the tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1 in a tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent manner. In contrast, PTP-PEST, Shp2, and PTPμ did not interact with these proteins, suggesting that the interaction of DEP-1 with occludin and ZO-1 is specific. In addition, occludin and ZO-1 were dephosphorylated by DEP-1 but not these other phosphatases in vitro. Overexpression of DEP-1 increased barrier function as measured by transepithelial electrical resistance and also reduced paracellular flux of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran following a calcium switch. Reduced DEP-1 expression by small interfering RNA had a small but significant increase in junction permeability. These data suggest that DEP-1 can modify the phosphorylation state of tight junction proteins and play a role in regulating permeability. PMID:19332538

  3. Tight junction targeting and intracellular trafficking of occludin in polarized epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Veedamali S; Marchant, Jonathan S; Ye, Dongmei; Ma, Thomas Y; Said, Hamid M

    2007-11-01

    Occludin, a transmembrane (TM)-spanning protein, is an integral component of the tight junctional (TJ) complexes that regulate epithelial integrity and paracellular barrier function. However, the molecular determinants that dictate occludin targeting and delivery to the TJs remain unclear. Here, using live cell imaging of yellow fluorescent protein-labeled occludin fragments, we resolved the intracellular trafficking of occludin-fusion proteins in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney and Caco-2 cells to delineate the regions within the occludin polypeptide that are important for occludin targeting to the TJs. Live cell confocal imaging showed that complete or partial truncation of the COOH-terminal tail of the occludin polypeptide did not prevent occludin targeting to the TJs in epithelial cell lines. Progressive truncations into the COOH-terminal tail decreased the efficiency of occludin expression; after the removal of the regions proximal to the fourth transmembrane domain (TM4), the efficiency of expression increased. However, further deletions into the TM4 abolished TJ targeting, which resulted in constructs that were retained intracellularly within the endoplasmic reticulum. The full-length occludin polypeptide trafficked to the cell surface within a heterogenous population of intracellular vesicles that delivered occludin to the plasma membrane in a microtubule- and temperature-dependent manner. In contrast, the steady-state localization of occludin at the cell surface was dependent on intact microfilaments but not microtubules.

  4. Nectin and junctional adhesion molecule are critical cell adhesion molecules for the apico-basal alignment of adherens and tight junctions in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tomohiro; Kuramitsu, Kaori; Rikitsu, Etsuko; Kurita, Souichi; Ikeda, Wataru; Takai, Yoshimi

    2013-11-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs) form an apical junctional complex at the apical side of the lateral membranes of epithelial cells, in which TJs are aligned at the apical side of AJs. Many cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and cell polarity molecules (CPMs) cooperatively regulate the formation of the apical junctional complex, but the mechanism for the alignment of TJs at the apical side of AJs is not fully understood. We developed a cellular system with which epithelial-like TJs and AJs were reconstituted in fibroblasts and analyzed the cooperative roles of CAMs and CPMs. We exogenously expressed various combinations of CAMs and CPMs in fibroblasts that express negligible amounts of these molecules endogenously. In these cells, the nectin-based cell-cell adhesion was formed at the apical side of the junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-based cell-cell adhesion, and cadherin and claudin were recruited to the nectin-3- and JAM-based cell-cell adhesion sites to form AJ-like and TJ-like domains, respectively. This inversed alignment of the AJ-like and TJ-like domains was reversed by complementary expression of CPMs Par-3, atypical protein kinase C, Par-6, Crb3, Pals1 and Patj. We describe the cooperative roles of these CAMs and CPMs in the apico-basal alignment of TJs and AJs in epithelial cells.

  5. Chinese medicine Tongxinluo increases tight junction protein levels by inducing KLF5 expression in microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Min; Zheng, Bing; Zhang, Ruo-Nan; Jin, Li-Shuang; Zheng, Cui-Ying; Wang, Chang; Zhou, Pei-Pei; Guo, Zong-Wei; Ma, Dong; Wen, Jin-Kun

    2015-06-01

    Tongxinluo (TXL) is a compound prescription formulated according to the meridian theory of traditional Chinese medicine. It may play an important role in cardiovascular protection by improving endothelial cell function. The aim of present study was to investigate whether endothelial protection with TXL is related to its regulation of tight junction protein expression. Human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (HCMECs) were cultured and treated with 10(-7)  mol l(-1) angiotensin II (Ang II) and the different doses of TXL; the expression of tight junction proteins occludin, claudin, VE-cadherin and beta-catenin was determined by Western blotting and real-time PCR. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function of Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) were carried out in HCMEC transfected with either KLF5 adenovirus pAd-KLF5 or siRNA specific for KLF5. Angiotensinogen transgenic mice were treated with TXL by oral administration of TXL of 0.75 g kg(-1)  day(-1) , and immunohistochemical staining was performed with antioccludin, anticlaudin, anti-VE-cadherin, antibeta-catenin and anti-KLF5 antibodies. Ang II treatment significantly reduced the expression of tight junction proteins occludin, claudin, VE-cadherin and beta-catenin in cultured HCMECs. TXL pretreatment could abrogate the down-regulation of these tight junction proteins induced by Ang II. Ang II treatment also decreased KLF5 expression at the mRNA and protein levels; TXL pretreatment markedly reversed the inhibitory effect of Ang II on KLF5 expression. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function of KLF5 showed that KLF5 mediated the expression of tight junction proteins in HCMECs. TXL-enhanced expression of the tight junction proteins was mediated by KLF5. In angiotensinogen transgenic mice, TXL also increased the tight junction protein levels by inducing KLF5 expression. Chinese medicine TXL increases tight junction protein levels by inducing KLF5 expression in microvascular endothelial cells. Copyright © 2015 John

  6. The effect of nicotine in vitro on the integrity of tight junctions in Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    McGilligan, V E; Wallace, J M W; Heavey, P M; Ridley, D L; Rowland, I R

    2007-09-01

    Ulcerative colitis is characterised by impairment of the epithelial barrier and tight junction alterations resulting in increased intestinal permeability. UC is less common in smokers with smoking reported to decrease paracellular permeability. The aim of this study was thus to determine the effect of nicotine, the major constituent in cigarettes and its metabolites on the integrity of tight junctions in Caco-2 cell monolayers. The integrity of Caco-2 tight junctions was analysed by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and by tracing the flux of the fluorescent marker fluorescein, after treatment with various concentrations of nicotine or nicotine metabolites over 48 h. TER was significantly higher compared to the control for all concentrations of nicotine 0.01-10 microM at 48 h (p<0.001), and for 0.01 microM (p<0.001) and 0.1 microM and 10 microM nicotine (p < 0.01) at 12 and 24 h. The fluorescein flux results supported those of the TER assay. TER readings for all nicotine metabolites tested were also higher at 24 and 48 h only (p < or = 0.01). Western blot analysis demonstrated that nicotine up-regulated the expression of the tight junction proteins occludin and claudin-1 (p < or = 0.01). Overall, it appears that nicotine and its metabolites, at concentrations corresponding to those reported in the blood of smokers, can significantly improve tight junction integrity, and thus, decrease epithelial gut permeability. We have shown that in vitro, nicotine appears more potent than its metabolites in decreasing epithelial gut permeability. We speculate that this enhanced gut barrier may be the result of increased expression of claudin-1 and occludin proteins, which are associated with the formation of tight junctions. These findings may help explain the mechanism of action of nicotine treatment and indeed smoking in reducing epithelial gut permeability.

  7. Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM) Regulates Claudin Dynamics and Tight Junctions* ♦

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chuan-Jin; Mannan, Poonam; Lu, Michael; Udey, Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) (CD326) is a surface glycoprotein expressed by invasive carcinomas and some epithelia. Herein, we report that EpCAM regulates the composition and function of tight junctions (TJ). EpCAM accumulated on the lateral interfaces of human colon carcinoma and normal intestinal epithelial cells but did not co-localize with TJ. Knockdown of EpCAM in T84 and Caco-2 cells using shRNAs led to changes in morphology and adhesiveness. TJ formed readily after EpCAM knockdown; the acquisition of trans-epithelial electroresistance was enhanced, and TJ showed increased resistance to disruption by calcium chelation. Preparative immunoprecipitation demonstrated that EpCAM bound tightly to claudin-7. Co-immunoprecipitation documented associations of EpCAM with claudin-7 and claudin-1 but not claudin-2 or claudin-4. Claudin-1 associated with claudin-7 in co-transfection experiments, and claudin-7 was required for association of claudin-1 with EpCAM. EpCAM knockdown resulted in decreases in claudin-7 and claudin-1 proteins that were reversed with lysosome inhibitors. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that claudin-7 and claudin-1 continually trafficked into lysosomes. Although EpCAM knockdown decreased claudin-1 and claudin-7 protein levels overall, accumulations of claudin-1 and claudin-7 in TJ increased. Physical interactions between EpCAM and claudins were required for claudin stabilization. These findings suggest that EpCAM modulates adhesion and TJ function by regulating intracellular localization and degradation of selected claudins. PMID:23486470

  8. Behavior of Primary Cilia and Tricellular Tight Junction Proteins during Differentiation in Temperature-Sensitive Mouse Cochlear Precursor Hair Cells.

    PubMed

    Kakuki, Takuya; Kaneko, Yakuto; Takano, Kenichi; Ninomiya, Takafumi; Kohno, Takayuki; Kojima, Takashi; Himi, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    In the sensory hair cells of the mammalian cochlea, the primary cilia in the planar cell polarity as well as the tight junctions in the epithelial cell polarity and the barrier are important to maintain normal hearing. Temperature-sensitive mouse cochlear precursor hair cells were used to investigate the behavior of primary cilia and tricellular tight junction proteins during the differentiation of sensory hair cells. In undifferentiated cells (incubated at 33°C), many acetylated tubulin-positive primary cilia were observed, and each was accompanied with an x03B3;-tubulin-positive basal body. The primary cilia had a '9 + 0' architecture with nine outer microtubule doublets but lacking a central pair of microtubules. In differentiated cells (incubated at 39°C), acetylated tubulin-positive primary cilia as well as acetylated tubulin-positive cilia-like structures were partially observed on the cell surface. In differentiated cells, the number of primary cilia was markedly reduced compared with undifferentiated cells, and innumerable cilia-like structures with no ciliary pockets were partially observed on the cell surface. In undifferentiated cells, few tricellulin molecules and lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptors (LSRs) were observed in the cytoplasm. In differentiated cells, many tricellulin molecules and LSRs were observed on the membranes and within the cytoplasm. Conditional immortalized mouse cochlear precursor hair cells may be useful to investigate the roles of primary cilia and tricellular tight junctions during cellular differentiation and degeneration such as apoptosis.

  9. Effect of chum salmon egg lectin on tight junctions in Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Ryo; Yamamoto, Shintaro; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Naude, Ryno; Muramoto, Koji

    2015-05-05

    The effect of a chum salmon egg lectin (CSL3) on tight junction (TJ) of Caco-2 cell monolayers was investigated. The lectin opened TJ as indicated by the decrease of the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) value and the increase of the permeation of lucifer yellow, which is transported via the TJ-mediated paracellular pathway. The effects of CSL3 were inhibited by the addition of 10 mM L-rhamnose or D-galactose which were specific sugars for CSL3. The lectin increased the intracellular Ca2+ of Caco-2 cell monolayers, that could be inhibited by the addition of L-rhamnose. The fluorescence immunostaining of β-actin in Caco-2 cell monolayers revealed that the cytoskeleton was changed by the CSL3 treatment, suggesting that CSL3 depolymerized β-actin to cause reversible TJ structural and functional disruption. Although Japanese jack bean lectin and wheat germ lectin showed similar effects in the decrease of the TER values and the increase of the intracellular Ca2+, they could not be inhibited by the same concentrations of simple sugars, such as D-glucose and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine.

  10. TRAF4 Is a Novel Phosphoinositide-Binding Protein Modulating Tight Junctions and Favoring Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Adrien; McEwen, Alastair G.; Poussin-Courmontagne, Pierre; Rognan, Didier; Nominé, Yves; Rio, Marie-Christine; Tomasetto, Catherine; Alpy, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 4 (TRAF4) is frequently overexpressed in carcinomas, suggesting a specific role in cancer. Although TRAF4 protein is predominantly found at tight junctions (TJs) in normal mammary epithelial cells (MECs), it accumulates in the cytoplasm of malignant MECs. How TRAF4 is recruited and functions at TJs is unclear. Here we show that TRAF4 possesses a novel phosphoinositide (PIP)-binding domain crucial for its recruitment to TJs. Of interest, this property is shared by the other members of the TRAF protein family. Indeed, the TRAF domain of all TRAF proteins (TRAF1 to TRAF6) is a bona fide PIP-binding domain. Molecular and structural analyses revealed that the TRAF domain of TRAF4 exists as a trimer that binds up to three lipids using basic residues exposed at its surface. Cellular studies indicated that TRAF4 acts as a negative regulator of TJ and increases cell migration. These functions are dependent from its ability to interact with PIPs. Our results suggest that TRAF4 overexpression might contribute to breast cancer progression by destabilizing TJs and favoring cell migration. PMID:24311986

  11. Acetaldehyde disrupts tight junctions in Caco-2 cell monolayers by a protein phosphatase 2A-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Dunagan, Mitzi; Chaudhry, Kamaljit; Samak, Geetha; Rao, R K

    2012-12-15

    Acetaldehyde is accumulated at high concentrations in the colonic lumen following ethanol administration. Previous studies demonstrated that acetaldehyde disrupts intestinal epithelial tight junctions and increases paracellular permeability. In the present study, we investigated the role of PP2A in the acetaldehyde-induced disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions. Caco-2 cell monolayers were exposed to 200-600 μM acetaldehyde for varying times, and the epithelial barrier function was evaluated by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance and inulin permeability. Acetaldehyde treatment resulted in a time-dependent increase in inulin permeability and redistribution of occludin and ZO-1 from the intercellular junctions. Treatment of cells with fostriecin (a PP2A-selective inhibitor) or knockdown of PP2A by siRNA blocked acetaldehyde-induced increase in inulin permeability and redistribution of occludin and ZO-1. The effects of fostriecin and acetaldehyde were confirmed in mouse intestine ex vivo. Acetaldehyde-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction were also attenuated by a PP2A-specific inhibitory peptide, TPDYFL. Coimmunoprecipitation studies showed that acetaldehyde increased the interaction of PP2A with occludin and induced dephosphorylation of occludin on threonine residues. Fostriecin and TPDYFL significantly reduced acetaldehyde-induced threonine dephosphorylation of occludin. Acetaldehyde failed to change the level of the methylated form of PP2A-C subunit. However, genistein (a tyrosine kinase inhibitor) blocked acetaldehyde-induced association of PP2A with occludin and threonine dephosphorylation of occludin. These results demonstrate that acetaldehyde-induced disruption of tight junctions is mediated by PP2A translocation to tight junctions and dephosphorylation of occludin on threonine residues.

  12. Acetaldehyde disrupts tight junctions in Caco-2 cell monolayers by a protein phosphatase 2A-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Dunagan, Mitzi; Chaudhry, Kamaljit; Samak, Geetha

    2012-01-01

    Acetaldehyde is accumulated at high concentrations in the colonic lumen following ethanol administration. Previous studies demonstrated that acetaldehyde disrupts intestinal epithelial tight junctions and increases paracellular permeability. In the present study, we investigated the role of PP2A in the acetaldehyde-induced disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions. Caco-2 cell monolayers were exposed to 200–600 μM acetaldehyde for varying times, and the epithelial barrier function was evaluated by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance and inulin permeability. Acetaldehyde treatment resulted in a time-dependent increase in inulin permeability and redistribution of occludin and ZO-1 from the intercellular junctions. Treatment of cells with fostriecin (a PP2A-selective inhibitor) or knockdown of PP2A by siRNA blocked acetaldehyde-induced increase in inulin permeability and redistribution of occludin and ZO-1. The effects of fostriecin and acetaldehyde were confirmed in mouse intestine ex vivo. Acetaldehyde-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction were also attenuated by a PP2A-specific inhibitory peptide, TPDYFL. Coimmunoprecipitation studies showed that acetaldehyde increased the interaction of PP2A with occludin and induced dephosphorylation of occludin on threonine residues. Fostriecin and TPDYFL significantly reduced acetaldehyde-induced threonine dephosphorylation of occludin. Acetaldehyde failed to change the level of the methylated form of PP2A-C subunit. However, genistein (a tyrosine kinase inhibitor) blocked acetaldehyde-induced association of PP2A with occludin and threonine dephosphorylation of occludin. These results demonstrate that acetaldehyde-induced disruption of tight junctions is mediated by PP2A translocation to tight junctions and dephosphorylation of occludin on threonine residues. PMID:23064762

  13. Alteration of tight junctions in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells in bleomycin-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Yin, Qian; Nan, Haiyan; Yan, Linfeng; Huang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Wei; Cui, Guangbin; Wei, Jingguo

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages and eosinophils that infiltrate the lung interstitium are active promoters of bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Leukocyte infiltration indicates disrupted barrier function in endothelial cells. The aims of this study were to investigate tight junctions (TJs) and their regulation of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) proteins in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) during BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and to compare the BLM model with the pneumococcus-induced pneumonia model of lung injury. The results revealed that the majority of PMVEC TJs were in an open state in BLM-treated tissue, where PMVEC paracellular permeability remained consistently higher than in controls. Macrophage accumulation in the lung interstitium was also significantly higher than in controls. Alteration of ZO-1 protein expression further supported the apparent disruption in PMVEC TJs in tissues from BLM-treated rats. These changes were markedly different from the concurrent changes in pneumococcus-infected rats. The findings suggest that changes in the ZO-1 proteins of PMVECs underlie the sustained disruption of TJs in BLM-treated animal models of pulmonary fibrosis. This dysfunction of paracellular barriers directly leads to the sustained infiltration of leukocytes and corresponding cytokine secretion, proliferation of fibroblasts, and progression of pulmonary fibrosis. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Tight junction between endothelial cells: the interaction between nanoparticles and blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Summary Since nanoparticles are now widely applied as food additives, in cosmetics and other industries, especially in medical therapy and diagnosis, we ask here whether nanoparticles can cause several adverse effects to human health. In this review, based on research on nanotoxicity, we mainly discuss the negative influence of nanoparticles on blood vessels in several aspects and the potential mechanism for nanoparticles to penetrate endothelial layers of blood vessels, which are the sites of phosphorylation of tight junction proteins (claudins, occludins, and ZO (Zonula occludens)) proteins, oxidative stress and shear stress. We propose a connection between the presence of nanoparticles and the regulation of the tight junction, which might be the key approach for nanoparticles to penetrate endothelial layers and then have an impact on other tissues and organs. PMID:27335757

  15. Tight junction, selective permeability, and related diseases.

    PubMed

    Krug, Susanne M; Schulzke, Jörg D; Fromm, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The tight junction forms a barrier against unlimited paracellular passage but some of the tight junction proteins just do the opposite, they form extracellular channels zigzagging between lateral membranes of neighboring cells. All of these channel-forming proteins and even some of the barrier formers exhibit selectivity, which means that they prefer certain substances over others. All channel formers exhibit at least one of the three types of selectivity: for cations (claudin-2, -10b, -15), for anions (claudin-10a, -17) or for water (claudin-2). Also some, but not all, barrier-forming claudins are charge-selective (claudin-4, -8, -14). Moreover, occludin and tricellulin turned out to be relevant for barrier formation against macromolecule passage. Tight junction proteins are dysregulated or can be genetically defective in numerous diseases, which may lead to three effects: (i) impaired paracellular transport e.g. causing magnesium loss in the kidney, (ii) increased paracellular transport of solutes and water e.g. causing leak-flux diarrhea in the intestine, and (iii) increased permeability to large molecules e.g. unwanted intestinal pathogen uptake fueling inflammatory processes. This review gives an overview on the properties of tight junction proteins featuring selective permeability, and in this context explains how these proteins induce or aggravate diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. In Vitro Evaluation of Damage by Heavy Metals in Tight and Gap Junctions of Sertoli Cells.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Treviño, Juan; Bassol-Mayagoitia, Susana; Ruiz-Flores, Pablo; Espino-Silva, Perla Karina; Saucedo-Cárdenas, Odila; Villa-Cedillo, Sheila Adela; Nava-Hernández, Martha P

    2017-10-01

    The Sertoli cell plays a vital role during the spermatogenesis process and has been identified as one of the main targets of the toxic action of heavy metals on the seminiferous epithelium. In the present work, the effect of lead (Pb), Arsenic (As), and Cadmium (Cd) in primary cultures of Sertoli cells was analyzed by measuring the expression of the genes Cldn11, Ocln, and Gja1 that participate in the tight and gap junctions, which are responsible for maintaining the blood-testis barrier. Sertoli cells were isolated from the testes of Wistar rats. Sertoli cell cultures were exposed separately and at the same concentrations of three heavy metals for 48 h. Subsequently, gene expression was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. In the morphological analysis of the cultures, after 24 h, the cultures exposed to Cd showed greatest detachment of the monolayer, followed by those exposed to As and Pb. As for gene expression patterns, As induced a decrease in the expression of the Cldn11 gene at 24 and 48 h (p < 0.01) and in that of Ocln at 24 (p < 0.001) and 48 h (p < 0.01), whereas Cd induced overexpression of the Gja1 gene from day 1 of exposure (p < 0.001) and subexpression of the Ocln gene (p < 0.05) at 24 h. Because each of these three metals generated different expression patterns in the three genes, we can postulate that the mechanisms of damage that they induce are different; therefore, the effect that they exert on the Sertoli cell occurs through different pathways, generating changes in structural proteins, altering Sertoli cell morphology, and compromising its function in the regulation of the spermatogenesis process.

  17. AMP-18 protects barrier function of colonic epithelial cells: role of tight junction proteins

    PubMed Central

    Walsh-Reitz, Margaret M.; Huang, Erick F.; Musch, Mark W.; Chang, Eugene B.; Martin, Terence E.; Kartha, Sreedharan; Toback, F. Gary

    2005-01-01

    AMP-18, a novel gastric antrum mucosal protein, and a synthetic peptide of amino acids 77-97, have mitogenic and motogenic properties for epithelial cells. The possibility that AMP-18 is also protective was evaluated in the colonic mucosa of mice and monolayer cultures of human colonic epithelial Caco2/bbe (C2) cells. Administration of AMP peptide to mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colonic injury delayed the onset of bloody diarrhea, and reduced weight loss. Treatment of C2 cells with AMP peptide protected monolayers against decreases in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) induced by the oxidant monochloramine, indomethacin, or DSS. A molecular mechanism for these barrier-protective effects was sought by asking if AMP peptide acted on specific tight junction (TJ) proteins. Immunoblots of detergent-insoluble fractions of C2 cells treated with AMP peptide exhibited increased accumulation of specific TJ proteins. Occludin immunoreactivity was also increased in detergent-insoluble fractions obtained from colonic mucosal cells of mice injected with AMP peptide. Laser scanning confocal microscopy (CF) supported the capacity of AMP peptide to enhance accumulation of occludin and ZO-1 in TJ domains of C2 cell monolayers, and together with immunoblot analysis showed that the peptide protected against loss of these TJ proteins following oxidant injury. AMP peptide also protected against a fall in TER during disruption of actin filaments by cytochalasin D, and stabilized perijunctional actin during oxidant injury when assessed by CF. These findings suggest that AMP-18 could protect the intestinal mucosal barrier by acting on specific TJ proteins and stabilizing perijunctional actin. PMID:15961882

  18. Tight junctions: from simple barriers to multifunctional molecular gates.

    PubMed

    Zihni, Ceniz; Mills, Clare; Matter, Karl; Balda, Maria S

    2016-09-01

    Epithelia and endothelia separate different tissue compartments and protect multicellular organisms from the outside world. This requires the formation of tight junctions, selective gates that control paracellular diffusion of ions and solutes. Tight junctions also form the border between the apical and basolateral plasma-membrane domains and are linked to the machinery that controls apicobasal polarization. Additionally, signalling networks that guide diverse cell behaviours and functions are connected to tight junctions, transmitting information to and from the cytoskeleton, nucleus and different cell adhesion complexes. Recent advances have broadened our understanding of the molecular architecture and cellular functions of tight junctions.

  19. External antigen uptake by Langerhans cells with reorganization of epidermal tight junction barriers.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Akiharu; Nagao, Keisuke; Yokouchi, Mariko; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Amagai, Masayuki

    2009-12-21

    Outermost barriers are critical for terrestrial animals to avoid desiccation and to protect their bodies from foreign insults. Mammalian skin consists of two sets of barriers: stratum corneum (SC) and tight junctions (TJs). How acquisition of external antigens (Ags) by epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) occur despite these barriers has remained unknown. We show that activation-induced LCs elongate their dendrites to penetrate keratinocyte (KC) TJs and survey the extra-TJ environment located outside of the TJ barrier, just beneath the SC. Penetrated dendrites uptake Ags from the tip where Ags colocalize with langerin/Birbeck granules. TJs at KC-KC contacts allow penetration of LC dendrites by dynamically forming new claudin-dependent bicellular- and tricellulin-dependent tricellular TJs at LC-KC contacts, thereby maintaining TJ integrity during Ag uptake. Thus, covertly under keratinized SC barriers, LCs and KCs demonstrate remarkable cooperation that enables LCs to gain access to external Ags that have violated the SC barrier while concomitantly retaining TJ barriers to protect intra-TJ environment.

  20. L. plantarum prevents Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli-induced tight junction proteins changes in intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background It is increasingly recognized that Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) has the ability to protect against Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC)-induced damage of the epithelial monolayer barrier function by preventing changes in host cell morphology, attaching/effacing (A/E) lesion formation, monolayer resistance, and macromolecular permeability. However, the cellular mechanism involved in this protective effect still remained to be clarified. Methods This study was to investigate the effect of L. plantarum on the changes of Caco-2 cells responding to Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC), the permeability of cell monolayer and the transmissivity of dextran, and the distribution and expression of the tight junction (TJ) proteins, such as Claudin-1, Occludin, JAM-1 and ZO-1 were examined when infected with EIEC or adhesived of L. plantarum after infection by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, the cytoskeleton protein F-actin were observed with FITC-phalloidin. Results This study demonstrated that the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) step down and dextran integrated intensity (DII) step up with time after infected with EIEC, but after treating with L. plantarum, the changes of TER and DII were improved as compared with EIEC group. L. plantarum prevented the damage of expression and rearrangement of Claudin-1, Occludin, JAM-1 and ZO-1 proteins induced by EIEC, and could ameliorate the injury of cytoskeleton protein F-actin infected with EIEC. Conclusion L. plantarum exerted a protective effect against the damage to integrity of Caco-2 monolayer cells and the structure and distribution of TJ proteins by EIEC infection. PMID:19331693

  1. Disruption of MDCK cell tight junctions by the free-living amoeba Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed

    Shibayama, Mineko; Martínez-Castillo, Moisés; Silva-Olivares, Angélica; Galindo-Gómez, Silvia; Navarro-García, Fernando; Escobar-Herrera, Jaime; Sabanero, Myrna; Tsutsumi, Víctor; Serrano-Luna, Jesús

    2013-02-01

    Naegleria fowleri is the aetiological agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. This parasite invades its host by penetrating the olfactory mucosa. However, the mechanism of epithelium penetration is not well understood. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of N. fowleri trophozoites and the non-pathogenic Naegleria gruberi on Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) tight junction proteins, including claudin-1, occludin and ZO-1, as well as on the actin cytoskeleton. Trophozoites from each of the free-living amoeba species were co-cultured with MDCK cells in a 1 : 1 ratio for 1, 3, 6 or 10 h. Light microscopy revealed that N. fowleri caused morphological changes as early as 3 h post-infection in an epithelial MDCK monolayer. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed that after 10 h of co-culture, N. fowleri trophozoites induced epithelial cell damage, which was characterized by changes in the actin apical ring and disruption of the ZO-1 and claudin-1 proteins but not occludin. Western blot assays revealed gradual degradation of ZO-1 and claudin-1 as early as 3 h post-infection. Likewise, there was a drop in transepithelial electrical resistance that resulted in increased epithelial permeability and facilitated the invasion of N. fowleri trophozoites by a paracellular route. In contrast, N. gruberi did not induce alterations in MDCK cells even at 10 h post-infection. Based on these results, we suggest that N. fowleri trophozoites disrupt epithelial monolayers, which could enable their penetration of the olfactory epithelium and subsequent invasion of the central nervous system.

  2. Tight junction proteins expression and modulation in immune cells and multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, Ilana; Paperna, Tamar; Glass-Marmor, Lea; Volkowich, Anat; Badarny, Samih; Schwartz, Ilya; Vardi, Pnina; Koren, Ilana; Miller, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The tight junction proteins (TJPs) are major determinants of endothelial cells comprising physiological vascular barriers such as the blood–brain barrier, but little is known about their expression and role in immune cells. In this study we assessed TJP expression in human leukocyte subsets, their induction by immune activation and modulation associated with autoimmune disease states and therapies. A consistent expression of TJP complexes was detected in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs), predominantly in B and T lymphocytes and monocytes, whereas the in vitro application of various immune cell activators led to an increase of claudin 1 levels, yet not of claudin 5. Claudins 1 and 5 levels were elevated in PBLs of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in relapse, relative to patients in remission, healthy controls and patients with other neurological disorders. Interestingly, claudin 1 protein levels were elevated also in PBLs of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Following glucocorticoid treatment of MS patients in relapse, RNA levels of JAM3 and CLDN5 and claudin 5 protein levels in PBLs decreased. Furthermore, a correlation between CLDN5 pre-treatment levels and clinical response phenotype to interferon-β therapy was detected. Our findings indicate that higher levels of leukocyte claudins are associated with immune activation and specifically, increased levels of claudin 5 are associated with MS disease activity. This study highlights a potential role of leukocyte TJPs in physiological states, and autoimmunity and suggests they should be further evaluated as biomarkers for aberrant immune activity and response to therapy in immune-mediated diseases such as MS. PMID:21762372

  3. The tight junction protein ZO-2 and Janus kinase 1 mediate intercellular communications in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tkachuk, Natalia; Tkachuk, Sergey; Patecki, Margret; Kusch, Angelika; Korenbaum, Elena; Haller, Hermann; Dumler, Inna

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} The tight junction protein ZO-2 associates with Jak1 in vascular smooth muscle cells via ZO-2 N-terminal fragment. {yields} Jak1 mediates ZO-2 tyrosine phosphorylation and ZO-2 localization to the sites of homotypic intercellular contacts. {yields} The urokinase receptor uPAR regulates ZO-2/Jak1 functional association. {yields} The ZO-2/Jak1/uPAR signaling complex is required for vascular smooth muscle cells functional network formation. -- Abstract: Recent evidence points to a multifunctional role of ZO-2, the tight junction protein of the MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase-like) family. Though ZO-2 has been found in cell types lacking tight junction structures, such as vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), little is known about ZO-2 function in these cells. We provide evidence that ZO-2 mediates specific homotypic cell-to-cell contacts between VSMC. Using mass spectrometry we found that ZO-2 is associated with the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Jak1. By generating specific ZO-2 constructs we further found that the N-terminal fragment of ZO-2 molecule is responsible for this interaction. Adenovirus-based expression of Jak1 inactive mutant demonstrated that Jak1 mediates ZO-2 tyrosine phosphorylation. By means of RNA silencing, expression of Jak1 mutant form and fluorescently labeled ZO-2 fusion protein we further specified that active Jak1, but not Jak1 inactive mutant, mediates ZO-2 localization to the sites of intercellular contacts. We identified the urokinase receptor uPAR as a pre-requisite for these cellular events. Functional requirement of the revealed signaling complex for VSMC network formation was confirmed in experiments using Matrigel and in contraction assay. Our findings imply involvement of the ZO-2 tight junction independent signaling complex containing Jak1 and uPAR in VSMC intercellular communications. This mechanism may contribute to vascular remodeling in occlusive cardiovascular diseases and in arteriogenesis.

  4. Phage display screening of epithelial cell monolayers treated with EGTA: identification of peptide FDFWITP that modulates tight junction activity.

    PubMed

    Herman, Richard E; Makienko, Ekaterina G; Prieve, Mary G; Fuller, Mark; Houston, Michael E; Johnson, Paul H

    2007-12-01

    Phage display was used to screen for peptides that modulate the activity of epithelial cell tight junctions. Panning with a phage library that displays random 7-mers was performed using monolayers of human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o(-)) treated with a calcium chelator, ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)- N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), to increase accessibility to the junctional complex/paracellular space, followed by subtractive panning. A novel peptide, FDFWITP, identified as a potential tight junction modulator, was synthesized in linear and cyclic forms with lysine residues added to improve solubility. The cyclic form of the peptide reduced transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) in a concentration-dependent manner (80% reduction at 100 microM and 95% reduction at 500 microM) and was reversible within 2 h; the linear form only affected TER at the highest concentration. Interestingly, the constrained peptide did not increase permeation of the model small molecule, fluorescein. The highly selective activity of FDFWITP supports the hypothesis that ions and small molecules may be transported paracellularly across tight junctions by separate pathways.

  5. HIV-associated disruption of tight and adherens junctions of oral epithelial cells facilitates HSV-1 infection and spread.

    PubMed

    Sufiawati, Irna; Tugizov, Sharof M

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 are the most common opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS. In these immunocompromised individuals, HSV-1 reactivates and replicates in oral epithelium, leading to oral disorders such as ulcers, gingivitis, and necrotic lesions. Although the increased risk of HSV infection may be mediated in part by HIV-induced immune dysfunction, direct or indirect interactions of HIV and HSV at the molecular level may also play a role. In this report we show that prolonged interaction of the HIV proteins tat and gp120 and cell-free HIV virions with polarized oral epithelial cells leads to disruption of tight and adherens junctions of epithelial cells through the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. HIV-induced disruption of oral epithelial junctions facilitates HSV-1 paracellular spread between the epithelial cells. Furthermore, HIV-associated disruption of adherens junctions exposes sequestered nectin-1, an adhesion protein and critical receptor for HSV envelope glycoprotein D (gD). Exposure of nectin-1 facilitates binding of HSV-1 gD, which substantially increases HSV-1 infection of epithelial cells with disrupted junctions over that of cells with intact junctions. Exposed nectin-1 from disrupted adherens junctions also increases the cell-to-cell spread of HSV-1 from infected to uninfected oral epithelial cells. Antibodies to nectin-1 and HSV-1 gD substantially reduce HSV-1 infection and cell-to-cell spread, indicating that HIV-promoted HSV infection and spread are mediated by the interaction of HSV gD with HIV-exposed nectin-1. Our data suggest that HIV-associated disruption of oral epithelial junctions may potentiate HSV-1 infection and its paracellular and cell-to-cell spread within the oral mucosal epithelium. This could be one of the possible mechanisms of rapid development of HSV-associated oral lesions in HIV-infected individuals.

  6. HIV-Associated Disruption of Tight and Adherens Junctions of Oral Epithelial Cells Facilitates HSV-1 Infection and Spread

    PubMed Central

    Sufiawati, Irna; Tugizov, Sharof M.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 are the most common opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS. In these immunocompromised individuals, HSV-1 reactivates and replicates in oral epithelium, leading to oral disorders such as ulcers, gingivitis, and necrotic lesions. Although the increased risk of HSV infection may be mediated in part by HIV-induced immune dysfunction, direct or indirect interactions of HIV and HSV at the molecular level may also play a role. In this report we show that prolonged interaction of the HIV proteins tat and gp120 and cell-free HIV virions with polarized oral epithelial cells leads to disruption of tight and adherens junctions of epithelial cells through the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. HIV-induced disruption of oral epithelial junctions facilitates HSV-1 paracellular spread between the epithelial cells. Furthermore, HIV-associated disruption of adherens junctions exposes sequestered nectin-1, an adhesion protein and critical receptor for HSV envelope glycoprotein D (gD). Exposure of nectin-1 facilitates binding of HSV-1 gD, which substantially increases HSV-1 infection of epithelial cells with disrupted junctions over that of cells with intact junctions. Exposed nectin-1 from disrupted adherens junctions also increases the cell-to-cell spread of HSV-1 from infected to uninfected oral epithelial cells. Antibodies to nectin-1 and HSV-1 gD substantially reduce HSV-1 infection and cell-to-cell spread, indicating that HIV-promoted HSV infection and spread are mediated by the interaction of HSV gD with HIV-exposed nectin-1. Our data suggest that HIV-associated disruption of oral epithelial junctions may potentiate HSV-1 infection and its paracellular and cell-to-cell spread within the oral mucosal epithelium. This could be one of the possible mechanisms of rapid development of HSV-associated oral lesions in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:24586397

  7. PKCζ PHOSPHORYLATES OCCLUDIN AND PROMOTES ASSEMBLY OF EPITHELIAL TIGHT JUNCTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Suneet; Suzuki, Takuya; Seth, Ankur; Samak, Geetha; Rao, RadhaKrishna

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Evidence indicates that protein kinases play an important role in the regulation of epithelial tight junctions. In the present study, we investigated the role of PKCζ in tight junction regulation in Caco-2 and MDCK cell monolayers. Inhibition of PKCζ by a specific PKCζ-pseudosubstrate peptide results in redistribution of occludin and ZO-1 from the intercellular junctions and disruption of barrier function without affecting cell viability. Reduced expression of PKCζ by antisense oligonucleotide or shRNA also results in compromised tight junction integrity. Inhibition or knock down of PKCζ delays calcium-induced assembly of tight junctions. Tight junction disruption by PKCζ-pseudosubstrate is associated with the dephosphorylation of occludin and ZO-1 on Ser and Thr residues. PKCζ directly binds to the C-terminal domain of occludin and phosphorylates it on Thr residues. T403, T404, T424 and T438 in occludin C-terminal domain are the predominant sites of PKCζ-dependent phosphorylation. T424A or T438A mutation in full length occludin delays its assembly into the tight junctions. Inhibition of PKCζ also induces redistribution of occludin and ZO-1 from the tight junctions and dissociates these proteins from the detergent-insoluble fractions in mouse ileum. This study demonstrates that PKCζ phosphorylates occludin on specific Thr residues and promotes assembly of epithelial tight junctions. PMID:21545357

  8. Effect of caveolin-1 on the expression of tight junction-associated proteins in rat glioma-derived microvascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yao; Liu, Li-Bo; Ma, Teng; Wang, Ping; Xue, Yi-Xue

    2015-01-01

    Caveolin-1 affects the permeability of blood-tumor barrier (BTB) by regulating the expression of tight junction-associated proteins. However, the effect is still controversial. In the present work, we studied the regulative effect of caveolin-1 on the expression of tight junction-associated proteins and BTB via directly silencing and overexpressing of caveolin-1 by recombinant adenovirus transduction of glioma-derived microvascular endothelial cells in rat brain. The results show that the caveolin-1 downregulation resulted in decreased expression of tight junction-associated proteins, opening of tight junctions, and increasing the permeability of BTB, whereas the overexpression of caveolin-1 presented the opposite effects. Therefore, we conclude that caveolin-1 regulates the expression of tight junction-associated proteins in a positive manner, which further plays a role in the regulation of BTB permeability. This finding provides a novel therapeutic target for selectively opening of BTB. PMID:26722502

  9. Low-dose acetaminophen induces early disruption of cell-cell tight junctions in human hepatic cells and mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Gamal, Wesam; Treskes, Philipp; Samuel, Kay; Sullivan, Gareth J; Siller, Richard; Srsen, Vlastimil; Morgan, Katie; Bryans, Anna; Kozlowska, Ada; Koulovasilopoulos, Andreas; Underwood, Ian; Smith, Stewart; Del-Pozo, Jorge; Moss, Sharon; Thompson, Alexandra Inés; Henderson, Neil C; Hayes, Peter C; Plevris, John N; Bagnaninchi, Pierre-Olivier; Nelson, Leonard J

    2017-01-30

    Dysfunction of cell-cell tight junction (TJ) adhesions is a major feature in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Liver TJs preserve cellular polarity by delimiting functional bile-canalicular structures, forming the blood-biliary barrier. In acetaminophen-hepatotoxicity, the mechanism by which tissue cohesion and polarity are affected remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that acetaminophen, even at low-dose, disrupts the integrity of TJ and cell-matrix adhesions, with indicators of cellular stress with liver injury in the human hepatic HepaRG cell line, and primary hepatocytes. In mouse liver, at human-equivalence (therapeutic) doses, dose-dependent loss of intercellular hepatic TJ-associated ZO-1 protein expression was evident with progressive clinical signs of liver injury. Temporal, dose-dependent and specific disruption of the TJ-associated ZO-1 and cytoskeletal-F-actin proteins, correlated with modulation of hepatic ultrastructure. Real-time impedance biosensing verified in vitro early, dose-dependent quantitative decreases in TJ and cell-substrate adhesions. Whereas treatment with NAPQI, the reactive metabolite of acetaminophen, or the PKCα-activator and TJ-disruptor phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, similarly reduced TJ integrity, which may implicate oxidative stress and the PKC pathway in TJ destabilization. These findings are relevant to the clinical presentation of acetaminophen-hepatotoxicity and may inform future mechanistic studies to identify specific molecular targets and pathways that may be altered in acetaminophen-induced hepatic depolarization.

  10. Low-dose acetaminophen induces early disruption of cell-cell tight junctions in human hepatic cells and mouse liver

    PubMed Central

    Gamal, Wesam; Treskes, Philipp; Samuel, Kay; Sullivan, Gareth J.; Siller, Richard; Srsen, Vlastimil; Morgan, Katie; Bryans, Anna; Kozlowska, Ada; Koulovasilopoulos, Andreas; Underwood, Ian; Smith, Stewart; del-Pozo, Jorge; Moss, Sharon; Thompson, Alexandra Inés; Henderson, Neil C.; Hayes, Peter C.; Plevris, John N.; Bagnaninchi, Pierre-Olivier; Nelson, Leonard J.

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunction of cell-cell tight junction (TJ) adhesions is a major feature in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Liver TJs preserve cellular polarity by delimiting functional bile-canalicular structures, forming the blood-biliary barrier. In acetaminophen-hepatotoxicity, the mechanism by which tissue cohesion and polarity are affected remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that acetaminophen, even at low-dose, disrupts the integrity of TJ and cell-matrix adhesions, with indicators of cellular stress with liver injury in the human hepatic HepaRG cell line, and primary hepatocytes. In mouse liver, at human-equivalence (therapeutic) doses, dose-dependent loss of intercellular hepatic TJ-associated ZO-1 protein expression was evident with progressive clinical signs of liver injury. Temporal, dose-dependent and specific disruption of the TJ-associated ZO-1 and cytoskeletal-F-actin proteins, correlated with modulation of hepatic ultrastructure. Real-time impedance biosensing verified in vitro early, dose-dependent quantitative decreases in TJ and cell-substrate adhesions. Whereas treatment with NAPQI, the reactive metabolite of acetaminophen, or the PKCα-activator and TJ-disruptor phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, similarly reduced TJ integrity, which may implicate oxidative stress and the PKC pathway in TJ destabilization. These findings are relevant to the clinical presentation of acetaminophen-hepatotoxicity and may inform future mechanistic studies to identify specific molecular targets and pathways that may be altered in acetaminophen-induced hepatic depolarization. PMID:28134251

  11. Potential role of MCP-1 in endothelial cell tight junction 'opening': signaling via Rho and Rho kinase.

    PubMed

    Stamatovic, Svetlana M; Keep, Richard F; Kunkel, Steven L; Andjelkovic, Anuska V

    2003-11-15

    The expression of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) receptor CCR2 by brain endothelial cells suggests that MCP-1 may have other functions than purely driving leukocyte migration into brain parenchyma during inflammation. This study examines one of these potential novel roles of MCP-1 regulation of endothelial permeability using primary cultures of mouse brain endothelial cells. MCP-1 induces reorganization of actin cytoskeleton (stress fiber formation) and redistribution of tight junction proteins, ZO-1, ZO-2 occludin and claudin-5, from the Triton X-100-soluble to the Triton X-100-insoluble fractions. These morphological changes are associated with a decrease in transendothelial electrical membrane resistance and an increase in [14C]inulin permeability. MCP-1 did not induce these events in brain endothelial cells prepared from mice genotype CCR2-/-. The Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632 and inhibition of Rho (C3 exoenzyme, and dominant negative mutant of Rho, RhoT19N) prevented MCP-1-induced stress fiber assembly, reorganization of tight junction proteins and alterations in endothelial permeability. In all, this suggests that a small GTPase Rho and Rho kinase have a pivotal role in MCP-1-induced junction disarrangement. These data are the first to strongly suggest that MCP-1, via CCR2 present on brain endothelial cells, contributes to increased brain endothelial permeability.

  12. aPKC phosphorylates JAM-A at Ser285 to promote cell contact maturation and tight junction formation.

    PubMed

    Iden, Sandra; Misselwitz, Steve; Peddibhotla, Swetha S D; Tuncay, Hüseyin; Rehder, Daniela; Gerke, Volker; Robenek, Horst; Suzuki, Atsushi; Ebnet, Klaus

    2012-03-05

    The PAR-3-atypical protein kinase C (aPKC)-PAR-6 complex has been implicated in the development of apicobasal polarity and the formation of tight junctions (TJs) in vertebrate epithelial cells. It is recruited by junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) to primordial junctions where aPKC is activated by Rho family small guanosine triphosphatases. In this paper, we show that aPKC can interact directly with JAM-A in a PAR-3-independent manner. Upon recruitment to primordial junctions, aPKC phosphorylates JAM-A at S285 to promote the maturation of immature cell-cell contacts. In fully polarized cells, S285-phosphorylated JAM-A is localized exclusively at the TJs, and S285 phosphorylation of JAM-A is required for the development of a functional epithelial barrier. Protein phosphatase 2A dephosphorylates JAM-A at S285, suggesting that it antagonizes the activity of aPKC. Expression of nonphosphorylatable JAM-A/S285A interferes with single lumen specification during cyst development in three-dimensional culture. Our data suggest that aPKC phosphorylates JAM-A at S285 to regulate cell-cell contact maturation, TJ formation, and single lumen specification.

  13. Butyrate enhances the intestinal barrier by facilitating tight junction assembly via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Peng, Luying; Li, Zhong-Rong; Green, Robert S; Holzman, Ian R; Lin, Jing

    2009-09-01

    Butyrate, one of the SCFA, promotes the development of the intestinal barrier. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the butyrate regulation of the intestinal barrier are unknown. To test the hypothesis that the effect of butyrate on the intestinal barrier is mediated by the regulation of the assembly of tight junctions involving the activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), we determined the effect of butyrate on the intestinal barrier by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and inulin permeability in a Caco-2 cell monolayer model. We further used a calcium switch assay to study the assembly of epithelial tight junctions and determined the effect of butyrate on the assembly of epithelial tight junctions and AMPK activity. We demonstrated that the butyrate treatment increased AMPK activity and accelerated the assembly of tight junctions as shown by the reorganization of tight junction proteins, as well as the development of TER. AMPK activity was also upregulated by butyrate during calcium switch-induced tight junction assembly. Compound C, a specific AMPK inhibitor, inhibited the butyrate-induced activation of AMPK. The facilitating effect of butyrate on the increases in TER in standard culture media, as well as after calcium switch, was abolished by compound C. We conclude that butyrate enhances the intestinal barrier by regulating the assembly of tight junctions. This dynamic process is mediated by the activation of AMPK. These results suggest an intriguing link between SCFA and the intracellular energy sensor for the development of the intestinal barrier.

  14. Butyrate Enhances the Intestinal Barrier by Facilitating Tight Junction Assembly via Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Caco-2 Cell Monolayers12

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Luying; Li, Zhong-Rong; Green, Robert S.; Holzman, Ian R.; Lin, Jing

    2009-01-01

    Butyrate, one of the SCFA, promotes the development of the intestinal barrier. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the butyrate regulation of the intestinal barrier are unknown. To test the hypothesis that the effect of butyrate on the intestinal barrier is mediated by the regulation of the assembly of tight junctions involving the activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), we determined the effect of butyrate on the intestinal barrier by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and inulin permeability in a Caco-2 cell monolayer model. We further used a calcium switch assay to study the assembly of epithelial tight junctions and determined the effect of butyrate on the assembly of epithelial tight junctions and AMPK activity. We demonstrated that the butyrate treatment increased AMPK activity and accelerated the assembly of tight junctions as shown by the reorganization of tight junction proteins, as well as the development of TER. AMPK activity was also upregulated by butyrate during calcium switch-induced tight junction assembly. Compound C, a specific AMPK inhibitor, inhibited the butyrate-induced activation of AMPK. The facilitating effect of butyrate on the increases in TER in standard culture media, as well as after calcium switch, was abolished by compound C. We conclude that butyrate enhances the intestinal barrier by regulating the assembly of tight junctions. This dynamic process is mediated by the activation of AMPK. These results suggest an intriguing link between SCFA and the intracellular energy sensor for the development of the intestinal barrier. PMID:19625695

  15. Regulation and roles for claudin-family tight junction proteins

    PubMed Central

    Findley, Mary K.; Koval, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Transmembrane proteins known as claudins play a critical role in tight junctions by regulating paracellular barrier permeability. The control of claudin assembly into tight junctions requires a complex interplay between several classes of claudins, other transmembrane proteins and scaffold proteins. Claudins are also subject to regulation by post-translational modifications including phosphorylation and palmitoylation. Several human diseases have been linked to claudin mutations, underscoring the physiologic function of these proteins. Roles for claudins in regulating cell phenotype and growth control also are beginning to emerge, suggesting a multifaceted role for claudins in regulation of cells beyond serving as a simple structural element of tight junctions. PMID:19319969

  16. Lovastatin attenuates effects of cyclosporine A on tight junctions and apoptosis in cultured cortical collecting duct principal cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing-Chen; Song, Xiang; Lu, Xiao-Yu; Fang, Charles Z; Wei, Shi-Peng; Alli, Abdel A; Eaton, Douglas C; Shen, Bao-Zhong; Li, Xue-Qi; Ma, He-Ping

    2013-08-01

    We used mouse cortical collecting duct principal cells (mpkCCDc14 cell line) as a model to determine whether statins reduce the harmful effects of cyclosporine A (CsA) on the distal nephron. The data showed that treatment of cells with CsA increased transepithelial resistance and that the effect of CsA was abolished by lovastatin. Scanning ion conductance microscopy showed that CsA significantly increased the height of cellular protrusions near tight junctions. In contrast, lovastatin eliminated the protrusions and even caused a modest depression between cells. Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy showed that lovastatin also abolished CsA-induced elevation of both zonula occludens-1 and cholesterol in tight junctions. In contrast, a high concentration of CsA induced apoptosis, which was also attenuated by lovastatin, elevated intracellular ROS via activation of NADPH oxidase, and increased the expression of p47phox. Sustained treatment of cells with lovastatin also induced significant apoptosis, which was attenuated by CsA, but did not elevate intracellular ROS. These results indicate that both CsA and lovastatin are harmful to principal cells of the distal tubule, but via ROS-dependent and ROS-independent apoptotic pathways, respectively, and that they counteract probably via mobilization of cellular cholesterol levels.

  17. Lovastatin attenuates effects of cyclosporine A on tight junctions and apoptosis in cultured cortical collecting duct principal cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bing-Chen; Song, Xiang; Lu, Xiao-Yu; Fang, Charles Z.; Wei, Shi-Peng; Alli, Abdel A.; Eaton, Douglas C.; Shen, Bao-Zhong; Li, Xue-Qi

    2013-01-01

    We used mouse cortical collecting duct principal cells (mpkCCDc14 cell line) as a model to determine whether statins reduce the harmful effects of cyclosporine A (CsA) on the distal nephron. The data showed that treatment of cells with CsA increased transepithelial resistance and that the effect of CsA was abolished by lovastatin. Scanning ion conductance microscopy showed that CsA significantly increased the height of cellular protrusions near tight junctions. In contrast, lovastatin eliminated the protrusions and even caused a modest depression between cells. Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy showed that lovastatin also abolished CsA-induced elevation of both zonula occludens-1 and cholesterol in tight junctions. In contrast, a high concentration of CsA induced apoptosis, which was also attenuated by lovastatin, elevated intracellular ROS via activation of NADPH oxidase, and increased the expression of p47phox. Sustained treatment of cells with lovastatin also induced significant apoptosis, which was attenuated by CsA, but did not elevate intracellular ROS. These results indicate that both CsA and lovastatin are harmful to principal cells of the distal tubule, but via ROS-dependent and ROS-independent apoptotic pathways, respectively, and that they counteract probably via mobilization of cellular cholesterol levels. PMID:23720343

  18. Tight junctions in lung cancer and lung metastasis: a review.

    PubMed

    Soini, Ylermi

    2012-01-01

    Tight junctions are structures located in the apicobasal region of the cell membranes. They regulate paracellular solute and electrical permeability of cell layers. Additionally, they influence cellular polarity, form a paracellular fence to molecules and pathogens and divide the cell membranes to apical and lateral compartments. Tight junctions adhere to the corresponding ones of neighbouring cells and by this way also mediate attachment of the cells to one other. Molecules forming the membranous part of tight junctions include occludin, claudins, tricellulin and junctional adhesion molecules. These molecules are attached to scaffolding proteins such as ZO-1, ZO-2 and ZO-3 through which signals are mediated to the cell interior. Expression of tight junction proteins, such as claudins, may be up- or downregulated in cancer and they are involved in EMT thus influencing tumor spread. Like in tumors of other sites, lung tumors show changes in the expression in tight junction proteins. In this review the significance of tight junctions and its proteins in lung cancer is discussed with a focus on the proteins forming the membranous part of these structures.

  19. Protective effects of baicalin on LPS-induced injury in intestinal epithelial cells and intercellular tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Zhang, Ren; Wang, Jian; Yu, Peng; Liu, Quan; Zeng, Dan; Song, Houpan; Kuang, Zaoyuan

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of baicalin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced injury in intestinal epithelial cells and intercellular tight junctions. IEC-6 cells were stimulated with LPS (1.0 μg/mL), with or without baicalin, for 24 h. The levels of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were determined using ELISA. Quantitative real-time PCR was used for determining the mRNA expression level of claudin-3, occludin, and ZO-1; Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis were used for analyzing the expression level and the distribution patterns of ZO-1 protein. Pretreatment with baicalin (10.0 μg/mL) improved LPS-stimulated cell viability and repressed IL-6 and TNF-α levels. In addition, pretreatment with baicalin up-regulated mRNA and protein expression levels of ZO-1 and kept the protein intact in IEC-6 cells injured with LPS. Baicalin has the capacity to protect IEC-6 cells and the intercellular tight junctions from LPS-induced injury. The mechanisms may be associated with inhibiting the production of inflammatory cytokines, and up-regulating the mRNA and protein expression of ZO-1.

  20. Calcium oxalate crystals induces tight junction disruption in distal renal tubular epithelial cells by activating ROS/Akt/p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lei; Gan, Xiuguo; Liu, Xukun; An, Ruihua

    2017-11-01

    Tight junction plays important roles in regulating paracellular transports and maintaining cell polarity. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals, the major crystalline composition of kidney stones, have been demonstrated to be able to cause tight junction disruption to accelerate renal cell injury. However, the cellular signaling involved in COM crystal-induced tight junction disruption remains largely to be investigated. In the present study, we proved that COM crystals induced tight junction disruption by activating ROS/Akt/p38 MAPK pathway. Treating Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells with COM crystals induced a substantial increasing of ROS generation and activation of Akt that triggered subsequential activation of ASK1 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Western blot revealed a significantly decreased expression of ZO-1 and occludin, two important structural proteins of tight junction. Besides, redistribution and dissociation of ZO-1 were observed by COM crystals treatment. Inhibition of ROS by N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) attenuated the activation of Akt, ASK1, p38 MAPK, and down-regulation of ZO-1 and occludin. The redistribution and dissociation of ZO-1 were also alleviated by NAC treatment. These results indicated that ROS were involved in the regulation of tight junction disruption induced by COM crystals. In addition, the down-regulation of ZO-1 and occludin, the phosphorylation of ASK1 and p38 MAPK were also attenuated by MK-2206, an inhibitor of Akt kinase, implying Akt was involved in the disruption of tight junction upstream of p38 MAPK. Thus, these results suggested that ROS-Akt-p38 MAPK signaling pathway was activated in COM crystal-induced disruption of tight junction in MDCK cells.

  1. The tight junction protein JAM-A functions as coreceptor for rotavirus entry into MA104 cells.

    PubMed

    Torres-Flores, Jesús M; Silva-Ayala, Daniela; Espinoza, Marco A; López, Susana; Arias, Carlos F

    2015-01-15

    Several molecules have been identified as receptors or coreceptors for rotavirus infection, including glycans, integrins, and hsc70. In this work we report that the tight junction proteins JAM-A, occludin, and ZO-1 play an important role during rotavirus entry into MA104 cells. JAM-A was found to function as coreceptor for rotavirus strains RRV, Wa, and UK, but not for rotavirus YM. Reassortant viruses derived from rotaviruses RRV and YM showed that the virus spike protein VP4 determines the use of JAM-A as coreceptor.

  2. Cerebral hypoxia/ischemia selectively disrupts tight junctions complexes in stem cell-derived human brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Page, Shyanne; Munsell, Alli; Al-Ahmad, Abraham J

    2016-10-11

    Cerebral hypoxia/ischemia (H/I) is an important stress factor involved in the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) following stroke injury, yet the cellular and molecular mechanisms on how the human BBB responds to such injury remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the cellular response of the human BBB to chemical and environmental H/I in vitro. In this study, we used immortalized hCMEC/D3 and IMR90 stem-cell derived human brain microvascular endothelial cell lines (IMR90-derived BMECs). Hypoxic stress was achieved by exposure to cobalt chloride (CoCl2) or by exposure to 1 % hypoxia and oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) was used to model ischemic injury. We assessed barrier function using both transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and sodium fluorescein permeability. Changes in cell junction integrity were assessed by immunocytochemistry and cell viability was assessed by trypan-blue exclusion and by MTS assays. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). CoCl2 selectively disrupted the barrier function in IMR90-derived BMECs but not in hCMEC/D3 monolayers and cytotoxic effects did not drive such disruption. In addition, hypoxia/OGD stress significantly disrupted the barrier function by selectively disrupting tight junctions (TJs) complexes. In addition, we noted an uncoupling between cell metabolic activity and barrier integrity. In this study, we demonstrated the ability of IMR90-derived BMECs to respond to hypoxic/ischemic injury triggered by both chemical and environmental stress by showing a disruption of the barrier function. Such disruption was selectively targeting TJ complexes and was not driven by cellular apoptosis. In conclusion, this study suggests the suitability of stem cell-derived human BMECs monolayers as a model of cerebral hypoxia/ischemia in vitro.

  3. Oxidative stress induced by potassium bromate exposure results in altered tight junction protein expression in renal proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Limonciel, Alice; Wilmes, Anja; Aschauer, Lydia; Radford, Robert; Bloch, Katarzyna M; McMorrow, Tara; Pfaller, Walter; van Delft, Joost H; Slattery, Craig; Ryan, Michael P; Lock, Edward A; Jennings, Paul

    2012-11-01

    Potassium bromate (KBrO(3)) is an oxidising agent that has been widely used in the food and cosmetic industries. It has shown to be both a nephrotoxin and a renal carcinogen in in vivo and in vitro models. Here, we investigated the effects of KBrO(3) in the human and rat proximal tubular cell lines RPTEC/TERT1 and NRK-52E. A genome-wide transcriptomic screen was carried out from cells exposed to a sub-lethal concentration of KBrO(3) for 6, 24 and 72 h. Pathway analysis identified "glutathione metabolism", "Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress" and "tight junction (TJ) signalling" as the most enriched pathways. TJ signalling was less impacted in the rat model, and further studies revealed low transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and an absence of several TJ proteins in NRK-52E cells. In RPTEC/TERT1 cells, KBrO(3) exposure caused a decrease in TEER and resulted in altered expression of several TJ proteins. N-Acetylcysteine co-incubation prevented these effects. These results demonstrate that oxidative stress has, in conjunction with the activation of the cytoprotective Nrf2 pathway, a dramatic effect on the expression of tight junction proteins. The further understanding of the cross-talk between these two pathways could have major implications for epithelial repair, carcinogenesis and metastasis.

  4. The Wnt/planar cell polarity signaling pathway contributes to the integrity of tight junctions in brain endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Artus, Cédric; Glacial, Fabienne; Ganeshamoorthy, Kayathiri; Ziegler, Nicole; Godet, Maeva; Guilbert, Thomas; Liebner, Stefan; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Wnt morphogens released by neural precursor cells were recently reported to control blood–brain barrier (BBB) formation during development. Indeed, in mouse brain endothelial cells, activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, also known as the canonical Wnt pathway, was shown to stabilize endothelial tight junctions (TJs) through transcriptional regulation of the expression of TJ proteins. Because Wnt proteins activate several distinct β-catenin-dependent and independent signaling pathways, this study was designed to assess whether the noncanonical Wnt/Par/aPKC planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway might also control TJ integrity in brain endothelial cells. First we established, in the hCMEC/D3 human brain endothelial cell line, that the Par/aPKC PCP complex colocalizes with TJs and controls apicobasal polarization. Second, using an siRNA approach, we showed that the Par/aPKC PCP complex regulates TJ stability and reassembling after osmotic shock. Finally, we provided evidence that Wnt5a signals in hCMEC/D3 cells through activation of the Par/aPKC PCP complex, independently of the Wnt canonical β-catenin-dependent pathway and significantly contributes to TJ integrity and endothelial apicobasal polarity. In conclusion, this study suggests that the Wnt/Par/aPKC PCP pathway, in addition to the Wnt/β-catenin canonical pathway, is a key regulator of the BBB. PMID:24346691

  5. Tricellular Tight Junctions in the Inner Ear.

    PubMed

    Kitajiri, Shin-Ichiro; Katsuno, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are structures that seal the space between the epithelial cell sheets. In the inner ear, the barrier function of TJs is indispensable for the separation of the endolymphatic and perilymphatic spaces, which is essential for the generation and maintenance of the endocochlear potential (EP). TJs are formed by the intercellular binding of membrane proteins, known as claudins, and mutations in these proteins cause deafness in humans and mice. Within the epithelial cell sheet, however, a bound structure is present at the site where the corners of three cells meet (tricellular tight junctions (tTJs)), and the maintenance of the barrier function at this location cannot be explained by the claudins alone. Tricellulin and the angulin family of proteins (angulin-1/LSR, angulin-2/ILDR1, and angulin-3/ILDR2) have been identified as tTJ-associated proteins. Tricellulin and ILDR1 are localized at the tTJ and alterations in these proteins have been reported to be involved in deafness. In this review, we will present the current state of knowledge for tTJs.

  6. Tricellular Tight Junctions in the Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are structures that seal the space between the epithelial cell sheets. In the inner ear, the barrier function of TJs is indispensable for the separation of the endolymphatic and perilymphatic spaces, which is essential for the generation and maintenance of the endocochlear potential (EP). TJs are formed by the intercellular binding of membrane proteins, known as claudins, and mutations in these proteins cause deafness in humans and mice. Within the epithelial cell sheet, however, a bound structure is present at the site where the corners of three cells meet (tricellular tight junctions (tTJs)), and the maintenance of the barrier function at this location cannot be explained by the claudins alone. Tricellulin and the angulin family of proteins (angulin-1/LSR, angulin-2/ILDR1, and angulin-3/ILDR2) have been identified as tTJ-associated proteins. Tricellulin and ILDR1 are localized at the tTJ and alterations in these proteins have been reported to be involved in deafness. In this review, we will present the current state of knowledge for tTJs. PMID:27195292

  7. Impairment of tight junctions and glucose transport in endothelial cells of human cerebral cavernous malformations.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Hannah; Errede, Mariella; Ulrich, Nils H; Virgintino, Daniela; Frei, Karl; Bertalanffy, Helmut

    2011-06-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) often cause hemorrhages that can result in severe clinical manifestations, including hemiparesis and seizures. The underlying mechanisms of the aggressive behavior of CCMs are undetermined to date, but alterations of vascular matrix components may be involved. We compared the localization of the tight junction proteins (TJPs) in 12 CCM specimens and the expression of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1), which is sensitive to alterations in TJP levels, in 5 CCM specimens with those in 5 control temporal lobectomy specimens without CCM by immunofluorescence microscopy. The TJPs occludin, claudin-5, and zonula occludens ZO-1 were downregulated at intercellular contact sites and partly redistributed within the surrounding tissue in the CCM samples; there was also a marked reduction of GLUT-1 immunoreactivity compared with that in control specimens. Corresponding analysis using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on 8 CCM and 8 control specimens revealed significant downregulation of mRNA expression of occludin, claudin-5, ZO-1, and GLUT-1. The altered expression and localization of the TJPs at interendothelial contact sites accompanied by a reduction of GLUT-1 expression in dilated CCM microvessels likely affect vascular matrix stability and may contribute to hemorrhages of CCMs.

  8. Regulation of Tight Junctions in Upper Airway Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Takashi; Go, Mitsuru; Takano, Ken-ichi; Kurose, Makoto; Ohkuni, Tsuyoshi; Koizumi, Jun-ichi; Kamekura, Ryuta; Ogasawara, Noriko; Masaki, Tomoyuki; Fuchimoto, Jun; Obata, Kazufumi; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Nomura, Kazuaki; Keira, Takashi; Miyata, Ryou; Fujii, Nobuhiro; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Himi, Tetsuo; Sawada, Norimasa

    2013-01-01

    The mucosal barrier of the upper respiratory tract including the nasal cavity, which is the first site of exposure to inhaled antigens, plays an important role in host defense in terms of innate immunity and is regulated in large part by tight junctions of epithelial cells. Tight junction molecules are expressed in both M cells and dendritic cells as well as epithelial cells of upper airway. Various antigens are sampled, transported, and released to lymphocytes through the cells in nasal mucosa while they maintain the integrity of the barrier. Expression of tight junction molecules and the barrier function in normal human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) are affected by various stimuli including growth factor, TLR ligand, and cytokine. In addition, epithelial-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), which is a master switch for allergic inflammatory diseases including allergic rhinitis, enhances the barrier function together with an increase of tight junction molecules in HNECs. Furthermore, respiratory syncytial virus infection in HNECs in vitro induces expression of tight junction molecules and the barrier function together with proinflammatory cytokine release. This paper summarizes the recent progress in our understanding of the regulation of tight junctions in the upper airway epithelium under normal, allergic, and RSV-infected conditions. PMID:23509817

  9. MarvelD3 couples tight junctions to the MEKK1–JNK pathway to regulate cell behavior and survival

    PubMed Central

    Steed, Emily; Elbediwy, Ahmed; Vacca, Barbara; Dupasquier, Sébastien; Hemkemeyer, Sandra A.; Suddason, Tesha; Costa, Ana C.; Beaudry, Jean-Bernard; Zihni, Ceniz; Gallagher, Ewen; Pierreux, Christophe E.

    2014-01-01

    MarvelD3 is a transmembrane component of tight junctions, but there is little evidence for a direct involvement in the junctional permeability barrier. Tight junctions also regulate signaling mechanisms that guide cell proliferation; however, the transmembrane components that link the junction to such signaling pathways are not well understood. In this paper, we show that MarvelD3 is a dynamic junctional regulator of the MEKK1–c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. Loss of MarvelD3 expression in differentiating Caco-2 cells resulted in increased cell migration and proliferation, whereas reexpression in a metastatic tumor cell line inhibited migration, proliferation, and in vivo tumor formation. Expression levels of MarvelD3 inversely correlated with JNK activity, as MarvelD3 recruited MEKK1 to junctions, leading to down-regulation of JNK phosphorylation and inhibition of JNK-regulated transcriptional mechanisms. Interplay between MarvelD3 internalization and JNK activation tuned activation of MEKK1 during osmotic stress, leading to junction dissociation and cell death in MarvelD3-depleted cells. MarvelD3 thus couples tight junctions to the MEKK1–JNK pathway to regulate cell behavior and survival. PMID:24567356

  10. 3D-fibroblast tissues constructed by a cell-coat technology enhance tight-junction formation of human colon epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Matsusaki, Michiya; Hikimoto, Daichi; Nishiguchi, Akihiro; Kadowaki, Koji; Ohura, Kayoko; Imai, Teruko; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2015-02-13

    Caco-2, human colon carcinoma cell line, has been widely used as a model system for intestinal epithelial permeability because Caco-2 cells express tight-junctions, microvilli, and a number of enzymes and transporters characteristic of enterocytes. However, the functional differentiation and polarization of Caco-2 cells to express sufficient tight-junctions (a barrier) usually takes over 21 days in culture. This may be due to the cell culture environment, for example inflammation induced by plastic petri dishes. Three-dimensional (3D) sufficient cell microenvironments similar to in vivo natural conditions (proteins and cells), will promote rapid differentiation and higher functional expression of tight junctions. Herein we report for the first time an enhancement in tight-junction formation by 3D-cultures of Caco-2 cells on monolayered (1L) and eight layered (8L) normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). Trans epithelial electric resistance (TEER) of Caco-2 cells was enhanced in the 3D-cultures, especially 8L-NHDF tissues, depending on culture times and only 10 days was enough to reach the same TEER value of Caco-2 monolayers after a 21 day incubation. Relative mRNA expression of tight-junction proteins of Caco-2 cells on 3D-cultures showed higher values than those in monolayer structures. Transporter gene expression patterns of Caco-2 cells on 3D-constructs were almost the same as those of Caco-2 monolayers, suggesting that there was no effect of 3D-cultures on transporter protein expression. The expression correlation between carboxylesterase 1 and 2 in 3D-cultures represented similar trends with human small intestines. The results of this study clearly represent a valuable application of 3D-Caco-2 tissues for pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cortisol affects tight junction morphology between pavement cells of rainbow trout gills in single-seeded insert culture.

    PubMed

    Sandbichler, Adolf Michael; Farkas, Julia; Salvenmoser, Willi; Pelster, Bernd

    2011-12-01

    A primary culture system of rainbow trout gill pavement cells grown on permeable support (single-seeded insert, SSI) was used to examine histological and physiological changes induced by the addition of the corticosteroid hormone cortisol. Pavement cell epithelia were cultured under symmetrical conditions (L15 apical/L15 basolateral) and developed a high transepithelial resistance (TER, 6.84 ± 1.99 kΩ cm(2), mean ± SEM) with a low phenol red diffusion rate (PRD, 0.15 ± 0.03 μmol l(-1)/day). Addition of cortisol to the basolateral compartment increased TER twofold and reduced PRD threefold over a 5-day period. A similar increase in TER could be seen after 24 h apical freshwater (FW) in control cultures. In cortisol-treated cultures FW exposure did not change TER, but PRD increased significantly. Histochemical staining of the cytoskeleton of cells in SSI culture revealed a morphological partitioning into a single mucosal layer of polarized, polygonal cells featuring cortical F-actin rings which were comparable to F-actin rings of epithelial cells on the lamellar and filamental surface, and several unorganized serosal layers of cells with F-actin stress fibers. Addition of cortisol increased cell density by 18% and in the mucosal layer it led to smaller, less polygonal cells with increased height and increased cell contact area. In transmission electron microscopic images two pairs of cytoplasmatic electron-dense structures confining the zonula occludens apically and basally toward the zonula adhaerens were found. Addition of cortisol increased the distance between those paired structures, hence led to deeper tight junctions. The cortisol-induced increase in barrier properties, therefore, involves a structural fortification of the tight junctions which was not generally modified by a short 24-h apical freshwater stress. These results identify cortisol as a regulator of tight junction morphology between pavement cells of euryhaline fish such as the

  12. JAM-A and aPKC: A close pair during cell-cell contact maturation and tight junction formation in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ebnet, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Cell-cell adhesion plays a critical role in the formation of barrier-forming epithelia. The molecules which mediate cell-cell adhesion frequently act as signaling molecules by recruiting and/or assembling cytoplasmic protein complexes. Junctional Adhesion Molecule (JAM)-A interacts with the cell polarity protein PAR-3, a member of the PAR-3-aPKC-PAR-6 complex, which regulates the formation of cell-cell contacts and the development of tight junctions (TJs). In our recent study we found that JAM-A is localized at primordial, spot-like cell-cell junctions (pAJs) in a non-phosphorylated form. After the recruitment of the PAR-aPKC complex and its activation at pAJs, aPKC phosphorylates JAM-A at Ser285 to promote the maturation of immature junctions. In polarized epithelial cells, aPKC phosphorylates JAM-A selectively at the TJs to maintain the barrier function of TJs. Thus, through mutual regulation, JAM-A and aPKC form a functional unit that regulates the establishment of barrier-forming junctions in vertebrate epithelial cells.

  13. Epidermal tight junctions in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Brandner, J M; Zorn-Kruppa, M; Yoshida, T; Moll, I; Beck, L A; De Benedetto, A

    2015-01-01

    The skin, the largest organ of the body, is an essential barrier that under homeostatic conditions efficiently protects and/or minimizes damage from both environmental (e.g. microorganisms, physical trauma, ultraviolet radiation) and endogenous (e.g., cancers, inflammation) factors. This formidable barrier function resides mainly in the epidermis, a dynamic, highly-stratified epithelium. The epidermis has 2 major barrier structures: stratum corneum, the outmost layer and tight junctions, intercellular junctions that seal adjacent keratinocytes in the stratum granulosum, found below the stratum corneum. In recent years there have been significant advances in our understanding of tight junction function, composition and regulation. Herein we review what is known about tight junctions in healthy skin and keratinocyte culture systems and highlight the dynamic crosstalk observed between tight junctions and the cutaneous immune system. Finally we discuss the preliminary observations suggesting that tight junction function or protein expression may be relevant for the pathogenesis of a number of common cutaneous inflammatory and neoplastic conditions.

  14. Epidermal tight junctions in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Brandner, JM; Zorn-Kruppa, M; Yoshida, T; Moll, I; Beck, LA; De Benedetto, A

    2014-01-01

    The skin, the largest organ of the body, is an essential barrier that under homeostatic conditions efficiently protects and/or minimizes damage from both environmental (e.g. microorganisms, physical trauma, ultraviolet radiation) and endogenous (e.g., cancers, inflammation) factors. This formidable barrier function resides mainly in the epidermis, a dynamic, highly-stratified epithelium. The epidermis has 2 major barrier structures: stratum corneum, the outmost layer and tight junctions, intercellular junctions that seal adjacent keratinocytes in the stratum granulosum, found below the stratum corneum. In recent years there have been significant advances in our understanding of tight junction function, composition and regulation. Herein we review what is known about tight junctions in healthy skin and keratinocyte culture systems and highlight the dynamic crosstalk observed between tight junctions and the cutaneous immune system. Finally we discuss the preliminary observations suggesting that tight junction function or protein expression may be relevant for the pathogenesis of a number of common cutaneous inflammatory and neoplastic conditions. PMID:25838981

  15. Involvement of the helix-loop-helix protein Id-1 in the glucocorticoid regulation of tight junctions in mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Woo, P L; Cercek, A; Desprez, P Y; Firestone, G L

    2000-09-15

    Mammary epithelial cell-cell junctions undergo morphological and structural differentiation during pregnancy and lactation, but little is known about the transcriptional regulators that are involved in this process. In Con8 mammary epithelial tumor cells, we have previously documented that the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, induces the reorganization of the tight junction and adherens junction and stimulates the monolayer transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), a reliable in vitro measurement of tight junction sealing. Western blots demonstrated that dexamethasone treatment rapidly and strongly stimulated the level of the Id-1 protein, which is a serum-inducible helix-loop-helix transcriptional repressor. The steroid induction of Id-1 was robust by 4 h of treatment and maintained over a 24-h period. Isopropyl-1-thio-beta-d-galactopyranoside-inducible expression of exogenous Id-1 in Con8 cells was shown to strongly facilitate the dexamethasone induction of TER in the absence of serum without altering the dexamethasone-dependent reorganization of ZO-1, beta-catenin, or F-actin. Ectopic overexpression of Id-1 in the SCp2 nontumorigenic mammary epithelial cells, which does not undergo complete dexamethasone-dependent tight junction reorganization, enhanced the dexamethasone-induced ZO-1 tight junction localization and stimulated the monolayer TER. Moreover, antisense reduction of Id-1 protein in SCp2 cells prevented the apical junction reorganization and dexamethasone-stimulated TER. Our results implicate Id-1 as acting as a critical regulator of mammary epithelial cell-cell interactions at an early step in the glucocorticoid-dependent signaling pathway that controls tight junction integrity.

  16. Signalling at tight junctions during epithelial differentiation and microbial pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zihni, Ceniz; Balda, Maria S; Matter, Karl

    2014-08-15

    Tight junctions are a component of the epithelial junctional complex, and they form the paracellular diffusion barrier that enables epithelial cells to create cellular sheets that separate compartments with different compositions. The assembly and function of tight junctions are intimately linked to the actomyosin cytoskeleton and, hence, are under the control of signalling mechanisms that regulate cytoskeletal dynamics. Tight junctions not only receive signals that guide their assembly and function, but transmit information to the cell interior to regulate cell proliferation, migration and survival. As a crucial component of the epithelial barrier, they are often targeted by pathogenic viruses and bacteria, aiding infection and the development of disease. In this Commentary, we review recent progress in the understanding of the molecular signalling mechanisms that drive junction assembly and function, and the signalling processes by which tight junctions regulate cell behaviour and survival. We also discuss the way in which junctional components are exploited by pathogenic viruses and bacteria, and how this might affect junctional signalling mechanisms. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Activation of the Ca²+-sensing receptor induces deposition of tight junction components to the epithelial cell plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Jouret, François; Wu, Jingshing; Hull, Michael; Rajendran, Vanathy; Mayr, Bernhard; Schöfl, Christof; Geibel, John; Caplan, Michael J

    2013-11-15

    The Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaSR) belongs to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily and plays essential roles in divalent ion homeostasis and cell differentiation. Because extracellular Ca(2+) is essential for the development of stable epithelial tight junctions (TJs), we hypothesized that the CaSR participates in regulating TJ assembly. We first assessed the expression of the CaSR in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells at steady state and following manipulations that modulate TJ assembly. Next, we examined the effects of CaSR agonists and antagonists on TJ assembly. Immunofluorescence studies indicate that endogenous CaSR is located at the basolateral pole of MDCK cells. Stable transfection of human CaSR in MDCK cells further reveals that this protein co-distributes with β-catenin on the basolateral membrane. Switching MDCK cells from low-Ca(2+) medium to medium containing a normal Ca(2+) concentration significantly increases CaSR expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Exposure of MDCK cells maintained in low-Ca(2+) conditions to the CaSR agonists neomycin, Gd(3+) or R-568 causes the transient relocation of the tight junction components ZO-1 and occludin to sites of cell-cell contact, while inducing no significant changes in the expression of mRNAs encoding junction-associated proteins. Stimulation of CaSR also increases the interaction between ZO-1 and the F-actin-binding protein I-afadin. This effect does not involve activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase. By contrast, CaSR inhibition by NPS-2143 significantly decreases interaction of ZO-1 with I-afadin and reduces deposition of ZO-1 at the cell surface following a Ca(2+) switch from 5 µM to 200 µM [Ca(2+)]e. Pre-exposure of MDCK cells to the cell-permeant Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM, similarly prevents TJ assembly caused by CaSR activation. Finally, stable transfection of MDCK cells with a cDNA encoding a human disease-associated gain-of-function mutant form of the CaSR increases the

  18. Activation of the Ca2+-sensing receptor induces deposition of tight junction components to the epithelial cell plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Jouret, François; Wu, Jingshing; Hull, Michael; Rajendran, Vanathy; Mayr, Bernhard; Schöfl, Christof; Geibel, John; Caplan, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaSR) belongs to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily and plays essential roles in divalent ion homeostasis and cell differentiation. Because extracellular Ca2+ is essential for the development of stable epithelial tight junctions (TJs), we hypothesized that the CaSR participates in regulating TJ assembly. We first assessed the expression of the CaSR in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells at steady state and following manipulations that modulate TJ assembly. Next, we examined the effects of CaSR agonists and antagonists on TJ assembly. Immunofluorescence studies indicate that endogenous CaSR is located at the basolateral pole of MDCK cells. Stable transfection of human CaSR in MDCK cells further reveals that this protein co-distributes with β-catenin on the basolateral membrane. Switching MDCK cells from low-Ca2+ medium to medium containing a normal Ca2+ concentration significantly increases CaSR expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Exposure of MDCK cells maintained in low-Ca2+ conditions to the CaSR agonists neomycin, Gd3+ or R-568 causes the transient relocation of the tight junction components ZO-1 and occludin to sites of cell–cell contact, while inducing no significant changes in the expression of mRNAs encoding junction-associated proteins. Stimulation of CaSR also increases the interaction between ZO-1 and the F-actin-binding protein I-afadin. This effect does not involve activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase. By contrast, CaSR inhibition by NPS-2143 significantly decreases interaction of ZO-1 with I-afadin and reduces deposition of ZO-1 at the cell surface following a Ca2+ switch from 5 µM to 200 µM [Ca2+]e. Pre-exposure of MDCK cells to the cell-permeant Ca2+ chelator BAPTA-AM, similarly prevents TJ assembly caused by CaSR activation. Finally, stable transfection of MDCK cells with a cDNA encoding a human disease-associated gain-of-function mutant form of the CaSR increases the

  19. Effects of phenol on barrier function of a human intestinal epithelial cell line correlate with altered tight junction protein localization.

    PubMed

    McCall, Ingrid C; Betanzos, Abigail; Weber, Dominique A; Nava, Porfirio; Miller, Gary W; Parkos, Charles A

    2009-11-15

    Phenol contamination of soil and water has raised concerns among people living near phenol-producing factories and hazardous waste sites containing the chemical. Phenol, particularly in high concentrations, is an irritating and corrosive substance, making mucosal membranes targets of toxicity in humans. However, few data on the effects of phenol after oral exposure exist. We used an in vitro model employing human intestinal epithelial cells (SK-CO15) cultured on permeable supports to examine effects of phenol on epithelial barrier function. We hypothesized that phenol disrupts epithelial barrier by altering tight junction (TJ) protein expression. The dose-response effect of phenol on epithelial barrier function was determined using transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and FITC-dextran permeability measurements. We studied phenol-induced changes in cell morphology and expression of several tight junction proteins by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. Effects on cell viability were assessed by MTT, Trypan blue, propidium iodide and TUNEL staining. Exposure to phenol resulted in decreased TER and increased paracellular flux of FITC-dextran in a dose-dependent manner. Delocalization of claudin-1 and ZO-1 from TJs to cytosol correlated with the observed increase in permeability after phenol treatment. Additionally, the decrease in TER correlated with changes in the distribution of a membrane raft marker, suggesting phenol-mediated effects on membrane fluidity. Such observations were independent of effects of phenol on cell viability as enhanced permeability occurred at doses of phenol that did not cause cell death. Overall, these findings suggest that phenol may affect transiently the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane, thus destabilizing TJ-containing microdomains.

  20. Effects of phenol on barrier function of a human intestinal epithelial cell line correlate with altered tight junction protein localization

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Ingrid C.; Betanzos, Abigail; Weber, Dominique A.; Nava, Porfirio; Miller, Gary W.; Parkos, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    Phenol contamination of soil and water has raised concerns among people living near phenol-producing factories and hazardous waste sites containing the chemical. Phenol, particularly in high concentrations, is an irritating and corrosive substance, making mucosal membranes targets of toxicity in humans. However, few data on the effects of phenol after oral exposure exist. We used an in vitro model employing human intestinal epithelial cells (SK-CO15) cultured on permeable supports to examine effects of phenol on epithelial barrier function. We hypothesized that phenol disrupts epithelial barrier by altering tight junction (TJ) protein expression. The dose-response effect of phenol on epithelial barrier function was determined using transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and FITC-dextran permeability measurements. We studied phenol-induced changes in cell morphology and expression of several tight junction proteins by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. Effects on cell viability were assessed by MTT, Trypan blue, propidium iodide and TUNEL staining. Exposure to phenol resulted in decreased TER and increased paracellular flux of FITC-dextran in a dose-dependent manner. Delocalization of claudin-1 and ZO-1 from TJs to cytosol correlated with the observed increase in permeability after phenol treatment. Additionally, the decrease in TER correlated with changes in the distribution of a membrane raft marker, suggesting phenol-mediated effects on membrane fluidity. Such observations were independent of effects of phenol on cell viability as enhanced permeability occurred at doses of phenol that did not cause cell death. Overall, these findings suggest that phenol may affect transiently the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane, thus destabilizing TJ-containing microdomains. PMID:19679145

  1. Effects of phenol on barrier function of a human intestinal epithelial cell line correlate with altered tight junction protein localization

    SciTech Connect

    McCall, Ingrid C.; Betanzos, Abigail; Weber, Dominique A.; Nava, Porfirio; Miller, Gary W.; Parkos, Charles A.

    2009-11-15

    Phenol contamination of soil and water has raised concerns among people living near phenol-producing factories and hazardous waste sites containing the chemical. Phenol, particularly in high concentrations, is an irritating and corrosive substance, making mucosal membranes targets of toxicity in humans. However, few data on the effects of phenol after oral exposure exist. We used an in vitro model employing human intestinal epithelial cells (SK-CO15) cultured on permeable supports to examine effects of phenol on epithelial barrier function. We hypothesized that phenol disrupts epithelial barrier by altering tight junction (TJ) protein expression. The dose-response effect of phenol on epithelial barrier function was determined using transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and FITC-dextran permeability measurements. We studied phenol-induced changes in cell morphology and expression of several tight junction proteins by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. Effects on cell viability were assessed by MTT, Trypan blue, propidium iodide and TUNEL staining. Exposure to phenol resulted in decreased TER and increased paracellular flux of FITC-dextran in a dose-dependent manner. Delocalization of claudin-1 and ZO-1 from TJs to cytosol correlated with the observed increase in permeability after phenol treatment. Additionally, the decrease in TER correlated with changes in the distribution of a membrane raft marker, suggesting phenol-mediated effects on membrane fluidity. Such observations were independent of effects of phenol on cell viability as enhanced permeability occurred at doses of phenol that did not cause cell death. Overall, these findings suggest that phenol may affect transiently the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane, thus destabilizing TJ-containing microdomains.

  2. Dexamethasone suppresses JMJD3 gene activation via a putative negative glucocorticoid response element and maintains integrity of tight junctions in brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Na, Wonho; Shin, Jee Y; Lee, Jee Y; Jeong, Sangyun; Kim, Won-Sun; Yune, Tae Y; Ju, Bong-Gun

    2017-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) exhibits a highly selective permeability to support the homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS). The tight junctions in the BBB microvascular endothelial cells seal the paracellular space to prevent diffusion. Thus, disruption of tight junctions results in harmful effects in CNS diseases and injuries. It has recently been demonstrated that glucocorticoids have beneficial effects on maintaining tight junctions in both in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. In the present study, we found that dexamethasone suppresses the expression of JMJD3, a histone H3K27 demethylase, via the recruitment of glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα) and nuclear receptor co-repressor (N-CoR) to the negative glucocorticoid response element (nGRE) in the upstream region of JMJD3 gene in brain microvascular endothelial cells subjected to TNFα treatment. The decreased JMJD3 gene expression resulted in the suppression of MMP-2, MMP-3, and MMP-9 gene activation. Dexamethasone also activated the expression of the claudin 5 and occludin genes. Collectively, dexamethasone attenuated the disruption of the tight junctions in the brain microvascular endothelial cells subjected to TNFα treatment. Therefore, glucocorticoids may help to preserve the integrity of the tight junctions in the BBB via transcriptional and post-translational regulation following CNS diseases and injuries.

  3. MA026, an anti-hepatitis C virus compound, opens tight junctions of the epithelial cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Yusuke; Yamasaki, Youhei; Shimura, Satomi; Kamisuki, Shinji; Sugawara, Fumio; Nagumo, Yoko; Usui, Takeo

    2017-05-01

    MA026 is an antiviral natural compound against hepatitis C virus (HCV). It was recently reported that MA026 binds claudin-1 (CLDN1) and inhibits HCV infection. Although CLDN1 is an important component of tight junctions (TJ) in the epithelial cell layer, the effects of MA026 on the TJ barrier function remained to be revealed. Here we report that MA026 irreversibly opens the TJ. MA026 irreversibly increased FD4 permeability and decreased transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) for at least 5 h. Although MA026 increased Ca(2+) influx in layered MDCKII cells, the Ca(2+) influx was less than that of capsaicin, a reversible TJ opener. Moreover, MA026 did not induce the dephosphorylation of cofilin and reorganization of F-actin structure. Although the mechanism is left to be disclosed, these results suggest that MA026 is a novel irreversible TJ opener probably by targeting CLDN1.

  4. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase activities and tightening of tight junctions by diallyl disulfide in AGS human gastric carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Soo; Kim, Gi-Young; Choi, Il-Whan; Kim, Nam Deuk; Hwang, Hye Jin; Choi, Young-Whan; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2011-05-01

    The effect of diallyl disulfide (DADS), a major component of an oil-soluble allyl sulfide garlic (Allium sativum) derivative, on the correlation between anti-invasive activity and tightening of tight junctions (TJs) was investigated in human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cells. Our data indicated that the inhibitory effects of DADS on cell motility and invasiveness were found to be associated with increased tightness of the TJs, which was demonstrated by an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance. Activities of matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-2 and -9 in AGS cells were dose-dependently inhibited by treatment with DADS, and this was also correlated with a decrease in expression of their mRNA and proteins; however, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and -2 mRNA levels and proteins were increased. Additionally, immunoblotting results indicated that DADS repressed the levels of claudin proteins (claudin-2, -3, and -4), major components of TJs that play key roles in control and selectivity of paracellular transport. Although further studies are needed, these results suggest that DADS treatment may inhibit tumor cell motility and invasion and, therefore, act as a dietary source to decrease the risk of cancer metastasis.

  5. Lecithin-Bound Iodine Prevents Disruption of Tight Junctions of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells under Hypoxic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Masahiko; Kondo, Mineo

    2016-01-01

    Aim. We investigated whether lecithin-bound iodine (LBI) can protect the integrity of tight junctions of retinal pigment epithelial cells from hypoxia. Method. Cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells were pretreated with LBI. To mimic hypoxic conditions, cells were incubated with CoCl2. We compared the integrity of the tight junctions (TJs) of control to cells with either LBI alone, CoCl2 alone, or LBI + CoCl2. The levels of cytokines in the conditioned media were also determined. Results. Significant decrease in the zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) intensity in the CoCl2 group compared to the control (5787.7 ± 4126.4 in CoCl2 group versus 29244.6 ± 2981.2 in control; average ± standard deviation). But the decrease was not significant in the LBI + CoCl2 (27189.0 ± 11231.1). The levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and Chemokine (C-C Motif) Ligand 11 (CCL-11) were significantly higher in the CoCl2 than in the control (340.8 ± 43.3 versus 279.7 ± 68.3 pg/mL for MCP-1, and 15.2 ± 12.9 versus 12.5 ± 6.1 pg/mL for CCL-11. With LBI pretreatment, the levels of both cytokines were decreased to 182.6 ± 23.8 (MCP-1) and 5.46 ± 1.9 pg/mL for CCL-11). Blockade of MCP-1 or CCL-11 also shows similar result representing TJ protection from hypoxic stress. Conclusions. LBI results in a protective action from hypoxia. PMID:27340563

  6. Epithelial NF-kappaB enhances transmucosal fluid movement by altering tight junction protein composition after T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yueming; Clayburgh, Daniel R; Mittal, Navdha; Goretsky, Tatiana; Dirisina, Ramanarao; Zhang, Zheng; Kron, Michelle; Ivancic, David; Katzman, Rebecca B; Grimm, Gery; Lee, Goo; Fryer, Jonathan; Nusrat, Asma; Turner, Jerrold R; Barrett, Terrence A

    2010-01-01

    In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), aberrant activation of innate and adaptive immune responses enhances mucosal permeability through mechanisms not completely understood. To examine the role of epithelial nuclear factor (NF-kappaB) in IBD-induced enhanced permeability, epithelial-specific IkappaBalpha mutant (NF-kappaB super repressor) transgenic (TG) mice were generated. NF-kB activation was inhibited in TG mice, relative to wild-type mice, following T cell-mediated immune cell activation using an anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody. Furthermore, epithelial NF-kappaB super repressor protein inhibited diarrhea and blocked changes in transepithelial resistance and transmucosal flux of alexa350 (0.35 kDa) and dextran3000 (3 kDa). In vivo perfusion loop studies in TG mice revealed reversed net water secretion and reduced lumenal flux of different molecular probes (bovine serum albumin, alexa350, and dextran3000). Cell-imaging and immunoblotting of low-density, detergent-insoluble membrane fractions confirmed that tight junction proteins (occludin, claudin-1 and zona occludens-1) are internalized through an NF-kappaB-dependent pathway. Taken together, these data suggest that IBD-associated diarrhea results from NF-kappaB-mediated tight junction protein internalization and increased paracellular permeability. Thus, reduction of epithelial NF-kappaB activation in IBD may repair defects in epithelial barrier function, reduce diarrhea, and limit protein (eg, serum albumin) losses. Epithelial NF-kappaB activation induced by mucosal T cells, therefore, actively plays a role in opening paracellular spaces to promote transmucosal fluid effux into the intestinal lumen.

  7. Distinct behavior of human Langerhans cells and inflammatory dendritic epidermal cells at tight junctions in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kazue; Kubo, Akiharu; Fujita, Harumi; Yokouchi, Mariko; Ishii, Ken; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Nomura, Toshifumi; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Kouyama, Keisuke; Ebihara, Tamotsu; Nagao, Keisuke; Amagai, Masayuki

    2014-10-01

    The stratum corneum and tight junctions (TJs) form physical barriers in the epidermis. Dendrites of activated Langerhans cells (LCs) extend beyond the TJs to capture external antigens in mice. LCs and inflammatory dendritic epidermal cells (IDECs) are observed in the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). We sought to investigate the characteristics of LCs and IDECs and the distribution of their antigen capture receptors in relation to TJs in normal and AD skin. We characterized the interactions of LCs and IDECs with TJs and the expression patterns of langerin and FcεRI by using whole-mount epidermal sheets from healthy subjects and patients with AD, ichthyosis vulgaris, and psoriasis vulgaris. As in mouse skin, activated LCs penetrate TJs in human skin. The number of LCs with TJ penetration increased approximately 5-fold in erythematous lesional skin of patients with AD but not in nonlesional skin of patients with AD or lesions of patients with ichthyosis vulgaris or psoriasis. In contrast, IDECs localized in the lower part of the epidermis, and their dendrites extended horizontally without penetration through TJs. Although langerin accumulated on the tips of dendrites of activated LCs, FcεRI was expressed diffusely on the cell surfaces on LCs and IDECs in lesional skin from patients with AD. These findings highlight interesting differences between LCs and IDECs in epidermis of patients with AD, where LCs, but not IDECs, extend dendrites through the TJs, likely to capture antigens from outside the TJ barrier with a polarized distribution of langerin but not FcεRI. These behavioral differences between skin dendritic cells might reflect an important pathophysiology of AD. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Transcriptional Control of Tight Junction Proteins via a Protein Kinase C Signal Pathway in Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase-Transfected Human Pancreatic Duct Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Kojima, Takashi; Ito, Tatsuya; Kimura, Yasutoshi; Imamura, Masafumi; Son, Seiichi; Koizumi, Jun-ichi; Murata, Masaki; Nagayama, Minoru; Nobuoka, Takayuki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Hirata, Koichi; Sawada, Norimasa

    2010-01-01

    In human pancreatic cancer, integral membrane proteins of tight junction claudins are abnormally regulated, making these proteins promising molecular diagnostic and therapeutic targets. However, the regulation of claudin-based tight junctions remains unknown not only in the pancreatic cancer cells but also in normal human pancreatic duct epithelial (HPDE) cells. To investigate the regulation of tight junction molecules including claudins in normal HPDE cells, we introduced the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene into HPDE cells in primary culture. The hTERT-transfected HPDE (hTERT-HPDE) cells were positive for the pancreatic duct epithelial markers such as CK7, CK19, and carbonic anhydrase isozyme 2 and expressed epithelial tight junction molecules claudin-1, -4, -7 and, -18, occludin, JAM-A, ZO-1, ZO-2, and tricellulin. By treatment with fetal bovine serum or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), the tight junction molecules were up-regulated at the transcriptional level via a protein kinase C (PKC) signal pathway. A PKC-α inhibitor, Gö6976, prevented up-regulation of claudin-4 by TPA. Furthermore, a PKC-δ inhibitor, rottlerin, prevented up-regulation of claudin-7, occludin, ZO-1, and ZO-2 by TPA. By GeneChip analysis, up-regulation of the transcription factor ELF3 was observed in both fetal bovine serum- and TPA-treated cells. Treatment with small interfering RNAs of ELF3 prevented up-regulation of claudin-7 by TPA. These data suggest that tight junctions of normal HPDE cells were at least in part regulated via a PKC signal pathway by transcriptional control. PMID:20566751

  9. Diurnal Variation of Tight Junction Integrity Associates Inversely with Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression in Xenopus laevis Corneal Epithelium: Implications for Circadian Regulation of Homeostatic Surface Cell Desquamation

    PubMed Central

    Wiechmann, Allan F.; Ceresa, Brian P.; Howard, Eric W.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives The corneal epithelium provides a protective barrier against pathogen entrance and abrasive forces, largely due to the intercellular junctional complexes between neighboring cells. After a prescribed duration at the corneal surface, tight junctions between squamous surface cells must be disrupted to enable them to desquamate as a component of the tissue homeostatic renewal. We hypothesize that matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) are secreted by corneal epithelial cells and cleave intercellular junctional proteins extracellularly at the epithelial surface. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of specific MMPs and tight junction proteins during both the light and dark phases of the circadian cycle, and to assess their temporal and spatial relationships in the Xenopus laevis corneal epithelium. Methodology/Principal Findings Expression of MMP-2, tissue inhibitor of MMP-2 (TIMP-2), membrane type 1-MMP (MT1-MMP) and the tight junction proteins occludin and claudin-4 were examined by confocal double-label immunohistochemistry on corneas obtained from Xenopus frogs at different circadian times. Occludin and claudin-4 expression was generally uniformly intact on the surface corneal epithelial cell lateral membranes during the daytime, but was frequently disrupted in small clusters of cells at night. Concomitantly, MMP-2 expression was often elevated in a mosaic pattern at nighttime and associated with clusters of desquamating surface cells. The MMP-2 binding partners, TIMP-2 and MT1-MMP were also localized to surface corneal epithelial cells during both the light and dark phases, with TIMP-2 tending to be elevated during the daytime. Conclusions/Significance MMP-2 protein expression is elevated in a mosaic pattern in surface corneal epithelial cells during the nighttime in Xenopus laevis, and may play a role in homeostatic surface cell desquamation by disrupting intercellular junctional proteins. The sequence of MMP secretion and

  10. Effects of Soybean Agglutinin on Mechanical Barrier Function and Tight Junction Protein Expression in Intestinal Epithelial Cells from Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Li; Qin, Guixin; Zhao, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Liu, Feifei; Che, Dongsheng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we sought to investigate the role of soybean agglutinin (SBA) in mediating membrane permeability and the mechanical barrier function of intestinal epithelial cells. The IPEC-J2 cells were cultured and treated with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, or 3.0 mg/mL SBA. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity were measured to evaluate membrane permeability. The results showed a significant decrease in TEER values (p < 0.05) in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and a pronounced increase in AP activity (p < 0.05). Cell growth and cell morphology were used to evaluate the cell viability. A significant cell growth inhibition (p < 0.05) and alteration of morphology were observed when the concentration of SBA was increased. The results of western blotting showed that the expression levels of occludin and claudin-3 were decreased by 31% and 64% compared to those of the control, respectively (p < 0.05). In addition, immunofluorescence labeling indicated an obvious decrease in staining of these targets and changes in their localizations. In conclusion, SBA increased the membrane permeability, inhibited the cell viability and reduced the levels of tight junction proteins (occludin and claudin-3), leading to a decrease in mechanical barrier function in intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:24189218

  11. Possible role of HIWI2 in modulating tight junction proteins in retinal pigment epithelial cells through Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Sivagurunathan, Suganya; Palanisamy, Karthikka; Arunachalam, Jayamuruga Pandian; Chidambaram, Subbulakshmi

    2017-03-01

    PIWI subfamily of proteins is shown to be primarily expressed in germline cells. They maintain the genomic integrity by silencing the transposable elements. Although the role of PIWI proteins in germ cells has been documented, their presence and function in somatic cells remains unclear. Intriguingly, we detected all four members of PIWI-like proteins in human ocular tissues and somatic cell lines. When HIWI2 was knocked down in retinal pigment epithelial cells, the typical honeycomb morphology was affected. Further analysis showed that the expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins, CLDN1, and TJP1 were altered in HIWI2 knockdown. Moreover, confocal imaging revealed disrupted TJP1 assembly at the TJ. Previous studies report the role of GSK3β in regulating TJ proteins. Accordingly, phospho-kinase proteome profiler array indicated increased phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3α/β in HIWI2 knockdown, suggesting that HIWI2 might affect TJ proteins through Akt-GSK3α/β signaling axis. Moreover, treating the HIWI2 knockdown cells with wortmannin increased the levels of TJP1 and CLDN1. Taken together, our study demonstrates the presence of PIWI-like proteins in somatic cells and the possible role of HIWI2 in preserving the functional integrity of epithelial cells probably by modulating the phosphorylation status of Akt.

  12. Calcium Dobesilate Inhibits the Alterations in Tight Junction Proteins and Leukocyte Adhesion to Retinal Endothelial Cells Induced by Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Ermelindo C.; Martins, João; Voabil, Paula; Liberal, Joana; Chiavaroli, Carlo; Bauer, Jacques; Cunha-Vaz, José; Ambrósio, António F.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Calcium dobesilate (CaD) has been used in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy in the last decades, but its mechanisms of action are not elucidated. CaD is able to correct the excessive vascular permeability in the retina of diabetic patients and in experimental diabetes. We investigated the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of CaD against the increase in blood–retinal barrier (BRB) permeability induced by diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Wistar rats were divided into three groups: controls, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, and diabetic rats treated with CaD. The BRB breakdown was evaluated using Evans blue. The content or distribution of tight junction proteins (occludin, claudin-5, and zonula occluden-1 [ZO-1]), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) was evaluated by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Leukocyte adhesion was evaluated in retinal vessels and in vitro. Oxidative stress was evaluated by the detection of oxidized carbonyls and tyrosine nitration. NF-κB activation was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS Diabetes increased the BRB permeability and retinal thickness. Diabetes also decreased occludin and claudin-5 levels and altered the distribution of ZO-1 and occludin in retinal vessels. These changes were inhibited by CaD treatment. CaD also inhibited the increase in leukocyte adhesion to retinal vessels or endothelial cells and in ICAM-1 levels, induced by diabetes or elevated glucose. Moreover, CaD decreased oxidative stress and p38 MAPK and NF-κB activation caused by diabetes. CONCLUSIONS CaD prevents the BRB breakdown induced by diabetes, by restoring tight junction protein levels and organization and decreasing leukocyte adhesion to retinal vessels. The protective effects of CaD are likely to involve the inhibition of p38 MAPK and NF-κB activation, possibly through the inhibition of oxidative

  13. Hormonal regulation of hepatocyte tight junctional permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, P.J.; Miyai, K.; Steinbach, J.H.; Hardison, W.G.M. Univ. of California, San Diego )

    1988-10-01

    The authors have investigated the effects of hormones on the permeability of the hepatocyte tight junction to two probes, ({sup 14}C)sucrose and horseradish peroxidase, using one-pass perfused rat livers. Using a single injection of horseradish peroxidase the authors have demonstrated that this probe can enter bile by two pathways that are kinetically distinct, a fast pathway, which corresponds to the passage of the probe through the hepatocyte tight junctions, and a slow pathway, which corresponds to the transcytotic entry into bile. The passage of horseradish peroxidase through the hepatocyte tight junctions was confirmed by electron microscopic histochemistry. Vasopressin, epinephrine, and angiotensin II, hormones that act in the hepatocyte through the intracellular mediators calcium, the inositol polyphosphates, and diacylglycerol, increased the bile-to-perfusion fluid ratio of ({sup 14}C)sucrose and the rapid entry of horseradish peroxidase into bile, indicating that the permeability of the tight junctions to these probes was increased. The effect of these hormones was dose dependent and in the cases of angiotensin II and epinephrine was inhibited by the specific inhibitors (Sar{sup 1},Thr{sup 8})angiotensin II and prazosin, respectively. Dibutyryl adenosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate did not affect the ({sup 14}C)sucrose bile-to-perfusion fluid ratio or the fast entry of horseradish peroxidase into bile. These results suggest that the hepatocyte tight junction can no longer be considered a static system of pores separating blood from bile. It is rather a dynamic barrier potentially capable of influencing the composition of the bile.

  14. Claudin-6 localized in tight junctions of rat podocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Linning; Yaoita, Eishin; Nameta, Masaaki; Zhang, Ying; Cuellar, Lino Munoz; Fujinaka, Hidehiko; Xu, Bo; Yoshida, Yutaka; Hatakeyama, Katsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Tadashi

    2008-06-01

    Tight junctions rarely exist in podocytes of the normal renal glomerulus, whereas they are the main intercellular junctions of podocytes in nephrosis and in the early stage of development. Claudins have been identified as tight junction-specific integral membrane proteins. Those of podocytes, however, remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the expression and localization of claudin-6 in the rat kidney, especially in podocytes. Western blot analysis and RT-PCR revealed that the neonatal kidney expressed much higher levels of claudin-6 than the adult kidney. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed intense claudin-6 staining in most of the tubules and glomeruli in neonates. The staining in tubules declined distinctly in adults, whereas staining in glomeruli was well preserved during development. Claudin-6 in glomeruli was distributed along the glomerular capillary wall and colocalized with zonula occludens-1. The staining became conspicuous after kidney perfusion with protamine sulfate (PS) to increase tight junctions in podocytes. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that immunogold particles for claudin-6 were accumulated at close cell-cell contact sites of podocytes in PS-perfused kidneys, whereas a very limited number of immunogold particles were detected, mainly on the basal cell membrane and occasionally at the slit diaphragm and close cell-cell contact sites in normal control kidneys. In puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis, immunogold particles were also found mainly at cell-contact sites of podocytes. These findings indicate that claudin-6 is a transmembrane protein of tight junctions in podocytes during development and under pathological conditions.

  15. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus infection induces dramatic changes in the tight junctions and microfilaments of polarized IPEC-J2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shanshan; Gao, Junkai; Zhu, Liqi; Yang, Qian

    2014-11-04

    Viral infection converts the normal constitution of a cell to optimise viral entry, replication, and virion production. These conversions contain alterations or disruptions of the tight and adherens junctions between cells as part of their pathogenesis, and reorganise cellular microfilaments that initiate, sustain and spread the viral infections and so on. Using porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and a model of normal intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2), we researched the interaction between tight and adherens junctions and microfilaments of IPEC-J2 cells with these viruses. In our work, the results showed that IPEC-J2 cells were susceptible to TGEV and PEDV infection. And TGEV could impair the barrier integrity of IPEC-J2 cells at early stages of infection through down-regulating some proteins of tight and adherens junctions, while PEDV cloud cause a slight of damage in the integrity of epithelial barrier. In addition, they also could affect the microfilaments remodelling of IPEC-J2 cells, and the drug-interfered microfilaments could inhibit viral replication and release. Furthermore, PEDV+TGEV co-infection was more aggravating to damage of tight junctions and remodelling of microfilaments than their single infection. Finally, the PEDV and TGEV infection affected the MAPK pathway, and inhibition of MAPK pathway regulated the changes of tight junctions and microfilaments of cells. These studies provide a new insight from the perspective of the epithelial barrier and microfilaments into the pathogenesis of PEDV and TGEV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhibiting invasion into human bladder carcinoma 5637 cells with diallyl trisulfide by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase activities and tightening tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Yeok; Cha, Hee-Jae; Kim, Gi-Young; Kim, Wun-Jae; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2013-10-01

    Diallyl trisulfide (DATS), an organosulfur compound in garlic, possesses pronounced anti-cancer potential. However, the anti-invasive mechanism of this compound in human bladder carcinoma is not fully understood. In this study, we evaluated the anti-invasive effects of DATS on a human bladder carcinoma (5637) cell line and investigated the underlying mechanism. The results indicated that DATS suppressed migration and invasion of 5637 cells by reducing the activities and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 at both the protein and mRNA levels. DATS treatment up-regulated expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 in 5637 cells. The inhibitory effects of DATS on invasiveness were associated with an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance and repression of the levels of claudin family members. Although further studies are needed, our data demonstrate that DATS exhibits anti-invasive effects in 5637 cells by down-regulating the activity of tight junctions and MMPs. DATS may have future utility in clinical applications for treating bladder cancer.

  17. Activation of classical estrogen receptor subtypes reduces tight junction disruption of brain endothelial cells under ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin A; Yoon, Joo Chun; Kim, Minsuk; Park, Eun-Mi

    2016-03-01

    Ischemic stroke, which induces oxidative stress in the brain, disrupts tight junctions (TJs) between brain endothelial cells, resulting in blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and brain edema. Estrogen reduces oxidative stress and protects brain endothelial cells from ischemic insult. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effects of estrogen on TJ disruption and to examine the roles of classical estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ERα- and ERβ, in estrogen effects in brain endothelial cells (bEnd.3) exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) injury. Estrogen pretreatment prevented OGD/R-induced decreases in cell viability and TJ protein levels. ERα- and ERβ-specific agonists also reduced TJ disruption. Knockdown of ERα or ERβ expression partially inhibited the effects of estrogen, but completely reversed the effects of corresponding ER subtype-specific agonists on the outcomes of OGD/R. During the early reperfusion period, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α/vascular endothelial growth factor was associated with decreased expression of occludin and claudin-5, respectively, and these changes in TJ protein levels were differentially regulated by ER subtype-specific agonists. Our results suggest that ERα and ERβ activation reduce TJ disruption via inhibition of signaling molecules after ischemic injury and that targeting each ER subtype can be a useful strategy for protecting the BBB from ischemic stroke in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The roles of tricellular tight junction protein lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor in malignancy of human endometrial cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Hiroshi; Satohisa, Seiro; Kohno, Takayuki; Takahashi, Syunta; Hatakeyama, Tsubasa; Konno, Takumi; Tsujiwaki, Mitsuhiro; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Kojima, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) has been identified as a novel molecular constituent of tricellular contacts that have a barrier function for the cellular sheet. LSR recruits tricellulin (TRIC), which is the first molecular component of tricellular tight junctions. Knockdown of LSR increases cell motility and invasion of certain cancer cells. However, the behavior and the roles of LSR in endometrial cancer remain unknown. In the present study, we investigated the behavior and roles of LSR in normal and endometrial cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. In endometriosis and endometrial cancer, LSR was observed not only in the subapical region but also throughout the lateral region as well as in normal endometrial epithelial cells in the secretory phase, and LSR in the cancer was reduced in correlation with the malignancy. Knockdown of LSR by the siRNA in cells of the endometrial cancer cell line Sawano, induced cell migration, invasion and proliferation, while TRIC relocalized from the tricellular region to the bicellular region at the membrane. In Sawano cells and normal HEEs, a decrease of LSR induced by leptin and an increase of LSR induced by adiponectin and the drugs for type 2 diabetes metformin and berberine were observed via distinct signaling pathways including JAK2/STAT. In Sawano cells, metformin and berberine prevented cell migration and invasion induced by downregulation of LSR by the siRNA and leptin treatment. The dissection of the mechanism in the downregulation of endometrial LSR during obesity is important in developing new diagnostic and therapy for endometrial cancer. PMID:27036040

  19. The roles of tricellular tight junction protein lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor in malignancy of human endometrial cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hiroshi; Satohisa, Seiro; Kohno, Takayuki; Takahashi, Syunta; Hatakeyama, Tsubasa; Konno, Takumi; Tsujiwaki, Mitsuhiro; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Kojima, Takashi

    2016-05-10

    Lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) has been identified as a novel molecular constituent of tricellular contacts that have a barrier function for the cellular sheet. LSR recruits tricellulin (TRIC), which is the first molecular component of tricellular tight junctions. Knockdown of LSR increases cell motility and invasion of certain cancer cells. However, the behavior and the roles of LSR in endometrial cancer remain unknown. In the present study, we investigated the behavior and roles of LSR in normal and endometrial cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. In endometriosis and endometrial cancer, LSR was observed not only in the subapical region but also throughout the lateral region as well as in normal endometrial epithelial cells in the secretory phase, and LSR in the cancer was reduced in correlation with the malignancy. Knockdown of LSR by the siRNA in cells of the endometrial cancer cell line Sawano, induced cell migration, invasion and proliferation, while TRIC relocalized from the tricellular region to the bicellular region at the membrane. In Sawano cells and normal HEEs, a decrease of LSR induced by leptin and an increase of LSR induced by adiponectin and the drugs for type 2 diabetes metformin and berberine were observed via distinct signaling pathways including JAK2/STAT. In Sawano cells, metformin and berberine prevented cell migration and invasion induced by downregulation of LSR by the siRNA and leptin treatment. The dissection of the mechanism in the downregulation of endometrial LSR during obesity is important in developing new diagnostic and therapy for endometrial cancer.

  20. Bile duct epithelial tight junctions and barrier function.

    PubMed

    Rao, R K; Samak, G

    2013-10-01

    Bile ducts play a crucial role in the formation and secretion of bile as well as excretion of circulating xenobiotic substances. In addition to its secretory and excretory functions, bile duct epithelium plays an important role in the formation of a barrier to the diffusion of toxic substances from bile into the hepatic interstitial tissue. Disruption of barrier function and toxic injury to liver cells appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of liver diseases such as primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cirrhosis and cholangiocarcinoma. Although the investigations into understanding the structure and regulation of tight junctions in gut, renal and endothelial tissues have expanded rapidly, very little is known about the structure and regulation of tight junctions in the bile duct epithelium. In this article we summarize the current understanding of physiology and pathophysiology of bile duct epithelium, the structure and regulation of tight junctions in canaliculi and bile duct epithelia and different mechanisms involved in the regulation of disruption and protection of bile duct epithelial tight junctions. This article will make a case for the need of future investigations toward our understanding of molecular organization and regulation of canalicular and bile duct epithelial tight junctions.

  1. Bile duct epithelial tight junctions and barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Rao, R.K.; Samak, G.

    2013-01-01

    Bile ducts play a crucial role in the formation and secretion of bile as well as excretion of circulating xenobiotic substances. In addition to its secretory and excretory functions, bile duct epithelium plays an important role in the formation of a barrier to the diffusion of toxic substances from bile into the hepatic interstitial tissue. Disruption of barrier function and toxic injury to liver cells appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of liver diseases such as primary sclerosing cholangitis, primary biliary cirrhosis and cholangiocarcinoma. Although the investigations into understanding the structure and regulation of tight junctions in gut, renal and endothelial tissues have expanded rapidly, very little is known about the structure and regulation of tight junctions in the bile duct epithelium. In this article we summarize the current understanding of physiology and pathophysiology of bile duct epithelium, the structure and regulation of tight junctions in canaliculi and bile duct epithelia and different mechanisms involved in the regulation of disruption and protection of bile duct epithelial tight junctions. This article will make a case for the need of future investigations toward our understanding of molecular organization and regulation of canalicular and bile duct epithelial tight junctions. PMID:24665411

  2. Testosterone Regulates Tight Junction Proteins and Influences Prostatic Autoimmune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jing; Mostaghel, Elahe A.; Vakar-Lopez, Funda; Montgomery, Bruce; True, Larry; Nelson, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone and inflammation have been linked to the development of common age-associated diseases affecting the prostate gland including prostate cancer, prostatitis, and benign prostatic hypertrophy. We hypothesized that testosterone regulates components of prostate tight junctions which serve as a barrier to inflammation, thus providing a connection between age- and treatment-associated testosterone declines and prostatic pathology. We examined the expression and distribution of tight junction proteins in prostate biospecimens from mouse models and a clinical study of chemical castration, using transcript profiling, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. We determined that low serum testosterone is associated with reduced transcript and protein levels of Claudin 4 and Claudin 8, resulting in defective tight junction ultrastructure in benign prostate glands. Expression of Claudin 4 and Claudin 8 was negatively correlated with the mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate caused by testosterone deprivation. Testosterone suppression also induced an auto-immune humoral response directed toward prostatic proteins. Testosterone supplementation in castrate mice resulted in re-expression of tight junction components in prostate epithelium and significantly reduced prostate inflammatory cell numbers. These data demonstrate that tight junction architecture in the prostate is related to changes in serum testosterone levels, and identify an androgen-regulated mechanism that potentially contributes to the development of prostate inflammation and consequent pathology. PMID:21761342

  3. Somatostatin regulates tight junction proteins expression in colitis mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Wang, Qian; Xu, Hua; Tao, Liping; Lu, Jing; Cai, Lin; Wang, Chunhui

    2014-01-01

    Tight junction plays a critical role in intestinal defence. The alteration and perturbation of tight junction proteins could induce intestine barrier damage, and lead to the malabsorption of electrolytes and water. Previous studies had showed that colonic infection and inflammation could lead to the alteration of tight junction function, and somatostatin could protect intestinal epithelia. Thus, this study could explore that whether somatostatin could regulate tight junction in colitis mice. Colitis mice with diarrhea were induced by Citrobacter rodentium (CR) and Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). In CR infected model, cladudin-1 and claudin-3 expression significantly decreased compared with the control mice (P<0.05); after octreotide treatment, claudin-1 and claudin-3 expression significantly increased compared with untreated CR infected mice (P<0.05). In DSS colitis model, occludin and claudin-3 expression significantly decreased compared with the control mice (P<0.05); and octreotide treatment could only significantly upregulate claudin-3 expression compared with untreated DSS colitis mice (P<0.05). To testify our results in vivo, we repeated the models in caco-2 cells by exposed with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (E. Coli) and Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). The results in vitro were consistent with in vivo study. The results suggested that somatostatin play a role in intestinal barrier protection by modulating tight junction proteins expression.

  4. Somatostatin regulates tight junction proteins expression in colitis mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao; Wang, Qian; Xu, Hua; Tao, Liping; Lu, Jing; Cai, Lin; Wang, Chunhui

    2014-01-01

    Tight junction plays a critical role in intestinal defence. The alteration and perturbation of tight junction proteins could induce intestine barrier damage, and lead to the malabsorption of electrolytes and water. Previous studies had showed that colonic infection and inflammation could lead to the alteration of tight junction function, and somatostatin could protect intestinal epithelia. Thus, this study could explore that whether somatostatin could regulate tight junction in colitis mice. Colitis mice with diarrhea were induced by Citrobacter rodentium (CR) and Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). In CR infected model, cladudin-1 and claudin-3 expression significantly decreased compared with the control mice (P < 0.05); after octreotide treatment, claudin-1 and claudin-3 expression significantly increased compared with untreated CR infected mice (P < 0.05). In DSS colitis model, occludin and claudin-3 expression significantly decreased compared with the control mice (P < 0.05); and octreotide treatment could only significantly upregulate claudin-3 expression compared with untreated DSS colitis mice (P < 0.05). To testify our results in vivo, we repeated the models in caco-2 cells by exposed with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (E. Coli) and Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). The results in vitro were consistent with in vivo study. The results suggested that somatostatin play a role in intestinal barrier protection by modulating tight junction proteins expression. PMID:24966923

  5. Remodeling of Tight Junctions and Enhancement of Barrier Integrity of the CACO-2 Intestinal Epithelial Cell Layer by Micronutrients.

    PubMed

    Valenzano, Mary Carmen; DiGuilio, Katherine; Mercado, Joanna; Teter, Mimi; To, Julie; Ferraro, Brendan; Mixson, Brittany; Manley, Isabel; Baker, Valerissa; Moore, Beverley A; Wertheimer, Joshua; Mullin, James M

    2015-01-01

    The micronutrients zinc, quercetin, butyrate, indole and berberine were evaluated for their ability to induce remodeling of epithelial tight junctions (TJs) and enhance barrier integrity in the CACO-2 gastrointestinal epithelial cell culture model. All five of these chemically very diverse micronutrients increased transepithelial electrical resistance (Rt) significantly, but only berberine also improved barrier integrity to the non-electrolyte D-mannitol. Increases of Rt as much as 200% of untreated controls were observed. Each of the five micronutrients also induced unique, signature-like changes in TJ protein composition, suggesting multiple pathways (and TJ arrangements) by which TJ barrier function can be enhanced. Decreases in abundance by as much as 90% were observed for claudin-2, and increases of over 300% could be seen for claudins -5 and -7. The exact effects of the micronutrients on barrier integrity and TJ protein composition were found to be highly dependent on the degree of differentiation of the cell layer at the time it was exposed to the micronutrient. The substratum to which the epithelial layer adheres was also found to regulate the response of the cell layer to the micronutrient. The implications of these findings for therapeutically decreasing morbidity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease are discussed.

  6. Remodeling of Tight Junctions and Enhancement of Barrier Integrity of the CACO-2 Intestinal Epithelial Cell Layer by Micronutrients

    PubMed Central

    Valenzano, Mary Carmen; DiGuilio, Katherine; Mercado, Joanna; Teter, Mimi; To, Julie; Ferraro, Brendan; Mixson, Brittany; Manley, Isabel; Baker, Valerissa; Moore, Beverley A.; Wertheimer, Joshua; Mullin, James M.

    2015-01-01

    The micronutrients zinc, quercetin, butyrate, indole and berberine were evaluated for their ability to induce remodeling of epithelial tight junctions (TJs) and enhance barrier integrity in the CACO-2 gastrointestinal epithelial cell culture model. All five of these chemically very diverse micronutrients increased transepithelial electrical resistance (Rt) significantly, but only berberine also improved barrier integrity to the non-electrolyte D-mannitol. Increases of Rt as much as 200% of untreated controls were observed. Each of the five micronutrients also induced unique, signature-like changes in TJ protein composition, suggesting multiple pathways (and TJ arrangements) by which TJ barrier function can be enhanced. Decreases in abundance by as much as 90% were observed for claudin-2, and increases of over 300% could be seen for claudins -5 and -7. The exact effects of the micronutrients on barrier integrity and TJ protein composition were found to be highly dependent on the degree of differentiation of the cell layer at the time it was exposed to the micronutrient. The substratum to which the epithelial layer adheres was also found to regulate the response of the cell layer to the micronutrient. The implications of these findings for therapeutically decreasing morbidity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease are discussed. PMID:26226276

  7. Physiology and Function of the Tight Junction

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, James M.; Van Itallie, Christina M.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of tight junctions has evolved from their historical perception as inert solute barriers to recognition of their physiological and biochemical complexity. Many proteins are specifically localized to tight junctions, including cytoplasmic actin-binding proteins and adhesive transmembrane proteins. Among the latter are claudins, which are critical barrier proteins. Current information suggests that the paracellular barrier is most usefully modeled as having two physiologic components: a system of charge-selective small pores, 4 Å in radius, and a second pathway created by larger discontinuities in the barrier, lacking charge or size discrimination. The first pathway is influenced by claudin expression patterns and the second is likely controlled by different proteins and signals. Recent information on claudin function and disease-causing mutations have led to a more complete understanding of their role in barrier formation, but progress is impeded by lack of high resolution structural information. PMID:20066090

  8. Imaging analysis of the gliadin direct effect on tight junctions in an in vitro three-dimensional Lovo cell line culture system.

    PubMed

    Elli, Luca; Roncoroni, Leda; Doneda, Luisa; Ciulla, Michele M; Colombo, Roberto; Braidotti, Paola; Bonura, Antonella; Bardella, Maria Teresa

    2011-02-01

    Tight junctions play a pivotal role in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal barrier. Their alteration is involved in the pathogenesis of celiac disease. Our aim was to investigate the gliadin effect on the tight junction proteins in an in vitro three-dimensional cell culture model through imaging analyses. Lovo multicellular spheroids were treated with enzymatically digested (PT) gliadin 500 μg/mL and its effect on actin, occludin and zonula occludens-1, was evaluated by means of confocal laser microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and image capture analysis. Compared to untreated spheroids, PT-gliadin-treated ones showed enlargement of the paracellular spaces (9.0±6.9 vs. 6.2±1.7 nm, p<0.05) at transmission electron microscopy and tight junction protein alterations at confocal microscopy and image analyses. In untreated cell cultures thickness of the fluorescence contour of actin, zonula occludens-1 and occludin appeared significantly larger and more intense than in the treated ones. In occludin planimetric analysis the lengths of the integral uninterrupted cellular contour appeared longer in untreated than in PT-gliadin treated spheroids (71.8±42.8 vs. 23.4±25.9 μm, p<0.01). Our data demonstrated that tight junction proteins are directly damaged by gliadin as shown by means of quantitative imaging analysis.

  9. The effect of phytic acid on tight junctions in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line and its mechanism.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qingxue; Wang, Huizhen; Xia, Mengxin; Deng, Bing; Shen, Hongyi; Ji, Guang; Li, Guowen; Xie, Yan

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of phytic acid (IP6), a potential absorption enhancer of flavonoid components, on tight junction (TJ) integrity in Caco-2 cell monolayers and its possible mechanisms. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) across the monolayers decreased rapidly, and the flux of fluorescein sodium (a paracellular marker) increased after treating with IP6 in a concentration-dependent manner. Confocal microscopy results showed that IP6 produced a concentration-dependent attenuation in the distribution of occludin, ZO-1, and claudin-1. Immunoblot analysis revealed that IP6 could down-regulate the expression level of these TJ proteins, which resulted in the opening of TJ. Additionally, the divalent cations Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) influenced the IP6-induced distribution of occludin, ZO-1, and claudin-1 in different directions, which enhanced barrier function. In conclusion, IP6 can decrease the integrity of Caco-2 cell monolayers by modulating the TJ proteins' localization and down-regulating the expression levels of TJ proteins including claudin-1, occludin, and ZO-1; the reduction effects of divalent cations such as Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) on the regulation of TJ induced by IP6 should be addressed. The present work will offer some useful guidance for the application of IP6 in drug delivery area.

  10. Collagen peptides ameliorate intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction in immunostimulatory Caco-2 cell monolayers via enhancing tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qianru; Chen, Oliver; Martins, Isabela M; Hou, Hu; Zhao, Xue; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Li, Bafang

    2017-03-22

    Dysfunction of the intestinal barrier plays a key role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and multiple organ failure. The effect of Alaska pollock skin-derived collagen and its 3 tryptic hydrolytic fractions, HCP (6 kDa retentate), MCP (3 kDa retentate) and LCP (3 kDa permeate) on TNF-α induced barrier dysfunction was investigated in Caco-2 cell monolayers. TNF-α induced barrier dysfunction was significantly attenuated by the collagen and its peptide fractions, especially LCP, compared to TNF-α treated controls (P < 0.05). Compared to a negative control, 24 h pre-incubation with 2 mg mL(-1) LCP significantly alleviated the TNF-α induced breakdown of the tight junction protein ZO-1 and occludin and inhibited MLC phosphorylation and MLCK expression. The activation of NFκB and Elk-1 was suppressed by LCP. Thus, collagen peptides may attenuate TNF-α induced barrier dysfunction of Caco-2 cells by inhibiting the NFκB and ERK1/2-mediated MLCK pathway with associated decreases in ZO-1 and occludin protein expression.

  11. TRPV4 Regulates Tight Junctions and Affects Differentiation in a Cell Culture Model of the Corneal Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rendón, Jacqueline; Sánchez-Guzmán, Erika; Rueda, Angélica; González, James; Gulias-Cañizo, Rosario; Aquino-Jarquín, Guillermo; Castro-Muñozledo, Federico; García-Villegas, Refugio

    2017-07-01

    TRPV4 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 4) is a cation channel activated by hypotonicity, moderate heat, or shear stress. We describe the expression of TRPV4 during the differentiation of a corneal epithelial cell model, RCE1(5T5) cells. TRPV4 is a late differentiation feature that is concentrated in the apical membrane of the outmost cell layer of the stratified epithelia. Ca(2+) imaging experiments showed that TRPV4 activation with GSK1016790A produced an influx of calcium that was blunted by the specific TRPV4 blocker RN-1734. We analyzed the involvement of TRPV4 in RCE1(5T5) epithelial differentiation by measuring the development of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) as an indicator of the tight junction (TJ) assembly. We showed that TRPV4 activity was necessary to establish the TJ. In differentiated epithelia, activation of TRPV4 increases the TER and the accumulation of claudin-4 in cell-cell contacts. Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) up-regulates the TER of corneal epithelial cultures, and we show here that TRPV4 activation mimicked this EGF effect. Conversely, TRPV4 inhibition or knock down by specific shRNA prevented the increase in TER. Moreover, TRPP2, an EGF-activated channel that forms heteromeric complexes with TRPV4, is also concentrated in the outmost cell layer of differentiated RCE1(5T5) sheets. This suggests that the EGF regulation of the TJ may involve a heterotetrameric TRPV4-TRPP2 channel. These results demonstrated TRPV4 activity was necessary for the correct establishment of TJ in corneal epithelia and as well as the regulation of both the barrier function of TJ and its ability to respond to EGF. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1794-1807, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. AB223. Expression of tight junction proteins in rat vagina

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Kyung Jin; Lee, Hyun-Suk; Chung, Ho Suck; Ahn, Kyu Youn; Park, Kwangsung

    2014-01-01

    Aim Tight junction plays a role in apical cell-to-cell adhesion and epithelial polarity. In this study, we investigated the expression of tight junction proteins, such as Claudin-1, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, junction adhesion molecule (JAM)-A, and occludin in rat vagina. Methods Female Sprague-dawley rats (230-240 g, n=20) were divided into two groups: control (n=10) and bilateral ovariectomy (n=10). The expression and cellular localization of claudin-1, ZO-1, JAM-A, and occludin were determined in each group by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Results Immunolabeling of ZO-1 was mainly expressed in the capillaries and venules of the vagina. Claudin-1, JAM-A, and occludin were expressed in the epithelium of the vagina. The immunoreactivity and protein expression of claudin-1 was significantly decreased in the ovariectomy group compared with the control group. Conclusions Our results suggest that tight junction proteins may have an important role in the vagina. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of each tight junction protein on vaginal lubrication.

  13. Inhibition of Autophagic Degradation Process Contributes to Claudin-2 Expression Increase and Epithelial Tight Junction Dysfunction in TNF-α Treated Cell Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cong; Yan, Junkai; Xiao, Yongtao; Shen, Yujie; Wang, Jiazheng; Ge, Wensong; Chen, Yingwei

    2017-01-01

    Tight junction dysfunction plays a vital role in some chronic inflammatory diseases. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), act as important factors in intestinal epithelial tight junction dysfunction during inflammatory conditions. Autophagy has also been shown to be crucial in tight junction function and claudin-2 expression, but whether autophagy has an effect on the change of claudin-2 expression and tight junction function induced by TNF-α is still unknown. To answer this question, we examined the expression of claudin-2 protein, transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), and permeability of cell monolayers, autophagy flux change, and lysosomal pH after TNF-α with or without PP242 treatment. Our study showed that claudin-2 expression, intestinal permeability, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B II (LC3B-II) and sequestosome 1 (P62) expression largely increased while TER values decreased in TNF-α treated cell monolayers. Further research using 3-methyladenine (3-MA), bafilomycin A1, and ad-mCherry-GFP-LC3B adenovirus demonstrated that LC3B-II increase induced by TNF-α was attributed to the inhibition of autophagic degradation. Moreover, both qualitative and quantitative method confirmed the increase of lysosomal pH, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor PP242 treatment relieved this elevation. Moreover, PP242 treatment also alleviated the change of autophagy flux, TER, and claudin-2 expression induced by TNF-α. Therefore, we conclude that increase of claudin-2 levels and intestinal epithelial tight junction dysfunction are partly caused by the inhibition of autophagic degradation in TNF-α treated cell monolayers. PMID:28106723

  14. Non-classical testosterone signaling mediated through ZIP9 stimulates claudin expression and tight junction formation in Sertoli cells.

    PubMed

    Bulldan, Ahmed; Dietze, Raimund; Shihan, Mazen; Scheiner-Bobis, Georgios

    2016-08-01

    In the classical signaling pathway, testosterone regulates gene expression by activating the cytosolic/nuclear androgen receptor. In the non-classical pathway, testosterone activates cytosolic signaling cascades that are normally triggered by growth factors. The nature of the receptor involved in this signaling pathway is a source of controversy. In the Sertoli cell line 93RS2, which lacks the classical AR, we determined that testosterone stimulates the non-classical signaling pathway, characterized by the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and transcription factors CREB and ATF-1. We also demonstrated that testosterone increases the expression of the tight junction (TJ) proteins claudin-1 and claudin-5. Both of these proteins are known to be essential constituents of TJs between Sertoli cells, and as a consequence of their increased expression transepithelial resistance across Sertoli cell monolayers is increased. ZIP9 is a Zn(2+)transporter that was recently shown to be a membrane-bound testosterone receptor. Silencing its expression in 93RS2 Sertoli cells by siRNA completely prevents Erk1/2, CREB, and ATF-1 phosphorylation as well the stimulation of claudin-1 and -5 expression and TJ formation between neighboring cells. The study presented here demonstrates for the first time that in Sertoli cells testosterone acts through the receptor ZIP9 to trigger the non-classical signaling cascade, resulting in increased claudin expression and TJ formation. Since TJ formation is a prerequisite for the maintenance of the blood-testis barrier, the testosterone/ZIP9 effects might be significant for male physiology. Further assessment of these interactions will help to supplement our knowledge concerning the mechanism by which testosterone plays a role in male fertility.

  15. The PIKfyve Inhibitor YM201636 Blocks the Continuous Recycling of the Tight Junction Proteins Claudin-1 and Claudin-2 in MDCK cells

    PubMed Central

    Dukes, Joseph D.

    2012-01-01

    Tight junctions mediate the intercellular diffusion barrier found in epithelial tissues but they are not static complexes; instead there is rapid movement of individual proteins within the junctions. In addition some tight junction proteins are continuously being endocytosed and recycled back to the plasma membrane. Understanding the dynamic behaviour of tight junctions is important as they are altered in a range of pathological conditions including cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. In this study we investigate the effect of treating epithelial cells with a small molecule inhibitor (YM201636) of the lipid kinase PIKfyve, a protein which is involved in endocytic trafficking. We show that MDCK cells treated with YM201636 accumulate the tight junction protein claudin-1 intracellularly. In contrast YM201636 did not alter the localization of other junction proteins including ZO-1, occludin and E-cadherin. A biochemical trafficking assay was used to show that YM201636 inhibited the endocytic recycling of claudin-1, providing an explanation for the intracellular accumulation. Claudin-2 was also found to constantly recycle in confluent MDCK cells and treatment with YM201636 blocked this recycling and caused accumulation of intracellular claudin-2. However, claudin-4 showed negligible endocytosis and no detectable intracellular accumulation occurred following treatment with YM201636, suggesting that not all claudins show the same rate of endocytic trafficking. Finally, we show that, consistent with the defects in claudin trafficking, incubation with YM201636 delayed formation of the epithelial permeability barrier. Therefore, YM201636 treatment blocks the continuous recycling of claudin-1/claudin-2 and delays epithelial barrier formation. PMID:22396724

  16. Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and -9 Secreted by Leukemic Cells Increase the Permeability of Blood-Brain Barrier by Disrupting Tight Junction Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Saran; Cen, Jiannong; Huang, Yihong; Shen, Hongjie; Yao, Li; Wang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Zixing

    2011-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in acute leukemia, the mechanisms of leukemic cell infiltration into the CNS have not yet been elucidated. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) makes CNS become a refugee to leukemic cells and serves as a resource of cells that seed extraneural sites. How can the leukemic cells disrupt this barrier and invasive the CNS, even if many of the currently available chemotherapies can not cross the BBB? Tight junction in endothelial cells occupies a central role in the function of the BBB. Except the well known role of degrading extracellular matrix in metastasis of cancer cells, here we show matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9, secreted by leukemic cells, mediate the BBB opening by disrupting tight junction proteins in the CNS leukemia. We demonstrated that leukemic cells impaired tight junction proteins ZO-1, claudin-5 and occludin resulting in increased permeability of the BBB. However, these alterations reduced when MMP-2 and -9 activities were inhibited by RNA interference strategy or by MMP inhibitor GM6001 in an in vitro BBB model. We also found that the disruption of the BBB in company with the down-regulation of ZO-1, claudin-5 and occludin and the up-regulation of MMP-2 and -9 in mouse brain tissues with leukemic cell infiltration by confocal imaging and the assay of in situ gelatin zymography. Besides, GM6001 protected all mice against CNS leukemia. Our findings suggest that the degradation of tight junction proteins ZO-1, claudin-5 and occludin by MMP-2 and -9 secreted by leukemic cells constitutes an important mechanism in the BBB breakdown which contributes to the invasion of leukemic cells to the CNS in acute leukemia. PMID:21857898

  17. Tight Junction Pore and Leak Pathways: A Dynamic Duo

    PubMed Central

    Raleigh, David R.; Yu, Dan; Turner, Jerrold R.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue barriers that restrict passage of liquids, ions, and larger solutes are essential for the development of multicellular organisms. In simple organisms this allows distinct cell types to interface with the external environment. In more complex species, the diversity of cell types capable of forming barriers increases dramatically. Although the plasma membranes of these barrier-forming cells prevent flux of most hydrophilic solutes, the paracellular, or shunt, pathway between cells must also be sealed. This function is accomplished in vertebrates by the zonula occludens, or tight junction. The tight junction barrier is not absolute but is selectively permeable and is able to discriminate between solutes on the basis of size and charge. Many tight junction components have been identified over the past 20 years, and recent progress has provided new insights into the proteins and interactions that regulate structure and function. This review presents these data in a historical context and proposes an integrated model in which dynamic regulation of tight junction protein interactions determines barrier function. PMID:20936941

  18. Caveolae-mediated Internalization of Occludin and Claudin-5 during CCL2-induced Tight Junction Remodeling in Brain Endothelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Stamatovic, Svetlana M.; Keep, Richard F.; Wang, Michael M.; Jankovic, Ivana; Andjelkovic, Anuska V.

    2009-01-01

    Disturbance of the tight junction (TJ) complexes between brain endothelial cells leads to increased paracellular permeability, allowing leukocyte entry into inflamed brain tissue and also contributing to edema formation. The current study dissects the mechanisms by which a chemokine, CCL2, induces TJ disassembly. It investigates the potential role of selective internalization of TJ transmembrane proteins (occludin and claudin-5) in increased permeability of the brain endothelial barrier in vitro. To map the internalization and intracellular fate of occludin and claudin-5, green fluorescent protein fusion proteins of these TJ proteins were generated and imaged by fluorescent microscopy with simultaneous measurement of transendothelial electrical resistance. During CCL2-induced reductions in transendothelial electrical resistance, claudin-5 and occludin became internalized via caveolae and further processed to early (EEA1+) and recycling (Rab4+) endosomes but not to late endosomes. Western blot analysis of fractions collected from a sucrose gradient showed the presence of claudin-5 and occludin in the same fractions that contained caveolin-1. For the first time, these results suggest an underlying molecular mechanism by which the pro-inflammatory chemokine CCL2 mediates brain endothelial barrier disruption during CNS inflammation. PMID:19423710

  19. Caveolae-mediated internalization of occludin and claudin-5 during CCL2-induced tight junction remodeling in brain endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Stamatovic, Svetlana M; Keep, Richard F; Wang, Michael M; Jankovic, Ivana; Andjelkovic, Anuska V

    2009-07-10

    Disturbance of the tight junction (TJ) complexes between brain endothelial cells leads to increased paracellular permeability, allowing leukocyte entry into inflamed brain tissue and also contributing to edema formation. The current study dissects the mechanisms by which a chemokine, CCL2, induces TJ disassembly. It investigates the potential role of selective internalization of TJ transmembrane proteins (occludin and claudin-5) in increased permeability of the brain endothelial barrier in vitro. To map the internalization and intracellular fate of occludin and claudin-5, green fluorescent protein fusion proteins of these TJ proteins were generated and imaged by fluorescent microscopy with simultaneous measurement of transendothelial electrical resistance. During CCL2-induced reductions in transendothelial electrical resistance, claudin-5 and occludin became internalized via caveolae and further processed to early (EEA1+) and recycling (Rab4+) endosomes but not to late endosomes. Western blot analysis of fractions collected from a sucrose gradient showed the presence of claudin-5 and occludin in the same fractions that contained caveolin-1. For the first time, these results suggest an underlying molecular mechanism by which the pro-inflammatory chemokine CCL2 mediates brain endothelial barrier disruption during CNS inflammation.

  20. Kaempferol enhances intestinal barrier function through the cytoskeletal association and expression of tight junction proteins in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takuya; Tanabe, Soichi; Hara, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Kaempferol, a natural flavonoid present in fruits, vegetables, and teas, provides beneficial effects for human health. We investigated the promotive effect of kaempferol on tight junction (TJ) barrier integrity in human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER; a TJ integrity marker) across the monolayers rapidly and markedly increased during the first 6 h after kaempferol administration and remained elevated until 48 h without any changes in the lucifer yellow or dextran fluxes. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that kaempferol promoted the actin cytoskeletal association of the TJ proteins, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, ZO-2, occludin, claudin-1, claudin-3, and claudin-4, which was associated with the increase in TER. Kaempferol-mediated ZO-2 and claudin-4 expression was relatively smaller or occurred later than the kaempferol-promoted cytoskeletal association. Confocal microscopy showed that kaempferol-induced assembly of occludin and claudin-3 occurred at the TJ at 6 h postadministration. Extraction of cholesterol with methyl-β-cyclodextrin suppressed the kaempferol-mediated increase in TER. Sucrose density gradient centrifugation showed that the kaempferol treatment increased the TJ protein distributions in the cholesterol-rich lipid microdomain fraction. Taken together, these results indicate that the membrane lipid microdomain is involved in the kaempferol-mediated promotion of TJ protein assembly and intestinal TJ integrity.

  1. Cinnamicaldehyde regulates the expression of tight junction proteins and amino acid transporters in intestinal porcine epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kaiji; Lei, Yan; Wang, Renjie; Wu, Zhenlong; Wu, Guoyao

    2017-01-01

    Cinnamicaldehyde (CA) is a key flavor compound in cinnamon essential oil possessing various bioactivities. Tight junction (TJ) proteins are vital for the maintenance of intestinal epithelial barrier function, transport, absorption and utilization of dietary amino acids and other nutrients. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that CA may regulate the expression of TJ proteins and amino acid transporters in intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-1) isolated from neonatal pigs. Compared with the control, cells incubated with 25 μmol/L CA had increased transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and decreased paracellular intestinal permeability. The beneficial effect of CA on mucosal barrier function was associated with enhanced protein abundance for claudin-4, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, ZO-2, and ZO-3. Immunofluorescence staining showed that 25 μmol/L CA promoted the localization of claudin-1 and claudin-3 to the plasma membrane without affecting the localization of other TJ proteins, including claudin-4, occludin, ZO-1, ZO-2, and ZO-3, compared with the control cells. Moreover, protein abundances for rBAT, xCT and LAT2 in IPEC-1 cells were enhanced by 25 μmol/L CA, while that for EAAT3 was not affected. CA improves  intestinal mucosal barrier function by regulating the distribution of claudin-1 and claudin-3 in enterocytes, as well as enhancing protein abundance for amino acid transporters rBAT, xCT and LAT2 in enterocytes. Supplementation with CA may provide an effective nutritional strategy to improve intestinal integrity and amino acid transport and absorption in piglets.

  2. Differential pathways of claudin oligomerization and integration into tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Koval, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Tight junctions are the critical intercellular structure required to establish an epithelial barrier. Among the several classes of proteins required to form tight junctions are the tetraspan transmembrane proteins known as claudins that directly determine paracellular permeability. Considerable progress has been made in understanding how incorporation of different claudins into tight junctions increase or decrease paracellular permeability and ion selectivity. However, it has proven difficult to identify discrete steps in claudin assembly and whether claudins exist in distinct oligomerization states prior to tight junction assembly. Studies of homomeric and heteromeric claudin-claudin interactions using complementary techniques suggest a diversity of pathways used by different claudins to oligomerize and integrate into tight junctions.

  3. The rotavirus surface protein VP8 modulates the gate and fence function of tight junctions in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nava, Porfirio; López, Susana; Arias, Carlos F; Islas, Socorro; González-Mariscal, Lorenza

    2004-11-01

    Rotaviruses constitute a major cause of diarrhea in young mammals. Rotaviruses utilize different integrins as cell receptors, therefore upon their arrival to the intestinal lumen their integrin receptors will be hidden below the tight junction (TJ), on the basolateral membrane. Here we have studied whether the rotavirus outer capsid proteins are capable of opening the paracellular space sealed by the TJ. From the outermost layer of proteins of the rotavirus, 60 spikes formed of protein VP4 are projected. VP4 is essential for virus-cell interactions and is cleaved by trypsin into peptides VP5 and VP8. Here we found that when these peptides are added to confluent epithelial monolayers (Madin-Darby canine kidney cells), VP8 is capable of diminishing in a dose dependent and reversible manner the transepithelial electrical resistance. VP5 exerted no effect. VP8 can also inhibit the development of newly formed TJs in a Ca-switch assay. Treatment with VP8 augments the paracellular passage of non-ionic tracers, allows the diffusion of a fluorescent lipid probe and the apical surface protein GP135, from the luminal to the lateral membrane, and triggers the movement of the basolateral proteins Na+-K+-ATPase, alphanubeta3 integrin and beta1 integrin subunit, to the apical surface. VP8 generates a freeze-fracture pattern of TJs characterized by the appearance of loose end filaments, that correlates with an altered distribution of several TJ proteins. VP8 given orally to diabetic rats allows the enteral administration of insulin, thus indicating that it can be employed to modulate epithelial permeability.

  4. Use of Z310 Cells as an In Vitro Blood-Cerebrospinal Fluid Barrier Model: Tight Junction Proteins and Transport Properties

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lewis Zhichang; Li, G. Jane; Wang, Shunzhen; Zheng, Wei

    2009-01-01

    Immortalized rat choroidal epithelial Z310 cells have the potential to become an in vitro model for studying transport of materials at blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCB) (Shi and Zheng, Brain Research 1057:37-48, 2005). This study was designed to demonstrate the presence of tight junction properties in Z310 cells and the functionality of Z310 monolayer in transport of selected model compounds. Western blot analyses revealed the presence of claudin-1, ZO-1, and occludin in Z310 cells. Transmission electron microscopy showed a “tight junction” type of structure in the sub-apical lateral membranes between adjacent Z310 cells. Real-time RT-PCR revealed that Z310 cells expressed representative transporters such as DMT1, MTP1, TfR, p-glycoprotein, ATP7A, ZnT1, ABCC1, Oat3, OCT1 and OB-Ra. Moreover, Z310 cells cultured in a two-chamber Transwell device possessed the ability to transport zidovudine (anionic drug), thyroxine (hormone), thymidine (nucleoside), and leptin (large polypeptide) with kinetic properties similar to those obtained from the in vitro model based on primary culture of choroidal epithelial cells. Taken together, these data indicate that the Z310 BCB model expresses major tight junction proteins and forms a tight barrier in vitro. The model also exhibits the ability to transport substances of various categories across the barrier. PMID:17825520

  5. TNF-α Signals Through PKCζ/NF-κB to Alter the Tight Junction Complex and Increase Retinal Endothelial Cell Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Aveleira, Célia A.; Lin, Cheng-Mao; Abcouwer, Steven F.; Ambrósio, António F.; Antonetti, David A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) are elevated in the vitreous of diabetic patients and in retinas of diabetic rats associated with increased retinal vascular permeability. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying retinal vascular permeability induced by these cytokines are poorly understood. In this study, the effects of IL-1β and TNF-α on retinal endothelial cell permeability were compared and the molecular mechanisms by which TNF-α increases cell permeability were elucidated. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cytokine-induced retinal vascular permeability was measured in bovine retinal endothelial cells (BRECs) and rat retinas. Western blotting, quantitative real-time PCR, and immunocytochemistry were performed to determine tight junction protein expression and localization. RESULTS IL-1β and TNF-α increased BREC permeability, and TNF-α was more potent. TNF-α decreased the protein and mRNA content of the tight junction proteins ZO-1 and claudin-5 and altered the cellular localization of these tight junction proteins. Dexamethasone prevented TNF-α–induced cell permeability through glucocorticoid receptor transactivation and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) transrepression. Preventing NF-κB activation with an inhibitor κB kinase (IKK) chemical inhibitor or adenoviral overexpression of inhibitor κB alpha (IκBα) reduced TNF-α–stimulated permeability. Finally, inhibiting protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ) using both a peptide and a novel chemical inhibitor reduced NF-κB activation and completely prevented the alterations in the tight junction complex and cell permeability induced by TNF-α in cell culture and rat retinas. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that PKCζ may provide a specific therapeutic target for the prevention of vascular permeability in retinal diseases characterized by elevated TNF-α, including diabetic retinopathy. PMID:20693346

  6. Diabetes and exposure to peritoneal dialysis solutions alter tight junction proteins and glucose transporters of rat peritoneal mesothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Debray-García, Yazmin; Sánchez, Elsa I; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Rafael; Venegas, Miguel A; Velazquez, Josue; Reyes, José L

    2016-09-15

    To evaluate alterations in tight junction (TJ) proteins and glucose transporters in rat peritoneal mesothelial cells (RPMC) from diabetic rats and after treatment with peritoneal dialysis solutions (PDS) in vitro. Diabetes was induced in female Wistar rats by streptozotocin (STZ)-injection. Twenty-one days after STZ-injection, peritoneal thickness and mesothelial cell morphology were studied by light microscopy and microvilli length and density by atomic force microscopy. RPMC were obtained from healthy and diabetic rats. Mesothelial phenotype, evaluated by cytokeratin and pan-cadherin, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), evaluated by alpha-smooth muscle action (α-SMA) and vimentin, TJ proteins, claudins-1 and -2, and occludin, and glucose transporters, sodium and glucose co-transporters (SGLT) -1 and -2 and facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT) -1 and -2 were analyzed. Also, transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) was measured. Oxidative stress was estimated by measuring reactive oxygen species production, and protein carbonylation, receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), nuclear factor erythroid related factor-2 (Nrf-2), and expression of antioxidant enzymes. Peritoneal damage was present 21days after STZ-injection. Diabetes induced changes in TJ and glucose transporters in RPMC together with decreased TER. RPMC from diabetic rats showed oxidative stress, which was enhanced by exposure to PDS. In addition, RPMC from diabetic rats showed early EMT. To our knowledge, this is the first study that shows changes in TJ proteins and glucose transporters of RPMC from diabetic rats. All these alterations might explain the increased peritoneal permeability observed in diabetic patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Loss of occludin expression and impairment of blood-testis barrier permeability in rats with autoimmune orchitis: effect of interleukin 6 on Sertoli cell tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Cecilia Valeria; Sobarzo, Cristian Marcelo; Jacobo, Patricia Verónica; Pellizzari, Eliana Herminia; Cigorraga, Selva Beatriz; Denduchis, Berta; Lustig, Livia

    2012-11-01

    Inflammation of the male reproductive tract is accepted as being an important etiological factor of infertility. Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) is characterized by interstitial lymphomononuclear cell infiltration and severe damage of seminiferous tubules with germ cells that undergo apoptosis and sloughing. Because the blood-testis barrier (BTB) is relevant for the protection of haploid germ cells against immune attack, the aim of this study was to analyze BTB permeability and the expression of tight junction proteins (occludin, claudin 11, and tight junction protein 1 [TJP1]) in rats during development of autoimmune orchitis. The role of IL6 as modulator of tight junction dynamics was also evaluated because intratesticular content of this cytokine is increased in EAO rats. Orchitis was induced in Sprague-Dawley adult rats by active immunization with testicular homogenate and adjuvants. Control rats (C) were injected with saline solution and adjuvants. Untreated (N) rats were also studied. Concomitant with early signs of germ cell sloughing, a reduced expression of occludin and delocalization of claudin 11 and TJP1 were detected in the testes of rats with EAO compared to C and N groups. The use of tracers showed increased BTB permeability in EAO rats. Intratesticular injection of IL6 induced focal testicular inflammation, which is associated with damaged seminiferous tubules. Rat Sertoli cells cultured in the presence of IL6 exhibited a redistribution of tight junction proteins and reduced transepithelial electrical resistance. These data indicate the possibility that IL6 might be involved in the downregulation of occludin expression and in the modulation of BTB permeability that occur in rats undergoing autoimmune orchitis.

  8. Glucocorticoids induce transactivation of tight junction genes occludin and claudin-5 in retinal endothelial cells via a novel cis-element.

    PubMed

    Felinski, Edward A; Cox, Amy E; Phillips, Brett E; Antonetti, David A

    2008-06-01

    Tight junctions between vascular endothelial cells help to create the blood-brain and blood-retinal barriers. Breakdown of the retinal tight junction complex is problematic in several disease states including diabetic retinopathy. Glucocorticoids can restore and/or preserve the endothelial barrier to paracellular permeability, although the mechanism remains unclear. We show that glucocorticoid treatment of primary retinal endothelial cells increases content of the tight junction proteins occludin and claudin-5, co-incident with an increase in barrier properties of endothelial monolayers. The glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 reverses both the glucocorticoid-stimulated increase in occludin content and the increase in barrier properties. Transcriptional activity from the human occludin and claudin-5 promoters increases in retinal endothelial cells upon glucocorticoid treatment, and is dependent on the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) as demonstrated by siRNA. Deletion analysis of the occludin promoter reveals a 205bp sequence responsible for the glucocorticoid response. However, this region does not possess a canonical glucocorticoid response element and does not bind to the GR in a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. Mutational analysis of this region revealed a novel 40bp occludin enhancer element (OEE), containing two highly conserved regions of 10 and 13 base pairs, that is both necessary and sufficient for glucocorticoid-induced gene expression in retinal endothelial cells. These data suggest a novel mechanism for glucocorticoid induction of vascular endothelial barrier properties through increased occludin and claudin-5 gene expression.

  9. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells disrupt bronchial epithelial barrier integrity by targeting tight junctions through IL-13 in asthmatic patients.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Kazunari; Steer, Catherine A; Martinez-Gonzalez, Itziar; Altunbulakli, Can; Morita, Hideaki; Castro-Giner, Francesc; Kubo, Terufumi; Wawrzyniak, Paulina; Rückert, Beate; Sudo, Katsuko; Nakae, Susumu; Matsumoto, Kenji; O'Mahony, Liam; Akdis, Mübeccel; Takei, Fumio; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2017-04-06

    Bronchial epithelial barrier leakiness and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) have been separately linked to asthma pathogenesis; however, the influence of ILC2s on the bronchial epithelial barrier has not been investigated previously. We investigated the role of ILC2s in the regulation of bronchial epithelial tight junctions (TJs) and barrier function both in bronchial epithelial cells of asthmatic patients and healthy subjects and general innate lymphoid cell- and ILC2-deficient mice. Cocultures of human ILC2s and bronchial epithelial cells were used to determine transepithelial electrical resistance, paracellular flux, and TJ mRNA and protein expressions. The effect of ILC2s on TJs was examined by using a murine model of IL-33-induced airway inflammation in wild-type, recombination-activating gene 2 (Rag2)(-/-), Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-), and Rora(sg/sg) mice undergoing bone marrow transplantation to analyze the in vivo relevance of barrier disruption by ILC2s. ILC2s significantly impaired the epithelial barrier, as demonstrated by reduced transepithelial electrical resistance and increased fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran permeability in air-liquid interface cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells. This was in parallel to decreased mRNAs and disrupted protein expression of TJ proteins and was restored by neutralization of IL-13. Intranasal administration of recombinant IL-33 to wild-type and Rag2(-/-) mice lacking T and B cells triggered TJ disruption, whereas Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-) and Rora(sg/sg) mice undergoing bone marrow transplantation that lack ILC2s did not show any barrier leakiness. Direct nasal administration of IL-13 was sufficient to induce deficiency in the TJ barrier in the bronchial epithelium of mice in vivo. These data highlight an essential mechanism in asthma pathogenesis by demonstrating that ILC2s are responsible for bronchial epithelial TJ barrier leakiness through IL-13. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma

  10. Adherens and tight junctions: structure, function and connections to the actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Hartsock, Andrea; Nelson, W James

    2008-03-01

    Adherens junctions and Tight junctions comprise two modes of cell-cell adhesion that provide different functions. Both junctional complexes are proposed to associate with the actin cytoskeleton, and formation and maturation of cell-cell contacts involves reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Adherens junctions initiate cell-cell contacts, and mediate the maturation and maintenance of the contact. Adherens junctions consist of the transmembrane protein E-cadherin, and intracellular components, p120-catenin, beta-catenin and alpha-catenin. Tight junctions regulate the paracellular pathway for the movement of ions and solutes in-between cells. Tight junctions consist of the transmembrane proteins occludin and claudin, and the cytoplasmic scaffolding proteins ZO-1, -2, and -3. This review discusses the binding interactions of the most studied proteins that occur within each of these two junctional complexes and possible modes of regulation of these interactions, and the different mechanisms that connect and regulate interactions with the actin cytoskeleton.

  11. Architecture of tight junctions and principles of molecular composition

    PubMed Central

    Van Itallie, Christina M.; Anderson, James M.

    2014-01-01

    The tight junction creates an intercellular barrier limiting paracellular movement of solutes and material across epithelia. Currently many proteins have been identified as components of the tight junction and understanding their architectural organization and interactions is critical to understanding the biology of the barrier. In general the architecture can be conceptualized into compartments with the transmembrane barrier proteins (claudins, occludin, JAM-A, etc.), linked to peripheral scaffolding proteins (such as ZO-1, afadin, MAGI1, etc.) which are in turned linked to actin and microtubules through numerous linkers (cingulin, myosins, protein 4.1, etc.). Within this complex network are associated many signaling proteins that affect the barrier and broader cell functions. The PDZ domain is a commonly used motif to specifically link individual junction protein pairs. Here we review some of the key proteins defining the tight junction and general themes of their organization with the perspective that much will be learned about function by characterizing the detailed architecture and subcompartments within the junction. PMID:25171873

  12. Expression of tight junction proteins in epithelium including Ck20-positive M-like cells of human adenoids in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Takano, Ken-ichi; Kojima, Takashi; Ogasawara, Noriko; Go, Mitsuru; Kikuchi, Shin; Ninomiya, Takafumi; Kurose, Makoto; Koizumi, Jun-ichi; Kamekura, Ryuta; Murata, Masaki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Chiba, Hideki; Himi, Tetsuo; Sawada, Norimasa

    2008-06-01

    The human adenoid epithelium forms a continuous barrier against a wide variety of exogenous antigens. In this study, to elucidate the structures of the epithelial barrier in the human adenoid, including M-cells, we identified M-cells using an anti-cytokeratin 20 (Ck20) antibody and investigated expression of tight junction proteins in human adenoid epithelium in vivo and in vitro. In human adenoid epithelium and primary cultures, mRNAs of occludin, junctional adhesion molecule-A, ZO-1, and claudin-1, -4, -7, and -8 were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, whereas claudin-2 and -9 were expressed in vitro. In the epithelium in vivo, some Ck20-positive cells were randomly observed and indicated pocket-like structures, whereas Ck7 was positive in almost cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that Ck20-associated gold particles could be identified in M-like cells which had short microvilli and harboured the lymphocyte in the pocket-like structure. In primary cultures in vitro, Ck20-positive cells were also detected and had a function to take up fluorescent microparticles. In Ck20-positive cells in vivo and in vitro, expression of occludin, ZO-1, claudin-1 and -7 were observed at cell borders. These results indicate that the epithelial barrier of the human adenoid is stably maintained by expression of tight junction proteins in the epithelium including Ck20-positive M-like cells.

  13. The type 3 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor is concentrated at the tight junction level in polarized MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Colosetti, Pascal; Tunwell, Richard E A; Cruttwell, Caroline; Arsanto, Jean-Pierre; Mauger, Jean-Pierre; Cassio, Doris

    2003-07-01

    The subcellular localization of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3)-induced Ca2+ signals is important for the activation of many physiological functions. In epithelial cells the spatial distribution of InsP3 receptor is restricted to specific areas, but little is known about the relationship between the receptor's distribution and cell polarity. To investigate this relationship, the best known polarized cell model, MDCK, was examined. This cell line is characterized by a strong expression of the type 3 InsP3 receptor and the subcellular localization of this receptor was followed during cell polarization using immunofluorescence and confocal analysis. In non-polarized cells, including ras transformed f3 MDCK cells, the type 3 InsP3 receptor was found to co-localize with markers of the endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm. In contrast, in polarized cells, this receptor was mostly distributed at the apex of the lateral plasma membrane with the markers of tight junctions, ZO-1 and occludin. The localization of the type 3 InsP3 receptor in the vicinity of tight junctions was confirmed by immunogold electron microscopy. The culture of MDCK cells in calcium-deprived medium, led to disruption of cell polarity and receptor redistribution in the cytoplasm. Addition of calcium to these deprived cells induced the restoration of polarity and the relocalization of the receptor to the plasma membrane. MDCK cells were stably transfected with a plasmid coding the full-length mouse type 1 InsP3 receptor tagged with EGFP at the C-terminus. The EGFP-tagged type 1 receptor and the endogenous type 3 co-localized in the cytoplasm of non-polarized cells and at the tight junction level of polarized cells. Thus, the localization of InsP3 receptor in MDCK depends on polarity.

  14. Importance of Tight Junctions in Relation to Skin Barrier Function.

    PubMed

    Brandner, Johanna M

    2016-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are complex cell-cell junctions that form a barrier in the stratum granulosum of mammalian skin. Besides forming a barrier themselves, TJs influence other skin barriers, e.g. the stratum corneum barrier, and are influenced by other skin barriers, e.g. by the chemical, the microbiome, or the immunological barrier and likely by the basement membrane. This review summarizes the dynamic interaction of the TJ barrier with other barriers in the skin and the central role of TJs in skin barrier function. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Ketamine alleviates bradykinin-induced disruption of the mouse cerebrovascular endothelial cell-constructed tight junction barrier via a calcium-mediated redistribution of occludin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jui-Tai; Lin, Yi-Ling; Chen, Ta-Liang; Tai, Yu-Ting; Chen, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Ruei-Ming

    2016-08-10

    Following brain injury, a sequence of mechanisms leads to disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and subsequent cerebral edema, which is thought to begin with activation of bradykinin. Our previous studies showed that ketamine, a widely used intravenous anesthetic agent, can suppress bradykinin-induced cell dysfunction. This study further aimed to evaluate the protective effects of ketamine against bradykinin-induced disruption of the mouse cerebrovascular endothelial cell (MCEC)-constructed tight junction barrier and the possible mechanisms. Exposure of MCECs to bradykinin increased intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) concentrations in a time-dependent manner. However, pretreatment of MCECs with ketamine time- and concentration-dependently lowered the bradykinin-induced calcium influx. As to the mechanisms, although exposure of MCECs to ketamine induced bradykinin R1 receptor protein and mRNA expression, this anesthetic did not change levels of the bradykinin R2 receptor, a major receptor that responds to bradykinin stimulation. Bradykinin increased amounts of soluble occludin in MCECs, but pretreatment with ketamine alleviated this disturbance in occludin polymerization. Consequently, exposure to bradykinin decreased the transendothelial electronic resistance in the MCEC-constructed tight junction barrier. However, pretreatment with ketamine attenuated the bradykinin-induced disruption of the tight junction barrier. Taken together, this study shows that ketamine at a therapeutic concentration can protect against bradykinin-induced breakage of the BBB via suppressing calcium-dependent redistribution of occludin tight junctions. Thus, ketamine has the potential for maintaining the BBB in critically ill patients with severe brain disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The cadmium-induced disruption of tight junctions in LLC-PK{sub 1} cells does not result from apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Prozialeck, W.C.; Wellington, D.R.; Mosher, T.L.

    1995-09-01

    Exposure of LLC-PK{sub 1} cells to low micromolar concentrations of Cd{sup 2+} for 1-4 hours causes the disruption of the adhering and occluding junctions between the cells, whereas exposure to higher concentrations of Cd{sup 2+} for longer periods of time causes more severe toxic effects and cell death. The objective of the present studies was to determine whether or not the junctional effects of Cd{sup 2+} might be a consequence of apoptotic injury. LLC-PK{sub 1} cells on cell culture inserts were exposed to either Cd{sup +2} or tumor necrosis factor (TNF-{alpha}) plus cycloheximide, a treatment that has recently been shown to cause apoptosis in LLC-PK{sub 1} cells. The results showed that at the time the Cd{sup 2+}-induced junctional changes were occurring, there was no increase in the number of apoptotic cells or evidence of DNA fragmentation. By contrast, TNF-{alpha} plus cycloheximide induced changes that were characteristic of apoptosis. These results indicate that the disruption of intercellular junctions by Cd{sup 2+} in the LLC-PK{sub 1} cell line occurs independently of apoptosis. 19 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Endocytosis and Recycling of Tight Junction Proteins in Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Utech, Markus; Mennigen, Rudolf; Bruewer, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    A critical function of the epithelial lining is to form a barrier that separates luminal contents from the underlying interstitium. This barrier function is primarily regulated by the apical junctional complex (AJC) consisting of tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs) and is compromised under inflammatory conditions. In intestinal epithelial cells, proinflammatory cytokines, for example, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), induce internalization of TJ proteins by endocytosis. Endocytosed TJ proteins are passed into early and recycling endosomes, suggesting the involvement of recycling of internalized TJ proteins. This review summarizes mechanisms by which TJ proteins under inflammatory conditions are internalized in intestinal epithelial cells and point out comparable mechanism in nonintestinal epithelial cells. PMID:20011071

  18. Protein kinase Cζ phosphorylates occludin and promotes assembly of epithelial tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Jain, Suneet; Suzuki, Takuya; Seth, Ankur; Samak, Geetha; Rao, Radhakrishna

    2011-07-15

    Protein kinases play an important role in the regulation of epithelial tight junctions. In the present study, we investigated the role of PKCζ (protein kinase Cζ) in tight junction regulation in Caco-2 and MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) cell monolayers. Inhibition of PKCζ by a specific PKCζ pseudosubstrate peptide results in redistribution of occludin and ZO-1 (zona occludens 1) from the intercellular junctions and disruption of barrier function without affecting cell viability. Reduced expression of PKCζ by antisense oligonucleotide or shRNA (short hairpin RNA) also results in compromised tight junction integrity. Inhibition or knockdown of PKCζ delays calcium-induced assembly of tight junctions. Tight junction disruption by PKCζ pseudosubstrate is associated with the dephosphorylation of occludin and ZO-1 on serine and threonine residues. PKCζ directly binds to the C-terminal domain of occludin and phosphorylates it on threonine residues. Thr403, Thr404, Thr424 and Thr438 in the occludin C-terminal domain are the predominant sites of PKCζ-dependent phosphorylation. A T424A or T438A mutation in full-length occludin delays its assembly into the tight junctions. Inhibition of PKCζ also induces redistribution of occludin and ZO-1 from the tight junctions and dissociates these proteins from the detergent-insoluble fractions in mouse ileum. The present study demonstrates that PKCζ phosphorylates occludin on specific threonine residues and promotes assembly of epithelial tight junctions.

  19. Pathological changes in tight junctions and potential applications into therapies.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Azusa; Kondoh, Masuo; Suzuki, Hidehiko; Watari, Akihiro; Yagi, Kiyohito

    2012-07-01

    Epithelial cells are pivotal in the separation of the body from the outside environment. Orally administered drugs must pass across epithelial cell sheets, and most pathological organisms invade the body through epithelial cells. Tight junctions (TJs) are sealing complexes between adjacent epithelial cells. Modulation of TJ components is a potent strategy for increasing absorption. Inflammation often causes disruption of the TJ barrier. Molecular imaging technology has enabled elucidation of the dynamics of TJs. Molecular pathological analysis has shown the relationship between TJ components and molecular pathological conditions. In this article, we discuss TJ-targeted drug development over the past 2 years. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tight junctions, tight junction proteins and paracellular permeability across the gill epithelium of fishes: a review.

    PubMed

    Chasiotis, Helen; Kolosov, Dennis; Bui, Phuong; Kelly, Scott P

    2012-12-01

    Paracellular permeability characteristics of the fish gill epithelium are broadly accepted to play a key role in piscine salt and water balance. This is typically associated with differences between gill epithelia of teleost fishes residing in seawater versus those in freshwater. In the former, the gill is 'leaky' to facilitate Na(+) secretion and in the latter, the gill is 'tight' to limit passive ion loss. However, studies in freshwater fishes also suggest that varying epithelial 'tightness' can impact ionoregulatory homeostasis. Paracellular permeability of vertebrate epithelia is largely controlled by the tight junction (TJ) complex, and the fish gill is no exception. In turn, the TJ complex is composed of TJ proteins, the abundance and properties of which determine the magnitude of paracellular solute movement. This review provides consolidated information on TJs in fish gills and summarizes recent progress in research that seeks to understand the molecular composition of fish gill TJ complexes and what environmental and systemic factors influence those components.

  1. Effects of Human Parvovirus B19 and Bocavirus VP1 Unique Region on Tight Junction of Human Airway Epithelial A549 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chun-Ching; Shi, Ya-Fang; Yang, Jiann-Jou; Hsiao, Yuan-Chao; Tzang, Bor-Show; Hsu, Tsai-Ching

    2014-01-01

    As is widely recognized, human parvovirus B19 (B19) and human bocavirus (HBoV) are important human pathogens. Obviously, both VP1 unique region (VP1u) of B19 and HBoV exhibit the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-like enzymatic activity and are recognized to participate in the pathogenesis of lower respiratory tract illnesses. However, exactly how, both VP1u from B19 and HBoV affect tight junction has seldom been addressed. Therefore, this study investigates how B19-VP1u and HBoV-VP1u may affect the tight junction of the airway epithelial A549 cells by examining phospholipase A2 activity and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) as well as performing immunoblotting analyses. Experimental results indicate that TEER is more significantly decreased in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α (10 ng), two dosages of B19-VP1u and BoV-VP1u (400 ng and 4000 ng) or bee venom PLA2 (10 ng) than that of the control. Accordingly, more significantly increased claudin-1 and decreased occludin are detected in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α or both dosages of HBoV-VP1u than that of the control. Additionally, more significantly decreased Na+/K+ ATPase is observed in A549 cells by treatment with TNF-α, high dosage of B19-VP1u or both dosages of BoV-VP1u than that of the control. Above findings suggest that HBoV-VP1u rather than B19 VP1u likely plays more important roles in the disruption of tight junction in the airway tract. Meanwhile, this discrepancy appears not to be associated with the secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-like enzymatic activity. PMID:25268969

  2. Claudins and the Modulation of Tight Junction Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Günzel, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Claudins are tight junction membrane proteins that are expressed in epithelia and endothelia and form paracellular barriers and pores that determine tight junction permeability. This review summarizes our current knowledge of this large protein family and discusses recent advances in our understanding of their structure and physiological functions. PMID:23589827

  3. Inhibition of Rho-kinase protects cerebral barrier from ischaemia-evoked injury through modulations of endothelial cell oxidative stress and tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Claire L; Srivastava, Kirtiman; Sprigg, Nikola; Bath, Philip M W; Bayraktutan, Ulvi

    2014-06-01

    Ischaemic strokes evoke blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and oedema formation through a series of mechanisms involving Rho-kinase activation. Using an animal model of human focal cerebral ischaemia, this study assessed and confirmed the therapeutic potential of Rho-kinase inhibition during the acute phase of stroke by displaying significantly improved functional outcome and reduced cerebral lesion and oedema volumes in fasudil- versus vehicle-treated animals. Analyses of ipsilateral and contralateral brain samples obtained from mice treated with vehicle or fasudil at the onset of reperfusion plus 4 h post-ischaemia or 4 h post-ischaemia alone revealed these benefits to be independent of changes in the activity and expressions of oxidative stress- and tight junction-related parameters. However, closer scrutiny of the same parameters in brain microvascular endothelial cells subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation ± reperfusion revealed marked increases in prooxidant NADPH oxidase enzyme activity, superoxide anion release and in expressions of antioxidant enzyme catalase and tight junction protein claudin-5. Cotreatment of cells with Y-27632 prevented all of these changes and protected in vitro barrier integrity and function. These findings suggest that inhibition of Rho-kinase after acute ischaemic attacks improves cerebral integrity and function through regulation of endothelial cell oxidative stress and reorganization of intercellular junctions. Inhibition of Rho-kinase (ROCK) activity in a mouse model of human ischaemic stroke significantly improved functional outcome while reducing cerebral lesion and oedema volumes compared to vehicle-treated counterparts. Studies conducted with brain microvascular endothelial cells exposed to OGD ± R in the presence of Y-27632 revealed restoration of intercellular junctions and suppression of prooxidant NADPH oxidase activity as important factors in ROCK inhibition-mediated BBB protection. © 2014 International Society

  4. Tight junctions of the proximal tubule and their channel proteins.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Michael; Piontek, Jörg; Rosenthal, Rita; Günzel, Dorothee; Krug, Susanne M

    2017-08-01

    The renal proximal tubule achieves the majority of renal water and solute reabsorption with the help of paracellular channels which lead through the tight junction. The proteins forming such channels in the proximal tubule are claudin-2, claudin-10a, and possibly claudin-17. Claudin-2 forms paracellular channels selective for small cations like Na(+) and K(+). Independently of each other, claudin-10a and claudin-17 form anion-selective channels. The claudins form the paracellular "pore pathway" and are integrated, together with purely sealing claudins and other tight junction proteins, in the belt of tight junction strands surrounding the tubular epithelial cells. In most species, the proximal tubular tight junction consists of only 1-2 (pars convoluta) to 3-5 (pars recta) horizontal strands. Even so, they seal the tubule very effectively against leak passage of nutrients and larger molecules. Remarkably, claudin-2 channels are also permeable to water so that 20-25% of proximal water absorption may occur paracellularly. Although the exact structure of the claudin-2 channel is still unknown, it is clear that Na(+) and water share the same pore. Already solved claudin crystal structures reveal a characteristic β-sheet, comprising β-strands from both extracellular loops, which is anchored to a left-handed four-transmembrane helix bundle. This allowed homology modeling of channel-forming claudins present in the proximal tubule. The surface of cation- and anion-selective claudins differ in electrostatic potentials in the area of the proposed ion channel, resulting in the opposite charge selectivity of these claudins. Presently, while models of the molecular structure of the claudin-based oligomeric channels have been proposed, its full understanding has only started.

  5. Developmental Changes in Proximal Tubule Tight Junction Proteins

    PubMed Central

    HADDAD, MAHA; LIN, FANGMING; DWARAKANATH, VANGIPURAM; CORDES, KIMBERLY; BAUM, MICHEL

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated previously that neonatal proximal tubules have a lower passive paracellular permeability to chloride ions and higher resistance than that of adult proximal tubules. In addition, administration of thyroid hormone to neonates, before the normal maturational increase in serum thyroid hormone levels, prematurely accelerates the developmental increase in chloride permeability to adult levels. To test the hypothesis that there is a maturational change in tight junction proteins and that thyroid hormone mediates these changes, we examined the two known tight junction proteins present in proximal tubules, occludin and claudin 2. Using immunoblot and immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that claudin 2 has a 4-fold greater abundance in neonatal proximal tubules than in adult tubules. Occludin, however, has a 4-fold greater expression in adult tubules than in neonatal tubules. Administration of thyroid hormone to neonates did not affect claudin 2 expression, occludin expression, or the transepithelial resistance in rat proximal tubule cells in vitro. In conclusion, there are postnatal maturational changes in tight junction proteins. The factors that cause these maturational changes are unknown but unlikely to be due solely to the maturational increase in thyroid hormone. PMID:15585672

  6. Claudin-3 and claudin-19 partially restore native phenotype to ARPE-19 cells via effects on tight junctions and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shaomin; Wang, Shao-Bin; Singh, Deepti; Zhao, Peter Y C; Davis, Katherine; Chen, Bo; Adelman, Ron A; Rizzolo, Lawrence J

    2016-10-01

    Mutations of claudin-19 cause severe ocular deficits that are not easily reconciled with its role in regulating the outer blood retinal barrier. ARPE-19 is a widely used culture model of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). ARPE-19 is unique among epithelial cell lines, because it expresses all tight junction proteins except claudin family members. ARPE-19 also loses aspects of the RPE phenotype with cell passage. This study asks whether exogenous expression of the main RPE claudins, claudin-3 and claudin-19, would restore RPE phenotype, and whether these claudins have distinct roles in RPE. An Ussing chamber was used to measure the transepithelial electrical resistance and transepithelial electrical potential. These measurements were used to estimate the permeability co-efficients of ions. The transepithelial diffusion of polyethylene glycols were used to examine the leak pathway of tight junctions. Wound-healing, quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting examined diverse aspects of the RPE phenotype. Over-expression of either claudin decreased the permeability of small ions and polyethylene glycol. Both claudins were slightly cation-specific, but claudin-3 was less permeable to large solutes. Claudin expression widely affected gene expression to partially restore RPE phenotype. Claudins redistributed filamentous actin from stress fibers to circumferential bands associated with tight junctions, and made wound-healing more epithelial-like. Both claudins increased the expression of genes related to RPE core functions and increased steady-state levels of phosphorylated-AKT. In conclusion, claudin-3 and claudin-19 formed general permeability barriers and affected cell morphology, proliferation, migration, AKT signaling, and gene expression. When claudins are exogenously expressed, ARPE-19 more closely model native RPE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of tight junctions in signal transduction: an update

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Kenichi; Kojima, Takashi; Sawada, Norimasa; Himi, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs), which are the most apically located of the intercellular junctional complexes, have a barrier function and a fence function. Recent studies show that they also participate in signal transduction mechanisms. TJs are modulated by intracellular signaling pathways including protein kinase C, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and NF-ϰB, to affect the epithelial barrier function in response to diverse stimuli. TJs are also regulated by various cytokines, growth factors, and hormones via signaling pathways. To investigate the regulation of TJ molecules via signaling pathways in human epithelial cells under normal and pathological conditions, we established a novel model of human telomerase reverse transcriptase-transfected human epithelial cells. In this review, we describe the recent progress in our understanding of the role of TJs for signal transduction under normal conditions in upper airway epithelium, pancreatic duct epithelial cells, hepatocytes, and endometrial epithelial cells, and in pathological conditions including cancer and infection. PMID:26417329

  8. Depletion of Caco-2 cell cholesterol disrupts barrier function by altering the detergent solubility and distribution of specific tight-junction proteins

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the role of cholesterol in maintaining the barrier properties of the model intestinal cell line Caco-2. We have extracted membrane cholesterol using methyl-β-cyclodextrin and demonstrated that maximally, methyl-β-cyclodextrin lowered cell cholesterol levels by 40–45%. Depletion of cell cholesterol was accompanied by an 80–90% decrease in monolayer transepithelial electrical resistance and a significant increase in the paracellular permeability of dextrans of 4, 10 and 40 kDa. The increase in dextran permeability was most pronounced for the two lower molecular mass species. In addition to the decline in the barrier properties of the monolayers, extraction of cell cholesterol produced an increase in the Triton X-100 solubility of claudin 3, claudin 4 and occludin, and the loss of all three proteins from the plasma membrane (tight junctions). In contrast, removal of cholesterol had no detectable influence on the detergent solubility or morphological distribution of claudin 1. These results indicate that membrane cholesterol is a critical factor in maintaining the barrier property of epithelial monolayers. More specifically, cholesterol appears to stabilize the association of certain proteins with the tight junctions. PMID:15500448

  9. The Role of IRE-XBP1 Pathway in Regulation of Retinal Pigment Epithelium Tight Junctions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jacey H; Wang, Joshua J; Li, Junhua; Pfeffer, Bruce A; Zhong, Yiming; Zhang, Sarah X

    2016-10-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) tight junctions play a pivotal role in maintaining the homeostatic environment of the neural retina. Herein, we investigated the role of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-responsive transcription factor, in regulation of RPE tight junctions. Human RPE cell line (ARPE-19) and primary primate RPE cells were used for in vitro experiments and RPE-specific XBP1 knockout (KO) mice were used for in vivo study. Endoplasmic reticulum stress was induced by a sublethal dose of thapsigargin or tunicamycin. XBP1 activation was manipulated by IRE inhibitor 4μ8C, which suppresses XBP1 mRNA splicing. The integrity of tight junctions and the involvement of calcium-dependent RhoA/Rho kinase pathway were examined. Induction of ER stress by thapsigargin, but not tunicamycin, disrupted RPE tight junctions in ARPE-19 cells. Inhibition of XBP1 activation by 4μ8C resulted in a remarkable downregulation of tight junction proteins (ZO-1 and occludin) and defects in tight junction formation in the presence or absence of ER stress inducers. Overexpression of active XBP1 partially reversed 4μ8C-induced anomalies in tight junctions. Mechanistically, XBP1 inhibition resulted in increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration, upregulation of RhoA expression, redistribution of F-actin, and tight junction damage, which was attenuated by Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632. In vivo, deletion of XBP1 in the RPE resulted in defective RPE tight junctions accompanied by increased VEGF expression. Taken together, these results suggest a protective role of XBP1 in maintaining RPE tight junctions possibly through regulation of calcium-dependent RhoA/Rho kinase signaling and actin cytoskeletal reorganization.

  10. The Role of IRE-XBP1 Pathway in Regulation of Retinal Pigment Epithelium Tight Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jacey H.; Wang, Joshua J.; Li, Junhua; Pfeffer, Bruce A.; Zhong, Yiming; Zhang, Sarah X.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) tight junctions play a pivotal role in maintaining the homeostatic environment of the neural retina. Herein, we investigated the role of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-responsive transcription factor, in regulation of RPE tight junctions. Methods Human RPE cell line (ARPE-19) and primary primate RPE cells were used for in vitro experiments and RPE-specific XBP1 knockout (KO) mice were used for in vivo study. Endoplasmic reticulum stress was induced by a sublethal dose of thapsigargin or tunicamycin. XBP1 activation was manipulated by IRE inhibitor 4μ8C, which suppresses XBP1 mRNA splicing. The integrity of tight junctions and the involvement of calcium-dependent RhoA/Rho kinase pathway were examined. Results Induction of ER stress by thapsigargin, but not tunicamycin, disrupted RPE tight junctions in ARPE-19 cells. Inhibition of XBP1 activation by 4μ8C resulted in a remarkable downregulation of tight junction proteins (ZO-1 and occludin) and defects in tight junction formation in the presence or absence of ER stress inducers. Overexpression of active XBP1 partially reversed 4μ8C-induced anomalies in tight junctions. Mechanistically, XBP1 inhibition resulted in increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration, upregulation of RhoA expression, redistribution of F-actin, and tight junction damage, which was attenuated by Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632. In vivo, deletion of XBP1 in the RPE resulted in defective RPE tight junctions accompanied by increased VEGF expression. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest a protective role of XBP1 in maintaining RPE tight junctions possibly through regulation of calcium-dependent RhoA/Rho kinase signaling and actin cytoskeletal reorganization. PMID:27701635

  11. Acute and chronic exposure to high levels of glucose modulates tight junction-associated epithelial barrier function in a renal tubular cell line.

    PubMed

    Mongelli-Sabino, B M; Canuto, L P; Collares-Buzato, C B

    2017-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a complication of diabetes and the mechanisms underlying onset and progression of this disease are not fully understood. It has been shown that hyperglycemia is an independent factor to predict the development of DN in individuals with T2DM, however, a link between high plasma glucose levels and renal tubular injuries in DN remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of high levels of glucose (i.e. 180 or 360mg/dL) for up to 24h (acute) or over 72h (chronic) upon tight junction (TJ)-mediated epithelial barrier integrity of the kidney tubular cell line, MDCK. High levels of glucose (180 and 360mg/dL) induced a decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance associated with an increase in TJ cation selectivity at 24h or in TJ permeability to a paracellular marker, Lucifer Yellow, at 72h-exposure when compared to control group (exposed to 100mg/dL glucose). Immunofluorescence analyses showed that glucose treatment induced a significant decrease in the tight junctional content of claudins-1 and -3 as well as a significant increase in claudin-2 (particularly at 24h-exposure) and a time-dependent change in occludin/ZO-1 junctional content. The analyses of total cell content of these junctional proteins by Western blot did not reveal significant changes, except in claudin-2 expression. Our data suggest that high levels of glucose induce time-dependence changes in TJ structure in MDCK monolayers, suggesting a possible link between hyperglycemia-induced tubular epithelial barrier disruption and diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Acute Stress on Immune Cell Counts and the Expression of Tight Junction Proteins in the Duodenal Mucosa of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong Sub; Kim, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Young Bae

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Duodenal immune alterations have been reported in a subset of patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute stress on immune cell counts and the expression of tight junction proteins in the duodenal mucosa. Methods Twenty-one male rats were divided into the following three experimental groups: 1) the nonstressed, control group, 2) the 2-hour-stressed group, and 3) the 4-hour-stressed group. Eosinophils, mast cells and CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in the duodenal mucosa were counted. The protein and mRNA expressions of occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) were examined. Results Eosinophils, mast cells and CD8+ T lymphocyte counts did not differ between the stressed and control groups. The number of CD4+ T lymphocytes and the protein and mRNA expressions of occludin and ZO-1 were significantly lower in the 4-hour-stressed group compared with the control group. The plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol levels of the 4-hour-stressed group were significantly higher than those of the control group. Conclusions Acute stress reduces the number of CD4+ T lymphocytes and the expression of tight junction proteins in the duodenal mucosa, which might be associated with the duodenal immune alterations found in a subset of FD patients. PMID:23560155

  13. Ablation of CD11c(hi) dendritic cells exacerbates Japanese encephalitis by regulating blood-brain barrier permeability and altering tight junction/adhesion molecules.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hyoung; Hossain, Ferdaus Mohd Altaf; Patil, Ajit Mahadev; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Seong Bum; Uyangaa, Erdenebelig; Park, Sang-Youel; Lee, John-Hwa; Kim, Bumseok; Kim, Koanhoi; Eo, Seong Kug

    2016-10-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE), characterized by extensive neuroinflammation following infection with neurotropic JE virus (JEV), is becoming a leading cause of viral encephalitis due to rapid changes in climate and demography. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role in restricting neuroinvasion of peripheral leukocytes and virus, thereby regulating the progression of viral encephalitis. In this study, we explored the role of CD11c(hi) dendritic cells (DCs) in regulating BBB integrity and JE progression using a conditional depletion model of CD11c(hi) DCs. Transient ablation of CD11c(hi) DCs resulted in markedly increased susceptibility to JE progression along with highly increased neuro-invasion of JEV. In addition, exacerbated JE progression in CD11c(hi) DC-ablated hosts was closely associated with increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IFN-β, IL-6, and TNF-α) and CC chemokines (CCL2, CCL3, CXCL2) in the brain. Moreover, our results revealed that the exacerbation of JE progression in CD11c(hi) DC-ablated hosts was correlated with enhanced BBB permeability and reduced expression of tight junction and adhesion molecules (claudin-5, ZO-1, occluding, JAMs). Ultimately, our data conclude that the ablation of CD11c(hi) DCs provided a subsidiary impact on BBB integrity and the expression of tight junction/adhesion molecules, thereby leading to exacerbated JE progression. These findings provide insight into the secondary role of CD11c(hi) DCs in JE progression through regulation of BBB integrity and the expression of tight junction/adhesion molecules.

  14. Downregulation of tight junction-associated MARVEL protein marvelD3 during epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Takashi; Takasawa, Akira; Kyuno, Daisuke; Ito, Tatsuya; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Hirata, Koichi; Tsujiwaki, Mitsuhiro; Murata, Masaki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Sawada, Norimasa

    2011-10-01

    The novel tight junction protein marvelD3 contains a conserved MARVEL (MAL and related proteins for vesicle trafficking and membrane link) domain like occludin and tricellulin. However, little is yet known about the detailed role and regulation of marvelD3 in normal epithelial cells and cancer cells, including pancreatic cancer. In the present study, we investigated marvelD3 expression in well and poorly differentiated human pancreatic cancer cell lines and normal pancreatic duct epithelial cells in which the hTERT gene was introduced into human pancreatic duct epithelial cells in primary culture, and the changes of marvelD3 during Snail-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) under hypoxia, TGF-β treatment and knockdown of FOXA2 in well differentiated pancreatic cancer HPAC cells. MarvelD3 was transcriptionally downregulated in poorly differentiated pancreatic cancer cells and during Snail-induced EMT of pancreatic cancer cells in which Snail was highly expressed and the fence function downregulated, whereas it was maintained in well differentiated human pancreatic cancer cells and normal pancreatic duct epithelial cells. Depletion of marvelD3 by siRNAs in HPAC cells resulted in downregulation of barrier functions indicated as a decrease in transepithelial electric resistance and an increase of permeability to fluorescent dextran tracers, whereas it did not affect fence function of tight junctions. In conclusion, marvelD3 is transcriptionally downregulated in Snail-induced EMT during the progression for the pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Claudin-2 knockout by TALEN-mediated gene targeting in MDCK cells: claudin-2 independently determines the leaky property of tight junctions in MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Shinsaku; Furuse, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) regulate the movements of substances through the paracellular pathway, and claudins are major determinants of TJ permeability. Claudin-2 forms high conductive cation pores in TJs. The suppression of claudin-2 expression by RNA interference in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) II cells (a low-resistance strain of MDCK cells) was shown to induce a three-fold increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), which, however, was still lower than in high-resistance strains of MDCK cells. Because RNA interference-mediated knockdown is not complete and only reduces gene function, we considered the possibility that the remaining claudin-2 expression in the knockdown study caused the lower TER in claudin-2 knockdown cells. Therefore, we investigated the effects of claudin-2 knockout in MDCK II cells by establishing claudin-2 knockout clones using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), a recently developed genome editing method for gene knockout. Surprisingly, claudin-2 knockout increased TER by more than 50-fold in MDCK II cells, and TER values in these cells (3000-4000 Ω·cm2) were comparable to those in the high-resistance strains of MDCK cells. Claudin-2 re-expression restored the TER of claudin-2 knockout cells dependent upon claudin-2 protein levels. In addition, we investigated the localization of claudin-1, -2, -3, -4, and -7 at TJs between control MDCK cells and their respective knockout cells using their TALENs. Claudin-2 and -7 were less efficiently localized at TJs between control and their knockout cells. Our results indicate that claudin-2 independently determines the 'leaky' property of TJs in MDCK II cells and suggest the importance of knockout analysis in cultured cells.

  16. Tight Junction Defects in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    De Benedetto, Anna; Rafaels, Nicholas M.; McGirt, Laura Y.; Ivanov, Andrei I.; Georas, Steve N.; Cheadle, Chris; Berger, Alan E.; Zhang, Kunzhong; Vidyasagar, Sadasivan; Yoshida, Takeshi; Boguniewicz, Mark; Hata, Tissa; Schneider, Lynda C.; Hanifin, Jon M.; Gallo, Richard L.; Novak, Natalija; Weidinger, Stephan; Beaty, Terri H.; Leung, Donald Y.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Beck, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by dry skin and a hyperreactive immune response to allergens, two cardinal features that are caused in part by epidermal barrier defects. Tight junctions (TJ) reside immediately below the stratum corneum and regulate the selective permeability of the paracellular pathway. Objective We evaluated the expression/function of the TJ protein, claudin-1 in epithelium from AD and nonatopic (NA) subjects and screened two American populations for SNPs in CLDN1. Methods Expression profiles of nonlesional epithelium from extrinsic AD, NA and psoriasis subjects were generated using Illumina’s BeadChips. Dysregulated intercellular proteins were validated by tissue staining and qPCR. Bioelectric properties of epithelium were measured in Ussing chambers. Functional relevance of claudin-1 was assessed using a knockdown approach in primary human keratinocytes (PHK). Twenty seven haplotype-tagging SNPs in CLDN1 were screened in two independent AD populations. Results We observed strikingly reduced expression of the TJ proteins claudin-1 and -23 only in AD, which were validated at the mRNA and protein levels. Claudin-1 expression inversely correlated with Th2 biomarkers. We observed a remarkable impairment of the bioelectric barrier function in AD epidermis. In vitro, we confirmed that silencing claudin-1 expression in human keratinocytes diminishes TJ function while enhancing keratinocyte proliferation. Finally, CLDN1 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms revealed associations with AD in two North American populations. Conclusion Taken together, these data suggest that an impaired epidermal TJ is a novel feature of skin barrier dysfunction and immune dysregulation observed in AD, and that CLDN1 may be a new susceptibility gene in this disease. PMID:21163515

  17. Proteomic and bioinformatic analysis of epithelial tight junction reveals an unexpected cluster of synaptic molecules

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Vivian W

    2006-01-01

    Background Zonula occludens, also known as the tight junction, is a specialized cell-cell interaction characterized by membrane "kisses" between epithelial cells. A cytoplasmic plaque of ~100 nm corresponding to a meshwork of densely packed proteins underlies the tight junction membrane domain. Due to its enormous size and difficulties in obtaining a biochemically pure fraction, the molecular composition of the tight junction remains largely unknown. Results A novel biochemical purification protocol has been developed to isolate tight junction protein complexes from cultured human epithelial cells. After identification of proteins by mass spectroscopy and fingerprint analysis, candidate proteins are scored and assessed individually. A simple algorithm has been devised to incorporate transmembrane domains and protein modification sites for scoring membrane proteins. Using this new scoring system, a total of 912 proteins have been identified. These 912 hits are analyzed using a bioinformatics approach to bin the hits in 4 categories: configuration, molecular function, cellular function, and specialized process. Prominent clusters of proteins related to the cytoskeleton, cell adhesion, and vesicular traffic have been identified. Weaker clusters of proteins associated with cell growth, cell migration, translation, and transcription are also found. However, the strongest clusters belong to synaptic proteins and signaling molecules. Localization studies of key components of synaptic transmission have confirmed the presence of both presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins at the tight junction domain. To correlate proteomics data with structure, the tight junction has been examined using electron microscopy. This has revealed many novel structures including end-on cytoskeletal attachments, vesicles fusing/budding at the tight junction membrane domain, secreted substances encased between the tight junction kisses, endocytosis of tight junction double membranes, satellite

  18. Role of tight junction proteins in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is associated with impaired epithelial barrier function that is regulated by cell-cell contacts. The aim of the study was to investigate the expression pattern of selected components involved in the formation of tight junctions in relation to GERD. Methods Eighty-four patients with GERD-related symptoms with endoscopic signs (erosive: n = 47) or without them (non-erosive: n = 37) as well as 26 patients lacking GERD-specific symptoms as controls were included. Endoscopic and histological characterization of esophagitis was performed according to the Los Angeles and adapted Ismeil-Beigi criteria, respectively. Mucosal biopsies from distal esophagus were taken for analysis by histopathology, immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of five genes encoding tight junction components [Occludin, Claudin-1, -2, Zona occludens (ZO-1, -2)]. Results Histopathology confirmed GERD-specific alterations as dilated intercellular spaces in the esophageal mucosa of patients with GERD compared to controls (P < 0.05). Claudin-1 and −2 were 2- to 6-fold upregulation on transcript (P < 0.01) and in part on protein level (P < 0.015) in GERD, while subgroup analysis of revealed this upregulation for ERD only. In both erosive and non-erosive reflux disease, expression levels of Occludin and ZO-1,-2 were not significantly affected. Notably, the induced expression of both claudins did not correlate with histopathological parameters (basal cell hyperplasia, dilated intercellular spaces) in patients with GERD. Conclusions Taken together, the missing correlation between the expression of tight junction-related components and histomorphological GERD-specific alterations does not support a major role of the five proteins studied in the pathogenesis of GERD. PMID:22994974

  19. Membrane asymmetry in epithelia: is the tight junction a barrier to diffusion in the plasma membrane?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragsten, Paul R.; Blumenthal, Robert; Handler, Joseph S.

    1981-12-01

    Membrane-bound lectins and some lipid probes are incapable of passing through the tight junction region of epithelial cell membranes. The lectins are immobile on the cell surf ace, but lipid probes diffuse freely in the membrane. The ability of a lipid probe to pass the tight junction is correlated with its ability to `flip-flop' to the inner monolayer of the cell membrane bilayer

  20. West Nile virus infection modulates human brain microvascular endothelial cells tight junction proteins and cell adhesion molecules: Transmigration across the in vitro blood-brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Saguna; Lo, Yeung; Chapagain, Moti; Lum, Stephanie; Kumar, Mukesh; Gurjav, Ulziijargal; Luo, Haiyan; Nakatsuka, Austin; Nerurkar, Vivek R.

    2009-01-01

    Neurological complications such as inflammation, failure of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and neuronal death contribute to the mortality and morbidity associated with WNV-induced meningitis. Compromised BBB indicates the ability of the virus to gain entry into the CNS via the BBB, however, the underlying mechanisms, and the specific cell types associated with WNV-CNS trafficking are not well understood. Brain microvascular endothelial cells, main component of the BBB, represent a barrier to virus dissemination into the CNS and could play key role in WNV spread via hematogenous route. To investigate WNV entry into the CNS, we infected primary human brain microvascular endothelial (HBMVE) cells with the neurovirulent strain of WNV (NY99) and examined WNV replication kinetics together with the changes in the expressions of key tight junction proteins (TJP) and cell adhesion molecules (CAM). WNV infection of HBMVE cells was productive as analyzed by plaque assay and qRT-PCR, and did not induce cytopathic effect. Increased mRNA and protein expressions of TJP (claudin-1) and CAM (vascular cell adhesion molecule and E-selectin) were observed at days 2 and 3 after infection, respectively, which coincided with the peak in WNV replication. Further, using an in vitro BBB model comprised of HBMVE cells, we demonstrate that cell-free WNV can cross the BBB, without compromising the BBB integrity. These data suggest that infection of HBMVE cells can facilitate entry of cell-free virus into the CNS without disturbing the BBB, and increased CAM may assist in the trafficking of WNV-infected immune cells into the CNS, via ‘Trojan horse’ mechanism, thereby contributing to WNV dissemination in the CNS and associated pathology. PMID:19135695

  1. Tight junctions and the regulation of gene expression.

    PubMed

    González-Mariscal, Lorenza; Domínguez-Calderón, Alaide; Raya-Sandino, Arturo; Ortega-Olvera, José Mario; Vargas-Sierra, Orlando; Martínez-Revollar, Gabriela

    2014-12-01

    Tight junctions (TJ) regulate the paracellular passage of ions and molecules through the paracellular pathway and maintain plasma membrane polarity in epithelial and endothelial cells. Apart from these canonical functions, several proteins of the TJ have been found in recent years to regulate gene expression. This function is found in proteins that shuttle between the nucleus and TJs, and in integral TJ proteins. In this review, we will describe these proteins and their known mechanisms of gene regulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Synthetic Peptide Corresponding to the Extracellular Domain of Occludin Perturbs the Tight Junction Permeability Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Vivian; Gumbiner, Barry M.

    1997-01-01

    Occludin, the putative tight junction integral membrane protein, is an attractive candidate for a protein that forms the actual sealing element of the tight junction. To study the role of occludin in the formation of the tight junction seal, synthetic peptides (OCC1 and OCC2) corresponding to the two putative extracellular domains of occludin were assayed for their ability to alter tight junctions in Xenopus kidney epithelial cell line A6. Transepithelial electrical resistance and paracellular tracer flux measurements indicated that the second extracellular domain peptide (OCC2) reversibly disrupted the transepithelial permeability barrier at concentrations of < 5 μM. Despite the increased paracellular permeability, there were no changes in gross epithelial cell morphology as determined by scanning EM. The OCC2 peptide decreased the amount of occludin present at the tight junction, as assessed by indirect immunofluorescence, as well as decreased total cellular content of occludin, as assessed by Western blot analysis. Pulse-labeling and metabolic chase analysis suggested that this decrease in occludin level could be attributed to an increase in turnover of cellular occludin rather than a decrease in occludin synthesis. The effect on occludin was specific because other tight junction components, ZO-1, ZO-2, cingulin, and the adherens junction protein E-cadherin, were unaltered by OCC2 treatment. Therefore, the peptide corresponding to the second extracellular domain of occludin perturbs the tight junction permeability barrier in a very specific manner. The correlation between a decrease in occludin levels and the perturbation of the tight junction permeability barrier provides evidence for a role of occludin in the formation of the tight junction seal. PMID:9015310

  3. Erp29 Attenuates Cigarette Smoke Extract–Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Mitigates Tight Junction Damage in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chuangxin; Wang, Joshua J.; Jing, Guangjun; Li, Junhua; Jin, Chenjin; Yu, Qiang; Falkowski, Marek W.; Zhang, Sarah X.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Endoplasmic reticulum protein 29 (ERp29) is a novel chaperone that was recently found decreased in human retinas with AMD. Herein, we examined the effect of ERp29 on cigarette smoke–induced RPE apoptosis and tight junction disruption. Methods Cultured human RPE (HRPE) cells (ARPE-19) or mouse RPE eyecup explants were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) for short (up to 24 hours) or long (up to 3 weeks) periods. Expression of ERp29 was up- and downregulated by adenovirus and siRNA, respectively. Endoplasmic reticulum stress markers, apoptosis, and cell death, the expression and distribution of tight junction protein ZO-1, transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), and F-actin expression were examined. Results Endoplasmic reticulum protein 29 was significantly increased by short-term exposure to CSE in ARPE-19 cells or eyecup explants but was reduced after 3-week exposure. Overexpression of ERp29 increased the levels of GRP78, p58IPK, and Nrf-2, while reducing p-eIF2α and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and protected RPE cells from CSE-induced apoptosis. In contrast, knockdown of ERp29 decreased the levels of p58IPK and Nrf2, but increased p-eIF2α and CHOP and exacerbated CSE-triggered cell death. In addition, overexpression of ERp29 attenuated CSE-induced reduction in ZO-1 and enhanced the RPE barrier function, as measured by TEER. Knockdown of ERp29 decreased the level of ZO-1 protein. These effects were associated with changes in the expression of cytoskeleton F-actin. Conclusions Endoplasmic reticulum protein 29 attenuates CSE-induced ER stress and enhances cell viability and barrier integrity of RPE cells, and therefore may act as a protective mechanism for RPE survival and activity. PMID:26431474

  4. HIV-1/Cocaine Induced Oxidative Stress Disrupts Tight Junction Protein-1 in Human Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cells: Role of Ras/ERK1/2 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mermis, Joel; Zeng, Ruoxi; Sanderson, Miles; Johnson, Sara; Dai, Yuqiao; Sharma, Garima; Ladner, Amy O’Brien; Dhillon, Navneet K.

    2014-01-01

    Intravenous drug use (IVDU) is the major risk factor in the development of HIV-related pulmonary arterial hypertension (HRPAH); however, the pathogenesis of HRPAH in association with IVDU has yet to be characterized. Endothelial injury is considered to be an initiating factor for pulmonary vascular remodeling in animal models of PAH. Our previous study shows that simultaneous exposure to HIV-Trans-activator of transcription (Tat) and cocaine exacerbates both disruption of tight junction proteins and permeability of human pulmonary artery endothelial cells compared with either treatment alone. We here now demonstrate that this HIV-Tat and cocaine mediated endothelial dysfunction accompanies with increase in hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radicals generation and involves redox sensitive signaling pathway. Pretreatment with antioxidant cocktail attenuated the cocaine and Tat mediated disassembly of Zonula Occludens (ZO)-1 and enhancement of endothelial monolayer permeability. Furthermore, inhibition of NADPH oxidase by apocynin or siRNA-mediated knockdown of gp-91phox abolished the Tat/cocaine-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, suggesting the NADPH oxidase mediated generation of oxidative radicals. In addition, ROS dependent activation of Ras and ERK1/2 Kinase was observed to be mediating the TJP-1 disassembly, and endothelial dysfunction in response to cocaine and Tat exposure. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that Tat/cocaine -mediated production of ROS activate Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 pathway that contributes to disruption of tight junction protein leading to pulmonary endothelial dysfunction associated with pulmonary vascular remodeling. PMID:24409324

  5. Claudin-17 forms tight junction channels with distinct anion selectivity.

    PubMed

    Krug, Susanne M; Günzel, Dorothee; Conrad, Marcel P; Rosenthal, Rita; Fromm, Anja; Amasheh, Salah; Schulzke, Jörg D; Fromm, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Barrier properties of tight junctions are determined by the claudin protein family. Many claudins seal this barrier, but others form paracellular channels. Among these, no claudins with general and clear-cut anion selectivity have yet been described, while for claudin-10a and claudin-4, only circumstantial or small anion selectivities have been shown. A claudin with unknown function and tissue distribution is claudin-17. We characterized claudin-17 by overexpression and knock-down in two renal cell lines. Overexpression in MDCK C7 cell layers caused a threefold increase in paracellular anion permeability and switched these cells from cation- to anion-selective. Knockdown in LLC-PK(1) cells indorsed the finding of claudin-17-based anion channels. Mutagenesis revealed that claudin-17 anion selectivity critically depends on a positive charge at position 65. Claudin-17 expression was found in two organs: marginal in brain but abundant in kidney, where expression was intense in proximal tubules and gradually decreased towards distal segments. As claudin-17 is predominantly expressed in proximal nephrons, which exhibit substantial, though molecularly not defined, paracellular chloride reabsorption, we suggest that claudin-17 has a unique physiological function in this process. In conclusion, claudin-17 forms channels within tight junctions with distinct anion preference.

  6. Tight Junctions of the Blood-Brain Barrier - A Molecular Gatekeeper.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Hannelore; Traweger, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    A tight regulation of the neuroparenchymal microenvironment is imperative for proper neurological function. The flux of blood-borne ions and solutes is restricted by specialized tissue barriers and of the three main central nervous system barriers, the brain endothelium constituting the blood-brain barrier represents the major interface between blood and brain. At the basis of the bloodbrain barrier are, next to an elaborate transporting machinery, tight junctions which create not only a paracellular diffusion constraint but also enable vectorial transport across the endothelial monolayer. Generally, tight junctions not only represent a cellcell adhesion structure, but integrate various signaling pathways via large multiprotein complexes, thereby impacting upon processes such as cell proliferation, cytoskeletal rearrangement, and transcriptional control. This review provides an overview of tight junction morphology and discusses our current understanding of the molecular composition of endothelial tight junctions at the blood-brain barrier.

  7. MicroRNAs regulate tight junction proteins and modulate epithelial/endothelial barrier functions.

    PubMed

    Cichon, Christoph; Sabharwal, Harshana; Rüter, Christian; Schmidt, M Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Tightly controlled epithelial and endothelial barriers are a prerequisite for life as these barriers separate multicellular organisms from their environment and serve as first lines of defense. Barriers between neighboring epithelial cells are formed by multiple intercellular junctions including the 'apical junctional complex-AJC' with tight junctions (TJ), adherens junctions (AJ), and desmosomes. TJ consist of tetraspan transmembrane proteins like occludin, various claudins that directly control paracellular permeability, and the 'Junctional Adhesion Molecules' (JAMs). For establishing tight barriers TJ are essential but at the same time have to allow also selective permeability. For this, TJ need to be tightly regulated and controlled. This is organized by a variety of adaptor molecules, i.e., protein kinases, phosphatases and GTPases, which in turn are regulated and fine-tuned involving microRNAs (miRNAs). In this review we summarize available data on the role and targeting of miRNAs in the maintenance of epithelial and/or endothelial barriers.

  8. Poly-L-arginine-Induced internalization of tight junction proteins increases the paracellular permeability of the Caco-2 cell monolayer to hydrophilic macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Yamaki, Tsutomu; Ohtake, Kazuo; Ichikawa, Keiko; Uchida, Masaki; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Oshima, Shinji; Ohshima, Shinji; Juni, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Jun; Morimoto, Yasunori; Natsume, Hideshi

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether poly-L-arginine (PLA) enhances the paracellular permeability of the Caco-2 monolayer to hydrophilic macromolecules and clarified the disposition of tight junction (TJ) proteins. The transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran (FD-4) permeation were determined after treatment with PLA. TJ proteins were visualized using immunofluorescence microscopy after PLA exposure and depletion, and their expression levels were determined. The barrier function of TJs was also evaluated by measuring the alterations in the TEER and in the localization of TJ proteins. PLA induced an increase in hydrophilic macromolecule, FD-4, permeation through Caco-2 cell monolayers and a decrease in the TEER in a concentration-dependent manner, without any significant impact on the cell viability. This increased paracellular permeability induced by PLA was found to be internalized of claudin-4, ZO-1, tricellulin and mainly occludin from cell-cell junction to the subcellular space. ZO-1 appeared to play an important role in the reconstitution of TJ strand structures following PLA depletion. These results indicate that the PLA led to the internalization of TJ proteins to the subcellular space, subsequently increasing the permeability of the Caco-2 cell monolayer to FD-4 via a paracellular route.

  9. Lactic Acid Bacteria Improves Peyer's Patch Cell-Mediated Immunoglobulin A and Tight-Junction Expression in a Destructed Gut Microbial Environment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Hwan; Jeung, Woonhee; Choi, Il-Dong; Jeong, Ji-Woong; Lee, Dong Eun; Huh, Chul-Sung; Kim, Geun-Bae; Hong, Seong Soo; Shim, Jae-Jung; Lee, Jung Lyoul; Sim, Jae-Hun; Ahn, Young-Tae

    2016-06-28

    To evaluate the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on Peyer's patch cells, mice were treated with a high dose of kanamycin to disturb the gut microbial environment. The overarching goal was to explore the potential of LAB for use as a dietary probiotic that buffers the negative consequences of antibiotic treatment. In vitro, LAB stimulated the production of immunoglobulin A (IgA) from isolated Peyer's patch cells. Inflammation-related genes (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-8) were up-regulated in Caco-2 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), while tight-junction-related genes (ZO-1 and occludin) were down-regulated; the effects of LPS on inflammatory gene and tight-junction gene expression were reversed by treatment with LAB. Mice treated with a high dose of kanamycin showed increased serum IgE levels and decreases in serum IgA and fecal IgA levels; the number of Peyer's patch cells decreased with kanamycin treatment. However, subsequent LAB treatment was effective in reducing the serum IgE level and recovering the serum IgA and fecal IgA levels, as well as the number of Peyer's patch cells. In addition, ZO-1 and occludin mRNA levels were up-regulated in the ileum tissues of mice receiving LAB treatment. Lactic acid bacteria can enhance the intestinal immune system by improving the integrity of the intestinal barrier and increasing the production of IgA in Peyer's patches. Lactic acid bacteria should be considered a potential probiotic candidate for improving intestinal immunity, particularly in mitigating the negative consequences of antibiotic use.

  10. ZO-1 recruitment to α-catenin--a novel mechanism for coupling the assembly of tight junctions to adherens junctions.

    PubMed

    Maiers, Jessica L; Peng, Xiao; Fanning, Alan S; DeMali, Kris A

    2013-09-01

    The formation of a barrier between epithelial cells is a fundamental determinant of cellular homeostasis, protecting underlying cells against pathogens, dehydration and damage. Assembly of the tight junction barrier is dependent upon neighboring epithelial cells binding to one another and forming adherens junctions, but the mechanism for how these processes are linked is poorly understood. Using a knockdown and substitution system, we studied whether ZO-1 binding to α-catenin is required for coupling tight junction assembly to the formation of adherens junctions. We found that preventing ZO-1 binding to α-catenin did not appear to affect adherens junctions. Rather the assembly and maintenance of the epithelial barrier were disrupted. This disruption was accompanied by alterations in the mobility of ZO-1 and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Thus, our study identifies α-catenin binding to ZO-1 as a new mechanism for coupling the assembly of the epithelial barrier to cell-to-cell adhesion.

  11. Exogenous expression of the amino-terminal half of the tight junction protein ZO-3 perturbs junctional complex assembly.

    PubMed

    Wittchen, E S; Haskins, J; Stevenson, B R

    2000-11-13

    The functional characteristics of the tight junction protein ZO-3 were explored through exogenous expression of mutant protein constructs in MDCK cells. Expression of the amino-terminal, PSD95/dlg/ZO-1 domain-containing half of the molecule (NZO-3) delayed the assembly of both tight and adherens junctions induced by calcium switch treatment or brief exposure to the actin-disrupting drug cytochalasin D. Junction formation was monitored by transepithelial resistance measurements and localization of junction-specific proteins by immunofluorescence. The tight junction components ZO-1, ZO-2, endogenous ZO-3, and occludin were mislocalized during the early stages of tight junction assembly. Similarly, the adherens junction proteins E-cadherin and beta-catenin were also delayed in their recruitment to the cell membrane, and NZO-3 expression had striking effects on actin cytoskeleton dynamics. NZO-3 expression did not alter expression levels of ZO-1, ZO-2, endogenous ZO-3, occludin, or E-cadherin; however, the amount of Triton X-100-soluble, signaling-active beta-catenin was increased in NZO-3-expressing cells during junction assembly. In vitro binding experiments showed that ZO-1 and actin preferentially bind to NZO-3, whereas both NZO-3 and the carboxy-terminal half of the molecule (CZO-3) contain binding sites for occludin and cingulin. We hypothesize that NZO-3 exerts its dominant-negative effects via a mechanism involving the actin cytoskeleton, ZO-1, and/or beta-catenin.

  12. Exogenous Expression of the Amino-Terminal Half of the Tight Junction Protein Zo-3 Perturbs Junctional Complex Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Wittchen, Erika S.; Haskins, Julie; Stevenson, Bruce R.

    2000-01-01

    The functional characteristics of the tight junction protein ZO-3 were explored through exogenous expression of mutant protein constructs in MDCK cells. Expression of the amino-terminal, PSD95/dlg/ZO-1 domain-containing half of the molecule (NZO-3) delayed the assembly of both tight and adherens junctions induced by calcium switch treatment or brief exposure to the actin-disrupting drug cytochalasin D. Junction formation was monitored by transepithelial resistance measurements and localization of junction-specific proteins by immunofluorescence. The tight junction components ZO-1, ZO-2, endogenous ZO-3, and occludin were mislocalized during the early stages of tight junction assembly. Similarly, the adherens junction proteins E-cadherin and β-catenin were also delayed in their recruitment to the cell membrane, and NZO-3 expression had striking effects on actin cytoskeleton dynamics. NZO-3 expression did not alter expression levels of ZO-1, ZO-2, endogenous ZO-3, occludin, or E-cadherin; however, the amount of Triton X-100–soluble, signaling-active β-catenin was increased in NZO-3–expressing cells during junction assembly. In vitro binding experiments showed that ZO-1 and actin preferentially bind to NZO-3, whereas both NZO-3 and the carboxy-terminal half of the molecule (CZO-3) contain binding sites for occludin and cingulin. We hypothesize that NZO-3 exerts its dominant-negative effects via a mechanism involving the actin cytoskeleton, ZO-1, and/or β-catenin. PMID:11076967

  13. Anti-invasive activity of diallyl disulfide through tightening of tight junctions and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase activities in LNCaP prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Yeok; Kim, Gi-Young; Kim, Jung-In; Yoon, Moo Kyoung; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Lee, Su Jae; Choi, Young-Whan; Kang, Ho Sung; Yoo, Young Hyun; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2010-09-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a major component of an oil-soluble allyl sulfide garlic (Allium sativum) derivative, which has been shown to exert a potential for anti-cancer activity. However, the biochemical mechanisms underlying DADS-induced anti-invasiveness and anti-metastasis have not been thoroughly studied. In this study, we investigated the effect of DADS on the correlation between tightening of tight junctions (TJs) and anti-invasive activity in human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells. Inhibitory effects of DADS on cell motility and invasiveness were found to be associated with increased tightness of the TJ, which was demonstrated by an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). Additionally, immunoblotting results indicated that DADS repressed the levels of the claudin proteins, which are major components of TJs that play a key role in control and selectivity of paracellular transport. Furthermore, the activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 in LNCaP cells were dose-dependently inhibited by treatment with DADS, and this was also correlated with a decrease in expression of their mRNA and proteins. Although further studies are needed, the present study indicates that TJs and MMPs are critical targets of DADS-induced anti-invasiveness in human prostate cancer LNCaP cells.

  14. Deficiency of angulin-2/ILDR1, a tricellular tight junction-associated membrane protein, causes deafness with cochlear hair cell degeneration in mice.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Tomohito; Katsuno, Tatsuya; Kitajiri, Shin-Ichiro; Furuse, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    Tricellular tight junctions seal the extracellular spaces of tricellular contacts, where the vertices of three epithelial cells meet, and are required for the establishment of a strong barrier function of the epithelial cellular sheet. Angulins and tricellulin are known as specific protein components of tricellular tight junctions, where angulins recruit tricellulin. Mutations in the genes encoding angulin-2/ILDR1 and tricellulin have been reported to cause human hereditary deafness DFNB42 and DFNB49, respectively. To investigate the pathogenesis of DFNB42, we analyzed mice with a targeted disruption of Ildr1, which encodes angulin-2/ILDR1. Ildr1 null mice exhibited profound deafness. Hair cells in the cochlea of Ildr1 null mice develop normally, but begin to degenerate by two weeks after birth. Tricellulin localization at tricellular contacts of the organ of Corti in the cochlea was retained in Ildr1 null mice, but its distribution along the depth of tricellular contacts was affected. Interestingly, compensatory tricellular contact localization of angulin-1/LSR was observed in the organ of Corti in Ildr1 null mice although it was hardly detected in the organ of Corti in wild-type mice. The onset of hair cell degeneration in Ildr1 null mice was earlier than that in the reported Tric mutant mice, which mimic one of the tricellulin mutations in DFNB49 deafness. These results indicate that the angulin-2/ILDR1 deficiency causes the postnatal degenerative loss of hair cells in the cochlea, leading to human deafness DFNB42. Our data also suggest that angulin family proteins have distinct functions in addition to their common roles of tricellulin recruitment and that the function of angulin-2/ILDR1 for hearing cannot be substituted by angulin-1/LSR.

  15. miR-200b inhibits TNF-α-induced IL-8 secretion and tight junction disruption of intestinal epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yujie; Zhou, Min; Yan, Junkai; Gong, Zizhen; Xiao, Yongtao; Zhang, Cong; Du, Peng; Chen, Yingwei

    2017-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic, inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract with unclear etiologies. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), containing crypt and villus enterocytes, occupy a critical position in the pathogenesis of IBDs and are a major producer of immunoregulatory cytokines and a key component of the intact epithelial barrier. Previously, we have reported that miR-200b is involved in the progression of IBDs and might maintain the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier via reducing the loss of enterocytes. In this study, we further investigated the impact of miR-200b on intestinal epithelial inflammation and tight junctions in two distinct differentiated states of Caco-2 cells after TNF-α treatment. We demonstrated that TNF-α-enhanced IL-8 expression was decreased by microRNA (miR)-200b in undifferentiated IECs. Simultaneously, miR-200b could alleviate TNF-α-induced tight junction (TJ) disruption in well-differentiated IECs by reducing the reduction in the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), inhibiting the increase in paracellular permeability, and preventing the morphological redistribution of the TJ proteins claudin 1 and ZO-1. The expression levels of the JNK/c-Jun/AP-1 and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)/phosphorylated myosin light chain (p-MLC) pathways were attenuated in undifferentiated and differentiated enterocytes, respectively. Furthermore, a dual-luciferase reporter gene detection system provided direct evidence that c-Jun and MLCK were the specific targets of miR-200b. Collectively, our results highlighted that miR-200b played a positive role in IECs via suppressing intestinal epithelial IL-8 secretion and attenuating TJ damage in vitro, which suggested that miR-200b might be a promising strategy for IBD therapy.

  16. Distribution of Tight Junction Proteins in Adult Human Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Ola M.; Kim, Jung-Wan Martin; Gerstenhaber, Jonathan A.; Baum, Bruce J.; Tran, Simon D.

    2008-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are an essential structure of fluid-secreting cells, such as those in salivary glands. Three major families of integral membrane proteins have been identified as components of the TJ: claudins, occludin, and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs), plus the cytosolic protein zonula occludens (ZO). We have been working to develop an orally implantable artificial salivary gland that would be suitable for treating patients lacking salivary parenchymal tissue. To date, little is known about the distribution of TJ proteins in adult human salivary cells and thus what key molecular components might be desirable for the cellular component of an artificial salivary gland device. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the distribution of TJ proteins in human salivary glands. Salivary gland samples were obtained from 10 patients. Frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections were stained using IHC methods. Claudin-1 was expressed in ductal, endothelial, and ∼25% of serous cells. Claudins-2, -3, and -4 and JAM-A were expressed in both ductal and acinar cells, whereas claudin-5 was expressed only in endothelial cells. Occludin and ZO-1 were expressed in acinar, ductal, and endothelial cells. These results provide new information on TJ proteins in two major human salivary glands and should serve as a reference for future studies to assess the presence of appropriate TJ proteins in a tissue-engineered human salivary gland. (J Histochem Cytochem 56:1093–1098, 2008) PMID:18765838

  17. ZO-2 silencing in epithelial cells perturbs the gate and fence function of tight junctions and leads to an atypical monolayer architecture.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Sandra; Chavez Munguia, Bibiana; Gonzalez-Mariscal, Lorenza

    2007-05-01

    ZO-2 is a tight junction (TJ) protein that shuttles between the plasma membrane and the nucleus. ZO-2 contains several protein binding sites that allow it to function as a scaffold that clusters integral, adaptor and signaling proteins. To gain insight into the role of ZO-2 in epithelial cells, ZO-2 was silenced in MDCK cells with small interference RNA (siRNA). ZO-2 silencing triggered: (A) changes in the gate function of the TJ, determined by an increase in dextran flow through the paracellular route of mature monolayers and achievement of lower transepithelial electrical resistance values upon TJ de novo formation; (B) changes in the fence function of the TJ manifested by a non-polarized distribution of E-cadherin on the plasma membrane; (C) altered expression of TJ and adherens junction proteins, determined by a decreased amount of occludin and E-cadherin in mature monolayers and a delayed arrival to the plasma membrane of ZO-1, occludin and E-cadherin during a calcium switch assay; and (D) an atypical monolayer architecture characterized by the appearance of widened intercellular spaces, multistratification of regions in the culture and an altered pattern of actin at the cellular borders.

  18. H. pylori-encoded CagA disrupts tight junctions and induces invasiveness of AGS gastric carcinoma cells via Cdx2-dependent targeting of Claudin-2.

    PubMed

    Song, Xin; Chen, Hui-Xin; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Deng, Xi-Yun; Xi, Yin-Xue; He, Qing; Peng, Tie-Li; Chen, Jie; Chen, Wei; Wong, Benjamin Chun-Yu; Chen, Min-Hu

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori encoded CagA is presently the only known virulence factor that is injected into gastric epithelial cells where it destroys apical junctional complexes and induces dedifferentiation of gastric epithelial cells, leading to H. pylori-related gastric carcinogensis. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which CagA mediates these changes. Caudal-related homeobox 2 (Cdx2) is an intestine-specific transcription factor highly expressed in multistage tissues of dysplasia and cancer. One specific target of Cdx2, Claudin-2, is involved in the regulation of tight junction (TJ) permeability. In this study, our findings showed that the activity of Cdx2 binding to Cdx binding sites of CdxA (GTTTATG) and CdxB (TTTTAGG) of probes corresponding to claudin-2 flanking region increased in AGS cells, infected with CagA positive wild-type strain of H. pylori, compared to CagA negative isogenic mutant-type strain. Moreover, Cdx2 upregulated claudin-2 expression at transcriptional level and translational level. In the meantime, we found that TJs of AGS cells, infected with CagA positive wild-type strain of H. pylori, compared to CagA negative isogenic mutant-type strain, were more severely destroyed, leading to wider cell gap, interference of contact, scattering and highly elevated migration of cells. Herein, this study is firstly demonstrated that H. pylori-encoded CagA disrupts TJs and induces invasiveness of AGS gastric carcinoma cells via Cdx2-dependent targeting of Claudin-2. This provides a new mechanism whereby CagA induced dedifferentiation of AGS cells, leading to malignant behavior of biology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. MDCK cell cultures as an epithelial in vitro model: cytoskeleton and tight junctions as indicators for the definition of age-related stages by confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Rothen-Rutishauser, B; Krämer, S D; Braun, A; Günthert, M; Wunderli-Allenspach, H

    1998-07-01

    Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells were grown in culture, and age-related morphological changes in the cytoskeleton and tight junction (TJ) network were used to define stages in view of establishing an optimal in vitro model for the epithelial barrier. Growth curves and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) were determined, and the cytoskeleton (actin, alpha-tubulin, vimentin) and TJ (Zonula occludens proteins ZO1, ZO2) were investigated with immunofluorescent methods by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and digital image restoration. TEER measurements indicated that TJ were functional after one day. Values then remained constant. Four morphological stages could be distinguished. Stage I (0-1 day): Sub confluent cultures with flat cells; TJ established after cell-to-cell contacts are made. Stage II (2-6 days): Confluent monolayers with a complete TJ network, which remains intact throughout the later stages. Stage III (7-14 days): Rearrangement in the cytoskeleton; constant cell number; volume and surface area of cells reduced (cobble-stone appearance). Stage IV (> or = 15 days): Dome formation, i.e. thickening and spontaneous uplifting of the cell monolayer. Based on the structural characteristics of stage III cell cultures, which are closest to the in vivo situation, we expect them to represent an optimal in vitro model to study drug transport and/or interactions with drugs and excipients.

  20. The Protein Kinase A Pathway Contributes to Hg2+-Induced Alterations in Phosphorylation and Subcellular Distribution of Occludin Associated with Increased Tight Junction Permeability of Salivary Epithelial Cell Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Kawedia, Jitesh D.; Jiang, Mengmeng; Kulkarni, Amit; Waechter, Holly E.; Matlin, Karl S.; Pauletti, Giovanni M.; Menon, Anil G.

    2009-01-01

    Hg2+ is commonly used as an inhibitor of many aquaporins during measurements of transcellular water transport. To investigate whether it could also act on the paracellular water transport pathway, we asked whether addition of Hg2+ affected transport of radiolabeled probes through tight junctions of a salivary epithelial cell monolayer. Inclusion of 1 mM Hg2+ decreased transepithelial electrical resistance by 8-fold and augmented mannitol and raffinose flux by 13-fold, which translated into an estimated 44% increase in pore radius at the tight junction. These Hg2+-induced effects could be partially blocked by the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor N-[2-((p-bromocinnamyl) amino) ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide, 2HCl (H89), suggesting that both-PKA dependent and PKA-independent mechanisms contribute to tight junction regulation. Western blot analyses showed a 2-fold decrease in tight junction-associated occludin after Hg2+ treatment and the presence of a novel hyperphosphorylated form of occludin in the cytoplasmic fraction. These findings were corroborated by confocal imaging. The results from this study reveal a novel contribution of the PKA pathway in Hg2+-induced regulation of tight junction permeability in the salivary epithelial barrier. Therapeutically, this could be explored for pharmacological intervention in the treatment of dry mouth, Sjögren’s syndrome, and possibly other disorders of fluid transport. PMID:18550693

  1. The protein kinase A pathway contributes to Hg2+-induced alterations in phosphorylation and subcellular distribution of occludin associated with increased tight junction permeability of salivary epithelial cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Kawedia, Jitesh D; Jiang, Mengmeng; Kulkarni, Amit; Waechter, Holly E; Matlin, Karl S; Pauletti, Giovanni M; Menon, Anil G

    2008-09-01

    Hg(2+) is commonly used as an inhibitor of many aquaporins during measurements of transcellular water transport. To investigate whether it could also act on the paracellular water transport pathway, we asked whether addition of Hg(2+) affected transport of radiolabeled probes through tight junctions of a salivary epithelial cell monolayer. Inclusion of 1 mM Hg(2+) decreased transepithelial electrical resistance by 8-fold and augmented mannitol and raffinose flux by 13-fold, which translated into an estimated 44% increase in pore radius at the tight junction. These Hg(2+)-induced effects could be partially blocked by the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor N-[2-((p-bromocinnamyl) amino) ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide, 2HCl (H89), suggesting that both-PKA dependent and PKA-independent mechanisms contribute to tight junction regulation. Western blot analyses showed a 2-fold decrease in tight junction-associated occludin after Hg(2+) treatment and the presence of a novel hyperphosphorylated form of occludin in the cytoplasmic fraction. These findings were corroborated by confocal imaging. The results from this study reveal a novel contribution of the PKA pathway in Hg(2+)-induced regulation of tight junction permeability in the salivary epithelial barrier. Therapeutically, this could be explored for pharmacological intervention in the treatment of dry mouth, Sjögren's syndrome, and possibly other disorders of fluid transport.

  2. Arecoline induced disruption of expression and localization of the tight junctional protein ZO-1 is dependent on the HER 2 expression in human endometrial Ishikawa cells.

    PubMed

    Giri, Sarbani; Poindexter, Kevin M; Sundar, Shyam N; Firestone, Gary L

    2010-07-06

    Approximately 600 million people chew Betel nut, making this practice the fourth most popular oral habit in the world. Arecoline, the major alkaloid present in betel nut is one of the causative agents for precancerous lesions and several cancers of mouth among those who chew betel nut. Arecoline can be detected in the human embryonic tissue and is correlated to low birth weight of newborns whose mothers chew betel nut during pregnancy, suggesting that arecoline can induce many systemic effects. However, few reports exist as to the effects of arecoline in human tissues other than oral cancer cell lines. Furthermore, in any system, virtually nothing is known about the cellular effects of arecoline treatment on membrane associated signaling components of human cancer cells. Using the human Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell line, we investigated the effects of arecoline on expression, localization and functional connections between the ZO-1 tight junction protein and the HER2 EGF receptor family member. Treatment of Ishikawa cells with arecoline coordinately down-regulated expression of both ZO-1 and HER2 protein and transcripts in a dose dependent manner. Biochemical fractionation of cells as well as indirect immunofluorescence revealed that arecoline disrupted the localization of ZO-1 to the junctional complex at the cell periphery. Compared to control transfected cells, ectopic expression of exogenous HER2 prevented the arecoline mediated down-regulation of ZO-1 expression and restored the localization of ZO-1 to the cell periphery. Furthermore, treatment with dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid reported to up-regulate expression of HER2 in Ishikawa cells, precluded arecoline from down-regulating ZO-1 expression and disrupting ZO-1 localization. Arecoline is known to induce precancerous lesions and cancer in the oral cavity of betel nut users. The arecoline down-regulation of ZO-1 expression and subcellular distribution suggests that arecoline potentially

  3. Arecoline induced disruption of expression and localization of the tight junctional protein ZO-1 is dependent on the HER 2 expression in human endometrial Ishikawa cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Approximately 600 million people chew Betel nut, making this practice the fourth most popular oral habit in the world. Arecoline, the major alkaloid present in betel nut is one of the causative agents for precancerous lesions and several cancers of mouth among those who chew betel nut. Arecoline can be detected in the human embryonic tissue and is correlated to low birth weight of newborns whose mothers chew betel nut during pregnancy, suggesting that arecoline can induce many systemic effects. However, few reports exist as to the effects of arecoline in human tissues other than oral cancer cell lines. Furthermore, in any system, virtually nothing is known about the cellular effects of arecoline treatment on membrane associated signaling components of human cancer cells. Results Using the human Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell line, we investigated the effects of arecoline on expression, localization and functional connections between the ZO-1 tight junction protein and the HER2 EGF receptor family member. Treatment of Ishikawa cells with arecoline coordinately down-regulated expression of both ZO-1 and HER2 protein and transcripts in a dose dependent manner. Biochemical fractionation of cells as well as indirect immunofluorescence revealed that arecoline disrupted the localization of ZO-1 to the junctional complex at the cell periphery. Compared to control transfected cells, ectopic expression of exogenous HER2 prevented the arecoline mediated down-regulation of ZO-1 expression and restored the localization of ZO-1 to the cell periphery. Furthermore, treatment with dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid reported to up-regulate expression of HER2 in Ishikawa cells, precluded arecoline from down-regulating ZO-1 expression and disrupting ZO-1 localization. Conclusion Arecoline is known to induce precancerous lesions and cancer in the oral cavity of betel nut users. The arecoline down-regulation of ZO-1 expression and subcellular distribution suggests

  4. Tight junction disruption: Helicobacter pylori and dysregulation of the gastric mucosal barrier

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Tyler J; Scott, Kathleen E; Fox, James G; Hagen, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Long-term chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a risk factor for gastric cancer development. In the multi-step process that leads to gastric cancer, tight junction dysfunction is thought to occur and serve as a risk factor by permitting the permeation of luminal contents across an otherwise tight mucosa. Mechanisms that regulate tight junction function and structure in the normal stomach, or dysfunction in the infected stomach, however, are largely unknown. Although conventional tight junction components are expressed in gastric epithelial cells, claudins regulate paracellular permeability and are likely the target of inflammation or H. pylori itself. There are 27 different claudin molecules, each with unique properties that render the mucosa an intact barrier that is permselective in a way that is consistent with cell physiology. Understanding the architecture of tight junctions in the normal stomach and then changes that occur during infection is important but challenging, because most of the reports that catalog claudin expression in gastric cancer pathogenesis are contradictory. Furthermore, the role of H. pylori virulence factors, such as cytotoxin-associated gene A and vacoulating cytotoxin, in regulating tight junction dysfunction during infection is inconsistent in different gastric cell lines and in vivo, likely because non-gastric epithelial cell cultures were initially used to unravel the details of their effects on the stomach. Hampering further study, as well, is the relative lack of cultured cell models that have tight junction claudins that are consistent with native tissues. This summary will review the current state of knowledge about gastric tight junctions, normally and in H. pylori infection, and make predictions about the consequences of claudin reorganization during H. pylori infection. PMID:26523106

  5. Blood-brain barrier tight junction permeability and ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Karin E; Witt, Ken A

    2008-11-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is formed by the endothelial cells of cerebral microvessels, providing a dynamic interface between the peripheral circulation and the central nervous system. The tight junctions (TJs) between the endothelial cells serve to restrict blood-borne substances from entering the brain. Under ischemic stroke conditions decreased BBB TJ integrity results in increased paracellular permeability, directly contributing to cerebral vasogenic edema, hemorrhagic transformation, and increased mortality. This loss of TJ integrity occurs in a phasic manner, which is contingent on several interdependent mechanisms (ionic dysregulation, inflammation, oxidative and nitrosative stress, enzymatic activity, and angiogenesis). Understanding the inter-relation of these mechanisms is critical for the development of new therapies. This review focuses on those aspects of ischemic stroke impacting BBB TJ integrity and the principle regulatory pathways, respective to the phases of paracellular permeability.

  6. Ischemic preconditioning enhances integrity of coronary endothelial tight junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhao; Jin, Zhu-Qiu

    2012-08-31

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cardiac tight junctions are present between coronary endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ischemic preconditioning preserves the structural and functional integrity of tight junctions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Myocardial edema is prevented in hearts subjected to ischemic preconditioning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ischemic preconditioning enhances translocation of ZO-2 from cytosol to cytoskeleton. -- Abstract: Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is one of the most effective procedures known to protect hearts against ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. Tight junction (TJ) barriers occur between coronary endothelial cells. TJs provide barrier function to maintain the homeostasis of the inner environment of tissues. However, the effect of IPC on the structure and function of cardiac TJs remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that myocardial IR injury ruptures the structure of TJs and impairs endothelial permeability whereas IPC preserves the structural and functional integrity of TJs in the blood-heart barrier. Langendorff hearts from C57BL/6J mice were prepared and perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer. Cardiac function, creatine kinase release, and myocardial edema were measured. Cardiac TJ function was evaluated by measuring Evans blue-conjugated albumin (EBA) content in the extravascular compartment of hearts. Expression and translocation of zonula occludens (ZO)-2 in IR and IPC hearts were detected with Western blot. A subset of hearts was processed for the observation of ultra-structure of cardiac TJs with transmission electron microscopy. There were clear TJs between coronary endothelial cells of mouse hearts. IR caused the collapse of TJs whereas IPC sustained the structure of TJs. IR increased extravascular EBA content in the heart and myocardial edema but decreased the expression of ZO-2 in the cytoskeleton. IPC maintained the structure of TJs. Cardiac EBA content and edema were reduced in IPC hearts. IPC

  7. Ferulate protects the epithelial barrier by maintaining tight junction protein expression and preventing apoptosis in tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Eun Kyeong; Park, Min Hi; Ha, Young Mi; Jung, Kyung Jin; Kim, Min-Sun; Kim, Mi Kyung; Yu, Byung Pal; Chung, Hae Young

    2013-03-01

    Epithelial barrier function is determined by both transcellular and paracellular permeability, the latter of which is mainly influenced by tight junctions (TJs) and apoptotic leaks within the epithelium. We investigated the protective effects of ferulate on epithelial barrier integrity by examining permeability, TJ protein expression, and apoptosis in Caco-2 cells treated with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP), a strong reactive species inducer. Caco-2 cells pretreated with ferulate (5 or 15 μM) were exposed to t-BHP (100 μM), and ferulate suppressed the t-BHP-mediated increases in reactive species and epithelial permeability in Caco-2 cells. Moreover, ferulate inhibited epithelial cell leakage induced by t-BHP, which was accompanied by decreased expression of the TJ proteins zonula occludens-1 and occludin. In addition, pretreatment with ferulate markedly protected cells against t-BHP-induced apoptosis, as evidenced by decreased nuclear condensation, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 cleavage and an increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These results suggest that ferulate protects the epithelial barrier of Caco-2 cells against oxidative stress, which results in increased epithelial permeability, decreased TJ protein expression, and increased apoptosis. The most significant finding of our study is the demonstration of protective, ferulate-mediated antioxidant effects on barrier integrity, with a particular focus on intracellular molecular mechanisms.

  8. Ultrastructural pathology of endothelial tight junctions in human brain oedema.

    PubMed

    Castejón, Orlando J

    2012-01-01

    Cortical biopsies of patients with the diagnosis of complicated brain trauma, congenital hydrocephalus, brain vascular anomaly, and brain tumour are studied with the electron microscope using cortical biopsies of different cortical brain regions to analyze the alterations of endothelial junctions, and their participation in the pathogenesis of human brain oedema. In moderate oedema, most endothelial tight junctions are structurally closed and intact, while in some cases of severe oedema, the opening of tight endothelial junctions is observed. In very severe brain oedema, a considerable enlargement of interjunctional pockets of extracellular space is also seen suggesting that in highly increased cerebrovascular permeability, the endothelial junctions are open in their entire extent, and that an intercellular or paracellular route through interendothelial clefts for transferring haematogenous oedema fluid from blood to the capillary basement membrane and the brain parenchyma is formed, contributing to the formation of brain oedema. High intensity brain trauma, seizures, osmotic forces, hypoxic conditions, and alteration of tight junctions proteins would explain the opening of endothelial junctions in severe and complicated brain oedema. In congenital hydrocephalus, the capillary wall shows evident signs of blood-brain barrier dysfunction characterized by closed and open interendothelial junctions, increased endothelial vesicular and vacuolar transport, thin and fragmented basement membrane with areas of focal thickening, and discontinuous perivascular astrocytic end-feet. The perivascular space is notably dilated and widely communicated with the enlarged extracellular space in the neuropil, showing the contribution of damaged endothelial junction to the formation of interstitial or hydrocephalic brain oedema. Altered expression of tight junction proteins could cause a blood-brain barrier breakdown following brain injury and hypoxic conditions leading to brain oedema

  9. The secreted autotransporter toxin, Sat, functions as a virulence factor in Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli by promoting lesions in tight junction of polarized epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Guignot, Julie; Chaplais, Cécile; Coconnier-Polter, Marie-Hélène; Servin, Alain L

    2007-01-01

    Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) strains are responsible for urinary tract and intestinal infections. Both in intestine and kidney, the epithelial cells forming epithelium are sealed by junctional domains. We provide evidence that the Secreted autotransporter toxin, Sat, belonging to the subfamily of serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs), acts as a virulence factor in Afa/Dr DAEC by promoting lesions in the tight junctions (TJs) of polarized epithelial Caco-2/TC7 cells. Southern blot analysis reveals that the prototype strains of the subclass-1 and subclass-2 typical Afa/Dr DAEC strains, hybridize with a sat probe. Using the wild-type IH11128 strain, the recombinant E. coli AAEC185 strain that expresses Sat, the recombinant E. coli that expresses both Dr adhesin and Sat, we report that Sat in monolayers of cultured enterocyte-like Caco-2/TC7 cells, induces rearrangements of the TJs-associated proteins ZO-1, ZO-3 and occludin, and increases the formation of domes as the result of an increase in the paracellular permeability without affecting the transepithelial electrical resistance of the cell monolayers. Moreover, we observe that Sat-induced disassembly of TJs-associated proteins is dependent on the serine protease motif. Finally, an analysis of the prevalence of the sat gene in three collections of Afa/Dr DAEC strains collected from the stools of children with and without diarrhoea, and from the urine of patients with urinary tract infection (UTI) shows that: (i) the sat gene is highly prevalent in UTI-associated Afa/Dr DAEC strains (88% positive), (ii) the sat gene is generally absent from Afa/Dr DAEC strains collected from the stools of children without diarrhoea (16% positive); whereas (iii) it is present in about half of the strains collected from the stools of children with diarrhoea (46% positive).

  10. Irinotecan disrupts tight junction proteins within the gut

    PubMed Central

    Wardill, Hannah R; Bowen, Joanne M; Al-Dasooqi, Noor; Sultani, Masooma; Bateman, Emma; Stansborough, Romany; Shirren, Joseph; Gibson, Rachel J

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy for cancer causes significant gut toxicity, leading to severe clinical manifestations and an increased economic burden. Despite much research, many of the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood hindering effective treatment options. Recently there has been renewed interest in the role tight junctions play in the pathogenesis of chemotherapy-induced gut toxicity. To delineate the underlying mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced gut toxicity, this study aimed to quantify the molecular changes in key tight junction proteins, ZO-1, claudin-1, and occludin, using a well-established preclinical model of gut toxicity. Female tumor-bearing dark agouti rats received irinotecan or vehicle control and were assessed for validated parameters of gut toxicity including diarrhea and weight loss. Rats were killed at 6, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h post-chemotherapy. Tight junction protein and mRNA expression in the small and large intestines were assessed using semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Significant changes in protein expression of tight junction proteins were seen in both the jejunum and colon, correlating with key histological changes and clinical features. mRNA levels of claudin-1 were significantly decreased early after irinotecan in the small and large intestines. ZO-1 and occludin mRNA levels remained stable across the time-course of gut toxicity. Findings strongly suggest irinotecan causes tight junction defects which lead to mucosal barrier dysfunction and the development of diarrhea. Detailed research is now warranted to investigate posttranslational regulation of tight junction proteins to delineate the underlying pathophysiology of gut toxicity and identify future therapeutic targets. PMID:24316664

  11. Trends in drug delivery through tissue barriers containing tight junctions

    PubMed Central

    Tscheik, Christian; Blasig, Ingolf E.; Winkler, Lars

    2013-01-01

    A limitation in the uptake of many drugs is the restricted permeation through tissue barriers. There are two general ways to cross barriers formed by cell layers: by transcytosis or by diffusion through the intercellular space. In the latter, tight junctions (TJs) play the decisive role in the regulation of the barrier permeability. Thus, transient modulation of TJs is a potent strategy to improve drug delivery. There have been extensive studies on surfactant-like absorption enhancers. One of the most effective enhancers found is sodium caprate. However, this modulates TJs in an unspecific fashion. A novel approach would be the specific modulation of TJ-associated marvel proteins and claudins, which are the main structural components of the TJs. Recent studies have identified synthetic peptidomimetics and RNA interference techniques to downregulate the expression of targeted TJ proteins. This review summarizes current progress and discusses the impact on TJs' barrier function. PMID:24665392

  12. The role of tight junctions in skin barrier function and dermal absorption.

    PubMed

    Bäsler, Katja; Bergmann, Sophia; Heisig, Michael; Naegel, Arne; Zorn-Kruppa, Michaela; Brandner, Johanna M

    2016-11-28

    The skin protects our body from external assaults like pathogens, xenobiotics or UV irradiation. In addition, it prevents the loss of water and solutes. To fulfill these important tasks, a complex barrier system has developed which comprises the stratum corneum, tight junctions, the microbiome, the chemical barrier and the immunological barrier. These barriers do not act separately, but influence each other e.g. after external manipulation or in skin diseases. Especially the two mechanical barriers, i.e. stratum corneum and tight junctions, are of great interest for drug delivery, because they are the first interaction partners of drug delivery systems and play the major role in skin absorption. Tight junctions are of special interest, as they are centrally localized in this complex barrier system in the outermost viable layer - the stratum granulosum of the interfollicular epidermis and the companion cell layer of the hair follicle - and because they can react very quickly to stimuli. We summarize here our current knowledge about tight junction barrier function in mammalian interfollicular epidermis and hair follicles, and the interaction of tight junctions with other skin barrier components in health and disease. Furthermore, we discuss their relevance for drug delivery and provide examples for tight junction modulators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Correlation between the destruction of tight junction by patulin treatment and increase of phosphorylation of ZO-1 in Caco-2 human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kawauchiya, Tomoko; Takumi, Ryo; Kudo, Yukako; Takamori, Akiko; Sasagawa, Tatuya; Takahashi, Kohei; Kikuchi, Hideaki

    2011-08-28

    Patulin is a mycotoxin and its contamination of food has been reported to cause gastrointestinal inflammation, ulcers, and bleeding. The toxicity of patulin is thought to be due to the destruction of tight junctions (TJs) in gastrointestinal tissues. However, the precise mechanism has not been clarified. Here, we investigated the phosphorylation of TJ components. The transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) of Caco-2 human colon cancer cells decreased gradually during the first 24h of treatment with 50μM patulin. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that the TJ proteins ZO-1 and claudin-4, but not occludin, had decreased after 24h and decreased from the cell-cell contact regions of TJs after 48h of patulin treatment. Western blotting showed that the level of ZO-1 decreased after 48h of patulin treatment, but the levels of claudin-4 and occludin remained at the initial level until 72h. Phosphorylation of ZO-1 was detected by 24h and increased markedly after 72h of patulin treatment. However, phosphorylation of claudin-4 and occludin was not detected by probing with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody. Immunoprecipitation showed that interaction of ZO-1 with claudin-4 had decreased after 48h and was completely absent after 72h. These results suggest that phosphorylation caused the degradation of ZO-1 protein and the decrease in TER induced by patulin treatment of Caco-2 cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin elicits rapid and specific cytolysis of breast carcinoma cells mediated through tight junction proteins claudin 3 and 4.

    PubMed

    Kominsky, Scott L; Vali, Mustafa; Korz, Dorian; Gabig, Theodore G; Weitzman, Sigmund A; Argani, Pedram; Sukumar, Saraswati

    2004-05-01

    Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) induces cytolysis very rapidly through binding to its receptors, the tight junction proteins CLDN 3 and 4. In this study, we investigated CLDN 3 and 4 expression in breast cancer and tested the potential of CPE-mediated therapy. CLDN 3 and 4 proteins were detected in all primary breast carcinomas tested (n = 21) and, compared to normal mammary epithelium, were overexpressed in approximately 62% and 26%, respectively. Treatment of breast cancer cell lines in culture with CPE resulted in rapid and dose-dependent cytolysis exclusively in cells that expressed CLDN 3 and 4. Intratumoral CPE treatment of xenografts of T47D breast cancer cells in immunodeficient mice resulted in a significant reduction in tumor volume (P = 0.007), with accompanying necrosis. Necrotic reactions were also seen in three freshly resected primary breast carcinoma samples treated with CPE for 12 hours, while isolated primary breast carcinoma cells underwent rapid and complete cytolysis within 1 hour. Thus, expression of CLDN 3 and 4 sensitizes primary breast carcinomas to CPE-mediated cytolysis and emphasizes the potential of CPE in breast cancer therapy.

  15. Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin Elicits Rapid and Specific Cytolysis of Breast Carcinoma Cells Mediated through Tight Junction Proteins Claudin 3 and 4

    PubMed Central

    Kominsky, Scott L.; Vali, Mustafa; Korz, Dorian; Gabig, Theodore G.; Weitzman, Sigmund A.; Argani, Pedram; Sukumar, Saraswati

    2004-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) induces cytolysis very rapidly through binding to its receptors, the tight junction proteins CLDN 3 and 4. In this study, we investigated CLDN 3 and 4 expression in breast cancer and tested the potential of CPE-mediated therapy. CLDN 3 and 4 proteins were detected in all primary breast carcinomas tested (n = 21) and, compared to normal mammary epithelium, were overexpressed in approximately 62% and 26%, respectively. Treatment of breast cancer cell lines in culture with CPE resulted in rapid and dose-dependent cytolysis exclusively in cells that expressed CLDN 3 and 4. Intratumoral CPE treatment of xenografts of T47D breast cancer cells in immunodeficient mice resulted in a significant reduction in tumor volume (P = 0.007), with accompanying necrosis. Necrotic reactions were also seen in three freshly resected primary breast carcinoma samples treated with CPE for 12 hours, while isolated primary breast carcinoma cells underwent rapid and complete cytolysis within 1 hour. Thus, expression of CLDN 3 and 4 sensitizes primary breast carcinomas to CPE-mediated cytolysis and emphasizes the potential of CPE in breast cancer therapy. PMID:15111309

  16. p38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase regulate the accumulation of a tight junction protein, ZO-1, in cell-cell contacts in HaCaT cells.

    PubMed

    Minakami, Masahiko; Kitagawa, Norio; Iida, Hiroshi; Anan, Hisashi; Inai, Tetsuichiro

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the involvement of stress-activated protein kinases, JNK and p38 MAPK, in the assembly of tight junctions in keratinocytes, we treated HaCaT cells with various combinations of SP600125 (an inhibitor of JNK), SB202190 (an inhibitor of p38 MAPK) and anisomycin (an activator of both JNK and p38 MAPK) and examined the localization of ZO-1, an undercoat constitutive protein of the tight junction. Short-term (8h) incubation with SP600125, SB202190 or anisomycin induced the accumulation of ZO-1 in the cell-cell contacts, with reduced ZO-1 staining in the cytoplasm, while only long-term (24h) incubation with SP600125 induced the accumulation of ZO-1. SP600125, SB202190 or SP600125 plus SB202190 treatment induced thin linear staining for ZO-1 in the cell-cell contacts. Anisomycin treatment induced thick and irregular linear staining for ZO-1, while anisomycin plus SP600125 treatment induced zipper-like staining for ZO-1. Anisomycin plus SB202190 treatment or anisomycin plus both SP600125 and SB202190 treatment for 8h failed to lead to the accumulation of ZO-1 in cell-cell contacts, but induced thin linear staining with several gaps 16 h after removal of these agents. These results suggest that the localization of ZO-1 in cell-cell contacts is differently regulated by activation and inhibition of JNK and/or p38 MAPK depending on the incubation period.

  17. Chloride conductance of frog skin: localization to the tight junctions?

    PubMed

    Nagel, W

    1989-01-01

    The pathway(s) of passive conductive Cl transport across isolated frog skin are analyzed by electrophysiological techniques including microelectrode impalement of principal cells. It is found that the apical membrane of granular cells is virtually impermeable for Cl. Substitution of mucosal Cl by anions except NO3 and SCN decreases Cl-related tissue conductance (gCl) with first order kinetics. NO3 and SCN block gCl with half-maximal concentration of 18 and 5 mM, respectively. Omission of serosal Cl has little effect on gCl unless the inhibiting anions NO3 or SCN are used. The putative Cl channel blocker diphenylaminocarbonic acid (DPC) and some analogs inhibit gCl, half-inhibitory concentration of the most potent dichloro-DPC is 10(-6) M. The inhibitors act only from the mucosal side. Slow dissipation of gCl after abolition of Na entry across the apical membranes which can be prevented by preceding blockage of the Na-K-ATPase with ouabain suggests that the intracellular Na activity might influence the permeability of the Cl pathway. It is supposed that this control involves microfilaments between the cytoskeleton and the tight junctions with Cl-specific permeation sites in outer regions of the junctional complex.

  18. 21-Benzylidene digoxin: a proapoptotic cardenolide of cancer cells that up-regulates Na,K-ATPase and epithelial tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Sayonarah C; Pessoa, Marco T C; Neves, Luiza D R; Alves, Silmara L G; Silva, Luciana M; Santos, Herica L; Oliveira, Soraya M F; Taranto, Alex G; Comar, Moacyr; Gomes, Isabella V; Santos, Fabio V; Paixão, Natasha; Quintas, Luis E M; Noël, François; Pereira, Antonio F; Tessis, Ana C S C; Gomes, Natalia L S; Moreira, Otacilio C; Rincon-Heredia, Ruth; Varotti, Fernando P; Blanco, Gustavo; Villar, Jose A F P; Contreras, Rubén G; Barbosa, Leandro A

    2014-01-01

    Cardiotonic steroids are used to treat heart failure and arrhythmia and have promising anticancer effects. The prototypic cardiotonic steroid ouabain may also be a hormone that modulates epithelial cell adhesion. Cardiotonic steroids consist of a steroid nucleus and a lactone ring, and their biological effects depend on the binding to their receptor, Na,K-ATPase, through which, they inhibit Na+ and K+ ion transport and activate of several intracellular signaling pathways. In this study, we added a styrene group to the lactone ring of the cardiotonic steroid digoxin, to obtain 21-benzylidene digoxin (21-BD), and investigated the effects of this synthetic cardiotonic steroid in different cell models. Molecular modeling indicates that 21-BD binds to its target Na,K-ATPase with low affinity, adopting a different pharmacophoric conformation when bound to its receptor than digoxin. Accordingly, 21-DB, at relatively high µM amounts inhibits the activity of Na,K-ATPase α1, but not α2 and α3 isoforms. In addition, 21-BD targets other proteins outside the Na,K-ATPase, inhibiting the multidrug exporter Pdr5p. When used on whole cells at low µM concentrations, 21-BD produces several effects, including: 1) up-regulation of Na,K-ATPase expression and activity in HeLa and RKO cancer cells, which is not found for digoxin, 2) cell specific changes in cell viability, reducing it in HeLa and RKO cancer cells, but increasing it in normal epithelial MDCK cells, which is different from the response to digoxin, and 3) changes in cell-cell interaction, altering the molecular composition of tight junctions and elevating transepithelial electrical resistance of MDCK monolayers, an effect previously found for ouabain. These results indicate that modification of the lactone ring of digoxin provides new properties to the compound, and shows that the structural change introduced could be used for the design of cardiotonic steroid with novel functions.

  19. 21-Benzylidene Digoxin: A Proapoptotic Cardenolide of Cancer Cells That Up-Regulates Na,K-ATPase and Epithelial Tight Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Sayonarah C.; Pessoa, Marco T. C.; Neves, Luiza D. R.; Alves, Silmara L. G.; Silva, Luciana M.; Santos, Herica L.; Oliveira, Soraya M. F.; Taranto, Alex G.; Comar, Moacyr; Gomes, Isabella V.; Santos, Fabio V.; Paixão, Natasha; Quintas, Luis E. M.; Noël, François; Pereira, Antonio F.; Tessis, Ana C. S. C.; Gomes, Natalia L. S.; Moreira, Otacilio C.; Rincon-Heredia, Ruth; Varotti, Fernando P.; Blanco, Gustavo; Villar, Jose A. F. P.; Contreras, Rubén G.; Barbosa, Leandro A.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiotonic steroids are used to treat heart failure and arrhythmia and have promising anticancer effects. The prototypic cardiotonic steroid ouabain may also be a hormone that modulates epithelial cell adhesion. Cardiotonic steroids consist of a steroid nucleus and a lactone ring, and their biological effects depend on the binding to their receptor, Na,K-ATPase, through which, they inhibit Na+ and K+ ion transport and activate of several intracellular signaling pathways. In this study, we added a styrene group to the lactone ring of the cardiotonic steroid digoxin, to obtain 21-benzylidene digoxin (21-BD), and investigated the effects of this synthetic cardiotonic steroid in different cell models. Molecular modeling indicates that 21-BD binds to its target Na,K-ATPase with low affinity, adopting a different pharmacophoric conformation when bound to its receptor than digoxin. Accordingly, 21-DB, at relatively high µM amounts inhibits the activity of Na,K-ATPase α1, but not α2 and α3 isoforms. In addition, 21-BD targets other proteins outside the Na,K-ATPase, inhibiting the multidrug exporter Pdr5p. When used on whole cells at low µM concentrations, 21-BD produces several effects, including: 1) up-regulation of Na,K-ATPase expression and activity in HeLa and RKO cancer cells, which is not found for digoxin, 2) cell specific changes in cell viability, reducing it in HeLa and RKO cancer cells, but increasing it in normal epithelial MDCK cells, which is different from the response to digoxin, and 3) changes in cell-cell interaction, altering the molecular composition of tight junctions and elevating transepithelial electrical resistance of MDCK monolayers, an effect previously found for ouabain. These results indicate that modification of the lactone ring of digoxin provides new properties to the compound, and shows that the structural change introduced could be used for the design of cardiotonic steroid with novel functions. PMID:25290152

  20. Phosphatidylcholine passes through lateral tight junctions for paracellular transport to the apical side of the polarized intestinal tumor cell-line CaCo2.

    PubMed

    Stremmel, Wolfgang; Staffer, Simone; Gan-Schreier, Hongying; Wannhoff, Andreas; Bach, Margund; Gauss, Annika

    2016-09-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most abundant phospholipid in intestinal mucus, indicative of a specific transport system across the mucosal epithelium to the intestinal lumen. To elucidate this transport mechanism, we employed a transwell tissue culture system with polarized CaCo2 cells. It was shown that PC could not substantially be internalized by the cells. However, after basal application of increasing PC concentrations, an apical transport of 47.1±6.3nmolh(-1)mMPC(-1) was observed. Equilibrium distribution studies with PC applied in equal concentrations to the basal and apical compartments showed a 1.5-fold accumulation on the expense of basal PC. Disruption of tight junctions (TJ) by acetaldehyde or PPARγ inhibitors or by treatment with siRNA to TJ proteins suppressed paracellular transport by at least 50%. Transport was specific for the choline containing the phospholipids PC, lysoPC and sphingomyelin. We showed that translocation is driven by an electrochemical gradient generated by apical accumulation of Cl(-) and HCO3(-) through CFTR. Pretreatment with siRNA to mucin 3 which anchors in the apical plasma membrane of mucosal cells inhibited the final step of luminal PC secretion. PC accumulates in intestinal mucus using a paracellular, apically directed transport route across TJs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-term forskolin stimulation induces AMPK activation and thereby enhances tight junction formation in human placental trophoblast BeWo cells.

    PubMed

    Egawa, M; Kamata, H; Kushiyama, A; Sakoda, H; Fujishiro, M; Horike, N; Yoneda, M; Nakatsu, Y; Ying, Guo; Jun, Zhang; Tsuchiya, Y; Takata, K; Kurihara, H; Asano, T

    2008-12-01

    BeWo cells, derived from human choriocarcinoma, have been known to respond to forskolin or cAMP analogues by differentiating into multinucleated cells- like syncytiotrophoblasts on the surfaces of chorionic villi of the human placenta. In this study, we demonstrated that long-term treatment with forskolin enhances the tight junction (TJ) formation in human placental BeWo cells. Interestingly, AMPK activation and phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), a molecule downstream from AMPK, were induced by long-term incubation (>12h) with forskolin, despite not being induced by acute stimulation with forskolin. In addition, co-incubation with an AMPK inhibitor, compound C, as well as overexpression of an AMPK dominant negative mutant inhibited forskolin-induced TJ formation. Thus, although the molecular mechanism underlying AMPK activation via the forskolin stimulation is unclear, the TJ formation induced by forskolin is likely to be mediated by the AMPK pathway. Taking into consideration that TJs are present in the normal human placenta, this mechanism may be important for forming the placental barrier system between the fetal and maternal circulations.

  2. [Effects of the combination of musk and olibanum on the expressions of tight junction proteins in the prostate epithelial cells of rats].

    PubMed

    Lin, Qun-fang; Huang, Pei; Tian, Xue-fei; Shang, Xue-jun; Wu, Yang-peng; Han, Ping; Gao, Rui-song; Zhou, Qing

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects of the combination of musk and olibanum on the tight junction protein expressions in prostatic epithelial cells of normal and chronic prostatitis (CP) rats. Eighty male SD rats were randomly divided into 8 groups of equal number: normal control, normal musk, normal olibanum, normal musk + olibanum, CP model control, CP model musk, CP model olibanum, and CP model musk + olibanum. At 60 days after modeling, the rats in the control, musk, olibanum, and musk + olibanum groups were treated intragastrically with normal saline, musk (0.021 g per kg body weight per day), olibanum (1.05 g per kg body weight per day), or musk + olibanum respectively, all for 3 days. Then, all the rats were sacrificed and their prostate tissues harvested for detection of the expressions of the tight junction proteins Claudin-1, Claudin-3, Occludin, and ZO-1 in the prostatic epithelial cells by immunohistochemical staining. In the CP models, only the expression of Claudin-1 was significantly increased. In the normal rats, the expression of Claudin-1 was remarkably upregulated after treated with musk (824.6 ± 393.3, P < 0.05), olibanum (982.0 ± 334.0, P < 0.05), and musk + olibanum (1088.1 ± 640.2, P < 0.01); that of Claudin-3 was elevated markedly by olibanum (1 009.5 ± 243.6, P < 0.05) and insignificantly by musk (597.5 ± 80.7), but the increasing effect of olibanum was reduced by musk + olibanum (678.4 ± 255.1). No statistically significant differences were found in the expression of Occludin among the rats treated with musk (693.0 ± 424.8), olibanum (732.1 ± 302.0), and musk + olibanum (560.2 ± 202.3), or in that of ZO-1 in the animals treated with musk (290.0 ± 166.8) and olibanum (419.7 ± 108.1), but the latter was markedly decreased in the musk + olibanum group (197.7 ± 98.2, P < 0.05). In the CP rat models, both the expressions of Claudin-1 (823.0 ± 100.1, P < 0.01) and Occludin (1160.0 ± 32.2, P < 0.05) were significantly increased. The

  3. Intestinal Cell Tight Junctions Limit Invasion of Candida albicans through Active Penetration and Endocytosis in the Early Stages of the Interaction of the Fungus with the Intestinal Barrier.

    PubMed

    Goyer, Marianne; Loiselet, Alicia; Bon, Fabienne; L'Ollivier, Coralie; Laue, Michael; Holland, Gudrun; Bonnin, Alain; Dalle, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    C. albicans is a commensal yeast of the mucous membranes in healthy humans that can also cause disseminated candidiasis, mainly originating from the digestive tract, in vulnerable patients. It is necessary to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the interaction of C. albicans with enterocytes to better understand the basis of commensalism and pathogenicity of the yeast and to improve the management of disseminated candidiasis. In this study, we investigated the kinetics of tight junction (TJ) formation in parallel with the invasion of C. albicans into the Caco-2 intestinal cell line. Using invasiveness assays on Caco-2 cells displaying pharmacologically altered TJ (i.e. differentiated epithelial cells treated with EGTA or patulin), we were able to demonstrate that TJ protect enterocytes against invasion of C. albicans. Moreover, treatment with a pharmacological inhibitor of endocytosis decreased invasion of the fungus into Caco-2 cells displaying altered TJ, suggesting that facilitating access of the yeast to the basolateral side of intestinal cells promotes endocytosis of C. albicans in its hyphal form. These data were supported by SEM observations of differentiated Caco-2 cells displaying altered TJ, which highlighted membrane protrusions engulfing C. albicans hyphae. We furthermore demonstrated that Als3, a hypha-specific C. albicans invasin, facilitates internalization of the fungus by active penetration and induced endocytosis by differentiated Caco-2 cells displaying altered TJ. However, our observations failed to demonstrate binding of Als3 to E-cadherin as the trigger mechanism of endocytosis of C. albicans into differentiated Caco-2 cells displaying altered TJ.

  4. Intestinal Cell Tight Junctions Limit Invasion of Candida albicans through Active Penetration and Endocytosis in the Early Stages of the Interaction of the Fungus with the Intestinal Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Bon, Fabienne; L’Ollivier, Coralie; Laue, Michael; Holland, Gudrun; Bonnin, Alain; Dalle, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    C. albicans is a commensal yeast of the mucous membranes in healthy humans that can also cause disseminated candidiasis, mainly originating from the digestive tract, in vulnerable patients. It is necessary to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the interaction of C. albicans with enterocytes to better understand the basis of commensalism and pathogenicity of the yeast and to improve the management of disseminated candidiasis. In this study, we investigated the kinetics of tight junction (TJ) formation in parallel with the invasion of C. albicans into the Caco-2 intestinal cell line. Using invasiveness assays on Caco-2 cells displaying pharmacologically altered TJ (i.e. differentiated epithelial cells treated with EGTA or patulin), we were able to demonstrate that TJ protect enterocytes against invasion of C. albicans. Moreover, treatment with a pharmacological inhibitor of endocytosis decreased invasion of the fungus into Caco-2 cells displaying altered TJ, suggesting that facilitating access of the yeast to the basolateral side of intestinal cells promotes endocytosis of C. albicans in its hyphal form. These data were supported by SEM observations of differentiated Caco-2 cells displaying altered TJ, which highlighted membrane protrusions engulfing C. albicans hyphae. We furthermore demonstrated that Als3, a hypha-specific C. albicans invasin, facilitates internalization of the fungus by active penetration and induced endocytosis by differentiated Caco-2 cells displaying altered TJ. However, our observations failed to demonstrate binding of Als3 to E-cadherin as the trigger mechanism of endocytosis of C. albicans into differentiated Caco-2 cells displaying altered TJ. PMID:26933885

  5. Ric-8A, an activator protein of Gαi, controls mammalian epithelial cell polarity for tight junction assembly and cystogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chishiki, Kanako; Kamakura, Sachiko; Hayase, Junya; Sumimoto, Hideki

    2017-03-01

    Correct cyst morphogenesis of epithelial cells requires apical-basal polarization, which is partly regulated by mitotic spindle orientation, a process dependent on the heterotrimeric G protein subunit Gαi and its binding protein LGN. Here, we show that in three-dimensional culture of mammalian epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, the Gαi-activating protein Ric-8A is crucial for orientation of the mitotic spindle and formation of normal cysts that comprise a single layer of polarized cells with their apical surfaces lining an inner lumen. Consistent with the involvement of LGN, cystogenesis can be well organized by ADP-ribosylated Gαi, retaining the ability to interact with LGN, but not by the interaction-defective mutant protein Gαi2 (N150I). In monolayer culture of MDCK cells, functional tight junction (TJ) assembly, a process associated with epithelial cell polarization, is significantly delayed in Ric-8A-depleted cells as well as in Gαi-depleted cells in a mitosis-independent manner. Ric-8A knockdown results in a delayed cortical delivery of Gαi and the apical membrane protein gp135, and an increased formation of intercellular lumens surrounded by membranes rich in Gαi3 and gp135. TJ development also involves LGN and its related protein AGS3. Thus, Ric-8A regulates mammalian epithelial cell polarity for TJ assembly and cystogenesis probably in concert with Gαi and LGN/AGS3. © 2017 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Crystal structure of a claudin provides insight into the architecture of tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Nishizawa, Tomohiro; Tani, Kazutoshi; Yamazaki, Yuji; Tamura, Atsushi; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Dohmae, Naoshi; Tsukita, Sachiko; Nureki, Osamu; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori

    2014-04-18

    Tight junctions are cell-cell adhesion structures in epithelial cell sheets that surround organ compartments in multicellular organisms and regulate the permeation of ions through the intercellular space. Claudins are the major constituents of tight junctions and form strands that mediate cell adhesion and function as paracellular barriers. We report the structure of mammalian claudin-15 at a resolution of 2.4 angstroms. The structure reveals a characteristic β-sheet fold comprising two extracellular segments, which is anchored to a transmembrane four-helix bundle by a consensus motif. Our analyses suggest potential paracellular pathways with distinctive charges on the extracellular surface, providing insight into the molecular basis of ion homeostasis across tight junctions.

  7. Estrogen Modulates Expression of Tight Junction Proteins in Rat Vagina.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyung-Jin; Lee, Hyun-Suk; Ahn, Kyuyoun; Park, Kwangsung

    2016-01-01

    Background. The objectives of this study were to investigate the localization of tight junctions and the modulation of zonula occludens- (ZO-) 1, occludin and claudin-1 expression by estrogen in castrated female rat vagina. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (230-240 g, n = 45) were divided into three groups and subjected to a sham operation (control group, n = 15), bilateral ovariectomy (Ovx group, n = 15), or bilateral ovariectomy followed by daily subcutaneous injection of 17β-estradiol (50 μg/kg/day, Ovx + Est group, n = 15). The cellular localization and expression of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1 were determined in each group by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Results. Expression of ZO-1 was diffuse in all groups, with the highest intensity in the superficial epithelium in the control group. Occludin was localized in the intermediate and basal epithelium. Claudin-1 was most intense in the superficial layer of the vaginal epithelium in the control group. Expression of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1 was significantly decreased after ovariectomy and was restored to the level of the control after estrogen replacement. Conclusions. Tight junctions are distinctly localized in rat vagina, and estrogen modulates the expression of tight junctions. Further researches are needed to clarify the functional role of tight junctions in vaginal lubrication.

  8. Estrogen Modulates Expression of Tight Junction Proteins in Rat Vagina

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Kyung-Jin; Ahn, Kyuyoun

    2016-01-01

    Background. The objectives of this study were to investigate the localization of tight junctions and the modulation of zonula occludens- (ZO-) 1, occludin and claudin-1 expression by estrogen in castrated female rat vagina. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (230–240 g, n = 45) were divided into three groups and subjected to a sham operation (control group, n = 15), bilateral ovariectomy (Ovx group, n = 15), or bilateral ovariectomy followed by daily subcutaneous injection of 17β-estradiol (50 μg/kg/day, Ovx + Est group, n = 15). The cellular localization and expression of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1 were determined in each group by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Results. Expression of ZO-1 was diffuse in all groups, with the highest intensity in the superficial epithelium in the control group. Occludin was localized in the intermediate and basal epithelium. Claudin-1 was most intense in the superficial layer of the vaginal epithelium in the control group. Expression of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1 was significantly decreased after ovariectomy and was restored to the level of the control after estrogen replacement. Conclusions. Tight junctions are distinctly localized in rat vagina, and estrogen modulates the expression of tight junctions. Further researches are needed to clarify the functional role of tight junctions in vaginal lubrication. PMID:27127786

  9. Microtubules are required for efficient epithelial tight junction homeostasis and restoration

    PubMed Central

    Glotfelty, Lila G.; Zahs, Anita; Iancu, Catalin; Shen, Le

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial tight junctions are critical for creating a barrier yet allowing paracellular transport. Although it is well established that the actin cytoskeleton is critical for preserving the dynamic organization of the tight junction and maintaining normal tight junction protein recycling, contributions of microtubules to tight junction organization and function remain undefined. The aim of this study is to determine the role of microtubules in tight junction homeostasis and restoration. Our data demonstrate that occludin traffics on microtubules and that microtubule disruption perturbs tight junction structure and function. Microtubules are also shown to be required for restoring barrier function following Ca2+ chelation and repletion. These processes are mediated by proteins participating in microtubule minus-end-directed trafficking but not plus-end-directed trafficking. These studies show that microtubules participate in the preservation of epithelial tight junction structure and function and play a vital role in tight junction restoration, thus expanding our understanding of the regulation of tight junction physiology. PMID:24920678

  10. [Research progress on the function of epithelial tight junction].

    PubMed

    Cong, Xin; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Guang-Yan; Wu, Li-Ling

    2016-08-25

    Tight junctions (TJs) are widely expressed in the most apical portion of both epithelial and endothelial cell-cell interactions, serving as a structural and functional basis for material transport through the paracellular pathway. TJs are multi-protein complex composed of transmembrane and cytoplasmic proteins. TJs constitute pores allowing materials with specific size and electrical charge to pass through the paracellular pathway, which is so called "barrier" function. Besides, TJs also separate the lumen and interstitial space of epithelium and endothelium by the function of "fence". Recently, there is increasing body of evidence regarding the crucial role of TJs, together with the possible signaling pathways, in many epithelial cells, such as salivary, airway, intestinal and renal epithelial cells. The present review focuses on the latest research progresses on TJs, including TJ's composing, structure, and function measurement, as well as the mechanisms for modulating TJ's functions in some important epithelial cell types. We hope that the review may provide new insight into the therapeutic strategy of epithelium-related disease by targeting TJs.

  11. Heterogeneity of tight junction morphology in extrapulmonary and intrapulmonary airways of the rat.

    PubMed

    Schneeberger, E E

    1980-10-01

    In the present study morphology of tight junctions was related to the various cell types lining extrapulmonary and intrapulmonary airways of the rat. Freeze fracture replicas were prepared from extrapulmonary airway epithelium derived from the cartilagenous and membranous sides of upper, middle, and lower thirds of the trachea. Intrapulmonary airway epithelium was obtained from airways less than 1 mm in diameter. Tight junction fibrils on the P fracture face were organized into three types of patterns. Type 1: parallel sparsely interconnected lumenal fibrils with large ablumenal fibril loops. Type 2: richly interconnected lumenal fibrils with large ablumenal fibril loops. Type 3: narrow network of interconnected fibrils. On the E fracture face complementary grooves were organized in a similar pattern. Ciliated cells on both sides and all levels of the trachea were associated with type 1 junctions. In intrapulmonary airways, however, the junctional pattern of ciliated cells changed to type 2. Brush cells at all levels of the airways were bounded by type 2 and occasionally by type 1 junctions. Secretory cell junctions displayed the following patterns: Mucous cells were bounded solely by type 3, serous cells by either types 2 or 3, and Clara cells predominantly by type 2. Cells tentatively identified as intermediate cells displayed all three junctional patterns. The number of parallel fibrils comprising tight junctions was higher in extrapulmonary as compared to intrapulmonary airways. No difference was seen in the various locations sampled in the trachea. Gap junctions were observed between secretory cells of extrapulmonary but not intrapulmonary airways. These observations are discussed in relation to current physiologic data.

  12. Arsenic downregulates tight junction claudin proteins through p38 and NF-κB in intestinal epithelial cell line, HT-29.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chang Hee; Seok, Jin Sil; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu

    2017-03-15

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring metalloid that often is found in foods and drinking water. Human exposure to arsenic is associated with the development of gastrointestinal problems such as fluid loss, diarrhea and gastritis. Arsenic is also known to induce toxic responses including oxidative stress in cells of the gastrointestinal track. Tight junctions (TJs) regulate paracellular permeability and play a barrier role by inhibiting the movement of water, solutes and microorganisms in the paracellular space. Since oxidative stress and TJ damage are known to be associated, we examined whether arsenic produces TJ damage such as downregulation of claudins in the human colorectal cell line, HT-29. To confirm the importance of oxidative stress in arsenic-induced TJ damage, effects of the antioxidant compound (e.g., N-acetylcysteine (NAC)) were also determined in cells. HT-29 cells were treated with arsenic trioxide (40μM, 12h) to observe the modified expression of TJ proteins. Arsenic decreased expression of TJ proteins (i.e., claudin-1 and claudin-5) and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) whereas pretreatment of NAC (5-10mM, 1h) attenuated the observed claudins downregulation and TEER. Arsenic treatment produced cellular oxidative stress via superoxide generation and lowering glutathione (GSH) levels, while NAC restored cellular GSH levels and decreased oxidative stress. Arsenic increased phosphorylation of p38 and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65, while NAC attenuated these intracellular events. Results demonstrated that arsenic can damage intestinal epithelial cells by proinflammatory process (oxidative stress, p38 and NF-κB) which resulted in the downregulation of claudins and NAC can protect intestinal TJs from arsenic toxicity.

  13. Giardia duodenalis assemblage-specific induction of apoptosis and tight junction disruption in human intestinal epithelial cells: effects of mixed infections.

    PubMed

    Koh, Wan Hon; Geurden, Thomas; Paget, Tim; O'Handley, Ryan; Steuart, Robert F; Thompson, R C Andrew; Buret, Andre G

    2013-04-01

    In view of the interest in genotype-specific pathogenesis in Giardia duodenalis , the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of infection with different, or mixed, G. duodenalis assemblages on the integrity of human intestinal epithelia. To that end, human epithelial cells (HCT-8) were cultured and exposed to different G. duodenalis assemblages (A, B, and E) or a combination of these assemblages. Epithelial disruption and apoptosis were evaluated by fluorescent microscopy and apoptotic oligonucleosome quantification. The results indicate that infection with trophozoites disrupts epithelial tight junctions and induces varying degrees of enterocyte apoptosis, depending on the infecting assemblage. All disruptions were caspase-3 dependent and were more pronounced when caused by a non-host specific assemblage. Furthermore, infections by isolates in combination with isolates from another assemblage enhanced the epithelial disruption and apoptosis. Further studies in vitro and in vivo are required to confirm the mechanisms of enhanced pathogenicity of mixed or non-host specific (or both) G. duodenalis infections. Findings in the present study point to the potential pathogenic importance of intra-species polyparasitism in giardiasis.

  14. The role of tight junctions in mammary gland function.

    PubMed

    Stelwagen, Kerst; Singh, Kuljeet

    2014-03-01

    Tight junctions (TJ) are cellular structures that facilitate cell-cell communication and are important in maintaining the three-dimensional structure of epithelia. It is only during the last two decades that the molecular make-up of TJ is becoming unravelled, with two major transmembrane-spanning structural protein families, called occludin and claudins, being the true constituents of the TJ. These TJ proteins are linked via specific scaffolding proteins to the cell's cytoskeleton. In the mammary gland TJ between adjacent secretory epithelial cells are formed during lactogenesis and are instrumental in establishing and maintaining milk synthesis and secretion, whereas TJ integrity is compromised during mammary involution and also as result of mastitis and periods of mammary inflamation (including mastitis). They prevent the paracellular transport of ions and small molecules between the blood and milk compartments. Formation of intact TJ at the start of lactation is important for the establishment of the lactation. Conversely, loss of TJ integrity has been linked to reduced milk secretion and mammary function and increased paracellular transport of blood components into the milk and vice versa. In addition to acting as a paracellular barrier, the TJ is increasingly linked to playing an active role in intracellular signalling. This review focusses on the role of TJ in mammary function of the normal, non-malignant mammary gland, predominantly in ruminants, the major dairy producing species.

  15. Emerging Multifunctional Roles of Claudin Tight Junction Proteins in Bone

    PubMed Central

    Alshbool, Fatima. Z.

    2014-01-01

    The imbalance between bone formation and resorption during bone remodeling has been documented to be a major factor in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Recent evidence suggests a significant role for the tight junction proteins, Claudins (Cldns), in the regulation of bone remodeling processes. In terms of function, whereas Cldns act “canonically” as key determinants of paracellular permeability, there is considerable recent evidence to suggest that Cldns also participate in cell signaling, ie, a “noncanonical function”. To this end, Cldns have been shown to regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and gene expression in a variety of cell types. The present review will discuss Cldns' structure, their expression profile, regulation of expression, and their canonical and non- canonical functions in general with special emphasis on bone cells. In order to shed light on the noncanonical functions of Cldns in bone, we will highlight the role of Cldn-18 in regulating bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation. Collectively, we hope to provide a framework for guiding future research on understanding how Cldns modulate osteoblast and osteoclast function and overall bone homeostasis. Such studies should provide valuable insights into the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, and may highlight Cldns as novel targets for the diagnosis and therapeutic management of osteoporosis. PMID:24758302

  16. Emerging multifunctional roles of Claudin tight junction proteins in bone.

    PubMed

    Alshbool, Fatima Z; Mohan, Subburaman

    2014-07-01

    The imbalance between bone formation and resorption during bone remodeling has been documented to be a major factor in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Recent evidence suggests a significant role for the tight junction proteins, Claudins (Cldns), in the regulation of bone remodeling processes. In terms of function, whereas Cldns act "canonically" as key determinants of paracellular permeability, there is considerable recent evidence to suggest that Cldns also participate in cell signaling, ie, a "noncanonical function". To this end, Cldns have been shown to regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and gene expression in a variety of cell types. The present review will discuss Cldns' structure, their expression profile, regulation of expression, and their canonical and non- canonical functions in general with special emphasis on bone cells. In order to shed light on the noncanonical functions of Cldns in bone, we will highlight the role of Cldn-18 in regulating bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation. Collectively, we hope to provide a framework for guiding future research on understanding how Cldns modulate osteoblast and osteoclast function and overall bone homeostasis. Such studies should provide valuable insights into the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, and may highlight Cldns as novel targets for the diagnosis and therapeutic management of osteoporosis.

  17. Build them up and break them down: Tight junctions of cell lines expressing typical hepatocyte polarity with a varied repertoire of claudins.

    PubMed

    Grosse, Brigitte; Degrouard, Jeril; Jaillard, Danielle; Cassio, Doris

    2013-10-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) of cells expressing simple epithelial polarity have been extensively studied, but less is known about TJs of cells expressing complex polarity. In this paper we analyzed, TJs of four different lines, that form bile canaliculi (BC) and express typical hepatocyte polarity; WIF-B9, 11-3, Can 3-1, Can 10. Striking differences were observed in claudin expression. None of the cell lines produced claudin-1. WIF-B9 and 11-3 expressed only claudin-2 while Can 3-1 and Can 10 expressed claudin-2,-3,-4,-5. TJs of these two classes of lines differed in their ultra-stucture, paracellular permeability, and robustness. Lines expressing a large claudin repertoire, especially Can 10, had complex and efficient TJs, that were maintained when cells were depleted in calcium. Inversely, TJs of WIF-B9 and 11-3 were leaky, permissive and dismantled by calcium depletion. Interestingly, we found that during the polarization process, TJ proteins expressed by all lines were sequentially settled in a specific order: first occludin, ZO-1 and cingulin, then JAM-A and ZO-2, finally claudin-2. Claudins expressed only in Can lines were also sequentially settled: claudin-3 was the first settled. Inhibition of claudin-3 expression delayed BC formation in Can10 and induced the expression of simple epithelial polarity. These results highlight the role of claudins in the settlement and the efficiency of TJs in lines expressing typical hepatocyte polarity. Can 10 seems to be the most promising of these lines because of its claudin repertoire near that of hepatocytes and its capacity to form extended tubular BC sealed by efficient TJs.

  18. NHERF1 and CFTR restore tight junction organisation and function in cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells: role of ezrin and the RhoA/ROCK pathway.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Stefano; Guerra, Lorenzo; Favia, Maria; Di Gioia, Sante; Casavola, Valeria; Conese, Massimo

    2012-11-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) restrict the transit of ions and molecules through the paracellular route and act as a barrier to regulate access of inflammatory cells into the airway lumen. The pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is characterised by abnormal ion and fluid transport across the epithelium and polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte-dominated inflammatory response. Na⁺/H⁺ exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) is a protein involved in PKA-dependent activation of CFTR by interacting with CFTR via its PDZ domains and with ezrin via its C-terminal domain. We have previously found that the NHERF1-overexpression dependent rescue CFTR-dependent chloride secretion is due to the re-organisation of the actin cytoskeleton network induced by the formation of the multiprotein complex NHERF1-RhoA-ezrin-actin. In this context, we here studied whether NHERF1 and CFTR are involved in the organisation and function of TJs. F508del CFBE41o⁻ monolayers presented nuclear localisation of zonula occludens (ZO-1) and occludin as well as disorganisation of claudin 1 and junction-associated adhesion molecule 1 as compared with wild-type 16HBE14o⁻ monolayers, paralleled by increased permeability to dextrans and PMN transmigration. Overexpression of either NHERF1 or CFTR in CFBE41o⁻ cells rescued TJ proteins to their proper intercellular location and decreased permeability and PMN transmigration, while this effect was not achieved by overexpressing either NHERF1 deprived of ezrin-binding domain. Further, expression of a phospho-dead ezrin mutant, T567A, increased permeability in both 16HBE14o⁻ cells and in a CFBE clone stably overexpressing NHERF1 (CFBE/sNHERF1), whereas a constitutively active form of ezrin, T567D, achieved the opposite effect in CFBE41o⁻ cells. A dominant-negative form of RhoA (RhoA-N19) also disrupted ZO-1 localisation at the intercellular contacts dislodging it to the nucleus and increased permeability in CFBE/sNHERF1. The inhibitor Y27632 of

  19. Exploiting the Gastric Epithelial Barrier: Helicobacter pylori's Attack on Tight and Adherens Junctions.

    PubMed

    Backert, Steffen; Schmidt, Thomas P; Harrer, Aileen; Wessler, Silja

    2017-01-01

    Highly organized intercellular tight and adherens junctions are crucial structural components for establishing and maintenance of epithelial barrier functions, which control the microbiota and protect against intruding pathogens in humans. Alterations in these complexes represent key events in the development and progression of multiple infectious diseases as well as various cancers. The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori exerts an amazing set of strategies to manipulate these epithelial cell-to-cell junctions, which are implicated in changing cell polarity, migration and invasive growth as well as pro-inflammatory and proliferative responses. This chapter focuses on the H. pylori pathogenicity factors VacA, CagA, HtrA and urease, and how they can induce host cell signaling involved in altering cell-to-cell permeability. We propose a stepwise model for how H. pylori targets components of tight and adherens junctions in order to disrupt the gastric epithelial cell layer, giving fresh insights into the pathogenesis of this important bacterium.

  20. Rapid method of quantification of tight-junction organization using image analysis.

    PubMed

    Terryn, Christine; Sellami, Mehdi; Fichel, Caroline; Diebold, Marie-Danielle; Gangloff, Sophie; Le Naour, Richard; Polette, Myriam; Zahm, Jean-Marie

    2013-02-01

    The spatial organization of proteins in a cell population or in tissues is an important parameter to study the functionality of biological specimens. In this article, we have focused on tight junctions which form network-like features in immunofluorescence microscopy images. Usually, the organization or disorganization of tight junctions is noticed qualitatively. The aim of this article is to present a simple method to quantify the organization level of tight junction network using image analysis with a dedicated macro developed with Image J software. The method has been validated with simulated images displaying regular decrease of network organization. Then, the macro has been applied to immunofluorescence microscopy images of cells in culture and of tissue sections.

  1. Cadherin Cytoplasmic Domains Inhibit the Cell Surface Localization of Endogenous E-Cadherin, Blocking Desmosome and Tight Junction Formation and Inducing Cell Dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Ozawa, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Wakako

    2014-01-01

    The downregulation of E-cadherin function has fundamental consequences with respect to cancer progression, and occurs as part of the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). In this study, we show that the expression of the Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein (DsRed)-tagged cadherin cytoplasmic domain in cells inhibited the cell surface localization of endogenous E-cadherin, leading to morphological changes, the inhibition of junctional assembly and cell dissociation. These changes were associated with increased cell migration, but were not accompanied by the down-regulation of epithelial markers and up-regulation of mesenchymal markers. Thus, these changes cannot be classified as EMT. The cadherin cytoplasmic domain interacted with β-catenin or plakoglobin, reducing the levels of β-catenin or plakoglobin associated with E-cadherin, and raising the possibility that β-catenin and plakoglobin sequestration by these constructs induced E-cadherin intracellular localization. Accordingly, a cytoplasmic domain construct bearing mutations that weakened the interactions with β-catenin or plakoglobin did not impair junction formation and adhesion, indicating that the interaction with β-catenin or plakoglobin was essential to the potential of the constructs. E-cadherin–α-catenin chimeras that did not require β-catenin or plakoglobin for their cell surface transport restored cell–cell adhesion and junction formation. PMID:25121615

  2. PLEKHA7 modulates epithelial tight junction barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Paschoud, Serge; Jond, Lionel; Guerrera, Diego; Citi, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    PLEKHA7 is a recently identified protein of the epithelial zonula adhaerens (ZA), and is part of a protein complex that stabilizes the ZA, by linking it to microtubules. Since the ZA is important in the assembly and disassembly of tight junctions (TJ), we asked whether PLEKHA7 is involved in modulating epithelial TJ barrier function. We generated clonal MDCK cell lines in which one of four different constructs of PLEKHA7 was inducibly expressed. All constructs were localized at junctions, but constructs lacking the C-terminal region were also distributed diffusely in the cytoplasm. Inducible expression of PLEKHA7 constructs did not affect the expression and localization of TJ proteins, the steady-state value of transepithelial resistance (TER), the development of TER during the calcium switch, and the flux of large molecules across confluent monolayers. In contrast, expression of three out of four constructs resulted both in enhanced recruitment of E-cadherin and associated proteins at the apical ZA and at lateral puncta adherentia (PA), a decreased TER at 18 h after assembly at normal calcium, and an attenuation in the fall in TER after extracellular calcium removal. This latter effect was inhibited when cells were treated with nocodazole. Immunoprecipitation analysis showed that PLEKHA7 forms a complex with the cytoplasmic TJ proteins ZO-1 and cingulin, and this association does not depend on the integrity of microtubules. These results suggest that PLEKHA7 modulates the dynamics of assembly and disassembly of the TJ barrier, through E-cadherin protein complex- and microtubule-dependent mechanisms. PMID:24843844

  3. ILDR1 null mice, a model of human deafness DFNB42, show structural aberrations of tricellular tight junctions and degeneration of auditory hair cells

    PubMed Central

    Morozko, Eva L.; Nishio, Ayako; Ingham, Neil J.; Chandra, Rashmi; Fitzgerald, Tracy; Martelletti, Elisa; Borck, Guntram; Wilson, Elizabeth; Riordan, Gavin P.; Wangemann, Philine; Forge, Andrew; Steel, Karen P.; Liddle, Rodger A.; Friedman, Thomas B.; Belyantseva, Inna A.

    2015-01-01

    In the mammalian inner ear, bicellular and tricellular tight junctions (tTJs) seal the paracellular space between epithelial cells. Tricellulin and immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) domain containing receptor 1 (ILDR1, also referred to as angulin-2) localize to tTJs of the sensory and non-sensory epithelia in the organ of Corti and vestibular end organs. Recessive mutations of TRIC (DFNB49) encoding tricellulin and ILDR1 (DFNB42) cause human nonsyndromic deafness. However, the pathophysiology of DFNB42 deafness remains unknown. ILDR1 was recently reported to be a lipoprotein receptor mediating the secretion of the fat-stimulated cholecystokinin (CCK) hormone in the small intestine, while ILDR1 in EpH4 mouse mammary epithelial cells in vitro was shown to recruit tricellulin to tTJs. Here we show that two different mouse Ildr1 mutant alleles have early-onset severe deafness associated with a rapid degeneration of cochlear hair cells (HCs) but have a normal endocochlear potential. ILDR1 is not required for recruitment of tricellulin to tTJs in the cochlea in vivo; however, tricellulin becomes mislocalized in the inner ear sensory epithelia of ILDR1 null mice after the first postnatal week. As revealed by freeze-fracture electron microscopy, ILDR1 contributes to the ultrastructure of inner ear tTJs. Taken together, our data provide insight into the pathophysiology of human DFNB42 deafness and demonstrate that ILDR1 is crucial for normal hearing by maintaining the structural and functional integrity of tTJs, which are critical for the survival of auditory neurosensory HCs. PMID:25217574

  4. ILDR1 null mice, a model of human deafness DFNB42, show structural aberrations of tricellular tight junctions and degeneration of auditory hair cells.

    PubMed

    Morozko, Eva L; Nishio, Ayako; Ingham, Neil J; Chandra, Rashmi; Fitzgerald, Tracy; Martelletti, Elisa; Borck, Guntram; Wilson, Elizabeth; Riordan, Gavin P; Wangemann, Philine; Forge, Andrew; Steel, Karen P; Liddle, Rodger A; Friedman, Thomas B; Belyantseva, Inna A

    2015-02-01

    In the mammalian inner ear, bicellular and tricellular tight junctions (tTJs) seal the paracellular space between epithelial cells. Tricellulin and immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) domain containing receptor 1 (ILDR1, also referred to as angulin-2) localize to tTJs of the sensory and non-sensory epithelia in the organ of Corti and vestibular end organs. Recessive mutations of TRIC (DFNB49) encoding tricellulin and ILDR1 (DFNB42) cause human nonsyndromic deafness. However, the pathophysiology of DFNB42 deafness remains unknown. ILDR1 was recently reported to be a lipoprotein receptor mediating the secretion of the fat-stimulated cholecystokinin (CCK) hormone in the small intestine, while ILDR1 in EpH4 mouse mammary epithelial cells in vitro was shown to recruit tricellulin to tTJs. Here we show that two different mouse Ildr1 mutant alleles have early-onset severe deafness associated with a rapid degeneration of cochlear hair cells (HCs) but have a normal endocochlear potential. ILDR1 is not required for recruitment of tricellulin to tTJs in the cochlea in vivo; however, tricellulin becomes mislocalized in the inner ear sensory epithelia of ILDR1 null mice after the first postnatal week. As revealed by freeze-fracture electron microscopy, ILDR1 contributes to the ultrastructure of inner ear tTJs. Taken together, our data provide insight into the pathophysiology of human DFNB42 deafness and demonstrate that ILDR1 is crucial for normal hearing by maintaining the structural and functional integrity of tTJs, which are critical for the survival of auditory neurosensory HCs.

  5. Development of endothelial paracellular clefts and their tight junctions in the pial microvessels of the rat.

    PubMed

    Cassella, J P; Lawrenson, J G; Firth, J A

    1997-08-01

    The microvessels of the pia mater lack an investment with astrocyte processes but nonetheless have a high transendothelial electrical resistance which has caused them to be regarded as part of the blood-brain barrier. This high resistance is known to be acquired in the perinatal period. The aim of our study was to relate the known physiological changes with differentiation of the endothelial paracellular clefts and especially of their tight junctions which provide the basis for the high transendothelial resistance of blood-brain barrier vessels. Tight junctions of endothelial cell paracellular clefts in pial microvessels were examined by transmission electron microscopy using goniometric tilting to reveal and measure membrane separations at tight junctions in fetal, postnatal and adult rats. These tight junctional membrane separations narrowed over the period (E16: 6.3 nm, D1: 6.4 nm, D7: 5.4 nm) and differentiated into two groups by the adult stage: one with a membrane separation of 2.8 nm and the staining characteristics of non-brain endothelial junctions, and the other with no detectable membrane separation and the staining characteristics of blood-brain barrier endothelial junctions. This patchy and incomplete differentiation of pial tight junctions into a blood-brain barrier-like form could result either from non-uniform exposure to inductive signals or to local variation in responsiveness to such agents. Although these changes in junction organization may be related to the known increase in pial transendothelial resistance in the perinatal period, we have not yet identified any sharply defined structural change which coincides with this physiological event.

  6. Tight junction regulates epidermal calcium ion gradient and differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kurasawa, Masumi; Maeda, Tetsuo; Oba, Ai; Yamamoto, Takuya; Sasaki, Hiroyuki

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} We disrupted epidermal tight junction barrier in reconstructed epidermis. {yields} It altered Ca{sup 2+} distribution and consequentially differentiation state as well. {yields} Tight junction should affect epidermal homeostasis by maintaining Ca{sup 2+} gradient. -- Abstract: It is well known that calcium ions (Ca{sup 2+}) induce keratinocyte differentiation. Ca{sup 2+} distributes to form a vertical gradient that peaks at the stratum granulosum. It is thought that the stratum corneum (SC) forms the Ca{sup 2+} gradient since it is considered the only permeability barrier in the skin. However, the epidermal tight junction (TJ) in the granulosum has recently been suggested to restrict molecular movement to assist the SC as a secondary barrier. The objective of this study was to clarify the contribution of the TJ to Ca{sup 2+} gradient and epidermal differentiation in reconstructed human epidermis. When the epidermal TJ barrier was disrupted by sodium caprate treatment, Ca{sup 2+} flux increased and the gradient changed in ion-capture cytochemistry images. Alterations of ultrastructures and proliferation/differentiation markers revealed that both hyperproliferation and precocious differentiation occurred regionally in the epidermis. These results suggest that the TJ plays a crucial role in maintaining epidermal homeostasis by controlling the Ca{sup 2+} gradient.

  7. Claudin-21 Has a Paracellular Channel Role at Tight Junctions.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroo; Yamamoto, Yasuko; Kashihara, Hiroka; Yamazaki, Yuji; Tani, Kazutoshi; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Takeuchi, Kosei; Tamura, Atsushi; Tsukita, Sachiko

    2016-01-04

    Claudin protein family members, of which there are at least 27 in humans and mice, polymerize to form tight junctions (TJs) between epithelial cells, in a tissue- and developmental stage-specific manner. Claudins have a paracellular barrier function. In addition, certain claudins function as paracellular channels for small ions and/or solutes by forming selective pores at the TJs, although the specific claudins involved and their functional mechanisms are still in question. Here we show for the first time that claudin-21, which is more highly expressed in the embryonic than the postnatal stages, acts as a paracellular channel for small cations, such as Na(+), similar to the typical channel-type claudins claudin-2 and -15. Claudin-21 also allows the paracellular passage of larger solutes. Our findings suggest that claudin-21-based TJs allow the passage of small and larger solutes by both paracellular channel-based and some additional mechanisms. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Gonadotropins Regulate Rat Testicular Tight Junctions in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Mark J.; Tarulli, Gerard A.; Meachem, Sarah J.; Robertson, David M.; Smooker, Peter M.; Stanton, Peter G.

    2010-01-01

    Sertoli cell tight junctions (TJs) are an essential component of the blood-testis barrier required for spermatogenesis; however, the role of gonadotropins in their maintenance is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of gonadotropin suppression and short-term replacement on TJ function and TJ protein (occludin and claudin-11) expression and localization, in an adult rat model in vivo. Rats (n = 10/group) received the GnRH antagonist, acyline, for 7 wk to suppress gonadotropins. Three groups then received for 7 d: 1) human recombinant FSH, 2) human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and rat FSH antibody (to study testicular androgen stimulation alone), and 3) hCG alone (to study testicular androgen and pituitary FSH production). TJ proteins were assessed by real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry, whereas TJ function was assessed with a biotin permeation tracer. Acyline treatment significantly reduced testis weights, serum androgens, LH and FSH, and adluminal germ cells (pachytene spermatocyte, round and elongating spermatids). In contrast to controls, acyline induced seminiferous tubule permeability to biotin, loss of tubule lumens, and loss of occludin, but redistribution of claudin-11, immunostaining. Short-term hormone replacement stimulated significant recoveries in adluminal germ cell numbers. In hCG ± FSH antibody-treated rats, occludin and claudin-11 protein relocalized at the TJ, but such relocalization was minimal with FSH alone. Tubule lumens also reappeared, but most tubules remained permeable to biotin tracer, despite the presence of occludin. It is concluded that gonadotropins maintain Sertoli cell TJs in the adult rat via a mechanism that includes the localization of occludin and claudin-11 at functional TJs. PMID:20357222

  9. Gonadotropins regulate rat testicular tight junctions in vivo.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Mark J; Tarulli, Gerard A; Meachem, Sarah J; Robertson, David M; Smooker, Peter M; Stanton, Peter G

    2010-06-01

    Sertoli cell tight junctions (TJs) are an essential component of the blood-testis barrier required for spermatogenesis; however, the role of gonadotropins in their maintenance is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of gonadotropin suppression and short-term replacement on TJ function and TJ protein (occludin and claudin-11) expression and localization, in an adult rat model in vivo. Rats (n = 10/group) received the GnRH antagonist, acyline, for 7 wk to suppress gonadotropins. Three groups then received for 7 d: 1) human recombinant FSH, 2) human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and rat FSH antibody (to study testicular androgen stimulation alone), and 3) hCG alone (to study testicular androgen and pituitary FSH production). TJ proteins were assessed by real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry, whereas TJ function was assessed with a biotin permeation tracer. Acyline treatment significantly reduced testis weights, serum androgens, LH and FSH, and adluminal germ cells (pachytene spermatocyte, round and elongating spermatids). In contrast to controls, acyline induced seminiferous tubule permeability to biotin, loss of tubule lumens, and loss of occludin, but redistribution of claudin-11, immunostaining. Short-term hormone replacement stimulated significant recoveries in adluminal germ cell numbers. In hCG +/- FSH antibody-treated rats, occludin and claudin-11 protein relocalized at the TJ, but such relocalization was minimal with FSH alone. Tubule lumens also reappeared, but most tubules remained permeable to biotin tracer, despite the presence of occludin. It is concluded that gonadotropins maintain Sertoli cell TJs in the adult rat via a mechanism that includes the localization of occludin and claudin-11 at functional TJs.

  10. HIV-1 gp120 Glycoprotein Interacting with Dendritic Cell-specific Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 3-grabbing Non-integrin (DC-SIGN) Down-Regulates Tight Junction Proteins to Disrupt the Blood Retinal Barrier and Increase Its Permeability.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yi-Wen; Li, Chuan; Jiang, Ai-Ping; Ge, Shengfang; Gu, Ping; Fan, Xianqun; Li, Tai-Sheng; Jin, Xia; Wang, Jian-Hua; Wang, Zhi-Liang

    2016-10-28

    Approximately 70% of HIV-1 infected patients acquire ocular opportunistic infections and manifest eye disorders during the course of their illness. The mechanisms by which pathogens invade the ocular site, however, are unclear. Under normal circumstances, vascular endothelium and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which possess a well developed tight junction complex, form the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) to prevent pathogen invasion. We hypothesize that disruption of the BRB allows pathogen entry into ocular sites. The hypothesis was tested using in vitro models. We discovered that human RPE cells could bind to either HIV-1 gp120 glycoproteins or HIV-1 viral particles. Furthermore, the binding was mediated by dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) expressed on RPE cells. Upon gp120 binding to DC-SIGN, cellular NF-κB signaling was triggered, leading to the induction of matrix metalloproteinases, which subsequently degraded tight junction proteins and disrupted the BRB integrity. DC-SIGN knockdown or prior blocking with a specific antibody abolished gp120-induced matrix metalloproteinase expression and reduced the degradation of tight junction proteins. This study elucidates a novel mechanism by which HIV, type 1 invades ocular tissues and provides additional insights into the translocation or invasion process of ocular complication-associated pathogens.

  11. E-cadherin is essential for in vivo epidermal barrier function by regulating tight junctions

    PubMed Central

    Tunggal, Judith A; Helfrich, Iris; Schmitz, Annika; Schwarz, Heinz; Günzel, Dorothee; Fromm, Michael; Kemler, Rolf; Krieg, Thomas; Niessen, Carien M

    2005-01-01

    Cadherin adhesion molecules are key determinants of morphogenesis and tissue architecture. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the morphogenetic contributions of cadherins remain poorly understood in vivo. Besides supporting cell–cell adhesion, cadherins can affect a wide range of cellular functions that include activation of cell signalling pathways, regulation of the cytoskeleton and control of cell polarity. To determine the role of E-cadherin in stratified epithelium of the epidermis, we have conditionally inactivated its gene in mice. Here we show that loss of E-cadherin in the epidermis in vivo results in perinatal death of mice due to the inability to retain a functional epidermal water barrier. Absence of E-cadherin leads to improper localization of key tight junctional proteins, resulting in permeable tight junctions and thus altered epidermal resistance. In addition, both Rac and activated atypical PKC, crucial for tight junction formation, are mislocalized. Surprisingly, our results indicate that E-cadherin is specifically required for tight junction, but not desmosome, formation and this appears to involve signalling rather than cell contact formation. PMID:15775979

  12. [Effect of cholerogen and protamine on tight junctions of rat enterocytes and colonocytes].

    PubMed

    Rybal'chenko, O V; Bondarenko, V M; Fal'chuk, E L; Lebed'kova, Iu A; Markov, A G

    2012-01-01

    Study of tight junction state and ultrastructure changes of rat jejunum enterocytes and colon colonocytes under the effect of cholerogen and protamine. Cholerogen (cholera toxin, Sigma-Aldrich, Germany) and protamine sulfate (Russia) were used in the study. The study was carried out in Wistar line rats. Effect of cholera toxin and protamine on rat intestine epitheliocytes was carried out by incubating intestine segments in the respective solutions. Ultrastructure changes caused by cholerogen and protamine in rat enterocytes and colonocytes were assessed based on ultrathin section analysis by transmission electron microscopy of the cells themselves and tight junctions between them compared with control. Effect of cholerogen on intestine mucous membrane epitheliocytes manifested in changes of cell ultrastructure, the form of which transformed as a result of increase of intercellular space without the destruction of tight junctions. Disappearance of cell plasma membrane lateral area folding and decrease of number of microvilli was noted. Enlargement of nuclei was noted only in individual cells. Effect of protamine on epithelial cell layer ultrastructure differed significantly from the effect of cholerogen. Increase of cell plasma membrane lateral area folding and significant enlargement of nuclei that moved to the central part of cells reaching its apical end were characteristic effects for protamine. Surface of a part of epitheliocytes lost microvilli with simultaneous destruction of tight junction structure. Protamine induced increase of folding only in colon without affecting jejunum. At the same time both of these substances caused increase of intercellular space in jejenum and colon epithelium. Differences in ultrathin structure of rat small intestine and colon epitheliocyte tight junctions under the effect of cholerogen and protamine were revealed.

  13. Albumin impairs renal tubular tight junctions via targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yibo; Hu, Caiyu; Ding, Guixia; Zhang, Yue; Huang, Songming; Jia, Zhanjun; Zhang, Aihua

    2015-05-01

    Proteinuria is, not only a hallmark of glomerular disease, but also a contributor to kidney injury. However, its pathogenic mechanism is still elusive. In the present study, the effects of albumin on renal tubular tight junctions and the potential molecular mechanisms of those effects were investigated. In mouse proximal tubular cells (mPTCs), albumin treatment resulted in a significant loss of the cellular tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and claudin-1 in a time- and dose-dependent manner, indicating a severe impairment of the tight junctions. On the basis of our previous study showing that albumin stimulated NLRP3 [neuronal apoptosis inhibitor protein, major histocompatibility complex class 2 transcription activator, incompatibility locus protein from Podospora anserina, and telomerase-associated protein (NACHT); leucine-rich repeat (LRR); and pyrin domain (PYD) domains-containing protein 3] inflammasome activation in mPTCs, we pretreated mPTCs with NLRP3 siRNA (siNLRP3) and found that NLRP3 knockdown significantly blocked the downregulation of ZO-1 and claudin-1 induced by albumin. Similarly, in albumin-overloaded wild-type mice, both ZO-1 and claudin-1 were downregulated at the protein and mRNA levels in parallel with the impaired formation of the tight junctions on transmission electron microscopy and the abnormal renal tubular morphology on periodic acid-Schiff staining, which contrasted with the stimulation of NLRP3 in the renal tubules. In contrast, NLRP3 knockout (NLRP3(-/-)) mice preserved normal ZO-1 and claudin-1 expression as well as largely normal tight junctions and tubular morphology. More importantly, deletion of the NLRP3 pathway downstream component caspase-1 similarly blocked the albumin overload-induced downregulation of ZO-1 and claudin-1. Taken together, these findings demonstrated an important role of the albumin-NLRP3 inflammasome axis in mediating the impairment of renal tubular tight junctions and integrity. Copyright

  14. Tight junctions in Gerbil von Ebner's gland: horseradish peroxidase and freeze-fracture studies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Anthony Y; Chen, Ming-Huei; Wu, Sandy Y; Lu, Kuo-Shyan

    2015-03-01

    The permeability of tight junctions to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and the freeze-fracture appearance of junctional structures were investigated in the von Ebner's gland of gerbils. In the tracing study, HRP was either administered topically on the dorsal surface of tongues or injected subepithelially into the connective tissue of vallate papillae for 5-30 min. Lingual tissues containing the von Ebner's gland were sectioned and examined by light and electron microscopy. In von Ebner's glands, the reaction product for HRP was found in the intercellular and interstitial spaces, whereas HRP appeared to penetrate the tight junctions and the reaction product was localized in the lumina of serous acini. In contrast, the staining for HRP that delineated the boundary of epithelial cells was frequently observed in the superficial layers of the lingual epithelium but not the underlying tissues while applying HRP topically. Freeze-fracture replicas of acinar cells revealed that the tight junction had a depth of 0.815 ± 0.023 μm, and 4-6 parallel strands on the protoplasmic fracture face, with a branching network of joining strands with interruptions, interconnections and high linear strand density apically, and corresponding grooves on the extracellular face. Quantitative analyses showed a greater number of strands (7.217 ± 0.326) in gerbils compared to those of acinar cells (3.86 ± 0.22) in mice. These results demonstrate that the tight junctions in the gerbil von Ebner's gland is permeable, and that specific species differences in tight junction structures may be associated with the mechanism for survival in an extremely dry environment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. MicroRNAs regulate tight junction proteins and modulate epithelial/endothelial barrier functions

    PubMed Central

    Cichon, Christoph; Sabharwal, Harshana; Rüter, Christian; Schmidt, M Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Tightly controlled epithelial and endothelial barriers are a prerequisite for life as these barriers separate multicellular organisms from their environment and serve as first lines of defense. Barriers between neighboring epithelial cells are formed by multiple intercellular junctions including the ‘apical junctional complex—AJC’ with tight junctions (TJ), adherens junctions (AJ), and desmosomes. TJ consist of tetraspan transmembrane proteins like occludin, various claudins that directly control paracellular permeability, and the ‘Junctional Adhesion Molecules’ (JAMs). For establishing tight barriers TJ are essential but at the same time have to allow also selective permeability. For this, TJ need to be tightly regulated and controlled. This is organized by a variety of adaptor molecules, i.e., protein kinases, phosphatases and GTPases, which in turn are regulated and fine-tuned involving microRNAs (miRNAs). In this review we summarize available data on the role and targeting of miRNAs in the maintenance of epithelial and/or endothelial barriers. PMID:25610754

  16. Possible Involvement of Tight Junctions, Extracellular Matrix and Nuclear Receptors in Epithelial Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa-Tomikawa, Naoki; Sugimoto, Kotaro; Satohisa, Seiro; Nishiura, Keisuke; Chiba, Hideki

    2011-01-01

    Tight junctions are intercellular junctions localized at the most apical end of the lateral plasma membrane. They consist of four kinds of transmembrane proteins (occludin, claudins, junctional adhesion molecules, and tricellulin) and huge numbers of scaffolding proteins and contribute to the paracellular barrier and fence function. The mutation and deletion of these proteins impair the functions of tight junctions and cause various human diseases. In this paper, we provide an overview of recent studies on transmembrane proteins of tight junctions and highlight the functional significance of tight junctions, extracellular matrix, and nuclear receptors in epithelial differentiation. PMID:22162632

  17. Mycophenolic acid mediated disruption of the intestinal epithelial tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Qasim, Muhammad; Rahman, Hazir; Ahmed, Raees; Oellerich, Michael; Asif, Abdul R

    2014-04-01

    Gastrointestinal toxicity is a common adverse effect of mycophenolic acid (MPA) treatment in organ transplant patients, through poorly understood mechanisms. Phosphorylation of myosin light chain 2 (MLC2) is associated with epithelial tight junction (TJ) modulation which leads to defective epithelial barrier function, and has been implicated in GI diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether MPA could induce epithelial barrier permeability via MLC2 regulation. Caco-2 monolayers were exposed to therapeutic concentrations of MPA, and MLC2 and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) expression were analyzed using PCR and immunoblotting. Epithelial cell permeability was assessed by measuring transepithelial resistance (TER) and the flux of paracellular permeability marker FITC-dextran across the epithelial monolayers. MPA increased the expression of MLC2 and MLCK at both the transcriptional and translational levels. In addition, the amount of phosphorylated MLC2 was increased after MPA treatment. Confocal immunofluorescence analysis showed redistribution of TJ proteins (ZO-1 and occludin) after MPA treatment. This MPA mediated TJ disruption was not due to apoptosis or cell death. Additionally ML-7, a specific inhibitor of MLCK was able to reverse both the MPA mediated decrease in TER and the increase in FITC-dextran influx, suggesting a modulating role of MPA on epithelial barrier permeability via MLCK activity. These results suggest that MPA induced alterations in MLC2 phosphorylation and may have a role in the patho-physiology of intestinal epithelial barrier disruption and may be responsible for the adverse effects (GI toxicity) of MPA on the intestine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. NF-κB inhibitors impair lung epithelial tight junctions in the absence of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ward, Christina; Schlingmann, Barbara; Stecenko, Arlene A; Guidot, David M; Koval, Michael

    2015-01-01

    NF-κB (p50/p65) is the best characterized transcription factor known to regulate cell responses to inflammation. However, NF-κB is also constitutively expressed. We used inhibitors of the classical NF-κB signaling pathway to determine whether this transcription factor has a role in regulating alveolar epithelial tight junctions. Primary rat type II alveolar epithelial cells were isolated and cultured on Transwell permeable supports coated with collagen for 5 d to generate a model type I cell monolayer. Treatment of alveolar epithelial monolayers overnight with one of 2 different IκB kinase inhibitors (BAY 11-7082 or BMS-345541) resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in TER at concentrations that did not affect cell viability. In response to BMS-345541 treatment there was an increase in total claudin-4 and claudin-5 along with a decrease in claudin-18, as determined by immunoblot. However, there was little effect on the total amount of cell-associated claudin-7, occludin, junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A), zonula occludens (ZO)-1 or ZO-2. Moreover, treatment with BMS-345541 resulted in altered tight junction morphology as assessed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Cells treated with BMS-345541 had an increase in claudin-18 containing projections emanating from tight junctions ("spikes") that were less prominent in control cells. There also were several areas of cell-cell contact which lacked ZO-1 and ZO-2 localization as well as rearrangements to the actin cytoskeleton in response to BMS-345541. Consistent with an anti-inflammatory effect, BMS-345541 antagonized the deleterious effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on alveolar epithelial barrier function. However, BMS-345541 also inhibited the ability of GM-CSF to increase alveolar epithelial TER. These data suggest a dual role for NF-κB in regulating alveolar barrier function and that constitutive NF-κB function is required for the integrity of alveolar epithelial tight junctions.

  19. Brain Invasion by Mouse Hepatitis Virus Depends on Impairment of Tight Junctions and Beta Interferon Production in Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bleau, Christian; Filliol, Aveline; Samson, Michel

    2015-01-01

    CoVs may gain access to the CNS at the BBB level. Herein we report for the first time that CoVs exhibit the ability to cross the BBB according to strain virulence. BBB invasion by CoVs correlates with virus-induced disruption of tight junctions on BMECs, leading to BBB dysfunction and enhanced permeability. We provide evidence that production of IFN-β by BMECs during CoV infection may prevent BBB breakdown and brain viral invasion. PMID:26202229

  20. Rapid Remodeling of Tight Junctions During Paracellular Diapedesis in a Human Model of the Blood-Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Winger, Ryan C.; Koblinski, Jennifer E.; Kanda, Takashi; Ransohoff, Richard M.; Muller, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM; diapedesis) is a critical event in immune surveillance and inflammation. Most TEM occurs at endothelial cell borders (paracellular). However, there is indirect evidence to suggest that at the tight junctions of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), leukocytes migrate directly through the endothelial cell body (transcellular). Why leukocytes migrate through the endothelial cell body rather than the cell borders is unknown. To test the hypothesis that the tightness of endothelial cell junctions influences the pathway of diapedesis, we developed an in vitro model of the BBB that possessed ten-fold higher electrical resistance than standard culture conditions and strongly expressed the BBB tight junction proteins claudin-5 and claudin-3. We found that paracellular TEM was still the predominant pathway (≥98%) and TEM was dependent on PECAM-1 and CD99. We show that endothelial tight junctions expressing claudin-5 are dynamic and undergo rapid remodeling during TEM. Membrane from the endothelial lateral border recycling compartment (LBRC) is mobilized to the exact site of tight junction remodeling. This preserves the endothelial barrier by sealing the intercellular gaps with membrane and engaging the migrating leukocyte with unligated adhesion molecules (PECAM-1 and CD99) as it crosses the cell border. These findings provide new insights into leukocyte-endothelial interactions at the BBB and suggest that tight junctions are more dynamic than previously appreciated. PMID:25063869

  1. Rapid remodeling of tight junctions during paracellular diapedesis in a human model of the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Winger, Ryan C; Koblinski, Jennifer E; Kanda, Takashi; Ransohoff, Richard M; Muller, William A

    2014-09-01

    Leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM; diapedesis) is a critical event in immune surveillance and inflammation. Most TEM occurs at endothelial cell borders (paracellular). However, there is indirect evidence to suggest that, at the tight junctions of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), leukocytes migrate directly through the endothelial cell body (transcellular). Why leukocytes migrate through the endothelial cell body rather than the cell borders is unknown. To test the hypothesis that the tightness of endothelial cell junctions influences the pathway of diapedesis, we developed an in vitro model of the BBB that possessed 10-fold higher electrical resistance than standard culture conditions and strongly expressed the BBB tight junction proteins claudin-5 and claudin-3. We found that paracellular TEM was still the predominant pathway (≥98%) and TEM was dependent on PECAM-1 and CD99. We show that endothelial tight junctions expressing claudin-5 are dynamic and undergo rapid remodeling during TEM. Membrane from the endothelial lateral border recycling compartment is mobilized to the exact site of tight junction remodeling. This preserves the endothelial barrier by sealing the intercellular gaps with membrane and engaging the migrating leukocyte with unligated adhesion molecules (PECAM-1 and CD99) as it crosses the cell border. These findings provide new insights into leukocyte-endothelial interactions at the BBB and suggest that tight junctions are more dynamic than previously appreciated. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  2. Nanoagonist-mediated endothelial tight junction opening: A strategy for safely increasing brain drug delivery in mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xihui; Wang, Yuan-Cheng; Liu, Yikang; Yue, Qi; Liu, Zining; Ke, Mengjing; Zhao, Shengyuan; Li, Cong

    2017-04-01

    Even though opening endothelial tight junctions is an efficient way to up-regulate brain drug delivery, the extravasation of blood-borne components from the compromised tight junctions can result in adverse consequences such as edema and neuronal injuries. In this work, we developed a nanoagonist that temporarily opened tight junctions by signaling adenosine 2A receptor, a type of G protein-coupled receptor expressed on brain capillary endothelial cells. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated remarkable blood-brain barrier permeability enhancements and significantly increased brain uptakes of both small molecular and macromolecular paramagnetic agents after nanoagonist administration. Gamma ray imaging and transmission electron microscope observed tight junction opening followed by spontaneous recovery after nanoagonist treatment. Immunofluorescence staining showed the unspoiled basal membrane, pericytes and astrocyte endfeet that enwrapped the vascular endothelium. Importantly, edema, apoptosis and neuronal injuries observed after hypertonic agent mediated tight junction-opening were not observed after nanoagonist intervention. The uncompromised neurovascular units may prevent the leakage of blood-borne constituents into brain parenchyma and accelerate tight junction recovery. Considering blood-brain barrier impermeability is a major obstacle in the treatment of central nervous system diseases, nanoagonist-mediated tight junction opening provides a promising strategy to enhance brain drug delivery with minimized adverse effects.

  3. Pharmaceutical Activation or Genetic Absence of ClC-2 Alters Tight Junctions During Experimental Colitis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Younggeon; Pridgen, Tiffany A; Blikslager, Anthony T

    2015-12-01

    We have previously reported that the ClC-2 chloride channel has an important role in regulation of tight junction barrier function during experimental colitis, and the pharmaceutical ClC-2 activator lubiprostone initiates intestinal barrier repair in ischemic-injured intestine. Thus, we hypothesized that pharmaceutical ClC-2 activation would have a protective and therapeutic effect in murine models of colitis, which would be absent in ClC-2 mice. We administered lubiprostone to wild-type or ClC-2 mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or 2, 4, 5-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis. We determined the severity of colitis and assessed intestinal permeability. Selected tight junction proteins were analyzed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy, whereas proliferative and differentiated cells were examined with special staining and immunohistochemistry. Oral preventive or therapeutic administration of lubiprostone significantly reduced the severity of colitis and reduced intestinal permeability in both DSS and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis. Preventive treatment with lubiprostone induced significant recovery of the expression and distribution of selected sealing tight junction proteins in mice with DSS-induced colitis. In addition, lubiprostone reduced crypt proliferation and increased the number of differentiated epithelial cells. Alternatively, when lubiprostone was administered to ClC-2 mice, the protective effect against DSS colitis was limited. This study suggests a central role for ClC-2 in restoration of barrier function and tight junction architecture in experimental murine colitis, which can be therapeutically targeted with lubiprostone.

  4. Gastrointestinal mucositis: the role of MMP-tight junction interactions in tissue injury.

    PubMed

    Al-Dasooqi, Noor; Wardill, Hannah R; Gibson, Rachel J

    2014-07-01

    Chemotherapy for cancer causes significant gut toxicity known as mucositis. The pathogenesis of mucositis is ill defined. Recent clinical research guidelines have highlighted epithelial junctional complexes as emerging targets within mucositis research. Given the robust biological evidence linking tight junctions and matrix metalloproteinases, key mediators of mucositis, tight junction proteins have received significant attention. Despite this, the link between tight junctions, matrix metalloproteinases and mucositis development is yet to be established. This critical review therefore aims to describe the role of matrix metalloproteinases in mucositis, and how matrix metalloproteinase-dependent tight junction disruption may contribute to the pathobiology of mucositis.

  5. Diffusion of nonelectrolytes in the canine trachea: effect of tight junction.

    PubMed

    George, S C; Babb, A L; Deffebach, M E; Hlastala, M P

    1996-05-01

    We recently demonstrated through theoretical modeling that the exhaled ethanol (EtOH) profile from humans is consistent with a molecular diffusion coefficient (cm2/s) in the bronchial mucosa (Dti) that is only 8% of the diffusion coefficient in water (Dw; J. Appl. Physiol. 75: 2439-2449, 1993). Because of the small oil-water partition coefficient (lambda o:w) of EtOH (lambda o:w = 0.074), the reduced diffusion coefficient may be due, in part, to the epithelial tight junction in the paracellular pathway. We hypothesized that opening the tight junction would open an aqueous pathway and increase the diffusion coefficient of small (mol wt < 100) hydrophilic compounds. We mounted the mucosa from the membranous canine trachea in an Ussing-type diffusion cell and measured the diffusion coefficient of 2-ethoxyethanol (2-Ethx; lambda o:w = 0.042), EtOH, and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK; lambda o:w = 1.04) in the presence and absence of the epithelial tight junction. The tight junction was opened using a phosphate-buffered saline free of Ca2+ and Mg2+ with 0.5 mM ethylene glycol-bis (beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, and its integrity was assessed by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance. Dti/Dw in the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+ was 0.39, 0.34, and 0.39 for 2-Ethx, EtOH, and MEK, respectively, and increased 24.6, 11.7, and 1.11% in the absence of Ca2+ and Mg2+. We conclude that the effect of the tight junction on Dti increases with increasing water solubility but can account for only a small portion of the reduced Dti of EtOH as predicted by exhaled profiles.

  6. ACF7 regulates inflammatory colitis and intestinal wound response by orchestrating tight junction dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yanlei; Yue, Jiping; Zhang, Yao; Shi, Chenzhang; Odenwald, Matt; Liang, Wenguang G.; Wei, Qing; Goel, Ajay; Gou, Xuewen; Zhang, Jamie; Chen, Shao-Yu; Tang, Wei-Jen; Turner, Jerrold R.; Yang, Feng; Liang, Hong; Qin, Huanlong; Wu, Xiaoyang

    2017-01-01

    In the intestinal epithelium, the aberrant regulation of cell/cell junctions leads to intestinal barrier defects, which may promote the onset and enhance the severity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, it remains unclear how the coordinated behaviour of cytoskeletal network may contribute to cell junctional dynamics. In this report, we identified ACF7, a crosslinker of microtubules and F-actin, as an essential player in this process. Loss of ACF7 leads to aberrant microtubule organization, tight junction stabilization and impaired wound closure in vitro. With the mouse genetics approach, we show that ablation of ACF7 inhibits intestinal wound healing and greatly increases susceptibility to experimental colitis in mice. ACF7 level is also correlated with development and progression of ulcerative colitis (UC) in human patients. Together, our results reveal an important molecular mechanism whereby coordinated cytoskeletal dynamics contributes to cell adhesion regulation during intestinal wound repair and the development of IBD. PMID:28541346

  7. Impairments of tight junctions are involved in D-galactose-induced brain aging.

    PubMed

    Lei, Ming; Zhu, Zujian; Wen, Zefeng; Ke, Shihuai

    2013-08-21

    Impairments of tight junctions are implicated in the course of various age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Chronic injection of D-galactose can cause a progressive deterioration in learning and memory capacity and serve as an animal model of aging. To investigate the involvement of tight junctions in this model, oxidative stress biomarkers, expression and ultrastructure of tight junctions, and the permeability of blood-brain barrier were examined in the hippocampus of the mice, which received an injection of D-galactose for 6 weeks. D-Galactose-injected mice showed impaired antioxidant systems, decreased levels of tight junction proteins, and ultrastructural pathological changes of tight junctions, accompanied by increased blood-brain barrier permeability in the hippocampus. These results show that impairments in tight junctions are involved in D-galactose-induced brain aging.

  8. Intestinal epithelial barrier function and tight junction proteins with heat and exercise.

    PubMed

    Dokladny, Karol; Zuhl, Micah N; Moseley, Pope L

    2016-03-15

    A single layer of enterocytes and tight junctions (intercellular multiprotein complexes) form the intestinal epithelial barrier that controls transport of molecules through transcellular and paracellular pathways. A dysfunctional or "leaky" intestinal tight junction barrier allows augmented permeation of luminal antigens, endotoxins, and bacteria into the blood stream. Various substances and conditions have been shown to affect the maintenance of the intestinal epithelial tight junction barrier. The primary focus of the present review is to analyze the effects of exertional or nonexertional (passive hyperthermia) heat stress on tight junction barrier function in in vitro and in vivo (animals and humans) models. Our secondary focus is to review changes in tight junction proteins in response to exercise or hyperthermic conditions. Finally, we discuss some pharmacological or nutritional interventions that may affect the cellular mechanisms involved in maintaining homeostasis of the intestinal epithelial tight junction barrier during heat stress or exercise.

  9. Intestinal epithelial barrier function and tight junction proteins with heat and exercise

    PubMed Central

    Zuhl, Micah N.; Moseley, Pope L.

    2015-01-01

    A single layer of enterocytes and tight junctions (intercellular multiprotein complexes) form the intestinal epithelial barrier that controls transport of molecules through transcellular and paracellular pathways. A dysfunctional or “leaky” intestinal tight junction barrier allows augmented permeation of luminal antigens, endotoxins, and bacteria into the blood stream. Various substances and conditions have been shown to affect the maintenance of the intestinal epithelial tight junction barrier. The primary focus of the present review is to analyze the effects of exertional or nonexertional (passive hyperthermia) heat stress on tight junction barrier function in in vitro and in vivo (animals and humans) models. Our secondary focus is to review changes in tight junction proteins in response to exercise or hyperthermic conditions. Finally, we discuss some pharmacological or nutritional interventions that may affect the cellular mechanisms involved in maintaining homeostasis of the intestinal epithelial tight junction barrier during heat stress or exercise. PMID:26359485

  10. Formation of tight junctions between neighboring podocytes is an early ultrastructural feature in experimental crescentic glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Succar, Lena; Boadle, Ross A; Harris, David C; Rangan, Gopala K

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN), the development of cellular bridges between podocytes and parietal epithelial cells (PECs) triggers glomerular crescent formation. However, the sequential changes in glomerular ultrastructure in CGN are not well defined. This study investigated the time course of glomerular ultrastructure in experimental CGN. Methods Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed using kidney samples from rats with nephrotoxic serum nephritis (NSN) from day 1 to day 14. Morphometric analysis was conducted on randomly selected glomeruli captured on TEM digital images. Results On day 1 of NSN, there was widespread formation of focal contacts between the cell bodies of neighboring podocytes, and tight junctions were evident at the site of cell-to-cell contact. This was confirmed by the increased expression of the tight junction molecule, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), which localized to the points of podocyte cell–cell body contact. On day 2, the interpodocyte distance decreased and the glomerular basement membrane thickness increased. Foot process effacement (FPE) was segmental on day 3 and diffuse by day 5, accompanied by the formation of podocyte cellular bridges with Bowman’s capsule, as confirmed by a decrease in podocyte-to-PEC distance. Fibrinoid necrosis and cellular crescents were evident in all glomeruli by days 7 and 14. In vitro, the exposure of podocytes to macrophage-conditioned media altered cellular morphology and caused an intracellular redistribution of ZO-1. Conclusion The formation of tight junctions between podocytes is an early ultrastructural abnormality in CGN, preceding FPE and podocyte bridge formation and occurring in response to inflammatory injury. Podocyte-to-podocyte tight junction formation may be a compensatory mechanism to maintain the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier following severe endocapillary injury. PMID:27920570

  11. Shoichiro Tsukita: a life exploring the molecular architecture of the tight junction

    PubMed Central

    Takeichi, Masatoshi

    2006-01-01

    On December 11, 2005, Shoichiro Tsukita died at the young age of 52, after 14 months of treatment for cancer. Early in his career, Tsukita succeeded in isolating and purifying the adherens junction with his wife Sachiko, an accomplishment that he followed up with an impressive series of discoveries of cell adhesion and cytoskeletal molecules, including what may have been his greatest contribution to the field, the identification of occludin and the claudin family of molecules, which were watershed discoveries in the study of the molecular nature of tight junctions. PMID:16449186

  12. They Must Hold Tight: Junction Proteins, Microbiota And Immunity In Intestinal Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Castoldi, Angela; Favero de Aguiar, Cristhiane; Moraes-Vieira, Pedro Manoel; Olsen Saraiva Câmara, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis of the immune system depends on several factors. The gastrointestinal tract plays an important role in maintaining our immune system. With this aim, the intestinal immune system interacts with epithelial barrier molecules, especially tight junction proteins, that are key molecules involved in controlling paracellular permeability to increase the protection barrier against external antigens or possibly to respond to commensal microorganisms. During intestinal inflammatory diseases, the expression of innate immune receptors in intestinal epithelial cells and infiltration of immune cells are related, but it is still unclear how the immune system induces modulation of paracellular permeability. In this review, we provide an overview of the understanding of how the immune system modulates the expression of tight junctions to maintain the mucosal immune system.

  13. Group A Streptococcus exploits human plasminogen for bacterial translocation across epithelial barrier via tricellular tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Sumitomo, Tomoko; Nakata, Masanobu; Higashino, Miharu; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Kawabata, Shigetada

    2016-01-29

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a human-specific pathogen responsible for local suppurative and life-threatening invasive systemic diseases. Interaction of GAS with human plasminogen (PLG) is a salient characteristic for promoting their systemic dissemination. In the present study, a serotype M28 strain was found predominantly localized in tricellular tight junctions of epithelial cells cultured in the presence of PLG. Several lines of evidence indicated that interaction of PLG with tricellulin, a major component of tricellular tight junctions, is crucial for bacterial localization. A site-directed mutagenesis approach revealed that lysine residues at positions 217 and 252 within the extracellular loop of tricellulin play important roles in PLG-binding activity. Additionally, we demonstrated that PLG functions as a molecular bridge between tricellulin and streptococcal surface enolase (SEN). The wild type strain efficiently translocated across the epithelial monolayer, accompanied by cleavage of transmembrane junctional proteins. In contrast, amino acid substitutions in the PLG-binding motif of SEN markedly compromised those activities. Notably, the interaction of PLG with SEN was dependent on PLG species specificity, which influenced the efficiency of bacterial penetration. Our findings provide insight into the mechanism by which GAS exploits host PLG for acceleration of bacterial invasion into deeper tissues via tricellular tight junctions.

  14. Group A Streptococcus exploits human plasminogen for bacterial translocation across epithelial barrier via tricellular tight junctions

    PubMed Central

    Sumitomo, Tomoko; Nakata, Masanobu; Higashino, Miharu; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Kawabata, Shigetada

    2016-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a human-specific pathogen responsible for local suppurative and life-threatening invasive systemic diseases. Interaction of GAS with human plasminogen (PLG) is a salient characteristic for promoting their systemic dissemination. In the present study, a serotype M28 strain was found predominantly localized in tricellular tight junctions of epithelial cells cultured in the presence of PLG. Several lines of evidence indicated that interaction of PLG with tricellulin, a major component of tricellular tight junctions, is crucial for bacterial localization. A site-directed mutagenesis approach revealed that lysine residues at positions 217 and 252 within the extracellular loop of tricellulin play important roles in PLG-binding activity. Additionally, we demonstrated that PLG functions as a molecular bridge between tricellulin and streptococcal surface enolase (SEN). The wild type strain efficiently translocated across the epithelial monolayer, accompanied by cleavage of transmembrane junctional proteins. In contrast, amino acid substitutions in the PLG-binding motif of SEN markedly compromised those activities. Notably, the interaction of PLG with SEN was dependent on PLG species specificity, which influenced the efficiency of bacterial penetration. Our findings provide insight into the mechanism by which GAS exploits host PLG for acceleration of bacterial invasion into deeper tissues via tricellular tight junctions. PMID:26822058

  15. Chemotherapy-induced gut toxicity: are alterations to intestinal tight junctions pivotal?

    PubMed

    Wardill, Hannah R; Bowen, Joanne M; Gibson, Rachel J

    2012-11-01

    Chemotherapy-induced gut toxicity (CIGT) is a frequent, debilitating and dose-limiting side effect of anti-cancer cytotoxic therapies. Despite much research, many of the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the role that intestinal permeability and tight junctions play in the pathogenesis of chemotherapy-induced gut toxicity. Tight junctions have been linked with many of the known hall marks of toxicity including pro-inflammatory cytokines and pathogenic bacteria. In this critical review, we highlight the research literature addressing modifications in tight junctions following chemotherapy administration and how tight junctions may be implicated in the pathophysiology of CIGT.

  16. Chemotherapy-induced mucosal barrier dysfunction: an updated review on the role of intestinal tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Wardill, Hannah R; Bowen, Joanne M

    2013-06-01

    Gut toxicity, or mucositis, is a major dose-limiting side effect of chemotherapy that until recently received very little attention. Despite significant research, the mechanisms that underpin chemotherapy-induced gut toxicity (CIGT) remain unclear. Recently however, there has been renewed interest in the role tight junctions play in the pathogenesis of CIGT and associated diarrhea. Thus, this review will cover the role of tight junctions in maintaining gastrointestinal homeostasis and touch on recently proposed mechanisms of how tight junctions may contribute to the development of chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. There is a wealth of anecdotal evidence regarding the role of tight junctions in the pathogenesis of gut toxicity. However, few studies have quantified or assessed the molecular changes in tight junctions in response to chemotherapy. This review will highlight the major findings of these studies and discuss the potential mechanisms by which tight junction disruption and mucosal barrier dysfunction may contribute to diarrhea. The significant clinical and economic impact associated with CIGT and diarrhea has only recently been appreciated. This has prompted significant research efforts in an attempt to reveal the pathophysiology of this debilitating complication. Renewed interest has been shown regarding the role of tight junctions in not only maintaining gastrointestinal health, but also contributing to mucosal barrier injury and diarrhea development. More detailed research into the effect chemotherapy has on the molecular characteristics of tight junctions will lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of CIGT and may uncover the therapeutic potential of tight junctions in treating diarrhea.

  17. Functional significance of the variations in the geometrical organization of tight junction networks

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    Using freeze-fracture techniques, we have examined the morpholog of tight junction networks found along the length of the alimentary tract of Xenopus laevis before and after metamorphosis. We have developed the hypothesis, based on these observations, that the geometrical organization of the network determined by the stress-induced shape changes normally experienced by the cells linked by the network. Consistent with this theory, tight junctions can be classified into two distinct types of network organization which differ in their response normal and experimentally induced stress conditions: (a) loosely interconnected networks which can stretch or compress extensively under tension, thereby adapting to stress changes in the tissue; and (b) evenly cross-linked networks which retain their basic morphology under normal stress conditions. The absorptive cells of the large intestine as well as the mucous cells of the gastrointestine or stomach are sealed by the first, flexible type of tight junction. The second type of junctional organization, the evenly cross-connected network, is found between absorptive cells of the small intestine and ciliated cells of the esophagus, and reflects in its constant morphology the relative stability of the apical region of both of these cell types. Networks intermediate between these two types arise when a cell which would normally form a lossely interconnected network borders a cell which tends to form a more evenly cross-linked network, as is found in the esophagus where ciliated and goblet cells adjoin. Despite the change in the animal's diet during metamorphosis from herbivorous to carnivorous, the basic gemetrical organization of the networks associated with each tissue of the alimentary tract remains the same. PMID:1030707

  18. The effect of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) cysteine protease actinidin on the occludin tight junction network in T84 intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cavic, Milena; Grozdanovic, Milica M; Bajic, Aleksandar; Jankovic, Radmila; Andjus, Pavle R; Gavrovic-Jankulovic, Marija

    2014-10-01

    Actinidin, a kiwifruit cysteine protease, is a marker allergen for genuine sensitization to this food allergen source. Inhalatory cysteine proteases have the capacity for disruption of tight junctions (TJs) enhancing the permeability of the bronchial epithelium. No such properties have been reported for allergenic food proteases so far. The aim was to determine the effect of actinidin on the integrity of T84 monolayers by evaluating its action on the TJ protein occludin. Immunoblot and immunofluorescence were employed for the detection of occludin protein alterations. Gene expression was evaluated by RT-PCR. Breach of occludin network was assessed by measuring transepithelial resistance, blue dextran leakage and passage of allergens from the apical to basolateral compartment. Actinidin exerted direct proteolytic cleavage of occludin; no alteration of occludin gene expression was detected. There was a reduction of occludin staining upon actinidin treatment as a consequence of its degradation and dispersion within the membrane. There was an increase in permeability of the T84 monolayer resulting in reduced transepithelial resistance, blue dextran leakage and passage of allergens actinidin and thaumatin-like protein from the apical to basolateral compartment. Opening of TJs by actinidin may increase intestinal permeability and contribute to the process of sensitization in kiwifruit allergy.

  19. Targeting tight junctions during epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Kyuno, Daisuke; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Ito, Tatsuya; Kono, Tsuyoshi; Kimura, Yasutoshi; Imamura, Masafumi; Konno, Takumi; Hirata, Koichi; Sawada, Norimasa; Kojima, Takashi

    2014-08-21

    Pancreatic cancer continues to be a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide and there is an urgent need to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to reduce the mortality of patients with this disease. In pancreatic cancer, some tight junction proteins, including claudins, are abnormally regulated and therefore are promising molecular targets for diagnosis, prognosis and therapy. Claudin-4 and -18 are overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer and its precursor lesions. Claudin-4 is a high affinity receptor of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE). The cytotoxic effects of CPE and monoclonal antibodies against claudin-4 are useful as novel therapeutic tools for pancreatic cancer. Claudin-18 could be a putative marker and therapeutic target with prognostic implications for patients with pancreatic cancer. Claudin-1, -7, tricellulin and marvelD3 are involved in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of pancreatic cancer cells and thus might be useful as biomarkers during disease. Protein kinase C is closely related to EMT of pancreatic cancer and regulates tight junctions of normal human pancreatic duct epithelial cells and the cancer cells. This review focuses on the regulation of tight junctions via protein kinase C during EMT in human pancreatic cancer for the purpose of developing new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for pancreatic cancer.

  20. Targeting tight junctions during epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kyuno, Daisuke; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Ito, Tatsuya; Kono, Tsuyoshi; Kimura, Yasutoshi; Imamura, Masafumi; Konno, Takumi; Hirata, Koichi; Sawada, Norimasa; Kojima, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer continues to be a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide and there is an urgent need to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to reduce the mortality of patients with this disease. In pancreatic cancer, some tight junction proteins, including claudins, are abnormally regulated and therefore are promising molecular targets for diagnosis, prognosis and therapy. Claudin-4 and -18 are overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer and its precursor lesions. Claudin-4 is a high affinity receptor of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE). The cytotoxic effects of CPE and monoclonal antibodies against claudin-4 are useful as novel therapeutic tools for pancreatic cancer. Claudin-18 could be a putative marker and therapeutic target with prognostic implications for patients with pancreatic cancer. Claudin-1, -7, tricellulin and marvelD3 are involved in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of pancreatic cancer cells and thus might be useful as biomarkers during disease. Protein kinase C is closely related to EMT of pancreatic cancer and regulates tight junctions of normal human pancreatic duct epithelial cells and the cancer cells. This review focuses on the regulation of tight junctions via protein kinase C during EMT in human pancreatic cancer for the purpose of developing new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for pancreatic cancer. PMID:25152584

  1. Tongxinluo Regulates Expression of Tight Junction Proteins and Alleviates Endothelial Cell Monolayer Hyperpermeability via ERK-1/2 Signaling Pathway in Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein-Induced Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Vascular hyperpermeability resulting from distortion of endothelial junctions is associated with a number of cardiovascular diseases. Endothelial tight junction regulates the paracellular permeability of macromolecules, a function of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) monolayers that can be regulated by oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein (ox-LDL). However, the understanding of drug regulation of vascular hyperpermeability is so far limited. This study thus aimed to investigate the role of Tongxinluo (TXL) in the maintenance of the vascular endothelial paracellular permeability. Here, changes in permeability were determined by measuring the paracellular flux of FITC-dextran 40000 (FD40), while protein expression and intercellular distribution were examined by western blot and immunofluorescence assay, respectively. We found that TXL alleviated the ox-LDL-induced increase in flux of FD40 and then reduced the hyperpermeability. Moreover, ox-LDL-induced disruptions of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin1 were also restored. This is via the activation of ERK1/2 in the vascular endothelial cells. Our results provide insights into the molecular mechanism by which TXL alleviates ox-LDL-induced hyperpermeability and provide the basis for further investigations of TXL as regulators of vascular barrier function.

  2. Secretion of Alpha-Hemolysin by Escherichia coli Disrupts Tight Junctions in Ulcerative Colitis Patients.

    PubMed

    Mirsepasi-Lauridsen, Hengameh Chloé; Du, Zhengyu; Struve, Carsten; Charbon, Godefroid; Karczewski, Jurgen; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Petersen, Andreas Munk; Wells, Jerry M

    2016-03-03

    The potential of Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients to damage the integrity of the intestinal epithelium was investigated. E. coli strains isolated from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and healthy controls were tested for virulence capacity by molecular techniques and cytotoxic assays and transepithelial electric resistance (TER). E. coli isolate p19A was selected, and deletion mutants were created for alpha-hemolysin (α-hemolysin) (hly) clusters and cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 (cnf1). Probiotic E. coli Nissle and pathogenic E. coli LF82 were used as controls. E. coli strains from patients with active UC completely disrupted epithelial cell tight junctions shortly after inoculation. These strains belong to phylogenetic group B2 and are all α-hemolysin positive. In contrast, probiotic E. coli Nissle, pathogenic E. coli LF82, four E. coli from patients with inactive UC and three E. coli strains from healthy controls did not disrupt tight junctions. E. coli p19A WT as well as cnf1, and single loci of hly mutants from cluster I and II were all able to damage Caco-2 (Heterogeneous human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma) cell tight junctions. However, this phenotype was lost in a mutant with knockout (Δ) of both hly loci (P<0.001). UC-associated E. coli producing α-hemolysin can cause rapid loss of tight junction integrity in differentiated Caco-2 cell monolayers. This effect was abolished in a mutant unable to express α-hemolysin. These results suggest that high Hly expression may be a mechanism by which specific strains of E. coli pathobionts can contribute to epithelial barrier dysfunction and pathophysiology of disease in IBD.

  3. Secretion of Alpha-Hemolysin by Escherichia coli Disrupts Tight Junctions in Ulcerative Colitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mirsepasi-Lauridsen, Hengameh Chloé; Du, Zhengyu; Struve, Carsten; Charbon, Godefroid; Karczewski, Jurgen; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Petersen, Andreas Munk; Wells, Jerry M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The potential of Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients to damage the integrity of the intestinal epithelium was investigated. Methods: E. coli strains isolated from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and healthy controls were tested for virulence capacity by molecular techniques and cytotoxic assays and transepithelial electric resistance (TER). E. coli isolate p19A was selected, and deletion mutants were created for alpha-hemolysin (α-hemolysin) (hly) clusters and cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 (cnf1). Probiotic E. coli Nissle and pathogenic E. coli LF82 were used as controls. Results: E. coli strains from patients with active UC completely disrupted epithelial cell tight junctions shortly after inoculation. These strains belong to phylogenetic group B2 and are all α-hemolysin positive. In contrast, probiotic E. coli Nissle, pathogenic E. coli LF82, four E. coli from patients with inactive UC and three E. coli strains from healthy controls did not disrupt tight junctions. E. coli p19A WT as well as cnf1, and single loci of hly mutants from cluster I and II were all able to damage Caco-2 (Heterogeneous human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma) cell tight junctions. However, this phenotype was lost in a mutant with knockout (Δ) of both hly loci (P<0.001). Conclusions: UC-associated E. coli producing α-hemolysin can cause rapid loss of tight junction integrity in differentiated Caco-2 cell monolayers. This effect was abolished in a mutant unable to express α-hemolysin. These results suggest that high Hly expression may be a mechanism by which specific strains of E. coli pathobionts can contribute to epithelial barrier dysfunction and pathophysiology of disease in IBD. PMID:26938480

  4. [Relationship between tight junction proteins and Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric diseases].

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Jiang, Mi-Zu

    2014-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection is an important cause of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer, but their pathogenesis is unclear. The role of gastric mucosal barrier dysfunction induced by impaired structure and function of tight junction in the pathogenesis of Hp-associated gastric diseases has received considerable attention in recent years. Tight junction is composed of a variety of proteins and molecules, including 3 integral membrane proteins (occludin, claudins, and junctional adhesion molecules) and a cytoplasmic protein (zonula occludens). This paper mainly describes the composition and function of various tight junction proteins, changes in tight junction protein function induced by Hp infection and their relationship with the incidence of gastric diseases, and the significance of enhancing the tight junction protein function in the prevention and treatment of Hp-associated gastric diseases.

  5. Specificity of Interaction between Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin and Claudin-Family Tight Junction Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Leslie A.; Koval, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), a major cause of food poisoning, forms physical pores in the plasma membrane of intestinal epithelial cells. The ability of CPE to recognize the epithelium is due to the C-terminal binding domain, which binds to a specific motif on the second extracellular loop of tight junction proteins known as claudins. The interaction between claudins and CPE plays a key role in mediating CPE toxicity by facilitating pore formation and by promoting tight junction disassembly. Recently, the ability of CPE to distinguish between specific claudins has been used to develop tools for studying roles for claudins in epithelial barrier function. Moreover, the high affinity of CPE to selected claudins makes CPE a useful platform for targeted drug delivery to tumors expressing these claudins. PMID:22069652

  6. Calcium/Ask1/MKK7/JNK2/c-Src signalling cascade mediates disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions by dextran sulfate sodium.

    PubMed

    Samak, Geetha; Chaudhry, Kamaljit K; Gangwar, Ruchika; Narayanan, Damodaran; Jaggar, Jonathan H; Rao, RadhaKrishna

    2015-02-01

    Disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions is an important event in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induces colitis in mice with symptoms similar to ulcerative colitis. However, the mechanism of DSS-induced colitis is unknown. We investigated the mechanism of DSS-induced disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions and barrier dysfunction in Caco-2 cell monolayers in vitro and mouse colon in vivo. DSS treatment resulted in disruption of tight junctions, adherens junctions and actin cytoskeleton leading to barrier dysfunction in Caco-2 cell monolayers. DSS induced a rapid activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and the inhibition or knockdown of JNK2 attenuated DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. In mice, DSS administration for 4 days caused redistribution of tight junction and adherens junction proteins from the epithelial junctions, which was blocked by JNK inhibitor. In Caco-2 cell monolayers, DSS increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, and depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) by 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid tetrakis(acetoxymethyl ester) (BAPTA/AM) or thapsigargin attenuated DSS-induced JNK activation, tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. Knockdown of apoptosis signal-regulated kinase 1 (Ask1) or MKK7 blocked DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. DSS activated c-Src by a Ca2+ and JNK-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of Src kinase activity or knockdown of c-Src blocked DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. DSS increased tyrosine phosphorylation of occludin, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), E-cadherin and β-catenin. SP600125 abrogated DSS-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of junctional proteins. Recombinant JNK2 induced threonine phosphorylation and auto-phosphorylation of c-Src. The present study demonstrates that Ca(2+)/Ask1/MKK7/JNK2/cSrc signalling cascade mediates DSS-induced tight

  7. Calcium-Ask1-MKK7-JNK2-c-Src Signaling Cascade Mediates Disruption of Intestinal Epithelial Tight Junctions by Dextran Sulfate Sodium

    PubMed Central

    Samak, Geetha; Chaudhry, Kamaljit K.; Gangwar, Ruchika; Narayanan, Damodaran; Jaggar, Jonathan H.; Rao, RadhaKrishna

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions is an important event in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induces colitis in mice with the symptoms similar to ulcerative colitis. However, the mechanism of DSS-induced colitis is unknown. We investigated the mechanism of DSS-induced disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions and barrier dysfunction in Caco-2 cell monolayers in vitro and mouse colon in vivo. DSS treatment resulted in disruption of tight junctions, adherens junctions and actin cytoskeleton leading to barrier dysfunction in Caco-2 cell monolayers. DSS induced a rapid activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and the inhibition or knockdown of JNK2 attenuated DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. In mice, DSS administration for 4 days caused redistribution of tight junction and adherens junction proteins from the epithelial junctions, which was blocked by JNK inhibitor. In Caco-2 cell monolayers, DSS increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration, and depletion of intracellular Ca2+ by BAPTA or thapsigargin attenuated DSS-induced JNK activation, tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. Knockdown of Ask1 or MKK7 blocked DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. DSS activated c-Src by a Ca2+ and JNK-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of Src kinase activity or knockdown of c-Src blocked DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. DSS increased Tyr-phosphorylation of occludin, ZO-1, E-cadherin and β-catenin. SP600125 abrogated DSS-induced Tyr-phosphorylation of junctional proteins. Recombinant JNK2 induced threonine phosphorylation and auto phosphorylation of c-Src. This study demonstrates that Ca2+-Ask1-MKK7-JNK2-cSrc signaling cascade mediates DSS-induced tight junction disruption and barrier dysfunction. PMID:25377781

  8. Tricellulin Forms a Barrier to Macromolecules in Tricellular Tight Junctions without Affecting Ion Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Krug, Susanne M.; Amasheh, Salah; Richter, Jan F.; Milatz, Susanne; Günzel, Dorothee; Westphal, Julie K.; Huber, Otmar; Schulzke, Jörg D.

    2009-01-01

    Tricellulin is a tight junction protein localized in tricellular tight junctions (tTJs), the meeting points of three cells, but also in bicellular tight junctions (bTJs). To investigate its specific barrier functions in bTJs and tTJs, TRIC-a was expressed in low-level tricellulin–expressing cells, and MDCK II, either in all TJs or only in tTJs. When expressed in all TJs, tricellulin increased paracellular electrical resistance and decreased permeability to ions and larger solutes, which are associated with enhanced ultrastructural integrity of bTJs toward enhanced strand linearity. In tTJs in contrast, ultrastructure was unchanged and tricellulin minimized permeability to macromolecules but not to ions. This paradox is explained by properties of the tTJ central tube which is wide enough for passage of macromolecules, but too rare to contribute significantly to ion permeability. In conclusion, at low tricellulin expression the tTJ central tube forms a pathway for macromolecules. At higher expression, tricellulin forms a barrier in tTJs effective only for macromolecules and in bTJs for solutes of all sizes. PMID:19535456

  9. Paracellin-1 and the modulation of ion selectivity of tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jianghui; Paul, David L; Goodenough, Daniel A

    2005-11-01

    Tight junctions play a key selectivity role in the paracellular conductance of ions. Paracellin-1 is a member of the tight junction claudin protein family and mutations in the paracellin-1 gene cause a human hereditary disease, familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) with severe renal Mg2+ wasting. The mechanism of paracellin-1 function and its role in FHHNC are not known. Here, we report that in LLC-PK1 epithelial cells paracellin-1 modulated the ion selectivity of the tight junction by selectively and significantly increasing the permeability of Na+ (with no effects on Cl-) and generated a high permeability ratio of Na+ to Cl-. Mutagenesis studies identified a locus of amino acids in paracellin-1 critical for this function. Mg2+ flux across cell monolayers showed a far less-pronounced change (compared to monovalent alkali cations) following exogenous protein expression, suggesting that paracellin-1 did not form Mg2+-selective paracellular channels. We hypothesize that in the thick ascending limb of the nephron, paracellin-1 dysfunction, with a concomitant loss of cation selectivity, could contribute to the dissipation of the lumen-positive potential that is the driving force for the reabsorption of Mg2+.

  10. Myosins in cell junctions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Katy C.; Cheney, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    The development of cell-cell junctions was a fundamental step in metazoan evolution, and human health depends on the formation and function of cell junctions. Although it has long been known that actin and conventional myosin have important roles in cell junctions, research has begun to reveal the specific functions of the different forms of conventional myosin. Exciting new data also reveals that a growing number of unconventional myosins have important roles in cell junctions. Experiments showing that cell junctions act as mechanosensors have also provided new impetus to understand the functions of myosins and the forces they exert. In this review we will summarize recent developments on the roles of myosins in cell junctions. PMID:22954512

  11. Kiwifruit cysteine protease actinidin compromises the intestinal barrier by disrupting tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Grozdanovic, Milica M; Čavić, Milena; Nešić, Andrijana; Andjelković, Uroš; Akbari, Peyman; Smit, Joost J; Gavrović-Jankulović, Marija

    2016-03-01

    The intestinal epithelium forms a barrier that food allergens must cross in order to induce sensitization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the plant-derived food cysteine protease--actinidin (Act d1) on the integrity of intestinal epithelium tight junctions (TJs). Effects of Act d1 on the intestinal epithelium were evaluated in Caco-2 monolayers and in a mouse model by measuring transepithelial resistance and in vivo permeability. Integrity of the tight junctions was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Proteolysis of TJ protein occludin was evaluated by mass spectrometry. Actinidin (1 mg/mL) reduced the transepithelial resistance of the cell monolayer by 18.1% (after 1 h) and 25.6% (after 4 h). This loss of barrier function was associated with Act d 1 disruption of the occludin and zonula occludens (ZO)-1 network. The effect on intestinal permeability in vivo was demonstrated by the significantly higher concentration of 40 kDa FITC-dextran (2.33 μg/mL) that passed from the intestine into the serum of Act d1 treated mice in comparison to the control group (0.5 μg/mL). Human occludin was fragmented, and putative Act d1 cleavage sites were identified in extracellular loops of human occludin. Act d1 caused protease-dependent disruption of tight junctions in confluent Caco-2 cells and increased intestinal permeability in mice. In line with the observed effects of food cysteine proteases in occupational allergy, these results suggest that disruption of tight junctions by food cysteine proteases may contribute to the process of sensitization in food allergy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Petri Net-Based Model of Helicobacter pylori Mediated Disruption of Tight Junction Proteins in Stomach Lining during Gastric Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Naz, Anam; Obaid, Ayesha; Awan, Faryal M.; Ikram, Aqsa; Ahmad, Jamil; Ali, Amjad

    2017-01-01

    Tight junctions help prevent the passage of digestive enzymes and microorganisms through the space between adjacent epithelial cells lining. However, Helicobacter pylori encoded virulence factors negatively regulate these tight junctions and contribute to dysfunction of gastric mucosa. Here, we have predicted the regulation of important tight junction proteins, such as Zonula occludens-1, Claudin-2 and Connexin32 in the presence of pathogenic proteins. Molecular events such as post translational modifications and crosstalk between phosphorylation, O-glycosylation, palmitoylation and methylation are explored which may compromise the integrity of these tight junction proteins. Furthermore, the signaling pathways disrupted by dysregulated kinases, proteins and post-translational modifications are reviewed to design an abstracted computational model showing the situation-dependent dynamic behaviors of these biological processes and entities. A qualitative hybrid Petri Net model is therefore constructed showing the altered host pathways in the presence of virulence factor cytotoxin-associated gene A, leading to the disruption of tight junction proteins. The model is qualitative logic-based, which does not depend on any kinetic parameter and quantitative data and depends on knowledge derived from experiments. The designed model provides insights into the tight junction disruption and disease progression. Model is then verified by the available experimental data, nevertheless formal in vitro experimentation is a promising way to ensure its validation. The major findings propose that H. pylori activated kinases are responsible to trigger specific post translational modifications within tight junction proteins, at specific sites. These modifications may favor alterations in gastric barrier and provide a route to bacterial invasion into host cells. PMID:28932213

  13. Petri Net-Based Model of Helicobacter pylori Mediated Disruption of Tight Junction Proteins in Stomach Lining during Gastric Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Naz, Anam; Obaid, Ayesha; Awan, Faryal M; Ikram, Aqsa; Ahmad, Jamil; Ali, Amjad

    2017-01-01

    Tight junctions help prevent the passage of digestive enzymes and microorganisms through the space between adjacent epithelial cells lining. However, Helicobacter pylori encoded virulence factors negatively regulate these tight junctions and contribute to dysfunction of gastric mucosa. Here, we have predicted the regulation of important tight junction proteins, such as Zonula occludens-1, Claudin-2 and Connexin32 in the presence of pathogenic proteins. Molecular events such as post translational modifications and crosstalk between phosphorylation, O-glycosylation, palmitoylation and methylation are explored which may compromise the integrity of these tight junction proteins. Furthermore, the signaling pathways disrupted by dysregulated kinases, proteins and post-translational modifications are reviewed to design an abstracted computational model showing the situation-dependent dynamic behaviors of these biological processes and entities. A qualitative hybrid Petri Net model is therefore constructed showing the altered host pathways in the presence of virulence factor cytotoxin-associated gene A, leading to the disruption of tight junction proteins. The model is qualitative logic-based, which does not depend on any kinetic parameter and quantitative data and depends on knowledge derived from experiments. The designed model provides insights into the tight junction disruption and disease progression. Model is then verified by the available experimental data, nevertheless formal in vitro experimentation is a promising way to ensure its validation. The major findings propose that H. pylori activated kinases are responsible to trigger specific post translational modifications within tight junction proteins, at specific sites. These modifications may favor alterations in gastric barrier and provide a route to bacterial invasion into host cells.

  14. Cigarette smoke-induced disruption of bronchial epithelial tight junctions is prevented by transforming growth factor-β.

    PubMed

    Schamberger, Andrea C; Mise, Nikica; Jia, Jie; Genoyer, Emmanuelle; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Meiners, Silke; Eickelberg, Oliver

    2014-06-01

    The airway epithelium constitutes an essential immunological and cytoprotective barrier to inhaled insults, such as cigarette smoke, environmental particles, or viruses. Although bronchial epithelial integrity is crucial for airway homeostasis, defective epithelial barrier function contributes to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Tight junctions at the apical side of epithelial cell-cell contacts determine epithelial permeability. Cigarette smoke exposure, the major risk factor for COPD, is suggested to impair tight junction integrity; however, detailed mechanisms thereof remain elusive. We investigated whether cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 affected tight junction integrity. Exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o(-)) and differentiated primary human bronchial epithelial cells (pHBECs) to CSE significantly disrupted tight junction integrity and barrier function. Specifically, CSE decreased transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and tight junction-associated protein levels. Zonula occludens (ZO)-1 and ZO-2 protein levels were significantly reduced and dislocated from the cell membrane, as observed by fractionation and immunofluorescence analysis. These findings were reproduced in isolated bronchi exposed to CSE ex vivo, as detected by real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR and immunohistochemistry. Combined treatment of 16HBE14o(-) cells or pHBECs with CSE and TGF-β1 restored ZO-1 and ZO-2 levels. TGF-β1 cotreatment restored membrane localization of ZO-1 and ZO-2 protein and prevented CSE-mediated TEER decrease. In conclusion, CSE led to the disruption of tight junctions of human bronchial epithelial cells, and TGF-β1 counteracted this CSE-induced effect. Thus, TGF-β1 may serve as a protective factor for bronchial epithelial cell homeostasis in diseases such as COPD.

  15. Enteric Pathogens and Their Toxin-Induced Disruption of the Intestinal Barrier through Alteration of Tight Junctions in Chickens.

    PubMed

    Awad, Wageha A; Hess, Claudia; Hess, Michael

    2017-02-10

    Maintaining a healthy gut environment is a prerequisite for sustainable animal production. The gut plays a key role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients and constitutes an initial organ exposed to external factors influencing bird's health. The intestinal epithelial barrier serves as the first line of defense between the host and the luminal environment. It consists of a continuous monolayer of intestinal epithelial cells connected by intercellular junctional complexes which shrink the space between adjacent cells. Consequently, free passing of solutes and water via the paracellular pathway is prevented. Tight junctions (TJs) are multi-protein complexes which are crucial for the integrity and function of the epithelial barrier as they not only link cells but also form channels allowing permeation between cells, resulting in epithelial surfaces of different tightness. Tight junction's molecular composition, ultrastructure, and function are regulated differently with regard to physiological and pathological stimuli. Both in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that reduced tight junction integrity greatly results in a condition commonly known as "leaky gut". A loss of barrier integrity allows the translocation of luminal antigens (microbes, toxins) via the mucosa to access the whole body which are normally excluded and subsequently destroys the gut mucosal homeostasis, coinciding with an increased susceptibility to systemic infection, chronic inflammation and malabsorption. There is considerable evidence that the intestinal barrier dysfunction is an important factor contributing to the pathogenicity of some enteric bacteria. It has been shown that some enteric pathogens can induce permeability defects in gut epithelia by altering tight junction proteins, mediated by their toxins. Resolving the strategies that microorganisms use to hijack the functions of tight junctions is important for our understanding of microbial pathogenesis, because some pathogens can

  16. VvpE mediates the intestinal colonization of Vibrio vulnificus by the disruption of tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sei-Jung; Jung, Young Hyun; Ryu, Jung Min; Jang, Kyung Ku; Choi, Sang Ho; Han, Ho Jae

    2016-01-01

    The disruption of gastrointestinal tight junctions and their colonization evoked by enteric pathogens are hallmarks of the pathogenesis. Vibrio (V.) vulnificus, VvpE, is an elastase which is responsible for host surface adherence and vascular permeability; however, the functional roles of VvpE in the pathogenesis of V. vulnificus (WT) are poorly understood. In the present study, we have investigated the role of VvpE in regulation of intestinal tight junctions and the colonization of WT. We found that mutation of the vvpE gene from V. vulnificus (vvpE mutant) prevents intestinal tight/adherens junction dysregulation due to a WT infection and maintains the physiological level of the epithelial paracellular permeability. Interestingly, the vvpE mutant exhibited defective intestinal colonization abilities, whereas WT colonization was significantly elevated in the ileum in a time-dependent manner. Finally, the vvpE mutant negated the enterotoxicity, the breakdown of red blood cells, and pro-inflammatory responses, all of which are induced by the WT infection. In addition, the results of a LC-MS/MS analysis showed that VvpE contributes to WT pathogenesis in multiple ways by interacting with intestinal proteins, including β-globin, Annexin A2, Annexin A4, F-actin, and intelectin-1b. These results demonstrate that VvpE plays important role in promoting the tight junction disruption and intestinal colonization of V. vulnificus and that it also has the ability to interact with the intestinal proteins responsible for microbial pathogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Manufactured Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles Decrease Expression of Tight Junction Proteins in Brain Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Yokel, Robert A.; Hennig, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Manufactured nanoparticles of aluminum oxide (nano-alumina) have been widely used in the environment; however, their potential toxicity provides a growing concern for human health. The present study focuses on the hypothesis that nano-alumina can affect the blood-brain barrier and induce endothelial toxicity. In the first series of experiments, human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) were exposed to alumina and control nanoparticles in dose- and time-responsive manners. Treatment with nano-alumina markedly reduced HBMEC viability, altered mitochondrial potential, increased cellular oxidation, and decreased tight junction protein expression as compared to control nanoparticles. Alterations of tight junction protein levels were prevented by cellular enrichment with glutathione. In the second series of experiments, rats were infused with nano-alumina at the dose of 29 mg/kg and the brains were stained for expression of tight junction proteins. Treatment with nano-alumina resulted in a marked fragmentation and disruption of integrity of claudin-5 and occludin. These results indicate that cerebral vasculature can be affected by nano-alumina. In addition, our data indicate that alterations of mitochondrial functions may be the underlying mechanism of nano-alumina toxicity. PMID:18830698

  18. Manufactured aluminum oxide nanoparticles decrease expression of tight junction proteins in brain vasculature.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Yokel, Robert A; Hennig, Bernhard; Toborek, Michal

    2008-12-01

    Manufactured nanoparticles of aluminum oxide (nano-alumina) have been widely used in the environment; however, their potential toxicity provides a growing concern for human health. The present study focuses on the hypothesis that nano-alumina can affect the blood-brain barrier and induce endothelial toxicity. In the first series of experiments, human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) were exposed to alumina and control nanoparticles in dose- and time-responsive manners. Treatment with nano-alumina markedly reduced HBMEC viability, altered mitochondrial potential, increased cellular oxidation, and decreased tight junction protein expression as compared to control nanoparticles. Alterations of tight junction protein levels were prevented by cellular enrichment with glutathione. In the second series of experiments, rats were infused with nano-alumina at the dose of 29 mg/kg and the brains were stained for expression of tight junction proteins. Treatment with nano-alumina resulted in a marked fragmentation and disruption of integrity of claudin-5 and occludin. These results indicate that cerebral vasculature can be affected by nano-alumina. In addition, our data indicate that alterations of mitochondrial functions may be the underlying mechanism of nano-alumina toxicity.

  19. Baicalin Protects against TNF-α-Induced Injury by Down-Regulating miR-191a That Targets the Tight Junction Protein ZO-1 in IEC-6 Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Ren; Chen, Jian; Wu, Qihui; Kuang, Zaoyuan

    2017-04-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) plays an important role in the developing process of inflammatory bowel disease. Tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), one of epithelial junctional proteins, maintains the permeability of intestinal barrier. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of baicalin on TNF-α-induced injury and ZO-1 expression in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). We found that baicalin pretreatment significantly improved cell viability and cell migration following TNF-α stimulation. miR-191a inhibitor increased the protective effect of baicalin on cell motility injured by TNF-α. In addition, miR-191a down-regulated the mRNA and protein level of its target gene ZO-1. TNF-α stimulation increased miR-191a expression, leading to the decline of ZO-1 mRNA and protein. Moreover, pretreatment with baicalin reversed TNF-α induced decrease of ZO-1 and increase of miR-191a, miR-191a inhibitor significantly enhanced ZO-1 protein expression restored by baicalin. These results indicate that baicalin exerts a protective effect on IEC-6 (rat small intestinal epithelial cells) cells against TNF-α-induced injury, which is at least partly via inhibiting the expression of miR-191a, thus increasing ZO-1 mRNA and protein levels.

  20. Enteric Pathogens and Their Toxin-Induced Disruption of the Intestinal Barrier through Alteration of Tight Junctions in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Wageha A.; Hess, Claudia; Hess, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining a healthy gut environment is a prerequisite for sustainable animal production. The gut plays a key role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients and constitutes an initial organ exposed to external factors influencing bird’s health. The intestinal epithelial barrier serves as the first line of defense between the host and the luminal environment. It consists of a continuous monolayer of intestinal epithelial cells connected by intercellular junctional complexes which shrink the space between adjacent cells. Consequently, free passing of solutes and water via the paracellular pathway is prevented. Tight junctions (TJs) are multi-protein complexes which are crucial for the integrity and function of the epithelial barrier as they not only link cells but also form channels allowing permeation between cells, resulting in epithelial surfaces of different tightness. Tight junction’s molecular composition, ultrastructure, and function are regulated differently with regard to physiological and pathological stimuli. Both in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that reduced tight junction integrity greatly results in a condition commonly known as “leaky gut”. A loss of barrier integrity allows the translocation of luminal antigens (microbes, toxins) via the mucosa to access the whole body which are normally excluded and subsequently destroys the gut mucosal homeostasis, coinciding with an increased susceptibility to systemic infection, chronic inflammation and malabsorption. There is considerable evidence that the intestinal barrier dysfunction is an important factor contributing to the pathogenicity of some enteric bacteria. It has been shown that some enteric pathogens can induce permeability defects in gut epithelia by altering tight junction proteins, mediated by their toxins. Resolving the strategies that microorganisms use to hijack the functions of tight junctions is important for our understanding of microbial pathogenesis, because some pathogens

  1. [COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TIGHT JUNCTIONS OF EPITHELIUM OF RATS JEJUNUM UNDER THE EFFECT OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE AND CHOLERA TOXIN].

    PubMed

    Vishnevskaya, O N; Rybalchenko, O V; Larionov, I V; Orlova, O G; Markov, A G

    2016-01-01

    Comparative study of tight junctions and ultrastructure alterations of enterocytes of mucous membranes of jejunum of rats under the effect of lipopolysaccharides and cholera toxin. Lipopolysaccharides (Sigma-Aldrich, Germany) and cholera toxin (Sigma-Aldrich, Germany) were used. The study was carried out in Wistar line rats. Effect of lipopolysaccharides and cholera toxin on epitheliocytes was carried out by a method of withdrawal of segments of rat jejunum and their incubation with the specified substances. Comparative analysis of ultrathin sections of enterocytes of jejunum of rats and tight junctions between them was carried out in control and under the effect of lipopolysaccharides and cholera toxin. Effect of lipopolysaccharides on ultrastructure of enterocytes of rat jejunum manifested in the change of cell form as a result of increase of intercellular space without destruction of tight junctions. Disappearance of desmosomes, increase of nuclei and more pronounced ER were noted in some epitheliocytes. Effect of cholerogen on epitheliocytes of mucous membrane of rat jejunum by a number of signs is similar to the effect of lipopolysaccharides, that manifested in an alteration of ultrastructure of cell, the form of those also transformed as a result of an increase of intercellular space, this process was not accompanied by destruction of tight junctions. Disappearance of folding of the lateral region of plasmatic membrane of cells and a reduction of a number of microvilli was observed under the effect of cholera toxin. A similar character of effect of lipopolysaccharides and cholera toxins on ultrastructure of cells and region of tight junctions of enterocytes of rat jejunum was detected, both substances caused an increase of intercellular space without the destruction of tight junctions.

  2. huASH1 protein, a putative transcription factor encoded by a human homologue of the Drosophila ash1 gene, localizes to both nuclei and cell-cell tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Blechman, J; Tada, S; Rozovskaia, T; Itoyama, T; Bullrich, F; Mazo, A; Croce, C M; Geiger, B; Canaani, E

    2000-06-20

    During animal development, regions of the embryo become committed to position-specific identities, which are determined by spatially restricted expression of Hox/homeotic genes. This expression pattern is initially established by the activity of the segmentation genes and is subsequently maintained during the proliferative stage through the action of transcription factors encoded by the trithorax (trx) and Polycomb (Pc) groups of genes. trithorax (trx)and ash1 (absent, small, or homeotic 1) are members of the Drosophila trx group. Their products are associated with chromosomes and are believed to activate transcription of target genes through chromatin remodeling. Recently, we reported molecular studies indicating that TRX and ASH1 proteins act in concert to bind simultaneously to response elements located at close proximity within the same set of target genes. Extension of these and other studies to mammalian systems required identification and cloning of the mammalian homologue of ash1 (the mammalian homologue of trx, ALL-1, was previously cloned). We have identified a human expressed sequence tag (EST) clone with similarity to the SET domain of Drosophila ASH1, and used it to clone the human gene. huASH1 resides at chromosomal band 1q21. The gene is expressed in multiple tissues as an approximately 10.5-kb transcript and encodes a protein of 2962 residues. The protein contains a SET domain, a PHD finger, four AT hooks, and a region with homology to the bromodomain. The last region is not present in Drosophila ASH1, and as such might confer to the human protein a unique additional function. Using several anti-huASH1 Ab for immunostaining of cultured cells, we found that the protein is distributed in intranuclear speckles, and unexpectedly also in intercellular junctions. Double-immunofluorescence labeling of huASH1 and several junctional proteins localized the huASH1 protein into tight junctions. The significance of huASH1 dual location is discussed. In

  3. Functional tight junction barrier localizes in the second layer of the stratum granulosum of human epidermis.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kazue; Yokouchi, Mariko; Nagao, Keisuke; Ishii, Ken; Amagai, Masayuki; Kubo, Akiharu

    2013-08-01

    Mammalian epidermis has two diffusion barriers, the stratum corneum (SC) and tight junctions (TJs). We reported previously that a single living cell layer exists between the SC and TJ-forming keratinocytes in mice; however, the exact location of the TJ barrier in human epidermis has not been defined. To investigate the precise distribution of epidermal TJs in relation to various cell-cell junction proteins and the SC and to clarify the barrier function of TJs against macromolecules in human skin. The localization of various junctional proteins was investigated in human skin sections and in the roofs of bullae formed by ex vivo exfoliative toxin (ET) treatment in three dimensions. ET and single-chain variable fragments (scFv) against desmoglein 1 were used as large diffusion probes. Human stratum granulosum (SG) cells have a distinct distribution of TJ, adherens junction, and desmosome proteins in the uppermost three layers (SG1-SG3 from the surface inward). Ex vivo injection of ET or scFv demonstrated that only SG2-SG2 junctions function as a TJ barrier, limiting the inside-out diffusion of these proteins. The roofs of bullae formed by ex vivo ET treatment consisted of SC, SG1 cells, and TJ-forming SG2 cells, probably mimicking bulla formation in bullous impetigo. Human epidermis has three SG cell layers with distinct properties just beneath the SC, of which only SG2 cells have functional TJs. Our results suggest that human epidermal TJs between SG2 cells form a paracellular diffusion barrier against soluble proteins, including immunoglobulins and bacterial toxins. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Novel Effects of Azithromycin on Tight Junction Proteins in Human Airway Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Asgrimsson, Valthor; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur Hrafn; Baldursson, Olafur

    2006-01-01

    The macrolide antibiotic azithromycin improves lung function and prognosis among patients with cystic fibrosis or diffuse panbronchiolitis, independently of bacterial eradication. Anti-inflammatory effects have been implicated, but data from in vivo studies are scarce, and the link between abnormal electrolyte content in airway surface liquid and bronchial infections remains uncertain. In the present study, we treated human airway epithelia on filter supports with azithromycin and monitored transepithelial electrical resistance. We found that azithromycin increased transepithelial electrical resistance of airway epithelia in a dose-dependent manner. Immunocytochemistry and Western blotting showed that addition of azithromycin changed the locations of proteins in cell cultures and induced processing of the tight junction proteins claudin-1 and claudin-4, occludin, and junctional adhesion molecule-A. These effects were reversible, and no effect was seen when cells were treated with penicillin or erythromycin. The data indicate that azithromycin increases the transepithelial electrical resistance of human airway epithelia by changing the processing of tight junction proteins. The results are novel and may help explain the beneficial effects of azithromycin in patients with cystic fibrosis, diffuse panbronchiolitis, and community-acquired pneumonia. PMID:16641453

  5. Tight junctions form a barrier in porcine hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Mathes, Christiane; Brandner, Johanna M; Laue, Michael; Raesch, Simon S; Hansen, Steffi; Failla, Antonio V; Vidal, Sabine; Moll, Ingrid; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2016-02-01

    Follicular penetration has gained increasing interest regarding (i) safety concerns about (environmentally born) xenobiotics available to the hair follicle (HF), e.g. nanomaterials or allergens which should not enter the skin, and (ii) the possibility for non-invasive follicular drug and antigen delivery. However, not much is known about barriers in the HF which have to be surpassed upon uptake and/or penetration into surrounding tissue. Thus, aim of this work was a detailed investigation of this follicular barrier function, as well as particle uptake into the HF of porcine skin which is often used as a model system for human skin for such purposes. We show that follicular tight junctions (TJs) form a continuous barrier from the infundibulum down to the suprabulbar region, complementary to the stratum corneum in the most exposed upper follicular region, but remaining as the only barrier in the less accessible lower follicular regions. In the bulbar region of the HF no TJ barrier was found, demonstrating the importance of freely supplying this hair-forming part with e.g. nutrients or hormones from the dermal microenvironment. Moreover, the dynamic character of the follicular TJ barrier was shown by modulating its permeability using EDTA. After applying polymeric model-nanoparticles (154 nm) to the skin, transmission electron microscopy revealed that the majority of the particles were localized in the upper part of the HF where the double-barrier is present. Only few penetrated deeper, reaching regions where TJs act as the only barrier, and no particles were observed in the bulbar, barrier-less region. Lastly, the equivalent expression and distribution of TJ proteins in human and porcine HF further supports the suitability of porcine skin as a predictive model to study the follicular penetration and further biological effects of dermally applied nanomaterials in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Plant-derived triterpene celastrol ameliorates oxygen glucose deprivation-induced disruption of endothelial barrier assembly via inducing tight junction proteins.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dan; Zhao, Jia; Rong, Jianhui

    2016-12-01

    The integrity and functions of blood-brain barrier (BBB) are regulated by the expression and organization of tight junction proteins. The present study was designed to explore whether plant-derived triterpenoid celastrol could regulate tight junction integrity in murine brain endothelial bEnd3 cells. We disrupted the tight junctions between endothelial bEnd3 cells by oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD). We investigated the effects of celastrol on the permeability of endothelial monolayers by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). To clarify the tight junction composition, we analyzed the expression of tight junction proteins by RT-PCR and Western blotting techniques. We found that celastrol recovered OGD-induced TEER loss in a concentration-dependent manner. Celastrol induced occludin, claudin-5 and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) in endothelial cells. As a result, celastrol effectively maintained tight junction integrity and inhibited macrophage migration through endothelial monolayers against OGD challenge. Further mechanistic studies revealed that celastrol induced the expression of occludin and ZO-1) via activating MAPKs and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. We also observed that celastrol regulated claudin-5 expression through different mechanisms. The present study demonstrated that celastrol effectively protected tight junction integrity against OGD-induced damage. Thus, celastrol could be a drug candidate for the treatment of BBB dysfunction in various diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Outer Membrane Vesicles and Soluble Factors Released by Probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 and Commensal ECOR63 Enhance Barrier Function by Regulating Expression of Tight Junction Proteins in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Carina-Shianya; Badia, Josefa; Bosch, Manel; Giménez, Rosa; Baldomà, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal epithelial layer forms a physical and biochemical barrier that maintains the segregation between host and intestinal microbiota. The integrity of this barrier is critical in maintaining homeostasis in the body and its dysfunction is linked to a variety of illnesses, especially inflammatory bowel disease. Gut microbes, and particularly probiotic bacteria, modulate the barrier integrity by reducing gut permeability and reinforcing tight junctions. Probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) is a good colonizer of the human gut with proven therapeutic efficacy in the remission of ulcerative colitis in humans. EcN positively modulates the intestinal epithelial barrier through upregulation and redistribution of the tight junction proteins ZO-1, ZO-2 and claudin-14. Upregulation of claudin-14 has been attributed to the secreted protein TcpC. Whether regulation of ZO-1 and ZO-2 is mediated by EcN secreted factors remains unknown. The aim of this study was to explore whether outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released by EcN strengthen the epithelial barrier. This study includes other E. coli strains of human intestinal origin that contain the tcpC gene, such as ECOR63. Cell-free supernatants collected from the wild-type strains and from the derived tcpC mutants were fractionated into isolated OMVs and soluble secreted factors. The impact of these extracellular fractions on the epithelial barrier was evaluated by measuring transepithelial resistance and expression of several tight junction proteins in T-84 and Caco-2 polarized monolayers. Our results show that the strengthening activity of EcN and ECOR63 does not exclusively depend on TcpC. Both OMVs and soluble factors secreted by these strains promote upregulation of ZO-1 and claudin-14, and down-regulation of claudin-2. The OMVs-mediated effects are TcpC-independent. Soluble secreted TcpC contributes to the upregulation of ZO-1 and claudin-14, but this protein has no effect on the transcriptional

  8. Outer Membrane Vesicles and Soluble Factors Released by Probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 and Commensal ECOR63 Enhance Barrier Function by Regulating Expression of Tight Junction Proteins in Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Carina-Shianya; Badia, Josefa; Bosch, Manel; Giménez, Rosa; Baldomà, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal epithelial layer forms a physical and biochemical barrier that maintains the segregation between host and intestinal microbiota. The integrity of this barrier is critical in maintaining homeostasis in the body and its dysfunction is linked to a variety of illnesses, especially inflammatory bowel disease. Gut microbes, and particularly probiotic bacteria, modulate the barrier integrity by reducing gut permeability and reinforcing tight junctions. Probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) is a good colonizer of the human gut with proven therapeutic efficacy in the remission of ulcerative colitis in humans. EcN positively modulates the intestinal epithelial barrier through upregulation and redistribution of the tight junction proteins ZO-1, ZO-2 and claudin-14. Upregulation of claudin-14 has been attributed to the secreted protein TcpC. Whether regulation of ZO-1 and ZO-2 is mediated by EcN secreted factors remains unknown. The aim of this study was to explore whether outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released by EcN strengthen the epithelial barrier. This study includes other E. coli strains of human intestinal origin that contain the tcpC gene, such as ECOR63. Cell-free supernatants collected from the wild-type strains and from the derived tcpC mutants were fractionated into isolated OMVs and soluble secreted factors. The impact of these extracellular fractions on the epithelial barrier was evaluated by measuring transepithelial resistance and expression of several tight junction proteins in T-84 and Caco-2 polarized monolayers. Our results show that the strengthening activity of EcN and ECOR63 does not exclusively depend on TcpC. Both OMVs and soluble factors secreted by these strains promote upregulation of ZO-1 and claudin-14, and down-regulation of claudin-2. The OMVs-mediated effects are TcpC-independent. Soluble secreted TcpC contributes to the upregulation of ZO-1 and claudin-14, but this protein has no effect on the transcriptional

  9. Fibrillar and cytoskeletal substructure of tight junctions: analysis of single-stranded tight junctions linking fibroblasts of the lamina fusca in hamster eyes.

    PubMed

    Hageman, G S; Kelly, D E

    1984-01-01

    The lamina fusca of the hamster eye contains layers of flattened, slightly overlapping fibroblasts. Thin sections of the overlapping margins reveal punctate, tight-junction-like membrane appositions associated with accumulation of cytoplasmic filaments, 5-7 nm in diameter. Intermediate filaments are present in the surrounding cytoplasm. A diffuse dense substance occurs in adjacent intercellular space. Freeze-fracture replicas show that the membrane appositions are mainly single-stranded tight junctions, each composed of two fibrils (micelles), and each continuous or nearly continuous around the fibroblastic perimeter. Fracturing characteristics of these junctions offer a unique opportunity to gain further insight into tight junctional morphology. When exposed, the fibrils adhere to the P-face, measure 9.2 +/- 0.3 nm in diameter, and are accompanied by a narrow band of membrane differing in texture from non-junctional membrane. Characteristically, the junctional fibrils themselves mark the deviation line along which fracture planes pass from one membrane of the junction to the other. This pattern exposes, over long distances, the P-face of one membrane on one side of this line and E-face of the adjacent membrane on the other. Analysis of any single junction over such distances reveals that the juxtaposition of the fibrils may gradually twist or undulate over a range of at least 180 degrees within the two involved membranes. The fracture plane appears preferentially to pass between the two junctional fibrils; association of the cytoskeleton with junctional fibrils may govern this route of fracture. Cytoskeletal attachment appears to be to a single fibril and may alternate from one fibroblast to the next depending on which cytoplasmic leaflet is nearest a given fibril.

  10. A complex of ZO-1 and the BAR-domain protein TOCA-1 regulates actin assembly at the tight junction

    PubMed Central

    Van Itallie, Christina M.; Tietgens, Amber Jean; Krystofiak, Evan; Kachar, Bechara; Anderson, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Assembly and sealing of the tight junction barrier are critically dependent on the perijunctional actin cytoskeleton, yet little is known about physical and functional links between barrier-forming proteins and actin. Here we identify a novel functional complex of the junction scaffolding protein ZO-1 and the F-BAR–domain protein TOCA-1. Using MDCK epithelial cells, we show that an alternative splice of TOCA-1 adds a PDZ-binding motif, which binds ZO-1, targeting TOCA-1 to barrier contacts. This isoform of TOCA-1 recruits the actin nucleation–promoting factor N-WASP to tight junctions. CRISPR-Cas9–mediated knockout of TOCA-1 results in increased paracellular flux and delayed recovery in a calcium switch assay. Knockout of TOCA-1 does not alter FRAP kinetics of GFP ZO-1 or occludin, but longer term (12 h) time-lapse microscopy reveals strikingly decreased tight junction membrane contact dynamics in knockout cells compared with controls. Reexpression of TOCA-1 with, but not without, the PDZ-binding motif rescues both altered flux and membrane contact dynamics. Ultrastructural analysis shows actin accumulation at the adherens junction in TOCA-1–knockout cells but unaltered freeze-fracture fibril morphology. Identification of the ZO-1/TOCA-1 complex provides novel insights into the underappreciated dependence of the barrier on the dynamic nature of cell-to-cell contacts and perijunctional actin. PMID:26063734

  11. Targeting and alteration of tight junctions by bacteria and their virulence factors such as Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin.

    PubMed

    Eichner, Miriam; Protze, Jonas; Piontek, Anna; Krause, Gerd; Piontek, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    The integrity of tight junctions, which regulate paracellular permeability, is challenged by many bacterial pathogens. This is caused by inflammatory responses triggered by pathogens and direct interaction of bacteria or their toxins with host epithelial cells. In some cases, tight junction proteins represent receptors for cell surface proteins or toxins of the pathogen, such as Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE). CPE causes diarrhea and cramps-the symptoms of a common foodborne illness, caused by C. perfringens type A. It uses a subgroup of the claudin family of tight junction proteins as receptors and forms pores in the membrane of intestinal epithelial cells. Ca(2+) influx through these pores finally triggers cell damage. In this review, we summarize tight junction targeting and alteration by a multitude of different microorganisms such as C. perfringens, Escherichia coli, Helicobacter pylori, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica, protozoan parasites, and their proteins. A focus is drawn towards CPE, the interaction with its receptors, cellular, and pathophysiological consequences for the intestinal epithelium. In addition, we portend to the use of CPE-based claudin modulators for drug delivery as well as diagnosis and therapy of cancer.

  12. Transcription factor AP-2γ is a core regulator of tight junction biogenesis and cavity formation during mouse early embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Inchul; Carey, Timothy S.; Wilson, Catherine A.; Knott, Jason G.

    2012-01-01

    The trophectoderm epithelium is the first differentiated cell layer to arise during mammalian development. Blastocyst formation requires the proper expression and localization of tight junction, polarity, ion gradient and H2O channel proteins in the outer cell membranes. However, the underlying transcriptional mechanisms that control their expression are largely unknown. Here, we report that transcription factor AP-2γ (Tcfap2c) is a core regulator of blastocyst formation in mice. Bioinformatics, chromatin immunoprecipitation and transcriptional analysis revealed that Tcfap2c binds and regulates a diverse group of genes expressed during blastocyst formation. RNA interference experiments demonstrated that Tcfap2c regulates genes important for tight junctions, cell polarity and fluid accumulation. Functional and ultrastructural studies revealed that Tcfap2c is necessary for tight junction assembly and paracellular sealing in trophectoderm epithelium. Aggregation of control eight-cell embryos with Tcfap2c knockdown embryos rescued blastocyst formation via direct contribution to the trophectoderm epithelium. Finally, we found that Tcfap2c promotes cellular proliferation via direct repression of p21 transcription during the morula-to-blastocyst transition. We propose a model in which Tcfap2c acts in a hierarchy to facilitate blastocyst formation through transcriptional regulation of core genes involved in tight junction assembly, fluid accumulation and cellular proliferation. PMID:23136388

  13. Emerging relationship between CFTR, actin and tight junction organization in cystic fibrosis airway epithelium.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Stefano; Favia, Maria; Guerra, Lorenzo; Carbone, Annalucia; Abbattiscianni, Anna Claudia; Di Gioia, Sante; Casavola, Valeria; Conese, Massimo

    2017-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), one of the most common genetic disorders affecting primarily Caucasians, is due to mutations in the CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene, encoding for a chloride channel also acting as regulator of other transmembrane proteins. In healthy subjects, CFTR is maintained in its correct apical plasma membrane location via the formation of a multiprotein complex in which scaffold proteins (such as NHERF1) and signaling molecules (such as cAMP and protein kinases) guarantee its correct functioning. In CF, a disorganized and dysfunctional airway epithelium brings an altered flux of ions and water into the lumen of bronchioles, consequent bacterial infections and an enormous influx of inflammatory cells (mainly polymorphonuclear neutrophils) into the airway lumen. Recent evidence in healthy airway cells supports the notion that CFTR protein/function is strictly correlated with the actin cytoskeleton and tight junctions status. In CF cells, the most frequent CFTR gene mutation, F508del, has been shown to be associated with a disorganized actin cytoskeleton and altered tight junction permeability. Thus, the correct localization of CFTR on the apical plasma membrane domain through the formation of the scaffolding and signaling complex is likely fundamental to determine a physiological airway epithelium. The correction of CFTR mutations by either gene or drug therapies, as well as by stem cell-based interventions, can determine the resumption of a physiological organization of actin stress fibers and TJ structure and barrier function, further indicating the close interrelationship among these processes.

  14. PPARα and PPARγ attenuate HIV-induced dysregulation of tight junction proteins by modulations of matrix metalloproteinase and proteasome activities

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen; Eum, Sung Yong; András, Ibolya E; Hennig, Bernhard; Toborek, Michal

    2009-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role in HIV trafficking into the brain and the development of the central nervous system complications in HIV infection. Tight junctions are the main structural and functional elements that regulate the BBB integrity. Exposure of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3 cell line) to HIV-infected monocytes resulted in decreased expression of tight junction proteins, such as junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM)-A, occludin, and zonula occludens (ZO)-1. Control experiments involved exposure to uninfected monocytes. Alterations of tight junction protein expression were associated with increased endothelial permeability and elevated transendothelial migration of HIV-infected monocytes across an in vitro model of the BBB. Notably, overexpression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α or PPARγ attenuated HIV-mediated dysregulation of tight junction proteins. With the use of exogenous PPARγ agonists and silencing of PPARα or PPARγ, these protective effects were connected to down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and proteasome activities. Indeed, the HIV-induced decrease in the expression of JAM-A and occludin was restored by inhibition of MMP activity. Moreover, both MMP and proteasome inhibitors attenuated HIV-mediated altered expression of ZO-1. The present data indicate that down-regulation of MMP and proteasome activities constitutes a novel mechanism of PPAR-induced protections against HIV-induced disruption of brain endothelial cells.—Huang, W., Eum, S. Y., András, I. E., Hennig, B., Toborek, M. PPARα and PPARγ attenuate HIV-induced dysregulation of tight junction proteins by modulations of matrix metalloproteinase and proteasome activities. PMID:19141539

  15. Digestion of epithelial tight junction proteins by the commensal Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Pruteanu, Mihaela; Shanahan, Fergus

    2013-11-15

    The enteric microbiota contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, but the pathways involved and bacterial participants may vary in different hosts. We previously reported that some components of the human commensal microbiota, particularly Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens), have the proteolytic capacity for host matrix degradation and reduce transepithelial resistance. Here, we examined the C. perfringens-derived proteolytic activity against epithelial tight junction proteins using human intestinal epithelial cell lines. We showed that the protein levels of E-cadherin, occludin, and junctional adhesion molecule 1 decrease in colonic cells treated with C. perfringens culture supernatant. E-cadherin ectodomain shedding in C. perfringens-stimulated intestinal epithelial cells was detected with antibodies against the extracellular domain of E-cadherin, and we demonstrate that this process occurs in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, we showed that the filtered sterile culture supernatant of C. perfringens has no cytotoxic activity on the human intestinal cells at the concentrations used in this study. The direct cleavage of E-cadherin by the proteases from the C. perfringens culture supernatant was confirmed by C. perfringens supernatant-induced in vitro degradation of the human recombinant E-cadherin. We conclude that C. perfringens culture supernatant mediates digestion of epithelial cell junctional proteins, which is likely to enable access to the extracellular matrix components by the paracellular pathway.

  16. Keratin 76 is required for tight junction function and maintenance of the skin barrier.

    PubMed

    DiTommaso, Tia; Cottle, Denny L; Pearson, Helen B; Schlüter, Holger; Kaur, Pritinder; Humbert, Patrick O; Smyth, Ian M

    2014-10-01

    Keratins are cytoskeletal intermediate filament proteins that are increasingly being recognised for their diverse cellular functions. Here we report the consequences of germ line inactivation of Keratin 76 (Krt76) in mice. Homozygous disruption of this epidermally expressed gene causes neonatal skin flaking, hyperpigmentation, inflammation, impaired wound healing, and death prior to 12 weeks of age. We show that this phenotype is associated with functionally defective tight junctions that are characterised by mislocalization of the integral protein CLDN1. We further demonstrate that KRT76 interacts with CLDN1 and propose that this interaction is necessary to correctly position CLDN1 in tight junctions. The mislocalization of CLDN1 has been associated in various dermopathies, including the inflammatory disease, psoriasis. These observations establish a previously unknown connection between the intermediate filament cytoskeleton network and tight junctions and showcase Krt76 null mice as a possible model to study aberrant tight junction driven skin diseases.

  17. Keratin 76 Is Required for Tight Junction Function and Maintenance of the Skin Barrier

    PubMed Central

    DiTommaso, Tia; Cottle, Denny L.; Pearson, Helen B.; Schlüter, Holger; Kaur, Pritinder; Humbert, Patrick O.; Smyth, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    Keratins are cytoskeletal intermediate filament proteins that are increasingly being recognised for their diverse cellular functions. Here we report the consequences of germ line inactivation of Keratin 76 (Krt76) in mice. Homozygous disruption of this epidermally expressed gene causes neonatal skin flaking, hyperpigmentation, inflammation, impaired wound healing, and death prior to 12 weeks of age. We show that this phenotype is associated with functionally defective tight junctions that are characterised by mislocalization of the integral protein CLDN1. We further demonstrate that KRT76 interacts with CLDN1 and propose that this interaction is necessary to correctly position CLDN1 in tight junctions. The mislocalization of CLDN1 has been associated in various dermopathies, including the inflammatory disease, psoriasis. These observations establish a previously unknown connection between the intermediate filament cytoskeleton network and tight junctions and showcase Krt76 null mice as a possible model to study aberrant tight junction driven skin diseases. PMID:25340345

  18. Restriction of sulfur-containing amino acids alters claudin composition and improves tight junction barrier function.

    PubMed

    Skrovanek, S; Valenzano, M C; Mullin, J M

    2007-09-01

    Restriction of sulfur-containing amino acids (SCAA) has been shown to elicit a similar increase in life span and decrease in age-related morbidity as caloric restriction. The singular importance of epithelial barrier function in both physiological homeostasis and prevention of inflammation raised the issue of examining the effect of SCAA restriction on epithelial tight junction structure and permeability. Using a well-described in vitro, epithelial model, the LLC-PK(1) renal epithelial cell line, we studied the effects of SCAA restriction in culture medium. Reduction of methionine by 90%, cysteine by 50%, and total elimination of cystine resulted in dramatically lower intracellular pools of these amino acids and their metabolite, taurine, but the intracellular pools of the non-SCAA were all elevated. Cell growth and differentiation were maintained, and both confluent cell density and transepithelial short circuit current were unaffected. Certain tight junctional proteins, such as occludin and claudins-1 and -2 were not altered. However, claudins-3 and -7 were significantly decreased in abundance, whereas claudins-4 and -5 were markedly increased in abundance. The functional result of these structural changes was improved barrier function, as evidenced by increased transepithelial electrical resistance and decreased transepithelial (paracellular) diffusion of D-mannitol.

  19. HIF-dependent regulation of claudin-1 is central to intestinal epithelial tight junction integrity

    PubMed Central

    Saeedi, Bejan J.; Kao, Daniel J.; Kitzenberg, David A.; Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Schwisow, Kayla D.; Masterson, Joanne C.; Kendrick, Agnieszka A.; Kelly, Caleb J.; Bayless, Amanda J.; Kominsky, Douglas J.; Campbell, Eric L.; Kuhn, Kristine A.; Furuta, Glenn T.; Colgan, Sean P.; Glover, Louise E.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are exposed to profound fluctuations in oxygen tension and have evolved adaptive transcriptional responses to a low-oxygen environment. These adaptations are mediated primarily through the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) complex. Given the central role of the IEC in barrier function, we sought to determine whether HIF influenced epithelial tight junction (TJ) structure and function. Initial studies revealed that short hairpin RNA–mediated depletion of the HIF1β in T84 cells resulted in profound defects in barrier and nonuniform, undulating TJ morphology. Global HIF1α chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis identified claudin-1 (CLDN1) as a prominent HIF target gene. Analysis of HIF1β-deficient IEC revealed significantly reduced levels of CLDN1. Overexpression of CLDN1 in HIF1β-deficient cells resulted in resolution of morphological abnormalities and restoration of barrier function. ChIP and site-directed mutagenesis revealed prominent hypoxia response elements in the CLDN1 promoter region. Subsequent in vivo analysis revealed the importance of HIF-mediated CLDN1 expression during experimental colitis. These results identify a critical link between HIF and specific tight junction function, providing important insight into mechanisms of HIF-regulated epithelial homeostasis. PMID:25904334

  20. The epithelial barrier is maintained by in vivo tight junction expansion during pathologic intestinal epithelial shedding

    PubMed Central

    Marchiando, Amanda M.; Shen, Le; Graham, W. Vallen; Edelblum, Karen L.; Duckworth, Carrie A.; Guan, Yanfang; Montrose, Marshall H.; Turner, Jerrold R.; Watson, Alastair J.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) increases intestinal epithelial cell shedding and apoptosis, potentially challenging the barrier between the gastrointestinal lumen and internal tissues. We investigated the mechanism of tight junction remodeling and barrier maintenance, as well as the roles of cytoskeletal regulatory molecules during TNF-induced shedding. METHODS We studied wild-type and transgenic mice that express the fluorescent-tagged proteins enhanced green fluorescent protein–occludin or monomeric red fluorescent protein1–ZO-1. After injection of high doses of TNF (7.5µg, i.p.), laparotomies were performed and segments of small intestine were opened to visualize the mucosa by video confocal microscopy. Pharmacologic inhibitors and knockout mice were used to determine the roles of caspase activation, actomyosin, and microtubule remodeling and membrane trafficking in epithelial shedding. RESULTS Changes detected included redistribution of the tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occluding to lateral membranes of shedding cells. These proteins ultimately formed a funnel around the shedding cell that defined the site of barrier preservation. Claudins, E-cadherin, F-actin, myosin II, Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) were also recruited to lateral membranes. Caspase activity, myosin motor activity, and microtubules were required to initiate shedding, whereas completion of the process required microfilament remodeling and ROCK, MLCK, and dynamin II activities. CONCLUSIONS Maintenance of the epithelial barrier during TNF-induced cell shedding is a complex process that involves integration of microtubules, microfilaments, and membrane traffic to remove apoptotic cells. This process is accompanied by redistribution of apical junctional complex proteins to form intercellular barriers between lateral membranes and maintain mucosal function. PMID:21237166

  1. Exploring tight junction alteration using double fluorescent probe combination of lanthanide complex with gold nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinyi; Wang, Na; Yuan, Lan; Li, Na; Wang, Junxia; Yang, Xiaoda

    2016-08-01

    Tight junctions play a key role in restricting or regulating passage of liquids, ions and large solutes through various biological barriers by the paracellular route. Changes in paracellular permeation indicate alteration of the tight junction. However, it is very difficult to obtain the structural change information by measuring paracellular flux based on transepithelial electrical resistance or using fluorescein-labeled dextrans. Here we show that the BSA and GSH stabilized gold nanoclusters exhibit marginal cytotoxicity and pass through the MDCK monolayer exclusively through the paracellular pathway. We propose a double fluorescence probe strategy, the combination of a proven paracellular indicator (europium complex) with fluorescent gold nanoclusters. We calculate changes of structural parameters in tight junctions based on determination of the diffusion coefficients of the probes. Two different types of tight junction openers are used to validate our strategy. Results show that EDTA disrupts tight junction structures and induces large and smooth paracellular pore paths with an average radius of 17 nm, but vanadyl complexes induce paths with the radius of 6 nm. The work suggests that the double fluorescence probe strategy is a useful and convenient approach for in vitro investigation of tight junction structural alternations caused by pharmacological or pathological events.

  2. Exploring tight junction alteration using double fluorescent probe combination of lanthanide complex with gold nanoclusters

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinyi; Wang, Na; Yuan, Lan; Li, Na; Wang, Junxia; Yang, Xiaoda

    2016-01-01

    Tight junctions play a key role in restricting or regulating passage of liquids, ions and large solutes through various biological barriers by the paracellular route. Changes in paracellular permeation indicate alteration of the tight junction. However, it is very difficult to obtain the structural change information by measuring paracellular flux based on transepithelial electrical resistance or using fluorescein-labeled dextrans. Here we show that the BSA and GSH stabilized gold nanoclusters exhibit marginal cytotoxicity and pass through the MDCK monolayer exclusively through the paracellular pathway. We propose a double fluorescence probe strategy, the combination of a proven paracellular indicator (europium complex) with fluorescent gold nanoclusters. We calculate changes of structural parameters in tight junctions based on determination of the diffusion coefficients of the probes. Two different types of tight junction openers are used to validate our strategy. Results show that EDTA disrupts tight junction structures and induces large and smooth paracellular pore paths with an average radius of 17 nm, but vanadyl complexes induce paths with the radius of 6 nm. The work suggests that the double fluorescence probe strategy is a useful and convenient approach for in vitro investigation of tight junction structural alternations caused by pharmacological or pathological events. PMID:27574102

  3. Hepatic immunohistochemical localization of the tight junction protein ZO-1 in rat models of cholestasis.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J. M.; Glade, J. L.; Stevenson, B. R.; Boyer, J. L.; Mooseker, M. S.

    1989-01-01

    Structural alterations in hepatocyte tight junctions accompanying cholestasis were investigated using immunolocalization of ZO-1, the first known protein component of the tight junction. Disruption in the paracellular barrier function of the tight junction has been proposed to allow reflux of bile into the blood. Cholestasis was induced in 210 to 235 g male Sprague-Dawley rats either by five consecutive daily subcutaneous injections of 17-alpha-ethinyl estradiol (0.5 mg/kg/d in propylene glycol) or ligation of the common bile duct for 72 hours. The structural organization of the tight junction was assessed in each model by indirect immunofluorescent and immunoperoxidase staining for ZO-1 on frozen sections of liver and compared with controls. In control, sham-operated, and estradiol-injected animals, ZO-1 localizes in a uniform continuous manner along the margins of the canaliculi. In contrast, bile duct ligation results in the appearance of numerous discontinuities in ZO-1 staining accompanied by dilation or collapse of the lumenal space. Tissue content of the ZO-1 protein, as determined by quantitative immunoblotting, was unaffected in either cholestatic model compared with controls. These findings indicate that the molecular organization of the tight junction can be assessed from immunostaining patterns of ZO-1 in frozen sections of cholestatic livers. Under these experimental conditions, the organization of the tight junction at the level of the ZO-1 protein is altered by bile duct obstruction but not by ethinyl estradiol. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2719075

  4. Structure of the tight junctions of the human eccrine sweat gland.

    PubMed

    Briggman, J V; Bank, H L; Bigelow, J B; Graves, J S; Spicer, S S

    1981-12-01

    The human eccrine sweat gland contains two anatomically and functionally discrete segments: the secretory coil, which produces an isotonic or slightly hypertonic precursor fluid, and the coiled duct, which reabsorbs Na+ and Cl- to yield a hypotonic sweat. We examined the freeze-fracture morphology of tight junctions from isolated secretory coil and coiled duct segments to assess indirectly the contribution of paracellular ion transport in secretion and resorption in the sweat gland. In the secretory coil, tight junctions of the intercellular canaliculus and main lumen consisted of approximately 9 and 6, closely spaced, parallel or anastomosing elements, respectively. Tight junctions of the coiled duct were similar in appearance to those at the main lumen of the secretory coil. In both the secretory coil and coiled duct, and average of 2 to 3, widely spaced junctional elements were usually observed basolateral to the closely spaced junctional elements in the region corresponding to the location of the zonula adherens in Epon sections. The complexity of the tight junctions of the secretory coil exceeded what we expected for an epithelium secreting an isosmotic fluid. The elaborate tight junctions of the coiled duct support other evidence for an intermediate to high transepithelial resistance.

  5. Dot junction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daud, T.; Crotty, G. T.

    1986-01-01

    A design of solar cells with reduced junction area on the cell surface is investigated for reduction of saturation current and increase in open-circuit voltage. Equidiameter dot junctions distributed across the surface of the cell offer an efficient alternative, with variations in dot diameter and in the spacing between dots giving the required variations in the ratio of junction area to total surface area. A simplified analysis for short-circuit current and other cell parameters, which enables cell design optimization, is presented. Experimental solar-cell performance results, as functions of different area ratios, are presented and compared with the model. It is shown that saturation current reduction is possible for achieving efficiencies as high as 18 percent in flat-plate terrestrial applications.

  6. Epithelial Barriers in Murine Skin during Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection: The Role of Tight Junction Formation.

    PubMed

    Rahn, Elena; Thier, Katharina; Petermann, Philipp; Rübsam, Matthias; Staeheli, Peter; Iden, Sandra; Niessen, Carien M; Knebel-Mörsdorf, Dagmar

    2017-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 has to overcome skin or mucosa barriers to infect its human host. The impact of the various barrier functions on successful viral invasion is not known. On ex vivo infection of murine skin, we observed efficient invasion only via the basal epidermal layer when the dermis was removed. Here, we investigated how wounding and intercellular junction formation control successful viral entry. After wounding of skin samples or removal of the stratum corneum, infected cells were rarely detected. On the basis of infection studies in epidermis from IFN-stimulated mice, we assume that mechanical wounding does not lead to an antiviral state that impedes infection. When we infected human skin equivalents, we observed entry only into unstratified keratinocytes or after wounding of fully stratified cultures. Reduced infection of keratinocytes after calcium-induced stratification confirmed the impact of junction formation. To assess the effect of functional tight junctions, stratified cultures of polarity regulator partitioning-defective-3- or E-cadherin-deficient keratinocytes were infected. As the number of infected cells strongly increased with enhanced paracellular permeability, we conclude that the formation of functional tight junctions interferes with viral entry indicating that next to the stratum corneum tight junctions are a major physical barrier for herpes simplex virus 1 invasion into tissue. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The emergence of the concept of tight junctions and physiological regulation by ouabain.

    PubMed

    Larre, I; Ponce, A; Franco, M; Cereijido, M

    2014-12-01

    The exchange of substances between metazoan and the environment takes place across transporting epithelia that have two fundamental differentiated features: tight junctions (TJ) and apical/basolateral polarity. Usually, reviews of the structure and function of transporting epithelia follow a historical description of major biological findings, but seldom refer to the fact that it also required fundamental theoretical changes in the physics and chemistry involved. We make a brief description of the concatenation of both types of achievements, in which it becomes clear that the major source of conflicts was the enzyme Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (also referred to as "the pump"), because of its intrinsic mechanisms and its asymmetric expression on one side of epithelial cells only (polarity). This enzyme is also the receptor of the newly recognized hormone ouabain, whose chief function is to modulate cell contacts, such as TJs, several types of cell-cell contacts participating in polarization (as gauged through ciliogenesis). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin fragment removes specific claudins from tight junction strands: Evidence for direct involvement of claudins in tight junction barrier.

    PubMed

    Sonoda, N; Furuse, M; Sasaki, H; Yonemura, S; Katahira, J; Horiguchi, Y; Tsukita, S

    1999-10-04

    Claudins, comprising a multigene family, constitute tight junction (TJ) strands. Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), a single approximately 35-kD polypeptide, was reported to specifically bind to claudin-3/RVP1 and claudin-4/CPE-R at its COOH-terminal half. We examined the effects of the COOH-terminal half fragment of CPE (C-CPE) on TJs in L transfectants expressing claudin-1 to -4 (C1L to C4L, respectively), and in MDCK I cells expressing claudin-1 and -4. C-CPE bound to claudin-3 and -4 with high affinity, but not to claudin-1 or -2. In the presence of C-CPE, reconstituted TJ strands in C3L cells gradually disintegrated and disappeared from their cell surface. In MDCK I cells incubated with C-CPE, claudin-4 was selectively removed from TJs with its concomitant degradation. At 4 h after incubation with C-CPE, TJ strands were disintegrated, and the number of TJ strands and the complexity of their network were markedly decreased. In good agreement with the time course of these morphological changes, the TJ barrier (TER and paracellular flux) of MDCK I cells was downregulated by C-CPE in a dose-dependent manner. These findings provided evidence for the direct involvement of claudins in the barrier functions of TJs.

  9. Minimal Effects of VEGF and Anti-VEGF Drugs on the Permeability or Selectivity of RPE Tight Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Shaomin; Adelman, Ron A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Bevacizumab and ranibizumab are currently used to treat age-related macular degeneration by neutralizing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In this study, the potential side effects on the outer blood–retinal barrier were examined. Methods. Human fetal RPE (hfRPE) cells were used because they are highly differentiated in culture. The claudin composition of RPE tight junctions was determined by RT-PCR, immunoblot analysis, and immunofluorescence. ELISA assays monitored the secretion and trafficking of VEGF and a fluid-phase marker, methylpolyethylene glycol (mPEG). Tight junction functions were assessed by the conductance of K+ and Na+ (derived from the transepithelial electrical resistance, TER) and the flux of NaCl and mPEG. Results. Claudin-3, claudin-10, and claudin-19 were detected in RPE tight junctions. VEGF was secreted in equal amounts across the apical and basolateral membranes, but the apical membrane was more active in endocytosing and degrading VEGF. Exogenous VEGF and mPEG crossed the RPE monolayer by transcytosis, predominantly in the apical-to-basal direction. RPE tight junctions were selective for K+, but did not discriminate between Na+ and Cl−. VEGF, bevacizumab, and ranibizumab had minimal effects on TER, permeation of mPEG, and selectivity for K+, Na+, and Cl−. They had minimal effects on the expression and distribution of the claudins. Conclusions. RPE has mechanisms for maintaining low concentrations of VEGF in the subretinal space that include endocytosis and degradation and fluid-phase transcytosis in the apical-to-basal direction. RPE tight junctions are selective for K+ over Na+ and Cl−. Permeability and selectivity of the junctions are not affected by VEGF, bevacizumab, or ranibizumab. PMID:20042644

  10. ZO-1 recruitment to α-catenin – a novel mechanism for coupling the assembly of tight junctions to adherens junctions

    PubMed Central

    Maiers, Jessica L.; Peng, Xiao; Fanning, Alan S.; DeMali, Kris A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The formation of a barrier between epithelial cells is a fundamental determinant of cellular homeostasis, protecting underlying cells against pathogens, dehydration and damage. Assembly of the tight junction barrier is dependent upon neighboring epithelial cells binding to one another and forming adherens junctions, but the mechanism for how these processes are linked is poorly understood. Using a knockdown and substitution system, we studied whether ZO-1 binding to α-catenin is required for coupling tight junction assembly to the formation of adherens junctions. We found that preventing ZO-1 binding to α-catenin did not appear to affect adherens junctions. Rather the assembly and maintenance of the epithelial barrier were disrupted. This disruption was accompanied by alterations in the mobility of ZO-1 and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Thus, our study identifies α-catenin binding to ZO-1 as a new mechanism for coupling the assembly of the epithelial barrier to cell-to-cell adhesion. PMID:23813953

  11. CAVEOLIN-1 REGULATES HIV-1 TAT-INDUCED ALTERATIONS OF TIGHT JUNCTION PROTEIN EXPRESSION VIA MODULATION OF THE RAS SIGNALING

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yu; Smart, Eric J.; Weksler, Babette; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Hennig, Bernhard; Toborek, Michal

    2009-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the critical structure for preventing HIV trafficking into the brain. Specific HIV proteins, such as Tat protein, can contribute to the dysfunction of tight junctions at the BBB and HIV entry into the brain. Tat is released by HIV-1 infected cells and can interact with a variety of cell surface receptors activating several signal transduction pathways, including those localized in caveolae. The present study focused on the mechanisms of Tat-induced caveolae-associated Ras signaling at the level of the BBB. Treatment with Tat activated the Ras pathway in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). However, caveolin-1 silencing markedly attenuated these effects. Because the integrity of the brain endothelium is regulated by intercellular tight junctions, these structural elements of the BBB were also evaluated in the present study. Exposure to Tat diminished the expression of several tight junction proteins, namely, occludin, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, and ZO-2 in the caveolar fraction of HBMEC. These effects were effectively protected by pharmacological inhibition of the Ras signaling and by silencing of caveolin-1. The present data indicate the importance of caveolae-associated signaling in the disruption of tight junctions upon Tat exposure. They also demonstrate that caveolin-1 may constitute an early and critical modulator that controls signaling pathways leading to the disruption of tight junction proteins. Thus, caveolin-1 may provide an effective target to protect against Tat-induced HBMEC dysfunction and the disruption of the BBB in HIV-1-infected patients. PMID:18667611

  12. A Differentiation-dependent Splice Variant of Myosin Light Chain Kinase, MLCK1, Regulates Epithelial Tight Junction Permeability*

    PubMed Central

    Clayburgh, Daniel R.; Rosen, Shari; Witkowski, Edwina D.; Wang, Fengjun; Blair, Stephanie; Dudek, Steven; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Alverdy, John C.; Turner, Jerrold R.

    2005-01-01

    Activation of Na+-nutrient cotransport leads to increased tight junction permeability in intestinal absorptive (villus) enterocytes. This regulation requires myosin II regulatory light chain (MLC) phosphorylation mediated by MLC kinase (MLCK). We examined the spatiotemporal segregation of MLCK isoform function and expression along the crypt-villus axis and found that long MLCK, which is expressed as two alternatively spliced isoforms, accounts for 97 ± 4% of MLC kinase activity in interphase intestinal epithelial cells. Expression of the MLCK1 isoform is limited to well differentiated enterocytes, both in vitro and in vivo, and this expression correlates closely with development of Na+-nutrient cotransport-dependent tight junction regulation. Consistent with this role, MLCK1 is localized to the perijunctional actomyosin ring. Furthermore, specific knockdown of MLCK1 using siRNA reduced tight junction permeability in monolayers with active Na+-glucose cotransport, confirming a functional role for MLCK1. These results demonstrate unique physiologically relevant patterns of expression and subcellular localization for long MLCK isoforms and show that MLCK1 is the isoform responsible for tight junction regulation in absorptive enterocytes. PMID:15507455

  13. Manipulating ocular endothelial tight junctions: Applications in treatment of retinal disease pathology and ocular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Matthew; Cassidy, Paul S; O'Callaghan, Jeffrey; Crosbie, Darragh E; Humphries, Pete

    2017-09-22

    Protein levels of endothelial tight-junctions of the inner retinal microvasculature, together with those of Schlemm's canal, can be readily manipulated by RNA interference (RNAi), resulting in the paracellular clefts between such cells to be reversibly modulated. This facilitates access to the retina of systemically-deliverable low molecular weight, potentially therapeutic compounds, while also allowing potentially toxic material, for example, soluble Amyloid-β1-40, to be removed from the retina into the peripheral circulation. The technique has also been shown to be highly effective in alleviation of pathological cerebral oedema and we speculate that it may therefore have similar utility in the oedematous retina. Additionally, by manipulating endothelial tight-junctions of Schlemm's canal, inflow of aqueous humour from the trabecular meshwork into the Canal can be radically enhanced, suggesting a novel avenue for control of intraocular pressure. Here, we review the technology underlying this approach together with specific examples of clinical targets that are, or could be, amenable to this novel form of genetic intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of High Dietary Tryptophan on Intestinal Morphology and Tight Junction Protein of Weaned Pig

    PubMed Central

    Tossou, Myrlene Carine B.; Bai, Miaomiao; Chen, Shuai; Cai, Yinghua; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Liu, Hongbin; Adebowale, Tolulope O.; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Long, Lina; Tarique, Hussain; Oso, Abimbola O.; Liu, Gang; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Tryptophan (Trp) plays an essential role in pig behavior and growth performances. However, little is known about Trp's effects on tight junction barrier and intestinal health in weaned pigs. In the present study, twenty-four (24) weaned pigs were randomly assigned to one of the three treatments with 8 piglets/treatments. The piglets were fed different amounts of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) as follows: 0.0%, 0.15, and 0.75%, respectively, named zero Trp (ZTS), low Trp (LTS), and high Trp (HTS), respectively. No significant differences were observed in average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain: feed (G/F) ratio between the groups. After 21 days of the feeding trial, results showed that dietary Trp significantly increased (P < 0.05) crypt depth and significantly decreased (P < 0.05) villus height to crypt depth ratio (VH/CD) in the jejunum of pig fed HTS. In addition, pig fed HTS had higher (P < 0.05) serum diamine oxidase (DAO) and D-lactate. Furthermore, pig fed HTS significantly decreased mRNA expression of tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1 but not claudin-1 in the jejunum. The number of intraepithelial lymphocytes and goblet cells were not significantly different (P > 0.05) between the groups. Collectively, these data suggest that dietary Trp supplementation at a certain level (0.75%) may negatively affect the small intestinal structure in weaned pig. PMID:27366740

  15. Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate Stimulates Expression of Blood-Testis-Barrier Proteins Claudin-3 and -5 and Tight Junction Formation via a Gnα11-Coupled Receptor in Sertoli Cells

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Dimitrios; Dietze, Raimund; Shihan, Mazen; Kirch, Ulrike; Scheiner-Bobis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) is a circulating sulfated steroid considered to be a pro-androgen in mammalian physiology. Here we show that at a physiological concentration (1 μM), DHEAS induces the phosphorylation of the kinase Erk1/2 and of the transcription factors CREB and ATF-1 in the murine Sertoli cell line TM4. This signaling cascade stimulates the expression of the tight junction (TJ) proteins claudin-3 and claudin-5. As a consequence of the increased expression, tight junction connections between neighboring Sertoli cells are augmented, as demonstrated by measurements of transepithelial resistance. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2, CREB, or ATF-1 is not affected by the presence of the steroid sulfatase inhibitor STX64. Erk1/2 phosphorylation was not observed when dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) was used instead of DHEAS. Abrogation of androgen receptor (AR) expression by siRNA did not affect DHEAS-stimulated Erk1/2 phosphorylation, nor did it change DHEAS-induced stimulation of claudin-3 and claudin-5 expression. All of the above indicate that desulfation and conversion of DHEAS into a different steroid hormone is not required to trigger the DHEAS-induced signaling cascade. All activating effects of DHEAS, however, are abolished when the expression of the G-protein Gnα11 is suppressed by siRNA, including claudin-3 and -5 expression and TJ formation between neighboring Sertoli cells as indicated by reduced transepithelial resistance. Taken together, these results are consistent with the effects of DHEAS being mediated through a membrane-bound G-protein-coupled receptor interacting with Gnα11 in a signaling pathway that resembles the non-classical signaling pathways of steroid hormones. Considering the fact that DHEAS is produced in reproductive organs, these findings also suggest that DHEAS, by acting as an autonomous steroid hormone and influencing the formation and dynamics of the TJ at the blood-testis barrier, might play a crucial role for the

  16. The Tight Junction Proteins Claudin-1, -6, and -9 Are Entry Cofactors for Hepatitis C Virus▿

    PubMed Central

    Meertens, Laurent; Bertaux, Claire; Cukierman, Lisa; Cormier, Emmanuel; Lavillette, Dimitri; Cosset, François-Loïc; Dragic, Tatjana

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease in humans. The CD81 tetraspanin is necessary but not sufficient for HCV penetration into hepatocytes, and it was recently reported that the tight junction protein claudin-1 is a critical HCV entry cofactor. Here, we confirm the role of claudin-1 in HCV entry. In addition, we show that claudin-6 and claudin-9 expressed in CD81+ cells also enable the entry of HCV pseudoparticles derived from six of the major genotypes. Whereas claudin-1, -6, and -9 function equally well as entry cofactors in endothelial cells, claudin-1 is more efficient in hepatoma cells. This suggests that additional cellular factors modulate the ability of claudins to function as HCV entry cofactors. Our work has generated novel and essential means to investigate the mechanism of HCV penetration into hepatocytes and the role of the claudin protein family in HCV dissemination, replication, and pathogenesis. PMID:18234789

  17. Quantum junction solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jiang; Liu, Huan; Zhitomirsky, David; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Wang, Xihua; Furukawa, Melissa; Levina, Larissa; Sargent, Edward H

    2012-09-12

    Colloidal quantum dot solids combine convenient solution-processing with quantum size effect tuning, offering avenues to high-efficiency multijunction cells based on a single materials synthesis and processing platform. The highest-performing colloidal quantum dot rectifying devices reported to date have relied on a junction between a quantum-tuned absorber and a bulk material (e.g., TiO(2)); however, quantum tuning of the absorber then requires complete redesign of the bulk acceptor, compromising the benefits of facile quantum tuning. Here we report rectifying junctions constructed entirely using inherently band-aligned quantum-tuned materials. Realizing these quantum junction diodes relied upon the creation of an n-type quantum dot solid having a clean bandgap. We combine stable, chemically compatible, high-performance n-type and p-type materials to create the first quantum junction solar cells. We present a family of photovoltaic devices having widely tuned bandgaps of 0.6-1.6 eV that excel where conventional quantum-to-bulk devices fail to perform. Devices having optimal single-junction bandgaps exhibit certified AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiencies of 5.4%. Control over doping in quantum solids, and the successful integration of these materials to form stable quantum junctions, offers a powerful new degree of freedom to colloidal quantum dot optoelectronics.

  18. AMP-activated protein kinase fortifies epithelial tight junctions during energetic stress via its effector GIV/Girdin.

    PubMed

    Aznar, Nicolas; Patel, Arjun; Rohena, Cristina C; Dunkel, Ying; Joosen, Linda P; Taupin, Vanessa; Kufareva, Irina; Farquhar, Marilyn G; Ghosh, Pradipta

    2016-11-04

    Loss of epithelial polarity impacts organ development and function; it is also oncogenic. AMPK, a key sensor of metabolic stress stabilizes cell-cell junctions and maintains epithelial polarity; its activation by Metformin protects the epithelial barrier against stress and suppresses tumorigenesis. How AMPK protects the epithelium remains unknown. Here, we identify GIV/Girdin as a novel effector of AMPK, whose phosphorylation at a single site is both necessary and sufficient for strengthening mammalian epithelial tight junctions and preserving cell polarity and barrier function in the face of energetic stress. Expression of an oncogenic mutant of GIV (cataloged in TCGA) that cannot be phosphorylated by AMPK increased anchorage-independent growth of tumor cells and helped these cells to evade the tumor-suppressive action of Metformin. This work defines a fundamental homeostatic mechanism by which the AMPK-GIV axis reinforces cell junctions against stress-induced collapse and also provides mechanistic insight into the tumor-suppressive action of Metformin.

  19. Hedgehog signaling regulates E-cadherin expression for the maintenance of the actin cytoskeleton and tight junctions

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Chang; Ogle, Sally A.; Schumacher, Michael A.; Schilling, Neal; Tokhunts, Robert A.; Orr-Asman, Melissa A.; Miller, Marian L.; Robbins, David J.; Hollande, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    In the stomach, strictly regulated cell adherens junctions are crucial in determining epithelial cell differentiation. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) regulates epithelial cell differentiation in the adult stomach. We sought to identify whether Shh plays a role in regulating adherens junction protein E-cadherin as a mechanism for epithelial cell differentiation. Mouse nontumorigenic gastric epithelial (IMGE-5) cells treated with Hedgehog signaling inhibitor cyclopamine and anti-Shh 5E1 antibody or transduced with short hairpin RNA against Skinny Hedgehog (IMGE-5Ski) were cultured. A mouse model expressing a parietal cell-specific deletion of Shh (HKCre/ShhKO) was used to identify further changes in adherens and tight junctions. Inhibition of Hedgehog signaling in IMGE-5 cells caused loss of E-cadherin expression accompanied by disruption of F-actin cortical expression and relocalization of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1). Loss of E-cadherin was also associated with increased proliferation in IMGE-5Ski cells and increased expression of the mucous neck cell lineage marker MUC6. Compared with membrane-expressed E-cadherin and ZO-1 protein in controls, dissociation of E-cadherin/β-catenin and ZO-1/occludin protein complexes was observed in HKCre/ShhKO mice. In conclusion, we demonstrate that Hedgehog signaling regulates E-cadherin expression that is required for the maintenance of F-actin cortical expression and stability of tight junction protein ZO-1. PMID:20847300

  20. Regulation of Sertoli cell tight junction dynamics in the rat testis via the nitric oxide synthase/soluble guanylate cyclase/3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate/protein kinase G signaling pathway: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nikki P Y; Cheng, C Yan

    2003-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) catalyzes the oxidation of L-arginine to NO. NO plays a crucial role in regulating various physiological functions, possibly including junction dynamics via its effects on cAMP and cGMP, which are known modulators of tight junction (TJ) dynamics. Although inducible NOS (iNOS) and endothelial NOS (eNOS) are found in the testis and have been implicated in the regulation of spermatogenesis, their role(s) in TJ dynamics, if any, is not known. When Sertoli cells were cultured at 0.5-1.2 x 10(6) cells/cm(2) on Matrigel-coated dishes or bicameral units, functional TJ barrier was formed when the barrier function was assessed by quantifying transepithelial electrical resistance across the cell epithelium. The assembly of the TJ barrier was shown to associate with a significant plummeting in the levels of iNOS and eNOS, seemingly suggesting that their presence by producing NO might perturb TJ assembly. To further confirm the role of NOS on the TJ barrier function in vitro, zinc (II) protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPP), an NOS inhibitor and a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, was added to the Sertoli cell cultures during TJ assembly. Indeed, ZnPP was found to facilitate the assembly and maintenance of the Sertoli cell TJ barrier, possibly by inducing the production of TJ-associated proteins, such as occludin. Subsequent studies by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting have shown that iNOS and eNOS are structurally linked to TJ-integral membrane proteins, such as occludin, and cytoskeletal proteins, such as actin, vimentin, and alpha-tubulin. When the cAMP and cGMP levels in these ZnPP-treated samples were quantified, a ZnPP-induced reduction of intracellular cGMP, but not cAMP, was indeed detected. Furthermore, 8-bromo-cGMP, a cell membrane-permeable analog of cGMP, could also perturb the TJ barrier dose dependently similar to the effects of 8-bromo-cAMP. KT-5823, a specific inhibitor of protein kinase G, was shown to facilitate the Sertoli cell TJ

  1. Effect of four probiotic strains and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on tight junction integrity and cyclo-oxygenase expression.

    PubMed

    Putaala, Heli; Salusjärvi, Tuomas; Nordström, Malin; Saarinen, Markku; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Bech Hansen, Egon; Rautonen, Nina

    2008-01-01

    Controversy exists as to whether contact between a probiotic bacterial cell and an epithelial cell in the gut is needed to confer beneficial effects of probiotics, or whether metabolites from probiotics are sufficient to cause this effect. To address this question, Caco-2 cells were treated with cell-free supernatants of four probiotics, Bifidobacterium lactis 420, Bifidobacterium lactis HN019, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33, and by a cell-free supernatant of a pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC). Tight junction integrity as well as expression of cyclo-oxygenases, which are prostaglandin-producing enzymes, were measured. Probiotic-specific as well as EHEC-specific effects on tight junction integrity and cyclo-oxygenase expression were evident, indicating that live bacterial cells were not necessary for the manifestation of the effects. B. lactis 420 cell-free supernatant increased tight junction integrity, while EHEC cell-free supernatant induced damage on tight junctions. In general, EHEC and probiotics had opposite effects upon cyclo-oxygenase expression. Furthermore, B. lactis 420 cell-free supernatant protected the tight junctions from EHEC-induced damage when administered prior to the cell-free supernatant of EHEC. These results indicate that probiotics produce bioactive metabolites, suggesting that consumption of specific probiotic bacteria might be beneficial in protecting intestinal epithelial cells from the deleterious effects of pathogenic bacteria.

  2. Male reproductive toxicity of CrVI: In-utero exposure to CrVI at the critical window of testis differentiation represses the expression of Sertoli cell tight junction proteins and hormone receptors in adult F1 progeny rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kathiresh M; Aruldhas, Mariajoseph Michael; Banu, Sheerin L; Sadasivam, Balaji; Vengatesh, Ganapathy; Ganesh, Karthik M; Navaneethabalakrishnan, Shobana; Navin, Ajith Kumar; Michael, Felicia Mary; Venkatachalam, Sankar; Stanley, Jone A; Ramachandran, Ilangovan; Banu, Sakhila K; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader

    2017-02-10

    The effect of gestational exposure to CrVI (occupational/environmental pollutant and target to Sertoli cells(SC)) was tested in a rat model during the testicular differentiation from the bipotential gonad may interrupt spermatogenesis by disrupting SC tight junctions(TJ) and it's proteins and hormone receptors. Pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to 50/100/200ppm CrVI through drinking water during embryonic days 9-14. On Postnatal day 120, testes were subjected to ion exchange chromatographic analysis and revealed increased level of CrIII in SCs and germ cells, serum and testicular interstitial fluid(TIF). Microscopic analyses showed seminiferous tubules atrophy and disruption of SC TJ, which also recorded decreased testosterone in TIF. mRNA and Protein expression analyses attested decreased level of Fshr, Ar, occludin and claudin-11 in SCs. Immunofluorescent detection revealed weak signal of TJ proteins. Taken together, we concluded that gestational exposure to CrVI interferes with the expression of SC TJ proteins due to attenuated expression of hormone receptors.

  3. Role of free radicals and poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase in intestinal tight junction permeability.

    PubMed Central

    Cuzzocrea, S.; Mazzon, E.; De Sarro, A.; Caputi, A. P.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Small intestine permeability is frequently altered in inflammatory bowel disease and may be caused by the translocation of intestinal toxins through leaky small intestine tight junctions (TJ) and adherence (1,2). The role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and nitric oxide (NO) and PARS in the permeability and structure of small intestine TJ is not clearly understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro study, MDCK (Madin-Darby Canine Kidney) cells were exposed to H2O2 (100 microM for 2h), or zymosan (200 microl of stock solution 1 mg/ml for 4h), in the presence or absence of a treatment with poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB: 3 mM) or with n-acetylcysteine (NAC 10 mM). In vivo study, wild-type mice (WT) and mice lacking (KO) of the inducible (or type 2) nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were treated with zymosan (500 mg/kg, suspended in saline solution, i.p.). In addition INOSWT mice were treated with 3-AB (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or with NAC (40 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 hour and 6 h after zymosan administration. RESULTS: Exposure of MDCK cells to hydrogen peroxide caused a significant impairment in mitochondrial respiration that was associated with a reduction of cells adherence as well as derangement of the junctional proteins. A significant increase of nitrate and nitrite levels, stable metabolites of nitric oxide (NO), were found in MDCK supernatant after zymosan incubation. NO production was associated with a significant reduction of cell adherence and impairment of occludin protein. Pre-treatment of the cells with 3-AB or with NAC caused a significant prevention of H2O2-mediated occludin junctional damage as well as reduced the NO-induced occludin damage. In addition, H2O2 and NO are able to induce a significant derangement of beta-catenin and Zonula Ocludence-1 (ZO-1). We found an increase of tight junctional permeability to lanthanum nitrate (molecular weight, 433) in the terminal ileal TJs in zymosan-treated iNOSWT mice compared with

  4. Differential expression of claudin tight junction proteins in the human cortical nephron

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Adam; Campbell, Sara; Bass, Paul; Mason, Juan; Collins, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Background. In renal tubules, paracellular permeability is tightly controlled to facilitate solute absorption and urinary concentration and is regulated by tight junctions, which incorporate claudin proteins. There is very limited information confirming the localization of these proteins in the human renal cortex. Most data is inferred from mouse, bovine and rabbit studies and differences exist between mouse and other species. Methods. A survey of claudin staining was performed on human kidney cortex embedded in glycolmethacrylate resin to enhance tissue morphology and facilitate the cutting of 2 µm serial sections. Results. Claudin-2, -10 and -11 antibodies labelled renal tubular epithelial cells, correlating with Lotus tetragonolobus and N-cadherin positive proximal tubules. Claudin-3, -10, -11 and -16 antibodies strongly stained a population of tubules that were positive for Tamm Horsfall protein on adjacent sections, confirming expression in the thick ascending limb of the Loop of Henle. Claudin-3, -4 and -8 antibodies reacted with tubules that correlated with the distal nephron markers, E-cadherin, epithelial membrane antigen and Dolichos biflorus and claudin-3, -4, -7 and -8 with the distal tubule marker, calbindin, and the collecting duct marker, aquaporin-2. Claudin-14 was localized in distal convoluted tubules, correlating positively with calbindin but negatively with aquaporin-2, whereas claudin-1 staining was identified in the parietal epithelium of Bowman's capsule, distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Cellular and tight junction localization of claudin staining in renal tubules was heterogeneous and is discussed. Conclusions. Complex variation in the expression of human claudins likely determines paracellular permeability in the kidney. Altered claudin expression may influence pathologies involving abnormalities of absorption. PMID:20124215

  5. Tight junction-associated MARVEL proteins marveld3, tricellulin, and occludin have distinct but overlapping functions.

    PubMed

    Raleigh, David R; Marchiando, Amanda M; Zhang, Yong; Shen, Le; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Wang, Yingmin; Long, Manyuan; Turner, Jerrold R

    2010-04-01

    In vitro studies have demonstrated that occludin and tricellulin are important for tight junction barrier function, but in vivo data suggest that loss of these proteins can be overcome. The presence of a heretofore unknown, yet related, protein could explain these observations. Here, we report marvelD3, a novel tight junction protein that, like occludin and tricellulin, contains a conserved four-transmembrane MARVEL (MAL and related proteins for vesicle trafficking and membrane link) domain. Phylogenetic tree reconstruction; analysis of RNA and protein tissue distribution; immunofluorescent and electron microscopic examination of subcellular localization; characterization of intracellular trafficking, protein interactions, dynamic behavior, and siRNA knockdown effects; and description of remodeling after in vivo immune activation show that marvelD3, occludin, and tricellulin have distinct but overlapping functions at the tight junction. Although marvelD3 is able to partially compensate for occludin or tricellulin loss, it cannot fully restore function. We conclude that marvelD3, occludin, and tricellulin define the tight junction-associated MARVEL protein family. The data further suggest that these proteins are best considered as a group with both redundant and unique contributions to epithelial function and tight junction regulation.

  6. Effects of proinflammatory cytokines on the claudin-19 rich tight junctions of human retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shaomin; Gan, Geliang; Rao, Veena S; Adelman, Ron A; Rizzolo, Lawrence J

    2012-07-27

    Chronic, subclinical inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of several ocular diseases, including age-related macular degeneration. Proinflammatory cytokines affect tight junctions in epithelia that lack claudin-19, but in the retinal pigment epithelium claudin-19 predominates. We examined the effects of cytokines on the tight junctions of human fetal RPE (hfRPE). hfRPE was incubated with interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), interferon-gamma (IFNγ), or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), alone or in combination. Permeability and selectivity of the tight junctions were assessed using nonionic tracers and electrophysiology. Claudins, occludin, and ZO-1 were examined using PCR, immunoblotting, and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Only TNFα consistently reduced transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) >80%. A serum-free medium revealed two effects of TNFα: (1) decreased TER was observed only when TNFα was added to the apical side of the monolayer, and (2) expression of TNFα receptors and inhibitors of apoptosis were induced from either side of the monolayer. In untreated cultures, tight junctions were slightly cation selective, and this was affected minimally by TNFα. The results were unexplained by effects on claudin-2, claudin-3, claudin-19, occludin, and ZO-1, but changes in the morphology of the junctions and actin cytoskeleton may have a role. Claudin-19-rich tight junctions have low permeability for ionic and nonionic solutes, and are slightly cation-selective. Claudin-19 is not a direct target of TNFα. TNFα may protect RPE from apoptosis, but makes the monolayer leaky when it is presented to the apical side of the monolayer. Unlike other epithelia, IFNγ failed to augment the effect of TNFα on tight junctions.

  7. Effects of Proinflammatory Cytokines on the Claudin-19 Rich Tight Junctions of Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Shaomin; Gan, Geliang; Rao, Veena S.; Adelman, Ron A.; Rizzolo, Lawrence J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Chronic, subclinical inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of several ocular diseases, including age-related macular degeneration. Proinflammatory cytokines affect tight junctions in epithelia that lack claudin-19, but in the retinal pigment epithelium claudin-19 predominates. We examined the effects of cytokines on the tight junctions of human fetal RPE (hfRPE). Methods. hfRPE was incubated with interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), interferon-gamma (IFNγ), or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), alone or in combination. Permeability and selectivity of the tight junctions were assessed using nonionic tracers and electrophysiology. Claudins, occludin, and ZO-1 were examined using PCR, immunoblotting, and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Results. Only TNFα consistently reduced transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) >80%. A serum-free medium revealed two effects of TNFα: (1) decreased TER was observed only when TNFα was added to the apical side of the monolayer, and (2) expression of TNFα receptors and inhibitors of apoptosis were induced from either side of the monolayer. In untreated cultures, tight junctions were slightly cation selective, and this was affected minimally by TNFα. The results were unexplained by effects on claudin-2, claudin-3, claudin-19, occludin, and ZO-1, but changes in the morphology of the junctions and actin cytoskeleton may have a role. Conclusions. Claudin-19–rich tight junctions have low permeability for ionic and nonionic solutes, and are slightly cation-selective. Claudin-19 is not a direct target of TNFα. TNFα may protect RPE from apoptosis, but makes the monolayer leaky when it is presented to the apical side of the monolayer. Unlike other epithelia, IFNγ failed to augment the effect of TNFα on tight junctions. PMID:22761260

  8. Kidney versus Liver Specification of SLC and ABC Drug Transporters, Tight Junction Molecules, and Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Martovetsky, Gleb; Bush, Kevin T; Nigam, Sanjay K

    2016-07-01

    The hepatocyte nuclear factors, Hnf1a and Hnf4a, in addition to playing key roles in determining hepatocyte fate, have been implicated as candidate lineage-determining transcription factors in the kidney proximal tubule (PT) [Martovetsky et. al., (2012) Mol Pharmacol 84:808], implying an additional level of regulation that is potentially important in developmental and/or tissue-engineering contexts. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) transduced with Hnf1a and Hnf4a form tight junctions and express multiple PT drug transporters (e.g., Slc22a6/Oat1, Slc47a1/Mate1, Slc22a12/Urat1, Abcg2/Bcrp, Abcc2/Mrp2, Abcc4/Mrp4), nutrient transporters (e.g., Slc34a1/NaPi-2, Slco1a6), and tight junction proteins (occludin, claudin 6, ZO-1/Tjp1, ZO-2/Tjp2). In contrast, the coexpression (with Hnf1a and Hnf4a) of GATA binding protein 4 (Gata4), as well as the forkhead box transcription factors, Foxa2 and Foxa3, in MEFs not only downregulates PT markers but also leads to upregulation of several hepatocyte markers, including albumin, apolipoprotein, and transferrin. A similar result was obtained with primary mouse PT cells. Thus, the presence of Gata4 and Foxa2/Foxa3 appears to alter the effect of Hnf1a and Hnf4a by an as-yet unidentified mechanism, leading toward the generation of more hepatocyte-like cells as opposed to cells exhibiting PT characteristics. The different roles of Hnf4a in the kidney and liver was further supported by reanalysis of ChIP-seq data, which revealed Hnf4a colocalization in the kidney near PT-enriched genes compared with those genes enriched in the liver. These findings provide valuable insight, not only into the developmental, and perhaps organotypic, regulation of drug transporters, drug-metabolizing enzymes, and tight junctions, but also for regenerative medicine strategies aimed at restoring the function of the liver and/or kidney (acute kidney injury, AKI; chronic kidney disease, CKD). Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and

  9. Lactobacillus plantarum MB452 enhances the function of the intestinal barrier by increasing the expression levels of genes involved in tight junction formation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Intestinal barrier function is important for preserving health, as a compromised barrier allows antigen entry and can induce inflammatory diseases. Probiotic bacteria can play a role in enhancing intestinal barrier function; however, the mechanisms are not fully understood. Existing studies have focused on the ability of probiotics to prevent alterations to tight junctions in disease models, and have been restricted to a few tight junction bridging proteins. No studies have previously investigated the effect of probiotic bacteria on healthy intestinal epithelial cell genes involved in the whole tight junction signalling pathway, including those encoding for bridging, plaque and dual location tight junction proteins. Alteration of tight junction signalling in healthy humans is a potential mechanism that could lead to the strengthening of the intestinal barrier, resulting in limiting the ability of antigens to enter the body and potentially triggering undesirable immune responses. Results The effect of Lactobacillus plantarum MB452 on tight junction integrity was determined by measuring trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) across Caco-2 cell layers. L. plantarum MB452 caused a dose-dependent TEER increase across Caco-2 cell monolayers compared to control medium. Gene expression was compared in Caco-2 cells untreated or treated with L. plantarum MB452 for 10 hours. Caco-2 cell RNA was hybridised to human oligonucleotide arrays. Data was analysed using linear models and differently expressed genes were examined using pathway analysis tools. Nineteen tight junction-related genes had altered expression levels in response to L. plantarum MB452 (modified-P < 0.05, fold-change > 1.2), including those encoding occludin and its associated plaque proteins that anchor it to the cytoskeleton. L. plantarum MB452 also caused changes in tubulin and proteasome gene expression levels which may be linked to intestinal barrier function. Caco-2 tight junctions were

  10. Clostridium difficile toxin A perturbs cytoskeletal structure and tight junction permeability of cultured human intestinal epithelial monolayers.

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, G; Pothoulakis, C; LaMont, J T; Madara, J L

    1988-01-01

    Toxin A of Clostridium difficile causes severe inflammatory enterocolitis in man and animals that appears to be mediated in part by acute inflammatory cells that migrate into the toxin A-exposed mucosa. To determine the direct effects of toxin A on intestinal epithelial permeability and structure in the absence of other modulating factors, we used cultured monolayers of a human intestinal epithelial cell line (T84). A toxin A concentration of 7 x 10(-1) micrograms/ml (3 x 10(-9) M) nearly abolished monolayer transepithelial resistance within 6-8 h. This marked permeability defect occurred while the monolayers were still confluent. Dual sodium-mannitol flux studies localized the permeability defect to the intercellular tight junction. Cytotoxicity assays and morphological evaluation using Nomarski optics and electron microscopy failed to demonstrate any evidence of cell damage at the time the maximum resistance response was observed. Fluorescent staining for F actin, however, revealed a marked decrease in fluorescent intensity in toxin-treated monolayers versus controls. These data show that toxin A can directly affect the barrier function of this model intestinal epithelium and initially does so by selectively enhancing tight junction permeability. Furthermore, cytoskeletal structure is markedly altered over the same time course, although the integrity of individual cells is maintained. Because the cytoskeleton of intestinal epithelial cells is known to be capable of regulating tight junction permeability, we speculate that the above effects of toxin A on epithelial barrier function result from alterations of the cytoskeleton. Images PMID:3141478

  11. Clostridium difficile toxin A perturbs cytoskeletal structure and tight junction permeability of cultured human intestinal epithelial monolayers.

    PubMed

    Hecht, G; Pothoulakis, C; LaMont, J T; Madara, J L

    1988-11-01

    Toxin A of Clostridium difficile causes severe inflammatory enterocolitis in man and animals that appears to be mediated in part by acute inflammatory cells that migrate into the toxin A-exposed mucosa. To determine the direct effects of toxin A on intestinal epithelial permeability and structure in the absence of other modulating factors, we used cultured monolayers of a human intestinal epithelial cell line (T84). A toxin A concentration of 7 x 10(-1) micrograms/ml (3 x 10(-9) M) nearly abolished monolayer transepithelial resistance within 6-8 h. This marked permeability defect occurred while the monolayers were still confluent. Dual sodium-mannitol flux studies localized the permeability defect to the intercellular tight junction. Cytotoxicity assays and morphological evaluation using Nomarski optics and electron microscopy failed to demonstrate any evidence of cell damage at the time the maximum resistance response was observed. Fluorescent staining for F actin, however, revealed a marked decrease in fluorescent intensity in toxin-treated monolayers versus controls. These data show that toxin A can directly affect the barrier function of this model intestinal epithelium and initially does so by selectively enhancing tight junction permeability. Furthermore, cytoskeletal structure is markedly altered over the same time course, although the integrity of individual cells is maintained. Because the cytoskeleton of intestinal epithelial cells is known to be capable of regulating tight junction permeability, we speculate that the above effects of toxin A on epithelial barrier function result from alterations of the cytoskeleton.

  12. The Effects of Glucagon-like Peptide-2 on the Tight Junction and Barrier Function in IPEC-J2 Cells through Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase–Protein Kinase B–Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Changsong; Jia, Gang; Deng, Qiuhong; Zhao, Hua; Chen, Xiaoling; Liu, Guangmang; Wang, Kangning

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is important for intestinal barrier function and regulation of tight junction (TJ) proteins, but the intracellular mechanisms of action remain undefined. The purpose of this research was to determine the protective effect of GLP-2 mediated TJ and transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stressed IPEC-J2 cells and to test the hypothesis that GLP-2 regulate TJ and TER through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (Akt)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in IPEC-J2 cells. Wortmannin and LY294002 are specific inhibitors of PI3K. The results showed that 100 μg/mL LPS stress decreased TER and TJ proteins occludin, claudin-1 and zonula occludens protein 1 (ZO-1) mRNA, proteins expressions (p<0.01) respectively. GLP-2 (100 nmol/L) promote TER and TJ proteins occludin, claudin-1, and zo-1 mRNA, proteins expressions in LPS stressed and normal IPEC-J2 cells (p<0.01) respectively. In normal cells, both wortmannin and LY294002, PI3K inhibitors, prevented the mRNA and protein expressions of Akt and mTOR increase induced by GLP-2 (p<0.01) following with the significant decreasing of occludin, claudin-1, ZO-1 mRNA and proteins expressions and TER (p<0.01). In conclusion, these results indicated that GLP-2 can promote TJ’s expression and TER in LPS stressed and normal IPEC-J2 cells and GLP-2 could regulate TJ and TER through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. PMID:26954146

  13. Loss of tricellular tight junction protein LSR promotes cell invasion and migration via upregulation of TEAD1/AREG in human endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Hiroshi; Abe, Shyuetsu; Kohno, Takayuki; Satohisa, Seiro; Konno, Takumi; Takahashi, Syunta; Hatakeyama, Tsubasa; Arimoto, Chihiro; Kakuki, Takuya; Kaneko, Yakuto; Takano, Ken-ichi; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Kojima, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) is a unique molecule of tricellular contacts of normal and cancer cells. We investigated how the loss of LSR induced cell migration, invasion and proliferation in endometrial cancer cell line Sawano. mRNAs of amphiregulin (AREG) and TEA domain family member 1 (TEAD1) were markedly upregulated by siRNA-LSR. In endometrial cancer tissues, downregulation of LSR and upregulation of AREG were observed together with malignancy, and Yes-associated protein (YAP) was present in the nuclei. siRNA-AREG prevented the cell migration and invasion induced by siRNA-LSR, whereas treatment with AREG induced cell migration and invasion. LSR was colocalized with TRIC, angiomotin (AMOT), Merlin and phosphorylated YAP (pYAP). siRNA-LSR increased expression of pYAP and decreased that of AMOT and Merlin. siRNA-YAP prevented expression of the mRNAs of AREG and TEAD1, and the cell migration and invasion induced by siRNA-LSR. Treatment with dobutamine and 2-deoxy-D-glucose and glucose starvation induced the pYAP expression and prevented the cell migration and invasion induced by siRNA-LSR. siRNA-AMOT decreased the Merlin expression and prevented the cell migration and invasion induced by siRNA-LSR. The loss of LSR promoted cell invasion and migration via upregulation of TEAD1/AREG dependent on YAP/pYAP and AMOT/Merlin in human endometrial cancer cells. PMID:28071680

  14. Treatment with AICAR inhibits blastocyst development, trophectoderm differentiation and tight junction formation and function in mice.

    PubMed

    Calder, Michele D; Edwards, Nicole A; Betts, Dean H; Watson, Andrew J

    2017-09-13

    What is the impact of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation on blastocyst formation, gene expression, and tight junction formation and function? AMPK activity must be tightly controlled for normal preimplantation development and blastocyst formation to occur. AMPK isoforms are detectable in oocytes, cumulus cells and preimplantation embryos. Cultured embryos are subject to many stresses that can activate AMPK. Two primary experiments were carried out to determine the effect of AICAR treatment on embryo development and maintenance of the blastocoel cavity. Embryos were recovered from superovulated mice. First, 2-cell embryos were treated with a concentration series (0-2000 μM) of AICAR for 48 h until blastocyst formation would normally occur. In the second experiment, expanded mouse blastocysts were treated for 9 h with 1000 μM AICAR. Outcomes measured included development to the blastocyst stage, cell number, blastocyst volume, AMPK phosphorylation, Cdx2 and blastocyst formation gene family expression (mRNAs and protein measured using quantitative RT-PCR, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence), tight junction function (FITC dextran dye uptake assay), and blastocyst ATP levels. The reversibility of AICAR treatment was assessed using Compound C (CC), a well-known inhibitor of AMPK, alone or in combination with AICAR. Prolonged treatment with AICAR from the 2-cell stage onward decreases blastocyst formation, reduces total cell number, embryo diameter, leads to loss of trophectoderm cell contacts and membrane zona occludens-1 staining, and increased nuclear condensation. Treatment with CC alone inhibited blastocyst development only at concentrations that are higher than normally used. AICAR treated embryos displayed altered mRNA and protein levels of blastocyst formation genes. Treatment of blastocysts with AICAR for 9 h induced blastocyst collapse, altered blastocyst formation gene expression, increased tight junction permeability and

  15. The serine protease-mediated increase in intestinal epithelial barrier function is dependent on occludin and requires an intact tight junction

    PubMed Central

    Ronaghan, Natalie J.; Shang, Judie; Iablokov, Vadim; Zaheer, Raza; Colarusso, Pina; Dion, Sébastien; Désilets, Antoine; Leduc, Richard; Turner, Jerrold R.

    2016-01-01

    Barrier dysfunction is a characteristic of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Understanding how the tight junction is modified to maintain barrier function may provide avenues for treatment of IBD. We have previously shown that the apical addition of serine proteases to intestinal epithelial cell lines causes a rapid and sustained increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), but the mechanisms are unknown. We hypothesized that serine proteases increase barrier function through trafficking and insertion of tight junction proteins into the membrane, and this could enhance recovery of a disrupted monolayer after calcium switch or cytokine treatment. In the canine epithelial cell line, SCBN, we showed that matriptase, an endogenous serine protease, could potently increase TER. Using detergent solubility-based cell fractionation, we found that neither trypsin nor matriptase treatment changed levels of tight junction proteins at the membrane. In a fast calcium switch assay, serine proteases did not enhance the rate of recovery of the junction. In addition, serine proteases could not reverse barrier disruption induced by IFNγ and TNFα. We knocked down occludin in our cells using siRNA and found this prevented the serine protease-induced increase in TER. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), we found serine proteases induce a greater mobile fraction of occludin in the membrane. These data suggest that a functional tight junction is needed for serine proteases to have an effect on TER, and that occludin is a crucial tight junction protein in this mechanism. PMID:27492333

  16. The serine protease-mediated increase in intestinal epithelial barrier function is dependent on occludin and requires an intact tight junction.

    PubMed

    Ronaghan, Natalie J; Shang, Judie; Iablokov, Vadim; Zaheer, Raza; Colarusso, Pina; Dion, Sébastien; Désilets, Antoine; Leduc, Richard; Turner, Jerrold R; MacNaughton, Wallace K

    2016-09-01

    Barrier dysfunction is a characteristic of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Understanding how the tight junction is modified to maintain barrier function may provide avenues for treatment of IBD. We have previously shown that the apical addition of serine proteases to intestinal epithelial cell lines causes a rapid and sustained increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), but the mechanisms are unknown. We hypothesized that serine proteases increase barrier function through trafficking and insertion of tight junction proteins into the membrane, and this could enhance recovery of a disrupted monolayer after calcium switch or cytokine treatment. In the canine epithelial cell line, SCBN, we showed that matriptase, an endogenous serine protease, could potently increase TER. Using detergent solubility-based cell fractionation, we found that neither trypsin nor matriptase treatment changed levels of tight junction proteins at the membrane. In a fast calcium switch assay, serine proteases did not enhance the rate of recovery of the junction. In addition, serine proteases could not reverse barrier disruption induced by IFNγ and TNFα. We knocked down occludin in our cells using siRNA and found this prevented the serine protease-induced increase in TER. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), we found serine proteases induce a greater mobile fraction of occludin in the membrane. These data suggest that a functional tight junction is needed for serine proteases to have an effect on TER, and that occludin is a crucial tight junction protein in this mechanism.

  17. Tight junctions in inflammatory bowel diseases and inflammatory bowel disease associated colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Landy, Jonathan; Ronde, Emma; English, Nick; Clark, Sue K; Hart, Ailsa L; Knight, Stella C; Ciclitira, Paul J; Al-Hassi, Hafid Omar

    2016-03-21

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are characterised by inflammation that compromises the integrity of the epithelial barrier. The intestinal epithelium is not only a static barrier but has evolved complex mechanisms to control and regulate bacterial interactions with the mucosal surface. Apical tight junction proteins are critical in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function and control of paracellular permeability. The characterisation of alterations in tight junction proteins as key players in epithelial barrier function in inflammatory bowel diseases is rapidly enhancing our understanding of critical mechanisms in disease pathogenesis as well as novel therapeutic opportunities. Here we give an overview of recent literature focusing on the role of tight junction proteins, in particular claudins, in inflammatory bowel diseases and inflammatory bowel disease associated colorectal cancer.

  18. Tight junctions in inflammatory bowel diseases and inflammatory bowel disease associated colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Landy, Jonathan; Ronde, Emma; English, Nick; Clark, Sue K; Hart, Ailsa L; Knight, Stella C; Ciclitira, Paul J; Al-Hassi, Hafid Omar

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are characterised by inflammation that compromises the integrity of the epithelial barrier. The intestinal epithelium is not only a static barrier but has evolved complex mechanisms to control and regulate bacterial interactions with the mucosal surface. Apical tight junction proteins are critical in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function and control of paracellular permeability. The characterisation of alterations in tight junction proteins as key players in epithelial barrier function in inflammatory bowel diseases is rapidly enhancing our understanding of critical mechanisms in disease pathogenesis as well as novel therapeutic opportunities. Here we give an overview of recent literature focusing on the role of tight junction proteins, in particular claudins, in inflammatory bowel diseases and inflammatory bowel disease associated colorectal cancer. PMID:27003989

  19. 17β-Estradiol Ameliorates Tight Junction Disruption via Repression of MMP Transcription.

    PubMed

    Na, Wonho; Lee, Jee Youn; Kim, Won-Sun; Yune, Tae Young; Ju, Bong-Gun

    2015-09-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) or blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) formed by capillary endothelial cells provides a physical wall between the central nervous system (CNS) and circulating blood with highly selective permeability. BBB/BSCB disruption by activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been shown to result in further neurological damage after CNS injury. Recently it has been discovered that estrogen attenuates BBB/BSCB disruption in in vitro and in vivo models. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the estrogen-mediated attenuation of BBB/BSCB disruption has not been elucidated fully. In the present study, we found that 17β-estradiol (E2) suppresses nuclear factor-κB-dependent MMP-1b, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-10, and MMP-13 gene activation in microvessel endothelial bEnd.3 cells subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation/reperfusion injury. E2 induced the recruitment of ERα and nuclear receptor corepressor to the nuclear factor-κB binding site on the MMPs' gene promoters. Consistently, ER antagonist ICI 182.780 showed opposite effects of E2. We further found that E2 attenuates tight junction disruption through the decreased degradation of tight junction proteins in bEnd.3 cells subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation-reperfusion injury. In addition, E2 suppressed the up-regulation of MMP expression, leading to a decreased BSCB disruption in the injured spinal cord. In conclusion, we discovered the molecular mechanism underlying the protective role of estrogenin BBB/BSCB disruption using an in vitro and in vivo model. Our study suggests that estrogens may provide a potential therapeutic intervention for preserving BBB/BSCB integrity after CNS injury.

  20. Interaction between transcellular and paracellular water transport pathways through Aquaporin 5 and the tight junction complex

    PubMed Central

    Kawedia, Jitesh D.; Nieman, Michelle L.; Boivin, Gregory P.; Melvin, James E.; Kikuchi, Ken-Ichiro; Hand, Arthur R.; Lorenz, John N.; Menon, Anil G.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate potential physiological interactions between the transcellular and paracellular pathways of water transport, we asked whether targeted deletion of Aquaporin 5 (AQP5), the major transcellular water transporter in salivary acinar cells, affected paracellular transport of 4-kDa FITC-labeled dextran (FITC-D), which is transported through the paracellular but not the transcellular route. After i.v. injection of FITC-D into either AQP5 wild-type or AQP5−/− mice and saliva collection for fixed time intervals, we show that the relative amount of FITC-D transported in the saliva of AQP5−/− mice is half that in matched AQP5+/+ mice, indicating a 2-fold decrease in permeability of the paracellular barrier in mice lacking AQP5. We also found a significant difference in the proportion of transcellular vs. paracellular transport between male and female mice. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy revealed an increase in the number of tight junction strands of both AQP5+/+ and AQP5−/− male mice after pilocarpine stimulation but no change in strand number in female mice. Average acinar cell volume was increased by ≈1.4-fold in glands from AQP5−/− mice, suggesting an alteration in the volume-sensing machinery of the cell. Western blots revealed that expression of Claudin-7, Claudin-3, and Occludin, critical proteins that regulate the permeability of the tight junction barrier, were significantly decreased in AQP5−/− compared with AQP5+/+ salivary glands. These findings reveal the existence of a gender-influenced molecular mechanism involving AQP5 that allows transcellular and paracellular routes of water transport to act in conjunction. PMID:17360692

  1. Quantitative analysis of tight junctions and the uptake of /sup 99m/Tc in human gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Nir, I.; Kohn, S.; Doron, Y.; Israel, O.; Front, D.

    1986-01-01

    The structural dimensions of capillary tight junctions and the uptake of /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate in human gliomas were studied. Quantitative analysis revealed a correlation between the uptake of radionuclides and the length of endothelial tight junctions. It is suggested that brain scintigraphy might be used for the selection of malignant brain tumors with altered tight junctions which might be accessible to chemotherapy with water-soluble agents.

  2. Alteration of Tight Junction Proteins Is an Early Event in Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Kirschner, Nina; Poetzl, Claudia; von den Driesch, Peter; Wladykowski, Ewa; Moll, Ingrid; Behne, Martin J.; Brandner, Johanna M.

    2009-01-01

    Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease characterized by hyperproliferation of keratinocytes, impaired barrier function, and pronounced infiltration of inflammatory cells. Tight junctions (TJs) are cell-cell junctions that form paracellular barriers for solutes and inflammatory cells. Altered localization of TJ proteins in the epidermis was described in plaque-type psoriasis. Here we show that localization of TJ proteins is already altered in early-stage psoriasis. Occludin, ZO-1, and claudin-4 are found in more layers than in normal epidermis, and claudin-1 and -7 are down-regulated in the basal and in the uppermost layers. In plaque-type psoriasis, the staining patterns of occludin and ZO-1 do not change, whereas the claudins are further down-regulated. Near transmigrating granulocytes, all TJ proteins except for junctional adhesion molecule-A are down-regulated. Treatment of cultured keratinocytes with interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, which are present at elevated levels in psoriatic skin, results in an increase of transepithelial resistance at early time points and a decrease at later time points. Injection of interleukin-1β into an ex vivo skin model leads to an up-regulation of occludin and ZO-1, resembling TJ protein alteration in early psoriasis. Our results show for the first time that alteration of TJ proteins is an early event in psoriasis and is not the consequence of the more profound changes found in plaque-type psoriasis. Our data indicate that cytokines are involved in alterations of TJ proteins observed in psoriasis. PMID:19661441

  3. Irinotecan disrupts tight junction proteins within the gut : implications for chemotherapy-induced gut toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wardill, Hannah R; Bowen, Joanne M; Al-Dasooqi, Noor; Sultani, Masooma; Bateman, Emma; Stansborough, Romany; Shirren, Joseph; Gibson, Rachel J

    2014-02-01

    Chemotherapy for cancer causes significant gut toxicity, leading to severe clinical manifestations and an increased economic burden. Despite much research, many of the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood hindering effective treatment options. Recently there has been renewed interest in the role tight junctions play in the pathogenesis of chemotherapy-induced gut toxicity. To delineate the underlying mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced gut toxicity, this study aimed to quantify the molecular changes in key tight junction proteins, ZO-1, claudin-1, and occludin, using a well-established preclinical model of gut toxicity. Female tumor-bearing dark agouti rats received irinotecan or vehicle control and were assessed for validated parameters of gut toxicity including diarrhea and weight loss. Rats were killed at 6, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h post-chemotherapy. Tight junction protein and mRNA expression in the small and large intestines were assessed using semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Significant changes in protein expression of tight junction proteins were seen in both the jejunum and colon, correlating with key histological changes and clinical features. mRNA levels of claudin-1 were significantly decreased early after irinotecan in the small and large intestines. ZO-1 and occludin mRNA levels remained stable across the time-course of gut toxicity. Findings strongly suggest irinotecan causes tight junction defects which lead to mucosal barrier dysfunction and the development of diarrhea. Detailed research is now warranted to investigate posttranslational regulation of tight junction proteins to delineate the underlying pathophysiology of gut toxicity and identify future therapeutic targets.

  4. Hyperoxia arrests pulmonary development in newborn rats via disruption of endothelial tight junctions and downregulation of Cx40.

    PubMed

    Li, Chong; Fu, Jianhua; Liu, Hongyu; Yang, Haiping; Yao, Li; You, Kai; Xue, Xindong

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated changes in vascular endothelial cell tight junction structure and the expression of the gene encoding connexin 40 (Cx40) at the early pneumonedema stage of hyperoxia‑induced bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in a newborn rat model. A total of 96 newborn rats were randomly assigned to one of the following two groups, the hyperoxia group (n=48) and the control group (n=48). A hyperoxia-induced BPD model was established for the first group, while rats in the control group were maintained under normoxic conditions. Extravasation of Evans Blue (EB) was measured; the severity of lung injury was assessed; a transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to examine the vascular endothelial cell tight junction structures, and immunohistochemical assay, western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to evaluate the expression of Cx40 at the mRNA and protein level. Our findings showed that injuries due to BPD are progressively intensified during the time-course of exposure to hyperoxic conditions. Pulmonary vascular permeability in the hyperoxia group reached the highest level at day 5, and was significantly higher compared to the control group. TEM observations demonstrated tight junctions between endothelial cells were extremely tight. In the hyperoxia group, no marked changes in the tight junction structure were found at days 1 and 3; paracellular gaps were visible between endothelial cells at days 5 and 7. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the Cx40 protein is mainly expressed in the vascular endothelial cells of lung tissue. Western blotting and RT-PCR assays showed a gradual decrease in Cx40 expression, depending on the exposure time to hyperoxic conditions. However, the Cx40 mRNA level reached a trough at 5 days. Overall, our study demonstrated that exposure to hyperoxia damages the tight junction structures between vascular endothelial cells and downregulates Cx40. We therefore conclude

  5. Regulation of tight junction permeability by sodium caprate in human keratinocytes and reconstructed epidermis

    SciTech Connect

    Kurasawa, Masumi; Kuroda, Shohei; Kida, Naoko; Murata, Michiyo; Oba, Ai; Yamamoto, Takuya; Sasaki, Hiroyuki

    2009-04-03

    Tight junctions (TJs) restrict paracellular flux of water and solutes in epithelia and endothelia. In epidermis, the physiological role of TJs is not fully understood. In this study, sodium caprate (C10), which dilates intestinal TJs, was applied to cultured human epidermal keratinocytes and reconstructed human epidermis to investigate the effects of C10 on epidermal TJs. C10 treatment decreased transepithelial electrical resistance and increased paracellular permeability, although Western blots showed that the expression of TJ-related transmembrane proteins was not decreased. The effects of C10 were reversible. Immunofluorescence microscopy and immuno-replica electron microscopy showed that the localization of TJ strands were disintegrated, concomitant with the dispersion and/or disappearance of TJ-related molecules from the cell surface. These findings suggest that C10 impairs barrier function by physically disrupting TJ conformation in the epidermis. Furthermore, these results also show that proper localization of the molecules on the cellular membrane is important for TJ barrier function.

  6. Tight Junctions: A Barrier to the Initiation and Progression of Breast Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Kieran; Offiah, Gozie; McSherry, Elaine A.; Hopkins, Ann M.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease that arises from epithelial cells lining the breast ducts and lobules. Correct adhesion between adjacent epithelial cells is important in determining the normal structure and function of epithelial tissues, and there is accumulating evidence that dysregulated cell-cell adhesion is associated with many cancers. This review will focus on one cell-cell adhesion complex, the tight junction (TJ), and summarize recent evidence that TJs may participate in breast cancer development or progression. We will first outline the protein composition of TJs and discuss the functions of the TJ complex. Secondly we will examine how alterations in these functions might facilitate breast cancer initiation or progression; by focussing on the regulatory influence of TJs on cell polarity, cell fate and cell migration. Finally we will outline how pharmacological targeting of TJ proteins may be useful in limiting breast cancer progression. Overall we hope to illustrate that the relationship between TJ alterations and breast cancer is a complex one; but that this area offers promise in uncovering fundamental mechanisms linked to breast cancer progression. PMID:19920867

  7. Cellular mechanisms of mainstream cigarette smoke-induced lung epithelial tight junction permeability changes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Olivera, Dorian S; Boggs, Susan E; Beenhouwer, Chris; Aden, James; Knall, Cindy

    2007-01-01

    Mainstream cigarette smoke increases the permeability of human airways; however, the mechanism for this increased permeability is poorly defined. Tight junctions between adjacent epithelial cells constitute the physiological barrier to fluid and macromolecules in epithelium. These structures are highly regulated by phosphorylation and their association with the cytoskeleton. The goal of these studies was to identify the signal transduction pathways that regulate smoke-induced permeability. Using a physiologically relevant air-liquid interface exposure system, electrically tight monolayers of the human bronchial epithelial cell-line Calu-3 were exposed to fresh, whole mainstream cigarette smoke. This exposure results in a regulated, dose-dependent loss of epithelial barrier function in the lung epithelial monolayers. With cigarette smoke exposure, transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) is decreased and albumin flux is increased, indicating a loss in barrier function to ions and macromolecules, respectively; however, both largely recover in 30 min. Smoke-induced losses of macromolecular barrier function are the result of multicellular junctional reorganization, resulting in increased leak volume rather than leak frequency. Inhibiting Rho kinase (ROCK) significantly reduces the smoke-induced permeability to both ions and macromolecules, while inhibiting protein tyrosine kinases (PTK) only reduces smoke-induced macromolecular permeability. Interestingly, inhibiting myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) exacerbates smoke-induced permeability, indicating that MLCK and ROCK have opposing regulatory roles. Our results demonstrate that the smoke-induced loss of epithelial barrier function in human bronchial epithelium is a regulated process rather than a cytotoxic response. Additionally, our results indicate that activation of PTK and ROCK and inactivation of MLCK contribute to the increased airway permeability caused by mainstream cigarette smoke.

  8. Tight junctions in the choroid plexus epithelium. A freeze-fracture study including complementary replicas

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    The tight junctions of the choroid plexus epithelium of rats were studied by freeze-fracture. In glutaraldehyde-fixed material, the junctions exhibited rows of aligned particles and short bars on P- faces, the E-faces showing grooves bearing relatively many particles. A particulate nature of the junctional strands could be established by using unfixed material. The mean values of junctional strands from the lateral, third, and fourth ventricles of Lewis rats were 7.5 +/- 2.6, 7.4 +/- 2.2, and 7.5 +/- 2.4; and of Sprague-Dawley rats 7.7 +/- 3.4, 7.4 +/- 2.3, and 7.3 +/- 1.6. Examination of complementary replicas (of fixed tissue) showed that discomtinuities are present in the junctional strands: 42.2 +/- 4.6% of the length of measured P-face ridges were discontinuities, and the total amount of complementary particles in E- face grooves constituted 17.8 +/- 4.4% of the total length of the grooves, thus approximately 25% of the junctional strands can be considered to be discontinuous. The average width of the discontinuities, when corrected for complementary particles in E-face grooves, was 7.7 +/- 4.5 nm. In control experiments with a "tighter" tight junction (small intestine), complementary replicas revealed that the junctional fibrils are rather continuous and that the very few particles in E-face grooves mostly filled out discontinuities in the P- face ridges. Approximately 5% of the strands were found to be discontinuous. These data support the notion that the presence of pores in the junctional strands of the choroid plexus epithelium may explain the high transepithelial conductance in a "leaky" epithelium having a high number of junctional strands. However, loss of junctional material during fracturing is also considered as an alternative explanation of the present results. PMID:457764

  9. Organization and formation of the tight junction system in human epidermis and cultured keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Brandner, Johanna M; Kief, Sabine; Grund, Christine; Rendl, Michael; Houdek, Pia; Kuhn, Caecilia; Tschachler, Erwin; Franke, Werner W; Moll, Ingrid

    2002-05-01

    Occludin and several proteins of the claudin family have been identiried in simple epithelia and in endothelia as major and structure-determining transmembrane proteins clustered in the barrier-forming tight junctions (TJ), where they are associated with a variety of TJ plaque proteins, including protein ZO-1. To examine whether TJ also occur in the squamous stratified epithelium of the interfollicular human epidermis we have applied several microscopic and biochemical techniques. Using RT-PCR techniques, we have identiried mRNAs encoding protein ZO-1, occludin and claudins 1, 4, 7, 8, 11, 12, and 17 in both tissues, skin and cultured keratinocytes, whereas claudins i and 10 have only been detected in skin tissue. By immunocytochemistry we have localized claudin-1, occludin and protein ZO-1 in distinct plasma membrane structures representing cell-cell attachment zones. While claudin-1 occurs in plasma membranes of all living cell layers, protein ZO-1 is concentrated in or even restricted to the uppermost layers, and occludin is often detected only in the stratum granulosum. Using electron microscopy, typical TJ structures ("kissing points") as well as some other apparently related junctional structures have been detected in the stratum granulosum, interspersed between desmosomes. Modes and patterns of TJ formation have also been studied in experimental model systems, e.g., during wound healing and stratification as well as in keratinocyte cultures during Ca2+-induced stratification. We conclude that the epidermis contains in the stratum granulosum a continuous zonula occludens-equivalent structure with typical TJ morphology and molecular composition, characterized by colocalization of occludin, claudins and TJ plaque proteins. In addition, cell-cell contact structures and certain TJ proteins can also be detected in other epidermal cell layers in specific cell contacts. The pattern of formation and possible functions of epidermal TJ and related structures are

  10. Curcumin improves intestinal barrier function: modulation of intracellular signaling, and organization of tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Ghosh, Siddhartha S; Ghosh, Shobha

    2017-04-01

    Association between circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and metabolic diseases (such as type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis) has shifted the focus from high-fat high-cholesterol containing Western-type diet (WD)-induced changes in gut microbiota per se to release of gut bacteria-derived products (e.g., LPS) into circulation due to intestinal barrier dysfunction as the possible mechanism for the chronic inflammatory state underlying the development of these diseases. We demonstrated earlier that oral supplementation with curcumin attenuates WD-induced development of type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Poor bioavailability of curcumin has precluded the establishment of a causal relationship between oral supplementation and it is in vivo effects. We hypothesized that curcumin attenuates WD-induced chronic inflammation and associated metabolic diseases by modulating the function of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and the intestinal barrier function. The objective of the present study was to delineate the underlying mechanisms. The human IEC lines Caco-2 and HT-29 were used for these studies and modulation of direct as well as indirect effects of LPS on intracellular signaling as well as tight junctions were examined. Pretreatment with curcumin significantly attenuated LPS-induced secretion of master cytokine IL-1β from IECs and macrophages. Furthermore, curcumin also reduced IL-1β-induced activation of p38 MAPK in IECs and subsequent increase in expression of myosin light chain kinase involved in the phosphorylation of tight junction proteins and ensuing disruption of their normal arrangement. The major site of action of curcumin is, therefore, likely the IECs and the intestinal barrier, and by reducing intestinal barrier dysfunction, curcumin modulates chronic inflammatory diseases despite poor bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Indigenous lactobacilli strains of food and human sources reverse enteropathogenic E. coli O26:H11-induced damage in intestinal epithelial cell lines: effect on redistribution of tight junction proteins.

    PubMed

    Jariwala, Ruchi; Mandal, Hemanti; Bagchi, Tamishraha

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the neutralizing effect of lactobacilli isolated from indigenous food and human sources on enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) O26 : H11-induced epithelial barrier dysfunction in vitro. This was assessed by transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability assays using intestinal cell lines, HT-29 and Caco-2. Furthermore, the expression and distribution of tight junction (TJ) proteins were analysed by qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence assay, respectively. The nine strains used in the study were from different species viz. Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillushelveticus, Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus plantarum. All strains were able to reverse the decrease in TEER and corresponding increase in permeability across E. coli-infected monolayers. Maximum reversal was observed after 18 h [up to 93.8±2.0 % by L. rhamnosus GG followed by L. fermentum IIs11.2 (92.6±2.2 %) and L. plantarum GRI-2 (91.9±0.9 %)] of lactobacilli exposure following EPEC O26 : H11 infection. All strains were able to redistribute the TJ proteins to the cell periphery either partially or completely. Moreover, L. helveticus FA-7 was also able to significantly increase the mRNA expression of ZO-1 and claudin-1 (2.5-fold and 3.0-fold, respectively; P<0.05). The rapid reversal observed by these strains could be mostly because of the redistribution rather than increased mRNA expression of TJ proteins. In conclusion, L. helveticus FA-7, L. fermentum FA-1 and L. plantarum GRI-2 were good in all the aspects studied, and the other strains were good in some aspects. L. helveticus FA-7, L. fermentum FA-1 and L. plantarum GRI-2 can therefore be used for potential therapeutic purpose against intestinal epithelial dysfunction.

  12. Model for the architecture of claudin-based paracellular ion channels through tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tamura, Atsushi; Tsukita, Sachiko; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori

    2015-01-30

    Claudins are main cell-cell adhesion molecules of tight junctions (TJs) between cells in epithelial sheets that form tight barriers that separate the apical from the basolateral space but also contain paracellular channels that regulate the flow of ions and solutes in between these intercellular spaces. Recently, the first crystal structure of a claudin was determined, that of claudin-15, which indicated the parts of the large extracellular domains that likely form the pore-lining surfaces of the paracellular channels. However, the crystal structure did not show how claudin molecules are arranged in the cell membrane to form the backbone of TJ strands and to mediate interactions between adjacent cells, information that is essential to understand how the paracellular channels in TJs function. Here, we propose that TJ strands consist of claudin protomers that assemble into antiparallel double rows. This model is based on cysteine crosslinking experiments that show claudin-15 to dimerize face to face through interactions between the edges of the extracellular β-sheets. Strands observed by freeze-fracture electron microscopy of TJs also show that their width is consistent with the dimensions of a claudin dimer. Furthermore, we propose that extracellular variable regions are responsible for head-to-head interactions of TJ strands in adjoining cells, thus resulting in the formation of paracellular channels. Our model of the TJ architecture provides a basis to discuss structural mechanisms underlying the selective ion permeability and barrier properties of TJs. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. ROCK activity regulates functional tight junction assembly during blastocyst formation in porcine parthenogenetic embryos

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jeongwoo

    2016-01-01

    The Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein serine/threonine kinases 1 and 2 (ROCK1 and ROCK2) are Rho subfamily GTPase downstream effectors that regulate cell migration, intercellular adhesion, cell polarity, and cell proliferation by stimulating actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Inhibition of ROCK proteins affects specification of the trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM) lineages, compaction, and blastocyst cavitation. However, the molecules involved in blastocyst formation are not known. Here, we examined developmental competence and levels of adherens/tight junction (AJ/TJ) constituent proteins, such as CXADR, OCLN, TJP1, and CDH1, as well as expression of their respective mRNAs, after treating porcine parthenogenetic four-cell embryos with Y-27632, a specific inhibitor of ROCK, at concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 100 µM for 24 h. Following this treatment, the blastocyst development rates were 39.1, 20.7, 10.0, and 0% respectively. In embryos treated with 20 µM treatment, expression levels of CXADR, OCLN, TJP1, and CDH1 mRNA and protein molecules were significantly reduced (P < 0.05). FITC-dextran uptake assay revealed that the treatment caused an increase in TE TJ permeability. Interestingly, the majority of the four-cell and morula embryos treated with 20 µM Y-27643 for 24 h showed defective compaction and cavitation. Taken together, our results indicate that ROCK activity may differentially affect assembly of AJ/TJs as well as regulate expression of genes encoding junctional proteins. PMID:27077008

  14. Delivery of Berberine Using Chitosan/Fucoidan-Taurine Conjugate Nanoparticles for Treatment of Defective Intestinal Epithelial Tight Junction Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shao-Jung; Don, Trong-Ming; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Mi, Fwu-Long

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial-derived lipopolysaccharides (LPS) can cause defective intestinal barrier function and play an important role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, a nanocarrier based on chitosan and fucoidan was developed for oral delivery of berberine (Ber). A sulfonated fucoidan, fucoidan-taurine (FD-Tau) conjugate, was synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The FD-Tau conjugate was self-assembled with berberine and chitosan (CS) to form Ber-loaded CS/FD-Tau complex nanoparticles with high drug loading efficiency. Berberine release from the nanoparticles had fast release in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF, pH 7.4), while the release was slow in simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 2.0). The effect of the berberine-loaded nanoparticles in protecting intestinal tight-junction barrier function against nitric oxide and inflammatory cytokines released from LPS-stimulated macrophage was evaluated by determining the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and paracellular permeability of a model macromolecule fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-dextran) in a Caco-2 cells/RAW264.7 cells co-culture system. Inhibition of redistribution of tight junction ZO-1 protein by the nanoparticles was visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results suggest that the nanoparticles may be useful for local delivery of berberine to ameliorate LPS-induced intestinal epithelia tight junction disruption, and that the released berberine can restore barrier function in inflammatory and injured intestinal epithelial. PMID:25421323

  15. Interleukin-8 Regulates Endothelial Permeability by Down-regulation of Tight Junction but not Dependent on Integrins Induced Focal Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongchi; Huang, Xianliang; Ma, Yunlong; Gao, Min; Wang, Ou; Gao, Ting; Shen, Yang; Liu, Xiaoheng

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a common inflammatory factor, which involves in various non-specific pathological processes of inflammation. It has been found that increased endothelial permeability accompanied with high expression of IL-8 at site of injured endothelium and atherosclerotic plaque at early stages, suggesting that IL-8 participated in regulating endothelial permeability in the developing processes of vascular disease. The purpose of this study is to investigate the regulation effects of IL-8 on the vascular endothelial permeability, and the mRNA and protein expression of tight junction components (i.e., ZO-1, Claudin-5 and Occludin). Endothelial cells were stimulated by IL-8 with the dose of 50, 100 and 200 ng/mL, and duration of 2, 4, 6, 8h, respectively. The mRNA and protein expression level of tight junction components with IL-8 under different concentration and duration was examined by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Meanwhile, the integrins induced focal adhesions event with IL-8 stimulation was also investigated. The results showed that IL-8 regulated the permeability of endothelium by down-regulation of tight junction in a dose- and time-dependence manner, but was not by integrins induced focal adhesions. This finding reveals the molecular mechanism in the increase of endothelial cell permeability induced by IL-8, which is expected to provide a new idea as a therapeutic target in vascular diseases. PMID:24155670

  16. Inactivation of hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α mediates alcohol-induced downregulation of intestinal tight junction proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wei; Zhao, Yantao; McClain, Craig J.; Kang, Y. James

    2010-01-01

    Chronic alcohol exposure has been shown to increase the gut permeability in the distal intestine, in part, through induction of zinc deficiency. The present study evaluated the molecular mechanisms whereby zinc deficiency mediates alcohol-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction. Examination of zinc finger transcription factors in the gastrointestinal tract of mice revealed a prominent distribution of hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α (HNF-4α). HNF-4α exclusively localizes in the epithelial nuclei and exhibited an increased abundance in mRNA and protein levels in the distal intestine. Chronic alcohol exposure to mice repressed the HNF-4α gene expression in the ileum and reduced the protein level and DNA binding activity of HNF-4α in all of the intestinal segments with the most remarkable changes in the ileum. Chronic alcohol exposure also decreased the mRNA levels of tight junction proteins, particularly in the ileum. Caco-2 cell culture studies were conducted to determine the role of HNF-4α in regulation of the epithelial tight junction and barrier function. Knockdown of HNF-4α in Caco-2 cells decreased the mRNA and protein levels of tight junction proteins in association with disruption of the epithelial barrier. Alcohol treatment inactivated HNF-4α, which was prevented by N-acetyl-cysteine or zinc. The link between zinc and HNF-4α function was confirmed by zinc deprivation, which inhibited HNF-4α DNA binding activity. These results indicate that inactivation of HNF-4α due to oxidative stress and zinc deficiency is likely a novel mechanism contributing to the deleterious effects of alcohol on the tight junctions and the intestinal barrier function. PMID:20576917

  17. Side-stream smoking reduces intestinal inflammation and increases expression of tight junction proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Zhao, Jun-Xing; Hu, Nan; Ren, Jun; Du, Min; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of side-stream smoking on gut microflora composition, intestinal inflammation and expression of tight junction proteins. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were exposed to side-stream cigarette smoking for one hour daily over eight weeks. Cecal contents were collected for microbial composition analysis. Large intestine was collected for immunoblotting and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses of the inflammatory pathway and tight junction proteins. RESULTS: Side-stream smoking induced significant changes in the gut microbiota with increased mouse intestinal bacteria, Clostridium but decreased Fermicutes (Lactoccoci and Ruminococcus), Enterobacteriaceae family and Segmented filamentous baceteria compared to the control mice. Meanwhile, side-stream smoking inhibited the nuclear factor-κB pathway with reduced phosphorylation of p65 and IκBα, accompanied with unchanged mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α or interleukin-6. The contents of tight junction proteins, claudin3 and ZO2 were up-regulated in the large intestine of mice exposed side-stream smoking. In addition, side-stream smoking increased c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 MAPK kinase signaling, while inhibiting AMP-activated protein kinase in the large intestine. CONCLUSION: Side-stream smoking altered gut microflora composition and reduced the inflammatory response, which was associated with increased expression of tight junction proteins. PMID:22611310

  18. Structural and functional regulation of tight junctions by RhoA and Rac1 small GTPases.

    PubMed

    Jou, T S; Schneeberger, E E; Nelson, W J

    1998-07-13

    Tight junctions (TJ) govern ion and solute diffusion through the paracellular space (gate function), and restrict mixing of membrane proteins and lipids between membrane domains (fence function) of polarized epithelial cells. We examined roles of the RhoA and Rac1 GTPases in regulating TJ structure and function in MDCK cells using the tetracycline repressible transactivator to regulate RhoAV14, RhoAN19, Rac1V12, and Rac1N17 expression. Both constitutively active and dominant negative RhoA or Rac1 perturbed TJ gate function (transepithelial electrical resistance, tracer diffusion) in a dose-dependent and reversible manner. Freeze-fracture EM and immunofluoresence microscopy revealed abnormal TJ strand morphology and protein (occludin, ZO-1) localization in RhoAV14 and Rac1V12 cells. However, TJ strand morphology and protein localization appeared normal in RhoAN19 and Rac1N17 cells. All mutant GTPases disrupted the fence function of the TJ (interdomain diffusion of a fluorescent lipid), but targeting and organization of a membrane protein in the apical membrane were unaffected. Expression levels and protein complexes of occludin and ZO-1 appeared normal in all mutant cells, although ZO-1 was more readily solubilized from RhoAV14-expressing cells with Triton X-100. These results show that RhoA and Rac1 regulate gate and fence functions of the TJ, and play a role in the spatial organization of TJ proteins at the apex of the lateral membrane.

  19. Phosphorylation of the Tight Junction Protein Occludin Regulates Epithelial Monolayer Proliferation and Maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolinger, Mark Thomas

    Barriers against the external environment are crucial for sustaining life in multicellular organisms, and form following convergent growth and development of cell-cell junctions. At least four types of epithelial cell-cell junctions exist, the most apical of which is known as the tight junction (TJ). A specific transmembrane protein known as occludin is highly phosphorylated on its C-terminal coiled-coil, and certain sites have been found to regulate specific aspects of TJ function, including the response to certain cytokines. Previously, our lab discovered a novel phosphosite at serine 471 that is located at a contact site with an important central organizer of the TJ, zonula occludens-1. Phosphoinhibitory, serine to alanine (S471A) occludin point mutant MDCK cell lines demonstrate that S471A monolayers are poorly organized compared to WT occludin (WT Occ) or phosphomimetic, serine to aspartic acid (S471D) lines. Additionally, S471A monolayers are composed of fewer, larger cells than controls, and exhibit proliferative arrest almost immediately following confluency, in contrast to control lines, which go through at least one additional round of proliferation. This phenotype can be recapitulated with a cell cycle inhibitor, demonstrating that confluent proliferation or cell packing is necessary for barrier maturation. G-protein coupled receptor kinase (GRK) was confirmed to be an S471 kinase by inhibitor experiments from a bioinformatically compiled candidate kinase list, and GRK inhibitors were able to recapitulate the phenotype of S471A lines. Finally, S471A expression perturbed purified coiled-coil stability as determined by NMR. Modeling of inter-coil interactions identified several possible hydrogen bonds that differ between the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms. Expression of S471N (asparagine) transgenic occludin in vitro demonstrated highly organized border organization despite the lack of a negative charge at the S471 position. This result

  20. Effect of vitamin D receptor knockout on cornea ep