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Sample records for cell toll-like receptor-2

  1. Toll-like receptor 2 ligands promote microglial cell death by inducing autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, Daniela S.; Soria, Javier A.; Gaviglio, Emilia A.; Garcia-Keller, Constanza; Cancela, Liliana M.; Rodriguez-Galan, Maria C.; Wang, Ji Ming; Iribarren, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Microglial cells are phagocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) and become activated in pathological conditions, resulting in microgliosis, manifested by increased cell numbers and inflammation in the affected regions. Thus, controlling microgliosis is important to prevent pathological damage to the brain. Here, we evaluated the contribution of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) to microglial survival. We observed that activation of microglial cells with peptidoglycan (PGN) from Staphylococcus aureus and other TLR2 ligands results in cell activation followed by the induction of autophagy and autophagy-dependent cell death. In C57BL/6J mice, intracerebral injection of PGN increased the autophagy of microglial cells and reduced the microglial/macrophage cell number in brain parenchyma. Our results demonstrate a novel role of TLRs in the regulation of microglial cell activation and survival, which are important for the control of microgliosis and associated inflammatory responses in the CNS.—Arroyo, D. S., Soria, J. A., Gaviglio, E. A., Garcia-Keller, C., Cancela, L. M., Rodriguez-Galan, M. C., Wang, J. M., Iribarren, P. Toll-like receptor 2 ligands promote microglial cell death by inducing autophagy. PMID:23073832

  2. Toll-like receptor 2 ligands promote microglial cell death by inducing autophagy.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Daniela S; Soria, Javier A; Gaviglio, Emilia A; Garcia-Keller, Constanza; Cancela, Liliana M; Rodriguez-Galan, Maria C; Wang, Ji Ming; Iribarren, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Microglial cells are phagocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) and become activated in pathological conditions, resulting in microgliosis, manifested by increased cell numbers and inflammation in the affected regions. Thus, controlling microgliosis is important to prevent pathological damage to the brain. Here, we evaluated the contribution of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) to microglial survival. We observed that activation of microglial cells with peptidoglycan (PGN) from Staphylococcus aureus and other TLR2 ligands results in cell activation followed by the induction of autophagy and autophagy-dependent cell death. In C57BL/6J mice, intracerebral injection of PGN increased the autophagy of microglial cells and reduced the microglial/macrophage cell number in brain parenchyma. Our results demonstrate a novel role of TLRs in the regulation of microglial cell activation and survival, which are important for the control of microgliosis and associated inflammatory responses in the CNS.

  3. Non-cell-autonomous Neurotoxicity of α-synuclein Through Microglial Toll-like Receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changyoun; Lee, He-Jin; Masliah, Eliezer; Lee, Seung-Jae

    2016-06-01

    Synucleinopathies are a collection of neurological diseases that are characterized by deposition of α-synuclein aggregates in neurons and glia. These diseases include Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. Although it has been increasingly clear that α-synuclein is implicated in the pathogenesis of PD and other synucleinopathies, the precise mechanism underlying the disease process remains to be unraveled. The past studies on how α-synuclein exerts pathogenic actions have focused on its direct, cell-autonomous neurotoxic effects. However, recent findings suggested that there might be indirect, non-cell-autonomous pathways, perhaps through the changes in glial cells, for the pathogenic actions of this protein. Here, we present evidence that α-synuclein can cause neurodegeneration through a non-cell-autonomous manner. We show that α-synuclein can be secreted from neurons and induces inflammatory responses in microglia, which in turn secreted neurotoxic agents into the media causing neurodegeneration. The neurotoxic response of microglia was mediated by activation of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), a receptor for neuron-derived α-synuclein. This work suggests that TLR2 is the key molecule that mediates non-cell-autonomous neurotoxic effects of α-synuclein, hence a candidate for the therapeutic target.

  4. Toll-Like Receptor 2 and Mincle Cooperatively Sense Corynebacterial Cell Wall Glycolipids.

    PubMed

    Schick, Judith; Etschel, Philipp; Bailo, Rebeca; Ott, Lisa; Bhatt, Apoorva; Lepenies, Bernd; Kirschning, Carsten; Burkovski, Andreas; Lang, Roland

    2017-07-01

    Nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans cause invasive disease in humans and animals. Host sensing of corynebacteria is largely uncharacterized, albeit the recognition of lipoglycans by Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) appears to be important for macrophage activation by corynebacteria. The members of the order Corynebacterineae (e.g., mycobacteria, nocardia, and rhodococci) share a glycolipid-rich cell wall dominated by mycolic acids (termed corynomycolic acids in corynebacteria). The mycolic acid-containing cord factor of mycobacteria, trehalose dimycolate, activates the C-type lectin receptor (CLR) Mincle. Here, we show that glycolipid extracts from the cell walls of several pathogenic and nonpathogenic Corynebacterium strains directly bound to recombinant Mincle in vitro Macrophages deficient in Mincle or its adapter protein Fc receptor gamma chain (FcRγ) produced severely reduced amounts of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and of nitric oxide (NO) upon challenge with corynebacterial glycolipids. Consistently, cell wall extracts of a particular C. diphtheriae strain (DSM43989) lacking mycolic acid esters neither bound Mincle nor activated macrophages. Furthermore, TLR2 but not TLR4 was critical for sensing of cell wall extracts and whole corynebacteria. The upregulation of Mincle expression upon encountering corynebacteria required TLR2. Thus, macrophage activation by the corynebacterial cell wall relies on TLR2-driven robust Mincle expression and the cooperative action of both receptors. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Toll like Receptor 2 engagement on CD4(+) T cells promotes TH9 differentiation and function.

    PubMed

    Karim, Ahmad Faisal; Reba, Scott M; Li, Qing; Boom, W Henry; Rojas, Roxana E

    2017-09-01

    We have recently demonstrated that mycobacterial ligands engage Toll like receptor 2 (TLR2) on CD4(+) T cells and up-regulate T-cell receptor (TCR) triggered Th1 responses in vitro and in vivo. To better understand the role of T-cell expressed TLR2 on CD4(+) T-cell differentiation and function, we conducted a gene expression analysis of murine naïve CD4(+) T-cells stimulated in the presence or absence of TLR2 co-stimulation. Unexpectedly, naïve CD4(+) T-cells co-stimulated via TLR2 showed a significant up-regulation of Il9 mRNA compared to cells co-stimulated via CD28. Under TH9 differentiation, we observed up-regulation of TH9 differentiation, evidenced by increases in both percent of IL-9 secreting cells and IL-9 in culture supernatants in the presence of TLR2 agonist both in polyclonal and Ag85B cognate peptide specific stimulations. Under non-polarizing conditions, TLR2 engagement on CD4(+) T-cells had minimal effect on IL-9 secretion and TH9 differentiation, likely due to a prominent effect of TLR2 signaling on IFN-γ secretion and TH1 differentiation. We also report that, TLR2 signaling in CD4(+) T cells increased expression of transcription factors BATF and PU.1, known to positively regulate TH9 differentiation. These results reveal a novel role of T-cell expressed TLR2 in enhancing the differentiation and function of TH9 T cells. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Toll-like receptor 2 activation and serum amyloid A regulate smooth muscle cell extracellular matrix

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Christopher A.; Best, Michael; Rich, Celeste B.; Stone, Phillip J.

    2017-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells contribute to extracellular matrix remodeling during atherogenesis. De-differentiated, synthetic smooth muscle cells are involved in processes of migration, proliferation and changes in expression of extracellular matrix components, all of which contribute to loss of homeostasis accompanying atherogenesis. Elevated levels of acute phase proteins, including serum amyloid A (SAA), are associated with an increased risk for atherosclerosis. Although infection with periodontal and respiratory pathogens via activation of inflammatory cell Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 has been linked to vascular disease, little is known about smooth muscle cell TLR2 in atherosclerosis. This study addresses the role of SAA and TLR2 activation on smooth muscle cell matrix gene expression and insoluble elastin accumulation. Cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells were treated with SAA or TLR2 agonists and the effect on expression of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9) and tropoelastin studied. SAA up-regulated MMP9 expression. Tropoelastin is an MMP9 substrate and decreased tropoelastin levels in SAA-treated cells supported the concept of extracellular matrix remodeling. Interestingly, SAA-induced down-regulation of tropoelastin was not only evident at the protein level but at the level of gene transcription as well. Contributions of proteasomes, nuclear factor κ B and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β on regulation of MMP9 vs. tropoleastin expression were revealed. Effects on Mmp9 and Eln mRNA expression persisted with long-term SAA treatment, resulting in decreased insoluble elastin accumulation. Interestingly, the SAA effects were TLR2-dependent and TLR2 activation by bacterial ligands also induced MMP9 expression and decreased tropoelastin expression. These data reveal a novel mechanism whereby SAA and/or infection induce changes in vascular elastin consistent with atherosclerosis. PMID:28257481

  7. Toll like receptor-2 regulates production of glial-derived neurotrophic factors in murine intestinal smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Brun, Paola; Gobbo, Serena; Caputi, Valentina; Spagnol, Lisa; Schirato, Giulia; Pasqualin, Matteo; Levorato, Elia; Palù, Giorgio; Giron, Maria Cecilia; Castagliuolo, Ignazio

    2015-09-01

    Gut microbiota-innate immunity axis is emerging as a key player to guarantee the structural and functional integrity of the enteric nervous system (ENS). Alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota, derangement in signaling of innate immune receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and modifications in the neurochemical coding of the ENS have been associated with a variety of gastrointestinal disorders. Indeed, TLR2 activation by microbial products controls the ENS structure and regulates intestinal neuromuscular function. However, the cellular populations and the molecular mechanisms shaping the plasticity of enteric neurons in response to gut microbes are largely unexplored. In this study, smooth muscle cells (SMCs), enteric glial cells (EGCs) and macrophages/dendritic cells (MΦ/DCs) were isolated and cultured from the ileal longitudinal muscle layer of wild-type (WT) and Toll-like receptor-2 deficient (TLR2(-/-)) mice. Quantification of mRNA levels of neurotrophins at baseline and following stimulation with TLR ligands was performed by RT-PCR. To determine the role of neurotrophins in supporting the neuronal phenotype, we performed co-culture experiments of enteric neurons with the conditioned media of cells isolated from the longitudinal muscle layer of WT or TLR2(-/-) mice. The neuronal phenotype was investigated evaluating the expression of βIII-tubulin, HuC/D, and nNOS by immunocytochemistry. As detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, SMCs expressed mRNA coding TLR1-9. Among the tested cell populations, un-stimulated SMCs were the most prominent sources of neurotrophins. Stimulation with TLR2, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR9 ligands further increased Gdnf, Ngf, Bdnf and Lif mRNA levels in SMCs. Enteric neurons isolated from TLR2(-/-) mice exhibited smaller ganglia, fewer HuC/D(+ve) and nNOS(+ve) neurons and shorter βIII-tubulin axonal networks as compared to neurons cultured from WT mice. The co-culture with the conditioned media from WT-SMCs but not with

  8. Toll-like receptor 2 controls expansion and function of regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Sutmuller, Roger P.M.; den Brok, Martijn H.M.G.M.; Kramer, Matthijs; Bennink, Erik J.; Toonen, Liza W.J.; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Joosten, Leo A.; Akira, Shizuo; Netea, Mihai G.; Adema, Gosse J.

    2006-01-01

    Tregs play a central role in the suppression of immune reactions and prevention of autoimmune responses harmful to the host. During acute infection, however, Tregs might hinder effector T cell activity directed toward the elimination of the pathogenic challenge. Pathogen recognition receptors from the TLR family expressed by innate immune cells are crucial for the generation of effective immunity. We have recently shown the CD4+CD25+ Treg subset in TLR2–/– mice to be significantly reduced in number compared with WT littermate control mice, indicating a link between Tregs and TLR2. Here, we report that the TLR2 ligand Pam3Cys, but not LPS (TLR4) or CpG (TLR9), directly acts on purified Tregs in a MyD88-dependent fashion. Moreover, when combined with TCR stimulation, TLR2 triggering augmented Treg proliferation in vitro and in vivo and resulted in a temporal loss of the suppressive Treg phenotype in vitro by directly affecting Tregs. Importantly, WT Tregs adoptively transferred into TLR2–/– mice were neutralized by systemic administration of TLR2 ligand during the acute phase of a Candida albicans infection, resulting in a 100-fold reduced C. albicans outgrowth. This demonstrates that in vivo TLR2 also controls the function of Tregs and establishes a direct link between TLRs and the control of immune responses through Tregs. PMID:16424940

  9. Cultured Mesenchymal Stem Cells Stimulate an Immune Response by Providing Immune Cells with Toll-Like Receptor 2 Ligand.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Ada; Pevsner-Fischer, Meirav; Porat, Ziv; Selitrennik, Michael; Zipori, Dov

    2015-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) serve as supporting and regulatory cells, by providing tissues with multiple factors and are also known for their immunosuppressive capabilities. Our laboratory had previously shown that MSCs expressed toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and are activated by its ligand Pam3Cys. TLR2 is an important component of the innate immune system, as it recognizes bacterial lipopeptides, thus priming a pro-inflammatory immune response. This study showed that Pam3Cys attached extensively to cells of both wild-type and TLR2 deficient cultured MSCs, thus, independently of TLR2. The TLR2 independent binding occurred through the adsorption of the palmitoyl moieties of Pam3Cys. It was further showed that Pam3Cys was transferred from cultured MSCs to immune cells. Moreover, Pam3Cys provided to the immune cells induced a pro-inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo. Overall, it is demonstrated herein that a TLR2 ligand bound to MSCs also through a TLR2 independent mechanism. Furthermore, the ligand incorporated by MSCs is subsequently released to stimulate an immune response both in vitro and in vivo. It is thus suggested that during bacterial infection, stromal cells may retain a reservoir of the TLR2 ligands, in a long-term manner, and release them slowly to maintain an immune response.

  10. The Novel Toll-Like Receptor 2 Agonist SUP3 Enhances Antigen Presentation and T Cell Activation by Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xueheng; Wu, Ning; Shang, Yingli; Liu, Xin; Wu, Tao; Zhou, Yifan; Liu, Xin; Huang, Jiaoyan; Liao, Xuebin; Wu, Li

    2017-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are highly specialized antigen-presenting cells that play crucial roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Previous studies suggested that Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists could be used as potential adjuvants, as activation of TLRs can boost DC-induced immune responses. TLR2 agonists have been shown to enhance DC-mediated immune responses. However, classical TLR2 agonists such as Pam3CSK4 are not stable enough in vivo, which limits their clinical applications. In this study, a novel structurally stable TLR2 agonist named SUP3 was designed. Functional analysis showed that SUP3 induced much stronger antitumor response than Pam3CSK4 by promoting cytotoxic T lymphocytes activation in vivo. This effect was achieved through the following mechanisms: SUP3 strongly enhanced the ability of antigen cross-presentation by DCs and subsequent T cell activation. SUP3 upregulated the expression of costimulatory molecules on DCs and increased antigen deposition in draining lymph nodes. More interestingly, SUP3 induced less amount of pro-inflammatory cytokine production in vivo compared to other TLR agonists such as lipopolysaccharide. Taken together, SUP3 could serve as a novel promising immune adjuvant in vaccine development and immune modulations. PMID:28270814

  11. Pathogen recognition by Toll-like receptor 2 activates Weibel-Palade body exocytosis in human aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Into, Takeshi; Kanno, Yosuke; Dohkan, Jun-ichi; Nakashima, Misako; Inomata, Megumi; Shibata, Ken-ichiro; Lowenstein, Charles J; Matsushita, Kenji

    2007-03-16

    The endothelial cell-specific granule Weibel-Palade body releases vasoactive substances capable of modulating vascular inflammation. Although innate recognition of pathogens by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is thought to play a crucial role in promotion of inflammatory responses, the molecular basis for early-phase responses of endothelial cells to bacterial pathogens has not fully been understood. We here report that human aortic endothelial cells respond to bacterial lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and synthetic bacterial lipopeptides, but not lipopolysaccharide or peptidoglycan, to induce Weibel-Palade body exocytosis, accompanied by release or externalization of the storage components von Willebrand factor and P-selectin. LTA could activate rapid Weibel-Palade body exocytosis through a TLR2- and MyD88-dependent mechanism without de novo protein synthesis. This process was at least mediated through MyD88-dependent phosphorylation and activation of phospholipase Cgamma. Moreover, LTA activated interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1-dependent delayed exocytosis with de novo protein synthesis and phospholipase Cgamma-dependent activation of the NF-kappaB pathway. Increased TLR2 expression by transfection or interferon-gamma treatment increased TLR2-mediated Weibel-Palade body exocytosis, whereas reduced TLR2 expression under laminar flow decreased the response. Thus, we propose a novel role for TLR2 in induction of a primary proinflammatory event in aortic endothelial cells through Weibel-Palade body exocytosis, which may be an important step for linking innate recognition of bacterial pathogens to vascular inflammation.

  12. Serum Amyloid A Promotes E-Selectin Expression via Toll-Like Receptor 2 in Human Aortic Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the periodontium. Recent studies suggest an association between periodontal and cardiovascular diseases. However, the detailed molecular mechanism is unknown. A previous study has demonstrated that experimental periodontitis induces serum amyloid A (SAA) in the liver and peripheral blood of ApoE-deficient mice as an atherosclerosis model. SAA is an acute-phase protein that affects systemic inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the atherosclerosis-onset mechanism using human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) stimulated by SAA in vitro. Atherosclerosis PCR array and qPCR analyses showed upregulation of adhesion molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin in HAECs upon SAA stimulation. In addition, the results demonstrated that Toll-like receptor, TLR2, could serve as an important receptor of SAA in HAECs. Furthermore, small interfering RNA (siRNA) against TLR2 inhibited the upregulation of adhesion molecules in HAECs stimulated by SAA. Our results suggest that SAA stimulates the expression of adhesion molecules via TLR2. SAA could be an important molecule for atherosclerosis induced by periodontal disease. PMID:27799725

  13. Sterile inflammation as a factor in human male infertility: Involvement of Toll like receptor 2, biglycan and peritubular cells

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, C.; Adam, M.; Glashauser, L.; Dietrich, K.; Schwarzer, J.U.; Köhn, F.-M.; Strauss, L.; Welter, H.; Poutanen, M.; Mayerhofer, A.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the wall of seminiferous tubules in men with impaired spermatogenesis imply sterile inflammation of the testis. We tested the hypothesis that the cells forming the wall of seminiferous tubules, human testicular peritubular cells (HTPCs), orchestrate inflammatory events and that Toll like receptors (TLRs) and danger signals from the extracellular matrix (ECM) of this wall are involved. In cultured HTPCs we detected TLRs, including TLR2. A TLR-2 ligand (PAM) augmented interleukin 6 (IL-6), monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and pentraxin 3 (PTX3) in HTPCs. The ECM-derived proteoglycan biglycan (BGN) is secreted by HTPCs and may be a TLR2-ligand at HTPCs. In support, recombinant human BGN increased PTX3, MCP-1 and IL-6 in HTPCs. Variable endogenous BGN levels in HTPCs derived from different men and differences in BGN levels in the tubular wall in infertile men were observed. In testes of a systemic mouse model for male infertility, testicular sterile inflammation and elevated estradiol (E2) levels, BGN was also elevated. Hence we studied the role of E2 in HTPCs and observed that E2 elevated the levels of BGN. The anti-estrogen ICI 182,780 blocked this action. We conclude that TLR2 and BGN contribute to sterile inflammation and infertility in man. PMID:27849015

  14. Activation of Toll-like receptor 2 on microglia promotes cell uptake of Alzheimer disease-associated amyloid beta peptide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Keqiang; Iribarren, Pablo; Hu, Jinyue; Chen, Jianhong; Gong, Wanghua; Cho, Edward H; Lockett, Stephen; Dunlop, Nancy M; Wang, Ji Ming

    2006-02-10

    The human G-protein-coupled formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL1) and its mouse homologue mFPR2 mediate the chemotactic activity of a variety of polypeptides associated with inflammation and bacterial infection, including the 42-amino acid form of amyloid beta peptide (Abeta42), a pathogenic factor in Alzheimer disease. Because mFPR2 was inducible in mouse microglial cells by proinflammatory stimulants, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide, a ligand for the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), we investigated the role of TLR2 in the regulation of mFPR2. We found that a TLR2 agonist, peptidoglycan (PGN) derived from Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, induced considerable mFpr2 mRNA expression in a mouse microglial cell line and primary microglial cells. This was associated with a markedly increased chemotaxis of the cells in response to mFPR2 agonist peptides. In addition, activation of TLR2 markedly enhanced mFPR2-mediated uptake of Abeta42 by microglia. Studies of the mechanistic basis showed that PGN activates MAPK and IkappaBalpha, and the effect of PGN on induction of mFPR2 was dependent on signaling pathways via ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs. The use of TLR2 on microglial cells by PGN was supported by the fact that N9 cells transfected with short interfering RNA targeting mouse TLR2 failed to show increased expression of functional mFPR2 after stimulation with PGN. Our results demonstrated a potentially important role for TLR2 in microglial cells of promoting cell responses to chemoattractants produced in lesions of inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases in the brain.

  15. Human airway epithelial cell responses to Neisseria lactamica and purified porin via Toll-like receptor 2-dependent signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuping; Wetzler, Lee M; Nascimento, Laura Oliveira; Massari, Paola

    2010-12-01

    The human airway epithelium is constantly exposed to microbial products from colonizing organisms. Regulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and specific interactions with bacterial ligands is thought to mitigate exacerbation of inflammatory processes induced by the commensal flora in these cells. The genus Neisseria comprises pathogenic and commensal organisms that colonize the human nasopharynx. Neisseria lactamica is not associated with disease, but N. meningitidis occasionally invades the host, causing meningococcal disease and septicemia. Upon colonization of the airway epithelium, specific host cell receptors interact with numerous Neisseria components, including the PorB porin, at the immediate bacterial-host cell interface. This major outer membrane protein is expressed by all Neisseria strains, regardless of pathogenicity, but its amino acid sequence varies among strains, particularly in the surface-exposed regions. The interaction of Neisseria PorB with TLR2 is essential for driving TLR2/TLR1-dependent cellular responses and is thought to occur via the porin's surface-exposed loop regions. Our studies show that N. lactamica PorB is a TLR2 ligand but its binding specificity for TLR2 is different from that of meningococcal PorB. Furthermore, N. lactamica PorB is a poor inducer of proinflammatory mediators and of TLR2 expression in human airway epithelial cells. These effects are reproduced by whole N. lactamica organisms. Since the responsiveness of human airway epithelial cells to colonizing bacteria is in part regulated via TLR2 expression and signaling, commensal organisms such as N. lactamica would benefit from expressing a product that induces low TLR2-dependent local inflammation, likely delaying or avoiding clearance by the host.

  16. Biglycan induces the expression of osteogenic factors in human aortic valve interstitial cells via Toll-like receptor 2

    PubMed Central

    Song, Rui; Zeng, Qingchun; Ao, Lihua; Yu, Jessica A.; Cleveland, Joseph C.; Zhao, Ke-seng; Fullerton, David A.; Meng, Xianzhong

    2012-01-01

    Background While biglycan and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) accumulation has been observed in calcific, stenotic aortic valves, their role in the pathogenesis of calcific aortic valve disease is poorly understood. We hypothesized that soluble biglycan induces the osteogenic response in human aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) via Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4, and mediates the pro-osteogenic effect of oxLDL. Methods and Results AVICs of stenotic valves express higher levels of biglycan. Stimulation of cells from normal valves with biglycan increased the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) among the chondrogenic/osterogenic markers examined, and caused accumulation of calcium deposits. TLR2 silencing, but not TLR4 silencing, reduced BMP-2 and ALP levels following biglycan stimulation although co-immunoprecipitation revealed that biglycan intercts with both TLR2 and TLR4. Biglycan induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and NF-κB. Inhibition of ERK1/2 markedly reduced the up-regulation of BMP-2 and ALP expression by biglycan while inhibition of p38 MAPK or NF-κB had a moderate effect. Stimulation of AVICs with oxLDL up-regulated biglycan expression and release. Knockdown neutralization of biglycan reduced the effect of oxLDL on BMP-2 and ALP expression. Conclusion Extracellular soluble biglycan induces the expression of BMP-2 and ALP in human AVICs primarily via TLR2 and contributes to the the pro-osteogenic effect of oxLDL. These findings highlight the potential role of soluble biglycan and oxLDL in the development of calcific aortic valve disease. PMID:22982459

  17. Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 contribute to sepsis-induced depletion of spleen dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Pène, Frédéric; Courtine, Emilie; Ouaaz, Fatah; Zuber, Benjamin; Sauneuf, Bertrand; Sirgo, Gonzalo; Rousseau, Christophe; Toubiana, Julie; Balloy, Viviane; Chignard, Michel; Mira, Jean-Paul; Chiche, Jean-Daniel

    2009-12-01

    Depletion of dendritic cells (DC) in secondary lymphoid organs is a hallmark of sepsis-induced immune dysfunction. In this setting, we investigated if Toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent signaling might modulate the maturation process and the survival of DC. Using a model of sublethal polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture, we investigated the quantitative and functional features of spleen DC in wild-type, TLR2(-/-), TLR4(-/-), and TLR2(-/-) TLR4(-/-) mice. By 24 h, a decrease in the relative percentage of CD11c(high) spleen DC occurred in wild-type mice but was prevented in TLR2(-/-), TLR4(-/-), and TLR2(-/-) TLR4(-/-) mice. In wild-type mice, sepsis dramatically affected both CD11c(+) CD8alpha(+) and CD11c(+) CD8alpha(-) subsets. In all three types of knockout mice studied, the CD11c(+) CD8alpha(+) subset followed a depletion pattern similar to that for wild-type mice. In contrast, the loss of CD11c(+) CD8alpha(-) cells was attenuated in TLR2(-/-) and TLR4(-/-) mice and completely prevented in TLR2(-/-) TLR4(-/-) mice. Accordingly, apoptosis of spleen DC was increased in septic wild-type mice and inhibited in knockout mice. In addition we characterized the functional features of spleen DC obtained from septic mice. As shown by increased expression of major histocompatibility complex class II and CD86, polymicrobial sepsis induced maturation of DC, with subsequent increased capacity to prime T lymphocytes, similarly in wild-type and knockout mice. In response to CpG DNA stimulation, production of interleukin-12 was equally impaired in DC obtained from wild-type and knockout septic mice. In conclusion, although dispensable for the DC maturation process, TLR2 and TLR4 are involved in the mechanisms leading to depletion of spleen DC following polymicrobial sepsis.

  18. Lactobacillus acidophilus induces virus immune defence genes in murine dendritic cells by a Toll-like receptor-2-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Gudrun; Rasmussen, Simon; Zeuthen, Louise Hjerrild; Nielsen, Birgit Nøhr; Jarmer, Hanne; Jespersen, Lene; Frøkiaer, Hanne

    2010-10-01

    Lactobacilli are probiotics that, among other health-promoting effects, have been ascribed immunostimulating and virus-preventive properties. Certain Lactobacillus spp. have been shown to possess strong interleukin-12 (IL-12) -inducing properties. As IL-12 production depends on the up-regulation of type I interferons (IFNs), we hypothesized that the strong IL-12-inducing capacity of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM in murine bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) is caused by an up-regulation of IFN-β, which subsequently induces IL-12 and the double-stranded RNA binding Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR-3). The expression of the genes encoding IFN-β, TLR-3, IL-12 and IL-10 in DCs upon stimulation with L. acidophilus NCFM was determined. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM induced a much stronger expression of Ifn-β, Il-12 and Il-10 compared with the synthetic double-stranded RNA ligand Poly I:C, whereas the levels of expressed Tlr-3 were similar. Whole genome microarray gene expression analysis revealed that other genes related to viral defence were significantly up-regulated and among the strongest induced genes in DCs stimulated with L. acidophilus NCFM. The ability to induce IFN-β was also detected in another L. acidophilus strain (X37), but was not a property of other probiotic strains tested, i.e. Bifidobacterium bifidum Z9 and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. The IFN-β expression was markedly reduced in TLR-2(-/-) DCs, dependent on endocytosis, and the major cause of the induction of Il-12 and Tlr-3 in DCs stimulated with L. acidophilus NCFM. Collectively, our results reveal that certain lactobacilli trigger the expression of viral defence genes in DCs in a TLR-2 manner dependent on IFN-β.

  19. Lactobacillus acidophilus induces virus immune defence genes in murine dendritic cells by a Toll-like receptor-2-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Gudrun; Rasmussen, Simon; Zeuthen, Louise Hjerrild; Nielsen, Birgit Nøhr; Jarmer, Hanne; Jespersen, Lene; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    Lactobacilli are probiotics that, among other health-promoting effects, have been ascribed immunostimulating and virus-preventive properties. Certain Lactobacillus spp. have been shown to possess strong interleukin-12 (IL-12) -inducing properties. As IL-12 production depends on the up-regulation of type I interferons (IFNs), we hypothesized that the strong IL-12-inducing capacity of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM in murine bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) is caused by an up-regulation of IFN-β, which subsequently induces IL-12 and the double-stranded RNA binding Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR-3). The expression of the genes encoding IFN-β, TLR-3, IL-12 and IL-10 in DCs upon stimulation with L. acidophilus NCFM was determined. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM induced a much stronger expression of Ifn-β, Il-12 and Il-10 compared with the synthetic double-stranded RNA ligand Poly I:C, whereas the levels of expressed Tlr-3 were similar. Whole genome microarray gene expression analysis revealed that other genes related to viral defence were significantly up-regulated and among the strongest induced genes in DCs stimulated with L. acidophilus NCFM. The ability to induce IFN-β was also detected in another L. acidophilus strain (X37), but was not a property of other probiotic strains tested, i.e. Bifidobacterium bifidum Z9 and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. The IFN-β expression was markedly reduced in TLR-2−/− DCs, dependent on endocytosis, and the major cause of the induction of Il-12 and Tlr-3 in DCs stimulated with L. acidophilus NCFM. Collectively, our results reveal that certain lactobacilli trigger the expression of viral defence genes in DCs in a TLR-2 manner dependent on IFN-β. PMID:20545783

  20. Patency of Litomosoides sigmodontis infection depends on Toll-like receptor 4 whereas Toll-like receptor 2 signalling influences filarial-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, Maria B; Schulz, Sandy; Krupp, Vanessa; Ritter, Manuel; Wiszniewsky, Katharina; Arndts, Kathrin; Tamadaho, Ruth S E; Endl, Elmar; Hoerauf, Achim; Layland, Laura E

    2016-04-01

    BALB/c mice develop a patent state [release of microfilariae (Mf), the transmission life-stage, into the periphery] when exposed to the rodent filariae Litomosoides sigmodontis. Interestingly, only a portion of the infected mice become patent, which reflects the situation in human individuals infected with Wuchereria bancrofti. Since those individuals had differing filarial-specific profiles, this study compared differences in immune responses between Mf(+) and Mf(-) infected BALB/c mice. We demonstrate that cultures of total spleen or mediastinal lymph node cells from Mf(+) mice produce significantly more interleukin-5 (IL-5) to filarial antigens but equal levels of IL-10 when compared with Mf(-) mice. However, isolated CD4(+) T cells from Mf(+) mice produced significantly higher amounts of all measured cytokines, including IL-10, when compared with CD4(+) T-cell responses from Mf(-) mice. Since adaptive immune responses are influenced by triggering the innate immune system we further studied the immune profiles and parasitology in infected Toll-like receptor-2-deficient (TLR2(-/-)) and TLR4(-/-) BALB/c mice. Ninety-three per cent of L. sigmodontis-exposed TLR4(-/-) BALB/c mice became patent (Mf(+)) although worm numbers remained comparable to those in Mf(+) wild-type controls. Lack of TLR2 had no influence on patency outcome or worm burden but infected Mf(+) mice had significantly lower numbers of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells and dampened peripheral immune responses. Interestingly, in vitro culturing of CD4(+) T cells from infected wild-type mice with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-derived TLR2(-/-) dendritic cells resulted in an overall diminished cytokine profile to filarial antigens. Hence, triggering TLR4 or TLR2 during chronic filarial infection has a significant impact on patency and efficient CD4(+) T-cell responses, respectively. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Toll-like receptor-2-activating bifidobacteria strains differentially regulate inflammatory cytokines in the porcine intestinal epithelial cell culture system: finding new anti-inflammatory immunobiotics.

    PubMed

    Fujie, Hitomi; Villena, Julio; Tohno, Masanori; Morie, Kyoko; Shimazu, Tomoyuki; Aso, Hisashi; Suda, Yoshihito; Shimosato, Takeshi; Iwabuchi, Noriyuki; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Saito, Tadao; Numasaki, Muneo; Kitazawa, Haruki

    2011-10-01

    A total of 23 strains of bifidobacteria taxonomically belonging to five species were tested for their potent immunomodulatory effect using a combination of two methods: the NF-κB-reporter assay using a toll-like receptor 2-expressing transfectant (HEK(pTLR2) system) and the mitogenic assay using porcine Peyer's patches immunocompetent cells. Among the four preselected strains from different immunomodulatory groups, Bifidobacterium breve MCC-117 was able to efficiently modulate the inflammatory response triggered by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in a porcine intestinal epithelial (PIE) cell line. Moreover, using PIE cells and swine Peyer's patches immunocompetent cell co-culture system, we demonstrated that the immunoregulatory effect of B. breve MCC-117 was related to the capacity of the strain to influence PIE and immune cell interactions, leading to the stimulation of regulatory T cells. The results suggested that bifidobacteria that express high activity in both the HEK(pTLR2) and the mitogenic assays may behave like potential anti-inflammatory strains. The combination of the HEK(pTLR2) system, the evaluation of mitogenic activity and PIE cells will be of value for the development of new immunologically functional foods and feeds that could prevent inflammatory intestinal disorders. Although our findings should be proven in appropriate experiments in vivo, the results of the present work provide a scientific rationale for the use of B. breve MCC-117 to prevent ETEC-induced intestinal inflammation.

  2. Recognition of lipopeptide patterns by Toll-like receptor 2-Toll-like receptor 6 heterodimer.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jin Young; Nan, Xuehua; Jin, Mi Sun; Youn, Suk-Jun; Ryu, Young Hee; Mah, Shinjee; Han, Seung Hyun; Lee, Hayyoung; Paik, Sang-Gi; Lee, Jie-Oh

    2009-12-18

    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) initiates potent immune responses by recognizing diacylated and triacylated lipopeptides. Its ligand specificity is controlled by whether it heterodimerizes with TLR1 or TLR6. We have determined the crystal structures of TLR2-TLR6-diacylated lipopeptide, TLR2-lipoteichoic acid, and TLR2-PE-DTPA complexes. PE-DTPA, 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, is a synthetic phospholipid derivative. Two major factors contribute to the ligand specificity of TLR2-TLR1 or TLR2-TLR6 heterodimers. First, the lipid channel of TLR6 is blocked by two phenylalanines. Simultaneous mutation of these phenylalanines made TLR2-TLR6 fully responsive not only to diacylated but also to triacylated lipopeptides. Second, the hydrophobic dimerization interface of TLR2-TLR6 is increased by 80%, which compensates for the lack of amide lipid interaction between the lipopeptide and TLR2-TLR6. The structures of the TLR2-lipoteichoic acid and the TLR2-PE-DTPA complexes demonstrate that a precise interaction pattern of the head group is essential for a robust immune response by TLR2 heterodimers.

  3. Toll-Like Receptor 2 Targeted Rectification of Impaired CD8⁺ T Cell Functions in Experimental Leishmania donovani Infection Reinstates Host Protection.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Syamdas; Kar Mahapatra, Santanu; Paul Chowdhury, Bidisha; Kumar Jha, Mukesh; Das, Shibali; Halder, Kuntal; Bhattacharyya Majumdar, Suchandra; Saha, Bhaskar; Majumdar, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania donovani, a protozoan parasite, causes the disease visceral leishmanisis (VL), characterized by inappropriate CD8+ T-cell activation. Therefore, we examined whether the Toll-like Receptor 2 (TLR2) ligand Ara-LAM, a cell wall glycolipid from non-pathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis, would restore CD8+ T-cell function during VL. We observed that by efficient upregulation of TLR2 signaling-mediated NF-κB translocation and MAPK signaling in CD8+ T-cells (CD25+CD28+IL-12R+IFN-γR+), Ara-LAM triggered signaling resulted in the activation of T-bet, which in turn, induced transcription favourable histone modification at the IFN-γ, perforin, granzyme-B promoter regions in CD8+ T-cells. Thus, we conclude that Ara-LAM induced efficient activation of effector CD8+ T-cells by upregulating the expression of IFN-γ, perforin and granzyme-B in an NF-κB and MAPK induced T-bet dependent manner in VL.

  4. Toll-Like Receptor 2 Targeted Rectification of Impaired CD8+ T Cell Functions in Experimental Leishmania donovani Infection Reinstates Host Protection

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Syamdas; Kar Mahapatra, Santanu; Paul Chowdhury, Bidisha; Kumar Jha, Mukesh; Das, Shibali; Halder, Kuntal; Bhattacharyya Majumdar, Suchandra; Saha, Bhaskar; Majumdar, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania donovani, a protozoan parasite, causes the disease visceral leishmanisis (VL), characterized by inappropriate CD8+ T-cell activation. Therefore, we examined whether the Toll-like Receptor 2 (TLR2) ligand Ara-LAM, a cell wall glycolipid from non-pathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis, would restore CD8+ T-cell function during VL. We observed that by efficient upregulation of TLR2 signaling-mediated NF-κB translocation and MAPK signaling in CD8+ T-cells (CD25+CD28+IL-12R+IFN-γR+), Ara-LAM triggered signaling resulted in the activation of T-bet, which in turn, induced transcription favourable histone modification at the IFN-γ, perforin, granzyme-B promoter regions in CD8+ T-cells. Thus, we conclude that Ara-LAM induced efficient activation of effector CD8+ T-cells by upregulating the expression of IFN-γ, perforin and granzyme-B in an NF-κB and MAPK induced T-bet dependent manner in VL. PMID:26559815

  5. Mumps virus induces innate immune responses in mouse ovarian granulosa cells through the activation of Toll-like receptor 2 and retinoic acid-inducible gene I.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Wu, Han; Cheng, Lijing; Yan, Keqin; Shi, Lili; Zhao, Xiang; Jiang, Qian; Wang, Fei; Chen, Yongmei; Li, Qihan; Han, Daishu

    2016-11-15

    Mumps virus (MuV) infection may lead to oophoritis and perturb ovarian function. However, the mechanisms underlying the activation of innate immune responses to MuV infection in the ovary have not been investigated. This study showed that Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) cooperatively initiate innate immune responses to MuV infection in mouse ovarian granulosa cells. Ovarian granulosa cells infected with MuV significantly produced pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and type 1 interferons (IFN-α and IFN-β). Knockdown of RIG-I significantly decreased MuV-induced cytokine expression. TLR2 deficiency reduced the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and MCP-1 but did not affect the expression of IFN-α and IFN-β in granulosa cells after infection with MuV. Intraperitoneal injection of MuV induced the ovarian innate immune responses in vivo, which suppressed estradiol synthesis and induced granulosa cell apoptosis. The results provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying MuV-induced innate immune responses in the mouse ovary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Polymorphisms of the Toll-Like Receptor 2 of Goats (Capra hircus) may be Associated with Somatic Cell Count in Milk.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, Christina T; Brandt, Jessica R; Oliverio, Ryan; Ishida, Yasuko; Guedj, Noa; Garrett, Edgar F; Kahila Bar-Gal, Gila; Nikolaidis, Nikolas; Cardoso, Felipe C; Roca, Alfred L

    2017-04-03

    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) plays an important role in recognition by the innate immune system of Gram-positive bacteria. As Gram-positive bacteria cause mastitis, we examined variations in the region of the TLR2 gene that codes for the extracellular domain. Samples of forty goats from a single dairy herd were collected, half with low SCC (≤200,000 cells/mL), and half with higher SCC. Two synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified: 840G > A and 1083A > G. One nonsynonymous SNP 739G > A was identified. This coded for valine or isoleucine, which have similar physiochemical properties, and was not in a region coding for a known functional domain. Surprisingly, the least square mean SCC of the heterozygous goats (146,220) was significantly lower than the SCC of homozygous GG goats (537,700; p = 0.004), although these two groups were similar in days in milk (p = 0.984), and there was no significant difference by breed (p = 0.941). Because factors other than mastitis can affect SCC and our sample sizes were limited, additional studies are needed to corroborate an association between TLR2 genotype and SCC or mastitis in goats.

  7. A Toll-like receptor 2 agonist-fused antigen enhanced antitumor immunity by increasing antigen presentation and the CD8 memory T cells population

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chiao-Chieh; Liu, Shih-Jen; Chen, Hsin-Wei; Shen, Kuan-Yin; Leng, Chih-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    The induction of long-lived effector CD8+ T cells is key to the development of efficient cancer vaccines. In this study, we demonstrated that a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) agonist-fused antigen increased antigen presentation via TLR2 signaling and induced effector memory-like CD8+ T cells against cancer after immunization. The N-terminus of ovalbumin (OVA) was biologically fused with a bacterial lipid moiety TLR2 agonist to produce a recombinant lipidated ovalbumin (rlipo-OVA). We demonstrated that rlipo-OVA activated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs) maturation and increased antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I via TLR2. After immunization, rlipo-OVA skewed the immune response towards T helper (Th) 1 and induced OVA-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. Moreover, immunization with rlipo-OVA induced higher numbers of effector memory (CD44+CD62L−) CD8+ T cells compared with recombinant ovalbumin (rOVA) alone or rOVA mixed with the TLR2 agonist Pam3CSK4. Accordingly, the CD27+CD43+ effector memory CD8+ T cells expressed high levels of the long-lived CD127 marker. The administration of rlipo-OVA could inhibit tumor growth, but the anti-tumor effects were lost after the depletion of CD8 or CD127 cells in vivo. These findings suggested that the TLR2 agonist-fused antigen induced long-lived memory CD8+ T cells for efficient cancer therapy. PMID:27127171

  8. Toll-like receptor 2 and NALP2 mediate induction of human beta-defensins by fusobacterium nucleatum in gingival epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Suk; Shin, Ji Eun; Kim, Young Sook; Oh, Ju-Eun; Min, Byung-Moo; Choi, Youngnim

    2009-03-01

    We previously reported that infection by Fusobacterium nucleatum strongly induced the expression of both human beta-defensin 2 (HBD-2) and HBD-3 by gingival epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to characterize the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and regulatory mechanisms involved in the induction of HBD-2 and -3 expression by F. nucleatum in gingival epithelial cells. Immortalized human gingival epithelial HOK-16B cells were infected with live or heat-killed F. nucleatum, and the expression of HBDs and interleukin-8 (IL-8) was examined by real-time reverse transcription-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Live, but not heat-killed, F. nucleatum invaded HOK-16B cells, as seen by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Live F. nucleatum induced both HBD-2 and -3 efficiently, whereas heat-killed bacteria induced only HBD-3 at a reduced level. Knockdown of NACHT-LRR- and pyrin domain-containing protein 2 (NALP2), the most abundant intracellular PRR in HOK-16B cells, by RNA interference (RNAi) significantly reduced the induction of HBD-3 but not HBD-2 and IL-8. In addition, knockdown of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) by RNAi reduced the upregulation of HBD-2 and -3 but not IL-8. Heat-killed F. nucleatum was hindered in its ability to activate TLR2 and JNK signaling pathways. Theses data show that TLR2 and NALP2 mediate the induction of HBDs by F. nucleatum in gingival epithelial cells, but thresholds for the two HBD genes are different.

  9. Leptospiral outer membrane lipoprotein LipL32 binding on toll-like receptor 2 of renal cells as determined with an atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shen-Hsing; Lo, Yueh-Yu; Tung, Jung-Yu; Ko, Yi-Ching; Sun, Yuh-Ju; Hung, Cheng-Chieh; Yang, Chih-Wei; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Fu, Chien-Chung; Pan, Rong-Long

    2010-07-06

    Leptopirosis is a renal disease caused by pathogenic Leptospira that primarily infects the renal proximal tubules, consequently resulting in severe tubular injuries and malfunctions. The protein extracted from the outer membrane of this pathogenic strain contains a major component of a 32 kDa lipoprotein (LipL32), which is absent in the counter membrane of nonpathogenic strains and has been identified as a crucial factor for host cell infection. Previous studies showed that LipL32 induced inflammatory responses and interacted with the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the host cell. However, the exact relationship between LipL32-mediated inflammatory responses and ECM binding is still unknown. In this study, an atomic force microscope with its tip modified by purified LipL32 was used to assess the interaction between LipL32 and cell surface receptors. Furthermore, an antibody neutralization technique was employed to identify Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) but not TLR4 as the major target of LipL32 attack. The interaction force between LipL32 and TLR2 was measured as approximately 59.5 +/- 8.7 pN, concurring with the theoretical value for a single-pair molecular interaction. Moreover, transformation of a TLR deficient cell line with human TLR2 brought the interaction force from the basal level to approximately 60.4 +/- 11.5 pN, confirming unambiguously TLR2 as counter receptor for LipL32. The stimulation of CXCL8/IL-8 expression by full-length LipL32 as compared to that without the N-terminal signal peptide domain suggests a significant role of the signal peptide of the protein in the inflammatory responses. This study provides direct evidence that LipL32 binds to TLR2, but not TLR4, on the cell surface, and a possible mechanism for the virulence of leptospirosis is accordingly proposed.

  10. NOD2 stimulation by Staphylococcus aureus-derived peptidoglycan is boosted by Toll-like receptor 2 costimulation with lipoproteins in dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Schäffler, Holger; Demircioglu, Dogan Doruk; Kühner, Daniel; Menz, Sarah; Bender, Annika; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Bodammer, Peggy; Lamprecht, Georg; Götz, Friedrich; Frick, Julia-Stefanie

    2014-11-01

    Mutations in the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) play an important role in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. NOD2 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that senses bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) structures, e.g., muramyl dipeptide (MDP). Here we focused on the effect of more-cross-linked, polymeric PGN fragments (PGNpol) in the activation of the innate immune system. In this study, the effect of combined NOD2 and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) stimulation was examined compared to single stimulation of the NOD2 receptor alone. PGNpol species derived from a lipoprotein-containing Staphylococcus aureus strain (SA113) and a lipoprotein-deficient strain (SA113 Δlgt) were isolated. While PGNpol constitutes a combined NOD2 and TLR2 ligand, lipoprotein-deficient PGNpolΔlgt leads to activation of the immune system only via the NOD2 receptor. Murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs), J774 cells, and Mono Mac 6 (MM6) cells were stimulated with these ligands. Cytokines (interleukin-6 [IL-6], IL-12p40, and tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α]) as well as DC activation and maturation parameters were measured. Stimulation with PGNpolΔlgt did not lead to enhanced cytokine secretion or DC activation and maturation. However, stimulation with PGNpol led to strong cytokine secretion and subsequent DC maturation. These results were confirmed in MM6 and J774 cells. We showed that the NOD2-mediated activation of DCs with PGNpol was dependent on TLR2 costimulation. Therefore, signaling via both receptors leads to a more potent activation of the immune system than that with stimulation via each receptor alone.

  11. VLDL and apolipoprotein CIII induce ER stress and inflammation and attenuate insulin signalling via Toll-like receptor 2 in mouse skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Botteri, Gaia; Montori, Marta; Gumà, Anna; Pizarro, Javier; Cedó, Lídia; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles; Li, Diana; Barroso, Emma; Palomer, Xavier; Kohan, Alison B; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel

    2017-08-23

    Here, our aim was to examine whether VLDL and apolipoprotein (apo) CIII induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, inflammation and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Studies were conducted in mouse C2C12 myotubes, isolated skeletal muscle and skeletal muscle from transgenic mice overexpressing apoCIII. C2C12 myotubes exposed to VLDL showed increased levels of ER stress and inflammatory markers whereas peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) levels were reduced and the insulin signalling pathway was attenuated. The effects of VLDL were also observed in isolated skeletal muscle incubated with VLDL. The changes caused by VLDL were dependent on extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 since they were prevented by the ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 or by knockdown of this kinase by siRNA transfection. ApoCIII mimicked the effects of VLDL and its effects were also blocked by ERK1/2 inhibition, suggesting that this apolipoprotein was responsible for the effects of VLDL. Skeletal muscle from transgenic mice overexpressing apoCIII showed increased levels of some ER stress and inflammatory markers and increased phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels, whereas PGC-1α levels were reduced, confirming apoCIII effects in vivo. Finally, incubation of myotubes with a neutralising antibody against Toll-like receptor 2 abolished the effects of apoCIII on ER stress, inflammation and insulin resistance, indicating that the effects of apoCIII were mediated by this receptor. These results imply that elevated VLDL in diabetic states can contribute to the exacerbation of insulin resistance by activating ERK1/2 through Toll-like receptor 2.

  12. Toll Like Receptor 2, 4, and 9 Signaling Promotes Autoregulative Tumor Cell Growth and VEGF/PDGF Expression in Human Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Grimmig, Tanja; Moench, Romana; Kreckel, Jennifer; Haack, Stephanie; Rueckert, Felix; Rehder, Roberta; Tripathi, Sudipta; Ribas, Carmen; Chandraker, Anil; Germer, Christoph T.; Gasser, Martin; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Toll like receptor (TLR) signaling has been suggested to play an important role in the inflammatory microenvironment of solid tumors and through this inflammation-mediated tumor growth. Here, we studied the role of tumor cells in their process of self-maintaining TLR expression independent of inflammatory cells and cytokine milieu for autoregulative tumor growth signaling in pancreatic cancer. We analyzed the expression of TLR2, -4, and -9 in primary human cancers and their impact on tumor growth via induced activation in several established pancreatic cancers. TLR-stimulated pancreatic cancer cells were specifically investigated for activated signaling pathways of VEGF/PDGF and anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL expression as well as tumor cell growth. The primary pancreatic cancers and cell lines expressed TLR2, -4, and -9. TLR-specific stimulation resulted in activated MAP-kinase signaling, most likely via autoregulative stimulation of demonstrated TLR-induced VEGF and PDGF expression. Moreover, TLR activation prompted the expression of Bcl-xL and has been demonstrated for the first time to induce tumor cell proliferation in pancreatic cancer. These findings strongly suggest that pancreatic cancer cells use specific Toll like receptor signaling to promote tumor cell proliferation and emphasize the particular role of TLR2, -4, and -9 in this autoregulative process of tumor cell activation and proliferation in pancreatic cancer. PMID:27941651

  13. Mouse Hepatitis Virus Infection Induces a Toll-Like Receptor 2-Dependent Activation of Inflammatory Functions in Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells during Acute Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bleau, Christian; Filliol, Aveline; Samson, Michel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Under physiological conditions, the liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) mediate hepatic immune tolerance toward self or foreign antigens through constitutive expression of anti-inflammatory mediators. However, upon viral infection or Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) activation, LSECs can achieve proinflammatory functions, but their role in hepatic inflammation during acute viral hepatitis is unknown. Using the highly virulent mouse hepatitis virus type 3 (MHV3) and the attenuated variants 51.6-MHV3 and YAC-MHV3, exhibiting lower tropism for LSECs, we investigated in vivo and in vitro the consequence of LSEC infection on their proinflammatory profiles and the aggravation of acute hepatitis process. In vivo infection with virulent MHV3, in comparison to attenuated strains, resulted in fulminant hepatitis associated with higher hepatic viral load, tissue necrosis, and levels of inflammatory mediators and earlier recruitment of inflammatory cells. Such hepatic inflammatory disorders correlated with disturbed production of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and vascular factors by LSECs. We next showed in vitro that infection of LSECs by the virulent MHV3 strain altered their production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and promoted higher release of proinflammatory and procoagulant factors and earlier cell damage than infection by attenuated strains. This higher replication and proinflammatory activation in LSECs by the virulent MHV3 strain was associated with a specific activation of TLR2 signaling by the virus. We provide evidence that TLR2 activation of LSCEs by MHV3 is an aggravating factor of hepatic inflammation and correlates with the severity of hepatitis. Taken together, these results indicate that preservation of the immunotolerant properties of LSECs during acute viral hepatitis is imperative in order to limit hepatic inflammation and damage. IMPORTANCE Viral hepatitis B and C infections are serious health problems affecting over 350 million and 170 million

  14. Cutaneous innate immune sensing of Toll-like receptor 2-6 ligands suppresses T cell immunity by inducing myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

    PubMed

    Skabytska, Yuliya; Wölbing, Florian; Günther, Claudia; Köberle, Martin; Kaesler, Susanne; Chen, Ko-Ming; Guenova, Emmanuella; Demircioglu, Doruk; Kempf, Wolfgang E; Volz, Thomas; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Schaller, Martin; Röcken, Martin; Götz, Friedrich; Biedermann, Tilo

    2014-11-20

    Skin is constantly exposed to bacteria and antigens, and cutaneous innate immune sensing orchestrates adaptive immune responses. In its absence, skin pathogens can expand, entering deeper tissues and leading to life-threatening infectious diseases. To characterize skin-driven immunity better, we applied living bacteria, defined lipopeptides, and antigens cutaneously. We found suppression of immune responses due to cutaneous infection with Gram-positive S. aureus, which was based on bacterial lipopeptides. Skin exposure to Toll-like receptor (TLR)2-6-binding lipopeptides, but not TLR2-1-binding lipopeptides, potently suppressed immune responses through induction of Gr1(+)CD11b(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Investigating human atopic dermatitis, in which Gram-positive bacteria accumulate, we detected high MDSC amounts in blood and skin. TLR2 activation in skin resident cells triggered interleukin-6 (IL-6), which induced suppressive MDSCs, which are then recruited to the skin suppressing T cell-mediated recall responses such as dermatitis. Thus, cutaneous bacteria can negatively regulate skin-driven immune responses by inducing MDSCs via TLR2-6 activation.

  15. Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 mediate the capacity of mesenchymal stromal cells to support the proliferation and differentiation of CD34{sup +} cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xingbing; Cheng, Qiansong; Li, Lailing; Wang, Jian; Xia, Liang; Xu, Xiucai; Sun, Zimin

    2012-02-01

    Bone marrow derived-mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) are multipotent, nonhematopoietic progenitors in a hematopoietic microenvironment and indispensable for regulating hematopoiesis. Several studies have reported that toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed in mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to modulate their biological functions. In this study, we investigated the possible role(s) of TLRs in mediating the hematopoiesis-supporting role of human BM-MSCs. Human BM-MSCs were analyzed for mRNA expression of TLR1-10 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. TLR1-6, but not TLR7-10 were expressed by BM-MSCs. The protein expression of TLR2 and TLR4 was also confirmed by flow cytometry. We further explored the role of TLR2 and TLR4 in mediating the capacity of BM-MSCs to support the proliferation and differentiation of CD34{sup +} hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells obtained from cord blood. BM-MSCs increased proliferation of CD34{sup +} cells and promoted the differentiation towards the myeloid lineage 7 or 14 days after co-culture, as well as colony formation by those cells and the production of interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-8, IL-11, stem cell factor (SCF), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (CSF), macrophage CSF and granulocyte-macrophage CSF, if MSCs had been stimulated with TLR2 agonist (PAM{sub 3}CSK{sub 4}) or TLR4 agonist (LPS). Interestingly, although these effects were elevated in a different degree, a synergistic effect was not observed in BM-MSCs co-stimulated with PAM{sub 3}CSK{sub 4} and LPS. Together, our findings suggest that TLR2 and TLR4 signaling may indirectly regulate hematopoiesis by modulating BM-MSCs' functions. The increased hematopoietic proliferation and differentiation could be mediated, at least in part, by augmented hematopoiesis-related cytokine production of BM-MSCs.

  16. Engagement of Toll-like receptor 2 enhances interleukin (IL)-17(+) autoreactive T cell responses via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling in dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, R; Dong, L; Xiao, Q; Sun, D; Li, X; Nian, H

    2014-11-01

    Functional analysis of single Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in vivo is necessary to understand how they shape the ocular inflammation involved in uveitis. In this study we explored the role and mechanisms of TLR-2 agonists on the autoreactive T helper type 17 (Th17) response in experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). Treatment by peptidoglycan (PGN), a specific TLR-2 agonist, remarkably increased mRNA levels of Th17-lineage genes interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-21 and RAR-related orphan receptor (ROR)γt and promoted antigen-specific Th17 response in EAU mice. A mixture of PGN and interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein peptide (IRBP161-180 ) could effectively induce EAU in the absence of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). PGN treatment also enhanced the pathogenic activities of activated antigen-specific Th17 cells in vivo. PGN significantly increased the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-23 of dendritic cells (DCs) and enhanced their ability to promote IL-17(+) uveitogenic T cells. Enhanced immunostimulatory activities of PGN-DCs depend upon p38 activation. Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity dramatically decreased IL-17 gene expression and antigen-specific Th17 responses stimulated by PGN-DCs. Our findings suggest that PGN treatment dramatically promotes the IL-17(+) uveitogenic T cell responses via enhancing the immunostimulatory activities of DCs. This effect may be mediated, at least in part, by activation of the p38 signalling pathway in DCs. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  17. Toll-like receptor 2 and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sepehri, Zahra; Kiani, Zohre; Nasiri, Ali Akbar; Kohan, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    Innate immunity plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and related complications. Since the toll-like receptors (TLRs) are central to innate immunity, it appears that they are important participants in the development and pathogenesis of the disease. Previous investigations demonstrated that TLR2 homodimers and TLR2 heterodimers with TLR1 or TLR6 activate innate immunity upon recognition of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Several DAMPs are released during type 2 diabetes, so it may be hypothesized that TLR2 is significantly involved in its progression. Here, we review recent data on the important roles and status of TLR2 in type 2 diabetes and related complications.

  18. Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase α contributes to Toll-like receptor 2-mediated immune responses in microglial cells stimulated with lipoteichoic acid.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tu Thi Ngoc; Seo, Eunjeong; Choi, Juyong; Le, Oanh Thi Tu; Kim, Ji Yun; Jou, Ilo; Lee, Sang Yoon

    2017-10-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is an important lipid regulator of membrane signaling and remodeling processes. Accumulating evidence indicates a link between PIP2 metabolism and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, a key transducer of immune responses such as inflammation, phagocytosis, and autophagy. Microglia are immune effector cells that serve as macrophages in the brain. Here, we examined the potential role of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase α (PIP5Kα), a PIP2-producing enzyme, in TLR2 signaling in microglial cells. Treatment of BV2 microglial cells with lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a TLR2 agonist, increased PIP5Kα expression in BV2 and primary microglial cells, but not in primary cultures from TLR2-deficient mice. PIP5Kα knockdown of BV2 cells with shRNA significantly suppressed LTA-induced activation of TLR2 downstream signaling, including the production of proinflammatory cytokines and phosphorylation of NF-κB, JNK, and p38 MAP kinase. Such suppression was reversed by complementation of PIP5Kα. PIP5Kα knockdown lowered PIP2 levels and impaired LTA-induced plasma membrane targeting of TIRAP, a PIP2-dependent adaptor required for TLR2 activation. Besides, PIP5Kα knockdown inhibited phagocytic uptake of E. coli particles and autophagy-related vesicle formation triggered by LTA. Taken together, these results support that PIP5Kα can positively mediate TLR2-associated immune responses through PIP2 production in microglial cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Toll-like receptor 2-mediated interleukin-8 expression in gingival epithelial cells by the Tannerella forsythia leucine-rich repeat protein BspA.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Shinsuke; Honma, Kiyonobu; Liang, Shuang; Stathopoulou, Panagiota; Kinane, Denis; Hajishengallis, George; Sharma, Ashu

    2008-01-01

    Tannerella forsythia is a gram-negative anaerobe strongly associated with chronic human periodontitis. This bacterium expresses a cell surface-associated and secreted protein, designated BspA, which has been recognized as an important virulence factor. The BspA protein belongs to the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) and bacterial immunoglobulin-like protein families. BspA is, moreover, a multifunctional protein which interacts with a variety of host cells, including monocytes which appear to respond to BspA through Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. Since gingival epithelium forms a barrier against periodontal pathogens, this study was undertaken to determine if gingival epithelial cells respond to BspA challenge and if TLRs play any role in BspA recognition. This study was also directed towards identifying the BspA domains responsible for cellular activation. We provide direct evidence for BspA binding to TLR2 and demonstrate that the release of the chemokine interleukin-8 from human gingival epithelial cells by BspA is TLR2 dependent. Furthermore, the LRR domain of BspA is involved in activation of TLR2, while TLR1 serves as a signaling partner. Thus, our findings suggest that BspA is an important modulator of host innate immune responses through activation of TLR2 in cooperation with TLR1.

  20. VB-201, an oxidized phospholipid small molecule, inhibits CD14- and Toll-like receptor-2-dependent innate cell activation and constrains atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mendel, I; Feige, E; Yacov, N; Salem, Y; Levi, I; Propheta-Meiran, O; Shoham, A; Ishai, E; George, J; Harats, D; Breitbart, E

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the vascular wall. Activated monocytes and dendritic cells (DC) in the intima layer of the vasculature promote atherogenesis. Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR-4, which are predominantly expressed on these cells and mediate their activation, are essential for atherosclerosis development. In this study we demonstrate that VB-201, an oxidized phospholipid (Ox-PL) small molecule, inhibits TLR signalling restricted to TLR-2 and TLR-4 in human and mouse monocytes and DC. Mechanistically, we show that VB-201 binds directly to TLR-2 and CD14, the TLR-4 co-receptor, to impair downstream cues and cytokine production. In a rabbit model, oral administration of VB-201 constrained atherosclerosis progression. This effect was not due to reduced cholesterol abundance, as hyperlipidaemia was sustained. We suggest that VB-201 may counter inflammation where TLR-2 and/or CD14 complicity is essential, and is therefore beneficial for the treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:24116867

  1. Estradiol alters the immune-responsiveness of cervical epithelial cells stimulated with ligands of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4

    PubMed Central

    S. Lashkari, Behnia; Anumba, Dilly O. C.

    2017-01-01

    The mucosa of the female reproductive tract plays a pivotal role in host defence. Pregnancy must alter immunological mechanisms at this interface to protect the conceptus. We sought to determine how estradiol (E2) alters the immune-responsiveness of cervical epithelial cells to ligand stimulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and -4. Human ectocervical epithelial cells (HECECs) were cultured and co-incubated with two concentrations of E2 and peptidoglycan (PGN) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) over durations that ranged between 10 minutes and 18 hours. Cytometric Bead Array was performed to quantify eight cytokines in the supernatant fluid. In response to PGN, HECECs co-incubated with E2 released lesser quantities of IL-1ß and IFNγ, higher levels of RANTES, and variable levels of IL-6 and IL-8 than those not exposed to E2. In contrast, HECECs co-incubated with LPS and E2 secreted increased levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, and IFNγ at 2 and 18 hours than HECECs not exposed to E2, and reduced levels of RANTES at same study time-points. Estradiol alters the immune-responsiveness of cultured HECECs to TLR2 and TLR4 ligands in a complex fashion that appears to vary with bacterial ligand, TLR subtype, and duration of exposure. Our observations are consistent with the functional complexity that this mucosal interface requires for its immunological roles. PMID:28296959

  2. [Expression and significance of Toll like receptor 2 and Toll like receptor 4 in chronic rhinosinusitis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Ji, Wenjun; Xu, Yuan; Guo, Huamin; Zhao, Chunyuan

    2014-09-01

    To explore the role of the innate immune factors TLR2 and TLR4 in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) by detecting their expression in different clinical types of CRS and the normal control group. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 respectively in 21 cases (chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, CRSwNP) group, 15 cases (chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyos, CRSsNP) group, 11 cases recurrent CRSwNP group and 13 cases control group. Positive cells were counted under the microscope artificially, Mann-Whitney U analysis was applied for the ranked data, and one-way anova analysis was adopted to analyze the experimental group and control group. (1) TLR2 and TLR4 expression had the same characteristics. Expression mainly concentrated in parts of the whole layer of epithelial basement membrane, cytoplasm of glandular cells, very few inflammatory cells such as monocytes and plasma cells in the cytoplasm, sometimes unknown cell nuclei positive expression. (2) The glandular cells were stained manual counting and color grading. TLR2 and TLR4 packet application Wilcoxon rank test Mann-Whitney U test analysis was not statistically significant (P > 0.05), measurement data within the group variance statistical difference between the groups (P < 0.05). The Nasal mucosa can produce the innate immune factors TLR2 and TLR4. The different expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in the various clinical types of CRS suggests that they play the certain role in the pathogenesis of CRS.

  3. Altered IL-10 and TNF-α production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of systemic lupus erythematosus patients after Toll-like receptor 2, 4, or 9 activation.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Jeng-Ting; Hsieh, Song-Chou; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Yu, Chia-Li; Lin, Shih-Chang

    2012-09-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation and cytokines have been linked to the disease flare of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), yet the expression profiles of TLRs and cytokines in response to TLR activation in SLE patients remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the expression levels of IL-10, TNF-α, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), TLR-2, TLR-4, and TLR-9 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from SLE patients and normal controls after PBMCs were stimulated with a TLR-2, TLR-4, or TLR-9 agonist. The expression levels in SLE patient group were statistically compared with those in normal control group. It was found in SLE patients that the IL-10 protein production was down-regulated after the activation of TLR-2, TLR-4, or TLR-9 and that the TNF-α protein production was decreased after the activation of TLR-2 or TLR-9, but not TLR-4. However, the transcript levels of IL-10 and TNF-α as well as the protein and transcript levels of IFN-γ were comparable between SLE and normal control groups. In addition, the TLR-2 transcript levels seem to be diminished after the activation of TLR-2, TLR-4, or TLR-9, but TLR-4 and TLR-9 transcript levels were not altered. The results indicate that the cytokine production from PBMCs in response to TLR activation is dysregulated in SLE patients, supporting the possibility that TLR activation may influence lupus disease activity through regulating cytokine production.

  4. Hyaluronic acid fragments enhance the inflammatory and catabolic response in human intervertebral disc cells through modulation of toll-like receptor 2 signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Quero, Lilian; Klawitter, Marina; Schmaus, Anja; Rothley, Melanie; Sleeman, Jonathan; Tiaden, André N; Klasen, Juergen; Boos, Norbert; Hottiger, Michael O; Wuertz, Karin; Richards, Peter J

    2013-08-22

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is characterized by extracellular matrix breakdown and is considered to be a primary cause of discogenic back pain. Although increases in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels within degenerating discs are associated with discogenic back pain, the mechanisms leading to their overproduction have not yet been elucidated. As fragmentation of matrix components occurs during IVD degeneration, we assessed the potential involvement of hyaluronic acid fragments (fHAs) in the induction of inflammatory and catabolic mediators. Human IVD cells isolated from patient biopsies were stimulated with fHAs (6 to 12 disaccharides) and their effect on cytokine and matrix degrading enzyme production was assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The involvement of specific cell surface receptors and signal transduction pathways in mediating the effects of fHAs was tested using small interfering RNA (siRNA) approaches and kinase inhibition assays. Treatment of IVD cells with fHAs significantly increased mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and -13. The stimulatory effects of fHAs on IL-6 protein production were significantly impaired when added to IVD cells in combination with either Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 siRNA or a TLR2 neutralizing antibody. Furthermore, the ability of fHAs to enhance IL-6 and MMP-3 protein production was found to be dependent on the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway. These findings suggest that fHAs may have the potential to mediate IVD degeneration and discogenic back pain through activation of the TLR2 signaling pathway in resident IVD cells.

  5. Lipopolysaccharides-Induced Suppression of Innate-Like B Cell Apoptosis Is Enhanced by CpG Oligodeoxynucleotide and Requires Toll-Like Receptors 2 and 4

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jiang; Hu, Yang; Kawai, Toshihisa; Taubman, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Innate-like B lymphocytes play an important role in innate immunity in periodontal disease through Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. However, it is unknown how innate-like B cell apoptosis is affected by the periodontal infection-associated innate signals. This study is to determine the effects of two major TLR ligands, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN), on innate-like B cell apoptosis. Spleen B cells were isolated from wild type (WT), TLR2 knockout (KO) and TLR4 KO mice and cultured with E. coli LPS alone, P. gingivalis LPS alone, or combined with CpG-ODN for 2 days. B cell apoptosis and expressions of specific apoptosis-related genes were analyzed by flow cytometry and real-time PCR respectively. P. gingivalis LPS, but not E. coli LPS, reduced the percentage of AnnexinV+/7-AAD- cells within IgMhighCD23lowCD43-CD93- marginal zone (MZ) B cell sub-population and IgMhighCD23lowCD43+CD93+ innate response activator (IRA) B cell sub-population in WT but not TLR2KO or TLR4KO mice. CpG-ODN combined with P. gingivalis LPS further reduced the percentage of AnnexinV+/7-AAD- cells within MZ B cells and IRA B cells in WT but not TLR2 KO or TLR4 KO mice. Pro-apoptotic CASP4, CASP9 and Dapk1 were significantly down-regulated in P. gingivalis LPS- and CpG-ODN-treated B cells from WT but not TLR2 KO or TLR4 KO mice. Anti-apoptotic IL-10 was significantly up-regulated in P. gingivalis LPS- and CpG-ODN-treated B cells from WT and TLR2 KO but not TLR4 KO mice. These results suggested that both TLR2 and TLR4 signaling are required for P. gingivalis LPS-induced, CpG-ODN-enhanced suppression of innate-like B cell apoptosis. PMID:27812176

  6. Regulation of Toll-like receptor 2 interaction with Ecgp96 controls Escherichia coli K1 invasion of brain endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Subramanian; Chen, Shuang; Turcatel, Gianluca; Arditi, Moshe; Prasadarao, Nemani V.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The interaction of outer membrane protein A (OmpA) with its receptor, Ecgp96 (a homologue of Hsp90β) is critical for the pathogenesis of E. coli K1 meningitis. Since Hsp90 chaperones Toll-like receptors (TLRs), we examined the role of TLRs in E. coli K1 infection. Herein, we show that newborn TLR2−/− mice are resistant to E. coli K1 meningitis, while TLR4−/− mice succumb to infection sooner. In vitro, OmpA+ E. coli infection selectively upregulates Ecgp96 and TLR2 in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), whereas OmpA− E. coli upregulates TLR4 in these cells. Furthermore, infection with OmpA+ E. coli causes Ecgp96 and TLR2 translocate to the plasma membrane of HBMEC as a complex. Immunoprecipitation studies of the plasma membrane fractions from infected HBMEC reveal that the C-termini of Ecgp96 and TLR2 are critical for OmpA+ E. coli invasion. Knockdown of TLR2 using siRNA results in inefficient membrane translocation of Ecgp96 and significantly reduces invasion. In addition, the interaction of Ecgp96 and TLR2 induces a bipartite signal, one from Ecgp96 through PKC-α while the other from TLR2 through MyD88, ERK1/2 and NF-κB. This bipartite signal ultimately culminates in the efficient production of NO, which in turn promotes E. coli K1 invasion of HBMEC. PMID:22963587

  7. The amino acid sequence of Neisseria lactamica PorB surface-exposed loops influences Toll-like receptor 2-dependent cell activation.

    PubMed

    Toussi, Deana N; Carraway, Margaretha; Wetzler, Lee M; Lewis, Lisa A; Liu, Xiuping; Massari, Paola

    2012-10-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a major role in host mucosal and systemic defense mechanisms by recognizing a diverse array of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). TLR2, with TLR1 and TLR6, recognizes structurally diverse bacterial products such as lipidated factors (lipoproteins and peptidoglycans) and nonlipidated proteins, i.e., bacterial porins. PorB is a pan-neisserial porin expressed regardless of organisms' pathogenicity. However, commensal Neisseria lactamica organisms and purified N. lactamica PorB (published elsewhere as Nlac PorB) induce TLR2-dependent proinflammatory responses of lower magnitude than N. meningitidis organisms and N. meningitidis PorB (published elsewhere as Nme PorB). Both PorB types bind to TLR2 in vitro but with different apparent specificities. The structural and molecular details of PorB-TLR2 interaction are only beginning to be unraveled and may be due to electrostatic attraction. PorB molecules have significant strain-specific sequence variability within surface-exposed regions (loops) putatively involved in TLR2 interaction. By constructing chimeric recombinant PorB loop mutants in which surface-exposed loop residues have been switched between N. lactamica PorB and N. meningitidis PorB, we identified residues in loop 5 and loop 7 that influence TLR2-dependent cell activation using HEK cells and BEAS-2B cells. These loops are not uniquely responsible for PorB interaction with TLR2, but NF-κB and MAP kinases signaling downstream of TLR2 recognition are likely influenced by a hypothetical "TLR2-binding signature" within the sequence of PorB surface-exposed loops. Consistent with the effect of purified PorB in vitro, a chimeric N. meningitidis strain expressing N. lactamica PorB induces lower levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) secretion than wild-type N. meningitidis, suggesting a role for PorB in induction of host cell activation by whole bacteria.

  8. Toll-like receptor 2 expression in refractory periapical lesions.

    PubMed

    Desai, S V; Love, R M; Rich, A M; Seymour, G J

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the expression of TLR2 in refractory periapical lesions. Refractory periapical lesion biopsies were histopathologically and clinically categorized into asymptomatic periapical granuloma (n=10), symptomatic periapical granuloma (n=10) or periapical cyst (n=10) and prepared for immunohistochemical staining using antibodies to TLR2, CD3 and CD19 or staining with methyl green pyronin. Sections were viewed under light microscopy and the presence or absence of the target cells was correlated with the histopathological and clinical data. Additionally, TLR2 expression was quantified by counting TLR(+) cells. Various mononuclear inflammatory cells in the bacteria-induced periapical lesions were reactive to TLR2 antibody, with many showing morphological similarities to lymphocytes and plasma cells. Lymphocytes were the most numerous cells in the inflammatory infiltrate. In refractory periapical granuloma, CD3(+) T cells were more numerous, whereas in periapical cysts, CD19(+) B cells were more numerous. There was a statistically significant (P<0.05) higher expression of TLR2 in symptomatic periapical granuloma than asymptomatic periapical granuloma or periapical cyst. The presence of TLR-expressing cells in periapical granulomas and cysts provides further evidence that periapical cysts are likely to be sustained by the immune system via reaction to bacterial antigens. © 2011 International Endodontic Journal.

  9. Toll-Like Receptor 2 Ligation Enhances HIV-1 Replication in Activated CCR6+ CD4+ T Cells by Increasing Virus Entry and Establishing a More Permissive Environment to Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bolduc, Jean-François; Ouellet, Michel; Hany, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, we investigated the effect of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) ligation on the permissiveness of activated CD4+ T cells to HIV-1 infection by focusing our experiments on the relative susceptibility of cell subsets based on their expression of CCR6. Purified primary human CD4+ T cells were first subjected to a CD3/CD28 costimulation before treatment with the TLR2 agonist Pam3CSK4. Finally, cells were inoculated with R5-tropic HIV-1 particles that permit us to study the effect of TLR2 triggering on virus production at both population and single-cell levels. We report here that HIV-1 replication is augmented in CD3/CD28-costimulated CCR6+ CD4+ T cells upon engagement of the cell surface TLR2. Additional studies indicate that a higher virus entry and polymerization of the cortical actin are seen in this cell subset following TLR2 stimulation. A TLR2-mediated increase in the level of phosphorylated NF-κB p65 subunit was also detected in CD3/CD28-costimulated CCR6+ CD4+ T cells. We propose that, upon antigenic presentation, an engagement of TLR2 acts specifically on CCR6+ CD4+ T cells by promoting virus entry in an intracellular milieu more favorable for productive HIV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE Following primary infection, HIV-1 induces an immunological and structural disruption of the gut mucosa, leading to bacterial translocation and release of microbial components in the bloodstream. These pathogen-derived constituents include several agonists of Toll-like receptors that may affect gut-homing CD4+ T cells, such as those expressing the chemokine receptor CCR6, which are highly permissive to HIV-1 infection. We demonstrate that TLR2 ligation in CD3/CD28-costimulated CCR6+ CD4+ T cells leads to enhanced virus production. Our results highlight the potential impact of bacterial translocation on the overall permissiveness of CCR6+ CD4+ T cells to productive HIV-1 infection. PMID:27928019

  10. Toll-Like Receptor 2 Ligation Enhances HIV-1 Replication in Activated CCR6+ CD4+ T Cells by Increasing Virus Entry and Establishing a More Permissive Environment to Infection.

    PubMed

    Bolduc, Jean-François; Ouellet, Michel; Hany, Laurent; Tremblay, Michel J

    2017-02-15

    In this study, we investigated the effect of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) ligation on the permissiveness of activated CD4(+) T cells to HIV-1 infection by focusing our experiments on the relative susceptibility of cell subsets based on their expression of CCR6. Purified primary human CD4(+) T cells were first subjected to a CD3/CD28 costimulation before treatment with the TLR2 agonist Pam3CSK4. Finally, cells were inoculated with R5-tropic HIV-1 particles that permit us to study the effect of TLR2 triggering on virus production at both population and single-cell levels. We report here that HIV-1 replication is augmented in CD3/CD28-costimulated CCR6(+) CD4(+) T cells upon engagement of the cell surface TLR2. Additional studies indicate that a higher virus entry and polymerization of the cortical actin are seen in this cell subset following TLR2 stimulation. A TLR2-mediated increase in the level of phosphorylated NF-κB p65 subunit was also detected in CD3/CD28-costimulated CCR6(+) CD4(+) T cells. We propose that, upon antigenic presentation, an engagement of TLR2 acts specifically on CCR6(+) CD4(+) T cells by promoting virus entry in an intracellular milieu more favorable for productive HIV-1 infection. Following primary infection, HIV-1 induces an immunological and structural disruption of the gut mucosa, leading to bacterial translocation and release of microbial components in the bloodstream. These pathogen-derived constituents include several agonists of Toll-like receptors that may affect gut-homing CD4(+) T cells, such as those expressing the chemokine receptor CCR6, which are highly permissive to HIV-1 infection. We demonstrate that TLR2 ligation in CD3/CD28-costimulated CCR6(+) CD4(+) T cells leads to enhanced virus production. Our results highlight the potential impact of bacterial translocation on the overall permissiveness of CCR6(+) CD4(+) T cells to productive HIV-1 infection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Novel Toll-like Receptor 2 Ligands for Targeted Pancreatic Cancer Imaging and Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Amanda Shanks; Chung, Woo Jin; Cho, Hyun-Il; Moberg, Valerie E.; Celis, Esteban; Morse, David L.; Vagner, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is a target for immune system stimulation during cancer immunotherapy and a cell-surface marker for pancreatic cancer. To develop targeted agents for cancer imaging and therapy, we designed, synthesized and characterized thirteen novel, fully synthetic high affinity TLR2 agonists. Analog 10 had the highest agonist activity (NF-κB functional assay, EC50=20 nM) and binding affinity (competitive binding assay, Ki=25 nM). As an immune adjuvant, compound 10 stimulated the immune system in vivo by generation and persistence of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells indicating its potential use in cancer immunotherapy. After conjugation of near-infrared dye to 10, agonist activity (EC50=34 nM) and binding affinity (Ki =11 nM) were retained in 13. Fluorescence signal was present in TLR2 expressing pancreatic tumor xenografts 24 h post-injection of 13; while an excess of unlabeled ligand blocked 13 from binding to the tumor resulting in significantly decreased signal (p<0.001) demonstrating in vivo selectivity. PMID:23098072

  12. Interleukin-21 receptor deficiency increases the initial toll-like receptor 2 response but protects against joint pathology by reducing Th1 and Th17 cells during streptococcal cell wall arthritis.

    PubMed

    Marijnissen, Renoud J; Roeleveld, Debbie M; Young, Deborah; Nickerson-Nutter, Cheryl; Abdollahi-Roodsaz, Shahla; Garcia de Aquino, Sabrina; van de Loo, Fons A J; van Spriel, Annemiek B; Boots, Annemieke M H; van den Berg, Wim B; Koenders, Marije I

    2014-04-01

    The cytokine interleukin-21 (IL-21) can have both proinflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential dual role of IL-21 in experimental arthritis in relation to Th17 cells. Antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) and chronic streptococcal cell wall (SCW) arthritis were induced in IL-21 receptor-deficient (IL-21R(-/-) ) and wild-type mice. Knee joints, synovial tissue, and serum were analyzed for arthritis pathology and inflammatory markers. During AIA and chronic SCW arthritis, IL-21R deficiency protected against severe inflammation and joint destruction. This was accompanied by suppressed serum IgG1 levels and antigen-specific T cell responses. Levels of IL-17 were reduced during AIA, and synovial lymphocytes isolated during SCW arthritis for flow cytometry demonstrated that mainly IL-17+ interferon-γ (IFNγ)-positive T cells were reduced in IL-21R(-/-) mice. However, during the acute phases of SCW arthritis, significantly higher joint swelling scores were observed, consistent with enhanced tumor necrosis factor and IL-6 expression. Interestingly, IL-21R(-/-) mice were significantly less capable of up-regulating suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS-1) and SOCS-3 messenger RNA. IL-21 stimulation also affected the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2)/caspase recruitment domain 15 response to SCW fragments in vitro, indicating that impaired SOCS regulation in the absence of IL-21 signaling might contribute to the increased local activation during SCW arthritis. In contrast to the proinflammatory role of IL-21 in adaptive immunity, which drives IL-17+IFN+ cells and joint pathology during chronic experimental arthritis, IL-21 also has an important immunosuppressive role, presumably by inhibiting TLR signaling via SOCS-1 and SOCS-3. If this dual role of IL-21 in various immune processes is present in human disease, it could make IL-21 a difficult therapeutic target in rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2014 by the American

  13. The role of Toll-like receptor 2 in inflammation and fibrosis during progressive renal injury.

    PubMed

    Leemans, Jaklien C; Butter, Loes M; Pulskens, Wilco P C; Teske, Gwendoline J D; Claessen, Nike; van der Poll, Tom; Florquin, Sandrine

    2009-05-27

    Tissue fibrosis and chronic inflammation are common causes of progressive organ damage, including progressive renal disease, leading to loss of physiological functions. Recently, it was shown that Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is expressed in the kidney and activated by endogenous danger signals. The expression and function of TLR2 during renal fibrosis and chronic inflammation has however not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we studied TLR2 expression in human and murine progressive renal diseases and explored its role by inducing obstructive nephropathy in TLR2(-/-) or TLR2(+/+) mice. We found that TLR2 is markedly upregulated on tubular and tubulointerstitial cells in patients with chronic renal injury. In mice with obstructive nephropathy, renal injury was associated with a marked upregulation and change in distribution of TLR2 and upregulation of murine TLR2 danger ligands Gp96, biglycan, and HMGB1. Notably, TLR2 enhanced inflammation as reflected by a significantly reduced influx of neutrophils and production of chemokines and TGF-beta in kidneys of TLR2(-/-) mice compared with TLR2(+/+) animals. Although, the obstructed kidneys of TLR2(-/-) mice had less interstitial myofibroblasts in the later phase of obstructive nephropathy, tubular injury and renal matrix accumulation was similar in both mouse strains. Together, these data demonstrate that TLR2 can initiate renal inflammation during progressive renal injury and that the absence of TLR2 does not affect the development of chronic renal injury and fibrosis.

  14. The Role of Toll-Like Receptor 2 in Inflammation and Fibrosis during Progressive Renal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Leemans, Jaklien C.; Butter, Loes M.; Pulskens, Wilco P. C.; Teske, Gwendoline J. D.; Claessen, Nike; van der Poll, Tom; Florquin, Sandrine

    2009-01-01

    Tissue fibrosis and chronic inflammation are common causes of progressive organ damage, including progressive renal disease, leading to loss of physiological functions. Recently, it was shown that Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is expressed in the kidney and activated by endogenous danger signals. The expression and function of TLR2 during renal fibrosis and chronic inflammation has however not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we studied TLR2 expression in human and murine progressive renal diseases and explored its role by inducing obstructive nephropathy in TLR2−/− or TLR2+/+ mice. We found that TLR2 is markedly upregulated on tubular and tubulointerstitial cells in patients with chronic renal injury. In mice with obstructive nephropathy, renal injury was associated with a marked upregulation and change in distribution of TLR2 and upregulation of murine TLR2 danger ligands Gp96, biglycan, and HMGB1. Notably, TLR2 enhanced inflammation as reflected by a significantly reduced influx of neutrophils and production of chemokines and TGF-β in kidneys of TLR2−/− mice compared with TLR2+/+ animals. Although, the obstructed kidneys of TLR2−/− mice had less interstitial myofibroblasts in the later phase of obstructive nephropathy, tubular injury and renal matrix accumulation was similar in both mouse strains. Together, these data demonstrate that TLR2 can initiate renal inflammation during progressive renal injury and that the absence of TLR2 does not affect the development of chronic renal injury and fibrosis. PMID:19479087

  15. Treponema denticola activates mitogen-activated protein kinase signal pathways through Toll-like receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Ruby, John; Rehani, Kunal; Martin, Michael

    2007-12-01

    Treponema denticola, a spirochete indigenous to the oral cavity, is associated with host inflammatory responses to anaerobic polymicrobial infections of the root canal, periodontium, and alveolar bone. However, the cellular mechanisms responsible for the recognition of T. denticola by the innate immune system and the underlying cell signaling pathways that regulate the inflammatory response to T. denticola are currently unresolved. In this study, we demonstrate that T. denticola induces innate immune responses via the utilization of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) but not TLR4. Assessment of TLR2/1 and TLR2/6 heterodimers revealed that T. denticola predominantly utilizes TLR2/6 for the induction of cellular responses. Analysis of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in T. denticola-stimulated monocytes identified a prolonged up-regulation of the MAPK extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38, while no discernible increase in phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) levels was observed. With the aid of pharmacological inhibitors selectively targeting ERK1/2 via the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 kinase and p38, we further demonstrate that ERK1/2 and p38 play a major role in T. denticola-mediated pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production.

  16. Stearidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids inhibit interleukin-6 expression in ob/ob mouse adipose stem cells via toll-like receptor-2-mediated pathways

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increases in adipose tissue weight positively correlates with increased circulating inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6). We previously have shown that adipose stem cell produce significantly higher levels of IL-6 when compared to other cell types in the adipose tissue in genetically ...

  17. Toll-like receptor 2 activation by β2→1-fructans protects barrier function of T84 human intestinal epithelial cells in a chain length-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Leonie M; Meyer, Diederick; Pullens, Gerdie; Faas, Marijke M; Venema, Koen; Ramasamy, Uttara; Schols, Henk A; de Vos, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Dietary fiber intake is associated with lower incidence and mortality from disease, but the underlying mechanisms of these protective effects are unclear. We hypothesized that β2→1-fructan dietary fibers confer protection on intestinal epithelial cell barrier function via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), and we studied whether β2→1-fructan chain-length differences affect this process. T84 human intestinal epithelial cell monolayers were incubated with 4 β2→1-fructan formulations of different chain-length compositions and were stimulated with the proinflammatory phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was analyzed by electric cell substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) as a measure for tight junction-mediated barrier function. To confirm TLR2 involvement in barrier modulation by β2→1-fructans, ECIS experiments were repeated using TLR2 blocking antibody. After preincubation of T84 cells with short-chain β2→1-fructans, the decrease in TEER as induced by PMA (62.3 ± 5.2%, P < 0.001) was strongly attenuated (15.2 ± 8.8%, P < 0.01). However, when PMA was applied first, no effect on recovery was observed during addition of the fructans. By blocking TLR2 on the T84 cells, the protective effect of short-chain β2→1-fructans was substantially inhibited. Stimulation of human embryonic kidney human TLR2 reporter cells with β2→1-fructans induced activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, confirming that β2→1-fructans are specific ligands for TLR2. To conclude, β2→1-fructans exert time-dependent and chain length-dependent protective effects on the T84 intestinal epithelial cell barrier mediated via TLR2. These results suggest that TLR2 located on intestinal epithelial cells could be a target of β2→1-fructan-mediated health effects.

  18. Serine Lipids of Porphyromonas gingivalis Are Human and Mouse Toll-Like Receptor 2 Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Robert B.; Cervantes, Jorge L.; Maciejewski, Mark W.; Farrokhi, Vahid; Nemati, Reza; Yao, Xudong; Anstadt, Emily; Fujiwara, Mai; Wright, Kyle T.; Riddle, Caroline; La Vake, Carson J.; Salazar, Juan C.; Finegold, Sydney

    2013-01-01

    The total cellular lipids of Porphyromas gingivalis, a known periodontal pathogen, were previously shown to promote dendritic cell activation and inhibition of osteoblasts through engagement of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). The purpose of the present investigation was to fractionate all lipids of P. gingivalis and define which lipid classes account for the TLR2 engagement, based on both in vitro human cell assays and in vivo studies in mice. Specific serine-containing lipids of P. gingivalis, called lipid 654 and lipid 430, were identified in specific high-performance liquid chromatography fractions as the TLR2-activating lipids. The structures of these lipids were defined using tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance methods. In vitro, both lipid 654 and lipid 430 activated TLR2-expressing HEK cells, and this activation was inhibited by anti-TLR2 antibody. In contrast, TLR4-expressing HEK cells failed to be activated by either lipid 654 or lipid 430. Wild-type (WT) or TLR2-deficient (TLR2−/−) mice were injected with either lipid 654 or lipid 430, and the effects on serum levels of the chemokine CCL2 were measured 4 h later. Administration of either lipid 654 or lipid 430 to WT mice resulted in a significant increase in serum CCL2 levels; in contrast, the administration of lipid 654 or lipid 430 to TLR2−/− mice resulted in no increase in serum CCL2. These results thus identify a new class of TLR2 ligands that are produced by P. gingivalis that likely play a significant role in mediating inflammatory responses both at periodontal sites and, potentially, in other tissues where these lipids might accumulate. PMID:23836823

  19. Polysaccharide Agaricus blazei Murill stimulates myeloid derived suppressor cell differentiation from M2 to M1 type, which mediates inhibition of tumour immune-evasion via the Toll-like receptor 2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Lingyun; Zhu, Xiangxiang; Wang, Yuehua; Liu, WenWei; Gong, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulate in tumor-bearing animals and play a critical negative role during tumor immunotherapy. Strategies for inhibition of MDSCs are expected to improve cancer immunotherapy. Polysaccharide Agaricus blazei Murill (pAbM) has been found to have anti-cancer activity, but the underlying mechanism of this is poorly understood. Here, pAbM directly activated the purified MDSCs through inducing the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-12, tumour necrosis factor and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), CD86, MHC II, and pSTAT1 of it, and only affected natural killer and T cells in the presence of Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) monocytic MDSCs. On further analysis, we demonstrated that pAbM could selectively block the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signal of Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) MDSCs and increased their M1-type macrophage characteristics, such as producing IL-12, lowering expression of Arginase 1 and increasing expression of iNOS. Extensive study showed that Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) MDSCs by pAbM treatment had less ability to convert the CD4(+) CD25(-) cells into CD4(+) CD25(+) phenotype. Moreover, result from selective depletion of specific cell populations in xenograft mice model suggested that the anti-tumour effect of pAbM was dependent on Gr-1(+ ) CD11b(+) monocytes, nether CD8(+) T cells nor CD4(+) T cells. In addition to, pAbM did not inhibit tumour growth in TLR2(-/-) mice. All together, these results suggested that pAbM, a natural product commonly used for cancer treatment, was a specific TLR2 agonist and had potent anti-tumour effects through the opposite of the suppressive function of Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) MDSCs.

  20. Toll-Like Receptor 2 Is Required for Inflammatory Process Development during Leishmania infantum Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sacramento, Laís A.; da Costa, Jéssica L.; de Lima, Mikhael H. F.; Sampaio, Pedro A.; Almeida, Roque P.; Cunha, Fernando Q.; Silva, João S.; Carregaro, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a chronic and fatal disease caused by Leishmania infantum in Brazil. Leukocyte recruitment to infected tissue is a crucial event for the control of infections such as VL. Among inflammatory cells, neutrophils are recruited to the site of Leishmania infection, and these cells may control parasite replication through oxidative or non-oxidative mechanisms. The recruitment, activation and functions of the neutrophils are coordinated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines during recognition of the parasite by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Here, we demonstrated that the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling pathway contributes to the development of the innate immune response during L. infantum infection. The protective mechanism is related to the appropriate recruitment of neutrophils to the inflammatory site. Neutrophil migration is coordinated by DCs that produce CXCL1 and provide a prototypal Th1 and Th17 environment when activated via TLR2. Furthermore, infected TLR2−/− mice failed to induce nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in neutrophils but not in macrophages. In vitro, infected TLR2−/− neutrophils presented deficient iNOS expression, nitric oxide (NO) and TNF-α production, decreased expression of CD11b and reduced L. infantum uptake capacity. The non-responsive state of neutrophils is associated with increased amounts of IL-10. Taken together, these data clarify new mechanisms by which TLR2 functions in promoting the development of the adaptive immune response and effector mechanisms of neutrophils during L. infantum infection. PMID:28280488

  1. Toll-like receptor 2 deficiency improves insulin sensitivity and hepatic insulin signalling in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Kuo, L-H; Tsai, P-J; Jiang, M-J; Chuang, Y-L; Yu, L; Lai, K-T A; Tsai, Y-S

    2011-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests a link between elevated inflammation and development of insulin resistance. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) recognises a large number of lipid-containing molecules and transduces inflammatory signalling in a variety of cell types, including insulin-responsive cells. Considering the contribution of the fatty acid composition in TLR2-depedent signalling, we hypothesised that the inflammatory signals transduced by TLR2 contribute to insulin resistance. Mice deficient in TLR2 were used to investigate the in vivo roles of TLR2 in initiating and maintaining inflammation-associated insulin resistance and energy homeostasis. We first recapitulated the observation with elevated expression of TLR2 and inflammatory cytokines in white adipose tissue and liver of ob/ob mice. Aged or high-fat-fed TLR2-deficient mice were protected from obesity and adipocyte hypertrophy compared with wild-type mice. Moreover, mice lacking TLR2 exhibited improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity regardless of feeding them regular chow or a high-fat diet. This is accompanied by reductions in expression of inflammatory cytokines and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in a liver-specific manner. The attenuated hepatic inflammatory cytokine expression and related signalling are correlated with increased insulin action specifically in the liver in TLR2-deficient mice, reflected by increased insulin-stimulated protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation and IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation and increased insulin-suppressed hepatocyte glucose production. The absence of TLR2 attenuates local inflammatory cytokine expression and related signalling and increases insulin action specifically in the liver. Thus, our work has identified TLR2 as a key mediator of hepatic inflammation-related signalling and insulin resistance.

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Hip1 Dampens Macrophage Proinflammatory Responses by Limiting Toll-Like Receptor 2 Activation▿

    PubMed Central

    Madan-Lala, Ranjna; Peixoto, Katia Vitorello; Re, Fabio; Rengarajan, Jyothi

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a highly successful human pathogen that evades host innate immunity by interfering with macrophage functions. In addition to avoiding macrophage microbicidal activities, M. tuberculosis triggers secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in macrophages. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines induced by clinical M. tuberculosis isolates are thought to play an important role in determining tuberculosis disease progression and severity, but the mechanisms by which M. tuberculosis modulates the magnitude of inflammatory responses remain unclear. Here we show that M. tuberculosis restricts robust macrophage activation and dampens proinflammatory responses through the cell envelope-associated serine hydrolase Hip1 (hydrolase important for pathogenesis 1). By transcriptionally profiling macrophages infected with either wild-type or hip1 mutant bacteria, we found that the hip1 mutant induced earlier and significantly higher levels of several proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We show that increased activation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)- and MyD88-dependent signaling pathways mediates the enhanced cytokine secretion induced by the hip1 mutant. Thus, Hip1 restricts the onset and magnitude of proinflammatory cytokines by limiting TLR2-dependent activation. We also show that Hip1 dampens TLR2-independent activation of the inflammasome and limits secretion of interleukin-18 (IL-18). Dampening of TLR2 signaling does not require viable M. tuberculosis or phagocytosis but does require Hip1 catalytic activity. We propose that M. tuberculosis restricts proinflammatory responses by masking cell surface interactions between TLR2 agonists on M. tuberculosis and TLR2 on macrophages. This strategy may allow M. tuberculosis to evade early detection by host immunity, delay the onset of adaptive immune responses, and accelerate disease progression. PMID:21947769

  3. Group B Streptococcus and Streptococcus suis Capsular Polysaccharides Induce Chemokine Production by Dendritic Cells via Toll-Like Receptor 2- and MyD88-Dependent and -Independent Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Calzas, Cynthia; Goyette-Desjardins, Guillaume; Lemire, Paul; Gagnon, Fleur; Lachance, Claude; Van Calsteren, Marie-Rose

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (also known as group B Streptococcus [GBS]) and Streptococcus suis are encapsulated streptococci causing severe septicemia and meningitis. Bacterial capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) are poorly immunogenic, but anti-CPS antibodies are essential to the host defense against encapsulated bacteria. The mechanisms underlying anti-CPS antibody responses are not fully elucidated, but the biochemistry of CPSs, particularly the presence of sialic acid, may have an immunosuppressive effect. We investigated the ability of highly purified S. suis and GBS native (sialylated) CPSs to activate dendritic cells (DCs), which are crucial actors in the initiation of humoral immunity. The influence of CPS biochemistry was studied using CPSs extracted from different serotypes within these two streptococcal species, as well as desialylated CPSs. No interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-12p70, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), or IL-10 production was observed in S. suis or GBS CPS-stimulated DCs. Moreover, these CPSs exerted immunosuppressive effects on DC activation, as a diminution of gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-induced B cell-activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) expression was observed in CPS-pretreated cells. However, S. suis and GBS CPSs induced significant production of CCL3, via partially Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)- and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-dependent pathways, and CCL2, via TLR-independent mechanisms. No major influence of CPS biochemistry was observed on the capacity to induce chemokine production by DCs, indicating that DCs respond to these CPSs in a patterned way rather than a structure-dedicated manner. PMID:23774593

  4. Staphylococcal superantigen-like protein 3 binds to the Toll-like receptor 2 extracellular domain and inhibits cytokine production induced by Staphylococcus aureus, cell wall component, or lipopeptides in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Ryosuke; Itoh, Saotomo; Kamoshida, Go; Takii, Takemasa; Fujii, Satoshi; Tsuji, Tsutomu; Onozaki, Kikuo

    2012-08-01

    Staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins (SSLs) are a family of exoproteins sharing structural similarity with superantigens, but no superantigenic activity. Corresponding host target proteins or receptors against a portion of SSLs in the family have been identified. In this study, we show that SSL3 specifically binds to Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and inhibits the stimulation of macrophages by TLR2 ligands. An approximately 100-kDa protein was recovered by using recombinant His-tagged SSL3-conjugated Sepharose from the lysate of porcine spleen, and the protein was identified as porcine TLR2 by peptide mass fingerprinting analysis. The SSL3-conjugated Sepharose recovered human and mouse TLR2 but not TLR4 from human neutrophils and mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, as well as a recombinant TLR2 extracellular domain chimera protein. The production levels of interleukin 12 (IL-12) from mouse macrophages treated with heat-killed Staphylococcus aureus and of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) from RAW 264.7 cells induced by peptidoglycan or lipopeptide TLR2 ligands were strongly suppressed in the presence of SSL3. The mutation of consensus sialic acid-containing glycan-binding residues in SSL3 did not abrogate the binding ability to TLR2 or inhibitory activity on TLR2, indicating that the interaction of SSL3 with TLR2 was independent of the sialic acid-containing glycan-binding residues. These findings demonstrate that SSL3 is able to bind the extracellular domain of TLR2 and interfere with TLR2 function. The present study provides a novel mechanism of SSL3 in immune evasion of S. aureus via interfering with its recognition by innate immune cells.

  5. PHLDA1 Promotes Lung Contusion by Regulating the Toll-Like Receptor 2 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaohua; Zhang, Hua; Wang, An; Huang, Dayu; Fan, Jie; Lu, Lu; Chen, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Lung contusion is a potentially lethal injury. Pleckstrin homology-like domain family A, member-1 (PHLDA1) is known to play crucial roles in cell proliferation and apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the biological role of PHLDA1 in lung contusion. The expression levels of PHLDA1 and TLR2 were detected by real time PCR and western. The cytokines were determined by ELISA. The inflammatory factors were detected by flow cytometry. The lung injury was determined by HE staining. PHLDA1 gene and protein expression levels were up-regulated in a mouse lung-contusion model, together with increased neutrophil and macrophage contents. Down-regulation of PHLDA1 by interfering RNA (siPHLDA1 mice) decreased lung injury and neutrophil infiltration. Inflammatory factors, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, mouse homolog of human growth-regulated oncogene-α (KC), tumor necrosis factor-α, CC chemokine ligand (CCL) 2, and CCL12 were also decreased in siPHLDA1 mice. Expression levels of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) were increased in the lung-contusion mouse model, but were decreased when PHLDA1 was down-regulated. These results demonstrate that PHLDA1 plays a critical role in the development of progressive lung contusion and subsequent inflammation. This information furthers our understanding of the pathogenesis of lung contusion, and suggests that PHLDA1 blockade may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of this injury. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Toll-like receptor 2 modulates the proinflammatory milieu in Staphylococcus aureus-induced brain abscess.

    PubMed

    Kielian, Tammy; Haney, Anessa; Mayes, Patrick M; Garg, Sarita; Esen, Nilufer

    2005-11-01

    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that plays an important role in innate immune recognition of conserved structural motifs on a wide array of pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus. To ascertain the functional significance of TLR2 in the context of central nervous system (CNS) parenchymal infection, we evaluated the pathogenesis of S. aureus-induced experimental brain abscess in TLR2 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. The expression of several proinflammatory mediators, including inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2, was significantly attenuated in brain abscesses of TLR2 KO mice compared to WT mice during the acute phase of infection. Conversely, interleukin-17 (IL-17), a cytokine produced by activated and memory T cells, was significantly elevated in lesions of TLR2 KO mice, suggesting an association between innate and adaptive immunity in brain abscess. Despite these differences, brain abscess severity in TLR2 KO and WT animals was similar, with comparable mortality rates, bacterial titers, and blood-brain barrier permeability, implying a role for alternative PRRs. Expression of the phagocytic PRRs macrophage scavenger receptor type AI/AII and lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) was increased in brain abscesses of both TLR2 KO and WT mice compared to uninfected animals. However, LOX-1 induction in brain abscesses of TLR2 KO mice was significantly attenuated compared to WT animals, revealing that the TLR2-dependent signal(s) influence LOX-1 expression. Collectively, these findings reveal the complex nature of gram-positive bacterial recognition in the CNS which occurs, in part, through engagement of TLR2 and highlight the importance of receptor redundancy for S. aureus detection in the CNS.

  7. Toll-like receptor 2-mediated alternative activation of microglia is protective after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Stirling, David P; Cummins, Karen; Mishra, Manoj; Teo, Wulin; Yong, V Wee; Stys, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Improving neurological outcome after spinal cord injury is a major clinical challenge because axons, once severed, do not regenerate but 'dieback' from the lesion site. Although microglia, the immunocompetent cells of the brain and spinal cord respond rapidly to spinal cord injury, their role in subsequent injury or repair remains unclear. To assess the role of microglia in spinal cord white matter injury we used time-lapse two-photon and spectral confocal imaging of green fluorescent protein-labelled microglia, yellow fluorescent protein-labelled axons, and Nile Red-labelled myelin of living murine spinal cord and revealed dynamic changes in white matter elements after laser-induced spinal cord injury in real time. Importantly, our model of acute axonal injury closely mimics the axonopathy described in well-characterized clinically relevant models of spinal cord injury including contusive-, compressive- and transection-based models. Time-lapse recordings revealed that microglia were associated with some acute pathophysiological changes in axons and myelin acutely after laser-induced spinal cord injury. These pathophysiological changes included myelin and axonal spheroid formation, spectral shifts in Nile Red emission spectra in axonal endbulbs detected with spectral microscopy, and 'bystander' degeneration of axons that survived the initial injury, but then succumbed to secondary degeneration. Surprisingly, modulation of microglial-mediated release of neurotoxic molecules failed to protect axons and myelin. In contrast, sterile stimulation of microglia with the specific toll-like receptor 2 agonist Pam2CSK4 robustly increased the microglial response to ablation, reduced secondary degeneration of central myelinated fibres, and induced an alternative (mixed M1:M2) microglial activation profile. Conversely, Tlr2 knock out: Thy1 yellow fluorescent protein double transgenic mice experienced greater axonal dieback than littermate controls. Thus, promoting an alternative

  8. Serine dipeptide lipids of Porphyromonas gingivalis inhibit osteoblast differentiation: Relationship to Toll-like receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Hsiung; Nemati, Reza; Anstadt, Emily; Liu, Yaling; Son, Young; Zhu, Qiang; Yao, Xudong; Clark, Robert B; Rowe, David W; Nichols, Frank C

    2015-12-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a periodontal pathogen strongly associated with loss of attachment and supporting bone for teeth. We have previously shown that the total lipid extract of P. gingivalis inhibits osteoblast differentiation through engagement of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and that serine dipeptide lipids of P. gingivalis engage both mouse and human TLR2. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether these serine lipids inhibit osteoblast differentiation in vitro and in vivo and whether TLR2 engagement is involved. Osteoblasts were obtained from calvaria of wild type or TLR2 knockout mouse pups that also express the Col2.3GFP transgene. Two classes of serine dipeptide lipids, termed Lipid 654 and Lipid 430, were tested. Osteoblast differentiation was monitored by cell GFP fluorescence and osteoblast gene expression and osteoblast function was monitored as von Kossa stained mineral deposits. Osteoblast differentiation and function were evaluated in calvarial cell cultures maintained for 21 days. Lipid 654 significantly inhibited GFP expression, osteoblast gene expression and mineral nodule formation and this inhibition was dependent on TLR2 engagement. Lipid 430 also significantly inhibited GFP expression, osteoblast gene expression and mineral nodule formation but these effects were only partially attributed to engagement of TLR2. More importantly, Lipid 430 stimulated TNF-α and RANKL gene expression in wild type cells but not in TLR2 knockout cells. Finally, osteoblast cultures were observed to hydrolyze Lipid 654 to Lipid 430 and this likely occurs through elevated PLA2 activity in the cultured cells. In conclusion, our results show that serine dipeptide lipids of P. gingivalis inhibit osteoblast differentiation and function at least in part through engagement of TLR2. The Lipid 430 serine class also increased the expression of genes that could increase osteoclast activity. We conclude that Lipid 654 and Lipid 430 have the potential

  9. Polysaccharide Agaricus blazei Murill stimulates myeloid derived suppressor cell differentiation from M2 to M1 type, which mediates inhibition of tumour immune-evasion via the Toll-like receptor 2 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Lingyun; Zhu, Xiangxiang; Wang, Yuehua; Liu, WenWei; Gong, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Gr-1+ CD11b+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulate in tumor-bearing animals and play a critical negative role during tumor immunotherapy. Strategies for inhibition of MDSCs are expected to improve cancer immunotherapy. Polysaccharide Agaricus blazei Murill (pAbM) has been found to have anti-cancer activity, but the underlying mechanism of this is poorly understood. Here, pAbM directly activated the purified MDSCs through inducing the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-12, tumour necrosis factor and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), CD86, MHC II, and pSTAT1 of it, and only affected natural killer and T cells in the presence of Gr-1+ CD11b+ monocytic MDSCs. On further analysis, we demonstrated that pAbM could selectively block the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signal of Gr-1+ CD11b+ MDSCs and increased their M1-type macrophage characteristics, such as producing IL-12, lowering expression of Arginase 1 and increasing expression of iNOS. Extensive study showed that Gr-1+ CD11b+ MDSCs by pAbM treatment had less ability to convert the CD4+ CD25− cells into CD4+ CD25+ phenotype. Moreover, result from selective depletion of specific cell populations in xenograft mice model suggested that the anti-tumour effect of pAbM was dependent on Gr-1+ CD11b+ monocytes, nether CD8+ T cells nor CD4+ T cells. In addition to, pAbM did not inhibit tumour growth in TLR2–/– mice. All together, these results suggested that pAbM, a natural product commonly used for cancer treatment, was a specific TLR2 agonist and had potent anti-tumour effects through the opposite of the suppressive function of Gr-1+ CD11b+ MDSCs. PMID:26194418

  10. Gamma Interferon Secretion by Human Vγ2Vδ2 T Cells after Stimulation with Antibody against the T-Cell Receptor plus the Toll-Like Receptor 2 Agonist Pam3Cys

    PubMed Central

    Deetz, Carl O.; Hebbeler, Andrew M.; Propp, Nadia A.; Cairo, Cristiana; Tikhonov, Illia; Pauza, C. David

    2006-01-01

    Circulating Vγ2Vδ2 T-cell populations in healthy human beings are poised for rapid responses to bacterial or viral pathogens. We asked whether Vγ2Vδ2 T cells use the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family to recognize pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules and to regulate cell functions. Analysis of expanded Vγ2Vδ2 T-cell lines showed the abundant presence of TLR2 mRNA, implying that these receptors are important for cell differentiation or function. However, multiple efforts to detect TLR2 protein on the cell surface or in cytoplasmic compartments gave inconsistent results. Functional assays confirmed that human Vγ2Vδ2 T cells could respond to the TLR2 agonist (S)-(2,3-bis(palmitoyloxy)-(2RS)-propyl)-N-palmitoyl-(R)-Cys-(S)-Ser(S)-Lys4-OH trihydrochloride (Pam3Cys), but the response required coincident stimulation through the γδ T-cell receptor (TCR). Dually stimulated cells produced higher levels of cytoplasmic or cell-free gamma interferon and showed increased expression of the lysosome-associated membrane protein CD107a on the cell surface. A functional TLR2 that requires coincident TCR stimulation may increase the initial potency of Vγ2Vδ2 T-cell responses at the site of infection and promote the rapid development of subsequent acquired antipathogen immunity. PMID:16861636

  11. Gamma interferon secretion by human Vgamma2Vdelta2 T cells after stimulation with antibody against the T-cell receptor plus the Toll-Like receptor 2 agonist Pam3Cys.

    PubMed

    Deetz, Carl O; Hebbeler, Andrew M; Propp, Nadia A; Cairo, Cristiana; Tikhonov, Illia; Pauza, C David

    2006-08-01

    Circulating Vgamma2Vdelta2 T-cell populations in healthy human beings are poised for rapid responses to bacterial or viral pathogens. We asked whether Vgamma2Vdelta2 T cells use the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family to recognize pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules and to regulate cell functions. Analysis of expanded Vgamma2Vdelta2 T-cell lines showed the abundant presence of TLR2 mRNA, implying that these receptors are important for cell differentiation or function. However, multiple efforts to detect TLR2 protein on the cell surface or in cytoplasmic compartments gave inconsistent results. Functional assays confirmed that human Vgamma2Vdelta2 T cells could respond to the TLR2 agonist (S)-(2,3-bis(palmitoyloxy)-(2RS)-propyl)-N-palmitoyl-(R)-Cys-(S)-Ser(S)-Lys4-OH trihydrochloride (Pam3Cys), but the response required coincident stimulation through the gammadelta T-cell receptor (TCR). Dually stimulated cells produced higher levels of cytoplasmic or cell-free gamma interferon and showed increased expression of the lysosome-associated membrane protein CD107a on the cell surface. A functional TLR2 that requires coincident TCR stimulation may increase the initial potency of Vgamma2Vdelta2 T-cell responses at the site of infection and promote the rapid development of subsequent acquired antipathogen immunity.

  12. GENES, IN ADDITION TO TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 2, PLAY A ROLE IN ANTIBACTERIAL DEFENSE TO STREPTOCOCCAL PNEUMONIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Streptococcus infection in human populations continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality. To evaluate the effect of genetic background and toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) on antibacterial defense to streptococcal infection, eight genetically diverse strains of mic...

  13. GENES, IN ADDITION TO TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 2, PLAY A ROLE IN ANTIBACTERIAL DEFENSE TO STREPTOCOCCAL PNEUMONIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Streptococcus infection in human populations continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality. To evaluate the effect of genetic background and toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) on antibacterial defense to streptococcal infection, eight genetically diverse strains of mic...

  14. Toll-like receptor 2 activation depends on lipopeptide shedding by bacterial surfactants.

    PubMed

    Hanzelmann, Dennis; Joo, Hwang-Soo; Franz-Wachtel, Mirita; Hertlein, Tobias; Stevanovic, Stefan; Macek, Boris; Wolz, Christiane; Götz, Friedrich; Otto, Michael; Kretschmer, Dorothee; Peschel, Andreas

    2016-07-29

    Sepsis caused by Gram-positive bacterial pathogens is a major fatal disease but its molecular basis remains elusive. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) has been implicated in the orchestration of inflammation and sepsis but its role appears to vary for different pathogen species and clones. Accordingly, Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates differ substantially in their capacity to activate TLR2. Here we show that strong TLR2 stimulation depends on high-level production of phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) peptides in response to the global virulence activator Agr. PSMs are required for mobilizing lipoproteins, the TLR2 agonists, from the staphylococcal cytoplasmic membrane. Notably, the course of sepsis caused by PSM-deficient S. aureus is similar in wild-type and TLR2-deficient mice, but TLR2 is required for protection of mice against PSM-producing S. aureus. Thus, a crucial role of TLR2 depends on agonist release by bacterial surfactants. Modulation of this process may lead to new therapeutic strategies against Gram-positive infections.

  15. Toll-like receptor 2 activation depends on lipopeptide shedding by bacterial surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Hanzelmann, Dennis; Joo, Hwang-Soo; Franz-Wachtel, Mirita; Hertlein, Tobias; Stevanovic, Stefan; Macek, Boris; Wolz, Christiane; Götz, Friedrich; Otto, Michael; Kretschmer, Dorothee; Peschel, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis caused by Gram-positive bacterial pathogens is a major fatal disease but its molecular basis remains elusive. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) has been implicated in the orchestration of inflammation and sepsis but its role appears to vary for different pathogen species and clones. Accordingly, Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates differ substantially in their capacity to activate TLR2. Here we show that strong TLR2 stimulation depends on high-level production of phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) peptides in response to the global virulence activator Agr. PSMs are required for mobilizing lipoproteins, the TLR2 agonists, from the staphylococcal cytoplasmic membrane. Notably, the course of sepsis caused by PSM-deficient S. aureus is similar in wild-type and TLR2-deficient mice, but TLR2 is required for protection of mice against PSM-producing S. aureus. Thus, a crucial role of TLR2 depends on agonist release by bacterial surfactants. Modulation of this process may lead to new therapeutic strategies against Gram-positive infections. PMID:27470911

  16. Structure-activity relationships in toll-like receptor 2-agonists leading to simplified monoacyl lipopeptides.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Geetanjali; Crall, Breanna M; Lewis, Tyler C; Day, Timothy P; Balakrishna, Rajalakshmi; Warshakoon, Hemamali J; Malladi, Subbalakshmi S; David, Sunil A

    2011-12-08

    Toll-like receptor 2-agonistic lipopeptides typified by S-[2,3-bis(palmitoyloxy)-(2RS)-propyl]-R-cysteinyl-S-serine (PAM(2)CS) compounds are potential vaccine adjuvants. In continuation of previously reported structure-activity relationships on this chemotype, we have determined that at least one acyl group of optimal length (C(16)) and an appropriately oriented ester carbonyl group is essential for TLR2-agonistic activity. The spacing between one of the palmitoyl ester carbonyl and the thioether is crucial to allow for an important H-bond, which observed in the crystal structure of the lipopeptide:TLR2 complex; consequently, activity is lost in homologated compounds. Penicillamine-derived analogues are also inactive, likely due to unfavorable steric interactions with the carbonyl of Ser 12 in TLR2. The thioether in this chemotype can be replaced with a selenoether. Importantly, the thioglycerol motif can be dispensed with altogether and can be replaced with a thioethanol bridge. These results have led to a structurally simpler, synthetically more accessible, and water-soluble analogue possessing strong TLR2-agonistic activities in human blood.

  17. Structure-Activity Relationships in Toll-like Receptor 2-Agonists Leading to Simplified Monoacyl Lipopeptides

    PubMed Central

    Agnihotri, Geetanjali; Crall, Breanna M.; Lewis, Tyler C.; Day, Timothy P.; Balakrishna, Rajalakshmi; Warshakoon, Hemamali J.; Malladi, Subbalakshmi S.; David, Sunil A.

    2011-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 2-agonistic lipopeptides typified by S-[2,3-bis(palmitoyloxy)-(2RS)-propyl]-R-cysteinyl-S-serine (PAM2CS) compounds are potential vaccine adjuvants. In continuation of previously reported structure-activity relationships on this chemotype, we have determined that at least one acyl group of optimal length (C16) and an appropriately orientated ester carbonyl group is essential for TLR2-agonistic activity. The spacing between one of the palmitoyl ester carbonyl and the thioether is crucial to allow for an important H-bond, which observed in the crystal structure of the lipopeptide:TLR2 complex; consequently, activity is lost in homologated compounds. Penicillamine-derived analogues are also inactive, likely due to unfavorable steric interactions with the carbonyl of Ser 12 in TLR2. The thioether in this chemotype can be replaced with a selenoether. Importantly, the thioglycerol motif can be dispensed with altogether, and can be replaced with a thioethanol bridge. These results have led to a structurally simpler, synthetically more accessible, and water-soluble analogue possessing strong TLR2-agonistic activities in human blood. PMID:22007676

  18. Toll-like receptor 2 promiscuity is responsible for the immunostimulatory activity of nucleic acid nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Pizzuto, Malvina; Gangloff, Monique; Scherman, Daniel; Gay, Nicholas J; Escriou, Virginie; Ruysschaert, Jean-Marie; Lonez, Caroline

    2017-02-10

    Lipopolyamines (LPAs) are cationic lipids; they interact spontaneously with nucleic acids to form lipoplexes used for gene delivery. The main hurdle to using lipoplexes in gene therapy lies in their immunostimulatory properties, so far attributed to the nucleic acid cargo, while cationic lipids were considered as inert to the immune system. Here we demonstrate for the first time that di-C18 LPAs trigger pro-inflammatory responses through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) activation, and this whether they are bound to nucleic acids or not. Molecular docking experiments suggest potential TLR2 binding modes reminiscent of bacterial lipopeptide sensing. The di-C18 LPAs share the ability of burying their lipid chains in the hydrophobic cavity of TLR2 and, in some cases, TLR1, at the vicinity of the dimerization interface; the cationic headgroups form multiple hydrogen bonds, thus crosslinking TLRs into functional complexes. Unravelling the molecular basis of TLR1 and TLR6-driven heterodimerization upon LPA binding underlines the highly collaborative and promiscuous ligand binding mechanism. The prevalence of non-specific main chain-mediated interactions demonstrates that potentially any saturated LPA currently used or proposed as transfection agent is likely to activate TLR2 during transfection. Hence our study emphasizes the urgent need to test the inflammatory properties of transfection agents and proposes the use of docking analysis as a preliminary screening tool for the synthesis of new non-immunostimulatory nanocarriers. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Toll-like receptor 2 agonist exacerbates renal injury in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fanglin; Zhang, Ningyu; Li, Zhiming; Deng, Lihua; Zhang, Jianjie; Zhou, Yunfeng

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is a ligand-activated membrane-bound receptor, which induces an inflammatory response, thus serving a crucial role in the pathogenesis of DN. The present study aimed to determine whether a TLR2 agonist, Pam3CysSK4, modulates the development of DN. A mouse model of DN was induced using streptozotocin (STZ) and, following the confirmation of hyperglycemia, mice were treated with or without Pam3CysSK4. Pathological and functional markers, including the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, expression of TLR2, inflammatory infiltration, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were assessed. STZ-treated mice exhibited elevated blood glucose levels and increased serum creatinine levels, which increased further following Pam3CysSK4 treatment. In addition, Pam3CysSK4 treatment was observed to increase podocyte foot process formation. Furthermore, STZ-induced renal glomerular sclerosis was significantly exacerbated in Pam3CysSK4-treated mice. Pam3CysSK4-treated mice also exhibited increased levels of collagen IV following renal immunostaining, associated with increased macrophage infiltration. Renal expression of TLR2 was markedly elevated in STZ-induced mice; this was further increased in Pam3CysSK4-treated mice, accompanied by upregulation of proinflammatory genes and activation of NF-κB. This indicates that enhanced renal expression of TLR2 is associated with inflammatory infiltration in DN and demonstrates that renal injury was exacerbated by the TLR2 agonist in diabetic mice.

  20. Toll-like receptor 2 agonist exacerbates renal injury in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Fanglin; Zhang, Ningyu; Li, Zhiming; Deng, Lihua; Zhang, Jianjie; Zhou, Yunfeng

    2017-02-01

    Inflammation is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is a ligand-activated membrane-bound receptor, which induces an inflammatory response, thus serving a crucial role in the pathogenesis of DN. The present study aimed to determine whether a TLR2 agonist, Pam3CysSK4, modulates the development of DN. A mouse model of DN was induced using streptozotocin (STZ) and, following the confirmation of hyperglycemia, mice were treated with or without Pam3CysSK4. Pathological and functional markers, including the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, expression of TLR2, inflammatory infiltration, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were assessed. STZ-treated mice exhibited elevated blood glucose levels and increased serum creatinine levels, which increased further following Pam3CysSK4 treatment. In addition, Pam3CysSK4 treatment was observed to increase podocyte foot process formation. Furthermore, STZ-induced renal glomerular sclerosis was significantly exacerbated in Pam3CysSK4-treated mice. Pam3CysSK4-treated mice also exhibited increased levels of collagen IV following renal immunostaining, associated with increased macrophage infiltration. Renal expression of TLR2 was markedly elevated in STZ-induced mice; this was further increased in Pam3CysSK4-treated mice, accompanied by upregulation of proinflammatory genes and activation of NF-κB. This indicates that enhanced renal expression of TLR2 is associated with inflammatory infiltration in DN and demonstrates that renal injury was exacerbated by the TLR2 agonist in diabetic mice.

  1. Toll-like receptor 2: An important immunomodulatory molecule during Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Nemati, Maryam; Larussa, Tiziana; Khorramdelazad, Hossein; Mahmoodi, Merat; Jafarzadeh, Abdollah

    2017-06-01

    Toll like receptors (TLRs) are an essential subset of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) which identify the microbial components and contribute in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses against the infectious agents. The TLRs, especially TLR2, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR9, participate in the induction of immune response against H. pylori. TLR2 is expressed on a number of immune and non-immune cells and recognizes a vast broad of microbial components due to its potential to form heterodimers with other TLRs, including TLR1, TLR6 and TLR10. A number of H. pylori-related molecules may contribute to TLR2-dependent responses, including HP-LPS, HP-HSP60 and HP-NAP. TLR2 plays a pivotal role in regulation of immune response to H. pylori through activation of NF-κB and induction of cytokine expression in epithelial cells, monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils and B cells. The TLR2-related immune response that is induced by H. pylori-derived components may play an important role regarding the outcome of the infection toward bacterial elimination, persistence or pathological reactions. The immunomodulatory and immunoregulatory roles of TLR2 during H. pylori infection were considered in this review. TLR2 could be considered as an interesting therapeutic target for treatment of H. pylori-related diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Toll-like receptor 2 senses hepatitis C virus core protein but not infectious viral particles

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Marco; Zeisel, Mirjam B.; Jilg, Nikolaus; Paranhos-Baccalà, Glaucia; Stoll-Keller, Françoise; Wakita, Takaji; Hafkemeyer, Peter; Blum, Hubert E.; Barth, Heidi; Henneke, Philipp; Baumert, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pathogen recognition molecules activating the innate immune system. Cell surface expressed TLRs, such as TLR2 and TLR4 have been shown to play an important role in human host defenses against viruses through sensing of viral structural proteins. In this study, we aimed to elucidate whether TLR2 and TLR4 participate in inducing antiviral immunity against hepatitis C virus by sensing viral structural proteins. We studied TLR2 and TLR4 activation by cell-culture derived infectious virions (HCVcc) and serum-derived virions in comparison to purified recombinant HCV structural proteins and enveloped virus-like particles. Incubation of TLR2 or TLR4 transfected cell lines with recombinant core protein resulted in activation of TLR2-dependent signaling. In contrast, neither infectious virions nor enveloped HCV-like particles triggered TLR2 and TLR4 signaling. These findings suggest that monomeric HCV core protein but not intact infectious particles are sensed by TLR2. Impairment of core-TLR interaction in infectious viral particles may contribute to escape from innate antiviral immune responses. PMID:20375602

  3. Disordered Toll-like receptor 2 responses in the pathogenesis of pulmonary sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Gabrilovich, M I; Walrath, J; van Lunteren, J; Nethery, D; Seifu, M; Kern, J A; Harding, C V; Tuscano, L; Lee, H; Williams, S D; Mackay, W; Tomashefski, J F; Silver, R F

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that the granulomatous disorder sarcoidosis is not caused by a single pathogen, but rather results from abnormal responses of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to conserved bacterial elements. Unsorted bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells from patients with suspected pulmonary sarcoidosis and healthy non-smoking control subjects were stimulated with representative ligands of TLR-2 (in both TLR-2/1 and TLR-2/6 heterodimers) and TLR-4. Responses were determined by assessing resulting production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6. BAL cells from patients in whom sarcoidosis was confirmed displayed increased cytokine responses to the TLR-2/1 ligand 19-kDa lipoprotein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (LpqH) and decreased responses to the TLR-2/6 agonist fibroblast stimulating ligand-1 (FSL)-1. Subsequently, we evaluated the impact of TLR-2 gene deletion in a recently described murine model of T helper type 1 (Th1)-associated lung disease induced by heat-killed Propionibacterium acnes. As quantified by blinded scoring of lung pathology, P. acnes-induced granulomatous pulmonary inflammation was markedly attenuated in TLR-2(-/-) mice compared to wild-type C57BL/6 animals. The findings support a potential role for disordered TLR-2 responses in the pathogenesis of pulmonary sarcoidosis.

  4. A role for the adaptor proteins TRAM and TRIF in toll-like receptor 2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Nadra J; Vladimer, Gregory I; Stenvik, Jørgen; Orning, M Pontus A; Zeid-Kilani, Maria V; Bugge, Marit; Bergstroem, Bjarte; Conlon, Joseph; Husebye, Harald; Hise, Amy G; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Espevik, Terje; Lien, Egil

    2015-02-06

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in sensing invading microbes by host innate immunity. TLR2 recognizes bacterial lipoproteins/lipopeptides, and lipopolysaccharide activates TLR4. TLR2 and TLR4 signal via the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor adaptors MyD88 and MAL, leading to NF-κB activation. TLR4 also utilizes the adaptors TRAM and TRIF, resulting in activation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3. Here, we report a new role for TRAM and TRIF in TLR2 regulation and signaling. Interestingly, we observed that TLR2-mediated induction of the chemokine Ccl5 was impaired in TRAM or TRIF deficient macrophages. Inhibition of endocytosis reduced Ccl5 release, and the data also suggested that TRAM and TLR2 co-localize in early endosomes, supporting the hypothesis that signaling may occur from an intracellular compartment. Ccl5 release following lipoprotein challenge additionally involved the kinase Tbk-1 and Irf3, as well as MyD88 and Irf1. Induction of Interferon-β and Ccl4 by lipoproteins was also partially impaired in cells lacking TRIF cells. Our results show a novel function of TRAM and TRIF in TLR2-mediated signal transduction, and the findings broaden our understanding of how Toll/interleukin-1 receptor adaptor proteins may participate in signaling downstream from TLR2.

  5. Candida albicans phospholipomannan triggers inflammatory responses of human keratinocytes through Toll-like receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Chen, Qing; Shen, Yongnian; Liu, Weida

    2009-07-01

    The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in the recognition of Candida albicans components and activation of innate immunity. Phospholipomannan (PLM), a glycolipid, is expressed at the surface of C. albicans cell wall, which acts as a member of the pathogen-associated molecular patterns family. In this study, we sought to clarify whether C. albicans-native PLM could induce an inflammation response in human keratinocytes and to determine the underlying mechanisms. Exposure of cultured human primary keratinocytes to PLM led to the increased gene expression and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6) and chemokines (IL-8). PLM hydrolysed with beta-d-mannoside mannohydrolase failed to induce gene expression and secretion of IL-6 and IL-8. PLM up-regulated the mRNA and protein levels of TLR2, whereas the mRNA level of TLR4 was not altered. Keratinocytes challenged with PLM resulted in the activation of NF-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) including p38. Anti-TLR2 neutralizing antibody, NFkappaB and p38MAPK inhibitors blocked the PLM-induced secretion of IL-6, IL-8 in keratinocytes, but no such effect was observed in pretreatment with anti-TLR4-neutralizing antibody and lipopolysaccharide inhibitor (polymyxin B). These data suggest C. albicans-native PLM may contribute to the inflammatory responses of cutaneous candidiasis in the TLR2-NF-kappaB and p38MAPK signalling pathway dependent manner.

  6. Structural analogs of pulmonary surfactant phosphatidylglycerol inhibit toll-like receptor 2 and 4 signaling.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Pitchaimani; Numata, Mari; Berry, Karin Zemski; Fickes, Rachel; Leslie, Christina C; Murphy, Robert C; Voelker, Dennis R

    2016-06-01

    The pulmonary surfactant phospholipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylglycerol (POPG), potently inhibits toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 signaling from the cell surface of macrophages. Analogs of POPG that vary in polar head group length, hydroxylation, and alkyl branching were synthesized using a phospholipase D-catalyzed transphosphatidylation reaction and a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine substrate. Lipid analogs with C3 and C4 alkyl head group length (POP-propanol and POP-butanol) are less effective than POPG as TLR2 and TLR4 antagonists. However, adding a hydroxyl group at the alkyl chain 3- or 4-position (POP-propanediols or POP-butanediols) greatly increased their inhibitory effects against TLR2 and TLR4. POP-2',2'-dimethylpropanediol is a weak inhibitor of TLR2 and TLR4 activation that results in arachidonic acid release, but an effective inhibitor of TLR4 activation that results in TNF-α production. Addition of an amino group at the alkyl-2 position (POP-2'-aminopropanediol) completely abolished the antagonism of TLRs 2 and 4. Multiple analogs strongly bind to the TLR4 coreceptors, cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) and myeloid differentiation 2, but competition for di[3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonyl]-lipid A binding to CD14 is the best predictor of biological activity at the cellular level. Collectively, these findings identify new compounds for antagonizing TLR2 and TLR4 activation and define structural properties of POPG analogs for discriminating between two TLR systems.

  7. Toll-like Receptor 2 Is Essential for the Sensing of Oxidants during Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Paul-Clark, Mark J.; McMaster, Shaun K.; Sorrentino, Rosalinda; Sriskandan, Shiranee; Bailey, Lucy K.; Moreno, Laura; Ryffel, Bernhard; Quesniaux, Valerie F.; Mitchell, Jane A.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: The mechanisms by which oxidants are sensed by cells and cause inflammation are not well understood. Objectives: This study aimed to determine how cells “sense” soluble oxidants and how this is translated into an inflammatory reaction. Methods: Monocytes, macrophages, or HEK293 cells (stably transfected with human Toll-like receptor [TLR]2, TLR2/1, TLR2/6, or TLR4/MD2-CD14) were used. CXC ligand-8 (CXCL8) levels were measured using ELISA. Phosphorylated IL-1 receptor–associated kinase 1 levels were measured using Western blot. TLR2−/− and TLR4−/− mice were challenged with oxidants, and inflammation was measured by monitoring cell infiltration and KC levels. Measurements and Main Results: Oxidants evoked the release of CXCL8 from monocytes/macrophages; this was abrogated by pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine or binding antibodies to TLR2 and was associated with the rapid phosphorylation of IL-1 receptor–associated kinase 1. Oxidants added to HEK293 cells transfected with TLR2, TLR1/2, or TLR2/6 but not TLR4/MD2-CD14 or control HEK nulls resulted in the release of CXCL8. Oxidant challenge delivered intraperitoneally (2–24 hours) or by inhalation to the lungs (3 days) resulted in a robust inflammation in wild-type mice. TLR2−/− mice did not respond to oxidant challenge in either model. TLR4−/− mice responded as wild-type mice to oxidants at 2 hours but as TLR2−/− mice at later time points. Conclusions: Oxidant–TLR2 interactions provide a signal that initiates the inflammatory response. PMID:19011150

  8. Toll-like Receptor 2 Signalling and the Lysosomal Machinery in Barrett's Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Verbeek, Romy E; Siersema, Peter D; Vleggaar, Frank P; Ten Kate, Fiebo J; Posthuma, George; Souza, Rhonda F; de Haan, Judith; van Baal, Jantine W P M

    2016-09-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma and its metaplastic precursor lesion, Barrett's esophagus. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 signalling and lysosomal function have been linked to inflammation-associated carcinogenesis. We examined the expression of TLR2 in the esophagus and the effect of long-term TLR2 activation on morphological changes and expression of factors involved in lysosomal function in a Barrett's esophagus epithelium cell line. TLR2 expression in normal squamous esophagus, reflux esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma biopsies was assessed with Q-RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Barrett's esophagus epithelium cells (BAR-T) were incubated with acid and bile salts in the presence or absence of the TLR2 agonist Pam3CSK4 for a period up to 4 weeks. Morphological changes were assessed with electron microscopy, while Q-RT-PCR was used to determine the expression of lysosomal enzymes (Cathepsin B and C) and factors involved in endocytosis (LAMP-1 and M6PR) and autophagy (LC3 and Rab7). TLR2 was expressed in normal squamous esophagus, reflux esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus but was most prominent in esophageal adenocarcinoma. Long-term TLR2 activation in acid and bile salts exposed BAR-T cells resulted in more and larger lysosomes, more mitochondria and increased expression of LAMP-1, M6PR, Cathepsin B and C when compared to BAR-T cells incubated with acid and bile salts but no TLR2 agonist. Factors associated with autophagy (LC3 and Rab7) expression remained largely unchanged. Activation of TLR2 in acid and bile salts exposed Barrett epithelium cells resulted in an increased number of mitochondria and lysosomes and increased expression of lysosomal enzymes and factors involved in endocytosis.

  9. Bovine colostrum enhances natural killer cell activity and immune response in a mouse model of influenza infection and mediates intestinal immunity through toll-like receptors 2 and 4.

    PubMed

    Wong, Eric B; Mallet, Jean-François; Duarte, Jairo; Matar, Chantal; Ritz, Barry W

    2014-04-01

    Oral administration of bovine colostrum affects intestinal immunity, including an increased percentage of natural killer (NK) cells. However, effects on NK cell cytotoxic activity and resistance to infection as well as a potential mechanism remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effects of bovine colostrum (La Belle, Inc, Bellingham, WA) on the NK cytotoxic response to influenza infection and on toll-like receptor (TLR) activity in a primary intestinal epithelial cell culture. We hypothesized that colostrum would increase NK cell activity and that TLR-2 and TLR-4 blocking would reduce interleukin 6 production by epithelial cells in response to contact stimulation with colostrum. Four-month-old female C57BL/6 mice were supplemented with 1 g of colostrum per kilogram of body weight before and after infection with influenza A virus (H1N1). Animals were assessed for weight loss, splenic NK cell activity, and lung virus titers. Colostrum-supplemented mice demonstrated less reduction in body weight after influenza infection, indicating a less severe infection, increased NK cell cytotoxicity, and less virus burden in the lungs compared with controls. Colostrum supplementation enhanced NK cell cytotoxicity and improved the immune response to primary influenza virus infection in mice. To investigate a potential mechanism, a primary culture of small intestine epithelial cells was then stimulated with colostrum. Direct activation of epithelial cells resulted in increased interleukin 6 production, which was inhibited with TLR-2 and TLR-4 blocking antibodies. The interaction between colostrum and immunity may be dependent, in part, on the interaction of colostrum components with innate receptors at the intestinal epithelium, including TLR-2 and TLR-4. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Importance of Toll-like Receptor 2 in Mitochondrial Dysfunction during Polymicrobial Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yu; Zou, Lin; Feng, Yan; Li, Dan; Cai, Jiayan; Chen, Dunjin; Chao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) contributes to sepsis pathogenesis such as deleterious systemic inflammation, cardiac dysfunction, and high mortality in animal studies. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a key molecular event that is associated with organ injury in sepsis. The role of TLR2 in sepsis-induced mitochondrial dysfunction remains unclear. METHODS Intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and mitochondrial superoxide (O2−), mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were measured in peritoneal leukocytes. A mouse model of polymicrobial sepsis was generated by cecum ligation and puncture (CLP). Wild-type and TLR2-deficient (TLR2−/−) mice were subjected to sham or CLP. Mitochondrial functions including reactive oxygen species (ROS), ΔΨm, intracellular ATP, and complex III activity were measured. RESULTS TLR2/1 activation by Pam3Cys enhanced intracellular H2O2 and mitochondrial O2- production in leukocytes, but had no effect on mitochondrial ΔΨm and ATP production. The effect was specific for TLR2/1 as TLR3 or TLR9 ligands did not induce ROS production. Polymicrobial sepsis induced mitochondrial dysfunction in leukocytes, as demonstrated by increased H2O2 and mitochondrial O2− production (CLP vs. sham; H2O2: 3,173 ± 498, n = 5 vs. 557 ± 38, n = 4; O2−: 707 ± 66, n = 35 vs. 485 ± 35, n = 17, mean fluorescence intensity, mean ± SEM), attenuated complex III activity (13 ± 2, n = 16 vs. 30 ± 3, n = 7, milli-optical densities per minute, mOD/min), loss of mitochondrial ΔΨm, and depletion of intracellular ATP (33 ± 6, n = 11 vs. 296 ± 29, n = 4, nmol/mg protein). In comparison, there was significant improvement in mitochondrial function in septic TLR2−/− mice as evidenced by attenuated mitochondrial ROS production, better- maintained mitochondrial ΔΨm and higher cellular ATP production. CONCLUSIONS TLR2 signaling plays a critical role in mediating mitochondrial dysfunction in peritoneal

  11. Serum amyloid A1 isoforms display different efficacy at Toll-like receptor 2 and formyl peptide receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingjie; Zhou, Huibing; Cheng, Ni; Qian, Feng; Ye, Richard D

    2014-12-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a major acute-phase protein and a precursor of amyloid A, the deposit of which leads to amyloidosis. Different alleles exist in SAA1, a predominant form of the human SAA gene family. Emerging evidence has shown correlations between these alleles and diseases including familiar Mediterranean fever and amyloidosis. However, it remains unclear how the proteins encoded by these SAA1 alleles act differently. Here we report the characterization of proteins encoded by SAA1.1, SAA1.3, and SAA1.5, in comparison to that encoded by SAA2.2, for their preference of the SAA receptors including formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). SAA1.1 was more efficacious than SAA1.3 and SAA1.5 but equally efficacious to SAA2.2 in calcium mobilization and chemotaxis assays, which measure the activation of the G protein-coupled FPR2. In agreement with this, SAA1.1 and SAA2.2 induced more robust phosphorylation of ERK than SAA1.3 and SAA1.5. Only small differences were observed between the SAA1 proteins tested and SAA2.2 in TLR2-dependent NF-κB luciferase reporter assay. In comparison, SAA1.3 was most effective in stimulating ERK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Using bone marrow-derived macrophages from C57BL/10ScN (Tlr4lps-del) mice, we examined the SAA isoforms for their induction of selected pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. SAA1.3 was most potent in the induction of TNFα and IL-1rn, whereas SAA1.5 induced robust IL-10 expression. These results show differences of the SAA1 isoforms in their selectivity for the SAA receptors, which may affect their roles in modulating inflammation and immunity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. TBX21 participates in innate immune response by regulating Toll-like receptor 2 expression in Streptococcus pneumoniae infections.

    PubMed

    Woo, C H; Shin, S G; Koh, S H; Lim, J H

    2014-10-01

    Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) plays an important role in the development of invasive diseases, and is also critically involved in setting up respiratory bacterial and viral infections. We previously reported that pneumococcus, one of the commonly carried bacteria in the nasopharynx, regulates non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced inflammation by upregulating the expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which TLR2 expression is regulated during pneumococcal infections have not yet been well characterized. TBX21 is an important transcription factor of adaptive immunity, but there is an increasing body of evidence pointing to a role in regulating innate immunity. The expression of TBX21 was reported in epithelial cells, but the expression and role of TBX21 in respiratory epithelium, especially for regulating TLR2, has not yet been studied. In this study, we found that pneumococcus upregulates TBX21 expression in the respiratory epithelium. The effect of pneumococcus on TBX21 expression was dependent on its cytoplasmic toxin, pneumolysin. In addition, epithelial TBX21 expression was not regulated by the gram-negative bacterium non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, peptidoglycan or endotoxin. Deficiency of TBX21 in mice or knocking down TBX21 in epithelial cells suppressed pneumococcus-induced TLR2 expression, but not that of TLR4 or TLR9. These results indicate that the adaptive immune regulator TBX21 participates in regulating innate immune responses, through regulation of TLR2 expression during pneumococcal infections.

  13. A Toll-Like Receptor 2-Responsive Lipid Effector Pathway Protects Mammals against Skin Infections with Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Georgel, Philippe; Crozat, Karine; Lauth, Xavier; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Seltmann, Holger; Sovath, Sosathya; Hoebe, Kasper; Du, Xin; Rutschmann, Sophie; Jiang, Zhengfan; Bigby, Timothy; Nizet, Victor; Zouboulis, Christos C.; Beutler, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    flake (flk), an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced recessive germ line mutation of C57BL/6 mice, impairs the clearance of skin infections by Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, gram-positive pathogens that elicit innate immune responses by activating Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) (K. Takeda and S. Akira, Cell. Microbiol. 5:143-153, 2003). Positional cloning and sequencing revealed that flk is a novel allele of the stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase 1 gene (Scd1). flake homozygotes show reduced sebum production and are unable to synthesize the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) palmitoleate (C16:1) and oleate (C18:1), both of which are bactericidal against gram-positive (but not gram-negative) organisms in vitro. However, intradermal MUFA administration to S. aureus-infected mice partially rescues the flake phenotype, which indicates that an additional component of the sebum may be required to improve bacterial clearance. In normal mice, transcription of Scd1—a gene with numerous NF-κB elements in its promoter—is strongly and specifically induced by TLR2 signaling. Similarly, the SCD1 gene is induced by TLR2 signaling in a human sebocyte cell line. These observations reveal the existence of a regulated, lipid-based antimicrobial effector pathway in mammals and suggest new approaches to the treatment or prevention of infections with gram-positive bacteria. PMID:16040962

  14. Roles of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in mediating experimental autoimmune orchitis induction in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenghui; Zhao, Shutao; Chen, Qiaoyuan; Yan, Keqin; Liu, Peng; Li, Nan; Cheng, C Yan; Lee, Will M; Han, Daishu

    2015-03-01

    The mammalian testis is an immunoprivileged site where male germ cell antigens are immunologically tolerated under physiological conditions. However, some pathological conditions can disrupt the immunoprivileged status and induce autoimmune orchitis, an etiological factor of male infertility. Mechanisms underlying autoimmune orchitis induction are largely unknown. The present study investigated the roles of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 in mediating the induction of experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) in mice after immunization with male germ cell antigens emulsified with complete Freund adjuvant. Wild-type mice developed severe EAO after three immunizations, which was characterized by leukocyte infiltration, autoantibody production, and impaired spermatogenesis. Tlr2 or Tlr4 deficient mice showed relatively low susceptibility to EAO induction compared with wild-type mice. Notably, Tlr2 and Tlr4 double knockout mice were almost completely protected from EAO induction. Moreover, we demonstrated that TLR2 was crucial in mediating autoantibody production in response to immunization. The results imply that TLR2 and TLR4 cooperatively mediate EAO induction.

  15. A toll-like receptor 2-responsive lipid effector pathway protects mammals against skin infections with gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Georgel, Philippe; Crozat, Karine; Lauth, Xavier; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Seltmann, Holger; Sovath, Sosathya; Hoebe, Kasper; Du, Xin; Rutschmann, Sophie; Jiang, Zhengfan; Bigby, Timothy; Nizet, Victor; Zouboulis, Christos C; Beutler, Bruce

    2005-08-01

    flake (flk), an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced recessive germ line mutation of C57BL/6 mice, impairs the clearance of skin infections by Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, gram-positive pathogens that elicit innate immune responses by activating Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Positional cloning and sequencing revealed that flk is a novel allele of the stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase 1 gene (Scd1). flake homozygotes show reduced sebum production and are unable to synthesize the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) palmitoleate (C(16:1)) and oleate (C(18:1)), both of which are bactericidal against gram-positive (but not gram-negative) organisms in vitro. However, intradermal MUFA administration to S. aureus-infected mice partially rescues the flake phenotype, which indicates that an additional component of the sebum may be required to improve bacterial clearance. In normal mice, transcription of Scd1-a gene with numerous NF-kappaB elements in its promoter--is strongly and specifically induced by TLR2 signaling. Similarly, the SCD1 gene is induced by TLR2 signaling in a human sebocyte cell line. These observations reveal the existence of a regulated, lipid-based antimicrobial effector pathway in mammals and suggest new approaches to the treatment or prevention of infections with gram-positive bacteria.

  16. Toll-like Receptor 2: A Novel Therapeutic Target for Ischemic White Matter Injury and Oligodendrocyte Death.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun Young; Kim, Byung Gon

    2017-08-01

    Despite paramount clinical significance of white matter stroke, there is a paucity of researches on the pathomechanism of ischemic white matter damage and accompanying oligodendrocyte (OL) death. Therefore, a large gap exists between clinical needs and laboratory researches in this disease entity. Recent works have started to elucidate cellular and molecular basis of white matter injury under ischemic stress. In this paper, we briefly introduce white matter stroke from a clinical point of view and review pathophysiology of ischemic white matter injury characterized by OL death and demyelination. We present a series of evidence that Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), one of the membranous pattern recognition receptors, plays a cell-autonomous protective role in ischemic OL death and ensuing demyelination. Moreover, we also discuss our recent findings that its endogenous ligand, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), is released from dying OLs and exerts autocrine trophic effects on OLs and myelin sheath under ischemic condition. We propose that modulation of TLR2 and its endogenous ligand HMGB1 can be a novel therapeutic target for ischemic white matter disease.

  17. Involvement of Toll Like Receptor 2 Signaling in Secondary Injury during Experimental Diffuse Axonal Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming; Ma, Xudong; Huang, Tingqin; Pang, Honggang; Wang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) remains challenging in clinical practice due to the unclear pathophysiological mechanism. Uncontrolled, excessive inflammation is one of the most recognized mechanisms that contribute to the secondary injury after DAI. Toll like receptor 2 (TLR2) is highlighted for the initiation of a vicious self-propagating inflammatory circle. However, the role and detailed mechanism of TLR2 in secondary injury is yet mostly unknown. In this study, we demonstrated the expression of TLR2 levels in cortex, corpus callosum, and internal capsule and the localization of TLR2 in neurons and glial cells in rat DAI models. Intracerebral knockdown of TLR2 significantly downregulated TLR2 expression, attenuated cortical apoptosis, lessened glial response, and reduced the secondary axonal and neuronal injury in the cortex by inhibiting phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) including Erk, JNK, and p38, translocation of NF-κB p65 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, and decreasing levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α. On the contrary, administration of TLR2 agonist to DAI rats achieved an opposite effect. Collectively, we demonstrated that TLR2 was involved in mediating secondary injury after DAI by inducing inflammation via the MAPK and NF-κB pathways. PMID:28293064

  18. Induction of tolerance to lipopolysaccharide and mycobacterial components in Chinese hamster ovary/CD14 cells is not affected by overexpression of Toll-like receptors 2 or 4.

    PubMed

    Medvedev, A E; Henneke, P; Schromm, A; Lien, E; Ingalls, R; Fenton, M J; Golenbock, D T; Vogel, S N

    2001-08-15

    Down-regulation of cell surface expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 following LPS stimulation has been suggested to underlie endotoxin tolerance. In this study, we examined whether overexpression of TLR2 or TLR4 would affect the ability of cells to become tolerant to LPS or the mycobacterial components, arabinose-capped lipoarabinomannan (LAM) and soluble tuberculosis factor (STF). To this end, Chinese hamster ovary/CD14 cells stably transfected with a NF-kappaB-dependent reporter construct, endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule CD25 (the 3E10 clone), were engineered to overexpress either human TLR2 or TLR4. Transfected TLRs exhibited proper signaling functions, as evidenced by increased LPS responsiveness of 3E10/TLR4 cells and acquisition of sensitivity to TLR2-specific ligands upon transfection of TLR2 into TLR2-negative 3E10 cells. Pretreatment of cells with LPS, LAM, or STF did not modulate TLR2 or TLR4 cell surface expression. Following LPS exposure, 3E10, 3E10/TLR2, and 3E10/TLR4 cells exhibited comparable decreases in LPS-mediated NF-kappaB activation and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase phosphorylation. Likewise, LPS pretreatment profoundly inhibited LPS-induced NF-kappaB translocation in Chinese hamster ovary cells that concomitantly overexpressed human TLR4 and myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD-2), but failed to modulate TLR4 or MD-2 cell surface expression. Pretreatment of 3E10/TLR2 cells with LAM or STF decreased their NF-kappaB responses induced by subsequent stimulation with these substances or LPS. Conversely, prior exposure of 3E10/TLR2 cells to LPS led to hyporesponsiveness to LPS, LAM, and STF, indicating that LPS and mycobacterial products induce cross-tolerance. Thus, tolerance to LPS and mycobacterial components cannot be attributed solely to a decrease in TLR/MD-2 expression levels, suggesting inhibition of expression or function of other signaling intermediates.

  19. Increase in peripheral blood mononuclear cell Toll-like receptor 2/3 expression and reactivity to their ligands in a cohort of patients with wet age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yi; Liang, Liang; Qian, Dan; Yu, Hongsong; Yang, Peizeng; Lei, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression and reactivity in patients with the wet form age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Blood samples were collected from 25 patients with wet AMD and 25 age-matched healthy controls. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated with Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient centrifugation. Expression of TLR1 to TLR10 mRNAs in PBMCs from 15 patients with wet AMD and 15 controls was assessed with real-time PCR. TLR2 and TLR3 protein levels in PBMCs from six patients with wet AMD and six controls were measured with flow cytometry. After PBMCs were stimulated with peptidoglycan (PGN) and poly(I:C), the specific ligands of TLR2 and TLR3, cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, VEGF, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production in 11 patients with wet AMD and 11 controls were assessed. Results TLR2 and TLR3 mRNA and protein expression in the PBMCs of the patients with wet AMD was significantly higher than that in the controls. However, the difference in TLR1 and TLR4–10 mRNA expression between the two groups was not significant. The PBMCs of the patients with wet AMD produced more IL-6 and IL-8 proteins than the controls in response to PGN, a ligand for TLR2, and more IL-6 protein than the controls in response to poly(I:C), the ligand for TLR3. However, there was no significant difference in vascular endothelial growth factor and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 production between the wet AMD group and the control group when the PBMCs were stimulated with PGN or poly(I:C). Conclusions Our data suggested that upregulation of TLR2 and TLR3 may be associated with the pathogenesis of wet AMD. PMID:23946637

  20. Association of Toll-like receptors 2, 3, and 4 genes polymorphisms with periapical pathosis risk

    PubMed Central

    Özan, Ülkü; Ocak, Zeynep; Özan, Fatih; Oktay, Elif-Aybala; Şahman, Halil; Yikilgan, İhsan; Oruçoğlu, Hasan; Er, Kürşat

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the role of gene variations of Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2, 3, and 4 on genetic susceptibility to periapical pathosis. Material and Methods One hundred patients were included in the study and divided into two groups as follows; Control Group (n=50) that have root canal treatment and no periapical lesion, Patient Group (n=50) that have root canal treatment and periapical lesion. TLR2 Arg753Gln, TLR3 (c.1377C/T) and TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms were genotyped by using PCR-RFLP. Genotypical analysis of control and patient groups were investigated to disclose whether there is any association between periapical lesions and gene variations. Results There are no significant statistical differences between control and patient groups according to TLR 2 and 4 gene sequence. On the contrary, CC allele detected 74% for TLR 3 in patient group, and this difference was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.005). Conclusions According to these results, it can be suggested that patients with Toll-like receptor 3 gene polymorphisms could be susceptible to periapical pathosis. Key words:Toll-like receptors, periapical pathosis, endodontics. PMID:27031066

  1. Roles of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and superantigens on adaptive immune responses during CNS staphylococcal infection

    PubMed Central

    Vidlak, Debbie; Mariani, Monica M.; Aldrich, Amy; Liu, Shuliang; Kielian, Tammy

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common etiologic agent of brain abscesses and possesses numerous virulence factors that manipulate host immunity. One example is superantigens (SAG) that clonally expand T cell subsets bearing specific Vβ receptors. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is one receptor implicated in S. aureus recognition. However, the interplay between TLR2, SAG, and adaptive immunity during brain abscess formation has not yet been investigated and could reveal novel insights into host-pathogen interactions for regulating protective immunity. A comprehensive analysis of abscess-associated T cell populations in TLR2 KO and WT mice was performed following infection with a S. aureus clinical isolate. Both natural killer T (NKT) and γδ T cell infiltrates were increased in brain abscesses of TLR2 KO mice and produced more IL-17 and IFN-γ compared to WT populations, which could have resulted from elevated bacterial burdens observed in these animals. Analysis of SAG-reactive T cells revealed a predominant Vβ8.1,8.2 infiltrate reactive with staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), whereas SEA-reactive Vβ11 T cells were less numerous. Brain abscesses of TLR2 KO mice had fewer Vβ8.1,8.2 and Vβ11 T cells and produced less TNF-α and IFN-γ compared to WT animals. Treatment of primary microglia with purified SEB augmented TNF-α production in response to the TLR2 ligand Pam3Cys, which may serve to amplify proinflammatory cascades during CNS S. aureus infection. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that TLR2 impacts adaptive immunity to S. aureus infection and modulates SAG responses. PMID:20868736

  2. Streptococcus gordonii induces nitric oxide production through its lipoproteins stimulating Toll-like receptor 2 in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Young; Baik, Jung Eun; Ahn, Ki Bum; Seo, Ho Seong; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2017-02-01

    Streptococcus gordonii, a Gram-positive commensal in the oral cavity, is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause endodontic and systemic infections resulting in infective endocarditis. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and lipoprotein are major virulence factors of Gram-positive bacteria that are preferentially recognized by Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) on immune cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of S. gordonii LTA and lipoprotein on the production of the representative inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO) by the mouse macrophages. Heat-killed S. gordonii wild-type and an LTA-deficient mutant (ΔltaS) but not a lipoprotein-deficient mutant (Δlgt) induced NO production in mouse primary macrophages and the cell line, RAW 264.7. S. gordonii wild-type and ΔltaS also induced the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) at the mRNA and protein levels. In contrast, the Δlgt mutant showed little effect under the same condition. Furthermore, S. gordonii wild-type and ΔltaS induced NF-κB activation, STAT1 phosphorylation, and IFN-β expression, which are important for the induction of iNOS gene expression, with little activation by Δlgt. S. gordonii wild-type and ΔltaS showed an increased adherence and internalization to RAW 264.7 cells compared to Δlgt. In addition, S. gordonii wild-type and ΔltaS, but not Δlgt, substantially increased TLR2 activation while none of these induced NO production in TLR2-deficient macrophages. Triton X-114-extracted lipoproteins from S. gordonii were sufficient to induce NO production. Collectively, we suggest that lipoprotein is an essential cell wall component of S. gordonii to induce NO production in macrophages through TLR2 triggering NF-κB and STAT1 activation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. MiR-19 suppresses fibroblast-like synoviocytes cytokine release by targeting toll like receptor 2 in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zongyu; Cai, Jinfang; Cao, Xuecheng

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) play an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) through participating in joint tissue inflammation and joint damage. MicroRNAs are a kind of small non-coding RNAs that can regulate gene expression in the transcription level to affect cell behaviors. This study intended to investigate the expression of miR-19 in FLS from RA patients and related mechanism. A total of 126 RA patients were selected in this study. MiR-19 expression in FLS was detected by qRT-PCR. Toll like receptor 2 (TLR2) protein expression was tested by Western blot. MiR-19 target genes were confirmed by bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay. The impact of miR-19 on the expression of TLR2, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3) in FLS were analyzed by cell transfection and Western blot. MiR-19 expression in FLS from RA patients was significantly downregulated compared with control (P < 0.05), while TLR2 level was increased (P < 0.05). Bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay confirmed that TLR2 was the target gene of miR-19. Transfection of miR-19 mimic or miR-19 inhibitor obviously suppressed or increased TLR2 expression, and reduced or promoted release of cytokines IL-6 and MMP-3 in FLS, respectively. In conclusion, MiR-19 expression was downregulated in FLS from RA patients, leading to increased TLR2 expression and enhanced cytokines release. PMID:28078022

  4. Toll-like receptor signaling in cell proliferation and survival

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinyan; Jiang, Song; Tapping, Richard I.

    2009-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important sensors of foreign microbial components as well as products of damaged or inflamed self tissues. Upon sensing these molecules, TLRs initiate a series of downstream signaling events that drive cellular responses including the production of cytokines, chemokines and other inflammatory mediators. This outcome results from the intracellular assembly of protein complexes that drive phosphorylation and other signaling cascades ultimately leading to chromatin remodeling and transcription factor activation. In addition to driving inflammatory responses, TLRs also regulate cell proliferation and survival which serves to expand useful immune cells and integrate inflammatory responses and tissue repair processes. In this context, central TLR signaling molecules, such as the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), play key roles. In addition, four major groups of transcription factors which are targets of TLR activation also control cell fate. This review focuses on the role of TLR signaling as it relates to cell proliferation and survival. This topic not only has important implications for understanding host defense and tissue repair, but also cancer which is often associated with conditions of chronic inflammation. PMID:19775907

  5. The acylation state of mycobacterial lipomannans modulates innate immunity response through toll-like receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Gilleron, Martine; Nigou, Jérôme; Nicolle, Delphine; Quesniaux, Valérie; Puzo, Germain

    2006-01-01

    Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens by professional phagocytes via toll-like receptors (TLR) contributes to controlling chronic M. tuberculosis infection. Lipomannans (LM), which are major lipoglycans of the mycobacterial envelope, were recently described as agonists of TLR2 with potent activity on proinflammatory cytokine regulation. LM correspond to a heterogeneous population of acyl- and glyco-forms. We report here the purification and the complete structural characterization of four LM acyl-forms from Mycobacterium bovis BCG using MALDI MS and 2D (1)H-(31)P NMR analyses. All this biochemical work provided the tools to investigate the implication of LM acylation degree on its proinflammatory activity. The latter was ascribed to the triacylated LM form, essentially an agonist of TLR2, using TLR2/TLR1 heterodimers for signaling. Altogether, these findings shed more light on the molecular basis of LM recognition by TLR.

  6. Toll-like receptor-2, but not Toll-like receptor-4, is essential for development of oviduct pathology in chlamydial genital tract infection.

    PubMed

    Darville, Toni; O'Neill, Joshua M; Andrews, Charles W; Nagarajan, Uma M; Stahl, Lynn; Ojcius, David M

    2003-12-01

    The roles of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 in the host inflammatory response to infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis have not been elucidated. We examined production of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in wild-type TLR2 knockout (KO), and TLR4 KO murine peritoneal macrophages infected with the mouse pneumonitis strain of C. trachomatis. Furthermore, we compared the outcomes of genital tract infection in control, TLR2 KO, and TLR4 KO mice. Macrophages lacking TLR2 produced significantly less TNF-alpha and IL6 in response to active infection. In contrast, macrophages from TLR4 KO mice consistently produced higher TNF-alpha and IL-6 responses than those from normal mice on in vitro infection. Infected TLR2-deficient fibroblasts had less mRNA for IL-1, IL-6, and macrophage-inflammatory protein-2, but TLR4-deficient cells had increased mRNA levels for these cytokines compared with controls, suggesting that ligation of TLR4 by whole chlamydiae may down-modulate signaling by other TLRs. In TLR2 KO mice, although the course of genital tract infection was not different from that of controls, significantly lower levels of TNF-alpha and macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 were detected in genital tract secretions during the first week of infection, and there was a significant reduction in oviduct and mesosalpinx pathology at late time points. TLR4 KO mice responded to in vivo infection similarly to wild-type controls and developed similar pathology. TLR2 is an important mediator in the innate immune response to C. trachomatis infection and appears to play a role in both early production of inflammatory mediators and development of chronic inflammatory pathology.

  7. Enteroendocrine cells express functional Toll-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Bogunovic, Milena; Davé, Shaival H; Tilstra, Jeremy S; Chang, Diane T W; Harpaz, Noam; Xiong, Huabao; Mayer, Lloyd F; Plevy, Scott E

    2007-06-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) provide a physical and immunological barrier against enteric microbial flora. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), through interactions with conserved microbial patterns, activate inflammatory gene expression in cells of the innate immune system. Previous studies of the expression and function of TLRs in IECs have reported varying results. Therefore, TLR expression was characterized in human and murine intestinal sections, and TLR function was tested in an IEC line. TLR1, TLR2, and TLR4 are coexpressed on a subpopulation of human and murine IECs that reside predominantly in the intestinal crypt and belong to the enteroendocrine lineage. An enteroendocrine cell (EEC) line demonstrated a similar expression pattern of TLRs as primary cells. The murine EEC line STC-1 was activated with specific TLR ligands: LPS or synthetic bacterial lipoprotein. In STC-1 cells stimulated with bacterial ligands, NF-kappaB and MAPK activation was demonstrated. Furthermore, the expression of TNF and macrophage inhibitory protein-2 were induced. Additionally, bacterial ligands induced the expression of the anti-inflammatory gene transforming growth factor-beta. LPS triggered a calcium flux in STC-1 cells, resulting in a rapid increase in CCK secretion. Finally, conditioned media from STC-1 cells inhibited the production of nitric oxide and IL-12 p40 by activated macrophages. In conclusion, human and murine IECs that express TLRs belong to the enteroendocrine lineage. Using a murine EEC model, a broad range of functional effects of TLR activation was demonstrated. This study suggests a potential role for EECs in innate immune responses.

  8. Enteroendocrine cells express functional Toll-like receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bogunovic, Milena; Davé, Shaival H.; Tilstra, Jeremy S.; Chang, Diane T. W.; Harpaz, Noam; Xiong, Huabao; Mayer, Lloyd F.; Plevy, Scott E.

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) provide a physical and immunological barrier against enteric microbial flora. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), through interactions with conserved microbial patterns, activate inflammatory gene expression in cells of the innate immune system. Previous studies of the expression and function of TLRs in IECs have reported varying results. Therefore, TLR expression was characterized in human and murine intestinal sections, and TLR function was tested in an IEC line. TLR1, TLR2, and TLR4 are coexpressed on a subpopulation of human and murine IECs that reside predominantly in the intestinal crypt and belong to the enteroendocrine lineage. An enteroendocrine cell (EEC) line demonstrated a similar expression pattern of TLRs as primary cells. The murine EEC line STC-1 was activated with specific TLR ligands: LPS or synthetic bacterial lipoprotein. In STC-1 cells stimulated with bacterial ligands, NF-κB and MAPK activation was demonstrated. Furthermore, the expression of TNF and macrophage inhibitory protein-2 were induced. Additionally, bacterial ligands induced the expression of the anti-inflammatory gene transforming growth factor-β. LPS triggered a calcium flux in STC-1 cells, resulting in a rapid increase in CCK secretion. Finally, conditioned media from STC-1 cells inhibited the production of nitric oxide and IL-12 p40 by activated macrophages. In conclusion, human and murine IECs that express TLRs belong to the enteroendocrine lineage. Using a murine EEC model, a broad range of functional effects of TLR activation was demonstrated. This study suggests a potential role for EECs in innate immune responses. PMID:17395901

  9. Toll-like receptor-2 deficiency induces schizophrenia-like behaviors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Se Jin; Lee, Jee Youn; Kim, Sang Jeong; Choi, Se-Young; Yune, Tae Young; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of the immune system contributes to the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Here, we demonstrated that toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, a family of pattern-recognition receptors, is involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia-like symptoms. Psychotic symptoms such as hyperlocomotion, anxiolytic-like behaviors, prepulse inhibition deficits, social withdrawal, and cognitive impairments were observed in TLR-2 knock-out (KO) mice. Ventricle enlargement, a hallmark of schizophrenia, was also observed in TLR-2 KO mouse brains. Levels of p-Akt and p-GSK-3α/β were markedly higher in the brain of TLR-2 KO than wild-type (WT) mice. Antipsychotic drugs such as haloperidol or clozapine reversed behavioral and biochemical alterations in TLR-2 KO mice. Furthermore, p-Akt and p-GSK-3α/β were decreased by treatment with a TLR-2 ligand, lipoteichoic acid, in WT mice. Thus, our data suggest that the dysregulation of the innate immune system by a TLR-2 deficiency may contribute to the development and/or pathophysiology of schizophrenia-like behaviors via Akt-GSK-3α/β signaling. PMID:25687169

  10. Toll like receptor 2 and 4 polymorphisms in malaria endemic populations of India.

    PubMed

    Bali, Prerna; Pradhan, Sabyasachi; Sharma, Divya; Adak, Tridibes

    2013-02-01

    Toll like receptors (TLRs) play a pivotal role in recognizing the invading malaria parasite Plasmodium, thus genetic makeup of the exposed population can be of utmost importance for its predisposition to malaria. In this study 264 malaria patients from seven different eco epidemiological regions of India were genotyped for TLR2 and TLR4 polymorphisms using DNA sequencing methods. No variation was observed at residue positions 677 and 753 in TLR2 whereas residue positions 299 and 399 in TLR4 were highly polymorphic. The GC haplotype (Asp299Gly/Thr399Thr) was observed at the highest frequency in populations of East Singhbhum, Vizianagaram and North Goa and absent in Kolkata, Dakshin Kannada and Nicobar district. All polymorphisms were in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. Populations of Kolkata, Nicobar district, Sundergarh and Dakshin Kannada were observed to be closely related. TLR2 polymorphism was absent in the Indian population and an overall heterogeneous pattern of TLR4 polymorphism can be attributed to genetic drift. However it can be inferred that GC haplotype is under the process of natural selection in the Indian population and one of the factors contributing to its selection could be predominance of Plasmodium falciparum in these regions.

  11. Toll-like receptor 2 activation and comedogenesis: implications for the pathogenesis of acne

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Acne is a common disorder of the human pilosebaceous unit, yet the mechanisms underlying hyperkeratinisation and subsequent inflammation (comedogenesis) remain to be determined, although cutaneous pathogens are implicated. Previously, it was reported that the release of the cytokine interleukin-1α (IL-1α) by keratinocytes of the sebaceous duct was pivotal in the life cycle of the comedone, mediating both its development and its spontaneous resolution. Toll-like receptors are a family of molecules that recognise pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) presented by microorganisms, initiating a signalling cascade terminating in the release of antimicrobial compounds and cytokines. Methods We used ex vivo sebaceous gland and primary monolayer keratinocyte culture, alongside ELISAs, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and RT-PCR to investigate the contribution of TLR activation to acne pathogenesis. Results We found TLR2 to be expressed in basal and infundibular keratinocytes, and sebaceous glands, and its activation provoked the release of IL-1α from primary human keratinocytes in vitro. The exposure of microdissected human sebaceous glands to PAMPs specific for TLR2 in vitro resulted in a pattern of IL-1α like cornification after seven days of exposure. Conclusions TLR activation and secretion of IL-1α from keratinocytes may be initiating steps in comedogenesis and, therefore, critical to the pathophysiology of acne. PMID:24011352

  12. Toll-Like Receptors 2 and 4 Modulate Autonomic Control of Heart Rate and Energy Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Okun, Eitan; Griffioen, Kathleen J.; Sarah, Rothman; Wan, Ruiqian; Cong, Wei-Na; De Cabo, Rafael; Montalvo, Alejandro Martin; Levette, Andrew; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen; Arumugam, Thiruma Valavan; Mattson, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are innate immune receptors typically activated by microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) during infection or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) as a result of tissue injury. Recent findings suggest that TLR2 and TLR4 signaling play important roles in developmental and adult neuroplasticity, and in learning and memory. In addition, activation of TLR2 and TLR4 worsens ischemic injury to the heart and brain in animal models of myocardial infarction and stroke. TLR activation is also implicated in thermoregulation and fever in response to infection. However, it is not known whether TLRs participate in the regulation of the sympathetic and/or parasympathetic components of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Here we provide evidence that TLR2 and TLR4 influence autonomic regulation of heart rate (HR) body temperature and energy metabolism in mice. We show that mice lacking TLR2 or TLR4 exhibit reduced basal HR, which results from an increase of parasympathetic tone. In addition, thermoregulatory responses to stress are altered in TLR2−/− and TLR4−/− mice, and brown fat-dependent thermoregulation is altered in TLR4−/− mice. Moreover, TLR2−/− and TLR4−/− mice consume less food and exhibit a greater mass compared to wild type mice. Collectively, our findings suggest important roles for TLR2 and TLR4 in the ANS regulation of cardiovascular function, thermoregulation, and energy metabolism. PMID:24145051

  13. Toll-like receptor 2 mediates ischemia-reperfusion injury of the small intestine in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Toshio; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Kobata, Atsushi; Takeda, Shogo; Nadatani, Yuji; Otani, Koji; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Shiba, Masatsugu; Tominaga, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) recognizes conserved molecular patterns associated with both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, and detects some endogenous ligands. Previous studies demonstrated that in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury of the small intestine, the TLR2-dependent signaling exerted preventive effects on the damage in young mice, but did not have a significant effect in neonatal mice. We investigated the role of TLR2 in adult ischemia-reperfusion injury in the small intestine. Wild-type and TLR2 knockout mice at 16 weeks of age were subjected to intestinal I/R injury. Some wild-type mice received anti-Ly-6G antibodies to deplete circulating neutrophils. In wild-type mice, I/R induced severe small intestinal injury characterized by infiltration by inflammatory cells, disruption of the mucosal epithelium, and mucosal bleeding. Compared to wild-type mice, TLR2 knockout mice exhibited less severe mucosal injury induced by I/R, with a 35%, 33%, and 43% reduction in histological grading score and luminal concentration of hemoglobin, and the numbers of apoptotic epithelial cells, respectively. The I/R increased the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), a marker of neutrophil infiltration, and the levels of mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the small intestine of the wild-type mice by 3.3-, 3.2-, and 13.0-fold, respectively. TLR2 deficiency significantly inhibited the I/R-induced increase in MPO activity and the expression of mRNAs for TNF-α and ICAM-1, but did not affect the expression of COX-2 mRNA. I/R also enhanced TLR2 mRNA expression by 2.9-fold. TLR2 proteins were found to be expressed in the epithelial cells, inflammatory cells, and endothelial cells. Neutrophil depletion prevented intestinal I/R injury in wild-type mice. These findings suggest that TLR2 may mediate I/R injury of the small intestine in adult mice via induction of inflammatory mediators

  14. Association of Toll-like receptor 2 Arg753Gln and Toll-like receptor 1 Ile602Ser single-nucleotide polymorphisms with leptospirosis in an Argentine population.

    PubMed

    Cédola, Maia; Chiani, Yosena; Pretre, Gabriela; Alberdi, Lucrecia; Vanasco, Bibiana; Gómez, Ricardo M

    2015-06-01

    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), a member of the Toll-like receptor family, plays an important role in the recognition of and subsequent immune response activation against leptospirosis in humans. The genetic polymorphism in TLR2 of an arginine to glutamine substitution at residue 753 (Arg753Gln) has been associated with a negative influence on TLR2 function, which may, in turn, determine the innate host response to Leptospira spp. This bacterium signals through TLR2/TLR1 heterodimers in human cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the Arg753Gln single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the TLR2 gene, and the isoleucine to serine transversion at position 602 (Ile602Ser) of the TLR1 gene (previously associated with Lyme disease), in leptospirosis patients compared to healthy controls, carrying out a retrospective case/control study. The TLR2 polymorphism adenine (A) allele was observed in 7.3% of leptospirosis patients but was not found in the control group, whereas the guanine (G) allele of the TLR1 polymorphism was found in 63.6% of patients and 41.6% of controls. Susceptibility to leptospirosis disease was increased 10.57-fold for carriers of the TLR2 G/A genotype (P=0.0493) and 3.85-fold for carriers of the TLR1 G/G genotype (P=0.0428). Furthermore, the risk of developing hepatic insufficiency and jaundice was increased 18.86- and 27.60-fold for TLR2 G/A carriers, respectively. Similarly, the risk of developing jaundice was increased 12.67-fold for TLR1 G allele carriers (G/G and T/G genotypes). In conclusion, the present data suggest that the TLR2 Arg753Gln and TLR1 Ile602Ser SNPs influence the risk of developing leptospirosis and its severity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of smoking on the genetic makeup of toll-like receptors 2 and 6.

    PubMed

    Kohailan, Muhammad; Alanazi, Mohammad; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Alamri, Abdullah; Parine, Narasimha Reddy; Alhadheq, Abdullah; Basavarajappa, Santhosh; Abdullah Al-Kheraif, Abdul Aziz; Semlali, Abdelhabib

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for lung cancer, asthma, and oral cancer, and is central to the altered innate immune responsiveness to infection. Many hypotheses have provided evidence that cigarette smoking induces more genetic changes in genes involved in the development of many cigarette-related diseases. This alteration may be from single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in innate immunity genes, especially the toll-like receptors (TLRs). In this study, the genotype frequencies of TLR2 and TLR6 in smoking and nonsmoking population were examined. Saliva samples were collected from 177 smokers and 126 nonsmokers. The SNPs used were rs3804100 (1350 T/C, Ser450Ser) and rs3804099 (597 T/C, Asn199Asn) for TLR2 and rs3796508 (979 G/A, Val327Met) and rs5743810 (745 T/C, Ser249Pro) for TLR6. Results showed that TLR2 rs3804100 has a significant effect in short-term smokers (OR =2.63; P=0.04), and this effect is not observed in long-term smokers (>5 years of smoking). Therefore, this early mutation may be repaired by the DNA repair system. For TLR2 rs3804099, the variation in genotype frequencies between the smokers and control patients was due to a late mutation, and its protective role appears only in long-term smokers (OR =0.40, P=0.018). In TLR6 rs5743810, the TT genotype is significantly higher in smokers than in nonsmokers (OR =6.90). The effect of this SNP is observed in long-term smokers, regardless of the smoking regime per day. TLR2 (rs3804100 and rs3804099) and TLR6 (rs5743810) can be used as a potential index in the diagnosis and prevention of more diseases caused by smoking.

  16. Toll-like receptor-2 and -4 are associated with hyperlipidemia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ya-Jun; Wang, Chao; Song, Guangyao; Zang, Sha-Sha; Liu, Yi-Xuan; Li, Ling

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that toll-like receptors (TLRs) contribute to insulin resistance, and that fatty acids have a role in TLR activation. Other studies have found that TLR2 and TLR4 upregulation is consistent with an increase in serum lipid. Therefore, it was hypothesized that TLRs are associated with hyperlipidemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether TLR2 or TLR4 was associated with hyperlipidemia and to provide novel targets for hyperlipidemia therapy. Volunteers were selected at the Medical Examination Center of Hebei General Hospital (Shijiazhuang, China), including 43 patients with high triglyceride (TG) levels, 84 with high total cholesterol (TC) levels and 55 with high TG and high TC levels. In addition, 68 healthy volunteers were selected as a control group. For the animal study, the TLR gene and protein levels were assessed in the skeletal muscle of rats fed a high‑fat diet. As expected, TLR2 and TLR4 gene expression were upregulated when TC increased, TG increased, or TC and TG increased. In rats fed a high‑fat diet, the levels of gene and protein expression in the skeletal muscle of the two TLRs were all increased compared with the control group, this was consistent with an increase in TC and TG. In addition, in drug treatment groups the mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR in the skeletal muscle of rats fed a high fat diet were decreased, as were the TC and TG levels. In conclusion, these findings suggest that TLR2 and TLR4 are associated with hyperlipidemia.

  17. [Association between toll-like receptors 2 and 5 polymorphisms and neonatal sepsis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Lei; Zhang, Le; Li, Ya-Wen; Hou, Hong-Mei; Sun, Hai-Bin

    2015-12-01

    To study the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNP) in toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and 5 genes and the susceptibility to neonatal sepsis. One hundred and fourteen newborn infants who were diagnosed with clinical sepsis (case group) between May 2011 and January 2014 and 172 newborn infants without infection(control group) were enrolled in this study. The polymorphisms of TLR2 (rs5743708 and rs3804099) and TLR5 (rs5744105) were analyzed using a SNaPshot multiplex reaction to compare the genotypic and allelic frequencies between two groups. The relationship between TLR genotypes and susceptibility to sepsis was analyzed by logistic regression models. Significant differences in genotypic frequencies of TLR2 rs3804099 (C/T) and TLR5 rs5744105 (C/G) were found between the two groups (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in allelic frequencies of all the SNPs above between the two groups (P>0.05). The genotype on TLR2 rs5743708 was GG and no mutation was found in both groups. In regression models, birth weight (OR=3.065; P<0.05) and gestational age (OR=3.301; P<0.05) were closely associated with neonatal sepsis. Sex (OR=1.107, P>0.05), polymorphisms in rs3804099 (OR=0.876; P>0.05) and polymorphisms in rs5744105 (OR=0.820; P>0.05) genes were not risk factors for neonatal sepsis. TLR2 and 5 polymorphisms (rs5743708, rs3804099 and rs5744105) may not serve as the susceptible gene for sepsis in newborn infants.

  18. Effect of smoking on the genetic makeup of toll-like receptors 2 and 6

    PubMed Central

    Kohailan, Muhammad; Alanazi, Mohammad; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Alamri, Abdullah; Parine, Narasimha Reddy; Alhadheq, Abdullah; Basavarajappa, Santhosh; Abdullah Al-Kheraif, Abdul Aziz; Semlali, Abdelhabib

    2016-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for lung cancer, asthma, and oral cancer, and is central to the altered innate immune responsiveness to infection. Many hypotheses have provided evidence that cigarette smoking induces more genetic changes in genes involved in the development of many cigarette-related diseases. This alteration may be from single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in innate immunity genes, especially the toll-like receptors (TLRs). Objective In this study, the genotype frequencies of TLR2 and TLR6 in smoking and nonsmoking population were examined. Methods Saliva samples were collected from 177 smokers and 126 nonsmokers. The SNPs used were rs3804100 (1350 T/C, Ser450Ser) and rs3804099 (597 T/C, Asn199Asn) for TLR2 and rs3796508 (979 G/A, Val327Met) and rs5743810 (745 T/C, Ser249Pro) for TLR6. Results Results showed that TLR2 rs3804100 has a significant effect in short-term smokers (OR =2.63; P=0.04), and this effect is not observed in long-term smokers (>5 years of smoking). Therefore, this early mutation may be repaired by the DNA repair system. For TLR2 rs3804099, the variation in genotype frequencies between the smokers and control patients was due to a late mutation, and its protective role appears only in long-term smokers (OR =0.40, P=0.018). In TLR6 rs5743810, the TT genotype is significantly higher in smokers than in nonsmokers (OR =6.90). The effect of this SNP is observed in long-term smokers, regardless of the smoking regime per day. Conclusion TLR2 (rs3804100 and rs3804099) and TLR6 (rs5743810) can be used as a potential index in the diagnosis and prevention of more diseases caused by smoking. PMID:27920557

  19. Toll-like receptor polymorphisms in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kornblit, Brian; Enevold, Christian; Wang, Tao; Spellman, Stephen; Haagenson, Mike; Lee, Stephanie J; Müller, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    To assess the impact of the genetic variation in toll-like receptors (TLRs) on outcome after allogeneic myeloablative conditioning hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), we investigated 29 single nucleotide polymorphisms across 10 TLRs in 816 patients and donors. Only donor genotype of TLR8 rs3764879, which is located on the X chromosome, was significantly associated with outcome at the Bonferroni-corrected level P ≤ .001. Male hemizygosity and female homozygosity for the minor allele were significantly associated with disease-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.47 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.16 to 1.85]; P = .001). Further analysis stratified by donor sex due to confounding by sex was suggestive for associations with overall survival (male donor: HR, 1.41 [95% CI, 1.09 to 1.83], P = .010; female donor: HR, 2.78 [95% CI, 1.43 to 5.41], P = .003), disease-free survival (male donor: HR, 1.45 [95% CI, 1.12 to 1.87], P = .005; female donor: HR, 2.34 [95% CI, 1.18 to 4.65], P = .015), and treatment-related mortality (male donor: HR, 1.49 [95% CI, 1.09 to 2.04], P = .012; female donor: HR, 3.12 [95% CI, 1.44 to 6.74], P = .004). In conclusion, our findings suggest that the minor allele of TLR8 rs3764879 of the donor is associated with outcome after myeloablative conditioned allogeneic HCT.

  20. Toll like receptor polymorphisms in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kornblit, Brian; Enevold, Christian; Wang, Tao; Spellman, Stephen; Haagenson, Mike; Lee, Stephanie J; Müller, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    To assess the impact of the genetic variation in toll-like receptors (TLR) on outcome after allogeneic myeloablative conditioning hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) we have investigated 29 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) across 10 TLRs in 816 patients and donors. Only donor genotype of TLR8 rs3764879, which is located on the X chromosome, was significantly associated with outcome at the Bonferroni corrected level P≤0.001. Male hemizygosity and female homozygosity for the minor allele were significantly associated with disease free survival (DFS) (hazard ratio (HR) 1.47 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16–1.85); P=0.001). Further analysis stratified by donor sex due to confounding by sex, was suggestive for associations with overall survival (male donor: HR 1.41 (95% CI 1.09–1.83), P=0.010); female donor: (HR 2.78 (95% CI 1.43–5.41), P=0.003), DFS (male donor: HR 1.45 (95% CI 1.12–1.87), P=0.005; female donor: HR 2.34 (95% CI 1.18–4.65), P=0.015) and treatment related mortality (male donor: HR 1.49 (95% CI 1.09–2.04), P=0.012; female donor: HR 3.12 (95% CI 1.44–6.74), P=0.004). In conclusion our findings suggest that the minor allele of TLR8 rs3764879 of the donor is associated with outcome after myeloablative conditioned allogeneic HCT. PMID:25464115

  1. The role of toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in the pathogenesis of feline pyometra.

    PubMed

    Jursza, E; Kowalewski, M P; Boos, A; Skarzynski, D J; Socha, P; Siemieniuch, M J

    2015-03-01

    Pyometra is the most common uterine disease in queens. To protect itself from infection, the female reproductive tract possesses several immune mechanisms that are based on germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (toll-like receptors [TLRs]). The aim of our study was to examine endometrial immunolocalization of TLR2/4, study the influence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α on messenger RNA expression of both receptors in pyometric queens, and compare these patterns between estrous cycling queens and those hormonally treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). Thirty-six queens, ranging in age from 7 months to 11 years, were allocated into seven groups (anestrus, estrus, mid-diestrus and late diestrus, short-term and long-term hormonally treated queens, and pyometric queens). At the messenger RNA level, the real-time polymerase chain reaction was applied, whereas at the TLR2/4 protein level, the expression was tested by immunohistochemistry. In queens at estrus, gene expression of TLR2 was upregulated after stimulation of endometrial explants by TNF (P < 0.001) and by TNF together with the LPS (P < 0.01). Moreover, gene expression of TLR2 was significantly upregulated after stimulation by TNF (P < 0.001) and LPS (P < 0.01) explants derived from queens that had been long-term hormonally treated with MPA. Endometrial gene expression of TLR4 was significantly upregulated after incubation of explants with TNF (P < 0.001) in queens at estrus and with LPS (P < 0.05) in queens short-term hormonally treated with MPA. Immunolocalization reported that TLR2/4 receptors are mainly localized in the surface and glandular epithelia. These data show that short-term and especially long-term administration of progesterone derivatives impairs TLRs in the endometrial epithelium, presumably enabling pathogens to break through this first natural barrier and thereby increase the risk of pyometra development.

  2. Live and heat-killed probiotic Lactobacillus casei Lbs2 protects from experimental colitis through Toll-like receptor 2-dependent induction of T-regulatory response.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Bhupesh Kumar; Saha, Piu; Banik, George; Saha, Dhira Rani; Grover, Sunita; Batish, Virender Kumar; Das, Santasabuj

    2016-07-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory disorders of the intestine caused by dysregulated T-cell mediated immune response against commensal microflora. Probiotics are reported as therapeutically effective against IBD. However, variable efficacy of the live probiotic strains, difference in survival and persistence in the gut between the strains and the lack of insight into the mechanisms of probiotic action limit optimal therapeutic efficacy. Our aims were to evaluate the lactobacillus strains isolated from the North Indian population for the generation of regulatory cells and cytokines in the intestine, to study their effects on pro-inflammatory mediators in the mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease and to explore the underlying mechanisms of their actions. Among the selected lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus casei Lbs2 (MTCC5953) significantly suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-alpha, IL-6) secretion. Both live and heat-killed Lbs2 polarized Th0 cells to T-regulatory (Treg) cells in vitro, increased the frequency of FoxP3(+) Treg cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and alleviated macroscopic and histopathological features of colitis in probiotic-fed mice. Moreover, the levels of IL-12, TNF-alpha and IL-17A were suppressed, while IL-10 and TGF-beta levels were augmented in the colonic tissues of Lbs2-treated mice. The induced Treg (iTreg) cells secreted IL-10 and TGF-beta and exerted suppressive effects on the proliferation of effector T-cells. Adoptive transfer of iTreg cells ameliorated the disease manifestations of murine colitis and suppressed the levels of TNF-alpha and IL-17A. Finally, Lbs2 effects were mediated by Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) activation on the dendritic cells. This study identified live and heat-killed Lbs2 as putative therapeutic candidates against IBD and highlighted their Toll-like receptor 2-dependent immunomodulatory and regulatory function.

  3. Vitamin K2 can suppress the expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4, and inhibit calcification of aortic intima in ApoE(-/-) mice as well as smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaojun; Wang, Zhongqun; Zhu, Jie; Long, Xinguang; Yan, Jinchuan

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives Vascular calcification is a common complication in atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence showed that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate pro-inflammatory and atherosclerosis. Recent studies demonstrated that vascular calcification is one of the detrimental effects of vitamin K (Vit K) antagonists. However, the effects of Vit K on the expression of TLR2 and 4 and intimal calcification in artery remained unidentified. Methods and results Eighteen ApoE(-/-) mice were randomly divided into model group, Vit K-treated group, and control group. The mice of model and Vit K-treated group were fed with high-fat diet, while control group mice were fed with normal diet. Mice of Vit K-treated group were administered orally with vitamin K2 (40 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) for 12 weeks. Twelve weeks later the aortic sections of mice were acquired and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and von Kossa, respectively. Calcium content and activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) at aortic tissues were measured. The expression levels of TLR2 and TLR4 in aorta sections were detected by immunohistochemisty and RT-PCR, respectively. The effects of Vit K on cellular calcification were further studied in A7r5 SMCs. Results demonstrated that high-fat diet induced typical atherosclerosis with intimal calcification in ApoE(-/-) mice, while in Vit K-treated group atherosclerosis and calcium deposits were not serious; Vit K2 also inhibited cellular calcification in A7r5 SMCs. Quantitative analysis showed that calcium and ALP activity at aortic tissues in the Vit K-treated mice were significantly lower than that of the model group ( P < 0.01); Compared to the control group, the expression levels of TLR2 and TLR4 in the model group were significantly higher ( P < 0.05), while in Vit K-treated group the levels of TLR2 and 4 were significantly lower than that in the model group. Furthermore, the content of calcium was positively related to the expression levels of TLR2 and TLR

  4. Soluble CD14 and toll-like receptor-2 are potential salivary biomarkers for oral lichen planus and burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Mythily; Kodumudi, Krithika N; Zunt, Susan L

    2008-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) and burning mouth syndrome (BMS) are chronic conditions affecting the oral mucosa characterized by pain and burning sensation. Saliva plays a significant role in the maintenance of physical and functional integrity of normal oral mucosa. Identification of potential "salivary biomarkers" for early diagnosis and/or monitoring of human diseases is being explored. We investigated the soluble forms of innate immune associated proteins CD14 and toll-like receptor-2 in unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) as potential biomarkers for OLP and BMS. Our results suggest that the levels of sCD14 and sTLR-2 in UWS were upregulated in OLP and BMS respectively. In addition, oral epithelial cells in the saliva of patients with OLP and BMS exhibited elevated levels of CD14 mRNA and decreased levels of TLR-2 mRNA. Interestingly, presence of co-existent oral candidiasis nullified these changes.

  5. Intestinal Serotonin Transporter Inhibition by Toll-Like Receptor 2 Activation. A Feedback Modulation.

    PubMed

    Latorre, Eva; Layunta, Elena; Grasa, Laura; Castro, Marta; Pardo, Julián; Gomollón, Fernando; Alcalde, Ana I; Mesonero, José E

    2016-01-01

    TLR2 is a microbiota recognition receptor that has been described to contribute to intestinal homeostasis and to ameliorate inflammatory intestinal injury. In this context, serotonin (5-HT) has shown to be an essential intestinal physiological neuromodulator that is also involved in intestinal inflammatory diseases. Since the interaction between TLR2 activation and the intestinal serotoninergic system remains non-investigated, our main aim was to analyze the effect of TLR2 on intestinal serotonin transporter (SERT) activity and expression and the intracellular pathways involved. Caco-2/TC7 cells were used to analyze SERT and TLR2 molecular expression and SERT activity by measuring 5-HT uptake. The results showed that apical TLR2 activation inhibits SERT activity in Caco-2/TC7 cells mainly by reducing SERT protein level either in the plasma membrane, after short-term TLR2 activation or in both the plasma membrane and cell lysate, after long-term activation. cAMP/PKA pathway appears to mediate short-term inhibitory effect of TLR2 on SERT; however, p38 MAPK pathway has been shown to be involved in both short- and long-term TLR2 effect. Reciprocally, 5-HT long-term treatment yielded TLR2 down regulation in Caco-2/TC7 cells. Finally, results from in vivo showed an augmented intestinal SERT expression in mice Tlr2-/-, thus confirming our inhibitory effect of TLR2 on intestinal SERT in vitro. The present work infers that TLR2 may act in intestinal pathophysiology, not only by its inherent innate immune role, but also by regulating the intestinal serotoninergic system.

  6. Intestinal Serotonin Transporter Inhibition by Toll-Like Receptor 2 Activation. A Feedback Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Layunta, Elena; Grasa, Laura; Castro, Marta; Pardo, Julián; Gomollón, Fernando; Mesonero, José E.

    2016-01-01

    TLR2 is a microbiota recognition receptor that has been described to contribute to intestinal homeostasis and to ameliorate inflammatory intestinal injury. In this context, serotonin (5-HT) has shown to be an essential intestinal physiological neuromodulator that is also involved in intestinal inflammatory diseases. Since the interaction between TLR2 activation and the intestinal serotoninergic system remains non-investigated, our main aim was to analyze the effect of TLR2 on intestinal serotonin transporter (SERT) activity and expression and the intracellular pathways involved. Caco-2/TC7 cells were used to analyze SERT and TLR2 molecular expression and SERT activity by measuring 5-HT uptake. The results showed that apical TLR2 activation inhibits SERT activity in Caco-2/TC7 cells mainly by reducing SERT protein level either in the plasma membrane, after short-term TLR2 activation or in both the plasma membrane and cell lysate, after long-term activation. cAMP/PKA pathway appears to mediate short-term inhibitory effect of TLR2 on SERT; however, p38 MAPK pathway has been shown to be involved in both short- and long-term TLR2 effect. Reciprocally, 5-HT long-term treatment yielded TLR2 down regulation in Caco-2/TC7 cells. Finally, results from in vivo showed an augmented intestinal SERT expression in mice Tlr2-/-, thus confirming our inhibitory effect of TLR2 on intestinal SERT in vitro. The present work infers that TLR2 may act in intestinal pathophysiology, not only by its inherent innate immune role, but also by regulating the intestinal serotoninergic system. PMID:28033388

  7. Rifampicin Inhibits the LPS-induced Expression of Toll-like Receptor 2 via the Suppression of NF-kappaB DNA-binding Activity in RAW 264.7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Keun; Kim, Young Mi; Yeum, Chung Eun; Jin, Song-Hyo; Chae, Gue Tae; Lee, Seong-Beom

    2009-12-01

    Rifampicin is a macrocyclic antibiotic which is used extensively for treatment against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infections. Recently, a number of studies have focused on the immune-regulatory effects of rifampicin. Therefore, we hypothesized that rifampicin may influence the TLR2 expression in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells. In this study, we determined that rifampicin suppresses LPS-induced TLR2 mRNA expression. The down-regulation of TLR2 expression coincided with decreased production of TNF-alpha. Since NF-kappaB is a major transcription factor that regulates genes for TLR2 and TNF-alpha, we examined the effect of rifampicin on the LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation. Rifampicin inhibited NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells, while it did not affect IKKalpha/beta activity. However, rifampicin slightly inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB p65. In addition, rifampicin increased physical interaction between pregnane X receptor, a receptor for rifampicin, and NF-kappaB p65, suggesting pregnane X receptor interferes with NF-kappaB binding to DNA. Taken together, our results demonstrate that rifampicin inhibits LPS-induced TLR2 expression, at least in part, via the suppression of NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity in RAW 264.7 cells. Thus, the present results suggest that the rifampicin-mediated inhibition of TLR2 via the suppression of NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity may be a novel mechanism of the immune-suppressive effects of rifampicin.

  8. Involvement of suppressor of cytokine signalling-1-mediated degradation of MyD88-adaptor-like protein in the suppression of Toll-like receptor 2-mediated signalling by the murine C-type lectin SIGNR1-mediated signalling.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Makoto; Iyori, Mitsuhiro; Saeki, Ayumi; Tanizume, Naoho; Into, Takeshi; Hasebe, Akira; Totsuka, Yasunori; Shibata, Ken-ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells recognize pathogens through pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors and phagocytose and digest them by phagocytic receptors for antigen presentation. This study was designed to clarify the cross-talk between recognition and phagocytosis of microbes in dendritic cells. The murine dendritic cell line XS106 cells were stimulated with the murine C-type lectin SIGNR1 ligand lipoarabinomannan and the Toll-like receptor 2 ligand FSL-1. The co-stimulation significantly suppressed FSL-1-mediated activation of NF-κB as well as production of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-12p40 in a dose-dependent manner. The suppression was significantly but not completely recovered by knock-down of SIGNR1. SIGNR1 was associated with Toll-like receptor 2 in XS106 cells. The co-stimulation upregulated the expression of suppressor of cytokine signalling-1 in XS106 cells, the knock-down of which almost completely recovered the suppression of the FSL-1-mediated cytokine production by lipoarabinomannan. In addition, it was found that the MyD88-adaptor-like protein in XS106 cells was degraded by co-stimulation with FSL-1 and lipoarabinomannan in the absence, but not the presence, of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 and the degradation was inhibited by knock-down of suppressor of cytokine signalling-1. This study suggests that Toll-like receptor 2-mediated signalling is negatively regulated by SIGNR1-mediated signalling in dendritic cells, possibly through suppressor of cytokine signalling-1-mediated degradation of the MyD88-adaptor-like protein. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Association of Toll-like receptor 2-positive monocytes with coronary artery lesions and treatment nonresponse in Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam Su

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Activation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) present on circulating monocytes in patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) can lead to the production of proinflammatory cytokines and interleukin-10 (IL-10). We aimed to determine the association of the frequency of circulating TLR2+/CD14+ monocytes (FTLR2%) with the outcomes of KD, as well as to compare FTLR2% to the usefulness of sIL-10. Methods The FTLR2% in patients with KD was measured by flow cytometry. Serum levels of IL-10 (sIL-10) were determined in 31 patients with KD before the initial treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and in 21 febrile controls by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients were classified as having coronary artery lesions (CALs) based on the maximal internal diameters of the proximal right coronary artery and proximal left anterior descending coronary artery one month after the initial diagnosis. Results We found that FTLR2% greater than 92.62% predicted CALs with 80% sensitivity and 68.4% specificity, whereas FTLR2% more than 94.61% predicted IVIG resistance with 66.7% sensitivity and 71.4% specificity. Moreover, sIL-10 more than 15.52 pg/mL predicted CALs and IVIG resistance with 40% and 66.7% sensitivity, respectively, and 73.7% and 76.2% specificity, respectively. Conclusion We showed that measuring FTLR2% before the initial treatment could be useful in predicting CAL development with better sensitivity than sIL-10 and with results comparable to sIL-10 results for the prediction of IVIG resistance in patients with KD. However, further studies are necessary to validate FTLR2% as a marker of prognosis and severity of KD. PMID:28861111

  10. Attenuation of Myocardial Injury by HMGB1 Blockade during Ischemia/Reperfusion Is Toll-Like Receptor 2-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Iskandar, Franziska; Habeck, Katharina; Zimmermann, René; Schumann, Ralf R.; Koch, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Genetic or pharmacological ablation of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MI/R). However, the endogenous ligand responsible for TLR2 activation has not yet been detected. The objective of this study was to identify HMGB1 as an activator of TLR2 signalling during MI/R. C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) or TLR2−/−-mice were injected with vehicle, HMGB1, or HMGB1 BoxA one hour before myocardial ischemia (30 min) and reperfusion (24 hrs). Infarct size, cardiac troponin T, leukocyte infiltration, HMGB1 release, TLR4-, TLR9-, and RAGE-expression were quantified. HMGB1 plasma levels were measured in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. HMGB1 antagonist BoxA reduced cardiomyocyte necrosis during MI/R in WT mice, accompanied by reduced leukocyte infiltration. Injection of HMGB1 did, however, not increase infarct size in WT animals. In TLR2−/−-hearts, neither BoxA nor HMGB1 affected infarct size. No differences in RAGE and TLR9 expression could be detected, while TLR2−/−-mice display increased TLR4 and HMGB1 expression. Plasma levels of HMGB1 were increased MI/R in TLR2−/−-mice after CABG surgery in patients carrying a TLR2 polymorphism (Arg753Gln). We here provide evidence that absence of TLR2 signalling abrogates infarct-sparing effects of HMGB1 blockade. PMID:24371373

  11. A Proinflammatory Function of Toll-Like Receptor 2 in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium as a Novel Target for Reducing Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lili; Ju, Meihua; Lee, Kei Ying V; Mackey, Ashley; Evangelista, Mariasilvia; Iwata, Daiju; Adamson, Peter; Lashkari, Kameran; Foxton, Richard; Shima, David; Ng, Yin Shan

    2017-10-01

    Current treatments for choroidal neovascularization, a major cause of blindness for patients with age-related macular degeneration, treat symptoms but not the underlying causes of the disease. Inflammation has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of choroidal neovascularization. We examined the inflammatory role of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in age-related macular degeneration. TLR2 was robustly expressed by the retinal pigment epithelium in mouse and human eyes, both normal and with macular degeneration/choroidal neovascularization. Nuclear localization of NF-κB, a major downstream target of TLR2 signaling, was detected in the retinal pigment epithelium of human eyes, particularly in eyes with advanced stages of age-related macular degeneration. TLR2 antagonism effectively suppressed initiation and growth of spontaneous choroidal neovascularization in a mouse model, and the combination of anti-TLR2 and antivascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 yielded an additive therapeutic effect on both area and number of spontaneous choroidal neovascularization lesions. Finally, in primary human fetal retinal pigment epithelium cells, ligand binding to TLR2 induced robust expression of proinflammatory cytokines, and end products of lipid oxidation had a synergistic effect on TLR2 activation. Our data illustrate a functional role for TLR2 in the pathogenesis of choroidal neovascularization, likely by promoting inflammation of the retinal pigment epithelium, and validate TLR2 as a novel therapeutic target for reducing choroidal neovascularization. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Leptospira surface adhesin (Lsa21) induces Toll like receptor 2 and 4 mediated inflammatory responses in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Faisal, Syed M.; Varma, Vivek P.; Subathra, M.; Azam, Sarwar; Sunkara, Anil K.; Akif, Mohd; Baig, Mirza. S.; Chang, Yung-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is zoonotic and emerging infectious disease of global importance. Little is understood about Leptospira pathogenesis and host immune response. In the present work we have investigated how Leptospira modulates the host innate immune response mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) via surface exposed proteins. We screened Leptospira outer membrane/surface proteins for their ability to activate/inhibit TLR2/4 signaling in HEK293 cell lines. Of these the 21 kDa Leptospira surface adhesin, Lsa21 had strong TLR2 and TLR4 activity leading to production of proinflammatory cytokines and expression of costimulatory molecules in mouse macrophages. This activity of Lsa21 on innate response was dependent on activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) via stimulating the rapid phosphorylation of p38, JNK and activation of transcription factor NF-κB. Additionally, neutralizing antibodies against TLR2 and TLR4 significantly inhibited cytokine secretion and attenuated Lsa21 induced phosphorylation of p38 and JNK. Furthermore, Lsa21 induced cytokine levels were significantly lower in TLR2−/− and TLR4−/− than in wild type mouse macrophage cell lines. Confocal microscopy and molecular docking confirmed that Lsa21 interacted with both TLR2 and TLR4. These results indicate that Lsa21 is a potent TLR2 and TLR4 agonist that induces strong innate response and may play important role in Leptospira pathogenesis. PMID:27996041

  13. Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis-derived cold water extract on Toll-like receptor 2-dependent cytokine production in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Daisuke; Motoi, Masuro; Ishibashi, Ken-ichi; Miura, Noriko N; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Ohno, Naohito

    2012-08-01

    Agaricus brasiliensis (Agaricus blazei Murrill) is well known as a medicinal mushroom. Fruit body of A. brasiliensis is rich in β-glucan and has shown benefits for various diseases. Both hot and cold water extraction are traditional methods for intake of this mushroom extract. In the present study, we prepared cold water extract of the fruit body of A. brasiliensis (ACWS). The 1,3-β-glucan segment of this fraction was too small and did not interact with the 1,3-β-glucan receptor, dectin-1. However, ACWS could induce production of various cytokines including IL-6 from murine splenocytes. Therefore, we aimed to identify the receptor that modulates IL-6 production using ACWS. We focused our attention on Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and examined them as follows. (i) The interaction between TLRs and ACWS was screened using HEK293 cells transfected with TLR plasmid. (ii) IL-6 production from splenocytes induced by ACWS was inhibited by treatment of anti-TLR antibodies. (iii) Direct binding activity between TLR protein and ACWS was assessed by ELISA-like assay. ACWS was found to activate HEK293 cells via TLR2, 4 and 5. However, only anti-TLR2 monoclonal antibody suppressed IL-6 production from splenocytes. In addition, ACWS has the ability to bind directly to TLR2 protein. Accordingly, we suggest that fruit body of A. brasiliensis has some water-soluble TLR ligand complexes, and TLR2 on splenocytes strongly induces IL-6 production.

  14. MyD88-dependent immunity to a natural model of vaccinia virus infection does not involve Toll-like receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Davies, Michael L; Sei, Janet J; Siciliano, Nicholas A; Xu, Ren-Huan; Roscoe, Felicia; Sigal, Luis J; Eisenlohr, Laurence C; Norbury, Christopher C

    2014-03-01

    Although the pattern recognition receptor Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is typically thought to recognize bacterial components, it has been described to alter the induction of both innate and adaptive immunity to a number of viruses, including vaccinia virus (VACV). However, many pathogens that reportedly encode TLR2 agonists may actually be artifactually contaminated during preparation, possibly with cellular debris or merely with molecules that sensitize cells to be activated by authentic TLR2 agonists. In both humans and mice, the most relevant natural route of infection with VACV is through intradermal infection of the skin. Therefore, we examined the requirement for TLR2 and its signaling adaptor MyD88 in protective immunity to VACV after intradermal infection. We find that although TLR2 may recognize virus preparations in vitro and have a minor role in preventing dissemination of VACV following systemic infection with large doses of virus, it is wholly disposable in both control of virus replication and induction of adaptive immunity following intradermal infection. In contrast, MyD88 is required for efficient induction of CD4 T cell and B cell responses and for local control of virus replication following intradermal infection. However, even MyD88 is not required to induce local inflammation, inflammatory cytokine production, or recruitment of cells that restrict virus from spreading systemically after peripheral infection. Thus, an effective antiviral response does require MyD88, but TLR2 is not required for control of a peripheral VACV infection. These findings emphasize the importance of studying relevant routes of infection when examining innate sensing mechanisms. Vaccinia virus (VACV) provides the backbone for some of the most widely used and successful viral vaccine vectors and is also related to the human pathogens Cantagalo virus and molluscum contagiosum virus that infect the skin of patients. Therefore, it is vital to understand the mechanisms that

  15. MyD88-Dependent Immunity to a Natural Model of Vaccinia Virus Infection Does Not Involve Toll-Like Receptor 2

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Michael L.; Sei, Janet J.; Siciliano, Nicholas A.; Xu, Ren-Huan; Roscoe, Felicia; Sigal, Luis J.; Eisenlohr, Laurence C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although the pattern recognition receptor Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is typically thought to recognize bacterial components, it has been described to alter the induction of both innate and adaptive immunity to a number of viruses, including vaccinia virus (VACV). However, many pathogens that reportedly encode TLR2 agonists may actually be artifactually contaminated during preparation, possibly with cellular debris or merely with molecules that sensitize cells to be activated by authentic TLR2 agonists. In both humans and mice, the most relevant natural route of infection with VACV is through intradermal infection of the skin. Therefore, we examined the requirement for TLR2 and its signaling adaptor MyD88 in protective immunity to VACV after intradermal infection. We find that although TLR2 may recognize virus preparations in vitro and have a minor role in preventing dissemination of VACV following systemic infection with large doses of virus, it is wholly disposable in both control of virus replication and induction of adaptive immunity following intradermal infection. In contrast, MyD88 is required for efficient induction of CD4 T cell and B cell responses and for local control of virus replication following intradermal infection. However, even MyD88 is not required to induce local inflammation, inflammatory cytokine production, or recruitment of cells that restrict virus from spreading systemically after peripheral infection. Thus, an effective antiviral response does require MyD88, but TLR2 is not required for control of a peripheral VACV infection. These findings emphasize the importance of studying relevant routes of infection when examining innate sensing mechanisms. IMPORTANCE Vaccinia virus (VACV) provides the backbone for some of the most widely used and successful viral vaccine vectors and is also related to the human pathogens Cantagalo virus and molluscum contagiosum virus that infect the skin of patients. Therefore, it is vital to understand

  16. Toll-like receptor 2 mediates microglia/brain macrophage MT1-MMP expression and glioma expansion

    PubMed Central

    Vinnakota, Katyayni; Hu, Feng; Ku, Min-Chi; Georgieva, Petya B.; Szulzewsky, Frank; Pohlmann, Andreas; Waiczies, Sonia; Waiczies, Helmar; Niendorf, Thoralf; Lehnardt, Seija; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Synowitz, Michael; Markovic, Darko; Wolf, Susanne A.; Glass, Rainer; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Background Glioblastomas are the most aggressive primary brain tumors in humans. Microglia/brain macrophage accumulation in and around the tumor correlates with malignancy and poor clinical prognosis of these tumors. We have previously shown that microglia promote glioma expansion through upregulation of membrane type 1 matrix metalloprotease (MT1-MMP). This upregulation depends on signaling via the Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor molecule myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88). Methods Using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo techniques, we identified TLR2 as the main TLR controlling microglial MT1-MMP expression and promoting microglia-assisted glioma expansion. Results The implantation of mouse GL261 glioma cells into TLR2 knockout mice resulted in significantly smaller tumors, reduced MT1-MMP expression, and enhanced survival rates compared with wild-type control mice. Tumor expansion studied in organotypic brain slices depended on both parenchymal TLR2 expression and the presence of microglia. Glioma-derived soluble factors and synthetic TLR2 specific ligands induced MT1-MMP expression in microglia from wild-type mice, but no such change in MT1-MMP gene expression was observed in microglia from TLR2 knockout mice. We also found evidence that TLR1 and TLR6 cofunction with TLR2 as heterodimers in regulating MT1-MMP expression in vitro. Conclusions Our results thus show that activation of TLR2 along with TLRs 1 and/or 6 converts microglia into a glioma supportive phenotype. PMID:24014382

  17. Toll-like receptor 2 signalling: Significance in megakaryocyte development through wnt signalling cross-talk and cytokine induction.

    PubMed

    Undi, Ram Babu; Sarvothaman, Shilpa; Narasaiah, Kovuru; Gutti, Usha; Gutti, Ravi Kumar

    2016-07-01

    TLR2 is a toll-like receptor protein which is involved in innate immune responses. TLR2 recognize several virus, fungal and bacterial pathogens, upon their uptake cause internalization and cellular activation. During this process several cytokines participate including interleukins, IL6 and IL12. Interestingly, TLR2 is expressed on megakaryocytes (MKs) and platelets, which is crucial for immune mediated platelet activation. The role of TLR2 on MKs is not completely understood. We observed TLR2 induction leads to MK maturation and is involved in production of ROS which is essential for MK development. In Dami cells, TLR2 up-regulation causes increase in the cytokine production, particularly IL-6, which has been shown to stimulate CFU formation and CD41 expression. Additionally, TLR2 ligand induces wnt β-catenin signalling pathway components suggesting a cross talk between wnt and TLR pathway leading to maturation of MKs. This study shows TLR2 signalling induce cytokine production and regulate wnt signalling thereby cause maturation of MKs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Toll-like receptor 2 plays a critical role in the progression of atherosclerosis that is independent of dietary lipids.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinyan; Ukai, Takashi; Yumoto, Hiromichi; Davey, Michael; Goswami, Sulip; Gibson, Frank C; Genco, Caroline A

    2008-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a group of pathogen-associated microbial pattern recognition receptors, play an important role in innate immune signaling and are differentially regulated in chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. However, the involvement of TLRs in the progression of atherosclerosis is still unclear. TLR2 and apolipoprotein E double knockout (Tlr2(-/-)Apoe(-/-)) mice were generated and the progressive formation of atherosclerotic plaque in the aortas was examined in mice fed a normal chow diet. We demonstrate that inactivation of TLR2 resulted in reduced progression of atherosclerosis in both male and female Apoe(-/-) mice. Likewise, TLR2 deficiency resulted in a reduction in lipid accumulation and decreased macrophage recruitment to the aortic sinus, as well as reduced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels. Furthermore, macrophages isolated from Tlr2(-/-)Apoe(-/-) mice demonstrated significantly reduced MCP-1 production upon stimulation with a TLR2 ligand. However, no differences in acetylated low-density lipoprotein uptake and foam cell formation were observed in macrophages isolated from Tlr2(-/-)Apoe(-/-) mice as compared to Apoe(-/-) mice. TLR2 plays a critical role in the progression of atherosclerosis in Apoe(-/-) mice, which is independent of dietary lipids and macrophage lipid uptake.

  19. Toll-like receptor 2 plays a critical role in the progression of atherosclerosis that is independent of dietary lipids

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinyan; Ukai, Takashi; Yumoto, Hiromichi; Davey, Michael; Goswami, Sulip; Gibson, Frank C.; Genco, Caroline A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a group of pathogen-associated microbial pattern recognition receptors, play an important role in innate immune signaling and are differentially regulated in chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. However, the involvement of TLRs in the progression of atherosclerosis is still unclear. Methods and Results TLR2 and apolipoprotein E double knockout (Tlr2−/−Apoe−/−) mice were generated and the progressive formation of atherosclerotic plaque in the aortas was examined in mice fed a normal chow diet. We demonstrate that inactivation of TLR2 resulted in reduced progression of atherosclerosis in both male and female Apoe−/− mice. Likewise, TLR2 deficiency resulted in a reduction in lipid accumulation and decreased macrophage recruitment to the aortic sinus as well as reduced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels. Furthermore, macrophages isolated from Tlr2−/−Apoe−/− mice demonstrated significantly reduced MCP-1 production upon stimulation with a TLR2 ligand. However, no differences in acetylated-low-density lipoprotein uptake and foam cell formation were observed in macrophages isolated from Tlr2−/−Apoe−/− mice as compared to Apoe−/− mice. Conclusions TLR2 plays a critical role in the progression of atherosclerosis in Apoe−/− mice, which is independent of dietary lipids and macrophage lipid uptake. PMID:17466307

  20. Renal expression of Toll-like receptor 2 and 4: dynamics in human allograft injury and comparison to rodents.

    PubMed

    Stribos, Elisabeth G D; van Werkhoven, Maaike B; Poppelaars, Felix; van Goor, Harry; Olinga, Peter; van Son, Willem J; Damman, Jeffrey; Seelen, Marc A

    2015-03-01

    Activation of the innate immunity through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) has been postulated to play an important role in the pathophysiology of renal allograft dysfunction. TLR2 and TLR4 dynamics in different human post-transplant pathological entities has never been studied. Therefore, we evaluated pre- and post-transplantation protein expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in human kidney biopsies. Human kidney biopsies obtained from living kidney donors and patients with acute tubular necrosis, acute cellular and vascular rejection and interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (IF/TA) were used. Translating results from animal studies to the clinical situation is highly important considering the upcoming clinical studies with TLR inhibitors in human renal transplantation. Hence, the TLR2 and TLR4 expression in healthy mouse and rat kidneys was analyzed and compared with human kidneys. In healthy human kidneys, TLR2 is expressed on the endothelium and Bowman's capsule, while TLR4 is expressed on the endothelium only. No tubular staining was found for both receptors in human kidneys. In contrast to human biopsies, TLR2 and TLR4 expression in rodents was observed on tubular epithelial cells. In all acute rejection human biopsies, increased infiltration of TLR4(+) leukocytes was observed. In conclusion, a discrepancy exists between human and rodent renal TLR expression, which suggests careful attention when translating results from rodent studies to the human situation. Additionally, this study revealed human TLR2 and TLR4 expression dynamics in human biopsies pre- and post-transplantation.

  1. Toll-like receptor 2 signaling protects mice from tumor development in a mouse model of colitis-induced cancer.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Emily L; Crother, Timothy R; Rabizadeh, Shervin; Hu, Bing; Wang, Hanlin; Chen, Shuang; Shimada, Kenichi; Wong, Michelle H; Michelsen, Kathrin S; Arditi, Moshe

    2010-09-27

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a disorder of chronic inflammation with increased susceptibility to colorectal cancer. The etiology of IBD is unclear but thought to result from a dysregulated adaptive and innate immune response to microbial products in a genetically susceptible host. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling induced by intestinal commensal bacteria plays a crucial role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, innate immunity and the enhancement of intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) integrity. However, the role of TLR2 in the development of colorectal cancer has not been studied. We utilized the AOM-DSS model for colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) in wild type (WT) and TLR2(-/-) mice. Colons harvested from WT and TLR2(-/-) mice were used for histopathology, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and cytokine analysis. Mice deficient in TLR2 developed significantly more and larger colorectal tumors than their WT controls. We provide evidence that colonic epithelium of TLR2(-/-) mice have altered immune responses and dysregulated proliferation under steady-state conditions and during colitis, which lead to inflammatory growth signals and predisposition to accelerated neoplastic growth. At the earliest time-points assessed, TLR2(-/-) colons exhibited a significant increase in aberrant crypt foci (ACF), resulting in tumors that developed earlier and grew larger. In addition, the intestinal microenvironment revealed significantly higher levels of IL-6 and IL-17A concomitant with increased phospho-STAT3 within ACF. These observations indicate that in colitis, TLR2 plays a protective role against the development of CAC.

  2. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) mediates intracellular signalling in human keratinocytes in response to Malassezia furfur.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Adone; Orlando, Manuela; Donnarumma, Giovanna; Farro, Pietro; Iovene, Maria Rosaria; Tufano, Maria Antonietta; Buommino, Elisabetta

    2006-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are crucial players in the innate immune response to microbial invaders. The lipophilic yeast Malassezia furfur has been implicated in the triggering of scalp lesions in psoriasis. The aim of the present study was to assess the role of TLRs in the defence against M. furfur infection. The expression of the myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) gene, which is involved in the signalling pathway of many TLRs, was also analysed. In addition, a possible correlation of antimicrobial peptides of the beta-defensin family to TLRs was tested. Human keratinocytes infected with M. furfur and a variety of M. furfur-positive psoriatic skin biopsies were analysed by RT-PCR, for TLRs, MyD88, human beta-defensin 2 (HBD-2), HBD-3 and interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA expression. When keratinocytes were infected with M. furfur, an up-regulation for TLR2, MyD88, HBD-2, HBD-3 and IL-8 mRNA was demonstrated, compared to the untreated cells. The same results were obtained when psoriatic skin biopsies were analysed. The M. furfur-induced increase in HBD-2 and IL-8 gene expression is inhibited by anti-TLR2 neutralising antibodies, suggesting that TLR2 is involved in the M. furfur-induced expression of these molecules. These findings suggest the importance of TLRs in skin protection against fungi and the importance of keratinocytes as a component of innate immunity.

  3. Toll-like receptor 2 ligands promote chronic atopic dermatitis through IL-4-mediated suppression of IL-10.

    PubMed

    Kaesler, Susanne; Volz, Thomas; Skabytska, Yuliya; Köberle, Martin; Hein, Ulrike; Chen, Ko-Ming; Guenova, Emmanuella; Wölbing, Florian; Röcken, Martin; Biedermann, Tilo

    2014-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a T cell-mediated inflammatory skin disease, with TH2 cells initiating acute flares. This inflamed skin is immediately colonized with Staphylococcus aureus, which provides potent Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 ligands. However, the effect of TLR2 ligands on the development of TH2-mediated AD inflammation remains unclear. We investigated the progression of TH2 cell-mediated dermatitis after TLR2 activation. Using models for acute AD with TH2 cells initiating cutaneous inflammation, we investigated the consequences of TLR2 activation. Dermatitis, as assessed by changes in ear skin thickness and histology, was analyzed in different BALB/c and C57BL/6 wild-type and knockout mouse strains, and immune profiling was carried out by using in vitro and ex vivo cytokine analyses. We show that TH2 cell-mediated dermatitis is self-limiting and depends on IL-4. Activation of TLR2 converted the limited TH2 dermatitis to chronic cutaneous inflammation. We demonstrate that the concerted activation of TLR2 and IL-4 receptor on dendritic cells is sufficient for this conversion. As an underlying mechanism, we found that the combinatorial sensing of the innate TLR2 ligands and the adaptive TH2 cytokine IL-4 suppressed anti-inflammatory IL-10 and consequently led to the exacerbation and persistence of dermatitis. Our data demonstrate that innate TLR2 signals convert transient TH2 cell-mediated dermatitis into persistent inflammation, as seen in chronic human AD, through IL-4-mediated suppression of IL-10. For the first time, these data show how initial AD lesions convert to chronic inflammation and provide another rationale for targeting IL-4 in patients with AD, a therapeutic approach that is currently under development. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Knockout of Toll-Like Receptors 2 and 4 Prevents Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Trentin-Sonoda, Mayra; da Silva, Rogério Cirino; Kmit, Fernanda Vieira; Abrahão, Mariana Vieira; Monnerat Cahli, Gustavo; Brasil, Guilherme Visconde; Muzi-Filho, Humberto; Silva, Paulo André; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda Freire; Vieyra, Adalberto; Medei, Emiliano; Carneiro-Ramos, Marcela Sorelli

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether the pathways linked to Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 (TLRs) are involved in renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Wild type (WT) C57BL/6J, TLR2-/- and TLR4-/- mice were subjected to left kidney ischemia for 60 min followed by reperfusion for 5, 8, 12 and 15 days. Proton density magnetic resonance showed alterations in the injured kidney from WT mice, together with signs of parenchymal edema and higher levels of vimentin mRNA, accompanied by: (i) small, but significant, increase in serum urea after 24 h, (ii) 100% increase in serum creatinine at 24 h. A serum peak of inflammatory cytokines occurred after 5 days of reperfusion. Heart weight/body weight and heart weight/tibia length ratios increased after 12 and 15 days of reperfusion, respectively. Cardiac hypertrophy markers, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and α-actin, left ventricle mass, cardiac wall thickness and myocyte width increased after 15 days of reperfusion, together with longer QTc and action potential duration. Cardiac TLRs, MyD88, HSP60 and HSP70 mRNA levels also increased. After 15 days of reperfusion, absence of TLRs prevented cardiac hypertrophy, as reflected by similar values of left ventricular cardiac mass and heart weight/body weight ratio compared to the transgenic Sham. Renal tissular injury also ameliorated in both knockout mice, as revealed by the comparison of their vimentin mRNA levels with those found in the WT on the same day after I/R. The I/R TLR2-/- group had TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-1β levels similar to the non-I/R group, whereas the TLR4-/- group conserved the p-NF-κB/NF- κB ratio contrasting with that found in TLR2-/-. We conclude: (i) TLRs are involved in renal I/R-induced cardiac hypertrophy; (ii) absence of TLRs prevents I/R-induced cardiac hypertrophy, despite renal lesions seeming to evolve towards those of chronic disease; (iii) TLR2 and TLR4 selectively regulate the systemic inflammatory profile and NF- κB activation. PMID

  5. Knockout of Toll-Like Receptors 2 and 4 Prevents Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Trentin-Sonoda, Mayra; da Silva, Rogério Cirino; Kmit, Fernanda Vieira; Abrahão, Mariana Vieira; Monnerat Cahli, Gustavo; Brasil, Guilherme Visconde; Muzi-Filho, Humberto; Silva, Paulo André; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda Freire; Vieyra, Adalberto; Medei, Emiliano; Carneiro-Ramos, Marcela Sorelli

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether the pathways linked to Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 (TLRs) are involved in renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Wild type (WT) C57BL/6J, TLR2-/- and TLR4-/- mice were subjected to left kidney ischemia for 60 min followed by reperfusion for 5, 8, 12 and 15 days. Proton density magnetic resonance showed alterations in the injured kidney from WT mice, together with signs of parenchymal edema and higher levels of vimentin mRNA, accompanied by: (i) small, but significant, increase in serum urea after 24 h, (ii) 100% increase in serum creatinine at 24 h. A serum peak of inflammatory cytokines occurred after 5 days of reperfusion. Heart weight/body weight and heart weight/tibia length ratios increased after 12 and 15 days of reperfusion, respectively. Cardiac hypertrophy markers, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and α-actin, left ventricle mass, cardiac wall thickness and myocyte width increased after 15 days of reperfusion, together with longer QTc and action potential duration. Cardiac TLRs, MyD88, HSP60 and HSP70 mRNA levels also increased. After 15 days of reperfusion, absence of TLRs prevented cardiac hypertrophy, as reflected by similar values of left ventricular cardiac mass and heart weight/body weight ratio compared to the transgenic Sham. Renal tissular injury also ameliorated in both knockout mice, as revealed by the comparison of their vimentin mRNA levels with those found in the WT on the same day after I/R. The I/R TLR2-/- group had TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-1β levels similar to the non-I/R group, whereas the TLR4-/- group conserved the p-NF-κB/NF- κB ratio contrasting with that found in TLR2-/-. We conclude: (i) TLRs are involved in renal I/R-induced cardiac hypertrophy; (ii) absence of TLRs prevents I/R-induced cardiac hypertrophy, despite renal lesions seeming to evolve towards those of chronic disease; (iii) TLR2 and TLR4 selectively regulate the systemic inflammatory profile and NF- κB activation.

  6. The toll-like receptor 2 agonist Pam3CSK4 is neuroprotective after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Stivers, Nicole S; Pelisch, Nicolas; Orem, Ben C; Williams, Joshua; Nally, Jacqueline M; Stirling, David P

    2017-08-01

    Microglia/macrophage activation and recruitment following spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with both detrimental and reparative functions. Stimulation of the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) has shown to be beneficial following SCI, and it increases axonal regeneration following optic nerve crush. However, the mechanism(s) remain unclear. As microglia express high levels of TLR2, we hypothesized that modulating the microglial response to injury using a specific TLR2 agonist, Pam3CSK4, would prevent secondary-mediated white matter degeneration following SCI. To test this hypothesis, we documented acute changes in microglia, axons, and oligodendroglia over time using two-photon excitation and an ex vivo laser-induced SCI (LiSCI) model. We utilized double transgenic mice that express GFP in either microglia or oligodendroglia, and YFP in axons, and we applied the lipophilic fluorescent dye (Nile Red) to visualize myelin. We found that treatment with Pam3CSK4 initiated one hour after injury induced a significant increase in the extent and timing of the microglial response to injury compared to vehicle controls. This enhanced response was observed 2 to 4h following SCI and was most prominent in areas closer to the ablation site. In addition, Pam3CSK4 treatment significantly reduced axonal dieback rostral and caudal to the ablation at 6h post-SCI. This protective effect of Pam3CSK4 was also mirrored when assessing secondary bystander axonal damage (i.e., axons spared by the primary injury that then succumb to secondary degeneration), and when assessing the survival of oligodendroglia. Following these imaging experiments, custom microarray analysis of the ex vivo spinal cord preparations revealed that Pam3CSK4-treatment induced an alternative (mixed M1:M2) microglial activation profile. In summary, our data suggest that by providing a second "sterile" activation signal to microglia through TLR2/TLR1 signaling, the microglial response to injury can

  7. CD14 and Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 are required for fibrillar Aβ-stimulated microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    Reed-Geaghan, Erin G.; Savage, Julie C.; Hise, Amy G.; Landreth, Gary E.

    2009-01-01

    Microglia are the brain's tissue macrophages and are found in an activated state surrounding β-amyloid plaques in the Alzheimer's disease brain. Microglia interact with fibrillar β-amyloid (fAβ) through an ensemble of surface receptors composed of the α6β1 integrin, CD36, CD47, and the class A scavenger receptor. These receptors act in concert to initiate intracellular signaling cascades and phenotypic activation of these cells. However, it is unclear how engagement of this receptor complex is linked to the induction of an activated microglial phenotype. We report that the response of microglial cells to fibrillar forms of Aβ requires the participation of Toll like receptors (TLRs) and the co-receptor CD14. The response of microglia to fAβ is reliant upon CD14, which act together with TLR4 and TLR2 to bind fAβ and to activate intracellular signaling. We find that cells lacking these receptors could not initiate a Src-Vav-Rac signaling cascade leading to reactive oxygen species production and phagocytosis. The fAβ-mediated activation of p38 MAPK also required CD14, TLR4, and TLR2. Inhibition of p38 abrogated fAβ-induced reactive oxygen species production and attenuated the induction of phagocytosis. Microglia lacking CD14, TLR4, and TLR2 showed no induction of phosphorylated IκBα following fAβ. These data indicate these innate immune receptors function as members of the microglial fAβ receptor complex and identify the signaling mechanisms whereby they contribute to microglial activation. PMID:19776284

  8. Macrophage immunomodulation by breast cancer-derived exosomes requires Toll-like receptor 2-mediated activation of NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Chow, Amy; Zhou, Weiying; Liu, Liang; Fong, Miranda Y; Champer, Jackson; Van Haute, Desiree; Chin, Andrew R; Ren, Xiubao; Gugiu, Bogdan Gabriel; Meng, Zhipeng; Huang, Wendong; Ngo, Vu; Kortylewski, Marcin; Wang, Shizhen Emily

    2014-07-18

    Growing evidence links tumor progression with chronic inflammatory processes and dysregulated activity of various immune cells. In this study, we demonstrate that various types of macrophages internalize microvesicles, called exosomes, secreted by breast cancer and non-cancerous cell lines. Although both types of exosomes targeted macrophages, only cancer-derived exosomes stimulated NF-κB activation in macrophages resulting in secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNFα, GCSF, and CCL2. In vivo mouse experiments confirmed that intravenously injected exosomes are efficiently internalized by macrophages in the lung and brain, which correlated with upregulation of inflammatory cytokines. In mice bearing xenografted human breast cancers, tumor-derived exosomes were internalized by macrophages in axillary lymph nodes thereby triggering expression of IL-6. Genetic ablation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) or MyD88, a critical signaling adaptor in the NF-κB pathway, completely abolished the effect of tumor-derived exosomes. In contrast, inhibition of TLR4 or endosomal TLRs (TLR3/7/8/9) failed to abrogate NF-κB activation by exosomes. We further found that palmitoylated proteins present on the surface of tumor-secreted exosomes contributed to NF-κB activation. Thus, our results highlight a novel mechanism used by breast cancer cells to induce pro-inflammatory activity of distant macrophages through circulating exosomal vesicles secreted during cancer progression.

  9. Chloral hydrate-dependent reduction in the peptidoglycan-induced inflammatory macrophage response is associated with lower expression levels of toll-like receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Pan, Qingjun; Liu, Yuan; Zhu, Xuezhi; Liu, Huafeng

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of action of chloral hydrate on the peptidoglycan (PGN)-induced inflammatory macrophage response. The effect of chloral hydrate on the production of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by murine peritoneal macrophages with PGN-stimulation was investigated. In addition, RAW264.7 cells transfected with a nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) luciferase reporter plasmid stimulated by PGN were used to study the effect of chloral hydrate on the levels NF-κB activity. Flow cytometry and western blotting were performed to investigate the expression levels of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in the treated RAW264.7 cells. It was identified that chloral hydrate reduced the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α produced by the peritoneal macrophages stimulated with PGN. The levels of NF-κB activity of the RAW264.7 cells stimulated by PGN decreased following treatment with chloral hydrate, which was associated with a reduction in the expression levels of TLR2 and reduced levels of TLR2 signal transduction. These data demonstrate that chloral hydrate reduced the magnitude of the PGN-induced inflammatory macrophage response associated with lower expression levels of TLR2.

  10. Macrophage immunomodulation by breast cancer-derived exosomes requires Toll-like receptor 2-mediated activation of NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Amy; Zhou, Weiying; Liu, Liang; Fong, Miranda Y.; Champer, Jackson; Van Haute, Desiree; Chin, Andrew R.; Ren, Xiubao; Gugiu, Bogdan Gabriel; Meng, Zhipeng; Huang, Wendong; Ngo, Vu; Kortylewski, Marcin; Wang, Shizhen Emily

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence links tumor progression with chronic inflammatory processes and dysregulated activity of various immune cells. In this study, we demonstrate that various types of macrophages internalize microvesicles, called exosomes, secreted by breast cancer and non-cancerous cell lines. Although both types of exosomes targeted macrophages, only cancer-derived exosomes stimulated NF-κB activation in macrophages resulting in secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNFα, GCSF, and CCL2. In vivo mouse experiments confirmed that intravenously injected exosomes are efficiently internalized by macrophages in the lung and brain, which correlated with upregulation of inflammatory cytokines. In mice bearing xenografted human breast cancers, tumor-derived exosomes were internalized by macrophages in axillary lymph nodes thereby triggering expression of IL-6. Genetic ablation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) or MyD88, a critical signaling adaptor in the NF-κB pathway, completely abolished the effect of tumor-derived exosomes. In contrast, inhibition of TLR4 or endosomal TLRs (TLR3/7/8/9) failed to abrogate NF-κB activation by exosomes. We further found that palmitoylated proteins present on the surface of tumor-secreted exosomes contributed to NF-κB activation. Thus, our results highlight a novel mechanism used by breast cancer cells to induce pro-inflammatory activity of distant macrophages through circulating exosomal vesicles secreted during cancer progression. PMID:25034888

  11. One-week high-fat diet leads to reduced toll-like receptor 2 expression and function in young healthy men.

    PubMed

    Wan, Zhongxiao; Durrer, Cody; Mah, Dorrian; Simtchouk, Svetlana; Little, Jonathan P

    2014-12-01

    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is implicated in inflammatory responses to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in rodents, but human HFD studies examining TLR2-mediated immune responses are lacking. Our aim was to determine whether HFD affected TLR2 function in humans. We hypothesized that a short-term HFD in humans would impair TLR2-mediated immune function. Fasting blood samples were obtained from healthy young men (N = 9) before and after a 7-day HFD. Toll-like receptor 2 function was assessed in ex vivo whole blood cultures stimulated with the TLR2 agonist N-palmitoyl-S-[2,3-bis[palmitoyloxy]-[2RS]-propyl]-[R]-cysteinyl-[S]-seryl-[S]-lysyl-[S]-lysyl-[S]-lysyl-[S]-lysine (Pam3-Cys-SK4). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated to examine TLR2, TLR4, and p47 subunit of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (p47(phox)) protein expression via Western blotting. Pam3-Cys-SK4-stimulated secretion of interleukin-1β (-35%, P = .005), interleukin-6 (-32%, P = .01), and tumor necrosis factor-α (-33%, P = .06) was reduced following the HFD. High-fat diet resulted in decreased TLR2 (P = .049) and p47(phox) (P = .037) protein expression from PBMCs. To mimic lipid overload ex vivo, follow-up experiments were performed in whole blood cultures exposed to a mixture of free fatty acids for 24 hours; and surface protein expression of TLR2 and TLR4 on CD14+ monocytes was measured by flow cytometry. Free fatty acid exposure for 24 hours ex vivo reduced monocyte TLR2 levels by about 20% (P = .028). A 7-day HFD in young healthy men resulted in impaired TLR2 function. Decreased TLR2 and p47(phox) protein expression in PBMCs, possibly due to excess free fatty acids, may mediate this response. Our current findings indicate that impaired TLR2 response after HFD might be partially responsible for increased risk of infection in diet-induced obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Argon Mediates Anti-Apoptotic Signaling and Neuroprotection via Inhibition of Toll-Like Receptor 2 and 4.

    PubMed

    Ulbrich, Felix; Kaufmann, Kai; Roesslein, Martin; Wellner, Franziska; Auwärter, Volker; Kempf, Jürgen; Loop, Torsten; Buerkle, Hartmut; Goebel, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the noble gas argon attracted significant attention due to its neuroprotective properties. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is still poorly understood. There is growing evidence that the extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) is involved in Argon´s protective effect. We hypothesized that argon mediates its protective effects via the upstream located toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4. Apoptosis in a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) was induced using rotenone. Argon treatment was performed after induction of apoptosis with different concentrations (25, 50 and 75 Vol% in oxygen 21 Vol%, carbon dioxide and nitrogen) for 2 or 4 hours respectively. Apoptosis was analyzed using flow cytometry (annexin-V (AV)/propidiumiodide (PI)) staining, caspase-3 activity and caspase cleavage. TLR density on the cells' surface was analyzed using FACS and immunohistochemistry. Inhibition of TLR signaling and extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) were assessed by western blot, activity assays and FACS analysis. Argon 75 Vol% treatment abolished rotenone-induced apoptosis. This effect was attenuated dose- and time-dependently. Argon treatment was accompanied with a significant reduction of TLR2 and TLR4 receptor density and protein expression. Moreover, argon mediated increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation was attenuated after inhibition of TLR signaling. ERK1/2 and TLR signaling inhibitors abolished the anti-apoptotic and cytoprotective effects of argon. Immunohistochemistry results strengthened these findings. These findings suggest that argon-mediated anti-apoptotic and neuroprotective effects are mediated via inhibition of TLR2 and TLR4.

  13. Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 induced interleukin-19 dampens immune reactions and associates inversely with spondyloarthritis disease activity.

    PubMed

    Kragstrup, T W; Andersen, T; Holm, C; Schiøttz-Christensen, B; Jurik, A G; Hvid, M; Deleuran, B

    2015-05-01

    Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a group of immune mediated inflammatory diseases affecting joints, gut, skin and entheses. The inflammatory process involves activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR-4 and production of cytokines and chemokines such as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (CCL2/MCP-1). This proinflammatory chemokine recruits monocytes to sites of inflammation and is central in the development of several immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Interleukin (IL)-19 is a member of the IL-10 family of cytokines. IL-19-deficient mice are more susceptible to innate-mediated colitis and develop more severe inflammation in response to injury. In this work, we studied inducers of IL-19 production and effect of IL-19 on the production of CCL2/MCP-1 and proinflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy controls (HCs) and in PBMCs and synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMCs) from SpA patients. Further, we measured IL-19 in plasma from HCs and in plasma and synovial fluid from SpA patients. Constitutive IL-19 expression was present in both PBMCs and SFMCs and the secretion of IL-19 was increased by TLR-2 and TLR-4 ligands. Neutralizing IL-19 in HC PBMCs and SpA SFMCs resulted in increased production of CCL-2/MCP-1. IL-19 concentrations were decreased in synovial fluid compared with plasma and associated inversely with disease activity in SpA. SpA SFMCs produced less IL-19 in response to LPS compared with HC PBMCs. These findings indicate that IL-19 production is diminished in SpA. Taken together, impaired IL-19 control of the innate immune system might be involved in the pathogenesis of SpA.

  14. Toll-Like Receptor 2 Stimulation of Osteoblasts Mediates Staphylococcus Aureus Induced Bone Resorption and Osteoclastogenesis through Enhanced RANKL

    PubMed Central

    Kassem, Ali; Lindholm, Catharina; Lerner, Ulf H

    2016-01-01

    Severe Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections pose an immense threat to population health and constitute a great burden for the health care worldwide. Inter alia, S. aureus septic arthritis is a disease with high mortality and morbidity caused by destruction of the infected joints and systemic bone loss, osteoporosis. Toll-Like receptors (TLRs) are innate immune cell receptors recognizing a variety of microbial molecules and structures. S. aureus recognition via TLR2 initiates a signaling cascade resulting in production of various cytokines, but the mechanisms by which S. aureus causes rapid and excessive bone loss are still unclear. We, therefore, investigated how S. aureus regulates periosteal/endosteal osteoclast formation and bone resorption. S. aureus stimulation of neonatal mouse parietal bone induced ex vivo bone resorption and osteoclastic gene expression. This effect was associated with increased mRNA and protein expression of receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) without significant change in osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression. Bone resorption induced by S. aureus was abolished by OPG. S. aureus increased the expression of osteoclastogenic cytokines and prostaglandins in the parietal bones but the stimulatory effect of S. aureus on bone resorption and Tnfsf11 mRNA expression was independent of these cytokines and prostaglandins. Stimulation of isolated periosteal osteoblasts with S. aureus also resulted in increased expression of Tnfsf11 mRNA, an effect lost in osteoblasts from Tlr2 knockout mice. S. aureus stimulated osteoclastogenesis in isolated periosteal cells without affecting RANKL-stimulated resorption. In contrast, S. aureus inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation in bone marrow macrophages. These data show that S. aureus enhances bone resorption and periosteal osteoclast formation by increasing osteoblast RANKL production through TLR2. Our study indicates the importance of using different in vitro approaches for studies of how S

  15. Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 induced interleukin-19 dampens immune reactions and associates inversely with spondyloarthritis disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Kragstrup, T W; Andersen, T; Holm, C; Schiøttz-Christensen, B; Jurik, A G; Hvid, M; Deleuran, B

    2015-01-01

    Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a group of immune mediated inflammatory diseases affecting joints, gut, skin and entheses. The inflammatory process involves activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR-4 and production of cytokines and chemokines such as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (CCL2/MCP-1). This proinflammatory chemokine recruits monocytes to sites of inflammation and is central in the development of several immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Interleukin (IL)-19 is a member of the IL-10 family of cytokines. IL-19-deficient mice are more susceptible to innate-mediated colitis and develop more severe inflammation in response to injury. In this work, we studied inducers of IL-19 production and effect of IL-19 on the production of CCL2/MCP-1 and proinflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy controls (HCs) and in PBMCs and synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMCs) from SpA patients. Further, we measured IL-19 in plasma from HCs and in plasma and synovial fluid from SpA patients. Constitutive IL-19 expression was present in both PBMCs and SFMCs and the secretion of IL-19 was increased by TLR-2 and TLR-4 ligands. Neutralizing IL-19 in HC PBMCs and SpA SFMCs resulted in increased production of CCL-2/MCP-1. IL-19 concentrations were decreased in synovial fluid compared with plasma and associated inversely with disease activity in SpA. SpA SFMCs produced less IL-19 in response to LPS compared with HC PBMCs. These findings indicate that IL-19 production is diminished in SpA. Taken together, impaired IL-19 control of the innate immune system might be involved in the pathogenesis of SpA. PMID:25639337

  16. DIESEL EXHAUST ENHANCES TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 3 EXPRESSION AND SIGNALING IN RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our previous studies have shown that prior exposure of respiratory epithelial cells to an aqueous-trapped solution of DE (DEas) enhances the susceptibility to Influenza infections. Here we examined the effect of DEas on the toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) pathway, which is responsib...

  17. DIESEL EXHAUST ENHANCES TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 3 EXPRESSION AND SIGNALING IN RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our previous studies have shown that prior exposure of respiratory epithelial cells to an aqueous-trapped solution of DE (DEas) enhances the susceptibility to Influenza infections. Here we examined the effect of DEas on the toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) pathway, which is responsib...

  18. Argon Mediates Anti-Apoptotic Signaling and Neuroprotection via Inhibition of Toll-Like Receptor 2 and 4

    PubMed Central

    Ulbrich, Felix; Kaufmann, Kai; Roesslein, Martin; Wellner, Franziska; Auwärter, Volker; Kempf, Jürgen; Loop, Torsten; Buerkle, Hartmut; Goebel, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Recently, the noble gas argon attracted significant attention due to its neuroprotective properties. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is still poorly understood. There is growing evidence that the extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) is involved in Argon´s protective effect. We hypothesized that argon mediates its protective effects via the upstream located toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4. Methods Apoptosis in a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) was induced using rotenone. Argon treatment was performed after induction of apoptosis with different concentrations (25, 50 and 75 Vol% in oxygen 21 Vol%, carbon dioxide and nitrogen) for 2 or 4 hours respectively. Apoptosis was analyzed using flow cytometry (annexin-V (AV)/propidiumiodide (PI)) staining, caspase-3 activity and caspase cleavage. TLR density on the cells’ surface was analyzed using FACS and immunohistochemistry. Inhibition of TLR signaling and extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) were assessed by western blot, activity assays and FACS analysis. Results Argon 75 Vol% treatment abolished rotenone-induced apoptosis. This effect was attenuated dose- and time-dependently. Argon treatment was accompanied with a significant reduction of TLR2 and TLR4 receptor density and protein expression. Moreover, argon mediated increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation was attenuated after inhibition of TLR signaling. ERK1/2 and TLR signaling inhibitors abolished the anti-apoptotic and cytoprotective effects of argon. Immunohistochemistry results strengthened these findings. Conclusion These findings suggest that argon-mediated anti-apoptotic and neuroprotective effects are mediated via inhibition of TLR2 and TLR4. PMID:26624894

  19. Toll-like receptor 2 and -4 are involved in the pathogenesis of the Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    PubMed

    Du, Yamei; Zhang, Guojun; Zhang, Zaiqiang; Wang, Qian; Ma, Ruimin; Zhang, Limin; Fan, Fei; Li, Youran; Wang, Meng; Lv, Hong; Kang, Xixiong

    2015-08-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune disorder of the peripheral nervous system characterized by weakness in the limbs. To date, numerous hypotheses have been suggested to explain the pathogenesis of GBS; however, the pathogenesis of GBS remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4 and GBS. Therefore, the mRNA of TLR2, TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor (MyD)88 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with GBS and healthy controls was assessed. To confirm the function of TLR2 and TLR4 in the pathogenesis of GBS, PBMCs derived from patients with GBS and healthy controls were cultured with various TLR agonists. The levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β were measured in the culture supernatant and fasting serum was obtained for the detection of anti-ganglioside antibodies. The results revealed that the mRNA levels of TLR2, TLR4, MyD88 and NF-κB were significantly increased in patients with GBS compared with those in healthy controls (P=0.003, 0.017, 0.032 and 0.015, respectively). PBMCs from patients with GBS secreted higher levels of TNF-α and IL-1β than those from control subjects. The positive rate of immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM anti-ganglioside antibodies in patients with severe GBS was 42.86%, which was markedly higher than rates found in patients with mild GBS (9.09 and 18.18%, respectively). The results of the present study demonstrated that TLR2 and TLR4 are involved in the pathogenesis of GBS and that they and their associated signaling pathways may be targets for the treatment of GBS.

  20. Toll-Like Receptors 2 and 4 Cooperate in the Control of the Emerging Pathogen Brucella microti

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Maykel A.; Santiago, Llipsy; Costas-Ramon, Santiago; Jaime-Sánchez, Paula; Freudenberg, Marina; Jiménez De Bagüés, Maria P.; Pardo, Julián

    2017-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize pathogen-derived molecules and play a critical role during the host innate and adaptive immune response. Brucella spp. are intracellular gram-negative bacteria including several virulent species, which cause a chronic zoonotic infection in a wide range of mammalian hosts known as brucellosis. A new Brucella species, Brucella microti, was recently isolated from wild rodents and found to be highly pathogenic in mice. Using this species-specific model, it was previously found that CD8+ T cells are required to control this infection. In order to find out the role of TLR-mediated responses in the control of this pathogen, the course of infection of B. microti was analyzed over 3 weeks in wild-type (WT) and TLR knock out (KO) mice including TLR2−/−, TLR4−/−, TLR9−/−, TLR2×4−/− and TLR2×4×9−/−. WT and single TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 KO mice similarly control infection in liver and spleen. In contrast, bacterial clearance was delayed in TLR2×4−/− and TLR2×4×9−/− mice at 7 and 14 days post-infection. This defect correlated with impaired maturation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in B. microti-infected dendritic cells from TLR2×4−/− and TLR2×4×9−/− mice. Finally, it was found that Tc cells from TLR2×4−/− and TLR2×4×9−/− mice showed reduced ability to inhibit growth of B. microti in macrophages, suggesting the involvement of TLR2 and 4 in the generation of specific Tc cells. Our findings indicate that TLR2 and TLR4 are required to control B. microti infection in mice and that this effect could be related to its participation in the maturation of dendritic cells and the generation of specific CD8+ Tc cells. PMID:28119856

  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis triggers apoptosis in peripheral neutrophils involving toll-like receptor 2 and p38 mitogen protein kinase in tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    Alemán, Mercedes; Schierloh, Pablo; de la Barrera, Silvia S; Musella, Rosa M; Saab, María A; Baldini, Matías; Abbate, Eduardo; Sasiain, María C

    2004-09-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis display bactericidal responses and produce inflammatory proteins. This PMN-mediated inflammatory response is regulated by an activation of the apoptotic program, which collaborates to avoid tissue injury. In vitro, circulating PMN from patients with tuberculosis (TB) show an increased spontaneous apoptosis, and M. tuberculosis-induced activation accelerates the PMN apoptosis. In this study, we evaluated the mechanisms involved in spontaneous and M. tuberculosis-induced apoptosis. We demonstrate that apoptosis of PMN is not induced by lipoarabinomannan or by a whole-cell lysate of M. tuberculosis and that neither tumor necrosis factor alpha nor CD11b, CD14, and Fcgamma receptors are involved. Apoptosis of PMN from patients with active TB (TB-PMN) is induced by the interaction with the whole M. tuberculosis via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), and, in contrast to spontaneous apoptosis, it involves the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. These results correlate with a high expression of phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) in circulating TB-PMN and with the ability of M. tuberculosis to induce in vitro the expression of p-p38 in PMN. Therefore, when the bacterial burden is low, TB-PMN could be detecting nonopsonized M. tuberculosis via TLR2, leading to the activation of the p38 MAPK pathway, which in turn would induce PMN activation and apoptosis. This mechanism needs further confirmation at the site of infection.

  2. Expression of toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in subplacental trophoblasts from guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) following infection with Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Burrough, E R; DiVerde, K D; Sahin, O; Plummer, P J; Zhang, Q; Yaeger, M J

    2011-03-01

    Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2 and TLR4) are well-characterized cell surface receptors that recognize specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns and play an important role in pathogen recognition and activation of the innate immune system. Variable expression of TLR2 and TLR4 has been described in trophoblasts from normal and diseased placentas; yet, there are limited data regarding trophoblast TLR expression in response to specific placental pathogens, and TLR expression in the guinea pig placenta has not been described. The guinea pig is an effective model for Campylobacter-induced abortion of small ruminants, and the authors have shown by immunohistochemistry that C jejuni localizes within syncytiotrophoblasts of the guinea pig subplacenta. The present study was designed to determine if the expression of either TLR2 or TLR4 would be affected in subplacental trophoblasts following infection with C jejuni. Immunohistochemistry for TLR2 and TLR4 was performed on placenta from guinea pigs that aborted following inoculation with C jejuni and from sham-inoculated controls. Quantitative assessment of TLR expression was performed, and mean immunoreactivity for TLR2 was significantly higher in subplacental trophoblasts from animals that aborted compared with uninfected controls (P = .0283), whereas TLR4 expression was not statistically different (P = .5909). These results suggest that abortion in guinea pigs following infection with C jejuni is associated with increased TLR2 expression in subplacental trophoblasts and may reveal a possible role for TLR2 in the pathogenesis of Campylobacter-induced abortion.

  3. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma-associated Proteobacteria, but not commensal Prevotella spp., promote Toll-like receptor 2-independent lung inflammation and pathology.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jeppe M; Musavian, Hanieh S; Butt, Tariq M; Ingvorsen, Camilla; Thysen, Anna H; Brix, Susanne

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies of healthy human airways have revealed colonization by a distinct commensal bacterial microbiota containing Gram-negative Prevotella spp. However, the immunological properties of these bacteria in the respiratory system remain unknown. Here we compare the innate respiratory immune response to three Gram-negative commensal Prevotella strains (Prevotella melaninogenica, Prevotella nanceiensis and Prevotella salivae) and three Gram-negative pathogenic Proteobacteria known to colonize lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma (Haemophilus influenzae B, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis). The commensal Prevotella spp. and pathogenic Proteobacteria were found to exhibit intrinsic differences in innate inflammatory capacities on murine lung cells in vitro. In vivo in mice, non-typeable H. influenzae induced severe Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-independent COPD-like inflammation characterized by predominant airway neutrophilia, expression of a neutrophilic cytokine/chemokine profile in lung tissue, and lung immunopathology. In comparison, P. nanceiensis induced a diminished neutrophilic airway inflammation and no detectable lung pathology. Interestingly, the inflammatory airway response to the Gram-negative bacteria P. nanceiensis was completely TLR2-dependent. These findings demonstrate weak inflammatory properties of Gram-negative airway commensal Prevotella spp. that may make colonization by these bacteria tolerable by the respiratory immune system. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma-associated Proteobacteria, but not commensal Prevotella spp., promote Toll-like receptor 2-independent lung inflammation and pathology

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Jeppe M; Musavian, Hanieh S; Butt, Tariq M; Ingvorsen, Camilla; Thysen, Anna H; Brix, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of healthy human airways have revealed colonization by a distinct commensal bacterial microbiota containing Gram-negative Prevotella spp. However, the immunological properties of these bacteria in the respiratory system remain unknown. Here we compare the innate respiratory immune response to three Gram-negative commensal Prevotella strains (Prevotella melaninogenica, Prevotella nanceiensis and Prevotella salivae) and three Gram-negative pathogenic Proteobacteria known to colonize lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma (Haemophilus influenzae B, non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis). The commensal Prevotella spp. and pathogenic Proteobacteria were found to exhibit intrinsic differences in innate inflammatory capacities on murine lung cells in vitro. In vivo in mice, non-typeable H. influenzae induced severe Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-independent COPD-like inflammation characterized by predominant airway neutrophilia, expression of a neutrophilic cytokine/chemokine profile in lung tissue, and lung immunopathology. In comparison, P. nanceiensis induced a diminished neutrophilic airway inflammation and no detectable lung pathology. Interestingly, the inflammatory airway response to the Gram-negative bacteria P. nanceiensis was completely TLR2-dependent. These findings demonstrate weak inflammatory properties of Gram-negative airway commensal Prevotella spp. that may make colonization by these bacteria tolerable by the respiratory immune system. PMID:25179236

  5. Expression profile of toll-like receptor 2 mRNA in selected tissues of shark (Chiloscyllium sp.).

    PubMed

    Anandhakumar, C; Lavanya, V; Pradheepa, G; Tirumurugaan, K G; Raj, G Dhinakar; Raja, A; Pazhanivel, N; Balachandran, C

    2012-11-01

    Sharks are a species of delight for immunologists from the evolutionary perspective since it is considered as the first species to have evolved the adaptive immune responses in addition to the innate immune system. One of the components of the highly conserved innate immune system is the toll-like receptors (TLR) which has a conserved overall protein structure throughout deuterostome evolution. There is no report that demonstrates the expression of these receptors in sharks. In this study we successfully amplified a 270 bp amplicon using a degenerate primer design strategy that corresponded to the Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain of TLR2 (GenBank ID: JF792813). BLAST analysis revealed a maximum nucleotide identity of 87% and 76% with the TLR2 of higher mammals and teleost fishes respectively. Domain prediction revealed a TIR structure between 1 and 87 amino acids that had a maximum identity of 58% and 76% with TLR2 - TIR protein of teleost fishes and higher mammals respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a closer clustering of the shark TIR sequence with those from human, cattle, goat, sheep and chicken than with other fish species. Basal expression levels of the TLR2-TIR mRNA were found to be significantly higher in kidneys followed by fins, spleen and intestinal spiral valve (ISV). In tissues such as spleen and kidney the expression of the TLR2-TIR mRNA could be localized to lymphoid and macrophages like cells and tubular epithelial cells respectively. In-vivo exposure of sharks to peptidoglycan (TLR 2 ligand) resulted in 9 folds higher expression of TLR2-TIR mRNA in gills followed by 5 folds in the fins. However, when inoculated with a TLR ligand pool, the expression levels significantly increased to 12 fold in skin followed by epigonal, kidneys and ISV. These findings not only support the presence of the TLRs in sharks but also their induction upon exposure to specific ligands. Further studies are needed to identify their numbers, their ligand specificity

  6. Interleukin-1 receptor but not Toll-like receptor 2 is essential for MyD88-dependent Th17 immunity to Coccidioides infection.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chiung-Yu; Jiménez-Alzate, María del Pilar; Gonzalez, Angel; Wüthrich, Marcel; Klein, Bruce S; Cole, Garry T

    2014-05-01

    Interleukin-17A (IL-17A)-producing CD4(+) T helper (Th17) cells have been shown to be essential for defense against pulmonary infection with Coccidioides species. However, we have just begun to identify the required pattern recognition receptors and understand the signal pathways that lead to Th17 cell activation after fungal infection. We previously reported that Card9(-/-) mice vaccinated with formalin-killed spherules failed to acquire resistance to Coccidioides infection. Here, we report that both MyD88(-/-) and Card9(-/-) mice immunized with a live, attenuated vaccine also fail to acquire protective immunity to this respiratory disease. Like Card9(-/-) mice, vaccinated MyD88(-/-) mice revealed a significant reduction in numbers of both Th17 and Th1 cells in their lungs after Coccidioides infection. Both Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1r1) upstream of MyD88 have been implicated in Th17 cell differentiation. Surprisingly, vaccinated TLR2(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice showed similar outcomes after pulmonary infection with Coccidioides, while vaccinated IL-1r1(-/-) mice revealed a significant reduction in the number of Th17 cells in their infected lungs compared to WT mice. Thus, activation of both IL-1r1/MyD88- and Card9-mediated Th17 immunity is essential for protection against Coccidioides infection. Our data also reveal that the numbers of Th17 cells were reduced in IL-1r1(-/-) mice to a lesser extent than in MyD88(-/-) mice, raising the possibility that other TLRs are involved in MyD88-dependent Th17 immunity to coccidioidomycosis. An antimicrobial action of Th17 cells is to promote early recruitment of neutrophils to infection sites. Our data revealed that neutrophils are required for vaccine immunity to this respiratory disease.

  7. Brucella abortus Inhibits Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Expression and Antigen Processing through Interleukin-6 Secretion via Toll-Like Receptor 2

    PubMed Central

    Barrionuevo, Paula; Cassataro, Juliana; Delpino, M. Victoria; Zwerdling, Astrid; Pasquevich, Karina A.; Samartino, Clara García; Wallach, Jorge C.; Fossati, Carlos A.; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H.

    2008-01-01

    The strategies that allow Brucella abortus to survive inside macrophages for prolonged periods and to avoid the immunological surveillance of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II)-restricted gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing CD4+ T lymphocytes are poorly understood. We report here that infection of THP-1 cells with B. abortus inhibited expression of MHC-II molecules and antigen (Ag) processing. Heat-killed B. abortus (HKBA) also induced both these phenomena, indicating the independence of bacterial viability and involvement of a structural component of the bacterium. Accordingly, outer membrane protein 19 (Omp19), a prototypical B. abortus lipoprotein, inhibited both MHC-II expression and Ag processing to the same extent as HKBA. Moreover, a synthetic lipohexapeptide that mimics the structure of the protein lipid moiety also inhibited MHC-II expression, indicating that any Brucella lipoprotein could down-modulate MHC-II expression and Ag processing. Inhibition of MHC-II expression and Ag processing by either HKBA or lipidated Omp19 (L-Omp19) depended on Toll-like receptor 2 and was mediated by interleukin-6. HKBA or L-Omp19 also inhibited MHC-II expression and Ag processing of human monocytes. In addition, exposure to the synthetic lipohexapeptide inhibited Ag-specific T-cell proliferation and IFN-γ production of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Brucella-infected patients. Together, these results indicate that there is a mechanism by which B. abortus may prevent recognition by T cells to evade host immunity and establish a chronic infection. PMID:17984211

  8. Brucella abortus inhibits major histocompatibility complex class II expression and antigen processing through interleukin-6 secretion via Toll-like receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Barrionuevo, Paula; Cassataro, Juliana; Delpino, M Victoria; Zwerdling, Astrid; Pasquevich, Karina A; García Samartino, Clara; Wallach, Jorge C; Fossati, Carlos A; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H

    2008-01-01

    The strategies that allow Brucella abortus to survive inside macrophages for prolonged periods and to avoid the immunological surveillance of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II)-restricted gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-producing CD4+ T lymphocytes are poorly understood. We report here that infection of THP-1 cells with B. abortus inhibited expression of MHC-II molecules and antigen (Ag) processing. Heat-killed B. abortus (HKBA) also induced both these phenomena, indicating the independence of bacterial viability and involvement of a structural component of the bacterium. Accordingly, outer membrane protein 19 (Omp19), a prototypical B. abortus lipoprotein, inhibited both MHC-II expression and Ag processing to the same extent as HKBA. Moreover, a synthetic lipohexapeptide that mimics the structure of the protein lipid moiety also inhibited MHC-II expression, indicating that any Brucella lipoprotein could down-modulate MHC-II expression and Ag processing. Inhibition of MHC-II expression and Ag processing by either HKBA or lipidated Omp19 (L-Omp19) depended on Toll-like receptor 2 and was mediated by interleukin-6. HKBA or L-Omp19 also inhibited MHC-II expression and Ag processing of human monocytes. In addition, exposure to the synthetic lipohexapeptide inhibited Ag-specific T-cell proliferation and IFN-gamma production of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Brucella-infected patients. Together, these results indicate that there is a mechanism by which B. abortus may prevent recognition by T cells to evade host immunity and establish a chronic infection.

  9. A minocycline derivative reduces nerve injury-induced allodynia, LPS-induced prostaglandin E2 microglial production and signaling via toll-like receptors 2 and 4.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Leandro F S; Godin, Adriana M; Zhang, Yingning; Jarussophon, Suwatchai; Ferreira, Bruno C S; Machado, Renes R; Maier, Steven F; Konishi, Yasuo; de Freitas, Rossimiriam P; Fiebich, Bernd L; Watkins, Linda R; Coelho, Márcio M; Moraes, Márcio F D

    2013-05-24

    Many studies have shown that minocycline, an antibacterial tetracycline, suppresses experimental pain. While minocycline's positive effects on pain resolution suggest that clinical use of such drugs may prove beneficial, minocycline's antibiotic actions and divalent cation (Ca(2+); Mg(2+)) chelating effects detract from its potential utility. Thus, we tested the antiallodynic effect induced by a non-antibacterial, non-chelating minocycline derivative in a model of neuropathic pain and performed an initial investigation of its anti-inflammatory effects in vitro. Intraperitoneal minocycline (100mg/kg) and 12S-hydroxy-1,12-pyrazolinominocycline (PMIN; 23.75 mg/kg, 47.50mg/kg or 95.00 mg/kg) reduce the mechanical allodynia induced by chronic constriction injury of mouse sciatic nerve. PMIN reduces the LPS-induced production of PGE2 by primary microglial cell cultures. Human embryonic kidney cells were transfected to express human toll-like receptors 2 and 4, and the signaling via both receptors stimulated with PAM3CSK4 or LPS (respectively) was affected either by minocycline or PMIN. Importantly, these treatments did not affect the cell viability, as assessed by MTT test. Altogether, these results reinforce the evidence that the anti-inflammatory and experimental pain suppressive effects induced by tetracyclines are neither necessarily linked to antibacterial nor to Ca(2+) chelating activities. This study supports the evaluation of the potential usefulness of PMIN in the management of neuropathic pain, as its lack of antibacterial and Ca(2+) chelating activities might confer greater safety over conventional tetracyclines.

  10. [Effect of metformin on the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, Toll like receptors 2/4 and C reactive protein in obese type-2 diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Andrews, Mónica; Soto, Néstor; Arredondo, Miguel

    2012-11-01

    The pharmacological action of metformin goes beyond mere glycemic control, decreasing markers of inflammation and contributing to the reduction of oxidative stress. To evaluate biochemical, anthropometric and pro-inflammatory markers in obese type 2 diabetic patients treated or not with metformin. Obese patients with type 2 diabetes were invited to participate in the study if they were aged more than 40 years, were not receiving insulin, did not have cardiovascular diseases and were not taking anti-inflammatory drugs. A pharmacological history was taken and patients were stratified in two groups whether they were using metformin or not. A fasting blood sample was obtained to measure blood glucose, insulin, lipid levels, C reactive protein (hsCRP) and to isolate peripheral blood mononuclear cells. RNA was isolated from these cells to measure expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB), Toll-Like Receptor 2/4 (TLR 2/4) and beta-2-microglobulin (B2M). Thirty participants were studied. Of these, 16 subjects aged 54.4 ± 5.5years were treated with metformin and 14 subjects aged 54.9 ± 6.4 years did not receive the drug. Participants receiving metformin had lower levels of hsCRP and lower mRNA relative abundance of TNF-α and TLR 2/4. There were no differences in glucose levels or lipid profile between both groups. Obese diabetic patients treated with metformin had lower levels of hsCRP expression of TNF-α and TLR 2/4, than their counterparts not receiving the drug.

  11. Lipopolysaccharide Preparation Extracted from Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipoprotein-Deficient Mutant Shows a Marked Decrease in Toll-Like Receptor 2-Mediated Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Asai, Yasuyuki; Hashimoto, Masahito; Fletcher, Hansel M.; Miyake, Kensuke; Akira, Shizuo; Ogawa, Tomohiko

    2005-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that a new PG1828-encoded lipoprotein (PG1828LP) was able to be separated from a Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preparation, and we found that it exhibited strong cell activation, similar to that of Escherichia coli LPS, through a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-dependent pathway. In order to determine the virulence of PG1828LP toward cell activation, we generated a PG1828-deficient mutant of P. gingivalis strain 381 by allelic exchange mutagenesis using an ermF-ermAM antibiotic resistance cassette. A highly purified preparation of LPS from a PG1828-deficient mutant (ΔPG1828-LPS) showed nearly the same ladder-like patterns in silver-stained gels as a preparation of LPS from a wild-type strain (WT-LPS), as well as Limulus amoebocyte lysate activities that were similar to those of the WT-LPS preparation. However, the ability of the ΔPG1828-LPS preparation to activate NF-κB in TLR2-expressing cells was markedly attenuated. Cytokine production by human gingival fibroblasts was also decreased in response to the ΔPG1828-LPS preparation in comparison with the WT-LPS preparation, and the activity was comparable to the stimulation of highly purified lipid A of P. gingivalis by TLR4. Further, lethal toxicity was rarely observed following intraperitoneal injection of the PG1828-deficient mutant into mice compared to that with the wild-type strain, while the ΔPG1828-LPS preparation showed no lethal toxicity. Taken together, these results clearly indicate that PG1828LP plays an essential role in inflammatory responses and may be a major virulence factor of P. gingivalis. PMID:15784558

  12. A minocycline derivative reduces nerve injury-induced allodynia, LPS-induced prostaglandin E2 microglial production and signaling via toll-like receptors 2 and 4

    PubMed Central

    Bastos, Leandro F. S.; Godin, Adriana M.; Zhang, Yingning; Jarussophon, Suwatchai; Ferreira, Bruno C. S.; Machado, Renes R.; Maier, Steven F.; Konishi, Yasuo; de Freitas, Rossimiriam P.; Fiebich, Bernd L.; Watkins, Linda R.; Coelho, Márcio M.; Moraes, Márcio F. D.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have shown that minocycline, an antibacterial tetracycline, suppresses experimental pain. While minocycline’s positive effects on pain resolution suggest that clinical use of such drugs may prove beneficial, minocycline’s antibiotic actions and divalent cation (Ca2+; Mg2+) chelating effects detract from its potential utility. Thus, we tested the antiallodynic effect induced by a non-antibacterial, non-chelating minocycline derivative in a model of neuropathic pain and performed an initial investigation of its anti-inflammatory effects in vitro. Intraperitoneal minocycline (100 mg/kg) and 12S-hydroxy-1,12-pyrazolinominocycline (PMIN; 23.75, 47.50 or 95.00 mg/kg) reduce the mechanical allodynia induced by chronic constriction injury of mouse sciatic nerve. PMIN reduces the LPS-induced production of PGE2 by primary microglial cell cultures. Human embryonic kidney cells were transfected to express human toll-like receptors 2 and 4, and the signaling via both receptors stimulated with PAM3CSK4 or LPS (respectively) was affected either by minocycline or PMIN. Importantly, these treatments did not affect the cell viability, as assessed by MTT test. Altogether, these results reinforce the evidence that the anti-inflammatory and experimental pain suppressive effects induced by tetracyclines are neither necessarily linked to antibacterial nor to Ca2+ chelating activities. This study supports the evaluation of the potential usefulness of PMIN in the management of neuropathic pain, as its lack of antibacterial and Ca2+ chelating activities might confer greater safety over conventional tetracyclines. PMID:23523650

  13. Activation of Toll-like receptor 3 induces apoptosis of oral squamous carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qingqiong; Hu, Shuiqing; Yan, Ming; Sun, Zujun; Chen, Wantao; Chen, Fuxiang

    2012-08-01

    Toll-like receptors are well known as molecular sensors of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. They control activation of the innate immune response and subsequently shape the adaptive immune response. Recent publications have demonstrated that Toll-like receptors also play important roles in multiple human cancers, yet their function in oral squamous cell carcinoma remains unclear. In this study, we showed that both oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and tissues from oral squamous carcinoma patients express relatively high levels of Toll-like receptor 3. We also found that synthetic dsRNA-polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid, a Toll-like receptor 3 ligand, induced apoptosis of oral squamous carcinoma cells mainly via Toll-like receptor 3, through interferon-β production and activation of caspases 3 and 9. Moreover, in an oral squamous cell carcinoma xenograft mouse model, we demonstrated for the first time that activation of Toll-like receptor 3 inhibited oral squamous cell carcinoma tumor growth in vivo. Therefore, the direct proapoptotic activity of Toll-like receptor 3 in human oral squamous carcinoma cells may make this protein a viable therapeutic target in the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  14. Developmental Onset of Bilirubin-induced Neurotoxicity Involves Toll-like Receptor 2-dependent Signaling in Humanized UDP-glucuronosyltransferase1 Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Yueh, Mei-Fei; Chen, Shujuan; Nguyen, Nghia; Tukey, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Biological and signaling events that connect developmentally induced hyperbilirubinemia to bilirubin-induced neurological dysfunction (BIND) and CNS toxicity in humans are poorly understood. In mammals, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) is the sole enzyme responsible for bilirubin glucuronidation, a rate-limiting step necessary for bilirubin metabolism and clearance. Humanized mice that express the entire UGT1 locus (hUGT1) and the UGT1A1 gene, develop neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, with 8–10% of hUGT1 mice succumbing to CNS damage, a phenotype that is presented by uncontrollable seizures. We demonstrate that neuroinflammation and reactive gliosis are prominent features of bilirubin brain toxicity, and a disturbed redox status resulting from activation of NADPH oxidase is an important contributing mechanism found in BIND. Using knock-out mice and primary brain cells, we connect a key pattern recognition receptor, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), to hyperbilirubinemia-induced signaling. We illustrate a requirement for TLR2 signaling in regulating gliosis, proinflammatory mediators, and oxidative stress when neonatal mice encounter severe hyperbilirubinemia. TLR2-mediated gliosis strongly correlates with pronounced neuroinflammation in the CNS with up-regulation of TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6, creating a pro-inflammatory CNS environment. Gene expression and immunohistochemistry staining show that hUGT1/Tlr2−/− mice fail to activate glial cells, proinflammatory cytokines, and stress response genes. In addition, bilirubin-induced apoptosis was significantly enhanced by blocking TLR2 signaling indicating its anti-apoptotic property. Consequently, a higher neonatal death rate (57.1%) in hUGT1/Tlr2−/− mice was observed when compared with hUGT1 mice (8.7%). These results suggest that TLR2 signaling and microglia neuroinflammation are linked to a repair and/or protection mode against BIND. PMID:24403077

  15. Local activation of uterine Toll-like receptor 2 and 2/6 decreases embryo implantation and affects uterine receptivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Lopez, Javier Arturo; Caballero, Ignacio; Montazeri, Mehrnaz; Maslehat, Nasim; Elliott, Sarah; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Raul; Calle, Alexandra; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso; Fazeli, Alireza

    2014-04-01

    Embryo implantation is a complex interaction between maternal endometrium and embryonic structures. Failure to implant is highly recurrent and impossible to diagnose. Inflammation and infections in the female reproductive tract are common causes of infertility, embryo loss, and preterm labor. The current work describes how the activation of endometrial Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 2/6 reduces embryo implantation chances. We developed a morphometric index to evaluate the effects of the TLR 2/6 activation along the uterine horn (UH). TLR 2/6 ligation reduced the endometrial myometrial and glandular indexes and increased the luminal index. Furthermore, TLR 2/6 activation increased the proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1beta and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 in UH lavages in the preimplantation day and IL-1 receptor antagonist in the implantation day. The engagement of TLR 2/6 with its ligand in the UH during embryo transfer severely affected the rate of embryonic implantation (45.00% ± 6.49% vs. 16.69% ± 5.01%, P < 0.05, control vs. test, respectively). Furthermore, this interference with the embryo implantation process was verified using an in vitro model of human embryo implantation where trophoblast spheroids failed to adhere to a monolayer of TLR 2- and TLR 2/6-activated endometrial cells. The inhibition of TLR receptors 2 and 6 in the presence of their specific ligands restored the ability of the spheroids to bind to the endometrial cells. In conclusion, the activation of the innate immune system in the uterus at the time of implantation interfered with the endometrial receptivity and reduced the chances of implantation success.

  16. Macrophage-elicited osteoclastogenesis in response to bacterial stimulation requires Toll-like receptor 2-dependent tumor necrosis factor-alpha production.

    PubMed

    Ukai, Takashi; Yumoto, Hiromichi; Gibson, Frank C; Genco, Caroline Attardo

    2008-02-01

    The receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and the proinflammatory cytokines are believed to play important roles in osteoclastogenesis. We recently reported that the innate immune recognition receptor, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), is crucial for inflammatory bone loss in response to infection by Porphyromonas gingivalis, the primary organism associated with chronic inflammatory periodontal disease. However, the contribution of macrophage-expressed TLRs to osteoclastogenesis has not been defined. In this study, we defined a requirement for TLR2 in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-elicited osteoclastogenesis in response to exposure to P. gingivalis. Culture supernatant (CS) fluids from P. gingivalis-stimulated macrophages induced bone marrow macrophage-derived osteoclastogenesis. This activity was dependent on TNF-alpha and occurred independently of RANKL, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and IL-6. CS fluids from P. gingivalis-stimulated TLR2(-/-) macrophages failed to express TNF-alpha, and these fluids induced significantly less osteoclast formation compared with that of the wild-type or the TLR4(-/-) macrophages. In addition, P. gingivalis exposure induced up-regulation of TLR2 expression on the cell surface of macrophages, which was demonstrated to functionally react to reexposure to P. gingivalis, as measured by a further increase in TNF-alpha production. These results demonstrate that macrophage-dependent TLR2 signaling is crucial for TNF-alpha-dependent/RANKL-independent osteoclastogenesis in response to P. gingivalis infection. Furthermore, the ability of P. gingivalis to induce the cell surface expression of TLR2 may contribute to the chronic inflammatory state induced by this pathogen.

  17. The Type II Secretion System of Legionella pneumophila Dampens the MyD88 and Toll-Like Receptor 2 Signaling Pathway in Infected Human Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Mallama, Celeste A; McCoy-Simandle, Kessler; Cianciotto, Nicholas P

    2017-04-01

    Previously, we reported that mutants of Legionella pneumophila lacking a type II secretion (T2S) system elicit higher levels of cytokines (e.g., interleukin-6 [IL-6]) following infection of U937 cells, a human macrophage-like cell line. We now show that this effect of T2S is also manifest upon infection of human THP-1 macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes but does not occur during infection of murine macrophages. Supporting the hypothesis that T2S acts to dampen the triggering of an innate immune response, we observed that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways are more highly stimulated upon infection with the T2S mutant than upon infection with the wild type. By using short hairpin RNA to deplete proteins involved in specific pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) recognition pathways, we determined that the dampening effect of the T2S system was not dependent on nucleotide binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), retinoic acid-inducible protein I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs), double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase receptor (PKR), or TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon beta (TRIF) signaling or an apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC)- or caspase-4-dependent inflammasome. However, the dampening effect of T2S on IL-6 production was significantly reduced upon gene knockdown of myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1), or Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). These data indicate that the L. pneumophila T2S system dampens the signaling of the TLR2 pathway in infected human macrophages. We also document the importance of PKR, TRIF, and TBK1 in cytokine secretion during L. pneumophila infection of macrophages.

  18. Toll-like receptor-2 mediates adaptive cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload through interleukin-1β upregulation via nuclear factor κB activation.

    PubMed

    Higashikuni, Yasutomi; Tanaka, Kimie; Kato, Megumi; Nureki, Osamu; Hirata, Yasunobu; Nagai, Ryozo; Komuro, Issei; Sata, Masataka

    2013-11-18

    Inflammation is induced in the heart during the development of cardiac hypertrophy. The initiating mechanisms and the role of inflammation in cardiac hypertrophy, however, remain unclear. Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) recognizes endogenous molecules that induce noninfectious inflammation. Here, we examined the role of TLR2-mediated inflammation in cardiac hypertrophy. At 2 weeks after transverse aortic constriction, Tlr2(-/-) mice showed reduced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis with greater left ventricular dilatation and impaired systolic function compared with wild-type mice, which indicated impaired cardiac adaptation in Tlr2(-/-) mice. Bone marrow transplantation experiment revealed that TLR2 expressed in the heart, but not in bone marrow-derived cells, is important for cardiac adaptive response to pressure overload. In vitro experiments demonstrated that TLR2 signaling can induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and fibroblast and vascular endothelial cell proliferation through nuclear factor-κB activation and interleukin-1β upregulation. Systemic administration of a nuclear factor-κB inhibitor or anti-interleukin-1β antibodies to wild-type mice resulted in impaired adaptive cardiac hypertrophy after transverse aortic constriction. We also found that heat shock protein 70, which was increased in murine plasma after transverse aortic constriction, can activate TLR2 signaling in vitro and in vivo. Systemic administration of anti-heat shock protein 70 antibodies to wild-type mice impaired adaptive cardiac hypertrophy after transverse aortic constriction. Our results demonstrate that TLR2-mediated inflammation induced by extracellularly released heat shock protein 70 is essential for adaptive cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload. Thus, modulation of TLR2 signaling in the heart may provide a novel strategy for treating heart failure due to inadequate adaptation to hemodynamic stress.

  19. Possible role of Toll-like receptor-2 in the intracellular survival of Staphylococcus aureus in murine peritoneal macrophages: involvement of cytokines and anti-oxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bishayi, B; Bandyopadhyay, D; Majhi, A; Adhikary, R

    2014-08-01

    Effects of blocking toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2) on the survival of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and cytokine production in peritoneal macrophages of Swiss albino mice were analysed. Macrophages were infected with S. aureus in the presence and absence of anti-TLR-2 antibody. Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) concentrations were measured. Expressions of TLR-2, NF-κB, MyD 88 were analysed by Western Blot. Expression of TLR-2 was increased in S. aureus-infected macrophages with respect to control and was MyD 88 independent. TLR2 blocking significantly reduced TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and IL-10 and increased IFN-γ and IL-12 production. Decreased catalase activity and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) by S. aureus with concomitant increase in H2 O2 and nitric oxide (NO) were observed in the case of prior TLR-2 blocking. To understand whether catalase contributing in the intracellular survival, was of bacterial origin or not, 3-amino, 1, 2, 4-triazole (ATZ) was used to inhibit specifically macrophage-derived catalase. Catalase enzyme activity from the whole staphylococcal cells in the presence of ATZ suggested that the released catalase were of extracellular origin. From the intracellular survival assay, it was evident that pretreatment of macrophages with ATZ reduces the bacterial burden in macrophages when infected with the recovered bacteria only from the anti-TLR-2 antibody-treated macrophages after phagocytosis. Catalase protein expression from the whole staphylococcal cells recovered after phagocytosis also indicated the catalase release from S. aureus. Capturing of S. aureus via TLR-2 induces inflammatory reactions through activation of NF-κB-signalling pathways which was MyD88-independent. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Prevention and mitigation of acute radiation syndrome in mice by synthetic lipopeptide agonists of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2).

    PubMed

    Shakhov, Alexander N; Singh, Vijay K; Bone, Frederick; Cheney, Alec; Kononov, Yevgeniy; Krasnov, Peter; Bratanova-Toshkova, Troitza K; Shakhova, Vera V; Young, Jason; Weil, Michael M; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Orschell, Christie M; Baker, Patricia S; Gudkov, Andrei; Feinstein, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins (BLP) induce innate immune responses in mammals by activating heterodimeric receptor complexes containing Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). TLR2 signaling results in nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB)-dependent upregulation of anti-apoptotic factors, anti-oxidants and cytokines, all of which have been implicated in radiation protection. Here we demonstrate that synthetic lipopeptides (sLP) that mimic the structure of naturally occurring mycoplasmal BLP significantly increase mouse survival following lethal total body irradiation (TBI) when administered between 48 hours before and 24 hours after irradiation. The TBI dose ranges against which sLP are effective indicate that sLP primarily impact the hematopoietic (HP) component of acute radiation syndrome. Indeed, sLP treatment accelerated recovery of bone marrow (BM) and spleen cellularity and ameliorated thrombocytopenia of irradiated mice. sLP did not improve survival of irradiated TLR2-knockout mice, confirming that sLP-mediated radioprotection requires TLR2. However, sLP was radioprotective in chimeric mice containing TLR2-null BM on a wild type background, indicating that radioprotection of the HP system by sLP is, at least in part, indirect and initiated in non-BM cells. sLP injection resulted in strong transient induction of multiple cytokines with known roles in hematopoiesis, including granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). sLP-induced cytokines, particularly G-CSF, are likely mediators of the radioprotective/mitigative activity of sLP. This study illustrates the strong potential of LP-based TLR2 agonists for anti-radiation prophylaxis and therapy in defense and medical scenarios.

  1. Prevention and Mitigation of Acute Radiation Syndrome in Mice by Synthetic Lipopeptide Agonists of Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2)

    PubMed Central

    Shakhov, Alexander N.; Singh, Vijay K.; Bone, Frederick; Cheney, Alec; Kononov, Yevgeniy; Krasnov, Peter; Bratanova-Toshkova, Troitza K.; Shakhova, Vera V.; Young, Jason; Weil, Michael M.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Orschell, Christie M.; Baker, Patricia S.; Gudkov, Andrei; Feinstein, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins (BLP) induce innate immune responses in mammals by activating heterodimeric receptor complexes containing Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). TLR2 signaling results in nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB)-dependent upregulation of anti-apoptotic factors, anti-oxidants and cytokines, all of which have been implicated in radiation protection. Here we demonstrate that synthetic lipopeptides (sLP) that mimic the structure of naturally occurring mycoplasmal BLP significantly increase mouse survival following lethal total body irradiation (TBI) when administered between 48 hours before and 24 hours after irradiation. The TBI dose ranges against which sLP are effective indicate that sLP primarily impact the hematopoietic (HP) component of acute radiation syndrome. Indeed, sLP treatment accelerated recovery of bone marrow (BM) and spleen cellularity and ameliorated thrombocytopenia of irradiated mice. sLP did not improve survival of irradiated TLR2-knockout mice, confirming that sLP-mediated radioprotection requires TLR2. However, sLP was radioprotective in chimeric mice containing TLR2-null BM on a wild type background, indicating that radioprotection of the HP system by sLP is, at least in part, indirect and initiated in non-BM cells. sLP injection resulted in strong transient induction of multiple cytokines with known roles in hematopoiesis, including granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). sLP-induced cytokines, particularly G-CSF, are likely mediators of the radioprotective/mitigative activity of sLP. This study illustrates the strong potential of LP-based TLR2 agonists for anti-radiation prophylaxis and therapy in defense and medical scenarios. PMID:22479357

  2. Sonic hedgehog-Dependent Induction of MicroRNA 31 and MicroRNA 150 Regulates Mycobacterium bovis BCG-Driven Toll-Like Receptor 2 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ghorpade, Devram Sampat; Holla, Sahana; Kaveri, Srini V.; Bayry, Jagadeesh; Patil, Shripad A.

    2013-01-01

    Hedgehog (HH) signaling is a significant regulator of cell fate decisions during embryogenesis, development, and perpetuation of various disease conditions. Testing whether pathogen-specific HH signaling promotes unique innate recognition of intracellular bacteria, we demonstrate that among diverse Gram-positive or Gram-negative microbes, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, a vaccine strain, elicits a robust activation of Sonic HH (SHH) signaling in macrophages. Interestingly, sustained tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secretion by macrophages was essential for robust SHH activation, as TNF-α−/− macrophages exhibited compromised ability to activate SHH signaling. Neutralization of TNF-α or blockade of TNF-α receptor signaling significantly reduced the infection-induced SHH signaling activation both in vitro and in vivo. Intriguingly, activated SHH signaling downregulated M. bovis BCG-mediated Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling events to regulate a battery of genes associated with divergent functions of M1/M2 macrophages. Genome-wide expression profiling as well as conventional gain-of-function or loss-of-function analysis showed that SHH signaling-responsive microRNA 31 (miR-31) and miR-150 target MyD88, an adaptor protein of TLR2 signaling, thus leading to suppression of TLR2 responses. SHH signaling signatures could be detected in vivo in tuberculosis patients and M. bovis BCG-challenged mice. Collectively, these investigations identify SHH signaling to be what we believe is one of the significant regulators of host-pathogen interactions. PMID:23166298

  3. In Silico Approach to Inhibition of Signaling Pathways of Toll-Like Receptors 2 and 4 by ST2L

    PubMed Central

    Basith, Shaherin; Manavalan, Balachandran; Govindaraj, Rajiv Gandhi; Choi, Sangdun

    2011-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) activate a potent immunostimulatory response. There is clear evidence that overactivation of TLRs leads to infectious and inflammatory diseases. Recent biochemical studies have shown that the membrane-bound form of ST2 (ST2L), a member of the Toll-like/IL-1 receptor superfamily, negatively regulates MyD88-dependent TLR signaling pathways by sequestrating the adapters MyD88 and Mal (TIRAP). Specifically, ST2L attenuates the recruitment of Mal and MyD88 adapters to their receptors through its intracellular TIR domain. Thus, ST2L is a potent molecule that acts as a key regulator of endotoxin tolerance and modulates innate immunity. So far, the inhibitory mechanism of ST2L at the molecular level remains elusive. To develop a working hypothesis for the interactions between ST2L, TLRs (TLR1, 2, 4, and 6), and adapter molecules (MyD88 and Mal), we constructed three-dimensional models of the TIR domains of TLR4, 6, Mal, and ST2L based on homology modeling. Since the crystal structures of the TIR domains of TLR1, 2 as well as the NMR solution structure of MyD88 are known, we utilized these structures in our analysis. The TIR domains of TLR1, 2, 4, 6, MyD88, Mal and ST2L were subjected to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in an explicit solvent environment. The refined structures obtained from the MD simulations were subsequently used in molecular docking studies to probe for potential sites of interactions. Through protein-protein docking analysis, models of the essential complexes involved in TLR2 and 4 signaling and ST2L inhibiting processes were developed. Our results suggest that ST2L may exert its inhibitory effect by blocking the molecular interface of Mal and MyD88 adapters mainly through its BB-loop region. Our predicted oligomeric signaling models may provide a basis for the understanding of the assembly process of TIR domain interactions, which has thus far proven to be difficult via in vivo studies. PMID:21897866

  4. Differential Expression of Toll-Like Receptors 2 and 4 in Tissues of the Human Female Reproductive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Pioli, Patricia A.; Amiel, Eyal; Schaefer, Todd M.; Connolly, John E.; Wira, Charles R.; Guyre, Paul M.

    2004-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) signal transduction is a central component of the innate immune response to pathogenic challenge. Although recent studies have begun to elucidate differences in acquired immunity in tissues of the human female reproductive tract, there is a relative paucity of work regarding innate defense mechanisms. We investigated TLR mRNA and protein expression in tissues of the human female reproductive tract. Constitutive mRNA expression of TLRs 1 to 6 was observed in fallopian tubes, uterine endometrium, cervix, and ectocervix. Furthermore, transcripts of the signaling adapter MyD88 and the accessory molecule CD14 were also detected in all tissues assayed. Quantitative analysis of TLR2 mRNA levels revealed highest expression of this molecule in fallopian tube and cervical tissues, followed by endometrium and ectocervix. In contrast to TLR2, TLR4 expression declined progressively along the tract, with highest expression in the upper tissues (fallopian tubes and endometrium), followed by cervix and ectocervix. In addition to mRNA, protein expression of TLR2 and TLR4 was also documented in these tissues. These data suggest that TLRs are differentially expressed in distinct compartments of the female reproductive tract and may provide insight regarding the regulation of inflammation and immunity within the tract. PMID:15385480

  5. Toll-like receptor 2 participates in the response to lung injury in a murine model of pulmonary contusion.

    PubMed

    Hoth, J Jason; Hudson, William P; Brownlee, Noel A; Yoza, Barbara K; Hiltbold, Elizabeth M; Meredith, J Wayne; McCall, Charles E

    2007-10-01

    Blunt chest trauma resulting in pulmonary contusion with an accompanying acute inflammatory response is a common but poorly understood injury. We report that Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 participates in the inflammatory response to lung injury. To show this, we use a model of pulmonary contusion in the mouse that is similar to that observed clinically in humans based on histologic, morphologic, and biochemical criteria of acute lung injury. The inflammatory response to pulmonary contusion in our mouse model is characterized by pulmonary edema, neutrophil transepithelial migration, and increased expression of the innate immunity proinflammatory cytokines IL 1beta and IL 6, the adhesion intracellular adhesion molecule 1, and chemokine (CXC motif) ligand 1. Compared with wild-type animals, contused Tlr2(-/-) mice have significantly reduced pulmonary edema and neutrophilia. These findings are associated with decreased levels of circulating chemokine (CXC motif) ligand 1. In contrast, systemic IL 6 levels remain elevated in the TLR2-deficient phenotype. These results show that TLR2 has a primary role in the neutrophil response to acute lung injury. We suggest that an unidentified noninfectious ligand generated by pulmonary contusion acts via TLR2 to generate inflammatory responses.

  6. Pathogen-mediated inflammatory atherosclerosis is mediated in part via Toll-like receptor 2-induced inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Chie; Madrigal, Andres G; Liu, Xinyan; Ukai, Takashi; Goswami, Sulip; Gudino, Cynthia V; Gibson, Frank C; Genco, Caroline A

    2010-01-01

    Studies in humans have established that polymorphisms in genes encoding the innate immune Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are associated with inflammatory atherosclerosis. In hyperlipidemic mice, TLR2 and TLR4 have been reported to contribute to atherosclerosis progression. Human and mouse studies support a role for the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis in atherosclerosis, although the mechanisms by which this pathogen stimulates inflammatory atherosclerosis via innate immune system activation is not known. Using a genetically defined apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mouse model we demonstrate that pathogen-mediated inflammatory atherosclerosis occurs via both TLR2-dependent and TLR2-independent mechanisms. P. gingivalis infection in mice possessing functional TLR2 induced the accumulation of macrophages as well as inflammatory mediators including CD40, IFN-gamma and the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in atherosclerotic lesions. The expression of these inflammatory mediators was reduced in atherosclerotic lesions from P. gingivalis-infected TLR2-deficient (TLR2(-/-)) mice. These studies provide a mechanistic link between an innate immune receptor and pathogen-accelerated atherosclerosis by a clinically and biologically relevant bacterial pathogen.

  7. Genetic and epigenetic alterations in Toll like receptor 2 and wound healing impairment in type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kanhaiya; Agrawal, Neeraj K; Gupta, Sanjeev K; Mohan, Gyanendra; Chaturvedi, Sunanda; Singh, Kiran

    2015-03-01

    Persistent hyperglycemic microenvironment in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) leads to the development of secondary complications like wound healing impairment. Proper co-ordination of innate immune system plays an integral role in wound healing. Toll like receptors (TLRs) are prominent contributors for the induction of the innate immune and inflammation response. TLR2 is an important extracellular member in mammalian TLR family and has been shown to be a potent player in the wound healing mechanism. Expressional status of TLR2 was seen in wounds of T2DM cases with respect to the severity of wounds in 110 human lower extremity wounds. The methylation status of TLR2 promoter was also examined. Although TLR2 transcripts were downregulated in T2DM wounds compared to control, their levels tend to increase with the severity of T2DM wounds. The methylation status of TLR2 gene promoter was not significantly different among different grades of wounds in T2DM subjects. The CpG sites investigated were totally or partially methylated in majority of DFU cases. TLR2 down regulation in wounds of T2DM patients compared to non diabetic patients may lead to development of non healing chronic ulcers in them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pathogen-Mediated Inflammatory Atherosclerosis Is Mediated in Part via Toll-Like Receptor 2-Induced Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Chie; Madrigal, Andres G.; Liu, Xinyan; Ukai, Takashi; Goswami, Sulip; Gudino, Cynthia V.; Gibson, III, Frank C.; Genco, Caroline A.

    2010-01-01

    Studies in humans have established that polymorphisms in genes encoding the innate immune Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are associated with inflammatory atherosclerosis. In hyperlipidemic mice, TLR2 and TLR4 have been reported to contribute to atherosclerosis progression. Human and mouse studies support a role for the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis in atherosclerosis, although the mechanisms by which this pathogen stimulates inflammatory atherosclerosis via innate immune system activation is not known. Using a genetically defined apolipoprotien E-deficient (ApoE−/−) mouse model we demonstrate that pathogen-mediated inflammatory atherosclerosis occurs via both TLR2-dependent and TLR2-independent mechanisms. P. gingivalis infection in mice possessing functional TLR2 induced the accumulation of macrophages as well as inflammatory mediators including CD40, IFN-γ and the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in atherosclerotic lesions. The expression of these inflammatory mediators was reduced in atherosclerotic lesions from P. gingivalis-infected TLR2-deficient (TLR2−/−) mice. These studies provide a mechanistic link between an innate immune receptor and pathogen-accelerated atherosclerosis by a clinically and biologically relevant bacterial pathogen. PMID:20505314

  9. Possible evidence of systemic lupus erythematosus and periodontal disease association mediated by Toll-like receptors 2 and 4.

    PubMed

    Marques, C P C; Maor, Y; de Andrade, M S; Rodrigues, V P; Benatti, B B

    2016-02-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) participate in the innate immune response and trigger the immune responses of the body. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease of unknown aetiology, characterized by an excessive autoimmune response in the body affecting the connective tissues. The disease is possibly triggered by both environmental aetiological factors and pathological organic processes such as exposure to sunlight, chronic infectious processes and genetic factors. Conversely, periodontal disease is an infectious disease caused by microorganisms in the oral cavity, resulting in a chronic inflammatory process which continuously stimulates the immune response, thus causing damage to the periodontal tissues. The expression of both TLR-2 and TLR-4 receptors are increased in both SLE and periodontal disease. Periodontitis might trigger excessive activation of immune response occurring in SLE by maintaining a high expression of TLRs, leading in turn to the acceleration of the onset and progression of autoimmune reactions. In addition, periodontal treatment is able to reduce the expression of these receptors and therefore the symptoms of SLE. Here we discuss the possible interaction between SLE and periodontitis, and suggest further studies evaluating common features in both factors that could explored, due to morbidity and mortality of SLE and the high incidence of periodontal infections around the world.

  10. Toll-like Receptors-2 and 4 are overexpressed in an experimental model of particle-induced osteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Valladares, Roberto D.; Nich, Christophe; Zwingenberger, Stefan; Li, Chenguang; Swank, Katherine R.; Gibon, Emmanuel; Rao, Allison J.; Yao, Zhenyu; Goodman, Stuart B.

    2014-01-01

    Aseptic loosening secondary to particle-associated periprosthetic osteolysis remains a major cause of failure of total joint replacements (TJR) in the mid- and long-term. As sentinels of the innate immune system, macrophages are central to the recognition and initiation of the inflammatory cascade which results in the activation of bone resorbing osteoclasts. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPS). Experimentally, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and polyethylene (PE) particles have been shown to activate macrophages via the TLR pathway. The specific TLRs involved in PE particle-induced osteolysis remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that TLR-2, -4 and -9 mediated responses play a critical role in the development of PE wear particle-induced osteolysis in the murine calvarium model. To test this hypothesis, we first demonstrated that PE particles caused observable osteolysis, visible by microCT and bone histomorphometry when the particles were applied to the calvarium of C57BL/6 mice. The number of TRAP positive osteoclasts was significantly greater in the PE-treated group when compared to the control group without particles. Finally, using immunohistochemistry, TLR-2 and TLR-4 were highly expressed in PE particle-induced osteolytic lesions, whereas TLR-9 was downregulated. TLR-2 and -4 may represent novel therapeutic targets for prevention of wear particle-induced osteolysis and accompanying TJR failure. PMID:24115330

  11. [Toll-like receptor 2 R753Q polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk of infective endocarditis].

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Juan; Tamayo, Eduardo; Flórez, Santiago; Telleria, Juan J; Bustamante, Elena; López, Javier; San Román, J Alberto; Alvarez, F Javier

    2011-11-01

    The ability to respond to the ligands of toll-like receptors (TLR) could be affected by single nucleotide polymorphisms in TLR codifying genes. The influence of the polymorphisms TLR2 (R753Q, R677W), TLR4 (D299G, T399I) and CD14 (C-159T) was consecutively studied in 65 patients with infective endocarditis. The control group (n=66) consisted of healthy volunteers. All the polymorphisms were genotyped by means of restriction analysis after their amplification. An association between endocarditis and variants of TLR2 R753Q (P <.001) was observed, but no association with other polymorphisms was found. The TLR2 R753Q co-dominant (odds ratio=13.33), recessive (odds ratio=9.12) and dominant (odds ratio=3.65) genotypes showed a positive association with the infective endocarditis phenotype. The polymorphism TLR2 R753Q was associated with a greater susceptibility towards the development of infective endocarditis. Further studies are required to validate these results and identify other genetic risk factors.

  12. Soluble Toll-Like Receptors 2 and 4 in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Acute Hydrocephalus following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Sokół, Bartosz; Jankowski, Roman; Hołysz, Marcin; Więckowska, Barbara; Jagodziński, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Background Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling begins early in subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), and plays a key role in inflammation following cerebral aneurysm rupture. Available studies suggest significance of endogenous first-line blockers of a TLR pathway—soluble TLR2 and 4. Methods Eighteen patients with SAH and acute hydrocephalus underwent endovascular coiling and ventriculostomy; sTLR2 and 4 levels were assayed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected on post-SAH days 0–3, 5, and 10–12. Release kinetics were defined. CSF levels of sTLR2 and 4 were compared with a control group and correlated with the clinical status on admission, the findings on imaging, the degree of systemic inflammation and the outcome following treatment. Results None of study group showed detectable levels of sTLR2 and 4 on post-SAH day 0–3. 13 patients showed increased levels in subsequent samples. In five SAH patients sTLR2 and 4 levels remained undetectable; no distinctive features of this group were found. On post-SAH day 5 the strongest correlation was found between sTLR2 level and haemoglobin level on admission (cc = -0.498, P = 0.037). On post-SAH day 10–12 the strongest correlation was revealed between sTLR2 and treatment outcome (cc = -0.501, P = 0.076). Remaining correlations with treatment outcome, status at admission, imaging findings and inflammatory markers on post-SAH day 5 and 10–12 were negligible or low (-0.5 ≤ cc ≤ 0.5). Conclusions In the majority of cases, rupture of a cerebral aneurysm leads to delayed release of soluble TLR forms into CSF. sTLR2 and 4 seem to have minor role in human post-SAH inflammation due to delayed release kinetics and low levels of these protein. PMID:27223696

  13. Baicalin inhibits toll-like receptor 2/4 expression and downstream signaling in rat experimental periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jun-Yi; Li, Dong-Ling; Dong, Yan; Zhu, Chun-Hui; Liu, Jin; Li, Jue-Dan; Zhou, Tao; Gou, Jian-Zhong; Li, Ang; Zang, Wei-Jin

    2016-07-01

    Periodontitis is a severe inflammatory response, leading to characteristic periodontal soft tissue destruction and alveolar bone resorption. Baicalin possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity; however, it is still unclear whether baicalin regulates toll-like receptor (TLR) 2/4 expression and downstream signaling during the process of periodontitis. In this study, the cervical area of the maxillary second molars of rats was ligated and inoculated with Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) for 4weeks to induce periodontitis. Some rats with periodontitis were treated intragastrically with baicalin (50, 100 or 200mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 4weeks. Compared with the sham group, the levels of TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 expression and the p38 MAPK and NF-κB activation were up-regulated in the experimental periodontitis group (EPG), accompanied by marked alveolar bone loss and severe inflammation. Treatment with 100 or 200mg/kg/day baicalin dramatically reduced the alveolar bone loss, the levels of HMGB1, TNF-α, IL-1β, and MPO expression, and the numbers of inflammatory infiltrates in the gingival tissues. Importantly, treatment with 100 or 200mg/kg/day baicalin mitigated the periodontitis-up-regulated TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 expression, and the p38 MAPK and NF-κB activation. Hence, the blockage of the TLR2 and TLR4/MyD88/p38 MAPK/NF-κB signaling by baicalin may contribute to its anti-inflammatory effects in rat model of periodontitis. In conclusion, these novel findings indicate that baicalin inhibits the TLR2 and TLR4 expression and the downstream signaling and mitigates inflammatory responses and the alveolar bone loss in rat experimental periodontitis. Therefore, baicalin may be a potential therapeutic agent for treatment of periodontitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhanced Platelet Toll-like Receptor 2 and 4 Expression in Acute Coronary Syndrome and Stable Angina Pectoris.

    PubMed

    Gurses, Kadri Murat; Kocyigit, Duygu; Yalcin, Muhammed Ulvi; Canpinar, Hande; Oto, Mehmet Ali; Ozer, Necla; Tokgozoglu, Lale; Guc, Dicle; Aytemir, Kudret

    2015-12-01

    Evidence is accumulating that toll-like receptors (TLR) are involved in the initiation and progression of cardiovascular disease. Enhanced expression of these receptors on monocytes has been shown in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, expression on platelets in this group of patients has not been evaluated yet. We aimed to demonstrate the possible relationship of platelet TLR-2 and TLR-4 expressions with stable coronary artery disease and ACS pathogenesis. In this observational case-control study, 40 patients diagnosed with ACS (unstable angina pectoris, non-ST-segment elevation and ST-segment elevation ACS), 40 patients diagnosed with stable coronary artery disease, and 40 age- and gender-matched subjects with normal coronary arteries were involved. Platelet TLR-2 and TLR-4 expressions were evaluated by flow cytometry in peripheral venous blood samples obtained before coronary angiography. A total of 120 patients (60.7 ± 12.3 years, 50% men) were included. Median platelet TLR-2 and TLR-4 expressions were greater in patients with ACS compared to those with stable angina pectoris and normal coronary arteries (29.5% vs 10.5% vs 3.0%, p <0.001 and 40.5% vs 11.5% vs 3.0%, p <0.001, respectively). Median platelet TLR-2 and TLR-4 expressions were also greater in patients with stable angina pectoris compared to those with normal coronary arteries (p <0.05). In conclusion, this is the first study demonstrating enhanced TLR-2 and TLR-4 expressions on platelets in patients with ACS. These findings may suggest that platelet TLR expression as a novel potential prophylactic and therapeutic target in ACS.

  15. Polymorphisms of toll-like receptors 2 and 9 and severity and prognosis of bacterial meningitis in Chinese children

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pingping; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Linlin; Zheng, Kai; Zhu, Liang; Zhu, Junping; Cao, Lina; Jiang, Yiyuan; Liu, Gang; He, Qiushui

    2017-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in innate immunity, protecting the host from bacterial pathogens. We investigated whether bacterial meningitis (BM) in children was associated with gene polymorphisms in TLR2 (rs3804099), TLR3 (rs3775291 and rs3775290) and TLR9 (rs352139 and rs352140). Blood samples were taken from 218 child patients with confirmed BM and 330 healthy adult controls (HC) and polymorphisms of these genes were analyzed by PCR-based sequencing. For TLR2 rs3804099, frequencies of the minor allele C were markedly higher in patients with severe BM (defined as CSF glucose concentration ≤ 1.5 mmol/L and seizures) than those without (43.5% and 40.1% vs. 30.1% and 29.1%, p = 0.008 and p = 0.016, respectively). For TLR9 rs352139, patients who carried genotype AA and minor allele A developed seizures less often than those without (OR = 0.289, p = 0.003 and OR = 0.568, p = 0.004, respectively). However, for TLR9 rs352140, patients who carried genotype TT and minor allele T developed seizures more often than those without (OR = 3.385, p = 0.004 and OR = 1.767, p = 0.004, respectively). Our finding suggested that genetic variations in TLR2 and TLR9 are associated with severity and prognosis of bacterial meningitis in Chinese children. However, the results should be interpreted with caution since the number of subjects included was limited. PMID:28202935

  16. Analysis of the expression of toll-like receptors 2 and 4 and cytokine production during experimental Leishmania chagasi infection.

    PubMed

    Cezário, Glaucia Aparecida Gomes; de Oliveira, Larissa Ragozo Cardoso; Peresi, Eliana; Nicolete, Vanessa Cristina; Polettini, Jossimara; de Lima, Carlos Roberto Gonçalves; Gatto, Mariana; Calvi, Sueli Aparecida

    2011-08-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognise pathogen-derived molecules and influence immunity to control parasite infections. This study aimed to evaluate the mRNA expression of TLRs 2 and 4, the expression and production of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-12, interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-17, IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and the production of nitric oxide (NO) in the spleen of mice infected with Leishmania chagasi. It also aimed to evaluate any correlations between mRNA expression TLR2 and 4 and cytokines and NO production. Infection resulted in increased TLR2-4, IL-17, TNF-α and TGF-β mRNA expression during early infection, with decreased expression during late infection correlating with parasite load. IFN-γ and IL-12 mRNA expression decreased at the peak of parasitism. IL-10 mRNA expression increased throughout the entire time period analysed. Although TGF-β, TNF-α and IL-17 were highly produced during the initial phase of infection, IFN-γ and IL-12 exhibited high production during the final phase of infection. IL-10 and NO showed increased production throughout the evaluated time period. In the acute phase of infection, there was a positive correlation between TLR2-4, TNF-α, IL-17, NO, IL-10 and TGF-β expression and parasite load. During the chronic phase of infection, there was a positive correlation between TLR2-4, TNF-α, IL-17 and TGF-β expression and parasite load. Our data suggest that infection by L. chagasi resulted in modulation of TLRs 2 and 4 and cytokines.

  17. Identification and characterization of a novel Toll-like receptor 2 homologue in the large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea.

    PubMed

    Ao, Jingqun; Mu, Yinnan; Wang, Kunru; Sun, Min; Wang, Xianhui; Chen, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key components of innate immunity that play significant roles in immune defence against pathogen invasion. In the present study, we identified a novel TLR2 homologue (LycTLR2b) in large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) that shared low sequence identity with the previously reported large yellow croaker TLR2 (tentatively named LycTLR2a). The full-length cDNA of LycTLR2b was 2926 nucleotides (nt) long and encoded a protein consisting of 797 amino acids (aa). The deduced LycTLR2b protein exhibited a typical TLR domain architecture including a signal peptide, seven leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) in the extracellular region, a transmembrane domain, and a Toll-Interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain in the cytoplasmic region. Phylogenetic analysis showed that both LycTLR2a and LycTLR2b fall into a major clade formed by all TLR2 sequences, and are divided into two distinct branches. Genomic organization revealed that the LycTLR2b gene lacks intron, which is similar to zebrafish and human TLR2 genes, whereas the LycTLR2a gene contains multiple introns, as found in damselfish TLR2a and Fugu TLR2 genes. Syntenic analysis suggested that the occurrence of LycTLR2a and LycTLR2b may result from a relatively recent genome duplication event. LycTLR2b mRNA was constitutively expressed in all tissues examined although at different levels. Following bacterial vaccine challenge, LycTLR2b expression levels were significantly up-regulated in both spleen and head kidney tissues. Taken together, these results indicated that two different TLR2 homologues, which may play roles in antibacterial immunity, exist in large yellow croaker. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Polymorphisms of toll-like receptors 2 and 9 and severity and prognosis of bacterial meningitis in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pingping; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Linlin; Zheng, Kai; Zhu, Liang; Zhu, Junping; Cao, Lina; Jiang, Yiyuan; Liu, Gang; He, Qiushui

    2017-02-16

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in innate immunity, protecting the host from bacterial pathogens. We investigated whether bacterial meningitis (BM) in children was associated with gene polymorphisms in TLR2 (rs3804099), TLR3 (rs3775291 and rs3775290) and TLR9 (rs352139 and rs352140). Blood samples were taken from 218 child patients with confirmed BM and 330 healthy adult controls (HC) and polymorphisms of these genes were analyzed by PCR-based sequencing. For TLR2 rs3804099, frequencies of the minor allele C were markedly higher in patients with severe BM (defined as CSF glucose concentration ≤ 1.5 mmol/L and seizures) than those without (43.5% and 40.1% vs. 30.1% and 29.1%, p = 0.008 and p = 0.016, respectively). For TLR9 rs352139, patients who carried genotype AA and minor allele A developed seizures less often than those without (OR = 0.289, p = 0.003 and OR = 0.568, p = 0.004, respectively). However, for TLR9 rs352140, patients who carried genotype TT and minor allele T developed seizures more often than those without (OR = 3.385, p = 0.004 and OR = 1.767, p = 0.004, respectively). Our finding suggested that genetic variations in TLR2 and TLR9 are associated with severity and prognosis of bacterial meningitis in Chinese children. However, the results should be interpreted with caution since the number of subjects included was limited.

  19. Different patterns of Toll-like receptor 2 polymorphisms in populations of various ethnic and geographic origins.

    PubMed

    Ioana, M; Ferwerda, B; Plantinga, T S; Stappers, M; Oosting, M; McCall, M; Cimpoeru, A; Burada, F; Panduru, N; Sauerwein, R; Doumbo, O; van der Meer, J W M; van Crevel, R; Joosten, L A B; Netea, M G

    2012-05-01

    Upon the invasion of the host by microorganisms, innate immunity is triggered through pathogen recognition by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the best-studied class of PRRs, and they recognize specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) from various microorganisms. A large number of studies have shown that genetic variation in TLRs may influence susceptibility to infections. We assessed the genetic variation of TLR2, which encodes one of the most important TLRs, in various populations around the globe and correlated it with changes in the function of the molecule. The three best-known nonsynonymous TLR2 polymorphisms (1892C>A, 2029C>T, and 2258G>A) were assessed in different populations from the main continental masses: Romanians, Vlax-Roma, Dutch (European populations), Han Chinese (East Asia), Dogon, Fulani (Africa), and Trio Indians (America). The 2029C>T polymorphism was absent in both European and non-European populations, with the exception of the Vlax-Roma, suggesting that this polymorphism most likely arose in Indo-Aryan people after migration into South Asia. The 1892C>A polymorphism that was found exclusively in European populations, but not in Asian, African, or American volunteers, probably occurred in proto-Indo-Europeans. Interestingly, 2258G>A was present only in Europeans, including Vlax-Roma, but at a very low frequency. The differential pattern of the TLR2 polymorphisms in various populations may explain some of the differences in susceptibility to infections between these populations.

  20. Different Patterns of Toll-Like Receptor 2 Polymorphisms in Populations of Various Ethnic and Geographic Origins

    PubMed Central

    Ioana, M.; Ferwerda, B.; Plantinga, T. S.; Stappers, M.; Oosting, M.; McCall, M.; Cimpoeru, A.; Burada, F.; Panduru, N.; Sauerwein, R.; Doumbo, O.; van der Meer, J. W. M.; van Crevel, R.; Joosten, L. A. B.

    2012-01-01

    Upon the invasion of the host by microorganisms, innate immunity is triggered through pathogen recognition by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the best-studied class of PRRs, and they recognize specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) from various microorganisms. A large number of studies have shown that genetic variation in TLRs may influence susceptibility to infections. We assessed the genetic variation of TLR2, which encodes one of the most important TLRs, in various populations around the globe and correlated it with changes in the function of the molecule. The three best-known nonsynonymous TLR2 polymorphisms (1892C>A, 2029C>T, and 2258G>A) were assessed in different populations from the main continental masses: Romanians, Vlax-Roma, Dutch (European populations), Han Chinese (East Asia), Dogon, Fulani (Africa), and Trio Indians (America). The 2029C>T polymorphism was absent in both European and non-European populations, with the exception of the Vlax-Roma, suggesting that this polymorphism most likely arose in Indo-Aryan people after migration into South Asia. The 1892C>A polymorphism that was found exclusively in European populations, but not in Asian, African, or American volunteers, probably occurred in proto-Indo-Europeans. Interestingly, 2258G>A was present only in Europeans, including Vlax-Roma, but at a very low frequency. The differential pattern of the TLR2 polymorphisms in various populations may explain some of the differences in susceptibility to infections between these populations. PMID:22354034

  1. High glucose induces inflammatory cytokine through protein kinase C-induced toll-like receptor 2 pathway in gingival fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Shao-Yun; Wei, Cong-Cong; Shang, Ting-Ting; Lian, Qi; Wu, Chen-Xuan; Deng, Jia-Yin

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High glucose significantly induced TLR2 expression in gingival fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High glucose increased NF-{kappa}B p65 nuclear activity, IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha} levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PKC-{alpha}/{delta}-TLR2 pathway is involved in periodontal inflammation under high glucose. -- Abstract: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in innate immune response and inflammation, especially in periodontitis. Meanwhile, hyperglycemia can induce inflammation in diabetes complications. However, the activity of TLRs in periodontitis complicated with hyperglycemia is still unclear. In the present study, high glucose (25 mmol/l) significantly induced TLR2 expression in gingival fibroblasts (p < 0.05). Also, high glucose increased nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) p65 nuclear activity, tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-l{beta} (IL-1{beta}) levels. Protein kinase C (PKC)-{alpha} and {delta} knockdown with siRNA significantly decreased TLR2 and NF-{kappa}B p65 expression (p < 0.05), whereas inhibition of PKC-{beta} had no effect on TLR2 and NF-{kappa}B p65 under high glucose (p < 0.05). Additional studies revealed that TLR2 knockdown significantly abrogated high-glucose-induced NF-{kappa}B expression and inflammatory cytokine secretion. Collectively, these data suggest that high glucose stimulates TNF-{alpha} and IL-1{beta} secretion via inducing TLR2 through PKC-{alpha} and PKC-{delta} in human gingival fibroblasts.

  2. The Poly-γ-d-Glutamic Acid Capsule Surrogate of the Bacillus anthracis Capsule Is a Novel Toll-Like Receptor 2 Agonist.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jun Ho; Lee, Hae-Ri; Cho, Min-Hee; Park, Ok-Kyu; Park, Jungchan; Rhie, Gi-eun

    2015-10-01

    Bacillus anthracis is a pathogenic Gram-positive bacterium that causes a highly lethal infectious disease, anthrax. The poly-γ-d-glutamic acid (PGA) capsule is one of the major virulence factors of B. anthracis, along with exotoxins. PGA enables B. anthracis to escape phagocytosis and immune surveillance. Our previous study showed that PGA activates the human macrophage cell line THP-1 and human dendritic cells, resulting in the production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) (M. H. Cho et al., Infect Immun 78:387-392, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00956-09). Here, we investigated PGA-induced cytokine responses and related signaling pathways in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) using Bacillus licheniformis PGA as a surrogate for B. anthracis PGA. Upon exposure to PGA, BMDMs produced proinflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-6, IL-12p40, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), in a concentration-dependent manner. PGA stimulated Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) but not TLR4 in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing either TLR2 or TLR4. The ability of PGA to induce TNF-α and IL-6 was retained in TLR4(-/-) but not TLR2(-/-) BMDMs. Blocking experiments with specific neutralizing antibodies for TLR1, TLR6, and CD14 showed that TLR6 and CD14 also were necessary for PGA-induced inflammatory responses. Furthermore, PGA enhanced activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), which are responsible for expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Additionally, PGA-induced TNF-α production was abrogated not only in MyD88(-/-) BMDMs but also in BMDMs pretreated with inhibitors of MAP kinases and NF-κB. These results suggest that immune responses induced by PGA occur via TLR2, TLR6, CD14, and MyD88 through activation of MAP kinase and NF-κB pathways.

  3. Toll-like receptor 4 promotes proliferation and apoptosis resistance in human papillomavirus-related cervical cancer cells through the Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ninghong; Xie, Feng; Guo, Qisang; Li, Ming-Qing; Xiao, Jingjing; Sui, Long

    2017-06-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 is overexpressed in various tumors, including cervical carcinoma. However, the role of Toll-like receptor 4 in cervical cancer remains controversial, and the underlying mechanisms are largely elusive. Therefore, Toll-like receptor 4 in cervical cancer and related mechanisms were investigated in this study. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses were used to detect messenger RNA and protein levels in HeLa, Caski, and C33A cells with different treatments. Proliferation was quantified using Cell Counting Kit-8. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry. Higher levels of Toll-like receptor 4 expression were found in human papillomavirus-positive cells compared to human papillomavirus-negative cells. Proliferation of HeLa and Caski cells was promoted in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated groups but suppressed in short hairpin RNA-transfected groups. Apoptosis rates were lower in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated groups relative to short hairpin RNA-transfected groups. In addition, G2-phase distribution was enhanced when Toll-like receptor 4 was downregulated. Moreover, the pNF-κBp65 level was positively correlated with the Toll-like receptor 4 level in HeLa and Caski cells, though when an nuclear factor-κB inhibitor was applied to lipopolysaccharide-stimulated groups, the patterns of proliferation and apoptosis were opposite to those of the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated groups without inhibitor treatment. In conclusion, these data suggest that Toll-like receptor 4 promotes proliferation and apoptosis resistance in human papillomavirus-related cervical cancer cells at least in part through the Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-κB pathway, which may be correlated with the occurrence and development of cervical carcinoma.

  4. The localization of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in the endometrium and the cervix of dogs at different stages of the oestrous cycle and with pyometra.

    PubMed

    Chotimanukul, S; Sirivaidyapong, S

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to localize and evaluate the role of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in the endometrium and cervix of bitches at different stages of the oestrous cycle and in bitches with pyometra. Sixty-seven nulliparous dogs, ranging in age from 1 to 13 years, were allocated amongst five groups (pro-oestrus; n = 7, oestrus; n = 10, dioestrus; n = 16, anoestrus; n = 11, pyometra; n = 23). Blood samples were collected for the measurement of progesterone concentration. The mean progesterone concentration was analysed as a parameter for validating the stage of the oestrous cycle in bitches. Tissues collected from uterine horn and cervix were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde for immunohistochemical examination of TLR2. The expression of TLR2 was assessed semi-quantitatively. No pathological changes were found in the uterine samples of healthy dogs. In bitches with pyometra, the glandular epithelium expressed TLR2 more intensely than the surface epithelium. The expression of TLR2 in the glandular epithelium was also significantly higher in healthy dogs at oestrus, dioestrus and dogs with pyometra compared with anoestrous dogs (p < 0.01). The expression of TLR2 in the stroma was not observed in the group of healthy dogs at all stages. The surface epithelium of cervix in dogs with pyometra expressed TLR2 significantly more intensely than did the stoma, whereas the expression of TLR2 during oestrus and dioestrus was absent in the stroma of cervix. This study provides the first report of immunohistochemical localization of TLR2 in the canine reproductive tract. In the present study, TLR2 was expressed in endometrial epithelium but was absent in the endometrial stroma of healthy dogs at all oestrous cycle stages. These findings suggest differential expression of TLR in endometrial cells. On the other hand, the lack of TLR2 in the stroma of healthy uteri of dogs may predispose to infection from the invading pathogens once the epithelial cells have been destroyed by the

  5. Association of Toll-like receptor 2 gene polymorphisms with lung function in workers in swine operations.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhiwei; Dosman, James A; Rennie, Donna C; Schwartz, David A; Yang, Ivana V; Beach, Jeremy; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2013-01-01

    Workers in swine operations are exposed to indoor dusts and gases and are at increased risk of respiratory problems. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 recognizes ligands from gram-positive bacteria, whereas TLR4 responds to endotoxin from gram-negative bacteria. To investigate the effects of TLR2 and TLR4 polymorphisms on lung function in workers from swine operations and nonfarming rural dwellers. A total of 374 full-time workers from large swine operations and 411 nonfarming rural dwellers from Saskatchewan were included. Information on demography, lifestyle, and occupation, lung function measurements, and blood samples for genotyping were obtained from the participants. Multiple regression analysis and Bonferroni correction were used in the statistical analysis. Workers with TLR2-16933T/A polymorphism (AA) had significantly greater mean values of lung function than workers with wild-type genotypes (AT+TT) after controlling for potential confounders (forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 3.7 vs 3.5 L; P=.009; forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75%, 3.7 vs 3.3 L; P=.003; predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second; 100.3% vs 95.6%; P=.005; forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75%, 92.4% vs 83.4%; P=.009). These results were also observed for TLR2Arg677Trp polymorphism among the workers. No such significant differences were observed among nonfarming rural dwellers. For Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms in the TLR4 gene, no significant differences were observed in the mean lung function values between the polymorphic and wild-type groups in both workers and rural dwellers. Our study is the first, to our knowledge, to report protective effects of TLR2 polymorphisms on lung function among workers in swine operations and raises the possibility that TLR2 polymorphisms are protective of airway disease in individuals exposed to gram-positive organisms in the inhaled airborne dust. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by

  6. Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 genes and their expression in chronic suppurative otitis media.

    PubMed

    Jotic, Ana; Jesic, Snezana; Zivkovic, Maja; Tomanovic, Nada; Kuveljic, Jovana; Stankovic, Aleksandra

    2015-12-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have a prominent role in inducing innate immune response. It has been suggested that regulation of TLRs is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic otitis media. TLR 2 and TLR 4 polymorphisms were connected with susceptibility to acute otitis and chronic otitis with effusion. The objective of this study was to establish expression of TLR 2 and 4 on middle ear mucosa in different types of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), and the influence of gene polymorphisms TLR 2 Arg753Gln and TLR 4 Thr399Ile and Asp299Gly to susceptibility to CSOM. Middle ear mucosa and full blood samples were obtained from 85 patients with chronic suppurative otitis media with and without cholesteatoma. Control group for mucosal TLR expression consisted of 71 samples of middle ear mucosa taken from patients with otosclerosis, and control group for DNA polymorphism consisted of 100 full blood samples in healthy subjects. DNA polymorphism detection was done with restriction fragment length polymorphism in RT PCR. Expression of TLR 2 and 4 was determined with immunohistochemical staining. TLR 2 and TLR 4 expression on the middle ear mucosa was not influenced by age of the patients with chronic otitis media. Incidence of TLR 2 Arg753Gln polymorphism was significantly higher in patients with chronic otitis media, compared to control group. Significant association between TLR 2 Arg753Gln polymorphism and different types of mucosal changes in patients with chronic otitis media was established. TLR 2 and 4 expression on experimental group mucosa was significantly different compared to control group, where there was no expression (p=0.000). Strong dependence of TLR 2 and TLR 4 expression on middle ear mucosa with different mucosal changes and immunohistochemical activity after staining was detected. Certain polymorphisms in TLR genes could be indicative for susceptibility to chronic otitis media. Expression of TLR 2 and 4 on middle ear mucosa was more dependable on

  7. Leishmania donovani-Induced Prostaglandin E2 Generation Is Critically Dependent on Host Toll-Like Receptor 2–Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Amrita; Majumder, Saikat; Das, Shibali; Ghosh, Sweta; Biswas, Satabdi

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the second-largest parasitic killer disease after malaria. During VL, the protozoan Leishmania donovani induces prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) generation within host macrophages to aid parasite survival. PGE2 significantly influences leishmanial pathogenesis, as L. donovani proliferation is known to be attenuated in PGE2-inhibited macrophages. Here, we report for the first time that signaling via macrophage Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) plays an instrumental role in inducing PGE2 release from L. donovani-infected macrophages. This signaling cascade, mediated via the TLR2–phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)–phospholipase C (PLC) signaling pathway, was found to be indispensable for activation of two major enzymes required for PGE2 generation: cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox2). Inhibition of cPLA2, but not secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) or calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2), arrested L. donovani infection. During infection, cPLA2 activity increased >7-fold in a calcium-dependent and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent manner, indicating that elevation of intracellular calcium and ERK-mediated phosphorylation was necessary for L. donovani-induced cPLA2 activation. For transcriptional upregulation of cyclooxygenase 2, activation of the calcium-calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) signaling was required in addition to the TLR2-PI3K-PLC pathway. Detailed studies by site-directed mutagenesis of potential NFAT binding sites and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis revealed that the binding of macrophage NFATc2, at the −73/−77 site on the cox2 promoter, induced L. donovani-driven cox2 transcriptional activation. Collectively, these findings highlight the contribution of TLR2 downstream signaling toward activation of cPLA2 and Cox2 and illustrate how the TLR2-PI3K-PLC pathway acts in a concerted manner with calcium-calcineurin-NFATc2 signaling to modulate PGE2

  8. Differential regulation of toll-like receptor-2, toll-like receptor-4, CD16 and human leucocyte antigen-DR on peripheral blood monocytes during mild and severe dengue fever

    PubMed Central

    Azeredo, Elzinandes L; Neves-Souza, Patrícia C; Alvarenga, Allan R; Reis, Sônia R N I; Torrentes-Carvalho, Amanda; Zagne, Sonia-Maris O; Nogueira, Rita M R; Oliveira-Pinto, Luzia M; Kubelka, Claire F

    2010-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF), a public health problem in tropical countries, may present severe clinical manifestations as result of increased vascular permeability and coagulation disorders. Dengue virus (DENV), detected in peripheral monocytes during acute disease and in in vitro infection, leads to cytokine production, indicating that virus–target cell interactions are relevant to pathogenesis. Here we investigated the in vitro and in vivo activation of human peripheral monocytes after DENV infection. The numbers of CD14+ monocytes expressing the adhesion molecule intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) were significantly increased during acute DF. A reduced number of CD14+ human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR+ monocytes was observed in patients with severe dengue when compared to those with mild dengue and controls; CD14+ monocytes expressing toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 were increased in peripheral blood from dengue patients with mild disease, but in vitro DENV-2 infection up-regulated only TLR2. Increased numbers of CD14+ CD16+ activated monocytes were found after in vitro and in vivo DENV-2 infection. The CD14high CD16+ monocyte subset was significantly expanded in mild dengue, but not in severe dengue. Increased plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-18 in dengue patients were inversely associated with CD14high CD16+, indicating that these cells might be involved in controlling exacerbated inflammatory responses, probably by IL-10 production. We showed here, for the first time, phenotypic changes on peripheral monocytes that were characteristic of cell activation. A sequential monocyte-activation model is proposed in which DENV infection triggers TLR2/4 expression and inflammatory cytokine production, leading eventually to haemorrhagic manifestations, thrombocytopenia, coagulation disorders, plasmatic leakage and shock development, but may also produce factors that act in order to control both intense

  9. Toll-like receptor signaling is functional in immune cells of the endangered Tasmanian devil.

    PubMed

    Patchett, Amanda L; Latham, Roger; Brettingham-Moore, Kate H; Tovar, Cesar; Lyons, A Bruce; Woods, Gregory M

    2015-11-01

    Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) is a fatally transmissible cancer that threatens the Tasmanian devil population. As Tasmanian devils do not produce an immune response against DFTD cells, an effective vaccine will require a strong adjuvant. Activation of innate immune system cells through toll-like receptors (TLRs) could provide this stimulation. It is unknown whether marsupials, including Tasmanian devils, express functional TLRs. We isolated RNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and, with PCR, detected transcripts for TLRs 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 13. Stimulation of the mononuclear cells with agonists to these TLRs increased the expression of downstream TLR signaling products (IL1α, IL6, IL12A and IFNβ). Our data provide the first evidence that TLR signaling is functional in the mononuclear cells of the Tasmanian devil. Future DFTD vaccination trials will incorporate TLR agonists to enhance the immune response against DFTD. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Toll-like receptor 2 induced angiogenesis and invasion is mediated through the Tie2 signalling pathway in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Saber, Tajvur; Veale, Douglas J; Balogh, Emese; McCormick, Jennifer; NicAnUltaigh, Sinead; Connolly, Mary; Fearon, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a critical early event in inflammatory arthritis, facilitating leukocyte migration into the synovium resulting in invasion and destruction of articular cartilage and bone. This study investigates the effect of TLR2 on angiogenesis, EC adhesion and invasion using microvascular endothelial cells and RA whole tissue synovial explants ex-vivo. Microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) and RA synovial explants ex vivo were cultured with the TLR2 ligand, Pam3CSK4 (1 µg/ml). Angiopoietin 2 (Ang2), Tie2 and TLR2 expression in RA synovial tissue was assessed by immunohistology. HMVEC tube formation was assessed using Matrigel matrix assays. Ang2 was measured by ELISA. ICAM-1 cell surface expression was assessed by flow cytometry. Cell migration was assessed by wound repair scratch assays. ECM invasion, MMP-2 and -9 expression were assessed using transwell invasion chambers and zymography. To examine if the angiopoietin/Tie2 signalling pathway mediates TLR2 induced EC tube formation, invasion and migration assays were performed in the presence of a specific neutralising anti-Tie2mAb (10 ug/ml) and matched IgG isotype control Ab (10 ug/ml). Ang2 and Tie2 were localised to RA synovial blood vessels, and TLR2 was localised to RA synovial blood vessels, sub-lining infiltrates and the lining layer. Pam3CSK4 significantly increased angiogenic tube formation (p<0.05), and upregulated Ang2 production in HMVEC (p<0.05) and RA synovial explants (p<0.05). Pam3CSK4 induced cell surface expression of ICAM-1, from basal level of 149±54 (MFI) to 617±103 (p<0.01). TLR-2 activation induced an 8.8±2.8 fold increase in cell invasion compared to control (p<0.05). Pam3CSK4 also induced HMVEC cell migration and induced MMP-2 and -9 from RA synovial explants. Neutralisation of the Ang2 receptor, Tie2 significantly inhibited Pam3CSK4-induced EC tube formation and invasion (p<0.05). TLR2 activation promotes angiogenesis, cell adhesion and invasion, effects that are in part mediated

  11. Intrinsic Toll-like receptor signalling drives regulatory function in B cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ping; Lampropoulou, Vicky; Stervbo, Ulrik; Hilgenberg, Ellen; Ries, Stefanie; Mecqinion, Aurelie; Fillatreau, Simon

    2013-01-01

    B cells can contribute to immunity through production of antibodies, presentation of antigen to T cells, and secretion of cytokines. B cell activation can result in various outcomes for the host. In general B cell responses are beneficial during infections, and deleterious during autoimmune diseases. However, B cells can also limit host defence against pathogens, and protect from autoimmune pathologies. B cells can therefore act both as drivers and as regulators of immunity. Understanding how these opposite functions are mediated shall stimulate the elaboration of novel approaches for manipulating the immune system. B cells might acquire distinct functional properties depending on their mode of activation. Antigen-specific B cell responses require triggering of B cell receptor (BCR) by antigen, and provision of helper signals by T cells. B cells also express various innate immune receptors, and can directly respond to microbial products. Here, we discuss how intrinsic signalling via Toll-like receptors contributes to the suppressive functions of B cells during autoimmune and infectious diseases.

  12. Toll-Like Receptor 2 Mediates In Vivo Pro- and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis and Modulates Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Piermattei, Alessia; Migliara, Giuseppe; Di Sante, Gabriele; Foti, Maria; Hayrabedyan, Soren Bohos; Papagna, Angela; Geloso, Maria Concetta; Corbi, Maddalena; Valentini, Mariagrazia; Sgambato, Alessandro; Delogu, Giovanni; Constantin, Gabriela; Ria, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacteria display pro- and anti-inflammatory effects in human and experimental pathology. We show here that both effects are mediated by Toll-like receptor 2 (Tlr2), by exploiting a previously characterized Tlr2 variant (Met82Ile). Tlr2 82ile promoted self-specific proinflammatory polarization as well as expansion of ag-specific FoxP3+ Tregs, while Tlr2 82met impairs the expansion of Tregs and reduces the production of IFN-γ and IL-17 proinflammatory cytokines. Preferential dimerization with Tlr1 or Tlr6 could not explain these differences. In silico, we showed that Tlr2 variant Met82Ile modified the binding pocket for peptidoglycans and participated directly to a putative binding pocket for sugars and cadherins. The distinct pro- and anti-inflammatory actions impacted severity, extent of remission, and distribution of the lesions within the central nervous system of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Thus, Tlr2 has a janus function in vivo as mediator of the role of bacterial products in balancing pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses. PMID:27252700

  13. Mechanisms for the activation of Toll-like receptor 2/4 by saturated fatty acids and inhibition by docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Daniel H; Kim, Jeong-A; Lee, Joo Young

    2016-08-15

    Saturated fatty acids can activate Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 but polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) inhibit the activation. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and lipopetides, ligands for TLR4 and TLR2, respectively, are acylated by saturated fatty acids. Removal of these fatty acids results in loss of their ligand activity suggesting that the saturated fatty acyl moieties are required for the receptor activation. X-ray crystallographic studies revealed that these saturated fatty acyl groups of the ligands directly occupy hydrophobic lipid binding domains of the receptors (or co-receptor) and induce the dimerization which is prerequisite for the receptor activation. Saturated fatty acids also induce the dimerization and translocation of TLR4 and TLR2 into lipid rafts in plasma membrane and this process is inhibited by DHA. Whether saturated fatty acids induce the dimerization of the receptors by interacting with these lipid binding domains is not known. Many experimental results suggest that saturated fatty acids promote the formation of lipid rafts and recruitment of TLRs into lipid rafts leading to ligand independent dimerization of the receptors. Such a mode of ligand independent receptor activation defies the conventional concept of ligand induced receptor activation; however, this may enable diverse non-microbial molecules with endogenous and dietary origins to modulate TLR-mediated immune responses. Emerging experimental evidence reveals that TLRs play a key role in bridging diet-induced endocrine and metabolic changes to immune responses. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Regiospecific Methylation of a Dietary Flavonoid Scaffold Selectively Enhances IL-1β Production following Toll-like Receptor 2 Stimulation in THP-1 Monocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Eng-Kiat; Mitchell, Paul J.; Brown, Najmeeyah; Drummond, Rebecca A.; Brown, Gordon D.; Kaye, Paul M.; Bowles, Dianna J.

    2013-01-01

    It is now recognized that innate immunity to intestinal microflora plays a significant role in mediating immune health, and modulation of microbial sensing may underpin the impact of plant natural products in the diet or when used as nutraceuticals. In this context, we have examined five classes of plant-derived flavonoids (flavonols, flavones, flavanones, catechins, and cyanidin) for their ability to regulate cytokine release induced by the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) agonist Pam3CSK4. We found that the flavonols selectively co-stimulated IL-1β secretion but had no impact on the secretion of IL-6. Importantly, this costimulation of TLR2-induced cytokine secretion was dependent on regiospecific methylation of the flavonol scaffold with a rank order of quercetin-3,4′-dimethylether > quercetin-3-methylether > casticin. The mechanism underpinning this costimulation did not involve enhanced inflammasome activation. In contrast, the methylated flavonols enhanced IL-1β gene expression through transcriptional regulation, involving mechanisms that operate downstream of the initial NF-κB and STAT1 activation events. These studies demonstrate an exquisite level of control of scaffold bioactivity by regiospecific methylation, with important implications for understanding how natural products affect innate immunity and for their development as novel immunomodulators for clinical use. PMID:23760261

  15. Toll like receptor 2 and CC chemokine receptor 5 cluster in the lipid raft enhances the susceptibility of Leishmania donovani infection in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Suchandra Bhattacharyya; Bhattacharya, Parna; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Majumder, Saikat; Banerjee, Sayantan; Majumdar, Subrata

    2014-01-01

    In experimental visceral leishmaniasis the causative obligate protozoan parasite, L. donovani invades and multiplies inside of macrophages, one of the sentries of the mammalian immune system. The initial host-parasite interaction between the Leishmania promastigote and the macrophage takes place at the plasma membrane interface. To trace any possible interaction between Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) during early Leishmania-macrophage interactions, it was observed that the expression of both TLR2 and CCR5 were significantly increased, along with their recruitment to the lipid raft. TLR2 silencing attenuates CCR5 expression and restricts L. donovani infection, indicating a regulatory role of TLR2 and CCR5 during infection. Silencing of CCR5 and TLR2 markedly reduced the number of intracellular parasites in macrophages by host protective cytokine responses, while raft disruption using beta-MCD affected TLR2/CCR5 cross-talk and resulted in a significant reduction in parasite invasion. In vivo RNA interference of TLR2 and CCR5 using shRNA plasmids rendered protection in Leishmania donovani-infected mice. Thus, this study for the first time demonstrates the importance of TLR2/CCR5 crosstalk as a significant determinant of Leishmania donovani entry in host macrophages.

  16. Interplay between Inflammation and Stemness in Cancer Cells: The Role of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Da-Wei; Huang, Li-Rung; Chen, Ya-Wen; Huang, Chi-Ying F.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small population of cancer cells that exhibit stemness. These cells contribute to cancer metastasis, treatment resistance, and relapse following therapy; therefore, they may cause malignancy and reduce the success of cancer treatment. Nuclear factor kappa B- (NF-κB-) mediated inflammatory responses increase stemness in cancer cells, and CSCs constitutively exhibit higher NF-κB activation, which in turn increases their stemness. These opposite effects form a positive feedback loop that further amplifies inflammation and stemness in cancer cells, thereby expanding CSC populations in the tumor. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) activate NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses when stimulated by carcinogenic microbes and endogenous molecules released from cells killed during cancer treatment. NF-κB activation by extrinsic TLR ligands increases stemness in cancer cells. Moreover, it was recently shown that increased NF-κB activity and inflammatory responses in CSCs may be caused by altered TLR signaling during the enrichment of stemness in cancer cells. Thus, the activation of TLR signaling by extrinsic and intrinsic factors drives a positive interplay between inflammation and stemness in cancer cells. PMID:28116318

  17. Toll-like receptors: lessons to learn from normal and malignant human B cells

    PubMed Central

    Chiron, David; Bekeredjian-Ding, Isabelle; Pellat-Deceunynck, Catherine; Bataille, Régis

    2008-01-01

    The humoral immune system senses microbes via recognition of specific microbial molecular motifs by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). These encounters promote plasma cell differentiation and antibody production. Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of the TLR system in enhancing antibody-mediated defense against infections and maintaining memory B cells. These results have led the way to the design of vaccines that target B cells by engaging TLRs. In hematologic malignancies, cells often retain B cell–specific receptors and associated functions. Among these, TLRs are currently exploited to target different subclasses of B-cell leukemia, and TLR agonists are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. However, accumulating evidence suggests that endogenous TLR ligands or chronic infections promote tumor growth, thus providing a need for further investigations to decipher the exact function of TLRs in the B-cell lineage and in neoplastic B cells. The aim of this review is to present and discuss the latest advances with regard to the expression and function of TLRs in both healthy and malignant B cells. Special attention will be focused on the growth-promoting effects of TLR ligands on leukemic B cells and their potential clinical impact. PMID:18591383

  18. Interplay between Inflammation and Stemness in Cancer Cells: The Role of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Da-Wei; Huang, Li-Rung; Chen, Ya-Wen; Huang, Chi-Ying F; Chuang, Tsung-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small population of cancer cells that exhibit stemness. These cells contribute to cancer metastasis, treatment resistance, and relapse following therapy; therefore, they may cause malignancy and reduce the success of cancer treatment. Nuclear factor kappa B- (NF-κB-) mediated inflammatory responses increase stemness in cancer cells, and CSCs constitutively exhibit higher NF-κB activation, which in turn increases their stemness. These opposite effects form a positive feedback loop that further amplifies inflammation and stemness in cancer cells, thereby expanding CSC populations in the tumor. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) activate NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses when stimulated by carcinogenic microbes and endogenous molecules released from cells killed during cancer treatment. NF-κB activation by extrinsic TLR ligands increases stemness in cancer cells. Moreover, it was recently shown that increased NF-κB activity and inflammatory responses in CSCs may be caused by altered TLR signaling during the enrichment of stemness in cancer cells. Thus, the activation of TLR signaling by extrinsic and intrinsic factors drives a positive interplay between inflammation and stemness in cancer cells.

  19. Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipoprotein LprG (Rv1411c) binds triacylated glycolipid agonists of Toll-like receptor 2

    SciTech Connect

    Drage, Michael G.; Tsai, Han-Chun; Pecora, Nicole D.; Cheng, Tan-Yun; Arida, Ahmad R.; Shukla, Supriya; Rojas, Roxana E.; Seshadri, Chetan; Moody, D. Branch; Boom, W. Henry; Sacchettini, James C.; Harding, Clifford V.

    2010-09-27

    Knockout of lprG results in decreased virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in mice. MTB lipoprotein LprG has TLR2 agonist activity, which is thought to be dependent on its N-terminal triacylation. Unexpectedly, here we find that nonacylated LprG retains TLR2 activity. Moreover, we show LprG association with triacylated glycolipid TLR2 agonists lipoarabinomannan, lipomannan and phosphatidylinositol mannosides (which share core structures). Binding of triacylated species was specific to LprG (not LprA) and increased LprG TLR2 agonist activity; conversely, association of glycolipids with LprG enhanced their recognition by TLR2. The crystal structure of LprG in complex with phosphatidylinositol mannoside revealed a hydrophobic pocket that accommodates the three alkyl chains of the ligand. In conclusion, we demonstrate a glycolipid binding function of LprG that enhances recognition of triacylated MTB glycolipids by TLR2 and may affect glycolipid assembly or transport for bacterial cell wall biogenesis.

  20. Vitamin d deficiency impacts on expression of toll-like receptor-2 and cytokine profile: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin D is believed to play an important role outside the endocrine system in the regulation of the immune system, and in cellular proliferation and differentiation. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of vitamin D levels on innate immunity. Methods Participants for this prospective, longitudinal study were recruited amongst otherwise healthy staff of a large hospital in Victoria, Australia. Those fulfilling the inclusion criteria, including a vitamin D level of <50 nmol/L, were supplemented. Using flow cytometry, expression of the innate immune receptors TLR2, TLR4 and CD86 was measured on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected prior to vitamin D treatment and then at 1 and 3 months. Additonally, PBMCs at each timepoint were stimulated with specific TLR ligands and resultant supernatants were assayed for the cytokines TNFα, IL-6, IFN-α and IP-10. Results In participants whose vitamin D level was >100 nmol/L post supplementation (n=11), TLR2 expression on PBMCs increased significantly, with no change noted in TLR4 or CD86 expression. Stimulation of vitamin D deficient samples with TLR ligands produced a number of proinflammatory cytokines, which were significantly reduced upon vitamin D normalisation. In patients whose levels returned to a deficient level at 3 months despite ongoing low-level supplementation, an increase in the pro-inflamamtory state returned. This suggests that vitamin D may play an important role in ensuring an appropriate baseline pro-inflammatory state. Conclusions This ex-vivo pilot study adds clinical evidence supporting a possibly important role for vitamin D in innate immunity. If confirmed, this unique clinical study has potentially significant implications for the treatment of a variety of inflammatory conditions, where achieving optimal vitamin D levels may help reduce inflammation. PMID:23875738

  1. Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 exert opposite effects on the contractile response induced by serotonin in mouse colon: role of serotonin receptors.

    PubMed

    Forcén, R; Latorre, E; Pardo, J; Alcalde, A I; Murillo, M D; Grasa, L

    2016-08-01

    What is the central question of this study? The action of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4 on the motor response to serotonin in mouse colon has not previously been reported. What is the main finding and its importance? Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 modulate the serotonin-induced contractile response in mouse colon by modifying the expression of serotonin (5-HT) receptors. Alterations in 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors explain the increase of the response to serotonin in TLR2(-/-) mice. Alterations in 5-HT2C and 5-HT4 receptors explain the suppression of the response to serotonin in TLR4(-/-) mice. The microbiota, through Toll-like receptors (TLRs), may regulate gastrointestinal motility by activating neuroendocrine mechanisms. We evaluated the influence of TLR2 and TLR4 in spontaneous contractions and in the serotonin (5-HT)-induced motor response in mouse colon, and assessed the 5-HT receptors involved. Muscle contractility studies to evaluate the intestinal spontaneous motility and the response to 5-HT were performed in the colon from wild-type (WT), TLR2(-/-) , TLR4(-/-) and TLR2/4 double knockout (DKO) mice. The 5-HT receptor mRNA expression was determined by real-time PCR. The amplitude and frequency of the spontaneous contractions of the colon were smaller in TLR4(-/-) and TLR2/4 DKO mice with respect to WT mice. In WT, TLR2(-/-) and TLR2/4 DKO mice, 100 μm 5-HT evoked a contractile response. The contractile response induced by 5-HT was significantly higher in TLR2(-/-) than in WT mice. In TLR4(-/-) mice, 5-HT did not evoke any contractile response. The mRNA expression of 5-HT2A was increased in TLR2(-/-) and TLR2/4 DKO mice. The 5-HT2C and 5-HT4 mRNA expressions were increased in TLR4(-/-) and TLR2/4 DKO mice. The 5-HT2C mRNA expression was diminished in TLR2(-/-) mice. The 5-HT3 mRNA expression was increased in TLR2(-/-) , TLR4(-/-) and TLR2/4 DKO mice. The 5-HT7 mRNA expression was diminished in TLR2/4 DKO mice. In WT, TLR2(-/-) and TLR2/4 DKO mice, 5-HT2

  2. Involvement of Toll-like receptors in the immune response of nasal polyp epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiyun; Matsukura, Satoshi; Watanabe, So; Adachi, Mitsuru; Suzaki, Harumi

    2007-09-01

    Recognition systems employed by airway epithelial cells to respond to microbial exposure include the action of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We investigated the presence and function of TLR2, 3, and 4 in primary cultures of human nasal polyp epithelial cells. dsRNA stimulation significantly enhanced the expression and secretion of RANTES, IP-10, IL-8, and GM-CSF. LPS also exhibited stimulatory action, but it was much weaker than dsRNA. Peptidoglycan had no significant stimulatory action on the genes. Flow cytometry showed that the nasal polyp epithelial cell mainly expressed TLR3 in an intracellular compartment, but expression of TLR2 and TLR4 was very low on both the cell surface and in the cell. The immune response of primary nasal polyp epithelial cells induced by TLR3 could not be blocked by anti-TLR3 antibody. Among the TLR ligands evaluated, dsRNA, the ligand for TLR3, mediated the strongest pro-inflammatory effects in primary nasal polyp epithelial cells.

  3. Red blood cell alloimmunization is influenced by the delay between Toll-like receptor agonist injection and transfusion.

    PubMed

    Elayeb, Rahma; Tamagne, Marie; Bierling, Philippe; Noizat-Pirenne, France; Vingert, Benoît

    2016-02-01

    Murine models of red blood cell transfusion show that inflammation associated with viruses or methylated DNA promotes red blood cell alloimmunization. In vaccination studies, the intensity of antigen-specific responses depends on the delay between antigen and adjuvant administration, with a short delay limiting immune responses. In mouse models of alloimmunization, the delay between the injection of Toll-like receptor agonists and transfusion is usually short. In this study, we hypothesized that the timing of Toll-like receptor 3 agonist administration affects red blood cell alloimmunization. Poly(I:C), a Toll-like receptor 3 agonist, was administered to B10BR mice at various time points before the transfusion of HEL-expressing red blood cells. For each time point, we measured the activation of splenic HEL-presenting dendritic cells, HEL-specific CD4(+) T cells and anti-HEL antibodies in serum. The phenotype of activated immune cells depended on the delay between transfusion and Toll-like receptor-dependent inflammation. The production of anti-HEL antibodies was highest when transfusion occurred 7 days after agonist injection. The proportion of HEL-presenting CD8α(+) dendritic cells producing interleukin-12 was highest in mice injected with poly(I:C) 3 days before transfusion. Although the number of early-induced HEL-specific CD4(+) T cells was similar between groups, a high proportion of these cells expressed CD134, CD40 and CD44 in mice injected with poly(I:C) 7 days before transfusion. This study clearly shows that the delay between transfusion and Toll-like receptor-induced inflammation influences the immune response to transfused red blood cells.

  4. Longitudinal expression of Toll-like receptors on dendritic cells in uncomplicated pregnancy and postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Young, Brett C.; Stanic, Aleksandar K.; Panda, Britta; Rueda, Bo R.; Panda, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are integral parts of the innate immune system and have been implicated in complications of pregnancy. The longitudinal expression of TLRs on dendritic cells in the maternal circulation during uncomplicated pregnancies is unknown. The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate TLRs 1-9 as expressed on dendritic cells in the maternal circulation at defined intervals throughout pregnancy and postpartum. STUDY DESIGN This was a prospective cohort of 30 pregnant women with uncomplicated pregnancies and 30 nonpregnant controls. TLRs and cytokine expression was measured in unstimulated dendritic cells at 4 defined intervals during pregnancy and postpartum. Basal expression of TLRs and cytokines was measured by multicolor flow cytometry. The percent-positive dendritic cells for each TLRs were compared with both nonpregnant and postpartum levels with multivariate linear regression. RESULTS TLRs 1, 7, and 9 were elevated compared with nonpregnant controls with persistent elevation of TLR 1 and interleukin-12 (IL-12) into the postpartum period. Concordantly, levels of IL-6, IL-12, interferon alpha, and tumor necrosis factor alpha increased during pregnancy and returned to levels similar to nonpregnant controls during the postpartum period. The elevated levels of TLR 1 and IL-12 were persistent postpartum, challenging notions that immunologic changes during pregnancy resolve after the prototypical postpartum period. CONCLUSION Normal pregnancy is associated with time-dependent changes in TLR expression compared with nonpregnant controls; these findings may help elucidate immunologic dysfunction in complicated pregnancies. PMID:24291497

  5. Regulation of toll like receptors in intestinal epithelial cells by stress and Toxoplasma gondii infection

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, R.; Birdsell, D.; Monroy, F. P.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) form a barrier between invading microorganisms and the underlying host tissues. IECs express Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that recognize specific molecular signatures on microbes which activate intracellular signaling pathways leading to production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Stress hormones play an important role in modulation of proinflammatory cytokines and downregulation of immune responses. Here we demonstrated that expression levels of TLR-2, TLR-4, TLR-9 and TLR-11 were significantly increased in mouse IECs following infection with Toxoplasma gondii on day 8 post infection. In contrast, expression of TLRs was significantly decreased in infected mice subjected to cold water stress (CWS+INF). Expression of TLR-9 and TLR-11 in the mouse MODE-K cell line was significantly increased after infection. Expression of TLR-9 and TLR-11 in cells exposed to norepinephrine (NE) and parasites was significantly decreased when compared to cells exposed to parasites only. A significant increase was observed in SIGIRR, a negative regulator of TLRs in the CWS+INF group when compared to the INF group. Stress components were able to decrease expression levels of TLRs in IECs, decrease parasite load, and increase expression of a negative regulator thereby ameliorating intestinal inflammatory responses commonly observed during per oral T. gondii infection in C57BL/6 mice. PMID:19067837

  6. Toll-like receptors regulate B cell cytokine production in patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Jagannathan, M.; McDonnell, M.; Liang, Y.; Hasturk, H.; Hetzel, J.; Rubin, D.; Kantarci, A.; Van Dyke, T. E.; Ganley-Leal, L. M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Understanding cellular and molecular events in diabetes mellitus will identify new approaches for therapy. Immune system cells are important modulators of chronic inflammation in diabetes mellitus, but the role of B cells is not adequately studied. The aim of this work was to define the function of B cells in diabetes mellitus patients through focus on B cell responses to pattern recognition receptors. Methods We measured expression and function of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on peripheral blood B cells from diabetes mellitus patients by flow cytometry and multiplexed cytokine analysis. We similarly analysed B cells from non-diabetic donors and periodontal disease patients as comparative cohorts. Results B cells from diabetes mellitus patients secrete multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines, and IL-8 production is significantly elevated in B cells from diabetic patients compared with those from non-diabetic individuals. These data, plus modest elevation of TLR surface expression, suggest B cell IL-8 hyperproduction is a cytokine-specific outcome of altered TLR function in B cells from diabetes mellitus patients. Altered TLR function is further evidenced by demonstration of an unexpected, albeit modest ‘anti-inflammatory’ function for TLR4. Importantly, B cells from diabetes mellitus patients fail to secrete IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine implicated in inflammatory disease resolution, under a variety of TLR-stimulating conditions. Comparative analyses of B cells from patients with a second chronic inflammatory disease, periodontal disease, indicated that some alterations in B cell TLR function associate specifically with diabetes mellitus. Conclusions/interpretation Altered TLR function in B cells from diabetes mellitus patients increases inflammation by two mechanisms: elevation of pro-inflammatory IL-8 and lack of anti-inflammatory/protective IL-10 production. PMID:20383694

  7. Characterization of host responses induced by Toll-like receptor ligands in chicken cecal tonsil cells.

    PubMed

    Taha-Abdelaziz, Khaled; Alkie, Tamiru Negash; Hodgins, Douglas C; Shojadoost, Bahram; Sharif, Shayan

    2016-06-01

    The innate responses of cecal tonsils against invading microorganisms are mediated by conserved pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLRs expressed by mammalian and avian immune system cells have the capability to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Although, the role of TLR ligands in innate and adaptive responses in chickens has been characterized in spleen and bursa of Fabricius, considerably less is known about responses in cecal tonsils. The aim of the current study was to assess responses of mononuclear cells from cecal tonsils to treatment with the TLR2, TLR4 and TLR21 ligands, Pam3CSK4, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), respectively. All three ligands induced significant up-regulation of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and CxCLi2/IL-8, whereas no significant changes were observed in expression of IL-13 or the antimicrobial peptides, avian β-defensin (AvBD) 1, AvBD2 and cathelicidin 3 (CATHL-3). In general, CpG ODN elicited the highest cytokine responses by cecal tonsil mononuclear cells, inducing significantly higher expression compared to LPS and Pam3CSK4, for IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-6 and CxCLi2 at various time points. These findings suggest the potential use of TLR21 ligands as mucosal vaccine adjuvants, especially in the context of pathogens of the intestinal tract. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of interleukin 17 and Toll-like receptor 2 on CD11b expression and apoptosis of neutrophils in zymosaninduced arthritis and paw oedema

    PubMed Central

    Milanova, Viktoriya; Ivanovska, Nina

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of interleukin (IL)-17 on Ly6G+ cell apoptosis in zymosan-induced arthritis (ZIA) and oedema (ZIO). Zymosan injection at the ankle joint caused swelling and coincided with histological joint alterations and IL-17A expression in areas with cell infiltrates. Flow cytometry of blood demonstrated increased frequencies of Ly6G+CD11b+ cells and their decreased apoptosis in ZIA. Annexin V+ neutrophils had lower CD11b expression, unlike Annexin V− cells. Cell survival for 12 hours was affected neither by IL-17 nor by zymosan alone, while both stimuli diminished Annexin V+ cell frequencies and up-regulated CD11b on Annexin V− cells. Interleukin 17 antagonised to the effects of zymosan in 24-hour cultures. The administration of IL-17 in ZIO increased paw thickness, enlarged the blood Ly6G+ pool, elevated CD11b expression and decreased apoptosis. We suggest that altered neutrophil apoptosis in arthritis can be overcome by anti-IL-17 therapy combined with an inhibition of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and CD11b signalling. PMID:26155114

  9. Central role of endogenous Toll-like receptor-2 activation in regulating inflammation, reactive oxygen species production, and subsequent neointimal formation after vascular injury

    SciTech Connect

    Shishido, Tetsuro . E-mail: Tetsuro_Shishido@URMC.Rochester.edu; Nozaki, Naoki; Takahashi, Hiroki; Arimoto, Takanori; Niizeki, Takeshi; Koyama, Yo; Abe, Jun-ichi; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Kubota, Isao

    2006-07-14

    Background: It is now evident that inflammation after vascular injury has significant impact on the restenosis after revascularization procedures such as angioplasty, stenting, and bypass grafting. However, the mechanisms that regulate inflammation and repair after vascular injury are incompletely understood. Here, we report that vascular injury-mediated cytokine expression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, as well as subsequent neointimal formation requires Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2) mediated signaling pathway in vivo. Methods and results: Vascular injury was induced by cuff-placement around the femoral artery in non-transgenic littermates (NLC) and TLR-2 knockout (TLR-2KO) mice. After cuff-placement in NLC mice, expression of TLR-2 was significantly increased in both smooth muscle medial layer and adventitia. Interestingly, we found that inflammatory genes expression such as tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were markedly decreased in TLR-2KO mice compared with NLC mice. In addition, ROS production after vascular injury was attenuated in TLR-2KO mice compared with NLC mice. Since we observed the significant role of endogenous TLR-2 activation in regulating inflammatory responses and ROS production after vascular injury, we determined whether inhibition of endogenous TLR-2 activation can inhibit neointimal proliferation after vascular injury. Neointimal hyperplasia was markedly suppressed in TLR-2KO mice compared with WT mice at both 2 and 4 weeks after vascular injury. Conclusions: These findings suggested that endogenous TLR-2 activation might play a central role in the regulation of vascular inflammation as well as subsequent neointimal formation in injured vessels.

  10. Toll-Like Receptor 2 Is a Regulator of Circadian Active and Inactive State Consolidation in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    DeKorver, Nicholas W.; Chaudoin, Tammy R.; Bonasera, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    Regulatory systems required to maintain behavioral arousal remain incompletely understood. We describe a previously unappreciated role that toll-like receptor 2 (Tlr2, a membrane bound pattern recognition receptor that recognizes specific bacterial, viral, and fungal peptides), contributes toward regulation of behavioral arousal. In 4–4.5 month old mice with constitutive loss of Tlr2 function (Tlr2−/− mice), we note a marked consolidation in the circadian pattern of both active and inactive states. Specifically, Tlr2−/− mice demonstrated significantly fewer but longer duration active states during the circadian dark cycle, and significantly fewer but longer duration inactive states during the circadian light cycle. Tlr2−/− mice also consumed less food and water, and moved less during the circadian light cycle. Analysis of circadian rhythms further suggested that Tlr2−/− mice demonstrated less day-to-day variability in feeding, drinking, and movement behaviors. Reevaluation of this same mouse cohort at age 8–8.5 months revealed a clear blunting of these differences. However, Tlr2−/− mice were still noted to have fewer short-duration active states during the circadian dark cycle, and continued to demonstrate significantly less day-to-day variability in feeding, drinking, and movement behaviors. These results suggest that Tlr2 function may have a role in promoting transitions between active and inactive states. Prior studies have demonstrated that Tlr2 regulates sickness behaviors including hypophagia, hyperthermia, and decreased activity. Our work suggests that Tlr2 function also evokes behavioral fragmentation, another aspect of sickness behavior and a clinically significant problem of older adults. PMID:28769782

  11. Mold allergen sensitization in adult asthma according to integrin β3 polymorphisms and Toll-like receptor 2/+596 genotype.

    PubMed

    Smit, Lidwien A M; Bouzigon, Emmanuelle; Bousquet, Jean; Le Moual, Nicole; Nadif, Rachel; Pin, Isabelle; Lathrop, Mark; Demenais, Florence; Kauffmann, Francine; Siroux, Valérie

    2011-07-01

    Integrin β3 (ITGB3) and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) are candidate genes for asthma and sensitization to mold allergens. Integrin β3 forms a complex with TLR2, and this biological interaction is required for the response of monocytes to TLR2 agonists such as fungal glucan. To study whether genetic interaction between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding the TLR2-ITGB3 complex enhances susceptibility to mold sensitization. Association analysis was conducted in 1243 adults (524 with asthma) who participated in the follow-up of the Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma. Allergic sensitization to mold allergens was determined by skin prick testing. Association of mold sensitization with 14 ITGB3 SNPs was tested under an additive genetic model. Interaction between ITGB3 SNPs and TLR2/+596, which was previously shown to be associated with asthma, was studied. A positive skin prick test to mold was found in 115 subjects with asthma (22.0%) and in 61 subjects without asthma (8.5%). The ITGB3 rs2056131 A allele was associated with mold sensitization in subjects with asthma with an odds ratio (95% CI) of 0.60 (0.43-0.83; P = .001). Ten other ITGB3 SNPs were significantly associated with mold sensitization in TLR2/+596TT subjects with asthma (P = .03-.002), whereas much weaker associations were found in carriers of the TLR2/+596 C allele (P = .60-.04). Interaction between TLR2/+596 and these ITGB3 SNPs was statistically significant (P interaction = .05-.001). TLR2/+596 genotype may influence the association between ITGB3 SNPs and mold sensitization in adults with asthma. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel Bacterial Lipoprotein Structures Conserved in Low-GC Content Gram-positive Bacteria Are Recognized by Toll-like Receptor 2*

    PubMed Central

    Kurokawa, Kenji; Ryu, Kyoung-Hwa; Ichikawa, Rie; Masuda, Akiko; Kim, Min-Su; Lee, Hanna; Chae, Jun-Ho; Shimizu, Takashi; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Kuwano, Koichi; Akira, Shizuo; Dohmae, Naoshi; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Lee, Bok Luel

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins/lipopeptides inducing host innate immune responses are sensed by mammalian Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). These bacterial lipoproteins are structurally divided into two groups, diacylated or triacylated lipoproteins, by the absence or presence of an amide-linked fatty acid. The presence of diacylated lipoproteins has been predicted in low-GC content Gram-positive bacteria and mycoplasmas based on the absence of one modification enzyme in their genomes; however, we recently determined triacylated structures in low-GC Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, raising questions about the actual lipoprotein structure in other low-GC content Gram-positive bacteria. Here, through intensive MS analyses, we identified a novel and unique bacterial lipoprotein structure containing an N-acyl-S-monoacyl-glyceryl-cysteine (named the lyso structure) from low-GC Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Two of the purified native lyso-form lipoproteins induced proinflammatory cytokine production from mice macrophages in a TLR2-dependent and TLR1-independent manner but with a different dependence on TLR6. Additionally, two other new lipoprotein structures were identified. One is the “N-acetyl” lipoprotein structure containing N-acetyl-S-diacyl-glyceryl-cysteine, which was found in five Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus subtilis. The N-acetyl lipoproteins induced the proinflammatory cytokines through the TLR2/6 heterodimer. The other was identified in a mycoplasma strain and is an unusual diacyl lipoprotein structure containing two amino acids before the lipid-modified cysteine residue. Taken together, our results suggest the existence of novel TLR2-stimulating lyso and N-acetyl forms of lipoproteins that are conserved in low-GC content Gram-positive bacteria and provide clear evidence for the presence of yet to be identified key enzymes involved in the bacterial lipoprotein biosynthesis

  13. Insights into the Relationship between Toll Like Receptors and Gamma Delta T Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Asif Amin; Patil, Rushikesh Sudam; Chiplunkar, Shubhada Vivek

    2014-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is an important aspect of cancer biology that contributes to tumor initiation, tumor progression and responses to therapy. The composition and characteristics of the tumor microenvironment vary widely and are important in determining the anti-tumor immune response. Successful immunization requires activation of both innate and adaptive immunity. Generally, immune system is compromised in patients with cancer due to immune suppression, loss of tumor antigen expression and dysfunction of antigen presenting cells (APC). Thus, therapeutic immunization leading to cancer regression remains a significant challenge. Certain cells of the immune system, including dendritic cells (DCs) and gamma delta (γδ) T cells are capable of driving potent anti-tumor responses. The property of MHC-unrestricted cytotoxicity, high potential of cytokine release, tissue tropism and early activation in infections and malignant disease makes γδ T cells as an emerging candidate for immunotherapy. Various strategies are being developed to enhance anti-tumor immune responses of γδ T cells and DCs one of them is the use of novel adjuvants like toll like receptors (TLR) agonists, which enhance γδ T cell function directly or through DC activation, which has ability to prime γδ T cells. TLR agonists are being used clinically either alone or in combination with tumor antigens and has shown initial success in both enhancing immune responses and eliciting anti-tumor activity. TLR activated γδ T cells and DCs nurture each other’s activation. This provides a potent base for first line of defense and manipulation of the adaptive response against pathogens and cancer. The available data provides a strong rationale for initiating combinatorial therapy for the treatment of diseases and this review will summarize the application of adjuvants (TLRs) for boosting immune response of γδ T cells to treat cancer and infectious diseases and their use in combinatorial therapy

  14. [The impacts of regulating Toll-like receptor 2/nuclear factor-ΚB signal pathway on rats with ventilator-induced lung injury].

    PubMed

    Fu, Ruili; Pan, Linghui; Lin, Fei; Ge, Wanyun; Huang, Cuiyuan; Dai, Huijun

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the role of Toll-like receptor 2/nuclear factor-ΚB (TLR2/NF-ΚB) signaling pathway pretreatment in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Thirty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups by using random number scale, with 10 rats in each group. Group A: rats were given 200 μL of TLR2 monoclonal antibodies (TLR2mAb, 10 μg/kg) by slow instillation through tracheal catheter, and then ventilated with a high tidal volume (VT) of 40 mL/kg. Group B: ventilated with a normal VT of 8 mL/kg. Group C: rats were tracheally instilled with 10 μg/kg of TLR2mAb devoid of biologic activity, and then ventilated with a high VT of 40 mL/kg. The rats were mechanically ventilated for 4 hours, the lung wet to dry weight ratio (W/D) was calculated. The changes in pathology and ultrastructure in lung tissue were observed with microscope. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to determine the concentration of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum and brconchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Real-time fluorescent quantitation reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to assess the mRNA expressions of TLR2, NF-ΚB and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in lung tissue. No obvious pathological changes in lungs were found in group A and group B, and no obvious damages to ultra-microstructure were found in lung macrophages, typeI epithelial cell and typeII epithelial cell. In group C, pathological changes were observed, including pulmonary alveoli fusion, alveoli septum thickening, inflammatory cells infiltration, and damages to ultrastructure of lung macrophage, damage to cell membrane of typeI epithelial cells and type II epithelial cells, vacuoles in cytoplasm, damage to organelle, and even pyknosis and perinuclear cistern thickening. Compared with group C, W/D ratio and mean concentration of inflammatory cytokines in serum and BALF showed a significant decrease in

  15. Nonbilayer Phospholipid Arrangements Are Toll-Like Receptor-2/6 and TLR-4 Agonists and Trigger Inflammation in a Mouse Model Resembling Human Lupus.

    PubMed

    Wong-Baeza, Carlos; Tescucano, Alonso; Astudillo, Horacio; Reséndiz, Albany; Landa, Carla; España, Luis; Serafín-López, Jeanet; Estrada-García, Iris; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Flores-Romo, Leopoldo; Wong, Carlos; Baeza, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is characterized by dysregulated activation of T and B cells and autoantibodies to nuclear antigens and, in some cases, lipid antigens. Liposomes with nonbilayer phospholipid arrangements induce a disease resembling human lupus in mice, including IgM and IgG antibodies against nonbilayer phospholipid arrangements. As the effect of these liposomes on the innate immune response is unknown and innate immune system activation is necessary for efficient antibody formation, we evaluated the effect of these liposomes on Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, cytokine production, proinflammatory gene expression, and T, NKT, dendritic, and B cells. Liposomes induce TLR-4- and, to a lesser extent, TLR-2/TLR-6-dependent signaling in TLR-expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. Mice with the lupus-like disease had increased serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines, C3a and C5a; they also had more TLR-4-expressing splenocytes, a higher expression of genes associated with TRIF-dependent TLR-4-signaling and complement activation, and a lower expression of apoptosis-related genes, compared to healthy mice. The percentage of NKT and the percentage and activation of dendritic and B2 cells were also increased. Thus, TLR-4 and TLR-2/TLR-6 activation by nonbilayer phospholipid arrangements triggers an inflammatory response that could contribute to autoantibody production and the generation of a lupus-like disease in mice.

  16. Nonbilayer Phospholipid Arrangements Are Toll-Like Receptor-2/6 and TLR-4 Agonists and Trigger Inflammation in a Mouse Model Resembling Human Lupus

    PubMed Central

    Wong-Baeza, Carlos; Tescucano, Alonso; Astudillo, Horacio; Reséndiz, Albany; Landa, Carla; España, Luis; Serafín-López, Jeanet; Estrada-García, Iris; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Flores-Romo, Leopoldo; Wong, Carlos; Baeza, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is characterized by dysregulated activation of T and B cells and autoantibodies to nuclear antigens and, in some cases, lipid antigens. Liposomes with nonbilayer phospholipid arrangements induce a disease resembling human lupus in mice, including IgM and IgG antibodies against nonbilayer phospholipid arrangements. As the effect of these liposomes on the innate immune response is unknown and innate immune system activation is necessary for efficient antibody formation, we evaluated the effect of these liposomes on Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, cytokine production, proinflammatory gene expression, and T, NKT, dendritic, and B cells. Liposomes induce TLR-4- and, to a lesser extent, TLR-2/TLR-6-dependent signaling in TLR-expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. Mice with the lupus-like disease had increased serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines, C3a and C5a; they also had more TLR-4-expressing splenocytes, a higher expression of genes associated with TRIF-dependent TLR-4-signaling and complement activation, and a lower expression of apoptosis-related genes, compared to healthy mice. The percentage of NKT and the percentage and activation of dendritic and B2 cells were also increased. Thus, TLR-4 and TLR-2/TLR-6 activation by nonbilayer phospholipid arrangements triggers an inflammatory response that could contribute to autoantibody production and the generation of a lupus-like disease in mice. PMID:26568960

  17. Endothelial cell Toll-like receptor 4 regulates fibrosis associated angiogenesis in liver

    PubMed Central

    Jagavelu, K; Routray, C; Shergill, U; O’Hara, SP; Faubion, W; Shah, VH

    2010-01-01

    Angiogenesis defines the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vascular endothelial networks and corresponds with the wound healing process that is typified by the process of liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis is also associated with increased endotoxin within the gut lumen and its associated portal circulation. However, the interrelationship of gut endotoxin and its receptor, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), with liver fibrosis and associated angiogenesis remains incompletely defined. RESULT Here we provide evidence, using complementary genetic, molecular, and pharmacologic approaches that the pattern recognition receptor that recognizes endotoxin, TLR4, expressed on liver endothelial cells (LEC), regulates angiogenic responses both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic studies reveal a key role for a cognate TLR4 effector protein, MyD88 in this process which culminates in extracellular protease production that regulates LEC invasive capacity, a key step in angiogenesis. Furthermore TLR4 dependent angiogenesis in vivo corresponds with fibrosis in complementary liver models of fibrosis. CONCLUSION These studies provide evidence that the TLR4 pathway in LEC regulates angiogenesis through its MyD88 effector protein by regulating extracellular protease production and that this process is linked to the development of liver fibrosis. PMID:20564354

  18. Modulation of Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells Activity by Toll-Like Receptors: Implications on Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    DelaRosa, Olga; Lombardo, Eleuterio

    2010-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are of special interest as therapeutic agents in the settings of both chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Toll-like receptors (TLR) ligands have been linked with the perpetuation of inflammation in a number of chronic inflammatory diseases due to the permanent exposure of the immune system to TLR-specific stimuli. Therefore, MSCs employed in therapy can be potentially exposed to TLR ligands, which may modulate MSC therapeutic potential in vivo. Recent results demonstrate that MSCs are activated by TLR ligands leading to modulation of the differentiation, migration, proliferation, survival, and immunosuppression capacities. However inconsistent results among authors have been reported suggesting that the source of MSCs, TLR stimuli employed or culture conditions play a role. Notably, activation by TLR ligands has not been reported to modulate the “immunoprivileged” phenotype of MSCs which is of special relevance regarding the use of allogeneic MSC-based therapies. In this review, we discuss the available data on the modulation of MSCs activity through TLR signalling. PMID:20628526

  19. Potentiation and tolerance of toll-like receptor priming in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Koch, Stephen R; Lamb, Fred S; Hellman, Judith; Sherwood, Edward R; Stark, Ryan J

    2017-02-01

    Repeated challenge of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alters the response to subsequent LPS exposures via modulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Whether activation of other TLRs can modulate TLR4 responses, and vice versa, remains unclear. Specifically with regards to endothelial cells, a key component of innate immunity, the impact of TLR cross-modulation is unknown. We postulated that TLR2 priming (via Pam3Csk4) would inhibit TLR4-mediated responses while TLR3 priming (via Poly I:C) would enhance subsequent TLR4-inflammatory signaling. We studied human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and neonatal human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs). Cells were primed with a combination of Poly I:C (10 μg/ml), Pam3Csk4 (10 μg/ml), or LPS (100 ng/ml), then washed and allowed to rest. They were then rechallenged with either Poly I:C, Pam3Csk4 or LPS. Endothelial cells showed significant tolerance to repeated LPS challenge. Priming with Pam3Csk4 also reduced the response to secondary LPS challenge in both cell types, despite a reduced proinflammatory response to Pam3Csk4 in HMVECs compared to HUVECs. Poly I:C priming enhanced inflammatory and interferon producing signals upon Poly I:C or LPS rechallenge, respectively. Poly I:C priming induced interferon regulatory factor 7, leading to enhancement of interferon production. Finally, both Poly I:C and LPS priming induced significant changes in receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 activity. Pharmacological inhibition of receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 or interferon regulatory factor 7 reduced the potentiated phenotype of TLR3 priming on TLR4 rechallenge. These results demonstrate that in human endothelial cells, prior activation of TLRs can have a significant impact on subsequent exposures and may contribute to the severity of the host response.

  20. The Role of M2000 as an Anti-inflammatory Agent in Toll-Like Receptor 2/microRNA-155 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pourgholi, Fatemeh; Hajivalili, Mahsa; Razavi, Rasoul; Esmaeili, Shadi; Baradaran, Behzad; Movasaghpour, Ali Akbar; Sadreddini, Sanam; Goodarzynejad, Hamidreza; Mirshafiey, Abbas; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Background: M2000 is a newly designed and safe Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of M2000 on expression levels of Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling-1 (SOCS-1) and Src Homology-2 domain-containing inositol-5′-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) proteins via Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) 2/microRNA-155 pathway. Methods: HEK293 TLR2 cell line and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) were treated by different concentrations of M2000 in MTT assay. RNA was extracted by miRNeasy Mini kit. Then, cDNA was synthesized and the expression levels of SOCS1, SHIP1 and miRNA155 were evaluated by Quantitative Real time PCR. Results: Our results showed that M2000 significantly increased the expression levels of SOCS1 and SHIP-1 in Lipopolysachride (LPS)-treated and non-treated cells. Moreover, M2000 decreased expression level of miR-155 in LPS treated PBMCs. Conclusion: M2000 can be used as NSAID in LPS induced inflammation and decrease inflammatory cytokines production by targeting SOCS1, SHIP1 and miR-155 in auto-immune and inflammatory diseases. PMID:28090274

  1. Differential regulation of Toll-like receptor signalling in spleen and Peyer's patch dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Davies, Julie M; MacSharry, John; Shanahan, Fergus

    2010-11-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling shapes dendritic cell (DC) responses by inducing co-stimulatory molecule up-regulation and cytokine secretion while TLR regulatory proteins inhibit this process. We aimed to determine if gene expression of TLRs and TLR regulatory proteins underpins the functionally different lipopolysaccharide (LPS) responses of DCs from murine Peyer's patches (PP) and spleen and of murine bacteria-conditioned bone-marrow-derived cells. Isolated spleen and PP DCs were analysed for basal expression of TLRs by flow cytometry and real time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The DCs were stimulated with LPS to determine cytokine secretion by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and expression of TLR regulatory proteins by qRT-PCR. In vitro results were confirmed following in vivo intraperitoneal LPS injection. In addition, changes in gene expression of TLR regulatory proteins were assessed in bacteria-conditioned bone-marrow-derived cells. Results indicated that surface expression of TLR2 and TLR4 on PP DCs was decreased compared with spleen DCs. The PP DCs secreted a limited profile of cytokines compared with spleen DCs following LPS stimulation. In vivo LPS exposure up-regulated sigirr, tollip and tmed1 messenger RNA in PP DCs, but not spleen DCs. Similar gene expression changes were observed in bacteria-conditioned bone-marrow-derived cells. Therefore, functionally different LPS responses in PP and spleen DCs reflect their characteristic expression of TLRs and TLR regulatory proteins. Differential regulation of TLR signalling was also evident in bacteria-conditioned bone-marrow-derived cells indicating that bacterial signalling may be a mechanism for inducing altered gene regulation in PP DCs. © 2010 The Authors. Immunology © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Differential regulation of Toll-like receptor signalling in spleen and Peyer's patch dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Julie M; MacSharry, John; Shanahan, Fergus

    2010-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling shapes dendritic cell (DC) responses by inducing co-stimulatory molecule up-regulation and cytokine secretion while TLR regulatory proteins inhibit this process. We aimed to determine if gene expression of TLRs and TLR regulatory proteins underpins the functionally different lipopolysaccharide (LPS) responses of DCs from murine Peyer's patches (PP) and spleen and of murine bacteria-conditioned bone-marrow-derived cells. Isolated spleen and PP DCs were analysed for basal expression of TLRs by flow cytometry and real time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The DCs were stimulated with LPS to determine cytokine secretion by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and expression of TLR regulatory proteins by qRT-PCR. In vitro results were confirmed following in vivo intraperitoneal LPS injection. In addition, changes in gene expression of TLR regulatory proteins were assessed in bacteria-conditioned bone-marrow-derived cells. Results indicated that surface expression of TLR2 and TLR4 on PP DCs was decreased compared with spleen DCs. The PP DCs secreted a limited profile of cytokines compared with spleen DCs following LPS stimulation. In vivo LPS exposure up-regulated sigirr, tollip and tmed1 messenger RNA in PP DCs, but not spleen DCs. Similar gene expression changes were observed in bacteria-conditioned bone-marrow-derived cells. Therefore, functionally different LPS responses in PP and spleen DCs reflect their characteristic expression of TLRs and TLR regulatory proteins. Differential regulation of TLR signalling was also evident in bacteria-conditioned bone-marrow-derived cells indicating that bacterial signalling may be a mechanism for inducing altered gene regulation in PP DCs. PMID:20545785

  3. Epigenetic Regulation of Tolerance to Toll-Like Receptor Ligands in Alveolar Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Neagos, Jacqueline; Standiford, Theodore J; Newstead, Michael W; Zeng, Xianying; Huang, Steven K; Ballinger, Megan N

    2015-12-01

    To protect the host against exuberant inflammation and injury responses, cells have the ability to become hyporesponsive or "tolerized" to repeated stimulation by microbial and nonmicrobial insults. The lung airspace is constantly exposed to a variety of exogenous and endogenous Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, yet the ability of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) to be tolerized has yet to be examined. We hypothesize that type II AECs will develop a tolerance phenotype upon repeated TLR agonist exposure. To test this hypothesis, primary AECs isolated from the lungs of mice and a murine AEC cell line (MLE-12) were stimulated with either a vehicle control or a TLR ligand for 18 hours, washed, then restimulated with either vehicle or TLR ligand for an additional 6 hours. Tolerance was assessed by measurement of TLR ligand-stimulated chemokine production (monocyte chemoattractant protein [MCP]-1/CCL2, keratinocyte chemoattractant [KC]/CXCL1, and macrophage inflammatory protein [MIP]-2/CXCL2). Sequential treatment of primary AECs or MLE-12 cells with TLR agonists resulted in induction of either tolerance or cross-tolerance. The induction of tolerance was not due to expression of specific negative regulators of TLR signaling (interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase [IRAK]-M, Toll-interacting protein [Tollip], single Ig IL-1-related receptor [SIGIRR], or suppressor of cytokine signaling [SOCS]), inhibitory microRNAs (miRs; specifically, miR-155 and miR146a), or secretion of inhibitory or regulatory soluble mediators (prostaglandin E2, IL-10, transforming growth factor-β, or IFN-α/β). Moreover, inhibition of histone demethylation or DNA methylation did not prevent the development of tolerance. However, treatment of AECs with the histone deacetylase inhibitors trichostatin A or suberoylanilide hyrozamine resulted in reversal of the tolerance phenotype. These findings indicate a novel mechanism by which epigenetic modification regulates the induction of tolerance in AECs.

  4. Epigenetic Regulation of Tolerance to Toll-Like Receptor Ligands in Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Neagos, Jacqueline; Standiford, Theodore J.; Newstead, Michael W.; Zeng, Xianying; Huang, Steven K.

    2015-01-01

    To protect the host against exuberant inflammation and injury responses, cells have the ability to become hyporesponsive or “tolerized” to repeated stimulation by microbial and nonmicrobial insults. The lung airspace is constantly exposed to a variety of exogenous and endogenous Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, yet the ability of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) to be tolerized has yet to be examined. We hypothesize that type II AECs will develop a tolerance phenotype upon repeated TLR agonist exposure. To test this hypothesis, primary AECs isolated from the lungs of mice and a murine AEC cell line (MLE-12) were stimulated with either a vehicle control or a TLR ligand for 18 hours, washed, then restimulated with either vehicle or TLR ligand for an additional 6 hours. Tolerance was assessed by measurement of TLR ligand–stimulated chemokine production (monocyte chemoattractant protein [MCP]-1/CCL2, keratinocyte chemoattractant [KC]/CXCL1, and macrophage inflammatory protein [MIP]-2/CXCL2). Sequential treatment of primary AECs or MLE-12 cells with TLR agonists resulted in induction of either tolerance or cross-tolerance. The induction of tolerance was not due to expression of specific negative regulators of TLR signaling (interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase [IRAK]-M, Toll-interacting protein [Tollip], single Ig IL-1–related receptor [SIGIRR], or suppressor of cytokine signaling [SOCS]), inhibitory microRNAs (miRs; specifically, miR-155 and miR146a), or secretion of inhibitory or regulatory soluble mediators (prostaglandin E2, IL-10, transforming growth factor-β, or IFN-α/β). Moreover, inhibition of histone demethylation or DNA methylation did not prevent the development of tolerance. However, treatment of AECs with the histone deacetylase inhibitors trichostatin A or suberoylanilide hyrozamine resulted in reversal of the tolerance phenotype. These findings indicate a novel mechanism by which epigenetic modification regulates the induction of tolerance

  5. Toll-like receptors on human mesenchymal stem cells drive their migration and immunomodulating responses.

    PubMed

    Tomchuck, Suzanne L; Zwezdaryk, Kevin J; Coffelt, Seth B; Waterman, Ruth S; Danka, Elizabeth S; Scandurro, Aline B

    2008-01-01

    Adult human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are under study as therapeutic delivery agents that assist in the repair of damaged tissues. To achieve the desired clinical outcomes for this strategy requires a better understanding of the mechanisms that drive the recruitment, migration, and engraftment of hMSCs to the targeted tissues. It is known that hMSCs are recruited to sites of stress or inflammation to fulfill their repair function. It is recognized that toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate stress responses of other bone marrow-derived cells. This study explored the role of TLRs in mediating stress responses of hMSCs. Accordingly, the presence of TLRs in hMSCs was initially established by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays. Flow cytometry and fluorescence immunocytochemical analyses confirmed these findings. The stimulation of hMSCs with TLR agonists led to the activation of downstream signaling pathways, including nuclear factor kappaB, AKT, and MAPK. Consequently, activation of these pathways triggered the induction and secretion of cytokines, chemokines, and related TLR gene products as established from cDNA array, immunoassay, and cytokine antibody array analyses. Interestingly, the unique patterns of affected genes, cytokines, and chemokines measured identify these receptors as critical players in the clinically established immunomodulation observed for hMSCs. Lastly, hMSC migration was promoted by TLR ligand exposure as demonstrated by transwell migration assays. Conversely, disruption of TLRs by neutralizing TLR antibodies compromised hMSC migration. This study defines a novel TLR-driven stress and immune modulating response for hMSCs that is critical to consider in the design of stem cell-based therapies.

  6. Toll-Like Receptors on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Drive their Migration and Immunomodulating Responses

    PubMed Central

    Tomchuck, Suzanne L.; Zwezdaryk, Kevin J.; Coffelt, Seth B.; Waterman, Ruth S.; Danka, Elizabeth S.; Scandurro, Aline B.

    2009-01-01

    Adult human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are under study as therapeutic delivery agents that assist in the repair of damaged tissues. To achieve the desired clinical outcomes for this strategy requires a better understanding of the mechanisms that drive the recruitment, migration and engraftment of hMSCs to the targeted tissues. It is known that hMSCs are recruited to sites of stress or inflammation to fulfill their repair function. It is recognized that toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate stress responses of other bone marrow-derived cells. This study explored the role of TLRs in mediating stress responses of hMSCs. Accordingly, the presence of TLRs in hMSCs was established initially by RT-PCR assays. Flow cytometry and fluorescence immunocytochemical analyses confirmed these findings. The stimulation of hMSCs with TLR agonists led to the activation of downstream signaling pathways, including NF-κB, AKT and MAPK. Consequently, activation of these pathways triggered the induction and secretion of cytokines, chemokines and related TLR gene products as established from cDNA array, immunoassay and cytokine antibody array analyses. Interestingly, the unique patterns of affected genes, cytokines and chemokines measured, identify these receptors as critical players in the clinically established immunomodulation, observed for hMSCs. Lastly, hMSCs migration was promoted by TLR ligand exposure as demonstrated by transwell migration assays. Conversely, disruption of TLRs by neutralizing TLR antibodies compromised hMSCs migration. This study defines a novel TLR-driven stress and immune modulating response for hMSCs that is critical to consider in the design of stem cell-based therapies. PMID:17916800

  7. Toll-Like Receptors 2, -3 and -4 Prime Microglia but not Astrocytes Across Central Nervous System Regions for ATP-Dependent Interleukin-1β Release

    PubMed Central

    Facci, Laura; Barbierato, Massimo; Marinelli, Carla; Argentini, Carla; Skaper, Stephen D.; Giusti, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a crucial mediator in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases at the periphery and in the central nervous system (CNS). Produced as an unprocessed and inactive pro-form which accumulates intracellularly, release of the processed cytokine is strongly promoted by ATP acting at the purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) in cells primed with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 ligand. Microglia are central to the inflammatory process and a major source of IL-1β when activated. Here we show that purified (>99%) microglia cultured from rat cortex, spinal cord and cerebellum respond robustly to ATP-dependent IL-1β release, upon priming with a number of TLR isoform ligands (zymosan and Pam3CSK4 for TLR2, poly(I:C) for TLR3). Cytokine release was prevented by a P2X7R antagonist and inhibitors of stress-activated protein kinases. Enriched astrocytes (≤5% microglia) from these CNS regions displayed responses qualitatively similar to microglia but became unresponsive upon eradication of residual microglia with the lysosomotropic agent Leu-Leu-OMe. Activation of multiple TLR isoforms in nervous system pathology, coupled with elevated extracellular ATP levels and subsequent P2X7R activation may represent an important route for microglia-derived IL-1β. This phenomenon may have important consequences for neuroinflammation and its position to the common pathology of CNS diseases. PMID:25351234

  8. Lipids Derived from Virulent Francisella tularensis Broadly Inhibit Pulmonary Inflammation via Toll-Like Receptor 2 and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Deborah D.; Ireland, Robin; Alinger, Joshua B.; Small, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that causes an acute lethal respiratory disease in humans. The heightened virulence of the pathogen is linked to its unique ability to inhibit Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated inflammatory responses. The bacterial component and mechanism of this inhibition are unknown. Here we show that lipids isolated from virulent but not attenuated strains of F. tularensis are not detected by host cells, inhibit production of proinflammatory cytokines by primary macrophages in response to known TLR ligands, and suppress neutrophil recruitment in vivo. We further show that lipid-mediated inhibition of inflammation is dependent on TLR2, MyD88, and the nuclear hormone and fatty acid receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). Pathogen lipid-mediated interference with inflammatory responses through the engagement of TLR2 and PPARα represents a novel manipulation of host signaling pathways consistent with the ability of highly virulent F. tularensis to efficiently evade host immune responses. PMID:23925884

  9. Toll-like receptor 2 mediates a cutaneous reaction induced by repetitive ultraviolet B irradiation in C57/BL6 mice in vivo.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Sun; Jin, Seon Pil; Lee, Youngae; Oh, In Gyung; Lee, Serah; Kim, Jung Ho; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Chung, Jin Ho

    2014-08-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate not only innate immunity against infection and but also sterile inflammation triggered by endogenous molecules. We conducted a comparative study of the different inflammatory responses induced by repetitive ultraviolet (UV) B irradiation in wild-type (WT) and TLR2 knockout (KO) mice, to provide in vivo evidence of the role of TLRs in mediating UVB-induced responses. UVB-induced inflammatory responses were less severe in TLR2 KO mice than in WT mice after 6 weeks of repeated UVB irradiation. UVB-treated TLR2 KO mice displayed less prominent erythema and scaling, and histopathology showed significantly thinner skin and less inflammatory cell infiltration than that in WT mice. UVB-induced expression of heat-shock protein 70 (an endogenous ligand of TLR2) was lower in TLR2 KO mice. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed significantly lower gene expression levels of UVB-induced interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 in TLR2 KO mice. TLR2 KO mice also showed significantly lower protein level expression of UVB-induced IL-1β in ELISA and MMP-13 in Western blots. Our study demonstrated that TLR2 was associated with inflammatory responses to repetitive UVB irradiation in C57/BL6 mice. Moreover, it suggests that the role of TLR2 in the cutaneous response of UV irradiation and in developing new agents for modulating the effects of UV irradiation should be considered.

  10. Presence of toll like receptor-2 in spleen, lymph node and thymus of Swiss albino mice and its modulation by Staphylococcus aureus and bacterial lipopolysaccharide. .

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Chandrayee; Prakash, Nune Ravi; Manna, Sunil Kumar; Bishayi, Biswadev

    2015-02-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are a family of pattern recognition receptors identifying pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). They play a critical role in the innate immune response during the initial interaction between the infecting microorganism and phagocytic cells. Here, we verified the presence of TLR-2 in spleen, lymph node and thymus of Swiss albino mice and their modulation after infection with Staphylococcus aureus and Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. It was seen that TLR-2 gene transcribed to its respective mRNA on S. aureus infection, in thymus, spleen and lymph node of mice but their levels and mode of expression varied. When challenged with LPS no prominent changes in the expression of TLR-2 receptor was observed but its expression increased gradually with time in the thymus, spleen and lymph node of S. aureus infected mice. TLR-2 expression was also found enhanced in infected splenic macrophages. By studying the serum cytokine profile the functionality of the receptor was measured. The results indicate the presence of TLR-2 in thymus, spleen and lymph node of Swiss albino strain of mice and that they are modulated by S. aureus.

  11. Activation of Toll-Like Receptors 2 by High-Mobility Group Box 1 in Monocytes from Patients with Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Sadat-Hatamnezhad, Leila; Tanomand, Asghar; Mahmoudi, Javad; Sandoghchian Shotorbani, Siamak

    2016-09-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death all around the world, and ischemic stroke is considered to be the most common stroke type. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important molecules for detection of both pathogen invasion and tissue damage. In this regard, the purpose of this study was to assess the expression level of TLR2 on monocytes in patients with ischemic stroke and to evaluate the expression change profile following high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) stimulation. A total of 30 patients with ischemic stroke were enrolled from November 2013 to September 2014. The real-time PCR and ELISA assays were applied to detect the concentrations of TLR2 mRNAs. TLR2 expression was found to be increased in patients with ischemic stroke, as compared to the healthy control group (P<0.001). Also, anti-TLR2 antibodies were able to decrease the expression levels of IL-17, IL-6 and IL-33. This result implies that the enhanced TLR2 pathway and Th17 cell polarization may be due to HMGB1 stimulation in ischemic stroke. Further clinical studies are needed for development of a new treatment strategy to inhibit the HMGB1 pathway, thus preventing the inflammation in ischemic stroke patients.

  12. Roflumilast improves corticosteroid resistance COPD bronchial epithelial cells stimulated with toll like receptor 3 agonist.

    PubMed

    Milara, Javier; Morell, Anselm; Ballester, Bea; Sanz, Celia; Freire, Jose; Qian, Xiaozhong; Alonso-Garcia, Maggie; Morcillo, Esteban; Cortijo, Julio

    2015-02-05

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by chronic pulmonary inflammation punctuated by periods of viral exacerbations. Recent evidence suggests that the combination of roflumilast with corticosteroids may improve the compromised anti-inflammatory properties of corticosteroids in COPD. We analyzed differential and combination anti-inflammatory effects of dexamethasone and roflumilast N-oxide in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) stimulated with viral toll like receptor (TLR) agonists. Lung tissue and HBECs were isolated from healthy (n = 15), smokers (n = 12) and smokers with COPD (15). TLR3 expression was measured in lung tissue and in HBECs. IL-8 secretion was measured in cell cultures after TLR3 stimulation with poly I:C 10 μg/mL. We found that TLR3 expression was increased by 1.95 fold (protein) and 2.5 fold (mRNA) in lung tissues from smokers with COPD and inversely correlated with lung function. The TLR3 agonist poly I:C 10 μg/mL increased the IL-8 release in HBECs that was poorly inhibited by dexamethasone in smokers (24.5%) and smokers with COPD (21.6%). In contrast, roflumilast showed similar inhibitory effects on IL-8 release in healthy (58.8%), smokers (56.6%) and smokers with COPD (50.5%). The combination of roflumilast N-oxide and dexamethasone showed additive inhibitory effects. Mechanistically, roflumilast N-oxide when combined with dexamethasone increased the expression of MKP1, and enhanced the inhibitory effects on phospho-p38, AP1 and NFκB activities which may explain the additive anti-inflammatory effects. Altogether, our data provide in vitro evidence for a possible clinical utility to add roflumilast on top of inhaled corticosteroid in COPD.

  13. The activation of liver X receptors inhibits toll-like receptor-9-induced foam cell formation.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Rosalinda; Morello, Silvana; Chen, Shuang; Bonavita, Eduardo; Pinto, Aldo

    2010-04-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are related to foam cell formation (FCF), key event in the establishment/progression of atherosclerosis. The activation of TLR2 and TLR4 can increase FCF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of TLR9 in FCF. Murine macrophages were treated with CpG-ODN, TLR9 agonist, and oxidized particles of LDL (Paz-PC) and FCF was analyzed by means of Oil Red O staining. The administration of CpG-ODN plus Paz-PC onto macrophages increased the amount of lipid droplets, correlated to increased levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IFNbeta, and IP-10. The underlying mechanism by which TLR9 ligation influenced Paz-PC in the FCF was NF-kappaB- and IRF7-dependent, as observed by higher levels of phosphorylated IkappaBalpha, increased nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit, lower levels of the total IKKalpha protein and higher release of interferon-dependent cytokines, such as IP-10. Liver X receptors (LXRs) regulate lipid cellular transport and negatively modulate TLR-dependent signaling pathways. Indeed, the addition of GW3965, synthetic LXRs agonist, significantly reduced FCF after CpG-ODN plus Paz-PC stimulation. In this condition, we observed decreased levels of the nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit, related to the higher presence of LXRalpha into the nucleus. TNF-alpha, IP-10, and IFNbeta levels were reduced by the administration of GW3965 following CpG-ODN and Paz-PC treatment. In conclusion, the activation of TLR9 facilitates the formation of foam cells in an NF-kappaB- and IRF7-dependent manner, countered by the activation of LXRs. This study further support LXRs as potential anti-atherosclerotic target.

  14. Adjuvant for vaccine immunotherapy of cancer--focusing on Toll-like receptor 2 and 3 agonists for safely enhancing antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Seya, Tsukasa; Shime, Hiroaki; Takeda, Yohei; Tatematsu, Megumi; Takashima, Ken; Matsumoto, Misako

    2015-12-01

    Immune-enhancing adjuvants usually targets antigen (Ag)-presenting cells to tune up cellular and humoral immunity. CD141(+) dendritic cells (DC) represent the professional Ag-presenting cells in humans. In response to microbial pattern molecules, these DCs upgrade the maturation stage sufficient to improve cross-presentation of exogenous Ag, and upregulation of MHC and costimulators, allowing CD4/CD8 T cells to proliferate and liberating cytokines/chemokines that support lymphocyte attraction and survival. These DCs also facilitate natural killer-mediated cell damage. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their signaling pathways in DCs play a pivotal role in DC maturation. Therefore, providing adjuvants in addition to Ag is indispensable for successful vaccine immunotherapy for cancer, which has been approved in comparison with antimicrobial vaccines. Mouse CD8α(+) DCs express TLR7 and TLR9 in addition to the TLR2 family (TLR1, 2, and 6) and TLR3, whereas human CD141(+) DCs exclusively express the TLR2 family and TLR3. Although human and mouse plasmacytoid DCs commonly express TLR7/9 to respond to their agonists, the results on mouse adjuvant studies using TLR7/9 agonists cannot be simply extrapolated to human adjuvant immunotherapy. In contrast, TLR2 and TLR3 are similarly expressed in both human and mouse Ag-presenting DCs. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin peptidoglycan and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid are representative agonists for TLR2 and TLR3, respectively, although they additionally stimulate cytoplasmic sensors: their functional specificities may not be limited to the relevant TLRs. These adjuvants have been posted up to a certain achievement in immunotherapy in some cancers. We herein summarize the history and perspectives of TLR2 and TLR3 agonists in vaccine-adjuvant immunotherapy for cancer.

  15. Toll-Like Receptors Expression in Follicular Cells of Patients with Poor Ovarian Response

    PubMed Central

    Taghavi, Seyed Abdolvahab; Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi; Karimian, Leili; Joghataie, Mohammad Taghi; Aflatoonian, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background Poor ovarian response (POR) to gonadotropin stimulation has led to a significant decline in success rate of fertility treatment. The immune system may play an important role in pathophysiology of POR by dysfunctions of cytokines and the growth factor network, and the presence of ovarian auto-antibodies. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of toll-like receptors (TLR) 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and cyclooxygenase (COX) 2 genes in follicular cells and concentration of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), as major parts of innate immunity, in follicular fluid (FF) obtained from POR women in comparison with normal women. Materials and Methods In this case-control study, 20 infertile POR patients and 20 normal women took part in this study and underwent controlled ovarian stimulation. The FF was obtained from the largest follicle (>18 mm). The FF was centrifuged and cellular pellet was then used for evaluation of expression of TLRs and COX2 genes by real-time PCR. FF was used for quantitative analysis for IL-6, IL-8 and MIF by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results TLR1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and COX2 gene expression were significantly higher in POR (p<0.05). Concentration of IL-6, IL-8 and MIF proteins was significantly increased in POR compared with normal women (p<0.05). Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that the immune system may be involved in pathophysiology of POR through TLRs. PMID:25083184

  16. Differential involvement of IFN-beta in Toll-like receptor-stimulated dendritic cell activation.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Katsuaki; Kaisho, Tsuneyasu; Iwabe, Tomio; Takeuchi, Osamu; Akira, Shizuo

    2002-10-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) can activate dendritic cells (DC) through common signaling pathways requiring a cytoplasmic adapter, MyD88. However, the signaling is differentially regulated among TLR family members. TLR4 can activate MyD88-deficient bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC), and lead to induction of IFN-inducible genes and up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules such as CD40, implying that the MyD88-independent signaling pathway functions downstream of TLR4. Because these effects can also be induced by type I IFN, we have analyzed whether type I IFN is involved in TLR4-induced responses. In response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), IFN-beta gene expression was augmented in both wild-type and MyD88-deficient BMDC. Expression of all IFN-inducible genes except immune-responsive gene 1 (IRG1) was abolished and CD40 up-regulation was decreased in LPS-stimulated BMDC lacking either IFN-alpha/beta receptor (IFN-alpha/betaR) or signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT-1). Similar to the LPS response, TLR9 signaling can also induce expression of IFN-beta and IFN-inducible genes, and up-regulation of CD40. However, all these effects were MyD88 dependent. Thus, in TLR4 signaling, IFN-beta expression can be induced either by the MyD88-dependent or -independent pathway, whereas, in TLR9 signaling, it is dependent on MyD88. In CpG DNA-stimulated DC, expression of IFN-inducible genes except IRG1 was dependent on type I IFN signaling as in LPS-stimulated DC. However, in contrast to TLR4 signaling, TLR9 signaling requires type I IFN signaling for CD40 up-regulation. Taken together, this study demonstrates differential involvement of type I IFN in TLR4- and TLR9-induced effects on DC.

  17. Investigation of Toll-Like Receptor-2 (2258G/A) and Interferon Gamma (+874T/A) Gene Polymorphisms among Infertile Women with Female Genital Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Bhanothu, Venkanna; Lakshmi, Vemu; Theophilus, Jane P.; Rozati, Roya; Badhini, Prabhakar; Vijayalaxmi, Boda

    2015-01-01

    Background Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) coordinate with a diverse array of cellular programs through the transcriptional regulation of immunologically relevant genes and play an important role in immune system, reproductive physiology and basic pathology. Alterations in the functions of TLR2 2258G (guanine)/ A, IFN-γ (+874T/A) and signalling molecules that result from polymorphisms are often associated with susceptibility or resistance, which may, in turn, establish the innate host response to various infectious diseases. Presently, we proposed to investigate the risk of common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of TLR2 and IFN-γ genes, for their effect on infertility in women with female genital tuberculosis (FGTB) and healthy women as controls. Methodology/Principal Findings Genotyping of TLR2 and IFN-γ gene polymorphisms was performed by amplification refractory mutation system multi-gene/multi-primer polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism in 175 FGTB patients and 100 healthy control women (HCW). The TLR2 polymorphism [adenine (A) allele] was observed in 57.7 and 58.0% of FGTB patients and HCW, respectively. The IFN-γ (+874T/A) polymorphism (A allele) was significant in 74.3 and 71.0% of FGTB patients and HCW, respectively, while the odds ratios for the AA and TA genotypes for predisposition of FGTB were found to be 0.304 and 1.650 in HCW, respectively. The SNP of TLR2 was not associated with FGTB but the SNP of IFN-γ was found to be associated with mycobacteria infections and to induce infertility. Conclusions/Significance At present, we hypothesize that infertile women with FGTB and HCW without tuberculosis (TB) have identical frequency of TLR variants, which may be adequate in the production of IFN-γ in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. Thus, the study appears to be the first of its kind reporting a mutation in the IFN-γ gene [+874 T (thymine) to A] responsible for

  18. Impact of Toll-Like Receptor 2 Deficiency on Survival and Neurological Function after Cardiac Arrest: A Murine Model of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Bergt, Stefan; Güter, Anne; Grub, Andrea; Wagner, Nana-Maria; Beltschany, Claudia; Langner, Sönke; Wree, Andreas; Hildebrandt, Steve; Nöldge-Schomburg, Gabriele; Vollmar, Brigitte; Roesner, Jan P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiac arrest (CA) followed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is associated with poor survival rate and neurofunctional outcome. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) plays an important role in conditions of sterile inflammation such as reperfusion injury. Recent data demonstrated beneficial effects of the administration of TLR2-blocking antibodies in ischemia/reperfusion injury. In this study we investigated the role of TLR2 for survival and neurofunctional outcome after CA/CPR in mice. Methods Female TLR2-deficient (TLR2-/-) and wild type (WT) mice were subjected to CA for eight min induced by intravenous injection of potassium chloride and CPR by external chest compression. Upon the beginning of CPR, n = 15 WT mice received 5 µg/g T2.5 TLR2 inhibiting antibody intravenously while n = 30 TLR2-/- and n = 31 WT controls were subjected to injection of normal saline. Survival and neurological outcome were evaluated during a 28-day follow up period. Basic neurological function, balance, coordination and overall motor function as well as spatial learning and memory were investigated, respectively. In a separate set of experiments, six mice per group were analysed for cytokine and corticosterone serum levels eight hours after CA/CPR. Results TLR2 deficiency and treatment with a TLR2 blocking antibody were associated with increased survival (77% and 80% vs. 51% of WT control; both P < 0.05). Neurofunctional performance was less compromised in TLR2-/- and antibody treated mice. Compared to WT and antibody treated mice, TLR2-/- mice exhibited reduced IL-6 (both P < 0.05) but not IL-1β levels and increased corticosterone plasma concentrations (both P < 0.05). Conclusion Deficiency or functional blockade of TLR2 is associated with increased survival and improved neurofunctional outcome in a mouse model of CA/CPR. Thus, TLR2 inhibition could provide a novel therapeutic approach for reducing mortality and morbidity after cardiac arrest and

  19. Metalloproteinase-Dependent TLR2 Ectodomain Shedding is Involved in Soluble Toll-Like Receptor 2 (sTLR2) Production

    PubMed Central

    Langjahr, Patricia; Díaz-Jiménez, David; De la Fuente, Marjorie; Rubio, Estefhany; Golenbock, Douglas; Bronfman, Francisca C.; Quera, Rodrigo; González, María-Julieta; Hermoso, Marcela A.

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, a type I membrane receptor that plays a key role in innate immunity, recognizes conserved molecules in pathogens, and triggering an inflammatory response. It has been associated with inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Soluble TLR2 (sTLR2) variants have been identified in human body fluids, and the TLR2 ectodomain can negatively regulate TLR2 activation by behaving as a decoy receptor. sTLR2 generation does not involve alternative splicing mechanisms, indicating that this process might involve a post-translational modification of the full-length receptor; however, the specific mechanism has not been studied. Using CD14+ peripheral human monocytes and the THP-1 monocytic leukemia-derived cell line, we confirm that sTLR2 generation increases upon treatment with pro-inflammatory agents and requires a post-translational mechanism. We also find that the constitutive and ligand-induced release of sTLR2 is sensitive to pharmacological metalloproteinase activator and inhibitors leading us to conclude that metalloproteinase TLR2 shedding contributes to soluble receptor production. By expressing human TLR2 in ADAM10- or ADAM17-deficient MEF cells, we find both enzymes to be implicated in TLR2 ectodomain shedding. Moreover, using a deletion mutant of the TLR2 juxtamembrane region, we demonstrate that this domain is required for sTLR2 generation. Functional analysis suggests that sTLR2 generated by metalloproteinase activation inhibitsTLR2-induced cytokine production by this monocytic leukemia-derived cell line. The identification of the mechanisms involved in regulating the availability of soluble TLR2 ectodomain and cell surface receptors may contribute further research on TLR2-mediated processes in innate immunity and inflammatory disorders. PMID:25531754

  20. Higher expression of galectin-3 and galectin-9 in periapical granulomas than in radicular cysts and an increased toll-like receptor-2 and toll-like receptor-4 expression are associated with reactivation of periapical inflammation.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Rita de Cássia Medeiros; Beghini, Marcela; Borges, Cláudia Renata Bibiano; Alves, Polyanna Miranda; de Araújo, Marcelo Sivieri; Pereira, Sanívia Aparecida de Lima; Rodrigues, Virmondes; Rodrigues, Denise Bertulucci Rocha

    2014-02-01

    Cysts and periapical granulomas are inflammatory reactions that develop in response to periapical infection by microbial species in dental root canal. It is known that toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pathogen recognition molecules and that galectins are lectins that can be associated with the inflammatory process, stimulating or inhibiting the immune system. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in situ expression of TLRs and galectins in radicular cysts and periapical granulomas. We analyzed 62 cases (30 radicular cysts, 27 periapical granulomas, and 5 control cases). Indirect immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expression of TLRs (TRL-2 and TLR-4) and galectins (Gal-3 and Gal-9). The expression of Gal-3 and Gal-9 was significantly higher in periapical granulomas and radicular cysts than in the control group. Similarly, both Gal-3 and Gal-9 were expressed significantly more in periapical granulomas than in radicular cysts. The expression of TLR-2 was significantly higher in periapical granulomas and radicular cysts than in the control group, and it was also significantly higher in radicular cysts with sinus tract than in the cases without sinus tract. Furthermore, the expression of TLR-4 was significantly higher in the cases of periapical granulomas with sinus tract than in the cases without sinus tract. Gal-3/Gal-9 and TLR-2/TLR-4 expression in the periapical granulomas and radicular cysts is associated with reactive periapical inflammation. Pathobiology of periapical disease is a very complex interplay of many bioactive molecules involved in immunoinflammatory responses. Up-regulation of these bioactive molecules might be an important modulator of inflammatory periapical lesions. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. N-terminal fusion of a toll-like receptor 2-ligand to a Neospora caninum chimeric antigen efficiently modifies the properties of the specific immune response.

    PubMed

    Aguado-Martínez, Adriana; Basto, Afonso P; Müller, Joachim; Balmer, Vreni; Manser, Vera; Leitão, Alexandre; Hemphill, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Immunoprophylactic products against neosporosis during pregnancy should induce an appropriately balanced immune response. In this respect, OprI, a bacterial lipoprotein targeting toll like receptor (TLR)2, provides promising adjuvant properties. We report on the manipulation of the innate and the T-cell immune response through the fusion of OprI with the Neospora caninum chimeric protein Mic3-1-R. In contrast to Mic3-1-R, OprI-MIC3-1-R significantly activated bone-marrow dendritic cells from naïve mice. Mice immunized with OprI-Mic3-1-R induced an immune response with mixed T helper (Th)1 and Th2 properties (high levels of both immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 and IgG2a and of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12(p70) and interferon-γ responses) whereas Mic3-1-R+saponin induced a clear Th2-biased response (low IgG2a and high IL-4 and IL-10). After mating and challenge with N. caninum, increased expression of interferon-γ was only found in placentas from OprI-Mic3-1-R immunized dams. However, no protection against vertical transmission and neonatal mortality was observed in either of the two groups. These results indicated that more exhaustive studies must be done to elucidate the immune mechanisms associated with transplacental transmission. Antigen linkage to TLR2-ligands, such as OprI, is a useful tool to investigate this enigma by reorienting the innate and adaptive immune responses against other candidate antigens in future studies.

  2. Priming by lipopolysaccharide exaggerates acute lung injury and mortality in responses to peptidoglycan through up-regulation of Toll-like receptor-2 expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Naoyuki; Yamazaki, Hiromi; Takano, Ken-ichi; Matsui, Kazuhiro; Takano, Yasuo; Kemmotsu, Osamu; Hattori, Yuichi

    2008-03-01

    Invasive infection mixed with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria often results in severe sepsis and septic shock, the prognosis of which is extremely poor and the mortality is high. Here, we hypothesized that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria may exert a priming effect on the innate immune response to peptidoglycan (PepG) from Gram-positive bacteria and if so, examined the molecular mechanism of this priming. We found that mice who underwent intratracheal instillation with PepG (5 mg/kg) following prior administration of LPS (5 mg/kg) had a marked decline in survival as compared with the animals given each bacterial cell wall component alone. Furthermore, blood gas exchange impairment and pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability were greatly enhanced in mice given PepG after LPS stimulation, indicating a severe development of acute lung injury. LPS significantly up-regulated the expression levels of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 mRNA and protein in mouse lungs. Translocation of TLR-2 to the membranes was also increased by LPS stimulation. This was supported by immunohistochemical examination showing that TLR-2 expression was changed from the cytoplasm to the luminal surface of bronchiolar epithelial cells following LPS stimulation. We also demonstrated an LPS-induced increase in TLR-2 mRNA expression in type-II pneumocytes by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction following laser-assisted microdissection. In vivo transfection of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) oligonucleotides strongly prevented the up-regulation of TLR-2 after LPS stimulation at pulmonary cellular and tissue levels. We conclude that the priming effect of LPS on PepG-induced lung injury and death is preceded by NF-kappaB-mediated up-regulation of TLR-2.

  3. Effects of P-MAPA immunomodulator on Toll-like receptor 2, ROS, nitric oxide, MAPKp38 and IKK in PBMC and macrophages from dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Melo, L M; Perosso, J; Almeida, B F M; Silva, K L O; Somenzari, M A; de Lima, V M F

    2014-02-01

    Leishmania (L.) chagasi is the etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) that can be transmitted to humans and dogs. VL in Brazil represents a serious public health problem; therefore, it is important to study new alternatives to treat infected dogs. In dogs, the therapeutic arsenal against canine VL is limited. The immunomodulator protein aggregate magnesium-ammonium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride (P-MAPA) improves immunocompetence when the immune system is impaired, but its dependence on Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the mechanisms involved in immune response remain unclear. The in vitro action of P-MAPA on the expression of TLR2 and TLR4, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and IKK phosphorylation was studied in mononuclear cells from peripheral blood and macrophages from healthy and Leishmania-infected dogs. The PBMC or macrophages were isolated and cultured with different concentrations of P-MAPA (20,100 and 200 μg/ml) in a humid environment at 37°C with 5% CO(2). Observation revealed that Leishmania-infected dogs showed a decrease in TLR2 in macrophages compared with healthy dogs and in induction with P-MAPA. ROS were increased in PBMCs from Leishmania spp.-infected dogs compared with healthy dogs and P-MAPA improved ROS production. NO production was increased in culture supernatant from macrophages stimulated by P-MAPA in both healthy and Leishmania spp. infected dogs. Treatment of macrophages from healthy dogs with immunomodulatory P-MAPA induced p38 MAPK and IKK phosphorylation, suggesting signal transduction by this pathway. These findings suggest that P-MAPA has potential as a therapeutic drug in the treatment of canine visceral leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression and regulation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in human intervertebral disc cells.

    PubMed

    Klawitter, Marina; Hakozaki, Michiyuki; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Krupkova, Olga; Quero, Lilian; Ospelt, Caroline; Gay, Steffen; Hausmann, Oliver; Liebscher, Thomas; Meier, Ullrich; Sekiguchi, Miho; Konno, Shin-ichi; Boos, Norbert; Ferguson, Stephen J; Wuertz, Karin

    2014-09-01

    Although inflammatory processes play an essential role in painful intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, the underlying regulatory mechanisms are not well understood. This study was designed to investigate the expression, regulation and importance of specific toll-like receptors (TLRs)--which have been shown to play an essential role e.g. in osteoarthritis--during degenerative disc disease. The expression of TLRs in human IVDs was measured in isolated cells as well as in normal or degenerated IVD tissue. The role of IL-1β or TNF-α in regulating TLRs (expression/activation) as well as in regulating activity of down-stream pathways (NF-κB) and expression of inflammation-related genes (IL-6, IL-8, HSP60, HSP70, HMGB1) was analyzed. Expression of TLR1/2/3/4/5/6/9/10 was detected in isolated human IVD cells, with TLR1/2/4/6 being dependent on the degree of IVD degeneration. Stimulation with IL-1β or TNF-α moderately increased TLR1/TLR4 mRNA expression (TNF-α only), and strongly increased TLR2 mRNA expression (IL-1β/TNF-α), with the latter being confirmed on the protein level. Stimulation with IL-1β, TNF-α or Pam3CSK4 (a TLR2-ligand) stimulated IL-6 and IL-8, which was inhibited by a TLR2 neutralizing antibody for Pam3CSK4; IL-1β and TNF-α caused NF-κB activation. HSP60, HSP70 and HMGB1 did not increase IL-6 or IL-8 and were not regulated by IL-1β/TNF-α. We provide evidence that several TLRs are expressed in human IVD cells, with TLR2 possibly playing the most crucial role. As TLRs mediate catabolic and inflammatory processes, increased levels of TLRs may lead to aggravated disc degeneration, chronic inflammation and pain development. Especially with the identification of more endogenous TLR ligands, targeting these receptors may hold therapeutic promise.

  5. Modulation of dendritic cells and toll-like receptors by marathon running.

    PubMed

    Nickel, Thomas; Emslander, I; Sisic, Z; David, R; Schmaderer, C; Marx, N; Schmidt-Trucksäss, A; Hoster, E; Halle, M; Weis, M; Hanssen, H

    2012-05-01

    The focus of this study was to assess exercise-induced alterations of circulating dendritic cell (DC) subpopulations and toll-like receptor (TLR) expression after marathon running. Blood sampling was performed in 15 obese non-elite (ONE), 16 lean non-elite (LNE) and 16 lean elite (LE) marathon runners pre- and post-marathon as well as 24 h after the race. Circulating DC-fractions were measured by flow-cytometry analyzing myeloid DCs (BDCA-1+) and plasmacytoid DCs (BDCA-2+). We further analyzed the (TLR) -2/-4/-7 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (rt-PCR/Western Blot) and the cytokines CRP, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and oxLDL by ELISA. After the marathon, BDCA-1 increased significantly in all groups [LE (pre/post): 0.35/0.47%; LNE: 0.26/0.50% and ONE: 0.30/0.49%; all p < 0.05]. In contrast, we found a significant decrease for BDCA-2 directly after the marathon (LE: 0.09/0.01%; LNE: 0.12/0.03% and ONE: 0.10/0.02%; all p < 0.05). Levels of TLR-7 mRNA decreased in all groups post-marathon (LE 44%, LNE 67% and ONE 52%; all p < 0.01), with a consecutive protein reduction (LE 31%, LNE 52%, ONE 42%; all p < 0.05) 24 h later. IL-6 and IL-10 levels increased immediately after the run, whereas increases of TNF-α and CRP-levels were seen after 24 h. oxLDL levels remained unchanged post-marathon. In our study population, we did not find any relevant differences regarding training level or body weight. Prolonged endurance exercise induces both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10, may help to prevent excessive oxidative stress. Marathon running is associated with alterations of DC subsets and TLR-expression independent of training level or body weight. Myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs are differently affected by the excessive physical stress. Immunomodulatory mechanisms seem to play a key role in the response and adaptation to acute excessive exercise.

  6. Toll-like receptor activation modulates antimicrobial peptide expression by ocular surface cells.

    PubMed

    Redfern, Rachel L; Reins, Rose Y; McDermott, Alison M

    2011-03-01

    The ability of the ocular surface to respond to pathogens is in part attributed to toll-like receptors (TLRs) that recognize conserved motifs on various microbes. This study examines TLR expression on various ocular surface cells, if TLR agonists can modulate the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), human beta defensins (hBD) and cathelicidin (hCAP-18/LL-37) which maybe functionally active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) and if TLR agonists or AMPs can modulate TLR mRNA expression. TLR1-10 mRNA expression was examined in corneal epithelial, corneal stromal cells and conjunctival epithelial cells by RT-PCR. To confirm protein expression flow cytometry or immunostaining was performed for selected TLRs on some cell cultures. Ocular surface cells were cultured with a range of TLR agonists and then hBD-1, 2, 3, or hCAP-18 mRNA and protein expression was determined by RT-PCR and immunoblotting. In some experiments, cells were cultured with a cocktail of agonists for TLR3, 5 and 6/2 and the antimicrobial activity of the culture media was tested against PA. TLR mRNA expression was also examined in primary human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) treated with either 3 μg/ml of hBD-2, 5 μg/ml of LL-37 or TLR4, 5 and 9 agonists. Overall, the ocular surface cells expressed mRNA for most of the TLRs but some differences were found. TLR2 was not detected in corneal fibroblasts, TLR4 was not detected in primary cultured or freshly isolated HCEC, TLR5 was not detected in conjunctival epithelial cells (IOBA-NHC) and corneal fibroblasts, TLR7 was not detected in freshly isolated HCEC and TLR10 was not detected in HCEC and IOBA-NHC. TLR8 mRNA was not expressed by any of the samples tested. Immunostaining of cadaver corneas revealed TLR5 and 9 expression throughout the cornea while TLR3 was significantly expressed only in the epithelium. Flow cytometry and immunostaining revealed cultured fibroblasts expressed TLR9 but had no significant TLR3 expression. hBD-2 expression

  7. The expression of Toll-like receptors in murine Müller cells, the glial cells in retina.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaomin; Fang, Dan; Zhou, Hongyan; Su, Shao Bo

    2013-08-01

    Müller cells, the principal glial cells of the retina, play an important role in immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are members of the pattern recognition receptor family and mediate innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, we isolated, characterized Müller cells from mouse retina, and analyzed the expression of TLRs in these cells. We found that the mRNA of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, and TLR5 was highly expressed by Müller cells. PAM3 and LPS, the agonists for TLR2 and TLR4, promoted Müller cells to produce the inflammatory cytokine Interleukine-6 and the chemokine MIP-2/CXCL2. These results suggest that Müller cells may be involved in innate and adaptive responses via TLR signaling in the eye. Our study should facilitate further study of the role of Müller cell in eye diseases and identification of the potential therapeutic targets.

  8. Opposing effects of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 on synaptic stability in the spinal cord after peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Glial cells are involved in the synaptic elimination process that follows neuronal lesions, and are also responsible for mediating the interaction between the nervous and immune systems. Neurons and glial cells express Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which may affect the plasticity of the central nervous system (CNS). Because TLRs might also have non-immune functions in spinal-cord injury (SCI), we aimed to investigate the influence of TLR2 and TLR4 on synaptic plasticity and glial reactivity after peripheral nerve axotomy. Methods The lumbar spinal cords of C3H/HePas wild-type (WT) mice, C3H/HeJ TLR4-mutant mice, C57BL/6J WT mice, and C57BL/6J TLR2 knockout (KO) mice were studied after unilateral sciatic nerve transection. The mice were killed via intracardiac perfusion, and the spinal cord was processed for immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), western blotting, cell culture, and reverse transcriptase PCR. Primary cultures of astrocytes from newborn mice were established to study the astrocyte response in the absence of TLR2 and the deficiency of TLR4 expression. Results The results showed that TLR4 and TLR2 expression in the CNS may have opposite effects on the stability of presynaptic terminals in the spinal cord. First, TLR4 contributed to synaptic preservation of terminals in apposition to lesioned motor neurons after peripheral injury, regardless of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) expression. In addition, in the presence of TLR4, there was upregulation of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor and downregulation of interleukin-6, but no morphological differences in glial reactivity were seen. By contrast, TLR2 expression led to greater synaptic loss, correlating with increased astrogliosis and upregulation of pro-inflammatory interleukins. Moreover, the absence of TLR2 resulted in the upregulation of neurotrophic factors and MHC I expression. Conclusion TLR4 and TLR2 in the CNS may have opposite effects on the

  9. Apolipoprotein CIII Induces Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 and Interleukin 6 Expression Via Toll-Like Receptor 2 Pathway in Mouse Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Yasuko; Kawakami, Akio; Osaka, Mizuko; Uematsu, Satoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Shimokado, Kentaro; Sacks, Frank M.; Yoshida, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the direct effect of apolipoprotein CIII (apoCIII) on adipokine expressions that are involved in obesity, insulin resistance, or metabolic syndrome. Methods and Results ApoCIII in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins is elevated in patients with obesity, insulin resistance, or metabolic syndrome. Its level is also associated with proinflammatory adipokines. Fully differentiated mouse 3T3L1 adipocytes were incubated with apoCIII. ApoCIII activated nuclear factor κB of 3T3L1 adipocytes and induced the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) 1 and interleukin (IL) 6. ApoCIII also activated extracellular signal–regulated kinase and p38. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)-1 inhibitor PD98059, but not p38 inhibitor SB203580, inhibited apoCIII-induced upregulation of MCP-1 and IL-6. Previously, it was shown that apoCIII activates proinflammatory signals through toll-like receptor (TLR) 2. TLR2-blocking antibody abolished activation of nuclear factor κB and extracellular signal–regulated kinase induced by apoCIII and inhibited apoCIII-induced upregulation of MCP-1 and IL-6. ApoCIII also reduced adiponectin expression of 3T3L1 adipocytes, which was recovered by TLR2-blocking antibody. ApoCIII induced the expression of MCP-1 and IL-6 in TLR2-overexpressed human embryonic kidney 293 cells but not wild-type human embryonic kidney 293 cells without TLR2. ApoCIII induced the expression of MCP-1 and IL-6 and decreased adiponectin expression in white adipose tissue of wild-type mice but not of TLR2-deficient mice in vivo. Conclusion ApoCIII may activate extracellular signal–regulated kinase and nuclear factor kB through TLR2 and induce proinflammatory adipokine expression in vitro and in vivo. Thus, apoCIII links dyslipidemia to inflammation in adipocytes, which, in turn, may contribute to atherosclerosis. PMID:20829510

  10. Mycobacterium tuberculosis 38-kDa antigen induces endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis via toll-like receptor 2/4.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yun-Ji; Choi, Ji-Ae; Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Choi, Chul Hee; Kim, Hwa-Jung; Song, Chang-Hwa

    2015-03-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses play critical roles in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. To investigate the regulatory role of the ER stress response in 38-kDa antigen-induced apoptosis, we examined the relationship between the ER stress response and apoptosis in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) stimulated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen (38-kDa Ag). The expression of ER molecular chaperones, including C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), glucose-regulated protein (Bip) and phosphorylated alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2, was induced in BMDMs stimulated with the 38-kDa Ag. Interestingly, 38-kDa Ag-stimulation induced apoptosis via activation of caspase-12, -9 and -3. However, 38-kDa Ag-induced apoptosis was significantly reduced in TLR2- and TLR4-deficient macrophages. Because toll-like receptors (TLRs) initiate the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades, we evaluated the effect of MAPK activation on ER stress. The 38-kDa Ag activated Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 phosphorylation. MAPK signaling induced the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as MCP-1, TNF-α and IL-6. The 38-kDa Ag-induced MCP-1 was especially associated with the induction of MCP-1-induced protein (MCPIP), which increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ER stress. To investigate the role of MCPIP in ROS-induced ER stress by 38-kDa Ag stimulation, we transfected MCPIP siRNA into RAW264.7 cells before 38-kDa Ag stimulation, and measured the generation of ROS and expression of ER molecular chaperones. ROS production and CHOP expression were decreased by the silencing of MCPIP induction. Our results demonstrate that the expression of MCPIP by 38-kDa Ag stimulation is increased through a TLR-MAPK-dependent signaling pathway, and leads to ER stress-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, MCPIP is important for host defense mechanisms in mycobacterial pathogenesis.

  11. Role of Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 signaling pathways on the inflammatory response to resistance training in elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Miguelez, Paula; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; Almar, Mar; Mejías, Yubisay; Rivas, Ana; de Paz, José A; Cuevas, María J; González-Gallego, Javier

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a resistance exercise training program on the inflammatory response associated with Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 signaling pathways in senior participants. Twenty-six healthy subjects (age, 69.5 ± 1.3) were randomized to a training (TG; n = 16) or a control (CG; n = 10) group. TG performed an 8-week resistance training program, while CG followed their daily routines. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from blood samples obtained before and after the intervention, and levels of proteins involved in the TLR2, TLR4, and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88)-dependent and MyD88-independent pathways were analyzed. The inflammatory status was evaluated through messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein content of interleukin (IL)-10 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP). After the 8-week resistance training, TLR2 and TLR4 protein expression was reduced in TG. MyD88, p65, phospho-p38, TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon (TRIF), IKKi/IKKε, phospho-interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3, and phosho-IRF7 were also downregulated in TG after the intervention. The training program induced an increase of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and Hsp70 and a reduction of Hsp60. While TNF-α mRNA and protein values remained unchanged in both TG and CG, IL-10 mRNA and protein content were upregulated in TG after the intervention. CRP values decreased in TG only. The increase in Hsp70 negatively correlated with TLR2 and TLR4 downregulation. These data suggest that resistance exercise may represent an effective tool to ameliorate the pro-inflammatory status of old participants through an attenuation of MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent TLR2 and TLR4 signaling pathways.

  12. Toll-like receptor ligands synergize through distinct dendritic cell pathways to induce T cell responses: Implications for vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qing; Egelston, Colt; Vivekanandhan, Aravindhan; Uematsu, Satoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Klinman, Dennis M.; Belyakov, Igor M.; Berzofsky, Jay A.

    2008-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) may need to cooperate with each other to be effective in detecting imminent infection and trigger immune responses. Understanding is still limited about the intracellular mechanism of this cooperation. We found that when certain TLRs are involved, dendritic cells (DCs) establish unidirectional intracellular cross-talk, in which the MyD88-independent TRIF-dependent pathway amplifies the MyD88-dependent DC function through a JNK-dependent mechanism. The amplified MyD88-dependent DC function determines the induction of the T cell response to a given vaccine in vivo. Therefore, our study revealed an underlying TLR mechanism governing the functional, nonrandom interplay among TLRs for recognition of combinatorial ligands that may be dangerous to the host, providing important guidance for design of novel synergistic molecular vaccine adjuvants. PMID:18845682

  13. Neuroprotective Effect of Paeonol Mediates Anti-Inflammation via Suppressing Toll-Like Receptor 2 and Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathways in Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injured Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wen-Yen; Ho, Tin-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Paeonol is a phenolic compound derived from Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews (MC) and P. lactiflora Pall (PL). Paeonol can reduce cerebral infarction volume and improve neurological deficits through antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the anti-inflammatory pathway of paeonol remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between anti-inflammatory responses of paeonol and signaling pathways of TLR2 and TLR4 in cerebral infarct. We established the cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model in Sprague Dawley rats by occluding right middle cerebral artery for 60 min, followed by reperfusion for 24 h. The neurological deficit score was examined, and the brains of the rats were removed for cerebral infarction volume and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. The infarction volume and neurological deficits were lower in the paeonol group (pretreatment with paeonol; 20 mg/kg i.p.) than in the control group (without paeonol treatment). The IHC analysis revealed that the number of TLR2-, TLR4-, Iba1-, NF-κB- (P50-), and IL-1β-immunoreactive cells and TUNEL-positive cells was significantly lower in the paeonol group; however, the number of TNF-α-immunoreactive cells did not differ between the paeonol and control groups. The paeonol reveals some neuroprotective effects in the model of ischemia, which could be due to the reduction of many proinflammatory receptors/mediators, although the mechanisms are not clear. PMID:28101118

  14. Neuroprotective Effect of Paeonol Mediates Anti-Inflammation via Suppressing Toll-Like Receptor 2 and Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathways in Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injured Rats.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wen-Yen; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Ho, Tin-Yun; Lin, Yi-Wen; Cheng, Chin-Yi; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Paeonol is a phenolic compound derived from Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews (MC) and P. lactiflora Pall (PL). Paeonol can reduce cerebral infarction volume and improve neurological deficits through antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the anti-inflammatory pathway of paeonol remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between anti-inflammatory responses of paeonol and signaling pathways of TLR2 and TLR4 in cerebral infarct. We established the cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model in Sprague Dawley rats by occluding right middle cerebral artery for 60 min, followed by reperfusion for 24 h. The neurological deficit score was examined, and the brains of the rats were removed for cerebral infarction volume and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. The infarction volume and neurological deficits were lower in the paeonol group (pretreatment with paeonol; 20 mg/kg i.p.) than in the control group (without paeonol treatment). The IHC analysis revealed that the number of TLR2-, TLR4-, Iba1-, NF-κB- (P50-), and IL-1β-immunoreactive cells and TUNEL-positive cells was significantly lower in the paeonol group; however, the number of TNF-α-immunoreactive cells did not differ between the paeonol and control groups. The paeonol reveals some neuroprotective effects in the model of ischemia, which could be due to the reduction of many proinflammatory receptors/mediators, although the mechanisms are not clear.

  15. Targeting Toll-like receptor signaling in plasmacytoid dendritic cells and autoreactive B cells as a therapy for lupus.

    PubMed

    Lenert, Petar S

    2006-01-01

    This review focuses on the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in lupus and on possibilities to treat lupus using TLR modulating inhibitory oligodeoxynucleotides (INH-ODNs). TLRs bridge innate and adaptive immune responses and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Of particular interest are TLR3, -7, -8, and -9, which are localized intracellularly. These TLRs recognize single-stranded or double-stranded RNA or hypomethylated CpG-DNA. Exposure to higher order CpG-DNA ligands or to immune complexed self-RNA triggers activation of autoreactive B cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. INH-ODNs were recently developed that block all downstream signaling events in TLR9-responsive cells. Some of these INH-ODNs can also target TLR7 signaling pathways. Based on their preferential cell reactivity, we classify INH-ODNs into class B and class R. Class B ('broadly reactive') INH-ODNs target a broad range of TLR-expressing cells. Class R ('restricted') INH-ODNs easily form DNA duplexes or higher order structures, and are preferentially recognized by autoreactive B cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, rather than by non-DNA specific follicular B cells. Both classes of INH-ODNs can block animal lupus. Hence, therapeutic application of these novel INH-ODNs in human lupus, particularly class R INH-ODNs, may result in more selective and disease-specific immunosuppression.

  16. Targeting Toll-like receptor signaling in plasmacytoid dendritic cells and autoreactive B cells as a therapy for lupus

    PubMed Central

    Lenert, Petar S

    2006-01-01

    This review focuses on the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in lupus and on possibilities to treat lupus using TLR modulating inhibitory oligodeoxynucleotides (INH-ODNs). TLRs bridge innate and adaptive immune responses and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Of particular interest are TLR3, -7, -8, and -9, which are localized intracellularly. These TLRs recognize single-stranded or double-stranded RNA or hypomethylated CpG-DNA. Exposure to higher order CpG-DNA ligands or to immune complexed self-RNA triggers activation of autoreactive B cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. INH-ODNs were recently developed that block all downstream signaling events in TLR9-responsive cells. Some of these INH-ODNs can also target TLR7 signaling pathways. Based on their preferential cell reactivity, we classify INH-ODNs into class B and class R. Class B ('broadly reactive') INH-ODNs target a broad range of TLR-expressing cells. Class R ('restricted') INH-ODNs easily form DNA duplexes or higher order structures, and are preferentially recognized by autoreactive B cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, rather than by non-DNA specific follicular B cells. Both classes of INH-ODNs can block animal lupus. Hence, therapeutic application of these novel INH-ODNs in human lupus, particularly class R INH-ODNs, may result in more selective and disease-specific immunosuppression. PMID:16542467

  17. Toll-Like Receptors Expression and Signaling in Glia Cells in Neuro-Amyloidogenic Diseases: Towards Future Therapeutic Application

    PubMed Central

    Trudler, Dorit; Farfara, Dorit; Frenkel, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are known to be expressed by innate immune response cells and to play a critical role in their activation against foreign pathogens. It was recently suggested that TLRs have an important role in the crosstalk between neurons and glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS). TLR signaling was reported to be associated with a yin-yang effect in the CNS. While TLR signaling was linked to neurogenesis, it was also found to be involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. This paper will focus on TLR signaling in glial cells in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, prion diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease. Understanding the pattern of TLR signaling in the glial cells may lead to the identification of new targets for therapeutic application. PMID:20706642

  18. Toll-like receptors as a key regulator of mesenchymal stem cell function: An up-to-date review.

    PubMed

    Shirjang, Solmaz; Mansoori, Behzad; Solali, Saeed; Hagh, Majid Farshdousti; Shamsasenjan, Karim

    2016-12-26

    Understanding the role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the immunomodulation potential, differentiation, migration, and survival of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is absolutely vital to fully exploiting their MSC-based therapeutic potential. Furthermore, through recognition of exogenous or endogenous ligands produced upon injury, TLRs have been linked to allograft rejection and maintenance of chronic inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis. Characterizing the effect of TLRs in biological control of MSCs fate and function could improve our knowledge about the MSC-based cell therapy and immunotherapy. In this paper, we outline the impacts of TLR activation and mechanisms on MSCs immunomodulatory functions, differentiation, migration, and survivability. Moreover, we indicate that the expression patterns of TLRs in MSCs from different sources.

  19. Toll-like receptors-2 and -9 (TLR2 and TLR9) gene polymorphism in patients with type 2 diabetes and diabetic foot

    PubMed Central

    Wifi, Mohamed-Naguib Abdalla; Assem, Maha; Elsherif, Rasha Hamed; El-Azab, Hameda Abdel-Fattah; Saif, Aasem

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate immune receptors that mediate the inflammatory response in diabetes mellitus (DM). The aim of this study is to evaluate the association of TLR2 and TLR9 gene polymorphism in patients with type 2 DM (T2DM) and diabetic foot (DF). The study included 90 subjects divided into group I (30 patients with T2DM and DF), group II (30 patients with T2DM and no evidence of DF), and group III (normal control subjects). TLR2 (1350 T/C, rs3804100) and TLR9 (1237 T/C, rs5743836) genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique for all subjects. There was a statistically significant difference in the distribution of TLR9-1237 T/C genotypes between groups I and II (P < .029) as well as between groups I and III (P < .001). Calculated risk estimation revealed that TLR9-1237 polymorphism conferred almost 20 times increased risk of DF disorders in T2DM (OR = 20, 95% CI = 5.38–74.30). There was no statistical difference in the distribution of TLR2-1350T/C genotypes between the 3 groups. TLR9-1237 T/C gene polymorphism may be considered as a molecular risk for DF among patients with T2DM. PMID:28445304

  20. Toll-like receptors-2 and -9 (TLR2 and TLR9) gene polymorphism in patients with type 2 diabetes and diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Wifi, Mohamed-Naguib Abdalla; Assem, Maha; Elsherif, Rasha Hamed; El-Azab, Hameda Abdel-Fattah; Saif, Aasem

    2017-04-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate immune receptors that mediate the inflammatory response in diabetes mellitus (DM). The aim of this study is to evaluate the association of TLR2 and TLR9 gene polymorphism in patients with type 2 DM (T2DM) and diabetic foot (DF).The study included 90 subjects divided into group I (30 patients with T2DM and DF), group II (30 patients with T2DM and no evidence of DF), and group III (normal control subjects). TLR2 (1350 T/C, rs3804100) and TLR9 (1237 T/C, rs5743836) genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique for all subjects.There was a statistically significant difference in the distribution of TLR9-1237 T/C genotypes between groups I and II (P < .029) as well as between groups I and III (P < .001). Calculated risk estimation revealed that TLR9-1237 polymorphism conferred almost 20 times increased risk of DF disorders in T2DM (OR = 20, 95% CI = 5.38-74.30). There was no statistical difference in the distribution of TLR2-1350T/C genotypes between the 3 groups.TLR9-1237 T/C gene polymorphism may be considered as a molecular risk for DF among patients with T2DM.

  1. Calcitriol May Down-Regulate mRNA Over-Expression of Toll-Like Receptor-2 and -4, LL-37 and Proinflammatory Cytokines in Cultured Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Mi Sook; Kim, Ji-Yun; Lee, He In

    2014-01-01

    Background Although vitamin D analogs have been used in the topical treatment of psoriasis, their mechanisms of action are not well understand. Calcitriol, the hormonally active vitamin D3 metabolite, has been demonstrated to exert immunomodulatory effects in the skin by down-regulating the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and proinflammatory cytokines. Objective We investigated the effects of calcitriol on the expression of TLR2, TLR4, antimicrobial peptide LL-37, and proinflammatory cytokines in cultured human keratinocytes. Methods The mRNA expression levels of TLR2, TLR4, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and LL-37 in cultured human keratinocytes were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription (RT). Furthermore, we measured supernatant TNF-α levels by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to confirm the effects of calcitriol on TLR2 and TLR4. Results As measured by RT-PCR and real-time PCR, calcitriol was found to suppress the lipopolysaccharide- and ultraviolet B radiation-mediated induction of expression of TLRs, LL-37 and proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β in normal human keratinocytes. The supernatant TNF-α levels measured by ELISA were also suppressed after treatment with calcitriol. Conclusion Calcitriol may down-regulate inflammatory stated over-expression of LL-37 and proinflammatory cytokines. PMID:24966627

  2. Variants in toll-like receptors 2 and 9 influence susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis in Caucasians, African-Americans, and West Africans

    PubMed Central

    Velez, Digna Rosa; Wejse, Christian; Stryjewski, Martin E.; Abbate, Eduardo; Hulme, William F.; Myers, Jamie L.; Estevan, Rosa; Patillo, Sara G.; Olesen, Rikke; Tacconelli, Alessandra; Sirugo, Giorgio; Gilbert, John R.; Hamilton, Carol D.; Scott, William K.

    2010-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a global public health problem and a source of preventable deaths each year, with 8.8 million new cases of TB and 1.6 million deaths worldwide in 2005. Approximately, 10% of infected individuals develop pulmonary or extrapulmonary TB, suggesting that host defense factors influence development of active disease. Toll-like receptor’ (TLR) polymorphisms have been associated with regulation of TLR expression and development of active TB. In the present study, 71 polymorphisms in TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, and TLR9 were examined from 474 (295 cases and 179 controls) African-Americans, 381 (237 cases and 144 controls) Caucasians, and from 667 (321 cases and 346 controls) Africans from Guinea-Bissau for association with pulmonary TB using generalized estimating equations and logistic regression. Statistically significant associations were observed across populations at TLR9 and TLR2. The strongest evidence for association came at an insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism (−196 to −174) in TLR2 that associated with TB in both Caucasians (II vs. ID&DD, OR=0.41 [95% CI 0.24–0.68], p=0.0007) and Africans (II vs. ID&DD, OR=0.70 [95% CI 0.51–0.95], p=0.023). Our findings in three independent population samples indicate that variations in TLR2 and TLR9 might play important roles in determining susceptibility to TB. PMID:19771452

  3. Polymorphisms of toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 in patients that do and do not enter labour spontaneously at term.

    PubMed

    Ozlü, T; Ocak, Z; Simavli, S A; Karatas, A

    2014-08-01

    To assess the association of polymorphisms of toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2, 3 and 4 with the delay in onset of labour at term pregnancies, patients delivering at > 37 weeks and without pre-eclampsia, IUGR or a history of preterm delivery were prospectively evaluated. TLR2 Arg753Gln, TLR3 (c.1377C/T) and TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms were genotyped by using PCR-RFLP. Patients labouring spontaneously before the 41st week were compared with those who did not labour spontaneously until this week in terms of baseline characteristics, TLR 2, 3 and 4 polymorphisms. The same comparisons were also performed by using a 40th week cut-off. Chi-square test, two-sample t-test or Mann-Whitney U tests were used for comparisons, as appropriate. In total, 79 patients delivering after 37 weeks were evaluated. All had CC genotype for TLR2 Arg753Gln and TLR4 Thr399Ile. There were no significant differences for TLR4 Asp299Gly GA and TLR3 (c.1377C/T) polymorphisms between patients spontaneously entering or not entering labour until the 41st week; the same was true when the 40th week cut-off was used. Delay in onset of labour at term pregnant women does not seem to be affected by the presence of TLR 2, 3 or 4 polymorphisms. Further studies are needed.

  4. Activation of epidermal toll-like receptor 2 enhances tight junction function – Implications for atopic dermatitis and skin barrier repair

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, I-Hsin; Carpenter-Mendini, Amanda; Yoshida, Takeshi; McGirt, Laura Y.; Ivanov, Andrei I.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Gallo, Richard L.; Borkowski, Andrew W.; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Leung, Donald Y.; Georas, Steve N.; De Benedetto, Anna; Beck, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by epidermal tight junction (TJ) defects and a propensity for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) skin infections. S. aureus is sensed by many pattern recognition receptors including toll-like receptor (TLR) 2. We hypothesized that an effective innate immune response will include skin barrier repair and that this response is impaired in AD subjects. S. aureus-derived peptidoglycan (PGN) and synthetic TLR2 agonists enhanced TJ barrier and increased expression of TJ proteins, CLDN1, CLDN23, occludin and ZO-1 in primary human keratinocytes. A TLR2 agonist enhanced skin barrier recovery in human epidermis wounded by tape-stripping. Tlr2−/− mice had a delayed and incomplete barrier recovery following tape-stripping. AD subjects had reduced epidermal TLR2 expression as compared to nonatopic (NA) subjects, which inversely correlated (r= 0.654, P= 0.0004) with transepidermal water loss (TEWL). These observations indicate that TLR2 activation enhances skin barrier in murine and human skin and is an important part of a wound repair response. Reduced epidermal TLR2 expression observed in AD patients may play a role in their incompetent skin barrier. PMID:23223142

  5. Therapeutic Administration of KM+ Lectin Protects Mice Against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection via Interleukin-12 Production in a Toll-Like Receptor 2-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Coltri, Kely C.; Oliveira, Leandro L.; Pinzan, Camila F.; Vendruscolo, Patrícia E.; Martinez, Roberto; Goldman, Maria Helena; Panunto-Castelo, Ademilson; Roque-Barreira, Maria-Cristina

    2008-01-01

    KM+ is a mannose-binding lectin from Artocarpus integrifolia that induces interleukin (IL)-12 production by macrophages and protective T helper 1 immune response against Leishmania major infection. In this study, we performed experiments to evaluate the therapeutic activity of jackfruit KM+ (jfKM+) and its recombinant counterpart (rKM+) in experimental paracoccidioidomycosis. To this end, jfKM+ or rKM+ was administered to BALB/c mice 10 days after infection with Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis. Thirty days postinfection, lungs from the KM+-treated mice contained significantly fewer colony-forming units and little to no organized granulomas compared to the controls. In addition, lung homogenates from the KM+-treated mice presented higher levels of nitric oxide, IL-12, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α, whereas higher levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were detected in the control group. With mice deficient in IL-12, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4, or TLR adaptor molecule MyD88, we demonstrated that KM+ led to protection against P. brasiliensis infection through IL-12 production, which was dependent on TLR2. These results demonstrated a beneficial effect of KM+ on the severity of P. brasiliensis infection and may expand its potential use as a novel immunotherapeutic molecule. PMID:18599609

  6. Extracellular nucleotide inhibits cell proliferation and negatively regulates Toll-like receptor 4 signalling in human progenitor endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhilin; Yang, Mei; Fang, Li; Lv, Qingshan; He, Qing; Deng, Minjie; Liu, Xueting; Chen, Xiaobin; Chen, Meifang; Xie, Xiumei; Hu, Jinyue

    2012-07-01

    Extracellular nucleotides mediate a wide range of physiological effects by interacting with plasma membrane P2 purinergic receptors. P2 receptors are expressed in certain kinds of stem cells, and function to induce cytokine expression and to modulate cell proliferation. We have analysed the expression and the function of P2 receptors in human umbilical cord blood-derived EPCs (endothelial progenitor cells). EPCs expressed P2X4,6,7 and P2Y2,4,11,13,14 receptors and extracellular ATP inhibited EPCs proliferation. As in a previous study, EPCs expressed functional TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4) and activation of TLR4 by LPS (lipopolysaccharide) evoked a pro-inflammatory immune response. When human EPCs were stimulated with LPS and nucleotides, ATP or UTP inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), IFNα (interferon α), TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α) and adhesion molecule VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1) induced by LPS. ATP and UTP also down-regulated the gene expression of TLR4, CD14 and MyD88 (myeloid differentiation factor 88), a TLR adaptor molecule, and protein expression of CD14 and MyD88. Moreover, the phosphorylation of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) p65 induced by TLR4 activation was inhibited partly by ATP or UTP at concentrations of 1-5 μM. These results suggest that extracellular nucleotides negatively regulate EPCs proliferation and TLR4 signalling.

  7. Dengue virus NS1 protein activates cells via Toll-like receptor 4 and disrupts endothelial cell monolayer integrity.

    PubMed

    Modhiran, Naphak; Watterson, Daniel; Muller, David A; Panetta, Adele K; Sester, David P; Liu, Lidong; Hume, David A; Stacey, Katryn J; Young, Paul R

    2015-09-09

    Complications arising from dengue virus infection include potentially fatal vascular leak, and severe disease has been linked with excessive immune cell activation. An understanding of the triggers of this activation is critical for the development of appropriately targeted disease control strategies. We show here that the secreted form of the dengue virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP). Highly purified NS1 devoid of bacterial endotoxin activity directly activated mouse macrophages and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), leading to the induction and release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In an in vitro model of vascular leak, treatment with NS1 alone resulted in the disruption of endothelial cell monolayer integrity. Both NS1-mediated activation of PBMCs and NS1-induced vascular leak in vitro were inhibited by a TLR4 antagonist and by anti-TLR4 antibody treatment. The importance of TLR4 activation in vivo was confirmed by the reduction in capillary leak by a TLR4 antagonist in a mouse model of dengue virus infection. These results pinpoint NS1 as a viral toxin counterpart of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Similar to the role of LPS in septic shock, NS1 might contribute to vascular leak in dengue patients, which highlights TLR4 antagonists as a possible therapeutic option.

  8. Effects of lentiviral short hairpin RNA silencing of Toll-like receptor 4 on the lens epithelial cell line HLEC.

    PubMed

    Yu, H T; Lu, P R

    2016-06-03

    The aim of this study was to observe the proliferation of, and cell-cycle changes in, the human lens epithelial cell line HLEC after Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) gene silencing. HLEC cells were transfected with four TLR4-short hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentiviral vectors or the control lentivirus (pGCL-GFP-shRP-1, -2, -3, -4, NC). TLR4 silencing was verified in these cells 96 h post-transfection using real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot. We also observed the change in number of pGCL-GFP-shRP-4-transfected HLEC cells with silenced TLR4 (multiplicity of infection = 10). Cell proliferation was analyzed 48 h after transfection by a standard Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, and the cell cycle changes were detected by flow cytometry. The number of cells with silenced TLR4 decreased with time. The decrease in TLR4 expression led to decelerated cell proliferation. Cells with silenced TLR4 (for 48 h) were arrested in the G1 phase; that is, the cell cycle was prolonged and cell division was decelerated. Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference effectively silenced TLR4 expression in HLEC cells, which decelerated their proliferation rate and extended the cell cycle.

  9. Protective effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment against spinal cord injury in rats via toll-like receptor 2/nuclear factor-κB signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jiewen; Zhang, Fang; Liang, Fang; Wang, Yong; Li, Zhuo; Yang, Jing; Liu, Xuehua

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious medical problem with high mortality and disability rates. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment is beneficial for neurological recovery after SCI, but the underlying mechanisms await characterization. This study examined whether HBO treatment following SCI in rats exerts a neuroprotective effect through activation of the toll-like receptor (TLR) 2/nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway. The SC of rats was injured via T10 laminectomy. Experimental animals (n = 144) were divided into four groups: sham-operated (SH), SH + HBO, SCI, and SCI + HBO. Each group was subdivided into six subgroups (n = 6 per group) that were examined at 12 h, and 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14 days post-injury. Functional recovery in the hind limb was evaluated using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) scoring system. The expression of TLR2 and NF-кB was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, while interleukin-1 (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. TLR2 and NF-кB levels and histological scores were higher in the SCI than in the SH and SH + HBO groups at various time points. HBO treatment decreased TLR2 and NF-кB expression and histological scores as well as IL-1β and TNF-α levels compared to the SCI group at early post-injury stages. In addition, BBB scores were improved in the SCI + HBO relative to the SCI group at 7 and 14 days. HBO treatment may mitigate secondary injury to the SC by inhibiting inflammatory responses induced by TLR2/NF-кB signaling, thereby promoting functional recovery and improving neurological outcome. PMID:24966901

  10. Association of mRNA expression of toll-like receptor 2 and 3 with hepatitis B viral load in chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kataki, Kangkana; Borthakur, Parikhit; Kumari, Namrata; Deka, Manab; Kataki, Amal Ch; Medhi, Subhash

    2017-06-01

    During Hepatitis B virus infection, the pathogen sensors Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a role in innate immunity system. The study aimed to investigate mRNA expression levels of TLR2 and TLR3 in Hepatitis B virus (HBV) mediated chronic hepatitis B (CHB), cirrhosis (CIRR), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and to correlate viral load with severity of these diseases and expression of TLRs. A total of 180 HBV DNA positive samples were selected for the study. HVB-DNA was detected by multiplex PCR. Viral load estimation was done by using the Ampisure HBV Quantitative kit as per manufacture instructions. Expression levels of TLR2 and TLR3 were determined by real time PCR. The viral load was estimated to be 6.64log10 IU/ml in CHB, 4.88log10 IU/ml in CIRR, and 4.86log10 IU/ml in HCC. No significant association of viral load was found with increasing age. Upregulation of TLR2 expression in CHB when individually compared with CIRR and HCC was found to be statistically significant. Downregulation of TLR3 expressions in CIRR when compared to both CHB and HCC individually were found to be statistically significant. No significant effect of viral load on the expression of TLR2 and 3 were found. With severity of the disease from CHB to HCC, the HBV load decreases. The study suggests the possibility of HBV interacting with signalling of both analysed TLR receptors which partially explains the induction of immune tolerance pathways by Hepatitis B virus. J. Med. Virol. 89:1008-1014, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Systems analysis identifies an essential role for SHANK-associated RH domain-interacting protein (SHARPIN) in macrophage Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) responses

    PubMed Central

    Zak, Daniel E.; Schmitz, Frank; Gold, Elizabeth S.; Diercks, Alan H.; Peschon, Jacques J.; Valvo, Joe S.; Niemistö, Antti; Podolsky, Irina; Fallen, Shannon G.; Suen, Rosa; Stolyar, Tetyana; Johnson, Carrie D.; Kennedy, Kathleen A.; Hamilton, M. Kristina; Siggs, Owen M.; Beutler, Bruce; Aderem, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Precise control of the innate immune response is essential to ensure host defense against infection while avoiding inflammatory disease. Systems-level analyses of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-stimulated macrophages suggested that SHANK-associated RH domain-interacting protein (SHARPIN) might play a role in the TLR pathway. This hypothesis was supported by the observation that macrophages derived from chronic proliferative dermatitis mutation (cpdm) mice, which harbor a spontaneous null mutation in the Sharpin gene, exhibited impaired IL-12 production in response to TLR activation. Systems biology approaches were used to define the SHARPIN-regulated networks. Promoter analysis identified NF-κB and AP-1 as candidate transcription factors downstream of SHARPIN, and network analysis suggested selective attenuation of these pathways. We found that the effects of SHARPIN deficiency on the TLR2-induced transcriptome were strikingly correlated with the effects of the recently described hypomorphic L153P/panr2 point mutation in Ikbkg [NF-κB Essential Modulator (NEMO)], suggesting that SHARPIN and NEMO interact. We confirmed this interaction by co-immunoprecipitation analysis and furthermore found it to be abrogated by panr2. NEMO-dependent signaling was affected by SHARPIN deficiency in a manner similar to the panr2 mutation, including impaired p105 and ERK phosphorylation and p65 nuclear localization. Interestingly, SHARPIN deficiency had no effect on IκBα degradation and on p38 and JNK phosphorylation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that SHARPIN is an essential adaptor downstream of the branch point defined by the panr2 mutation in NEMO. PMID:21709223

  12. The association of genetic variants in toll-like receptor 2 subfamily with allergy and asthma after hospitalization for bronchiolitis in infancy.

    PubMed

    Koponen, Petri; Vuononvirta, Juho; Nuolivirta, Kirsi; Helminen, Merja; He, Qiushui; Korppi, Matti

    2014-05-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a pivotal part of the innate immunity system. Variations in TLR genes have been connected to autoimmune conditions, such as allergy and asthma. The TLR2 subfamily comprises TLR1, TLR2, TLR6 and TLR 10. We hypothesized that polymorphism of the TLR2 subfamily may be associated with prevalence of post-bronchiolitic asthma and/or atopy. TLR1rs5743618, TLR2rs5743708 and TLR6rs5743810 single nucleotide polymorphisms of 133 children who had been hospitalized for bronchiolitis at <6 months of age were analyzed. Doctor-diagnosed asthma and atopy as well as their occurrence during the first 6 years of life were evaluated during a follow-up visit. At the mean age of 6.4 years, asthma was present in 17 (13%) patients, there was asthma diagnosis during the first 6 years of life in 39 (29%) and current doctor-diagnosed allergic rhinitis in 57 (43%) patients. Twenty-four (24%) children with G/G genotype in TLR1 rs5743618 were diagnosed to have asthma between 1 and 6 years of age (vs. 13 (38%) of those with G/T or T/T genotypes; P = 0.04). In addition, 11/60 (18%) children with TLR6 rs5743810 C/T versus 36/73 (49%) children of other genotypes had atopic eczema at follow up. Only 2 children (8%) with wild genotype in all investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms had asthma during the first 6 years of life (vs. 30% in those with variant genotype of TLR1, TLR2 and/or TLR6). In this study, we demonstrated that TLR1 rs5743618 was associated with asthma and atopic eczema during the first 6 years of life after early bronchiolitis. In addition, TLR6 rs5743810 was associated with present atopy at preschool age.

  13. Pyrexia, anorexia, adipsia, and depressed motor activity in rats during systemic inflammation induced by the Toll-like receptors-2 and -6 agonists MALP-2 and FSL-1.

    PubMed

    Hübschle, Thomas; Mütze, Jörg; Mühlradt, Peter F; Korte, Stefan; Gerstberger, Rüdiger; Roth, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    Macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 (MALP-2) from Mycoplasma fermentans has been identified as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern of Mycoplasmas that causes activation of the innate immune system through the activation of the heterodimeric Toll-like receptors (TLRs)-2 and -6. The aim of this study was to characterize the ability of MALP-2 and a synthetic analog fibroblast-stimulating lipopeptide-1 (FSL-1; represents the NH2-terminal sequence of a lipoprotein from M. salivarium) to act as exogenous pyrogens, to induce formation of cytokines (endogenous pyrogens), and to cause sickness behavior, such as depressed motor activity, anorexia, and adipsia. For this purpose, body temperature, activity, food intake, and water intake were recorded for 3 days by use of telemetry devices in several groups of rats treated with MALP-2/FSL-1 or the respective control solutions. Intraperitoneal injections of FSL-1 caused fever at doses of 10 or 100 microg/kg, which was preceded by a pronounced phase of hypothermia in response to a dose of 1,000 microg/kg. The maximal fever (a peak of 1.5 degrees C above baseline) was caused by the 100 microg/kg dose with almost identical responses to both MALP-2 and FSL-1. Fever was accompanied by pronounced rises of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-6 in plasma. Treatment with the TLR-2 and -6 agonists further induced a dose-dependent manifestation of anorexia and adipsia, as well as a reduction of motor activity. We could thus demonstrate that activation of TLR-2 and -6 can induce systemic inflammation in rats accompanied by the classical signs of brain-controlled illness responses.

  14. Induction of Experimental Arthritis by Borrelial Lipoprotein and CpG Motifs: Are Toll-Like Receptors 2, 4, 9 or CD-14 Involved?

    SciTech Connect

    Batsford, S.; Dunn, J.; Mihatsch, M.

    2011-06-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins and CpG-DNA are ligands for Toll-Like-Receptors (TLR) 2 and 9 respectively. Both classes of molecules were reported to induce experimental arthritis in rodents following direct intra-articular injection. Here we studied: (1) whether arthritis induction by Outer surface (Lipo)protein A (OspA) (B.burgdorferi) involved the TLR-2 as well as the TLR-4 or the CD-14 receptors in addition, and (2) re-examined the arthritogenic potential of CpG-DNA motifs in mice. Following intra-articular injection of the test substances [20 {micro}g recombinant, lipidated OspA; 1nM(6 {micro}g) to 10nM(60 {micro}g) synthetic CpG-DNA], inflammation was monitored by {sup 99}Tc scintigraphy (ratio left/right knee joint uptake > 1.1 indicates inflammation) and by histology. Lipoprotein OspA induced severe, acute arthritis in TLR-2{sup +/+} w.t. but not in TLR-2{sup -/-} mice (p<0.01). There were no significant differences in the severity of arthritis induced in TLR-4{sup +/+} w.t. and TLR-4{sup -/-} mutant mice, or between CD14{sup +/+} w.t. and CD14{sup -/-} mice. CpG-DNA (1or 10 nM) did not cause notable inflammation in C57BL/6 mice; {sup 99}Tc ratios were < 1.0 and histology showed only minimal changes. Induction of arthritis by the OspA lipoprotein of B.burgdorferi involves the TLR-2 receptor, no evidence for additional participation of TLR-4 or CD14 receptors was found. Intra-articular injection of CpG-DNA did not produce manifest joint injury in mice, at variance with previous reports.

  15. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and toll-like receptor 2 are associated with hypertensive disorders in placental tissue: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Chaparro, A; Blanlot, C; Ramírez, V; Sanz, A; Quintero, A; Inostroza, C; Bittner, M; Navarro, M; Illanes, S E

    2013-12-01

    To explore the associations between the presence of periodontal pathogens and the expression of toll-like receptors (TLR-2 and TLR-4) in the placental tissue of patients with hypertensive disorders compared to the placentas of healthy normotensive patients. A case-control study was performed. From a cohort composed of 126 pregnant women, 33 normotensive healthy pregnant women were randomly selected, and 25 cases of patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, including gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia, were selected. Placental biopsy was obtained after aseptic placental collection at the time of delivery. All of the samples were processed and analysed for the detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Determination of the expressions of TLR-2 and TLR-4 was performed in samples of total purified protein isolated from placental tissues and analysed by ELISA. The data were assessed using descriptive statistics. The associations among variables were estimated through multiple logistic regression models and the Mann-Whitney test to evaluate the differences between the two groups. A significant increase was observed in the expression of TLR-2 in the placentas of patients with hypertensive disorders (p = 0.04). Additionally, the multiple logistic regression models demonstrated an association between the presence of T. denticola and P. gingivalis in placental tissues and hypertensive disorders (OR: 9.39, p = 0.001, CI 95% 2.39-36.88 and OR: 7.59, p = 0.019, CI 95% 1.39-41.51, respectively). In the present study, pregnant women with periodontal disease presented an association in the placental tissue between the presence of T. denticola and P. gingivalis and hypertensive disorders. Additionally, increased expression of TLR-2 was observed. However, further studies are required to determine the

  16. MyD88-dependent responses involving toll-like receptor 2 are important for protection and clearance of Legionella pneumophila in a mouse model of Legionnaires' disease.

    PubMed

    Archer, Kristina A; Roy, Craig R

    2006-06-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a gram-negative facultative intracellular parasite of macrophages. Although L. pneumophila is the causative agent of a severe pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease, it is likely that most infections caused by this organism are cleared by the host innate immune system. It is predicted that host pattern recognition proteins belonging to the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family are involved in the protective innate immune responses. We examined the role of TLR-mediated responses in L. pneumophila detection and clearance using genetically altered mouse hosts in which the macrophages are permissive for L. pneumophila intracellular replication. Our data demonstrate that cytokine production by bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) in response to L. pneumophila infection requires the TLR adapter protein MyD88 and is reduced in the absence of TLR2 but not in the absence of TLR4. Bacterial growth ex vivo in BMMs from MyD88-deficient mice was not enhanced compared to bacterial growth ex vivo in BMMs from heterozygous littermate controls. Wild-type mice were able to clear L. pneumophila from the lung, whereas respiratory infection of MyD88-deficient mice caused death that resulted from robust bacterial replication and dissemination. In contrast to an infection with virulent L. pneumophila, MyD88-deficient mice were able to clear infections with L. pneumophila dotA mutants, indicating that MyD88-independent responses in the lung are sufficient to clear bacteria that are unable to replicate intracellularly. In vivo growth of L. pneumophila was enhanced in the lungs of TLR2-deficient mice, which resulted in a delay in bacterial clearance. No significant differences were observed in the growth and clearance of L. pneumophila in the lungs of TLR4-deficient mice and heterozygous littermate control mice. Our data indicate that MyD88 is crucial for eliciting a protective innate immune response against virulent L. pneumophila and that TLR2 is one of the pattern

  17. Toll-like receptor-4 agonist in post-haemorrhage pneumonia: role of dendritic and natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Roquilly, Antoine; Broquet, Alexis; Jacqueline, Cedric; Gautreau, Laetitia; Segain, Jean Pierre; de Coppet, Pierre; Caillon, Jocelyne; Altare, Frédéric; Josien, Regis; Asehnoune, Karim

    2013-11-01

    Haemorrhage-induced immunosuppression has been linked to nosocomial infections. We assessed the impact of monophosphoryl lipid A, a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor-domain-containing adaptor protein inducing interferon-biased Toll-like receptor-4 agonist currently used as a vaccine adjuvant in humans, on post-haemorrhage susceptibility to infection. We used a mouse model of post-haemorrhage pneumonia induced by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. Monophosphoryl lipid A was administered intravenously after haemorrhage and before pneumonia onset. Haemorrhage altered survival rate, increased lung damage (neutrophil accumulation, oedema and cytokine release) and altered the functions of dendritic and natural killer cells. Here, we show that monophosphoryl lipid A decreased systemic dissemination of S. aureus and dampened inflammatory lung lesions. Monophosphoryl lipid A partially restored the capacity for antigen presentation and the transcriptional activity in dendritic cells. Monophosphoryl lipid A did not restore the interferon-γ mRNA but prevented interleukin-10 mRNA overexpression in natural killer cells compared with untreated mice. Ex vivo monophosphoryl lipid A-stimulated dendritic cells or natural killer cells harvested from haemorrhaged animals were adoptively transferred into mice undergoing post-haemorrhage pneumonia. Stimulated dendritic cells (but not stimulated natural killer cells) improved the survival rate compared with mice left untreated. In vivo depletion of natural killer cells decreased survival rate of monophosphoryl lipid A-treated mice. Dendritic and natural killer cells are critically involved in the beneficial effects of monophosphoryl lipid A within post-haemorrhage pneumonia.

  18. The Toll-like receptor 9 signalling pathway regulates MR1-mediated bacterial antigen presentation in B cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianyun; Brutkiewicz, Randy R

    2017-10-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are conserved T cells that express a semi-invariant T-cell receptor (Vα7.2 in humans and Vα19 in mice). The development of MAIT cells requires the antigen-presenting MHC-related protein 1 (MR1), as well as commensal bacteria. The mechanisms that regulate the functional expression of MR1 molecules and their loading with bacterial antigen in antigen-presenting cells are largely unknown. We have found that treating B cells with the Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist CpG increases MR1 surface expression. Interestingly, activation of TLR9 by CpG-A (but not CpG-B) enhances MR1 surface expression. This is limited to B cells and not other types of cells such as monocytes, T or natural killer cells. Knocking-down TLR9 expression by short hairpin RNA reduces MR1 surface expression and MR1-mediated bacterial antigen presentation. CpG-A triggers early endosomal TLR9 activation, whereas CpG-B is responsible for late endosomal/lysosomal activation of TLR9. Consistently, blocking endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi protein transport, rather than lysosomal acidification, suppressed MR1 antigen presentation. Overall, our results indicate that early endosomal TLR9 activation is important for MR1-mediated bacterial antigen presentation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. From The Cover: Induction of antiviral immunity requires Toll-like receptor signaling in both stromal and dendritic cell compartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Ayuko; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2004-11-01

    Pattern recognition by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is known to be important for the induction of dendritic cell (DC) maturation. DCs, in turn, are critically important in the initiation of T cell responses. However, most viruses do not infect DCs. This recognition system poses a biological problem in ensuring that most viral infections be detected by pattern recognition receptors. Furthermore, it is unknown what, if any, is the contribution of TLRs expressed by cells that are infected by a virus, versus TLRs expressed by DCs, in the initiation of antiviral adaptive immunity. Here we address these issues using a physiologically relevant model of mucosal infection with herpes simplex virus type 2. We demonstrate that innate immune recognition of viral infection occurs in two distinct stages, one at the level of the infected epithelial cells and the other at the level of the noninfected DCs. Importantly, both TLR-mediated recognition events are required for the induction of effector T cells. Our results demonstrate that virally infected tissues instruct DCs to initiate the appropriate class of effector T cell responses and reveal the critical importance of the stromal cells in detecting infectious agents through their own pattern recognition receptors. mucosal immunity | pattern recognition | viral infection

  20. Toll-like receptor mediated modulation of T cell response by commensal intestinal microbiota as a trigger for autoimmune arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rogier, Rebecca; Koenders, Marije I; Abdollahi-Roodsaz, Shahla

    2015-01-01

    In autoimmune diseases, a disturbance of the balance between T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) is often observed. This disturbed balance is also the case in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Genetic predisposition to RA confers the presence of several polymorphisms mainly regulating activation of T lymphocytes. However, the presence of susceptibility factors is neither necessary nor sufficient to explain the disease development, emphasizing the importance of environmental factors. Multiple studies have shown that commensal gut microbiota is of great influence on immune homeostasis and can trigger the development of autoimmune diseases by favoring induction of Th17 cells over Tregs. However the mechanism by which intestinal microbiota influences the Th cell balance is not completely understood. Here we review the current evidence supporting the involvement of commensal intestinal microbiota in rheumatoid arthritis, along with a potential role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in modulating the relevant Th cell responses to trigger autoimmunity. A better understanding of TLR triggering by intestinal microbiota and subsequent T cell activation might offer new perspectives for manipulating the T cell response in RA patients and may lead to the discovery of new therapeutic targets or even preventive measures.

  1. Defective Toll-like receptor 9-mediated cytokine production in B cells from Bruton's tyrosine kinase-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Maroof; Lopez-Herrera, Gabriela; Blomberg, K Emelie M; Lindvall, Jessica M; Berglöf, Anna; Smith, C I Edvard; Vargas, Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), a member of the Tec family of tyrosine kinases, plays an important role in the differentiation and activation of B cells. Mutations affecting Btk cause immunodeficiency in both humans and mice. In this study we set out to investigate the potential role of Btk in Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) activation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-12p40. Our data show that Btk-deficient B cells respond more efficiently to CpG-DNA stimulation, producing significantly higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines but lower levels of the inhibitory cytokine IL-10. The quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis presented in this work shows that mRNA production of one of the important new members of the IL-12 family, IL-27, was significantly increased in Btk-deficient B cells after CpG-DNA stimulation. In this study, we demonstrate significant differences in CpG responsiveness between transitional 1 (T1) and T2 B cells for survival and maturation. Furthermore, TLR9 expression, measured both as protein and as mRNA, was increased in Btk-defective cells, especially after TLR9 stimulation. Collectively, these data provide evidence in support of the theory that Btk regulates both TLR9 activation and expression in mouse splenic B cells. PMID:17725607

  2. Advanced application of porcine intestinal epithelial cells for the selection of immunobiotics modulating toll-like receptor 3-mediated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Shoichi; Villena, Julio; Chiba, Eriko; Shimazu, Tomoyuki; Suda, Yoshihito; Aso, Hisashi; Saito, Tadao; Kitazawa, Haruki

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we aimed to characterize toll-like receptor (TLR)-3-mediated inflammatory immune response in porcine intestinal epithelial (PIE) cells and in PIE-immune cell co-cultures and, to evaluate if these in vitro systems are useful for selecting immunomodulatory lactic acid bacteria. We demonstrated that these systems are valuable tools for the in vitro study of the inflammatory response triggered by TLR3 in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and of the interaction between IECs and immune cells. In addition, we showed that PIE cells could be used for the selection of immunobiotic lactobacilli strains with anti-inflammatory activities. We found that Lactobacillus casei MEP221114 is an immunobiotic candidate for modulation of TLR3-mediated inflammatory responses. The present study deepened our understanding of the mechanisms of immunobiotic action by demonstrating that the interaction between some lactobacilli strains and IECs can up-regulate the mRNA expression of TLR negative regulators and that this effect could help to regulate the production of inflammatory mediators during the generation of a TLR3-mediated immune response. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide induces increased expression of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and downstream TLR signaling molecules in bovine mammary epithelial cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bovine mammary epithelial cells contribute to the innate immune response to intramammary infections by recognizing pathogens through specialized pattern recognition receptors. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is one such receptor that binds and is activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of the...

  4. Toll-like receptor 7 mediates pruritus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Xu, Zhen-Zhong; Park, Chul-Kyu; Berta, Temugin; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2010-12-01

    Toll-like receptors are typically expressed in immune cells to regulate innate immunity. We found that functional Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) was expressed in C-fiber primary sensory neurons and was important for inducing itch (pruritus), but was not necessary for eliciting mechanical, thermal, inflammatory and neuropathic pain in mice. Our results indicate that TLR7 mediates itching and is a potential therapeutic target for anti-itch treatment in skin disease conditions.

  5. Toll-like receptor agonists induce inflammation and cell death in a model of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Rydberg, Camilla; Månsson, Anne; Uddman, Rolf; Riesbeck, Kristian; Cardell, Lars-Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer. The present study describes TLR expression and function in healthy and malignant airway epithelial cells. The squamous cell carcinoma cell line Detroit-562 was compared with the healthy bronchial epithelial cell line NL-20 and primary human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs). TLR2, TLR3 and TLR5 were present in primary head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). Consistent with this, Detroit-562 expressed TLR2, TLR3 and TLR5, whereas NL-20 expressed mainly TLR3 and HNECs expressed TLR2-5. In Detroit-562, Pam3CSK4, poly(I:C) and flagellin, ligands for TLR2, TLR3 and TLR5, respectively, induced an up-regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), an increase in interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 secretion and a decrease in cell viability. Additionally, poly(I:C) affected IL-1β production and the migratory behaviour of Detroit-562. NL-20 responded with a slight increase in IL-8 secretion upon poly(I:C) stimulation. Poly(I:C) induced a small increase in IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 production in HNECs, while Pam3CSK4 increased viability. The TLR signalling was transcription-dependent, but the pathways involved differed among TLRs as well as cells. In Detroit-562, TLR2 and TLR5 activation was mediated via c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-, p38-, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)- and nuclear factor (NF)-κB-related pathways, while TLR3 was dependent on NF-κB. In NL-20, TLR3 signalled via p38, and in HNECs, NF-κB, JNK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) appeared to be involved. We found that TLR agonists induced a robust response in HNSCCs, characterized by generation of inflammation and cell death. A similar response was not seen in normal epithelial cells. Thus, the TLR system should be considered an important target in future antitumour immunotherapy. PMID:19740321

  6. Enhanced activation of human dendritic cells by inducible CD40 and Toll-like receptor-4 ligation.

    PubMed

    Lapteva, Natalia; Seethammagari, Mamatha R; Hanks, Brent A; Jiang, Jianghong; Levitt, Jonathan M; Slawin, Kevin M; Spencer, David M

    2007-11-01

    Despite the potency of dendritic cells (DC) as antigen-presenting cells for priming adaptive immunity, DC-based cancer vaccines have been largely insufficient to effectively reduce tumor burden or prevent tumor progression in most patients. To enhance DC-based vaccines, we used the combination of a synthetic ligand-inducible CD40 receptor (iCD40) along with Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) ligation in human monocyte-derived DCs. The iCD40 receptor permits targeted, reversible activation of CD40 in vivo, potentially bypassing the essential role of CD4(+) T cells for activation of DCs. As a rigorous preclinical study of this approach, we evaluated key parameters of DC activation and function. Whereas neither iCD40 nor TLR-4 signaling alone led to high levels of interleukin (IL)-12p70 and IL-6, using iCD40 in combination with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or monophosphoryl lipid A led to strongly synergistic production of both. Furthermore, this approach led to high expression of DC maturation markers, epitope-specific CTL and T helper 1 responses, as well as DC migration in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, use of iCD40-modified and LPS-stimulated DCs led to targeted expansion of autologous T cells against tumor-associated antigens, including prostate-specific membrane antigen, and elimination of preestablished tumors, supporting this technology as a potent strategy for DC-based cancer immunotherapy.

  7. The toll-like receptor signaling molecule Myd88 contributes to pancreatic beta-cell homeostasis in response to injury.

    PubMed

    Bollyky, Paul L; Bice, Jeffrey B; Sweet, Ian R; Falk, Ben A; Gebe, John A; Clark, April E; Gersuk, Vivian H; Aderem, Alan; Hawn, Thomas R; Nepom, Gerald T

    2009-01-01

    Commensal flora and pathogenic microbes influence the incidence of diabetes in animal models yet little is known about the mechanistic basis of these interactions. We hypothesized that Myd88, an adaptor molecule in the Toll-like-receptor (TLR) pathway, regulates pancreatic beta-cell function and homeostasis. We first examined beta-cells histologically and found that Myd88-/- mice have smaller islets in comparison to C57Bl/6 controls. Myd88-/- mice were nonetheless normoglycemic both at rest and after an intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). In contrast, after low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) challenge, Myd88-/-mice had an abnormal IPGTT relative to WT controls. Furthermore, Myd88-/- mice suffer enhanced beta-cell apoptosis and have enhanced hepatic damage with delayed recovery upon low-dose STZ treatment. Finally, we treated WT mice with broad-spectrum oral antibiotics to deplete their commensal flora. In WT mice, low dose oral lipopolysaccharide, but not lipotichoic acid or antibiotics alone, strongly promoted enhanced glycemic control. These data suggest that Myd88 signaling and certain TLR ligands mediate a homeostatic effect on beta-cells primarily in the setting of injury.

  8. The Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Molecule Myd88 Contributes to Pancreatic Beta-Cell Homeostasis in Response to Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bollyky, Paul L.; Bice, Jeffrey B.; Sweet, Ian R.; Falk, Ben A.; Gebe, John A.; Clark, April E.; Gersuk, Vivian H.; Aderem, Alan; Hawn, Thomas R.; Nepom, Gerald T.

    2009-01-01

    Commensal flora and pathogenic microbes influence the incidence of diabetes in animal models yet little is known about the mechanistic basis of these interactions. We hypothesized that Myd88, an adaptor molecule in the Toll-like-receptor (TLR) pathway, regulates pancreatic β-cell function and homeostasis. We first examined β-cells histologically and found that Myd88−/− mice have smaller islets in comparison to C57Bl/6 controls. Myd88−/− mice were nonetheless normoglycemic both at rest and after an intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). In contrast, after low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) challenge, Myd88−/−mice had an abnormal IPGTT relative to WT controls. Furthermore, Myd88−/− mice suffer enhanced β-cell apoptosis and have enhanced hepatic damage with delayed recovery upon low-dose STZ treatment. Finally, we treated WT mice with broad-spectrum oral antibiotics to deplete their commensal flora. In WT mice, low dose oral lipopolysaccharide, but not lipotichoic acid or antibiotics alone, strongly promoted enhanced glycemic control. These data suggest that Myd88 signaling and certain TLR ligands mediate a homeostatic effect on β-cells primarily in the setting of injury. PMID:19357791

  9. Toll-like receptor 4 expression is increased in circulating mononuclear cells of patients with immunoglobulin A nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Coppo, R; Camilla, R; Amore, A; Peruzzi, L; Daprà, V; Loiacono, E; Vatrano, S; Rollino, C; Sepe, V; Rampino, T; Dal Canton, A

    2010-01-01

    We investigated Toll-like receptors (TLR-3, -4 and -7) expression in circulating mononuclear cells of patients with immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), a disease with debated relationships with mucosal immunity. TLR-4 expression (detected by fluorescence activated cell sorter) and mRNA transcriptional levels (Taqman) were significantly higher in patients with IgAN than in healthy controls (P = 0·00200 and P = 0·0200). TLR-3 and TLR-7 were not modified significantly. In IgAN patients proteinuria was correlated significantly with TLR-4 expression (P = 0·0312). In a group of nephrotic syndromes, TLR-3, -4 and -7 expression was similar to healthy controls. A significant difference in TLR-4 expression and mRNA levels was found between very active IgAN patients (proteinuria > 1 g/1·73 m2/day in association with severe microscopic haematuria) and inactive patients (proteinuria < 0·5 g/1·73 m2/day, with absent or minimal haematuria). No correlation with levels of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1, age, renal biopsy features or therapy was found. This study shows for the first time an up-regulation of TLR-4 in circulating mononuclear cells of patients with IgAN, particularly in association with proteinuria and heavy microscopic haematuria. PMID:19891659

  10. Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Free Radical Generation in Clonorchis sinensis Excretory-Secretory Product-Treated Cholangiocarcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Bahk, Young Yil; Pak, Jhang Ho

    2016-10-01

    Clonorchiasis, caused by direct contact with Clonorchis sinensis worms and their excretory-secretory products (ESPs), is associated with chronic inflammation, malignant changes in bile ducts, and even cholangiocarcinogenesis. Our previous report revealed that intracellular free radicals enzymatically generated by C. sinensis ESPs cause NF-κB-mediated inflammation in human cholangiocarcinoma cells (HuCCT1). Therefore, the present study was conducted to examine the role of upstream Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the initial host innate immune responses to infection. We found that treatment of HuCCT1 cells with native ESPs induced changes in TLR mRNA levels in a time-dependent manner, concomitant with the generation of free radicals. ESP-mediated free radical generation was markedly attenuated by preincubation of the cells with TLR1-4-neutralizing antibodies, indicating that at least TLR1 through 4 participate in stimulation of the host innate immune responses. These findings indicate that free radicals triggered by ESPs are critically involved in TLR signal transduction. Continuous signaling by this pathway may function in initiating C. sinensis infection-associated inflammation cascades, a detrimental event leading to progression to more severe hepatobiliary diseases.

  11. CCL-34, a synthetic toll-like receptor 4 activator, modulates differentiation and maturation of myeloid dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shu-Ling; Lin, Chun-Cheng; Hsu, Ming-Ling; Liu, Sheng-Hung; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2016-03-08

    CCL-34, a synthetic α-galactosylceramide analog, has been reported as an activator of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in macrophages. TLR4 is highly expressed in dendritic cell (DC) and several TLR4 agonists are known to trigger DC maturation. We herein evaluated the effect of CCL-34 on DC maturation. Human CD14+ monocyte-derived immature DC were treated with CCL-34, its inactive structural analog CCL-44, or LPS to assess the DC maturation. CCL-34 induced DC maturation according to their characteristically dendrite-forming morphology, CD83 expression and IL-12p70 production. The allostimulatory activity of DC on proliferation of naive CD4+CD45+RA+ T cells and their secretion of interferon-γ was increased by CCL-34. Phagocytosis, an important function of immature DC, was reduced after CCL-34 treatment. All these effects related to DC maturation were evidently induced by positive control LPS but not by CCL-44 treatment. TLR4 neutralization impaired human DC maturation triggered by CCL-34. The induction of IL-12, a hallmark of DC maturation, by CCL-34 and LPS was only evident in TLR4-competent C3H/HeN, but not in TLR4-defective C3H/HeJ mice. CCL-34 could further elicit the antigen presentation capability in mice inoculated with doxorubicin-treated colorectal cancer cells. In summary, CCL-34 triggers DC maturation via a TLR4-dependent manner, which supports its potential application as an immunostimulator.

  12. Toll-like Receptor 7 Mitigates Lethal West Nile Encephalitis via Interleukin 23-Dependent Immune Cell Infiltration and Homing

    PubMed Central

    Town, Terrence; Bai, Fengwei; Wang, Tian; Kaplan, Amber T.; Qian, Feng; Montgomery, Ruth R.; Anderson, John F.; Flavell, Richard A.; Fikrig, Erol

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-transmitted single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) flavivirus, causes human disease of variable severity. We investigated Toll-like receptor 7-deficient (Tlr7−/−) and myeloid differentiation factor 88-deficient (Myd88−/−) mice, which both have defective recognition of ssRNA, and found increased viremia and susceptibility to lethal WNV infection. Despite increased tissue concentrations of most innate cytokines, CD45+ leukocytes and CD11b+ macrophages failed to home to WNV-infected cells and infiltrate into target organs of Tlr7−/− mice. Tlr7−/− mice and macrophages had reduced interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-23 responses after WNV infection, and mice deficient in IL-12 p40 and IL-23 p40 (Il12b−/−) or IL-23 p19 (Il23a−/−), but not IL-12 p35 (Il12a−/−), responded similarly to Tlr7−/− mice, with increased susceptibility to lethal WNV encephalitis. Collectively, these results demonstrate that TLR7 andIL-23-dependent WNV responses representa vital host defense mechanism that operates by affecting immune cell homing to infected target cells. PMID:19200759

  13. Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Free Radical Generation in Clonorchis sinensis Excretory-Secretory Product-Treated Cholangiocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bahk, Young Yil; Pak, Jhang Ho

    2016-01-01

    Clonorchiasis, caused by direct contact with Clonorchis sinensis worms and their excretory-secretory products (ESPs), is associated with chronic inflammation, malignant changes in bile ducts, and even cholangiocarcinogenesis. Our previous report revealed that intracellular free radicals enzymatically generated by C. sinensis ESPs cause NF-κB-mediated inflammation in human cholangiocarcinoma cells (HuCCT1). Therefore, the present study was conducted to examine the role of upstream Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the initial host innate immune responses to infection. We found that treatment of HuCCT1 cells with native ESPs induced changes in TLR mRNA levels in a time-dependent manner, concomitant with the generation of free radicals. ESP-mediated free radical generation was markedly attenuated by preincubation of the cells with TLR1-4-neutralizing antibodies, indicating that at least TLR1 through 4 participate in stimulation of the host innate immune responses. These findings indicate that free radicals triggered by ESPs are critically involved in TLR signal transduction. Continuous signaling by this pathway may function in initiating C. sinensis infection-associated inflammation cascades, a detrimental event leading to progression to more severe hepatobiliary diseases. PMID:27853127

  14. Messenger RNA encoding constitutively active Toll-like receptor 4 enhances effector functions of human T cells

    PubMed Central

    Pato, A; Eisenberg, G; Machlenkin, A; Margalit, A; Cafri, G; Frankenburg, S; Merims, S; Peretz, T; Lotem, M; Gross, G

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive T cell therapy of cancer employs a large number of ex-vivo-propagated T cells which recognize their targets either by virtue of their endogenous T cell receptor (TCR) or via genetic reprogramming. However, both cell-extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms often diminish the in-vivo potency of these therapeutic T cells, limiting their clinical efficacy and broader use. Direct activation of human T cells by Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands induces T cell survival and proliferation, boosts the production of proinflammatory cytokines and augments resistance to regulatory T cell (Treg) suppression. Removal of the TLR ligand-binding region results in constitutive signalling triggered by the remaining cytosolic Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. The use of such TIR domains therefore offers an ideal means for equipping anti-tumour T cells with the arsenal of functional attributes required for improving current clinical protocols. Here we show that constitutively active (ca)TLR-4 can be expressed efficiently in human T cells using mRNA electroporation. The mere expression of caTLR-4 mRNA in polyclonal CD8 and CD4 T cells induced the production of interferon (IFN)-γ, triggered the surface expression of CD25, CD69 and 4-1BB and up-regulated a panel of cytokines and chemokines. In tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes prepared from melanoma patients, caTLR-4 induced robust IFN-γ secretion in all samples tested. Furthermore, caTLR-4 enhanced the anti-melanoma cytolytic activity of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes and augmented the secretion of IFN-γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for at least 4 days post-transfection. Our results demonstrate that caTLR-4 is capable of exerting multiple T cell-enhancing effects and can potentially be used as a genetic adjuvant in adoptive cell therapy. PMID:26212048

  15. Dependence of pathogen molecule-induced toll-like receptor activation and cell function on Neu1 sialidase.

    PubMed

    Amith, Schammim Ray; Jayanth, Preethi; Franchuk, Susan; Siddiqui, Sarah; Seyrantepe, Volkan; Gee, Katrina; Basta, Sameh; Beyaert, Rudi; Pshezhetsky, Alexey V; Szewczuk, Myron R

    2009-12-01

    The signaling pathways of mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLR) are well characterized, but the initial molecular mechanisms activated following ligand interactions with the receptors remain poorly defined. Here, we show a membrane controlling mechanism that is initiated by ligand binding to TLR-2, -3 and-4 to induce Neu1 sialidase activity within minutes in live primary bone marrow (BM) macrophage cells and macrophage and dendritic cell lines. Central to this process is that Neu1 and not Neu2,-3 and-4 forms a complex with TLR-2,-3 and-4 on the cell surface of naïve macrophage cells. Neuraminidase inhibitors BCX1827, 2-deoxy-2,3-dehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid (DANA), zanamivir and oseltamivir carboxylate have a limited significant inhibition of the LPS-induced sialidase activity in live BMC-2 macrophage cells but Tamiflu (oseltamivir phosphate) completely blocks this activity. Tamiflu inhibits LPS-induced sialidase activity in live BMC-2 cells with an IC(50) of 1.2 microM compared to an IC(50) of 1015 microM for its hydrolytic metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate. Tamiflu blockage of LPS-induced Neu1 sialidase activity is not affected in BMC-2 cells pretreated with anticarboxylesterase agent clopidogrel. Endotoxin LPS binding to TLR4 induces Neu1 with subsequent activation of NFkappaB and the production of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory IL-6 and TNFalpha cytokines in primary and macrophage cell lines. Hypomorphic cathepsin A mice with a secondary Neu1 deficiency respond poorly to LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to the wild-type or hypomorphic cathepsin A with normal Neu1 mice. Our findings establish an unprecedented mechanism for pathogen molecule-induced TLR activation and cell function, which is critically dependent on Neu1 sialidase activity associated with TLR ligand treated live primary macrophage cells and macrophage and dendritic cell lines.

  16. Shockwave therapy differentially stimulates endothelial cells: implications on the control of inflammation via toll-Like receptor 3.

    PubMed

    Holfeld, Johannes; Tepeköylü, Can; Kozaryn, Radoslaw; Urbschat, Anja; Zacharowski, Kai; Grimm, Michael; Paulus, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    Shock wave therapy (SWT) reportedly improves ventricular function in ischemic heart failure. Angiogenesis and inflammation modulatory effects were described. However, the mechanism remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that SWT modulates inflammation via toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) through the release of cytosolic RNA. SWT was applied to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with 250 impulses, 0.08 mJ/mm(2) and 3 Hz. Gene expression of TLR3, inflammatory genes and signalling molecules was analysed at different time points by real-time polymerase chain reaction. SWT showed activation of HUVECs: enhanced expression of TLR3 and of the transporter protein for nucleic acids cyclophilin B, of pro-inflammatory cytokines cyclophilin A and interleukin-6 and of anti-inflammatory interleukin-10. No changes were found in the expression of vascular endothelial cell adhesion molecule. SWT modulates inflammation via the TLR3 pathway. The interaction between interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 in TLR3 stimulation can be schematically seen as a three-phase regulation over time.

  17. Impaired toll-like receptor signalling in peripheral B cells from newly diagnosed type-2 diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Madhumitha, Haridoss; Mohan, Viswanathan; Kumar, Nathella P; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Babu, Subash; Aravindhan, Vivekanandhan

    2015-12-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) under diabetic conditions trigger inflammation and impair immunity. In the present study, we looked at the expression of TLRs (2 and 4) and their adaptors in Normal Glucose Tolerant (NGT), Newly Diagnosed Type-2 Diabetic (NDD) and Known Type-2 Diabetic (KDM) subjects. We also estimated TLR induced cytokine secretion, cellular activation and apoptosis. Surface expression of TLR2 and 4 was significantly reduced in the B cells of the NDD subjects and was associated with decreased cellular activation and cytokine secretion (TNF-α and IL-6). This impairment was not due to B cell deficiency or apoptosis or immunosuppressive cytokine (IL-10 and TGF-β) secretion. However, the upregulation of immunomodulatory enzymes (Arg-1, HO-1 and IDO) could probably account for the reduced TLR expression. The defective TLR signalling was largely ameliorated in the KDM group which might be due to the use the anti-diabetic drugs which have anti-inflammatory effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Phospholipid Scramblase 1 regulates Toll-like receptor 9-mediated type I interferon production in plasmacytoid dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Talukder, Amjad H; Bao, Musheng; Kim, Tae Whan; Facchinetti, Valeria; Hanabuchi, Shino; Bover, Laura; Zal, Tomasz; Liu, Yong-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) senses microbial DNA in the endosomes of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and triggers MyD88-dependent type I interferon (IFN) responses. To better understand TLR9 biology in pDCs, we established a yeast two-hybrid library for the identification of TLR9-interacting proteins. Here, we report that an IFN-inducible protein, phospholipid scramblase 1 (PLSCR1), interacts with TLR9 in pDCs. Knockdown of PLSCR1 expression by siRNA in human pDC cell line led to a 60-70% reduction of IFN-α responses following CpG-ODN (oligodeoxynucleotide) stimulation. Primary pDCs from PLSCR1-deficient mice produced lower amount of type 1 IFN than pDCs from the wild-type mice in response to CpG-ODN, herpes simplex virus and influenza A virus. Following CpG-A stimulation, there were much lower amounts of TLR9 in the early endosomes together with CpG-A in pDCs from PLSCR1-deficient mice. Our study demonstrates that PLSCR1 is a TLR9-interacting protein that plays an important role in pDC's type 1 IFN responses by regulating TLR9 trafficking to the endosomal compartment. PMID:22453241

  19. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 is regulated by toll-like receptor-9 in colorectal cancer cells and mediates cellular migration

    PubMed Central

    RATH, TIMO; STÖCKLE, JULIA; RODERFELD, MARTIN; TSCHUSCHNER, ANNETTE; GRAF, JÜRGEN; ROEB, ELKE

    2011-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are associated with cancer cell invasion and metastasis, and are currently the most prominent proteases associated with tumorigenesis. In particular, abundant expression of MMP-13 in colorectal cancer (CRC) is correlated with poor survival and the existence of distant metastasis. As suggested by recent in vitro studies, MMP-13 expression is regulated in a toll-like receptor (TLR)-9-dependent manner. In this study, we quantified the expression of MMP-13, TLR-9 and second messengers of the TLR signal transduction in CRC cells compared to colonic fibroblasts by RT-PCR. Furthermore, the effects of a selective TLR-9 stimulation on the expression of MMP-13 in CRC cells and colonic fibroblasts were analyzed. MMP-13 and TLR-9 as well as associated second messengers were simultaneously up-regulated in LS174 and SW620 cells compared to fibroblasts. Selective TLR-9 agonism with CpG oligonucleotides led to a significant increase in MMP-13 gene expression after 12 h of incubation in LS174 cells and after 12 and 24 h in SW620 cells, but not when using GpC oligonucleotides as a control substance. By contrast, MMP-13 gene expression remained unchanged in colonic fibroblasts following treatment with CpG or GpC oligonucleotides. The effects of selective MMP-13 inhibition on cellular migration were analyzed in Boyden chamber experiments. In the presence of 10 and 20 μM of the specific MMP-13 inhibitor, CL-82198, migration of the LS174 cells was significantly reduced by 55 and 52%, respectively, compared to untreated cells. In conclusion, the results of this study provide evidence of the TLR-9-dependent regulation of MMP-13 in CRC cells, but not in colonic fibroblasts. Since the specific inhibition of MMP-13 significantly reduces the migration of LS174 cells, selective MMP-13 inhibition may be a promising therapeutic strategy in CRC. PMID:22866107

  20. Toll like receptor 4 facilitates invasion and migration as a cancer stem cell marker in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Ting; Jing, Ying-Ying; Yu, Guo-feng; Han, Zhi-peng; Yu, Dan-dan; Fan, Qing-Min; Ye, Fei; Li, Rong; Gao, Lu; Zhao, Qiu-Dong; Wu, Meng-Chao; Wei, Li-Xin

    2015-03-28

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating cells (TICs), a small subset of tumor cells, are involved in tumor initiation, progression, recurrence and metastasis. In human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), TICs are enriched with cell surface markers and play a key role in chemotherapy resistance, tumor invasion and migration. Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4), acting as a receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS), has been reported to be responsible for carcinogenesis, invasion, metastasis and cancer progression. In our study, two HCC cell lines and a splenic vein metastasis of the nude mouse model were used to study the invasive ability of TLR4 positive HCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Stem-like features were also detected in TLR4 positive HCC cells. A total of 88 clinical samples from HCC patients were used to evaluate the association of TLR4 and stem-cell marker expression, and the relationship between TLR4 expression and clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed. The in vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that TLR4 positive HCC cells displayed significantly enhanced invasion and migration, and stem-like properties were also detected in TLR4 positive HCC cells. Clinically, TLR4 expression levels were found to be significantly higher in HCC tissues with microvascular invasion. Additionally, high expression of TLR4 in HCC tissues was strongly associated with both early recurrence and poor survivals in patients. Our results indicated that there was a relationship between TLR4 expression and CSC's features, TLR4 may act as a CSC marker, prompting tumor invasion and migration, which contributes to the poor prognosis of HCC.

  1. Increased immunoglobulin A in alcoholic liver cirrhosis: exploring the response of B cells to Toll-like receptor 9 activation

    PubMed Central

    Massonnet, B; Delwail, A; Ayrault, J-M; Chagneau-Derrode, C; Lecron, J-C; Silvain, C

    2009-01-01

    Alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC) is characterized by increased circulating levels of immunoglobulins (Igs). ALC patients undergo bacterial translocation evidenced by the presence of bacterial DNA in peripheral blood. Bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN) and unmethylated cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) DNA are ligands of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, TLR-2 and TLR-9, respectively. Although TLR activation results generally in the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, activation of B cells through TLR-7 or TLR-9 is involved in their maturation and Ig synthesis. The aim of the present study was to assess Ig synthesis by ALC B cells under PAMP activation in order to evaluate the possible involvement of TLR pathways in the increased Ig levels, and especially the hyper-IgA observed in ALC. CpG, in combination with interleukin (IL)-10 or IL-21, enhanced IgA, IgG and IgM synthesis by healthy donor (HD) PBMCs, but had only a weak effect on ALC PBMCs. Relative CpG-induced IgA production by purified ALC B cells was less important when compared to HD B cells, in accordance with the lower TLR-9 expression on ALC B cells compared to HD B cells, but the absolute IgA production by CpG-activated B cells was enhanced significantly for ALC when compared to HD, in agreement with their intrinsic ability to produce spontaneously more IgA than HD. LPS and PGN had no direct activity on B cells, whereas R848 also enhanced Ig synthesis, as reported recently. Taken together, these results suggest that TLR priming of B cells could account for the hyperimmunoglobulinaemia observed in ALC patients. PMID:19737238

  2. Increased immunoglobulin A in alcoholic liver cirrhosis: exploring the response of B cells to Toll-like receptor 9 activation.

    PubMed

    Massonnet, B; Delwail, A; Ayrault, J-M; Chagneau-Derrode, C; Lecron, J-C; Silvain, C

    2009-10-01

    Alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC) is characterized by increased circulating levels of immunoglobulins (Igs). ALC patients undergo bacterial translocation evidenced by the presence of bacterial DNA in peripheral blood. Bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN) and unmethylated cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) DNA are ligands of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, TLR-2 and TLR-9, respectively. Although TLR activation results generally in the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, activation of B cells through TLR-7 or TLR-9 is involved in their maturation and Ig synthesis. The aim of the present study was to assess Ig synthesis by ALC B cells under PAMP activation in order to evaluate the possible involvement of TLR pathways in the increased Ig levels, and especially the hyper-IgA observed in ALC. CpG, in combination with interleukin (IL)-10 or IL-21, enhanced IgA, IgG and IgM synthesis by healthy donor (HD) PBMCs, but had only a weak effect on ALC PBMCs. Relative CpG-induced IgA production by purified ALC B cells was less important when compared to HD B cells, in accordance with the lower TLR-9 expression on ALC B cells compared to HD B cells, but the absolute IgA production by CpG-activated B cells was enhanced significantly for ALC when compared to HD, in agreement with their intrinsic ability to produce spontaneously more IgA than HD. LPS and PGN had no direct activity on B cells, whereas R848 also enhanced Ig synthesis, as reported recently. Taken together, these results suggest that TLR priming of B cells could account for the hyperimmunoglobulinaemia observed in ALC patients.

  3. Human decidual macrophages and NK cells differentially express Toll-like receptors and display distinct cytokine profiles upon TLR stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Duriez, Marion; Quillay, Héloïse; Madec, Yoann; El Costa, Hicham; Cannou, Claude; Marlin, Romain; de Truchis, Claire; Rahmati, Mona; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Nugeyre, Marie-Thérèse; Menu, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Maternofetal pathogen transmission is partially controlled at the level of the maternal uterine mucosa at the fetal implantation site (the decidua basalis), where maternal and fetal cells are in close contact. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) may play an important role in initiating rapid immune responses against pathogens in the decidua basalis, however the tolerant microenvironment should be preserved in order to allow fetal development. Here we investigated the expression and functionality of TLRs expressed by decidual macrophages (dMs) and NK cells (dNKs), the major decidual immune cell populations. We report for the first time that both human dMs and dNK cells express mRNAs encoding TLRs 1-9, albeit with a higher expression level in dMs. TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 protein expression checked by flow cytometry was positive for both dMs and dNK cells. In vitro treatment of primary dMs and dNK cells with specific TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7/8, and TLR9 agonists enhanced their secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, as well as cytokines and chemokines involved in immune cell crosstalk. Only dNK cells released IFN-γ, whereas only dMs released IL-1β, IL-10, and IL-12. TLR9 activation of dMs resulted in a distinct pattern of cytokine expression compared to the other TLRs. The cytokine profiles expressed by dMs and dNK cells upon TLR activation are compatible with maintenance of the fetotolerant immune environment during initiation of immune responses to pathogens at the maternofetal interface. PMID:25071732

  4. Augmentation of autologous T cell reactivity with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts by Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, RuiKun; Li, Hongying; Messer, Karen; Lane, Thomas A.; Zhou, Jiehua; Ball, Edward D.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether TNF-α, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 7/8 agonist resiquimod (R848), the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and their combinations can enhance autologous AML-reactive T cell generation in an in vitro culture. AML peripheral blood or bone marrow mononuclear cells were cultured in medium supplemented with GM-CSF/IL-4 to induce dendritic cell (DC) differentiation of AML blasts (AML-DC). The impact of TNF-α, LPS, R848 and their combinations on AML-DC cultures was analyzed. Significantly enhanced CD80, CD40, CD83, CD54, HLADR and CD86 expression of AML cells was observed by addition of TNF-α, LPS, R848 alone or combinations. Induced CD80 expression of AML cells was significantly higher through the combination of TNF-α, LPS and R848 (T + L + R) than that by T alone. CTL induced from T + L + R, T + R, T + L, L + R and R, but not T, L alone stimulated cultures showed significantly higher IFN-γ release than the medium control in response to autologous AML cells. IFN-γ release by T + L + R was significantly higher than T or L alone, and T + R was significantly higher than T alone. CTL generated from T + L + R, T + L, T + R, L + R and L alone exerted significantly higher AML cell killing than medium control. AML cell killing by T + L + R and T + R was significantly higher than T or R alone. These results indicate that the combination of T + L + R induces a significantly enhanced antigen presentation effect of AML-DC. We speculate that the complementary effects of reagent combinations may better address the heterogeneity of responses to any single agent in AML cells from different patients. PMID:25795133

  5. Mycobacterium avium MAV2052 protein induces apoptosis in murine macrophage cells through Toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang-In; Choi, Han-Gyu; Son, Yeo-Jin; Whang, Jake; Kim, Kwangwook; Jeon, Heat Sal; Park, Hye-Soo; Back, Yong Woo; Choi, Seunga; Kim, Seong-Woo; Choi, Chul Hee; Kim, Hwa-Jung

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium avium and its sonic extracts induce apoptosis in macrophages. However, little is known about the M. avium components regulating macrophage apoptosis. In this study, using multidimensional fractionation, we identified MAV2052 protein, which induced macrophage apoptosis in M. avium culture filtrates. The recombinant MAV2052 induced macrophage apoptosis in a caspase-dependent manner. The loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), mitochondrial translocation of Bax, and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria were observed in macrophages treated with MAV2052. Further, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was required for the apoptosis induced by MAV2052. In addition, ROS and mitogen-activated protein kinases were involved in MAV2052-mediated TNF-α and IL-6 production. ROS-mediated activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)-JNK pathway was a major signaling pathway for MAV2052-induced apoptosis. Moreover, MAV2052 bound to Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 molecule and MAV2052-induced ROS production, ΔΨm loss, and apoptosis were all significantly reduced in TLR4(-/-) macrophages. Altogether, our results suggest that MAV2052 induces apoptotic cell death through TLR4 dependent ROS production and JNK pathway in murine macrophages.

  6. Antiviral Responses of Human Fallopian Tube Epithelial Cells to Toll-like Receptor 3 Agonist Poly(I:C)

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Mimi; Schaefer, Todd M.; Fahey, John V.; Wright, Jacqueline A.; Wira, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the expression of toll-like receptors (TLR) by primary human Fallopian tube epithelial cells (FTEC) and to determine whether exposure to the TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) would induce an antiviral response. Design Tissue culture study. Setting University Medical Center. Patient(s) Pre-menopausal women undergoing hysterectomy. Intervention(s) Primary human FTEC were grown to confluence and high transepithelial resistance and treated with TLR agonists. Conditioned media was collected and RNA was extracted and analyzed for the expression of cytokines, chemokines and antimicrobial genes. Main Outcome Measure(s) RNA was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR and protein levels were assessed by ELISA. Result(s) The FTEC were demonstrated to express TLR1-9 but not 10. Treatment of FTEC with TLR3 agonist poly(I:C) resulted in increased expression of IL-8, TNF-α, human β-defensin 2, interferon beta, and interferon stimulated genes myxovirus resistance gene 1, 2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetase, and protein kinase R. Additionally, FTEC exposed to poly(I:C) also resulted in the induction of TLR 2, 3, and 7. Conclusion(s) Our results suggest that FTEC are sensitive to viral infection and/or exposure to viral dsRNA and can respond by secreting proinflammatory cytokines that mediate the initiation of an inflammatory response as well as expressing genes that can directly inhibit viral replication. PMID:17669408

  7. Toll-like receptor-mediated responses of primary intestinal epithelial cells during the development of colitis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Joy Carmelina Indira; Cruickshank, Sheena Margaret; Newton, Darren James; Wakenshaw, Louise; Graham, Anne; Lan, Jinggang; Lodge, Jeremy Peter Alan; Felsburg, Peter John; Carding, Simon Richard

    2005-03-01

    The interleukin-2-deficient (IL-2(-/-)) mouse model of ulcerative colitis was used to test the hypothesis that colonic epithelial cells (CEC) directly respond to bacterial antigens and that alterations in Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated signaling may occur during the development of colitis. TLR expression and activation of TLR-mediated signaling pathways in primary CEC of healthy animals was compared with CEC in IL-2(-/-) mice during the development of colitis. In healthy animals, CEC expressed functional TLR, and in response to the TLR4 ligand LPS, proliferated and secreted the cytokines IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). However, the TLR-responsiveness of CEC in IL-2(-/-) mice was different with decreased TLR4 responsiveness and augmented TLR2 responses that result in IL-6 and MCP-1 secretion. TLR signaling in CEC did not involve NF-kappaB (p65) activation with the inhibitory p50 form of NF-kappaB predominating in CEC in both the healthy and inflamed colon. Development of colitis was, however, associated with the activation of MAPK family members and upregulation of MyD88-independent signaling pathways characterized by increased caspase-1 activity and IL-18 production. These findings identify changes in TLR expression and signaling during the development of colitis that may contribute to changes in the host response to bacterial antigens seen in colitis.

  8. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Mediates Inflammatory Cytokine Secretion in Smooth Muscle Cells Induced by Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Li Juan; Liu, Xin He; Liu, Zhu Hui; Wang, Xiao Qun; Chen, Qiu Jin; Lu, Lin; Shen, Wei Feng; Liu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-regulated secretion of inflammatory cytokines in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is regarded as an important step in the progression of atherosclerosis; however, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in oxLDL-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines in SMCs both in vivo and in vitro. We found that the levels of TLR4, interleukin 1-β (IL1-β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression were increased in the SMCs of atherosclerotic plaques in patients with femoral artery stenosis. In cultured primary arterial SMCs from wild type mice, oxLDL caused dose- and time-dependent increase in the expression levels of TLR4 and cytokines. These effects were significantly weakened in arterial SMCs derived from TLR4 knockout mice (TLR4−/−). Moreover, the secretion of inflammatory cytokines was blocked by TLR4-specific antibodies in primary SMCs. Ox-LDL induced activation of p38 and NFκB was also inhibited in TLR4−/− primary SMCs or when treated with TLR4-specific antibodies. These results demonstrated that TLR4 is a crucial mediator in oxLDL-induced inflammatory cytokine expression and secretion, and p38 and NFκB activation. PMID:24755612

  9. Oleic acid stimulates system A amino acid transport in primary human trophoblast cells mediated by toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Lager, Susanne; Gaccioli, Francesca; Ramirez, Vanessa I; Jones, Helen N; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2013-03-01

    Obese women have an increased risk to deliver large babies. However, the mechanisms underlying fetal overgrowth in these pregnancies are not well understood. Obese pregnant women typically have elevated circulating lipid levels. We tested the hypothesis that fatty acids stimulate placental amino acid transport, mediated via toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. Circulating NEFA levels and placental TLR4 expression were assessed in women with varying prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). The effects of oleic acid on system A and system L amino acid transport, and on the activation of the mTOR (4EBP1, S6K1, rpS6), TLR4 (IĸB, JNK, p38 MAPK), and STAT3 signaling pathways were determined in cultured primary human trophoblast cells. Maternal circulating NEFAs (n = 33), but not placental TLR4 mRNA expression (n = 16), correlated positively with BMI (P < 0.05). Oleic acid increased trophoblast JNK and STAT3 phosphorylation (P < 0.05), whereas mTOR activity was unaffected. Furthermore, oleic acid doubled trophoblast system A activity (P < 0.05), without affecting system L activity. siRNA-mediated silencing of TLR4 expression prevented the stimulatory effect of oleic acid on system A activity. Our data suggest that maternal fatty acids can increase placental nutrient transport via TLR4, thereby potentially affecting fetal growth.

  10. SIGIRR inhibits toll-like receptor 4, 5, 9-mediated immune responses in human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun; Wu, Xueling; Zhao, Yunfeng; Deng, Zhaoxia; Qian, Guisheng

    2011-01-01

    Human airway epithelial cells (HAEC) may contribute to acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) through toll-like receptors (TLRs)-mediated molecular mechanisms. TLRs exist on the surface of HAEC where binding to their cognate ligands initiates airway inflammation. Single immunoglobulin interleukin-1 receptor-related protein (SIGIRR) is a member of the toll-interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) family that can negatively modulate the immune response. We carried out studies to characterize SIGIRR modulation of TLR-mediated immune response in HAEC and to define its mechanisms of action. Following treatment with various concentrations of LPS, flagellin and CpG DNA, the levels of cognate TLRs 4, 5, and 9 were measured in the supernatants of HAEC over-expressing the SIGIRR molecule. Moreover, the interaction of the TLR adaptor myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) with SIGIRR in response to LPS-, flagellin- and CpG DNA-stimulation was examined by co-immunoprecipitation. The findings from this study revealed that overexpression of SIGIRR in HAEC stimulated by LPS, flagellin or CpG DNA resulted in attenuated production of the inflammatory mediators IL-6 and TNF-α. This attenuation was not the result of decreased expression of TLR4, 5 or 9, but rather a sequestration of MyD88 to the TLRs. In conclusion, SIGIRR can inhibit TLR4, 5, and 9-mediated immune responses in HAEC and may be a valuable therapeutic target for the prevention of ALI/ARDS.

  11. Effects of Toll-like receptor 3 on herpes simplex virus type-1-infected mouse neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiuning; Shi, Lihong; Zhang, Haoyun; Li, Ruifang; Liang, Ruiwen; Liu, Zhijun

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) infection on the phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and the expression of interferon-β (IFN-β), as well as to clarify the functions of toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) in mouse neural stem cells (NSCs) infected with HSV-1. In HSV-1-infected cultured NSCs, immunofluorescence, reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and ELISA were performed to reveal the expression patterns of TLR3, IRF3, and IFN-β. Then, lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) was used to block the expression of TLR3, and its effect on host resistance to HSV-1 infection was investigated. Under uninfected conditions, NSCs expressed TLR3 and phosphorylated IRF3, but after infection, the expression level of TLR3 was upregulated and the phosphorylation level of IRF3 in the nucleus was significantly enhanced, while IFN-β was also expressed. After TLR3 expression was blocked by lentivirus-mediated RNAi, IRF3 phosphorylation and IFN-β expression were downregulated. Therefore, HSV-1 upregulated the expression of TLR3 in NSCs and promoted nuclear translocation after IRF3 was phosphorylated to induce IFN-β expression. TLR3 exhibited an anti-HSV-1 infection capacity via innate immune functions.

  12. Activation of cell membrane-localized Toll-like receptor 3 by siRNA.

    PubMed

    Pirher, Nina; Pohar, Jelka; Manček-Keber, Mateja; Benčina, Mojca; Jerala, Roman

    2017-09-01

    Small interfering RNA molecules (siRNA) are short dsRNAs that are used for different therapeutic applications. On the other hand, dsRNAs can bind to and activate cell RNA sensors and consequently trigger inflammatory response. Here we show that siRNA activates primary human endothelial cells and human lymphatic endothelial cells and that this response is inhibited by antibodies against TLR3. In contrast, the activation of human lymphatic endothelial cells by poly(I:C) was inhibited by bafilomycin but not by anti-TLR3 antibodies. Bafilomycin also inhibited poly(I:C) but not siRNA cell stimulation in TLR3-transfected HEK293. The response to siRNA required the expression of UNC93B1, which directs TLR3 to the surface of HEK293 cells. We propose that the engaged signaling pathway of TLR3 depends on the receptor localization and on the length of the dsRNA, where the activation of cell membrane TLR3 by short dsRNA leads to a predominantly proinflammatory response, whereas TLR3 activation in endosomal compartments by long dsRNA is characterized by the production of type I IFN. A molecular model suggests that the siRNA can bind to the binding sites of the TLR3 ectodomain and trigger receptor dimerization. These results contribute to understanding of the mechanism of side effects seen in the therapeutic application of naked, unmodified siRNA as a result of the activation of TLR3 localized at the plasma membrane. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Toll-like receptor 11-initiated innate immune response in male mouse germ cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiaoyuan; Zhu, Weiwei; Liu, Zhenghui; Yan, Keqin; Zhao, Shutao; Han, Daishu

    2014-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) may infect the testis and impair testicular function. Mechanisms underlying testicular innate immune response to these two pathogens remain to be clarified. The present study examined the function of TLR11, which can be recognized by T. gondii-derived profilin and UPEC, in initiating innate immune response in male mouse germ cells. TLR11 is predominantly expressed in spermatids. Profilin and UPEC induced the expressions of different inflammatory cytokine profiles in the germ cells. In particular, profilin induced the expressions of macrophage chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1), interleukin 12 (IL12), and interferon gamma (IFNG) through nuclear factor KB (NFKB) activation. UPEC induced the expressions of MCP1, IL12, and IFNG, as well as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA), IL6, and IFNB, through the activation of NFKB, IFN regulatory factor 3, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Evidence showed that profilin induced the innate response in male germ cells through TLR11 signaling, and UPEC triggered the response through TLR11 and other TLR-signaling pathways. We also provided evidence that local injection of profilin or UPEC induces the innate immune response in the germ cells. Data describe TLR11-mediated innate immune function of male germ cells in response to T. gondii profilin and UPEC stimulations. This system may play a role in testicular defense against T. gondii and UPEC infections in mice.

  14. Toll-like receptor stimulation in splenic marginal zone lymphoma can modulate cell signaling, activation and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Fonte, Eleonora; Agathangelidis, Andreas; Reverberi, Daniele; Ntoufa, Stavroula; Scarfò, Lydia; Ranghetti, Pamela; Cutrona, Giovanna; Tedeschi, Alessandra; Xochelli, Aliki; Caligaris-Cappio, Federico; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Belessi, Chrysoula; Davis, Zadie; Piris, Miguel A.; Oscier, David; Ghia, Paolo; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Muzio, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on splenic marginal zone lymphoma identified distinct mutations in genes belonging to the B-cell receptor and Toll-like receptor signaling pathways, thus pointing to their potential implication in the biology of the disease. However, limited data is available regarding the exact role of TLRs. We aimed at characterizing the expression pattern of TLRs in splenic marginal zone lymphoma cells and their functional impact on the activation, proliferation and viability of malignant cells in vitro. Cells expressed significant levels of TLR1, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9 and TLR10 mRNA; TLR2 and TLR4 showed a low, variable pattern of expression among patients whereas TLR3 and TLR5 mRNAs were undetectable; mRNA specific for TLR signaling molecules and adapters was also expressed. At the protein level, TLR1, TLR6, TLR7, TLR9 and TLR10 were detected. Stimulation of TLR1/2, TLR2/6 and TLR9 with their respective ligands triggered the activation of IRAK kinases, MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, and the induction of CD86 and CD25 activation molecules, although in a heterogeneous manner among different patient samples. TLR-induced activation and cell viability were also inhibited by a specific IRAK1/4 inhibitor, thus strongly supporting the specific role of TLR signaling in these processes. Furthermore, TLR2/6 and TLR9 stimulation also significantly increased cell proliferation. In conclusion, we demonstrate that splenic marginal zone lymphoma cells are equipped with functional TLR and signaling molecules and that the stimulation of TLR1/2, TLR2/6 and TLR9 may play a role in regulating disease pathobiology, likely promoting the expansion of the neoplastic clone. PMID:26294727

  15. Toll-like receptor 3 and 4 signalling through the TRIF and TRAM adaptors in haematopoietic cells promotes atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Anna M; Ketelhuth, Daniel F J; Johansson, Maria E; Gerdes, Norbert; Liu, Sang; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Akira, Shizuo; Hansson, Göran K

    2013-07-15

    Members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family initiate innate immune responses and were recently shown to play a role in atherosclerosis. However, the mechanisms that link TLR ligation to vascular inflammation and atherogenesis remain unclear. To identify which signalling pathways downstream of TLRs in immune cells are pro-atherogenic, we analysed the role of the TLR-specific adaptors MyD88 adaptor-like (MAL), TRIF-related adaptor molecule (TRAM), and TIR-domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) in atherosclerosis. Using a bone-marrow transplantation strategy into low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) mice, we could specifically study the absence of the TLR adaptors in immune cells. We showed that haematopoietic deficiency of TRAM and TRIF, but not MAL, reduces atherosclerosis without affecting cholesterol metabolism. This was mediated by decreased aortic inflammation, indicated by lower aortic levels of pro-inflammatory mediators, and reduced influx of macrophages and T cells. Furthermore, by studying Tlr3(-/-) chimeric Ldlr(-/-) mice, we found that deleting TLR3 in immune cells significantly reduced both aortic inflammation and atherosclerotic burden. By studying hypercholesterolaemic mice with defects in TLR-signalling adaptors, we demonstrated that deleting either TRAM or TRIF in immune cells is sufficient to attenuate vessel inflammation and protect against atherosclerosis. In addition, these adaptors elicit partly different sets of inflammatory mediators and can independently inhibit the disease process. Furthermore, we identify TLR3 as a pro-atherogenic receptor in haematopoietic immune cells. The identification of these pro-atherogenic pathways downstream of TLR3 and TLR4 contributes to a better understanding of TLRs and their signalling pathways in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

  16. The Effect of Estradiol and Progesterone on Toll Like Receptor Gene Expression in A Human Fallopian Tube Epithelial Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Zandieh, Zahra; Amjadi, Fatemehsadat; Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Aflatoonian, Abbas; Fazeli, Alireza; Aflatoonian, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective Toll like receptors (TLRs) are one of the main components of the innate im- mune system. It has been reported that expression of these receptors are altered in the female reproductive tract (FRT) during menstrual cycle. Here we used a fallopian tube epithelial cell line (OE-E6/E7) to evaluate the effect of two sex hormones in modulating TLR expression. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, initially TLR gene expression in OE- E6/E7 cells was evaluated and compared with that of fallopian tube tissue using quanti- tative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunostaining. Thereafter, OE-E6/E7 cells were cultured with different concentrations of estradiol and progesterone, and combination of both. qRT-PCR was performed to reveal any changes in expression of TLR genes as a result of hormonal treatment. Results TLR1-10 genes were expressed in human fallopian tube tissue. TLR1-6 genes and their respective proteins were expressed in the OE-E6/E7 cell line. Although estradiol and progesterone separately had no significant effect on TLR expression, their combined treatment altered the expression of TLRs in this cell line. Also, the pattern of TLR expres- sion in preovulation (P), mensturation (M) and window of implantation (W) were the same for all TLRs with no significant differences between P, M and W groups. Conclusion These data show the significant involvement of the combination of es- tradiol and progesterone in modulation of TLR gene expression in this human fal- lopian tube cell line. Further experiments may reveal the regulatory mechanism and signalling pathway behind the effect of sex hormones in modulating TLRs in the hu- man FRT. PMID:26862527

  17. Immunoregulation effects of different γδT cells and toll-like receptor signaling pathways in neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Hui, Lei; Dai, Yi; Guo, Zhi; Zhang, Jiahui; Zheng, Fang; Bian, Xiangli; Wu, Zhimin; Jiang, Qin; Guo, Miaomiao; Ma, Ke; Zhang, Jinping

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to observe cytokine and T-cell-related toll-like-receptor (TLR) changes in intestinal samples of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis patients.Four necrotic bowels were collected from neonatal NEC patients with gestational ages of 28 to 29 weeks in our hospital, whereas 4 neonatal patients who underwent intestinal atresia surgery served as the controls. Intestinal flora was examined and IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-17 expressions in resected intestine samples, as well as in isolated gamma delta T (γδT) cells, were analyzed immunohistochemically and via quantitative RT-PCR. γδT cells were isolated from the intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and their TLR4/TLR9 distribution in the intestinal tissues was determined by flow cytometry.The bacterial flora of the neonatal NEC patients' contained significantly higher amounts of Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae, Klebsiella, and Bacteroides but anaerobic Gram-positive Bifidobacteria occurred significantly less in the NEC than the control group. IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-17 expressions in the resected intestine samples and in isolated γδT cells were enhanced in NEC samples compared to the controls. γδT cells were less prevalent in NEC-derived intestinal tissues, but their TLR4/TLR9 expressions were significantly enhanced.The changed bacterial flora in preterm neonatal NEC patients led to an obvious inflammation of the intestines, which was accompanied by reductions of γδT cell localizations to the intestine and a shift of their surface expressions to TLR4 and TLR9.

  18. Low expression of Toll-like receptors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Cuaxospa, María; Contreras-Ramos, Alejandra; Pérez-Figueroa, Erandi; Medina-Sansón, Aurora; Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Torres-Nava, José R; Rojas-Castillo, Emilio; Maldonado-Bernal, Carmen

    2016-08-01

    Cancer is the second most common cause of death among children aged 1-14 years. Leukemia accounts for one-third of all childhood cancers, 78% of which is acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The development of cancer has been associated with malignant cells that express low levels of immunogenic molecules, which facilitates their escape from the antineoplastic immune response. It is thought that it may be possible to rescue the antineoplastic immune response through the activation of recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which activate the innate immune system. TLRs are type I membrane glycoproteins expressed mainly in immune system cells such as monocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, T, B and natural killer cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of TLR1, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7 and TLR9 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with ALL and prior to any treatment. PBMCs were obtained from 50 pediatric patients diagnosed with ALL and from 20 children attending the ophthalmology and orthopedics services. The mean fluorescence intensity was obtained by analysis of immunofluorescence. We found lower expression levels of TLR1, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7 and TLR9 in PBMCs from patients with ALL compared with those from control patients. We also observed that the PBMCs from patients with Pre-B and B ALL had lower TLR4 expression than controls and patients with Pro-B, Pre-B, B and T ALL had lower TLR7 expression than controls. The present study is the first to demonstrate reduced expression of TLRs in PBMCs from pediatric patients with ALL. This finding is of great relevance and may partly explain the reduction in the antineoplastic immune response in patients with ALL.

  19. Sepsis-induced expansion of granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells promotes tumour growth through Toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Llitjos, Jean-François; Auffray, Cédric; Alby-Laurent, Fanny; Rousseau, Christophe; Merdji, Hamid; Bonilla, Nelly; Toubiana, Julie; Belaïdouni, Nadia; Mira, Jean-Paul; Lucas, Bruno; Chiche, Jean-Daniel; Pène, Frédéric

    2016-08-01

    Severe sepsis remains a frequent and dreaded complication in cancer patients. Beyond the often fatal short-term outcome, the long-term sequelae of severe sepsis may also impact directly on the prognosis of the underlying malignancy in survivors. The immune system is involved in all stages of tumour development, in the detection of transforming and dying cells and in the prevention of tumour growth and dissemination. In fact, the profound and sustained immune defects induced by sepsis may constitute a privileged environment likely to favour tumour growth. We investigated the impact of sepsis on malignant tumour growth in a double-hit animal model of polymicrobial peritonitis, followed by subcutaneous inoculation of MCA205 fibrosarcoma cells. As compared to their sham-operated counterparts, post-septic mice exhibited accelerated tumour growth. This was associated with intratumoural accumulation of CD11b(+) Ly6G(high) polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) that could be characterized as granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (G-MDSCs). Depletion of granulocytic cells in post-septic mice inhibited the sepsis-enhanced tumour growth. Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 (Tlr4) and Myd88 deficiencies prevented sepsis-induced expansion of G-MDSCs and tumour growth. Our results demonstrate that the myelosuppressive environment induced by severe bacterial infections promotes malignant tumour growth, and highlight a critical role of CD11b(+) Ly6G(high) G-MDSCs under the control of TLR-dependent signalling. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Rb/E2F1 Regulates the Innate Immune Receptor Toll-Like Receptor 3 in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Taura, Manabu; Suico, Mary Ann; Koyama, Kosuke; Komatsu, Kensei; Miyakita, Rui; Matsumoto, Chizuru; Kudo, Eriko; Kariya, Ryusho; Goto, Hiroki; Kitajima, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Chiaki; Shuto, Tsuyoshi; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Tumor suppressor genes regulate the antiviral host defense through molecular mechanisms that are not yet well explored. Here, we show that the tumor suppressor retinoblastoma (Rb) protein positively regulates Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) expression, the sensing receptor for viral double-stranded RNA and poly(I·C). TLR3 expression was lower in Rb knockout (Rb−/−) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) and in mammalian epithelial cells transfected with Rb small-interfering RNA (siRNA) than in control cells. Consequently, induction of cytokines interleukin-8 and beta interferon after poly(I·C) stimulation was impaired in Rb−/− MEF and Rb siRNA-transfected cells compared to controls. TLR3 promoter analysis showed that Rb modulates the transcription factor E2F1, which directly binds to the proximal promoter of TLR3. Exogenous addition of E2F1 decreased TLR3 promoter activity, while Rb dose dependently curbed the effect of E2F1. Interestingly, poly(I·C) increased the Rb expression, and the poly(I·C)-induced TLR3 expression was impaired in Rb-depleted cells, suggesting the importance of Rb in TLR3 induction by poly(I·C). Together, these data indicated that E2F1 suppresses TLR3 transcription, but during immune stimulation, Rb is upregulated to block the inhibitory effect of E2F1 on TLR3, highlighting a role of Rb-E2F1 axis in the innate immune response in epithelial cells. PMID:22310660

  1. The role of MAPK in CD4{sup +} T cells toll-like receptor 9-mediated signaling following HHV-6 infection

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Jing; Wang, Fang; Li, Lingyun; Feng, Dongju; Qin, Jian; Xie, Fangyi; Zhou, Feng; Chen, Yun; Wang, Jinfeng; Yao, Kun

    2012-01-05

    Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) is an important immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory virus that primarily infects immune cells (mainly CD4{sup +} T cells) and strongly suppresses the proliferation of infected cells. Toll-like receptors are pattern-recognition receptors essential for the development of an appropriate innate immune defense against infection. To understand the role of CD4{sup +} T cells in the innate response to HHV-6 infection and the involvement of TLRs, we used an in vitro infection model and observed that the infection of CD4{sup +} T cells resulted in the activation of JNK/SAPK via up-regulation of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). Associated with JNK activation, annexin V-PI staining indicated that HHV-6A was a strong inducer of apoptosis. Apoptotic response associated cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-{alpha} also induced by HHV-6A infection.

  2. Natural Killer Cell-Dependent Anti-Fibrotic Pathway in Liver Injury via Toll-Like Receptor-9

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Tair, Lina; Axelrod, Jonathan H.; Doron, Sarit; Ovadya, Yossi; Krizhanovsky, Valery; Galun, Eithan

    2013-01-01

    The toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9) agonist cytosine phosphate guanine (CpG), activates hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and mediates fibrosis. We investigated the TLR9 effects on lymphocyte/HSCs interactions. Liver fibrosis was induced in wild-type (WT) mice by intra-peritoneal carbon-tetrachloride (CCl4) induction for 6 weeks. Fibrotic groups were intravenously treated by a vehicle versus CpG along last 2 weeks. Compared to vehicle-treated fibrotic WT, the in-vivo CpG-treatment significantly attenuated hepatic fibrosis and inflammation, associated with decreased CD8 and increased NK liver cells. In-vitro, co-cultures with vehicle-treated fibrotic NK cells increased HSCs proliferation (P<0.001) while their CpG-treated counterparts achieved a significant decrease. To investigate the role of lymphocytes, TLR9-/- mice induced-hepatic fibrosis were used. Although TLR9-/- mice manifested lower fibrotic profile as compared to their wild-type (WT) counterparts, senescence (SA-β-Gal activity) in the liver and ALT serum levels were significantly greater. In an adoptive transfer model; irradiated WT and TLR9-/- recipients were reconstituted with naïve WT or TLR9-/- lymphocytes. The adoptive transfer of TLR9-/- versus WT lymphocytes led to increased fibrosis of WT recipients. TLR9-/- fibrotic recipients reconstituted with TLR9-/- or WT lymphocytes showed no changes in hepatic fibrosis severity or ALT serum levels. TLR9 activation had inconsistent effects on lymphocytes and HSCs. The net balance of TLR9 activation in WT, displayed significant anti-fibrotic activity, accompanied by CD8 suppression and increased NK-cells, activity and adherence to HSCs. The pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory properties of TLR9-/- lymphocytes fail to activate HSCs with an early senescence in TLR9-/- mice.  PMID:24340043

  3. Migration ability and Toll-like receptor expression of human mesenchymal stem cells improves significantly after three-dimensional culture.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Panpan; Liu, Zilin; Li, Xue; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Lan, Jing; Shi, Qing; Li, Dong; Ju, Xiuli

    2017-09-16

    While the conventional two-dimensional (2D) culture protocol is well accepted for the culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), this method fails to recapitulate the in vivo native three-dimensional (3D) cellular microenvironment, and may result in phenotypic changes, and homing and migration capacity impairments. MSC preparation in 3D culture systems has been considered an attractive preparatory and delivery method recently. We seeded human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (hUCMSCs) in a 3D culture system with porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM), and investigated the phenotypic changes, the expression changes of some important receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) when hUCMSCs were transferred from 2D to 3D systems, as well as the alterations in in vivo homing and migration potential. It was found that the percentage of CD105-positive cells decreased significantly, whereas that of CD34- and CD271-positive cells increased significantly in 3D culture, compared to that in 2D culture. The mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR6, and CXCR4 in hUCMSCs were increased significantly upon culturing with PADM for 3 days, compared to the levels in 2D culture. The numbers of migratory 3D hUCMSCs in the heart, liver, spleen, and bone marrow were significantly greater than the numbers of 2D hUCMSCs, and the worst migration occurred in 3D + AMD3100 (CXCR4 antagonist) hUCMSCs. These results suggested that 3D culture of hUCMSCs with PADM could alter the phenotypic characteristics of hUCMSCs, increase their TLR and CXCR4 expression levels, and promote their migratory and homing capacity in which CXCR4 plays an important role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. CCL-34, a synthetic toll-like receptor 4 activator, modulates differentiation and maturation of myeloid dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shu-Ling; Lin, Chun-Cheng; Hsu, Ming-Ling; Liu, Sheng-Hung; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2016-01-01

    CCL-34, a synthetic α-galactosylceramide analog, has been reported as an activator of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in macrophages. TLR4 is highly expressed in dendritic cell (DC) and several TLR4 agonists are known to trigger DC maturation. We herein evaluated the effect of CCL-34 on DC maturation. Human CD14+ monocyte-derived immature DC were treated with CCL-34, its inactive structural analog CCL-44, or LPS to assess the DC maturation. CCL-34 induced DC maturation according to their characteristically dendrite-forming morphology, CD83 expression and IL-12p70 production. The allostimulatory activity of DC on proliferation of naive CD4+CD45+RA+ T cells and their secretion of interferon-γ was increased by CCL-34. Phagocytosis, an important function of immature DC, was reduced after CCL-34 treatment. All these effects related to DC maturation were evidently induced by positive control LPS but not by CCL-44 treatment. TLR4 neutralization impaired human DC maturation triggered by CCL-34. The induction of IL-12, a hallmark of DC maturation, by CCL-34 and LPS was only evident in TLR4-competent C3H/HeN, but not in TLR4-defective C3H/HeJ mice. CCL-34 could further elicit the antigen presentation capability in mice inoculated with doxorubicin-treated colorectal cancer cells. In summary, CCL-34 triggers DC maturation via a TLR4-dependent manner, which supports its potential application as an immunostimulator. PMID:26883191

  5. Effect of cobalt-mediated Toll-like receptor 4 activation on inflammatory responses in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Holland, James P.; Kirby, John A.; Deehan, David J.; Tyson, Alison J.

    2016-01-01

    Cobalt-containing metal-on-metal hip replacements are associated with adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD), including inflammatory pseudotumours, osteolysis, and aseptic implant loosening. The exact cellular and molecular mechanisms leading to these responses are unknown. Cobaltions (Co2+) activate human Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an innate immune receptor responsible for inflammatory responses to Gram negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We investigated the effect of Co2+-mediated TLR4 activation on human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1), focusing on the secretion of key inflammatory cytokines and expression of adhesion molecules. We also studied the role of TLR4 in Co2+-mediated adhesion molecule expression in MonoMac 6 macrophages. We show that Co2+ increases secretion of inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6 and IL-8, in HMEC-1. The effects are TLR4-dependent as they can be prevented with a small molecule TLR4 antagonist. Increased TLR4-dependent expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) was also observed in endothelial cells and macrophages. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that Co2+ activation of TLR4 upregulates secretion of a soluble adhesion molecule, sICAM-1, in both endothelial cells and macrophages. Although sICAM-1 can be generated through activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), we did not find any changes in MMP9 expression following Co2+ stimulation. In summary we show that Co2+ can induce endothelial inflammation via activation of TLR4. We also identify a role for TLR4 in Co2+-mediated changes in adhesion molecule expression. Finally, sICAM-1 is a novel target for further investigation in ARMD studies. PMID:27835611

  6. Toll-like receptor 3 stimulation triggers metabolic reprogramming in pharyngeal cancer cell line through Myc, MAPK, and HIF.

    PubMed

    Matijevic Glavan, Tanja; Cipak Gasparovic, Ana; Vérillaud, Benjamin; Busson, Pierre; Pavelic, Jasminka

    2017-04-01

    Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) has a dual role in cancer; its activation can trigger apoptosis as well as stimulate cancer cell survival, proliferation, and progression. We have shown here that TLR3 activation can induce metabolic reprogramming in a pharyngeal cancer cell line, leading to increased aerobic glycolysis, cell migration, elevated levels of reactive oxidative species (ROS), and decreased anti-oxidative response. Key proteins in these signaling pathways are heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1), pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), and CD44 variants, which were over-expressed after TLR3 stimulation. TLR3 activation also induced upregulation of different genes involved in cancer progression (VEGF, MMP9, uPAR) and enzymes involved in glycolytic pathway. Most of the observed effects were Myc-dependent; however, some of them were also connected with MAPK and HIF signaling pathways. Since TLR3 agonists are being investigated as potential novel cancer therapy adjuvants and apoptosis inducers, alone or in combination with other therapeutic options, data presented here suggest extreme caution before their introduction into clinical practice. The fact that TLR3 ligands [poly(I:C) and poly(A:U)] can also aid cancer survival and progression, through induction of metabolic reprogramming, emphasizes the need to investigate this particular topic. Our data suggest that the combination of TLR3 ligands with Myc or MAPK inhibitors may be a way to neutralize their undesirable effects while enhancing their anti-tumor effect. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Cardiac RNA induces inflammatory responses in cardiomyocytes and immune cells via Toll-like receptor 7 signaling.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Chen, Hongliang; Cai, Jiayan; Zou, Lin; Yan, Dan; Xu, Ganqiong; Li, Dan; Chao, Wei

    2015-10-30

    We have recently reported that extracellular RNA (exRNA) released from necrotic cells induces cytokine production in cardiomyocytes and immune cells and contributes to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the signaling mechanism by which exRNA exhibits its pro-inflammatory effect is unknown. Here we hypothesize that exRNA directly induces inflammation through specific Toll-like receptors (TLRs). To test the hypothesis, we treated rat neonatal cardiomyocytes, mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM), or mouse neutrophils with RNA (2.5-10 μg/ml) isolated from rat cardiomyocytes or the hearts from mouse, rat, and human. We found that cellular RNA induced production of several cytokines such as macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), ILs, TNFα, and the effect was completely diminished by RNase, but not DNase. The RNA-induced cytokine production was partially inhibited in cells treated with TLR7 antagonist or genetically deficient in TLR7. Deletion of myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88), a downstream adapter of TLRs including TLR7, abolished the RNA-induced MIP-2 production. Surprisingly, genetic deletion of TLR3 had no impact on the RNA-induced MIP-2 response. Importantly, extracellular RNA released from damaged cardiomyocytes also induced cytokine production. Finally, mice treated with 50 μg of RNA intraperitoneal injection exhibited acute peritonitis as evidenced by marked neutrophil and monocyte migration into the peritoneal space. Together, these data demonstrate that exRNA of cardiac origin exhibits a potent pro-inflammatory property in vitro and in vivo and that exRNA induces cytokine production through TLR7-MyD88 signaling.

  8. Albumin induces neuroprotection against ischemic stroke by altering Toll-like receptor 4 and regulatory T cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Wang, Yongming; He, Jing; Wei, Siyu; Zhang, Na; Liu, Fengyong; Liu, Xin; Kang, Yi; Yao, Xiaomei

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of albumin therapy on the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR 4), anti-inflammation cytokines and CD4(+)CD25(+)forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)(+) regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg cells) in the ischemic brain and peripheral immune system after Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO). Adult male Kunming mice were subjected to MCAO, the suture was withdrawn 2 h later followed by an intravenous administration of 25% albumin (1.25 g/kg) or saline (5 ml/kg) through caudal vein. We demonstrated that albumin administration elevated the serum albumin level supranormally at 6 h and 24 h after MCAO in mice. In addition, we showed that both in the ischemic brain and in the spleen, albumin administration significantly depressed the increase of TLR 4 mRNA expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR), and significantly increase the anti-inflammatory related interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1) mRNA expression by transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after MCAO. In the spleen, compared to sham group, strong TLR 4 immunoreactivity was noted in the saline group; while compared to saline group, albumin administration markedly reduced the immunoreactivity of TLR 4 after MCAO by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, albumin administration significantly increased the percentage of Treg in spleen CD4(+) cells by flow cytometry. In conclusion, the decrease of TLR 4 expression and the increase of Treg cell, IL-10, and TGF-β1 expression may partly contribute to the neuroprotective effect of albumin therapy on MCAO induced immune inflammatory responses.

  9. Induction of human dendritic cell maturation using transfection with RNA encoding a dominant positive toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Cisco, Robin M; Abdel-Wahab, Zeinab; Dannull, Jens; Nair, Smita; Tyler, Douglas S; Gilboa, Eli; Vieweg, Johannes; Daaka, Yehia; Pruitt, Scott K

    2004-06-01

    Maturation of dendritic cells (DC) is critical for the induction of Ag-specific immunity. Ag-loaded DC matured with LPS, which mediates its effects by binding to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), induce Ag-specific CTL in vitro and in vivo in animal models. However, clinical use of LPS is limited due to potential toxicity. Therefore, we sought to mimic the maturation-inducing effects of LPS on DC by stimulating TLR4-mediated signaling in the absence of exogenous LPS. We developed a constitutively active TLR4 (caTLR4) and demonstrated that transfection of human DC with RNA encoding caTLR4 led to IL-12 and TNF-alpha secretion. Transfection with caTLR4 RNA also induced a mature DC phenotype. Functionally, transfection of DC with caTLR4 RNA enhanced allostimulation of CD4(+) T cells. DC transfected with RNA encoding the MART (Melan-A/MART-1) melanoma Ag were then used to stimulate T cells in vitro. Cotransfection of these DC with caTLR4 RNA enhanced the generation of MART-specific CTL. This CTL activity was superior to that seen when DC maturation was induced using either LPS or a standard mixture of cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-1beta, and PGE(2)). We conclude that transfection of DC with RNA encoding a functional signaling protein, such as caTLR4, may provide a new tool for studying TLR signaling in DC and may be a promising approach for the induction of DC maturation for tumor immunotherapy.

  10. Prolonged exposure to bacterial toxins downregulated expression of toll-like receptors in mesenchymal stromal cell-derived osteoprogenitors.

    PubMed

    Mo, Irene Fung Ying; Yip, Kevin Hak Kong; Chan, Wing Keung; Law, Helen Ka Wai; Lau, Yu Lung; Chan, Godfrey Chi Fung

    2008-09-18

    Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs, also known as mesenchymal stem cells) are multipotent cells with potential therapeutic value. Owing to their osteogenic capability, MSCs may be clinically applied for facilitating osseointegration in dental implants or orthopedic repair of bony defect. However, whether wound infection or oral microflora may interfere with the growth and osteogenic differentiation of human MSCs remains unknown. This study investigated whether proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs would be affected by potent gram-positive and gram-negative derived bacterial toxins commonly found in human settings. We selected lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Streptococcus pyogenes as our toxins of choice. Our findings showed both LPS and LTA did not affect MSC proliferation, but prolonged LPS challenge upregulated the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, as assessed by alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition. Because toll-like receptors (TLRs), in particularly TLR4 and TLR2, are important for the cellular responsiveness to LPS and LTA respectively, we evaluated their expression profiles serially from MSCs to osteoblasts by quantitative PCR. We found that during osteogenic differentiation, MSC-derived osteoprogenitors gradually expressed TLR2 and TLR4 by Day 12. But under prolonged incubation with LPS, MSC-derived osteoprogenitors had reduced TLR2 and TLR4 gene expression. This peculiar response to LPS suggests a possible adaptive mechanism when MSCs are subjected to continuous exposure with bacteria. In conclusion, our findings support the potential of using human MSCs as a biological graft, even under a bacterial toxin-rich environment.

  11. Toll-like receptors in cellular subsets of human tonsil T cells: altered expression during recurrent tonsillitis

    PubMed Central

    Mansson, Anne; Adner, Mikael; Cardell, Lars Olaf

    2006-01-01

    Background The palatine tonsils have a pivotal role in immunological detection of airborne and ingested antigens like bacteria and viruses. They have recently been demonstrated to express Toll-like receptors (TLRs), known to recognize molecular structures on such microbes and activate innate immune responses. Their activation might also provide a link between innate and adaptive immunity. In the present study, the expression profile of TLR1-TLR10 was characterized in human tonsil T cells, focusing on differences between subsets of CD4+ T helper (Th) cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). The study was also designed to compare the TLR expression in T cells from patients with recurrent tonsillitis and tonsillar hyperplasia. Methods Tonsils were obtained from children undergoing tonsillectomy, and classified according to the clinical diagnoses and the outcome of tonsillar core culture tests. Two groups were defined; recurrently infected tonsils and hyperplastic tonsils that served as controls. Subsets of T cells were isolated using magnetic beads. The expression of TLR transcripts in purified cells was assessed using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The corresponding protein expression was investigated using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Results T cells expressed a broad repertoire of TLRs, in which TLR1, TLR2, TLR5, TLR9 and TLR10 predominated. Also, a differential expression of TLRs in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was obtained. TLR1 and TLR9 mRNA was expressed to a greater extent in CD4+ cells, whereas expression of TLR3 mRNA and protein and TLR4 protein was higher in CD8+ cells. CD8+ cells from infected tonsils expressed higher levels of TLR2, TLR3 and TLR5 compared to control. In contrast, CD4+ cells exhibited a down-regulated TLR9 as a consequence of infection. Conclusion The present study demonstrates the presence of a broad repertoire of TLRs in T cells, a differential expression in CD4+ and CD8+ cells, along with infection-dependent alterations in TLR

  12. Messenger RNA encoding constitutively active Toll-like receptor 4 enhances effector functions of human T cells.

    PubMed

    Pato, A; Eisenberg, G; Machlenkin, A; Margalit, A; Cafri, G; Frankenburg, S; Merims, S; Peretz, T; Lotem, M; Gross, G

    2015-11-01

    Adoptive T cell therapy of cancer employs a large number of ex-vivo-propagated T cells which recognize their targets either by virtue of their endogenous T cell receptor (TCR) or via genetic reprogramming. However, both cell-extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms often diminish the in-vivo potency of these therapeutic T cells, limiting their clinical efficacy and broader use. Direct activation of human T cells by Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands induces T cell survival and proliferation, boosts the production of proinflammatory cytokines and augments resistance to regulatory T cell (Treg) suppression. Removal of the TLR ligand-binding region results in constitutive signalling triggered by the remaining cytosolic Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. The use of such TIR domains therefore offers an ideal means for equipping anti-tumour T cells with the arsenal of functional attributes required for improving current clinical protocols. Here we show that constitutively active (ca)TLR-4 can be expressed efficiently in human T cells using mRNA electroporation. The mere expression of caTLR-4 mRNA in polyclonal CD8 and CD4 T cells induced the production of interferon (IFN)-γ, triggered the surface expression of CD25, CD69 and 4-1BB and up-regulated a panel of cytokines and chemokines. In tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes prepared from melanoma patients, caTLR-4 induced robust IFN-γ secretion in all samples tested. Furthermore, caTLR-4 enhanced the anti-melanoma cytolytic activity of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes and augmented the secretion of IFN-γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for at least 4 days post-transfection. Our results demonstrate that caTLR-4 is capable of exerting multiple T cell-enhancing effects and can potentially be used as a genetic adjuvant in adoptive cell therapy. © 2015 British Society for Immunology.

  13. Brazilin plays an anti-inflammatory role with regulating Toll-like receptor 2 and TLR 2 downstream pathways in Staphylococcus aureus-induced mastitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xue-jiao; Wang, Tian-cheng; Zhang, Ze-cai; Cao, Yong-guo; Zhang, Nai-sheng; Guo, Meng-yao

    2015-07-01

    Mastitis, which commonly occurs during the postpartum period, is caused by the infection of the mammary glands. The most common infectious bacterial pathogen of mastitis is Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in both human and animals. Brazilin, a compound isolated from the traditional herbal medicine Caesalpinia sappan L., has been shown to exhibit multiple biological properties. The present study was performed to determine the effect of brazilin on the inflammatory response in the mouse model of S. aureus mastitis and to confirm the mechanism of action involved. Brazilin treatment was applied in both a mouse model and cells. After brazilin treatment of cells, Western blotting and qPCR were performed to detect the protein levels and mRNA levels, respectively. Brazilin treatment significantly attenuated inflammatory cell infiltration and inhibited the expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of brazilin in mice suppressed S. aureus-induced inflammatory injury and the production of proinflammatory mediators. This suppression was achieved by reducing the increased expression of TLR2 and regulating the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in the mammary gland tissues and cells with S. aureus-induced mastitis. These results suggest that brazilin appears to be an effective drug for the treatment of mastitis and may be applied as a clinical therapy.

  14. Lipid IVa incompletely activates MyD88-independent Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in mouse macrophage cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Norihiko; Muroi, Masashi; Sugiura, Yuka; Tanamoto, Ken-ichi

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the difference in the effect of synthetic lipid A compounds on MyD88-dependent and -independent Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in mouse macrophage cells. At higher concentrations, Escherichia coli-type hexa-acylated lipid A 506, Salmonella-type hepta-acylated lipid A 516, the lipid A precursor lipid IVa and monophosphoryl lipid A induced similar levels of production of the MyD88-dependent cytokine IL-1β although their potencies varied, whereas the maximum production of the MyD88-independent cytokine RANTES induced by lipid IVa was less than 50% that of other lipid A compounds. A maximum level of NF-κB activation, which is involved in IL-1β gene transcription, was also induced to a similar level by these four lipid A compounds, while the maximum level of IFN-β promoter activity induced during MyD88-independent signaling was also less than 50% for lipid IVa stimulation compared with other lipid A compounds. Early IκBα phosphorylation activated by MyD88-dependent signaling was similarly induced by 506 and lipid IVa, whereas lipid IVa barely stimulated the phosphorylation of IRF3, a MyD88-independent transcription factor, although efficient phosphorylation was observed with 506 stimulation. These results indicate that lipid IVa has limited activity toward MyD88-independent signaling of TLR4, in macrophage cell lines, despite having efficient activity in the MyD88-dependent pathway. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Effects of different Toll-like receptor agonists on the function of T helper cells in mice].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomin; Zhang, Yannan; Yang, Binyan; Wu, Changyou

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the secretion of IL-12p40 and IL-6 by splenocytes, dendritic cells stimulated by different Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists or in the sera of mice immunized with different TLR agonists, and evaluate the effects of different TLR agonists on the function of T helper (Th) cells, especially the differentiation of Th1 cells. Supernatants of splenocytes and dendritic cells stimulated with different TLR agonists for 24 hours or sera of mice immunized with different TLR agonists at different time points were used to determine the levels of IL-12p40 and IL-6 by ELISA. CD4⁺ T cells isolated from the spleens of ovalbumin-T cell receptor (OVA-TCR) transgenic BALB/c (DO11.10) mice were co-cultured with antigen presenting cells (APCs) from congenic BALB/c mice at 1:3 ratio of T:APCs. Cultures were stimulated with OVA peptide or OVA peptide plus different doses of TLR agonists and the supernatants collected at different time points were assayed by ELISA for detecting IFN-γ. Pam3CSK4, R848 and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) promoted the production of IL-12p40 and IL-6 by splenocytes and dendritic cells obviously, and induced the expression of IFN-γ in antigen specific CD4⁺ T cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Monophosphoryl lipid A from Salmonella minnesota R595 lipopolysaccharide (MPLA-SM) induced low levels of cytokines by splenocytes and couldn't promote the production of IFN-γ by antigen specific CD4⁺ T cells, but increased the expressions of IL-12p40 and IL-6 by DCs. All the sera of mice immunized with the four TLR agonists expressed high levels of IL-12p40 and IL-6. Splenocytes, DCs stimulated or sera of mice immunized with different TLR agonists produced different levels of cytokines, which could further affect the differentiation of Th1 cells.

  16. Effects of eccentric exercise on toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo; De Paz, José A; Rodriguez-Miguelez, Paula; Cuevas, María J; González-Gallego, Javier

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the response of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway to an acute bout of eccentric exercise, and to assess whether eccentric training attenuated the effects induced by acute eccentric exercise. Twenty men (22.4 ± 0.5 yr) were divided into a control group (CG, n = 8) and a training group (TG, n = 12). Both groups performed two acute eccentric bouts on a squat machine in a 9-wk interval. During this time, TG followed a 6-wk eccentric training program (3 session/wk; 3-5 sets of 10 repetitions with loads ranging between the 40 and 50% of maximal isometric voluntary contraction). CD14, TLR4, and TNF-α mRNA levels, and CD14, TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor 88, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6, TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β, phospho-IκB kinases, phospho-IκB, phospho-ERK-1/2, and TNF-α protein concentration were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, before, immediately, and 2 h after each eccentric bout. The first acute eccentric bout triggered a proinflammatory response mediated by an upregulation of all of the factors measured within the TLR4 signaling pathway. Following the training period and after the second acute bout, CG showed a similar proinflammatory response than that seen after the first bout. However, the eccentric training intervention decreased significantly the protein concentration of all factors analyzed in TG compared with results obtained after the first bout. These results suggest that the TLR4-signaling pathway plays a critical role in the proinflammatory response seen after acute eccentric exercise. This response was attenuated after an eccentric training program through myeloid differentiation factor 88-dependent and -independent pathways.

  17. MiRNA-194 Regulates Palmitic Acid-Induced Toll-Like Receptor 4 Inflammatory Responses in THP-1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Huiqun; Liu, Chaoqi; Zou, Xiaohua; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Changcheng; Yuan, Ding

    2015-05-13

    There is strong evidence to suggest that inflammatory responses link obesity and diseases, and the understanding of obesity-induced inflammatory mechanisms is central to the pathogenesis of diseases such asnonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) and atherosclerosis that are modified by obesity. Based on this, anti-inflammatory treatments become a potential therapies for obesity-related diseases like NAFLD.A critical role of toll-like receptor (TLR) and its downstream molecules such as tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6(TRAF6) has been documented in inflammatory response induced by fatty acid. TLR pathway regulation provides a new insight to controlling the inflammatory response induced by fatty acid. Taken together, our study was aimed to understand the mechanism of fatty acid-mediated inflammation and look for an effective target which can prevent the inflammatory response induced by obesity. In this study, we used the saturated fatty acid palmitic acid (PA) to activate TLR4 signal pathway in human monocyte cells THP-1 that established an intracellular inflammatory model. Followed with activated TLR4, downstream molecular TRAF6 was upregulated and ultimately induced proinflammatory cytokine production. Based on this model, we also found that PA downregulated miR-194 expression with TLR4 activation. Moreover, our results showed that key signal molecular TRAF6 is a target of miR-194, overexpression of miR-194 directly decreased TRAF6 expression and attenuated the release of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α in PA-activated monocyte THP-1. We conclude that miR-194 negatively regulates the TLR4 signal pathway which is activated by PA through directly negative TRAF6 expression.

  18. The toll-like receptor 2/1 (TLR2/1) complex initiates human platelet activation via the src/Syk/LAT/PLCγ2 signalling cascade.

    PubMed

    Fälker, Knut; Klarström-Engström, Kristin; Bengtsson, Torbjörn; Lindahl, Tomas L; Grenegård, Magnus

    2014-02-01

    The specific TLR2/1 complex activator Pam3CSK4 has been shown to provoke prominent activation and aggregation of human non-nucleated platelets. As Pam3CSK4-evoked platelet activation does not employ the major signalling pathway established in nucleated immune cells, we investigated if the TLR2/1 complex on platelets may initiate signalling pathways known to be induced by physiological agonists such as collagen via GPVI or thrombin via PARs. We found that triggering TLR2/1 complex-signalling with Pam3CSK4, in common with that induced via GPVI, and in contrast to that provoked by PARs, involves tyrosine phosphorylation of the adaptor protein LAT as well as of PLCγ2 in a src- and Syk-dependent manner. In this respect, we provide evidence that Pam3CSK4 does not cross-activate GPVI. Further, by the use of platelets from a Glanzmann's thrombasthenia patient lacking β(3), in contrast to findings in nucleated immune cells, we show that the initiation of platelet activation by Pam3CSK4 does not involve integrin β(3) signalling; whereas the latter, subsequent to intermediate TXA2 synthesis and signalling, was found to be indispensable for proper dense granule secretion and full platelet aggregation. Together, our findings reveal that triggering the TLR2/1 complex with Pam3CSK4 initiates human platelet activation by engaging tyrosine kinases of the src family and Syk, the adaptor protein LAT, as well as the key mediator PLCγ2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Augmentation of autologous T cell reactivity with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts by Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists.

    PubMed

    Zhong, RuiKun; Li, Hongying; Messer, Karen; Lane, Thomas A; Zhou, Jiehua; Ball, Edward D

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated whether TNF-α, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 7/8 agonist resiquimod (R848), the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and their combinations can enhance autologous AML-reactive T cell generation in an in vitro culture. AML peripheral blood or bone marrow mononuclear cells were cultured in medium supplemented with GM-CSF/IL-4 to induce dendritic cell (DC) differentiation of AML blasts (AML-DC). The impact of TNF-α, LPS, R848 and their combinations on AML-DC cultures was analyzed. Significantly enhanced CD80, CD40, CD83, CD54, HLA-DR and CD86 expression of AML cells was observed by addition of TNF-α, LPS, R848 alone or combinations. Induced CD80 expression of AML cells was significantly higher through the combination of TNF-α, LPS and R848 (T + L + R) than that by T alone. CTL induced from T + L + R, T + R, T + L, L + R and R, but not T, L alone stimulated cultures showed significantly higher IFN-γ release than the medium control in response to autologous AML cells. IFN-γ release by T + L + R was significantly higher than T or L alone, and T + R was significantly higher than T alone. CTL generated from T + L + R, T + L, T + R, L + R and L alone exerted significantly higher AML cell killing than medium control. AML cell killing by T + L + R and T + R was significantly higher than T or R alone. These results indicate that the combination of T + L + R induces a significantly enhanced antigen presentation effect of AML-DC. We speculate that the complementary effects of reagent combinations may better address the heterogeneity of responses to any single agent in AML cells from different patients.

  20. Resveratrol increases phagocytosis and lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1β production, but decreases surface expression of Toll-like receptor 2 in THP-1 monocytes.

    PubMed

    Zunino, Susan J; Hwang, Daniel H; Huang, Shurong; Storms, David H

    2017-08-08

    THP-1 monocytes were used to evaluate the effects of physiological levels of resveratrol aglycone, resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide, resveratrol-4'-O-glucuronide, and resveratrol-3-O-sulfate on phagocytosis, IL-1β, IL-1α, and IL-18 production, viability, and TLR2 and TLR4 expression. THP-1 cells were treated with 1, 5, 10, and 15μM resveratrol or metabolites. Resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide, resveratrol-4'-O-glucuronide, and resveratrol-3-O-sulfate had no effect on the functional parameters tested. Resveratrol aglycone increased phagocytosis at concentrations of 5, 10, and 15μM and LPS-induced IL-1β production at concentrations of 10 and 15μM. Expression of TLR4 increased slightly after resveratrol treatment, but surface expression of TLR2 was reduced as resveratrol concentrations increased. Our data suggest that resveratrol may be effective in modulating monocyte function in an environment where there is direct exposure to the aglycone, such as at the gut epithelium. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Porphyromonas gingivalis Stimulates Bone Resorption by Enhancing RANKL (Receptor Activator of NF-κB Ligand) through Activation of Toll-like Receptor 2 in Osteoblasts*

    PubMed Central

    Kassem, Ali; Henning, Petra; Lundberg, Pernilla; Souza, Pedro P. C.; Lindholm, Catharina; Lerner, Ulf H.

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis. In experimental arthritis, concomitant periodontitis caused by oral infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis enhances articular bone loss. The aim of this study was to investigate how lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from P. gingivalis stimulates bone resorption. The effects by LPS P. gingivalis and four other TLR2 ligands on bone resorption, osteoclast formation, and gene expression in wild type and Tlr2-deficient mice were assessed in ex vivo cultures of mouse parietal bones and in an in vivo model in which TLR2 agonists were injected subcutaneously over the skull bones. LPS P. gingivalis stimulated mineral release and matrix degradation in the parietal bone organ cultures by increasing differentiation and formation of mature osteoclasts, a response dependent on increased RANKL (receptor activator of NF-κB ligand). LPS P. gingivalis stimulated RANKL in parietal osteoblasts dependent on the presence of TLR2 and through a MyD88 and NF-κB-mediated mechanism. Similarly, the TLR2 agonists HKLM, FSL1, Pam2, and Pam3 stimulated RANKL in osteoblasts and parietal bone resorption. LPS P. gingivalis and Pam2 robustly enhanced osteoclast formation in periosteal/endosteal cell cultures by increasing RANKL. LPS P. gingivalis and Pam2 also up-regulated RANKL and osteoclastic genes in vivo, resulting in an increased number of periosteal osteoclasts and immense bone loss in wild type mice but not in Tlr2-deficient mice. These data demonstrate that LPS P. gingivalis stimulates periosteal osteoclast formation and bone resorption by stimulating RANKL in osteoblasts via TLR2. This effect might be important for periodontal bone loss and for the enhanced bone loss seen in rheumatoid arthritis patients with concomitant periodontal disease. PMID:26085099

  2. Key Role of Toll-Like Receptor 2 in the Inflammatory Response and Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Downregulation in Brucella abortus-Infected Alveolar Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero, Mariana C.; Hielpos, M. Soledad; Carvalho, Natalia B.; Barrionuevo, Paula; Corsetti, Patricia P.; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H.; Oliveira, Sergio C.

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AM) seem to constitute the main cellular target of inhaled brucellae. Here, we show that Brucella abortus invades and replicates in murine AM without inducing cytotoxicity. B. abortus infection induced a statistically significant increase of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), CXCL1 or keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and IL-12 in AM from C57BL/6 mice and BALB/c mice, but these responses were generally weaker and/or delayed compared to those elicited in peritoneal macrophages. Studies using knockout mice for TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 revealed that TNF-α and KC responses were mediated by TLR2 recognition. Brucella infection reduced in a multiplicity of infection-dependent manner the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules induced by gamma interferon (IFN-γ) in AM. The same phenomenon was induced by incubation with heat-killed B. abortus (HKBA) or the lipidated form of the 19-kDa outer membrane protein of Brucella (L-Omp19), and it was shown to be mediated by TLR2 recognition. In contrast, no significant downregulation of MHC-II was induced by either unlipidated Omp19 or Brucella LPS. In a functional assay, treatment of AM with either L-Omp19 or HKBA reduced the MHC-II-restricted presentation of OVA peptides to specific T cells. One week after intratracheal infection, viable B. abortus was detected in AM from both wild-type and TLR2 KO mice, but CFU counts were higher in the latter. These results suggest that B. abortus survives in AM after inhalatory infection in spite of a certain degree of immune control exerted by the TLR2-mediated inflammatory response. Both the modest nature of the latter and the modulation of MHC-II expression by the bacterium may contribute to such survival. PMID:24478078

  3. Key role of Toll-like receptor 2 in the inflammatory response and major histocompatibility complex class ii downregulation in Brucella abortus-infected alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Mariana C; Hielpos, M Soledad; Carvalho, Natalia B; Barrionuevo, Paula; Corsetti, Patricia P; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H; Oliveira, Sergio C; Baldi, Pablo C

    2014-02-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AM) seem to constitute the main cellular target of inhaled brucellae. Here, we show that Brucella abortus invades and replicates in murine AM without inducing cytotoxicity. B. abortus infection induced a statistically significant increase of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), CXCL1 or keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and IL-12 in AM from C57BL/6 mice and BALB/c mice, but these responses were generally weaker and/or delayed compared to those elicited in peritoneal macrophages. Studies using knockout mice for TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 revealed that TNF-α and KC responses were mediated by TLR2 recognition. Brucella infection reduced in a multiplicity of infection-dependent manner the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules induced by gamma interferon (IFN-γ) in AM. The same phenomenon was induced by incubation with heat-killed B. abortus (HKBA) or the lipidated form of the 19-kDa outer membrane protein of Brucella (L-Omp19), and it was shown to be mediated by TLR2 recognition. In contrast, no significant downregulation of MHC-II was induced by either unlipidated Omp19 or Brucella LPS. In a functional assay, treatment of AM with either L-Omp19 or HKBA reduced the MHC-II-restricted presentation of OVA peptides to specific T cells. One week after intratracheal infection, viable B. abortus was detected in AM from both wild-type and TLR2 KO mice, but CFU counts were higher in the latter. These results suggest that B. abortus survives in AM after inhalatory infection in spite of a certain degree of immune control exerted by the TLR2-mediated inflammatory response. Both the modest nature of the latter and the modulation of MHC-II expression by the bacterium may contribute to such survival.

  4. Serum Amyloid A Induces Toll-Like Receptor 2-Dependent Inflammatory Cytokine Expression and Atrophy in C2C12 Skeletal Muscle Myotubes

    PubMed Central

    Passey, Samantha L.; Bozinovski, Steven; Vlahos, Ross; Anderson, Gary P.; Hansen, Michelle J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Skeletal muscle wasting is an important comorbidity of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and is strongly correlated with morbidity and mortality. Patients who experience frequent acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) have more severe muscle wasting and reduced recovery of muscle mass and function after each exacerbation. Serum levels of the pro-inflammatory acute phase protein Serum Amyloid A (SAA) can rise more than 1000-fold in AECOPD and are predictively correlated with exacerbation severity. The direct effects of SAA on skeletal muscle are poorly understood. Here we have examined SAA effects on pro-inflammatory cachectic cytokine expression (IL-6 and TNFα) and atrophy in C2C12 myotubes. Results SAA increased IL-6 (31-fold) and TNFα (6.5-fold) mRNA levels compared to control untreated cells after 3h of SAA treatment, and increased secreted IL-6 protein at 24h. OxPAPC, a dual TLR2 and TLR4 inhibitor, reduced the response to SAA by approximately 84% compared to SAA alone, and the TLR2 neutralising antibody T2.5 abolished SAA-induced expression of IL-6, indicating that SAA signalling in C2C12 myotubes is primarily via TLR2. SAA also reduced myotube width by 10–13% and induced a 2.5-fold increase in the expression of the muscle atrophy gene Atrogin-1, suggesting direct effects of SAA on muscle wasting. Blocking of TLR2 inhibited the SAA-induced decrease in myotube width and Atrogin-1 gene expression, indicating that SAA induces atrophy through TLR2. Conclusions These data demonstrate that SAA stimulates a robust pro-inflammatory response in skeletal muscle myotubes via the TLR2-dependent release of IL-6 and TNFα. Furthermore, the observed atrophy effects indicate that SAA could also be directly contributing to the wasting and poor recovery of muscle mass. Therapeutic strategies targeting this SAA-TLR2 axis may therefore ameliorate muscle wasting in AECOPD and a range of other inflammatory conditions associated with loss of muscle mass. PMID

  5. Crucial role of Toll-like receptors in the zinc/nickel-induced inflammatory response in vascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Yeh, Szu-Ching; Tsai, Feng-Yuan; Chao, How-Ran

    2013-12-15

    Our previous studies indicated that zinc induced inflammatory response in both vascular endothelial cells and promonocytes. Here, we asked if other metals could cause the similar effect on vascular endothelial cells and tried to determine its underlying mechanism. Following screening of fifteen metals, zinc and nickel were identified with a marked proinflammatory effect, as determined by ICAM-1 and IL-8 induction, on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Inhibiting protein expression of myeloid differentiation primary response protein-88 (MyD88), a Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor acting as a TLR-signaling transducer, significantly attenuated the zinc/nickel-induced inflammatory response, suggesting the critical roles of TLRs in the inflammatory response. Blockage of TLR-4 signaling by CLI-095, a TLR-4 inhibitor, completely inhibited the nickel-induced ICAM-1 and IL-8 expression and NFκB activation. The same CLI-095 treatment significantly blocked the zinc-induced IL-8 expression, however with no significant effect on the ICAM-1 expression and a minor inhibitory effect on the NFκB activation. The finding demonstrated the differential role of TLR-4 in regulation of the zinc/nickel-induced inflammatory response, where TLR-4 played a dominant role in NFκB activation by nickel, but not by zinc. Moreover, inhibition of NFκB by adenovirus-mediated IκBα expression and Bay 11-7025, an inhibitor of cytokine-induced IκB-α phosphorylation, significantly attenuated the zinc/nickel-induced inflammatory responses, indicating the critical of NFκB in the process. The study demonstrates the crucial role of TLRs in the zinc/nickel-induced inflammatory response in vascular endothelial cells and herein deciphers a potential important difference in NFκB activation via TLRs. The study provides a molecular basis for linkage between zinc/nickel exposure and pathogenesis of the metal-related inflammatory vascular disease. - Highlights: • Both zinc and nickel cause

  6. Hypoxia attenuates inflammatory mediators production induced by Acanthamoeba via Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in human corneal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Hong; Wu, Xinyi

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia attenuates Acanthamoeba-induced the production of IL-8 and IFN-{beta}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia inhibits TLR4 expression in a time-dependent manner in HCECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia inhibits Acanthamoeba-induced the activation of NF-{kappa}B and ERK1/2 in HCECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hypoxia decreases Acanthamoeba-induced inflammatory response via TLR4 signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS-induced the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 is abated by hypoxia via TLR4 signaling. -- Abstract: Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a vision-threatening corneal infection that is intimately associated with contact lens use which leads to hypoxic conditions on the corneal surface. However, the effect of hypoxia on the Acanthamoeba-induced host inflammatory response of corneal epithelial cells has not been studied. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hypoxia on the Acanthamoeba-induced production of inflammatory mediators interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) in human corneal epithelial cells and then evaluated its effects on the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling, including TLR4 and myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88) (MyD88) expression as well as the activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-{kappa}B) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). We then studied the effect of hypoxia on a TLR4-specific inflammatory response triggered by the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our data showed that hypoxia significantly decreased the production of IL-8 and IFN-{beta}. Furthermore, hypoxia attenuated Acanthamoeba-triggered TLR4 expression as well as the activation of NF-{kappa}B and ERK1/2, indicating that hypoxia abated Acanthamoeba-induced inflammatory responses by affecting TLR4 signaling. Hypoxia also inhibited LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion, myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88

  7. Interrelationship of dendritic cells, type 1 interferon system, regulatory T cells and toll-like receptors and their role in lichen planus and lupus erythematosus -- a literature review.

    PubMed

    Trucci, Victoria Martina; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves; Figueiredo, Maria Antonia; Cherubini, Karen

    2013-10-01

    There is evidence that the activation of some receptors of the toll-like family (TLRs) of the innate immune system, and also changes in expression levels of forkhead box p3 (Foxp3) protein, which is found in regulatory T cells (Tregs), could be involved in the development of autoimmunity. We present here a literature review focusing on the interrelationship of dendritic cells, TLRs, Tregs and type 1 interferon in autoimmune diseases, with special interest in lichen planus and lupus erythematosus. Understanding the specific role of each of these factors would help elucidate the obscure aetiology of such diseases and open new perspectives for their management and treatment.

  8. Distinct Patterns of Dendritic Cell Cytokine Release Stimulated by Fungal β-Glucans and Toll-Like Receptor Agonists▿

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haibin; Ostroff, Gary R.; Lee, Chrono K.; Wang, Jennifer P.; Specht, Charles A.; Levitz, Stuart M.

    2009-01-01

    β-Glucans derived from fungal cell walls have potential uses as immunomodulating agents and vaccine adjuvants. Yeast glucan particles (YGPs) are highly purified Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell walls composed of β1,6-branched β1,3-d-glucan and free of mannans. YGPs stimulated secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in wild-type murine bone marrow-derived myeloid dendritic cells (BMDCs) but did not stimulate interleukin-12p70 (IL-12p70) production. A purified soluble β1,6-branched β1,3-d-glucan, scleroglucan, also stimulated TNF-α in BMDCs. These two β-glucans failed to stimulate TNF-α in Dectin-1 (β-glucan receptor) knockout BMDCs. Costimulation of wild-type BMDCs with β-glucans and specific Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands resulted in greatly enhanced TNF-α production but decreased IL-12p70 production compared with TLR agonists alone. The upregulation of TNF-α and downregulation of IL-12p70 required Dectin-1, but not IL-10. Gamma interferon (IFN-γ) priming did not overcome IL-12p70 reduction by β-glucans. Similar patterns of cytokine regulation were observed in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) costimulated with YGPs and the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide. Finally, costimulation of BMDCs with YGPs and either the TLR9 ligand, CpG, or the TLR2/1 ligand, Pam3CSK4, resulted in upregulated secretion of IL-1α and IL-10 and downregulated secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 but had no significant effects on IL-12p40, keratinocyte-derived chemokine, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, or macrophage inflammatory protein α, compared with the TLR ligand alone. Thus, β-glucans have distinct effects on cytokine responses following DC stimulation with different TLR agonists. These patterns of response might contribute to the skewing of immune responses during mycotic infections and have implications for the design of immunomodulators and vaccines containing β-glucans. PMID:19273561

  9. Activation of Toll-like receptor, RAGE and HMGB1 signalling in malformations of cortical development.

    PubMed

    Zurolo, Emanuele; Iyer, Anand; Maroso, Mattia; Carbonell, Caterina; Anink, Jasper J; Ravizza, Teresa; Fluiter, Kees; Spliet, Wim G M; van Rijen, Peter C; Vezzani, Annamaria; Aronica, Eleonora

    2011-04-01

    Recent evidence in experimental models of seizures and in temporal lobe epilepsy support an important role of high-mobility group box 1 and toll-like receptor 4 signalling in the mechanisms of hyperexcitability leading to the development and perpetuation of seizures. In this study, we investigated the expression and cellular distribution of toll-like receptors 2 and 4, and of the receptor for advanced glycation end products, and their endogenous ligand high-mobility group box 1, in epilepsy associated with focal malformations of cortical development. Immunohistochemistry showed increased expression of toll-like receptors 2 and 4 and receptor for advanced glycation end products in reactive glial cells in focal cortical dysplasia, cortical tubers from patients with the tuberous sclerosis complex and in gangliogliomas. Toll-like receptor 2 was predominantly detected in cells of the microglia/macrophage lineage and in balloon cells in focal cortical dysplasia, and giant cells in tuberous sclerosis complex. The toll-like receptor 4 and receptor for advanced glycation end products were expressed in astrocytes, as well as in dysplastic neurons. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction confirmed the increased receptors messenger RNA level in all pathological series. These receptors were not detected in control cortex specimens. In control cortex, high-mobility group box 1 was ubiquitously detected in nuclei of glial and neuronal cells. In pathological specimens, protein staining was instead detected in the cytoplasm of reactive astrocytes or in tumour astrocytes, as well as in activated microglia, predictive of its release from glial cells. In vitro experiments in human astrocyte cultures showed that nuclear to cytoplasmic translocation of high-mobility group box 1 was induced by interleukin-1β. Our findings provide novel evidence of intrinsic activation of these pro-inflammatory signalling pathways in focal malformations of cortical development, which could

  10. Toll-like receptor 2 activation by Chlamydia trachomatis is plasmid dependent, and plasmid-responsive chromosomal loci are coordinately regulated in response to glucose limitation by C. trachomatis but not by C. muridarum.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Catherine M; AbdelRahman, Yasser M; Green, Erin; Darville, Hillary K; Saira, Kazima; Smith, Bennett; Darville, Toni; Scurlock, Amy M; Meyer, Christopher R; Belland, Robert J

    2011-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that plasmid-deficient Chlamydia muridarum retains the ability to infect the murine genital tract but does not elicit oviduct pathology because it fails to activate Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). We derived a plasmid-cured derivative of the human genital isolate Chlamydia trachomatis D/UW-3/Cx, strain CTD153, which also fails to activate TLR2, indicating this virulence phenotype is associated with plasmid loss in both C. trachomatis and C. muridarum. As observed with plasmid-deficient C. muridarum, CTD153 displayed impaired accumulation of glycogen within inclusions. Transcriptional profiling of the plasmid-deficient strains by using custom microarrays identified a conserved group of chromosomal loci, the expression of which was similarly controlled in plasmid-deficient C. muridarum strains CM972 and CM3.1 and plasmid-deficient C. trachomatis CTD153. However, although expression of glycogen synthase, encoded by glgA, was greatly reduced in CTD153, it was unaltered in plasmid-deficient C. muridarum strains. Thus, additional plasmid-associated factors are required for glycogen accumulation by this chlamydial species. Furthermore, in C. trachomatis, glgA and other plasmid-responsive chromosomal loci (PRCLs) were transcriptionally responsive to glucose limitation, indicating that additional regulatory elements may be involved in the coordinated expression of these candidate virulence effectors. Glucose-limited C. trachomatis displayed reduced TLR2 stimulation in an in vitro assay. During human chlamydial infection, glucose limitation may decrease chlamydial virulence through its effects on plasmid-responsive chromosomal genes.

  11. HP1330 Contributes to Streptococcus suis Virulence by Inducing Toll-Like Receptor 2- and ERK1/2-Dependent Pro-inflammatory Responses and Influencing In Vivo S. suis Loads.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Jingjing; Yu, Junping; Xu, Zhongmin; Liu, Liang; Song, Yajing; Sun, Xiaomei; Zhang, Anding; Jin, Meilin

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus suis 2 (SS2) has evolved into a highly invasive pathogen responsible for two large-scale outbreaks of streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome (STSLS) in China. Excessive inflammation stimulated by SS2 is considered a hallmark of STSLS, even it also plays important roles in other clinical symptoms of SS2-related disease, including meningitis, septicemia, and sudden death. However, the mechanism of SS2-caused excessive inflammation remains poorly understood. Here, a novel pro-inflammatory protein was identified (HP1330), which could induce robust expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-1β) in RAW264.7 macrophages. To evaluate the role of HP1330 in SS2 virulence, an hp1330-deletion mutant (Δhp1330) was constructed. In vitro, hp1330 disruption led to a decreased pro-inflammatory ability of SS2 in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In vivo, Δhp1330 showed reduced lethality, pro-inflammatory activity, and bacterial loads in mice. To further elucidate the mechanism of HP1330-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, antibody blocking and gene-deletion experiments with macrophages were performed. The results revealed that the pro-inflammatory activity of HP1330 depended on the recognition of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Furthermore, a specific inhibitor of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathways could significantly decrease HP1330-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and western blot analysis showed that HP1330 could induce activation of the ERK1/2 pathway. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that HP1330 contributes to SS2 virulence by inducing TLR2- and ERK1/2-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokine production and influencing in vivo bacterial loads, implying that HP1330 may be associated with STSLS caused by SS2.

  12. A novel pro-inflammatory protein of Streptococcus suis 2 induces the Toll-like receptor 2-dependent expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 macrophages via activation of ERK1/2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Yujie; Yan, Shuxian; Liu, Jiantao; Xu, Zhongmin; Yu, Junping; Song, Yajing; Zhang, Anding; Jin, Meilin

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus suis 2 is an important swine pathogen and an emergent zoonotic pathogen. Excessive inflammation caused by S. suis is responsible for the high levels of early mortality observed in septic shock-like syndrome cases. However, the mechanisms through which S. suis 2 (SS2) causes excessive inflammation remain unclear. Thus, this study aimed to identify novel pro-inflammatory mediators that play important roles in the development of therapies against SS2 infection. In this study, the novel pro-inflammatory protein HP0459, which was encoded by the SSUSC84_0459 gene, was discovered. The stimulation of RAW 264.7 macrophages with recombinant HP0459 protein induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, MCP-1 and TNF-α). Compared with the wild-type (WT) strain, the isogenic knockout of HP0459 in SS2 led to reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW264.7 macrophages and in vivo. The pro-inflammatory activity of HP0459 was significantly reduced by an antibody against Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in RAW264.7 macrophages and was lower in TLR2-deficient (TLR2-/-) macrophages than in WT macrophages. Furthermore, specific inhibitors of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathways significantly decreased the HP0459-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and a western blot assay showed that HP0459 stimulation induced the activation of the ERK1/2 pathway. Taken together, our data indicate that HP0459 is a novel pro-inflammatory mediator of SS2 and induces TLR2-dependent pro-inflammatory activity in RAW264.7 macrophages through the ERK1/2 pathway.

  13. Astragalus mongholicus regulate the Toll-like-receptor 4 meditated signal transduction of dendritic cells to restrain stomach cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Li, Xueliang; Li, Hongxia; Lu, Qing; Sun, Guoping; Chen, Hongjing

    2014-01-01

    According to the traditional view, we depend on three methods to treat tumors; surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, these methods have its own limitations in application. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is one of the oldest healing systems. Astragalus mongholicus (AMs) that is the common herbal medicine, the biggest part of TCM, have been proved to be effective in treating cancers from lots of clinical cases. However, we have not fully understood the anti-tumor mechanism of AMs, and this has lead to some doubt for some Western-Medicine scholars and restricts its wide use. The main objective of this research is to discuss the effect and mechanism of AMs to human stomach cancer. To observe the effect and mechanism of tumor treatment by AMs, we have done the research from three major aspects, the influence of DCs, the inhibition of tumor in vitro as well as the animal studies in vivo after treatment. First, we culture the mouse dendritic cells (DCs) from bone marrow of mouse hind legs according to the method using Interleukin-4(IL-4) and Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which refer to the way established by Inaba (Inaba K, 1992). And then we investigate the growth-rate of the DCs co-cultured with AMs injection. We analyze the expression of the Toll-like-receptor 4 (TLR4), with SYBR-Green I Real-time PCR and the I-kappa-B-alpha (IκB-α) with Western-Blot, the main regulatory protein to control nuclear factor NFκB-p65 nuclear translocation. Second, we choose the human gastric cancer cell lines MKN 45 as the target cell, which was co-cultured with DCs, T cells from spleen of mouse and AMs injection, and use MTT assay to judge the amount of cell lines and Immnunoflurescene to analyze the expression of anti-active caspase 3 pAb anti-PARP P85 fragment pAb, the mark of apoptosis of cells. Third, we have conducted the animal studies beside the basic experiment in vitro. The nude mouse developed stomach cancer, due to intra

  14. [TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS IN COSMONAUT'S PERIPHERAL BLOOD CELLS AFTER LONG-DURATION MISSIONS TO THE INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION].

    PubMed

    Berendeeva, T A; Ponomarev, S A; Antropova, E N; Rykova, M P

    2015-01-01

    Studies of Toll-like receptors (TLR) in 20 cosmonauts-members of long-duration (124-199-day) missions to the International space station evidenced changes in relative and absolute counts of peripheral blood monocytes with TLR2, TLR4 and TLR6 on the surface, expression of TLR2 and TLR6 genes, and genes of molecules involved in the TLR signaling pathway and TLR-related NF-KB-, JNK/p38- and IRF pathways on the day of return to Earth. The observed changes displayed individual variability.

  15. Downregulation of Toll-Like Receptor 9 Expression by Beta Human Papillomavirus 38 and Implications for Cell Cycle Control

    PubMed Central

    Pacini, Laura; Savini, Claudia; Ghittoni, Raffaella; Saidj, Djamel; Lamartine, Jerome; Hasan, Uzma A.; Accardi, Rosita

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Innate immunity is the first line of host defense against infections. Many oncogenic viruses can deregulate several immune-related pathways to guarantee the persistence of the infection. Here, we show that the cutaneous human papillomavirus 38 (HPV38) E6 and E7 oncoproteins suppress the expression of the double-stranded DNA sensor Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in human foreskin keratinocytes (HFK), a key mediator of the antiviral innate immune host response. In particular, HPV38 E7 induces TLR9 mRNA downregulation by promoting accumulation of ΔNp73α, an antagonist of p53 and p73. Inhibition of ΔNp73α expression by antisense oligonucleotide in HPV38 E6/E7 HFK strongly rescues mRNA levels of TLR9, highlighting a key role of ΔNp73α in this event. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments showed that ΔNp73α is part of a negative transcriptional regulatory complex with IκB kinase beta (IKKβ) that binds to a NF-κB responsive element within the TLR9 promoter. In addition, the Polycomb protein enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), responsible for gene expression silencing, is also recruited into the complex, leading to histone 3 trimethylation at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) in the same region of the TLR9 promoter. Ectopic expression of TLR9 in HPV38 E6/E7 cells resulted in an accumulation of the cell cycle inhibitors p21WAF1 and p27Kip1, decreased CDK2-associated kinase activity, and inhibition of cellular proliferation. In summary, our data show that HPV38, similarly to other viruses with well-known oncogenic activity, can downregulate TLR9 expression. In addition, they highlight a new role for TLR9 in cell cycle regulation. IMPORTANCE The mucosal high-risk HPV types have been clearly associated with human carcinogenesis. Emerging lines of evidence suggest the involvement of certain cutaneous HPV types in development of skin squamous cell carcinoma, although this association is still under debate. Oncogenic viruses have evolved different strategies to hijack the

  16. Toll-like receptor 4 is involved in the cell cycle modulation and required for effective human cytomegalovirus infection in THP-1 macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Arcangeletti, Maria-Cristina; Germini, Diego; Rodighiero, Isabella; Mirandola, Prisco; De Conto, Flora; Medici, Maria-Cristina; Gatti, Rita; Chezzi, Carlo; Calderaro, Adriana

    2013-05-25

    Suitable host cell metabolic conditions are fundamental for the effective development of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) lytic cycle. Indeed, several studies have demonstrated the ability of this virus to interfere with cell cycle regulation, mainly by blocking proliferating cells in G1 or G1/S. In the present study, we demonstrate that HCMV deregulates the cell cycle of THP-1 macrophages (a cell line irreversibly arrested in G0) by pushing them into S and G2 phases. Moreover, we show that HCMV infection of THP-1 macrophages leads to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation. Since various studies have indicated TLR4 to be involved in promoting cell proliferation, here we investigate the possible role of TLR4 in the observed HCMV-induced cell cycle perturbation. Our data strongly support TLR4 as a mediator of HCMV-triggered cell cycle activation in THP-1 macrophages favouring, in turn, the development of an efficient viral lytic cycle. - Highlights: ► We studied HCMV infection impact on THP-1 macrophage cell cycle. ► We analysed the role played by Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 upon HCMV infection. ► HCMV pushes THP-1 macrophages (i.e. resting cells) to re-enter the cell cycle. ► TLR4 pathway inhibition strongly affects the effectiveness of HCMV replication. ► TLR4 pathway inhibition significantly decreases HCMV-induced cell cycle re-entry.

  17. Rhamnogalacturonan II is a Toll-like receptor 4 agonist that inhibits tumor growth by activating dendritic cell-mediated CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Nam; Noh, Kyung Tae; Jeong, Young-Il; Jung, In Duk; Kang, Hyun Kyu; Cha, Gil Sun; Lee, Su Jung; Seo, Jong Keun; Kang, Dae Hwan; Hwang, Tae-Ho; Lee, Eun Kyung; Kwon, Byungsuk; Park, Yeong-Min

    2013-02-08

    We evaluated the effectiveness of rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II)-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) vaccination on the induction of antitumor immunity in a mouse lymphoma model using EG7-lymphoma cells expressing ovalbumin (OVA). BMDCs treated with RG-II had an activated phenotype. RG-II induced interleukin (IL)-12, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production during dendritic cell (DC) maturation. BMDCs stimulated with RG-II facilitate the proliferation of CD8+ T cells. Using BMDCs from the mice deficient in Toll-like receptors (TLRs), we revealed that RG-II activity is dependent on TLR4. RG-II showed a preventive effect of immunization with OVA-pulsed BMDCs against EG7 lymphoma. These results suggested that RG-II expedites the DC-based immune response through the TLR4 signaling pathway.

  18. Toll-Like Receptor Expression in the Blood and Brain of Patients and a Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    St-Amour, Isabelle; Saint-Pierre, Martine; Lamontagne-Proulx, Jérôme; Kriz, Jasna; Barker, Roger A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence supports a role for the immune system in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Importantly, recent preclinical studies are now suggesting a specific contribution of inflammation to the α-synuclein-induced pathology seen in this condition. Methods: We used flow cytometry and western blots to detect toll-like receptor 2 and 4 expression in blood and brain samples of Parkinson’s disease patients and mice overexpressing human α-synuclein. To further assess the effects of α-synuclein overexpression on the innate immune system, we performed a longitudinal study using Thy1.2-α-synuclein mice that expressed a bicistronic DNA construct (reporter genes luciferase and green fluorescent protein) under the transcriptional control of the murine toll-like receptor 2 promoter. Results: Here, we report increases in toll-like receptors 2 and 4 expression in circulating monocytes and of toll-like receptor 4 in B cells and in the caudate/putamen of Parkinson’s disease patients. Monthly bioluminescence imaging of Thy1.2-α-synuclein mice showed increasing toll-like receptor 2 expression from 10 months of age, although no change in toll-like receptor 2 and 4 expression was observed in the blood and brain of these mice at 12 months of age. Dexamethasone treatment starting at 5 months of age for 1 month significantly decreased the microglial response in the brain of these mice and promoted functional recovery as observed using a wheel-running activity test. Conclusion: Our results show that toll-like receptors 2 and 4 are modulated in the blood and brain of Parkinson’s disease patients and that overexpression of α-synuclein leads to a progressive microglial response, the inhibition of which has a beneficial impact on some motor phenotypes of an animal model of α-synucleinopathy. PMID:25522431

  19. Differential expression of Toll-like receptor-2, -4 and -9 in follicle-associated epithelium from epithelia of both follicle-associated intestinal villi and ordinary intestinal villi in rat Peyer’s patches

    PubMed Central

    YUASA, Hideto; MANTANI, Youhei; MASUDA, Natsumi; NISHIDA, Miho; KAWANO, Junichi; YOKOYAMA, Toshifumi; HOSHI, Nobuhiko; KITAGAWA, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The expressions of Toll-like receptor (TLR) -2, -4 and -9 were immunohistochemically investigated in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE), and epithelia of the follicle-associated intestinal villus (FAIV) and ordinary intestinal villus (IV) in rat Peyer’s patch regions with no bacterial colonies on the mucous membranes. TLR-2 was expressed in the striated borders of microvillous columnar epithelial cells (MV) in both FAIV and IV except in the apices. However, TLR-2 expression in the striated borders was weaker in the epithelium of the follicular side of FAIV (f-FAIV) than in epithelia of IV and the anti-follicular side of FAIV. TLR-4 and -9 were not expressed in the FAIV and IV. In the FAE, TLR-2, -4 and -9 were not expressed in the striated borders of MV, but the roofs of some typical M-cells were immunopositive for all TLRs. Especially, no TLR-positive MV were found at the FAE sites where M-cells appeared most frequently. In the follicle-associated intestinal crypt (FAIC), immunopositivity for all TLRs was observed in the striated borders of MV and the luminal substances. In conclusion, the lower levels of TLR-2 in both FAE and the epithelium of f-FAIV probably reduce recognition of indigenous bacteria. TLR-2, -4 and -9 appear not to participate directly in differentiation of MV into M-cells, because TLRs were not expressed in any MV in the upstream region of M-cells in FAE with no settlement of indigenous bacteria in the rat Peyer’s patches. PMID:27593683

  20. Differential expression of Toll-like receptor-2, -4 and -9 in follicle-associated epithelium from epithelia of both follicle-associated intestinal villi and ordinary intestinal villi in rat Peyer's patches.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Hideto; Mantani, Youhei; Masuda, Natsumi; Nishida, Miho; Kawano, Junichi; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2017-01-10

    The expressions of Toll-like receptor (TLR) -2, -4 and -9 were immunohistochemically investigated in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE), and epithelia of the follicle-associated intestinal villus (FAIV) and ordinary intestinal villus (IV) in rat Peyer's patch regions with no bacterial colonies on the mucous membranes. TLR-2 was expressed in the striated borders of microvillous columnar epithelial cells (MV) in both FAIV and IV except in the apices. However, TLR-2 expression in the striated borders was weaker in the epithelium of the follicular side of FAIV (f-FAIV) than in epithelia of IV and the anti-follicular side of FAIV. TLR-4 and -9 were not expressed in the FAIV and IV. In the FAE, TLR-2, -4 and -9 were not expressed in the striated borders of MV, but the roofs of some typical M-cells were immunopositive for all TLRs. Especially, no TLR-positive MV were found at the FAE sites where M-cells appeared most frequently. In the follicle-associated intestinal crypt (FAIC), immunopositivity for all TLRs was observed in the striated borders of MV and the luminal substances. In conclusion, the lower levels of TLR-2 in both FAE and the epithelium of f-FAIV probably reduce recognition of indigenous bacteria. TLR-2, -4 and -9 appear not to participate directly in differentiation of MV into M-cells, because TLRs were not expressed in any MV in the upstream region of M-cells in FAE with no settlement of indigenous bacteria in the rat Peyer's patches.

  1. Genetic Variants in Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, TLR9, and FCγ Receptor II Are Associated with Antibody Response to Quadrivalent Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine in HIV-Infected Youth

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Min; Lujan-Zilbermann, Jorge; Singh, Kumud K.; Warshaw, Meredith G.; Williams, Paige L.; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Fenton, Terence; Siberry, George K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the association of host genetic variants with the antibody response to the quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4) in HIV-infected youth. Genetic variants associated with severity of meningococcal disease, including the IgG Fc receptor (FCγRII)-A484T, interleukin-10 (IL-10)-A1082G, -C819T, and -C627A, IL-4-C589T, mannose binding lectin-2 (MBL2)-A/O, -H/L, -P/Q, and -X/Y, toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-G2408A, TLR4-A12874G and -C13174T, and TLR9-T1237C and -T1486C were determined by real-time PCR (RT-PCR) for 271 HIV-infected subjects (median, 17 years). Response was defined as a ≥4-fold increase from entry in bactericidal antibody titers to each serogroup. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to evaluate the association of allelic variants with the immunologic response to all serogroups within each subject with and without adjusting for CD4 percentage and HIV viral load. At week 4, but not after, subjects with TLR2-2408-G/A versus -G/G genotypes and the TLR4-12874-A/A genotype were more likely to achieve a ≥4-fold increase overall in the four serogroups (unadjusted P of 0.006 and adjusted P of 0.008 and unadjusted P of 0.008 and adjusted P of 0.019, respectively). At week 28, the TLR9-1237 T allele was associated with enhanced antibody response (T allele versus C/C, unadjusted P of 0.014 and adjusted P of 0.009), which was maintained at week 72 (unadjusted and adjusted P of 0.008). At week 72, the FcγRII-131Arg allotype was associated with a ≥4-fold increase in antibody titer versus those with His/His (unadjusted P of 0.009; adjusted P of <0.001). These findings suggest that for HIV-infected youth, the initial antibody response to MCV4 is associated with variants in TLR2 and TLR4 while the long-term response is associated with genetic polymorphisms in TLR9 and FcγRIIa. PMID:23595505

  2. Heme-Mediated Induction of CXCL10 and Depletion of CD34+ Progenitor Cells Is Toll-Like Receptor 4 Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson-Copeland, Carmen M.; Wilson, Nana O.; Liu, Mingli; Driss, Adel; Salifu, Hassana; Adjei, Andrew A.; Wilson, Michael; Gyan, Ben; Oduro, Daniel; Badu, Kingsley; Botchway, Felix; Anderson, Winston; Bond, Vincent; Bacanamwo, Methode; Singh, Shailesh; Stiles, Jonathan K.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum infection can cause microvascular dysfunction, cerebral encephalopathy and death if untreated. We have previously shown that high concentrations of free heme, and C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10) in sera of malaria patients induce apoptosis in microvascular endothelial and neuronal cells contributing to vascular dysfunction, blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage and mortality. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are microvascular endothelial cell precursors partly responsible for repair and regeneration of damaged BBB endothelium. Studies have shown that EPC’s are depleted in severe malaria patients, but the mechanisms mediating this phenomenon are unknown. Toll-like receptors recognize a wide variety of pathogen-associated molecular patterns generated by pathogens such as bacteria and parasites. We tested the hypothesis that EPC depletion during malaria pathogenesis is a function of heme-induced apoptosis mediated by CXCL10 induction and toll-like receptor (TLR) activation. Heme and CXCL10 concentrations in plasma obtained from malaria patients were elevated compared with non-malaria subjects. EPC numbers were significantly decreased in malaria patients (P < 0.02) and TLR4 expression was significantly elevated in vivo. These findings were confirmed in EPC precursors in vitro; where it was determined that heme-induced apoptosis and CXCL10 expression was TLR4-mediated. We conclude that increased serum heme mediates depletion of EPC during malaria pathogenesis. PMID:26555697

  3. Association of toll-like receptor 2 ∆22 and risk for gastric cancer considering main effects and interactions with smoking: a matched case-control study from Mizoram, India.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Debdutta; Devi, Kangjam Rekha; Deka, Manab; Malakar, Mridul; Kaur, Tanvir; Barua, Debajit; Mahanta, Jagadish; Narain, Kanwar

    2016-08-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are evolutionary conserved cell surface receptors of the innate immune system. Smoking has significant immunological effects which are mediated via TLRs on various receptor-mediated innate response pathways. Polymorphisms of TLR genes are associated with susceptibility toward various malignancies. The present study was undertaken to examine the association between TLR2 ∆22 and gastric cancer. In this study, we also investigated the interaction between TLR2 ∆22 and smoking. A total of 133 histologically confirmed gastric cancer cases and 266 age-sex-matched controls were selected for this study. TLR2 ∆22 genotypes were determined by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Binary conditional logistic regression analysis was used to find the association of TLR2 ∆22 with risk of gastric cancer. Logistic regression using hierarchically well-formulated models was used for interaction analysis between smoking and TLR2 ∆22. Persons having TLR2 ∆22 heterozygous genotype had two times increased risk of gastric cancer in multivariate logistic regression model. The interaction analysis using hierarchical logistic regression models between smoking and TLR2 ∆22 by calculating separate X (2) for interaction model and only main effect model, the difference of X (2) 57.68-47.70 = 9.98 and degrees of freedom (df) 5-3 = 2, revealed significant (α = 0.05, df = 2) omnibus interaction. Our present study revealed TLR2 ∆22 to be significantly and independently associated with gastric cancer risk in Mizoram, and there is also evidence of significant interaction between smoking and TLR2 ∆22 with risk of gastric cancer.

  4. Analysis of the Toll-Like Receptor 2-2 (TLR2-2) and TLR4 mRNA Expression in the Intestinal Mucosal Immunity of Broilers Fed on Diets Supplemented with Nickel Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bangyuan; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Huang, Jianying

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLRs) are important innate immune receptors, and TLR2 and TLR4 play an important role in intestinal mucosal innate immunity. It has been found that nickel (Ni) can affect the immune system in broilers. The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in TLR2-2 and TLR4 mRNA expression levels in the intestinal mucosal immunity system of broilers induced by dietary nickel chloride (NiCl2) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays. Two hundred and forty one-day-old avian broilers were divided into four groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet as control diet or the same basal diet supplemented with 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg of NiCl2 for 42 days. Results showed that the TLR2-2 and TLR4 mRNA expression levels in the intestinal mucosa and the cecal tonsil were lower (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in the 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg groups than those in the control group. It was concluded that dietary NiCl2 in excess of 300 mg/kg could reduce TLR2-2 and TLR4 mRNA expression levels in the intestinal mucosa and cecal tonsil in broilers, implying that the innate immunity in intestinal mucosal immune system could be impaired by pathways involving injured surface epithelium cells or/and the inhibition of the TLR signal transduction. PMID:24394214

  5. Distinct expression patterns of Toll-like receptor 7 in tumour cells and fibroblast-like cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yan Hong; Ding, Liang; Zhang, Dong Ya; Hou, Ya Yi; Huang, Xiaofeng; Hu, Qingang

    2015-11-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR)-7 agonists have been used in cancer immunotherapy, but tumour heterogeneity means that TLR-7 activity is variable in different components of the tumour microenvironment and the characteristics of TLR-7 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are unclear. Twenty healthy oral tissues, 50 oral leukoplakia tissues and 166 retrospective primary OSCC samples were collected for immunohistochemical staining of TLR-7 and showed up-regulated expression during carcinogenesis. Moreover, patients with high expression of TLR-7 in tumour cells (TCs) had poor differentiation and prognosis. Interestingly, patients with high expression of TLR-7 in stroma fibroblast-like cells (FLCs) had low tumour stage, no lymph node metastasis (LNM) and better prognosis. Furthermore, Ki-67, CD3, CD4, CD8 and forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)(+) tumour-infiltrated lymphocytes were assessed and we found that TLR-7(high) TCs were infiltrated by fewer CD3(+) CD4(+) but more FoxP3(+) lymphocytes. Importantly, patients with TLR-7(low) TCs and TLR-7(high) FLCs had less FoxP3(+) lymphocyte infiltration and longer survival time than those with TLR-7(high) TCs/TLR-7(low) FLCs, although TLR-7 was not an independent prognostic factor for OSCC. The low expression of TLR-7 in tumour and high expression of TLR-7 in stroma predict a good clinical outcome for OSCC patients, and stroma FLCs might be amenable to immunotherapy by a TLR-7 agonist. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Surface expression of toll-like receptor 4 on THP-1 cells is modulated by Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang and Shi-Quan-Da-Bu-Tang.

    PubMed

    Mita, Y; Dobashi, K; Shimizu, Y; Nakazawa, T; Mori, M

    2002-03-01

    Human Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has recently been identified and has been shown to be the main protein involved in recognizing Gram-negative bacteria. We examined the regulation of TLR4 surface expression in a human monocytic cell line (THP-1 cells) by two traditional Chinese herbal medicines. Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang (TJ-41) and Shi-Quan-Da-Bu-Tang (TJ-48). TJ-41 and TJ-48 upregulated TLR4 surface expression in THP-1 cells, as well as enhanced TLR4 surface expression in these cells both dose- and time-dependently. These findings suggest that TJ-41 and TJ-48 increase the receptor involved in the response to Gram-negative bacteria and may enhance defenses against these pathogens.

  7. Triggering of toll-like receptor signaling pathways in T cells contributes to the anti-tumor efficacy of T cell responses.

    PubMed

    Salem, Mohamed Labib

    2011-06-30

    Traditionally, expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs) has been associated with innate immune cells in particular professional antigen presenting cells and natural killer cells. This led to the concept that the adjuvant effects of ligation of TLR in a host occur mainly in innate immune cells. However, this concept has been challenged by recent studies including ours demonstrating that T cells express appreciated levels of different TLRs, which can serve as costimulatory co-receptors during polyclonal and antigen-specific stimulation of T cells. Because T cells express low levels of TLRs as compared to innate immune cells, increasing the expression levels of TLRs in T cells can significantly maximize their responses to the costimulatory effects of TLR ligation. This review article focuses on the potential role of TLR expression in T cells in their responses to vaccination regimen containing TLR agonists and how it can be modulated to optimize anti-tumor immunity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Different roles of TiR8/Sigirr on toll-like receptor signaling in intrarenal antigen-presenting cells and tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lech, M; Garlanda, C; Mantovani, A; Kirschning, C J; Schlöndorff, D; Anders, H-J

    2007-07-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) exist on both myeloid and intrinsic renal cells contributing to the initiation of innate immunity during renal infection with uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Toll-interleukin 1 receptor (IL-1R) (TIR)8/SIGIRR is an orphan receptor of the TLR/IL-1R family, which suppresses TLR signaling of immune cells and is highly expressed in the kidney. Lack of TIR8/SIGIRR is associated with enhanced renal chemokine signaling upon exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This was because of TIR8/SIGIRR expression on resident intrarenal myeloid cells rather than tubular epithelial cells which express it on basolateral and luminal membranes. The lack of TIR8/SIGIRR does not enhance TLR/IL-1R signaling in tubular epithelial cells as was observed in monocytes. TIR8/SIGIRR is induced in monocytes treated with LPS or tumor necrosis factor and interferon-gamma in a dose-dependent manner but was downregulated in treated tubule epithelial cells. This cell type-specific regulation and function did not relate to mRNA splice variants but was associated with N- and O-glycosylation of the receptor in renal cells of myeloid and nonmyeloid origin. Our studies show that resident myeloid cells contribute to TLR-mediated antimicrobial immunity in the kidney and that this function is controlled by Tir8/sigirr. TIR8/SIGIRR does not suppress TLR signaling in tubular epithelial cells, which supports their role as sensors of microbial infection in the kidney.

  9. Glioma Stem Cells but Not Bulk Glioma Cells Upregulate IL-6 Secretion in Microglia/Brain Macrophages via Toll-like Receptor 4 Signaling.

    PubMed

    a Dzaye, Omar Dildar; Hu, Feng; Derkow, Katja; Haage, Verena; Euskirchen, Philipp; Harms, Christoph; Lehnardt, Seija; Synowitz, Michael; Wolf, Susanne A; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral macrophages and resident microglia constitute the dominant glioma-infiltrating cells. The tumor induces an immunosuppressive and tumor-supportive phenotype in these glioma-associated microglia/brain macrophages (GAMs). A subpopulation of glioma cells acts as glioma stem cells (GSCs). We explored the interaction between GSCs and GAMs. Using CD133 as a marker of stemness, we enriched for or deprived the mouse glioma cell line GL261 of GSCs by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Over the same period of time, 100 CD133(+ )GSCs had the capacity to form a tumor of comparable size to the ones formed by 10,000 CD133(-) GL261 cells. In IL-6(-/-) mice, only tumors formed by CD133(+ )cells were smaller compared with wild type. After stimulation of primary cultured microglia with medium from CD133-enriched GL261 glioma cells, we observed an selective upregulation in microglial IL-6 secretion dependent on Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. Our results show that GSCs, but not the bulk glioma cells, initiate microglial IL-6 secretion via TLR4 signaling and that IL-6 regulates glioma growth by supporting GSCs. Using human glioma tissue, we could confirm the finding that GAMs are the major source of IL-6 in the tumor context.

  10. A peptide tetramer Tk-tPN induces tolerance of cardiac allografting by conversion of type 1 to type 2 immune responses via the Toll-like receptor 2 signal-promoted activation of the MCP1 gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Zuoqing; Yang, Neng; Zhou, Ling; Gu, Peng; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Yun; Zhou, Peijun; Lu, Liming; Chou, Kuang-Yen

    2016-03-01

    The plant protein trichosanthin (Tk) and its derived peptide tetramer Tk-tPN have been shown to stimulate the type 2 immune responses for treating autoimmune disease. This work explores the possibility of using Tk-tPN as a non-toxic immunosuppressant to induce transplantation tolerance using the mechanisms by which T-cell-mediated immune responses are transferred from type 1 to type 2 through innate immunity-related pathways. Immunocytes and cytokine secretions involved in the mouse cardiac allografting model with Tk-tPN treatment were characterized. Identification of critical genes and analysis of their functions through Toll-like receptor (TLR) -initiated signalling and the possible epigenetic changes were performed. Mean survival times of the cardiac allografts were delayed from 7.7 ± 0.3 days (control) to 22.7 ± 3.9 days (P < 0.01) or 79.1 ± 19.2 days (P < 0.0001) when Tk-tPN was introduced into the recipients alone or together with rapamycin, respectively. The grafting tolerance was donor-specific. The secretion pattern of the type 1 cytokine/transcription factor (IL-2(+) IFN-γ(+) T-bet(+)), which is responsible for the acute graft rejection, was shifted to the type 2 factor (IL-4(+) IL-10(+) Gata3+), together with a selective expansion of the IL-4/IL-10-producing CD8+ CD28- regulatory T-cell subset. A TLR2-initiated high expression of chemokine gene MCP1 was detectable simultaneously. Epigenetically Tk/Tk-tPN could also acetylate the histone H3K9 of MCP1 promoter to skew the immunity towards T helper type 2 responses. Tk/Tk-tPN is therefore capable of down-regulating the type 1 response-dominant rejection of cardiac allografts by evoking type 2 immunity through the activation of a TLR2-initiated signalling pathway and MCP1 gene to expand the IL-4/IL-10-secreting CD8+ CD28- regulatory T cells. Tk-tPN could be a promising novel immunosuppressant to induce tolerance in allotransplantation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Toll-like Receptor-7 Mediates Pruritus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Xu, Zhen-Zhong; Park, Chul-Kyu; Berta, Temugin; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2010-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are typically expressed in immune cells to regulate innate immunity. Here we report that functional TLR7 is expressed in C-fiber primary sensory neurons and important for inducing itch (pruritis) but not necessary for eliciting mechanical, thermal, inflammatory and neuropathic pain in mice. Thus, we have uncovered TLR7 as a novel itch mediator and a potential therapeutic target for anti-itch treatment in skin disease conditions. PMID:21037581

  12. Toll-like receptor ligands sensitize B-cell receptor signalling by reducing actin-dependent spatial confinement of the receptor.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Spencer A; Jaumouillé, Valentin; Choi, Kate; Hsu, Brian E; Wong, Harikesh S; Abraham, Libin; Graves, Marcia L; Coombs, Daniel; Roskelley, Calvin D; Das, Raibatak; Grinstein, Sergio; Gold, Michael R

    2015-02-03

    Integrating signals from multiple receptors allows cells to interpret the physiological context in which a signal is received. Here we describe a mechanism for receptor crosstalk in which receptor-induced increases in actin dynamics lower the threshold for signalling by another receptor. We show that the Toll-like receptor ligands lipopolysaccharide and CpG DNA, which are conserved microbial molecules, enhance signalling by the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) by activating the actin-severing protein cofilin. Single-particle tracking reveals that increased severing of actin filaments reduces the spatial confinement of the BCR within the plasma membrane and increases BCR mobility. This allows more frequent collisions between BCRs and greater signalling in response to low densities of membrane-bound antigen. These findings implicate actin dynamics as a means of tuning receptor signalling and as a mechanism by which B cells distinguish inert antigens from those that are accompanied by indicators of microbial infection.

  13. Toll-like receptor ligands sensitize B-cell receptor signalling by reducing actin-dependent spatial confinement of the receptor

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Spencer A.; Jaumouillé, Valentin; Choi, Kate; Hsu, Brian E.; Wong, Harikesh S.; Abraham, Libin; Graves, Marcia L.; Coombs, Daniel; Roskelley, Calvin D.; Das, Raibatak; Grinstein, Sergio; Gold, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Integrating signals from multiple receptors allows cells to interpret the physiological context in which a signal is received. Here we describe a mechanism for receptor crosstalk in which receptor-induced increases in actin dynamics lower the threshold for signalling by another receptor. We show that the Toll-like receptor ligands lipopolysaccharide and CpG DNA, which are conserved microbial molecules, enhance signalling by the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) by activating the actin-severing protein cofilin. Single-particle tracking reveals that increased severing of actin filaments reduces the spatial confinement of the BCR within the plasma membrane and increases BCR mobility. This allows more frequent collisions between BCRs and greater signalling in response to low densities of membrane-bound antigen. These findings implicate actin dynamics as a means of tuning receptor signalling and as a mechanism by which B cells distinguish inert antigens from those that are accompanied by indicators of microbial infection. PMID:25644899

  14. Crosstalk between adrenergic and toll-like receptors in human mesenchymal stem cells and keratinocytes: a recipe for impaired wound healing.

    PubMed

    Dasu, Mohan R; Ramirez, Sandra R; La, Thi Dinh; Gorouhi, Farzam; Nguyen, Chuong; Lin, Benjamin R; Mashburn, Chelcy; Stewart, Heather; Peavy, Thomas R; Nolta, Jan A; Isseroff, Roslyn R

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that skin wounds generate epinephrine (EPI) that can activate local adrenergic receptors (ARs), impairing healing. Bacterially derived activators of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) within the wound initiate inflammatory responses and can also impair healing. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that these two pathways crosstalk to one another, using EPI and macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 (MALP2) to activate ARs and TLR2, respectively, in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and neonatal keratinocytes (NHKs). BM-MSCs exposed to EPI significantly (p < .05) increased TLR2 message (sevenfold BM-MSCs), TLR2 protein (twofold), and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) (fourfold). Conversely, activation of TLR2 by MALP2 in these cells increased β2-AR message (twofold in BM-MSCs, 2.7-fold in NHKs), β2-AR protein (2.5-fold), phosphorylation of β-AR-activated kinase (p-BARK, twofold), and induced release of EPI from both cell types (twofold). Treating cells with EPI and MALP2 together, as would be encountered in a wound, increased β2-AR and p-BARK protein expression (sixfold), impaired cell migration (BM-MSCs- 21%↓ and NHKs- 60%↓, p < .002), and resulted in a 10-fold (BM-MSCs) and 51-fold (NHKs) increase in release of IL-6 (p < .001) responses that were remarkably reduced by pretreatment with β2-AR antagonists. In vivo, EPI-stressed animals exhibited impaired healing, with elevated levels of TLR2, MyD88, and IL-6 in the wounds (p < .05) relative to nonstressed controls. Thus, our data describe a recipe for decreasing cell migration and exacerbating inflammation via novel crosstalk between the adrenergic and Toll-like receptor pathways in BM-MSCs and NHKs. ©AlphaMed Press.

  15. Crosstalk Between Adrenergic and Toll-Like Receptors in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Keratinocytes: A Recipe for Impaired Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Sandra R.; La, Thi Dinh; Gorouhi, Farzam; Nguyen, Chuong; Lin, Benjamin R.; Mashburn, Chelcy; Stewart, Heather; Peavy, Thomas R.; Nolta, Jan A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that skin wounds generate epinephrine (EPI) that can activate local adrenergic receptors (ARs), impairing healing. Bacterially derived activators of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) within the wound initiate inflammatory responses and can also impair healing. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that these two pathways crosstalk to one another, using EPI and macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 (MALP2) to activate ARs and TLR2, respectively, in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and neonatal keratinocytes (NHKs). BM-MSCs exposed to EPI significantly (p < .05) increased TLR2 message (sevenfold BM-MSCs), TLR2 protein (twofold), and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) (fourfold). Conversely, activation of TLR2 by MALP2 in these cells increased β2-AR message (twofold in BM-MSCs, 2.7-fold in NHKs), β2-AR protein (2.5-fold), phosphorylation of β-AR-activated kinase (p-BARK, twofold), and induced release of EPI from both cell types (twofold). Treating cells with EPI and MALP2 together, as would be encountered in a wound, increased β2-AR and p-BARK protein expression (sixfold), impaired cell migration (BM-MSCs- 21%↓ and NHKs- 60%↓, p < .002), and resulted in a 10-fold (BM-MSCs) and 51-fold (NHKs) increase in release of IL-6 (p < .001) responses that were remarkably reduced by pretreatment with β2-AR antagonists. In vivo, EPI-stressed animals exhibited impaired healing, with elevated levels of TLR2, MyD88, and IL-6 in the wounds (p < .05) relative to nonstressed controls. Thus, our data describe a recipe for decreasing cell migration and exacerbating inflammation via novel crosstalk between the adrenergic and Toll-like receptor pathways in BM-MSCs and NHKs. PMID:24760207

  16. Combined toll-like receptor 3/7/9 deficiency on host cells results in T-cell-dependent control of tumour growth

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Johanna C.; Moses, Katrin; Zelinskyy, Gennadiy; Sody, Simon; Buer, Jan; Lang, Stephan; Helfrich, Iris; Dittmer, Ulf; Kirschning, Carsten J.; Brandau, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are located either on the cell surface or intracellularly in endosomes and their activation normally contributes to the induction of protective immune responses. However, in cancer their activation by endogenous ligands can modulate tumour progression. It is currently unknown how endosomal TLRs regulate endogenous anti-tumour immunity. Here we show that TLR3, 7 and 9 deficiencies on host cells, after initial tumour growth, result in complete tumour regression and induction of anti-tumour immunity. Tumour regression requires the combined absence of all three receptors, is dependent on both CD4 and CD8 T cells and protects the mice from subsequent tumour challenge. While tumours in control mice are infiltrated by higher numbers of regulatory T cells, tumour regression in TLR-deficient mice is paralleled by altered vascular structure and strongly induced influx of cytotoxic and cytokine-producing effector T cells. Thus, endosomal TLRs may represent a molecular link between the inflamed tumour cell phenotype, anti-tumour immunity and the regulation of T-cell activation. PMID:28300057

  17. Quercetin Suppresses the Migration and Invasion in Human Colon Cancer Caco-2 Cells Through Regulating Toll-like Receptor 4/Nuclear Factor-kappa B Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mingyang; Song, Yucheng; Zhang, Xuedong

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The migration and invasion features, which were associated with inflammatory response, acted as vital roles in the development of colon cancer. Quercetin, a bioflavonoid compound, was widely spread in vegetables and fruits. Although quercetin exerts antioxidant and anticancer activities, the molecular signaling pathways in human colon cancer cells remain unclear. Hence, the present study was conducted to investigate the suppression of quercetin on migratory and invasive activity of colon cancer and the underlying mechanism. Materials and Methods: The effect of quercetin on cell viability, migration, and invasion of Caco-2 cells was analyzed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, wound-healing assay, and transwell chambers assay, respectively. The protein expressions of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65, mitochondrial membrane potential-2 (MMP-2), and MMP-9 were detected by Western blot assay. The inflammatory factors, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), in cell supernatant were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The concentration of quercetin <20 μM was chosen for further experiments. Quercetin (5 μM) could remarkably suppress the migratory and invasive capacity of Caco-2 cells. The expressions of metastasis-related proteins of MMP-2, MMP-9 were decreased, whereas the expression of E-cadherin protein was increased by quercetin in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, the anti-TLR4 (2 μg) antibody or pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC; 1 μM) could affect the inhibition of quercetin on cell migration and invasion, as well as the protein expressions of MMP-2, MMP-9, E-cadherin, TLR4, and NF-κB p65. In addition, quercetin could reduce the inflammation factors production of TNF-α, Cox-2, and IL-6. Conclusion: The findings suggested for the 1st time that quercetin might exert its anticolon cancer activity via

  18. Toll-like Receptors, Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells Family Members and Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products in Allergic Airway Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sannette C.; Agrawal, Devendra K.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic disorder of the airways characterized by cellular infiltration, airway hyper-responsive and airway inflammation. Innate immune cells are the first line of defense against endogenous and exogenous signals in the airways and as such possess a diverse array of pattern recognition receptors. Toll-like receptors are crucial sentinels which when activated, can either promote or ameliorate the inflammatory response in predisposed individuals. The recently discovered triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells family members are emerging mediators of inflammation. These receptors are believed to modulate inflammatory responses by collaborating with classic PRRs. Endogenous signals like HMGB-1, signaling through the receptor for advanced glycation end products, also promotes inflammation, however, its contribution to inflammation in the airways is not well known. Here, we discuss the role of each receptor in airway inflammation and highlight potential synergistic mechanisms, which contribute to disease pathogenesis in allergic asthma. PMID:26678062

  19. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells and Toll-like receptor 7-dependent signalling promote efficient protection of mice against highly virulent influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Michael M; Ohnemus, Annette; Cornitescu, Marius; Staeheli, Peter

    2012-03-01

    Types I and III interferons (IFNs) elicit protective antiviral immune responses during influenza virus infection. Although many cell types can synthesize IFN in response to virus infection, it remains unclear which IFN sources contribute to antiviral protection in vivo. We found that mice carrying functional alleles of the Mx1 influenza virus resistance gene partially lost resistance to infection with a highly pathogenic H7N7 influenza A virus strain if Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) signalling was compromised. This effect was achieved by deleting either the TLR7 gene or the gene encoding the TLR7 adaptor molecule MyD88. A similar decrease of influenza virus resistance was observed when animals were deprived of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) at day 1 post-infection. Our results provide in vivo proof that pDCs contribute to the protection of the lung against influenza A virus infections, presumably via signals from TLR7.

  20. αvβ3 Integrin Boosts the Innate Immune Response Elicited in Epithelial Cells through Plasma Membrane and Endosomal Toll-Like Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Casiraghi, Costanza; Gianni, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    We report that αvβ3 integrin strongly affects the innate immune response in epithelial cells. αvβ3 integrin greatly increased the response elicited via plasma membrane Toll-like receptors (TLRs) by herpes simplex virus or bacterial ligands. The endosomal TLR3, not the cytosolic sensor interferon gamma-inducible protein 16 (IFI16), was also boosted by αvβ3 integrin. The boosting was exerted specifically by αvβ3 integrin but not by αvβ6 or αvβ8 integrin. Current and previous work indicates that integrin-TLR cooperation occurs in epithelial and monocytic cells. The TLR response should be considered an integrin-TLR response. PMID:26842473

  1. Toll-Like Receptor 3 Ligand Dampens Liver Inflammation by Stimulating Vα14 Invariant Natural Killer T Cells to Negatively Regulate γδT Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Tommy R.; Chen, Qingling; Jin, Yijun; Ajuebor, Maureen N.

    2010-01-01

    Vα14 invariant natural killer T (Vα14iNKT) cells are at the interface between the innate and adaptive immune responses and are thus critical for providing full engagement of host defense. We investigated the role of polyriboinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), a replication-competent viral double-stranded RNA mimic and a specific agonist that recognizes the cellular sensor Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), in regulating Vα14iNKT cell activation. We established for the first time that hepatic Vα14iNKT cells up-regulate TLR3 extracellularly after poly I:C treatment. Notably, activation of TLR3-expressing hepatic Vα14iNKT cells by a TLR3 ligand was suppressed by TLR3 deficiency. Our studies also revealed that Vα14iNKT cell activation in response to poly I:C administration uniquely suppressed the accumulation and activation of intrahepatic γδT cells (but not natural killer cells) by inducing apoptosis. Furthermore, we established that activated hepatic Vα14iNKT cells (via cytokines and possibly reactive oxygen species) influenced the frequency and absolute number of intrahepatic γδT cells, as evidenced by increased hepatic γδT cell accumulation in Vα14iNKT cell-deficient mice after poly I:C treatment relative to wild-type mice. Thus, hepatic Vα14iNKT cells and intrahepatic γδT cells are functionally linked on application of TLR3 agonist. Overall, our results demonstrate a novel and previously unrecognized anti-inflammatory role for activated hepatic Vα14iNKT cells in negatively regulating intrahepatic γδT cell accumulation (probably through TLR3 signaling) and thereby preventing potentially harmful activation of intrahepatic γδT cells. PMID:20167870

  2. Autoimmune Regulator Expression in DC2.4 Cells Regulates the NF-κB Signaling and Cytokine Expression of the Toll-Like Receptor 3 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jitong; Niu, Kunwei; Fu, Haiying; Li, Haijun; Li, Yi; Yang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune regulator (Aire) mutations result in autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), which manifests as multi-organ autoimmunity and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). Indendritic cells (DCs), pattern recognition receptors (PRR), such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), are closely involved in the recognition of various pathogens, activating the intercellular signaling pathway, followed by the activation of transcription factors and the expression of downstream genes, which take part in mediating the immune response and maintaining immune tolerance. In this study, we found that Aire up-regulated TLR3 expression and modulated the downstream cytokine expression and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) of the TLR3 signaling pathway. PMID:27916941

  3. CpG and double-stranded RNA trigger human NK cells by Toll-like receptors: Induction of cytokine release and cytotoxicity against tumors and dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Sivori, Simona; Falco, Michela; Chiesa, Mariella Della; Carlomagno, Simona; Vitale, Massimo; Moretta, Lorenzo; Moretta, Alessandro

    2004-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern-recognition receptors responible for triggering cells of innate immunity. In this study we investigated the expression and function of TLRs 3 and 9 in human natural killer (NK) cells. In the presence of IL-12, freshly isolated NK cells responded to double-stranded RNA or unmethylated CpG DNA and expressed CD69 and CD25 activation markers. Because both markers were expressed by virtually all NK cells, this would suggest that most of them can be triggered by TLRs. Remarkably, NK cell stimulation also resulted in the induction of their functional program as revealed by IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α release and by up-regulation of cytolytic activity against tumor cells. IL-8 could efficiently substitute IL-12 in supporting NK cell responses to TLR-mediated stimulation. Importantly, freshly isolated NK cells acquired the ability to lyse immature dendritic cells after stimulation with double-stranded RNA and IL-12. However, responses to these stimuli were not restricted to fresh NK cells, because significant responses were also detected in polyclonal NK cells cultured in the presence of exogenous IL-2 for several weeks. The analysis of NK cell clones revealed some degree of heterogeneity in the ability to respond to TLR stimulation also among NK clones derived from a single donor. These data suggest that stimuli acting on TLR not only activate immature dendritic cells to release IL-12 but also render NK cells capable of receiving triggering signals from pathogen-associated molecules, thus exerting a regulatory control on the early steps of innate immune responses against infectious agents. PMID:15218108

  4. CpG and double-stranded RNA trigger human NK cells by Toll-like receptors: induction of cytokine release and cytotoxicity against tumors and dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Sivori, Simona; Falco, Michela; Della Chiesa, Mariella; Carlomagno, Simona; Vitale, Massimo; Moretta, Lorenzo; Moretta, Alessandro

    2004-07-06

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern-recognition receptors responsible for triggering cells of innate immunity. In this study we investigated the expression and function of TLRs 3 and 9 in human natural killer (NK) cells. In the presence of IL-12, freshly i